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Sample records for fidelity susceptibility study

  1. Fidelity and fidelity susceptibility of pulses in dispersive media

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Ligang; Gu Shijian

    2009-07-15

    Motivated by the growing importance of the fidelity and fidelity susceptibility (FS) in quantum critical phenomena, we use these concepts to describe the pulse propagation inside the dispersive media. It is found that there is a dramatic change in the fidelity and the FS of the pulse at a critical propagation distance inside a dispersive medium, and whether such a dramatic change for a light pulse occurs or not strongly depends on both the dispersive strength of the media and the pulse property. We study in detail about the changes in the fidelity and the FS for both a smooth and a truncated Gaussian pulse through the abnormal and normal dispersive media, where the group velocities are well defined. Our results show that both the fidelity and the FS could be very useful to determine whether the pulse is completely distorted or not at the critical distance; therefore it would be very helpful to find the maximal effective propagation region of the pulse's group velocity, in terms of the changes in the pulse's fidelity and FS.

  2. Mixed-state fidelity susceptibility through iterated commutator series expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonchev, N. S.

    2014-11-01

    We present a perturbative approach to the problem of computation of mixed-state fidelity susceptibility (MFS) for thermal states. The mathematical techniques used provide an analytical expression for the MFS as a formal expansion in terms of the thermodynamic mean values of successively higher commutators of the Hamiltonian with the operator involved through the control parameter. That expression is naturally divided into two parts: the usual isothermal susceptibility and a constituent in the form of an infinite series of thermodynamic mean values which encodes the noncommutativity in the problem. If the symmetry properties of the Hamiltonian are given in terms of the generators of some (finite-dimensional) algebra, the obtained expansion may be evaluated in a closed form. This issue is tested on several popular models, for which it is shown that the calculations are much simpler if they are based on the properties from the representation theory of the Heisenberg or SU(1, 1) Lie algebra.

  3. Mixed-state fidelity susceptibility through iterated commutator series expansion.

    PubMed

    Tonchev, N S

    2014-11-01

    We present a perturbative approach to the problem of computation of mixed-state fidelity susceptibility (MFS) for thermal states. The mathematical techniques used provide an analytical expression for the MFS as a formal expansion in terms of the thermodynamic mean values of successively higher commutators of the Hamiltonian with the operator involved through the control parameter. That expression is naturally divided into two parts: the usual isothermal susceptibility and a constituent in the form of an infinite series of thermodynamic mean values which encodes the noncommutativity in the problem. If the symmetry properties of the Hamiltonian are given in terms of the generators of some (finite-dimensional) algebra, the obtained expansion may be evaluated in a closed form. This issue is tested on several popular models, for which it is shown that the calculations are much simpler if they are based on the properties from the representation theory of the Heisenberg or SU(1, 1) Lie algebra. PMID:25493736

  4. Oscillating fidelity susceptibility near a quantum multicritical point

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, Victor; Dutta, Amit; Polkovnikov, Anatoli

    2011-02-15

    We study scaling behavior of the geometric tensor {chi}{sub {alpha},{beta}}({lambda}{sub 1},{lambda}{sub 2}) and the fidelity susceptibility {chi}{sub F} in the vicinity of a quantum multicritical point (MCP) using the example of a transverse XY model. We show that the behavior of the geometric tensor (and thus of {chi}{sub F}) is drastically different from that seen near a critical point. In particular, we find that it is a highly nonmonotonic function of {lambda} along the generic direction {lambda}{sub 1}{approx}{lambda}{sub 2}={lambda} when the system size L is bounded by the shorter and longer correlation lengths characterizing the MCP: 1/|{lambda}|{sup {nu}{sub 1}}<>1/|{lambda}|{sup {nu}{sub 2}}, which is determined by the conventional critical exponents. We use our results to calculate the defect density following a rapid quench starting from the MCP and show that it exerts a steplike behavior for small quench amplitudes. A study of heat density and diagonal entropy density also shows signatures of quasicritical points.

  5. Entanglement entropy and fidelity susceptibility in the one-dimensional spin-1 XXZ chains with alternating single-site anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jie; Liu, Guang-Hua; You, Wen-Long

    2015-03-18

    We study the fidelity susceptibility in an antiferromagnetic spin-1 XXZ chain numerically. By using the density-matrix renormalization group method, the effects of the alternating single-site anisotropy D on fidelity susceptibility are investigated. Its relation with the quantum phase transition is analyzed. It is found that the quantum phase transition from the Haldane spin liquid to periodic Néel spin solid can be well characterized by the fidelity. Finite size scaling of fidelity susceptibility shows a power-law divergence at criticality, which indicates the quantum phase transition is of second order. The results are confirmed by the second derivative of the ground-state energy. We also study the relationship between the entanglement entropy, the Schmidt gap and quantum phase transitions. Conclusions drawn from these quantum information observables agree well with each other. PMID:25707024

  6. Reduced fidelity in the Kitaev honeycomb model

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhi; Ma, Tianxing; Gu, Shi-Jian; Lin, Hai-Qing

    2010-06-15

    We study reduced fidelity and reduced fidelity susceptibility in the Kitaev honeycomb model. It is shown that the nearest-two-site reduced fidelity susceptibility manifests itself as a peak at the quantum phase transition point, although the one-site reduced fidelity susceptibility vanishes. Our results directly reveal that the reduced fidelity susceptibility can be used to characterize the quantum phase transition in the Kitaev honeycomb model, which suggests that, despite its local nature, the reduced fidelity susceptibility is an accurate marker of the topological phase transition when it is properly chosen.

  7. Fidelity susceptibility and conductivity of the current in one-dimensional lattice models with open or periodic boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greschner, S.; Kolezhuk, A. K.; Vekua, T.

    2013-11-01

    We study, both numerically and analytically, the finite-size scaling of the fidelity susceptibility χJ with respect to the charge or spin current in one-dimensional lattice models and relate it to the low-frequency behavior of the corresponding conductivity. It is shown that in gapless systems with open boundary conditions the leading dependence on the system size L stems from the singular part of the conductivity and is quadratic, with a universal form χJ=[7ζ(3)/2π4]KL2, where K is the Luttinger liquid parameter and ζ(x) is the Riemann ζ function. In contrast to that for periodic boundary conditions the leading system size dependence is directly connected to the regular part of the conductivity and is subquadratic, χJ∝Lγ, where the K-dependent exponent γ is equal to 1 in most situations (as a side effect, this relation provides an alternative way to study the low-frequency behavior of the regular part of the conductivity). For open boundary conditions, we also study another current-related quantity, the fidelity susceptibility to the lattice tilt χP, and show that it scales as the quartic power of the system size, χP=[31ζ(5)/8π6](KL4/u2), where u is the sound velocity. Thus, the ratio L2χJ/χP directly measures the sound velocity in open chains. The behavior of the current fidelity susceptibility in gapped phases is discussed, particularly in the topologically ordered Haldane state.

  8. Order parameter, correlation functions, and fidelity susceptibility for the BCS model in the thermodynamic limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Araby, Omar; Baeriswyl, Dionys

    2014-04-01

    The exact ground state of the reduced BCS Hamiltonian is investigated numerically for large system sizes and compared with the BCS ansatz. A "canonical" order parameter is found to be equal to the largest eigenvalue of Yang's reduced density matrix in the thermodynamic limit. Moreover, the limiting values of the exact analysis agree with those obtained for the BCS ground state. Exact results for the ground-state energy, level occupations, and a pseudospin-pseudospin correlation function are also found to converge to the BCS values already for relatively small system sizes. However, discrepancies persist for a pair-pair correlation function, for interlevel correlations of occupancies and for the fidelity susceptibility, even for large system sizes where these quantities have visibly converged to well-defined limits. Our results indicate that there exist nonperturbative corrections to the BCS predictions in the thermodynamic limit.

  9. Scaling of the gap, fidelity susceptibility, and Bloch oscillations across the superfluid-to-Mott-insulator transition in the one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasquilla, Juan; Manmana, Salvatore R.; Rigol, Marcos

    2013-04-01

    We investigate the interaction-induced superfluid-to-Mott-insulator transition in the one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model (BHM) for fillings n=1, n=2, and n=3 by studying the single-particle gap, the fidelity susceptibility, and the amplitude of Bloch oscillations via density-matrix renormalization-group methods. We apply a generic scaling procedure for the gap, which allows us to determine the critical points with very high accuracy. We also study how the fidelity susceptibility behaves across the phase transition. Furthermore, we show that in the BHM, and in a system of spinless fermions, the amplitude of Bloch oscillations after a tilt of the lattice vanishes at the critical points. This indicates that Bloch oscillations can serve as a tool to detect the transition point in ongoing experiments with ultracold gases.

  10. A quantum fidelity study of the anisotropic next-nearest-neighbour triangular lattice Heisenberg model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thesberg, Mischa; Sørensen, Erik S.

    2014-10-01

    Ground- and excited-state quantum fidelities in combination with generalized quantum fidelity susceptibilites, obtained from exact diagonalizations, are used to explore the phase diagram of the anisotropic next-nearest-neighbour triangular Heisenberg model. Specifically, the J‧ - J2 plane of this model, which connects the J1 - J2 chain and the anisotropic triangular lattice Heisenberg model, is explored using these quantities. Through the use of a quantum fidelity associated with the first excited-state, in addition to the conventional ground-state fidelity, the BKT-type transition and Majumdar-Ghosh point of the J1 - J2 chain (J‧ = 0) are found to extend into the J‧ - J2 plane and connect with points on the J2 = 0 axis thereby forming bounded regions in the phase diagram. These bounded regions are then explored through the generalized quantum fidelity susceptibilities χρ, χ120\\circ , χD and χCAF which are associated with the spin stiffness, 120° spiral order parameter, dimer order parameter and collinear antiferromagnetic order parameter respectively. These quantities are believed to be extremely sensitive to the underlying phase and are thus well suited for finite-size studies. Analysis of the fidelity susceptibilities suggests that the J‧, J2 ≪ J phase of the anisotropic triangular model is either a collinear antiferromagnet or possibly a gapless disordered phase that is directly connected to the Luttinger phase of the J1 - J2 chain. Furthermore, the outer region is dominated by incommensurate spiral physics as well as dimer order.

  11. Fidelity approach in topological superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Dao-Xin; Tian, Wen-Chuan; Huang, Guang-Yao; Wang, Zhi

    We study topological superconductivity in the spin-orbit coupling nanowire system by using the fidelity approach. The wire is modeled as a one layer lattice chain with Zeeman energy and spin-orbital coupling, which is in proximity to a multi-layer superconductor. In particular, we study the effects of disorders and find that the fidelity susceptibility has multiple peaks. It is revealed that one peak indicates the topological quantum phase transition, while other peaks are signaling the pinning of the Majorana bound states by disorders. Our study shows that fidelity and fidelity susceptibility are very useful to investigate the topological quantum phase transition in superconductors. This work is supported by NSFC-11574404, 11275279, and NBRPC-2012CB821400.

  12. Numerical studies of ground-state fidelity of the Bose-Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ŁÄ cki, Mateusz; Damski, Bogdan; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2014-03-01

    We compute ground-state fidelity of the one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model at unit filling factor. To this aim, we apply the density matrix renormalization group algorithm to systems with open and periodic boundary conditions. We find that fidelity differs significantly in the two cases and study its scaling properties in the quantum critical regime.

  13. A randomized controlled study of manikin simulator fidelity on neonatal resuscitation program learning outcomes.

    PubMed

    Curran, Vernon; Fleet, Lisa; White, Susan; Bessell, Clare; Deshpandey, Akhil; Drover, Anne; Hayward, Mark; Valcour, James

    2015-03-01

    The neonatal resuscitation program (NRP) has been developed to educate physicians and other health care providers about newborn resuscitation and has been shown to improve neonatal resuscitation skills. Simulation-based training is recommended as an effective modality for instructing neonatal resuscitation and both low and high-fidelity manikin simulators are used. There is limited research that has compared the effect of low and high-fidelity manikin simulators for NRP learning outcomes, and more specifically on teamwork performance and confidence. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of using low versus high-fidelity manikin simulators in NRP instruction. A randomized posttest-only control group study design was conducted. Third year undergraduate medical students participated in NRP instruction and were assigned to an experimental group (high-fidelity manikin simulator) or control group (low-fidelity manikin simulator). Integrated skills station (megacode) performance, participant satisfaction, confidence and teamwork behaviour scores were compared between the study groups. Participants in the high-fidelity manikin simulator instructional group reported significantly higher total scores in overall satisfaction (p = 0.001) and confidence (p = 0.001). There were no significant differences in teamwork behaviour scores, as observed by two independent raters, nor differences on mandatory integrated skills station performance items at the p < 0.05 level. Medical students' reported greater satisfaction and confidence with high-fidelity manikin simulators, but did not demonstrate overall significantly improved teamwork or integrated skills station performance. Low and high-fidelity manikin simulators facilitate similar levels of objectively measured NRP outcomes for integrated skills station and teamwork performance. PMID:24916954

  14. Treatment Fidelity: Its Importance and Reported Frequency in Aphasia Treatment Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinckley, Jacqueline J.; Douglas, Natalie F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Treatment fidelity is a measure of the reliability of the administration of an intervention in a treatment study. It is an important aspect of the validity of a research study, and it has implications for the ultimate implementation of evidence-supported interventions in typical clinical settings. Method: Aphasia treatment studies…

  15. Debriefing after High-Fidelity Simulation and Knowledge Retention: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Susan L.

    2013-01-01

    High-fidelity simulation (HFS) use in nursing education has been a frequent research topic in recent years. Previous research included studies on the use of HFS with nursing students, focusing on their feelings of self-confidence and anxiety. However, research focused specifically on the debriefing portion of HFS was limited. This quantitative,…

  16. An Assessment of Intervention Fidelity in Published Social Work Intervention Research Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Nicole A.; Kim, Irang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Intervention fidelity is a critical strategy to help advance the usefulness and integrity of social work research. This study assessed the extent to which a selected sample of published social work intervention researchers reported its intervention protocols. Methods: Six core social work journals were reviewed in this analysis. The…

  17. Splicing fidelity

    PubMed Central

    Koodathingal, Prakash; Staley, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    The spliceosome discriminates against suboptimal substrates, both during assembly and catalysis, thereby enhancing specificity during pre-mRNA splicing. Central to such fidelity mechanisms are a conserved subset of the DEAD- and DEAH-box ATPases, which belong to a superfamily of proteins that mediate RNP rearrangements in almost all RNA-dependent processes in the cell. Through an investigation of the mechanisms contributing to the specificity of 5′ splice site cleavage, two related reports, one from our lab and the other from the Cheng lab, have provided insights into fidelity mechanisms utilized by the spliceosome. In our work, we found evidence for a kinetic proofreading mechanism in splicing in which the DEAH-box ATPase Prp16 discriminates against substrates undergoing slow 5′ splice site cleavage. Additionally, our study revealed that discriminated substrates are discarded through a general spliceosome disassembly pathway, mediated by another DEAH-box ATPase Prp43. In their work, Tseng et al. described the underlying molecular events through which Prp16 discriminates against a splicing substrate during 5′ splice site cleavage. Here, we present a synthesis of these two studies and, additionally, provide the first biochemical evidence for discrimination of a suboptimal splicing substrate just prior to 5′ splice site cleavage. Together, these findings support a general mechanism for a ubiquitous superfamily of ATPases in enhancing specificity during RNA-dependent processes in the cell. PMID:23770752

  18. Model Fidelity Study of Dynamic Transient Loads in a Wind Turbine Gearbox: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Y.; Keller, J.; Moan, T.; Xing, Y.

    2013-04-01

    Transient events cause high loads in the drivetrain components so measuring and calculating these loads can improve confidence in drivetrain design. This paper studies the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative 750kW wind turbine gearbox response during transient events using a combined experimental and modeling approach. The transient events include emergency shut-downs and start-ups measured during a field testing period in 2009. The drivetrain model is established in the multibody simulation tool Simpack. A detailed study of modeling fidelity required for accurate load prediction is performed and results are compared against measured loads. A high fidelity model that includes shaft and housing flexibility and accurate bearing stiffnesses is important for the higher-speed stage bearing loads. Each of the transient events has different modeling requirements.

  19. Evaluating Intervention Fidelity: An Example from a High-Intensity Interval Training Study

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Kathryn L.; Weston, Matthew; Batterham, Alan M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Intervention fidelity refers to the degree to which an experimental manipulation has been implemented as intended, but simple, robust methods for quantifying fidelity have not been well documented. Therefore, we aim to illustrate a rigorous quantitative evaluation of intervention fidelity, using data collected during a high-intensity interval training intervention. Design Single-group measurement study. Methods Seventeen adolescents (mean age ± standard deviation [SD] 14.0 ± 0.3 years) attended a 10-week high-intensity interval training intervention, comprising two exercise sessions per week. Sessions consisted of 4-7 45-s maximal effort repetitions, interspersed with 90-s rest. We collected heart rate data at 5-s intervals and recorded the peak heart rate for each repetition. The high-intensity exercise criterion was ≥90% of individual maximal heart rate. For each participant, we calculated the proportion of total exercise repetitions exceeding this threshold. A linear mixed model was applied to properly separate the variability in peak heart rate between- and within-subjects. Results are presented both as intention to treat (including missed sessions) and per protocol (only participants with 100% attendance; n=8). Results For intention to treat, the median (interquartile range) proportion of repetitions meeting the high-intensity criterion was 58% (42% to 68%). The mean peak heart rate was 85% of maximal, with a between-subject SD of 7.8 (95% confidence interval 5.4 to 11.3) percentage points and a within-subject SD of 15.1 (14.6 to 15.6) percentage points. For the per protocol analysis, the median proportion of high-intensity repetitions was 68% (47% to 86%). The mean peak heart rate was 91% of maximal, with between- and within-subject SDs of 3.1 (-1.3 to 4.6) and 3.4 (3.2 to 3.6) percentage points, respectively. Conclusions Synthesising information on exercise session attendance and compliance (exercise intensity) quantifies the intervention dose and

  20. Intervention Research: The Importance of Fidelity Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolery, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In this commentary, the issue of fidelity assessment is addressed as it relates to Strain and Bovey's article (2011). Four reasons are provided for measuring fidelity in intervention studies. Measuring fidelity (a) potentially allows investigators to document the findings were not due to the lack of fidelity in a study; (b) presents information…

  1. Assessing Implementation Fidelity: Challenges as Seen through the Lens of Two Experimental Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vig, Rozy; Taylor, Megan W.; Star, Jon R.; Chao, Theodore

    2014-01-01

    The concept of "implementation fidelity" is broadly used to capture the extent to which an intervention is executed as intended by the designers of the intervention (Century, Rudnick, & Freeman, 2010; Huntley, 2005, McNaught, Tarr, & Sears, 2010, Munter, 2010). Though implementation fidelity instruments are often used to assess…

  2. CONSIDERATION OF CHILDREN'S DISTINCTIVE SUSCEPTIBILITY IN ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Consideration of children's distinctive susceptibility in environmental health studies.
    Pauline Mendola (US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711)

    Children are a particularly susceptible subpopulation with ...

  3. Implementation Fidelity of a Program Designed to Promote Personal and Social Responsibility through Physical Education: A Comparative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascual, Carmina; Escarti, Amparo; Llopis, Ramon; Gutierrez, Melchor; Marin, Diana; Wright, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative comparative case study was to examine the implementation fidelity of a program designed to deliver the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) model (Hellison, 2003) through physical education and its relationship with short-term outcomes for elementary school students. The research questions were: (a)…

  4. A Case Study with Green Dot Public Schools on Managing the Tension between Fidelity and Adaptation when Scaling-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cevallos, Pedro Felipe, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation was a single case study with Green Dot Public Schools (GDPS) describing their rapid scale-up process. Specifically, it investigates the phenomenon of the inherent tension between maintaining the fidelity of the original model school's design, culture and values with local adaptation of the brand by stakeholders at the expansion…

  5. A Case Study with Green Dot Public Schools on Managing the Tension between Fidelity and Adaptation When Scaling-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cevallos, Pedro F., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation was a single case study with Green Dot Public Schools (GDPS) describing their rapid scale-up process. Specifically, it investigates the phenomenon of the inherent tension between maintaining the fidelity of the original model school's design, culture and values with local adaptation of the brand by stakeholders at the expansion…

  6. Aeroacoustic Study of a High-Fidelity Aircraft Model. Part 2; Unsteady Surface Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Neuhart, Danny H.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present unsteady surface pressure measurements for an 18%-scale, semi-span Gulfstream aircraft model. This high-fidelity model is being used to perform detailed studies of airframe noise associated with main landing gear, flap components, and gear-flap interaction noise, as well as to evaluate novel noise reduction concepts. The aerodynamic segment of the tests, conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel, was completed in November 2010. To discern the characteristics of the surface pressure fluctuations in the vicinity of the prominent noise sources, unsteady sensors were installed on the inboard and outboard flap edges, and on the main gear wheels, struts, and door. Various configurations were tested, including flap deflections of 0?, 20?, and 39?, with and without the main landing gear. The majority of unsteady surface pressure measurements were acquired for the nominal landing configuration where the main gear was deployed and the flap was deflected 39?. To assess the Mach number variation of the surface pressure amplitudes, measurements were obtained at Mach numbers of 0.16, 0.20, and 0.24. Comparison of the unsteady surface pressures with the main gear on and off shows significant interaction between the gear wake and the inboard flap edge, resulting in higher amplitude fluctuations when the gear is present.

  7. A Randomized Controlled Study of Manikin Simulator Fidelity on Neonatal Resuscitation Program Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Vernon; Fleet, Lisa; White, Susan; Bessell, Clare; Deshpandey, Akhil; Drover, Anne; Hayward, Mark; Valcour, James

    2015-01-01

    The neonatal resuscitation program (NRP) has been developed to educate physicians and other health care providers about newborn resuscitation and has been shown to improve neonatal resuscitation skills. Simulation-based training is recommended as an effective modality for instructing neonatal resuscitation and both low and high-fidelity manikin…

  8. Exploring Interprofessional Education through a High-Fidelity Human Patient Simulation Scenario: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossler, Kelly Lynn

    2013-01-01

    High-fidelity human patient simulation has emerged as a valuable medium to reinforce educational content within programs of nursing. As simulation learning experiences have been identified as augmenting both didactic lecture content and clinical learning, these experiences have expanded to incorporate interprofessional education. Review of…

  9. Teachers Teaching Differently: A Qualitative Study of Implementation Fidelity to Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolley, Michael E.; Rose, Roderick A.; Mercado, Micaela; Orthner, Dennis K.

    2013-01-01

    Intervention researchers in school settings often implement interventions that involve professional development to schoolteachers or other professional staff to implement school-based interventions. In terms of classroom interventions, teachers are the primary implementation agents; therefore, the fidelity of such interventions depends on teacher…

  10. Program Fidelity and Teacher Decisions: A Case Study of the Renaissance Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Jennifer D.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation was designed to examine the degree to which the fidelity of implementation of the Renaissance Learning program impacts teacher instruction, as well as teacher perception of student reading motivation and achievement. The teachers at a western North Carolina elementary school used the Renaissance Learning program for over 15…

  11. Aeroacoustic Study of a High-Fidelity Aircraft Model: Part 1- Steady Aerodynamic Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Hannon, Judith A.; Neuhart, Danny H.; Markowski, Gregory A.; VandeVen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present steady aerodynamic measurements for an 18% scale model of a Gulfstream air-craft. The high fidelity and highly-instrumented semi-span model was developed to perform detailed aeroacoustic studies of airframe noise associated with main landing gear/flap components and gear-flap interaction noise, as well as to evaluate novel noise reduction concepts. The aeroacoustic tests, being conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel, are split into two entries. The first entry, completed November 2010, was entirely devoted to the detailed mapping of the aerodynamic characteristics of the fabricated model. Flap deflections of 39?, 20?, and 0? with the main landing gear on and off were tested at Mach numbers of 0.16, 0.20, and 0.24. Additionally, for each flap deflection, the model was tested with the tunnel both in the closed-wall and open-wall (jet) modes. During this first entry, global forces (lift and drag) and extensive steady and unsteady surface pressure measurements were obtained. Preliminary analysis of the measured forces indicates that lift, drag, and stall characteristics compare favorably with Gulfstream?s high Reynolds number flight data. The favorable comparison between wind-tunnel and flight data allows the semi-span model to be used as a test bed for developing/evaluating airframe noise reduction concepts under a relevant environment. Moreover, initial comparison of the aerodynamic measurements obtained with the tunnel in the closed- and open-wall configurations shows similar aerodynamic behavior. This permits the acoustic and off-surface flow measurements, planned for the second entry, to be conducted with the tunnel in the open-jet mode.

  12. Fluid/Structure Interaction Studies of Aircraft Using High Fidelity Equations on Parallel Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guruswamy, Guru; VanDalsem, William (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Abstract Aeroelasticity which involves strong coupling of fluids, structures and controls is an important element in designing an aircraft. Computational aeroelasticity using low fidelity methods such as the linear aerodynamic flow equations coupled with the modal structural equations are well advanced. Though these low fidelity approaches are computationally less intensive, they are not adequate for the analysis of modern aircraft such as High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) and Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) which can experience complex flow/structure interactions. HSCT can experience vortex induced aeroelastic oscillations whereas AST can experience transonic buffet associated structural oscillations. Both aircraft may experience a dip in the flutter speed at the transonic regime. For accurate aeroelastic computations at these complex fluid/structure interaction situations, high fidelity equations such as the Navier-Stokes for fluids and the finite-elements for structures are needed. Computations using these high fidelity equations require large computational resources both in memory and speed. Current conventional super computers have reached their limitations both in memory and speed. As a result, parallel computers have evolved to overcome the limitations of conventional computers. This paper will address the transition that is taking place in computational aeroelasticity from conventional computers to parallel computers. The paper will address special techniques needed to take advantage of the architecture of new parallel computers. Results will be illustrated from computations made on iPSC/860 and IBM SP2 computer by using ENSAERO code that directly couples the Euler/Navier-Stokes flow equations with high resolution finite-element structural equations.

  13. Ensuring Treatment Fidelity in a Multi-site Behavioral Intervention Study: Implementing NIH Behavior Change Consortium Recommendations in the SMART Trial

    PubMed Central

    Robb, Sheri L.; Burns, Debra S.; Docherty, Sharron L.; Haase, Joan E.

    2010-01-01

    The Stories and Music for Adolescent/Young Adult Resilience during Transplant (SMART) study (R01NR008583; U10CA098543; U10CA095861) is an ongoing multi-site Children’s Oncology Group randomized clinical trial testing the efficacy of a therapeutic music video intervention for adolescents/young adults (11–24 years of age) with cancer undergoing stem cell transplant. Treatment fidelity strategies from our trial are consistent with the NIH Behavior Change Consortium Treatment Fidelity Workgroup (BCC) recommendations and provide a successful working model for treatment fidelity implementation in a large, multi-site behavioral intervention study. In this paper we summarize 20 specific treatment fidelity strategies used in the SMART trial and how these strategies correspond with NIH BCC recommendations in 5 specific areas: 1) study design, 2) training providers, 3) delivery of treatment, 4) receipt of treatment, and 5) enactment of treatment skills. Increased use and reporting of treatment fidelity procedures is essential in advancing the reliability and validity of behavioral intervention research. The SMART trial provides a strong model for the application of fidelity strategies to improve scientific findings and addresses the absence of published literature illustrating the application of BCC recommendations in behavioral intervention studies. PMID:22012943

  14. A targeted genetic association study of epithelial ovarian cancer susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Earp, Madalene; Winham, Stacey J.; Larson, Nicholas; Permuth, Jennifer B.; Sicotte, Hugues; Chien, Jeremy; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berchuck, Andrew; Cook, Linda S.; Cramer, Daniel; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Goodman, Marc T.; Levine, Douglas A.; Monteiro, Alvaro N.A.; Ness, Roberta B.; Pearce, Celeste L.; Rossing, Mary Anne; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Bisogna, Maria; Brinton, Louise; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Carney, Michael E.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Edwards, Robert P.; Fogarty, Zachary C.; Iversen, Edwin S.; Kraft, Peter; Larson, Melissa C.; Le, Nhu D.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Lissowska, Jolanta; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Olson, Sara H.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Rider, David N.; Terry, Kathryn L.; Thompson, Pamela J.; van den Berg, David; Vierkant, Robert A.; Vitonis, Allison F.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Wu, Anna H.; Yang, Hannah P.; Ziogas, Argyrios; Phelan, Catherine M.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Chen, Yian Ann; Sellers, Thomas A.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Goode, Ellen L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies have identified several common susceptibility alleles for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). To further understand EOC susceptibility, we examined previously ungenotyped candidate variants, including uncommon variants and those residing within known susceptibility loci. Results At nine of eleven previously published EOC susceptibility regions (2q31, 3q25, 5p15, 8q21, 8q24, 10p12, 17q12, 17q21.31, and 19p13), novel variants were identified that were more strongly associated with risk than previously reported variants. Beyond known susceptibility regions, no variants were found to be associated with EOC risk at genome-wide statistical significance (p <5×10−8), nor were any significant after Bonferroni correction for 17,000 variants (p< 3×10-6). Methods A customized genotyping array was used to assess over 17,000 variants in coding, non-coding, regulatory, and known susceptibility regions in 4,973 EOC cases and 5,640 controls from 13 independent studies. Susceptibility for EOC overall and for select histotypes was evaluated using logistic regression adjusted for age, study site, and population substructure. Conclusion Given the novel variants identified within the 2q31, 3q25, 5p15, 8q21, 8q24, 10p12, 17q12, 17q21.31, and 19p13 regions, larger follow-up genotyping studies, using imputation where necessary, are needed for fine-mapping and confirmation of low frequency variants that fall below statistical significance. PMID:26848776

  15. Annual survival estimation of migratory songbirds confounded by incomplete breeding site-fidelity: Study designs that may help

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marshall, M.R.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Wood, L.A.; Cooper, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    Many species of bird exhibit varying degrees of site-fidelity to the previous year's territory or breeding area, a phenomenon we refer to as incomplete breeding site-fidelity. If the territory they occupy is located beyond the bounds of the study area or search area (i.e., they have emigrated from the study area), the bird will go undetected and is therefore indistinguishable from dead individuals in capture-mark-recapture studies. Differential emigration rates confound inferences regarding differences in survival between sexes and among species if apparent survival rates are used as estimates of true survival. Moreover, the bias introduced by using apparent survival rates for true survival rates can have profound effects on the predictions of population persistence through time, source/sink dynamics, and other aspects of life-history theory. We investigated four study design and analysis approaches that result in apparent survival estimates that are closer to true survival estimates. Our motivation for this research stemmed from a multi-year capture-recapture study of Prothonotary Warblers (Protonotaria citrea) on multiple study plots within a larger landscape of suitable breeding habitat where substantial inter-annual movements of marked individuals among neighboring study plots was documented. We wished to quantify the effects of this type of movement on annual survival estimation. The first two study designs we investigated involved marking birds in a core area and resighting them in the core as well as an area surrounding the core. For the first of these two designs, we demonstrated that as the resighting area surrounding the core gets progressively larger, and more "emigrants" are resighted, apparent survival estimates begin to approximate true survival rates (bias < 0.01). However, given observed inter-annual movements of birds, it is likely to be logistically impractical to resight birds on sufficiently large surrounding areas to minimize bias. Therefore

  16. Differences in observers' and teachers' fidelity assessments.

    PubMed

    Hansen, William B; Pankratz, Melinda M; Bishop, Dana C

    2014-10-01

    As evidence-based programs become disseminated, understanding the degree to which they are implemented with fidelity is crucial. This study tested the validity of fidelity ratings made by observers versus those made by teachers. We hypothesized that teachers' reports about fidelity would have a positivity bias when compared to observers' reports. Further, we hypothesized that there would generally be low correspondence between teachers' and observers' ratings of fidelity. We examined teachers' and observers' ratings as they were related to mediating variables targeted for change by the intervention. Finally, we examined the role that years of teaching experience played in achieving fidelity. Eighteen teachers and four research assistants participated in this project as raters. Teachers made video recordings of their implementation of All Stars and completed fidelity assessment forms. Trained observers independently completed parallel forms for 215 sampled classroom sessions. Both teachers and observers rated adherence, quality of delivery, attendance, and participant engagement. Teachers made more positive fidelity ratings than did observers. With the exception of ratings for attendance, teachers and observers failed to agree on fidelity ratings. Observers' ratings were significantly related to students' pretest assessments of targeted program mediators. That observers' ratings were related to students' pretest scores, suggests it is easier to teach well when students are predisposed to program success. Teachers' ratings were infrequently related to mediators, but when they were, the relationship was counterintuitive. Experienced teachers taught with greater fidelity than novice teachers. While possibly inflated and inaccurate, gathering fidelity assessments from teachers may sensitize them to issues of fidelity as a result of requiring form completion. Assessing fidelity through observers' ratings of video recordings has significant merit. As a longterm investment

  17. Effects of simulation fidelity on user experience in virtual fear of public speaking training - an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Poeschl, Sandra; Doering, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Realistic models in virtual reality training applications are considered to positively influence presence and performance. The experimental study presented, analyzed the effect of simulation fidelity (static vs. animated audience) on presence as a prerequisite for performance in a prototype virtual fear of public speaking application with a sample of N = 40 academic non-phobic users. Contrary to the state of research, no influence was shown on virtual presence and perceived realism, but an animated audience led to significantly higher effects in anxiety during giving a talk. Although these findings could be explained by an application that might not have been realistic enough, they still question the role of presence as a mediating factor in virtual exposure applications. PMID:24875692

  18. Implementation Work at Scale: An Examination of the Fidelity of Implementation Study of the Scale-Up Effectiveness Trial of Open Court Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Kate; Bell, Nance; Jones, Debra Hughes; Caverly, Sarah; Vaden-Kiernan, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Fidelity of Implementation (FOI) study that is the focus of this report was conducted as a component of a scale-up effectiveness trial of the SRA/McGraw-Hill Open Court Reading program. The overall purpose of the FOI study was to support and provide context for findings from the larger experimental impact study of Open Court Reading (OCR). To…

  19. Motion sickness susceptibility and aerobic fitness: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Cheung, B S; Money, K E; Jacobs, I

    1990-03-01

    A longitudinal study evaluated the susceptibility to motion sickness in initially unfit subjects before and after an endurance training program. Motion stimulation was provided by the Precision Angular Mover, in which the subject was tumbled head over heels about an Earth-horizontal axis at 20 cycles per minute in darkness. Maximal aerobic power and the blood lactate response to submaximal exercise were evaluated with cycle ergometry. The training program caused significant improvements in VO2max and endurance capacity, and a significant decrease in percent body fat. There was a significant (p less than 0.0125) increase in motion sickness susceptibility after the physical training, suggesting that increased physical fitness caused increased susceptibility to motion sickness in some individuals. PMID:2156490

  20. Curriculum Fidelity and Factors Affecting Fidelity in the Turkish Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bumen, Nilay T.; Cakar, Esra; Yildiz, Derya G.

    2014-01-01

    Although a centralist education system is in place in Turkey, studies show that while implementing the curriculum developed by the Ministry of Education, teachers make changes based on their own preferences or depending on students. Curriculum fidelity can be defined as the degree to which teachers or stakeholders abide by a curriculum's…

  1. Basics of Fidelity Bonding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Steven P.

    Fidelity bonds are important for an agency to hold to protect itself against any financial loss that can result from dishonest acts by its employees. Three types of fidelity bonds are available to an agency: (1) public official bonds; (2) dishonesty bonds; and (3) faithful performance bonds. Public official bonds are required by state law to be…

  2. Quench dynamics and ground state fidelity of the one-dimensional extended quantum compass model in a transverse field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, R.

    2016-05-01

    We study the ground state fidelity, fidelity susceptibility, and quench dynamics of the extended quantum compass model in a transverse field. This model reveals a rich phase diagram which includes several critical surfaces depending on exchange couplings. We present a characterization of quantum phase transitions in terms of the ground state fidelity between two ground states obtained for two different values of external parameters. We also derive scaling relations describing the singular behavior of the fidelity susceptibility in the quantum critical surfaces. Moreover, we study the time evolution of the system after a critical quantum quench using the Loschmidt echo (LE). We find that the revival times of LE are given by {T}{rev}=N/2{v}{max}, where N is the size of the system and v max is the maximum of the lower bound group velocity of quasi-particles. Although the fidelity susceptibility shows the same exponent in all critical surfaces, the structure of the revivals after critical quantum quenches displays two different regimes reflecting different equilibration dynamics.

  3. Ac magnetic susceptibility study of in vivo nanoparticle biodistribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, L.; Mejías, R.; Barber, D. F.; Veintemillas-Verdaguer, S.; Serna, C. J.; Lázaro, F. J.; Morales, M. P.

    2011-06-01

    We analysed magnetic nanoparticle biodistribution, before and after cytokine conjugation, in a mouse model by ac susceptibility measurements of the corresponding resected tissues. Mice received repeated intravenous injections of nanoparticle suspension for two weeks and they were euthanized 1 h after the last injection. In general, only 10% of the total injected nanoparticles after multiple exposures were found in tissues. The rest of the particles may probably be metabolized or excreted by the organism. Our findings indicate that the adsorption of interferon to DMSA-coated magnetic nanoparticles changes their biodistribution, reducing the presence of nanoparticles in lungs and therefore their possible toxicity. The specific targeting of the particles to tumour tissues by the use of an external magnetic field has also been studied. Magnetic nanoparticles were observed by transmission electron microscopy in the targeted tissue and quantified by ac magnetic susceptibility.

  4. Teacher Fidelity to One Physical Education Curricular Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloeppel, Tiffany; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; Stylianou, Michalis; van der Mars, Hans

    2013-01-01

    This study addressed teachers' fidelity to one Physical Education curricular model. The theoretical framework guiding this study included professional development and fidelity to curricular models. In this study, teachers' fidelity to the Dynamic Physical Education (DPE) curricular model was measured for high and nonsupport district groups.…

  5. The Development of the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview-Fidelity Instrument (CFI-FI): A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan; Glass, Andrew; Tirado, Amilcar; Boiler, Marit; Nicasio, Andel; Alegría, Margarita; Wall, Melanie; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of the Cultural Formulation Interview-Fidelity Instrument (CFI-FI) which assesses clinician fidelity to the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI). The CFI consists of a manualized set of standard questions that can precede every psychiatric evaluation. It is based on the DSM-IV Outline for Cultural Formulation, the cross-cultural assessment with the most evidence in psychiatric training. Using the New York sample of the DSM-5 CFI field trial, two independent raters created and finalized items for the CFI-FI based on six audio-taped and transcribed interviews. The raters then used the final CFI-FI to rate the remaining 23 interviews. Inter-rater reliability ranged from .73 to 1 for adherence items and .52 to 1 for competence items. The development of the CFI-FI can help researchers and administrators determine whether the CFI has been implemented with fidelity, permitting future intervention research. PMID:25130248

  6. The development of the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview-Fidelity Instrument (CFI-FI): a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan; Glass, Andrew; Tirado, Amilcar; Boiler, Marit; Nicasio, Andel; Alegría, Margarita; Wall, Melanie; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2014-08-01

    This paper reports on the development of the Cultural Formulation Interview-Fidelity Instrument (CFI-FI) which assesses clinician fidelity to the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI). The CFI consists of a manualized set of standard questions that can precede every psychiatric evaluation. It is based on the DSM-IV Outline for Cultural Formulation, the cross-cultural assessment with the most evidence in psychiatric training. Using the New York sample of the DSM-5 CFI field trial, two independent raters created and finalized items for the CFI-FI based on six audio-taped and transcribed interviews. The raters then used the final CFI-FI to rate the remaining 23 interviews. Inter-rater reliability ranged from .73 to 1 for adherence items and .52 to 1 for competence items. The development of the CFI-FI can help researchers and administrators determine whether the CFI has been implemented with fidelity, permitting future intervention research. PMID:25130248

  7. Site fidelity, mate fidelity, and breeding dispersal in American kestrels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steenhof, K.; Peterson, B.E.

    2009-01-01

    We assessed mate fidelity, nest-box fidelity, and breeding dispersal distances of American Kestrels (falco sparverius) nesting in boxes in southwestern Idaho from 1990 through 2006. Seventy-seven percent of boxes had different males and 87% had different females where nest-box occupants were identified in consecutive years. High turnover rates were partly a result of box-switching. Forty-eight percent of males and 58% of females that nested within the study area in successive years used different boxes. The probability of changing boxes was unrelated to gender, nesting success in the prior year, or years of nesting experience. Breeding dispersal distances for birds that moved to different boxes averaged 2.2 km for males (max = 22 km) and 3.2 km for females (max = 32 km). Approximately 70% of birds that nested in consecutive years on the study area had a different mate in the second year. Mate fidelity was related to box fidelity but not to prior nesting success or years of nesting experience. Mate changes occurred 32% of the time when the previous mate was known to be alive and nesting in the area. Kestrels that switched mates and boxes did not improve or decrease their subsequent nesting success. Kestrels usually switched to mates with less experience and lower lifetime productivity than their previous mates. The costs of switching boxes and mates were low, and there were no obvious benefits to fidelity. The cost of "waiting" for a previous mate that might have died could be high in species with high annual mortality.

  8. The Fidelity and Usability of 5-DIE: A Design Study of Enacted Cyberlearning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Cindy L.; Crippen, Kent J.; Skaza, Heather

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a design study of a cyberlearning instructional unit about climate change created with a new inquiry-based design framework, the 5-featured Dynamic Inquiry Enterprise (5-DIE). The 5-DIE framework was created to address the need for authentic science inquiry experiences in cyberlearning environments that leverage existing tools…

  9. Using Coaching to Improve the Fidelity of Evidence-Based Practices: A Review of Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretlow, Allison Graves; Bartholomew, Christina C.

    2010-01-01

    The authors conducted a comprehensive review of research to identify the impact of coaching on changes in preservice and in-service teachers' implementation of evidence-based practices. They identified a total of 13 studies from the 20 years of literature they searched. In general, coaching improved the extent to which teachers accurately…

  10. A Case Study of the Fidelity Approach in an Educational Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weedall, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Organizational innovation is a difficult process. Most innovations fail. If an innovation fails there is a high probability the organization will be fractured. It is easy to break apart an organization. It is much more difficult to build it back up. This is a case study of an innovation in a branch of a large private English language school in…

  11. Fidelity and Promiscuity in an Ant-Plant Mutualism: A Case Study of Triplaris and Pseudomyrmex

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    The association between the myrmecophyte Triplaris and ants of the genus Pseudomyrmex is an often-reported example of mutualism but no molecular studies have examined this association to date. In this study, the interspecific relationships of Triplaris were reconstructed using five molecular markers (two chloroplast and three nuclear), and the relationships of the associated Pseudomyrmex using two molecular regions (one mitochondrial and one nuclear). A data set including all known collections of plant hosts and resident ants was also compiled. The pattern of distribution of both organisms reveals that there are varying degrees of host specificity; most ants show broader host usage (promiscuous) but one species (P. dendroicus) is faithful to a single species of Triplaris. In most ant-plant interactions, host usage is not specific at the species level and preferences may result from geographical or ecological sorting. The specificity of P. dendroicus could be based on chemical recognition of the host they were raised on. PMID:26630384

  12. A Multi-Method and Multi-Source Approach for Studying Fidelity of Implementation. CSE Report 677

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Primo, Maria Araceli

    2006-01-01

    Even the best program in education will fail to have the intended impact if its essential elements are not implemented properly. Degree of implementation is, then, critical to draw valid conclusions on program outcomes (e.g., Scheirer & Rezmovic, 1983). Especially important is the information on the fidelity with which a program is implemented.…

  13. Motivation and Technological Readiness in the Use of High-Fidelity Simulation: A Descriptive Comparative Study of Nurse Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duvall, Judy Jo

    2012-01-01

    There are many driving forces to increase the use of high-fidelity simulation (HFS) in nursing education, as well as many factors that may influence the implementation of this teaching strategy. These include the motivation of nurse educators to use HFS, the technological readiness of nurse educators to use HFS and the changing demographics of the…

  14. The Ego-Virtue of Fidelity: A Case for the Study of Religion and Identity Formation in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markstrom-Adams, Carol; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Mormon adolescents (n=36) who were a majority group in their own community were found to score higher in identity foreclosure in comparison with Catholic and Protestant adolescents who were religious minorities in their communities. Results are discussed in terms of fidelity and identity commitment. (SLD)

  15. Evaluating display fidelity and interaction fidelity in a virtual reality game.

    PubMed

    McMahan, Ryan P; Bowman, Doug A; Zielinski, David J; Brady, Rachael B

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, consumers have witnessed a technological revolution that has delivered more-realistic experiences in their own homes through high-definition, stereoscopic televisions and natural, gesture-based video game consoles. Although these experiences are more realistic, offering higher levels of fidelity, it is not clear how the increased display and interaction aspects of fidelity impact the user experience. Since immersive virtual reality (VR) allows us to achieve very high levels of fidelity, we designed and conducted a study that used a six-sided CAVE to evaluate display fidelity and interaction fidelity independently, at extremely high and low levels, for a VR first-person shooter (FPS) game. Our goal was to gain a better understanding of the effects of fidelity on the user in a complex, performance-intensive context. The results of our study indicate that both display and interaction fidelity significantly affect strategy and performance, as well as subjective judgments of presence, engagement, and usability. In particular, performance results were strongly in favor of two conditions: low-display, low-interaction fidelity (representative of traditional FPS games) and high-display, high-interaction fidelity (similar to the real world). PMID:22402690

  16. An Experimental Study of Procedures to Enhance Ratings of Fidelity to an Evidence-Based Family Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Justin D.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Brown, Kimbree; Ramos, Karina; Knoble, Naomi B.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2015-01-01

    The valid and reliable assessment of fidelity is critical at all stages of intervention research and is particularly germane to interpreting the results of efficacy and implementation trials. Ratings of protocol adherence typically are reliable, but ratings of therapist competence are plagued by low reliability. Because family context and case conceptualization guide the therapist's delivery of interventions, the reliability of fidelity ratings might be improved if the coder is privy to client context in the form of an ecological assessment. We conducted a randomized experiment to test this hypothesis. A subsample of 46 families with 5-year-old children from a multisite randomized trial who participated in the feedback session of the Family Check-Up (FCU) intervention were selected. We randomly assigned FCU feedback sessions to be rated for fidelity to the protocol using the COACH rating system either after the coder reviewed the results of a recent ecological assessment or had not. Inter-rater reliability estimates of fidelity ratings were meaningfully higher for the assessment information condition compared to the no-information condition. Importantly, the reliability of the COACH mean score was found to be statistically significantly higher in the information condition. These findings suggest that the reliability of observational ratings of fidelity, particularly when the competence or quality of delivery is considered, could be improved by providing assessment data to the coders. Our findings might be most applicable to assessment-driven interventions, where assessment data explicitly guides therapist's selection of intervention strategies tailored to the family's context and needs, but they could also apply to other intervention programs and observational coding of context-dependent therapy processes, such as the working alliance. PMID:26271300

  17. Genetic Epidemiology of Tuberculosis Susceptibility: Impact of Study Design

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Catherine M.

    2011-01-01

    Several candidate gene studies have provided evidence for a role of host genetics in susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB). However, the results of these studies have been very inconsistent, even within a study population. Here, we review the design of these studies from a genetic epidemiological perspective, illustrating important differences in phenotype definition in both cases and controls, consideration of latent M. tuberculosis infection versus active TB disease, population genetic factors such as population substructure and linkage disequilibrium, polymorphism selection, and potential global differences in M. tuberculosis strain. These considerable differences between studies should be accounted for when examining the current literature. Recommendations are made for future studies to further clarify the host genetics of TB. PMID:21283783

  18. Is mate fidelity related to site fidelity? A comparative analysis in Ciconiiforms.

    PubMed

    Cézilly; Dubois; Pagel

    2000-06-01

    We tested for an association between divorce rate and site fidelity in 42 avian species belonging to the order Ciconiiforms, using comparative methods that account for the influences of phylogenetic relationships on the data. Our methods enabled us to detect evidence of correlated evolution and provided information on the temporal ordering of evolutionary changes in these two variables. We found a significant correlation between divorce rate and site fidelity, indicating that species with little or no site fidelity are more likely to divorce. Our data suggest that the coupled evolution of divorce and site fidelity can be summarized by three major events. The first event corresponds to a transition from species showing high divorce rate and low or no site fidelity to species that tended to reuse the same nests over consecutive breeding seasons. This was followed by a transition towards higher mate fidelity, with the preservation of pair bonds over consecutive breeding attempts. In a third stage, divorce rate and the rate of site fidelity varied, independently of each other. We discuss our results within the context of the ancestor species and the past environments in which the traits originated, and address the importance of the potential for individual recognition in shaping the observed patterns of covariation between mate fidelity and site fidelity in Ciconiiforms. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10877893

  19. Knowledge Gaining by Human Genetic Studies on Tuberculosis Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Hui-Qi; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P; McCormick, Joseph B

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious health issue in the developing world. Lack of knowledge on the etiological mechanisms of TB hinders the development of effective strategies for the treatment or prevention of TB disease. Human genetic study is an indispensable approach to understand the molecular basis of common diseases. Numerous efforts were made to screen the human genome for TB susceptibility by linkage mapping. A large number of candidate-based association studies of TB were performed to examine the association of predicted functional DNA variations in candidate genes. Recently, the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) on TB was reported. The GWAS is a proof-of-principle evidence which justifies the genetic approach to understand TB. Further hypothesis-free efforts on TB research may renovate the traditional idea of TB genetic susceptibility as none of the candidate genes with important roles in containing Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection was identified of association with active TB, while the TB-associated loci in the GWAS harbors no gene with function in MTB infection. PMID:21179108

  20. A New Tool to Assess Treatment Fidelity and Evaluation of Treatment Fidelity across 10 Years of Health Behavior Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrelli, Belinda; Sepinwall, Deborah; Ernst, Denise; Bellg, Albert J.; Czajkowski, Susan; Breger, Rosemary; DeFrancesco, Carol; Levesque, Chantal; Sharp, Daryl L.; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Resnick, Barbara; Orwig, Denise

    2005-01-01

    A. Bellg, B. Borrelli, et al. (2004) previously developed a framework that consisted of strategies to enhance treatment fidelity of health behavior interventions. The present study used this framework to (a) develop a measure of treatment fidelity and (b) use the measure to evaluate treatment fidelity in articles published in 5 journals over 10…

  1. Upset susceptibility study employing circuit analysis and digital simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carreno, V. A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to predicting the susceptibility of digital systems to signal disturbances. Electrical disturbances on a digital system's input and output lines can be induced by activities and conditions including static electricity, lightning discharge, Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and Electromagnetic Pulsation (EMP). The electrical signal disturbances employed for the susceptibility study were limited to nondestructive levels, i.e., the system does not sustain partial or total physical damage and reset and/or reload will bring the system to an operational status. The front-end transition from the electrical disturbances to the equivalent digital signals was accomplished by computer-aided circuit analysis. The Super-Sceptre (system for circuit evaluation of transient radiation effects) Program was used. Gate models were developed according to manufacturers' performance specifications and parameters resulting from construction processes characteristic of the technology. Digital simulation at the gate and functional level was employed to determine the impact of the abnormal signals on system performance and to study the propagation characteristics of these signals through the system architecture. Example results are included for an Intel 8080 processor configuration.

  2. Measuring Fidelity in Preschool Interventions: A Microanalysis of Fidelity Instruments Used in Curriculum Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrow, Catherine L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines measures used by studies associated with Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research Initiative (PCER) funded by the Institute of Education Sciences. Analysis of 17 measures of fidelity used by 13 curriculum interventions highlights how research in preschools is and is not measuring fidelity of implementation. The following…

  3. Physiological Based Simulator Fidelity Design Guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnell, Thomas; Hamel, Nancy; Postnikov, Alex; Hoke, Jaclyn; McLean, Angus L. M. Thom, III

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of the role of flight simulation has reinforced assumptions in aviation that the degree of realism in a simulation system directly correlates to the training benefit, i.e., more fidelity is always better. The construct of fidelity has several dimensions, including physical fidelity, functional fidelity, and cognitive fidelity. Interaction of different fidelity dimensions has an impact on trainee immersion, presence, and transfer of training. This paper discusses research results of a recent study that investigated if physiological-based methods could be used to determine the required level of simulator fidelity. Pilots performed a relatively complex flight task consisting of mission task elements of various levels of difficulty in a fixed base flight simulator and a real fighter jet trainer aircraft. Flight runs were performed using one forward visual channel of 40 deg. field of view for the lowest level of fidelity, 120 deg. field of view for the middle level of fidelity, and unrestricted field of view and full dynamic acceleration in the real airplane. Neuro-cognitive and physiological measures were collected under these conditions using the Cognitive Avionics Tool Set (CATS) and nonlinear closed form models for workload prediction were generated based on these data for the various mission task elements. One finding of the work described herein is that simple heart rate is a relatively good predictor of cognitive workload, even for short tasks with dynamic changes in cognitive loading. Additionally, we found that models that used a wide range of physiological and neuro-cognitive measures can further boost the accuracy of the workload prediction.

  4. A Study of Airline Passenger Susceptibility to Atmospheric Turbulence Hazard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Eric C.

    2000-01-01

    A simple, generic, simulation math model of a commercial airliner has been developed to study the susceptibility of unrestrained passengers to large, discrete gust encounters. The math model simulates the longitudinal motion to vertical gusts and includes (1) motion of an unrestrained passenger in the rear cabin, (2) fuselage flexibility, (3) the lag in the downwash from the wing to the tail, and (4) unsteady lift effects. Airplane and passenger response contours are calculated for a matrix of gust amplitudes and gust lengths of a simulated mountain rotor. A comparison of the model-predicted responses to data from three accidents indicates that the accelerations in actual accidents are sometimes much larger than the simulated gust encounters.

  5. Susceptibility study of audio recording devices to electromagnetic stimulations

    SciTech Connect

    Halligan, Matthew S.; Grant, Steven L.; Beetner, Daryl G.

    2014-02-01

    Little research has been performed to study how intentional electromagnetic signals may couple into recording devices. An electromagnetic susceptibility study was performed on an analog tape recorder, a digital video camera, a wired computer microphone, and a wireless microphone system to electromagnetic interference. Devices were subjected to electromagnetic stimulations in the frequency range of 1-990 MHz and field strengths up to 4.9 V/m. Carrier and message frequencies of the stimulation signals were swept, and the impacts of device orientation and antenna polarization were explored. Message signals coupled into all devices only when amplitude modulated signals were used as stimulation signals. Test conditions that produced maximum sensitivity were highly specific to each device. Only narrow carrier frequency ranges could be used for most devices to couple messages into recordings. A basic detection technique using cross-correlation demonstrated the need for messages to be as long as possible to maximize message detection and minimize detection error. Analysis suggests that detectable signals could be coupled to these recording devices under realistic ambient conditions.

  6. Magnetic susceptibility tensor and heme contact shifts determinations in the Rhodobacter capsulatus ferricytochrome c': NMR and magnetic susceptibility studies.

    PubMed

    Tsan, P; Caffrey, M; Daku, M L; Cusanovich, M; Marion, D; Gans, P

    2001-03-14

    The 1H and 15N resonances of the carbon monoxide complex of ferrocytochrome c' of Rhodobacter capsulatus, a ferrous diamagnetic heme protein, have been extensively assigned by TOCSY-HSQC, NOESY-HSQC, and HSQC-NOESY-HSQC 3D heteronuclear experiments performed on a 7 mM sample labeled with 15N. Based on short-range and medium-range NOEs and H(N) exchange rates, the secondary structure consists of four helices: helix 1 (3-29), helix 2 (33-48), helix 3 (78-101), and helix 4 (103-125). The 15N, 1HN, and 1H(alpha) chemical shifts of the CO complex form are compared to those of the previously assigned oxidized (or ferric) state. From the chemical shift differences between these redox states, the orientation and the anisotropy of the paramagnetic susceptibility tensor have been determined using the crystallographic coordinates of the ferric state. The chi-tensor is axial, and the orientation of the z-axis is approximately perpendicular to the heme plane. The paramagnetic chemical shifts of the protons of the heme ligand have been determined and decomposed into the Fermi shift and dipolar shift contributions. Magnetic susceptibility studies in frozen solutions have been performed. Fits of the susceptibility data using the model of Maltempo (Maltempo, M. M. J. Chem. Phys. 1974, 61, 2540-2547) are consistent with a rather low contribution of the S = 3/2 spin state over the range of temperatures and confirm the value of the axial anisotropy. Values in the range 10.4-12.5 cm(-1) have been inferred for the axial zero-field splitting parameter (D). Analysis of the contact shift and the susceptibility data suggests that cytochrome c' of Rb. capsulatus exhibits a predominant high-spin character of the iron in the oxidized state at room temperature. PMID:11456869

  7. Emotional Autonomy versus Susceptibility to Peer Pressure: A Case Study of Hong Kong Adolescent Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kwok-Wai; Chan, Siu-Mui

    2008-01-01

    A questionnaire consisting of two scales was administered to 550 Hong Kong secondary students to examine their emotional autonomy and susceptibility to peer pressure. Emotional autonomy was studied by the scale (EAS) developed by Steinberg and Silverberg (1986) and susceptibility to peer pressure was studied by the scale developed by Sim and Koh…

  8. Generalized Rotational Susceptibility Studies of Solid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadagkar, V.; Pratt, E. J.; Hunt, B.; Yamashita, M.; Graf, M. J.; Balatsky, A. V.; Davis, J. C.

    2012-11-01

    Using a novel SQUID-based torsional oscillator (TO) technique to achieve increased sensitivity and dynamic range, we studied TO's containing solid 4He. Below ˜250 mK, the TO resonance frequency f increases and its dissipation D passes through a maximum as first reported by Kim and Chan. To achieve unbiased analysis of such 4He rotational dynamics, we implemented a new approach based upon the generalized rotational susceptibility χ{4He}^{ - 1}(ω,T). Upon cooling, we found that equilibration times within f( T) and D( T) exhibit a complex synchronized ultraslow evolution toward equilibrium indicative of glassy freezing of crystal disorder conformations which strongly influence the rotational dynamics. We explored a more specific χ{4He}^{ -1}(ω,tau(T)) with τ( T) representing a relaxation rate for inertially active microscopic excitations. In such models, the characteristic temperature T ∗ at which df/ dT and D pass simultaneously through a maximum occurs when the TO angular frequency ω and the relaxation rate are matched: ωτ( T ∗)=1. Then, by introducing the free inertial decay (FID) technique to solid 4He TO studies, we carried out a comprehensive map of f( T, V) and D( T, V) where V is the maximum TO rim velocity. These data indicated that the same microscopic excitations controlling the TO motions are generated independently by thermal and mechanical stimulation of the crystal. Moreover, a measure for their relaxation times τ( T, V) diverges smoothly everywhere without exhibiting a critical temperature or velocity, as expected in ωτ=1 models. Finally, following the observations of Day and Beamish, we showed that the combined temperature-velocity dependence of the TO response is indistinguishable from the combined temperature-strain dependence of the 4He shear modulus. Together, these observations imply that ultra-slow equilibration of crystal disorder conformations controls the rotational dynamics and, for any given disorder conformation, the

  9. Assessing the spatial fidelity of resolution-enhanced imagery using Fourier analysis: a proof-of-concept study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civco, Daniel L.; Witharana, Chandi

    2012-10-01

    Pan-sharpening of moderate resolution multispectral remote sensing data with those of a higher spatial resolution is a standard practice in remote sensing image processing. This paper suggests a method by which the spatial properties of resolution merge products can be assessed. Whereas there are several accepted metrics, such as correlation and root mean square error, for quantifying the spectral integrity of fused images, relative to the original multispectral data, there is less agreement on a means by which to assess the spatial properties, relative to the original higher-resolution, pansharpening data. In addition to qualitative, visual, and somewhat subjective evaluation, quantitative measures used have included correlations between high-pass filtered panchromatic and fused images, gradient analysis, wavelet analysis, among others. None of these methods, however, fully exploits the spatial and structural information contained in the original high resolution and fused images. This paper proposes the use of the Fourier transform as a means to quantify the degree to which a fused image preserves the spatial properties of the pan-sharpening high resolution data. A highresolution 8-bit panchromatic image was altered to produce a set of nine different test images, as well as a random image. The Fourier Magnitude (FM) image was calculated for each of the datasets and compared via FM to FM image correlation. Furthermore, the following edge detection algorithms were applied to the original and altered images: (a) Canny; (b) Sobel; and (c) Laplacian. These edge-filtered images were compared, again by way of correlation, with the original edge-filtered panchromatic image. Results indicate that the proposed method of using FTMI as a means of assessing the spatial fidelity of high-resolution imagery used in the data fusion process outperforms the correlations produced by way of comparing edge-enhanced images.

  10. Undergraduate nursing students' experiences when examining nursing skills in clinical simulation laboratories with high-fidelity patient simulators: A phenomenological research study.

    PubMed

    Sundler, Annelie J; Pettersson, Annika; Berglund, Mia

    2015-12-01

    Simulation has become a widely used and established pedagogy for teaching clinical nursing skills. Nevertheless, the evidence in favour of this pedagogical approach is weak, and more knowledge is needed in support of its use. The aim of this study was (a) to explore the experiences of undergraduate nursing students when examining knowledge, skills and competences in clinical simulation laboratories with high-fidelity patient simulators and (b) to analyse these students' learning experiences during the examination. A phenomenological approach was used, and qualitative interviews were conducted among 23 second-year undergraduate nursing students-17 women and 6 men. The findings revealed that, irrespective of whether they passed or failed the examination, it was experienced as a valuable assessment of the students' knowledge and skills. Even if the students felt that the examination was challenging, they described it as a learning opportunity. In the examination, the students were able to integrate theory with practice, and earlier established knowledge was scrutinised when reflecting on the scenarios. The examination added aspects to the students' learning that prepared them for the real world of nursing in a safe environment without risking patient safety. The study findings suggest that examinations in clinical simulation laboratories can be a useful teaching strategy in nursing education. The use of high-fidelity patient simulators made the examination authentic. The reflections and feedback on the scenario were described as significant for the students' learning. Undergraduate nursing students can improve their knowledge, understanding, competence and skills when such examinations are performed in the manner used in this study. PMID:25943280

  11. Study Finds Association between Biological Marker and Susceptibility to the Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... W X Y Z Study Finds Association Between Biological Marker and Susceptibility to the Common Cold Share: © ... a cold caused by a particular rhinovirus. The biological marker identified in the study was the length ...

  12. Using the Moon as a high-fidelity analogue environment to study biological and behavioral effects of long-duration space exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Nandu; Roma, Peter G.; De Boever, Patrick; Clément, Gilles; Hargens, Alan R.; Loeppky, Jack A.; Evans, Joyce M.; Peter Stein, T.; Blaber, Andrew P.; Van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Mano, Tadaaki; Iwase, Satoshi; Reitz, Guenther; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut G.

    2012-12-01

    Due to its proximity to Earth, the Moon is a promising candidate for the location of an extra-terrestrial human colony. In addition to being a high-fidelity platform for research on reduced gravity, radiation risk, and circadian disruption, the Moon qualifies as an isolated, confined, and extreme (ICE) environment suitable as an analog for studying the psychosocial effects of long-duration human space exploration missions and understanding these processes. In contrast, the various Antarctic research outposts such as Concordia and McMurdo serve as valuable platforms for studying biobehavioral adaptations to ICE environments, but are still Earth-bound, and thus lack the low-gravity and radiation risks of space. The International Space Station (ISS), itself now considered an analog environment for long-duration missions, better approximates the habitable infrastructure limitations of a lunar colony than most Antarctic settlements in an altered gravity setting. However, the ISS is still protected against cosmic radiation by the Earth magnetic field, which prevents high exposures due to solar particle events and reduces exposures to galactic cosmic radiation. On Moon the ICE environments are strengthened, radiations of all energies are present capable of inducing performance degradation, as well as reduced gravity and lunar dust. The interaction of reduced gravity, radiation exposure, and ICE conditions may affect biology and behavior - and ultimately mission success - in ways the scientific and operational communities have yet to appreciate, therefore a long-term or permanent human presence on the Moon would ultimately provide invaluable high-fidelity opportunities for integrated multidisciplinary research and for preparations of a manned mission to Mars.

  13. ac susceptibility study of a magnetite magnetic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala-Valenzuela, O. E.; Matutes-Aquino, J. A.; Galindo, J. T. Elizalde; Botez, C. E.

    2009-04-01

    Magnetite nanometric powder was synthesized from metal salts using a coprecipitation technique. The powders were used to produce magnetic fluid via a peptization method, with hydrocarbon Isopar M as liquid carrier and oleic acid as surfactant. The complex magnetic susceptibility χ =χ'+iχ″ was measured as a function of temperature T in steps of 2.5 K from 3 to 298 K for frequencies ranging from f =10 to 10 000 Hz. The magnetic fluid real and imaginary components of the ac susceptibility show a prominent maximum at temperatures that increase with the measuring frequency, which is attributed to a spin-glass-like behavior. The peak temperature Tp1 of χ″ depends on f following the Vogel-Fulcher law f =f0 exp[E /kB(Tp1-T0)], where f0 and E are positive constants and T0 is a parameter related to particle interactions. There is another kind of peak temperature, Tp2, in the loss factor tan δ =χ″/χ' which is related to a magnetic aftereffect. The peak temperature Tp2 is far less than Tp1 and shows an Arrhenius-type dependence on f.

  14. RTI Fidelity of Implementation Rubric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Response to Intervention, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Response to Intervention (RTI) Fidelity Rubric is for use by individuals who are responsible for monitoring school-level fidelity of RTI implementation. The rubric is aligned with the essential components of RTI and the infrastructure that is necessary for successful implementation. It is accompanied by a worksheet with guiding questions and…

  15. Assessing Fidelity of Implementation of an Unprescribed, Diagnostic Mathematics Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munter, Charles; Wilhelm, Anne Garrison; Cobb, Paul; Cordray, David S.

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on previously employed methods for conducting fidelity studies and applies them to an evaluation of an unprescribed intervention. We document the process of assessing the fidelity of implementation of the Math Recovery first-grade tutoring program, an unprescribed, diagnostic intervention. We describe how we drew on recent…

  16. Intervention Fidelity in Special and General Education Research Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Elizabeth; Wanzek, Jeanne; Haring, Christa; Ciullo, Stephen; McCulley, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Treatment fidelity reporting practices are described for journals that published general and special education intervention research with high impact factors from 2005 through 2009. The authors reviewed research articles, reported the proportion of intervention studies that described fidelity measurement, detailed the components of fidelity…

  17. Evaluating Math Recovery: Measuring Fidelity of Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munter, Charles; Garrison, Anne; Cobb, Paul; Cordray, David

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the authors describe a case of measuring implementation fidelity within an evaluation study of Math Recovery (MR), a pullout tutoring program aimed at increasing the mathematics achievement of low-performing first graders, thereby closing the school-entry achievement gap by enabling them to achieve at the level of their…

  18. Theoretical model study of dynamic ferromagnetic susceptibility in mono-layer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Sivabrata; Parashar, S. K. S.; Rout, G. C.

    2016-04-01

    We report here a microscopic theoretical study of dynamic ferromagnetic spin susceptibility of electrons for graphene systems, which deal with a tight-binding model Hamiltonian consisting of the hopping of electrons up to third-nearest-neighbors, impurity and substrate effects besides Coulomb interaction of electrons at A-and B- sub- lattices. The spin susceptibility involves four two-particle Green's functions, which are calculated by Zubarev's Green's function technique. The up and down electron occupancies at A and B sub-lattices are computed numerically and self-consistently. The temperature dependent susceptibility shows a pronounced peak at Curie temperature for critical Coulomb interaction Uc = 2.2t1.

  19. [Studies on the genetic susceptibility to dilated cardiomyopathy].

    PubMed

    Li, Y Y; Zhang, J N; Ma, W Z

    1993-01-01

    HLA-DQB1,-DRB1 genes of 27 Chinese patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), 7 high risk individuals in a DCM kindred and 17 normal control subjects were analysed with the use of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) with full length DQB1 and DRB1 cDNA probes according to the standard and nomenclature of the Xth International Histocompatibility Workshop. The resulting restriction patterns allowed genotyping of HLA-DR and HLA-DQw. D-DQw8 frequency increased significantly in patients with DCM as compared with that of the controls (P < 0.05). D-DQw4 also increased in patients although no statistical significance was shown when Chi-square value was corrected with Yate's correction, whereas D-DQw5 overrepresented in controls (P < 0.05). Over half of the high risk individuals (4/7) in the familial DCM kindred carry D-DQw8 and D-DQw4. These results support the hypothesis that HLA class II genes were associated with an increased risk for DCM, HLA-DQB rather than -DRB may confer genetic susceptibility to DCM. PMID:8104770

  20. A Study of the Pre-Licensure Nursing Students' Perception of the Simulation Learning Environment as Helpful in Achieving Clinical Competencies and Their Perception of the Impact of the Level of Fidelity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crary, Wendy M.

    2012-01-01

    The research question of this study was: to what degree do nursing students perceive using the High Fidelity Simulation (HFS) learning environment to be helpful in their ability to achieve clinical competency. The research sub-questions (7) explored the students' demographics as an influence on rating of reality and helpfulness and the…

  1. Exploratory studies of physiological components of motion sickness: Cardiopulmonary differences between high and low susceptibles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naifeh, K.

    1985-01-01

    A comprehensive examination of cardiovascular autonomic response to motion sickness was studied and whether differences in cardiopulmonary function exist in high and low susceptibility groups were determined. Measurement techniques were developed as was test equipment for its ability to provide accurately new measures of interest and to test the adequately of these new measures in differentiating between susceptibility groups. It was concluded that these groups can be differentiated using simple, brief stressors and measurements of cardiodynamic function.

  2. Comparing physically-based and statistical landslide susceptibility model outputs - a case study from Lower Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canli, Ekrem; Thiebes, Benni; Petschko, Helene; Glade, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    By now there is a broad consensus that due to human-induced global change the frequency and magnitude of heavy precipitation events is expected to increase in certain parts of the world. Given the fact, that rainfall serves as the most common triggering agent for landslide initiation, also an increased landside activity can be expected there. Landslide occurrence is a globally spread phenomenon that clearly needs to be handled. The present and well known problems in modelling landslide susceptibility and hazard give uncertain results in the prediction. This includes the lack of a universal applicable modelling solution for adequately assessing landslide susceptibility (which can be seen as the relative indication of the spatial probability of landslide initiation). Generally speaking, there are three major approaches for performing landslide susceptibility analysis: heuristic, statistical and deterministic models, all with different assumptions, its distinctive data requirements and differently interpretable outcomes. Still, detailed comparison of resulting landslide susceptibility maps are rare. In this presentation, the susceptibility modelling outputs of a deterministic model (Stability INdex MAPping - SINMAP) and a statistical modelling approach (generalized additive model - GAM) are compared. SINMAP is an infinite slope stability model which requires parameterization of soil mechanical parameters. Modelling with the generalized additive model, which represents a non-linear extension of a generalized linear model, requires a high quality landslide inventory that serves as the dependent variable in the statistical approach. Both methods rely on topographical data derived from the DTM. The comparison has been carried out in a study area located in the district of Waidhofen/Ybbs in Lower Austria. For the whole district (ca. 132 km²), 1063 landslides have been mapped and partially used within the analysis and the validation of the model outputs. The respective

  3. Differential susceptibility to the environment: Are developmental models compatible with the evidence from twin studies?

    PubMed

    Del Giudice, Marco

    2016-08-01

    According to models of differential susceptibility, the same neurobiological and temperamental traits that determine increased sensitivity to stress and adversity also confer enhanced responsivity to the positive aspects of the environment. Differential susceptibility models have expanded to include complex developmental processes in which genetic variation interacts with exposure to early environmental factors, such as prenatal stress hormones and family conflict. In this study I employed a simulation approach to explore whether, and under what conditions, developmental models of differential susceptibility are compatible with the cumulative findings from twin studies of personality and behavior, which consistently show sizable effects of genetic and nonshared environmental factors and small to negligible effects of the shared environment. Simulation results showed that, to a first approximation, current alternative models of differential susceptibility are all equally compatible with the evidence from twin research; that sizable interaction effects involving individual differences in plasticity are plausible, but only if direct environmental effects are correspondingly weak; and that a major role of shared environmental factors is plausible in early development (consistent with the developmental mechanisms postulated in the differential susceptibility literature) but not in later development. These results support the general plausibility of differential susceptibility models and suggest some realistic constraints on their assumptions. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27455408

  4. A Comprehensive Examination of Preschool Teachers' Implementation Fidelity When Using a Supplemental Language and Literacy Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Justice, Laura M.; McGinty, Anita; Mashburn, Andrew; Slocum, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent curriculum studies raise a number of questions concerning teachers' implementation fidelity, including the extent to which fidelity to multiple curriculum components is achieved and measured and the extent to which fidelity serves as a mechanism for impacting children's learning. Objective: Within the context of a language and…

  5. Conceptualizing and Measuring Fidelity of Implementation of Secondary Mathematics Textbooks: Results of a Three-Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaught, Melissa D.; Tarr, James E.; Sears, Ruthmae

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent and manner in which teachers use mathematics textbooks in their daily teaching. Specific attention was given to textbook implementation differences related to two types of mathematics textbooks where the mathematical content is organized differently. Only schools where a dual curricular option…

  6. Fidelity of Implementing an Assessment Translation and Adaptation Framework in a Study of an Emerging International Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chia, Magda Yanira

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses the complex process of translation and adaptation of two Collegiate Learning Assessment (CLA) performance tasks (PTs), originally developed in English for American students, into the languages and cultures of five participating countries. Focusing on confirming evidence bits (CEBs), disconfirming evidence bits (DEBs), and no…

  7. Recommendations on Model Fidelity for Wind Turbine Gearbox Simulations: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Y.; Keller, J.; La Cava, W.; Austin, J.; Nejad, A. R.; Halse, C.; Bastard, L.; Helsen, J.

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the minimum level of fidelity required to accurately simulate wind turbine gearboxes using state-of-the-art design tools. Excessive model fidelity including drivetrain complexity, gearbox complexity, excitation sources, and imperfections, significantly increases computational time, but may not provide a commensurate increase in the value of the results. Essential design parameters are evaluated, including the planetary load-sharing factor, gear tooth load distribution, and sun orbit motion. Based on the sensitivity study results, recommendations for the minimum model fidelities are provided.

  8. Correlation between magnetic susceptibility and heavy metals in urban topsoil: a case study from the city of Xuzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xue Song; Qin, Yong

    2005-11-01

    Anthropogenic influence, mainly due to urban and industrial activities and traffic exhaust, may affect urban topsoil via atmospheric contamination and solid waste. Magnetic susceptibility measurements were conducted on 21 urban topsoil samples from the city of Xuzhou, China. High intensities of magnetic susceptibility were detected in the majority of the samples. SEM analysis shows that magnetic minerals are in the form of spherules and mainly due to anthropogenic inputs. The heavy metals Pb, Cu, Zn, Se, Sc, Mo, Fe, and Bi show strong correlations with magnetic susceptibility, and Ag, Ba, Cd, Ni, Cr, Sb, and Sn, on the other hand, show a weak correlation with magnetic susceptibility. Whereas, of these metals studied, only Hg has no significant correlation with the susceptibility. The Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI) also shows significant correlation with the susceptibility (χ). The present study shows that magnetic susceptibility is a fast, inexpensive, and non-destructive method for the detection and mapping of contaminated soils.

  9. Searching for Evidence-Based Practice: A Survey of Empirical Studies on Curricular Interventions Measuring and Reporting Fidelity of Implementation Published during 2004-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missett, Tracy C.; Foster, Lisa H.

    2015-01-01

    In an environment of accountability, the development of evidence-based practices is expected. To demonstrate that a practice is evidence based, quality indicators of rigorous methodology should be present including indications that teachers implementing an intervention have done so with fidelity to its design. Because evidence-based practices…

  10. A testbed for architecture and fidelity trade studies in the Bayesian decision-level fusion of ATR products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Kyle J.; Ross, Timothy D.

    2007-04-01

    Decision-level fusion is an appealing extension to automatic/assisted target recognition (ATR) as it is a low-bandwidth technique bolstered by a strong theoretical foundation that requires no modification of the source algorithms. Despite the relative simplicity of decision-level fusion, there are many options for fusion application and fusion algorithm specifications. This paper describes a tool that allows trade studies and optimizations across these many options, by feeding an actual fusion algorithm via models of the system environment. Models and fusion algorithms can be specified and then exercised many times, with accumulated results used to compute performance metrics such as probability of correct identification. Performance differences between the best of the contributing sources and the fused result constitute examples of "gain." The tool, constructed as part of the Fusion for Identifying Targets Experiment (FITE) within the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Sensors Directorate ATR Thrust, finds its main use in examining the relationships among conditions affecting the target, prior information, fusion algorithm complexity, and fusion gain. ATR as an unsolved problem provides the main challenges to fusion in its high cost and relative scarcity of training data, its variability in application, the inability to produce truly random samples, and its sensitivity to context. This paper summarizes the mathematics underlying decision-level fusion in the ATR domain and describes a MATLAB-based architecture for exploring the trade space thus defined. Specific dimensions within this trade space are delineated, providing the raw material necessary to define experiments suitable for multi-look and multi-sensor ATR systems.

  11. Measuring Implementation Fidelity in a Community-Based Parenting Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Breitenstein, Susan M.; Fogg, Louis; Garvey, Christine; Hill, Carri; Resnick, Barbara; Gross, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Background Establishing the feasibility and validity of implementation fidelity monitoring strategies is an important methodological step in implementing evidence-based interventions on a large scale. Objectives The objective of the study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Fidelity Checklist, a measure designed to assess group leader adherence and competence delivering a parent training intervention (the Chicago Parent Program) in child care centers serving low-income families. Method The sample included 9 parent groups (12 group sessions each), 12 group leaders, and 103 parents. Independent raters reviewed 106 audiotaped parent group sessions and coded group leaders’ fidelity on the Adherence and Competence Scales of the Fidelity Checklist. Group leaders completed self-report adherence checklists and a measure of parent engagement in the intervention. Parents completed measures of consumer satisfaction and child behavior. Results High interrater agreement (Adherence Scale = 94%, Competence Scale = 85%) and adequate intraclass correlation coefficients (Adherence Scale = .69, Competence Scale = .91) were achieved for the Fidelity Checklist. Group leader adherence changed over time, but competence remained stable. Agreement between group leader self-report and independent ratings on the Adherence Scale was 85%; disagreements were more frequently due to positive bias in group leader self-report. Positive correlations were found between group leader adherence and parent attendance and engagement in the intervention and between group leader competence and parent satisfaction. Although child behavior problems improved, improvements were not related to fidelity. Discussion The results suggest that the Fidelity Checklist is a feasible, reliable, and valid measure of group leader implementation fidelity in a group-based parenting intervention. Future research will be focused on testing the Fidelity Checklist with diverse and larger samples and generalizing

  12. Quantum Fidelity for Arbitrary Gaussian States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banchi, Leonardo; Braunstein, Samuel L.; Pirandola, Stefano

    2015-12-01

    We derive a computable analytical formula for the quantum fidelity between two arbitrary multimode Gaussian states which is simply expressed in terms of their first- and second-order statistical moments. We also show how such a formula can be written in terms of symplectic invariants and used to derive closed forms for a variety of basic quantities and tools, such as the Bures metric, the quantum Fisher information, and various fidelity-based bounds. Our result can be used to extend the study of continuous-variable protocols, such as quantum teleportation and cloning, beyond the current one-mode or two-mode analyses, and paves the way to solve general problems in quantum metrology and quantum hypothesis testing with arbitrary multimode Gaussian resources.

  13. Quantum Fidelity for Arbitrary Gaussian States.

    PubMed

    Banchi, Leonardo; Braunstein, Samuel L; Pirandola, Stefano

    2015-12-31

    We derive a computable analytical formula for the quantum fidelity between two arbitrary multimode Gaussian states which is simply expressed in terms of their first- and second-order statistical moments. We also show how such a formula can be written in terms of symplectic invariants and used to derive closed forms for a variety of basic quantities and tools, such as the Bures metric, the quantum Fisher information, and various fidelity-based bounds. Our result can be used to extend the study of continuous-variable protocols, such as quantum teleportation and cloning, beyond the current one-mode or two-mode analyses, and paves the way to solve general problems in quantum metrology and quantum hypothesis testing with arbitrary multimode Gaussian resources. PMID:26764978

  14. RESPIRATORY DOSE TO SUSCEPTIBLE POPULATIONS ASSESSED BY EXPOSURE AND DOSIMETRY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Respiratory Dose to Susceptible Populations Assessed by Exposure and Dosimetry Studies

    Chong Kim1 and Ronald Williams2, 1USEPA National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory and 2USEPA National Exposure Research Laboratory, RTP, NC.

    Rationale: Parti...

  15. [Recommendations for selecting antimicrobial agents for in vitro susceptibility studies using automatic and semiautomatic systems].

    PubMed

    Cantón, Rafael; Alós, Juan Ignacio; Baquero, Fernando; Calvo, Jorge; Campos, José; Castillo, Javier; Cercenado, Emilia; Domínguez, M Angeles; Liñares, Josefina; López-Cerezo, Lorena; Marco, Francesc; Mirelis, Beatriz; Morosini, María-Isabel; Navarro, Ferran; Oliver, Antonio; Pérez-Trallero, Emilio; Torres, Carmen; Martínez-Martínez, Luis

    2007-01-01

    The number of clinical microbiology laboratories that have incorporated automatic susceptibility testing devices has increased in recent years. The majority of these systems determine MIC values using microdilution panels or specific cards, with grouping into clinical categories (susceptible, intermediate or resistant) and incorporate expert systems to infer resistance mechanisms. This document presents the recommendations of a group of experts designated by Grupo de Estudio de los Mecanismos de Acción y Resistencia a los Antimicrobianos (GEMARA, Study group on mechanisms of action and resistance to antimicrobial agents) and Mesa Española de Normalización de la Sensibilidad y Resistencia a los Antimicrobianos (MENSURA, Spanish Group for Normalizing Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Antimicrobial Resistance), with the aim of including antimicrobial agents and selecting concentrations for the susceptibility testing panels of automatic systems. The following have been defined: various antimicrobial categories (A: must be included in the study panel; B: inclusion is recommended; and C: inclusion is secondary, but may facilitate interpretative reading of the antibiogram) and groups (0: not used in therapeutics but may facilitate the detection of resistance mechanisms; 1: must be studied and always reported; 2: must be studied and selectively reported; 3: must be studied and reported at a second level; and 4: should be studied in urinary tract pathogens isolated in urine and other specimens). Recommended antimicrobial concentrations are adapted from the breakpoints established by EUCAST, CLSI and MENSURA. This approach will lead to more accurate susceptibility testing results with better detection of resistance mechanisms, and allowing to reach the clinical goal of the antibiogram. PMID:17583653

  16. The effects of teacher fidelity of implementation of pathways to health on student outcomes.

    PubMed

    Little, Melissa A; Riggs, Nathaniel R; Shin, Hee-Sung; Tate, Eleanor B; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2015-03-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the importance of ensuring that programs are implemented as intended by program developers in order to achieve desired program effects. The current study examined implementation fidelity of Pathways to Health (Pathways), a newly developed obesity prevention program for fourth- through sixth-grade children. We explored the associations between self-reported and observed implementation fidelity scores and whether implementation fidelity differed across the first 2 years of program implementation. Additionally, we examined whether implementation fidelity affected program outcomes and whether teacher beliefs were associated with implementation fidelity. The program was better received, and implementation fidelity had more effects on program outcomes in fifth grade than in fourth grade. Findings suggest that implementation in school-based obesity programs may affect junk food intake and intentions to eat healthfully and exercise. School support was associated with implementation fidelity, suggesting that prevention programs may benefit from including a component that boosts school-wide support. PMID:23739725

  17. [Susceptibilities of clinical bacterial isolates to antimicrobial agents. A study mainly focused on imipenem. Reported by the Research Group for Testing Imipenem Susceptibility on Clinical Isolates].

    PubMed

    Igari, J

    1990-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate susceptibilities of clinical bacterial isolates to imipenem (IPM) and other antibacterial agents at 64 hospital laboratories throughout Japan from September to December of 1988. In this study, identification and susceptibility testing were carried out at each laboratory and the tests were performed according to the disk dilution method recommended by NCCLS in which susceptibilities are classified into "S", "MS", "I" and "R". IPM showed markedly high in vitro activities against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Enterococcus faecalis, Haemophilus influenzae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, Salmonella spp., Citrobacter freundii, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Morganella morganii, Providencia rettgeri, Providencia stuartii, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis, Alcaligenes spp., Peptococcus spp./Peptostreptococcus spp., Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroides spp. IPM also had strong activities against Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but less active against Flavobacterium spp., E. faecium, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas cepacia. In a study in which activities of IPM against bacteria isolated from different clinical sources were compared, differences in susceptibilities were observed among S. aureus, CNS, A. calcoaceticus and P. aeruginosa, but such differences were not apparent among S. pneumoniae, E. faecalis, H. influenzae, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, E. cloacae, C. freundii, S. marcescens or P. mirabilis. PMID:2287060

  18. 75 FR 60838 - American Fidelity Dual Strategy Fund, Inc. and American Fidelity Assurance Company; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... COMMISSION American Fidelity Dual Strategy Fund, Inc. and American Fidelity Assurance Company; Notice of...: American Fidelity Dual Strategy Fund, Inc. (the ``Fund'') and American Fidelity Assurance Company (the... 73106. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lewis Reich, Senior Counsel, at (202) 551-6919, or...

  19. Methodology for Elaborating Regional Susceptibility Maps of Slope Instability: the State of Guerrero (mexico) Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Huesca, A. E.; Ferrés, D.; Domínguez-M, L.

    2013-05-01

    Numerous cases of different types of slope instability occur every year in the mountain areas of México. Sometimes these instabilities severely affect the exposed communities, roads and infrastructure, causing deaths and serious material damage, mainly in the states of Puebla, Veracruz, Oaxaca, Guerrero and Chiapas, at the central and south sectors of the country. The occurrence of the slope instability is the result of the combination of climatic, geologic, hydrologic, geomorphologic and anthropogenic factors. The National Center for Disaster Prevention (CENAPRED) is developing several projects in order to offer civil protection authorities of the Mexican states some methodologies to address the hazard assessment for different natural phenomena in a regional level. In this framework, during the past two years, a methodology was prepared to construct susceptibility maps for slope instability at regional (≤ 1:100 000) and national (≤ 1:1 000 000) levels. This research was addressed in accordance to the criteria established by the International Association of Engineering Geology, which is the highest international authority in this topic. The state of Guerrero has been taken as a pilot scheme to elaborate the susceptibility map for slope instability at a regional level. The major constraints considered in the methodology to calculate susceptibility are: a) the slope of the surface, b) the geology and c) the land use, which were integrated using a Geographic Information System (GIS). The arithmetic sum and weighting factors to obtain the final susceptibility map were based on the average values calculated in the individual study of several cases of slope instability occurred in the state in the past decade. For each case, the evaluation format proposed by CENAPRED in 2006 in the "Guía Básica para la elaboración de Atlas Estatales y Municipales de Peligros y Riesgos" to evaluate instabilities in a local level, was applied. The resulting susceptibility map shows

  20. Identification of seven new prostate cancer susceptibility loci through a genome-wide association study.

    PubMed

    Eeles, Rosalind A; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Giles, Graham G; Guy, Michelle; Severi, Gianluca; Muir, Kenneth; Hopper, John L; Henderson, Brian E; Haiman, Christopher A; Schleutker, Johanna; Hamdy, Freddie C; Neal, David E; Donovan, Jenny L; Stanford, Janet L; Ostrander, Elaine A; Ingles, Sue A; John, Esther M; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Schaid, Daniel; Park, Jong Y; Spurdle, Amanda; Clements, Judith; Dickinson, Joanne L; Maier, Christiane; Vogel, Walther; Dörk, Thilo; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Cooney, Kathleen A; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Chappuis, Pierre O; Hutter, Pierre; Zeegers, Maurice; Kaneva, Radka; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Lu, Yong-Jie; Foulkes, William D; English, Dallas R; Leongamornlert, Daniel A; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Morrison, Jonathan; Ardern-Jones, Audrey T; Hall, Amanda L; O'Brien, Lynne T; Wilkinson, Rosemary A; Saunders, Edward J; Page, Elizabeth C; Sawyer, Emma J; Edwards, Stephen M; Dearnaley, David P; Horwich, Alan; Huddart, Robert A; Khoo, Vincent S; Parker, Christopher C; Van As, Nicholas; Woodhouse, Christopher J; Thompson, Alan; Christmas, Tim; Ogden, Chris; Cooper, Colin S; Southey, Melissa C; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Liu, Jo-Fen; Kolonel, Laurence N; Le Marchand, Loic; Wahlfors, Tiina; Tammela, Teuvo L; Auvinen, Anssi; Lewis, Sarah J; Cox, Angela; FitzGerald, Liesel M; Koopmeiners, Joseph S; Karyadi, Danielle M; Kwon, Erika M; Stern, Mariana C; Corral, Roman; Joshi, Amit D; Shahabi, Ahva; McDonnell, Shannon K; Sellers, Thomas A; Pow-Sang, Julio; Chambers, Suzanne; Aitken, Joanne; Gardiner, R A Frank; Batra, Jyotsna; Kedda, Mary Anne; Lose, Felicity; Polanowski, Andrea; Patterson, Briony; Serth, Jürgen; Meyer, Andreas; Luedeke, Manuel; Stefflova, Klara; Ray, Anna M; Lange, Ethan M; Farnham, Jim; Khan, Humera; Slavov, Chavdar; Mitkova, Atanaska; Cao, Guangwen; Easton, Douglas F

    2009-10-01

    Prostate cancer (PrCa) is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in males in developed countries. To identify common PrCa susceptibility alleles, we previously conducted a genome-wide association study in which 541,129 SNPs were genotyped in 1,854 PrCa cases with clinically detected disease and in 1,894 controls. We have now extended the study to evaluate promising associations in a second stage in which we genotyped 43,671 SNPs in 3,650 PrCa cases and 3,940 controls and in a third stage involving an additional 16,229 cases and 14,821 controls from 21 studies. In addition to replicating previous associations, we identified seven new prostate cancer susceptibility loci on chromosomes 2, 4, 8, 11 and 22 (with P = 1.6 x 10(-8) to P = 2.7 x 10(-33)). PMID:19767753

  1. Development of a rubella vaccination strategy: contribution of a rubella susceptibility study of women of childbearing age in Kyrgyzstan, 2001.

    PubMed

    Malakmadze, Naile; Zimmerman, Laura A; Uzicanin, Amra; Shteinke, Luidmila; Caceres, Victor M; Kasymbekova, Kaliya; Sozina, Irina; Glasser, John W; Joldubaeva, Mira; Aidyralieva, Chinara; Icenogle, Joseph P; Strebel, Peter M; Reef, Susan E

    2004-06-15

    To contribute to the development of a rubella vaccination strategy, we conducted a study to determine age-specific susceptibility among women aged 15-39 years by testing for rubella-specific IgG antibodies. Of 964 women, 13% were found to be susceptible to rubella. Significantly higher susceptibility among women >25 years old was observed. Susceptibility data are important but are not sufficient to develop a vaccination strategy. After considering all available information, we suggested vaccination of women aged <35 years and selective vaccination of older women who were planning pregnancy. PMID:15227627

  2. Rodent models of cardiopulmonary disease: their potential applicability in studies of air pollutant susceptibility.

    PubMed Central

    Kodavanti, U P; Costa, D L; Bromberg, P A

    1998-01-01

    The mechanisms by which increased mortality and morbidity occur in individuals with preexistent cardiopulmonary disease following acute episodes of air pollution are unknown. Studies involving air pollution effects on animal models of human cardiopulmonary diseases are both infrequent and difficult to interpret. Such models are, however, extensively used in studies of disease pathogenesis. Primarily they comprise those developed by genetic, pharmacologic, or surgical manipulations of the cardiopulmonary system. This review attempts a comprehensive description of rodent cardiopulmonary disease models in the context of their potential application to susceptibility studies of air pollutants regardless of whether the models have been previously used for such studies. The pulmonary disease models include bronchitis, emphysema, asthma/allergy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, interstitial fibrosis, and infection. The models of systemic hypertension and congestive heart failure include: those derived by genetics (spontaneously hypertensive, Dahl S. renin transgenic, and other rodent models); congestive heart failure models derived by surgical manipulations; viral myocarditis; and cardiomyopathy induced by adriamycin. The characteristic pathogenic features critical to understanding the susceptibility to inhaled toxicants are described. It is anticipated that this review will provide a ready reference for the selection of appropriate rodent models of cardiopulmonary diseases and identify not only their pathobiologic similarities and/or differences to humans but also their potential usefulness in susceptibility studies. Images Figure 2 PMID:9539009

  3. Implementation Fidelity in Community-Based Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Breitenstein, Susan M.; Gross, Deborah; Garvey, Christine; Hill, Carri; Fogg, Louis; Resnick, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Implementation fidelity is the degree to which an intervention is delivered as intended and is critical to successful translation of evidence-based interventions into practice. Diminished fidelity may be why interventions that work well in highly controlled trials may fail to yield the same outcomes when applied in real life contexts. The purpose of this paper is to define implementation fidelity and describe its importance for the larger science of implementation, discuss data collection methods and current efforts in measuring implementation fidelity in community-based prevention interventions, and present future research directions for measuring implementation fidelity that will advance implementation science. PMID:20198637

  4. Genome-wide association study of colorectal cancer identifies six new susceptibility loci

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Schmit, Stephanie L.; Jiao, Shuo; Edlund, Christopher K.; Wang, Hansong; Zhang, Ben; Hsu, Li; Huang, Shu-Chen; Fischer, Christopher P.; Harju, John F.; Idos, Gregory E.; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Manion, Frank J.; McDonnell, Kevin; McNeil, Caroline E.; Melas, Marilena; Rennert, Hedy S.; Shi, Wei; Thomas, Duncan C.; Van Den Berg, David J.; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Aragaki, Aaron K.; Butterbach, Katja; Caan, Bette J.; Carlson, Christopher S.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Curtis, Keith R.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Gala, Manish; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Gogarten, Stephanie M.; Hayes, Richard B.; Henderson, Brian; Hunter, David J.; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kooperberg, Charles; Küry, Sébastien; LaCroix, Andrea; Laurie, Cathy C.; Laurie, Cecelia A.; Lemire, Mathieu; Levine, David; Ma, Jing; Makar, Karen W.; Qu, Conghui; Taverna, Darin; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Wu, Kana; Kono, Suminori; West, Dee W.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bezieau, Stéphane; Brenner, Hermann; Campbell, Peter T.; Chan, Andrew T.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Coetzee, Gerhard A.; Conti, David V.; Duggan, David; Figueiredo, Jane C.; Fortini, Barbara K.; Gallinger, Steven J.; Gauderman, W. James; Giles, Graham; Green, Roger; Haile, Robert; Harrison, Tabitha A.; Hoffmeister, Michael; Hopper, John L.; Hudson, Thomas J.; Jacobs, Eric; Iwasaki, Motoki; Jee, Sun Ha; Jenkins, Mark; Jia, Wei-Hua; Joshi, Amit; Li, Li; Lindor, Noralene M.; Matsuo, Keitaro; Moreno, Victor; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Newcomb, Polly A.; Potter, John D.; Raskin, Leon; Rennert, Gad; Rosse, Stephanie; Severi, Gianluca; Schoen, Robert E.; Seminara, Daniela; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Slattery, Martha L.; Tsugane, Shoichiro; White, Emily; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Zanke, Brent W.; Zheng, Wei; Le Marchand, Loic; Casey, Graham; Gruber, Stephen B.; Peters, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Genetic susceptibility to colorectal cancer is caused by rare pathogenic mutations and common genetic variants that contribute to familial risk. Here we report the results of a two-stage association study with 18,299 cases of colorectal cancer and 19,656 controls, with follow-up of the most statistically significant genetic loci in 4,725 cases and 9,969 controls from two Asian consortia. We describe six new susceptibility loci reaching a genome-wide threshold of P<5.0E-08. These findings provide additional insight into the underlying biological mechanisms of colorectal cancer and demonstrate the scientific value of large consortia-based genetic epidemiology studies. PMID:26151821

  5. Genome-wide association study of colorectal cancer identifies six new susceptibility loci.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Fredrick R; Schmit, Stephanie L; Jiao, Shuo; Edlund, Christopher K; Wang, Hansong; Zhang, Ben; Hsu, Li; Huang, Shu-Chen; Fischer, Christopher P; Harju, John F; Idos, Gregory E; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Manion, Frank J; McDonnell, Kevin; McNeil, Caroline E; Melas, Marilena; Rennert, Hedy S; Shi, Wei; Thomas, Duncan C; Van Den Berg, David J; Hutter, Carolyn M; Aragaki, Aaron K; Butterbach, Katja; Caan, Bette J; Carlson, Christopher S; Chanock, Stephen J; Curtis, Keith R; Fuchs, Charles S; Gala, Manish; Giovannucc, Edward L; Giocannucci, Edward L; Gogarten, Stephanie M; Hayes, Richard B; Henderson, Brian; Hunter, David J; Jackson, Rebecca D; Kolonel, Laurence N; Kooperberg, Charles; Küry, Sébastien; Kury, Sebastian; LaCroix, Andrea; Laurie, Cathy C; Laurie, Cecelia A; Lemire, Mathieu; Lemire, Mathiew; Levine, David; Ma, Jing; Makar, Karen W; Qu, Conghui; Taverna, Darin; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Wu, Kana; Kono, Suminori; West, Dee W; Berndt, Sonja I; Bezieau, Stéphane; Brenner, Hermann; Campbell, Peter T; Chan, Andrew T; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Conti, David V; Duggan, David; Figueiredo, Jane C; Fortini, Barbara K; Gallinger, Steven J; Gauderman, W James; Giles, Graham; Green, Roger; Haile, Robert; Harrison, Tabitha A; Hoffmeister, Michael; Hopper, John L; Hudson, Thomas J; Jacobs, Eric; Iwasaki, Motoki; Jee, Sun Ha; Jenkins, Mark; Jia, Wei-Hua; Joshi, Amit; Li, Li; Lindor, Noralene M; Matsuo, Keitaro; Moreno, Victor; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Newcomb, Polly A; Potter, John D; Raskin, Leon; Rennert, Gad; Rosse, Stephanie; Severi, Gianluca; Schoen, Robert E; Seminara, Daniela; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Slattery, Martha L; Tsugane, Shoichiro; White, Emily; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Zanke, Brent W; Zheng, Wei; Le Marchand, Loic; Casey, Graham; Gruber, Stephen B; Peters, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Genetic susceptibility to colorectal cancer is caused by rare pathogenic mutations and common genetic variants that contribute to familial risk. Here we report the results of a two-stage association study with 18,299 cases of colorectal cancer and 19,656 controls, with follow-up of the most statistically significant genetic loci in 4,725 cases and 9,969 controls from two Asian consortia. We describe six new susceptibility loci reaching a genome-wide threshold of P<5.0E-08. These findings provide additional insight into the underlying biological mechanisms of colorectal cancer and demonstrate the scientific value of large consortia-based genetic epidemiology studies. PMID:26151821

  6. Identification of seven new prostate cancer susceptibility loci through a genome-wide association study

    PubMed Central

    Eeles, Rosalind A.; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Olama, Ali Amin Al; Giles, Graham G.; Guy, Michelle; Severi, Gianluca; Muir, Kenneth; Hopper, John L.; Henderson, Brian E.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Schleutker, Johanna; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Neal, David E.; Donovan, Jenny L.; Stanford, Janet L.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Ingles, Sue A.; John, Esther M.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Schaid, Daniel; Park, Jong Y.; Spurdle, Amanda; Clements, Judith; Dickinson, Joanne L.; Maier, Christiane; Vogel, Walther; Dörk, Thilo; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Cooney, Kathleen A.; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Chappuis, Pierre O.; Hutter, Pierre; Zeegers, Maurice; Kaneva, Radka; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Lu, Yong-Jie; Foulkes, William D.; English, Dallas R.; Leongamornlert, Daniel A.; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Morrison, Jonathan; Ardern-Jones, Audrey T.; Hall, Amanda L.; O’Brien, Lynne T.; Wilkinson, Rosemary A.; Saunders, Edward J.; Page, Elizabeth C.; Sawyer, Emma J.; Edwards, Stephen M.; Dearnaley, David P.; Horwich, Alan; Huddart, Robert A.; Khoo, Vincent S.; Parker, Christopher C.; Van As, Nicholas; Woodhouse, Christopher J.; Thompson, Alan; Christmas, Tim; Ogden, Chris; Cooper, Colin S.; Southey, Melissa C.; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Liu, Jo-Fen; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Le Marchand, Loic; Wahlfors, Tiina; Tammela, Teuvo L.; Auvinen, Anssi; Lewis, Sarah J.; Cox, Angela; FitzGerald, Liesel M.; Koopmeiners, Joseph S.; Karyadi, Danielle M.; Kwon, Erika M.; Stern, Mariana C.; Corral, Roman; Joshi, Amit D.; Shahabi, Ahva; McDonnell, Shannon K.; Sellers, Thomas A; Pow-Sang, Julio; Chambers, Suzanne; Aitken, Joanne; Gardiner, R.A. (Frank); Batra, Jyotsna; Kedda, Mary Anne; Lose, Felicity; Polanowski, Andrea; Patterson, Briony; Serth, Jürgen; Meyer, Andreas; Luedeke, Manuel; Stefflova, Klara; Ray, Anna M.; Lange, Ethan M.; Farnham, Jim; Khan, Humera; Slavov, Chavdar; Mitkova, Atanaska; Cao, Guangwen; Easton, Douglas F.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PrCa) is the most frequently diagnosed male cancer in developed countries. To identify common PrCa susceptibility alleles, we have previously conducted a genome-wide association study in which 541, 129 SNPs were genotyped in 1,854 PrCa cases with clinically detected disease and 1,894 controls. We have now evaluated promising associations in a second stage, in which we genotyped 43,671 SNPs in 3,650 PrCa cases and 3,940 controls, and a third stage, involving an additional 16,229 cases and 14,821 controls from 21 studies. In addition to previously identified loci, we identified a further seven new prostate cancer susceptibility loci on chromosomes 2, 4, 8, 11, and 22 (P=1.6×10−8 to P=2.7×10−33). PMID:19767753

  7. Transmission of Multidrug-Resistant and Drug-Susceptible Tuberculosis within Households: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Grandjean, Louis; Gilman, Robert H.; Martin, Laura; Soto, Esther; Castro, Beatriz; Lopez, Sonia; Coronel, Jorge; Castillo, Edith; Alarcon, Valentina; Lopez, Virginia; San Miguel, Angela; Quispe, Neyda; Asencios, Luis; Dye, Christopher; Moore, David A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The “fitness” of an infectious pathogen is defined as the ability of the pathogen to survive, reproduce, be transmitted, and cause disease. The fitness of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) relative to drug-susceptible tuberculosis is cited as one of the most important determinants of MDRTB spread and epidemic size. To estimate the relative fitness of drug-resistant tuberculosis cases, we compared the incidence of tuberculosis disease among the household contacts of MDRTB index patients to that among the contacts of drug-susceptible index patients. Methods and Findings This 3-y (2010–2013) prospective cohort household follow-up study in South Lima and Callao, Peru, measured the incidence of tuberculosis disease among 1,055 household contacts of 213 MDRTB index cases and 2,362 household contacts of 487 drug-susceptible index cases. A total of 35/1,055 (3.3%) household contacts of 213 MDRTB index cases developed tuberculosis disease, while 114/2,362 (4.8%) household contacts of 487 drug-susceptible index patients developed tuberculosis disease. The total follow-up time for drug-susceptible tuberculosis contacts was 2,620 person-years, while the total follow-up time for MDRTB contacts was 1,425 person-years. Using multivariate Cox regression to adjust for confounding variables including contact HIV status, contact age, socio-economic status, and index case sputum smear grade, the hazard ratio for tuberculosis disease among MDRTB household contacts was found to be half that for drug-susceptible contacts (hazard ratio 0.56, 95% CI 0.34–0.90, p = 0.017). The inference of transmission in this study was limited by the lack of genotyping data for household contacts. Capturing incident disease only among household contacts may also limit the extrapolation of these findings to the community setting. Conclusions The low relative fitness of MDRTB estimated by this study improves the chances of controlling drug-resistant tuberculosis. However, fitter

  8. Experimental studies of susceptibility of Italian Aedes albopictus to Zika virus.

    PubMed

    Di Luca, Marco; Severini, Francesco; Toma, Luciano; Boccolini, Daniela; Romi, Roberto; Remoli, Maria Elena; Sabbatucci, Michela; Rizzo, Caterina; Venturi, Giulietta; Rezza, Giovanni; Fortuna, Claudia

    2016-05-01

    We report a study on vector competence of an Italian population of Aedes albopictus for Zika virus (ZIKV). Ae. albopictus was susceptible to ZIKV infection (infection rate: 10%), and the virus could disseminate and was secreted in the mosquito's saliva (dissemination rate: 29%; transmission rate: 29%) after an extrinsic incubation period of 11 days. The observed vector competence was lower than that of an Ae. aegypti colony tested in parallel. PMID:27171034

  9. Naturally azole-resistant Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes are rendered susceptible in the presence of terbinafine: comparative study with azole-susceptible Leishmania mexicana promastigotes.

    PubMed Central

    Rangel, H; Dagger, F; Hernandez, A; Liendo, A; Urbina, J A

    1996-01-01

    Leishmania braziliensis (isolate 2903) was naturally resistant to ketoconazole or the bis-triazole D0870, inhibitors of sterol C-14 demethylase, which produced only moderate effects on the proliferation of promastigotes at 10 microM. In contrast, Leishmania mexicana (isolate NR) was extremely susceptible to the azoles, as complete growth arrest and cell lysis were induced by incubation of the parasites with 0.05 microM concentrations of the drugs for 72 h. The opposite response was observed with terbinafine, an inhibitor of squalene epoxidase: L. braziliensis 2903 was three times more susceptible to the drug than L. mexicana NR (MICs of 5 and 15 microM, respectively). However, when the L. braziliensis stock was grown in the presence of 1 microM terbinafine, which by itself produced only marginal (< 10%) effects on growth, it became highly susceptible to the azoles, with an MIC of 0.03 microM. Analysis of cellular free sterols by high-resolution capillary gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry showed that 14-methyl sterols can support normal growth of L. braziliensis 2903 but not of L. mexicana NR. On the other hand, the higher susceptibility of the L. braziliensis isolate to terbinafine was correlated with a massive accumulation of squalene in the presence of the allylamine while no significant effects on L. mexicana sterol composition were observed at drug concentrations up to 1 microM. Thus, the > 300-fold increase in the susceptibility of L. braziliensis promastigotes to azoles in the presence of terbinafine was attributed to the combined effect of squalene and the methylated sterol precursors on the physical properties of the cell's membranes, leading to the loss of cell viability. Combination therapy with azoles and terbinafine in the treatment of human L. braziliensis infections deserves further study. PMID:9124841

  10. Multicenter Study of Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Anaerobic Bacteria in Korea in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yangsoon; Park, Yeon-Joon; Kim, Mi-Na; Uh, Young; Kim, Myung Sook

    2015-01-01

    Background Periodic monitoring of regional or institutional resistance trends of clinically important anaerobic bacteria is recommended, because the resistance of anaerobic pathogens to antimicrobial drugs and inappropriate therapy are associated with poor clinical outcomes. There has been no multicenter study of clinical anaerobic isolates in Korea. We aimed to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of clinically important anaerobes at multiple centers in Korea. Methods A total of 268 non-duplicated clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria were collected from four large medical centers in Korea in 2012. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by the agar dilution method according to the CLSI guidelines. The following antimicrobials were tested: piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, cefoxitin, cefotetan, imipenem, meropenem, clindamycin, moxifloxacin, chloramphenicol, metronidazole, and tigecycline. Results Organisms of the Bacteroides fragilis group were highly susceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam, imipenem, and meropenem, as their resistance rates to these three antimicrobials were lower than 6%. For B. fragilis group isolates and anaerobic gram-positive cocci, the resistance rates to moxifloxacin were 12-25% and 11-13%, respectively. Among B. fragilis group organisms, the resistance rates to tigecycline were 16-17%. Two isolates of Finegoldia magna were non-susceptible to chloramphenicol (minimum inhibitory concentrations of 16-32 mg/L). Resistance patterns were different among the different hospitals. Conclusions Piperacillin-tazobactam, cefoxitin, and carbapemems are highly active β-lactam agents against most of the anaerobes. The resistance rates to moxifloxacin and tigecycline are slightly higher than those in the previous study. PMID:26206683

  11. Magnetic susceptibility of actinide(iii) cations: an experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Autillo, Matthieu; Guerin, Laetitia; Bolvin, Hélène; Moisy, Philippe; Berthon, Claude

    2016-03-01

    In a previous paper, the influence of radioactive decay (α and β(-)) on magnetic susceptibility measurements by the Evans method has been demonstrated by the study of two americium isotopes. To characterize more accurately this phenomenon and particularly its influence on the Curie law, a new study has been performed on two uranium isotopes ((238)U and (233)U) and on tritiated water ((3)H2O). The results on the influence of α emissions have established a relationship between changes in the temperature dependence and the radioactivity in solution. Regarding the β(-) emissions, less influence was observed while no temperature dependence linked to this kind of radioactive emission could be identified. Once magnetic susceptibility measurements of actinide(iii) cations were corrected from radioactivity effects, methods of quantum chemistry have been used on free ions and aquo complexes to calculate the electronic structure explaining the magnetic properties of Pu(iii), Am(iii) and Cm(iii). The ligand field effect on the magnetic behavior (the Curie constant and temperature-independent susceptibilities) was analyzed by considering different solvation environments. PMID:26864302

  12. Reversible susceptibility studies of magnetization switching in FeCoB synthetic antiferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radu, Cosmin; Cimpoesu, Dorin; Girt, Erol; Ju, Ganping; Stancu, Alexandru; Spinu, Leonard

    2007-05-01

    In this paper we present a study of switching characteristics of a series of synthetic antiferromagnet (SAF) structures using reversible susceptibility experiments. Three series of SAF samples were considered in our study with (t1, t2), the thickness of the FeCoB layers of (80nm, 80nm), (50nm, 50nm), and (80nm, 20nm) and with the interlayer of Ru ranging from 0to2nm. A vector vibrating sample magnetometer was used to measure the hysteresis loops along the different directions in the plane of the samples. The reversible susceptibility experiments were performed using a resonant method based on a tunnel diode oscillator. We showed that the switching peaks in the susceptibility versus field plots obtained for different orientations of the applied dc field can be used to construct the switching diagram of the SAF structure. The critical curve constitutes the fingerprint of the switching behavior and provides information about micromagnetic and structural properties of SAF which is an essential component of modern magnetic random access memories.

  13. Studies of the acetylcholinesterase from houseflies (Musca domestica L.) resistant and susceptible to organophosphorus insecticides.

    PubMed Central

    Devonshire, A L

    1975-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase from the heads of insecticide-resistant and -susceptible houseflies (Musca domestica L.) was studied in vitro. The enzymes could not be distinguished electrophoretically, and their behaviour on polyacrylamide-disc-gel electrophoresis was influenced by the presence of Triton X-100 in both the homogenate and the gels. In the absence of detergent, the acetylcholinesterase was heterogeneous, but behaved as a single enzyme when it was present. By analogy with studies of acetylcholinesterase from other sources, these observations were attributed to aggregation of the enzyme when not bound by membranes. The enzyme from resistant flies was more slowly inhibited than the susceptible enzyme, bimolecular rate constants (ki) differing by approx. 4-20-fold for a range of organophosphorus compounds. The kinetics of inhibition of acetylcholinesterase were consistent with the results of electrophoresis, i.e. they corresponded to those of a single enzyme in the presence of Triton X-100, but a mixture of enzymes in its absence. The susceptibility of the more sensitive components in these mixtures was determined. Images PLATE 1 PMID:1180906

  14. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping Indicates a Disturbed Brain Iron Homeostasis in Neuromyelitis Optica - A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Doring, Thomas Martin; Granado, Vanessa; Rueda, Fernanda; Deistung, Andreas; Reichenbach, Juergen R; Tukamoto, Gustavo; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Schweser, Ferdinand

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of brain iron homeostasis is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases and can be associated with oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to investigate brain iron in patients with Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM), a quantitative iron-sensitive MRI technique. 12 clinically confirmed NMO patients (6 female and 6 male; age 35.4y±14.2y) and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (7 female and 5 male; age 33.9±11.3y) underwent MRI of the brain at 3 Tesla. Quantitative maps of the effective transverse relaxation rate (R2*) and magnetic susceptibility were calculated and a blinded ROI-based group comparison analysis was performed. Normality of the data and differences between patients and controls were tested by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and t-test, respectively. Correlation with age was studied using Spearman's rank correlation and an ANCOVA-like analysis. Magnetic susceptibility values were decreased in the red nucleus (p<0.01; d>0.95; between -15 and -22 ppb depending on reference region) with a trend toward increasing differences with age. R2* revealed significantly decreased relaxation in the optic radiations of five of the 12 patients (p<0.0001; -3.136±0.567 s-1). Decreased relaxation in the optic radiation is indicative for demyelination, which is in line with previous findings. Decreased magnetic susceptibility in the red nucleus is indicative for a lower brain iron concentration, a chemical redistribution of iron into less magnetic forms, or both. Further investigations are necessary to elucidate the pathological cause or consequence of this finding. PMID:27171423

  15. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping Indicates a Disturbed Brain Iron Homeostasis in Neuromyelitis Optica – A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Granado, Vanessa; Rueda, Fernanda; Deistung, Andreas; Reichenbach, Juergen R.; Tukamoto, Gustavo; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Schweser, Ferdinand

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of brain iron homeostasis is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases and can be associated with oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to investigate brain iron in patients with Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM), a quantitative iron-sensitive MRI technique. 12 clinically confirmed NMO patients (6 female and 6 male; age 35.4y±14.2y) and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (7 female and 5 male; age 33.9±11.3y) underwent MRI of the brain at 3 Tesla. Quantitative maps of the effective transverse relaxation rate (R2*) and magnetic susceptibility were calculated and a blinded ROI-based group comparison analysis was performed. Normality of the data and differences between patients and controls were tested by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and t-test, respectively. Correlation with age was studied using Spearman’s rank correlation and an ANCOVA-like analysis. Magnetic susceptibility values were decreased in the red nucleus (p<0.01; d>0.95; between -15 and -22 ppb depending on reference region) with a trend toward increasing differences with age. R2* revealed significantly decreased relaxation in the optic radiations of five of the 12 patients (p<0.0001; -3.136±0.567 s-1). Decreased relaxation in the optic radiation is indicative for demyelination, which is in line with previous findings. Decreased magnetic susceptibility in the red nucleus is indicative for a lower brain iron concentration, a chemical redistribution of iron into less magnetic forms, or both. Further investigations are necessary to elucidate the pathological cause or consequence of this finding. PMID:27171423

  16. Assessing the Implementation Fidelity of Check-In Check-Out Behavioral Interventions in Elementary and Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, María Isolina; Smith, Traci N.; Naquin, Gale M.; Morgan-D'Atrio, Cynthia; Dellinger, Amy B.

    2014-01-01

    Implementation fidelity is crucial to the success of behavioral interventions. However, measuring and maintaining intervention implementation fidelity in schools' natural settings can be challenging. This article reports findings from a study examining the implementation fidelity of check-in check-out interventions at an urban school district…

  17. Genome-wide association study identifies novel susceptibility loci for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chahal, Harvind S.; Lin, Yuan; Ransohoff, Katherine J.; Hinds, David A.; Wu, Wenting; Dai, Hong-Ji; Qureshi, Abrar A.; Li, Wen-Qing; Kraft, Peter; Tang, Jean Y.; Han, Jiali; Sarin, Kavita Y.

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma represents the second most common cutaneous malignancy, affecting 7–11% of Caucasians in the United States. The genetic determinants of susceptibility to cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma remain largely unknown. Here we report the results of a two-stage genome-wide association study of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, totalling 7,404 cases and 292,076 controls. Eleven loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10−8) including seven previously confirmed pigmentation-related loci: MC1R, ASIP, TYR, SLC45A2, OCA2, IRF4 and BNC2. We identify an additional four susceptibility loci: 11q23.3 CADM1, a metastasis suppressor gene involved in modifying tumour interaction with cell-mediated immunity; 2p22.3; 7p21.1 AHR, the dioxin receptor involved in anti-apoptotic pathways and melanoma progression; and 9q34.3 SEC16A, a putative oncogene with roles in secretion and cellular proliferation. These susceptibility loci provide deeper insight into the pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:27424798

  18. In situ study of atomic-vacancy ordering in stoichiometric titanium monoxide by the magnetic susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valeeva, A. A.; Nazarova, S. Z.; Rempel, A. A.

    2015-02-01

    An in situ temperature study of a variation in the degree of long-range order in stoichiometric titanium monoxide has been performed by the magnetic susceptibility method. The measurements have been performed on annealed and quenched titanium monoxide in the temperature range from 300 to 1200 K. It has been found that the degree of long-range order depends on the regime and temperature of annealing of the initial samples. The degree of long-range order in the process of measurement of the magnetic susceptibility varies from 0.21 to 1.00; the larger the degree of long-range order, the smaller the magnetic susceptibility. Furthermore, the long-range order parameter decreases with an increase in the temperature above 1200 K and vanishes sharply at the order-disorder transition temperature. According to the results of this work, the critical long-range order parameter is 0.21 and the temperature of the nonequilibrium disorder-order transition is about 1073 K.

  19. Salmonella Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility from the National Animal Health Monitoring System Sheep 2011 Study.

    PubMed

    Dargatz, David A; Marshall, Katherine L; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J; Erdman, Matthew M; Kopral, Christine A

    2015-12-01

    Salmonella is a major cause of foodborne illness and can cause clinical disease in animals. Understanding the on-farm ecology of Salmonella will be helpful in decreasing the risk of foodborne transmission. An objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Salmonella among fecal samples collected on sheep operations in the United States. Another objective was to compare the use of composite fecal samples with fecal samples collected from individual sheep as a tool for screening sheep flocks for Salmonella. Sheep fecal samples (individual and composite) were collected on operations in 22 states. Salmonella isolates were characterized with regard to species, serotype, and antimicrobial susceptibility profile. Most operations (72.1%) had at least one positive sample and overall 26.9% of samples were positive. The percentage of positive samples varied by animal age class. Composite and individual samples gave similar results. The majority of the isolates (94%) were Salmonella enterica subspecies diarizonae serotype 61:-:1,5,7. Nearly all of the isolates (91.2%) tested for antimicrobial susceptibility were susceptible to all antimicrobials in the panel. The findings suggest that salmonellae typically associated with foodborne disease transmission are infrequently found on sheep operations in the United States. PMID:26540254

  20. A genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Speedy, Helen E; Di Bernardo, Maria Chiara; Sava, Georgina P; Dyer, Martin J S; Holroyd, Amy; Wang, Yufei; Sunter, Nicola J; Mansouri, Larry; Juliusson, Gunnar; Smedby, Karin E; Roos, Göran; Jayne, Sandrine; Majid, Aneela; Dearden, Claire; Hall, Andrew G; Mainou-Fowler, Tryfonia; Jackson, Graham H; Summerfield, Geoffrey; Harris, Robert J; Pettitt, Andrew R; Allsup, David J; Bailey, James R; Pratt, Guy; Pepper, Chris; Fegan, Chris; Rosenquist, Richard; Catovsky, Daniel; Allan, James M; Houlston, Richard S

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have shown that common genetic variation contributes to the heritable risk of CLL. To identify additional CLL susceptibility loci, we conducted a GWAS and performed a meta-analysis with a published GWAS totaling 1,739 individuals with CLL (cases) and 5,199 controls with validation in an additional 1,144 cases and 3,151 controls. A combined analysis identified new susceptibility loci mapping to 3q26.2 (rs10936599, P = 1.74 × 10(-9)), 4q26 (rs6858698, P = 3.07 × 10(-9)), 6q25.2 (IPCEF1, rs2236256, P = 1.50 × 10(-10)) and 7q31.33 (POT1, rs17246404, P = 3.40 × 10(-8)). Additionally, we identified a promising association at 5p15.33 (CLPTM1L, rs31490, P = 1.72 × 10(-7)) and validated recently reported putative associations at 5p15.33 (TERT, rs10069690, P = 1.12 × 10(-10)) and 8q22.3 (rs2511714, P = 2.90 × 10(-9)). These findings provide further insights into the genetic and biological basis of inherited genetic susceptibility to CLL. PMID:24292274

  1. [Study of relation between crushed lava spectrum and magnetic susceptibility in Xiangshan uranium orefield].

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhi-Chun; Guo, Fu-Sheng; Liu, Lin-Qing; Jiang, Yong-Biao

    2013-12-01

    Rock spectrum research is the base of the remote sensing geology. It's of great significance of exploring the relations between rock spectrum and other rock natures. In the present study, 36 fine crushed lava samples each measuring 5 cmX5 cmX 5 cm were tested for its spectrums by SVC HR-768 portable spectrometer. But before measuring each sample, white boards should be calibrated and after measuring the curves of spectrum of each sample should make a 5 nm smooth resample so that meteoric water and noise caused by external environment can be eliminated. After such smooth resample, at the spectrum scope of 1 112-1322 nm, taking band value as horizontal axis and reflectivity as vertical axis, linear equations of rock samples can be obtained. Taking the slopes as the horizontal axis and volume magnetic susceptibility as vertical axis, y= -0. 256 31n(x) + 0. 913 7 was thus obtained and its equation correlation coefficient is up to 0. 78. The result shows that volume magnetic susceptibility is mainly caused by Fe2+ , and that the amount of Fe2+ can be almost measured in the spectrum scope of 1112 approximately 1322 nm that has a good correlation with volume magnetic susceptibility. PMID:24611387

  2. Genome-wide association study identifies novel susceptibility loci for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chahal, Harvind S; Lin, Yuan; Ransohoff, Katherine J; Hinds, David A; Wu, Wenting; Dai, Hong-Ji; Qureshi, Abrar A; Li, Wen-Qing; Kraft, Peter; Tang, Jean Y; Han, Jiali; Sarin, Kavita Y

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma represents the second most common cutaneous malignancy, affecting 7-11% of Caucasians in the United States. The genetic determinants of susceptibility to cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma remain largely unknown. Here we report the results of a two-stage genome-wide association study of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, totalling 7,404 cases and 292,076 controls. Eleven loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)) including seven previously confirmed pigmentation-related loci: MC1R, ASIP, TYR, SLC45A2, OCA2, IRF4 and BNC2. We identify an additional four susceptibility loci: 11q23.3 CADM1, a metastasis suppressor gene involved in modifying tumour interaction with cell-mediated immunity; 2p22.3; 7p21.1 AHR, the dioxin receptor involved in anti-apoptotic pathways and melanoma progression; and 9q34.3 SEC16A, a putative oncogene with roles in secretion and cellular proliferation. These susceptibility loci provide deeper insight into the pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:27424798

  3. [Susceptibilities of clinical bacterial isolates to antimicrobial agents. A study mainly focused on imipenem. Research Group for Testing Imipenem Susceptibility on Clinical Isolates].

    PubMed

    Igari, J

    1990-10-01

    We investigated susceptibilities of clinical bacterial isolates to imipenem (IPM) and other antimicrobial agents at 459 hospital laboratories throughout Japan from September to December of 1988. In this study, identification and susceptibility testing were performed at each hospital laboratory and the tests were carried out according to the 1-dilution or 3-dilution disc technique in which susceptibilities are classified into 4 grades: , ++, + and -. IPM had significantly high activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, Salmonella spp., Citrobacter freundii, Proteus mirabilis, Providencia rettgeri, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Moraxella catarrhalis, Alcaligenes spp., Peptococcus spp./Peptostreptococcus spp., Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroides spp. and should slightly lower activities on coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), Enterococcus faecalis, Haemophilus influenzae, Serratia marcescens, Proteus vulgaris, Providencia stuartii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa than on the above mentioned bacteria. In a comparative study on activities of IPM against bacteria from different clinical sources, no remarkable differences were found due to different sources among S. pneumoniae, E. faecalis, H. influenzae, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, E. cloacae, C. freundii, P. mirabilis or A. calcoaceticus, whereas slight differences were found among Staphylococcus aureus, CNS, S. marcescens and P. aeruginosa. PMID:2086814

  4. Susceptibility Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... page helpful? Also known as: Sensitivity Testing; Drug Resistance Testing; Culture and Sensitivity; C & S; Antimicrobial Susceptibility Formal name: Bacterial and Fungal Susceptibility Testing Related tests: Urine Culture ; ...

  5. Movement as Medicine for Type 2 Diabetes: protocol for an open pilot study and external pilot clustered randomised controlled trial to assess acceptability, feasibility and fidelity of a multifaceted behavioural intervention targeting physical activity in primary care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) and nutrition are the cornerstones of diabetes management. Several reviews and meta-analyses report that PA independently produces clinically important improvements in glucose control in people with Type 2 diabetes. However, it remains unclear what the optimal strategies are to increase PA behaviour in people with Type 2 diabetes in routine primary care. Methods This study will determine whether an evidence-informed multifaceted behaviour change intervention (Movement as Medicine for Type 2 Diabetes) targeting both consultation behaviour of primary healthcare professionals and PA behaviour in adults with Type 2 diabetes is both acceptable and feasible in the primary care setting. An open pilot study conducted in two primary care practices (phase one) will assess acceptability, feasibility and fidelity. Ongoing feedback from participating primary healthcare professionals and patients will provide opportunities for systematic adaptation and refinement of the intervention and study procedures. A two-arm parallel group clustered pilot randomised controlled trial with patients from participating primary care practices in North East England will assess acceptability, feasibility, and fidelity of the intervention (versus usual clinical care) and trial processes over a 12-month period. Consultation behaviour involving fidelity of intervention delivery, diabetes and PA related knowledge, attitudes/beliefs, intentions and self-efficacy for delivering a behaviour change intervention targeting PA behaviour will be assessed in primary healthcare professionals. We will rehearse the collection of outcome data (with the focus on data yield and quality) for a future definitive trial, through outcome assessment at baseline, one, six and twelve months. An embedded qualitative process evaluation and treatment fidelity assessment will explore issues around intervention implementation and assess whether intervention components can be reliably and

  6. Objective Fidelity Evaluation in Multisensory Virtual Environments: Auditory Cue Fidelity in Flight Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Georg F.; Wong, Li Ting; Timson, Emma; Perfect, Philip; White, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    We argue that objective fidelity evaluation of virtual environments, such as flight simulation, should be human-performance-centred and task-specific rather than measure the match between simulation and physical reality. We show how principled experimental paradigms and behavioural models to quantify human performance in simulated environments that have emerged from research in multisensory perception provide a framework for the objective evaluation of the contribution of individual cues to human performance measures of fidelity. We present three examples in a flight simulation environment as a case study: Experiment 1: Detection and categorisation of auditory and kinematic motion cues; Experiment 2: Performance evaluation in a target-tracking task; Experiment 3: Transferrable learning of auditory motion cues. We show how the contribution of individual cues to human performance can be robustly evaluated for each task and that the contribution is highly task dependent. The same auditory cues that can be discriminated and are optimally integrated in experiment 1, do not contribute to target-tracking performance in an in-flight refuelling simulation without training, experiment 2. In experiment 3, however, we demonstrate that the auditory cue leads to significant, transferrable, performance improvements with training. We conclude that objective fidelity evaluation requires a task-specific analysis of the contribution of individual cues. PMID:22957068

  7. Multi-fidelity design optimization of Francis turbine runner blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrami, S.; Tribes, C.; von Fellenberg, S.; Vu, T. C.; Guibault, F.

    2014-03-01

    A robust multi-fidelity design algorithm has been developed, focusing to efficiently handle industrial hydraulic runner design considerations. The computational task is split between low- and high-fidelity phases in order to properly balance the CFD cost and required accuracy in different design stages. In the low-fidelity phase, a derivative-free optimization method employs an inviscid flow solver to obtain the major desired characteristics of a good design in a relatively fast iterative process. A limited number of candidates are selected among feasible optimization solutions by a newly developed filtering process. The main function of the filtering process is to select some promising candidates to be sent into the high-fidelity phase, which have significantly different geometries, and also are dominant in their own territories. The high-fidelity phase aims to accurately evaluate those promising candidates in order to select the one which is closest to design targets. A low-head runner case study has shown the ability of this methodology to identify an optimized blade through a relatively low computational effort, which is significantly different from the base geometry.

  8. GIS-analysis of gully erosion susceptibility: a key study in north-central Sicily, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnesi, Valerio; Angileri, Silvia; Cappadonia, Chiara; Conoscenti, Christian; Costanzo, Dario; Maerker, Michael; Rotigliano, Edoardo

    2010-05-01

    Erosion by water is responsible for severe geo-environmental problems in semi-humid to arid Mediterranean areas. Large sectors of Sicily are affected by intense soil erosion phenomena leading to severe damages in agriculture lands that, in some cases, experience high soil loss rates. An important contribution to sediment yield from these areas is given by gully erosion phenomena; the latter, in the last decades, attracted attention of many researches that developed and applied methods to quantify soil loss volumes and to evaluate proneness of territory to this process. The present research aims to assess gully erosion susceptibility in the basin of the San Giorgio torrent, a mountain stream flowing in north-central Sicily and draining an area of about 9.5 km2; the watershed, which is mainly covered by arable lands, has highly erodible slopes characterized by the outcropping of clays and marls. In order to predict gully erosion susceptibility, a multivariate geostatistical approach is adopted here. In particular, the method is based on the definition of spatial relationships between the geographical variability of a set of controlling factors and the occurrence of gullies on slopes; the linear density of gullies computed on homogeneous domains is selected as the probabilistic function expressing how proneness to gully erosion spatially changes in the studied area. Available thematic maps, which were integrated by field and remote surveys, and a high quality DEM, were used to derive eight layers of terrain variables, selected according to geomorphological criteria and expressing both soil erodibility (bedrock lithology, land use) and erosivity of flowing waters (slope angle, Stream Power Index, SL-factor, Topographic Wetness Index, plan and profile curvature). All the parameters were computed for homogeneous spatial domains, created by intersecting a grid of 50m square polygons and a layer of slope units automatically derived from DEM; therefore, the eight layers

  9. Association study confirms two susceptibility loci for breast cancer in Chinese Han women.

    PubMed

    Xu, Minggui; Xu, Yihui; Chen, Mengyun; Li, Yang; Li, Wei; Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Mingjun; Chen, Zhendong; Zhang, Xuejun; Liu, Jianjun; Zhang, Bo

    2016-10-01

    To date, many loci associated with breast cancer have been identified through genome-wide association studies; most of these studies were conducted using populations of European descent. Thus, it is not clear whether these susceptibility loci are also risk factors for Chinese populations. We selected and genotyped 32 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using the Sequenom iPLEX platform in a female Chinese cohort of 3036 breast cancer cases and 3036 healthy controls. A total of 23 SNPs passed the quality control test. The associations of these SNPs with disease susceptibility were assessed using logistic regression, adjusting for age. The Bonferroni correction was used to conservatively account for multiple testing, and the threshold for statistical significance was P < 2.17 × 10(-3) (0.05/23). We confirmed ten risk-associated variants within three reported breast cancer susceptibility loci in a Chinese Han population: 5q11.2 (rs16886181, P = 5.29 × 10(-6), OR = 1.19; rs1017226, P = 5.24 × 10(-4), OR = 1.22; rs16886034, P = 2.00 × 10(-3), OR = 1.21; rs16886113, P = 1.24 × 10(-3), OR = 1.20; rs16886364, P = 9.20 × 10(-4), OR = 1.21; rs16886397, P = 1.17 × 10(-3), OR = 1.20; rs16886448, P = 1.62 × 10(-3,)OR = 1.20; and rs2229882, P = 5.14 × 10(-4), OR = 1.31), 5q14.3 (rs421379, P = 2.83 × 10(-13), OR = 1.83), and 10q26.1 (rs35054928, P = 7.73 × 10(-6), OR = 1.18). The 10q26.1 locus was found to be a susceptibility locus for breast cancer in Chinese Han women in our previous studies. 5q11.2 and 5q14.3 are confirmed here for the first time as susceptibility loci for breast cancer in Chinese Han women. This study reports three breast cancer susceptibility loci that were previously identified in European populations and are also risk factors for Chinese populations. This study may extend the genetic basis of breast cancer in Chinese Han women and highlight the contribution of multiple variants

  10. Association Study between Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and the Susceptibility Genes Polymorphisms in Hui Chinese Women

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Lingxia; Shi, Yuhua; Zhao, Junli; Li, Tao; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine-metabolic disorders. Evidence of familial aggregation analysis and different clinical traits among different regions and ethnicities indicated that the pathogenesis of PCOS is associated with multiple genetic and environmental factors. Our previous research had identified three susceptibility loci (rs2479106, DENND1A; rs13405728, LHCGR; rs13429458, THADA) for PCOS in Han Chinese women. The overall aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between three susceptibility gene polymorphisms and PCOS in Hui ethnic women. Methods 151 patients with PCOS (case group) and 99 healthy women (control group) were recruited from the Reproductive Medicine Center of the General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University. Clinical data and serum hormone characteristics of case and control groups were collected and analyzed. The three susceptibility single-nucleotide polymorphisms have been replicated in both case and control groups. Gene polymorphisms were detected by direct sequencing after polymerase chain reaction. Results The Body Mass Index, LH, LH/FSH ratio and total testosterone were significantly elevated in PCOS patients compared to control group (P<0.05). The frequencies of genotype and allele in rs13405728 were significantly different between the PCOS and the control groups (P<0.05). Of the SNP rs13405728, the PCOS cases with TT genotype stayed at a higher level of total testosterone, TG and LDL than those with the CC and CT genotypes. In contrary, there was no statistical difference between the two groups for SNP rs13429458 and rs2479106 (P>0.05). Conclusion The present study suggested that the SNP rs13405728 in the LHCGR gene was associated with PCOS in Hui ethnic women, and its TT genotype characterized with higher level of TT, TG and LDL. PMID:25978310

  11. Measuring Fidelity of Implementation--Methodological and Conceptual Issues and Challenges. CRESST Report 811

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osmundson, Ellen; Herman, Joan; Ringstaff, Cathy; Dai, Yunyun; Timms, Mike

    2012-01-01

    A central challenge in efficacy studies centers on the issue of "fidelity of implementation," that is, the extent to which participants use the curriculum specified by curriculum developers. In this study, we describe and discuss a "fidelity of implementation" model using multiple methods and instruments to compare two versions of a science…

  12. Implementation Fidelity in Adolescent Family-Based Prevention Programs: Relationship to Family Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, Hilary F.; Miller, Brenda A.; Aalborg, Annette E.; Plasencia, Ana V.; Keagy, Carolyn D.

    2010-01-01

    Reliability and validity of intervention studies are impossible without adequate program fidelity, as it ensures that the intervention was implemented as designed and allows for accurate conclusions about effectiveness (Bellg AJ, Borrelli B, Resnick B "et al." Enhancing treatment fidelity in health behavior change studies: best practices and…

  13. Assessment Fidelity in Reading Intervention Research: A Synthesis of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Deborah K.; Cummings, Kelli D.; Schaper, Andrew; Biancarosa, Gina

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that examiners make a number of intentional and unintentional errors when administering reading assessments to students. Because these errors introduce construct-irrelevant variance in scores, the fidelity of test administrations could influence the results of evaluation studies. To determine how assessment fidelity is…

  14. Computer-Based versus High-Fidelity Mannequin Simulation in Developing Clinical Judgment in Nursing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Beverly J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if students learn clinical judgment as effectively using computer-based simulations as when using high-fidelity mannequin simulations. There was a single research questions for this study: What is the difference in clinical judgment between participants completing high-fidelity human simulator mannequin…

  15. Fidelity Decay in Trapped Bose-Einstein Condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Manfredi, G.; Hervieux, P.-A.

    2008-02-08

    The quantum coherence of a Bose-Einstein condensate is studied using the concept of quantum fidelity (Loschmidt echo). The condensate is confined in an elongated anharmonic trap and subjected to a small random potential such as that created by a laser speckle. Numerical experiments show that the quantum fidelity stays constant until a critical time, after which it drops abruptly over a single trap oscillation period. The critical time depends logarithmically on the number of condensed atoms and on the perturbation amplitude. This behavior may be observable by measuring the interference fringes of two condensates evolving in slightly different potentials.

  16. Re-evaluation of putative rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility genes in the post-genome wide association study era and hypothesis of a key pathway underlying susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Barton, Anne; Thomson, Wendy; Ke, Xiayi; Eyre, Steve; Hinks, Anne; Bowes, John; Gibbons, Laura; Plant, Darren; Wilson, Anthony G; Marinou, Ioanna; Morgan, Ann; Emery, Paul; Steer, Sophia; Hocking, Lynne; Reid, David M; Wordsworth, Paul; Harrison, Pille; Worthington, Jane

    2008-08-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an archetypal, common, complex autoimmune disease with both genetic and environmental contributions to disease aetiology. Two novel RA susceptibility loci have been reported from recent genome-wide and candidate gene association studies. We, therefore, investigated the evidence for association of the STAT4 and TRAF1/C5 loci with RA using imputed data from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC). No evidence for association of variants mapping to the TRAF1/C5 gene was detected in the 1860 RA cases and 2930 control samples tested in that study. Variants mapping to the STAT4 gene did show evidence for association (rs7574865, P = 0.04). Given the association of the TRAF1/C5 locus in two previous large case-control series from populations of European descent and the evidence for association of the STAT4 locus in the WTCCC study, single nucleotide polymorphisms mapping to these loci were tested for association with RA in an independent UK series comprising DNA from >3000 cases with disease and >3000 controls and a combined analysis including the WTCCC data was undertaken. We confirm association of the STAT4 and the TRAF1/C5 loci with RA bringing to 5 the number of confirmed susceptibility loci. The effect sizes are less than those reported previously but are likely to be a more accurate reflection of the true effect size given the larger size of the cohort investigated in the current study. PMID:18434327

  17. Implementation Fidelity Affects the Degree of Change in Teacher Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killion, Joellen

    2016-01-01

    In each issue of "JSD," Joellen Killion explores a recent research study to help practitioners understand the impact of particular professional learning practices on student outcomes. In this issue, she describes Z. Kisa and R. Correnti's 2015 longitudinal study of fidelity of implementation of principles of reform-aligned professional…

  18. Upset susceptibility study employing circuit analysis and digital simulation. [digital systems and electromagnetic interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carreno, V. A.

    1984-01-01

    An approach to predict the susceptibility of digital systems to signal disturbances is described. Electrical disturbances on a digital system's input and output lines can be induced by activities and conditions including static electricity, lightning discharge, electromagnetic interference (EMI), and electromagnetic pulsation (EMP). The electrical signal disturbances employed for the susceptibility study were limited to nondestructive levels, i.e., the system does not sustain partial or total physical damage and reset and/or reload brings the system to an operational status. The front-end transition from the electrical disturbances to the equivalent digital signals was accomplished by computer-aided circuit analysis. The super-sceptre (system for circuit evaluation of transient radiation effects) programs was used. Gate models were developed according to manufacturers' performance specifications and parameters resulting from construction processes characteristic of the technology. Digital simulation at the gate and functional level was employed to determine the impact of the abnormal signals on system performance and to study the propagation characteristics of these signals through the system architecture. Example results are included for an Intel 8080 processor configuration.

  19. Genome-wide association study of ankylosing spondylitis identifies non-MHC susceptibility loci

    PubMed Central

    Reveille, John D; Sims, Anne-Marie; Danoy, Patrick; Evans, David M; Leo, Paul; Pointon, Jennifer J; Jin, Rui; Zhou, Xiaodong; Bradbury, Linda A; Appleton, Louise H; Davis, John C; Diekman, Laura; Doan, Tracey; Dowling, Alison; Duan, Ran; Duncan, Emma L; Farrar, Claire; Hadler, Johanna; Harvey, David; Karaderi, Tugce; Mogg, Rebecca; Pomeroy, Emma; Pryce, Karena; Taylor, Jacqueline; Savage, Laurie; Deloukas, Panos; Kumanduri, Vasudev; Peltonen, Leena; Ring, Sue M; Whittaker, Pamela; Glazov, Evgeny; Thomas, Gethin P; Maksymowych, Walter P; Inman, Robert D; Ward, Michael M; Stone, Millicent A; Weisman, Michael H; Wordsworth, B Paul; Brown, Matthew A

    2011-01-01

    To identify susceptibility loci for ankylosing spondylitis, we undertook a genome-wide association study in 2,053 unrelated ankylosing spondylitis cases among people of European descent and 5,140 ethnically matched controls, with replication in an independent cohort of 898 ankylosing spondylitis cases and 1,518 controls. Cases were genotyped with Illumina HumHap370 genotyping chips. In addition to strong association with the major histocompatibility complex (MHC; P < 10−800), we found association with SNPs in two gene deserts at 2p15 (rs10865331; combined P = 1.9 × 10−19) and 21q22 (rs2242944; P = 8.3 × 10−20), as well as in the genes ANTXR2 (rs4333130; P = 9.3 × 10−8) and IL1R2 (rs2310173; P = 4.8 × 10−7). We also replicated previously reported associations at IL23R (rs11209026; P = 9.1 × 10−14) and ERAP1 (rs27434; P = 5.3 × 10−12). This study reports four genetic loci associated with ankylosing spondylitis risk and identifies a major role for the interleukin (IL)-23 and IL-1 cytokine pathways in disease susceptibility. PMID:20062062

  20. Study of Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility on Central Chimei Fault, Coastal Range of Eastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, C. Y.

    2014-12-01

    The Chimei fault is the only major reverse fault across the entire Coastal Range and is also a typical lithology-contrast fault thrusting the volcanic Tuluanshan Formation of Miocene over the sedimentary Paliwan Formation of Pleistocene. To investigate the deformation pattern across the Chimei fault more precisely, we analyzed oriented coring samples of mudstone across the fault zone, damage zone, fold zone and wall rocks along the Hsiukuluan River via anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS). Prolate (cigar-shaped) and oblate (disc-shaped) ellipsoids appear together at fault zone, damage zone and fold zone, suggesting that strong variation of deformation and lithology in each zone of the Chimei fault. Previous study pointed out that oblate ellipsoid usually appears in the footwall, further indicating that the Chimei fault behaves differently from regular detachment faults. It strongly speculates although the central Chimei fault displays N-S shortening, the deformation is not strong enough to develop penetrative oblate fabric, even in the main fault zone of the Chimei fault. Further studies will be rnrformation is not sobear theequired to identify the magnetic carriers and grain size to improve current concept. Keywords : Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility, Coastal Range, Chimei Fault, Taiwan

  1. The environmental risk factors in multiple sclerosis susceptibility: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Shaygannejad, Vahid; Rezaie, Nooshin; Paknahad, Zamzam; Ashtari, Freshteh; Maghzi, Helia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating and degenerating disease which involves central nervous system. Environmental risk factors have a key role in MS susceptibility. Here we aim to investigate different risk factors effect on MS susceptibility in a large population of MS patients in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional hospital-based study, which was conducted on a large group of MS patients registered in Kashani hospital and a control group from normal healthy population. Demographic data, age at onset of the disease, history of viral infections, vaccination, history of trauma to head, recent stressful events, alimentation, familial history, method of delivery (caesarean section, normal vaginal delivery), disability score and history of smoking were gathered using a designed questionnaire. Results: Totally 536 MS patient with the mean age of 34.37 ± 9.22 and 399 individuals from healthy population with the mean age of 32.53 ± 9.91 were recruited. Significant difference in history of measles infection (control = 15.5%, case = 22.4%, P = 0.009), consumption of dairy products (case = 56.6%, control = 67.5%, P = 0.01) and major stressful life events (case = 62.2%, control = 52.7%, P < 0.05) between these two groups were demonstrated. Conclusion: A significant relation between stress, history of infection and milk consumption was reached that highlights the importance of environmental risk factors in MS pathogenesis. PMID:27376037

  2. Characterization of overlay mark fidelity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adel, Mike; Ghinovker, Mark; Poplawski, Jorge M.; Kassel, Elyakim; Izikson, Pavel; Pollentier, Ivan K.; Leray, Philippe; Laidler, David W.

    2003-05-01

    In this publication we introduce a new metric for process robustness of overlay metrology in microelectronic manufacturing. By straightforward statistical analysis of overlay metrology measurements on an array of adjacent, nominally identical overlay targets the Overlay Mark Fidelity (OMF) can be estimated. We present the results of such measurements and analysis on various marks, which were patterned using a DUV scanner. The same reticle set was used to pattern wafers on different process layers and process conditions. By appropriate statistical analysis, the breakdown of the total OMF into a reticle-induced OMF component and a process induced OMF component was facilitated. We compare the OMF of traditional box-in-box overlay marks with that of new gratingbased overlay marks and show that in all cases the grating marks are superior. The reticle related OMF showed an improvement of 30 % when using the new grating-based overlay mark. Furthermore, in a series of wafers run through an STI-process with different Chemical Mechanical Polish (CMP) times, the random component of the OMF of the new grating-based overlay mark was observed to be 40% lower and 50% less sensitive to process variation compared with Box in Box marks. These two observations are interpreted as improved process robustness of the grating mark over box in box, specifically in terms of reduced site by site variations and reduced wafer to wafer variations as process conditions change over time. Overlay Mark Fidelity, as defined in this publication, is a source of overlay metrology uncertainty, which is statistically independent of the standard error contributors, i.e. precision, TIS variability, and tool to tool matching. Current overlay metrology budgeting practices do not take this into consideration when calculating total measurement uncertainty (TMU). It is proposed that this be reconsidered, given the tightness of overlay and overlay metrology budgets at the 70 nm design rule node and below.

  3. Assessment of Fidelity in Interventions to Improve Hand Hygiene of Healthcare Workers: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Musuuza, Jackson S.; Barker, Anna; Ngam, Caitlyn; Vellardita, Lia; Safdar, Nasia

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Compliance with hand hygiene in healthcare workers is fundamental to infection prevention yet remains a challenge to sustain. We examined fidelity reporting in interventions to improve hand hygiene compliance, and we assessed 5 measures of intervention fidelity: (1) adherence, (2) exposure or dose, (3) quality of intervention delivery, (4) participant responsiveness, and (5) program differentiation. DESIGN Systematic review METHODS A librarian performed searches of the literature in PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), Cochrane Library, and Web of Science of material published prior to June 19, 2015. The review protocol was registered in PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews, and assessment of study quality was conducted for each study reviewed. RESULTS A total of 100 studies met the inclusion criteria. Only 8 of these 100 studies reported all 5 measures of intervention fidelity. In addition, 39 of 100 (39%) failed to include at least 3 fidelity measures; 20 of 100 (20%) failed to include 4 measures; 17 of 100 (17%) failed to include 2 measures, while 16 of 100 (16%) of the studies failed to include at least 1 measure of fidelity. Participant responsiveness and adherence to the intervention were the most frequently unreported fidelity measures, while quality of the delivery was the most frequently reported measure. CONCLUSIONS Almost all hand hygiene intervention studies failed to report at least 1 fidelity measurement. To facilitate replication and effective implementation, reporting fidelity should be standard practice when describing results of complex behavioral interventions such as hand hygiene. PMID:26861117

  4. Characterizing iron deposition in Parkinson's disease using susceptibility-weighted imaging: an in vivo MR study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiuquan; Zhang, Yanling; Wang, Jian; Cai, Ping; Luo, Chunxia; Qian, Zhongming; Dai, Yongming; Feng, Hua

    2010-05-12

    Brain-iron deposition has been proposed to play an important role in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of characterizing iron deposition in PD using susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), and to investigate the correlation of brain-iron accumulation with the clinical status in patients with PD. Forty patients with PD without dementia and 26 age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent high-resolution susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The phase shift values of the bilateral red nucleus (RN), substantia nigra (SN), caudate nucleus (CA), globus pallidus (GP), putamen (PU), thalamus (TH) and frontal white matter (FWM) were examined for their relationship with the clinical status. The iron concentrations of the regions involved in PD, such as the SN, increased more significantly, while those in other regions of interest (ROI) did not elevate significantly. No correlation between the increase of the iron concentrations of the SN and duration of PD was observed. PD, however, was closely associated with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor score (UPDRS-III). No significant differences were found between earlier-onset and later-onset PD patients in terms of the iron concentrations of the SN. Brain-iron concentration can be evaluated by SWI. Also, the brain-iron concentration in the SN correlated with UPDRS motor score, indicating that iron concentration can function as an in vivo biomarker to objectively evaluate the status of PD. PMID:20303339

  5. Demagnetization treatment of remanent composite microspheres studied by alternating current susceptibility measurements.

    PubMed

    van Berkum, Susanne; Erné, Ben H

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic remanence of silica microspheres with a low concentration of embedded cobalt ferrite nanoparticles is studied after demagnetization and remagnetization treatments. When the microspheres are dispersed in a liquid, alternating current (AC) magnetic susceptibility spectra reveal a constant characteristic frequency, corresponding to the rotational diffusion of the microparticles; this depends only on particle size and liquid viscosity, making the particles suitable as a rheological probe and indicating that interactions between the microspheres are weak. On the macroscopic scale, a sample with the dry microparticles is magnetically remanent after treatment in a saturating field, and after a demagnetization treatment, the remanence goes down to zero. The AC susceptibility of a liquid dispersion, however, characterizes the remanence on the scale of the individual microparticles, which does not become zero after demagnetization. The reason is that an individual microparticle contains only a relatively small number of magnetic units, so that even if they can be reoriented magnetically at random, the average vector sum of the nanoparticle dipoles is not negligible on the scale of the microparticle. In contrast, on the macroscopic scale, the demagnetization procedure randomizes the orientations of a macroscopic number of magnetic units, resulting in a remanent magnetization that is negligible compared to the saturation magnetization of the entire sample. PMID:24009021

  6. Multi-ethnic genome-wide association study identifies novel locus for type 2 diabetes susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Cook, James P; Morris, Andrew P

    2016-08-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have traditionally been undertaken in homogeneous populations from the same ancestry group. However, with the increasing availability of GWAS in large-scale multi-ethnic cohorts, we have evaluated a framework for detecting association of genetic variants with complex traits, allowing for population structure, and developed a powerful test of heterogeneity in allelic effects between ancestry groups. We have applied the methodology to identify and characterise loci associated with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2D) using GWAS data from the Resource for Genetic Epidemiology on Adult Health and Aging, a large multi-ethnic population-based cohort, created for investigating the genetic and environmental basis of age-related diseases. We identified a novel locus for T2D susceptibility at genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)) that maps to TOMM40-APOE, a region previously implicated in lipid metabolism and Alzheimer's disease. We have also confirmed previous reports that single-nucleotide polymorphisms at the TCF7L2 locus demonstrate the greatest extent of heterogeneity in allelic effects between ethnic groups, with the lowest risk observed in populations of East Asian ancestry. PMID:27189021

  7. Demagnetization Treatment of Remanent Composite Microspheres Studied by Alternating Current Susceptibility Measurements

    PubMed Central

    van Berkum, Susanne; Erné, Ben H.

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic remanence of silica microspheres with a low concentration of embedded cobalt ferrite nanoparticles is studied after demagnetization and remagnetization treatments. When the microspheres are dispersed in a liquid, alternating current (AC) magnetic susceptibility spectra reveal a constant characteristic frequency, corresponding to the rotational diffusion of the microparticles; this depends only on particle size and liquid viscosity, making the particles suitable as a rheological probe and indicating that interactions between the microspheres are weak. On the macroscopic scale, a sample with the dry microparticles is magnetically remanent after treatment in a saturating field, and after a demagnetization treatment, the remanence goes down to zero. The AC susceptibility of a liquid dispersion, however, characterizes the remanence on the scale of the individual microparticles, which does not become zero after demagnetization. The reason is that an individual microparticle contains only a relatively small number of magnetic units, so that even if they can be reoriented magnetically at random, the average vector sum of the nanoparticle dipoles is not negligible on the scale of the microparticle. In contrast, on the macroscopic scale, the demagnetization procedure randomizes the orientations of a macroscopic number of magnetic units, resulting in a remanent magnetization that is negligible compared to the saturation magnetization of the entire sample. PMID:24009021

  8. Enhanced meta-analysis and replication studies identify five new psoriasis susceptibility loci

    PubMed Central

    Tsoi, Lam C; Spain, Sarah L; Ellinghaus, Eva; Stuart, Philip E; Capon, Francesca; Knight, Jo; Tejasvi, Trilokraj; Kang, Hyun M; Allen, Michael H; Lambert, Sylviane; Stoll, Stefan; Weidinger, Stephan; Gudjonsson, Johann E; Koks, Sulev; Kingo, Külli; Esko, Tonu; Das, Sayantan; Metspalu, Andres; Weichenthal, Michael; Enerback, Charlotta; Krueger, Gerald G.; Voorhees, John J; Chandran, Vinod; Rosen, Cheryl F; Rahman, Proton; Gladman, Dafna D; Reis, Andre; Nair, Rajan P; Franke, Andre; Barker, Jonathan NWN; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Trembath, Richard C; Elder, James T

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune disease with complex genetic architecture. Previous genomewide association studies (GWAS) and a recent meta-analysis using Immunochip data have uncovered 36 susceptibility loci. Here, we extend our previous meta-analysis of European ancestry by refined genotype calling and imputation and by the addition of 5,033 cases and 5,707 controls. The combined analysis, consisting of over 15,000 cases and 27,000 controls, identifies five new psoriasis susceptibility loci at genomewide significance (p < 5 × 10−8). The newly identified signals include two that reside in intergenic regions (1q31.1 and 5p13.1) and three residing near PLCL2 (3p24.3), NFKBIZ (3q12.3), and CAMK2G (10q22.2). We further demonstrate that NFKBIZ is a TRAF3IP2–dependent target of IL-17 signaling in human skin keratinocytes, thereby functionally linking two strong candidate genes. These results further integrate the genetics and immunology of psoriasis, suggesting new avenues for functional analysis and improved therapies. PMID:25939698

  9. Physical Education Teachers Fidelity to and Perspectives of a Standardized Curricular Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloeppel, Tiffany; Stylianou, Michalis; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges

    2014-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the use of standardized physical education curricular models and teachers perceptions of and fidelity to such curricula. The purpose of this study was to examine teachers perceptions of and fidelity to a standardized physical education curricular model (i.e., Dynamic Physical Education [DPE]). Participants for this…

  10. Fidelity in After-School Program Intervention Research: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, Brandy R.; Peters, Kristen E.; Vaughn, Michael G.; Sarteschi, Christine M.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 2 decades, the number of after-school programs (ASP) and the number of students attending ASPs has markedly increased. Although several reviews and meta-analyses have examined the outcomes of ASPs, ASP intervention study reviews have not specifically examined intervention fidelity. Establishing intervention fidelity is critically…

  11. Enhancing Therapeutic Gains: Examination of Fidelity to the Model for the Intensive Mental Health Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Camille J.; Biggs, Bridget K.

    2008-01-01

    Given that the development of treatment fidelity assessment protocol is an integral but too frequently ignored aspect of clinical trials for psychological treatments, the Intensive Mental Health Program (IMHP) sought to build fidelity activities into training, program evaluation, and clinical recordkeeping from the outset of a 3 year study period.…

  12. Early Influences and Later Outcomes Associated with Developmental Trajectories of Eriksonian Fidelity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brittian, Aerika S.; Lerner, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Although Eriksonian theory suggests that adolescents' sense of fidelity is a key component of healthy development, research on this psychosocial construct has been limited. The current study developed an index of youth fidelity, examined the developmental course of this construct, explored the influence of contextual factors on different fidelity…

  13. An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Training Devices With Varying Degrees of Fidelity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunwald, Walter

    A study was made of the relative effectiveness of five selected training devices with varying degrees of fidelity in the learning of a psychomotor task in which manipulative skill was not vital. The hypothesis was this: an increase in fidelity may not produce a corresponding increase in effectiveness, whereas such factors as ability to engage a…

  14. Antibiotic Susceptibility Evaluation of Group A Streptococcus Isolated from Children with Pharyngitis: A Study from Iran

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibiotic susceptibility of Group A streptococcus (GAS) to antibiotics usually used in Iran for treatment of GAS pharyngitis in children. Materials and Methods From 2011 to 2013, children 3-15 years of age with acute tonsillopharyngitis who attended Mofid Children's Hospital clinics and emergency ward and did not meet the exclusion criteria were enrolled in a prospective study in a sequential manner. The isolates strains from throat culture were identified as GAS by colony morphology, gram staining, beta hemolysis on blood agar, sensitivity to bacitracin, a positive pyrrolidonyl aminopeptidase (PYR) test result, and the presence of Lancefield A antigen determined by agglutination test. Antimicrobial susceptibility was identified by both disk diffusion and broth dilution methods. Results From 200 children enrolled in this study, 59 (30%) cases were culture positive for GAS. All isolates were sensitive to penicillin G. The prevalence of erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin resistance by broth dilution method was 33.9%, 57.6%, and 33.9%, respectively. Surprisingly, 8.4% of GAS strains were resistant to rifampin. In this study, 13.5% and 32.2% of the strains were resistant to clindamycin and ofloxacin, respectively. Conclusion The high rate of resistance of GAS to some antibiotics in this study should warn physicians, especially in Iran, to use antibiotics restrictedly and logically to prevent the rising of resistance rates in future. It also seems that continuous local surveillance is necessary to achieve the best therapeutic option for GAS treatment. PMID:26788405

  15. Genetic susceptibility to Barrett’s oesophagus: Lessons from early studies

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Mark R; Tomlinson, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Barrett’s oesophagus (BO) is a common condition, predisposing strongly to the development of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC). Consequently, there has been considerable effort to determine the processes involved in the development of BO metaplasia, and ultimately develop markers of patients at risk. Whilst a number of robust acquired risk factors have been identified, a genetic component to these and the apparent increased susceptibility of certain individuals has long been suspected. This has been evidenced in part by linkage studies, but subsequently two recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have suggested mechanisms underlying the heritability of BO, as well as providing the first direct evidence at modern levels of statistical significance. This review discusses BO heritability, in addition to that of individual variants and genes reported to be associated with BO to date. Through this, we identify a number of plausible associations, although often tempered by issues of methodology, and discuss the priorities and need for future research. PMID:27536357

  16. Fidelity: Snapshots of Implementation of a Curricular Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Lisa Hall

    2011-01-01

    Fidelity of implementation (FOI) is the extent to which delivery of an intervention adheres to the original intent of the program designer. FOI in educational studies is hindered by the lack of a universally agreed upon definition or set of criteria for measurement. With the increasing need for justification of reliability and validity of…

  17. Relationship between Teacher Fidelity and Physical Education Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loflin, Jerry W.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of scientifically based curricula intended for the physical education (PE) classroom, researchers should consider fidelity, or the extent to which teachers who are implementing a PE curricular intervention adhere to the model of curriculum and instruction inherent in the research design. The purpose of this study was to…

  18. Teachers Preparation Using TPACK when Fidelity of Treatment Is Defined

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bos, Beth

    2011-01-01

    Teacher preparation for the 21st century deserves a front-end approach to addressing the use of technology in the learning environment. To study the effect of instructing with technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge (TPACK), teachers were asked to apply pedagogical, mathematical, and cognitive fidelity to technology used in an instructional…

  19. Common Variants Confer Susceptibility to Barrett's Esophagus: Insights from the First Genome-Wide Association Studies.

    PubMed

    Palles, Claire; Findlay, John M; Tomlinson, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Eight loci have been identified by the two genome-wide association studies of Barrett's esophagus that have been conducted to date. Esophageal adenocarcinoma cases were included in the second study following evidence that predisposing genetic variants for this cancer overlap with those for Barrett's esophagus. Genes with roles in embryonic development of the foregut are adjacent to 6 of the loci identified (FOXF1, BARX1, FOXP1, GDF7, TBX5, and ALDH1A2). An additional locus maps to a gene with known oncogenic potential (CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 1), but expression quantitative trait data implicates yet another gene involved in esophageal development (PBX4). These results strongly support a model whereby dysregulation of genes involved in esophageal and thoracic development increases susceptibility to Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma, probably by reducing anatomical antireflux mechanisms. An additional signal at 6p21 in the major histocompatibility complex also reinforces evidence that immune and inflammatory response to reflux is involved in the development of both diseases. All of the variants identified are intronic or intergenic rather than coding and are presumed to be or to mark regulatory variants. As with genome-wide association studies of other diseases, the functional variants at each locus are yet to be identified and the genes affected need confirming. In this chapter as well as discussing the biology behind each genome-wide association signal, we review the requirements for successfully conducting genome-wide association studies and discuss how progress in understanding the genetic variants that contribute to Barrett's esophagus/esophageal adenocarcinoma susceptibility compares to other cancers. PMID:27573776

  20. Sources of variation in breeding-ground fidelity of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doherty, P.F., Jr.; Nichols, J.D.; Tautin, J.; Voelzer, J.E.; Smith, G.W.; Benning, D.S.; Bentley, V.R.; Bidwell, J.K.; Bollinger, K.S.; Brazda, A.R.; Buelna, E.K.; Goldsberry, J.R.; King, R.J.; Roetker, F.H.; Solberg, J.W.; Thorpe, P.P.; Wortham, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Generalizations used to support hypotheses about the evolution of fidelity to breeding areas in birds include the tendency for fidelity to be greater in adult birds than in yearlings. In ducks, in contrast to most bird species, fidelity is thought to be greater among females than males. Researchers have suggested that fidelity in ducks is positively correlated with pond availability. However, most estimates of fidelity on which these inferences have been based represent functions of survival and recapture-resighting probabilities in addition to fidelity. We applied the modeling approach developed by Burnham to recapture and band recovery data of mallard ducks to test the above hypotheses about fidelity. We found little evidence of sex differences in adult philopatry, with females being slightly more philopatric than males in one study area, but not in a second study area. However, yearling females were more philopatric than yearling males in both study areas. We found that adults were generally more philopatric than yearlings. We could find no relationship between fidelity and pond availability. Our results, while partially supporting current theory concerning sex and age differences in philopatry, suggest that adult male mallards are more philopatric than once thought, and we recommend that other generalizations about philopatry be revisited with proper estimation techniques.

  1. A Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Potential Susceptibility Loci for Hirschsprung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Cheong, Hyun Sub; Sul, Jae Hoon; Seo, Jeong-Meen; Kim, Dae-Yeon; Oh, Jung-Tak; Park, Kwi-Won; Kim, Hyun-Young; Jung, Soo-Min; Jung, Kyuwhan; Cho, Min Jeng; Bae, Joon Seol; Shin, Hyoung Doo

    2014-01-01

    Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is a congenital and heterogeneous disorder characterized by the absence of intramural nervous plexuses along variable lengths of the hindgut. Although RET is a well-established risk factor, a recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) of HSCR has identified NRG1 as an additional susceptibility locus. To discover additional risk loci, we performed a GWAS of 123 sporadic HSCR patients and 432 unaffected controls using a large-scale platform with coverage of over 1 million polymorphic markers. The result was that our study replicated the findings of RET-CSGALNACT2-RASGEF1A genomic region (rawP = 5.69×10−19 before a Bonferroni correction; corrP = 4.31×10−13 after a Bonferroni correction) and NRG1 as susceptibility loci. In addition, this study identified SLC6A20 (adjP = 2.71×10−6), RORA (adjP = 1.26×10−5), and ABCC9 (adjP = 1.86×10−5) as new potential susceptibility loci under adjusting the already known loci on the RET-CSGALNACT2-RASGEF1A and NRG1 regions, although none of the SNPs in these genes passed the Bonferroni correction. In further subgroup analysis, the RET-CSGALNACT2-RASGEF1A genomic region was observed to have different significance levels among subgroups: short-segment (S-HSCR, corrP = 1.71×10−5), long-segment (L-HSCR, corrP = 6.66×10−4), and total colonic aganglionosis (TCA, corrP>0.05). This differential pattern in the significance level suggests that other genomic loci or mechanisms may affect the length of aganglionosis in HSCR subgroups during enteric nervous system (ENS) development. Although functional evaluations are needed, our findings might facilitate improved understanding of the mechanisms of HSCR pathogenesis. PMID:25310821

  2. High-Fidelity Manikin-Based Simulation: A Study of Implications for Interprofessional Healthcare Practitioner Education at the Associate Degree Level of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Luster

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare practitioner training programs, specifically at the associate degree level of study, have historically focused practitioner training efforts on discipline-specific programming and curricula. However, these institutions have now begun to examine the utility and efficacy of incorporating interprofessional experiences into their programs.…

  3. A review of research on fidelity of implementation: implications for drug abuse prevention in school settings.

    PubMed

    Dusenbury, Linda; Brannigan, Rosalind; Falco, Mathea; Hansen, William B

    2003-04-01

    To help inform drug abuse prevention research in school settings about the issues surrounding implementation, we conducted a review of the fidelity of implementation research literature spanning a 25-year period. Fidelity has been measured in five ways: (1) adherence, (2) dose, (3) quality of program delivery, (4) participant responsiveness and (5) program differentiation. Definitions and measures of fidelity were found not to be consistent across studies, and new definitions are proposed. While there has been limited research on fidelity of implementation in the social sciences, research in drug abuse prevention provides evidence that poor implementation is likely to result in a loss of program effectiveness. Studies indicate that most teachers do not cover everything in a curriculum, they are likely to teach less over time and training alone is not sufficient to ensure fidelity of implementation. Key elements of high fidelity include teacher training, program characteristics, teacher characteristics and organizational characteristics. The review concludes with a discussion of the tension between fidelity and reinvention/adaptation, and ways of resolving this tension. Recommendations are made for developing a consistent methodology for measuring and analyzing fidelity of implementation. Further, researchers and providers should collaborate to develop ways of introducing flexibility into prevention programs. PMID:12729182

  4. Sequence-Specific Fidelity Alterations Associated with West Nile Virus Attenuation in Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Van Slyke, Greta A.; Arnold, Jamie J.; Lugo, Alex J.; Griesemer, Sara B.; Moustafa, Ibrahim M.; Kramer, Laura D.; Cameron, Craig E.; Ciota, Alexander T.

    2015-01-01

    High rates of error-prone replication result in the rapid accumulation of genetic diversity of RNA viruses. Recent studies suggest that mutation rates are selected for optimal viral fitness and that modest variations in replicase fidelity may be associated with viral attenuation. Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are unique in their requirement for host cycling and may necessitate substantial genetic and phenotypic plasticity. In order to more thoroughly investigate the correlates, mechanisms and consequences of arbovirus fidelity, we selected fidelity variants of West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) utilizing selection in the presence of a mutagen. We identified two mutations in the WNV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase associated with increased fidelity, V793I and G806R, and a single mutation in the WNV methyltransferase, T248I, associated with decreased fidelity. Both deep-sequencing and in vitro biochemical assays confirmed strain-specific differences in both fidelity and mutational bias. WNV fidelity variants demonstrated host-specific alterations to replicative fitness in vitro, with modest attenuation in mosquito but not vertebrate cell culture. Experimental infections of colonized and field populations of Cx. quinquefaciatus demonstrated that WNV fidelity alterations are associated with a significantly impaired capacity to establish viable infections in mosquitoes. Taken together, these studies (i) demonstrate the importance of allosteric interactions in regulating mutation rates, (ii) establish that mutational spectra can be both sequence and strain-dependent, and (iii) display the profound phenotypic consequences associated with altered replication complex function of flaviviruses. PMID:26114757

  5. Further Evidence of Subphenotype Association with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Susceptibility Loci: A European Cases Only Study

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Perez, Elisa; Suarez-Gestal, Marian; Calaza, Manuel; Ordi-Ros, Josep; Balada, Eva; Bijl, Marc; Papasteriades, Chryssa; Carreira, Patricia; Skopouli, Fotini N.; Witte, Torsten; Endreffy, Emöke; Marchini, Maurizio; Migliaresi, Sergio; Sebastiani, Gian Domenico; Santos, Maria Jose; Suarez, Ana; Blanco, Francisco J.; Barizzone, Nadia; Pullmann, Rudolf; Ruzickova, Sarka; Lauwerys, Bernard R.; Gomez-Reino, Juan J.; Gonzalez, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) shows a spectrum of clinical manifestations that complicate its diagnosis, treatment and research. This variability is likely related with environmental exposures and genetic factors among which known SLE susceptibility loci are prime candidates. The first published analyses seem to indicate that this is the case for some of them, but results are still inconclusive and we aimed to further explore this question. Methods European SLE patients, 1444, recruited at 17 centres from 10 countries were analyzed. Genotypes for 26 SLE associated SNPs were compared between patients with and without each of 11 clinical features: ten of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria (except ANAs) and age of disease onset. These analyses were adjusted for centre of recruitment, top ancestry informative markers, gender and time of follow-up. Overlap of samples with previous studies was excluded for assessing replication. Results There were three new associations: the SNPs in XKR6 and in FAM167A-BLK were associated with lupus nephritis (OR = 0.76 and 1.30, Pcorr = 0.007 and 0.03, respectively) and the SNP of MECP2, which is in chromosome X, with earlier age of disease onset in men. The previously reported association of STAT4 with early age of disease onset was replicated. Some other results were suggestive of the presence of additional associations. Together, the association signals provided support to some previous findings and to the characterization of lupus nephritis, autoantibodies and age of disease onset as the clinical features more associated with SLE loci. Conclusion Some of the SLE loci shape the disease phenotype in addition to increase susceptibility to SLE. This influence is more prominent for some clinical features than for others. However, results are only partially consistent between studies and subphenotype specific GWAS are needed to unravel their genetic component. PMID:23049788

  6. Viral Polymerase-Helicase Complexes Regulate Replication Fidelity To Overcome Intracellular Nucleotide Depletion

    PubMed Central

    Stapleford, Kenneth A.; Rozen-Gagnon, Kathryn; Das, Pratyush Kumar; Saul, Sirle; Poirier, Enzo Z.; Blanc, Hervé; Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier; Merits, Andres

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT To date, the majority of work on RNA virus replication fidelity has focused on the viral RNA polymerase, while the potential role of other viral replicase proteins in this process is poorly understood. Previous studies used resistance to broad-spectrum RNA mutagens, such as ribavirin, to identify polymerases with increased fidelity that avoid misincorporation of such base analogues. We identified a novel variant in the alphavirus viral helicase/protease, nonstructural protein 2 (nsP2) that operates in concert with the viral polymerase nsP4 to further alter replication complex fidelity, a functional linkage that was conserved among the alphavirus genus. Purified chikungunya virus nsP2 presented delayed helicase activity of the high-fidelity enzyme, and yet purified replication complexes manifested stronger RNA polymerization kinetics. Because mutagenic nucleoside analogs such as ribavirin also affect intracellular nucleotide pools, we addressed the link between nucleotide depletion and replication fidelity by using purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis inhibitors. High-fidelity viruses were more resistant to these conditions, and viral growth could be rescued by the addition of exogenous nucleosides, suggesting that mutagenesis by base analogues requires nucleotide pool depletion. This study describes a novel function for nsP2, highlighting the role of other components of the replication complex in regulating viral replication fidelity, and suggests that viruses can alter their replication complex fidelity to overcome intracellular nucleotide-depleting conditions. IMPORTANCE Previous studies using the RNA mutagen ribavirin to select for drug-resistant variants have highlighted the essential role of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in regulating replication fidelity. However, the role of other viral replicase components in replication fidelity has not been studied in detail. We identified here an RNA mutagen-resistant variant of the nsP2 helicase

  7. The fidelity of adaptive phototaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drescher, Knut; Tuval, Idan; Goldstein, Raymond

    2010-03-01

    Along the evolutionary path from single cells to multicellular organisms with a central nervous system are species of intermediate complexity which move in ways suggesting high-level coordination, yet have none. Instead, organisms within this category possess many autonomous cells which are endowed with programs that have evolved to achieve concerted responses to environmental stimuli. We examine the main features of the program underlying high-fidelity phototaxis in colonial algae which spin about a body-fixed axis as they swim. Using micromanipulation and particle image velocimetry of flagella-driven flows in Volvox carteri, we show that there is an adaptive response at the single-cell level that displays a pronounced maximum in its frequency dependence for periodic light signals. Moreover, the natural rotational frequency of the colony is tuned to match this optimal response. A hydrodynamic model of phototactic steering further shows that the phototactic ability decreases dramatically when the colony does not spin at its natural frequency, a result confirmed by phototaxis assays in which colony rotation was slowed by increasing the fluid viscosity.

  8. A NATIONAL STUDY TO ASSESS SUSCEPTIBILITY, VULNERABILITY, AND EFFECT MODIFICATION OF AIR POLLUTION HEALTH RISKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identifying factors that explain heterogeneity of risks will help to identify: 1) the populations that are more susceptible/vulnerable to air pollution; and 2) the emission sources, pollutants and pollutant mixtures that are more toxic. The characterization of susceptibility f...

  9. Spatial analysis for susceptibility of second-time karst sinkholes: A case study of Jili Village in Guangxi, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guoqing; Yan, Hongbo; Chen, Kunhua; Zhang, Rongting

    2016-04-01

    After a big karst sinkhole happened in Jili Village of Guangxi, China, the local government was eager to quantitatively analyze and map susceptible areas of the potential second-time karst sinkholes in order to make timely decisions whether the residents living in the first-time sinkhole areas should move. For this reason, karst sinkholes susceptibility geospatial analysis is investigated using multivariate spatial data, logistic regression model (LRM) and Geographical Information System (GIS). Ten major karst sinkholes related factors, including (1) formation lithology, (2) soil structure, (3) profile curvature, (4) groundwater depth, (5) fluctuation of groundwater level, (6) percolation rate of soil, (7) degree of karst development, (8) distance from fault, (9) distance from the traffic route, and (10) overburden thickness were selected, and then each of factors was classified and quantitated with the three or four levels. The LRM was applied to evaluate which factor makes significant contributions to sinkhole. The results demonstrated that formation lithology, soil structure, profile curvature, groundwater depth, ground water level, percolation rate of soil, and degree of karst development, the distance from fault, and overburden thickness are positive, while one factor, the distance from traffic routes is negative, which is deleted from LRM model. The susceptibility of the potential sinkholes in the study area is estimated and mapped using the solved impact factors. The susceptible degrees of the study area are classified into five levels, very high, high, moderate, low, and ignore susceptibility. It has been found that that both very high and high susceptibility areas are along Datou Hill and the foothills of the study area. This finding is verified by field observations. With the investigations conducted in this paper, it can be concluded that the susceptibility maps produced in this paper are reliable and accurate, and useful as a reference for local

  10. Ground state fidelity from tensor network representations.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huan-Qiang; Orús, Roman; Vidal, Guifre

    2008-02-29

    For any D-dimensional quantum lattice system, the fidelity between two ground state many-body wave functions is mapped onto the partition function of a D-dimensional classical statistical vertex lattice model with the same lattice geometry. The fidelity per lattice site, analogous to the free energy per site, is well defined in the thermodynamic limit and can be used to characterize the phase diagram of the model. We explain how to compute the fidelity per site in the context of tensor network algorithms, and demonstrate the approach by analyzing the two-dimensional quantum Ising model with transverse and parallel magnetic fields. PMID:18352611

  11. Fidelity imaging for atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosal, Sayan Salapaka, Murti

    2015-01-05

    Atomic force microscopy is widely employed for imaging material at the nanoscale. However, real-time measures on image reliability are lacking in contemporary atomic force microscopy literature. In this article, we present a real-time technique that provides an image of fidelity for a high bandwidth dynamic mode imaging scheme. The fidelity images define channels that allow the user to have additional authority over the choice of decision threshold that facilitates where the emphasis is desired, on discovering most true features on the sample with the possible detection of high number of false features, or emphasizing minimizing instances of false detections. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of fidelity imaging.

  12. Development and Evaluation of Two Canine Low-Fidelity Simulation Models.

    PubMed

    Aulmann, Maria; März, Maren; Burgener, Iwan A; Alef, Michaele; Otto, Sven; Mülling, Christoph K W

    2015-01-01

    Two self-made low-fidelity models for simulation of canine intubation and canine female urinary catheterization were developed and evaluated. We used a study design that compares acquired skills of two intervention groups and one control group in a practical examination. Fifty-eight second-year veterinary medicine students received a theoretical introduction to intubation and were randomly divided into three groups. Group I (high-fidelity) was then trained on a commercially available Intubation Training Manikin (item #2006, Veteffects), group II (low-fidelity) was trained on our low-fidelity model, and group III (text) read a text describing intubation of the dog. Forty-seven fifth-year veterinary medicine students followed the same procedure for training urinary catheterization using the commercially available Female Urinary Catheter Training Manikin (Paws 2 Claws), our self-made model, and text. Outcomes were assessed in a practical examination on a cadaver using an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) checklist. Considering a value of p≤.05 significant, intervention groups performed significantly better than the text groups. Group I (high-fidelity) and group II (low-fidelity) showed no significant differences (p≤.684, intubation; p≤.901, urinary catheterization). We thereby conclude that low-fidelity models can be as effective as high-fidelity models for clinical skills training. PMID:25862399

  13. Genomewide search for type 2 diabetes mellitus susceptibility loci in Finnish families: the Botnia study.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, C M; Mahtani, M M; Widén, E; McCarthy, M I; Daly, M J; Kirby, A; Reeve, M P; Kruglyak, L; Parker, A; Meyer, J; Almgren, P; Lehto, M; Kanninen, T; Tuomi, T; Groop, L C; Lander, E S

    2002-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous inherited disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia resulting from pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. Although the pathogenic mechanisms are not fully understood, manifestation of the disease most likely requires interaction between both environmental and genetic factors. In the search for such susceptibility genes, we have performed a genomewide scan in 58 multiplex families (comprising 440 individuals, 229 of whom were affected) from the Botnia region in Finland. Initially, linkage between chromosome 12q24 and impaired insulin secretion had been reported, by Mahtani et al., in a subsample of 26 families. In the present study, we extend the initial genomewide scan to include 32 additional families, update the affectation status, and fine map regions of interest, and we try to replicate the initial stratification analysis. In our analysis of all 58 families, we identified suggestive linkage to one region, chromosome 9p13-q21 (nonparametric linkage [NPL] score 3.9; P<.0002). Regions with nominal P values <.05 include chromosomes 2p11 (NPL score 2.0 [P<.03]), 3p24-p22 (NPL score 2.2 [P<.02]), 4q32-q33 (NPL score 2.5 [P<.01]), 12q24 (NPL score 2.1 [P<.03]), 16p12-11 (NPL score 1.7 [P<.05]), and 17p12-p11 (NPL score 1.9 [P<.03]). When chromosome 12q24 was analyzed in only the 32 additional families, a nominal P value <.04 was observed. Together with data from other published genomewide scans, these findings lend support to the hypothesis that regions on chromosome 9p13-q21 and 12q24 may harbor susceptibility genes for type 2 diabetes. PMID:11791216

  14. Association Study of IL-12B Polymorphisms Susceptibility with Ankylosing Spondylitis in Mainland Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li; Yang, Ting; Ding, Ning; Hu, Yanting; Cai, Guoqi; Wang, Li; Xin, Lihong; Xia, Qing; Li, Xiaona; Xu, Shengqian; Xu, Jianhua; Yang, Xiao; Zou, Yanfeng; Pan, Faming

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aims to determine whether the genetic polymorphisms of IL-12B gene is a susceptibility factor to Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in mainland Han Chinese population. Method Eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs10045431, rs11167764, rs3212227, rs6556412, rs6556416, rs6871626, rs6887695 and rs7709212) in the IL-12B gene were genotyped by iMLDR Assay technology in 400 patients [96% (384/400) HLA-B27(+)] and 395 geographically and ethnically matched healthy controls in mainland Han Chinese population. The correlation between IL-12B genetic polymorphisms and AS activity index (BASDAI, BASFI) were tested. Results The significant difference was found in genotype distribution between AS and healthy controls (χ2 = 6.942, P-value = 0.031) of the SNP rs6871626. Furthermore, significant evidence was also detected under the recessive model for minor allele A. The AA genotype carrier had 1.830 fold risk compared with C allele carrier (with CC and AC genotypes) [OR (95% CI) = 1.830 (1.131-2.961), P-value = 0.014]. Nevertheless, the difference was no longer significant after Bonferroni correction. Subset analysis on cases with HLA-B27(+) did find the same results. Three genotypic groups (AA, CC and CA) in rs6871626 site was highly associated with the BASDAI and BASFI (P-value = 0.012 and P-value = 0.023, respectively), after adjustment for effect of age, sex, and disease duration, the P-value was 0.031 and 0.041, respectively. The AA genotype of rs6871626 was also significantly correlated with an increased BASDAI and BASFI compared to the AC and CC genotypes in AS patients. Conclusion Our findings suggest that rs6871626 may be associated AS susceptibility and with disease activity (BASDAI, BASFI) in mainland Han Chinese population. PMID:26103568

  15. Training Teachers to use Evidence-Based Practices for Autism: Examining Procedural Implementation fidelity

    PubMed Central

    Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Reed, Sarah; Lee, Ember; Reisinger, Erica M.; Connell, James E.; Mandell, David S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which public school teachers implemented evidence-based interventions for students with autism in the way these practices were designed. Evidence-based practices for students with autism are rarely incorporated into community settings, and little is known about the quality of implementation. An indicator of intervention quality is procedural implementation fidelity (the degree to which a treatment is implemented as prescribed). Procedural fidelity likely affects student outcomes. This project examined procedural implementation fidelity of three evidence-based practices used in a randomized trial of a comprehensive program for students with autism in partnership with a large, urban school district. Results indicate that teachers in public school special education classrooms can learn to implement evidence-based strategies; however they require extensive training, coaching, and time to reach and maintain moderate procedural implementation fidelity. Procedural fidelity over time, and across intervention strategies is examined. PMID:25593374

  16. The Effects of Implementation Fidelity in the Towards No Drug Abuse Dissemination Trial

    PubMed Central

    Little, Melissa A.; Sussman, Steve; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise Ann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The current study examines the influence of contextual and provider-level factors on the implementation fidelity of a research-based substance abuse prevention program. Also, it investigates whether two provider-level factors, self-efficacy and beliefs about the value of the program, statistically moderate and mediate the effects of a provider training intervention on implementation fidelity. Design/methodology/approach Using generalized mixed-linear modeling, we examine relationships between program provider-, organizational, and community-level factors and implementation fidelity in a sample of 50 high school teachers from 43 high schools in 8 states across the U.S. Fidelity of implementation was assessed utilizing an observation procedure. Findings Implementation fidelity was negatively associated with the urbanicity of the community and the level of teachers’ beliefs about the value of the program, and positively predicted by the organizational capacity of the school. Comprehensive training significantly increased teachers’ self-efficacy, which resulted in an increase in implementation fidelity. Research implications School-based prevention program implementation is influenced by a variety of contextual factors occurring at multiple ecological levels. Future effectiveness and dissemination studies need to account for the complex nature of schools in analyses of implementation fidelity and outcomes. Practical implications Our findings suggest that both provider- and organizational-level factors are influential in promoting implementation fidelity. Before implementation begins, as well as throughout the implementation process, training and ongoing technical assistance should be conducted to increase teachers’ skills, self-efficacy, and comfort with prevention curricula. Originality/value The present study is one of the few to examine contextual and provider-level correlates of implementation fidelity and use mediation analyses to explore whether

  17. Magnetic fabric of selected loess/paleosol sections as studied by AMS, anisotropy of frequency-dependent susceptibility and anisotropy of out-of-phase susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadima, M.; Hrouda, F.; Jezek, J.

    2015-12-01

    The preferred orientation of magnetic minerals in loess/paleosol sequencies can be studied through the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), which can be above all employed in the investigation of the dynamics of the eolian deposition including the changes in paleowind directions. In addition, it can be used in the indication of the post-depositional magnetic fabric re-working, or in tracing the magnetic fabric changes during pedogenesis. Recently developed techniques using anisotropy of frequency-dependent susceptibility (fdAMS) and anisotropy of out-of-phase susceptibility (opAMS) can assess the magnetic sub-fabrics of viscous particles on transition between SP and SSD. The width of the particle size interval investigated by the fdAMS is controlled by the operating frequencies used and their differences. In case of opAMS, the interval is always narrower than that in fdAMS and depends also on the operating frequency used. In three loess/paleosol sequences investigated in the Czech Republic, the degrees of AMS, fdAMS, and opAMS are significantly lower in paleosols than in loess horizons. This indicates that the preferred orientation of magnetic particles created during pedogenesis is much weaker than that of the particles deposited during loess formation. In addition, the degrees of fdAMS and opAMS are much higher than that of AMS. This may indicate strong anisotropy of viscous magnetic particles, because the fdAMS and opAMS are primarily controlled by them. The degree of AMS of the whole rock is low due to compensation effects of SP and SSD particles, whose grain anisotropies are anti-coaxial. The principal directions of AMS, fdAMS, and opAMS are mostly roughly co-axial suggesting more or less identical origins of magnetic sub-fabrics according to grain size. Less frequently, the principal directions of fdAMS or opAMS differ from those of AMS probably indicating post-depositional effects on particular grain-size classes. The fdAMS and opAMS show as powerful

  18. A Comparison Study of Single-Echo Susceptibility Weighted Imaging and Combined Multi-Echo Susceptibility Weighted Imaging in Visualizing Asymmetric Medullary Veins in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Qiu, Tiantian; Song, Ruirui; Jiaerken, Yerfan; Yang, Linglin; Wang, Shaoze

    2016-01-01

    Background Asymmetric medullary veins (AMV) are frequently observed in stroke patients and single-echo susceptibility weighted imaging (SWIs) is the main technique in detecting AMV. Our study aimed to investigate which echo time (TE) on single-echo susceptibility is the optimal echo for visualizing AMV and to compare the ability in detecting AMV in stroke patients between SWIs and multi-echo susceptibility weighted imaging (SWIc). Materials and Methods Twenty patients with middle cerebral artery stroke were included. SWI was acquired by using a multi-echo gradient-echo sequence with six echoes ranging from 5 ms to 35.240 ms. Three different echoes of SWIs including SWIs1 (TE = 23.144 ms), SWIs2 (TE = 29.192 ms) and SWIs3 (TE = 35.240 ms) were reconstructed. SWIc was averaged using the three echoes of SWIs. Image quality and venous contrast of medullary veins were compared between SWIs and SWIc using peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), mean opinion score (MOS), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The presence of AMV was evaluated in each SWIs (1–3) and SWIc. Results SWIs2 had the highest PSNR, MOS and CNR and SWIs1 had the highest SNR among three different echoes of SWIs. No significant difference was found in SNR between SWIs1 and SWIs2. PSNR, MOS and CNR in SWIc were significantly increased by 27.9%, 28.2% and 17.2% compared with SWIs2 and SNR in SWIc was significantly increased by 32.4% compared with SWIs1. 55% of patients with AMV were detected in SWIs2, SWIs3 and SWIc, while 50% AMV were found in SWIs1. Conclusions SWIs using TE around 29ms was optimal in visualizing AMV. SWIc could improve image quality and venous contrast, but was equal to SWIs using a relative long TE in evaluating AMV. These results provide the technique basis for further research of AMV in stroke. PMID:27494171

  19. Engineering High-Fidelity Residue Separations for Selective Harvest

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin L. Kenney; Christopher T. Wright; Reed L. Hoskinson; J. Rochard Hess; David J. Muth, Jr.

    2006-07-01

    Composition and pretreatment studies of corn stover and wheat stover anatomical fractions clearly show that some corn and wheat stover anatomical fractions are of higher value than others as a biofeedstock. This premise, along with soil sustainability and erosion control concerns, provides the motivation for the selective harvest concept for separating and collecting the higher value residue fractions in a combine during grain harvest. This study recognizes the analysis of anatomical fractions as theoretical feedstock quality targets, but not as practical targets for developing selective harvest technologies. Rather, practical quality targets were established that identified the residue separation requirements of a selective harvest combine. Data are presented that shows that a current grain combine is not capable of achieving the fidelity of residue fractionation established by the performance targets. However, using a virtual engineering approach, based on an understanding of the fluid dynamics of the air stream separation, the separation fidelity can be significantly improved without significant changes to the harvester design. A virtual engineering model of a grain combine was developed and used to perform simulations of the residue separator performance. The engineered residue separator was then built into a selective harvest test combine, and tests performed to evaluate the separation fidelity. Field tests were run both with and without the residue separator installed in the test combine, and the chaff and straw residue streams were collected during harvest of Challis soft white spring wheat. The separation fidelity accomplished both with and without the residue separator was quantified by laboratory screening analysis. The screening results showed that the engineered baffle separator did a remarkable job of effecting high-fidelity separation of the straw and chaff residue streams, improving the chaff stream purity and increasing the straw stream yield.

  20. How Fidelity Invests in Service Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McColgan, Ellyn A.

    1997-01-01

    Fidelity Institutional Retirement Services Company reorganized, automated, and reengineered all systems related to service delivery. They created a model for the development of associates called Service Delivery University and committed each associate to 80 hours of development per year. (JOW)

  1. A conceptual framework for implementation fidelity

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Christopher; Patterson, Malcolm; Wood, Stephen; Booth, Andrew; Rick, Jo; Balain, Shashi

    2007-01-01

    Background Implementation fidelity refers to the degree to which an intervention or programme is delivered as intended. Only by understanding and measuring whether an intervention has been implemented with fidelity can researchers and practitioners gain a better understanding of how and why an intervention works, and the extent to which outcomes can be improved. Discussion The authors undertook a critical review of existing conceptualisations of implementation fidelity and developed a new conceptual framework for understanding and measuring the process. The resulting theoretical framework requires testing by empirical research. Summary Implementation fidelity is an important source of variation affecting the credibility and utility of research. The conceptual framework presented here offers a means for measuring this variable and understanding its place in the process of intervention implementation. PMID:18053122

  2. Unsupervised multiparametric classification of dynamic susceptibility contrast imaging: study of the healthy brain.

    PubMed

    Artzi, M; Aizenstein, O; Hendler, T; Ben Bashat, D

    2011-06-01

    Characterization and quantification of magnetic resonance perfusion images is important for clinical interpretation, though this calls for a reproducible and accurate method of analysis and a robust healthy reference. The few studies which have examined the perfusion of the healthy brain using dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) imaging were largely limited to manual definition of the regions of interest (ROI) and results were dependent on the location of the ROI. The current study aimed to develop a methodology for DSC data analysis and to obtain reference values of healthy subjects. Twenty three healthy volunteers underwent DSC. An unsupervised multiparametric clustering method was applied to four perfusion parameters. Three clusters were defined and identified as: dura-blood-vessels, gray matter and white matter and their vascular characteristics were obtained. Additionally, regional perfusion differences were studied and revealed a prolonged mean transient time and a trend for higher vascularity in the posterior compared with the anterior and middle cerebral vascular territories. While additional studies are required to confirm our findings, this result may have important clinical implications. The proposed unsupervised multiparametric method enabled accurate tissue differentiation, is easy replicable and has a wide range of applications in both pathological and healthy brains. PMID:21419230

  3. Gate fidelity fluctuations and quantum process invariants

    SciTech Connect

    Magesan, Easwar; Emerson, Joseph; Blume-Kohout, Robin

    2011-07-15

    We characterize the quantum gate fidelity in a state-independent manner by giving an explicit expression for its variance. The method we provide can be extended to calculate all higher order moments of the gate fidelity. Using these results, we obtain a simple expression for the variance of a single-qubit system and deduce the asymptotic behavior for large-dimensional quantum systems. Applications of these results to quantum chaos and randomized benchmarking are discussed.

  4. Genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Wolpin, Brian M; Rizzato, Cosmeri; Kraft, Peter; Kooperberg, Charles; Petersen, Gloria M; Wang, Zhaoming; Arslan, Alan A; Beane-Freeman, Laura; Bracci, Paige M; Buring, Julie; Canzian, Federico; Duell, Eric J; Gallinger, Steven; Giles, Graham G; Goodman, Gary E; Goodman, Phyllis J; Jacobs, Eric J; Kamineni, Aruna; Klein, Alison P; Kolonel, Laurence N; Kulke, Matthew H; Li, Donghui; Malats, Núria; Olson, Sara H; Risch, Harvey A; Sesso, Howard D; Visvanathan, Kala; White, Emily; Zheng, Wei; Abnet, Christian C; Albanes, Demetrius; Andreotti, Gabriella; Austin, Melissa A; Barfield, Richard; Basso, Daniela; Berndt, Sonja I; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Brotzman, Michelle; Büchler, Markus W; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Bugert, Peter; Burdette, Laurie; Campa, Daniele; Caporaso, Neil E; Capurso, Gabriele; Chung, Charles; Cotterchio, Michelle; Costello, Eithne; Elena, Joanne; Funel, Niccola; Gaziano, J Michael; Giese, Nathalia A; Giovannucci, Edward L; Goggins, Michael; Gorman, Megan J; Gross, Myron; Haiman, Christopher A; Hassan, Manal; Helzlsouer, Kathy J; Henderson, Brian E; Holly, Elizabeth A; Hu, Nan; Hunter, David J; Innocenti, Federico; Jenab, Mazda; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Klein, Eric A; Kogevinas, Manolis; Krogh, Vittorio; Kupcinskas, Juozas; Kurtz, Robert C; LaCroix, Andrea; Landi, Maria T; Landi, Stefano; Le Marchand, Loic; Mambrini, Andrea; Mannisto, Satu; Milne, Roger L; Nakamura, Yusuke; Oberg, Ann L; Owzar, Kouros; Patel, Alpa V; Peeters, Petra H M; Peters, Ulrike; Pezzilli, Raffaele; Piepoli, Ada; Porta, Miquel; Real, Francisco X; Riboli, Elio; Rothman, Nathaniel; Scarpa, Aldo; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Silverman, Debra T; Soucek, Pavel; Sund, Malin; Talar-Wojnarowska, Renata; Taylor, Philip R; Theodoropoulos, George E; Thornquist, Mark; Tjønneland, Anne; Tobias, Geoffrey S; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Vodicka, Pavel; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wu, Chen; Yu, Herbert; Yu, Kai; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Hoover, Robert; Hartge, Patricia; Fuchs, Charles; Chanock, Stephen J; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael S; Amundadottir, Laufey T

    2014-09-01

    We performed a multistage genome-wide association study including 7,683 individuals with pancreatic cancer and 14,397 controls of European descent. Four new loci reached genome-wide significance: rs6971499 at 7q32.3 (LINC-PINT, per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74-0.84, P = 3.0 × 10(-12)), rs7190458 at 16q23.1 (BCAR1/CTRB1/CTRB2, OR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.30-1.65, P = 1.1 × 10(-10)), rs9581943 at 13q12.2 (PDX1, OR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.10-1.20, P = 2.4 × 10(-9)) and rs16986825 at 22q12.1 (ZNRF3, OR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.12-1.25, P = 1.2 × 10(-8)). We identified an independent signal in exon 2 of TERT at the established region 5p15.33 (rs2736098, OR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.76-0.85, P = 9.8 × 10(-14)). We also identified a locus at 8q24.21 (rs1561927, P = 1.3 × 10(-7)) that approached genome-wide significance located 455 kb telomeric of PVT1. Our study identified multiple new susceptibility alleles for pancreatic cancer that are worthy of follow-up studies. PMID:25086665

  5. Genetic susceptibility to heroin addiction; a candidate-gene association study

    PubMed Central

    Levran, O.; Londono, D.; O’Hara, K.; Nielsen, D. A.; Peles, E.; Rotrosen, J.; Casadonte, P.; Linzy, S.; Randesi, M.; Ott, J.; Adelson, M.; Kreek, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    Heroin addiction is a chronic complex disease with a substantial genetic contribution. This study was designed to identify genetic variants that are associated with susceptibility to develop heroin addiction, by analyzing 1350 variants in 130 candidate genes. All subjects had Caucasian ancestry. The sample consisted of 412 former severe heroin addicts in methadone treatment, and 184 healthy controls with no history of drug abuse. Nine variants, in six genes, showed the lowest nominal P values in the association tests (P < 0.01). These variants were in non-coding regions of the genes encoding the mu (OPRM1; rs510769, rs3778151), kappa (OPRK1; rs6473797), and delta opioid receptors, (OPRD1; rs2236861, rs2236857 and rs3766951), the neuropeptide galanin (GAL; rs694066), the serotonin receptor subtype 3B (HTR3B; rs3758987) and the casein kinase 1 isoform epsilon (CSNK1E; rs1534891). Several haplotypes and multi-locus genotype patterns showed nominally significant associations (e.g. OPRM1; P = 0.0006 and CSNK1E; P = 0.0007). Analysis of a combined effect of OPRM1 and OPRD1 showed that rs510769 and rs2236861 increase the risk of heroin addiction (P = 0.0005). None of these associations remained significant after adjustment for multiple testing. This study suggests the involvement of several genes and variants in heroin addiction that is worthy of future study. PMID:18518925

  6. Genome-wide association study identifies 12 new susceptibility loci for primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Mells, George F; Floyd, James A B; Morley, Katherine I; Cordell, Heather J; Franklin, Christopher S; Shin, So-Youn; Heneghan, Michael A; Neuberger, James M; Donaldson, Peter T; Day, Darren B; Ducker, Samantha J; Muriithi, Agnes W; Wheater, Elizabeth F; Hammond, Christopher J; Dawwas, Muhammad F; Jones, David E; Peltonen, Leena; Alexander, Graeme J; Sandford, Richard N; Anderson, Carl A

    2011-04-01

    In addition to the HLA locus, six genetic risk factors for primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) have been identified in recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS). To identify additional loci, we carried out a GWAS using 1,840 cases from the UK PBC Consortium and 5,163 UK population controls as part of the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 3 (WTCCC3). We followed up 28 loci in an additional UK cohort of 620 PBC cases and 2,514 population controls. We identified 12 new susceptibility loci (at a genome-wide significance level of P < 5 × 10⁻⁸) and replicated all previously associated loci. We identified three further new loci in a meta-analysis of data from our study and previously published GWAS results. New candidate genes include STAT4, DENND1B, CD80, IL7R, CXCR5, TNFRSF1A, CLEC16A and NFKB1. This study has considerably expanded our knowledge of the genetic architecture of PBC. PMID:21399635

  7. The spatial prediction of landslide susceptibility applying artificial neural network and logistic regression models: A case study of Inje, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saro, Lee; Woo, Jeon Seong; Kwan-Young, Oh; Moung-Jin, Lee

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to predict landslide susceptibility caused using the spatial analysis by the application of a statistical methodology based on the GIS. Logistic regression models along with artificial neutral network were applied and validated to analyze landslide susceptibility in Inje, Korea. Landslide occurrence area in the study were identified based on interpretations of optical remote sensing data (Aerial photographs) followed by field surveys. A spatial database considering forest, geophysical, soil and topographic data, was built on the study area using the Geographical Information System (GIS). These factors were analysed using artificial neural network (ANN) and logistic regression models to generate a landslide susceptibility map. The study validates the landslide susceptibility map by comparing them with landslide occurrence areas. The locations of landslide occurrence were divided randomly into a training set (50%) and a test set (50%). A training set analyse the landslide susceptibility map using the artificial network along with logistic regression models, and a test set was retained to validate the prediction map. The validation results revealed that the artificial neural network model (with an accuracy of 80.10%) was better at predicting landslides than the logistic regression model (with an accuracy of 77.05%). Of the weights used in the artificial neural network model, `slope' yielded the highest weight value (1.330), and `aspect' yielded the lowest value (1.000). This research applied two statistical analysis methods in a GIS and compared their results. Based on the findings, we were able to derive a more effective method for analyzing landslide susceptibility.

  8. Circadian Gene Variants and Susceptibility to Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, M. Ann; Rees, Simon D.; Hydrie, M. Zafar I.; Shera, A. Samad; Bellary, Srikanth; O’Hare, J. Paul; Kumar, Sudhesh; Taheri, Shahrad; Basit, Abdul; Barnett, Anthony H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Disruption of endogenous circadian rhythms has been shown to increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, suggesting that circadian genes might play a role in determining disease susceptibility. We present the results of a pilot study investigating the association between type 2 diabetes and selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in/near nine circadian genes. The variants were chosen based on their previously reported association with prostate cancer, a disease that has been suggested to have a genetic link with type 2 diabetes through a number of shared inherited risk determinants. Methodology/Principal Findings The pilot study was performed using two genetically homogeneous Punjabi cohorts, one resident in the United Kingdom and one indigenous to Pakistan. Subjects with (N = 1732) and without (N = 1780) type 2 diabetes were genotyped for thirteen circadian variants using a competitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction method. Associations between the SNPs and type 2 diabetes were investigated using logistic regression. The results were also combined with in silico data from other South Asian datasets (SAT2D consortium) and white European cohorts (DIAGRAM+) using meta-analysis. The rs7602358G allele near PER2 was negatively associated with type 2 diabetes in our Punjabi cohorts (combined odds ratio [OR] = 0.75 [0.66–0.86], p = 3.18×10−5), while the BMAL1 rs11022775T allele was associated with an increased risk of the disease (combined OR = 1.22 [1.07–1.39], p = 0.003). Neither of these associations was replicated in the SAT2D or DIAGRAM+ datasets, however. Meta-analysis of all the cohorts identified disease associations with two variants, rs2292912 in CRY2 and rs12315175 near CRY1, although statistical significance was nominal (combined OR = 1.05 [1.01–1.08], p = 0.008 and OR = 0.95 [0.91–0.99], p = 0.015 respectively). Conclusions/significance None of the selected circadian gene

  9. Study on the Humidity Susceptibility of Thin-Film CIGS Absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Pern, F. J.; Egaas, B.; To, B.; Jiang, C. S.; Li, J. V.; Glynn, S.; DeHart, C.

    2010-01-01

    The report summarizes the research on the susceptibility of a thermally co-evaporated CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) thin-film absorber to humidity and its consequence on composition, morphology, electrical and electronic properties, and device efficiency.

  10. The association between RFC1 G80A polymorphism and cancer susceptibility: Evidence from 33 studies

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaoyi; Gao, Yisha; He, Jing; Cai, Jiao; Ta, Na; Jiang, Hui; Zhu, Jinhong; Zheng, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant folate metabolism is closely related to tumorigenesis. Genetic variations in the Reduced folate carrier 1 (RFC1) may alter the progress of folate metabolism, and thereby cause the initiation and progress of the cancer. Considerable studies have performed to investigate the association between RFC1 G80A (rs1051266) polymorphism and cancer susceptibility, but the conclusions were conflicting. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to reevaluate the association of RFC1 G80A polymorphism with cancer risk. PubMed and EMBASE were searched for eligible studies. The association of RFC1 G80A polymorphism and cancer risk was evaluated by the pooled odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The significant association was found between RFC1 G80A polymorphism and hematological malignance susceptibility (A vs. G: OR=1.11, 95%CI=1.003-1.23, P=0.045; GA vs. GG: OR=1.18, 95%CI=1.06-1.31, P=0.002; AA+GA vs. GG: OR=1.18, 95%CI=1.07-1.29, P=0.001). Stratified analysis by ethnicity indicated that the association became more prominent among Caucasians (GA vs. GG: OR=1.28, 95%CI=1.12-1.45, P<0.001; AA+GA vs. GG: OR=1.21, 95%CI=1.08-1.36, P=0.001). In term of the cancer type, this polymorphism significantly increased the risk of acute lymphoblast leukemia (GA vs. GG: OR=1.13, 95%CI=1.001-1.28, P=0.048; AA+GA vs. GG: OR=1.28, 95%CI=1.13-1.46, P<0.001) and acute myeloid leukemia (GA vs. GG: OR=2.57, 95%CI=1.37-4.85, P=0.003). No significant association between RFC1 G80A polymorphism and overall solid cancer risk was observed, but a protective association with digestive cancer risk was found (GA vs. GG: OR=0.89, 95%CI= 0.81-0.99, P=0.030). The comprehensive meta-analysis encouraged the notion that RFC1 G80A polymorphism may play an important role in hematopoietic system malignance. These findings need further validation in the large multicenter investigations. PMID:26819637

  11. Association of Common Susceptibility Variants of Pancreatic Cancer in Higher-Risk Patients: A PACGENE Study.

    PubMed

    Childs, Erica J; Chaffee, Kari G; Gallinger, Steven; Syngal, Sapna; Schwartz, Ann G; Cote, Michele L; Bondy, Melissa L; Hruban, Ralph H; Chanock, Stephen J; Hoover, Robert N; Fuchs, Charles S; Rider, David N; Amundadottir, Laufey T; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Wolpin, Brian M; Risch, Harvey A; Goggins, Michael G; Petersen, Gloria M; Klein, Alison P

    2016-07-01

    Individuals from pancreatic cancer families are at increased risk, not only of pancreatic cancer, but also of melanoma, breast, ovarian, and colon cancers. While some of the increased risk may be due to mutations in high-penetrance genes (i.e., BRCA2, PALB2, ATM, p16/CDKN2A or DNA mismatch repair genes), common genetic variants may also be involved. In a high-risk population of cases with either a family history of pancreatic cancer or early-onset pancreatic cancer (diagnosis before the age of 50 years), we examined the role of genetic variants previously associated with risk of pancreatic, breast, ovarian, or prostate cancer. We genotyped 985 cases (79 early-onset cases, 906 cases with a family history of pancreatic cancer) and 877 controls for 215,389 SNPs using the iSelect Collaborative Oncological Gene-Environment Study (iCOGS) array with custom content. Logistic regression was performed using a log-linear additive model. We replicated several previously reported pancreatic cancer susceptibility loci, including recently identified variants on 2p13.3 and 7p13 (2p13.3, rs1486134: OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.13-1.63; P = 9.29 × 10(-4); 7p13, rs17688601: OR = 0.76; 95% CI, 0.63-0.93; P = 6.59 × 10(-3)). For the replicated loci, the magnitude of association observed in these high-risk patients was similar to that observed in studies of unselected patients. In addition to the established pancreatic cancer loci, we also found suggestive evidence of association (P < 5 × 10(-5)) to pancreatic cancer for SNPs at HDAC9 (7p21.1) and COL6A2 (21q22.3). Even in high-risk populations, common variants influence pancreatic cancer susceptibility. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(7); 1185-91. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27197284

  12. MGMT Leu84Phe Polymorphism Contributes to Cancer Susceptibility: Evidence from 44 Case-Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Cuicui; Sun, Yan; Jia, Chuanliang; Zhang, Lijing; Salahuddin, Taufiq; Li, Xiaodong; Lang, Juntian; Song, Xicheng

    2013-01-01

    Background O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase is one of the few proteins to directly remove alkylating agents in the human DNA direct reversal repair pathway. A large number of case-control studies have been conducted to explore the association between MGMT Leu84Phe polymorphism and cancer risk. However, the results were not consistent. Methods We carried out a meta-analysis of 44 case-control studies to clarify the association between the Leu84Phe polymorphism and cancer risk. Results Overall, significant association of the T allele with cancer susceptibility was verified with meta-analysis under a recessive genetic model (P<0.001, OR=1.30, 95%CI 1.24-1.50) and TT versus CC comparison (P=0.001, OR=1.29, 95% CI 1.12-1.50). In subgroup analysis, a significant increased risk was found for lung cancer (TT versus CC, P=0.027, OR=1.67, 95% CI 1.06-2.63; recessive genetic model, P=0.32, OR=1.64, 95% CI 1.04-2.58), whereas risk of colorectal cancer was significantly low under a dominant genetic model (P=0.019, OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.72-0.97). Additionally, a significant association between TT genetic model and total cancer risk was found in the Caucasian population (TT versus CC, P=0.014, OR=1.29, 95% CI 1.05-1.59; recessive genetic model, P=0.009, OR=1.31, 95% CI 1.07-1.61), but not in the Asian population. An increased risk for lung cancer was also verified in the Caucasian population (TT versus CC, P=0.035, OR=1.62, 95% CI 1.04-2.53; recessive genetic model, P=0.048, OR=1.57, 95% CI 1.01-2.45). Conclusions These results suggest that MGMT Leu84Phe polymorphism might contribute to the susceptibility of certain cancers. PMID:24086516

  13. Genome-wide association study identifies new prostate cancer susceptibility loci

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Siddiq, Afshan; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Wang, Zhaoming; Lindstrom, Sara; Stevens, Victoria L.; Chen, Constance; Mondul, Alison M.; Travis, Ruth C.; Stram, Daniel O.; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Easton, Douglas F.; Giles, Graham; Hopper, John L.; Neal, David E.; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Donovan, Jenny L.; Muir, Kenneth; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Guy, Michelle; Severi, Gianluca; Grönberg, Henrik; Isaacs, William B.; Karlsson, Robert; Wiklund, Fredrik; Xu, Jianfeng; Allen, Naomi E.; Andriole, Gerald L.; Barricarte, Aurelio; Boeing, Heiner; Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.; Crawford, E. David; Diver, W. Ryan; Gonzalez, Carlos A.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Johansson, Mattias; Le Marchand, Loic; Ma, Jing; Sieri, Sabina; Stattin, Pär; Stampfer, Meir J.; Tjonneland, Anne; Vineis, Paolo; Virtamo, Jarmo; Vogel, Ulla; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Yeager, Meredith; Thun, Michael J.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Albanes, Demetrius; Hayes, Richard B.; Spencer Feigelson, Heather; Riboli, Elio; Hunter, David J.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Kraft, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PrCa) is the most common non-skin cancer diagnosed among males in developed countries and the second leading cause of cancer mortality, yet little is known regarding its etiology and factors that influence clinical outcome. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of PrCa have identified at least 30 distinct loci associated with small differences in risk. We conducted a GWAS in 2782 advanced PrCa cases (Gleason grade ≥ 8 or tumor stage C/D) and 4458 controls with 571 243 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Based on in silico replication of 4679 SNPs (Stage 1, P < 0.02) in two published GWAS with 7358 PrCa cases and 6732 controls, we identified a new susceptibility locus associated with overall PrCa risk at 2q37.3 (rs2292884, P= 4.3 × 10−8). We also confirmed a locus suggested by an earlier GWAS at 12q13 (rs902774, P= 8.6 × 10−9). The estimated per-allele odds ratios for these loci (1.14 for rs2292884 and 1.17 for rs902774) did not differ between advanced and non-advanced PrCa (case-only test for heterogeneity P= 0.72 and P= 0.61, respectively). Further studies will be needed to assess whether these or other loci are differentially associated with PrCa subtypes. PMID:21743057

  14. Neonatal candidaemia in Kuwait: a 12-year study of risk factors, species spectrum and antifungal susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Al-Sweih, Noura; Khan, Ziauddin; Khan, Seema; Devarajan, L V

    2009-11-01

    A study of candidaemia in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) over a 12-year period (1995-2006) taking into consideration demographic variables, risk factors, aetiological Candida species and therapeutic outcomes is presented. The yeast isolates were identified by VITEK2 yeast identification system and antifungal susceptibility was determined by E-test. Of 4815 neonates admitted in NICU, 182 cases of candidaemia were detected with an overall prevalence of 4.0% and crude mortality of 27.7%. The annual rate of candidaemia per 1000 admissions was the highest in 1997 (84 cases) and the lowest in 2004 (10 cases). Of the 112 assessable candidaemia cases, 78 (70%) occurred in very low birth weight neonates (< or =1500 g), 65 (58%) were born with gestational age of < or =30 weeks. The main identifiable risk factors were use of > or =2 antibiotics (87%), total parenteral nutrition for >5 days (82%), placement of central venous catheter (78%) and prior colonisation with Candida species (54%). Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida species accounted for 43% and 57% of candidaemia cases, respectively, and C. parapsilosis emerged as a predominant species. No fluconazole resistance was observed in C. albicans and C. parapsilosis isolates. This is the first comprehensive study on the epidemiology of neonatal candidiasis in Kuwait. PMID:18983425

  15. Susceptibility Genes for Multiple Sclerosis Identified in a Gene-Based Genome-Wide Association Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiang; Deng, Fei-Yan; Lu, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to identify more genes associated with MS. Methods Based on the publicly available data of the single-nucleotide polymorphism-based genome-wide association study (GWAS) from the database of Genotypes and Phenotypes, we conducted a powerful gene-based GWAS in an initial sample with 931 family trios, and a replication study sample with 978 cases and 883 controls. For interesting genes, gene expression in MS-related cells between MS cases and controls was examined by using publicly available datasets. Results A total of 58 genes was identified, including 20 "novel" genes significantly associated with MS (p<1.40×10-4). In the replication study, 44 of the 58 identified genes had been genotyped and 35 replicated the association. In the gene-expression study, 21 of the 58 identified genes exhibited differential expressions in MS-related cells. Thus, 15 novel genes were supported by replicated association and/or differential expression. In particular, four of the novel genes, those encoding myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), coiled-coil alpha-helical rod protein 1 (CCHCR1), human leukocyte antigen complex group 22 (HCG22), and major histocompatibility complex, class II, DM alpha (HLA-DMA), were supported by the evidence of both. Conclusions The results of this study emphasize the high power of gene-based GWAS in detecting the susceptibility genes of MS. The novel genes identified herein may provide new insights into the molecular genetic mechanisms underlying MS. PMID:26320842

  16. Rationale for an international consortium to study inherited genetic susceptibility to childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Sherborne, Amy L.; Hemminki, Kari; Kumar, Rajiv; Bartram, Claus R.; Stanulla, Martin; Schrappe, Martin; Petridou, Eleni; Semsei, Ágnes F.; Szalai, Csaba; Sinnett, Daniel; Krajinovic, Maja; Healy, Jasmine; Lanciotti, Marina; Dufour, Carlo; Indaco, Stefania; El-Ghouroury, Eman A; Sawangpanich, Ruchchadol; Hongeng, Suradej; Pakakasama, Samart; Gonzalez-Neira, Anna; Ugarte, Evelia L.; Leal, Valeria P.; Espinoza, Juan P.M.; Kamel, Azza M.; Ebid, Gamal T.A.; Radwan, Eman R.; Yalin, Serap; Yalin, Erdinc; Berkoz, Mehmet; Simpson, Jill; Roman, Eve; Lightfoot, Tracy; Hosking, Fay J.; Vijayakrishnan, Jayaram; Greaves, Mel; Houlston, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the major pediatric cancer in developed countries. To date most association studies of acute lymphoblastic leukemia have been based on the candidate gene approach and have evaluated a restricted number of polymorphisms. Such studies have served to highlight difficulties in conducting statistically and methodologically rigorous investigations into acute lymphoblastic leukemia risk. Recent genome-wide association studies of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia have provided robust evidence that common variation at four genetic loci confers a modest increase in risk. The accumulated experience to date and relative lack of success of initial efforts to identify novel acute lymphoblastic leukemia predisposition loci emphasize the need for alternative study designs and methods. The International Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia Genetics Consortium includes 12 research groups in Europe, Asia, the Middle East and the Americas engaged in studying the genetics of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The initial goal of this consortium is to identify and characterize low-penetrance susceptibility variants for acute lymphoblastic leukemia through association-based analyses. Efforts to develop genome-wide association studies of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, in terms of both sample size and single nucleotide polymorphism coverage, and to increase the number of single nucleotide polymorphisms taken forward to large-scale replication should lead to the identification of additional novel risk variants for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Ethnic differences in the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia are well recognized and thus in assessing the interplay between inherited and non-genetic risk factors, analyses using different population cohorts with different incidence rates are likely to be highly informative. Given that the frequency of many acute lymphoblastic leukemia subgroups is small, identifying differential effects will realistically only be

  17. Exploiting the Temperature Dependence of Magnetic Susceptibility to Control Convection in Fundamental Studies of Solidification Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seybert, C. D.; Evans, J. W.; Leslie, Fred; Jones, W. K., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    It is well known that convection is a dominant mass transport mechanism when materials are solidified on Earth's surface. This convection is caused by gradients in density (and therefore gravitational force) that are brought about by gradients in temperature, composition or both. Diffusion of solute is therefore dwarfed by convection and the study of fundamental parameters, such as dendrite tip shape and growth velocity in the absence of convection is nearly impossible. Significant experimental work has therefore been carried out in orbiting laboratories with the intent of minimizing convection by minimizing gravity. One of the best known experiments of this kind is the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE), supported by NASA. Naturally such experiments are costly and one objective of the present investigation is to develop an experimental method whereby convection can be- halted, in solidification and other experiments, on the surface. A second objective is to use the method to minimize convection resulting from the residual accelerations suffered by experiments in microgravity. The method to be used to minimize convection relies on the dependence of the magnetic susceptibility of a fluid on temperature or composition (whichever is driving convection). All materials experience a force when placed in a magnetic field gradient. The direction and magnitude of that force depend on the magnetic susceptibility of the material. Consequently the force will vary if the susceptibility varies with temperature or composition. With a magnetic field gradient in the right direction (typically upward) and of the right magnitude, this variation in the magnetic force can be made to exactly cancel the variation in the gravitational force. Expressed another way, normal buoyancy is exactly countered by a "magnetic buoyancy". To demonstrate the principle, a solution of MnC12 in water has been used. First the variation of the susceptibility of this paramagnetic solution with

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiling and genomic diversity of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates: A study in western Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mohajeri, Parviz; Farahani, Abbas; Feizabadi, Mohammad Mehdi; Ketabi, Hosnieh; Abiri, Ramin; Najafi, Farid

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective Acinetobacter baumannii is an aerobic non-motile Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that is resistant to most antibiotics. Carbapenems are the most common antibiotics for the treatment of infections caused by this pathogen. Mechanisms of antibiotic-resistance in A. baumannii are mainly mediated by efflux pumps-lactamases. The aim of this study was to determine antibiotic susceptibility, the possibility of existence of OXAs genes and fingerprinting by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) among clinical isolates of Acinetobacter collected from Kermanshah hospitals. Materials and Methods One hundred and four isolates were collected from patients attending Imam Reza, Taleghani and Imam Khomeini hospitals of Kermanshah (Iran). Isolates were identified by biochemical tests and API 20NE kit. The susceptibility to different antibiotics was assessed with Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. PCR was performed for detection of bla OXA-23, bla OXA-24, bla OXA-51 and bla OXA-58 beta-lactamase genes. Clonal relatedness was estimated by PFGE (with the restriction enzyme Apa I) and DNA patterns were analyzed by Gel compare II 6.5 software. Results All isolates showed high-level of resistance to imipenem, meropenem as well as to other antimicrobial agents, while no resistance to polymyxin B, colistin, tigecylcine and minocycline was observed. The bla OXA-23like and bla OXA-24 like were found among 77.9% and 19.2% of the isolates, respectively. All isolates were positive for bla OXA-51, but none produced any amplicon for bla OXA-58. PFGE genotype analysis suggested the existence of eight clones among the 104 strains [A (n = 35), B (n = 29), C (n = 19), D (n = 10), E (n = 4), F (n = 3), G (n = 3), H (n = 1)]. Clone A was the dominant clone in hospital settings particularly infection wards so that the isolates in this group, compared to the other clones, showed higher levels of resistance to antibiotics. Conclusion The bla OXA-51-like and bla OXA-23like were

  19. Common genetic variation and susceptibility to partial epilepsies: a genome-wide association study

    PubMed Central

    Kasperavičiūtė, Dalia; Catarino, Claudia B.; Heinzen, Erin L.; Depondt, Chantal; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Caboclo, Luis O.; Tate, Sarah K.; Jamnadas-Khoda, Jenny; Chinthapalli, Krishna; Clayton, Lisa M.S.; Shianna, Kevin V.; Radtke, Rodney A.; Mikati, Mohamad A.; Gallentine, William B.; Husain, Aatif M.; Alhusaini, Saud; Leppert, David; Middleton, Lefkos T.; Gibson, Rachel A.; Johnson, Michael R.; Matthews, Paul M.; Hosford, David; Heuser, Kjell; Amos, Leslie; Ortega, Marcos; Zumsteg, Dominik; Wieser, Heinz-Gregor; Steinhoff, Bernhard J.; Krämer, Günter; Hansen, Jörg; Dorn, Thomas; Kantanen, Anne-Mari; Gjerstad, Leif; Peuralinna, Terhi; Hernandez, Dena G.; Eriksson, Kai J.; Kälviäinen, Reetta K.; Doherty, Colin P.; Wood, Nicholas W.; Pandolfo, Massimo; Duncan, John S.; Sander, Josemir W.; Delanty, Norman

    2010-01-01

    Partial epilepsies have a substantial heritability. However, the actual genetic causes are largely unknown. In contrast to many other common diseases for which genetic association-studies have successfully revealed common variants associated with disease risk, the role of common variation in partial epilepsies has not yet been explored in a well-powered study. We undertook a genome-wide association-study to identify common variants which influence risk for epilepsy shared amongst partial epilepsy syndromes, in 3445 patients and 6935 controls of European ancestry. We did not identify any genome-wide significant association. A few single nucleotide polymorphisms may warrant further investigation. We exclude common genetic variants with effect sizes above a modest 1.3 odds ratio for a single variant as contributors to genetic susceptibility shared across the partial epilepsies. We show that, at best, common genetic variation can only have a modest role in predisposition to the partial epilepsies when considered across syndromes in Europeans. The genetic architecture of the partial epilepsies is likely to be very complex, reflecting genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity. Larger meta-analyses are required to identify variants of smaller effect sizes (odds ratio <1.3) or syndrome-specific variants. Further, our results suggest research efforts should also be directed towards identifying the multiple rare variants likely to account for at least part of the heritability of the partial epilepsies. Data emerging from genome-wide association-studies will be valuable during the next serious challenge of interpreting all the genetic variation emerging from whole-genome sequencing studies. PMID:20522523

  20. A genome-wide association study identifies four novel susceptibility loci underlying inguinal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Jorgenson, Eric; Makki, Nadja; Shen, Ling; Chen, David C.; Tian, Chao; Eckalbar, Walter L.; Hinds, David; Ahituv, Nadav; Avins, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Inguinal hernia repair is one of the most commonly performed operations in the world, yet little is known about the genetic mechanisms that predispose individuals to develop inguinal hernias. We perform a genome-wide association analysis of surgically confirmed inguinal hernias in 72,805 subjects (5,295 cases and 67,510 controls) and confirm top associations in an independent cohort of 92,444 subjects with self-reported hernia repair surgeries (9,701 cases and 82,743 controls). We identify four novel inguinal hernia susceptibility loci in the regions of EFEMP1, WT1, EBF2 and ADAMTS6. Moreover, we observe expression of all four genes in mouse connective tissue and network analyses show an important role for two of these genes (EFEMP1 and WT1) in connective tissue maintenance/homoeostasis. Our findings provide insight into the aetiology of hernia development and highlight genetic pathways for studies of hernia development and its treatment. PMID:26686553

  1. Enamel crystals of mice susceptible or resistant to dental fluorosis: an AFM study

    PubMed Central

    BUZALAF, Marília Afonso Rabelo; BARBOSA, Carolina Silveira; LEITE, Aline de Lima; CHANG, Sywe-Ren; LIU, Jun; CZAJKA-JAKUBOWSKA, Agata; CLARKSON, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess the overall apatite crystals profile in the enamel matrix of mice susceptible (A/J strain) or resistant (129P3/J strain) to dental fluorosis through analyses by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Material and Methods Samples from the enamel matrix in the early stages of secretion and maturation were obtained from the incisors of mice from both strains. All detectable traces of matrix protein were removed from the samples by a sequential extraction procedure. The purified crystals (n=13 per strain) were analyzed qualitatively in the AFM. Surface roughness profile (Ra) was measured. Results The mean (±SD) Ra of the crystals of A/J strain (0.58±0.15 nm) was lower than the one found for the 129P3/J strain (0.66±0.21 nm) but the difference did not reach statistical significance (t=1.187, p=0.247). Crystals of the 129P3/J strain (70.42±6.79 nm) were found to be significantly narrower (t=4.013, p=0.0013) than the same parameter measured for the A/J strain (90.42±15.86 nm). Conclusion Enamel crystals of the 129P3/J strain are narrower, which is indicative of slower crystal growth and could interfere in the occurrence of dental fluorosis. PMID:25025555

  2. Genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for glioma

    PubMed Central

    Kinnersley, Ben; Labussière, Marianne; Holroyd, Amy; Di Stefano, Anna-Luisa; Broderick, Peter; Vijayakrishnan, Jayaram; Mokhtari, Karima; Delattre, Jean-Yves; Gousias, Konstantinos; Schramm, Johannes; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; Fleming, Sarah J.; Herms, Stefan; Heilmann, Stefanie; Schreiber, Stefan; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Nöthen, Markus M.; Swerdlow, Anthony; Lathrop, Mark; Simon, Matthias; Bondy, Melissa; Sanson, Marc; Houlston, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    Previous genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have shown that common genetic variation contributes to the heritable risk of glioma. To identify new glioma susceptibility loci, we conducted a meta-analysis of four GWAS (totalling 4,147 cases and 7,435 controls), with imputation using 1000 Genomes and UK10K Project data as reference. After genotyping an additional 1,490 cases and 1,723 controls we identify new risk loci for glioblastoma (GBM) at 12q23.33 (rs3851634, near POLR3B, P=3.02 × 10−9) and non-GBM at 10q25.2 (rs11196067, near VTI1A, P=4.32 × 10−8), 11q23.2 (rs648044, near ZBTB16, P=6.26 × 10−11), 12q21.2 (rs12230172, P=7.53 × 10−11) and 15q24.2 (rs1801591, near ETFA, P=5.71 × 10−9). Our findings provide further insights into the genetic basis of the different glioma subtypes. PMID:26424050

  3. Genome-wide association study identifies new susceptibility loci for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in Chinese girls

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zezhang; Tang, Nelson Leung-Sang; Xu, Leilei; Qin, Xiaodong; Mao, Saihu; Song, Yueming; Liu, Limin; Li, Fangcai; Liu, Peng; Yi, Long; Chang, Jiang; Jiang, Long; Ng, Bobby Kin-Wah; Shi, Benlong; Zhang, Wen; Qiao, Jun; Sun, Xu; Qiu, Xusheng; Wang, Zhou; Wang, Fei; Xie, Dingding; Chen, Ling; Chen, Zhonghui; Jin, Mengran; Han, Xiao; Hu, Zongshan; Zhang, Zhen; Liu, Zhen; Zhu, Feng; Qian, Bang-ping; Yu, Yang; Wang, Bing; Lee, K. M.; Lee, Wayne Y.W.; Lam, T. P.; Qiu, Yong; Cheng, Jack Chun-Yiu

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a structural deformity of the spine affecting millions of children. As a complex disease, the genetic aetiology of AIS remains obscure. Here we report the results of a four-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) conducted in a sample of 4,317 AIS patients and 6,016 controls. Overall, we identify three new susceptibility loci at 1p36.32 near AJAP1 (rs241215, Pcombined=2.95 × 10−9), 2q36.1 between PAX3 and EPHA4 (rs13398147, Pcombined=7.59 × 10−13) and 18q21.33 near BCL-2 (rs4940576, Pcombined=2.22 × 10−12). In addition, we refine a previously reported region associated with AIS at 10q24.32 (rs678741, Pcombined=9.68 × 10−37), which suggests LBX1AS1, encoding an antisense transcript of LBX1, might be a functional variant of AIS. This is the first GWAS investigating genetic variants associated with AIS in Chinese population, and the findings provide new insight into the multiple aetiological mechanisms of AIS. PMID:26394188

  4. An adapted Coffey model for studying susceptibility losses in interacting magnetic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Osaci, Mihaela

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background: Nanoparticles can be used in biomedical applications, such as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging, in tumor therapy or against cardiovascular diseases. Single-domain nanoparticles dissipate heat through susceptibility losses in two modes: Néel relaxation and Brownian relaxation. Results: Since a consistent theory for the Néel relaxation time that is applicable to systems of interacting nanoparticles has not yet been developed, we adapted the Coffey theoretical model for the Néel relaxation time in external magnetic fields in order to consider local dipolar magnetic fields. Then, we obtained the effective relaxation time. The effective relaxation time is further used for obtaining values of specific loss power (SLP) through linear response theory (LRT). A comparative analysis between our model and the discrete orientation model, more often used in literature, and a comparison with experimental data from literature have been carried out, in order to choose the optimal magnetic parameters of a nanoparticle system. Conclusion: In this way, we can study effects of the nanoparticle concentration on SLP in an acceptable range of frequencies and amplitudes of external magnetic fields for biomedical applications, especially for tumor therapy by magnetic hyperthermia. PMID:26665090

  5. Dense fine-mapping study identifies new susceptibility loci for primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jimmy Z; Almarri, Mohamed A; Gaffney, Daniel J; Mells, George F; Jostins, Luke; Cordell, Heather J; Ducker, Samantha J; Day, Darren B; Heneghan, Michael A; Neuberger, James M; Donaldson, Peter T; Bathgate, Andrew J; Burroughs, Andrew; Davies, Mervyn H; Jones, David E; Alexander, Graeme J; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Sandford, Richard N; Anderson, Carl A

    2012-10-01

    We genotyped 2,861 cases of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) from the UK PBC Consortium and 8,514 UK population controls across 196,524 variants within 186 known autoimmune risk loci. We identified 3 loci newly associated with PBC (at P<5×10(-8)), increasing the number of known susceptibility loci to 25. The most associated variant at 19p12 is a low-frequency nonsynonymous SNP in TYK2, further implicating JAK-STAT and cytokine signaling in disease pathogenesis. An additional five loci contained nonsynonymous variants in high linkage disequilibrium (LD; r2>0.8) with the most associated variant at the locus. We found multiple independent common, low-frequency and rare variant association signals at five loci. Of the 26 independent non-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) signals tagged on the Immunochip, 15 have SNPs in B-lymphoblastoid open chromatin regions in high LD (r2>0.8) with the most associated variant. This study shows how data from dense fine-mapping arrays coupled with functional genomic data can be used to identify candidate causal variants for functional follow-up. PMID:22961000

  6. Experimentally-Measured Susceptibility to Peer Influence and Adolescent Sexual Behavior Trajectories: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Giletta, Matteo; Widman, Laura; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2014-01-01

    A performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between peer norms and trajectories of adolescents' number of sexual intercourse partners. Seventy-one 9th grade adolescents (52% female) participated in an experimental “chat room” paradigm involving “e-confederates” who endorsed sexual risk behaviors. Changes in participants' responses to risk scenarios before versus during the “chat room” were used as a performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility. Participants reported their perceptions of popular peers' number of sexual intercourse partner sat baseline, and self-reported their number of sexual intercourse partners at baseline and 6, 12, and 18 months later. Susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between perceptions of popular peers' number of sexual intercourse partners and trajectories of adolescents' own numbers of partners. High perceptions of the number of popular peers' sexual intercourse partners combined with high peer influence susceptibility predicted steeper longitudinal trajectories of adolescents' number of partners. Results provide novel preliminary evidence regarding the importance of peer influence susceptibility in adolescents' development of sexual behaviors. PMID:24999763

  7. Experimentally measured susceptibility to peer influence and adolescent sexual behavior trajectories: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Giletta, Matteo; Widman, Laura; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2014-09-01

    A performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between peer norms and trajectories of adolescents' number of sexual intercourse partners. Seventy-one 9th grade adolescents (52% female) participated in an experimental "chat room" paradigm involving "e-confederates" who endorsed sexual risk behaviors. Changes in participants' responses to risk scenarios before versus during the "chat room" were used as a performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility. Participants reported their perceptions of popular peers' number of sexual intercourse partners at baseline and self-reported their number of sexual intercourse partners at baseline and 6, 12, and 18 months later. Susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between perceptions of popular peers' number of sexual intercourse partners and trajectories of adolescents' own numbers of partners. High perceptions of the number of popular peers' sexual intercourse partners combined with high peer influence susceptibility predicted steeper longitudinal trajectories of adolescents' number of partners. Results provide novel preliminary evidence regarding the importance of peer influence susceptibility in adolescents' development of sexual behaviors. PMID:24999763

  8. Investigation on host susceptibility of Tibetan pig to infection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus through viral challenge study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Runmin; Ji, Gaosheng; Yang, Xin; Lv, Xuebing; Zhang, Yi; Ge, Mengyun; Pan, Yun; Li, Qingzhou; Wang, Hongning; Zeng, Fanya

    2016-02-01

    Previous reports showed that infection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) stimulated a variable host response and pig susceptibility to PRRSV was largely dependent on its genetic composition. In the present study, host susceptibility of Tibetan pig to PRRSV was compared with other two pig breeds, ZangMei black and Large White, by challenge of them with highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV). In the first challenge test, each eight piglets of the three breeds were inoculated with HP-PRRSV and clinical symptoms, viremia and animal mortality were examined up to 28 days post inoculation (DPI). In the secondary pathological study, each twelve piglets of the three breeds were challenged and three pigs of each breed were sacrificed on 4, 7, and 14 DPI for examination of gross damage and lung microscopic lesions. The results showed that no typical clinical signs such as cough, diarrhea and high fever were observed in challenged Tibetan pigs, which however all occurred in Large White accompanied with ∼40% mortality (3/8). In addition, a significant low and short viremia was detected specifically in Tibetan pigs. Based on histopathological analysis of lung sections, a mild to moderate interstitial pneumonia in Tibetan pigs and a much severe pneumonia in Large White were identified on 7-14 DPI. In summary, the study demonstrated that three genetically different pig breeds exhibited a differential host susceptibility to HP-PRRSV and Tibetan pig was much less susceptible to the virus in the three tested pig breeds. PMID:26790936

  9. Genome-wide Association Study Identifies New Susceptibility Loci for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Pingxing; Kranzler, Henry R.; Yang, Can; Zhao, Hongyu; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Gelernter, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Background Genetic factors influence the risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a potentially chronic and disabling psychiatric disorder that can arise after exposure to trauma. Candidate gene association studies have identified few genetic variants that contribute to PTSD risk. Methods We conducted genome-wide association analyses in 1578 European Americans (EAs), including 300 PTSD cases, and 2766 African Americans, including 444 PTSD cases, to find novel common risk alleles for PTSD. We used the Illumina Omni1-Quad microarray, which yielded approximately 870,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) suitable for analysis. Results In EAs, we observed that one SNP on chromosome 7p12, rs406001, exceeded genome-wide significance (p = 3.97×10−8). A SNP that maps to the first intron of the Tolloid-Like 1 gene (TLL1) showed the second strongest evidence of association, although no SNPs at this locus reached genome-wide significance. We then tested six SNPs in an independent sample of nearly 2000 EAs and successfully replicated the association findings for two SNPs in the first intron of TLL1, rs6812849 and rs7691872, with p values of 6.3×10−6 and 2.3×10−4, respectively. In the combined sample, rs6812849 had a p value of 3.1 ×10−9. No significant signals were observed in the African American part of the sample. Genome-wide association study analyses restricted to trauma-exposed individuals yielded very similar results. Conclusions This study identified TLL1 as a new susceptibility gene for PTSD. PMID:23726511

  10. Association study of IGF1 polymorphisms with susceptibility to high myopia in a Japanese population

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Masao; Meguro, Akira; Yoshino, Atsushi; Nomura, Naoko; Okada, Eiichi; Mizuki, Nobuhisa

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Polymorphisms in the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) gene were previously associated with high or extreme myopia in Caucasian and Chinese populations. In the present study, we investigated whether IGF1 polymorphisms are associated with high myopia in a Japanese population. Methods A total of 446 Japanese patients with high myopia (≤−9.00 diopters) and 481 Japanese healthy controls (+1.50 diopters to −1.50 diopters) were recruited. We genotyped seven tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IGF1 and assessed allelic and haplotypic diversity in cases and controls. Results There were no statistically significant differences in the allele frequencies of IGF1 SNPs and genotypes between cases and controls (P>0.05). However, the A allele of rs5742629 and the G allele of rs12423791 were associated with a moderately increased risk of high myopia (odds ratio [OR] =1.20 and OR =1.21, respectively) with borderline statistical significance (P=0.0502, corrected P (Pc) =0.21 and P=0.064, Pc=0.29, respectively). The haplotype consisting of the A allele of rs5742629 and the G allele of rs12423791 was marginally associated with the risk of high myopia (P=0.041; OR =1.21); this association was not significant after correction (Pc=0.19). Conclusion We found that the IGF1 SNPs are not significantly associated with high myopia in our Japanese population. Our results are in contrast to a previous study in which extreme myopia cases had significantly higher frequencies of the G allele of rs5742629 and the C allele of rs12423791 than controls. Therefore, the IGF1 SNPs may not be important factors for susceptibility to high myopia in all populations. Further genetic studies are needed to elucidate the possible contributions of the IGF1 region to the development of high myopia. PMID:24204106

  11. Genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wolpin, Brian M.; Rizzato, Cosmeri; Kraft, Peter; Kooperberg, Charles; Petersen, Gloria M.; Wang, Zhaoming; Arslan, Alan A.; Beane-Freeman, Laura; Bracci, Paige M.; Buring, Julie; Canzian, Federico; Duell, Eric J.; Gallinger, Steven; Giles, Graham G.; Goodman, Gary E.; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Jacobs, Eric J.; Kamineni, Aruna; Klein, Alison P.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kulke, Matthew H.; Li, Donghui; Malats, Núria; Olson, Sara H.; Risch, Harvey A.; Sesso, Howard D.; Visvanathan, Kala; White, Emily; Zheng, Wei; Abnet, Christian C.; Albanes, Demetrius; Andreotti, Gabriella; Austin, Melissa A.; Barfield, Richard; Basso, Daniela; Berndt, Sonja I.; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Brotzman, Michelle; Büchler, Markus W.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Bugert, Peter; Burdette, Laurie; Campa, Daniele; Caporaso, Neil E.; Capurso, Gabriele; Chung, Charles; Cotterchio, Michelle; Costello, Eithne; Elena, Joanne; Funel, Niccola; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giese, Nathalia A.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Goggins, Michael; Gorman, Megan J.; Gross, Myron; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hassan, Manal; Helzlsouer, Kathy J.; Henderson, Brian E.; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Hu, Nan; Hunter, David J.; Innocenti, Federico; Jenab, Mazda; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Klein, Eric A.; Kogevinas, Manolis; Krogh, Vittorio; Kupcinskas, Juozas; Kurtz, Robert C.; LaCroix, Andrea; Landi, Maria T.; Landi, Stefano; Le Marchand, Loic; Mambrini, Andrea; Mannisto, Satu; Milne, Roger L.; Nakamura, Yusuke; Oberg, Ann L.; Owzar, Kouros; Patel, Alpa V.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Peters, Ulrike; Pezzilli, Raffaele; Piepoli, Ada; Porta, Miquel; Real, Francisco X.; Riboli, Elio; Rothman, Nathaniel; Scarpa, Aldo; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Silverman, Debra T.; Soucek, Pavel; Sund, Malin; Talar-Wojnarowska, Renata; Taylor, Philip R.; Theodoropoulos, George E.; Thornquist, Mark; Tjønneland, Anne; Tobias, Geoffrey S.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Vodicka, Pavel; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wu, Chen; Yu, Herbert; Yu, Kai; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Hoover, Robert; Hartge, Patricia; Fuchs, Charles; Chanock, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    We performed a multistage genome-wide association study (GWAS) including 7,683 individuals with pancreatic cancer and 14,397 controls of European descent. Four new loci reached genome-wide significance: rs6971499 at 7q32.3 (LINC-PINT; per-allele odds ratio [OR] = 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.74–0.84; P = 3.0×10−12), rs7190458 at 16q23.1 (BCAR1/CTRB1/CTRB2; OR = 1.46; 95% CI = 1.30–1.65; P = 1.1×10−10), rs9581943 at 13q12.2 (PDX1; OR = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.10–1.20; P = 2.4×10−9), and rs16986825 at 22q12.1 (ZNRF3; OR = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.12–1.25; P = 1.2×10−8). An independent signal was identified in exon 2 of TERT at the established region 5p15.33 (rs2736098; OR = 0.80; 95% CI = 0.76–0.85; P = 9.8×10−14). We also identified a locus at 8q24.21 (rs1561927; P = 1.3×10−7) that approached genome-wide significance located 455 kb telomeric of PVT1. Our study has identified multiple new susceptibility alleles for pancreatic cancer worthy of follow-up studies. PMID:25086665

  12. High fidelity nanohole enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    SciTech Connect

    Bahns, J. T.; Guo, Q.; Gray, S. K.; Jaeger, H. M.; Chen, L.; Montgomery, J. M.; Univ. of Chicago

    2009-01-01

    Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a sensitive technique that can even detect single molecules. However, in many SERS applications, the strongly inhomogeneous distribution of intense local fields makes it very difficult for a quantitive assessment of the fidelity, or reproducibility of the signal, which limits the application of SERS. Herein, we report the development of exceptionally high-fidelity hole-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (HERS) from ordered, 2D hexagonal nanohole arrays. We take the fidelity f to be a measure of the percent deviation of the Raman peaks from measurement to measurement. Overall, area averaged fidelities for 12 gold array samples ranged from f {approx} 2-15% for HERS using aqueous R6G molecules. Furthermore, intensity modulations of the enhanced Raman spectra were measured for the first time as a function of polarization angle. The best of these measurements, which focus on static laser spots on the sample, could be consistent with even higher fidelities than the area-averaged results. Nanohole arrays in silver provided supporting polarization measurements and a more complete enhanced Raman fingerprint for phenylalanine molecules. We also carried out finite-difference time-domain calculations to assist in the interpretation of the experiments, identifying the polarization dependence as possibly arising from hole-hole interactions. Our results represent a step toward making quantitative and reproducible enhanced Raman measurements possible and also open new avenues for a large-scale source of highly uniform hot spots.

  13. [Study of phenotypical and antimicrobial susceptibility markers in enteric Escherichia coli strains].

    PubMed

    Aguila, Adalberto; Bernedo, Robert; Llop, Alina; Ramírez, Margarita; Bravo, Laura; Fernández, Anabel; Ledo, Yudith

    2007-01-01

    Forty strains of Escherichia coli isolated from children under 5 years of age with acute diarreas, coming from different provinces of the country , were analyzed. Four important phenotypical determinants were tested: sorbosa, sorbitol, enterohemolysin and 0157:H7 serology, in order to select those strains from enterohemorrhagic or Shiga toxin-producing category. Likewise, they were characterized by biotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility methods. The use of phenotypical tests showed six strains with presumptive characteristics, four of which were most likely to be Shiga toxin-producing strains. In antimicrobial susceptibility test, the strains showed high resistance mainly to ampicillin and trimethrophin-sulfamethoxasole. Another interesting finding were intermediate resistance and susceptibility values to augmentin, aztreonan and ceftriaxone. There were 12 antimicrobial resistance patterns of which 10 were multi-resistant. PMID:23427442

  14. High density genotyping study identifies four new susceptibility loci for atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Ellinghaus, David; Baurecht, Hansjörg; Esparza-Gordillo, Jorge; Rodríguez, Elke; Matanovic, Anja; Marenholz, Ingo; Hübner, Norbert; Schaarschmidt, Heidi; Novak, Natalija; Michel, Sven; Maintz, Laura; Werfel, Thomas; Meyer-Hoffert, Ulf; Hotze, Melanie; Prokisch, Holger; Heim, Katharina; Herder, Christian; Hirota, Tomomitsu; Tamari, Mayumi; Kubo, Michiaki; Takahashi, Atsushi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Tsoi, Lam C; Stuart, Philip; Elder, James T; Sun, Liangdan; Zuo, Xianbo; Yang, Sen; Zhang, Xuejun; Hoffmann, Per; Nöthen, Markus M; Fölster-Holst, Regina; Winkelmann, Juliane; Illig, Thomas; Boehm, Bernhard O; Duerr, Richard H; Büning, Carsten; Brand, Stephan; Glas, Jürgen; McAleer, Maeve A; Fahy, Caoimhe M; Kabesch, Michael; Brown, Sara J; McLean, WH Irwin; Irvine, Alan D; Schreiber, Stefan; Lee, Young-Ae; Franke, Andre; Weidinger, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common inflammatory skin disease with a strong heritable component. Pathogenetic models consider keratinocyte differentiation defects and immune alterations as scaffolds1, and recent data indicate a role for autoreactivity in at least a subgroup of patients2. With filaggrin (FLG) a major locus causing a skin barrier deficiency was identified3. To better define risk variants and identify additional susceptibility loci, we densely genotyped 2,425 German cases and 5,449 controls using the Immunochip array, followed by replication in 7,196 cases and 15,480 controls from Germany, Ireland, Japan and China. We identified 4 new susceptibility loci for atopic dermatitis and replicated previous associations. This brings the number of atopic dermatitis risk loci reported in individuals of European ancestry to 11. We estimate that these susceptibility loci together account for 14.4% of the heritability for atopic dermatitis. PMID:23727859

  15. High-fidelity simulation and safety: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Jennifer E

    2013-01-01

    Previous reviews of simulation relating to critical thinking and efficacy called for more research on the effects of simulation and safety. Safety, as a skill performance outcome of high-fidelity simulation, is reviewed. Data included studies of nursing education that linked safety dimensions with high-fidelity simulation at all student levels. Only primary sources published since 2007 were included. This integrative review evaluates data using scores to assign value to the evidence, analyzes data within categories defined as safety behaviors, and compares evidence using a matrix of factors and outcomes. Definitions of safety and measurement tools are critiqued. Findings reveal that simulation-enhanced clinical experiences may decrease medication errors. Any evidence about perceived improvement in safer communication has not been translated into practice. Knowledge and attitudes of safety may be improved with simulation, depending on the students' educational levels. More comparative studies are needed to support theoretical models of simulation. PMID:23181458

  16. How to Measure Motivational Interviewing Fidelity in Randomized Controlled Trials: Practical Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Jelsma, Judith G M; Mertens, Vera-Christina; Forsberg, Lisa; Forsberg, Lars

    2015-07-01

    Many randomized controlled trials in which motivational interviewing (MI) is a key intervention make no provision for the assessment of treatment fidelity. This methodological shortcoming makes it impossible to distinguish between high- and low-quality MI interventions, and, consequently, to know whether MI provision has contributed to any intervention effects. This article makes some practical recommendations for the collection, selection, coding and reporting of MI fidelity data, as measured using the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity Code. We hope that researchers will consider these recommendations and include MI fidelity measures in future studies. PMID:25962891

  17. Recommendations on Model Fidelity for Wind Turbine Gearbox Simulations; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.; Lacava, W.; Austin, J.; Nejad, A.; Halse, C.; Bastard, L.; Helsen, J.

    2015-02-01

    This work investigates the minimum level of fidelity required to accurately simulate wind turbine gearboxes using state-of-the-art design tools. Excessive model fidelity including drivetrain complexity, gearbox complexity, excitation sources, and imperfections, significantly increases computational time, but may not provide a commensurate increase in the value of the results. Essential designparameters are evaluated, including the planetary load-sharing factor, gear tooth load distribution, and sun orbit motion. Based on the sensitivity study results, recommendations for the minimum model fidelities are provided.

  18. Staff turnover in statewide implementation of ACT: relationship with ACT fidelity and other team characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Rollins, Angela L.; Salyers, Michelle P.; Tsai, Jack; Lydick, Jennifer M.

    2010-01-01

    Staff turnover on assertive community treatment (ACT) teams is a poorly understood phenomenon. This study examined annual turnover and fidelity data collected in a statewide implementation of ACT over a 5-year period. Mean annual staff turnover across all observations was 30.0%. Turnover was negatively correlated with overall fidelity at Year 1 and 3. The team approach fidelity item was negatively correlated with staff turnover at Year 3. For 13 teams with 3 years of follow-up data, turnover rates did not change over time. Most ACT staff turnover rates were comparable or better than other turnover rates reported in the mental health and substance abuse literature. PMID:20012481

  19. EBT Fidelity Trajectories Across Training Cohorts Using the Interagency Collaborative Team Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Debra; Aarons, Greg; Fettes, Danielle; Hurlburt, Michael; Ledesma, Karla

    2015-01-01

    The Interdisciplinary Collaborative Team (ICT) strategy uses front-line providers as adaptation, training and quality control agents for multi-agency EBT implementation. This study tests whether an ICT transmits fidelity to subsequent provider cohorts. SafeCare was implemented by home visitors from multiple community-based agencies contracting with child welfare. Client-reported fidelity trajectories for 5,769 visits, 957 clients and 45 providers were compared using three-level growth models. Provider cohorts trained and live-coached by the ICT attained benchmark fidelity after 12 weeks, and this was sustained. Hispanic clients reported high cultural competency, supporting a cultural adaptation crafted by the ICT. PMID:25586878

  20. Seven novel prostate cancer susceptibility loci identified by a multi-stage genome-wide association study

    PubMed Central

    Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Olama, Ali Amin Al; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Schleutker, Johanna; Weischer, Maren; Canzian, Frederico; Riboli, Elio; Key, Tim; Gronberg, Henrik; Hunter, David J.; Kraft, Peter; Thun, Michael J; Ingles, Sue; Chanock, Stephen; Albanes, Demetrius; Hayes, Richard B; Neal, David E.; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Donovan, Jenny L.; Pharoah, Paul; Schumacher, Fredrick; Henderson, Brian E.; Stanford, Janet L.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Sorensen, Karina Dalsgaard; Dörk, Thilo; Andriole, Gerald; Dickinson, Joanne L.; Cybulski, Cezary; Lubinski, Jan; Spurdle, Amanda; Clements, Judith A.; Chambers, Suzanne; Aitken, Joanne; Frank Gardiner, R. A.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Schaid, Dan; John, Esther M.; Maier, Christiane; Vogel, Walther; Cooney, Kathleen A.; Park, Jong Y.; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Brenner, Hermann; Habuchi, Tomonori; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Lu, Yong-Jie; Kaneva, Radka; Muir, Ken; Benlloch, Sara; Leongamornlert, Daniel A.; Saunders, Edward J.; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Mahmud, Nadiya; Guy, Michelle; O’Brien, Lynne T.; Wilkinson, Rosemary A.; Hall, Amanda L.; Sawyer, Emma J.; Dadaev, Tokhir; Morrison, Jonathan; Dearnaley, David P.; Horwich, Alan; Huddart, Robert A.; Khoo, Vincent S.; Parker, Christopher C.; Van As, Nicholas; Woodhouse, Christopher J.; Thompson, Alan; Christmas, Tim; Ogden, Chris; Cooper, Colin S.; Lophatonanon, Aritaya; Southey, Melissa C.; Hopper, John L.; English, Dallas; Wahlfors, Tiina; Tammela, Teuvo LJ; Klarskov, Peter; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Røder, M. Andreas; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Bojesen, Stig E.; Travis, Ruth; Campa, Daniele; Kaaks, Rudolf; Wiklund, Fredrik; Aly, Markus; Lindstrom, Sara; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan; Stern, Mariana C; Corral, Roman; Virtamo, Jarmo; Cox, Angela; Haiman, Christopher A.; Le Marchand, Loic; FitzGerald, Liesel; Kolb, Suzanne; Kwon, Erika M.; Karyadi, Danielle M.; Orntoft, Torben Falck; Borre, Michael; Meyer, Andreas; Serth, Jürgen; Yeager, Meredith; Berndt, Sonja I.; Marthick, James R; Patterson, Briony; Wokolorczyk, Dominika; Batra, Jyotsna; Lose, Felicity; McDonnell, Shannon K; Joshi, Amit D.; Shahabi, Ahva; Rinckleb, Antje E.; Ray, Ana; Sellers, Thomas A.; Lin, Huo-Yi; Stephenson, Robert A; Farnham, James; Muller, Heiko; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Tsuchiya, Norihiko; Narita, Shintaro; Cao, Guang-Wen; Slavov, Chavdar; Mitev, Vanio; Easton, Douglas F.; Eeles, Rosalind A.

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PrCa) is the most frequently diagnosed male cancer in developed countries. To identify common PrCa susceptibility alleles, we conducted a multi-stage genome-wide association study and previously reported the results of the first two stages, which identified 16 novel susceptibility loci for PrCa. Here we report the results of stage 3 in which we evaluated 1,536 SNPs in 4,574 cases and 4,164 controls. Ten novel association signals were followed up through genotyping in 51,311 samples in 30 studies through the international PRACTICAL consortium. In addition to previously reported loci, we identified a further seven new prostate cancer susceptibility loci on chromosomes 2p, 3q, 5p, 6p, 12q and Xq (P=4.0 ×10−8 to P=2.7 ×10−24). We also identified a SNP in TERT more strongly associated with PrCa than that previously reported. More than 40 PrCa susceptibility loci, explaining ~25% of the familial risk in this disease, have now been identified. PMID:21743467

  1. Comparative study of mycorrhizal susceptibility and anatomy of four palm species.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, Beatriz; Morte, Asunción; López, José Angel; Honrubia, Mario

    2010-02-01

    A morphological and anatomical study of the root systems of the palm species Brahea armata S. Watson, Chamaerops humilis L., Phoenix canariensis Chabaud and Phoenix dactylifera L. has been carried out to determine possible mycorrhizal colonization sites. Furthermore, the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) anatomical types formed by the four palm species in association with Glomus mosseae (Nicol. & Gerd.) Gerdemann & Trappe have been examined. The presence of a continuous sclerenchymatic ring in the outer cortex and aerenchyma in the inner cortex that are anatomical indicators of mycorrhizal nonsusceptibility in all four palm species is observed. The root systems of B. armata and C. humilis present only one group of third-order roots, while the third-order roots of P. canariensis and P. dactylifera may be divided into five different groups: short thick roots, mycorrhizal thickened roots, fine short roots, fine long roots, and pneumatorhizas. Third-order and some second-order roots of B. armata and C. humilis are susceptible to colonization by AM fungi, while only the mycorrhizal thickened roots form mycorrhizas with arbuscules in the Phoenix species. The root system of the Phoenix species also presents AM colonization in fine roots with only intraradical hyphae and spores, but without arbuscules, and pseudomantles of spores anchored in the pneumatorings of the second-order roots, which are described for the first time. The mycorrhizas formed by the four palm species are of an intermediate type, between the Arum and the Paris types, and are characterized by intercalary arbusculate coils and not only by intracellular but also by intercellular fungal growth. Our study suggests that a different degree of adaptation may exist among palm mycorrhizas toward the slow growth of palms and low spore numbers in the soil where they grow. PMID:19662440

  2. Genetic variants associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis susceptibility and mortality: a genome-wide association study

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Carlos; Barber, Mathew; Huang, Yong; Broderick, Steven M; Wade, Michael S; Hysi, Pirro; Scuirba, Joseph; Richards, Thomas J; Juan-Guardela, Brenda M; Vij, Rekha; Han, MeiLan K; Martinez, Fernando J; Kossen, Karl; Seiwert, Scott D; Christie, Jason D

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating disease that probably involves several genetic loci. Several rare genetic variants and one common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of MUC5B have been associated with the disease. Our aim was to identify additional common variants associated with susceptibility and ultimately mortality in IPF. Methods First, we did a three-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS): stage one was a discovery GWAS; and stages two and three were independent case-control studies. DNA samples from European-American patients with IPF meeting standard criteria were obtained from several US centres for each stage. Data for European-American control individuals for stage one were gathered from the database of genotypes and phenotypes; additional control individuals were recruited at the University of Pittsburgh to increase the number. For controls in stages two and three, we gathered data for additional sex-matched European-American control individuals who had been recruited in another study. DNA samples from patients and from control individuals were genotyped to identify SNPs associated with IPF. SNPs identified in stage one were carried forward to stage two, and those that achieved genome-wide significance (p<5 × 10−8) in a meta-analysis were carried forward to stage three. Three case series with follow-up data were selected from stages one and two of the GWAS using samples with follow-up data. Mortality analyses were done in these case series to assess the SNPs associated with IPF that had achieved genome-wide significance in the meta-analysis of stages one and two. Finally, we obtained gene-expression profiling data for lungs of patients with IPF from the Lung Genomics Research Consortium and analysed correlation with SNP genotypes. Findings In stage one of the GWAS (542 patients with IPF, 542 control individuals matched one-by-one to cases by genetic ancestry estimates), we identified 20 loci. Six SNPs

  3. High-Fidelity Coding with Correlated Neurons

    PubMed Central

    da Silveira, Rava Azeredo; Berry, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Positive correlations in the activity of neurons are widely observed in the brain. Previous studies have shown these correlations to be detrimental to the fidelity of population codes, or at best marginally favorable compared to independent codes. Here, we show that positive correlations can enhance coding performance by astronomical factors. Specifically, the probability of discrimination error can be suppressed by many orders of magnitude. Likewise, the number of stimuli encoded—the capacity—can be enhanced more than tenfold. These effects do not necessitate unrealistic correlation values, and can occur for populations with a few tens of neurons. We further show that both effects benefit from heterogeneity commonly seen in population activity. Error suppression and capacity enhancement rest upon a pattern of correlation. Tuning of one or several effective parameters can yield a limit of perfect coding: the corresponding pattern of positive correlation leads to a ‘lock-in’ of response probabilities that eliminates variability in the subspace relevant for stimulus discrimination. We discuss the nature of this pattern and we suggest experimental tests to identify it. PMID:25412463

  4. Creation of a Rapid High-Fidelity Aerodynamics Module for a Multidisciplinary Design Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, Muktha; Whittecar, William; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-01-01

    surrogate model, which captures the relationships between input variables and responses into regression equations. Depending on the dimensionality of the problem and the fidelity of the code for which a surrogate model is being created, the initial DOE can itself be computationally prohibitive to run. Cokriging, a modeling approach from the field of geostatistics, provides a desirable compromise between computational expense and fidelity. To do this, cokriging leverages a large body of data generated by a low fidelity analysis, combines it with a smaller set of data from a higher fidelity analysis, and creates a kriging surrogate model with prediction fidelity approaching that of the higher fidelity analysis. When integrated into a multidisciplinary environment, a disciplinary analysis module employing cokriging can raise the analysis fidelity without drastically impacting the expense of design iterations. This is demonstrated through the creation of an aerodynamics analysis module in NASA s OpenMDAO framework. Aerodynamic analyses including Missile DATCOM, APAS, and USM3D are leveraged to create high fidelity aerodynamics decks for parametric vehicle geometries, which are created in NASA s Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP). Several trade studies are performed to examine the achieved level of model fidelity, and the overall impact to vehicle design is quantified.

  5. Unified universal quantum cloning machine and fidelities

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yinan; Shi Handuo; Xiong Zhaoxi; Jing Li; Mu Liangzhu; Ren Xijun; Fan Heng

    2011-09-15

    We present a unified universal quantum cloning machine, which combines several different existing universal cloning machines together, including the asymmetric case. In this unified framework, the identical pure states are projected equally into each copy initially constituted by input and one half of the maximally entangled states. We show explicitly that the output states of those universal cloning machines are the same. One importance of this unified cloning machine is that the cloning procession is always the symmetric projection, which reduces dramatically the difficulties for implementation. Also, it is found that this unified cloning machine can be directly modified to the general asymmetric case. Besides the global fidelity and the single-copy fidelity, we also present all possible arbitrary-copy fidelities.

  6. Gaussian fidelity distorted by external fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Jonas F. G.; Bernardini, Alex E.

    2016-03-01

    Gaussian state decoherence aspects due to interacting magnetic-like and gravitational fields are quantified through the quantum fidelity and Shannon entropy in the scope of the phase-space representation of elementary quantum systems. For Gaussian Wigner functions describing harmonic oscillator states, an interacting external field destroys the quantum fidelity and introduces a quantum beating behavior. Likewise, it introduces harmonic profiles for free particle systems. Some aspects of quantum decoherence for the quantum harmonic oscillator and for the free particle limit are also quantified through the Shannon entropy. For the gravitational quantum well, the effect of a magnetic-like field on the quantum fidelity is suppressed by the linear term of the gravitational potential. To conclude, one identifies a fine formal connection of the quantum decoherence aspects discussed here with the noncommutative quantum mechanics.

  7. Methods for Streamlining Intervention Fidelity Checklists: An Example from the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, SangNam; Smith, Matthew Lee; Altpeter, Mary; Belza, Basia; Post, Lindsey; Ory, Marcia G.

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining intervention fidelity should be part of any programmatic quality assurance (QA) plan and is often a licensure requirement. However, fidelity checklists designed by original program developers are often lengthy, which makes compliance difficult once programs become widely disseminated in the field. As a case example, we used Stanford’s original Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) fidelity checklist of 157 items to demonstrate heuristic procedures for generating shorter fidelity checklists. Using an expert consensus approach, we sought feedback from active master trainers registered with the Stanford University Patient Education Research Center about which items were most essential to, and also feasible for, assessing fidelity. We conducted three sequential surveys and one expert group-teleconference call. Three versions of the fidelity checklist were created using different statistical and methodological criteria. In a final group-teleconference call with seven national experts, there was unanimous agreement that all three final versions (e.g., a 34-item version, a 20-item version, and a 12-item version) should be made available because the purpose and resources for administering a checklist might vary from one setting to another. This study highlights the methodology used to generate shorter versions of a fidelity checklist, which has potential to inform future QA efforts for this and other evidence-based programs (EBP) for older adults delivered in community settings. With CDSMP and other EBP, it is important to differentiate between program fidelity as mandated by program developers for licensure, and intervention fidelity tools for providing an “at-a-glance” snapshot of the level of compliance to selected program indicators. PMID:25964941

  8. Experimentally Measured Susceptibility to Peer Influence and Adolescent Sexual Behavior Trajectories: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Giletta, Matteo; Widman, Laura; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2014-01-01

    A performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between peer norms and trajectories of adolescents' number of sexual intercourse partners. Seventy-one 9th grade adolescents (52% female) participated in an experimental "chat room" paradigm involving…

  9. Study on Bt Susceptibility and Resistance Mechanisms in the Sugarcane Borer, Diatraea saccharalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dose response and growth inhibition of Cry1Ab-susceptible and -resistant strains of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis, were evaluated with Cry1Aa and Cry1Ac toxins. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of the Cry1Ab-resistant strain was estimated to be >80- and 45-fold greater than that of...

  10. A comparative study on the landslide susceptibility mapping using evidential belief function and weights of evidence models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiqing; Li, Wenping; Wu, Yanli; Pei, Yabing; Xing, Maolin; Yang, Dongdong

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to produce landslide susceptibility map of a landslide-prone area (Daguan County, China) by evidential belief function (EBF) model and weights of evidence (WoE) model to compare the results obtained. For this purpose, a landslide inventory map was constructed mainly based on earlier reports and aerial photographs, as well as, by carrying out field surveys. A total of 194 landslides were mapped. Then, the landslide inventory was randomly split into a training dataset; 70% (136 landslides) for training the models and the remaining 30% (58 landslides) was used for validation purpose. Then, a total number of 14 conditioning factors, such as slope angle, slope aspect, general curvature, plan curvature, profile curvature, altitude, distance from rivers, distance from roads, distance from faults, lithology, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), sediment transport index (STI), stream power index (SPI), and topographic wetness index (TWI) were used in the analysis. Subsequently, landslide susceptibility maps were produced using the EBF and WoE models. Finally, the validation of landslide susceptibility map was accomplished with the area under the curve (AUC) method. The success rate curve showed that the area under the curve for EBF and WoE models were of 80.19% and 80.75% accuracy, respectively. Similarly, the validation result showed that the susceptibility map using EBF model has the prediction accuracy of 80.09%, while for WoE model, it was 79.79%. The results of this study showed that both landslide susceptibility maps obtained were successful and would be useful for regional spatial planning as well as for land cover planning.

  11. Association of gastrointestinal gland cancer susceptibility loci with esophageal carcinoma among the Chinese Han population: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junqi; Zhang, Baoping; Yang, Zhi; Zhou, Long; Geng, Tingting; Li, Haipeng; Fu, Xiaowei; Xue, Xiaolei; Liu, Mingwei; Tong, Ruifeng; Jin, Tianbo; Zhang, Yong

    2016-02-01

    Esophageal carcinoma (EC) is a common malignancy worldwide. Previous studies indicated that gastrointestinal gland cancer and EC share some susceptibility loci. Our aim was to identify new single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with EC by investigating whether known gastrointestinal cancers susceptibility loci are found in EC patients. A Chinese Han population case-control study was conducted to assess SNP associations with EC risk. Twenty-six SNPs were selected from gastrointestinal cancer susceptibility loci, and 360 EC patients and 310 controls were genotyped for these SNPs using Sequenom MassARRAY technology. The association of SNP frequencies with EC was analyzed by chi-square tests, and genetic model analysis. After Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) p value screening, we excluded two SNPs. Based on chi-square tests, the minor alleles of rs13294589 (p = 0.046) and rs4924935 (p = 0.046) were correlated with reduced EC risk and rs4269383 (p = 0.010) and rs10953615 (p = 0.036) were correlated with increased EC risk. In the genetic model analyses, we found that the minor alleles "T" of rs401681, "A" of rs10088262, and "C" of rs4924935 may reduce the risk of EC. rs401681 has previously been reported to be associated with EC. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to report an association of the other five SNPs with EC. Our findings provide evidence for the genetic variants associated with susceptibility to EC in the Chinese Han population, which might be used as potential molecular markers for detecting susceptibility to EC in Chinese Han people. PMID:26304507

  12. Measuring procedural fidelity in behavioural research.

    PubMed

    Ledford, Jennifer R; Gast, David L

    2014-01-01

    Procedural fidelity (PF) refers to the implementation of a research plan, as intended. Measuring PF should be done not to satisfy minimum requirements for publication but to provide useful information to implementers, researchers, and consumers of research. Measurement of PF requires careful consideration and planning, and should include: naming important steps to be completed in each condition, defining each step, choosing a measurement system, determining which analysis is beneficial, training observers, conducting observations, analysing fidelity and identifying discrepancies, and reporting adequate data for consumers. Careful measurement and reporting of PF data will lead to advances in determining which interventions are effective, for whom, and under what conditions. PMID:24286346

  13. Assessment of Fidelity in Interventions to Improve Hand Hygiene of Healthcare Workers: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Musuuza, Jackson S; Barker, Anna; Ngam, Caitlyn; Vellardita, Lia; Safdar, Nasia

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Compliance with hand hygiene in healthcare workers is fundamental to infection prevention yet remains a challenge to sustain. We examined fidelity reporting in interventions to improve hand hygiene compliance, and we assessed 5 measures of intervention fidelity: (1) adherence, (2) exposure or dose, (3) quality of intervention delivery, (4) participant responsiveness, and (5) program differentiation. DESIGN Systematic review METHODS A librarian performed searches of the literature in PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), Cochrane Library, and Web of Science of material published prior to June 19, 2015. The review protocol was registered in PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews, and assessment of study quality was conducted for each study reviewed. RESULTS A total of 100 studies met the inclusion criteria. Only 8 of these 100 studies reported all 5 measures of intervention fidelity. In addition, 39 of 100 (39%) failed to include at least 3 fidelity measures; 20 of 100 (20%) failed to include 4 measures; 17 of 100 (17%) failed to include 2 measures, while 16 of 100 (16%) of the studies failed to include at least 1 measure of fidelity. Participant responsiveness and adherence to the intervention were the most frequently unreported fidelity measures, while quality of the delivery was the most frequently reported measure. CONCLUSIONS Almost all hand hygiene intervention studies failed to report at least 1 fidelity measurement. To facilitate replication and effective implementation, reporting fidelity should be standard practice when describing results of complex behavioral interventions such as hand hygiene. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:567-575. PMID:26861117

  14. Return of research results from pharmacogenomic versus disease susceptibility studies: what’s drugs got to do with it?

    PubMed Central

    Dressler, Lynn G

    2012-01-01

    One of the most controversial ethical issues in genomics research is the return of individual research results to research subjects. As new technologies, including whole-genome sequencing, provide an increased opportunity for researchers to find clinically relevant research results, the questions related to if, when and how individual research results should be returned become more central to the ethical conduct of genomic research. In the absence of federal guidance on this issue, many groups and individuals have developed recommendations and suggestions to address these questions. Most of these recommendations have focused on the return of individual results from disease susceptibility studies. However, in addition to predicting the development of disease, genomic research also includes predicting an individual’s response to drugs, especially the risk of developing adverse events. This article evaluates and compares the return of individual research results from disease susceptibility studies versus pharmacogenomic studies. PMID:22676197

  15. Polymorphisms of folate metabolic genes and susceptibility to bladder cancer: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jie; Spitz, Margaret R; Wang, Yunfei; Schabath, Matthew B; Gorlov, Ivan P; Hernandez, Ladia M; Pillow, Patricia C; Grossman, H Barton; Wu, Xifeng

    2004-09-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an association between low folate intake and an increased cancer risk. Major genes involved in folate metabolism include methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase (MS). We investigated joint effects of polymorphisms of the MTHFR (677 C-->T, 1298A-->C) and MS genes (2756 A-->G), dietary folate intake and cigarette smoking on the risk of bladder cancer in a case-control study. The study population consisted of 457 bladder cancer patients and 457 healthy controls, matched to the cases in terms of age, gender and ethnicity. Genotype data were analyzed in a subset of 410 Caucasian cases and 410 controls. Compared with individuals carrying the MTHFR 677 wild-type (CC) and reporting a high folate intake, those carrying the variant genotype (CT or TT) and reporting a low folate intake were at a significantly 3.51-fold increased risk of bladder cancer (95% CI: 1.59-6.52). In contrast, individuals carrying a variant genotype and reporting a high folate intake were at only a 1.39-fold increased risk (95% CI: 0.71-2.70), and those carrying the wild-type and reporting a low folate intake were at only 1.56-fold increased risk (95% CI: 0.82-2.97). The interaction between genetic polymorphisms and folate intake was significant on the multiplicative scale (P = 0.01). When analyzed in the context of smoking status, compared with never smokers with the MTHFR 677 wild-type, the risk increased to 6.56-fold (95% CI: 3.28-13.12) in current smokers carrying the variant genotype. Analyses of the MTHFR 1298, MS 2756 genes revealed similar results. In addition, age at cancer onset in former smokers increased as the proportion of the heteromorphic haplotype in the individual increased (P = 0.005). Our results strongly suggest that polymorphisms of the MTHFR and MS genes act together with low folate intake and smoking to increase bladder cancer risk. These results have important implications for cancer prevention in susceptible

  16. Cryptoccocal meningitis in Yaoundé (Cameroon) HIV infected patients: Diagnosis, frequency and Cryptococcus neoformans isolates susceptibility study to fluconazole.

    PubMed

    Kammalac Ngouana, T; Dongtsa, J; Kouanfack, C; Tonfack, C; Fomena, S; Mallié, M; Delaporte, E; Boyom, F-Fekam; Bertout, S

    2015-03-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is a mycosis encountered especially in patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome and is fatal in the absence of treatment. Information on epidemiology, diagnosis and susceptibility profile to antifungal drugs, are scarce in Cameroon. Authors evaluated the diagnosis possibilities of the cryptococcal meningitis in Cameroon, and studied the antifungal susceptibility of isolated strains to fluconazole, used as first line treatment of the disease in Cameroon. Between December 2009 and July 2011, 146 cerebrospinal fluids obtained from HIV patients with suspicion of meningitis were analysed. The diagnosis procedure involved macroscopic and cyto-chemical analysis, India ink test, culture on Sabouraud chloramphenicol medium and antigen latex agglutination test. Antifungal susceptibility testing of isolated strains to fluconazole was done by the E-test(®) method. The diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis gave 28.08% positive cases. Among these patients, 80% were at stages III and IV and 20% at stage I of the HIV infection, according to the WHO previous classification. Cyto-chemical analysis showed current findings in the case of cryptococcal meningitis. India ink test and latex agglutination test exhibited very high sensitivity and specificity (>94%). Fluconazole antifungal susceptibility testing gave MICs lower than 32μg/mL to 92.7% of isolated strains and MICs greater than this value to 7.3% of isolates. These results showed that cryptococcal meningitis remains a real problem among HIV infected patients in Yaoundé. The emergence of fluconazole reduced susceptibility strains is worrying. Nevertheless, efficacy of rapid detection tests is interesting because this will help in rapid diagnosis and treatment of patients. PMID:25467817

  17. Paleomagnetism and Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility study of the Miocene Jack Springs Tuff (Nevada, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, S.; Petronis, M. S.; Pluhar, C. J.; Gordon, L.

    2014-12-01

    The mid-Miocene Jack Springs Tuff (JST) outcrops across the western Mina Deflection accommodation zone, west-central Nevada and into eastern California. Previously, the source location for the JST was unknown, yet recent studies northwest of Mono Lake, CA have identified a relatively un-rotated structural block in which to reference the paleomagnetic data. Although new studies have indicated that this block may be rotated up to 13º, we argue that the probable source area is located near the Bodie Hills, CA. At this site, the paleomagnetic reference direction is D = 353°, I = 43°, α95 = 7.7° (Carlson et al, 2013). Based on these data, the JST can be used to measure absolute vertical-axis rotation as well as enable reconstruction of the paleo-topography using the corrected anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) data. A total of 19 sites were sampled to constrain Cenozoic to recent vertical axis rotation within the region and AMS experiments were conducted to determine the flow direction of the JST. Curie point estimates indicate that the JST ranges in titanium concentration from 0.042 to 1.10, indicating a low to moderate titanomagnetite phase (Akimoto, 1962). Demagnetization experiments reveal mean destructive fields of the NRM ranging between 15mT and 40mT suggesting that both multi-domain to pseudo-single domain grains are the dominant ferromagnetic phases that carry the remanence and AMS fabric. Preliminary paleomagnetic data yield stable single component demagnetization behavior for most sites that, after structural correction, indicate clockwise vertical axis rotation ranging from +20°± 10° to +60°± 11° between multiple fault blocks. The uncorrected AMS data yield oblate magnetic fabrics that can be used to infer the transport direction, source region, and paleovalley geometry of the JST. These data are tentatively interpreted to indicate west to east transport of the JST across the Mono Basin region into the Mina Deflection that was erupted and

  18. A comprehensive analysis of genome-wide association studies to identify prostate cancer susceptibility loci for the Romanian population.

    PubMed

    Rădăvoi, George Daniel; Pricop, Cătălin; Jinga, Viorel; Mateş, Dana; Rădoi, Viorica Elena; Jinga, Mariana; Ursu, Radu Ioan; Bratu, Ovidiu Gabriel; Mischianu, Dan Liviu Dorel; Iordache, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine a large dataset of single nucleotide polymorphism known to be associated with prostate cancer from previous genome-wide association studies and create a dataset of single nucleotide polymorphisms that can be used in replication studies for the Romanian population. This study will define a list of markers showing a significant association with this phenotype. We propose the results of this study as a starting point for any Romanian genome-wide association studies researching the genetic susceptibility for prostate cancer. PMID:27516020

  19. Multi-fidelity construction of explicit boundaries: Application to aeroelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dribusch, Christoph

    Wings, control surfaces and rotor blades subject to aerodynamic forces may exhibit aeroelastic instabilities such as flutter, divergence and limit cycle oscillations which generally reduce their life and functionality. This possibility of instability must be taken into account during the design process and numerical simulation models may be used to predict aeroelastic stability. Aeroelastic stability is a design requirement that encompasses several difficulties also found in other areas of design. For instance, the large computational time associated with stability analysis is also found in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. It is a major hurdle in numerical optimization and reliability analysis, which generally require large numbers of call to the simulation code. Similarly, the presence of bifurcations and discontinuities is also encountered in structural impact analysis based on nonlinear dynamic simulations and renders traditional approximation techniques such as Kriging ineffective. Finally, for a given component or system, aeroelastic instability is only one of multiple failure modes which must be accounted for during design and reliability studies. To address the above challenges, this dissertation proposes a novel algorithm to predict, over a range of parameters, the qualitative outcomes (pass/fail) of simulations based on relatively few, classified (pass/fail) simulation results. This is different from traditional approximation techniques that seek to predict simulation outcomes quantitatively, for example by fitting a response surface. The predictions of the proposed algorithm are based on the theory of support vector machines (SVM), a machine learning method originated in the field of pattern recognition. This process yields an analytical function that explicitly defines the boundary between feasible and infeasible regions of the parameter space and has the ability to reproduce nonlinear, disjoint boundaries in n dimensions. Since training the

  20. Fidelity and over-wintering of sea turtles

    PubMed Central

    Broderick, Annette C; Coyne, Michael S; Fuller, Wayne J; Glen, Fiona; Godley, Brendan J

    2007-01-01

    While fidelity to breeding sites is well demonstrated in marine turtles, emerging knowledge of migratory routes and key foraging sites is of limited conservation value unless levels of fidelity can be established. We tracked green (Chelonia mydas, n=10) and loggerhead (Caretta caretta, n=10) turtles during their post-nesting migration from the island of Cyprus to their foraging grounds. After intervals of 2–5 years, five of these females were recaptured at the nesting beach and tracked for a second migration. All five used highly similar migratory routes to return to the same foraging and over-wintering areas. None of the females visited other foraging habitats over the study period (units lasted on average 305 days; maximum, 1356 days), moving only to deeper waters during the winter months where they demonstrated extremely long resting dives of up to 10.2 h (the longest breath-holding dive recorded for a marine vertebrate). High levels of fidelity and the relatively discrete nature of the home ranges demonstrate that protection of key migratory pathways, foraging and over-wintering sites can serve as an important tool for the future conservation of marine turtles. PMID:17456456

  1. Perceptual Fidelity Versus Engineering Compromises in Virtual Acoustic Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzel, Elizabeth M.; Ellis, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor); Frey, Mary Anne (Technical Monitor); Schneider, Victor S. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Immersive, three-dimensional displays are increasingly becoming a goal of advanced human-machine interfaces. While the technology for achieving truly useful multisensory environments is still being developed, techniques for generating three-dimensional sound are now both sophisticated and practical enough to be applied to acoustic displays. The ultimate goal of virtual acoustics is to simulate the complex acoustic field experienced by a listener freely moving around within an environment. Of course, such complexity, freedom of movement and interactivity is not always possible in a 'true' virtual environment, much less in lower-fidelity multimedia systems. However, many of the perceptual and engineering constraints (and frustrations) that researchers, engineers and listeners have experienced in virtual audio are relevant to multimedia. In fact, some of the problems that have been studied will be even more of an issue for lower fidelity systems that are attempting to address the requirements of a huge, diverse and ultimately unknown audience. Examples include individual differences in head-related transfer functions, A lack of real interactively (head-tracking) in many multimedia displays, and perceptual degradation due to low sampling rates and/or low-bit compression. This paper discusses some of the engineering constraints faced during implementation of virtual acoustic environments and the perceptual consequences of these constraints. Specific examples are given for NASA applications such as telerobotic control, aeronautical displays, and shuttle launch communications. An attempt will also be made to relate these issues to low-fidelity implementations such as the internet.

  2. Perceptual Fidelity vs. Engineering Compromises In Virtual Acoustic Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzel, Elizabeth M.; Ahumada, Albert (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Immersive, three-dimensional displays are increasingly becoming a goal of advanced human-machine interfaces. While the technology for achieving truly useful multisensory environments is still being developed, techniques for generating three-dimensional sound are now both sophisticated and practical enough to be applied to acoustic displays. The ultimate goal of virtual acoustics is to simulate the complex acoustic field experienced by a listener freely moving around within an environment. Of course, such complexity, freedom of movement and interactively is not always possible in a "true" virtual environment, much less in lower-fidelity multimedia systems. However, many of the perceptual and engineering constraints (and frustrations) that researchers, engineers and listeners have experienced in virtual audio are relevant to multimedia. In fact, some of the problems that have been studied will be even more of an issue for lower fidelity systems that are attempting to address the requirements of a huge, diverse and ultimately unknown audience. Examples include individual differences in head-related transfer functions, a lack of real interactively (head-tracking) in many multimedia displays, and perceptual degradation due to low sampling rates and/or low-bit compression. This paper discusses some of the engineering Constraints faced during implementation of virtual acoustic environments and the perceptual consequences of these constraints. Specific examples are given for NASA applications such as telerobotic control, aeronautical displays, and shuttle launch communications. An attempt will also be made to relate these issues to low-fidelity implementations such as the internet.

  3. Factors controlling building susceptibility to earthquakes: 14-year recordings of Islamic archaeological sites in Old Cairo, Egypt: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamh, G. M. E.; Kallash, A.; Azzam, R.

    2008-11-01

    Cairo City has a large number and different forms of Islamic archaeological sites, in particular, at El-Gammalia and El-Moez streets, as well as Coptic archaeological sites, e.g. at Mari Gergis. Human interference and activities at these historical areas resulted in flooding such sites’ foundations with domestic water, deteriorating its basal courses by salt weathering. The 1992 earthquake is another natural environmental hazard severely affecting many of these sites. The aim of the current study is to examine some factors (of bedrock and buildings) that are expected to control building susceptibility to damage by earthquakes by taking 38 Islamic archaeological sites in the El-Gammalia area as a representative case study. Detailed field recordings of site damage category before and after the quake and continued recording of damage features generated by the 1992 quake over the last 14 years, measuring depth to sub-surface water, measuring buildings’ height before the quake and bedrock sampling at these sites for geotechnical investigations were all considered for achieving this aim. The data has been processed mathematically and graphically (using the Excel package) to examine the main factors responsible for building susceptibility to damage by earthquakes. The selected archaeological sites give an excellent representation of the factors controlling building susceptibility to damage by quakes; it is found that the sites with heights (before the quake) ranging from 12 to 14 m are the most affected ones; the sites with the highest damage category before the quake were more susceptible to more damage by the quake; the sites that had been built on alluvium soil were more affected than those built on the Eocene limestone. The age of these sites has, to a small extent, indirect control on sites’ susceptibility to damage by the quake, particularly in parts flooded with domestic water (i.e. affected by salt weathering). The depth to sub-surface water is an effective

  4. An In vitro Study on Post Bleaching Pigmentation Susceptibility of Teeth and Scanning Electron Microscopy Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Latha, S Pushpa; Hegde, Vani; Raheel, Syed Ahmed; Tarakji, Bassel; Azzeghaiby, Saleh Nasser; Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria

    2014-01-01

    Background: To determine the susceptibility of teeth for repigmentation after bleaching. Materials and Methods: Forty premolars were assigned to three groups (n = 12). Group 1 was bleached using 30% w/v hydrogen peroxide 15 min 3 times a day every other day for 4 days. In Group 2 was bleached using 16% carbamide peroxide (Polanight), 90 min a day for 15 days. 2 days later, the shades of the bleached teeth were recorded. Remaining 4 teeth were bleached according to Group 1 and 2 and were subjected to atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy analysis. Results: Specimens of athome bleaching were lighter than the specimens of inoffice bleaching. Conclusion: The susceptibility of enamel to pigmentation can be increased after bleaching, and pigmentation is greater if bleaching is performed with H2O2. The percentage change (lighter) was more for athome bleaching specimens as compared to inoffice bleaching specimens. PMID:25395800

  5. Intramuscular iron-dextran and susceptibility of neonates to bacterial infections. In vitro studies.

    PubMed Central

    Becroft, D M; Dix, M R; Farmer, K

    1977-01-01

    An increased incidence of E. coli sepsis has been observed in neonates given intramuscular iron-dextran for prevention of iron deficiency. Mechanisms for this apparent effect on susceptibility to infection were investigated by comparing phagocytic and antibacterial functions in paired samples of venous blood from 7 infants, median age 5 days, before and after iron-dextran. Post-treatment sera had increased inhibitory effects on leucocyte chemotaxis and markedly reduced bacteriostatic effects agaainst E. coli. The clinical relevance of the effects on chemotaxis is uncertain. The reduction in serum bacteriostasis is similar to that observed in other forms of hyperferraemia not associated with saturation of transferrin, and is a likely cause of the increased susceptibility to infection in vivo. We consider that prophylactic treatment with parenteral iron-dextran is contraindicated in early infancy. PMID:337910

  6. Information, entropy and fidelity in visual communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O.; Fales, Carl L.; Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Rahman, Zia-Ur

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of visual communication that integrates the critical limiting factors of image gathering and display with the digital processing that is used to code and restore images. The approach focuses on two mathematical criteria, information and fidelity, and on their relationships to the entropy of the encoded data and to the visual quality of the restored image.

  7. Patient and provider attitudes toward genomic testing for prostate cancer susceptibility: a mixed method study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The strong association between family history and prostate cancer (PCa) suggests a significant genetic contribution, yet specific highly penetrant PCa susceptibility genes have not been identified. Certain single-nucleotide-polymorphisms have been found to correlate with PCa risk; however uncertainty remains regarding their clinical utility and how to best incorporate this information into clinical decision-making. Genetic testing is available directly to consumers and both patients and healthcare providers are becoming more aware of this technology. Purchasing online allows patients to bypass their healthcare provider yet patients may have difficulty interpreting test results and providers may be called upon to interpret results. Determining optimal ways to educate both patients and providers, and strategies for appropriately incorporating this information into clinical decision-making are needed. Methods A mixed-method study was conducted in Utah between October 2011 and December 2011. Eleven focus group discussions were held and surveys were administered to 23 first-degree relatives of PCa patients living in Utah and 24 primary-care physicians and urologists practicing in Utah to present specific information about these assessments and determine knowledge and attitudes regarding health implications of using these assessments. Results Data was independently coded by two researchers (relative Kappa = .88; provider Kappa = .77) and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Results indicated differences in attitudes and behavioral intentions between patient and provider. Despite the test’s limitations relatives indicated interest in genetic testing (52%) while most providers indicated they would not recommend the test for their patients (79%). Relatives expected providers to interpret genetic test results and use results to provide personalized healthcare recommendations while the majority of providers did not think the information would be useful in

  8. An Investigation of the Impact of Aerodynamic Model Fidelity on Close-In Combat Effectiveness Prediction in Piloted Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Persing, T. Ray; Bellish, Christine A.; Brandon, Jay; Kenney, P. Sean; Carzoo, Susan; Buttrill, Catherine; Guenther, Arlene

    2005-01-01

    Several aircraft airframe modeling approaches are currently being used in the DoD community for acquisition, threat evaluation, training, and other purposes. To date there has been no clear empirical study of the impact of airframe simulation fidelity on piloted real-time aircraft simulation study results, or when use of a particular level of fidelity is indicated. This paper documents a series of piloted simulation studies using three different levels of airframe model fidelity. This study was conducted using the NASA Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator. Evaluations were conducted with three pilots for scenarios requiring extensive maneuvering of the airplanes during air combat. In many cases, a low-fidelity modified point-mass model may be sufficient to evaluate the combat effectiveness of the aircraft. However, in cases where high angle-of-attack flying qualities and aerodynamic performance are a factor or when precision tracking ability of the aircraft must be represented, use of high-fidelity models is indicated.

  9. Comparison of Assertive Community Treatment Fidelity Assessment Methods: Reliability and Validity.

    PubMed

    Rollins, Angela L; McGrew, John H; Kukla, Marina; McGuire, Alan B; Flanagan, Mindy E; Hunt, Marcia G; Leslie, Doug L; Collins, Linda A; Wright-Berryman, Jennifer L; Hicks, Lia J; Salyers, Michelle P

    2016-03-01

    Assertive community treatment is known for improving consumer outcomes, but is difficult to implement. On-site fidelity measurement can help ensure model adherence, but is costly in large systems. This study compared reliability and validity of three methods of fidelity assessment (on-site, phone-administered, and expert-scored self-report) using a stratified random sample of 32 mental health intensive case management teams from the Department of Veterans Affairs. Overall, phone, and to a lesser extent, expert-scored self-report fidelity assessments compared favorably to on-site methods in inter-rater reliability and concurrent validity. If used appropriately, these alternative protocols hold promise in monitoring large-scale program fidelity with limited resources. PMID:25721146

  10. The Impact of Debriefing Sessions Following Viewing of Recorded High Fidelity Simulation Scenarios on Knowledge Acquisition, Self-Confidence, and Satisfaction: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zulkosky, Kristen D.

    2010-01-01

    The role of the nurse educator is complex and it is imperative that educators design pertinent learning activities including implementation of innovative teaching strategies while using the latest pedagogical techniques, and evaluating that learning occurred. This study utilized a quantitative, quasi-experimental, comparison group, crossover…

  11. A Mixed Methods Study on the Intersection of Contextual Variables with Teacher Fidelity to the Scott Foresman Reading Program: Influences on First Grade Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Camille L.

    2010-01-01

    Input and output models of policy implementation have failed to address the complexity of implementing policies. Prior studies reveal that policies are never equivalent across contexts. Instead, they are filtered as they travel from the macro-level to the micro-level of policy implementation. This understanding provides a framework for examining…

  12. Exploring the Relationship between Fidelity of Implementation and Academic Achievement in a Third-Grade Gifted Curriculum: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azano, Amy; Missett, Tracy C.; Callahan, Carolyn M.; Oh, Sarah; Brunner, Marguerite; Foster, Lisa H.; Moon, Tonya R.

    2011-01-01

    This study used sequential mixed-methods analyses to investigate the effectiveness of a research-based language arts curriculum for gifted third graders. Using analytic induction, researchers found that teachers' beliefs and expectations (time, sense of autonomy, expectations for students, professional expertise) influenced the degree to which…

  13. Examining Model Fidelity via Shadowing Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, H.; Smith, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Fully fledged climate models provide the best available simulations for reflecting the future, yet we have scant insight into their fidelity, in particular as to the duration into the future at which the real world should be expected to evolve in a manner today's models cannot foresee. We know now that our best available models are not adequate for many sought after purposes. To throw some light on the maximum fidelity expected from a given generation of models, and thereby aid both policy making and model development, we can test the weaknesses of a model as a dynamical system to get an informed idea of its potential applicability at various lead times. Shadowing times reflect the duration on which a GCM reflects the observed dynamics of the Earth; extracting the shortcomings of the model which limit shadowing times allows informed speculation regarding the fidelity of the model in the future. More specifically, by identifying the reasons models cannot shadow we learn the relevant phenomena limiting model fidelity, we can then look at the time scales on which feedbacks on the system (which are not active in the model) are likely to result in model irrelevance. The methodology is developed in the "low dimensional laboratory" of relatively simple dynamical systems, for example Lorenz 95 systems. The results are presented in Lorenz 95 systems as well as GCMs. There are severe limits on the light shadowing experiments can shine on GCM predictions. Never the less, they appear to be one of the brightest lights we can shine to illuminate the likely fidelity of GCM extrapolations into the future.

  14. Comparison of Intervention Fidelity between COPE TEEN and an Attention-Control Program in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Stephanie A.; Oswalt, Krista; Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Jacobson, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Fidelity in implementing an intervention is critical to accurately determine and interpret the effects of an intervention. It is important to monitor the manner in which the behavioral intervention is implemented (e.g. adaptations, delivery as intended and dose). Few interventions are implemented with 100% fidelity. In this study, high school…

  15. The Impact of Child and Family Team Composition on Wraparound Fidelity: Examining Links between Team Attendance Consistency and Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palamaro Munsell, Eylin; Cook, James R.; Kilmer, Ryan P.; Vishnevsky, Tanya; Strompolis, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Although a growing body of literature has examined wraparound implementation and fidelity, child and family team (CFT) members' levels of participation and the consistency of their attendance have not been systematically examined. This study explored the relationship between CFT member attendance consistency and the fidelity of wraparound team…

  16. A Prorating Method for Estimating MMPI-2-RF Scores From MMPI Responses: Examination of Score Fidelity and Illustration of Empirical Utility in the PERSEREC Police Integrity Study Sample.

    PubMed

    Tarescavage, Anthony M; Corey, David M; Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to identify Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) correlates of police officer integrity violations and other problem behaviors in an archival database with original MMPI item responses and collateral information regarding integrity violations obtained for 417 male officers. In Study 1, we estimated MMPI-2-RF scores from the MMPI item pool (which includes approximately 80% of the MMPI-2-RF items) in a normative sample, a psychiatric inpatient sample, and a police officer sample, and conducted analyses that demonstrated the comparability of estimated and full scale scores for 41 of the 51 MMPI-2-RF scales. In Study 2, we correlated estimated MMPI-2-RF scores with information about subsequent integrity violations and problem behaviors from the integrity violation data set. Several meaningful associations were obtained, predominately with scales from the emotional, thought, and behavioral dysfunction domains of the MMPI-2-RF. Application of a correction for range restriction yielded substantially improved validity estimates. Finally, we calculated relative risk ratios for the statistically significant findings using cutoffs lower than 65T, which is traditionally used to identify clinically significant elevations, and found several meaningful relative risk ratios. PMID:25848124

  17. High-temperature studies of the magnetic susceptibility of samarium and the Al{sub 2}Sm compound

    SciTech Connect

    Uporova, N. S.; Uporov, S. A.; Sidorov, V. E.

    2012-02-15

    The magnetic susceptibility of metallic samarium and the Al{sub 2}Sm intermetallic compound has been experimentally studied by the Faraday method in the temperature range of 300-1800 K. It has been shown that the temperature dependences of the magnetic susceptibility of Sm and Al{sub 2}Sm in a crystalline state can be described in the framework of Van Vleck paramagnetism theory taking into account variable valence and the contribution from the conduction electrons. Using this theoretical interpretation of the data, the effective valence of samarium in the metallic state and in the Al{sub 2}Sm intermetallic compound has been estimated as a function of the temperature.

  18. Cytokine production in arthritis susceptible and resistant rats: a study with arthritogenic and non-arthritogenic Lactobacillus cell walls.

    PubMed

    Simelyte, E; Isomäki, P; Rimpiläinen, M; Zhang, X; Toivanen, P

    2001-02-01

    The basis of the different susceptibility to bacterial cell wall-induced arthritis between Lewis and Fischer rats is unclear. Likewise, it is not known why cell walls of some species of Lactobacillus are arthritogenic and those of others are not. With these two questions in mind, we investigated the role of anti-inflammatory (interleukin (IL)-10, IL-4) and proinflammatory (tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, IL-1 beta) cytokines in Lewis and Fischer rats injected intraperitoneally with cell walls from arthritogenic or nonarthritogenic species of Lactobacillus. Cytokine levels in the serum and in vitro production by peritoneal macrophages and splenocytes were studied. The results obtained indicate that the differences in the production of IL-10, IL-4, TNF-alpha or IL-1 beta do not explain the difference in the arthritis susceptibility between Lewis and Fischer rats. Likewise, the arthritogenicity of different Lactobacillus cell walls appears not to be dependent on their capacity to stimulate cytokine production. PMID:11169216

  19. A Parallel, High-Fidelity Radar Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsley, M.; Fasenfest, B.

    2010-09-01

    Accurate modeling of Space Surveillance sensors is necessary for a variety of applications. Accurate models can be used to perform trade studies on sensor designs, locations, and scheduling. In addition, they can be used to predict system-level performance of the Space Surveillance Network to a collision or satellite break-up event. A high fidelity physics-based radar simulator has been developed for Space Surveillance applications. This simulator is designed in a modular fashion, where each module describes a particular physical process or radar function (radio wave propagation & scattering, waveform generation, noise sources, etc.) involved in simulating the radar and its environment. For each of these modules, multiple versions are available in order to meet the end-users needs and requirements. For instance, the radar simulator supports different atmospheric models in order to facilitate different methods of simulating refraction of the radar beam. The radar model also has the capability to use highly accurate radar cross sections generated by the method of moments, accelerated by the fast multipole method. To accelerate this computationally expensive model, it is parallelized using MPI. As a testing framework for the radar model, it is incorporated into the Testbed Environment for Space Situational Awareness (TESSA). TESSA is based on a flexible, scalable architecture, designed to exploit high-performance computing resources and allow physics-based simulation of the SSA enterprise. In addition to the radar models, TESSA includes hydrodynamic models of satellite intercept and debris generation, orbital propagation algorithms, optical brightness calculations, optical system models, object detection algorithms, orbit determination algorithms, simulation analysis and visualization tools. Within this framework, observations and tracks generated by the new radar model are compared to results from a phenomenological radar model. In particular, the new model will be

  20. Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy as a Technique for Gentamicin Drug Susceptibility Studies with Escherichia coli ATCC 25922

    PubMed Central

    García-Álvarez, Lara; Busto, Jesús H.; Avenoza, Alberto; Sáenz, Yolanda; Peregrina, Jesús Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial drug susceptibility tests involving multiple time-consuming steps are still used as reference methods. Today, there is a need for the development of new automated instruments that can provide faster results and reduce operating time, reagent costs, and labor requirements. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy meets those requirements. The metabolism and antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 in the presence of gentamicin have been analyzed using NMR and compared with a reference method. Direct incubation of the bacteria (with and without gentamicin) into the NMR tube has also been performed, and differences in the NMR spectra were obtained. The MIC, determined by the reference method found in this study, would correspond with the termination of the bacterial metabolism observed with NMR. Experiments carried out directly into the NMR tube enabled the development of antimicrobial drug susceptibility tests to assess the effectiveness of the antibiotic. NMR is an objective and reproducible method for showing the effects of a drug on the subject bacterium and can emerge as an excellent tool for studying bacterial activity in the presence of different antibiotic concentrations. PMID:25972417

  1. Comparison of the force applied on oral structures during intubation attempts by novice physicians between the Macintosh direct laryngoscope, Airway Scope and C-MAC PM: a high-fidelity simulator-based study

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Taizo; Shiga, Takashi; Koyama, Yasuaki; Goto, Tadahiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective We examined whether the use of Airway Scope (AWS) and C-MAC PM (C-MAC) decreased the force applied on oral structures during intubation attempts as compared with the force applied with the use of Macintosh direct laryngoscope (DL). Design Prospective cross-over study. Participants A total of 35 novice physicians participated. Interventions We used 6 simulation scenarios based on the difficulty of intubation and intubation devices. Outcome measures Our primary outcome measures were the maximum force applied on the maxillary incisors and tongue during intubation attempts, measured by a high-fidelity simulator. Results The maximum force applied on maxillary incisors was higher with the use of the C-MAC than with the DL and AWS in the normal airway scenario (DL, 26 Newton (N); AWS, 18 N; C-MAC, 52 N; p<0.01) and the difficult airway scenario (DL, 42 N; AWS, 24 N; C-MAC, 68 N; p<0.01). In contrast, the maximum force applied on the tongue was higher with the use of the DL than with the AWS and C-MAC in both airway scenarios (DL, 16 N; AWS, 1 N; C-MAC, 7 N; p<0.01 in the normal airway scenario; DL, 12 N; AWS, 4 N; C-MAC, 7 N; p<0.01 in the difficult airway scenario). Conclusions The use of C-MAC, compared with the DL and AWS, was associated with the higher maximum force applied on maxillary incisors during intubation attempts. In contrast, the use of video laryngoscopes was associated with the lower force applied on the tongue in both airway scenarios, compared with the DL. Our study was a simulation-based study, and further research on living patients would be warranted. PMID:27217284

  2. Measuring third year undergraduate nursing students' reflective thinking skills and critical reflection self-efficacy following high fidelity simulation: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tutticci, Naomi; Lewis, Peter A; Coyer, Fiona

    2016-05-01

    Critical reflection underpins critical thinking, a highly desirable generic nursing graduate capability. To improve the likelihood of critical thinking transferring to clinical practice, reflective thinking needs to be measured within the learning space of simulation. This study was divided into two phases to address the reliability and validity measures of previously untested surveys. Phase One data was collected from individuals (n = 6) using a 'think aloud' approach and an expert panel to review content validity, and verbatim comment analysis was undertaken. The Reflective Thinking Instrument and Critical Reflection Self-Efficacy Visual Analogue Scale items were contextualised to simulation. The expert review confirmed these instruments exhibited content validity. Phase Two data was collected through an online survey (n = 58). Cronbach's alpha measured internal consistency and was demonstrated by all subscales and the Instrument as a whole (.849). There was a small to medium positive correlation between critical reflection self-efficacy and general self-efficacy (r = .324, n = 56, p = .048). Participant responses were positive regarding the simulation experience. The research findings demonstrated that the Reflective Thinking and Simulation Satisfaction survey is reliable. Further development of this survey to establish validity is recommended to make it viable. PMID:27235566

  3. Fidelity of rocky intertidal mollusks in subtidal death assemblages to their counterpart life assemblages: a case study in San Salvador Island, Bahamas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Ramos, Diego A.

    2016-04-01

    Rocky shores preserved in the geological record were rarely reported until a couple of decades ago. Even today, most of the literature focuses on bioerosional features in these high-energy environments due to their higher fossilization potential relative to shell material. Hard parts of taxa adapted to intertidal rocky shores may be preserved as allochthonous material in death assemblages (DAs) formed in adjacent shallow subtidal habitats due to lateral mixing. To test if life assemblages (LAs) of rocky intertidal mollusks (RIM) are faithfully recorded in shallow subtidal DAs, two ~30 m long transects across a proximal-distal gradient were studied on San Salvador Island, Bahamas. These transects encompass a proximal ripple field which grades into a facies dominated by green algae, and a distal ripple field. A total of 22 bulk samples, representing 155 liters of sediment, were wet-sieved with a 2-mm mesh. The samples yielded 528 RIM shells representing 15 species. Unexpectedly, abundance and compositional similarity of RIM shells to counterpart LAs sharply peaks along a belt of lag deposits of coarse sands fringing proximal ripple fields, in transition to green algae communities. These results suggest that, although a substantial transport of intertidal shells takes place in shallow subtidal environments, the signal is diluted in background sediment composition even in close proximity to the shore (30 m), and significant concentrations (loosely packed) of RIM shells in subtidal DAs might be used as a proxy to pinpoint past rocky intertidal environments.

  4. Enhancing Fidelity in Adventure Education and Adventure Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Anita R.; Rheingold, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Although the importance of addressing and evaluating treatment and program fidelity is clearly emphasized in the literature on psychology, education, and health, little attention has been given to fidelity in adventure literature or research. Program fidelity refers to whether or not, and how well, a specific intervention or program was…

  5. Procedural Fidelity: An Analysis of Measurement and Reporting Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledford, Jennifer R.; Wolery, Mark

    2013-01-01

    A systematic analysis was conducted of measurement and reporting practices related to procedural fidelity in single-case research for the past 30 years. Previous reviews of fidelity primarily reported whether fidelity data were collected by authors; these reviews reported that collection was variable, but low across journals and over time. Results…

  6. Fidelity Measurement in Consultation: Psychometric Issues and Preliminary Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Susan M.; Swanger-Gagne, Michelle; Welch, Greg W.; Kwon, Kyongboon; Garbacz, S. Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Consultation researchers have long recognized the importance of assessing fidelity of intervention implementation, including the fidelity with which both consultation procedures and behavioral intervention plans are delivered. However, despite decades of discussion about the importance of assessing for fidelity of implementation in intervention…

  7. 12 CFR 741.201 - Minimum fidelity bond requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum fidelity bond requirements. 741.201... Unions That Also Apply to Federally Insured State-Chartered Credit Unions § 741.201 Minimum fidelity bond... of the Act must possess the minimum fidelity bond coverage stated in part 713 of this chapter...

  8. 12 CFR 741.201 - Minimum fidelity bond requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum fidelity bond requirements. 741.201... Unions That Also Apply to Federally Insured State-Chartered Credit Unions § 741.201 Minimum fidelity bond... of the Act must possess the minimum fidelity bond coverage stated in part 713 of this chapter...

  9. The Relationship Between Fidelity and Learning in Aviation Training and Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Cliff

    2002-01-01

    Flight simulators can be designed to train pilots or assess their flight performance. Low-Fidelity simulators maximize the initial learning rate of novice pilots and minimize initial costs; whereas, expensive, high-fidelity simulators predict the realworld in-flight performance of expert pilots (Fink & Shriver, 1978 Hays & Singer 1989; Kinkade & Wheaton. 1972). Although intuitively appealing and intellectually convenient to generalize concepts of learning and assessment, what holds true for the role of fidelity in assessment may not always hold true for learning, and vice versa. To bring clarity to this issue, the author distinguishes the role of fidelity in learning from its role in assessment as a function of skill level by applying the hypothesis of Alessi (1988) and reviewing the Laughery, Ditzian, and Houtman (1982) study on simulator validity. Alessi hypothesized that there is it point beyond which one additional unit of flight-simulator fidelity results in a diminished rate of learning. The author of this current paper also suggests the existence of an optimal point beyond which one additional unit of flight-simulator fidelity results in a diminished rate of practical assessment of nonexpert pilot performance.

  10. The tug-of-war: fidelity versus adaptation throughout the health promotion program life cycle.

    PubMed

    Bopp, Melissa; Saunders, Ruth P; Lattimore, Diana

    2013-06-01

    Researchers across multiple fields have described the iterative and nonlinear phases of the translational research process from program development to dissemination. This process can be conceptualized within a "program life cycle" framework that includes overlapping and nonlinear phases: development, adoption, implementation, maintenance, sustainability or termination, and dissemination or diffusion, characterized by tensions between fidelity to the original plan and adaptation for the setting and population. In this article, we describe the life cycle (phases) for research-based health promotion programs, the key influences at each phase, and the issues related to the tug-of-war between fidelity and adaptation throughout the process using a fictionalized case study based on our previous research. This article suggests the importance of reconceptualizing intervention design, involving stakeholders, and monitoring fidelity and adaptation throughout all phases to maintain implementation fidelity and completeness. Intervention fidelity should be based on causal mechanisms to ensure effectiveness, while allowing for appropriate adaption to ensure maximum implementation and sustainability. Recommendations for future interventions include considering the determinants of implementation including contextual factors at each phase, the roles of stakeholders, and the importance of developing a rigorous, adaptive, and flexible definition of implementation fidelity and completeness. PMID:23526141

  11. A Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Susceptibility Loci for Ovarian Cancer at 2q31 and 8q24

    PubMed Central

    Goode, Ellen L.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Song, Honglin; Ramus, Susan J.; Notaridou, Maria; Lawrenson, Kate; Widschwendter, Martin; Vierkant, Robert A.; Larson, Melissa C.; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Birrer, Michael J.; Berchuck, Andrew; Schildkraut, Joellen; Tomlinson, Ian; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Cook, Linda S.; Gronwald, Jacek; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Gore, Martin E.; Campbell, Ian; Whittemore, Alice S.; Sutphen, Rebecca; Phelan, Catherine; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Lambrechts, Diether; Rossing, Mary Anne; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Goodman, Marc T.; Dörk, Thilo; Nevanlinna, Heli; Ness, Roberta B.; Rafnar, Thorunn; Hogdall, Claus; Hogdall, Estrid; Fridley, Brooke L.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Sieh, Weiva; McGuire, Valerie; Godwin, Andrew K.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Hernandez, Dena; Levine, Douglas; Lu, Karen; Iversen, Edwin S.; Palmieri, Rachel T.; Houlston, Richard; van Altena, Anne M.; Aben, Katja K.H.; Massuger, Leon F.A.G.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Kelemen, Linda E.; Le, Nhu D.; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Medrek, Krzysztof; Stafford, Anne; Easton, Douglas F.; Tyrer, Jonathan; Bolton, Kelly L.; Harrington, Patricia; Eccles, Diana; Chen, Ann; Molina, Ashley N.; Davila, Barbara N.; Arango, Hector; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Chen, Zhihua; Risch, Harvey A.; McLaughlin, John; Narod, Steven A.; Ziogas, Argyrios; Brewster, Wendy; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Menon, Usha; Wu, Anna H.; Stram, Daniel O.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Beesley, Jonathan; Webb, Penelope M.; Chen, Xiaoqing; Ekici, Arif B.; Thiel, Falk C.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Yang, Hannah; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Lissowska, Jolanta; Fasching, Peter A.; Despierre, Evelyn; Amant, Frederic; Vergote, Ignace; Doherty, Jennifer; Hein, Rebecca; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Lurie, Galina; Carney, Michael E.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Runnebaum, Ingo; Hillemanns, Peter; Dürst, Matthias; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bogdanova, Natalia; Leminen, Arto; Butzow, Ralf; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Stefansson, Kari; Sulem, Patrick; Besenbacher, Sören; Sellers, Thomas A.; Gayther, Simon A.; Pharoah, Paul D.P.

    2011-01-01

    Ovarian cancer (OC) accounts for more deaths than all other gynecological cancers combined. To identify common low-penetrance OC susceptibility genes, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 507,094 SNPs in 1,768 cases and 2,354 controls, with follow-up of 21,955 SNPs in 4,162 cases and 4,810 controls, leading to the identification of a confirmed susceptibility locus at 9p22 (BNC2)1. Here, we report on nine additional candidate loci (p≤10-4), identified after stratifying cases by histology, genotyped in an additional 4,353 cases and 6,021 controls. Two novel susceptibility loci with p≤5×10-8 were confirmed (8q24, p=8.0×10-15 and 2q31, p=3.8×10-14); two additional loci were also identified that approached genome-wide significance (3q25, p=7.1×10-8 and 17q21, p=1.4×10-7). The associations with serous OC were generally stronger than other subtypes. Analysis of HOXD1, MYC, TiPARP, and SKAP1 at these loci, and BNC2 at 9p22, supports a functional role for these genes in OC development. PMID:20852632

  12. A prospective study on evaluation of pathogenesis, biofilm formation, antibiotic susceptibility of microbial community in urinary catheter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younis, Khansa Mohammed; Usup, Gires; Ahmad, Asmat

    2015-09-01

    This study is aimed to isolate, detect biofilm formation ability and antibiotic susceptibility of urinary catheter adherent microorganisms from elderly hospitalized patient at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center. Microorganisms were isolated from three samples of urinary catheters (UC) surface; one of the acute vascular rejection patient (UCB) and two from benign prostate hyperplasia patients (UCC and UCD). A total of 100 isolates was isolated with 35 from UCB, 38 (UCC) and 28 (UCD). Ninety six were identified as Gram-negative bacilli, one Gram-positive bacilli and three yeasts. Results of biofilm forming on sterile foley catheter showed that all the isolates can form biofilm at different degrees; strong biofilm forming: 32% from the 35 isolates (UCB), 25% out of 38 isolates (UCC), 26% out of 28 isolates (UCD). As for moderate biofilm forming; 3% from UCB, 10% from UCC and 2% from UCD. Weak biofilm forming in UCC (3%). The antibiotic susceptibility for (UCB) isolates showed highly resistant to ampicillin, novobiocin and penicillin 100 (%), kanamycin (97%), tetracycline (94%), chloramphenicol (91%), streptomycin (77%) and showed low level of resistance to gentamycin (17%), while all the isolates from (UCC-D) showed high resistant towards ampicillin and penicillin, novobiocin (94%), tetracycline (61%), streptomycin (53%), gentamycin (50%) and low level of resistance to kanamycin (48%), chloramphenicol (47%). The findings indicate that these isolates can spread within the community on urinary catheters surface and produce strong biofilm, therefore, monitoring antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria isolated in the aggregation is recommended.

  13. Landslide susceptibility mapping based on Support Vector Machine: A case study on natural slopes of Hong Kong, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, X.; Tham, L. G.; Dai, F. C.

    2008-11-01

    The Support Vector Machine (SVM) is an increasingly popular learning procedure based on statistical learning theory, and involves a training phase in which the model is trained by a training dataset of associated input and target output values. The trained model is then used to evaluate a separate set of testing data. There are two main ideas underlying the SVM for discriminant-type problems. The first is an optimum linear separating hyperplane that separates the data patterns. The second is the use of kernel functions to convert the original non-linear data patterns into the format that is linearly separable in a high-dimensional feature space. In this paper, an overview of the SVM, both one-class and two-class SVM methods, is first presented followed by its use in landslide susceptibility mapping. A study area was selected from the natural terrain of Hong Kong, and slope angle, slope aspect, elevation, profile curvature of slope, lithology, vegetation cover and topographic wetness index (TWI) were used as environmental parameters which influence the occurrence of landslides. One-class and two-class SVM models were trained and then used to map landslide susceptibility respectively. The resulting susceptibility maps obtained by the methods were compared to that obtained by the logistic regression (LR) method. It is concluded that two-class SVM possesses better prediction efficiency than logistic regression and one-class SVM. However, one-class SVM, which only requires failed cases, has an advantage over the other two methods as only "failed" case information is usually available in landslide susceptibility mapping.

  14. Defining Fidelity: A Cross-Study Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucks, Susan F.

    Teachers who implement new programs have often been observed to adapt them to suit their own teaching situations. This process of adaptation raises four important issues: (1) Can teachers replicate practices developed elsewhere? (2) Can they be equally effective in doing so? (3) Must adaptation occur for implementation to succeed? and (4) Can…

  15. Intervention fidelity and effectiveness of a UK worksite physical activity intervention funded by the BUPA Foundation, UK.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Rebecca; Mceachan, Rosie; Jackson, Cath; West, Robert; Conner, Mark

    2015-03-01

    The main aim of this study was to test whether the effectiveness of a worksite physical activity intervention delivered in five work organizations varied as a function of intervention fidelity. We conducted a fidelity analysis as part of a large matched-pair cluster randomized controlled trial of a worksite physical activity intervention (AME for Activity). Participants (N = 1260) were employees from five organizations in the UK. The primary trial outcome was physical activity at 9 months post intervention. Adherence, exposure, quality of delivery and participant responsiveness/engagement were measured to assess fidelity. Qualitative data about the context in which the intervention was delivered were collected via focus groups, interviews and field notes. Multi-level modelling was used to provide a comparison of the effect of the intervention on increases in physical activity for worksites where intervention fidelity was good, compared with those where intervention fidelity was poor or moderate. Intervention fidelity was poor in two organizations, moderate in two organizations and good in one organization (local council). Re-analysis of the trial data comparing employees in the local council (N = 443) with employees in all other worksites (N = 611) revealed a significant effect of the intervention on physical activity levels among council employees only. These findings suggest that the measurement of fidelity and the testing of the effects of intervention fidelity on outcomes, as part of the evaluation of complex interventions, are essential to understand the context and conditions in which interventions are most effective. PMID:25296727

  16. Balancing Fidelity with Flexibility and Fit: What Do We Really Know about Fidelity of Implementation in Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harn, Beth; Parisi, Danielle; Stoolmiller, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Treatment fidelity, or the application of an intervention as it is designed, is a critical issue for the successful implementation of evidence-based practices. Typically it is assumed that evidence-based practices implemented with high fidelity will result in improved outcomes, whereas low fidelity will lead to poorer outcomes. These assumptions…

  17. Treatment Fidelity of a Nurse-Led Motivational Interviewing-Based Pre-Treatment in Pain Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Vera-Christina; Forsberg, Lars; Verbunt, Jeanine A; Smeets, Rob E J M; Goossens, Mariëlle E J B

    2016-07-01

    Treatment fidelity and proficiency of a nurse-led motivational interviewing (MI)-based pre-treatment and control condition was evaluated. A random sample was scored by means of the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity (MITI) scale, and a second rater was in charge. MI fidelity was satisfactory for three out of five ratings. Most mean ratings were higher in the MI-based intervention, but differences were not statistically significant. The threshold for beginning MI proficiency was only exceeded for one score and one additional measure. In general, higher levels of fidelity in the intervention condition confirmed that MI was partially applied there. Although the quality of MI delivery as well as mixed inter-rater reliabilities of the fidelity scores leaves room for improvement, robust findings between the two raters were found. These results suggest the need for rigor selection of MI counselors on beforehand, and continuous supervision. Furthermore, fidelity check in studies using MI is needed. PMID:26695644

  18. Gravity Modeling for Variable Fidelity Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, Michael M.

    2006-01-01

    Aerospace simulations can model worlds, such as the Earth, with differing levels of fidelity. The simulation may represent the world as a plane, a sphere, an ellipsoid, or a high-order closed surface. The world may or may not rotate. The user may select lower fidelity models based on computational limits, a need for simplified analysis, or comparison to other data. However, the user will also wish to retain a close semblance of behavior to the real world. The effects of gravity on objects are an important component of modeling real-world behavior. Engineers generally equate the term gravity with the observed free-fall acceleration. However, free-fall acceleration is not equal to all observers. To observers on the sur-face of a rotating world, free-fall acceleration is the sum of gravitational attraction and the centrifugal acceleration due to the world's rotation. On the other hand, free-fall acceleration equals gravitational attraction to an observer in inertial space. Surface-observed simulations (e.g. aircraft), which use non-rotating world models, may choose to model observed free fall acceleration as the gravity term; such a model actually combines gravitational at-traction with centrifugal acceleration due to the Earth s rotation. However, this modeling choice invites confusion as one evolves the simulation to higher fidelity world models or adds inertial observers. Care must be taken to model gravity in concert with the world model to avoid denigrating the fidelity of modeling observed free fall. The paper will go into greater depth on gravity modeling and the physical disparities and synergies that arise when coupling specific gravity models with world models.

  19. Bandwidth and SIMDUCE as simulator fidelity criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, David

    1992-01-01

    The potential application of two concepts from the new Handling Qualities Specification for Military Rotorcraft was discussed. The first concept is bandwidth, a measure of the dynamic response to control. The second is a qualitative technique developed for assessing the visual cue environment the pilot has in bad weather and at night. Simulated Day Usable Cue Environment (SIMDUCE) applies this concept to assessing the day cuing fidelity in the simulator.

  20. Low-fidelity alternative DNA repair carcinogenesis theory may interpret many cancer features and anticancer strategies.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chuo; Starr, Shane; Chen, Fuxue; Wu, Jiaxi

    2016-08-01

    We have proposed that the low-fidelity compensatory backup alternative DNA repair pathways drive multistep carcinogenesis. Here, we apply it to interpret the clinical features of cancer, such as mutator phenotype, tissue specificity, age specificity, diverse types of cancers originated from the same type of tissue, cancer susceptibility of patients with DNA repair-defective syndromes, development of cancer only for a selected number of individuals among those that share the same genetic defect, invasion and metastasis. Clinically, the theory predicts that to improve the efficacy of molecular targeted or synthetic lethal therapy, it may be crucial to inhibit the low-fidelity compensatory alternative DNA repair either directly or by blocking the signal transducers of the sustained microenvironmental stress. PMID:27166654

  1. A multi-fidelity framework for physics based rotor blade simulation and optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Kyle Brian

    New helicopter rotor designs are desired that offer increased efficiency, reduced vibration, and reduced noise. Rotor Designers in industry need methods that allow them to use the most accurate simulation tools available to search for these optimal designs. Computer based rotor analysis and optimization have been advanced by the development of industry standard codes known as "comprehensive" rotorcraft analysis tools. These tools typically use table look-up aerodynamics, simplified inflow models and perform aeroelastic analysis using Computational Structural Dynamics (CSD). Due to the simplified aerodynamics, most design studies are performed varying structural related design variables like sectional mass and stiffness. The optimization of shape related variables in forward flight using these tools is complicated and results are viewed with skepticism because rotor blade loads are not accurately predicted. The most accurate methods of rotor simulation utilize Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) but have historically been considered too computationally intensive to be used in computer based optimization, where numerous simulations are required. An approach is needed where high fidelity CFD rotor analysis can be utilized in a shape variable optimization problem with multiple objectives. Any approach should be capable of working in forward flight in addition to hover. An alternative is proposed and founded on the idea that efficient hybrid CFD methods of rotor analysis are ready to be used in preliminary design. In addition, the proposed approach recognizes the usefulness of lower fidelity physics based analysis and surrogate modeling. Together, they are used with high fidelity analysis in an intelligent process of surrogate model building of parameters in the high fidelity domain. Closing the loop between high and low fidelity analysis is a key aspect of the proposed approach. This is done by using information from higher fidelity analysis to improve predictions made

  2. Exploring the effect of absence selection on landslide susceptibility models: A case study in Sicily, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conoscenti, Christian; Rotigliano, Edoardo; Cama, Mariaelena; Caraballo-Arias, Nathalie Almaru; Lombardo, Luigi; Agnesi, Valerio

    2016-05-01

    A statistical approach was employed to model the spatial distribution of rainfall-triggered landslides in two areas in Sicily (Italy) that occurred during the winter of 2004-2005. The investigated areas are located within the Belice River basin and extend for 38.5 and 10.3 km2, respectively. A landslide inventory was established for both areas using two Google Earth images taken on October 25th 2004 and on March 18th 2005, to map slope failures activated or reactivated during this interval. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) were used to prepare 5 m grids of the dependent variables (absence/presence of landslide) and independent variables (lithology and 13 DEM-derivatives). Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) were applied to model landslide susceptibility whereas receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) were used to evaluate model performance. To evaluate the robustness of the whole procedure, we prepared 10 different samples of positive (landslide presence) and negative (landslide absence) cases for each area. Absences were selected through two different methods: (i) extraction from randomly distributed circles with a diameter corresponding to the mean width of the landslide source areas; and (ii) selection as randomly distributed individual grid cells. A comparison was also made between the predictive performances of models including and not including the lithology parameter. The models trained and tested on the same area demonstrated excellent to outstanding fit (AUC > 0.8). On the other hand, predictive skill decreases when measured outside the calibration area, although most of the landslides occur where susceptibility is high and the overall model performance is acceptable (AUC > 0.7). The results also showed that the accuracy of the landslide susceptibility models is higher when lithology is included in the statistical analysis. Models whose absences were selected using random circles showed a

  3. MR susceptibility imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duyn, Jeff

    2013-04-01

    This work reviews recent developments in the use of magnetic susceptibility contrast for human MRI, with a focus on the study of brain anatomy. The increase in susceptibility contrast with modern high field scanners has led to novel applications and insights into the sources and mechanism contributing to this contrast in brain tissues. Dedicated experiments have demonstrated that in most of healthy brain, iron and myelin dominate tissue susceptibility variations, although their relative contribution varies substantially. Local variations in these compounds can affect both amplitude and frequency of the MRI signal. In white matter, the myelin sheath introduces an anisotropic susceptibility that has distinct effects on the water compartments inside the axons, between the myelin sheath, and the axonal space, and renders their signals dependent on the angle between the axon and the magnetic field. This offers opportunities to derive tissue properties specific to these cellular compartments.

  4. Genome-wide association study identifies nox3 as a critical gene for susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Lavinsky, Joel; Crow, Amanda L; Pan, Calvin; Wang, Juemei; Aaron, Ksenia A; Ho, Maria K; Li, Qingzhong; Salehide, Pehzman; Myint, Anthony; Monges-Hernadez, Maya; Eskin, Eleazar; Allayee, Hooman; Lusis, Aldons J; Friedman, Rick A

    2015-04-01

    In the United States, roughly 10% of the population is exposed daily to hazardous levels of noise in the workplace. Twin studies estimate heritability for noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) of approximately 36%, and strain specific variation in sensitivity has been demonstrated in mice. Based upon the difficulties inherent to the study of NIHL in humans, we have turned to the study of this complex trait in mice. We exposed 5 week-old mice from the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel (HMDP) to a 10 kHz octave band noise at 108 dB for 2 hours and assessed the permanent threshold shift 2 weeks post exposure using frequency specific stimuli. These data were then used in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using the Efficient Mixed Model Analysis (EMMA) to control for population structure. In this manuscript we describe our GWAS, with an emphasis on a significant peak for susceptibility to NIHL on chromosome 17 within a haplotype block containing NADPH oxidase-3 (Nox3). Our peak was detected after an 8 kHz tone burst stimulus. Nox3 mutants and heterozygotes were then tested to validate our GWAS. The mutants and heterozygotes demonstrated a greater susceptibility to NIHL specifically at 8 kHz both on measures of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) and on auditory brainstem response (ABR). We demonstrate that this sensitivity resides within the synaptic ribbons of the cochlea in the mutant animals specifically at 8 kHz. Our work is the first GWAS for NIHL in mice and elucidates the power of our approach to identify tonotopic genetic susceptibility to NIHL. PMID:25880434

  5. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Nox3 as a Critical Gene for Susceptibility to Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Lavinsky, Joel; Crow, Amanda L.; Pan, Calvin; Wang, Juemei; Aaron, Ksenia A.; Ho, Maria K.; Li, Qingzhong; Salehide, Pehzman; Myint, Anthony; Monges-Hernadez, Maya; Eskin, Eleazar; Allayee, Hooman; Lusis, Aldons J.; Friedman, Rick A.

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, roughly 10% of the population is exposed daily to hazardous levels of noise in the workplace. Twin studies estimate heritability for noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) of approximately 36%, and strain specific variation in sensitivity has been demonstrated in mice. Based upon the difficulties inherent to the study of NIHL in humans, we have turned to the study of this complex trait in mice. We exposed 5 week-old mice from the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel (HMDP) to a 10 kHz octave band noise at 108 dB for 2 hours and assessed the permanent threshold shift 2 weeks post exposure using frequency specific stimuli. These data were then used in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using the Efficient Mixed Model Analysis (EMMA) to control for population structure. In this manuscript we describe our GWAS, with an emphasis on a significant peak for susceptibility to NIHL on chromosome 17 within a haplotype block containing NADPH oxidase-3 (Nox3). Our peak was detected after an 8 kHz tone burst stimulus. Nox3 mutants and heterozygotes were then tested to validate our GWAS. The mutants and heterozygotes demonstrated a greater susceptibility to NIHL specifically at 8 kHz both on measures of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) and on auditory brainstem response (ABR). We demonstrate that this sensitivity resides within the synaptic ribbons of the cochlea in the mutant animals specifically at 8 kHz. Our work is the first GWAS for NIHL in mice and elucidates the power of our approach to identify tonotopic genetic susceptibility to NIHL. PMID:25880434

  6. Gender and AIDS-related psychosocial processes: a study of perceived susceptibility, social distance, and homophobia.

    PubMed

    Schieman, S

    1998-06-01

    Over the past decade, researchers have accumulated evidence that suggests six main factors are associated with AIDS-related risk reduction behavior: (a) perceived susceptibility (Dolcini et al., 1995; van der Plight & Richard, 1994); (b) attitudes toward condoms (Catania et al., 1994; Maticka-Tynadale, 1991); (c) personally knowing someone with HIV/AIDS (Joseph et al., 1987); (d) perceived peer norms about risk-reduction (Maticka-Tyndale, 1991); (e) previous sexual activity (Joseph et al., 1987); and (f) self-efficacy (Aspinwall, Kemeny, Taylor, & Schneider, 1991; van der Plight & Richard, 1994). Furthermore, there is some suggestion that the epidemiology and sociocultural constructions of the disease has led to considerable gender, racial, and class differences in awareness of AIDS, perception of HIV threat, and HIV-relevant behavior (Cohan & Atwood, 1994; Dolcini et al., 1995; Gillies, 1994). PMID:9642424

  7. [Study on in-vitro susceptibility of ESBL-positive Escherichia coli isolated from urine specimens].

    PubMed

    Grandesso, Stefano; Sapino, Barbara; Mazzucato, Sandra; Alessandrini, Roberta; Solinas, Maria; Gion, Massimo

    2010-09-01

    Treatment of infections by beta-lactamase-producing microorganisms is very difficult. Our aim was to determine the in vitro susceptibility of 430 ESBL-positive Escherichia coli strains isolated from urinary tract infections. All the microorganisms were isolated in the Microbiology Unit at the Ospedale dell'Angelo in Mestre (Venice) between May 2008 and September 2009 and were confirmed by the double-disk test. All microorganisms were sensitive to imipenem and meropenem, 98.4% to tigecycline, 95.1% to amikacin, 89.3% to nitrofurantoin, 67.5% to gentamycin and 63.2% to piperacillin/tazobactam. Only 22.6% were sensitive to cotrimoxazole, while fluoroquinolone (norfloxacin and levofloxacin) activity was found to be very low (6%). PMID:20956871

  8. A study of large scaled landslide susceptibility by using Weight-of-Evidence method: A case study from the Laonung River Watershed, Southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chih-Hao; Lin, Ching-Weei; Tseng, Chih-Ming

    2013-04-01

    The Laonung River watershed which covered an area 1367 km2 is selected as the study area to construct large scaled landslides susceptibility model by using Weight-of-Evidence method. Within the study area, 950 landslides with an area more than 10 ha are identified from FORMOSAT 2 images, aerial photos, and LiDAR derived 1 m high resolution Digital-Elevation-Model (DEM) taken after typhoon Moratko in 2009. Among these, 271 landslides occurred recently and they show bare ground in aerial photos and satellite images. 318 landslides are vegetation recovery, and they are inferred from their topographic characteristics by using aerial photos with topographic map. Additionally, 361 landslides with topographic features of deep seated landslide such as crown main escarpment, down slop scarp, up slop scarp, and transverse cracks are identified from 1m resolution LiDAR derived DEM. Weight-of-Evidence method is a bivariate statistical approach which uses the concept of Bayes' theorem and odds ratio to calculate the weighting of each evaluation parameter. In this study, ten parameters including slope gradient, slope aspect, landform, elevation, lithology, dip-slope, undercut slope, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), the distance from geological structure and the distance from stream are selected as evaluation factors. For each parameter, the weighting for landslide susceptibility is calculated, and the weighting of all parameters are then summed to generate the landslide susceptibility map. The study results show the area under the success rate curves reaching 80%, and 70% of large scaled landslides falls within top 30% susceptibility index. It implies that the susceptibility model constructed by this study can effectively predict the location of large scaled landslides in the study area. The results can benefit to the management of mitigation plan of the large scaled landslides in southern Taiwan.

  9. Spin-coupling in ferric metalloporphyrin radical cation complexes: Mössbauer and susceptibility studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, George; Boso, Brian; Erler, Brian S.; Reed, Christopher A.

    1986-03-01

    The ferric metalloporphyrin π-radical cation complexes Fe(III) (OClO3)2 (TPP.) and [Fe(III) Cl (TPP.)] [SbCl6] were examined in microcrystalline form by Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetic susceptometry over a range of temperatures and applied fields. All measurements on the six-coordinate Fe(OClO3)2 (TPP.) were consistent with isolated molecules having an S=5/2 iron site with zero field splitting (12 cm-1) S2z that is ferromagnetically coupled to the S=1/2 porphyrin radical by an energy term (-110 cm-1) Sṡs. Thus the ground state is overall spin-3. In the five-coordinate [FeCl (TPP.)] [SbCl6] the susceptibility is in reasonable agreement with the results of a calculation based on zero field splitting (12 cm-1) S2z for the S=5/2 iron and antiferromagnetic coupling (200 cm-1) Sṡs with the radical to give an overall spin-2 ground state. However, the Mössbauer measurements require a more complicated model having the same large intramolecular iron-radical coupling, a smaller zero field splitting (3 cm-1) S2z, and weak intermolecular antiferromagnetic coupling between heme pairs given by (32 cm-1) s1ṡs2 or, equivalently, (0.65 cm-1) S1ṡS2. A slightly improved correspondence with the measured susceptibility results. The intermolecular antiferromagnetic coupling probably results from crystallization of the [FeCl (TPP.)]+ cations in face-to-face dimers as observed in other closely related five-coordinate iron (III) porphyrins.

  10. Applications of fidelity measures to complex quantum systems.

    PubMed

    Wimberger, Sandro

    2016-06-13

    We revisit fidelity as a measure for the stability and the complexity of the quantum motion of single-and many-body systems. Within the context of cold atoms, we present an overview of applications of two fidelities, which we call static and dynamical fidelity, respectively. The static fidelity applies to quantum problems which can be diagonalized since it is defined via the eigenfunctions. In particular, we show that the static fidelity is a highly effective practical detector of avoided crossings characterizing the complexity of the systems and their evolutions. The dynamical fidelity is defined via the time-dependent wave functions. Focusing on the quantum kicked rotor system, we highlight a few practical applications of fidelity measurements in order to better understand the large variety of dynamical regimes of this paradigm of a low-dimensional system with mixed regular-chaotic phase space. PMID:27140967

  11. Exposure to point-of-sale displays and changes in susceptibility to smoking: findings from a cohort study of school students

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanovica, Ilze; Szatkowski, Lisa; McNeill, Ann; Spanopoulos, Dionysis; Britton, John

    2015-01-01

    Aims To investigate the association between frequency of visiting shops and noticing of tobacco point-of-sale (PoS) displays and the development of susceptibility to smoking, or smoking uptake, in secondary school students. Design Two surveys of a school based cohort study carried out in 2011 and 2012. Settings Nottinghamshire, UK. Participants A total of 2270 children aged 11–16 years from eight schools in Nottinghamshire. Measurements We investigated changes in susceptibility to smoking and smoking status in relation to frequency of visiting shops and noticing PoS displays and number of tobacco brands recognized, controlling for a range of potential confounders. Susceptibility to smoking was defined using a set of three questions covering intentions to try smoking, to smoke within the next year and likelihood of smoking if a best friend offered a cigarette. For the analysis we used multinomial logistic regression. Findings Among non-susceptible never smokers, noticing PoS displays more frequently was associated independently with an increased risk of becoming susceptible to smoking [adjusted relative risk ratio (RRR) = 1.74; 99% confidence interval (CI) = 1.13–2.69], but was not associated with smoking uptake. Recognizing a higher number of brands among non-susceptible never smokers doubled the risk of becoming susceptible to smoking and of becoming a smoker, but this did not have a significant effect on transition to smoking among susceptible never smokers. Frequency of noticing tobacco PoS displays was not associated significantly with smoking uptake among those who were susceptible never smokers at baseline. Conclusions Noticing tobacco point-of-sale displays more often and recognizing a higher number of tobacco brands is associated with an increased risk of becoming susceptible to smoking among adolescents in the United Kingdom, and recognizing a higher number of brands is associated positively with an increased risk of smoking uptake. PMID:25488727

  12. iGWAS: Integrative Genome-Wide Association Studies of Genetic and Genomic Data for Disease Susceptibility Using Mediation Analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yen-Tsung; Liang, Liming; Moffatt, Miriam F; Cookson, William O C M; Lin, Xihong

    2015-07-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been a standard practice in identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for disease susceptibility. We propose a new approach, termed integrative GWAS (iGWAS) that exploits the information of gene expressions to investigate the mechanisms of the association of SNPs with a disease phenotype, and to incorporate the family-based design for genetic association studies. Specifically, the relations among SNPs, gene expression, and disease are modeled within the mediation analysis framework, which allows us to disentangle the genetic effect on a disease phenotype into two parts: an effect mediated through a gene expression (mediation effect, ME) and an effect through other biological mechanisms or environment-mediated mechanisms (alternative effect, AE). We develop omnibus tests for the ME and AE that are robust to underlying true disease models. Numerical studies show that the iGWAS approach is able to facilitate discovering genetic association mechanisms, and outperforms the SNP-only method for testing genetic associations. We conduct a family-based iGWAS of childhood asthma that integrates genetic and genomic data. The iGWAS approach identifies six novel susceptibility genes (MANEA, MRPL53, LYCAT, ST8SIA4, NDFIP1, and PTCH1) using the omnibus test with false discovery rate less than 1%, whereas no gene using SNP-only analyses survives with the same cut-off. The iGWAS analyses further characterize that genetic effects of these genes are mostly mediated through their gene expressions. In summary, the iGWAS approach provides a new analytic framework to investigate the mechanism of genetic etiology, and identifies novel susceptibility genes of childhood asthma that were biologically meaningful. PMID:25997986

  13. iGWAS: Integrative Genome-Wide Association Studies of Genetic and Genomic Data for Disease Susceptibility Using Mediation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yen-Tsung; Liang, Liang; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Cookson, William O. C. M.; Lin, Xihong

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been a standard practice in identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for disease susceptibility. We propose a new approach, termed integrative GWAS (iGWAS) that exploits the information of gene expressions to investigate the mechanisms of the association of SNPs with a disease phenotype, and to incorporate the family-based design for genetic association studies. Specifically, the relations among SNPs, gene expression, and disease are modeled within the mediation analysis framework, which allows us to disentangle the genetic effect on a disease phenotype into two parts: an effect mediated through a gene expression (mediation effect, ME) and an effect through other biological mechanisms or environment-mediated mechanisms (alternative effect, AE). We develop omnibus tests for the ME and AE that are robust to underlying true disease models. Numerical studies show that the iGWAS approach is able to facilitate discovering genetic association mechanisms, and outperforms the SNP-only method for testing genetic associations. We conduct a family-based iGWAS of childhood asthma that integrates genetic and genomic data. The iGWAS approach identifies six novel susceptibility genes (MANEA, MRPL53, LYCAT, ST8SIA4, NDFIP1, and PTCH1) using the omnibus test with false discovery rate less than 1%, whereas no gene using SNP-only analyses survives with the same cut-off. The iGWAS analyses further characterize that genetic effects of these genes are mostly mediated through their gene expressions. In summary, the iGWAS approach provides a new analytic framework to investigate the mechanism of genetic etiology, and identifies novel susceptibility genes of childhood asthma that were biologically meaningful. PMID:25997986

  14. Fine mapping of breast cancer genome-wide association studies loci in women of African ancestry identifies novel susceptibility markers.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yonglan; Ogundiran, Temidayo O; Falusi, Adeyinka G; Nathanson, Katherine L; John, Esther M; Hennis, Anselm J M; Ambs, Stefan; Domchek, Susan M; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Simon, Michael S; Nemesure, Barbara; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Leske, Maria Cristina; Odetunde, Abayomi; Niu, Qun; Zhang, Jing; Afolabi, Chibuzor; Gamazon, Eric R; Cox, Nancy J; Olopade, Christopher O; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Huo, Dezheng

    2013-07-01

    Numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with breast cancer susceptibility have been identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, these SNPs were primarily discovered and validated in women of European and Asian ancestry. Because linkage disequilibrium is ancestry-dependent and heterogeneous among racial/ethnic populations, we evaluated common genetic variants at 22 GWAS-identified breast cancer susceptibility loci in a pooled sample of 1502 breast cancer cases and 1378 controls of African ancestry. None of the 22 GWAS index SNPs could be validated, challenging the direct generalizability of breast cancer risk variants identified in Caucasians or Asians to other populations. Novel breast cancer risk variants for women of African ancestry were identified in regions including 5p12 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11-1.76; P = 0.004), 5q11.2 (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.09-1.36; P = 0.00053) and 10p15.1 (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.08-1.38; P = 0.0015). We also found positive association signals in three regions (6q25.1, 10q26.13 and 16q12.1-q12.2) previously confirmed by fine mapping in women of African ancestry. In addition, polygenic model indicated that eight best markers in this study, compared with 22 GWAS-identified SNPs, could better predict breast cancer risk in women of African ancestry (per-allele OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.16-1.27; P = 9.7 × 10(-16)). Our results demonstrate that fine mapping is a powerful approach to better characterize the breast cancer risk alleles in diverse populations. Future studies and new GWAS in women of African ancestry hold promise to discover additional variants for breast cancer susceptibility with clinical implications throughout the African diaspora. PMID:23475944

  15. Biochemical Characterization of Enzyme Fidelity of Influenza A Virus RNA Polymerase Complex

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Shilpa; Bradel-Tretheway, Birgit; Takimoto, Toru; Dewhurst, Stephen; Kim, Baek

    2010-01-01

    Background It is widely accepted that the highly error prone replication process of influenza A virus (IAV), together with viral genome assortment, facilitates the efficient evolutionary capacity of IAV. Therefore, it has been logically assumed that the enzyme responsible for viral RNA replication process, influenza virus type A RNA polymerase (IAV Pol), is a highly error-prone polymerase which provides the genomic mutations necessary for viral evolution and host adaptation. Importantly, however, the actual enzyme fidelity of IAV RNA polymerase has never been characterized. Principal Findings Here we established new biochemical assay conditions that enabled us to assess both polymerase activity with physiological NTP pools and enzyme fidelity of IAV Pol. We report that IAV Pol displays highly active RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity at unbiased physiological NTP substrate concentrations. With this robust enzyme activity, for the first time, we were able to compare the enzyme fidelity of IAV Pol complex with that of bacterial phage T7 RNA polymerase and the reverse transcriptases (RT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) and murine leukemia virus (MuLV), which are known to be low and high fidelity enzymes, respectively. We observed that IAV Pol displayed significantly higher fidelity than HIV-1 RT and T7 RNA polymerase and equivalent or higher fidelity than MuLV RT. In addition, the IAV Pol complex showed increased fidelity at lower temperatures. Moreover, upon replacement of Mg++ with Mn++, IAV Pol displayed increased polymerase activity, but with significantly reduced processivity, and misincorporation was slightly elevated in the presence of Mn++. Finally, when the IAV nucleoprotein (NP) was included in the reactions, the IAV Pol complex exhibited enhanced polymerase activity with increased fidelity. Significance Our study indicates that IAV Pol is a high fidelity enzyme. We envision that the high fidelity nature of IAV Pol may be important to counter

  16. High Fidelity of Base Paring by 2-Selenothymidine in DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, A.; Sheng, J; Zhang, W; Huang, Z

    2010-01-01

    The base pairs are the contributors to the sequence-dependent recognition of nucleic acids, genetic information storage, and high fidelity of DNA polymerase replication. However, the wobble base pairing, where T pairs with G instead of A, reduces specific base-pairing recognition and compromises the high fidelity of the enzymatic polymerization. Via the selenium atomic probing at the 2-position of thymidine, we have investigated the wobble discrimination by manipulating the steric and electronic effects at the 2-exo position, providing a unique chemical strategy to enhance the base pair specificity. We report here the first synthesis of the novel 2-Se-thymidine ({sup Se}T) derivative, its phosphoramidite, and the Se-DNAs. Our biophysical and structural studies of the 2-Se-T DNAs reveal that the bulky 2-Se atom with a weak hydrogen-bonding ability can largely increase mismatch discriminations (including T/G wobble and T/C mismatched base pairs) while maintaining the {sup Se}T/A virtually identical to the native T/A base pair. The 2-Se atom bulkiness and the electronic effect are probably the main factors responsible for the discrimination against the formation of the wobble {sup Se}T/G base pair. Our investigations provide a potential novel tool to investigate the specific recognition of base pairs, which is the basis of high fidelity during replication, transcription, and translation. Furthermore, this Se-atom-specific substitution and probing are useful for X-ray crystal structure and function studies of nucleic acids.

  17. The impact of model fidelity on seasonal predictive skill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharin, V. V.; Scinocca, J. F.

    2012-09-01

    The relationship between the quality of a general circulation model's (GCM's) representation of present climate and its predictive skill on seasonal time scales is investigated by a series of GCM experiments. A novel procedure is developed to improve the quality of a GCM's present-day control climate by applying cyclostationary annually varying run-time “bias corrections”. Application of this procedure to the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis third generation atmospheric GCM (AGCM3) is shown to result in a significant reduction of time-mean biases in wind, temperature and humidity fields in its simulation of present-day climate. Furthermore, it is found that this cyclostationary correction leads to improved variability on seasonal time scales. The ability to improve a GCM's properties in this way allows a careful assessment of the relationship between a model's fidelity and its predictive skill. In this study, the potential predictive skill on seasonal time scales is assessed by performing ensemble simulations with the observed sea surface temperatures and sea-ice distribution. The analysis indicates that the increase in model fidelity associated with the application of the bias correction results in a general increase in predictive skill on seasonal times scales. To investigate this result further, an additional set of ensemble forecasts are performed with the sign of the bias correction reversed, thereby degrading model fidelity. In this additional experiment the corresponding predictive skill is also degraded. The results of this study have implications with regard to the application and interpretation of model metrics for climate GCMs.

  18. Anuran Host Species Influences Site Fidelity of Halipegus occidualis.

    PubMed

    Stigge, Heather A; Bolek, Matthew G

    2016-02-01

    Helminths often demonstrate preferential site selection in which a parasite will only occur in 1 microhabitat or a restricted portion of its fundamental niche within its host. However, factors responsible for helminth site specificity are poorly understood, and very little is known about how these factors vary among multiple host species. Some helminths, such as Halipegus occidualis, have been reported from different habitats (stomach or under the tongue) within multiple anuran host species, suggesting that the site selected varies within anuran species. This study examined the site selection by H. occidualis in 7 definitive anuran host species using experimental infections. Then, the site fidelity of H. occidualis was further tested by transplanting worms from under the tongue to the stomach and vice versa in different anuran host combinations, and the movement of worms was recorded. Halipegus occidualis individuals occupied the habitat under the tongue in 6 of 7 anuran species. However, worms always occupied the stomach of American bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) and were never found under the tongue or in the mouth of these hosts. More importantly, all worms remained in the original habitat when transplanted from the stomach to the stomach or the buccal cavity to the buccal cavity within another individual of the same amphibian species. However, when worms were transplanted from the stomach to the buccal cavity or vice versa in the same host species, the worms always migrated back to the original habitat. The main contribution of this study is that it experimentally documented the variability in the site fidelity of H. occidualis within multiple definitive host species and determined that site fidelity is not as strongly conserved in this genus as suggested previously. Additionally, this work suggests that the variation in site selection in different host species could lead to speciation of the parasites. PMID:26412569

  19. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Borrelia burgdorferi: a microdilution MIC method and time-kill studies.

    PubMed Central

    Dever, L L; Jorgensen, J H; Barbour, A G

    1992-01-01

    The susceptibility of Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, to various antimicrobial agents varies widely among published studies. These differences are probably due in part to variations in susceptibility testing techniques and growth endpoint determinations. We developed a microdilution method for determining the MICs of antibiotics against B. burgdorferi. The method incorporated BSK II medium, a final inoculum of 10(6) cells per ml, and a 72-h incubation period and was found to be simple and highly reproducible. A variety of antibiotics and strains of B. burgdorferi and one strain of Borrelia hermsii were examined by this method. MICs of penicillin, ceftriaxone, and erythromycin for the B31 strain of B. burgdorferi were 0.06, 0.03, and 0.03 microgram/ml, respectively. We compared the MICs obtained by the microdilution method with those obtained by a macrodilution method using similar criteria for endpoint determinations and found the values obtained by both methods to be in close agreement. To further investigate the bactericidal activities of penicillin, ceftriaxone, and erythromycin against strain B31, we used subsurface plating to determine MBCs and we also performed time-kill studies. The MBCs of penicillin, ceftriaxone, and erythromycin were 0.125, 0.03, and 0.06 micrograms/ml, respectively. Time-kill curves demonstrated a greater than or equal to 3-log10-unit killing after 72 h with penicillin, ceftriaxone, and erythromycin; ceftriaxone provided the greatest reduction in CFU. The described methods offer a more standardized and objective approach to susceptibility testing of B. burgdorferi. Images PMID:1400969

  20. Evaluation of debris flow susceptibility by means of a transferability procedure: a study case in Messina area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cama, Mariaelena; Luigi, Lombardo; Conoscenti, Christian; Rotigliano, Edoardo

    2016-04-01

    Debris flows can be described as rapid mass movements, gravity induced able to transport large quantities of material downslope. This type of landslides is strongly controlled by the topography and usually occur in region characterized by steep slopes and at least seasonal heavy rainfall. One of the problem when dealing with debris flow susceptible areas is that the eroded surface is usually very shallow and it can be masked by the vegetation already few years after a landslide event. Therefore, debris flow prone areas very often suffer from lack of reliable landslide inventories necessary to calibrate and validate susceptibility models. In order to deal with this problem, transferability procedure (spatial partition) have already proved to be efficient in areas which show analogous topographic, lithological and climatic characteristics. A procedure to evaluate whether it is possible to apply model transferability is here proposed. This approach is based on the assumption that debris flow trigger in different locations under similar topographic conditions and includes: i) a test of similarity between training and test areas aimed at identifying thresholds in catchment similarity which allow to successfully perform the transferability; ii) the calibration of the susceptibility model in the training area; iii) the validation of the model on the test area. The debris flow susceptibility is here evaluated using a stochastic approach and the all procedure is implemented in a R script which can be easily used to test the procedure in other catchments. The study areas chosen to perform this study are located in the Messina province (southern Italy) respectively on the Ionian sector (Itala catchment) and on the Tyrrhenian sector (Saponara catchment). Itala catchment was hit by the sadly known debris flow event of the 1st October 2009 (37 fatalities and huge damages) while Saponara catchment on the 22nd November 2011 (only two years after the 2009 event) experienced a very

  1. Superspin relaxation in Fe3O4/hexane magnetic fluids: A dynamic susceptibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botez, Cristian E.; Morris, Joshua L.; Eastman, Michael P.

    2012-07-01

    We have used frequency-resolved (100 Hz < f < 10,000 Hz) ac magnetic susceptibility measurements to directly determine the Néel and Brown relaxation times in 30-nm-size Fe3O4/hexane magnetic fluids at temperatures between 200 and 300 K. Our data collected on both powder and magnetic fluid samples allow the separation of the contributions from the Néel and Brown relaxation mechanisms that act concomitantly within the above-mentioned temperature range. At all temperatures we find that the Brown relaxation times (τB) are shorter than their Néel counterparts (τN), evidence that the Brown mechanism yields the major contribution towards the system's overall superspin dynamics. τB exhibits a steep two-order-of-magnitude decrease upon heating, from τB = 1 × 10-3 s at T = 237 K to τB = 1.5 × 10-5 s at T = 270 K, a behavior mostly driven by the heating-induced reduction of the liquid carrier's viscosity.

  2. Corrosion susceptibility study of candidate pin materials for ALTC (Active Lithium/Thionyl Chloride) batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovard, Francine S.; Cieslak, Wendy R.

    1987-09-01

    The corrosion susceptibilities of eight alternate battery pin material candidates for ALTC (Active Lithium/Thionyl Chloride) batteries in 1.5M LiAlCl4/SOCl2 electrolyte have been investigated using ampule exposure and electrochemical tests. The thermal expansion coefficients of these candidate materials are expected to match Sandia-developed Li-corrosion resistant glasses. The corrosion resistances of the candidate materials, which included three stainless steels (15-5 PH, 17-4 PH, and 446), three Fe-Ni glass sealing alloys (Kovar, Alloy 52, and Niromet 426), a Ni-based alloy (Hastelloy B-2) and a zirconium-based alloy (Zircaloy), were compared to the reference materials Ni and 316L SS. All of the candidate materials showed some evidence of corrosion and, therefore, did not perform as well as the reference materials. The Hastelloy B-2 and Zircaloy are clearly unacceptable materials for this application. Of the remaining alternate materials, the 446 SS and Alloy 52 are the most promising candidates.

  3. Genome-wide association study identifies a psoriasis susceptibility locus at TRAF3IP2

    PubMed Central

    Ellinghaus, Eva; Ellinghaus, David; Stuart, Philip E.; Nair, Rajan P.; Debrus, Sophie; Raelson, John V.; Belouchi, Majid; Fournier, Hélène; Reinhard, Claudia; Ding, Jun; Li, Yun; Tejasvi, Trilokraj; Gudjonsson, Johann; Stoll, Stefan W.; Voorhees, John J.; Lambert, Sylviane; Weidinger, Stephan; Eberlein, Bernadette; Kunz, Manfred; Rahman, Proton; Gladman, Dafna D.; Gieger, Christian; Wichmann, H. Erich; Karlsen, Tom H.; Mayr, Gabriele; Albrecht, Mario; Kabelitz, Dieter; Mrowietz, Ulrich; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Elder, James T.; Schreiber, Stefan; Weichenthal, Michael; Franke, Andre

    2011-01-01

    Psoriasis is a multifactorial skin disease characterized by epidermal hyperproliferation and chronic inflammation, the most common form of which is psoriasis vulgaris (PsV). We present a genome-wide association analysis of 2,339,118 SNPs in 472 psoriasis patients and 1,146 controls from Germany, with follow-up of the 147 most significant SNPs in 2,746 PsV cases and 4,140 controls from three independent replication panels. We identified an association at TRAF3IP2 on 6q21 and genotyped two SNPs at this locus in two additional replication panels (the combined discovery and replication panels consisted of 6,487 cases and 8,037 controls; combinded P = 2.36×10−10 for rs13210247 and combined P = 1.24×10−16 for rs33980500). About 15% of psoriasis cases develope psoriatic arthritis (PsA). A stratified analysis of our datasets including only PsA cases (1,922 cases compared to 8,037 controls, P=4.57×10−12 for rs33980500) suggested that TRAF3IP2 represents a shared susceptibility for PsV and PsA. TRAF3IP2 encodes a protein involved in IL-17 signaling and which interacts with memebers of the Rel/NF-κB transcription factor family. PMID:20953188

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring of respiratory tract pathogens isolated from diseased cattle and pigs across Europe: the VetPath study.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Anno; Thomas, Valérie; Simjee, Shabbir; Moyaert, Hilde; El Garch, Farid; Maher, Kirsty; Morrissey, Ian; Butty, Pascal; Klein, Ulrich; Marion, Hervé; Rigaut, Delphine; Vallé, Michel

    2014-08-01

    VetPath is an ongoing pan-European antibiotic susceptibility monitoring programme collecting pathogens from diseased antimicrobial non-treated cattle, pigs and poultry. In the current study, 1001 isolates from cattle and pig respiratory tract infections were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibilities. Non-replicate lung samples or nasopharyngeal/nasal swabs were collected from animals with acute clinical signs in 11 countries during 2002-2006. Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica from cattle and P. multocida, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Streptococcus suis from pigs were isolated by standard methods. S. suis was also isolated from meningitis cases. MICs of 16 antibiotics were assessed centrally by broth microdilution following CLSI recommendations. Results were interpreted using CLSI breakpoints where available. P. multocida (231) and M. haemolytica (138) isolates were all susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Resistance to florfenicol and spectinomycin was 0.4% and 3.5% in P. multocida, respectively, and absent in M. haemolytica isolates. Tetracycline resistance was 5.7% and 14.6% for P. multocida and M. haemolytica. In pigs, 230 P. multocida, 220 A. pleuropneumoniae and 182 S. suis isolates were recovered. Resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, tiamulin and tilmicosin was absent or <1%. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance was 3-6% and tetracycline resistance varied from 14.7% in A. pleuropneumoniae to 81.8% in S. suis. In conclusion, low resistance to antibiotics with defined clinical breakpoints, except for tetracycline, was observed among the major respiratory tract pathogens recovered from cattle and pigs. Since for approximately half of the antibiotics in this panel no CLSI-defined breakpoints were available, setting of the missing veterinary breakpoints is important. PMID:24837878

  5. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Novel Susceptibility Genes Associated with Coronary Artery Aneurysm Formation in Kawasaki Disease

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Mindy Ming-Huey; Huang, Ying-Hsien; Yu, Hong-Ren; Huang, Fu-Chen; Jiao, Fuyong; Kuo, Hsing-Chun; Andrade, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) or Kawasaki syndrome is known as a vasculitis of small to medium-sized vessels, and coronary arteries are predominantly involved in childhood. Generally, 20–25% of untreated with IVIG and 3–5% of treated KD patients have been developed coronary artery lesions (CALs), such as dilatation and aneurysm. Understanding how coronary artery aneurysms (CAAs) are established and maintained in KD patients is therefore of great importance. Upon our previous genotyping data of 157 valid KD subjects, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) has been conducted among 11 (7%) CAA-developed KD patients to reveal five significant genetic variants passed pre-defined thresholds and resulted in two novel susceptibility protein-coding genes, which are NEBL (rs16921209 (P = 7.44 × 10−9; OR = 32.22) and rs7922552 (P = 8.43 × 10−9; OR = 32.0)) and TUBA3C (rs17076896 (P = 8.04 × 10−9; OR = 21.03)). Their known functions have been reported to associate with cardiac muscle and tubulin, respectively. As a result, this might imply their putative roles of establishing CAAs during KD progression. Additionally, various model analyses have been utilized to determine dominant and recessive inheritance patterns of identified susceptibility mutations. Finally, all susceptibility genes hit by significant genetic variants were further investigated and the top three representative gene-ontology (GO) clusters were regulation of cell projection organization, neuron recognition, and peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation. Our results help to depict the potential routes of the pathogenesis of CAAs in KD patients and will facilitate researchers to improve the diagnosis and prognosis of KD in personalized medicine. PMID:27171184

  6. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Novel Susceptibility Genes Associated with Coronary Artery Aneurysm Formation in Kawasaki Disease.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ho-Chang; Li, Sung-Chou; Guo, Mindy Ming-Huey; Huang, Ying-Hsien; Yu, Hong-Ren; Huang, Fu-Chen; Jiao, Fuyong; Kuo, Hsing-Chun; Andrade, Jorge; Chan, Wen-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) or Kawasaki syndrome is known as a vasculitis of small to medium-sized vessels, and coronary arteries are predominantly involved in childhood. Generally, 20-25% of untreated with IVIG and 3-5% of treated KD patients have been developed coronary artery lesions (CALs), such as dilatation and aneurysm. Understanding how coronary artery aneurysms (CAAs) are established and maintained in KD patients is therefore of great importance. Upon our previous genotyping data of 157 valid KD subjects, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) has been conducted among 11 (7%) CAA-developed KD patients to reveal five significant genetic variants passed pre-defined thresholds and resulted in two novel susceptibility protein-coding genes, which are NEBL (rs16921209 (P = 7.44 × 10-9; OR = 32.22) and rs7922552 (P = 8.43 × 10-9; OR = 32.0)) and TUBA3C (rs17076896 (P = 8.04 × 10-9; OR = 21.03)). Their known functions have been reported to associate with cardiac muscle and tubulin, respectively. As a result, this might imply their putative roles of establishing CAAs during KD progression. Additionally, various model analyses have been utilized to determine dominant and recessive inheritance patterns of identified susceptibility mutations. Finally, all susceptibility genes hit by significant genetic variants were further investigated and the top three representative gene-ontology (GO) clusters were regulation of cell projection organization, neuron recognition, and peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation. Our results help to depict the potential routes of the pathogenesis of CAAs in KD patients and will facilitate researchers to improve the diagnosis and prognosis of KD in personalized medicine. PMID:27171184

  7. The importance of population susceptibility for air pollution risk assessment: a case study of power plants near Washington, DC.

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Jonathan I; Greco, Susan L; Spengler, John D

    2002-01-01

    In evaluating risks from air pollution, health impact assessments often focus on the magnitude of the impacts without explicitly considering the distribution of impacts across subpopulations. In this study, we constructed a model to estimate the magnitude and distribution of health benefits associated with emission controls at five older power plants in the Washington, DC, area. We used the CALPUFF atmospheric dispersion model to determine the primary and secondary fine-particulate-matter (< 2.5 micro m in aerodynamic diameter) concentration reductions associated with the hypothetical application of "Best Available Control Technology" to the selected power plants. We combined these concentration reductions with concentration-response functions for mortality and selected morbidity outcomes, using a conventional approach as well as considering susceptible subpopulations. Incorporating susceptibility had a minimal effect on total benefits, with central estimates of approximately 240 fewer premature deaths, 60 fewer cardiovascular hospital admissions (CHA), and 160 fewer pediatric asthma emergency room visits (ERV) per year. However, because individuals with lower education appear to have both higher background mortality rates and higher relative risks for air-pollution-related mortality, stratifying by educational attainment implies that 51% of the mortality benefits accrue among the 25% of the population with less than high school education. Similarly, diabetics and African Americans bear disproportionate shares of the CHA and ERV benefits, respectively. Although our ability to characterize subpopulations is constrained by the available information, our analysis demonstrates that incorporation of susceptibility information significantly affects demographic and geographic patterns of health benefits and enhances our understanding of individuals likely to benefit from emission controls. PMID:12460806

  8. The importance of population susceptibility for air pollution risk assessment: a case study of power plants near Washington, DC.

    PubMed

    Levy, Jonathan I; Greco, Susan L; Spengler, John D

    2002-12-01

    In evaluating risks from air pollution, health impact assessments often focus on the magnitude of the impacts without explicitly considering the distribution of impacts across subpopulations. In this study, we constructed a model to estimate the magnitude and distribution of health benefits associated with emission controls at five older power plants in the Washington, DC, area. We used the CALPUFF atmospheric dispersion model to determine the primary and secondary fine-particulate-matter (< 2.5 micro m in aerodynamic diameter) concentration reductions associated with the hypothetical application of "Best Available Control Technology" to the selected power plants. We combined these concentration reductions with concentration-response functions for mortality and selected morbidity outcomes, using a conventional approach as well as considering susceptible subpopulations. Incorporating susceptibility had a minimal effect on total benefits, with central estimates of approximately 240 fewer premature deaths, 60 fewer cardiovascular hospital admissions (CHA), and 160 fewer pediatric asthma emergency room visits (ERV) per year. However, because individuals with lower education appear to have both higher background mortality rates and higher relative risks for air-pollution-related mortality, stratifying by educational attainment implies that 51% of the mortality benefits accrue among the 25% of the population with less than high school education. Similarly, diabetics and African Americans bear disproportionate shares of the CHA and ERV benefits, respectively. Although our ability to characterize subpopulations is constrained by the available information, our analysis demonstrates that incorporation of susceptibility information significantly affects demographic and geographic patterns of health benefits and enhances our understanding of individuals likely to benefit from emission controls. PMID:12460806

  9. Novel, Synergistic Antifungal Combinations that Target Translation Fidelity

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Martinez, Elena; Vallieres, Cindy; Holland, Sara L.; Avery, Simon V.

    2015-01-01

    There is an unmet need for new antifungal or fungicide treatments, as resistance to existing treatments grows. Combination treatments help to combat resistance. Here we develop a novel, effective target for combination antifungal therapy. Different aminoglycoside antibiotics combined with different sulphate-transport inhibitors produced strong, synergistic growth-inhibition of several fungi. Combinations decreased the respective MICs by ≥8-fold. Synergy was suppressed in yeast mutants resistant to effects of sulphate-mimetics (like chromate or molybdate) on sulphate transport. By different mechanisms, aminoglycosides and inhibition of sulphate transport cause errors in mRNA translation. The mistranslation rate was stimulated up to 10-fold when the agents were used in combination, consistent with this being the mode of synergistic action. A range of undesirable fungi were susceptible to synergistic inhibition by the combinations, including the human pathogens Candida albicans, C. glabrata and Cryptococcus neoformans, the food spoilage organism Zygosaccharomyces bailii and the phytopathogens Rhizoctonia solani and Zymoseptoria tritici. There was some specificity as certain fungi were unaffected. There was no synergy against bacterial or mammalian cells. The results indicate that translation fidelity is a promising new target for combinatorial treatment of undesirable fungi, the combinations requiring substantially decreased doses of active components compared to each agent alone. PMID:26573415

  10. Novel, Synergistic Antifungal Combinations that Target Translation Fidelity.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Martinez, Elena; Vallieres, Cindy; Holland, Sara L; Avery, Simon V

    2015-01-01

    There is an unmet need for new antifungal or fungicide treatments, as resistance to existing treatments grows. Combination treatments help to combat resistance. Here we develop a novel, effective target for combination antifungal therapy. Different aminoglycoside antibiotics combined with different sulphate-transport inhibitors produced strong, synergistic growth-inhibition of several fungi. Combinations decreased the respective MICs by ≥8-fold. Synergy was suppressed in yeast mutants resistant to effects of sulphate-mimetics (like chromate or molybdate) on sulphate transport. By different mechanisms, aminoglycosides and inhibition of sulphate transport cause errors in mRNA translation. The mistranslation rate was stimulated up to 10-fold when the agents were used in combination, consistent with this being the mode of synergistic action. A range of undesirable fungi were susceptible to synergistic inhibition by the combinations, including the human pathogens Candida albicans, C. glabrata and Cryptococcus neoformans, the food spoilage organism Zygosaccharomyces bailii and the phytopathogens Rhizoctonia solani and Zymoseptoria tritici. There was some specificity as certain fungi were unaffected. There was no synergy against bacterial or mammalian cells. The results indicate that translation fidelity is a promising new target for combinatorial treatment of undesirable fungi, the combinations requiring substantially decreased doses of active components compared to each agent alone. PMID:26573415

  11. High Fidelity Virtual Environments: Does Shader Quality or Higher Polygon Count Models Increase Presence and Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, Scott

    This research study investigated the effects of high fidelity graphics on both learning and presence, or the "sense of being there," inside a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE). Four versions of a VLE on the subject of the element mercury were created, each with a different combination of high and low fidelity polygon models and high and low fidelity shaders. A total of 76 college age (18+ years of age) participants were randomly assigned to one of the four conditions. The participants interacted with the VLE and then completed several posttest measures on learning, presence, and attitudes towards the VLE experience. Demographic information was also collected, including age, computer gameplay experience, number of virtual environments interacted with, gender and time spent in this virtual environment. The data was analyzed as a 2 x 2 between subjects ANOVA. The main effects of shader fidelity and polygon fidelity were both non-significant for both learning and all presence subscales inside the VLE. In addition, there was no significant interaction between shader fidelity and model fidelity. However, there were two significant results on the supplementary variables. First, gender was found to have a significant main effect on all the presence subscales. Females reported higher average levels of presence than their male counterparts. Second, gameplay hours, or the number of hours a participant played computer games per week, also had a significant main effect on participant score on the learning measure. The participants who reported playing 15+ hours of computer games per week, the highest amount of time in the variable, had the highest score as a group on the mercury learning measure while those participants that played 1-5 hours per week had the lowest scores.

  12. Complement factor B polymorphism (rs641153) and susceptibility to age-related macular degeneration: evidence from published studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Mao-Nian

    2013-01-01

    AIM To determine whether single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs641153 is associated with the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), we performed a systematic meta-analysis of 15 eligible studies. SNP in the complement factor B (CFB) gene is considered to have significant association with AMD susceptibility, but there is great discrepancy in these results. METHODS The eligible studies were identified by searching the databases of PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the association. All data were analyzed using Stata software. RESULTS The association between rs641153 and AMD risk was statistically significant under the homozygous model (AA vs GG:OR=0.26, 95%CI=0.15-0.45, Ph=0.973, I2=0.0%, fixed effects), dominant model (AA+GA vs GG:OR=0.49, 95%CI=0.40-0.59, Ph=0.004, I2=56.4%, random effects) and recessive model (AA vs GA+GG:OR=0.30, 95%CI=0.17-0.51, Ph=0.983, I2=0.0%, fixed effects). The same results were also observed in the stratified analyses by ethnicity, source of control and sample size. CONCLUSION Our meta-analysis suggests that rs641153 in the CFB gene may play a protective role in AMD susceptibility, the late AMD in particular, both in Caucasians and in Asians. PMID:24392338

  13. A prospective study of tuberculosis drug susceptibility in sabah, malaysia, and an algorithm for management of isoniazid resistance.

    PubMed

    Rashid Ali, Muhammad Redzwan S; Parameswaran, Uma; William, Timothy; Bird, Elspeth; Wilkes, Christopher S; Lee, Wai Khew; Yeo, Tsin Wen; Anstey, Nicholas M; Ralph, Anna P

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The burden of tuberculosis is high in eastern Malaysia, and rates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance are poorly defined. Our objectives were to determine M. tuberculosis susceptibility and document management after receipt of susceptibility results. Methods. Prospective study of adult outpatients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Sabah, Malaysia. Additionally, hospital clinicians accessed the reference laboratory for clinical purposes during the study. Results. 176 outpatients were enrolled; 173 provided sputum samples. Mycobacterial culture yielded M. tuberculosis in 159 (91.9%) and nontuberculous Mycobacterium (NTM) in three (1.7%). Among outpatients there were no instances of multidrug resistant M. tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Seven people (4.5%) had isoniazid resistance (INH-R); all were switched to an appropriate second-line regimen for varying durations (4.5-9 months). Median delay to commencement of the second-line regimen was 13 weeks. Among 15 inpatients with suspected TB, 2 had multidrug resistant TB (one extensively drug resistant), 2 had INH-R, and 4 had NTM. Conclusions. Current community rates of MDR-TB in Sabah are low. However, INH-resistance poses challenges, and NTM is an important differential diagnosis in this setting, where smear microscopy is the usual diagnostic modality. To address INH-R management issues in our setting, we propose an algorithm for the treatment of isoniazid-resistant PTB. PMID:25838829

  14. Association between Estrogen Receptor Alpha Gene Polymorphisms and Susceptibility to Idiopathic Scoliosis in Bulgarian Patients: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Nikolova, Svetla; Yablanski, Vasil; Vlaev, Evgeni; Stokov, Luben; Savov, Alexey; Kremensky, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The current consensus on idiopathic scoliosis maintains that it has a multifactorial etiology with genetic predisposing factors. AIM: Estrogen receptor alpha gene has been considered as candidate gene of idiopathic scoliosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of Bulgarian population samples (eighty patients with idiopathic scoliosis and one hundred-sixty healthy unrelated gender-matched controls) trying to investigate the association between common genetic polymorphisms of estrogen receptor alpha and the susceptibility to idiopathic scoliosis. Molecular detection of the restriction polymorphisms XbaI and PvuII was performed by polymerase chain reaction following by restriction fragment length polymorphism. The statistical analysis was performed by Pearson’s chi-squared test. RESULTS: Our case-control study showed statistically significant association between the PvuII polymorphism and susceptibility to idiopathic scoliosis and curve progression. No genotype or allele of XbaI polymorphism was found to be correlated with the onset or severity of the disease. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of molecular markers with diagnostic and prognostic value could be useful for early detection of children at risk for the development of scoliosis and for prognosis of the risk for a rapid deformity progression. That would facilitate the therapy decisions and early stage treatment of the patient with the least invasive procedures. PMID:27275235

  15. High-Fidelity Roadway Modeling and Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jie; Papelis, Yiannis; Shen, Yuzhong; Unal, Ozhan; Cetin, Mecit

    2010-01-01

    Roads are an essential feature in our daily lives. With the advances in computing technologies, 2D and 3D road models are employed in many applications, such as computer games and virtual environments. Traditional road models were generated by professional artists manually using modeling software tools such as Maya and 3ds Max. This approach requires both highly specialized and sophisticated skills and massive manual labor. Automatic road generation based on procedural modeling can create road models using specially designed computer algorithms or procedures, reducing the tedious manual editing needed for road modeling dramatically. But most existing procedural modeling methods for road generation put emphasis on the visual effects of the generated roads, not the geometrical and architectural fidelity. This limitation seriously restricts the applicability of the generated road models. To address this problem, this paper proposes a high-fidelity roadway generation method that takes into account road design principles practiced by civil engineering professionals, and as a result, the generated roads can support not only general applications such as games and simulations in which roads are used as 3D assets, but also demanding civil engineering applications, which requires accurate geometrical models of roads. The inputs to the proposed method include road specifications, civil engineering road design rules, terrain information, and surrounding environment. Then the proposed method generates in real time 3D roads that have both high visual and geometrical fidelities. This paper discusses in details the procedures that convert 2D roads specified in shape files into 3D roads and civil engineering road design principles. The proposed method can be used in many applications that have stringent requirements on high precision 3D models, such as driving simulations and road design prototyping. Preliminary results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Linear digital imaging system fidelity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Stephen K.

    1989-01-01

    The combined effects of imaging gathering, sampling and reconstruction are analyzed in terms of image fidelity. The analysis is based upon a standard end-to-end linear system model which is sufficiently general so that the results apply to most line-scan and sensor-array imaging systems. Shift-variant sampling effects are accounted for with an expected value analysis based upon the use of a fixed deterministic input scene which is randomly shifted (mathematically) relative to the sampling grid. This random sample-scene phase approach has been used successfully by the author and associates in several previous related papers.

  17. Transportable setup for amplifier phase fidelity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tröbs, M.; Bogan, C.; Barke, S.; Kühn, G.; Reiche, J.; Heinzel, G.; Danzmann, K.

    2015-05-01

    One possible laser source for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) consists of an Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier originally developed for inter-satellite communication, seeded by the laser used for the technology demonstrator mission LISA Pathfinder. LISA needs to transmit clock information between its three spacecraft to correct for phase noise between the clocks on the individual spacecraft. For this purpose phase modulation sidebands at GHz frequencies will be imprinted on the laser beams between spacecraft. Differential phase noise between the carrier and a sideband introduced within the optical chain must be very low. We report on a transportable setup to measure the phase fidelity of optical amplifiers.

  18. Evaluating Measures of Fidelity for Substance Abuse Group Treatment With Incarcerated Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Shayna S; Stein, L A R; Rossi, Joseph S; Martin, Rosemarie A

    2016-07-01

    The evaluation of treatment fidelity has become increasingly important as the demand for evidence-based practice grows. The purpose of the present study is to describe the psychometric properties of two measures of treatment fidelity that can be used by therapists and supervisors - one for group-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and one for combined Substance Education and Twelve-Step Introduction (SET) for adolescent substance use. At the end of group sessions (CBT n=307; SET n=279), therapists and supervisors completed an evaluation measure assessing adherence to certain core components of the intervention. The supervisor version of the fidelity measure also included items for rating the level of competency the therapist demonstrated when providing each component of the intervention. Results from split-half cross-validation analyses provide strong support for an 11-item, three-factor CBT fidelity measure. Somewhat less consistent but adequate support for a nine-item, two-factor SET fidelity measure was found. Internal consistencies ranged from acceptable to good for both the CBT and SET adherence scales and from acceptable to good for the CBT and SET competency scales, with the exception of the CBT practices competency scale. Preliminary validation of the measures suggests that both measures have adequate to strong factor structure, reliability, and concurrent and discriminant validity. The results of this study have implications for research and clinical settings, including the supervision process. PMID:27211991

  19. Early Influences and Later Outcomes Associated With Developmental Trajectories of Eriksonian Fidelity

    PubMed Central

    Brittian, Aerika S.; Lerner, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Although Eriksonian theory suggests that adolescents’ sense of fidelity is a key component of healthy development, research on this psychosocial construct has been limited. The current study developed an index of youth fidelity, examined the developmental course of this construct, explored the influence of contextual factors on different fidelity trajectories, and tested if trajectories were associated with later indicators of adolescents’ positive development. Participants included 1,941 ethnically diverse youth (61% female) participants in the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development who were recruited from schools and youth development programs across the United States. Results suggested that three types of developmental trajectories existed among youth: high and increasing, moderate and increasing, and low and decreasing. Fidelity group membership varied in relation to social relationships and psychosocial and behavioral characteristics (i.e., contribution, substance use, and delinquency). Girls were more likely than boys to be in the highest fidelity trajectories. Directions for future research and implications for enhancing the thriving of adolescents are discussed. PMID:22545838

  20. A high-throughput assay for the comprehensive profiling of DNA ligase fidelity.

    PubMed

    Lohman, Gregory J S; Bauer, Robert J; Nichols, Nicole M; Mazzola, Laurie; Bybee, Joanna; Rivizzigno, Danielle; Cantin, Elizabeth; Evans, Thomas C

    2016-01-29

    DNA ligases have broad application in molecular biology, from traditional cloning methods to modern synthetic biology and molecular diagnostics protocols. Ligation-based detection of polynucleotide sequences can be achieved by the ligation of probe oligonucleotides when annealed to a complementary target sequence. In order to achieve a high sensitivity and low background, the ligase must efficiently join correctly base-paired substrates, while discriminating against the ligation of substrates containing even one mismatched base pair. In the current study, we report the use of capillary electrophoresis to rapidly generate mismatch fidelity profiles that interrogate all 256 possible base-pair combinations at a ligation junction in a single experiment. Rapid screening of ligase fidelity in a 96-well plate format has allowed the study of ligase fidelity in unprecedented depth. As an example of this new method, herein we report the ligation fidelity of Thermus thermophilus DNA ligase at a range of temperatures, buffer pH and monovalent cation strength. This screen allows the selection of reaction conditions that maximize fidelity without sacrificing activity, while generating a profile of specific mismatches that ligate detectably under each set of conditions. PMID:26365241

  1. A high-throughput assay for the comprehensive profiling of DNA ligase fidelity

    PubMed Central

    Lohman, Gregory J. S.; Bauer, Robert J.; Nichols, Nicole M.; Mazzola, Laurie; Bybee, Joanna; Rivizzigno, Danielle; Cantin, Elizabeth; Evans, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    DNA ligases have broad application in molecular biology, from traditional cloning methods to modern synthetic biology and molecular diagnostics protocols. Ligation-based detection of polynucleotide sequences can be achieved by the ligation of probe oligonucleotides when annealed to a complementary target sequence. In order to achieve a high sensitivity and low background, the ligase must efficiently join correctly base-paired substrates, while discriminating against the ligation of substrates containing even one mismatched base pair. In the current study, we report the use of capillary electrophoresis to rapidly generate mismatch fidelity profiles that interrogate all 256 possible base-pair combinations at a ligation junction in a single experiment. Rapid screening of ligase fidelity in a 96-well plate format has allowed the study of ligase fidelity in unprecedented depth. As an example of this new method, herein we report the ligation fidelity of Thermus thermophilus DNA ligase at a range of temperatures, buffer pH and monovalent cation strength. This screen allows the selection of reaction conditions that maximize fidelity without sacrificing activity, while generating a profile of specific mismatches that ligate detectably under each set of conditions. PMID:26365241

  2. Implementation evaluation of the Blueprint multi-component drug prevention programme: fidelity of school component delivery.

    PubMed

    Stead, Martine; Stradling, Robert; MacNeil, Morag; MacKintosh, Anne Marie; Minty, Sarah

    2007-11-01

    In order to achieve their desired aims, evidence-based, theory-driven drug education programmes need to be implemented as intended. Measurement of 'fidelity of implementation' is now included increasingly as part of programme evaluation, although measures and methods are sometimes limited. A more sophisticated approach to assessing implementation fidelity, based on Dane & Schneider's (1998) five dimensions, was used to examine the classroom curriculum element of the Blueprint programme. Blueprint was the largest and most rigorous evaluation of a multi-component drug prevention programme to date in the United Kingdom. Lessons were, overall, delivered with reasonable fidelity, although teachers did not always understand the thinking behind particular activities, suggesting that training needs to focus not only on content and methods but why particular approaches are important. Different dimensions of fidelity could conflict with one another: under pressure of time, generic elements and processes designed to reflect on learning were sometimes sacrificed in order that core drug education activities could be completed. Future drug education curricula need to build in more flexibility for discussion without compromising core evidence-based elements. Even with substantial training and support, individual variations in delivery were found, although few differences were found between teachers with prior expertise and teachers new to drug education. The methods and measures applied in the Blueprint study all represent attempts to improve on previous measures in terms of both reliability and sensitivity. In this respect the Blueprint study represents a valuable contribution to the science of implementation fidelity. PMID:17943526

  3. A Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies A New Ovarian Cancer Susceptibility Locus On 9p22.2

    PubMed Central

    Song, Honglin; Ramus, Susan J.; Tyrer, Jonathan; Bolton, Kelly L.; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Wozniak, Eva; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Cramer, Daniel W.; DiCioccio, Richard; Dörk, Thilo; Goode, Ellen L.; Goodman, Marc T; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Sellers, Thomas; Baglietto, Laura; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Beesley, Jonathan; Blaakaer, Jan; Carney, Michael E; Chanock, Stephen; Chen, Zhihua; Cunningham, Julie M.; Dicks, Ed; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Dürst, Matthias; Ekici, Arif B.; Fenstermacher, David; Fridley, Brooke L.; Giles, Graham; Gore, Martin E.; De Vivo, Immaculata; Hillemanns, Peter; Hogdall, Claus; Hogdall, Estrid; Iversen, Edwin S; Jacobs, Ian J; Jakubowska, Anna; Li, Dong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lubiński, Jan; Lurie, Galina; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John; Mędrek, Krzysztof; Moorman, Patricia G.; Moysich, Kirsten; Narod, Steven; Phelan, Catherine; Pye, Carole; Risch, Harvey; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Severi, Gianluca; Southey, Melissa; Stram, Daniel O.; Thiel, Falk C.; Terry, Kathryn L.; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Van Den Berg, David J.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Webb, Penelope M.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Wu, Anna H; Yang, Hannah; Brewster, Wendy; Ziogas, Argyrios; Houlston, Richard; Tomlinson, Ian; Whittemore, Alice S; Rossing, Mary Anne; Ponder, Bruce A.J.; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Ness, Roberta B.; Menon, Usha; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Gronwald, Jacek; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Fasching, Peter A.; Easton, Douglas F; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Berchuck, Andrew; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Gayther, Simon A.

    2009-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer has a major heritable component, but the known susceptibility genes explain less than half the excess familial risk1. We performed a genome wide association study (GWAS) to identify common ovarian cancer susceptibility alleles. We evaluated 507,094 SNPs genotyped in 1,817 cases and 2,353 controls from the UK and ~2 million imputed SNPs. We genotyped the 22,790 top ranked SNPs in 4,274 cases and 4,809 controls of European ancestry from Europe, USA and Australia. We identified 12 SNPs at 9p22 associated with disease risk (P<10−8). The most significant SNP (rs3814113; P = 2.5 × 10−17) was genotyped in a further 2,670 ovarian cancer cases and 4,668 controls confirming its association (combined data odds ratio = 0.82 95% CI 0.79 – 0.86, P-trend = 5.1 × 10−19). The association differs by histological subtype, being strongest for serous ovarian cancers (OR 0.77 95% CI 0.73 – 0.81, Ptrend = 4.1 × 10−21). PMID:19648919

  4. A Hybrid Process Fidelity Assessment in a Home-based Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    WILDE, MARY H.; LIEBEL, DIANNE; FAIRBANKS, EILEEN; WILSON, PAULA; LASH, MARGARET; SHAH, SHIVANI; McDONALD, MARGARET V.; BRASCH, JUDITH; ZHANG, FENG; SCHEID, EILEEN; McMAHON, JAMES M.

    2016-01-01

    A process fidelity assessment was conducted as a nested study within a home-based randomized clinical trial teaching self-management to 101 long-term indwelling urinary catheter users in the treatment group. Our hybrid model combined external assessments (outside observations and tape recordings) with internal evaluation methods (through study nurse forms and notes) for a comprehensive process fidelity assessment. Barriers, patient-related issues, and nurse perspectives were identified demonstrating the complexity in home care intervention research. The complementary and synergistic approaches provided in depth information about the context of the delivery and the impact of the intervention on study outcomes. PMID:25894688

  5. PEDOT Electrochemical Polymerization Improves Electrode Fidelity and Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Christopher M.; Wei, Benjamin; Baghmanli, Ziya; Cederna, Paul S.; Urbanchek, Melanie G.

    2015-01-01

    Background The goal of the authors is to restore fine motor control and sensation for high-arm amputees. They developed a regenerative peripheral nerve interface with the aim of attaining closed loop neural control by integrating directly with the amputee's residual motor and sensory peripheral nerves. PEDOT, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), has both electrical and ionic conduction characteristics. This hybrid character could help bridge the salutatory conduction of the nervous system to an electrode. The purpose of this study was to determine whether electrodes polymerized with PEDOT have improved ability to both record and stimulate peripheral nerve action potentials. Methods Impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry were performed on electrodes before and after polymerization to measure electrode impedance and charge capacity. Both recording needle and bipolar stimulating electrodes were polymerized with PEDOT. Plain and PEDOT electrodes were tested using rat (n = 18) in situ nerve conduction studies. The peroneal nerve was stimulated using a bipolar electrode at multiple locations along the nerve. Action potentials were measured in the extensor digitorum longus muscle. Results Bench testing showed PEDOT electrodes had a higher charge capacity and lower impedance than plain electrodes, indicating significantly improved electrode fidelity. Nerve conduction testing indicated a significant reduction in the stimulus threshold for both PEDOT recording and PEDOT stimulatory electrodes when compared with plain electrodes, indicating an increase in sensitivity. Conclusions PEDOT electrochemical polymerization improves electrode fidelity. Electrodes that have been electropolymerized with PEDOT show improved sensitivity when recording or stimulating action potentials at the tissue–electrode interface. PMID:22456363

  6. Video Error Concealment Using Fidelity Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneyama, Akio; Takishima, Yasuhiro; Nakajima, Yasuyuki; Hatori, Yoshinori

    We propose a method to prevent the degradation of decoded MPEG pictures caused by video transmission over error-prone networks. In this paper, we focus on the error concealment that is processed at the decoder without using any backchannels. Though there have been various approaches to this problem, they generally focus on minimizing the degradation measured frame by frame. Although this frame-level approach is effective in evaluating individual frame quality, in the sense of human perception, the most noticeable feature is the spatio-temporal discontinuity of the image feature in the decoded video image. We propose a novel error concealment algorithm comprising the combination of i) A spatio-temporal error recovery function with low processing cost, ii) A MB-based image fidelity tracking scheme, and iii) An adaptive post-filter using the fidelity information. It is demonstrated by experimental results that the proposed algorithm can significantly reduce the subjective degradation of corrupted MPEG video quality with about 30% of additional decoding processing power.

  7. High-Fidelity Flash Lidar Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Glenn D.; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Amzajerdian, Farzin

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technologies (ALHAT) project is currently developing the critical technologies to safely and precisely navigate and land crew, cargo and robotic spacecraft vehicles on and around planetary bodies. One key element of this project is a high-fidelity Flash Lidar sensor that can generate three-dimensional (3-D) images of the planetary surface. These images are processed with hazard detection and avoidance and hazard relative navigation algorithms, and then are subsequently used by the Guidance, Navigation and Control subsystem to generate an optimal navigation solution. A complex, high-fidelity model of the Flash Lidar was developed in order to evaluate the performance of the sensor and its interaction with the interfacing ALHAT components on vehicles with different configurations and under different flight trajectories. The model contains a parameterized, general approach to Flash Lidar detection and reflects physical attributes such as range and electronic noise sources, and laser pulse temporal and spatial profiles. It also provides the realistic interaction of the laser pulse with terrain features that include varying albedo, boulders, craters slopes and shadows. This paper gives a description of the Flash Lidar model and presents results from the Lidar operating under different scenarios.

  8. Toward fidelity between specification and implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John R.; Montgomery, Todd L.; Morrison, Jeff; Wu, Yunqing

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the methods used to specify and implement a complex communications protocol that provides reliable delivery of data in multicast-capable, packet-switching telecommunication networks. The protocol, called the Reliable Multicasting Protocol (RMP), was developed incrementally by two complementary teams using a combination of formal and informal techniques in an attempt to ensure the correctness of the protocol implementation. The first team, called the Design team, initially specified protocol requirements using a variant of SCR requirements tables and implemented a prototype solution. The second team, called the V&V team, developed a state model based on the requirements tables and derived test cases from these tables to exercise the implementation. In a series of iterative steps, the Design team added new functionality to the implementation while the V&V team kept the state model in fidelity with the implementation through testing. Test cases derived from state transition paths in the formal model formed the dialogue between teams during development and served as the vehicles for keeping the model and implementation in fidelity with each other. This paper describes our experiences in developing our process model, details of our approach, and some example problems found during the development of RMP.

  9. High-fidelity flash lidar model development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, Glenn D.; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Amzajerdian, Farzin

    2014-06-01

    NASA's Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technologies (ALHAT) project is currently developing the critical technologies to safely and precisely navigate and land crew, cargo and robotic spacecraft vehicles on and around planetary bodies. One key element of this project is a high-fidelity Flash Lidar sensor that can generate three-dimensional (3-D) images of the planetary surface. These images are processed with hazard detection and avoidance and hazard relative navigation algorithms, and then are subsequently used by the Guidance, Navigation and Control subsystem to generate an optimal navigation solution. A complex, high-fidelity model of the Flash Lidar was developed in order to evaluate the performance of the sensor and its interaction with the interfacing ALHAT components on vehicles with different configurations and under different flight trajectories. The model contains a parameterized, general approach to Flash Lidar detection and reflects physical attributes such as range and electronic noise sources, and laser pulse temporal and spatial profiles. It also provides the realistic interaction of the laser pulse with terrain features that include varying albedo, boulders, craters slopes and shadows. This paper gives a description of the Flash Lidar model and presents results from the Lidar operating under different scenarios.

  10. Evolution Properties of Atomic Fidelity in the Combined Multi-Atom-Cavity Field System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ju-Xia; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Zhang, Xiu-Xing

    2015-06-01

    The atom fidelity is investigated in a system consisting of Mtwo-level atoms and M single-mode fields by use of complete quantum theory and numerical evaluation method. The influences of various system parameters on the evolution of atomic fidelity are studied. The results show that the atomic fidelity evolves in a Rabi oscillation manner. The oscillation frequency is mainly modulated by the coupling strength between atoms and light field, the atomic transition probabilities and the average photon numbers. Other factors hardly impact on the atomic fidelity. The present results may provide a useful approach to the maintenance of the atomic fidelity in the atom cavity field systems. Supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11304230, Nature Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province under Grant No. 2013JM1006, the Project of Education Department of Shaanxi Provincial Government under Grant No. 2013JK0634, the Special Subject Construction of Weinan Normal University under Grant Nos. 14TSXK06 and 15ZRRC14

  11. Technical Basis for Physical Fidelity of NRC Control Room Training Simulators for Advanced Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Minsk, Brian S.; Branch, Kristi M.; Bates, Edward K.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Gore, Bryan F.; Faris, Drury K.

    2009-10-09

    The objective of this study is to determine how simulator physical fidelity influences the effectiveness of training the regulatory personnel responsible for examination and oversight of operating personnel and inspection of technical systems at nuclear power reactors. It seeks to contribute to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC’s) understanding of the physical fidelity requirements of training simulators. The goal of the study is to provide an analytic framework, data, and analyses that inform NRC decisions about the physical fidelity requirements of the simulators it will need to train its staff for assignment at advanced reactors. These staff are expected to come from increasingly diverse educational and experiential backgrounds.

  12. Time-kill studies on susceptibility of nine penicillin-susceptible and -resistant pneumococci to cefditoren compared with nine other beta-lactams.

    PubMed

    Spangler, S K; Jacobs, M R; Appelbaum, P C

    1997-02-01

    Broth MIC and time-kill methodology was used to determine the activity of cefditoren relative to those of penicillin G, ampicillin, amoxycillin, WY-49605, cefuroxime, cefpodoxime, cefdinir, cefixime and cefaclor against three penicillin-susceptible, three intermediate and three penicillin-resistant pneumococci. MICs of all agents rose with those of penicillin G. Cefditoren was the most active agent (MICs 0.002-0.5 mg/L), followed by WY-49605 (0.008-1.0 mg/L), amoxycillin (0.015-2.0 mg/L), cefuroxime (0.015-4.0 mg/L), cefpodoxime (0.03-4.0 mg/L), ampicillin (0.015-8.0 mg/L), cefdinir (0.03-16.0 mg/L), cefixime (0.125-64.0 mg/L) and cefaclor (0.5-128.0 mg/L). All beta-lactams were bactericidal at the MIC after 24 h, and produced 90% killing after 12 h at concentrations above the MIC. Bactericidal concentrations of cefditoren, even for penicillin-resistant strains, were < or = 0.5 mg/L at 24 h. Additionally, cefditoren and WY-49605 were the only compounds that killed 99% of all strains after 6 h at > or = 4 x MIC. Cefditoren and amoxycillin killed 90% of all strains at 8 x MIC, and WY-49605 at 4 x MIC, after 4 h. Ampicillin had time-kill kinetics similar to those of amoxycillin, but MICs were 1-2 dilutions higher than the latter drug. Cefuroxime and cefpodoxime were the most active of other oral cephalosporins tested. Cefditoren and WY-49605 had the lowest MICs and most favourable time-kill kinetics of all beta-lactams tested. PMID:9069533

  13. Absence of Association between N-Acetyltransferase 2 Acetylator Status and Colorectal Cancer Susceptibility: Based on Evidence from 40 Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Liang, Guo dong; Li, Jing ying; Zhu, Yi dan; Su, Yun tao

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives N-Acetyltransferase (NAT) 2 is an important enzyme involved in the metabolism of different xenobiotics, including potential carcinogens, whose phenotypes were reported to be related to individual susceptibility to colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the results remain conflicting. To assess the relationship between NAT2 phenotypes and CRC risk, we performed this meta-analysis. Methods A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify all case-control or cohort studies of NAT2 acetylator status on the susceptibility of CRC by searching of PubMed and EMBASE, up to May 20, 2011. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the association. Results A total of over 40,000 subjects from 40 published literatures were identified by searching the databases. No significantly elevated CRC risk in individuals with NAT2 slow acetylators compared with fast acetylators was found when all studies pooled (OR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.87–1.04, I2 = 52.6%). While three studies contributed to the source of heterogeneity were removed, there was still null result observed (OR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.90–1.03, P = 0.17 for heterogeneity, I2 = 17.8%). In addition, we failed to detect any associations in the stratified analyses by race, sex, source of controls, smoking status, genotyping methods or tumor localization. No publication bias was observed in this study. Conclusions This meta-analysis suggests that the NAT2 phenotypes may not be associated with colorectal cancer development. PMID:22403658

  14. High Fidelity Simulation of Primary Atomization in Diesel Engine Sprays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivey, Christopher; Bravo, Luis; Kim, Dokyun

    2014-11-01

    A high-fidelity numerical simulation of jet breakup and spray formation from a complex diesel fuel injector at ambient conditions has been performed. A full understanding of the primary atomization process in fuel injection of diesel has not been achieved for several reasons including the difficulties accessing the optically dense region. Due to the recent advances in numerical methods and computing resources, high fidelity simulations of atomizing flows are becoming available to provide new insights of the process. In the present study, an unstructured un-split Volume-of-Fluid (VoF) method coupled to a stochastic Lagrangian spray model is employed to simulate the atomization process. A common rail fuel injector is simulated by using a nozzle geometry available through the Engine Combustion Network. The working conditions correspond to a single orifice (90 μm) JP-8 fueled injector operating at an injection pressure of 90 bar, ambient condition at 29 bar, 300 K filled with 100% nitrogen with Rel = 16,071, Wel = 75,334 setting the spray in the full atomization mode. The experimental dataset from Army Research Lab is used for validation in terms of spray global parameters and local droplet distributions. The quantitative comparison will be presented and discussed. Supported by Oak Ridge Associated Universities and the Army Research Laboratory.

  15. Patterns of communication in high-fidelity simulation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Judy K; Nelson, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    High-fidelity simulation is commonplace in nursing education. However, critical thinking, decision making, and psychomotor skills scenarios are emphasized. Scenarios involving communication occur in interprofessional or intraprofessional settings. The importance of effective nurse-patient communication is reflected in statements from the American Nurses Association and Quality and Safety Education for Nurses, and in the graduate outcomes of most nursing programs. This qualitative study examined the patterns of communication observed in video recordings of a medical-surgical scenario with 71 senior students in a baccalaureate program. Thematic analysis revealed patterns of (a) focusing on tasks, (b) communicating-in-action, and (c) being therapeutic. Additional categories under the patterns included missing opportunities, viewing the "small picture," relying on informing, speaking in "medical tongues," offering choices…okay?, feeling uncomfortable, and using therapeutic techniques. The findings suggest the importance of using high-fidelity simulation to develop expertise in communication. In addition, the findings reinforce the recommendation to prioritize communication aspects of scenarios and debriefing for all simulations. PMID:25545143

  16. Generalized Hofmann quantum process fidelity bounds for quantum filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedlák, Michal; Fiurášek, Jaromír

    2016-04-01

    We propose and investigate bounds on the quantum process fidelity of quantum filters, i.e., probabilistic quantum operations represented by a single Kraus operator K . These bounds generalize the Hofmann bounds on the quantum process fidelity of unitary operations [H. F. Hofmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 160504 (2005), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.160504] and are based on probing the quantum filter with pure states forming two mutually unbiased bases. Determination of these bounds therefore requires far fewer measurements than full quantum process tomography. We find that it is particularly suitable to construct one of the probe bases from the right eigenstates of K , because in this case the bounds are tight in the sense that if the actual filter coincides with the ideal one, then both the lower and the upper bounds are equal to 1. We theoretically investigate the application of these bounds to a two-qubit optical quantum filter formed by the interference of two photons on a partially polarizing beam splitter. For an experimentally convenient choice of factorized input states and measurements we study the tightness of the bounds. We show that more stringent bounds can be obtained by more sophisticated processing of the data using convex optimization and we compare our methods for different choices of the input probe states.

  17. Toward the Effective and Efficient Measurement of Implementation Fidelity

    PubMed Central

    Schoenwald, Sonja K.; Garland, Ann F.; Chapman, Jason E.; Frazier, Stacy L.; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Southam-Gerow, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Implementation science in mental health is informed by other academic disciplines and industries. Conceptual and methodological territory charted in psychotherapy research is pertinent to two elements of the conceptual model of implementation posited by Aarons and colleagues (2010)—implementation fidelity and innovation feedback systems. Key characteristics of scientifically validated fidelity instruments, and of the feasibility of their use in routine care, are presented. The challenges of ensuring fidelity measurement methods are both effective (scientifically validated) and efficient (feasible and useful in routine care) are identified as are examples of implementation research attempting to balance these attributes of fidelity measurement. PMID:20957425

  18. Cooperative Clustering Digitizes Biochemical Signaling and Enhances its Fidelity.

    PubMed

    Roob, Edward; Trendel, Nicola; Rein Ten Wolde, Pieter; Mugler, Andrew

    2016-04-12

    Many membrane-bound molecules in cells form small clusters. It has been hypothesized that these clusters convert an analog extracellular signal into a digital intracellular signal and that this conversion increases signaling fidelity. However, the mechanism by which clusters digitize a signal and the subsequent effects on fidelity remain poorly understood. Here we demonstrate using a stochastic model of cooperative cluster formation that sufficient cooperation leads to digital signaling. We show that despite reducing the number of output states, which decreases fidelity, digitization also reduces noise in the system, which increases fidelity. The tradeoff between these effects leads to an optimal cluster size that agrees with experimental measurements. PMID:27074690

  19. Fidelity in After-School Program Intervention Research: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, Brandy R.; Peters, Kristen E.; Vaughn, Michael G.; Sarteschi, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether and to what extent researchers addressed intervention fidelity in research of after-school programs serving at-risk students. Method: Systematic review procedures were used to search, retrieve, select, and analyze studies for this review. Fifty-five intervention studies were assessed on the following…

  20. Toward Right-Fidelity Rotorcraft Conceptual Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinsay, Jeffrey D.; Johnson, Wayne

    2010-01-01

    utilized are driven by the timeline in which questions must be answered. This can range from quick "back-of-the-envelope" assessments of a configuration made in an afternoon, to more detailed tradespace explorations that can take upwards of a year to complete. A variety of spreadsheet based tools and conceptual design codes are currently in use. The in-house developed conceptual sizing code RC (Rotorcraft) has been the preferred tool of choice for CD activity for a number of years. Figure 2 illustrates the long standing coupling between RC and solid modeling tools for layout, as well as a number of ad-hoc interfaces with external analyses. RC contains a sizing routine that is built around the use of momentum theory for rotors, classic finite wing theory, a referred parameter engine model, and semi-emperical weight estimation techniques. These methods lend themselves to rapid solutions, measured in seconds and minutes. The successful use of RC, however requires careful consideration of model input parameters and judicious comparison with existing aircraft to avoid unjustified extrapolation of results. RC is in fact a legacy of a series of codes whose development started in the early 1970s, and is best suited to the study of conventional helicopters and XV-15 style tiltrotors. Other concepts have been analyzed with RC, but typically it became necessary to modify the source code and methods for each unique configuration. Recent activity has lead to the development of a new code, NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft (NDARC). NDARC uses a similar level of analytical fidelity as RC, but is built on a new framework intended to improve modularity and ability to rapidly model a wider array of concepts. Critical to achieving this capability is the decomposition of the aircraft system into a series of fundamental components which can then be assembled to form a wide-array of configurations. The paper will provide an overview of NDARC and its capabilities.

  1. [Comparative studies on activities of antimicrobial agents against causative organisms isolated from patients with urinary tract infections (1996), III. Secular changes in susceptibility].

    PubMed

    Kumamoto, Y; Tsukamoto, T; Hirose, T; Yokoo, A; Shigeta, S; Takahashi, T; Shiraiwa, Y; Ogiwara, M; Yoshida, H; Imafuku, Y; Murai, M; Watanabe, K; Uchida, H; Kobayashi, Y; Matsuda, S; Fujime, M; Fujita, K; Igari, J; Oguri, T; Yamaguchi, K; Matsumoto, T; Kashitani, F; Kaku, M; Ooe, H; Mochida, C

    1998-03-01

    Susceptibilities to various antimicrobial agents were examined for Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa that were isolated from patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) in 10 hospitals during June 1996 to May 1997, and the results were compared with those obtained during the same period in earlier years. 1. E. faecalis Among E. faecalis strains, those with high susceptibilities to ampicillin and minocycline appeared to have decreased in the latest study period. 2. S. aureus To almost antimicrobial agents, S. aureus isolated from uncomplicated UTIs showed low susceptibilities. But the MIC50s of those agents for S. aureus from complicated UTIs have changed better state. Particularly, the MIC50s of imipenem and clindamycin were 0.125 microgram/ml or below in the latest period for the first time in our history. 3. E. coli The susceptibilities to piperacillin and quinolones of E. coli isolated from uncomplicated UTIs were better than those isolated from complicated UTIs. 4. Klebsiella spp. The susceptibilities to almost antimicrobial agents of Klebsiella spp. have been better during the latest period, compared to those during period of 1995-1996, but to ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin have appeared to have been lower. 5. P. aeruginosa The susceptibilities to quinolones of P. aeruginosa have been better during the latest period compared those during periods of 1995-1996. But, the susceptibilities to cefozopran, carbapenems and monobactams of P. aeruginosa isolated from complicated UTIs appeared to have been lower. These susceptibility changes should be utilized in determining clinical treatments. PMID:9597551

  2. Developing effective serious games: the effect of background sound on visual fidelity perception with varying texture resolution.

    PubMed

    Rojas, David; Kapralos, Bill; Cristancho, Sayra; Collins, Karen; Hogue, Andrew; Conati, Cristina; Dubrowski, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Despite the benefits associated with virtual learning environments and serious games, there are open, fundamental issues regarding simulation fidelity and multi-modal cue interaction and their effect on immersion, transfer of knowledge, and retention. Here we describe the results of a study that examined the effect of ambient (background) sound on the perception of visual fidelity (defined with respect to texture resolution). Results suggest that the perception of visual fidelity is dependent on ambient sound and more specifically, white noise can have detrimental effects on our perception of high quality visuals. The results of this study will guide future studies that will ultimately aid in developing an understanding of the role that fidelity, and multi-modal interactions play with respect to knowledge transfer and retention for users of virtual simulations and serious games. PMID:22357023

  3. Magnetic susceptibility and heat-capacity studies of NiS2-xSex single crystals: A study of transitions at nonzero temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, X.; Kuo, Y.-K.; Powell, D. K.; Brill, J. W.; Honig, J. M.

    1997-09-01

    Heat-capacity and magnetic-susceptibility studies have been carried out on NiS2-xSex single crystals for 0.38<=x<=0.58 and 0<=x<=0.71, respectively. These and earlier physical measurements document the gradual evolution, with rising x, of the alloys from good insulators to poor metals at low temperatures. The transitions between various magnetically ordered or disordered phases are marked by anomalies in these physical measurements. The trend of magnetic susceptibility with temperature indicates that alloys near the crossover to the highly correlated metallic state exhibit increasing charge-carrier localization with rising temperature; this is ascribed to the dominance of entropic contributions to the free energy. It is stressed that these variations in properties are achieved by isoelectronic substitutions in the anion sublattice that leave the cation sublattice undisturbed.

  4. Ranging and site fidelity in northern pigtailed macaques (Macaca leonina) over different temporal scales.

    PubMed

    José-Domínguez, Juan Manuel; Savini, Tommaso; Asensio, Norberto

    2015-08-01

    Space-use patterns are crucial to understanding the ecology, evolution, and conservation of primates, but detailed ranging data are scarce for many species, especially those in Southeast Asia. Researchers studying site fidelity to either home ranges or core areas have focused mainly on territorial species, whereas less information is available for non-territorial species. We analyzed the ranging patterns and site fidelity of one wild troop of northern pigtailed macaques over 16 months at different temporal scales. We used characteristic hull polygons in combination with spatial statistics to estimate home ranges and core areas. The total home range and core areas were 449 ha and 190 ha, respectively. Average daily path length was 2,246 m. The macaques showed a high defendabili--ty index according to the expected ranging of a non-territorial species in which movement does not theoretically permit the defense of a large territory. Overall, the study troop ranged more extensively than conspecific groups and closely related species studied elsewhere. These differences may reflect variable troop size, degree of terrestriality and habitat characteristics, but could also reflect methodological differences. The location, size and shape of home ranges and core areas, and extent of daily path lengths changed on a monthly basis resulting in low site fidelity between months. The macaques also showed clear shifts in the location of daily home ranges with low site fidelity scores between consecutive days. Daily home range and daily path length were related to seasonality, with greater values during the fruit-abundant period. Low site fidelity associated with lack of territoriality is consistent with macaques structuring their movement based on available food sources. However, ranging patterns and site fidelity can also be explained by macaques feeding on the move, a foraging strategy that hinders frequent and long visits to the same location. PMID:25864438

  5. Fidelity spectrum: A tool to probe the property of a quantum phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wing, Chi Yu; Shi-Jian, Gu

    2016-03-01

    Fidelity measures the similarity between two states and is widely adapted by the condensed matter community as a probe of quantum phase transitions in many-body systems. Despite its success in witnessing quantum critical points, information about the fine structure of a quantum phase one can get from this approach is still limited. Here, we proposed a scheme called fidelity spectrum. By studying the fidelity spectrum, one can obtain information about the characteristics of a phase. In particular, we investigated the spectra in the one-dimensional transverse-field Ising model and the two-dimensional Kitaev model on a honeycomb lattice. It was found that the spectra have qualitative differences in the critical and non-critical regions of the two models. From the distributions of them, the dominating k modes in a particular phase could also be captured. Project supported by the Earmarked Research Grant from the Research Grants Council of HKSAR, China (Grant No. CUHK 401212).

  6. High-fidelity quantum state evolution in imperfect photonic integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mower, Jacob; Harris, Nicholas C.; Steinbrecher, Gregory R.; Lahini, Yoav; Englund, Dirk

    2015-09-01

    We propose and analyze the design of a programmable photonic integrated circuit for high-fidelity quantum computation and simulation. We demonstrate that the reconfigurability of our design allows us to overcome two major impediments to quantum optics on a chip: it removes the need for a full fabrication cycle for each experiment and allows for compensation of fabrication errors using numerical optimization techniques. Under a pessimistic fabrication model for the silicon-on-insulator process, we demonstrate a dramatic fidelity improvement for the linear optics controlled-not and controlled-phase gates and, showing the scalability of this approach, the iterative phase estimation algorithm built from individually optimized gates. We also propose and simulate an experiment that the programmability of our system would enable: a statistically robust study of the evolution of entangled photons in disordered quantum walks. Overall, our results suggest that existing fabrication processes are sufficient to build a quantum photonic processor capable of high-fidelity operation.

  7. Quantifying the quantum gate fidelity of single-atom spin qubits in silicon by randomized benchmarking.

    PubMed

    Muhonen, J T; Laucht, A; Simmons, S; Dehollain, J P; Kalra, R; Hudson, F E; Freer, S; Itoh, K M; Jamieson, D N; McCallum, J C; Dzurak, A S; Morello, A

    2015-04-22

    Building upon the demonstration of coherent control and single-shot readout of the electron and nuclear spins of individual (31)P atoms in silicon, we present here a systematic experimental estimate of quantum gate fidelities using randomized benchmarking of 1-qubit gates in the Clifford group. We apply this analysis to the electron and the ionized (31)P nucleus of a single P donor in isotopically purified (28)Si. We find average gate fidelities of 99.95% for the electron and 99.99% for the nuclear spin. These values are above certain error correction thresholds and demonstrate the potential of donor-based quantum computing in silicon. By studying the influence of the shape and power of the control pulses, we find evidence that the present limitation to the gate fidelity is mostly related to the external hardware and not the intrinsic behaviour of the qubit. PMID:25783435

  8. Strong entanglement causes low gate fidelity in inaccurate one-way quantum computation

    SciTech Connect

    Morimae, Tomoyuki

    2010-06-15

    We study how entanglement among the register qubits affects the gate fidelity in the one-way quantum computation if a measurement is inaccurate. We derive an inequality that shows that the mean gate fidelity is upper bounded by a decreasing function of the magnitude of the error of the measurement and the amount of the entanglement between the measured qubit and other register qubits. The consequence of this inequality is that, for a given amount of entanglement, which is theoretically calculated once the algorithm is fixed, we can estimate from this inequality how small the magnitude of the error should be in order not to make the gate fidelity below a threshold, which is specified by a technical requirement in a particular experimental setup or by the threshold theorem of the fault-tolerant quantum computation.

  9. Identification and Antifungal Susceptibility Profile of Candida guilliermondii and Candida fermentati from a Multicenter Study in China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jing-Wei; Yu, Shu-Ying; Xiao, Meng; Wang, He; Kudinha, Timothy; Kong, Fanrong; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2016-08-01

    With molecular sequencing as a gold standard, the Vitek MS, Bruker Biotyper MS, and Vitek-2 Compact systems correctly identified 92.7%, 97.0%, and 15.2% of 164 Candida guillermondii isolates, respectively, and none of 8 C. fermentati isolates. All of the isolates showed high susceptibility to echinocandins, but some C. guilliermondii isolates showed low azole susceptibility. PMID:27252461

  10. High Fidelity Symmetric Telecloning and Entanglement Distribution of Spin Quantum States by Weak Measurement and Reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiong; He, Zhi; Yao, Chun-Mei; Li, Wen-Juan

    2016-08-01

    We propose a physical realization of robust symmetric telecloning scheme for spin quantum states by employing the weak measurement and reversal (WMR) operation. Using proper WMR, the ultrahigh telecloning fidelity and long distance of quantum state transfer with certain success probability can be achieved. More interestingly, the lowest average telecloning fidelity can attain 80 %, which is almost independent of the spin chain length. We also study the properties of entanglement distribution via the spin chain for arbitrary two-qubit entangled pure states as inputs and find that the WMR operation indeed helps for protecting distributed entanglement.

  11. High-Fidelity Quantum Logic Gates Using Trapped-Ion Hyperfine Qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballance, C. J.; Harty, T. P.; Linke, N. M.; Sepiol, M. A.; Lucas, D. M.

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate laser-driven two-qubit and single-qubit logic gates with respective fidelities 99.9(1)% and 99.9934(3)%, significantly above the ≈99 % minimum threshold level required for fault-tolerant quantum computation, using qubits stored in hyperfine ground states of calcium-43 ions held in a room-temperature trap. We study the speed-fidelity trade-off for the two-qubit gate, for gate times between 3.8 μ s and 520 μ s , and develop a theoretical error model which is consistent with the data and which allows us to identify the principal technical sources of infidelity.

  12. Show Me, Don’t Tell Me: Behavioral Rehearsal as a Training and Analogue Fidelity Tool

    PubMed Central

    Beidas, Rinad S.; Cross, Wendi; Dorsey, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral rehearsal, when a trainee engages in a simulated interaction with another individual, is an underutilized but potentially cost-effective and feasible solution for two difficult questions in implementation science: how to improve training, a commonly used implementation strategy, and how to feasibly measure fidelity using analogue methods in community settings. This paper provides practical information on how to develop and use behavioral rehearsal for both of these purposes to implementation researchers. Therefore, we focus on development and use of behavioral rehearsal as a training and analogue fidelity tool in the context of three illustrative studies. PMID:25382963

  13. Trade-off between information gain and fidelity under weak measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Longfei; Ge, Wenchao; Nha, Hyunchul; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2015-08-01

    It is of general interest how a quantum measurement may disturb a quantum system while it gives information on the state of the system. We study a trade-off relation between the information gain and the output fidelity for a quantum nondemolition measurement scheme for photon numbers. Toward this aim, we obtain general expressions for the information gain and the output fidelity for an arbitrary initial state. We particularly investigate how these two quantities vary with measurement strength for some specific classes of states, through a single measurement or successive measurements.

  14. Coaching Support, Context, and Fidelity of Implementation in "Responsive Classroom"® Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxton, Carol L. C.; Wanless, Shannon B.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.

    2013-01-01

    Research in social and emotional learning interventions confirms the importance of fidelity of implementation in predicting intervention effectiveness (Durlak, Weissberg, Dymnicki, Taylor, & Schellinger, 2011). The present mixed-methods study was conducted in the context of the Responsive Classroom Efficacy Study (RCES). This was a randomized…

  15. Effects of Fidelity of Implementation on Science Achievement Gains among English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Okhee; Penfield, Randall; Maerten-Rivera, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effect of fidelity of implementation (FOI) on the science achievement gains of third grade students broadly and students with limited literacy in English specifically. The study was conducted in the context of a professional development intervention with elementary school teachers to promote science achievement of ELL…

  16. The Effects of Utilizing High-Fidelity Simulation in Medical Residency Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleta, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of utilizing high-fidelity simulation on the team performance, perceived level of learning, and satisfaction of resident physicians in a simulated cardiac resuscitation scenario. This study was significant because it filled a gap in the literature about how methods of education impact healthcare…

  17. Parent-Implemented Interventions for Young Children with Disabilities: A Review of Fidelity Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Erin E.; Fettig, Angel

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to analyze fidelity features in parent-implemented interventions for young children with disabilities. The authors conducted a review of 24 studies published in nine peer-reviewed journals. Each identified article was scored on the following categories: the participant characteristics, settings, study design,…

  18. A Systematic Review of Fidelity of Implementation in Parent-Mediated Early Communication Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman-Betz, Rebecca G.

    2015-01-01

    This article examined the reporting of four elements of fidelity of implementation (FOI) in parent-mediated early communication treatment studies. Thirty-five studies were reviewed to extract information regarding reporting of dosage, adherence, quality, and participant responsiveness for both practitioners and parents involved in parent-delivered…

  19. A Combination of Geographically Weighted Regression, Particle Swarm Optimization and Support Vector Machine for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping: A Case Study at Wanzhou in the Three Gorges Area, China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xianyu; Wang, Yi; Niu, Ruiqing; Hu, Youjian

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a novel coupling model for landslide susceptibility mapping is presented. In practice, environmental factors may have different impacts at a local scale in study areas. To provide better predictions, a geographically weighted regression (GWR) technique is firstly used in our method to segment study areas into a series of prediction regions with appropriate sizes. Meanwhile, a support vector machine (SVM) classifier is exploited in each prediction region for landslide susceptibility mapping. To further improve the prediction performance, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is used in the prediction regions to obtain optimal parameters for the SVM classifier. To evaluate the prediction performance of our model, several SVM-based prediction models are utilized for comparison on a study area of the Wanzhou district in the Three Gorges Reservoir. Experimental results, based on three objective quantitative measures and visual qualitative evaluation, indicate that our model can achieve better prediction accuracies and is more effective for landslide susceptibility mapping. For instance, our model can achieve an overall prediction accuracy of 91.10%, which is 7.8%–19.1% higher than the traditional SVM-based models. In addition, the obtained landslide susceptibility map by our model can demonstrate an intensive correlation between the classified very high-susceptibility zone and the previously investigated landslides. PMID:27187430

  20. A Combination of Geographically Weighted Regression, Particle Swarm Optimization and Support Vector Machine for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping: A Case Study at Wanzhou in the Three Gorges Area, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xianyu; Wang, Yi; Niu, Ruiqing; Hu, Youjian

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a novel coupling model for landslide susceptibility mapping is presented. In practice, environmental factors may have different impacts at a local scale in study areas. To provide better predictions, a geographically weighted regression (GWR) technique is firstly used in our method to segment study areas into a series of prediction regions with appropriate sizes. Meanwhile, a support vector machine (SVM) classifier is exploited in each prediction region for landslide susceptibility mapping. To further improve the prediction performance, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is used in the prediction regions to obtain optimal parameters for the SVM classifier. To evaluate the prediction performance of our model, several SVM-based prediction models are utilized for comparison on a study area of the Wanzhou district in the Three Gorges Reservoir. Experimental results, based on three objective quantitative measures and visual qualitative evaluation, indicate that our model can achieve better prediction accuracies and is more effective for landslide susceptibility mapping. For instance, our model can achieve an overall prediction accuracy of 91.10%, which is 7.8%-19.1% higher than the traditional SVM-based models. In addition, the obtained landslide susceptibility map by our model can demonstrate an intensive correlation between the classified very high-susceptibility zone and the previously investigated landslides. PMID:27187430

  1. Visual communication - Information and fidelity. [of images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Freidrich O.; Fales, Carl L.; Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Rahman, Zia-Ur; Reichenbach, Stephen E.

    1993-01-01

    This assessment of visual communication deals with image gathering, coding, and restoration as a whole rather than as separate and independent tasks. The approach focuses on two mathematical criteria, information and fidelity, and on their relationships to the entropy of the encoded data and to the visual quality of the restored image. Past applications of these criteria to the assessment of image coding and restoration have been limited to the link that connects the output of the image-gathering device to the input of the image-display device. By contrast, the approach presented in this paper explicitly includes the critical limiting factors that constrain image gathering and display. This extension leads to an end-to-end assessment theory of visual communication that combines optical design with digital processing.

  2. Experimental quantum error correction with high fidelity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingfu; Gangloff, Dorian; Moussa, Osama; Laflamme, Raymond

    2011-09-01

    More than ten years ago a first step toward quantum error correction (QEC) was implemented [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.81.2152 81, 2152 (1998)]. The work showed there was sufficient control in nuclear magnetic resonance to implement QEC, and demonstrated that the error rate changed from ɛ to ˜ɛ2. In the current work we reproduce a similar experiment using control techniques that have been since developed, such as the pulses generated by gradient ascent pulse engineering algorithm. We show that the fidelity of the QEC gate sequence and the comparative advantage of QEC are appreciably improved. This advantage is maintained despite the errors introduced by the additional operations needed to protect the quantum states.

  3. Experimental quantum error correction with high fidelity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jingfu; Gangloff, Dorian; Moussa, Osama; Laflamme, Raymond

    2011-09-15

    More than ten years ago a first step toward quantum error correction (QEC) was implemented [Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2152 (1998)]. The work showed there was sufficient control in nuclear magnetic resonance to implement QEC, and demonstrated that the error rate changed from {epsilon} to {approx}{epsilon}{sup 2}. In the current work we reproduce a similar experiment using control techniques that have been since developed, such as the pulses generated by gradient ascent pulse engineering algorithm. We show that the fidelity of the QEC gate sequence and the comparative advantage of QEC are appreciably improved. This advantage is maintained despite the errors introduced by the additional operations needed to protect the quantum states.

  4. Medium Fidelity Simulation of Oxygen Tank Venting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweet, Adam; Kurien, James; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The item to he cleared is a medium-fidelity software simulation model of a vented cryogenic tank. Such tanks are commonly used to transport cryogenic liquids such as liquid oxygen via truck, and have appeared on liquid-fueled rockets for decades. This simulation model works with the HCC simulation system that was developed by Xerox PARC and NASA Ames Research Center. HCC has been previously cleared for distribution. When used with the HCC software, the model generates simulated readings for the tank pressure and temperature as the simulated cryogenic liquid boils off and is vented. Failures (such as a broken vent valve) can be injected into the simulation to produce readings corresponding to the failure. Release of this simulation will allow researchers to test their software diagnosis systems by attempting to diagnose the simulated failure from the simulated readings. This model does not contain any encryption software nor can it perform any control tasks that might be export controlled.

  5. How Fidelity invests in service professionals.

    PubMed

    McColgan, E A

    1997-01-01

    If you're in the business of service delivery, investment in the training and development of your staff is one of the keys to your company's success. But what's the best way to design and implement your investment? In 1994, Fidelity Institutional Retirement Services Company (FIRSCo) needed to ensure that its rapidly expanding staff maintained the company's high levels of customer satisfaction. The solution, according to Ellyn McColgan, formerly an executive vice president of FIRSCo and now the president of Fidelity Investments Tax-Exempt Services Company, was to reach out to its service associates with a powerful new model for training and development called Service Delivery University. SDU is a virtual university with a content-based core curriculum and five colleges that focus on business concepts and skills. It is driven by three principles. First, all training must be directly aligned with the company's strategic and financial objectives and focused on customer needs. Second, service delivery is a profession and should be taught as such. And finally, professional development should be the primary responsibility of line managers rather than the human resources department. McColgan explains how FIRSCo overcame resistance to this sweeping change in employee education. (Time was one obstacle: each associate receives 80 hours of training per year.) In addition, the author discusses the fine art of measuring the success of a program like SDU. She finds that the company's investment has paid dividends to the staff, to the organization as a whole, and to FIRSCo's customers. PMID:10174451

  6. A bivariate genome-wide association study identifies ADAM12 as a novel susceptibility gene for Kashin-Beck disease

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Jingcan; Wang, Wenyu; Wen, Yan; Xiao, Xiao; He, Awen; Guo, Xiong; Yang, Tielin; Liu, Xiaogang; Shen, Hui; Chen, Xiangding; Tian, Qing; Deng, Hong-Wen; Zhang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) is a chronic osteoarthropathy, which manifests as joint deformities and growth retardation. Only a few genetic studies of growth retardation associated with the KBD have been carried out by now. In this study, we conducted a two-stage bivariate genome-wide association study (BGWAS) of the KBD using joint deformities and body height as study phenotypes, totally involving 2,417 study subjects. Articular cartilage specimens from 8 subjects were collected for immunohistochemistry. In the BGWAS, ADAM12 gene achieved the most significant association (rs1278300 p-value = 9.25 × 10−9) with the KBD. Replication study observed significant association signal at rs1278300 (p-value = 0.007) and rs1710287 (p-value = 0.002) of ADAM12 after Bonferroni correction. Immunohistochemistry revealed significantly decreased expression level of ADAM12 protein in the KBD articular cartilage (average positive chondrocyte rate = 47.59 ± 7.79%) compared to healthy articular cartilage (average positive chondrocyte rate = 64.73 ± 5.05%). Our results suggest that ADAM12 gene is a novel susceptibility gene underlying both joint destruction and growth retardation of the KBD. PMID:27545300

  7. Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility Study of Lacustrine Sediments Recovered From the Deschutes River (Pringle Falls, Oregon) Area.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, J.; Herrero-Bervera, E.

    2004-12-01

    We have studied a total of 827 samples drilled from five widely spaced profiles sampled along the Deschutes river Oregon . The five profiles sampled recorded a high-resolution paleomagnetic record of the Pringle Falls magnetic polarity episode (ca. 218+/- 10 ka) and are characterized by diatomaceous lacustrine sediments. This lacustrine sedimentary sequence that was sampled was part of an extensive prehistoric fluvial and lacustrine complex that formed east of the Cascade Mountains during the last 1.0 Ma. The lake appears to have resulted from a late Pliocene/Pleistocene rise in the base level to the east of the of the sampling area near the western margin of the Basin and Range structural province and is related to the development of the extensive volcanism associated with the Newberry volcano. Present outcrops and subsurface distribution of these lakes are to the west and north of the volcano, and their distribution appears to have been influenced by the development of streams and rivers systems draining the Newberry volcanic center as well as the Cascades themselves. We have conducted anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) measurements in order to investigate if the acquisition of their fabrics during their formation was primary or secondary and also the characteristics of such fabrics. We conducted low-field vs susceptibility analysis to determine the magnetic carriers of the sediments and we found that the main magnetic carrier is pure magnetite (Curie point 575 oC). The magnetic grain size indicated SD-PSD magnetite. The magnetic fabrics of the 5 different profiles indicated that the sediments were deposited with the minima axes (Kmin) perpendicular to the bedding plane of the sediments. The sediments are also characterized by a strongly oblate fabric that is confined to the bedding plane of the sediments, in addition since the fabric is entirely foliated without a superimposed lineation then the sediments were deposited almost on a horizontal surface

  8. The curved Magallanes fold and thrust belt: Tectonic insights from a paleomagnetic and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poblete, F.; Roperch, P.; Hervé, F.; Diraison, M.; Espinoza, M.; Arriagada, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Magallanes fold and thrust belt (FTB) presents a large-scale curvature from N-S oriented structures north of 52°S to nearly E-W in Tierra del Fuego Island. We present a paleomagnetic and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) study from 85 sites sampled in Cretaceous to Miocene marine sediments. Magnetic susceptibility is lower than 0.0005 SI for 76 sites and mainly controlled by paramagnetic minerals. AMS results indicate that the sedimentary fabric is preserved in the undeformed areas of Tierra del Fuego and the more external thrust sheets units, where an incipient lineation due to layer parallel shortening is recorded. Prolate AMS ellipsoids, indicating a significant tectonic imprint in the AMS fabric, are observed in the internal units of the belt. AMS results show a good correlation between the orientation of the magnetic lineation and the fold axes. However, in Península Brunswick, the AMS lineations are at ~20° counterclockwise to the strike of the fold axes. Pretectonic stable characteristic remanent magnetizations (ChRM) were determined in seven sites. A counterclockwise rotation (21.2° ± 9.2°) is documented by ChRM data from four sites near the hinge of the belt in Península Brunswick and near Canal Whiteside while there is no evidence of rotation near the nearly E-W oriented Vicuña thrust within Tierra del Fuego. The curved shape of the Cenozoic Magallanes FTB is not related to vertical axis rotation, and thus, the Magallanes FTB can be considered as a primary arc.

  9. Genetic testing of newborns for type 1 diabetes susceptibility: a prospective cohort study on effects on maternal mental health

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Concerns about the general psychological impact of genetic testing have been raised. In the Environmental Triggers of Type 1 Diabetes (MIDIA) study, genetic testing was performed for HLA-conferred type 1 diabetes susceptibility among Norwegian newborns. The present study assessed whether mothers of children who test positively suffer from poorer mental health and well-being after receiving genetic risk information about their children. Methods The study was based on questionnaire data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort (MoBa) study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Many of the mothers in the MoBa study also took part in the MIDIA study, in which their newborn children were tested for HLA-conferred genetic susceptibility for type 1 diabetes. We used MoBa questionnaire data from the 30th week of pregnancy (baseline) and 6 months post-partum (3-3.5 months after disclosure of test results). We measured maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression (SCL-8), maternal self-esteem (RSES), and satisfaction with life (SWLS). The mothers also reported whether they were seriously worried about their child 6 months post-partum. We compared questionnaire data from mothers who had received information about having a newborn with high genetic risk for type 1 diabetes (N = 166) with data from mothers who were informed that their baby did not have a high-risk genotype (N = 7224). The association between genetic risk information and maternal mental health was analysed using multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for baseline mental health scores. Results Information on genetic risk in newborns was found to have no significant impact on maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression (p = 0.9), self-esteem (p = 0.2), satisfaction with life (p = 0.2), or serious worry about their child (OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.64-1.48). Mental health before birth was strongly associated with mental health after birth. In addition, an increased risk of maternal

  10. Landslide susceptibility assessment by using a neuro-fuzzy model: a case study in the Rupestrian heritage rich area of Matera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sdao, F.; Lioi, D. S.; Pascale, S.; Caniani, D.; Mancini, I. M.

    2013-02-01

    The complete assessment of landslide susceptibility needs uniformly distributed detailed information on the territory. This information, which is related to the temporal occurrence of landslide phenomena and their causes, is often fragmented and heterogeneous. The present study evaluates the landslide susceptibility map of the Natural Archaeological Park of Matera (Southern Italy) (Sassi and area Rupestrian Churches sites). The assessment of the degree of "spatial hazard" or "susceptibility" was carried out by the spatial prediction regardless of the return time of the events. The evaluation model for the susceptibility presented in this paper is very focused on the use of innovative techniques of artificial intelligence such as Neural Network, Fuzzy Logic and Neuro-fuzzy Network. The method described in this paper is a novel technique based on a neuro-fuzzy system. It is able to train data like neural network and it is able to shape and control uncertain and complex systems like a fuzzy system. This methodology allows us to derive susceptibility maps of the study area. These data are obtained from thematic maps representing the parameters responsible for the instability of the slopes. The parameters used in the analysis are: plan curvature, elevation (DEM), angle and aspect of the slope, lithology, fracture density, kinematic hazard index of planar and wedge sliding and toppling. Moreover, this method is characterized by the network training which uses a training matrix, consisting of input and output training data, which determine the landslide susceptibility. The neuro-fuzzy method was integrated to a sensitivity analysis in order to overcome the uncertainty linked to the used membership functions. The method was compared to the landslide inventory map and was validated by applying three methods: a ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis, a confusion matrix and a SCAI method. The developed neuro-fuzzy method showed a good performance in the

  11. A Narrative Review of Generic Intervention Fidelity Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Rezze, Briano; Law, Mary; Gorter, Jan Willem; Eva, Kevin; Pollock, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    To increase the rigor of pediatric rehabilitation research, there is a need to evaluate the degree to which an intervention is conducted as planned (i.e., fidelity). Generic fidelity measures evaluate more than one intervention and often include nonspecific attributes of the therapy process common to both interventions. The objective of this study…

  12. Multifractality in fidelity sequences of optimized Toffoli gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moqadam, Jalil Khatibi; Welter, Guilherme S.; Esquef, Paulo A. A.

    2016-07-01

    We analyze the multifractality in the fidelity sequences of several engineered Toffoli gates. Using quantum control methods, we consider several optimization problems whose global solutions realize the gate in a chain of three qubits with XY Heisenberg interaction. Applying a minimum number of control pulses assuring a fidelity above 99 % in the ideal case, we design stable gates that are less sensitive to variations in the interqubits couplings. The most stable gate has the fidelity above 91 % with variations about 0.1 %, for up to 10 % variation in the nominal couplings. We perturb the system by introducing a single source of 1 / f noise that affects all the couplings. In order to quantify the performance of the proposed optimized gates, we calculate the fidelity of a large set of optimized gates under prescribed levels of coupling perturbation. Then, we run multifractal analysis on the sequence of attained fidelities. This way, gate performance can be assessed beyond mere average results, since the chosen multifractality measure (the width of the multifractal spectrum) encapsulates into a single performance indicator the spread of fidelity values around the mean and the presence of outliers. The higher the value of the performance indicator the more concentrated around the mean the fidelity values are and rarer is the occurrence of outliers. The results of the multifractal analysis on the fidelity sequences demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed optimized gate implementations, in the sense they are rendered less sensitive to variations in the interqubits coupling strengths.

  13. Adaptive resolution refinement for high-fidelity continuum parameterizations

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.W.; Khamayseh, A.; Jean, B.A.

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes an algorithm the adaptively samples a parametric continuum so that a fidelity metric is satisfied. Using the divide-and-conquer strategy of adaptive sampling eliminates the guesswork of traditional uniform parameterization techniques. The space and time complexity of parameterization are increased in a controllable manner so that a desired fidelity is obtained.

  14. Classroom Seating and Hypnotic Susceptibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sackeim, Harold A.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether people who differ in behavioral and self-report measures of lateralized seating preferences also differ in hypnotic susceptibility. Only right-handed subjects were used, and the associations between hypnotic susceptibility and seating preference were examined separately for males and females.…

  15. Comparison of intervention fidelity between COPE TEEN and an attention-control program in a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Stephanie A; Oswalt, Krista; Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Jacobson, Diana

    2015-04-01

    Fidelity in implementing an intervention is critical to accurately determine and interpret the effects of an intervention. It is important to monitor the manner in which the behavioral intervention is implemented (e.g. adaptations, delivery as intended and dose). Few interventions are implemented with 100% fidelity. In this study, high school health teachers implemented the intervention. To attribute study findings to the intervention, it was vital to know to what degree the intervention was implemented. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to evaluate intervention fidelity and to compare implementation fidelity between the creating opportunities for personal empowerment (COPE) Healthy Lifestyles TEEN (thinking, emotions, exercise, and nutrition) program, the experimental intervention and Healthy Teens, an attention-control intervention, in a randomized controlled trial with 779 adolescents from 11 high schools in the southwest region of the United States. Thirty teachers participated in this study. Findings indicated that the attention-control teachers implemented their intervention with greater fidelity than COPE TEEN teachers. It is possible due to the novel intervention and the teachers' unfamiliarity with cognitive-behavioral skills building, COPE TEEN teachers had less fidelity. It is important to assess novel skill development prior to the commencement of experimental interventions and to provide corrective feedback during the course of implementation. PMID:25355179

  16. Replication fidelity improvement of PMMA microlens array based on weight evaluation and optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Bing-yan; Shen, Long-jiang; Peng, Hua-jiang; Yin, Xiang-lin

    2007-12-01

    High replication fidelity is a prerequisite of high quality plastic microlens array in injection molding. But, there's not an economical and practical method to evaluate and improve the replication fidelity until now. Based on part weight evaluation and optimization, this paper presents a new method of replication fidelity improvement. Firstly, a simplified analysis model of PMMA micro columns arrays (5×16) with 200μm diameter was set up. And then, Flow (3D) module of Moldflow MPI6.0 based on Navier-Stokes equations was used to calculate the weight of the micro columns arrays in injection molding. The effects of processing parameters (melt temperature, mold temperature, injection time, packing pressure and packing time) on the part weight were investigated in the simulations. The simulation results showed that the mold temperature and the injection time have important effects on the filling of micro columns; the optimal mold temperature and injection time for better replication fidelity could be determined by the curves of mold temperature vs part weight and injection time vs part weight. At last, the effects of processing parameters on part weight of micro columns array were studied experimentally. The experimental results showed that the increase of melt temperature and mold temperature can make the packing pressure transfer to micro cavity more effectively through runner system, and increase the part weight. From the observation results of the image measuring apparatus, it was discovered that the higher the part weight, the better the filling of the microstructures. In conclusion, part weight can be used to evaluate the replication fidelity of micro-feature structured parts primarily; which is an economical and practical method to improve the replication fidelity of microlens arrays based on weight evaluation and optimization.

  17. Microscopic and Macroscopic Studies on the Development of Puccinia hemerocallidis in Resistance and Susceptible Daylily Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection process of Puccinia hemerocallidis, the causal agent of daylily rust, and resistance responses in eight daylily cultivars were studied macroscopically and microscopically. After germination of urediniospores, appressoria formed at the tip of germ tubes and penetrated through stomatal openi...

  18. Automating Initial Guess Generation for High Fidelity Trajectory Optimization Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villa, Benjamin; Lantoine, Gregory; Sims, Jon; Whiffen, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Many academic studies in spaceflight dynamics rely on simplified dynamical models, such as restricted three-body models or averaged forms of the equations of motion of an orbiter. In practice, the end result of these preliminary orbit studies needs to be transformed into more realistic models, in particular to generate good initial guesses for high-fidelity trajectory optimization tools like Mystic. This paper reviews and extends some of the approaches used in the literature to perform such a task, and explores the inherent trade-offs of such a transformation with a view toward automating it for the case of ballistic arcs. Sample test cases in the libration point regimes and small body orbiter transfers are presented.

  19. Evaluation of Genome Wide Association Study Associated Type 2 Diabetes Susceptibility Loci in Sub Saharan Africans.

    PubMed

    Adeyemo, Adebowale A; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Doumatey, Ayo P; Bentley, Amy R; Chen, Guanjie; Huang, Hanxia; Zhou, Jie; Shriner, Daniel; Fasanmade, Olufemi; Okafor, Godfrey; Eghan, Benjamin; Agyenim-Boateng, Kofi; Adeleye, Jokotade; Balogun, Williams; Elkahloun, Abdel; Chandrasekharappa, Settara; Owusu, Samuel; Amoah, Albert; Acheampong, Joseph; Johnson, Thomas; Oli, Johnnie; Adebamowo, Clement; Collins, Francis; Dunston, Georgia; Rotimi, Charles N

    2015-01-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) for type 2 diabetes (T2D) undertaken in European and Asian ancestry populations have yielded dozens of robustly associated loci. However, the genomics of T2D remains largely understudied in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where rates of T2D are increasing dramatically and where the environmental background is quite different than in these previous studies. Here, we evaluate 106 reported T2D GWAS loci in continental Africans. We tested each of these SNPs, and SNPs in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with these index SNPs, for an association with T2D in order to assess transferability and to fine map the loci leveraging the generally reduced LD of African genomes. The study included 1775 unrelated Africans (1035 T2D cases, 740 controls; mean age 54 years; 59% female) enrolled in Nigeria, Ghana, and Kenya as part of the Africa America Diabetes Mellitus (AADM) study. All samples were genotyped on the Affymetrix Axiom PanAFR SNP array. Forty-one of the tested loci showed transferability to this African sample (p < 0.05, same direction of effect), 11 at the exact reported SNP and 30 others at SNPs in LD with the reported SNP (after adjustment for the number of tested SNPs). TCF7L2 SNP rs7903146 was the most significant locus in this study (p = 1.61 × 10(-8)). Most of the loci that showed transferability were successfully fine-mapped, i.e., localized to smaller haplotypes than in the original reports. The findings indicate that the genetic architecture of T2D in SSA is characterized by several risk loci shared with non-African ancestral populations and that data from African populations may facilitate fine mapping of risk loci. The study provides an important resource for meta-analysis of African ancestry populations and transferability of novel loci. PMID:26635871

  20. Evaluation of Genome Wide Association Study Associated Type 2 Diabetes Susceptibility Loci in Sub Saharan Africans

    PubMed Central

    Adeyemo, Adebowale A.; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Doumatey, Ayo P.; Bentley, Amy R.; Chen, Guanjie; Huang, Hanxia; Zhou, Jie; Shriner, Daniel; Fasanmade, Olufemi; Okafor, Godfrey; Eghan, Benjamin; Agyenim-Boateng, Kofi; Adeleye, Jokotade; Balogun, Williams; Elkahloun, Abdel; Chandrasekharappa, Settara; Owusu, Samuel; Amoah, Albert; Acheampong, Joseph; Johnson, Thomas; Oli, Johnnie; Adebamowo, Clement; Collins, Francis; Dunston, Georgia; Rotimi, Charles N.

    2015-01-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) for type 2 diabetes (T2D) undertaken in European and Asian ancestry populations have yielded dozens of robustly associated loci. However, the genomics of T2D remains largely understudied in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where rates of T2D are increasing dramatically and where the environmental background is quite different than in these previous studies. Here, we evaluate 106 reported T2D GWAS loci in continental Africans. We tested each of these SNPs, and SNPs in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with these index SNPs, for an association with T2D in order to assess transferability and to fine map the loci leveraging the generally reduced LD of African genomes. The study included 1775 unrelated Africans (1035 T2D cases, 740 controls; mean age 54 years; 59% female) enrolled in Nigeria, Ghana, and Kenya as part of the Africa America Diabetes Mellitus (AADM) study. All samples were genotyped on the Affymetrix Axiom PanAFR SNP array. Forty-one of the tested loci showed transferability to this African sample (p < 0.05, same direction of effect), 11 at the exact reported SNP and 30 others at SNPs in LD with the reported SNP (after adjustment for the number of tested SNPs). TCF7L2 SNP rs7903146 was the most significant locus in this study (p = 1.61 × 10−8). Most of the loci that showed transferability were successfully fine-mapped, i.e., localized to smaller haplotypes than in the original reports. The findings indicate that the genetic architecture of T2D in SSA is characterized by several risk loci shared with non-African ancestral populations and that data from African populations may facilitate fine mapping of risk loci. The study provides an important resource for meta-analysis of African ancestry populations and transferability of novel loci. PMID:26635871

  1. Indirect Effects of Fidelity to the Family Check-Up on Changes in Parenting and Early Childhood Problem Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Justin D.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examines observations of client in-session engagement and fidelity of implementation to the Family Check-Up (FCU) as they relate to improvements in caregivers’ positive behavior support (PBS) and children’s problem behavior in the context of a randomized prevention trial. The psychometric properties of fidelity scores obtained with a new rating system are also explored. Method The FCU feedback sessions of 79 families with children with elevated problem behavior scores at age 2 were coded by trained raters of fidelity, who used an observational coding system developed specifically for this intervention model. Results Path analysis indicated that fidelity to the FCU results in greater caregiver engagement in the feedback session, which directly predicts improvements in caregivers’ PBS 1 year later (β = 0.06, 95% CI [.007, .129]). Similarly, engagement and PBS directly predict reductions in children’s problem behavior measured 2 years later (β = −0.24, 95% CI [−.664, −.019]). Conclusions These results suggest fidelity within the context of this randomized intervention trial. Ratings of fidelity to the FCU covary with observed improvements in parenting and children’s problem behavior in early childhood. Overall reliability of the fidelity scores was found to be acceptable, but some single-item reliability estimates were low, suggesting revisions to the rating system might be needed. Accurately assessing fidelity and understanding its relationship to change during intervention studies is an underdeveloped area of research and has revealed some inconsistent findings. Our results shed light on the mixed conclusions of previous studies, suggesting that future research ought to assess the role of intervening variable effects, such as observed engagement. PMID:23895087

  2. Common Variants on Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Antigen-4 Polymorphisms Contributes to Type 1 Diabetes Susceptibility: Evidence Based on 58 Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Junhua; Sun, Fei; Zhao, Zefei; Gu, Mingjun

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, a number of case–control studies have been carried out to investigate the relationship between the CTLA4 gene polymorphisms and type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, these studies have yielded contradictory results. To investigate this inconsistency, we performed a meta-analysis of all available studies dealing with the relationship between the CTLA4 polymorphism and T1D. In total, 58 association studies on two CTLA4 polymorphisms (G49A and C60T) and risk of T1D, including a total of 30,723 T1D cases and 45,254 controls were included. In a combined analysis, the summary per-allele odds ratio (OR) for T1D of the G49A and C60T polymorphism was 1.42 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31–1.53, P<10−5] and 1.23 (95% CI: 1.18–1.29, P<10−5), respectively. Significant results were also observed using dominant or recessive genetic model. In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity and sample size, significantly increased risks were also found for these polymorphisms. This meta-analysis demonstrated that the G49A and C60T polymorphism of CTLA4 is a risk factor associated with increased T1D susceptibility, but these associations vary in different ethnic populations. PMID:24465825

  3. A Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Two Novel Promising Candidate Genes Affecting Escherichia coli F4ab/F4ac Susceptibility in Swine

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xin; Niu, Xiao-Yan; Ding, Xiang-Dong; Liu, Jian-Feng; Zhang, Qin

    2012-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) expressing F4 fimbria is the major pathogenic bacteria causing diarrhoea in neonatal and post-weaning piglets. Previous studies have revealed that the susceptibility to ETEC F4ab/F4ac is an autosomal Mendelian dominant trait and the loci controlling the F4ab/F4ac receptor are located on SSC13q41, between markers SW207 and S0283. To pinpoint these loci and further validate previous findings, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using a two generation family-based population, consisting of 301 piglets with phenotypes of susceptibility to ETEC F4ab/F4ac by the vitro adhesion test. The DNA of all piglets and their parents was genotyped using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip, and 50,972 and 50,483 SNPs were available for F4ab and F4ac susceptibility, respectively, in the association analysis after quality control. In summary, 28 and 18 significant SNPs (p<0.05) were detected associated with F4ab and F4ac susceptibility respectively at genome-wide significance level. From these significant findings, two novel candidate genes, HEG1 and ITGB5, were firstly identified as the most promising genes underlying F4ab/F4ac susceptibility in swine according to their functions and positions. Our findings herein provide a novel evidence for unravelling genetic mechanism of diarrhoea risk in piglets. PMID:22457712

  4. Salmonella prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility from the national animal health monitoring system sheep 2011 study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella is a major cause of foodborne illness and can cause clinical disease in animals. Understanding the on-farm ecology of Salmonella will be helpful in decreasing the risk of foodborne transmission. An objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Salmonella among fecal samples c...

  5. THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY: PROGRESS DEVELOPING METHODS APPROPRIATE FOR ASSESSING CHILDREN'S EXPOSURE, BIOMARKERS AND GENETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Invited presentation: no abstract submission fee required
    Introduction abstract for Workshop.

    CONTROL ID: 56947
    CONTACT (NAME ONLY): Barbara Abbott
    Abstract Details
    PRESENTATION TYPE: Invited Presentation : Workshop
    KEYWORDS: National Childrens Study, Ri...

  6. Microscopic and Macroscopic Studies of the Development of Puccinia hemerocallidis in Resistant and Susceptible Daylily Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection and colonization of eight daylily cultivars, which varied in resistance to daylily rust, by Puccinia hemerocallidis was studied macroscopically and microscopically. After germination of urediniospores, appressoria formed at the tip of germ tubes and the fungus penetrated the host through s...

  7. Are rabbits a suitable model to study sheep-associated malignant catarrhal in susceptible hosts?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF), caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), is often a fatal syndrome affecting mainly ruminants. SA-MCF pathogenesis and vaccine studies rely solely on live animals, since OvHV-2 has not been successfully propagated in vitro. Thus, the identification...

  8. Drug Susceptibility Patterns in MDR-TB Patients: Challenges for Future Regimen Design. A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Stagg, Helen R.; Brown, James; Cīrule, Andra; Danilovitš, Manfred; Dravniece, Gunta; Jackson, Charlotte; White, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Globally, there is substantial concern regarding the challenges of treating complex drug resistance patterns in multidrug resistant tuberculosis cases. Utilising data from three different settings (Estonia, Latvia, Romania) we sought to contrast drug susceptibility profiles for multidrug resistant tuberculosis cases, highlight the difficulties in designing universal regimen, and inform future regimen selection. Demographic and microbiological surveillance data for multidrug resistant tuberculosis cases from 2004–13 were analysed. High levels of additional resistance to currently recommended second line drugs were seen in all settings, with extensive variability between countries. Accurate drug susceptibility testing and drug susceptibility testing data are vital to inform the development of comprehensive, flexible, multidrug resistant tuberculosis guidance. PMID:26558611

  9. The role of method of production and resolution of the DEM on slope-units delineation for landslide susceptibility assessment - Ubaye Valley, French Alps case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlögel, Romy; Marchesini, Ivan; Alvioli, Massimiliano; Reichenbach, Paola; Rossi, Mauro; Malet, Jean-Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Landslide susceptibility assessment forms the basis of any hazard mapping, which is one of the essential parts of quantitative risk mapping. For the same study area, different susceptibility maps can be achieved depending on the type of susceptibility mapping methods, mapping unit, and scale. In the Ubaye Valley (South French Alps), we investigate the effect of resolution and method of production of the DEM to delineate slope units for landslide susceptibility mapping method. Slope units delineation has been processed using multiple combinations of circular variance and minimum area size values, which are the input parameters for a new software for terrain partitioning. We rely on this method taking into account homogeneity of aspect direction inside each unit and inhomogeneity between different units. We computed slope units delineation for 5, 10 and 25 meters resolution DEM, and investigate statistical distributions of morphometric variables within the different polygons. Then, for each different slope units partitioning, we calibrated a landslide susceptibility model, considering landslide bodies and scarps as a dependent variable (binary response). This work aims to analyse the role of DEM resolution on slope-units delineation for landslide susceptibility assessment. Area Under the Curve of the Receiver Operating Characteristic is investigated for the susceptibility model calculations. In addition, we analysed further the performance of the Logistic Regression Model by looking at the percentage of significant variable in the statistical analyses. Results show that smaller slope units have a better chance of containing a smaller number of thematic and morphometric variables, allowing for an easier classification. Reliability of the models according to the DEM resolution considered as well as scarp area and landslides bodies presence/absence as dependent variable are discussed.

  10. Study of association of PAX6 polymorphisms with susceptibility to high myopia in a Japanese population

    PubMed Central

    Kanemaki, Nobuyuki; Meguro, Akira; Yamane, Takahiro; Takeuchi, Masaki; Okada, Eiichi; Iijima, Yasuhito; Mizuki, Nobuhisa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Many studies have investigated the relationship of paired box 6 (PAX6) gene polymorphisms with the risk of high myopia, but the results across studies remain inconsistent and ambiguous. In the present work, we investigated whether PAX6 polymorphisms are associated with high myopia in a Japanese population. Methods A total of 1,585 Japanese patients with high myopia (spherical equivalent [SE] <−9.00 diopters [D]) and 1,011 Japanese healthy controls (SE≥−1.00 D) were recruited. To compare genotype frequencies between cases and controls, we genotyped five single nucleotide polymorphisms in the PAX6 gene that are reportedly associated with high/extreme myopia: rs662702, rs3026393, rs644242, rs3026390, and rs667773. Results For rs662702, rs644242, and rs667773, odds ratios (ORs) for their risk alleles tended to increase with the progression of SE and axial length in the additive and recessive models. Of these, rs644242 had the highest OR (2.56) in patients with SE<−15 D in both eyes in the recessive model. On the other hand, for rs3026393 and rs3026390, the ORs for their risk alleles tended to increase according to the progression of SE and axial length in the dominant model. Of the two, rs3026393 had the highest OR (2.32) in patients with SE<−15 D in both eyes in the dominant model. However, no significant associations were identified in this study. Conclusion We found that these PAX6 single nucleotide polymorphisms were associated with an increased risk of extreme myopia. Although the results, which are in agreement with some previous studies, did not reach statistical significance, PAX6 single nucleotide polymorphisms may be important risk factors for the development of extreme myopia. Further genetic studies with larger sample sizes and taking into account the degree of myopia are needed to clarify the contribution of PAX6 variants in myopia development. PMID:26604670

  11. Whole-genome association study identifies STK39 as a hypertension susceptibility gene

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; McArdle, Patrick F.; Wade, James B.; Dorff, Sarah E.; Shah, Sanjiv J.; Shi, Xiaolian; Pan, Lin; Rampersaud, Evadnie; Shen, Haiqing; Kim, James D.; Subramanya, Arohan R.; Steinle, Nanette I.; Parsa, Afshin; Ober, Carole C.; Welling, Paul A.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Weder, Alan B.; Cooper, Richard S.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Chang, Yen-Pei C.

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension places a major burden on individual and public health, but the genetic basis of this complex disorder is poorly understood. We conducted a genome-wide association study of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) in Amish subjects and found strong association signals with common variants in a serine/threonine kinase gene, STK39. We confirmed this association in an independent Amish and 4 non-Amish Caucasian samples including the Diabetes Genetics Initiative, Framingham Heart Study, GenNet, and Hutterites (meta-analysis combining all studies: n = 7,125, P < 10−6). The higher BP-associated alleles have frequencies > 0.09 and were associated with increases of 3.3/1.3 mm Hg in SBP/DBP, respectively, in the Amish subjects and with smaller but consistent effects across the non-Amish studies. Cell-based functional studies showed that STK39 interacts with WNK kinases and cation-chloride cotransporters, mutations in which cause monogenic forms of BP dysregulation. We demonstrate that in vivo, STK39 is expressed in the distal nephron, where it may interact with these proteins. Although none of the associated SNPs alter protein structure, we identified and experimentally confirmed a highly conserved intronic element with allele-specific in vitro transcription activity as a functional candidate for this association. Thus, variants in STK39 may influence BP by increasing STK39 expression and consequently altering renal Na+ excretion, thus unifying rare and common BP-regulating alleles in the same physiological pathway. PMID:19114657

  12. Sustainability of Fidelity of Implementation over Time, in the Context of a Prekindergarten Mathematics Curriculum and Professional Development Scale-Up Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Christopher B.; Clements, Douglas H.; Sarama, Julie; Spitler, Mary Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Although there is growing interest in implementation fidelity, little research has been reported on the sustainability over time of faithful implementations of learning innovations. This study examined the sustainability of teachers' implementation fidelity to the components of a prekindergarten mathematics intervention two full years after…

  13. International Lung Cancer Consortium: Coordinated association study of 10 potential lung cancer susceptibility variants

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Therese; Sauter, Wiebke; McKay, James D.; Hosgood, H.Dean; Gallagher, Carla; Amos, Christopher I.; Spitz, Margaret; Muscat, Joshua; Lazarus, Philip; Illig, Thomas; Wichmann, H.Erich; Bickeböller, Heike; Risch, Angela; Dienemann, Hendrik; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Naeim, Behnaz Pezeshki; Yang, Ping; Zienolddiny, Shanbeh; Haugen, Aage; Le Marchand, Loïc; Hong, Yun-Chul; Kim, Jin Hee; Duell, Eric J.; Andrew, Angeline S.; Kiyohara, Chikako; Shen, Hongbing; Matsuo, Keitaro; Suzuki, Takeshi; Seow, Adeline; Ng, Daniel P.K.; Lan, Qing; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Constantinescu, Vali; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Caporaso, Neil E.; Albanes, Demetrius; Thun, Michael; Landi, Maria Teresa; Trubicka, Joanna; Lener, Marcin; Lubiński, Jan; Wang, Ying; Chabrier, Amélie; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Hung, Rayjean J.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Analysis of candidate genes in individual studies has had only limited success in identifying particular gene variants that are conclusively associated with lung cancer risk. In the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO), we conducted a coordinated genotyping study of 10 common variants selected because of their prior evidence of an association with lung cancer. These variants belonged to candidate genes from different cancer-related pathways including inflammation (IL1B), folate metabolism (MTHFR), regulatory function (AKAP9 and CAMKK1), cell adhesion (SEZL6) and apoptosis (FAS, FASL, TP53, TP53BP1 and BAT3). Methods. Genotype data from 15 ILCCO case–control studies were available for a total of 8431 lung cancer cases and 11 072 controls of European descent and Asian ethnic groups. Unconditional logistic regression was used to model the association between each variant and lung cancer risk. Results. Only the association between a non-synonymous variant of TP53BP1 (rs560191) and lung cancer risk was significant (OR = 0.91, P = 0.002). This association was more striking for squamous cell carcinoma (OR = 0.86, P = 6 × 10−4). No heterogeneity by center, ethnicity, smoking status, age group or sex was observed. In order to confirm this association, we included results for this variant from a set of independent studies (9966 cases/11 722 controls) and we reported similar results. When combining all these studies together, we reported an overall OR = 0.93 (0.89–0.97) (P = 0.001). This association was significant only for squamous cell carcinoma [OR = 0.89 (0.85–0.95), P = 1 × 10−4]. Conclusion. This study suggests that rs560191 is associated to lung cancer risk and further highlights the value of consortia in replicating or refuting published genetic associations. PMID:20106900

  14. Efficient Calibration of Computationally Intensive Groundwater Models through Surrogate Modelling with Lower Levels of Fidelity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, S.; Anderson, D.; Martin, P.; MacMillan, G.; Tolson, B.; Gabriel, C.; Zhang, B.

    2012-12-01

    intensive groundwater modelling case study developed with the FEFLOW software is used to evaluate the proposed methodology. Multiple surrogates of this computationally intensive model with different levels of fidelity are created and applied. Dynamically dimensioned search (DDS) optimization algorithm is used as the search engine in the calibration framework enabled with surrogate models. Results show that this framework can substantially reduce the number of original model evaluations required for calibration by intelligently utilizing faster-to-run surrogates in the course of optimization. Results also demonstrate that the compromise between efficiency (reduced run time) and fidelity of a surrogate model is critically important to the success of the framework, as a surrogate with unreasonably low fidelity, despite being fast, might be quite misleading in calibration of the original model of interest.

  15. A multi-stage genome-wide association study of bladder cancer identifies multiple susceptibility loci.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Nathaniel; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Malats, Nuria; Wu, Xifeng; Figueroa, Jonine D; Real, Francisco X; Van Den Berg, David; Matullo, Giuseppe; Baris, Dalsu; Thun, Michael; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Vineis, Paolo; De Vivo, Immaculata; Albanes, Demetrius; Purdue, Mark P; Rafnar, Thorunn; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Kiltie, Anne E; Cussenot, Olivier; Golka, Klaus; Kumar, Rajiv; Taylor, Jack A; Mayordomo, Jose I; Jacobs, Kevin B; Kogevinas, Manolis; Hutchinson, Amy; Wang, Zhaoming; Fu, Yi-Ping; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Burdett, Laurie; Yeager, Meredith; Wheeler, William; Tardón, Adonina; Serra, Consol; Carrato, Alfredo; García-Closas, Reina; Lloreta, Josep; Johnson, Alison; Schwenn, Molly; Karagas, Margaret R; Schned, Alan; Andriole, Gerald; Grubb, Robert; Black, Amanda; Jacobs, Eric J; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Virtamo, Jarmo; Cortessis, Victoria K; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Pike, Malcolm C; Stern, Mariana C; Yuan, Jian-Min; Hunter, David J; McGrath, Monica; Dinney, Colin P; Czerniak, Bogdan; Chen, Meng; Yang, Hushan; Vermeulen, Sita H; Aben, Katja K; Witjes, J Alfred; Makkinje, Remco R; Sulem, Patrick; Besenbacher, Soren; Stefansson, Kari; Riboli, Elio; Brennan, Paul; Panico, Salvatore; Navarro, Carmen; Allen, Naomi E; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Caporaso, Neil; Landi, Maria Teresa; Canzian, Federico; Ljungberg, Borje; Tjonneland, Anne; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Bishop, David T; Teo, Mark T W; Knowles, Margaret A; Guarrera, Simonetta; Polidoro, Silvia; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Allione, Alessandra; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Selinski, Silvia; Hengstler, Jan G; Dietrich, Holger; Fletcher, Tony; Rudnai, Peter; Gurzau, Eugen; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Bolick, Sophia C E; Godfrey, Ashley; Xu, Zongli; Sanz-Velez, José I; D García-Prats, María; Sanchez, Manuel; Valdivia, Gabriel; Porru, Stefano; Benhamou, Simone; Hoover, Robert N; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Silverman, Debra T; Chanock, Stephen J

    2010-11-01

    We conducted a multi-stage, genome-wide association study of bladder cancer with a primary scan of 591,637 SNPs in 3,532 affected individuals (cases) and 5,120 controls of European descent from five studies followed by a replication strategy, which included 8,382 cases and 48,275 controls from 16 studies. In a combined analysis, we identified three new regions associated with bladder cancer on chromosomes 22q13.1, 19q12 and 2q37.1: rs1014971, (P = 8 × 10⁻¹²) maps to a non-genic region of chromosome 22q13.1, rs8102137 (P = 2 × 10⁻¹¹) on 19q12 maps to CCNE1 and rs11892031 (P = 1 × 10⁻⁷) maps to the UGT1A cluster on 2q37.1. We confirmed four previously identified genome-wide associations on chromosomes 3q28, 4p16.3, 8q24.21 and 8q24.3, validated previous candidate associations for the GSTM1 deletion (P = 4 × 10⁻¹¹) and a tag SNP for NAT2 acetylation status (P = 4 × 10⁻¹¹), and found interactions with smoking in both regions. Our findings on common variants associated with bladder cancer risk should provide new insights into the mechanisms of carcinogenesis. PMID:20972438

  16. Identification of new susceptibility loci for osteoarthritis (arcOGEN): a genome-wide association study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis worldwide and is a major cause of pain and disability in elderly people. The health economic burden of osteoarthritis is increasing commensurate with obesity prevalence and longevity. Osteoarthritis has a strong genetic component but the success of previous genetic studies has been restricted due to insufficient sample sizes and phenotype heterogeneity. Methods We undertook a large genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 7410 unrelated and retrospectively and prospectively selected patients with severe osteoarthritis in the arcOGEN study, 80% of whom had undergone total joint replacement, and 11 009 unrelated controls from the UK. We replicated the most promising signals in an independent set of up to 7473 cases and 42 938 controls, from studies in Iceland, Estonia, the Netherlands, and the UK. All patients and controls were of European descent. Findings We identified five genome-wide significant loci (binomial test p≤5·0×10−8) for association with osteoarthritis and three loci just below this threshold. The strongest association was on chromosome 3 with rs6976 (odds ratio 1·12 [95% CI 1·08–1·16]; p=7·24×10−11), which is in perfect linkage disequilibrium with rs11177. This SNP encodes a missense polymorphism within the nucleostemin-encoding gene GNL3. Levels of nucleostemin were raised in chondrocytes from patients with osteoarthritis in functional studies. Other significant loci were on chromosome 9 close to ASTN2, chromosome 6 between FILIP1 and SENP6, chromosome 12 close to KLHDC5 and PTHLH, and in another region of chromosome 12 close to CHST11. One of the signals close to genome-wide significance was within the FTO gene, which is involved in regulation of bodyweight—a strong risk factor for osteoarthritis. All risk variants were common in frequency and exerted small effects. Interpretation Our findings provide insight into the genetics of arthritis and identify new

  17. Fidelity of Implementation and Instructional Alignment in Response to Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, David R.; King, Seth A.; Lemons, Christopher J.; Partanen, Jane N.

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we explore the extent to which researchers evaluating the efficacy of Tier 2 elementary reading interventions within the framework of Response to Intervention reported on fidelity of implementation and alignment of instruction between tiers. A literature search identified 22 empirical studies from which conclusions were drawn.…

  18. Developing a Fidelity of Implementation Measure for the "Responsive Classroom" Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Lori

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties, reliability, and validity of a measure designed to assess fidelity of implementation of the "Responsive Classroom"[R] ("RC") approach. The Classroom Practices Teacher Survey (CPTS) assesses teachers' use of the "RC" approach, a social and emotional learning (SEL) intervention currently under…

  19. The Eeffects of Implementation Fidelity in the "Towards No Drug Abuse" Dissemination Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Melissa A.; Sussman, Steven; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The current study aims to examine the influence of contextual and provider-level factors on the implementation fidelity of a research-based substance abuse prevention program. Also, it aims to investigate whether two provider-level factors, self-efficacy and beliefs about the value of the program, statistically moderate and mediate the…

  20. Evaluating the Implementation Fidelity of Technology Immersion and Its Relationship with Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapley, Kelly S.; Sheehan, Daniel; Maloney, Catherine; Caranikas-Walker, Fanny

    2010-01-01

    In a pilot study of the Technology Immersion model, high-need middle schools were "immersed" in technology by providing a laptop for each student and teacher, wireless Internet access, curricular and assessment resources, professional development, and technical and pedagogical support. This article examines the fidelity of model implementation and…

  1. Did They Get It? The Role of Fidelity in Teaching English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echevarria, Jana; Richards-Tutor, Catherine; Chinn, Vivan P.; Ratleff, Paige Ann

    2011-01-01

    Use of research-based practices for improving content area literacy of English learners is important both because of their growing numbers and their overall poor academic performance. However, how do we ensure that teachers are implementing proven methods with fidelity? This study shows the direct relationship between teachers' level of…

  2. Installing the Communities that Care Prevention System: Implementation Progress and Fidelity in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinby, Rose K.; Hanson, Koren; Brooke-Weiss, Blair; Arthur, Michael W.; Hawkins, J. David; Fagan, Abigail A.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the degree to which high fidelity implementation of the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention operating system was reached during the first 18 months of intervention in 12 communities in the Community Youth Development Study, a 5-year group randomized controlled trial designed to test the efficacy of the CTC system. CTC…

  3. Intervention Fidelity for a Complex Behaviour Change Intervention in Community Pharmacy Addressing Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, K. P.; O'Reilly, S. L.; George, J.; Peterson, G. M.; Jackson, S. L.; Duncan, G.; Howarth, H.; Dunbar, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Delivery of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention programs by community pharmacists appears effective and enhances health service access. However, their capacity to implement complex behavioural change processes during patient counselling remains largely unexplored. This study aims to determine intervention fidelity by pharmacists…

  4. Genome-Wide Association Study for Type 2 Diabetes in Indians Identifies a New Susceptibility Locus at 2q21

    PubMed Central

    Tabassum, Rubina; Chauhan, Ganesh; Dwivedi, Om Prakash; Mahajan, Anubha; Jaiswal, Alok; Kaur, Ismeet; Bandesh, Khushdeep; Singh, Tejbir; Mathai, Benan John; Pandey, Yogesh; Chidambaram, Manickam; Sharma, Amitabh; Chavali, Sreenivas; Sengupta, Shantanu; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmi; Venkatesh, Pradeep; Aggarwal, Sanjay K.; Ghosh, Saurabh; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Srinath, Reddy K.; Saxena, Madhukar; Banerjee, Monisha; Mathur, Sandeep; Bhansali, Anil; Shah, Viral N.; Madhu, Sri Venkata; Marwaha, Raman K.; Basu, Analabha; Scaria, Vinod; McCarthy, Mark I.; Venkatesan, Radha; Mohan, Viswanathan; Tandon, Nikhil; Bharadwaj, Dwaipayan

    2013-01-01

    Indians undergoing socioeconomic and lifestyle transitions will be maximally affected by epidemic of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study of T2D in 12,535 Indians, a less explored but high-risk group. We identified a new type 2 diabetes–associated locus at 2q21, with the lead signal being rs6723108 (odds ratio 1.31; P = 3.32 × 10−9). Imputation analysis refined the signal to rs998451 (odds ratio 1.56; P = 6.3 × 10−12) within TMEM163 that encodes a probable vesicular transporter in nerve terminals. TMEM163 variants also showed association with decreased fasting plasma insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, indicating a plausible effect through impaired insulin secretion. The 2q21 region also harbors RAB3GAP1 and ACMSD; those are involved in neurologic disorders. Forty-nine of 56 previously reported signals showed consistency in direction with similar effect sizes in Indians and previous studies, and 25 of them were also associated (P < 0.05). Known loci and the newly identified 2q21 locus altogether explained 7.65% variance in the risk of T2D in Indians. Our study suggests that common susceptibility variants for T2D are largely the same across populations, but also reveals a population-specific locus and provides further insights into genetic architecture and etiology of T2D. PMID:23209189

  5. Muscle Quality and Myosteatosis: Novel Associations With Mortality Risk: The Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik Study.

    PubMed

    Reinders, Ilse; Murphy, Rachel A; Brouwer, Ingeborg A; Visser, Marjolein; Launer, Lenore; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Jonsson, Palmi V; Lang, Thomas F; Harris, Tamara B

    2016-01-01

    Muscle composition may affect mortality risk, but prior studies have been limited to specific samples or less precise determination of muscle composition. We evaluated associations of thigh muscle composition, determined using computed tomography imaging, and knee extension strength with mortality risk among 4,824 participants aged 76.4 (standard deviation (SD), 5.5) years from the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik Study (2002-2006). Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios. After 8.8 years of follow-up, there were 1,942 deaths. For men, each SD-increment increase in muscle lean area, muscle quality, and strength was associated with lower mortality risk, with decreases ranging between 11% and 22%. Each SD-increment increase in intermuscular adipose tissue and intramuscular adipose tissue was associated with higher mortality risk (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.13 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 1.22) and HR = 1.23 (95% CI: 1.15, 1.30), respectively). For women, each SD-increment increase in muscle lean area, muscle quality, and strength was associated with lower mortality risk, with decreases ranging between 12% and 19%. Greater intramuscular adipose tissue was associated with an 8% higher mortality risk (HR = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.16). This study shows that muscle composition is associated with mortality risk. These results also show the importance of improving muscle strength and area and lowering muscle adipose tissue infiltration. PMID:26643983

  6. Breast cancer susceptibility polymorphisms and endometrial cancer risk: a Collaborative Endometrial Cancer Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Shahana; O’Mara, Tracy A.; Ferguson, Kaltin; Lambrechts, Diether; Garcia-Dios, Diego A.; Vergote, Ignace; Amant, Frederic; Howarth, Kimberley; Gorman, Maggie; Hodgson, Shirley; Tomlinson, Ian; Yang, Hannah P.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise A.; Chanock, Stephen; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Hall, Per; Liu, Jianjun; Shah, Mitul; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Thompson, Deborah J.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Strom, Brian L.; Dunning, Alison M.; Easton, Douglas F.; Spurdle, Amanda B.

    2011-01-01

    Recent large--scale association studies, both of genome-wide and candidate gene design, have revealed several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which are significantly associated with risk of developing breast cancer. As both breast and endometrial cancers are considered to be hormonally driven and share multiple risk factors, we investigated whether breast cancer risk alleles are also associated with endometrial cancer risk. We genotyped nine breast cancer risk SNPs in up to 4188 endometrial cases and 11 928 controls, from between three and seven Caucasian populations. None of the tested SNPs showed significant evidence of association with risk of endometrial cancer. PMID:21965274

  7. Breast cancer susceptibility polymorphisms and endometrial cancer risk: a Collaborative Endometrial Cancer Study.

    PubMed

    Healey, Catherine S; Ahmed, Shahana; O'Mara, Tracy A; Ferguson, Kaltin; Lambrechts, Diether; Garcia-Dios, Diego A; Vergote, Ignace; Amant, Frederic; Howarth, Kimberley; Gorman, Maggie; Hodgson, Shirley; Tomlinson, Ian; Yang, Hannah P; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise A; Chanock, Stephen; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Hall, Per; Liu, Jianjun; Shah, Mitul; Pharoah, Paul D P; Thompson, Deborah J; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Strom, Brian L; Dunning, Alison M; Easton, Douglas F; Spurdle, Amanda B

    2011-12-01

    Recent large--scale association studies, both of genome-wide and candidate gene design, have revealed several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which are significantly associated with risk of developing breast cancer. As both breast and endometrial cancers are considered to be hormonally driven and share multiple risk factors, we investigated whether breast cancer risk alleles are also associated with endometrial cancer risk. We genotyped nine breast cancer risk SNPs in up to 4188 endometrial cases and 11,928 controls, from between three and seven Caucasian populations. None of the tested SNPs showed significant evidence of association with risk of endometrial cancer. PMID:21965274

  8. Association of PDE4B Polymorphisms with Susceptibility to Schizophrenia: A Meta-Analysis of Case-Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yanguo; Cheng, Dejun; Zhang, Chaofeng; Li, Yuchun; Zhang, Zhiying; Wang, Juan; Shi, Yuzhong

    2016-01-01

    Background The PDE4B single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reported to be associated with schizophrenia risk. However, current findings are ambiguous or even conflicting. To better facilitate the understanding the genetic role played by PDE4B in susceptibility to schizophrenia, we collected currently available data and conducted this meta-analysis. Methods A comprehensive electronic literature searching of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane Library was performed. The association between PDE4B SNPs and schizophrenia was evaluated by odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) under allelic, dominant and recessive genetic models. The random effects model was utilized when high between-study heterogeneity (I2 > 50%) existed, otherwise the fixed effects model was used. Results Five studies comprising 2376 schizophrenia patients and 3093 controls were finally included for meta-analysis. The rs1040716 was statistically significantly associated with schizophrenia risk in Asian and Caucasian populations under dominant model (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.76–0.99, P = 0.04). The rs2180335 was significantly related with schizophrenia risk in Asian populations under allelic (OR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.72–0.93, P = 0.003) and dominant (OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.64–0.88, P < 0.001) models. A significant association was also observed between rs4320761 and schizophrenia in Asian populations under allelic model (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.75–1.00, P = 0.048). In addition, a strong association tendency was found between rs6588190 and schizophrenia in Asian populations under allelic model (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.76–1.00, P = 0.055). Conclusion This meta-analysis suggests that PDE4B SNPs are genetically associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia. However, due to limited sample size, more large-scale, multi-racial association studies are needed to further clarify the genetic association between various PDE4B variants and schizophrenia. PMID:26756575

  9. Protocol development, treatment fidelity, adherence to treatment, and quality control.

    PubMed

    Persch, Andrew C; Page, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    Occupational therapy leaders have emphasized the importance of intervention effectiveness research. The CONSORT and TREND checklists have been suggested as useful tools for reporting the results of randomized and nonrandomized studies, respectively. Despite such recommendations, research protocols and reports continue to underutilize the available tools, a situation reflecting limited resources for and experience with the conduct of effectiveness research. To address this issue, and using the CONSORT statement to structure the analysis, this article discusses strategies for optimization of protocol development, treatment fidelity, adherence to treatment, and quality control. We recommend several approaches to increase the quality of research throughout these various processes. Examples of implementation from our laboratory provide evidence of the utility of these strategies. PMID:23433268

  10. Using interference for high fidelity quantum state transfer in optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying-Dan; Clerk, Aashish A.

    2012-02-01

    We present a theoretical study of a two-cavity optomechanical system (e.g. a single mechanical resonator coupled to both a microwave and an optical cavity), investigating how interference can be used to perform mechanically-mediated quantum state transfer between the two cavities. We show that this optomechanical system possesses an effective ``mechanically-dark'' mode which is immune to mechanical dissipation; utilizing this feature allows highly efficient transfer of intra-cavity states, as well as of itinerant photon states. Simple analytic expressions for the fidelity of transferring both Gaussian and non-Gaussian states are provided. Our work has relevance to ongoing experimental efforts in quantum optomechanics (e.g., C. A. Regal and K. W. Lehnert, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 264, 012025 (2011); A. H. Safavi-Naeini and O. Painter, New J. Phys. 13, 013017 (2011)).

  11. Protocol Development, Treatment Fidelity, Adherence to Treatment, and Quality Control

    PubMed Central

    Page, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Occupational therapy leaders have emphasized the importance of intervention effectiveness research. The CONSORT and TREND checklists have been suggested as useful tools for reporting the results of randomized and nonrandomized studies, respectively. Despite such recommendations, research protocols and reports continue to underutilize the available tools, a situation reflecting limited resources for and experience with the conduct of effectiveness research. To address this issue, and using the CONSORT statement to structure the analysis, this article discusses strategies for optimization of protocol development, treatment fidelity, adherence to treatment, and quality control. We recommend several approaches to increase the quality of research throughout these various processes. Examples of implementation from our laboratory provide evidence of the utility of these strategies. PMID:23433268

  12. Genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Jonathan S.; Li, Ni; Weinhold, Niels; Försti, Asta; Ali, Mina; van Duin, Mark; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Johnson, David C.; Chen, Bowang; Halvarsson, Britt-Marie; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Kuiper, Rowan; Stephens, Owen W.; Bertsch, Uta; Broderick, Peter; Campo, Chiara; Einsele, Hermann; Gregory, Walter A.; Gullberg, Urban; Henrion, Marc; Hillengass, Jens; Hoffmann, Per; Jackson, Graham H.; Johnsson, Ellinor; Jöud, Magnus; Kristinsson, Sigurður Y.; Lenhoff, Stig; Lenive, Oleg; Mellqvist, Ulf-Henrik; Migliorini, Gabriele; Nahi, Hareth; Nelander, Sven; Nickel, Jolanta; Nöthen, Markus M.; Rafnar, Thorunn; Ross, Fiona M.; da Silva Filho, Miguel Inacio; Swaminathan, Bhairavi; Thomsen, Hauke; Turesson, Ingemar; Vangsted, Annette; Vogel, Ulla; Waage, Anders; Walker, Brian A.; Wihlborg, Anna-Karin; Broyl, Annemiek; Davies, Faith E.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Langer, Christian; Hansson, Markus; Kaiser, Martin; Sonneveld, Pieter; Stefansson, Kari; Morgan, Gareth J.; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Hemminki, Kari; Nilsson, Björn; Houlston, Richard S.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy with a significant heritable basis. Genome-wide association studies have transformed our understanding of MM predisposition, but individual studies have had limited power to discover risk loci. Here we perform a meta-analysis of these GWAS, add a new GWAS and perform replication analyses resulting in 9,866 cases and 239,188 controls. We confirm all nine known risk loci and discover eight new loci at 6p22.3 (rs34229995, P=1.31 × 10−8), 6q21 (rs9372120, P=9.09 × 10−15), 7q36.1 (rs7781265, P=9.71 × 10−9), 8q24.21 (rs1948915, P=4.20 × 10−11), 9p21.3 (rs2811710, P=1.72 × 10−13), 10p12.1 (rs2790457, P=1.77 × 10−8), 16q23.1 (rs7193541, P=5.00 × 10−12) and 20q13.13 (rs6066835, P=1.36 × 10−13), which localize in or near to JARID2, ATG5, SMARCD3, CCAT1, CDKN2A, WAC, RFWD3 and PREX1. These findings provide additional support for a polygenic model of MM and insight into the biological basis of tumour development. PMID:27363682

  13. Genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jonathan S; Li, Ni; Weinhold, Niels; Försti, Asta; Ali, Mina; van Duin, Mark; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Johnson, David C; Chen, Bowang; Halvarsson, Britt-Marie; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Kuiper, Rowan; Stephens, Owen W; Bertsch, Uta; Broderick, Peter; Campo, Chiara; Einsele, Hermann; Gregory, Walter A; Gullberg, Urban; Henrion, Marc; Hillengass, Jens; Hoffmann, Per; Jackson, Graham H; Johnsson, Ellinor; Jöud, Magnus; Kristinsson, Sigurður Y; Lenhoff, Stig; Lenive, Oleg; Mellqvist, Ulf-Henrik; Migliorini, Gabriele; Nahi, Hareth; Nelander, Sven; Nickel, Jolanta; Nöthen, Markus M; Rafnar, Thorunn; Ross, Fiona M; da Silva Filho, Miguel Inacio; Swaminathan, Bhairavi; Thomsen, Hauke; Turesson, Ingemar; Vangsted, Annette; Vogel, Ulla; Waage, Anders; Walker, Brian A; Wihlborg, Anna-Karin; Broyl, Annemiek; Davies, Faith E; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Langer, Christian; Hansson, Markus; Kaiser, Martin; Sonneveld, Pieter; Stefansson, Kari; Morgan, Gareth J; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Hemminki, Kari; Nilsson, Björn; Houlston, Richard S

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy with a significant heritable basis. Genome-wide association studies have transformed our understanding of MM predisposition, but individual studies have had limited power to discover risk loci. Here we perform a meta-analysis of these GWAS, add a new GWAS and perform replication analyses resulting in 9,866 cases and 239,188 controls. We confirm all nine known risk loci and discover eight new loci at 6p22.3 (rs34229995, P=1.31 × 10(-8)), 6q21 (rs9372120, P=9.09 × 10(-15)), 7q36.1 (rs7781265, P=9.71 × 10(-9)), 8q24.21 (rs1948915, P=4.20 × 10(-11)), 9p21.3 (rs2811710, P=1.72 × 10(-13)), 10p12.1 (rs2790457, P=1.77 × 10(-8)), 16q23.1 (rs7193541, P=5.00 × 10(-12)) and 20q13.13 (rs6066835, P=1.36 × 10(-13)), which localize in or near to JARID2, ATG5, SMARCD3, CCAT1, CDKN2A, WAC, RFWD3 and PREX1. These findings provide additional support for a polygenic model of MM and insight into the biological basis of tumour development. PMID:27363682

  14. Campylobacter MLST Subtypes and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Broiler Cecal Isolates: A Two Year Study from 142 Commercial Flocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Campylobacter spp. are recognized as important agents of human foodborne gastroenteritis. To monitor trends in food safety and public health, antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Campylobacter derived from poultry products and infected patients has become common practice in both r...

  15. Air pollution and lung function among susceptible adult subjects: a panel study

    PubMed Central

    Lagorio, Susanna; Forastiere, Francesco; Pistelli, Riccardo; Iavarone, Ivano; Michelozzi, Paola; Fano, Valeria; Marconi, Achille; Ziemacki, Giovanni; Ostro, Bart D

    2006-01-01

    Background Adverse health effects at relatively low levels of ambient air pollution have consistently been reported in the last years. We conducted a time-series panel study of subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and ischemic heart disease (IHD) to evaluate whether daily levels of air pollutants have a measurable impact on the lung function of adult subjects with pre-existing lung or heart diseases. Methods Twenty-nine patients with COPD, asthma, or IHD underwent repeated lung function tests by supervised spirometry in two one-month surveys. Daily samples of coarse (PM10–2.5) and fine (PM2.5) particulate matter were collected by means of dichotomous samplers, and the dust was gravimetrically analyzed. The particulate content of selected metals (cadmium, chrome, iron, nickel, lead, platinum, vanadium, and zinc) was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and sulphur dioxide (SO2) were obtained from the regional air-quality monitoring network. The relationships between concentrations of air pollutants and lung function parameters were analyzed by generalized estimating equations (GEE) for panel data. Results Decrements in lung function indices (FVC and/or FEV1) associated with increasing concentrations of PM2.5, NO2 and some metals (especially zinc and iron) were observed in COPD cases. Among the asthmatics, NO2 was associated with a decrease in FEV1. No association between average ambient concentrations of any air pollutant and lung function was observed among IHD cases. Conclusion This study suggests that the short-term negative impact of exposure to air pollutants on respiratory volume and flow is limited to individuals with already impaired respiratory function. The fine fraction of ambient PM seems responsible for the observed effects among COPD cases, with zinc and iron having a potential role via oxidative stress. The respiratory function

  16. Susceptibility to denaturation of caseins in milk samples for improving protein conformational study and their identification.

    PubMed

    Pepe, Giacomo; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Conte, Carmine; Russo, Mariateresa; Manfra, Michele; Campiglia, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    Caseins are phosphoproteins kept together by non-covalent interactions to form a highly stabilised dispersion in milk. This study intended to evaluate the different effects of denaturing solvents and solutions on caseins in order to optimise the chromatographic resolution for a better identification of individual casein fractions. The caseins were obtained from bovine skimmed milks by precipitation at pH 4.3, and the proteins were dissolved in water and three different solutions. The casein separation was performed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Each casein was identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The best result was achieved by treating the caseins with solution D. PMID:22978643

  17. AC susceptibility study at the inter- and intragranular properties in (Bi,Pb):2223 superconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Pop, A.V.; Ciurchea, D.; Ilonca, G.; Deltour, R.; Harabor, A.

    1997-11-20

    The temperature and amplitude of AC field dependencies of both inter- and intragranular T{sub p} and T{sub g} temperatures of the imaginary peaks of {chi}{double_prime} has been studied for a sintered single phase (Bi,Pb):2223 superconductor. The AC field dependencies for T{sub p} and T{sub g} and the relation between inter- and intragrain force densities were discussed by using Mueller critical-state model. From the {chi}{double_prime} curve, the values of intergrain magnetic critical current density J{sub cJ} was obtained via the application of Beans` critical state model. J{sub cJ}(T) dependence near {Tc} agree with the assumption of SNS intergrain junctions.

  18. Exploiting the Temperature Dependence of Magnetic Susceptibility to Control Convective in Fundamental Studies of Solidification Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seybert, C.; Evans, J. W.; Leslie, F.; Jones, W. K., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that convection is a dominant mass transport mechanism when materials are solidified on Earth's surface. This convection is caused by gradients in density (and therefore gravitational force) that are brought about by gradients in temperature, composition or both. Diffusion of solute is therefore dwarfed by convection and the study of fundamental parameters, such as dendrite tip shape and growth velocity in the absence of convection is nearly impossible. Significant experimental work has therefore been carried out in orbiting laboratories with the intent of minimizing convection by minimizing gravity. One of the best known experiments of this kind is the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE), supported by NASA. Naturally such experiments are costly and one objective of the present investigation is to develop an experimental method whereby convection can be halted, in solidification and other experiments, on the Earth's surface. A second objective is to use the method to minimize convection resulting from the residual accelerations suffered by experiments in microgravity.

  19. Genome Wide Association Study Identifies L3MBTL4 as a Novel Susceptibility Gene for Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Hu, Cheng; Bao, Minghui; Li, Jing; Liu, Xiaoyan; Tan, Xuerui; Zhou, Yong; Chen, Yequn; Wu, Shouling; Chen, Shuohua; Zhang, Rong; Jiang, Feng; Jia, Weiping; Wang, Xingyu; Yang, Xinchun; Cai, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a major global health burden and a leading risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Although its heritability has been documented previously, contributing loci identified to date account for only a small fraction of blood pressure (BP) variation, which strongly suggests the existence of undiscovered variants. To identify novel variants, we conducted a three staged genetic study in 21,990 hypertensive cases and normotensive controls. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at three new genes (L3MBTL4 rs403814, Pmeta = 6.128 × 10(-9); LOC729251, and TCEANC) and seven SNPs at five previously reported genes were identified as being significantly associated with hypertension. Through functional analysis, we found that L3MBTL4 is predominantly expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells and up-regulated in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Rats with ubiquitous over-expression of L3MBTL4 exhibited significantly elevated BP, increased thickness of the vascular media layer and cardiac hypertrophy. Mechanistically, L3MBTL4 over-expression could lead to down-regulation of latent transforming growth factor-β binding protein 1 (LTBP1), and phosphorylation activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathway, which is known to trigger the pathological progression of vascular remodeling and BP elevation. These findings pinpointed L3MBTL4 as a critical contributor to the development and progression of hypertension and uncovers a novel target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27480026

  20. Genome Wide Association Study Identifies L3MBTL4 as a Novel Susceptibility Gene for Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Hu, Cheng; Bao, Minghui; Li, Jing; Liu, Xiaoyan; Tan, Xuerui; Zhou, Yong; Chen, Yequn; Wu, Shouling; Chen, Shuohua; Zhang, Rong; Jiang, Feng; Jia, Weiping; Wang, Xingyu; Yang, Xinchun; Cai, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a major global health burden and a leading risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Although its heritability has been documented previously, contributing loci identified to date account for only a small fraction of blood pressure (BP) variation, which strongly suggests the existence of undiscovered variants. To identify novel variants, we conducted a three staged genetic study in 21,990 hypertensive cases and normotensive controls. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at three new genes (L3MBTL4 rs403814, Pmeta = 6.128 × 10−9; LOC729251, and TCEANC) and seven SNPs at five previously reported genes were identified as being significantly associated with hypertension. Through functional analysis, we found that L3MBTL4 is predominantly expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells and up-regulated in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Rats with ubiquitous over-expression of L3MBTL4 exhibited significantly elevated BP, increased thickness of the vascular media layer and cardiac hypertrophy. Mechanistically, L3MBTL4 over-expression could lead to down-regulation of latent transforming growth factor-β binding protein 1 (LTBP1), and phosphorylation activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathway, which is known to trigger the pathological progression of vascular remodeling and BP elevation. These findings pinpointed L3MBTL4 as a critical contributor to the development and progression of hypertension and uncovers a novel target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27480026

  1. A Two-Stage Association Study Suggests BRAP as a Susceptibility Gene for Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Guoyang; Yuan, Guozhen; Cheng, Zaohuo; Wang, Jidong; Wang, Guoqiang; Wang, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Wei; Zhou, Zhenhe; Zhao, Xingfu; Tian, Lin; Jin, Chunhui; Yuan, Janmin; Zhang, Guofu; Chen, Yaguang; Wang, Lifang; Lu, Tianlan; Yan, Hao; Ruan, Yanyan; Yue, Weihua; Zhang, Dai

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a neurodevelopmental disorder in which altered immune function typically plays an important role in mediating the effect of environmental insults and regulation of inflammation. The breast cancer suppressor protein associated protein (BRAP) is suggested to exert vital effects in neurodevelopment by modulating the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade and inflammation signaling. To explore the possible role of BRAP in SZ, we conducted a two-stage study to examine the association of BRAP polymorphisms with SZ in the Han Chinese population. In stage one, we screened SNPs in BRAP from our GWAS data, which detected three associated SNPs, with rs3782886 being the most significant one (P  =  2.31E-6, OR  =  0.67). In stage two, we validated these three SNPs in an independently collected population including 1957 patients and 1509 controls, supporting the association of rs3782886 with SZ (P  =  1.43E-6, OR  =  0.73). Furthermore, cis-eQTL analysis indicates that rs3782886 genotypes are associated with mRNA levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 family (ALDH2) (P  =  0.0039) and myosin regulatory light chain 2 (MYL2) (P < 1.0E-4). Our data suggest that the BRAP gene may confer vulnerability for SZ in Han Chinese population, adding further evidence for the involvement of developmental and/or neuroinflammatory cascades in the illness. PMID:24454952

  2. Genome-wide association study identifies five new susceptibility loci for primary angle closure glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Khor, Chiea Chuen; Do, Tan; Jia, Hongyan; Nakano, Masakazu; George, Ronnie; Abu-Amero, Khaled; Duvesh, Roopam; Chen, Li Jia; Li, Zheng; Nongpiur, Monisha E; Perera, Shamira A; Qiao, Chunyan; Wong, Hon-Tym; Sakai, Hiroshi; Barbosa de Melo, Mônica; Lee, Mei-Chin; Chan, Anita S; Azhany, Yaakub; Dao, Thi Lam Huong; Ikeda, Yoko; Perez-Grossmann, Rodolfo A; Zarnowski, Tomasz; Day, Alexander C; Jonas, Jost B; Tam, Pancy O S; Tran, Tuan Anh; Ayub, Humaira; Akhtar, Farah; Micheal, Shazia; Chew, Paul T K; Aljasim, Leyla A; Dada, Tanuj; Luu, Tam Thi; Awadalla, Mona S; Kitnarong, Naris; Wanichwecharungruang, Boonsong; Aung, Yee Yee; Mohamed-Noor, Jelinar; Vijayan, Saravanan; Sarangapani, Sripriya; Husain, Rahat; Jap, Aliza; Baskaran, Mani; Goh, David; Su, Daniel H; Wang, Huaizhou; Yong, Vernon K; Yip, Leonard W; Trinh, Tuyet Bach; Makornwattana, Manchima; Nguyen, Thanh Thu; Leuenberger, Edgar U; Park, Ki-Ho; Wiyogo, Widya Artini; Kumar, Rajesh S; Tello, Celso; Kurimoto, Yasuo; Thapa, Suman S; Pathanapitoon, Kessara; Salmon, John F; Sohn, Yong Ho; Fea, Antonio; Ozaki, Mineo; Lai, Jimmy S M; Tantisevi, Visanee; Khaing, Chaw Chaw; Mizoguchi, Takanori; Nakano, Satoko; Kim, Chan-Yun; Tang, Guangxian; Fan, Sujie; Wu, Renyi; Meng, Hailin; Nguyen, Thi Thuy Giang; Tran, Tien Dat; Ueno, Morio; Martinez, Jose Maria; Ramli, Norlina; Aung, Yin Mon; Reyes, Rigo Daniel; Vernon, Stephen A; Fang, Seng Kheong; Xie, Zhicheng; Chen, Xiao Yin; Foo, Jia Nee; Sim, Kar Seng; Wong, Tina T; Quek, Desmond T; Venkatesh, Rengaraj; Kavitha, Srinivasan; Krishnadas, Subbiah R; Soumittra, Nagaswamy; Shantha, Balekudaru; Lim, Boon-Ang; Ogle, Jeanne; de Vasconcellos, José P C; Costa, Vital P; Abe, Ricardo Y; de Souza, Bruno B; Sng, Chelvin C; Aquino, Maria C; Kosior-Jarecka, Ewa; Fong, Guillermo Barreto; Tamanaja, Vania Castro; Fujita, Ricardo; Jiang, Yuzhen; Waseem, Naushin; Low, Sancy; Pham, Huan Nguyen; Al-Shahwan, Sami; Craven, E Randy; Khan, Muhammad Imran; Dada, Rrima; Mohanty, Kuldeep; Faiq, Muneeb A; Hewitt, Alex W; Burdon, Kathryn P; Gan, Eng Hui; Prutthipongsit, Anuwat; Patthanathamrongkasem, Thipnapa; Catacutan, Mary Ann T; Felarca, Irene R; Liao, Chona S; Rusmayani, Emma; Istiantoro, Vira Wardhana; Consolandi, Giulia; Pignata, Giulia; Lavia, Carlo; Rojanapongpun, Prin; Mangkornkanokpong, Lerprat; Chansangpetch, Sunee; Chan, Jonathan C H; Choy, Bonnie N K; Shum, Jennifer W H; Than, Hlaing May; Oo, Khin Thida; Han, Aye Thi; Yong, Victor H; Ng, Xiao-Yu; Goh, Shuang Ru; Chong, Yaan Fun; Hibberd, Martin L; Seielstad, Mark; Png, Eileen; Dunstan, Sarah J; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Bei, Jinxin; Zeng, Yi Xin; Karkey, Abhilasha; Basnyat, Buddha; Pasutto, Francesca; Paoli, Daniela; Frezzotti, Paolo; Wang, Jie Jin; Mitchell, Paul; Fingert, John H; Allingham, R Rand; Hauser, Michael A; Lim, Soon Thye; Chew, Soo Hong; Ebstein, Richard P; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Park, Kyu Hyung; Ahn, Jeeyun; Boland, Greet; Snippe, Harm; Stead, Richard; Quino, Raquel; Zaw, Su Nyunt; Lukasik, Urszula; Shetty, Rohit; Zahari, Mimiwati; Bae, Hyoung Won; Oo, Nay Lin; Kubota, Toshiaki; Manassakorn, Anita; Ho, Wing Lau; Dallorto, Laura; Hwang, Young Hoon; Kiire, Christine A; Kuroda, Masako; Djamal, Zeiras Eka; Peregrino, Jovell Ian M; Ghosh, Arkasubhra; Jeoung, Jin Wook; Hoan, Tung S; Srisamran, Nuttamon; Sandragasu, Thayanithi; Set, Saw Htoo; Doan, Vi Huyen; Bhattacharya, Shomi S; Ho, Ching-Lin; Tan, Donald T; Sihota, Ramanjit; Loon, Seng-Chee; Mori, Kazuhiko; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Hollander, Anneke I den; Qamar, Raheel; Wang, Ya-Xing; Teo, Yik Y; Tai, E-Shyong; Hartleben-Matkin, Curt; Lozano-Giral, David; Saw, Seang Mei; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Zenteno, Juan C; Pang, Chi Pui; Bui, Huong T T; Hee, Owen; Craig, Jamie E; Edward, Deepak P; Yonahara, Michiko; Neto, Jamil Miguel; Guevara-Fujita, Maria L; Xu, Liang; Ritch, Robert; Liza-Sharmini, Ahmad Tajudin; Wong, Tien Y; Al-Obeidan, Saleh; Do, Nhu Hon; Sundaresan, Periasamy; Tham, Clement C; Foster, Paul J; Vijaya, Lingam; Tashiro, Kei; Vithana, Eranga N; Wang, Ningli; Aung, Tin

    2016-05-01

    Primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) is a major cause of blindness worldwide. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) followed by replication in a combined total of 10,503 PACG cases and 29,567 controls drawn from 24 countries across Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America. We observed significant evidence of disease association at five new genetic loci upon meta-analysis of all patient collections. These loci are at EPDR1 rs3816415 (odds ratio (OR) = 1.24, P = 5.94 × 10(-15)), CHAT rs1258267 (OR = 1.22, P = 2.85 × 10(-16)), GLIS3 rs736893 (OR = 1.18, P = 1.43 × 10(-14)), FERMT2 rs7494379 (OR = 1.14, P = 3.43 × 10(-11)), and DPM2-FAM102A rs3739821 (OR = 1.15, P = 8.32 × 10(-12)). We also confirmed significant association at three previously described loci (P < 5 × 10(-8) for each sentinel SNP at PLEKHA7, COL11A1, and PCMTD1-ST18), providing new insights into the biology of PACG. PMID:27064256

  3. Genetic fidelity and variability of micropropagated cassava plants (Manihot esculenta Crantz) evaluated using ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Á M; Vieira, L J; Ferreira, C F; Souza, F V D; Souza, A S; Ledo, C A S

    2015-01-01

    Molecular markers are efficient for assessing the genetic fidelity of various species of plants after in vitro culture. In this study, we evaluated the genetic fidelity and variability of micropropagated cassava plants (Manihot esculenta Crantz) using inter-simple sequence repeat markers. Twenty-two cassava accessions from the Embrapa Cassava & Fruits Germplasm Bank were used. For each accession, DNA was extracted from a plant maintained in the field and from 3 plants grown in vitro. For DNA amplification, 27 inter-simple sequence repeat primers were used, of which 24 generated 175 bands; 100 of those bands were polymorphic and were used to study genetic variability among accessions of cassava plants maintained in the field. Based on the genetic distance matrix calculated using the arithmetic complement of the Jaccard's index, genotypes were clustered using the unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages. The number of bands per primer was 2-13, with an average of 7.3. For most micropropagated accessions, the fidelity study showed no genetic variation between plants of the same accessions maintained in the field and those maintained in vitro, confirming the high genetic fidelity of the micropropagated plants. However, genetic variability was observed among different accessions grown in the field, and clustering based on the dissimilarity matrix revealed 7 groups. Inter-simple sequence repeat markers were efficient for detecting the genetic homogeneity of cassava plants derived from meristem culture, demonstrating the reliability of this propagation system. PMID:26214457

  4. Association of Polymorphisms in Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1) Gene with Cancer Susceptibility: A Meta-Analysis of 14 Case-Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaolong; Huang, Junjie; Bai, Jian; Lu, Wei; Zhang, Meng; Mei, Hongbing

    2016-01-01

    Background Many epidemiology studies have indicated that polymorphisms in ICAM-1 are associated with a variety of cancers, but published data are contradictory and inconclusive. Therefore, we conducted the current meta-analysis to elaborate the effects of ICAM-1 polymorphisms (rs5491, rs3093030, rs281432, and rs1799969) on cancer susceptibility. Material/Methods We conducted a comprehensive literature search in PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to assess the association between ICAM-1 polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility. Results We enrolled 14 published case-control studies including 4608 cancer cases and 4913 controls. We found an increased susceptibility of cancer in polymorphism rs1799969 (C vs. T: OR=1.662, 95%CI=1.288–2.143, p=0141; CT vs. TT: OR=1.860, 95%CI=1.398–2.474, p=0.507; CC+CT vs. TT: OR=1.812, 95%CI=1.373–2.391, p=0.284) of ICAM-1 among the overall population. However, no association between polymorphisms rs5491, rs3093030, or rs281432 of ICAM-1 and cancer susceptibility was identified. In the stratification analysis by ethnicity, we identified an increased susceptibility for Asians in rs3093030 polymorphism (CC vs. TC+TT: OR=1.728, 95% CI=1.234–2.421, p=0.787). Conclusions Our results suggest that the ICAM-1 polymorphism rs1799969 is significantly associated with increased susceptibility to overall cancer. Further studies (preferably prospective) are warranted to validate these relationships. PMID:26897511

  5. Exploiting the Temperature/Concentration Dependence of Magnetic Susceptibility to Control Convection in Fundamental Studies of Solidification Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, J. W.; Xu, Dong; Jones, W. Kinzy, Jr.; Szofran, Frank R.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this new research project is to demonstrate by experiment, supplemented by mathematical modeling and physical property measurement, that the effects of buoyancy driven convection can be largely eliminated in ground-based experiments, and further reduced in flight, by applying a new technique. That technique exploits the dependence of magnetic susceptibility on composition or temperature. It is emphasized at the outset that the phenomenon to be exploited is fundamentally and practically different from the magnetic damping of convection in conducting liquids that has been the subject of much prior research. The concept suggesting this research is that all materials, even non-conductors, when placed in a magnetic field gradient, experience a force. Of particular interest here are paramagnetic and diamagnetic materials, classes which embrace the "model alloys", such as succinonitrile-acetone, that have been used by others investigating the fundamentals of solidification. Such alloys will exhibit a dependence of susceptibility on composition. The consequence is that, with a properly oriented field (gradient) a force will arise that can be made to be equal to, but opposite, the buoyancy force arising from concentration (or temperature) gradients. In this way convection can be stilled. The role of convection in determining the microstructure, and thereby properties, of materials is well known. Elimination of that convection has both scientific and technological consequences. Our knowledge of diffusive phenomena in solidification, phenomena normally hidden by the dominance of convection, is enhanced if we can study solidification of quiescent liquids. Furthermore, the microstructure, microchemistry and properties of materials (thereby practical value) are affected by the convection occurring during their solidification. Hitherto the method of choice for elimination of convection has been experimentation in microgravity. However, even in low Earth orbit

  6. A Preliminary Study of Genetic Factors That Influence Susceptibility to Bovine Tuberculosis in the British Cattle Herd

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Erin E.; Hoffman, Joseph I.; Green, Laura E.; Medley, Graham F.; Amos, William

    2011-01-01

    Associations between specific host genes and susceptibility to Mycobacterial infections such as tuberculosis have been reported in several species. Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) impacts greatly the UK cattle industry, yet genetic predispositions have yet to be identified. We therefore used a candidate gene approach to study 384 cattle of which 160 had reacted positively to an antigenic skin test (‘reactors’). Our approach was unusual in that it used microsatellite markers, embraced high breed diversity and focused particularly on detecting genes showing heterozygote advantage, a mode of action often overlooked in SNP-based studies. A panel of neutral markers was used to control for population substructure and using a general linear model-based approach we were also able to control for age. We found that substructure was surprisingly weak and identified two genomic regions that were strongly associated with reactor status, identified by markers INRA111 and BMS2753. In general the strength of association detected tended to vary depending on whether age was included in the model. At INRA111 a single genotype appears strongly protective with an overall odds ratio of 2.2, the effect being consistent across nine diverse breeds. Our results suggest that breeding strategies could be devised that would appreciably increase genetic resistance of cattle to bTB (strictly, reduce the frequency of incidence of reactors) with implications for the current debate concerning badger-culling. PMID:21533277

  7. Genome-wide association study in people of South Asian ancestry identifies six novel susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kooner, Jaspal S; Saleheen, Danish; Sim, Xueling; Sehmi, Joban; Zhang, Weihua; Frossard, Philippe; Been, Latonya F; Chia, Kee-Seng; Dimas, Antigone S; Hassanali, Neelam; Jafar, Tazeen; Jowett, Jeremy BM; Li, Xinzhing; Radha, Venkatesan; Rees, Simon D; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Young, Robin; Aung, Tin; Basit, Abdul; Chidambaram, Manickam; Das, Debashish; Grunberg, Elin; Hedman, Åsa K; Hydrie, Zafar I; Islam, Muhammed; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Kowlessur, Sudhir; Kristensen, Malene M; Liju, Samuel; Lim, Wei-Yen; Matthews, David R; Liu, Jianjun; Morris, Andrew P; Nica, Alexandra C; Pinidiyapathirage, Janani M; Prokopenko, Inga; Rasheed, Asif; Samuel, Maria; Shah, Nabi; Shera, A Samad; Small, Kerrin S; Suo, Chen; Wickremasinghe, Ananda R; Wong, Tien Yin; Yang, Mingyu; Zhang, Fan; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Barnett, Anthony H; Caulfield, Mark; Deloukas, Panos; Frayling, Tim; Froguel, Philippe; Kato, Norihiro; Katulanda, Prasad; Kelly, M Ann; Liang, Junbin; Mohan, Viswanathan; Sanghera, Dharambir K; Scott, James; Seielstad, Mark; Zimmet, Paul Z; Elliott, Paul; Teo, Yik Ying; McCarthy, Mark I; Danesh, John; Tai, E Shyong; Chambers, John C

    2013-01-01

    We carried out a genome wide association study of type-2 diabetes (T2D) amongst 20,119 people of South Asian ancestry (5,561 with T2D); we identified 20 independent SNPs associated with T2D at P<10−4 for testing amongst a further 38,568 South Asians (13,170 with T2D). In combined analysis, common genetic variants at six novel loci (GRB14, ST6GAL1, VPS26A, HMG20A, AP3S2 and HNF4A) were associated with T2D (P=4.1×10−8 to P=1.9×10−11); SNPs at GRB14 were also associated with insulin sensitivity, and at ST6GAL1 and HNF4A with pancreatic beta-cell function respectively. Our findings provide additional insight into mechanisms underlying T2D, and demonstrate the potential for new discovery from genetic association studies in South Asians who have increased susceptibility to T2D. PMID:21874001

  8. Susceptibility of Ureaplasma urealyticum to Methylene Blue-Mediated Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapy: An in vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Ye, Tinglu; Chen, Bancheng; Yu, Bo; Zhong, Qili; Huang, Guoxin; Hu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to detect the susceptibility of Ureaplasma urealyticum to methylene blue-mediated photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT). Three U. urealyticum strains including the standard serotype 1 and 5, and a clinically collected strain were used in this study. Strains were first incubated in 96-well culture plates in the presence of methylene blue with decreasing concentrations (from 1 to 0.015625 mg mL(-1)) for 20 or 60 min, and then submitted to irradiation with a light-emitting diode laser with a power density of 100 mW cm(-2) for 8, 17, 34 or 68 min. Regrowth of the strains was performed soon after irradiation. A significant inactivation effect was observed after PACT. Longer incubation time induced more extensive inactivation of U. urealyticum. No difference in response to PACT was observed between the two biovars of U. urealyticum. It was concluded that PACT had a significant inactivation effect on U. urealyticum, and it might be a promising alternative treatment for resistant U. urealyticum infections. PMID:25688579

  9. Identification of penicillinase producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Chile during clinical and microbiological study of gonococcal susceptibility to antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia Moreno, J; Dillon, J R; Arroyave, R; Maldonado, A; Fich, F; Salvo, A; Villalobos, D; Vincent, P; Pauze, M

    1987-01-01

    The first penicillinase producing isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG) identified in Chile were discovered during a clinical and microbiological study to compare the efficacy of penicillin (4.8 MIU aqueous procaine penicillin G plus 1 g oral probenecid) and tetracycline (1.5 g followed by 500 mg four times daily for four days) treatment regimens for acute uncomplicated gonorrhoea. Penicillin treatment was effective in 93.1% (282) of 303 patients, whereas tetracycline was effective in 98.3% (233) of 237 patients. Six of the penicillin treatment failures were attributable to PPNG strains. In all, 21 PPNG strains were identified during the study. They were genetically identical, having a wild type auxotype, a WII/III serotype (serovar Bajk), and carrying cryptic and transfer plasmids and an Asian type penicillinase producing plasmid. In addition, 674 non-PPNG isolates were tested for their susceptibility to eight antimicrobials. Over 95% were sensitivie to 1 mg/l of penicillin, ampicillin, cefotaxime, cefuroxime, and erythromycin, over 90% were sensitive to 1 mg/l of tetracycline and 2 mg/l of thiamphenicol, and all were sensitive to spectinomycin. Of 226 non-PPNG isolates characterised for plasmid content and auxotype, 90% (205) were either wild type or proline requiring, 67% (153) carried only the cryptic plasmid, and a further 31% (71) carried both cryptic and transfer plasmids. Unusually, three of four isolates lacking the cryptic plasmid carried only the transfer plasmid. Images PMID:3102348

  10. Genetic Susceptibility to Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity: Follow-Up of Findings from Genome-Wide Association Studies

    PubMed Central

    Basile, Kevin J.; Johnson, Matthew E.; Xia, Qianghua; Grant, Struan F. A.

    2014-01-01

    Elucidating the underlying genetic variations influencing various complex diseases is one of the major challenges currently facing clinical genetic research. Although these variations are often difficult to uncover, approaches such as genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been successful at finding statistically significant associations between specific genomic loci and disease susceptibility. GWAS has been especially successful in elucidating genetic variants that influence type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity/body mass index (BMI). Specifically, several GWASs have confirmed that a variant in transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) confers risk for T2D, while a variant in fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) confers risk for obesity/BMI; indeed both of these signals are considered the most statistically associated loci discovered for these respective traits to date. The discovery of these two key loci in this context has been invaluable for providing novel insight into mechanisms of heritability and disease pathogenesis. As follow-up studies of TCF7L2 and FTO have typically lead the way in how to follow up a GWAS discovery, we outline what has been learned from such investigations and how they have implications for the myriad of other loci that have been subsequently reported in this disease context. PMID:24719615

  11. The health and economic burden of bloodstream infections caused by antimicrobial-susceptible and non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus aureus in European hospitals, 2010 and 2011: a multicentre retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Stewardson, Andrew J; Allignol, Arthur; Beyersmann, Jan; Graves, Nicholas; Schumacher, Martin; Meyer, Rodolphe; Tacconelli, Evelina; De Angelis, Giulia; Farina, Claudio; Pezzoli, Fabio; Bertrand, Xavier; Gbaguidi-Haore, Houssein; Edgeworth, Jonathan; Tosas, Olga; Martinez, Jose A; Ayala-Blanco, M Pilar; Pan, Angelo; Zoncada, Alessia; Marwick, Charis A; Nathwani, Dilip; Seifert, Harald; Hos, Nina; Hagel, Stefan; Pletz, Mathias; Harbarth, Stephan

    2016-08-18

    We performed a multicentre retrospective cohort study including 606,649 acute inpatient episodes at 10 European hospitals in 2010 and 2011 to estimate the impact of antimicrobial resistance on hospital mortality, excess length of stay (LOS) and cost. Bloodstream infections (BSI) caused by third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (3GCRE), meticillin-susceptible (MSSA) and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) increased the daily risk of hospital death (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.80; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.34-2.42, HR = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.49-2.20 and HR = 2.42; 95% CI: 1.66-3.51, respectively) and prolonged LOS (9.3 days; 95% CI: 9.2-9.4, 11.5 days; 95% CI: 11.5-11.6 and 13.3 days; 95% CI: 13.2-13.4, respectively). BSI with third-generation cephalosporin-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae (3GCSE) significantly increased LOS (5.9 days; 95% CI: 5.8-5.9) but not hazard of death (1.16; 95% CI: 0.98-1.36). 3GCRE significantly increased the hazard of death (1.63; 95% CI: 1.13-2.35), excess LOS (4.9 days; 95% CI: 1.1-8.7) and cost compared with susceptible strains, whereas meticillin resistance did not. The annual cost of 3GCRE BSI was higher than of MRSA BSI. While BSI with S. aureus had greater impact on mortality, excess LOS and cost than Enterobacteriaceae per infection, the impact of antimicrobial resistance was greater for Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:27562950

  12. Measuring trainer fidelity in the transfer of suicide prevention training

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Wendi F.; Pisani, Anthony R.; Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; Xia, Yinglin; Tu, Xin; McMahon, Marcie; Munfakh, Jimmie Lou; Gould, Madelyn S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Finding effective and efficient models to train large numbers of suicide prevention interventionists, including ‘hotline’ crisis counselors, is a high priority. Train-the-trainer (TTT) models are widely used but understudied. Aims To assess the extent to which trainers following TTT delivered the Applied Suicide Intervention Skills Training (ASIST) program with fidelity, and to examine fidelity across two trainings and seven training segments. Methods We recorded and reliably rated trainer fidelity, defined as adherence to program content and competence of program delivery, for 34 newly trained ASIST trainers delivering the program to crisis center staff on two separate occasions. A total of 324 observations were coded. Trainer demographics were also collected. Results On average, trainers delivered two-thirds of the program. Previous training was associated with lower levels of trainer adherence to the program. 18% of trainers' observations were rated as solidly competent. Trainers did not improve fidelity from their first to second training. Significantly higher fidelity was found for lectures and lower fidelity was found for interactive training activities including asking about suicide and creating a safe plan. Conclusions We found wide variability in trainer fidelity to the ASIST program following TTT and few trainers had high levels of both adherence and competence. More research is needed to examine the cost-effectiveness of TTT models. PMID:24901061

  13. Quantum state tomography and fidelity estimation via Phaselift

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yiping; Liu, Huan; Zhao, Qing

    2015-09-15

    Experiments of multi-photon entanglement have been performed by several groups. Obviously, an increase on the photon number for fidelity estimation and quantum state tomography causes a dramatic increase in the elements of the positive operator valued measures (POVMs), which results in a great consumption of time in measurements. In practice, we wish to obtain a good estimation of fidelity and quantum states through as few measurements as possible for multi-photon entanglement. Phaselift provides such a chance to estimate fidelity for entangling states based on less data. In this paper, we would like to show how the Phaselift works for six qubits in comparison to the data given by Pan’s group, i.e., we use a fraction of the data as input to estimate the rest of the data through the obtained density matrix, and thus goes beyond the simple fidelity analysis. The fidelity bound is also provided for general Schrödinger Cat state. Based on the fidelity bound, we propose an optimal measurement approach which could both reduce the copies and keep the fidelity bound gap small. The results demonstrate that the Phaselift can help decrease the measured elements of POVMs for six qubits. Our conclusion is based on the prior knowledge that a pure state is the target state prepared by experiments.

  14. Real-World Experience with Echinocandin MICs against Candida Species in a Multicenter Study of Hospitals That Routinely Perform Susceptibility Testing of Bloodstream Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, M. Hong; Shoham, Shmuel; Vazquez, Jose A.; Morris, Arthur J.; Pasculle, William A.; Kubin, Christine J.; Klinker, Kenneth P.; Carver, Peggy L.; Hanson, Kimberly E.; Chen, Sharon; Lam, Simon W.; Potoski, Brian A.; Clarke, Lloyd G.; Shields, Ryan K.; Clancy, Cornelius J.

    2014-01-01

    Reference broth microdilution methods of Candida echinocandin susceptibility testing are limited by interlaboratory variability in caspofungin MICs. Recently revised Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) breakpoint MICs for echinocandin nonsusceptibility may not be valid for commercial tests employed in hospital laboratories. Indeed, there are limited echinocandin susceptibility testing data from hospital laboratories. We conducted a multicenter retrospective study of 9 U.S., Australian, and New Zealand hospitals that routinely tested Candida bloodstream isolates for echinocandin susceptibility from 2005 to 2013. Eight hospitals used Sensititre YeastOne assays. The Candida spp. were C. albicans (n = 1,067), C. glabrata (n = 911), C. parapsilosis (n = 476), C. tropicalis (n = 185), C. krusei (n = 104), and others (n = 154). Resistance and intermediate rates were ≤1.4% and ≤3%, respectively, for each echinocandin against C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis. Resistance rates among C. glabrata and C. krusei isolates were ≤7.5% and ≤5.6%, respectively. Caspofungin intermediate rates among C. glabrata and C. krusei isolates were 17.8% and 46.5%, respectively, compared to ≤4.3% and ≤4.4% for other echinocandins. Using CLSI breakpoints, 18% and 19% of C. glabrata isolates were anidulafungin susceptible/caspofungin nonsusceptible and micafungin susceptible/caspofungin nonsusceptible, respectively; similar discrepancies were observed for 38% and 39% of C. krusei isolates. If only YeastOne data were considered, interhospital modal MIC variability was low (within 2 doubling dilutions for each agent). In conclusion, YeastOne assays employed in hospitals may reduce the interlaboratory variability in caspofungin MICs against Candida species that are observed between reference laboratories using CLSI broth microdilution methods. The significance of classifying isolates as caspofungin intermediate and anidulafungin/micafungin susceptible will

  15. A multievent approach to estimating pair fidelity and heterogeneity in state transitions

    PubMed Central

    Culina, Antica; Lachish, Shelly; Pradel, Roger; Choquet, Remi; Sheldon, Ben C

    2013-01-01

    Fidelity rates of pair-bonded individuals are of considerable interest to behavioral and population biologists as they can influence population structure, mating rates, population productivity, and gene flow. Estimates of fidelity rates calculated from direct observations of pairs in consecutive breeding seasons may be biased because (i) individuals that are not seen are assumed to be dead, (ii) variation in the detectability of individuals is ignored, and (iii) pair status must be known with certainty. This can lead to a high proportion of observations being ignored. This approach also restricts the way variation in fidelity rates for different types of individuals, or the covariation between fidelity and other vital rates (e.g., survival) can be analyzed. In this study, we develop a probabilistic multievent capture–mark–recapture (MECMR) modeling framework for estimating pair fidelity rates that accounts for imperfect detection rates and capture heterogeneity, explicitly incorporates uncertainty in the assessment of pair status, and allows estimates of state-dependent survival and fidelity rates to be obtained simultaneously. We demonstrate the utility of our approach for investigating patterns of fidelity in pair-bonded individuals, by applying it to 30 years of breeding data from a wild population of great tits Parus major Linnaeus. Results of model selection supported state-dependent recapture, survival, and fidelity rates. Recapture rates were higher for individuals breeding with their previous partner than for those breeding with a different partner. Faithful birds that were breeding with the same partner as in the previous breeding season (i.e., at t − 1) experienced substantially higher survival rates (between t and t + 1) and were also more likely to remain faithful to their current partner (i.e., to remain in the faithful state at t + 1). First year breeders were more likely to change partner than older birds. These findings imply that traditional

  16. A binding free energy decomposition approach for accurate calculations of the fidelity of DNA polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Rucker, Robert; Oelschlaeger, Peter; Warshel, Arieh

    2010-01-01

    DNA polymerase β (pol β) is a small eukaryotic enzyme with the ability to repair short single-stranded DNA gaps that has found use as a model system for larger replicative DNA polymerases. For all DNA polymerases, the factors determining their catalytic power and fidelity are the interactions between the bases of the base pair, amino acids near the active site, and the two magnesium ions. In this report, we study effects of all three aspects on human pol β transition state (TS) binding free energies by reproducing a consistent set of experimentally determined data for different structures. Our calculations comprise the combination of four different base pairs (incoming pyrimidine nucleotides incorporated opposite both matched and mismatched purines) with four different pol β structures (wild type and three separate mutations of ionized residues to alanine). We decompose the incoming deoxynucleoside 5′-triphosphate-TS, and run separate calculations for the neutral base part and the highly charged triphosphate part, using different dielectric constants in order to account for the specific electrostatic environments. This new approach improves our ability to predict the effect of matched and mismatched base pairing and of mutations in DNA polymerases on fidelity and may be a useful tool in studying the potential of DNA polymerase mutations in the development of cancer. It also supports our point of view with regards to the origin of the structural control of fidelity, allowing for a quantified description of the fidelity of DNA polymerases. PMID:19842163

  17. Combined analysis of genome-wide association studies for Crohn disease and psoriasis identifies seven shared susceptibility loci.

    PubMed

    Ellinghaus, David; Ellinghaus, Eva; Nair, Rajan P; Stuart, Philip E; Esko, Tõnu; Metspalu, Andres; Debrus, Sophie; Raelson, John V; Tejasvi, Trilokraj; Belouchi, Majid; West, Sarah L; Barker, Jonathan N; Kõks, Sulev; Kingo, Külli; Balschun, Tobias; Palmieri, Orazio; Annese, Vito; Gieger, Christian; Wichmann, H Erich; Kabesch, Michael; Trembath, Richard C; Mathew, Christopher G; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Weidinger, Stephan; Nikolaus, Susanna; Schreiber, Stefan; Elder, James T; Weichenthal, Michael; Nothnagel, Michael; Franke, Andre

    2012-04-01

    Psoriasis (PS) and Crohn disease (CD) have been shown to be epidemiologically, pathologically, and therapeutically connected, but little is known about their shared genetic causes. We performed meta-analyses of five published genome-wide association studies on PS (2,529 cases and 4,955 controls) and CD (2,142 cases and 5,505 controls), followed up 20 loci that showed strongest evidence for shared disease association and, furthermore, tested cross-disease associations for previously reported PS and CD risk alleles in additional 6,115 PS cases, 4,073 CD cases, and 10,100 controls. We identified seven susceptibility loci outside the human leukocyte antigen region (9p24 near JAK2, 10q22 at ZMIZ1, 11q13 near PRDX5, 16p13 near SOCS1, 17q21 at STAT3, 19p13 near FUT2, and 22q11 at YDJC) shared between PS and CD with genome-wide significance (p < 5 × 10(-8)) and confirmed four already established PS and CD risk loci (IL23R, IL12B, REL, and TYK2). Three of the shared loci are also genome-wide significantly associated with PS alone (10q22 at ZMIZ1, p(rs1250544) = 3.53 × 10(-8), 11q13 near PRDX5, p(rs694739) = 3.71 × 10(-09), 22q11 at YDJC, p(rs181359) = 8.02 × 10(-10)). In addition, we identified one susceptibility locus for CD (16p13 near SOCS1, p(rs4780355) = 4.99 × 10(-8)). Refinement of association signals identified shared genome-wide significant associations for exonic SNPs at 10q22 (ZMIZ1) and in silico expression quantitative trait locus analyses revealed that the associations at ZMIZ1 and near SOCS1 have a potential functional effect on gene expression. Our results show the usefulness of joint analyses of clinically distinct immune-mediated diseases and enlarge the map of shared genetic risk loci. PMID:22482804

  18. Association between invasive ovarian cancer susceptibility and 11 best candidate SNPs from breast cancer genome-wide association study

    PubMed Central

    Song, Honglin; Ramus, Susan J.; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; DiCioccio, Richard A.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Hogdall, Estrid; Whittemore, Alice S.; McGuire, Valerie; Hogdall, Claus; Blaakaer, Jan; Wu, Anna H.; Van Den Berg, David J.; Stram, Daniel O.; Menon, Usha; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Jacobs, Ian J.; Webb, Penny M.; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Rossing, Mary Anne; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Goodman, Marc T.; Lurie, Galina; Thompson, Pamela J.; Carney, Michael E.; Ness, Roberta B.; Moysich, Kirsten; Goode, Ellen L.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Anderson, Stephanie; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Berchuck, Andrew; Iversen, Edwin S.; Moorman, Patricia G.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Chanock, Stephen; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Brewster, Wendy R.; Ponder, Bruce A.J.; Easton, Douglas F.; Gayther, Simon A.; Pharoah, Paul D.P.

    2009-01-01

    Because both ovarian and breast cancer are hormone-related and are known to have some predisposition genes in common, we evaluated 11 of the most significant hits (six with confirmed associations with breast cancer) from the breast cancer genome-wide association study for association with invasive ovarian cancer. Eleven SNPs were initially genotyped in 2927 invasive ovarian cancer cases and 4143 controls from six ovarian cancer case–control studies. Genotype frequencies in cases and controls were compared using a likelihood ratio test in a logistic regression model stratified by study. Initially, three SNPs (rs2107425 in MRPL23, rs7313833 in PTHLH, rs3803662 in TNRC9) were weakly associated with ovarian cancer risk and one SNP (rs4954956 in NXPH2) was associated with serous ovarian cancer in non-Hispanic white subjects (P-trend < 0.1). These four SNPs were then genotyped in an additional 4060 cases and 6308 controls from eight independent studies. Only rs4954956 was significantly associated with ovarian cancer risk both in the replication study and in combined analyses. This association was stronger for the serous histological subtype [per minor allele odds ratio (OR) 1.07 95% CI 1.01–1.13, P-trend = 0.02 for all types of ovarian cancer and OR 1.14 95% CI 1.07–1.22, P-trend = 0.00017 for serous ovarian cancer]. In conclusion, we found that rs4954956 was associated with increased ovarian cancer risk, particularly for serous ovarian cancer. However, none of the six confirmed breast cancer susceptibility variants we tested was associated with ovarian cancer risk. Further work will be needed to identify the causal variant associated with rs4954956 or elucidate its function. PMID:19304784

  19. A generalized fidelity amplitude for open systems.

    PubMed

    Gorin, T; Moreno, H J; Seligman, T H

    2016-06-13

    We consider a central system which is coupled via dephasing to an open system, i.e. an intermediate system which in turn is coupled to another environment. Considering the intermediate and far environment as one composite system, the coherences in the central system are given in the form of fidelity amplitudes for a certain perturbed echo dynamics in the composite environment. On the basis of the Born-Markov approximation, we derive a master equation for the reduction of that dynamics to the intermediate system alone. In distinction to an earlier paper (Moreno et al 2015 Phys. Rev. A 92, 030104. (doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.92.030104)), where we discussed the stabilizing effect of the far environment on the decoherence in the central system, we focus here on the possibility of using the measurable coherences in the central system for probing the open quantum dynamics in the intermediate system. We illustrate our results for the case of chaotic dynamics in the near environment, where we compare random matrix simulations with our analytical result. PMID:27140969

  20. Fidelity of the Integrated Force Method Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, Dale; Halford, Gary; Coroneos, Rula; Patnaik, Surya

    2002-01-01

    The theory of strain compatibility of the solid mechanics discipline was incomplete since St. Venant's 'strain formulation' in 1876. We have addressed the compatibility condition both in the continuum and the discrete system. This has lead to the formulation of the Integrated Force Method. A dual Integrated Force Method with displacement as the primal variable has also been formulated. A modest finite element code (IFM/Analyzers) based on the IFM theory has been developed. For a set of standard test problems the IFM results were compared with the stiffness method solutions and the MSC/Nastran code. For the problems IFM outperformed the existing methods. Superior IFM performance is attributed to simultaneous compliance of equilibrium equation and compatibility condition. MSC/Nastran organization expressed reluctance to accept the high fidelity IFM solutions. This report discusses the solutions to the examples. No inaccuracy was detected in the IFM solutions. A stiffness method code with a small programming effort can be improved to reap the many IFM benefits when implemented with the IFMD elements. Dr. Halford conducted a peer-review on the Integrated Force Method. Reviewers' response is included.

  1. Status report on high fidelity reactor simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    Palmiotti, G.; Smith, M.; Rabiti, C.; Lewis, E.; Yang, W.; Leclere,M.; Siegel, A.; Fischer, P.; Kaushik, D.; Ragusa, J.; Lottes, J.; Smith, B.

    2006-12-11

    This report presents the effort under way at Argonne National Laboratory toward a comprehensive, integrated computational tool intended mainly for the high-fidelity simulation of sodium-cooled fast reactors. The main activities carried out involved neutronics, thermal hydraulics, coupling strategies, software architecture, and high-performance computing. A new neutronics code, UNIC, is being developed. The first phase involves the application of a spherical harmonics method to a general, unstructured three-dimensional mesh. The method also has been interfaced with a method of characteristics. The spherical harmonics equations were implemented in a stand-alone code that was then used to solve several benchmark problems. For thermal hydraulics, a computational fluid dynamics code called Nek5000, developed in the Mathematics and Computer Science Division for coupled hydrodynamics and heat transfer, has been applied to a single-pin, periodic cell in the wire-wrap geometry typical of advanced burner reactors. Numerical strategies for multiphysics coupling have been considered and higher-accuracy efficient methods proposed to finely simulate coupled neutronic/thermal-hydraulic reactor transients. Initial steps have been taken in order to couple UNIC and Nek5000, and simplified problems have been defined and solved for testing. Furthermore, we have begun developing a lightweight computational framework, based in part on carefully selected open source tools, to nonobtrusively and efficiently integrate the individual physics modules into a unified simulation tool.

  2. Random ambience using high fidelity images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu, Nur Azman; Sahib, Shahrin

    2011-06-01

    Most of the secure communication nowadays mandates true random keys as an input. These operations are mostly designed and taken care of by the developers of the cryptosystem. Due to the nature of confidential crypto development today, pseudorandom keys are typically designed and still preferred by the developers of the cryptosystem. However, these pseudorandom keys are predictable, periodic and repeatable, hence they carry minimal entropy. True random keys are believed to be generated only via hardware random number generators. Careful statistical analysis is still required to have any confidence the process and apparatus generates numbers that are sufficiently random to suit the cryptographic use. In this underlying research, each moment in life is considered unique in itself. The random key is unique for the given moment generated by the user whenever he or she needs the random keys in practical secure communication. An ambience of high fidelity digital image shall be tested for its randomness according to the NIST Statistical Test Suite. Recommendation on generating a simple 4 megabits per second random cryptographic keys live shall be reported.

  3. Paleomagnetic recording fidelity of nonideal magnetic systems

    PubMed Central

    Muxworthy, Adrian R; Krása, David; Williams, Wyn; Almeida, Trevor P

    2014-01-01

    A suite of near-identical magnetite nanodot samples produced by electron-beam lithography have been used to test the thermomagnetic recording fidelity of particles in the 74–333 nm size range; the grain size range most commonly found in rocks. In addition to controlled grain size, the samples had identical particle spacings, meaning that intergrain magnetostatic interactions could be controlled. Their magnetic hysteresis parameters were indicative of particles thought not to be ideal magnetic recorders; however, the samples were found to be excellent thermomagnetic recorders of the magnetic field direction. They were also found to be relatively good recorders of the field intensity in a standard paleointensity experiment. The samples' intensities were all within ∼15% of the expected answer and the mean of the samples within 3% of the actual field. These nonideal magnetic systems have been shown to be reliable records of the geomagnetic field in terms of both direction and intensity even though their magnetic hysteresis characteristics indicate less than ideal magnetic grains. Key Points Nonideal magnetic systems accurately record field direction Weak-field remanences more stable than strong-field remanences PMID:26300699

  4. High-Fidelity Piezoelectric Audio Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Stanley E.; Fox, Robert L.; Bryant, Robert G.

    2003-01-01

    ModalMax is a very innovative means of harnessing the vibration of a piezoelectric actuator to produce an energy efficient low-profile device with high-bandwidth high-fidelity audio response. The piezoelectric audio device outperforms many commercially available speakers made using speaker cones. The piezoelectric device weighs substantially less (4 g) than the speaker cones which use magnets (10 g). ModalMax devices have extreme fabrication simplicity. The entire audio device is fabricated by lamination. The simplicity of the design lends itself to lower cost. The piezoelectric audio device can be used without its acoustic chambers and thereby resulting in a very low thickness of 0.023 in. (0.58 mm). The piezoelectric audio device can be completely encapsulated, which makes it very attractive for use in wet environments. Encapsulation does not significantly alter the audio response. Its small size (see Figure 1) is applicable to many consumer electronic products, such as pagers, portable radios, headphones, laptop computers, computer monitors, toys, and electronic games. The audio device can also be used in automobile or aircraft sound systems.

  5. High-Fidelity Simulations of Multiphysics Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Frank

    2014-11-01

    A pacing theme in the high-fidelity simulations of multi-physics flows is the continual push towards constitutive models that reflect the underlying physics more closely than ever before. At the same time, to impact the design and understanding of real fluidic devices, these models must ultimately be developed in the setting of a highly flexible computational infrastructure capable of both massive parallelism and geometric flexibility. This theme is illustrated using two multi-physics simulations that provide new incite into the behavior of complex fluidic devices. In the first, a novel unstructured Volume-of-Fluid (VoF) method is applied to simulate the liquid fuel atomization processes in a complex high shear nozzle typical of realistic gas turbine injectors. The simulation make aggressive use of directional grid adaptation to support the local resolution of critical instability mechanisms associated with the atomization process. In a companion example, the prediction of flow field and noise in a subsonic jet is linked critically to modeling and resolution of the nozzle boundary layers.

  6. European genome-wide association study identifies SLC14A1 as a new urinary bladder cancer susceptibility gene

    PubMed Central

    Rafnar, Thorunn; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Sulem, Patrick; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Aben, Katja K.; Witjes, J. Alfred; Grotenhuis, Anne J.; Verhaegh, Gerald W.; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Christina A.; Besenbacher, Soren; Gudbjartsson, Daniel; Stacey, Simon N.; Gudmundsson, Julius; Johannsdottir, Hrefna; Bjarnason, Hjordis; Zanon, Carlo; Helgadottir, Hafdis; Jonasson, Jon Gunnlaugur; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Jonsson, Eirikur; Geirsson, Gudmundur; Nikulasson, Sigfus; Petursdottir, Vigdis; Bishop, D. Timothy; Chung-Sak, Sei; Choudhury, Ananya; Elliott, Faye; Barrett, Jennifer H.; Knowles, Margaret A.; de Verdier, Petra J.; Ryk, Charlotta; Lindblom, Annika; Rudnai, Peter; Gurzau, Eugene; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Vineis, Paolo; Polidoro, Silvia; Guarrera, Simonetta; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Panadero, Angeles; Sanz-Velez, José I.; Sanchez, Manuel; Valdivia, Gabriel; Garcia-Prats, Maria D.; Hengstler, Jan G.; Selinski, Silvia; Gerullis, Holger; Ovsiannikov, Daniel; Khezri, Abdolaziz; Aminsharifi, Alireza; Malekzadeh, Mahyar; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Veldink, Jan H.; Zeegers, Maurice P.; Kellen, Eliane; Fostinelli, Jacopo; Andreoli, Daniele; Arici, Cecilia; Porru, Stefano; Buntinx, Frank; Ghaderi, Abbas; Golka, Klaus; Mayordomo, José I.; Matullo, Giuseppe; Kumar, Rajiv; Steineck, Gunnar; Kiltie, Anne E.; Kong, Augustine; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefansson, Kari; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.

    2011-01-01

    Three genome-wide association studies in Europe and the USA have reported eight urinary bladder cancer (UBC) susceptibility loci. Using extended case and control series and 1000 Genomes imputations of 5 340 737 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we searched for additional loci in the European GWAS. The discovery sample set consisted of 1631 cases and 3822 controls from the Netherlands and 603 cases and 37 781 controls from Iceland. For follow-up, we used 3790 cases and 7507 controls from 13 sample sets of European and Iranian ancestry. Based on the discovery analysis, we followed up signals in the urea transporter (UT) gene SLC14A. The strongest signal at this locus was represented by a SNP in intron 3, rs17674580, that reached genome-wide significance in the overall analysis of the discovery and follow-up groups: odds ratio = 1.17, P = 7.6 × 10−11. SLC14A1 codes for UTs that define the Kidd blood group and are crucial for the maintenance of a constant urea concentration gradient in the renal medulla and, through this, the kidney's ability to concentrate urine. It is speculated that rs17674580, or other sequence variants in LD with it, indirectly modifies UBC risk by affecting urine production. If confirmed, this would support the ‘urogenous contact hypothesis’ that urine production and voiding frequency modify the risk of UBC. PMID:21750109

  7. Methodology development for evaluation of selective-fidelity rotorcraft simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, William D.; Schrage, D. P.; Prasad, J. V. R.; Wolfe, Daniel

    1992-01-01

    This paper addressed the initial step toward the goal of establishing performance and handling qualities acceptance criteria for realtime rotorcraft simulators through a planned research effort to quantify the system capabilities of 'selective fidelity' simulators. Within this framework the simulator is then classified based on the required task. The simulator is evaluated by separating the various subsystems (visual, motion, etc.) and applying corresponding fidelity constants based on the specific task. This methodology not only provides an assessment technique, but also provides a technique to determine the required levels of subsystem fidelity for a specific task.

  8. Flight simulator fidelity assessment in a rotorcraft lateral translation maneuver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. A.; Malsbury, T.; Atencio, A., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A model-based methodology for assessing flight simulator fidelity in closed-loop fashion is exercised in analyzing a rotorcraft low-altitude maneuver for which flight test and simulation results were available. The addition of a handling qualities sensitivity function to a previously developed model-based assessment criteria allows an analytical comparison of both performance and handling qualities between simulation and flight test. Model predictions regarding the existence of simulator fidelity problems are corroborated by experiment. The modeling approach is used to assess analytically the effects of modifying simulator characteristics on simulator fidelity.

  9. Environmental influences on patterns of vertical movement and site fidelity of grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) at aggregation sites.

    PubMed

    Vianna, Gabriel M S; Meekan, Mark G; Meeuwig, Jessica J; Speed, Conrad W

    2013-01-01

    We used acoustic telemetry to describe the patterns of vertical movement, site fidelity and residency of grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) on the outer slope of coral reefs in Palau, Micronesia, over a period of two years and nine months. We tagged 39 sharks (mostly adult females) of which 31 were detected regularly throughout the study. Sharks displayed strong inter-annual residency with greater attendance at monitored sites during summer than winter months. More individuals were detected during the day than at night. Mean depths of tagged sharks increased from 35 m in winter to 60 m in spring following an increase in water temperature at 60 m, with maximum mean depths attained when water temperatures at 60 m stabilised around 29°C. Sharks descended to greater depths and used a wider range of depths around the time of the full moon. There were also crepuscular cycles in mean depth, with sharks moving into shallower waters at dawn and dusk each day. We suggest that daily, lunar and seasonal cycles in vertical movement and residency are strategies for optimising both energetic budgets and foraging behaviour. Cyclical patterns of movement in response to environmental variables might affect the susceptibility of reef sharks to fishing, a consideration that should be taken into account in the implementation of conservation strategies. PMID:23593193

  10. Environmental Influences on Patterns of Vertical Movement and Site Fidelity of Grey Reef Sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) at Aggregation Sites

    PubMed Central

    Vianna, Gabriel M. S.; Meekan, Mark G.; Meeuwig, Jessica J.; Speed, Conrad W.

    2013-01-01

    We used acoustic telemetry to describe the patterns of vertical movement, site fidelity and residency of grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) on the outer slope of coral reefs in Palau, Micronesia, over a period of two years and nine months. We tagged 39 sharks (mostly adult females) of which 31 were detected regularly throughout the study. Sharks displayed strong inter-annual residency with greater attendance at monitored sites during summer than winter months. More individuals were detected during the day than at night. Mean depths of tagged sharks increased from 35 m in winter to 60 m in spring following an increase in water temperature at 60 m, with maximum mean depths attained when water temperatures at 60 m stabilised around 29°C. Sharks descended to greater depths and used a wider range of depths around the time of the full moon. There were also crepuscular cycles in mean depth, with sharks moving into shallower waters at dawn and dusk each day. We suggest that daily, lunar and seasonal cycles in vertical movement and residency are strategies for optimising both energetic budgets and foraging behaviour. Cyclical patterns of movement in response to environmental variables might affect the susceptibility of reef sharks to fishing, a consideration that should be taken into account in the implementation of conservation strategies. PMID:23593193

  11. Sinkhole susceptibility mapping using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and magnitude-frequency relationships: A case study in Hamadan province, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri, Kamal; Gutiérrez, Francisco; Mohseni, Hassan; Raeisi, Ezzat; Taheri, Milad

    2015-04-01

    Since 1989, an increasing number of sinkhole occurrences have been reported in the Kabudar Ahang and Razan-Qahavand subcatchments (KRQ) of Hamadan province, western Iran. The sinkhole-related subsidence phenomenon poses a significant threat for people and human structures, including sensitive facilities like the Hamadan Power Plant. Groundwater over-exploitation from the thick alluvial cover and the underlying cavernous limestone has been identified as the main factor involved in sinkhole development. A sinkhole susceptibility model was produced in a GIS environment applying the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) approach and considering a selection of eight factors, each categorized into five classes: distance to faults (DF), water level decline (WLD), groundwater exploitation (GE), penetration of deep wells into karst bedrock (PKA), distance to deep wells (DDW), groundwater alkalinity (GA), bedrock lithology (BL), and alluvium thickness (AT). Relative weights were preliminarily assigned to each factor and to their different classes through systematic pairwise comparisons based on expert judgment. The resulting sinkhole susceptibility index (SSI) values were then classified into four susceptibility classes: low, moderate, high and very high susceptibility. Subsequently, the model was refined through a trial and error process involving changes in the relative weights and iterative evaluation of the prediction capability. Independent evaluation of the final model indicates that 55% and 45% of the subsidence events fall within the very high and high, susceptibility zones, respectively. The results of this study show that AHP can be a useful approach for susceptibility assessment if data on the main controlling factors have sufficient accuracy and spatial coverage. The limitations of the model are partly related to the difficulty of gathering data on some important geological factors, due to their hidden nature. The magnitude and frequency relationship constructed

  12. Temporal percolation of a susceptible adaptive network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdez, L. D.; Macri, P. A.; Braunstein, L. A.

    2013-09-01

    In the past decades, many authors have used the susceptible-infected-recovered model to study the impact of the disease spreading on the evolution of the infected individuals. However, few authors focused on the temporal unfolding of the susceptible individuals. In this paper, we study the dynamic of the susceptible-infected-recovered model in an adaptive network that mimics the transitory deactivation of permanent social contacts, such as friendship and work-ship ties. Using an edge-based compartmental model and percolation theory, we obtain the evolution equations for the fraction susceptible individuals in the susceptible biggest component. In particular, we focus on how the individual’s behavior impacts on the dilution of the susceptible network. We show that, as a consequence, the spreading of the disease slows down, protecting the biggest susceptible cluster by increasing the critical time at which the giant susceptible component is destroyed. Our theoretical results are fully supported by extensive simulations.

  13. Shallow landslide susceptibility model for the Oria river basin, Gipuzkoa province (North of Spain). Application of the logistic regression and comparison with previous studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornaetxea, Txomin; Antigüedad, Iñaki; Ormaetxea, Orbange

    2016-04-01

    In the Oria river basin (885 km2) shallow landslides are very frequent and they produce several roadblocks and damage in the infrastructure and properties, causing big economic loss every year. Considering that the zonification of the territory in different landslide susceptibility levels provides a useful tool for the territorial planning and natural risk management, this study has the objective of identifying the most prone landslide places applying an objective and reproducible methodology. To do so, a quantitative multivariate methodology, the logistic regression, has been used. Fieldwork landslide points and randomly selected stable points have been used along with Lithology, Land Use, Distance to the transport infrastructure, Altitude, Senoidal Slope and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) independent variables to carry out a landslide susceptibility map. The model has been validated by the prediction and success rate curves and their corresponding area under the curve (AUC). In addition, the result has been compared to those from two landslide susceptibility models, covering the study area previously applied in different scales, such as ELSUS1000 version 1 (2013) and Landslide Susceptibility Map of Gipuzkoa (2007). Validation results show an excellent prediction capacity of the proposed model (AUC 0,962), and comparisons highlight big differences with previous studies.

  14. DksA involvement in transcription fidelity buffers stochastic epigenetic change

    PubMed Central

    Satory, Dominik; Gordon, Alasdair J. E.; Wang, Mengyu; Halliday, Jennifer A.; Golding, Ido; Herman, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    DksA is an auxiliary transcription factor that interacts with RNA polymerase and influences gene expression. Depending on the promoter, DksA can be a positive or negative regulator of transcription initiation. Moreover, DksA has a substantial effect on transcription elongation where it prevents the collision of transcription and replication machineries, plays a key role in maintaining transcription elongation when translation and transcription are uncoupled and has been shown to be involved in transcription fidelity. Here, we assessed the role of DksA in transcription fidelity by monitoring stochastic epigenetic switching in the lac operon (with and without an error-prone transcription slippage sequence), partial phenotypic suppression of a lacZ nonsense allele, as well as monitoring the number of lacI mRNA transcripts produced in the presence and absence of DksA via an operon fusion and single molecule fluorescent in situ hybridization studies. We present data showing that DksA acts to maintain transcription fidelity in vivo and the role of DksA seems to be distinct from that of the GreA and GreB transcription fidelity factors. PMID:26304546

  15. An optical method for evaluation of geometric fidelity for anatomically shaped tissue-engineered constructs.

    PubMed

    Ballyns, Jeffrey J; Cohen, Daniel L; Malone, Evan; Maher, Suzanne A; Potter, Hollis G; Wright, Timothy; Lipson, Hod; Bonassar, Lawrence J

    2010-08-01

    Quantification of shape fidelity of complex geometries for tissue-engineered constructs has not been thoroughly investigated. The objective of this study was to quantitatively describe geometric fidelities of various approaches to the fabrication of anatomically shaped meniscal constructs. Ovine menisci (n = 4) were imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and microcomputed tomography (microCT). Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene plastic molds were designed from each imaging modality and three-dimensional printed on a Stratasys FDM 3000. Silastic impression molds were fabricated directly from ovine menisci. These molds were used to generate shaped constructs using 2% alginate with 2% CaSO(4). Solid freeform fabrication was conducted on a custom open-architecture three-dimensional printing platform. Printed samples were made using 2% alginate with 0.75% CaSO(4). Hydrogel constructs were scanned via laser triangulation distance sensor. The point cloud images were analyzed to acquire computational measurements for key points of interest (e.g., height, width, and volume). Silastic molds were within + or - 10% error with respect to the native tissue for seven key measurements, microCT molds for six of seven, microCT prints for four of seven, MRI molds for five of seven, and MRI prints for four of seven. This work shows the ability to generate and quantify anatomically shaped meniscal constructs of high geometric fidelity and lends insight into the relative geometric fidelities of several tissue engineering techniques. PMID:19788346

  16. Role of directional fidelity in multiple aspects of extreme performance of the F1-ATPase motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Ruizheng; Wang, Zhisong

    2013-08-01

    Quantitative understanding of the best possible performance of nanomotors allowed by physical laws pertains to the study of nanomotors from biology as well as nanotechnology. The biological nanomotor F1 ATPase is the best available model system as it is the only nanomotor known for extreme energy conversion near the limit of energy conservation. Using a unified theoretical framework centered on a concept called directional fidelity, we analyze recent experiments in which the F1 motor's performance was measured for controlled chemical potentials and expose from the experiments quantitative evidence for the motor's multiple extreme performances in directional fidelity, speed, and catalytic capability close to physical limits. Specifically, the motor nearly exhausts the available energy from the fuel to retain the highest possible directional fidelity for an arbitrary load, encompassing the motor's extreme energy conversion and beyond. The theory-experiment comparison implies a tight chemomechanical coupling up to stalemate as futile steps occur, but unlikely involve fuel consumption. The F1-motor data also help clarify the relation between directional fidelity and experimentally measured stepping ratio.

  17. DksA involvement in transcription fidelity buffers stochastic epigenetic change.

    PubMed

    Satory, Dominik; Gordon, Alasdair J E; Wang, Mengyu; Halliday, Jennifer A; Golding, Ido; Herman, Christophe

    2015-12-01

    DksA is an auxiliary transcription factor that interacts with RNA polymerase and influences gene expression. Depending on the promoter, DksA can be a positive or negative regulator of transcription initiation. Moreover, DksA has a substantial effect on transcription elongation where it prevents the collision of transcription and replication machineries, plays a key role in maintaining transcription elongation when translation and transcription are uncoupled and has been shown to be involved in transcription fidelity. Here, we assessed the role of DksA in transcription fidelity by monitoring stochastic epigenetic switching in the lac operon (with and without an error-prone transcription slippage sequence), partial phenotypic suppression of a lacZ nonsense allele, as well as monitoring the number of lacI mRNA transcripts produced in the presence and absence of DksA via an operon fusion and single molecule fluorescent in situ hybridization studies. We present data showing that DksA acts to maintain transcription fidelity in vivo and the role of DksA seems to be distinct from that of the GreA and GreB transcription fidelity factors. PMID:26304546

  18. Individual fluctuations in toxin levels affect breeding site fidelity in a chemically defended amphibian.

    PubMed

    Bucciarelli, Gary M; Green, David B; Shaffer, H Bradley; Kats, Lee B

    2016-05-25

    Behaviours that influence habitat selection strongly determine species movement patterns. One component of animal behaviour that largely influences movement patterns and habitat choice is site fidelity. California newts (family Salamandridae) demonstrate remarkable site fidelity, typically homing to the same pool of a stream each breeding season. Individuals often occupy a specific pool throughout the breeding season, but some males shift among breeding pools, altering their set of potential mates, competitors, and predators. In this study, we measured dermal concentrations of the chemical defence compound tetrodotoxin (TTX) in recaptured male California newts (Taricha torosa) over five breeding seasons to evaluate whether relative TTX concentrations are associated with breeding site fidelity in the field. Our five years of field sampling indicates that TTX concentrations of individuals and group means fluctuate tremendously, implying that TTX is not a stable phenotypic trait. Despite such fluctuations, we found that an individual's relative TTX concentration explains fidelity to a breeding pool and suggests that newts may be able to assess both their own concentrations of TTX and that of conspecifics to make decisions about remaining in or abandoning a breeding pool. These results provide us a novel dimension to chemical defence phenotypes in nature and their ecological consequences, potentially requiring a re-evaluation of the coevolutionary dynamics of predation pressure on toxin-laden organisms. PMID:27194704

  19. Influence of sampling rate on the calculated fidelity of an aircraft simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    One of the factors that influences the fidelity of an aircraft digital simulation is the sampling rate. As the sampling rate is increased, the calculated response of the discrete representation tends to coincide with the response of the corresponding continuous system. Because of computer limitations, however, the sampling rate cannot be increased indefinitely. Moreover, real-time simulation requirements demand that a finite sampling rate be adopted. In view of these restrictions, a study was undertaken to determine the influence of sampling rate on the response characteristics of a simulated aircraft describing short-period oscillations. Changes in the calculated response characteristics of the simulated aircraft degrade the fidelity of the simulation. In the present context, fidelity degradation is defined as the percentage change in those characteristics that have the greatest influence on pilot opinion: short period frequency omega, short period damping ratio zeta, and the product omega zeta. To determine the influence of the sampling period on these characteristics, the equations describing the response of a DC-8 aircraft to elevator control inputs were used. The results indicate that if the sampling period is too large, the fidelity of the simulation can be degraded.

  20. Birth Order and Narcolepsy Risk Among Genetically Susceptible Individuals: a Population-based Case-control Study

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Ton, Thanh G.N.; Koepsell, Thomas D.; Longstreth, W.T.

    2011-01-01

    Background Birth order may play a role in autoimmune diseases and early childhood infections, both factors implicated in the etiology of narcolepsy. We investigated the association between birth order and narcolepsy risk in a population-based case-control study in which all study subjects were HLA-DQB1*0602 positive. Methods Subjects were 18-50 years old, residents of King County, Washington, and positive for HLA-DQB1*0602. Birth order was obtained from administered interviews. We used logistic regression to generate odds ratios adjusted for income and African American race. Results Analyses included 67 cases (mean age 34.3 [SD=9.1], 70.2% female) and 95 controls (mean age 35.1 [SD=8.8], 58.1% female). Associations for birth order were as follows: First born (cases 38.8% vs. controls 50.2%, OR=1.0; Reference), second born (cases 29.9% vs. controls 32.9%, OR=1.6; 95% CI 0.7, 3.7), third born or higher (cases 31.3% vs. controls 16.8%, OR=2.5; 95% CI 1.0, 6.0). A linear trend was significant (p<0.05). Sibling number, sibling gender, having children, and number of children did not differ significantly between narcolepsy cases and controls. Conclusions Narcolepsy risk was significantly associated with higher birth order in this population-based study of genetically susceptible individuals. This finding supports an environmental influence on narcolepsy risk through an autoimmune mechanism, early childhood infections, or both. PMID:22281000

  1. Biomarkers of exposure, effects and susceptibility in humans and their application in studies of interactions among metals in China.

    PubMed

    Nordberg, Gunnar F

    2010-01-15

    Biomonitoring employs three categories of biomarkers: Biomarkers of exposure, i.e. measurements of metal concentrations in a compartment in the body reflecting external or internal exposure; Biomarkers of effects include early as well as clinical effects. Biomarkers of susceptibility indicate individuals with increased sensitivity of target molecules or metabolism causing increased target dose. The three categories of biomarkers were used in studies of health effects of metal exposures in China. Adverse effects on the kidney tubules with increased levels of the effect biomarkers beta-2-microglobulin in urine (UB2M) and urinary N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase (UNAG) were found among Cd exposed population groups in China. Among persons exposed to Cd, occupationally or in the general environment, the level of Cd-induced metallothionein mRNA (MTmRNA) in peripheral lymphocytes appeared as a useful indicator of the ability of individuals to synthesize MT. Persons with low MTmRNA levels displayed higher biomarker values of renal tubular damage than persons with high levels of MTmRNA, at comparable levels of urinary Cd. Other studies demonstrated the importance of auto-antibodies against metallothionein in plasma (MTab) in modifying the response to Cd. Persons with high levels of MTab displayed tubular proteinuria at lower levels of urinary Cd than persons with low levels of MTab. Studies in two metal contaminated areas in China demonstrated clear interactions between Cd and inorganic arsenic. Combined exposure, with increased levels of As and Cd in urine, caused considerably higher biomarker values of renal tubular damage, measured as increased urinary levels of B2M or NAG, than each of the exposures alone. PMID:19540908

  2. Genome-wide association study for type 2 diabetes in Indians identifies a new susceptibility locus at 2q21.

    PubMed

    Tabassum, Rubina; Chauhan, Ganesh; Dwivedi, Om Prakash; Mahajan, Anubha; Jaiswal, Alok; Kaur, Ismeet; Bandesh, Khushdeep; Singh, Tejbir; Mathai, Benan John; Pandey, Yogesh; Chidambaram, Manickam; Sharma, Amitabh; Chavali, Sreenivas; Sengupta, Shantanu; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmi; Venkatesh, Pradeep; Aggarwal, Sanjay K; Ghosh, Saurabh; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Srinath, Reddy K; Saxena, Madhukar; Banerjee, Monisha; Mathur, Sandeep; Bhansali, Anil; Shah, Viral N; Madhu, Sri Venkata; Marwaha, Raman K; Basu, Analabha; Scaria, Vinod; McCarthy, Mark I; Venkatesan, Radha; Mohan, Viswanathan; Tandon, Nikhil; Bharadwaj, Dwaipayan

    2013-03-01

    Indians undergoing socioeconomic and lifestyle transitions will be maximally affected by epidemic of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study of T2D in 12,535 Indians, a less explored but high-risk group. We identified a new type 2 diabetes-associated locus at 2q21, with the lead signal being rs6723108 (odds ratio 1.31; P = 3.32 × 10⁻⁹). Imputation analysis refined the signal to rs998451 (odds ratio 1.56; P = 6.3 × 10⁻¹²) within TMEM163 that encodes a probable vesicular transporter in nerve terminals. TMEM163 variants also showed association with decreased fasting plasma insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, indicating a plausible effect through impaired insulin secretion. The 2q21 region also harbors RAB3GAP1 and ACMSD; those are involved in neurologic disorders. Forty-nine of 56 previously reported signals showed consistency in direction with similar effect sizes in Indians and previous studies, and 25 of them were also associated (P < 0.05). Known loci and the newly identified 2q21 locus altogether explained 7.65% variance in the risk of T2D in Indians. Our study suggests that common susceptibility variants for T2D are largely the same across populations, but also reveals a population-specific locus and provides further insights into genetic architecture and etiology of T2D. PMID:23209189

  3. Susceptibility of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus to ivermectin (200, 500 and 630 μg/kg) in field studies in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Felippelli, Gustavo; Fávero, Flávia Carolina; Teixeira, Weslen Fabrício Pires; Carvalho, Rafael Silveira; Ruivo, Maycon Araújo; Colli, Marcos Henrique Alcantara; Sakamoto, Cláudio Alessandro Massamitsu; da Costa, Alvimar José; De Oliveira, Gilson Pereira

    2015-01-30

    The present study aimed to determine the susceptibility of 17 Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus populations, originating in the Southeast and Southern regions of Brazil, to different ivermectin concentrations (200, 500 and 630 μg/kg), administered through subcutaneous or topical (pour-on) routes. R. (B.) microplus populations from the states of Minas Gerais (seven populations), São Paulo (seven populations) and Paraná (three populations) were chosen for the tests. The selected cattle were allocated to treatment groups on day 0, and block formation was based on the arithmetic mean of female ticks (4.5-8.0 mm long) counted on three consecutive days (-3, -2 and -1). To evaluate the therapeutic and residual efficacies of these formulations, tick counts (females ranging from 4.5 to 8.0 mm long) were performed on days 3, 7 and 14 post-treatment, and continued on a weekly basis thereafter until the end of each experiment. The results obtained throughout this study, utilizing field efficacy studies, allowed us to conclude that the resistance of R. (B.) microplus against 200 and 500 μg/kg ivermectin is widely disseminated because all tick populations that had contact with these specific concentrations were diagnosed as resistant. However, it is possible to infer that R. (B.) microplus resistance against 630 μg/kg ivermectin was also widespread, diagnosed at six of ten analyzed properties. Resistance of these ectoparasites to 630 μg/kg ivermectin is most likely emerging in three other populations of R. (B.) microplus. Strategies of resistance management need to be quickly determined to keep the selection pressure at a minimum level in Brazil. PMID:25576441

  4. Cognitive Factors in Hypnotic Susceptibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Robert D.; Field, Peter B.

    1971-01-01

    This research explored the influence of cognitive variables on susceptibility to hypnosis. The three variables of concern in the present study are automatization, attention, and body experience. The results are summarized. (Author)

  5. [Comparative studies on activities of antimicrobial agents against causative organisms isolated from patients with urinary tract infections (1998). III. Secular changes in susceptibility].

    PubMed

    Kumamoto, Y; Tsukamoto, T; Hirose, T; Matsukawa, M; Kunishima, Y; Matsuda, S; Sato, S; Ogiwara, M; Ishibashi, K; Fujime, M; Fujita, K; Shigeta, S; Watanabe, J; Igari, J; Yoshida, H; Imafuku, Y; Oguri, T; Murai, M; Yamaguchi, K; Matsumoto, T; Kashitani, F; Watanabe, K; Kobayashi, Y; Uchida, H; Ooe, H; Nishikawa, M; Kohno, S; Oka, T; Takano, Y; Miyagawa, Y; Miyazaki, Y; Izumikawa, K; Yamaguchi, T; Mochida, C; Furuhama, T

    2000-05-01

    Susceptibilities to various antimicrobial agents were examined for Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Echerichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa that were isolated from patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) in 9 hospitals during June 1998 to May 1999, and the results were compared with those obtained during the same period from 1990 to 1997 in uncomplicated UTIs and complicated UTIs. Among E. faecalis strains, those with low susceptibilities to almost drugs have increased in the latest period. All 5 S. aureus strains isolated from uncomplicated UTIs were the most susceptible to gentamicin (GM). Over 50% of S. aureus strains isolated from complicated UTIs were susceptible to GM, and on the contrary the resistant strains have increased with the MIC90 of 256 micrograms/ml or above. Among S. aureus strains isolated from complicated UTIs, those with low susceptibilities to arbekacin (ABK) have increased in the latest period compared to those during period of 1996-1997, and the MIC90s of them have changed into the lower state from 1 microgram/ml in 1996-1997 to 4 micrograms/ml in 1998. S. aureus strains have continued high susceptibilities to vancomycin (VCM). The susceptibilities to minocycline (MINO) of E. coli showed MIC90: 4 micrograms/ml in 1997, but those have returned in the latest period in uncomplicated UTIs. The MIC90s of ofloxacin (OFLX) to E. coli isolated from uncomplicated and complicated UTIs have been lower 2-3 classes in the latest period than those in 1997. Among Klebsiella spp. strains isolated from uncomplicated UTIs, those with low susceptibilities to almost cephems had increased in 1997, but few of them were detected in the latest study. The sensitive strains of P. aeruginosa to almost drugs have increased during the latest period. The MIC50s of cefozopran (CZOP) and OFLX against P. aeruginosa were the best in our history. The sensitive strains of P. aeruginosa to ceftazidime (CAZ) have increased and its

  6. Theory of Orbital Susceptibility on Excitonic Insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Hiroyasu; Ogata, Masao

    2016-09-01

    We study the temperature dependence of the orbital susceptibility of an excitonic insulator on the basis of a two-band model. It is shown that a drastic change (an anomalous enhancement) in susceptibility as a function of temperature occurs owing to the occurrence of additional orbital susceptibility due to the excitonic gap. We calculate explicitly the temperature dependence of orbital susceptibility for a model of Ta2NiSe5, and show that the result is consistent with experimental results.

  7. Mate fidelity and breeding site tenacity in a monogamous sandpiper, the black turnstone.

    PubMed

    Handel; Gill

    2000-10-01

    We examined the relationship between mate fidelity and breeding site tenacity during a 5-year study of the black turnstone, Arenaria melanocephala, a socially monogamous sandpiper breeding in subArctic Alaska. We tested the predictions of several hypotheses regarding the incidence of divorce and the benefits of fidelity to mate and breeding site. Interannual return rates to the breeding grounds (88% for males, 79% for females) were among the highest yet recorded for any scolopacid sandpiper, and 88% of returning birds nested on their previous year's territory. The annual divorce rate was only 11%, and mate fidelity was significantly linked to fidelity to territory but independent of sex and year. Males arrived in spring significantly earlier than their mates and interannual fidelity was influenced by the relative timing of arrival of pair members. Reunited pairs had significantly higher fledging success than new pairs formed after death or divorce. The incidence of divorce was unrelated to reproductive success the previous year, although birds nested significantly further away after failure than after a successful nesting attempt. Sightings of marked individuals suggested that members of pairs do not winter together, and breeding site tenacity provides a mechanism through which pair members can reunite. We reject the 'incompatibility' hypothesis for divorce in turnstones, and our data contradict predictions of the 'better option' hypothesis. Alternatively, we propose the 'bet-hedging' hypothesis to explain the occurrence of divorce, which transpires when an individual pairs with a new mate to avoid the cost of waiting for a previous mate to return. Such costs can include remaining unmated, if the former mate has died, or experiencing lower reproductive success because of delayed breeding. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:11032650

  8. A new strategy for studying in vitro the drug susceptibility of clinical isolates of human hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Durantel, David; Carrouée-Durantel, Sandra; Werle-Lapostolle, Bettina; Brunelle, Marie-Noëlle; Pichoud, Christian; Trépo, Christian; Zoulim, Fabien

    2004-10-01

    Resistance of hepatitis B virus (HBV) to antivirals has become a major clinical problem. Our objective was to develop a new method for the cloning of naturally occurring HBV genomes and a phenotypic assay capable of assessing HBV drug susceptibility and DNA synthesis capacity in vitro. Viral DNA was extracted from sera and was amplified by polymerase chain reaction, and amplicons were cloned into vectors that enable, after cell transfection, the initiation of the intracellular HBV replication cycle. Single or multiple clones were used to transfect Huh7 cells. The viral DNA synthesis capacity and drug susceptibility were determined by measuring the level of intracellular DNA intermediate, synthesized in absence or presence of antiviral, using Southern blot analysis. We have developed, calibrated, then used this phenotypic assay to determine the drug susceptibility of HBV quasispecies isolated throughout the course of therapy from patients selected according to their mutation profile. A multiclonal and longitudinal analysis enabled us to measure the variation of drug susceptibility of different viral quasispecies by comparison of IC(50)/IC(90)s with standards. The presence of famciclovir- or lamivudine-induced mutations in the viral population caused a change in viral DNA synthesis capacity and drug susceptibility in vitro, demonstrating the clinical relevance of the assay. In conclusion, our phenotypic assay enables the in vitro characterization of DNA synthesis capacity and drug susceptibility of HBV quasispecies isolated from patients. This assay should allow a better monitoring of patients undergoing antiviral therapy, as well as the screening of novel drugs on emerging resistant strains. PMID:15382118

  9. Fidelity between Gaussian mixed states with quantum state quadrature variances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hai-Long, Zhang; Chun, Zhou; Jian-Hong, Shi; Wan-Su, Bao

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, from the original definition of fidelity in a pure state, we first give a well-defined expansion fidelity between two Gaussian mixed states. It is related to the variances of output and input states in quantum information processing. It is convenient to quantify the quantum teleportation (quantum clone) experiment since the variances of the input (output) state are measurable. Furthermore, we also give a conclusion that the fidelity of a pure input state is smaller than the fidelity of a mixed input state in the same quantum information processing. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB338002) and the Foundation of Science and Technology on Information Assurance Laboratory (Grant No. KJ-14-001).

  10. Associations between Nine Polymorphisms in EXO1 and Cancer Susceptibility: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of 39 Case-control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meng; Zhao, Duran; Yan, Cunye; Zhang, Li; Liang, Chaozhao

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of studies have highlighted the potential link between EXO1 polymorphisms and cancer risk, although no consensus has yet been obtained. Thus, we aimed to obtain a thorough and current assessment of EXO1 polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility by performing a meta-analysis. A comprehensive literature retrieval was performed on PubMed, EMbase, Web of Science and Wanfang databases. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were applied to assess the results. Finally, 39 case-control studies of the nine EXO1 polymorphisms that involved 21,651 cases and 21,348 controls met our inclusion criteria. The pooled analysis indicated that the rs1047840 polymorphism conferred a significantly increased susceptibility to cancer in an allelic model. Similarly, the rs3754093, rs1776177, rs9350, rs10802996, rs1635498, rs1776148 and rs851797 polymorphisms were also associated with an increased susceptibility to cancer in an allelic model, respectively, while no significant association was identified for rs1635517 polymorphism. For the rs1047840 polymorphism, in an ethnicity subgroup analysis, a significantly increased susceptibility to cancer for Asians was identified in all the genetic models, and for Caucasians in an allelic model. Our findings provide the evidence that the rs1047840, rs9350, rs10802996, rs1635498, rs1776148, rs1776177, rs3754093 and rs851797 polymorphisms may act as risk factors for cancer. PMID:27387683

  11. Strategic assessment of near coastal waters: Northeast case study. Chapter 3. Susceptibility and concentration status of northeast estuaries to nutrient discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Warsh, C.; Tolson, J.P.; Klein, C.J.; Orlando, S.P.; Alexander, C.

    1988-07-01

    The study is an assessment of the susceptibility and status of 17 Northeast estuaries to nutrient-related pollution problems. It is the final version of one of seven chapters in the Case Study and one of two chapters that will be completed. It first presents background information on the problems of nutrient overenrichment in estuaries followed by a screening analysis of the susceptibility and status of estuaries to nutrient discharges and sections on nutrient sources and discharge estimation methods. The final section is an overview of the region based on simple comparisons of discharge estimates across estuaries in the region. Appendix A contains one-page summaries for each estuary that include information on significant physical and hydrologic features, susceptibility and pollutant status, nutrient discharge estimates, and a narrative to assist the reader interpret the data. Summary estimates of particular interest are the changes in nitrogen and phosphorus inputs that would significantly alter the pollutant status of each estuary. Four additional appendices contain more detailed breakdowns of nutrient discharges by season and by source, an evaluation of the quality of the discharge estimates, and the method for determining an estuary's nutrient concentration status and susceptibility to nutrient-related pollution problems.

  12. Entropy Involved in Fidelity of DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Gonzalez, J. Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Information has an entropic character which can be analyzed within the framework of the Statistical Theory in molecular systems. R. Landauer and C.H. Bennett showed that a logical copy can be carried out in the limit of no dissipation if the computation is performed sufficiently slowly. Structural and recent single-molecule assays have provided dynamic details of polymerase machinery with insight into information processing. Here, we introduce a rigorous characterization of Shannon Information in biomolecular systems and apply it to DNA replication in the limit of no dissipation. Specifically, we devise an equilibrium pathway in DNA replication to determine the entropy generated in copying the information from a DNA template in the absence of friction. Both the initial state, the free nucleotides randomly distributed in certain concentrations, and the final state, a polymerized strand, are mesoscopic equilibrium states for the nucleotide distribution. We use empirical stacking free energies to calculate the probabilities of incorporation of the nucleotides. The copied strand is, to first order of approximation, a state of independent and non-indentically distributed random variables for which the nucleotide that is incorporated by the polymerase at each step is dictated by the template strand, and to second order of approximation, a state of non-uniformly distributed random variables with nearest-neighbor interactions for which the recognition of secondary structure by the polymerase in the resultant double-stranded polymer determines the entropy of the replicated strand. Two incorporation mechanisms arise naturally and their biological meanings are explained. It is known that replication occurs far from equilibrium and therefore the Shannon entropy here derived represents an upper bound for replication to take place. Likewise, this entropy sets a universal lower bound for the copying fidelity in replication. PMID:22912695

  13. Genome-wide association study of susceptibility to infection by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Alpay, Fazli; Zare, Yalda; Kamalludin, Mamat H; Huang, Xixia; Shi, Xianwei; Shook, George E; Collins, Michael T; Kirkpatrick, Brian W

    2014-01-01

    Paratuberculosis, or Johne's disease, is a chronic, granulomatous, gastrointestinal tract disease of cattle and other ruminants caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium, subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Control of Johne's disease is based on programs of testing and culling animals positive for infection with MAP while concurrently modifying management to reduce the likelihood of infection. The current study is motivated by the hypothesis that genetic variation in host susceptibility to MAP infection can be dissected and quantifiable associations with genetic markers identified. For this purpose, a case-control, genome-wide association study was conducted using US Holstein cattle phenotyped for MAP infection using a serum ELISA and/or fecal culture test. Cases included cows positive for either serum ELISA, fecal culture or both. Controls consisted of animals negative for the serum ELISA test or both serum ELISA and fecal culture when both were available. Controls were matched by herd and proximal birth date with cases. A total of 856 cows (451 cases and 405 controls) were used in initial discovery analyses, and an additional 263 cows (159 cases and 104 controls) from the same herds were used as a validation data set. Data were analyzed in a single marker analysis controlling for relatedness of individuals (GRAMMAR-GC) and also in a Bayesian analysis in which multiple marker effects were estimated simultaneously (GenSel). For the latter, effects of non-overlapping 1 Mb marker windows across the genome were estimated. Results from the two discovery analyses were generally concordant; however, discovery results were generally not well supported in analysis of the validation data set. A combined analysis of discovery and validation data sets provided strongest support for SNPs and 1 Mb windows on chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 7, 17 and 29. PMID:25473852

  14. Cyclical mastalgia as a marker of breast cancer susceptibility: results of a case-control study among French women.

    PubMed Central

    Plu-Bureau, G.; Thalabard, J. C.; Sitruk-Ware, R.; Asselain, B.; Mauvais-Jarvis, P.

    1992-01-01

    A matched case-control study in a population of urban, non-menopaused women living in Paris was performed between 1983 and 1985 to investigate the risk of breast cancer (BC) in relation to various factors with a particular interest in the effect of the use of oral contraceptive (OC) and the existence of cyclical mastalgia (CM). Two hundred and ten non-menopaused women, less than 45 years old, with newly diagnosed BC were compared to 210 controls from the same geographic area matched on year of birth, age, education level and age at first full term pregnancy (FFTP), when justified. The adjusted Relative Risk of BC (RRa) was significantly increased for a total duration of OC use longer than 72 months (RRa 2.80; 95% CI 1.56-5.01), as well as the RRa for OC use above 48 months before FFTP (3.26 95% CI 1.37-7.76) and, to a lesser extent, the RRa for OC use above 48 months after FFTP (2.02 95% CI 1.07-3.84) respectively. Adjustment was performed on familial history of BC, personal history of Benign Breast Disease (BBD), age at menarche. A previous history of cyclical mastalgia was found to be associated with an increased risk of BC. The significant increase remained after adjustment on the previously mentioned confounding factors and OC use: RRa 2.12; 95% CI (1.31-3.43). Under a precise definition related to the hormonal environment, mastalgia appear to be an interesting marker of breast cell susceptibility, the importance of which can only be validated by prospective studies. PMID:1616869

  15. A multidisciplinary study on the Xiangshan uranium-bearing caldera structure: evidences from anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and gravity modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guangrong; Guo, Fusheng; Wu, Changzhi

    2016-04-01

    As the world's third largest volcanic type uranium ore field, Xiangshan volcanic basin attracted scientific research as well as large amount of industry investment. Gradually, it came to reach a consensus that a "three-storeyed type" model: under the uranium mineralized volcanic rocks, there were still Pb-Zn and Ag. However, these research results and drill cores also brought hot debates which focus on the locations of volcanic calderas because researchers believed it related to the pathways of U-Pb-Zn-Ag-bearing fluid. Here we report the first systematic study of paleoflow of the two main uranium-bearing wall rocks, aiming to find the volcanic vents. This study integrates results of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and magnetotelluric sounding (MT) in addition field geological observation. It shows that (1) rhyodacite and porphyritic lava are the main wall rock of uranium ore, which outcrop about 350km2 covering 80% of the Xiangshan basin; (2) magnetite and hematite are the main magnetic minerals; (3) the rhyodacite developed in the North-West-most of Xiangshan basin illustrated North-East magnetic lineation with low-angle-foliation, and those rhyodacite located a few kilometers to the East of the previews one displayed progressively North-West magnetic foliation with barely horizontal foliation. It indicated probably all these rhyodacite flowed from the South; (4) whereas to the porphyritic lava, it shows variable magnetic lineation around the basin, which may suggest five volcanic calderas. It is noteworthy that the AMS results are consistent with fielded lineation observation and MT; (4) finally, a gravity modeling has been conducted and the result shows that the bodies of rhyodacite and porphyritic lava are laccolithic with relative thick center that may interpret as feeder of magma.

  16. Genome-Wide Association Study of Susceptibility to Infection by Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis in Holstein Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Alpay, Fazli; Zare, Yalda; Kamalludin, Mamat H.; Huang, Xixia; Shi, Xianwei; Shook, George E.; Collins, Michael T.; Kirkpatrick, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Paratuberculosis, or Johne's disease, is a chronic, granulomatous, gastrointestinal tract disease of cattle and other ruminants caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium, subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Control of Johne's disease is based on programs of testing and culling animals positive for infection with MAP while concurrently modifying management to reduce the likelihood of infection. The current study is motivated by the hypothesis that genetic variation in host susceptibility to MAP infection can be dissected and quantifiable associations with genetic markers identified. For this purpose, a case-control, genome-wide association study was conducted using US Holstein cattle phenotyped for MAP infection using a serum ELISA and/or fecal culture test. Cases included cows positive for either serum ELISA, fecal culture or both. Controls consisted of animals negative for the serum ELISA test or both serum ELISA and fecal culture when both were available. Controls were matched by herd and proximal birth date with cases. A total of 856 cows (451 cases and 405 controls) were used in initial discovery analyses, and an additional 263 cows (159 cases and 104 controls) from the same herds were used as a validation data set. Data were analyzed in a single marker analysis controlling for relatedness of individuals (GRAMMAR-GC) and also in a Bayesian analysis in which multiple marker effects were estimated simultaneously (GenSel). For the latter, effects of non-overlapping 1 Mb marker windows across the genome were estimated. Results from the two discovery analyses were generally concordant; however, discovery results were generally not well supported in analysis of the validation data set. A combined analysis of discovery and validation data sets provided strongest support for SNPs and 1 Mb windows on chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 7, 17 and 29. PMID:25473852

  17. Dissecting chemical interactions governing RNA polymerase II transcriptional fidelity.

    PubMed

    Kellinger, Matthew W; Ulrich, Sébastien; Chong, Jenny; Kool, Eric T; Wang, Dong

    2012-05-16

    Maintaining high transcriptional fidelity is essential to life. For all eukaryotic organisms, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is responsible for messenger RNA synthesis from the DNA template. Three key checkpoint steps are important in controlling Pol II transcriptional fidelity: nucleotide selection and incorporation, RNA transcript extension, and proofreading. Some types of DNA damage significantly reduce transcriptional fidelity. However, the chemical interactions governing each individual checkpoint step of Pol II transcriptional fidelity and the molecular basis of how subtle DNA base damage leads to significant losses of transcriptional fidelity are not fully understood. Here we use a series of "hydrogen bond deficient" nucleoside analogues to dissect chemical interactions governing Pol II transcriptional fidelity. We find that whereas hydrogen bonds between a Watson-Crick base pair of template DNA and incoming NTP are critical for efficient incorporation, they are not required for efficient transcript extension from this matched 3'-RNA end. In sharp contrast, the fidelity of extension is strongly dependent on the discrimination of an incorrect pattern of hydrogen bonds. We show that U:T wobble base interactions are critical to prevent extension of this mismatch by Pol II. Additionally, both hydrogen bonding and base stacking play important roles in controlling Pol II proofreading activity. Strong base stacking at the 3'-RNA terminus can compensate for loss of hydrogen bonds. Finally, we show that Pol II can distinguish very subtle size differences in template bases. The current work provides the first systematic evaluation of electrostatic and steric effects in controlling Pol II transcriptional fidelity. PMID:22509745

  18. Multi-fidelity approach to dynamics model calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Absi, Ghina N.; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2016-02-01

    This paper investigates the use of structural dynamics computational models with multiple levels of fidelity in the calibration of system parameters. Different types of models may be available for the estimation of unmeasured system properties, with different levels of physics fidelity, mesh resolution and boundary condition assumptions. In order to infer these system properties, Bayesian calibration uses information from multiple sources (including experimental data and prior knowledge), and comprehensively quantifies the uncertainty in the calibration parameters. Estimating the posteriors is done using Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling, which requires a large number of computations, thus making the use of a high-fidelity model for calibration prohibitively expensive. On the other hand, use of a low-fidelity model could lead to significant error in calibration and prediction. Therefore, this paper develops an approach for model parameter calibration with a low-fidelity model corrected using higher fidelity simulations, and investigates the trade-off between accuracy and computational effort. The methodology is illustrated for a curved panel located in the vicinity of a hypersonic aircraft engine, subjected to acoustic loading. Two models (a frequency response analysis and a full time history analysis) are combined to calibrate the damping characteristics of the panel.

  19. The Need for High Fidelity Lunar Regolith Simulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.

    2007-01-01

    The case is made for the need to have high fidelity lunar regolith simulants to verify the performance of structures and mechanisms to be used on the lunar surface. Minor constituents will in some cases have major consequences. Small amounts of sulfur in the regolith can poison catalysts, and metallic iron on the surface of nano-sized dust particles may cause a dramatic increase in its toxicity. So the definition of a high fidelity simulant is application dependent. For example, in situ resource utilization will require high fidelity in chemistry, meaning careful attention to the minor components and phases; but some other applications, such as the abrasive effects on suit fabrics, might be relatively insensitive to minor component chemistry. The lunar environment itself will change the surface chemistry of the simulant, so to have a high fidelity simulant at must be used in a high fidelity simulated environment to get a high fidelity simulation. Research must be conducted to determine how sensitive technologies will be to minor components and environmental factors before they can be dismissed as unimportant.

  20. Mate fidelity and breeding site tenacity in a monogamous sandpiper, the black turnstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handel, C.M.; Gill, R.E., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    We examined the relationship between mate fidelity and breeding site tenacity during a 5-year study of the black turnstone, Arenaria melanocephala, a socially monogamous sandpiper breeding in subarctic Alaska. We tested the predictions of several hypotheses regarding the incidence of divorce and the benefits of fidelity to mate and breeding site. Interannual return rates to the breeding grounds (88% for males, 79% for females) were among the highest yet recorded for any scolopacid sandpiper, and 88% of returning birds nested on their previous year's territory. The annual divorce rate was only 11%, and mate fidelity was significantly linked to fidelity to territory but independent of sex and year. Males arrived in spring significantly earlier than their mates and interannual fidelity was influenced by the relative timing of arrival of pair members. Reunited pairs had significantly higher fledging success than new pairs formed after death or divorce. The incidence of divorce was unrelated to reproductive success the previous year, although birds nested significantly further away after failure than after a successful nesting attempt. Sightings of marked individuals suggested that members of pairs do not winter together, and breeding site tenacity provides a mechanism through which pair members can reunite. We reject the 'incompatibility' hypothesis for divorce in turnstones, and our data contradict predictions of the 'better option' hypothesis. Alternatively, we propose the 'bet-hedging' hypothesis to explain the occurrence of divorce, which transpires when an individual pairs with a new mate to avoid the cost of waiting for a previous mate to return. Such costs can include remaining unmated, if the former mate has died, or experiencing lower reproductive success because of delayed breeding.

  1. Assessing Degree of Susceptibility to Landslide Hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, M. F.; Cordoba, G. A.; Delgado, H.; Stefanescu, R.

    2013-05-01

    The modeling of hazardous mass flows, both dry and water saturated, is currently an area of active research and several stable models have now emerged that have differing degrees of physical and mathematical fidelity. Models based on the early work of Savage and Hutter (1989) assume that very large dense granular flows could be modeled as incompressible continua governed by a Coulomb failure criterion. Based on this concept, Patra et al. (2005) developed a code for dry avalanches, which proposes a thin layer mathematical model similar to shallow-water equations. This concept was implemented in the widely-used TITAN2D program, which integrates the shock-capturing Godunov solution methodology for the equation system. We propose a method to assess the susceptibility of specific locations susceptible to landslides following heavy tephra fall using the TIATN2D code. Successful application requires that the range of several uncertainties must be framed in the selection of model input data: 1) initial conditions, like volume and location of origin of the landslide, 2) bed and internal friction parameters and 3) digital elevation model (DEM) uncertainties. Among the possible ways of coping with these uncertainties, we chose to use Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS). This statistical technique reduces a computationally intractable problem to such an extent that is it possible to apply it, even with current personal computers. LHS requires that there is only one sample in each row and each column of the sampling matrix, where each row (multi-dimensional) corresponds to each uncertainty. LHS requires less than 10% of the sample runs needed by Monte Carlo approaches to achieve a stable solution. In our application LHS output provides model sampling for 4 input parameters: initial random volumes, UTM location (x and y), and bed friction. We developed a simple Octave script to link the output of LHS with TITAN2D. In this way, TITAN2D can run several times with successively different

  2. A study on the magnetic susceptibilities and optical absorption spectra on single crystals of Gd(III) pyrogermanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, T.; Ghosh, D.; Wanklyn, B. M.

    1990-04-01

    The paper reports for the first time the experimental results of the measurements of magnetic susceptibilities ( K⊥ and K|) and their anisotropy (Δ K) between 300 and 21.8 K and the optical absorption spectra (UV region) at 12.5 K on single crystals of gadolinium pyrogermanate (GdPG). The anisotropy, which is only 211×10 -6 emu/mol at room temperature and increases by two orders of magnitude at 21 K, is predominantly a crystal field (CF) effect on the 8S {7}/{2} ground term, through higher order perturbations. Interpretation of the observed magnetic data was carried out by considering a conventional spin Hamiltonian ( Hs) to derive expressions for K⊥ and K| in terms of four effective crystal field parameters (ECFP). The value s of ECFP were varied to obtain a very close fitting between the theoretical and experimental values of K⊥, K|, δ K and K¯ The splitting of the 8S {7}/{2} term corresponding to these values of ECFP was found to be large, which suggests a strong CF effect in GdPG, as also observed in other RPG crystal studied earlier. The thermal characteristics of the magnetic anisotropy below 30 K deviate by about 5% which could not be explained by CF effects alone. A series expansion method was adopted to analyse the results of K⊥ and K| below 30 K, however the corresponding coefficient B2α and B3α were observed t o be unusually high indicating the presence of CF effect even in this temperature region. The Schottky specific heat, Csch, between 300 and 21 K for GdPG has been calculated and this shows a maximum at Tmax=17 K.

  3. A comparative study on the effects of electron beam irradiation on imidacloprid-resistant and -susceptible Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Seung-Hwan; Koo, Hyun-Na; Lee, Seon-Woo; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Yuri; Han, Bumsoo; Kim, Gil-Hah

    2015-07-01

    The melon and cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, is a polyphagous insect pest. This study compared the development, reproduction, DNA damage, recovery, and gene expression in imidacloprid-resistant (IMI-R) and -susceptible (S) strains of A. gossypii by electron beam irradiation. When 1st instar nymphs were irradiated with 100 Gy, the fecundity (nymphs of F1 generation) of the resultant adults were completely inhibited. When adults were irradiated with 200 Gy, the number of total 1st instar nymphs produced per adult was 3.0±1.7 and 1.9±1.4 in the S and IMI-R strains, respectively, but adult development was completely suppressed. However, electron beam irradiation did not affect adult longevity in either the S or IMI-R strain. There was no statistically significant difference between the effect of irradiation on the S and IMI-R strains. Therefore, electron beam irradiation at 200 Gy could be used as a phytosanitary irradiation treatment for both S and IMI-R strains of A. gossypii. The DNA damage caused by electron beam irradiation was evaluated by an alkaline comet assay. Exposure to an electron beam (50 Gy) induced DNA damage that was repaired to a similar level as the untreated control group (0 Gy) over time. However, at more than 100 Gy, the DNA damage was not completely repaired. The expression of P450, HSP70, cuticle protein, and elongation factor genes were higher in the IMI-R strain than in the S strain.

  4. The application of magnetic susceptibility and grain-size in a lithostratigraphic study of Middle to Late Pleistocene lacustrine sediments near Summer Lake Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Erbes, D.B.; Negrini, R.M. . Dept. of Physics and Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Positive results have been attained using volume magnetic susceptibility and sedimentological data for intrabasinal correlation of outcrop and core from a Great Basin style lacustrine sequence. The known sedimentary record from Pluvial Lke Chewaucan in south-central Oregon contains more than 70 laterally continuous and distinct tephra layers which enable high resolution intrabasinal correlation of outcrop and core. This phenomenon has allowed us to test the effectiveness of magnetic volume susceptibility data and sedimentological records as correlation tools. Preliminary results from this study indicate that magnetic susceptibility records can be correlated throughout the entire sampled interval to within a few cm of stratigraphic depth between exposures separated by one kilometer. Similar results have been obtained correlating laterally distinct sands, pebble lags, and carbonate layers. Grain-size data is currently being collected via standard pipette and Sedigraph methods to investigate its relationship to these correlations. The authors will also compare the magnetic susceptibility and sedimentological data with high resolution paleoenvironmental and paleosalinity records now available for the Lake Chewaucan sequence.

  5. Distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria from adults with community-acquired pneumonia or complicated skin and soft tissue infections in France: the nationwide French PREMIUM study.

    PubMed

    Leprince, C; Desroches, M; Emirian, A; Coutureau, C; Anais, L; Fihman, V; Soussy, C J; Decousser, J W

    2015-10-01

    The empirical therapy of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTIs) must be based on updated bacterial distribution and susceptibility data. A nationwide study consecutively collected 1288 isolates from CAP (n=467) and cSSTIs (n=821) from 18 French hospitals between 2012 and 2013. The MIC values of commonly used antimicrobial agents, including ceftaroline, were determined. Bacterial distribution featured Pneumococcus, Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus for CAPs and S. aureus, β-hemolytic streptococci and Enterobacteriaceae for cSSTIs. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing indicated i) the sustained third-generation cephalosporins and levofloxacin activity against pneumococci and H. influenzae, ii) no methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus emergence among respiratory pathogens, iii) the high in vitro activity of ceftaroline against staphylococci from cSSTIs (98.7% susceptibility), and iv) the worrisome decreasing fluoroquinolone and third-generation cephalosporin susceptibilities among Enterobacteriaceae. This laboratory-based survey depicts a contrasting situation and supports the scoring of patients for the resistant pathogen risk before empirical therapy. PMID:26166208

  6. Multicentric study in five African countries of antibiotic susceptibility for three main pathogens: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Zerouali, Khalid; Ramdani-Bouguessa, Nadjia; Boye, Cheikh; Hammami, Adnane

    2016-08-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a growing clinical and epidemiological problem. We report on the antibiotic susceptibility of three pathogens isolated from patients in Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, Senegal, and Tunisia during 2010-2011. In total, 218 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 428 Staphylococcus aureus, and 414 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were collected. S. pneumoniae resistance was noted against penicillin (30.2%), erythromycin (27.4%), cefpodoxime (19.1%), amoxicillin (12.0%), cefotaxime (7.4%), and levofloxacin (3.2%). All the strains were teicoplanin susceptible. Staphylococcus aureus methicillin resistance differed between countries, from 5.0% in Senegal to 62.7% in Egypt. Levofloxacin resistance was low in all countries, and the highest rate (in Egypt) was still only 13.6% for intermediate and resistant strains combined. Most strains were susceptible to fosfomycin (99.3%) and pristinamycin (94.2%). P. aeruginosa resistance was found against levofloxacin (30.4%), ciprofloxacin (29.9%), tobramycin (19.7%), ceftazidime (19.2%), and imipenem (17.9%), but not colistin. Antibiotic susceptibility varied widely between countries, with resistance typically most prevalent in Egypt. PMID:25363146

  7. Improving Landslide Susceptibility Modeling Using an Empirical Threshold Scheme for Excluding Landslide Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, F.; Lai, J. S.; Chiang, S. H.

    2015-12-01

    Landslides are frequently triggered by typhoons and earthquakes in Taiwan, causing serious economic losses and human casualties. Remotely sensed images and geo-spatial data consisting of land-cover and environmental information have been widely used for producing landslide inventories and causative factors for slope stability analysis. Landslide susceptibility, on the other hand, can represent the spatial likelihood of landslide occurrence and is an important basis for landslide risk assessment. As multi-temporal satellite images become popular and affordable, they are commonly used to generate landslide inventories for subsequent analysis. However, it is usually difficult to distinguish different landslide sub-regions (scarp, debris flow, deposition etc.) directly from remote sensing imagery. Consequently, the extracted landslide extents using image-based visual interpretation and automatic detections may contain many depositions that may reduce the fidelity of the landslide susceptibility model. This study developed an empirical thresholding scheme based on terrain characteristics for eliminating depositions from detected landslide areas to improve landslide susceptibility modeling. In this study, Bayesian network classifier is utilized to build a landslide susceptibility model and to predict sequent rainfall-induced shallow landslides in the Shimen reservoir watershed located in northern Taiwan. Eleven causative factors are considered, including terrain slope, aspect, curvature, elevation, geology, land-use, NDVI, soil, distance to fault, river and road. Landslide areas detected using satellite images acquired before and after eight typhoons between 2004 to 2008 are collected as the main inventory for training and verification. In the analysis, previous landslide events are used as training data to predict the samples of the next event. The results are then compared with recorded landslide areas in the inventory to evaluate the accuracy. Experimental results

  8. U.S.-Based National Sentinel Surveillance Study for the Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrheal Isolates and Their Susceptibility to Fidaxomicin

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, L. A.; Jacobus, N. V.; Thorpe, C.; Stone, S.; Jenkins, S. G.; Goldstein, E. J. C.; Patel, R.; Forbes, B. A.; Mirrett, S.; Johnson, S.; Gerding, D. N.

    2015-01-01

    In 2011 a surveillance study for the susceptibility to fidaxomicin and epidemiology of Clostridium difficile isolates in the United States was undertaken in seven geographically dispersed medical centers. This report encompasses baseline surveillance in 2011 and 2012 on 925 isolates. A convenience sample of C. difficile isolates or toxin positive stools from patients were referred to a central laboratory. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by agar dilution (CLSI M11-A8). Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), Food and Drug Administration, or European Union of Clinical Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints were applied where applicable. Toxin gene profiles were characterized by multiplex PCR on each isolate. A random sample of 322 strains, stratified by institution, underwent restriction endonuclease analysis (REA). The fidaxomicin MIC90 was 0.5 μg/ml for all isolates regardless of REA type or toxin gene profile, and all isolates were inhibited at ≤1.0 μg/ml. By REA typing, BI strains represented 25.5% of the isolates. The toxin gene profile of tcdA, tcdB, and cdtA/B positive with a tcdC 18-bp deletion correlated with BI REA group. Moxifloxacin and clindamycin resistance was increased among either BI or binary toxin-positive isolates. Metronidazole and vancomycin showed reduced susceptibility (EUCAST criteria) in these isolates. Geographic variations in susceptibility, REA group and binary toxin gene presence were observed. Fidaxomicin activity against C. difficile isolated in a national surveillance study did not change more than 1 year after licensure. This analysis provides baseline results for future comparisons. PMID:26239985

  9. U.S.-Based National Sentinel Surveillance Study for the Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrheal Isolates and Their Susceptibility to Fidaxomicin.

    PubMed

    Snydman, D R; McDermott, L A; Jacobus, N V; Thorpe, C; Stone, S; Jenkins, S G; Goldstein, E J C; Patel, R; Forbes, B A; Mirrett, S; Johnson, S; Gerding, D N

    2015-10-01

    In 2011 a surveillance study for the susceptibility to fidaxomicin and epidemiology of Clostridium difficile isolates in the United States was undertaken in seven geographically dispersed medical centers. This report encompasses baseline surveillance in 2011 and 2012 on 925 isolates. A convenience sample of C. difficile isolates or toxin positive stools from patients were referred to a central laboratory. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by agar dilution (CLSI M11-A8). Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), Food and Drug Administration, or European Union of Clinical Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints were applied where applicable. Toxin gene profiles were characterized by multiplex PCR on each isolate. A random sample of 322 strains, stratified by institution, underwent restriction endonuclease analysis (REA). The fidaxomicin MIC90 was 0.5 μg/ml for all isolates regardless of REA type or toxin gene profile, and all isolates were inhibited at ≤1.0 μg/ml. By REA typing, BI strains represented 25.5% of the isolates. The toxin gene profile of tcdA, tcdB, and cdtA/B positive with a tcdC 18-bp deletion correlated with BI REA group. Moxifloxacin and clindamycin resistance was increased among either BI or binary toxin-positive isolates. Metronidazole and vancomycin showed reduced susceptibility (EUCAST criteria) in these isolates. Geographic variations in susceptibility, REA group and binary toxin gene presence were observed. Fidaxomicin activity against C. difficile isolated in a national surveillance study did not change more than 1 year after licensure. This analysis provides baseline results for future comparisons. PMID:26239985

  10. Comparative assessment of CDS, CLSI disc diffusion and Etest techniques for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: a 6-year study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vikram; Kakran, Monika; Ramesh, V

    2012-01-01

    Background A variety of techniques are available for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Objective The aim of this study was to find a cost-effective, reliable and easily applicable microbiological method to detect antimicrobial susceptibilities of N. gonorrhoeae in resource-poor countries. Design Prospective study. Setting Male and female STD clinic of Regional STD Teaching, Training and Research Centre, New Delhi, India. Participants N. gonorrhoeae isolates from all male and female patients presenting with acute gonococcal urethritis and cervical discharge. Material and methods A total of 295 consecutive N. gonorrhoeae isolates during 2005–2010 was used to compare the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and CDS disc diffusion technique with Etest by performing antimicrobial susceptibility testing in parallel for penicillin, tetracycline, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and spectinomycin. WHO reference strains were used as controls. Results CDS disc diffusion zones of inhibition showed that complete percentage agreement for penicillin, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline was high with their analogous Etest minimal inhibitory concentrations in comparison to CLSI disc diffusion technique, that is, 91.5%, 92.9% and 99.3% versus 87.5%, 88.5% and 74.9%, respectively. CDS results had less number of major and minor category discrepancies in comparison to CLSI and CDS method showed excellent correlation coefficient (r=1) with Etest for all five antimicrobial agents tested in comparison to CLSI (r=0.92). It was very poor (r=0.61) by CLSI method for tetracycline. The correlation coefficients between the two methods and the Etest were identical if tetracycline was removed from the CLSI analysis. Conclusions The CDS technique is an attractive alternative for N. gonorrhoeae susceptibility testing and is recommended for monitoring the antimicrobial susceptibility in less developed and resource-poor settings to facilitate enhanced antimicrobial

  11. Orbital diamagnetic susceptibility in excitonic condensation phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Koudai; Ohta, Yukinori

    2016-08-01

    We study the orbital diamagnetic susceptibility in excitonic condensation phase using the mean-field approximation for a two-band model defined on a square lattice. We find that, in semiconductors, the excitonic condensation acquires a finite diamagnetic susceptibility due to spontaneous hybridization between the valence and the conduction bands, whereas in semimetals, the diamagnetic susceptibility in the normal phase is suppressed by the excitonic condensation. We also study the orbital diamagnetic and Pauli paramagnetic susceptibilities of Ta2NiSe5 using a two-dimensional three-band model and find that the calculated temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility is in qualitative agreement with experiment.

  12. Mapping Forest Fire Susceptibility in Temperate Mountain Areas with Expert Knowledge. A Case Study from Iezer Mountains, Romanian Carpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihai, Bogdan; Savulescu, Ionut

    2014-05-01

    Forest fires in Romanian Carpathians became a frequent phenomenon during the last decade, although local climate and other environmental features did not create typical conditions. From 2004, forest fires affect in Romania more than 100 hectares/year of different forest types (deciduous and coniferous). Their magnitude and frequency are not known, since a historical forest fire inventory does not exist (only press papers and local witness for some selected events). Forest fires features the summer dry periods but there are dry autumns and early winter periods with events of different magnitudes. The application we propose is based on an empirical modeling of forest fire susceptibility in a typical mountain area from the Southern Carpathians, the Iezer Mountains (2462 m). The study area features almost all the altitudinal vegetation zones of the European temperate mountains, from the beech zone, to the coniferous zone, the subalpine and the alpine zones (Mihai et al., 2007). The analysis combines GIS and remote sensing models (Chuvieco et al., 2012), starting from the ideas that forest fires are featured by the ignition zones and then by the fire propagation zones. The first data layer (ignition zones) is the result of the crossing between the ignition factors: lightning - points of multitemporal occurence and anthropogenic activities (grazing, tourism and traffic) and the ignition zones (forest fuel zonation - forest stands, soil cover and topoclimatic factor zonation). This data is modelled from different sources: the MODIS imagery fire product (Hantson et al., 2012), detailed topographic maps, multitemporal orthophotos at 0.5 m resolution, Landsat multispectral imagery, forestry cadastre maps, detailed soil maps, meteorological data (the WorldClim digital database) as well as the field survey (mapping using GPS and local observation). The second data layer (fire propagation zones) is the result of the crossing between the forest fuel zonation, obtained with the

  13. Simwe model application on susceptibility analysis to linear erosion: a case study in Alto Douro wine region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Joana; Bateira, Carlos; Soares, Laura; Faria, Ana; Moura, Rui; Gonçalves, José

    2016-04-01

    The wine production in Alto Douro Wine Region - one of the world's oldest regulated and demarcated wine region - is based on a slope system organized in agricultural terraces once supported exclusively by dry stone walls. It has been undergoing the necessary changes for the introduction of technological innovations partially associated to the mechanization of vineyards work. In this sense, different forms of terrain framing have been implemented, namely the substitution of stone walls by earth embankments. This evolution raises a group of problems related to the hydric soil erosion and landscape preservation, since Alto Douro Wine Region is classified as UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2001. The study area is mostly occupied by vineyards planted in the agriculture terraces without continuous vegetation, the flow proceeds superficially influenced by the weak infiltration capacity and hydraulic conductivity. So, because of this conditioning factor the erosive features present non-significant depth, and the length thereof is limited essentially by the slope of the land, where was registered 64 gullies and 78 rills This paper focuses on the evaluation of susceptibility to linear erosion, through the application of SIMWE (SIMulated Water Erosion), (Mitas and Mitasova, 1998), using a digital elevation model, with pixel of one square meter of spatial resolution, created through detail aerial photographs, (side pixel of 50 cm), submitted to automatic stereo-correlation procedures in Agisoft PhotoScan software. The results provided by the model are compared with hydrological characteristics of the soil, (infiltrat