Sample records for field evaluations summaries

  1. Field evaluation of sampling and analysis for organic pollutants in indoor air. Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, J.C.; Mack, G.A.; Stockrahm, J.W.; Hannan, S.W.; Bridges, C.

    1988-09-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine the feasibility of the use of newly developed indoor air samplers in residential indoor air sampling and to evaluate methodology for characterization of the concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), PAH derivatives, and nicotine in residential air.

  2. Summary and evaluation of field performance data on unitary heat pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, J. C.; Fitzgerald, K. F.; Frantzis, L.

    1986-04-01

    Thirty-eight programs involving over 700 heat pump units were categorized in three levels: Level I programs measured energy input normally using utility load research methods, to obtain semi-quantitative performance information and hands on operating experience. In Level II programs (almost 150 units) both energy input and output were obtained allowing estimation of HSPF. Level III programs involved measurement of input, output and at least some isolation of dynamic losses due to part load cycling and frost/defrost. Energy input data is abundant and frequently reliable but the results are seldom either statically valid or easily generalized. A considerable amount of HSPF (and much less SEER) data is also available. Certain comparisons of these experimental performance factors with ARI 240-81 predictions have indicated good apparent agreement. Dynamic losses can degrade seasonal performance by over 20% in some instances. Unresolved experimental problems include optimization of flip-flop techniques, practical field measurement of cooling load and means of detecting performance degradation Also very few programs presented error analyses.

  3. Evaluating Automatic Summaries of Meeting Recordings 

    E-print Network

    Murray, Gabriel; Renals, Steve; Carletta, Jean; Moore, Johanna

    2005-01-01

    The research below explores schemes for evaluating automatic summaries of business meetings, using the ICSI Meeting Corpus. Both automatic and subjective evaluations were carried out, with a central interest being whether ...

  4. Evaluating Educational Quality: A Conference Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astin, Alexander W.; And Others

    The texts of three conference papers are presented in this volume. The papers are: Student-Oriented Management: A Proposal for Change (Alexander W. Astin); Goals, Outcomes, and Academic Evaluation (Howard R. Bowen); and A Summary of the 1978 COPA Summer Conference (Charles M. Chambers). The first addresses the definition of quality in…

  5. Energy-efficient buildings program evaluations. Volume 2: Evaluation summaries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D. Lee; D. Mayi; S. D. Edgemon

    1997-01-01

    This document presents summaries of code and utility building program evaluations reviewed as the basis for the information presented in Energy-Efficient Buildings Program Evaluations, Volume 1: Findings and Recommendations, DOE\\/EE\\/OBT-11569, Vol. 1. The main purpose of this volume is to summarize information from prior evaluations of similar programs that may be useful background for designing and conducting an evaluation of

  6. Production Risk Evaluation Program (PREP) - summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kjeldgaard, E.A.; Saloio, J.H.; Vannoni, M.G.

    1997-03-01

    Nuclear weapons have been produced in the US since the early 1950s by a network of contractor-operated Department of Energy (DOE) facilities collectively known as the Nuclear Weapon Complex (NWC). Recognizing that the failure of an essential process might stop weapon production for a substantial period of time, the DOE Albuquerque Operations office initiated the Production Risk Evaluation Program (PREP) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to assess quantitatively the potential for serious disruptions in the NWC weapon production process. PREP was conducted from 1984-89. This document is an unclassified summary of the effort.

  7. SIMS analysis: Development and evaluation program summary

    SciTech Connect

    Groenewold, G.S.; Appelhans, A.D.; Ingram, J.C.; Delmore, J.E.; Dahl, D.A.

    1996-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the ``SIMS Analysis: Development and Evaluation Program``, which was executed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory from mid-FY-92 to the end of FY-96. It should be noted that prior to FY-1994 the name of the program was ``In-Situ SIMS Analysis``. This report will not go into exhaustive detail regarding program accomplishments, because this information is contained in annual reports which are referenced herein. In summary, the program resulted in the design and construction of an ion trap secondary ion mass spectrometer (IT-SIMS), which is capable of the rapid analysis of environmental samples for adsorbed surface contaminants. This instrument achieves efficient secondary ion desorption by use of a molecular, massive ReO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} primary ion particle. The instrument manages surface charge buildup using a self-discharging principle, which is compatible with the pulsed nature of the ion trap. The instrument can achieve high selectivity and sensitivity using its selective ion storage and MS/MS capability. The instrument was used for detection of tri-n-butyl phosphate, salt cake (tank cake) characterization, and toxic metal speciation studies (specifically mercury). Technology transfer was also an important component of this program. The approach that was taken toward technology transfer was that of component transfer. This resulted in transfer of data acquisition and instrument control software in FY-94, and ongoing efforts to transfer primary ion gun and detector technology to other manufacturers.

  8. Systematic evaluation program. Status summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-31

    Status summaries concerning legal aspects of the reactors are presented for Dresden-1 reactor, Dresden-2 reactor, Big Rock Point reactor, Ginna-1 reactor, Connecticut Yankee reactor, LACBWR reactor, Millstone-1 reactor, Oyster Creek-1 reactor, Palisades-1 reactor, San Onofore-1 reactor, and Rowe Yankee reactor.

  9. Recap Introduction Unranked evaluation Ranked evaluation Benchmarks Result summaries Introduction to Information Retrieval

    E-print Network

    Nejdl, Wolfgang

    to Information Retrieval http://informationretrieval.org IIR 8: Evaluation & Result Summaries Hinrich Sch¨utze Center for Information and Language Processing, University of Munich 2013-05-07 Sch¨utze: EvaluationRecap Introduction Unranked evaluation Ranked evaluation Benchmarks Result summaries Introduction

  10. Research Summary West Midlands woodland and health pilot evaluation

    E-print Network

    levels for both men and women. A Health WIG was set up in 2003 and seven projects were funded, of whichResearch Summary West Midlands woodland and health pilot evaluation Increasingly, research, the production of leaflets, launch events and interpretation. An evaluation was undertaken by Interface IRM

  11. Aleph Field Solver Challenge Problem Results Summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, Russell; Moore, Stan Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Aleph models continuum electrostatic and steady and transient thermal fields using a finite-element method. Much work has gone into expanding the core solver capability to support enriched mod- eling consisting of multiple interacting fields, special boundary conditions and two-way interfacial coupling with particles modeled using Aleph's complementary particle-in-cell capability. This report provides quantitative evidence for correct implementation of Aleph's field solver via order- of-convergence assessments on a collection of problems of increasing complexity. It is intended to provide Aleph with a pedigree and to establish a basis for confidence in results for more challeng- ing problems important to Sandia's mission that Aleph was specifically designed to address.

  12. Systematic Evaluation Program. Status summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-30

    The Systematic Evaluation Program is intended to examine many safety-related aspects of 11 of the older light water reactors. This document provides the existing status of the review process including individual topic and overall completion status.

  13. REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY: LAMBERT FIELD GRAPHICAL WEATHER SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A graphical summary of National Weather Service (NWS) 3-hour weather observations from Lambert Field Airport, St. Louis, Missouri has been prepared for use by individuals involved in the analysis and application of Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS) data. It is intended as a ref...

  14. Lesson Summary Students will learn about the magnetic fields of

    E-print Network

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Lesson Summary Students will learn about the magnetic fields of the Sun and Earth. This activity if they have learned them in another context and you can remind them about those lessons in this activity minutes 1. Read and review the lesson plan 2. Gather required materials 3. Form student teams Exploring

  15. Systematic evaluation program. Status summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-31

    Information related to the systematic evaluation program is presented concerning Palisades-1 reactor; Ginna-1 reactor; Oyster Creek-1 reactor; Dresden-2 reactor; Millstone-1 reactor; Connecticut Yankee reactor; LACBWR reactor; Big Rock Point reactor; San Onofre-1 reactor; and Dresden-1 reactor.

  16. Systematic Evaluation Program. Status summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-05-31

    Information on the Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP) is presented for the following reactors: Big Rock Point reactor; Dresden-1 reactor; Dresden-2 reactor; Ginna-1 reactor; Connecticut Yankee reactor; LACBWR reactor; Millstone-1 reactor; Oyster Creek-1 reactor; Palisades-1 reactor; San Onofre-1 reactor; and Rowe Yankee reactor.

  17. Systematic evaluation program: status summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-30

    The status of safety evaluation issues is reviewed for the following reactors: Big Rock Point reactor; Dresden-1 reactor; Dresden-2 reactor; Ginna-1 reactor; Connecticut Yankee reactor; LACBWR reactor; Millstone-1 reactor; Oyster Creek-1 reactor; Palisades-1 reactor; San Onofre-1 reactor; and Rowe Yankee reactor.

  18. Systematic evaluation program, status summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-30

    Status reports are presented on the systematic evaluation program for the Big Rock Point reactor, Dresden-1 reactor, Dresden-2 reactor, Ginna-1 reactor, Connecticut Yankee reactor, LACBWR reactor, Millstone-1 reactor, Oyster Creek-1 reactor, Palisades-1 reactor, San Onofre-1 reactor, and Rowe Yankee reactor.

  19. Systematic Evaluation Program. Status summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-06-30

    Progress on the systematic evaluation program is presented concerning Big Rock Point reactor, Dresden-1 reactor, Dresden-2 reactor, Ginna-1 reactor, Connecticut Yankee reactor, LACBWR reactor, Millstone-1 reactor, Oyster Creek-1 reactor, Palisades-1 reactor, San Onofre-1 reactor, and Rowe Yankee reactor.

  20. Systematic evaluation program. Status summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-31

    Status of the systematic evaluation program is presented for the following reactors: Big Rock Point reactor; Dresden-2 reactor; Ginna-1 reactor; Connecticut Yankee reactor; LACBWR reactor; Millstone-1 reactor; Oyster Creek-1 reactor; Palisades-1 reactor; San Onofre-1 reactor; and Rowe Yankee reactor.

  1. The evaluation of Earth System Models: discussion summary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sönke Zaehle; Colin Prentice; Sarah Cornell

    2011-01-01

    Complex Earth system models, and their various sub-components, are not yet subject to rigorous evaluation against observations as much as they should be, despite the existence of hundreds of proposed diagnostics. A concerted process is urgently needed to make this the norm, not the exception. Earth Observation, field observations and palaeo data can be applied to contexts as diverse as

  2. Automatic Evaluation of Summaries Using N-gram Co-occurrence Statistics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chin-Yew Lin; Eduard H. Hovy

    2003-01-01

    Following the recent adoption by the machine translation community of automatic evaluation using the BLEU\\/NIST scoring process, we conduct an in-depth study of a similar idea for evaluating summaries. The results show that automatic evaluation using unigram co-occurrences between summary pairs correlates surprising well with human evaluations, based on various statistical metrics; while direct application of the BLEU evaluation procedure

  3. Qualitative evaluation of fuelwood in Florida - a summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.C.; Huffman, J.B.; Rockwood, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    A summary of published and unpublished information on fuel quality of 5 species of potential use as fuel in Florida: Pinus elliottii, P. clausa, Melaleuca quinquenervia, Eucalyptus grandis and Casuarina equisetifolia. (Refs. 30).

  4. Introduction Unranked evaluation Ranked evaluation Benchmarks Result summaries Most slides are from Schtze, Center for Information and Language Processing,

    E-print Network

    Lu, Jianguo

    is an excellent match for query q ... d is not relevant to the information need i. evaluation 9 / 58 #12Introduction Unranked evaluation Ranked evaluation Benchmarks Result summaries evaluation Most slides are from Schütze, Center for Information and Language Processing, University of Munich October 7

  5. EVALUATION OF THE AMES SOLID WASTE RECOVERY SYSTEM. PART I. SUMMARY OF ENVIRONMENTAL EMISSIONS: EQUIPMENT, FACILITIES, AND ECONOMIC EVALUATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the following: Characterization of the refuse derived fuel (RDF) produced; Equipment and plant performance evaluations; An analysis of plant maintenance and manpower requirements; An analysis of plant operating costs. Also included is a brief summary of the ...

  6. Asymmetries and Visual Field Summaries as Predictors of Glaucoma in the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Richard A.; Demirel, Shaban; Fan, Juanjuan; Keltner, John L.; Johnson, Chris A.; Kass, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate whether baseline visual field data and asymmetries between eyes predict the onset of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study (OHTS) participants. Methods A new index, mean prognosis (MP), was designed for optimal combination of visual field thresholds, to discriminate between eyes that developed POAG from eyes that did not. Baseline intraocular pressure (IOP) in fellow eyes was used to construct measures of IOP asymmetry. Age-adjusted baseline thresholds were used to develop indicators of visual field asymmetry and summary measures of visual field defects. Marginal multivariate failure time models were constructed that relate the new index MP, IOP asymmetry, and visual field asymmetry to POAG onset for OHTS participants. Results The marginal multivariate failure time analysis showed that the MP index is significantly related to POAG onset (P < 0.0001) and appears to be a more highly significant predictor of POAG onset than either mean deviation (MD; P = 0.17) or pattern standard deviation (PSD; P = 0.046). A 1-mm Hg increase in IOP asymmetry between fellow eyes is associated with a 17% increase in risk for development of POAG. When threshold asymmetry between eyes existed, the eye with lower thresholds was at a 37% greater risk of development of POAG, and this feature was more predictive of POAG onset than the visual field index MD, though not as strong a predictor as PSD. Conclusions The MP index, IOP asymmetry, and binocular test point asymmetry can assist in clinical evaluation of eyes at risk of development of POAG. PMID:16936102

  7. FIELD EVALUATION OF THE MYRTLE CREEK ADVANCED

    E-print Network

    Bertini, Robert L.

    FIELD EVALUATION OF THE MYRTLE CREEK ADVANCED CURVE WARNING SYSTEM Final Report SPR 352 #12;#12;FIELD EVALUATION OF THE MYRTLE CREEK ADVANCED CURVE WARNING SYSTEM SPR 352 Final Report by Robert L's Catalog No. 5. Report Date June 2006 4. Title and Subtitle Field Evaluation of the Myrtle Creek Advanced

  8. Summary of modeling studies of the Krafla geothermal field, Iceland

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Pruess, K.; Stefansson, V.; Eliasson, E.T.

    1983-08-01

    A comprehensive modeling study of the Krafla geothermal field in Iceland has been carried out. The study consists of four tasks: the analysis of well test data, modeling of the natural state of the field, the determination of the generating capability of the field, and modeling of well performance. The results of all four tasks are consistent with field observations.

  9. Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, Kimitaka [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2009-02-19

    In this presentation, lectures in the school are revisited and a brief summary is given. An emphasis is made to illustrate how the lectures are interconnected so as to constitute the unified basis of knowledge in realizing thermonuclear fusion in ITER.The first message here is the integration of the knowledge. All of conditions (which is imposed by individual characteristic dynamics) must be simultaneously fulfilled. Plasma conditions (density, pressure, current, shape, etc.) set parameter boundaries. Achievement of Q = 10 is expected to be realized near the ridge of boundary, so that exact knowledge of mutual relations between constraints is inevitable. The other message is that, the constraints of plasma, material and design must be subject to a special care. In this regard, the use of tritium in ITER introduces new issue in research. For instance, the containment of tritium in the device leads to a new demand for the system. This issue influences the choice of the wall material. The difference of the wall material (either light element or heavy metal), on the other hand, can have a large impact on confinement. These new features in integration will be explained.The other issue is the need of integration of knowledge to form a law of understanding. The mission of ITER must be realized as fast as possible, considering the fact the necessity for fusion energy will be more keen as time goes on. The operation of ITER has been predicted by extending the empirical scaling relations. More precise prediction and the resolution of possible problems in advance are required. For this urgency, our knowledge must be distilled as a scientific law in which elementary processes are validated.

  10. Summary of "Expert Forum on the Evaluation of Teachers of English Language Learners." Forum Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In response to federal initiatives such as Race to the Top (RTTT), Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) flexibility waiver requests, and the Teacher Incentive Fund competition, states have made dramatic changes in their policies related to teacher evaluation during the past three years. Historically, teacher evaluation systems have been…

  11. Image quality evaluation of light field photography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiang Fu; Zhiliang Zhou; Yan Yuan; Bin Xiangli

    2011-01-01

    Light field photography captures 4D radiance information of a scene. Digital refocusing and digital correction of aberrations could be done after the photograph is taken. However, capturing 4D light field is costly and tradeoffs between different image quality metrics should be made and evaluated. This paper explores the effects of light field photography on image quality by quantitatively evaluating some

  12. An Evaluation of Alberta Education's Library Services. Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deloitte Haskins & Sells Associates, Edmonton (Alberta).

    The report provides an overview of the findings, analysis, and conclusions of the external evaluation of the effectiveness of Alberta Education Library Services conducted between September 1985 and March 1986 under the guidance of the Library Services Evaluation Steering Committee (Phase 2 of the evaluation and planning process initiated in 1985…

  13. Summary status on the seismic evaluations of Hanford Site radioactive waste storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, D.L.; Marusich, R.A.; Ryan, J.A.; Smith, D.A.; Tallman, A.M.; Wagenblast, G.R.

    1990-09-01

    Radioactive defense waste, resulting from the chemical processing of spent nuclear fuel, has been accumulating at the Hanford Site since 1944. This waste is stored in underground waste storage tanks. This paper provides a summary status of the seismic evaluations of the tanks and a summary of past safety assessments of the safety-related equipment that may be required to maintain safe operation subsequent to a postulated seismic event. 42 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. The Comprehensive Longitudinal Evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program: Summary of Baseline Reports. SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation Report #1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program and the author's plan for evaluating it over a five year period. It also presents a brief summary of the main findings of the four distinct topical reports that the author and his colleagues have completed for 2006-07--the baseline year of the evaluation. Those four…

  15. The Comprehensive Longitudinal Evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program: Summary of Second Year Reports. SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation Report #6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    This report discusses the progress of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP) evaluation and presents a brief summary of the main findings of the seven distinct topical reports that have been completed for 2007-08--the second year of the evaluation. Those seven specialized reports build on the five reports that were released in 2008 and are:…

  16. Day Care in Caracas: A Day Care Homes Program Evaluation Report. Volume I: Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Ruesta, Maria Carlota; de Vidal, Amalia Barrios

    This document provides a summary of a formative evaluation research project concerning the neighborhood day care homes program in Caracas, Venezuela. The evaluation included nine lines of study: (1) an assessment of sociodemographic conditions of Venezuelan preschool age children, legal and employment status of Venezuelan women, and general social…

  17. A Summary of Four Major Evaluation Reports on Follow Through in Philadelphia, 1975-1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Judith

    This paper presents summaries of four evaluation reports on Follow Through programs in Philadelphia, grades K-3. Section I compares the reading and mathematics achievement of children from 1971-1976 in the various Follow Through models. Included in the evaluation are the Behavior Analysis, Bank Street, Parent Implemented, Philadelphia Process,…

  18. Evaluation of Post-Arrival Programs and Services. A Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Inst. of Multicultural Affairs, Melbourne (Australia).

    This booklet summarizes the findings and recommendations of an evaluation of the Australian government's programs and services for migrants. Rollowing a description of the organization of the full report, three opening chapters provide, respectively, (1) a broad overview of the evaluation; (2) a discussion of its approach and methodology; and (3)…

  19. Urban Dispersion Program Overview and MID05 Field Study Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Allwine, K Jerry; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2007-07-31

    The Urban Dispersion Program (UDP) was a 4-year project (2004–2007) funded by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security with additional support from the Defense Threat Reduction Agency. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) also contributed to UDP through funding a human-exposure component of the New York City (NYC) field studies in addition to supporting an EPA scientist in conducting modeling studies of NYC. The primary goal of UDP was to improve the scientific understanding of the flow and diffusion of airborne contaminants through and around the deep street canyons of NYC. The overall UDP project manager and lead scientist was Dr. Jerry Allwine of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. UDP had several accomplishments that included conducting two tracer and meteorological field studies in Midtown Manhattan.

  20. Summary of the hypervelocity weapon system field experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. C. Aden; J. L. Brown; V. D. Churchwell; P. Dewer; A. Juhasz; Z. Kaplan; J. Williams

    1997-01-01

    The Hypervelocity Launcher Product Office of the US Army Space and Strategic Defense Command has completed the first field experiment for the Hypervelocity Weapon System (NVWS). The HVWS is being developed as a cost-effective, bottom-tier element of the overall Theater Missile Defense (TMD) architecture. The HVWS is C-130 transportable and will complement the total spectrum of TMD assets. The objective

  1. Vegetation and soils field research data base: Experiment summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biehl, L. L.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Bauer, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    Understanding of the relationships between the optical, spectral characteristics and important biological-physical parameters of earth-surface features can best be obtained by carefully controlled studies over fields and plots where complete data describing the condition of targets are attainable and where frequent, timely spectral measurement can be obtained. Development of a vegetation and soils field research data base was initiated in 1972 at Purdue University's Laboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing and expanded in the fall of 1974 by NASA as part of LACIE. Since then, over 250,000 truck-mounted and helicopter-borne spectrometer/multiband radiometer observations have been obtained of more than 50 soil series and 20 species of crops, grasses, and trees. These data are supplemented by an extensive set of biophysical and meteorological data acquired during each mission. The field research data form one of the most complete and best-documented data sets acquired for agricultural remote sensing research. Thus, they are well-suited to serve as a data base for research to: (1) quantiatively determine the relationships of spectral and biophysical characteristics of vegetation, (2) define future sensor systems, and (3) develop advanced data analysis techniques.

  2. Medical evaluations on the KC-135 1991 flight report summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, Charles W.

    1993-01-01

    The medical investigations completed on the KC-135 during FY 1991 in support of the development of the Health Maintenance Facility and Medical Operations are presented. The experiments consisted of medical and engineering evaluations of medical hardware and procedures and were conducted by medical and engineering personnel. The hardware evaluated included prototypes of a crew medical restraint system and advanced life support pack, a shuttle orbiter medical system, an airway medical accessory kit, a supplementary extended duration orbiter medical kit, and a surgical overhead canopy. The evaluations will be used to design flight hardware and identify hardware-specific training requirements. The following procedures were evaluated: transport of an ill or injured crewmember at man-tended capability, surgical technique in microgravity, transfer of liquids in microgravity, advanced cardiac life support using man-tended capability Health Maintenance Facility hardware, medical transport using a model of the assured crew return vehicle, and evaluation of delivery mechanisms for aerosolized medications in microgravity. The results of these evaluation flights allow for a better understanding of the types of procedures that can be performed in a microgravity environment.

  3. Summary of current research interests Field of Research: Retinal Stem Cell Biology, Development of Stem Cell

    E-print Network

    Saunders, Mark

    Summary of current research interests Field of Research: Retinal Stem Cell Biology, Development of Stem Cell Based Therapies to treat Retinal Diseases, Endogenous Regeneration of the human Retina Stem is to investigate the application of Müller stem cells in cell replacement therapies for glaucomatous degeneration

  4. Summary of Field Equipment Requirements for Responding to Riverine Oil Spills in Ice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2002-01-01

    Oil spill response equipment and field experience in northern riverine and ice environments is limited. Successful responses have depended on planning and preparedness for quick deployment of response equipment into inland ice-covered waters in rivers. This paper is a summary of technology and equipment requirements for responding to riverine pipeline oil spills in ice, particularly as it relates to experiences

  5. Engineering and Industrial Fields. Revised Summary Report: Technical Employment in Northeast Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William E.; And Others

    The document is one of five summary reports, all part of a Pre-Technical Curriculum Planning Project for secondary students who aspire to technical employment or post secondary technical education. This report represents the results of an assessment of the northeast Florida area's technical occupations in engineering and industrial fields. A…

  6. A Method for Evaluating Volt-VAR Optimization Field Demonstrations

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Weaver, T. F.

    2014-08-31

    In a regulated business environment a utility must be able to validate that deployed technologies provide quantifiable benefits to the end-use customers. For traditional technologies there are well established procedures for determining what benefits will be derived from the deployment. But for many emerging technologies procedures for determining benefits are less clear and completely absent in some cases. Volt-VAR Optimization is a technology that is being deployed across the nation, but there are still numerous discussions about potential benefits and how they are achieved. This paper will present a method for the evaluation, and quantification of benefits, for field deployments of Volt-VAR Optimization technologies. In addition to the basic methodology, the paper will present a summary of results, and observations, from two separate Volt-VAR Optimization field evaluations using the proposed method.

  7. Medical evaluations on the KC-135 1990 flight report summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, Charles W.; Guess, Terrell M.; Whiting, Charles W.; Doarn, Charles R.

    1991-01-01

    The medical investigations completed on the KC-135 during FY 1990 in support of the development of the Health Maintenance Facility and Medical Operations are discussed. The experiments are comprised of engineering evaluations of medical hardware and medical procedures. The investigating teams are made up of both medical and engineering personnel responsible for the development of medical hardware and medical operations. The hardware evaluated includes dental equipment, a coagulation analyzer, selected pharmaceutical aerosol devices, a prototype air/fluid separator, a prototype packaging and stowage system for medical supplies, a microliter metering system, and a workstation for minor surgical procedures. The results of these engineering evaluations will be used in the design of fleet hardware as well as to identify hardware specific training requirements.

  8. Japanese Refrigerators : A Field Performance Analysis : Summary Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Short, John A.

    1990-02-01

    Society generally expects Japanese refrigerators to be more energy efficient than their American-made counterparts. With increasing attention being focused on appliance energy efficiency, research into operating characteristics of Japanese refrigerators has gained importance. Other projects report the monitored energy use of certain models of Japanese refrigerators. In addition, laboratory tests determined energy consumption of certain refrigerators under controlled conditions. In 1987, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) undertook a project to measure and analyze the energy consumption of 12 Japanese-made refrigerators in the Portland-Vancouver metropolitan area. This project's purpose was to collect field data on certain models and compare with that collected in other projects and laboratory tests. Japanese energy consumption figures fall 30--40% below those of DOE. This energy savings, if real, could substantially cut baseload power for utilities. Determining typical refrigerator energy use patterns and which environmental factors effect them helps utilities to forecast demand. 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  9. College Readiness Program Evaluation 1988-1989. Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brierley, Miriam; Thompson, Gary

    This document summarizes an evaluation of the 1988/89 College Readiness Program (CRP) in the Columbus (Ohio) Public Schools. The CRP targets middle school students who demonstrate potential for success in college but who are not planning to attend college because of their families' financial status or because higher education is not part of their…

  10. Evaluating Community Development Corporations--A Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garn, Harvey A.; And Others

    The evaluation of three Ford Foundation supported Community Development Corporation (CDC) programs with performance relative to output targets (milestones) that are both identifiable and quantifiable are presented in this paper. The milestone targets, developed in 1973 for the following year, are targets over which the CDC would legitimately be…

  11. Geothermal well stimulation - program summary and the Beowawe field experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Verity, R.V.

    1983-12-01

    Republic Geothermal, Inc. and its subcontractors have planned and executed laboratory studies and eight well stimulation field experiments under the Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program (GRWSP). The program, begun in February 1979, has concentrated on extending petroleum industry stimulation technology for use by the geothermal industry. The most recent experiment was in a naturally fractured Chevron well at Beowawe and involved an acid stimulation of a damaged interval which yielded a 2.3-fold increase in injectivity. Overall results to date have shown that stimulation is viable where adequate reservoirs are penetrated by wells encountering formation damage or locally tight formations. However, wells in marginal naturally fractured reservoirs have not been saved by the types of well stimulation jobs performed thus far. A recent discovery is that many wells can possibly be made outstanding producers by widening and propping compliant natural fractures. Confirmation of this constitutes unfinished business of the GRWSP, adn offers one of the greatest potential opportunities for enhancing the economics of geothermal power production.

  12. Research Summary Evaluation of the Better Woodlands for Wales Grant Scheme

    E-print Network

    Research Summary Evaluation of the Better Woodlands for Wales Grant Scheme The BWW grant scheme planning to non-commercial woodland owners. "Probably the best ever grant scheme we could expect to see and management where it was applied" (interviewee). Background The Better Woodlands for Wales (BWW) grant scheme

  13. Reliably Evaluating Summaries of Twitter Timelines Dominic Rout and Kalina Bontcheva and Mark Hepple

    E-print Network

    Bontcheva, Kalina

    Reliably Evaluating Summaries of Twitter Timelines Dominic Rout and Kalina Bontcheva and Mark Regent Court, 211 Portobello, Sheffield, S1 4DP, United Kingdom Abstract The primary view of the Twitter of personal timelines. 1 Introduction In 2011, the widely popular microblogging Twitter service had 100

  14. The National Evaluation of School Nutrition Programs. Final Report - Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radzikowski, Jack

    This is a summary of the final report of a study (begun in 1979) of the National School Lunch, School Breakfast, and Special Milk Programs. The major objectives of the evaluation were to (1) identify existing information on the school nutrition programs; (2) identify determinants of participation in the programs and develop statistical models for…

  15. Summary We evaluated annual productivity and carbon fluxes over the Fontainebleau forest, a large heterogeneous for-

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Summary We evaluated annual productivity and carbon fluxes over the Fontainebleau forest, a large-based model, Fontainebleau forest, NEE, remote sensing, soil carbon, spatialization. Introduction and water and mineral resources. The model is a physiological process-based forest ecosystem model coupled

  16. Evaluating community coalition characteristics and functioning: a summary of measurement tools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Granner; P. A. Sharpe

    2004-01-01

    Community coalitions and partnerships are frequently used to promote community health; however, little research to evaluate measure- ment tools for assessing their effectiveness has been reported. This summary identified mea- surement tools for coalition or partnership characteristics and functioning. The largest numbers of measures were identified for assessing individual and group characteristics, with impact and outcome measures being the least

  17. Evaluating Soil Health Summary: Soil health can be measured, monitored and managed to increase sustainability and

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    Evaluating Soil Health Summary: Soil health can be measured, monitored and managed to increase sustainability and productivity. 10/30/14 Contact: Clain Jones (406) 994-6076 or clainj@montana.edu To: News-dailies, News-weeklies, AgMedia, News-local, News-tv, News-radio, MSU-All-News, News-internal, Nat

  18. Preventing Youth Violence. A Summary of Program Evaluations. Urban Health Initiative Monograph Series, Monograph 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellermann, Arthur L.; Fuqua-Whitley, Dawna S.; Rivara, Frederick P.

    This summary explaining the results of evaluations of programs to prevent youth violence is an attempt to fill the gap in information about what works and what does not. An effort is made to place the problem of youth violence in perspective, using information largely taken from Bureau of Justice statistics. The existing programs are divided into…

  19. Evaluating cotton stripper field performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton strippers are used primarily in the Southern High Plains due to the specific cotton varieties grown. Typically, cotton strippers cost about two-thirds the price of a cotton picker and range from one-half to one-fourth the horsepower. A cotton stripper also has a higher field and harvesting ef...

  20. SIMS analysis: Development and evaluation 1994 summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Groenewold, G.S.; Appelhans, A.D.; Ingram, J.C.; Delmore, J.E.; Dahl, D.A.

    1994-12-01

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was evaluated for applicability to the characterization of salt cake and environmental samples. Salt cake is representative of waste found in radioactive waste storage tanks located at Hanford and at other DOE sites; it consists of nitrate, nitrite, hydroxide, and ferrocyanide salts, and the samples form the tanks are extremely radioactive. SIMS is an attractive technology for characterizing these samples because it has the capability for producing speciation information with little or no sample preparation, and it generates no additional waste. Experiments demonstrated that substantial speciation information could be readily generated using SIMS: metal clusters which include nitrate, nitrite, hydroxide, carbonate, cyanide, ferrocyanide and ferricyanide were observed. In addition, the mechanism of SIMS desorption of tributyl phosphate (TBP) was clearly identified, and minimum detection limit studies involving TBP were performed. Procurements leading to the construction of an ion trap SIMS instrument were initiated. Technology transfer of SIMS components to three instrument vendors was initiated. For FY-95, the SIMS evaluation program has been redirected toward identification of metal species on environmental samples.

  1. Evaluation of near-field earthquake effects

    SciTech Connect

    Shrivastava, H.P.

    1994-11-01

    Structures and equipment, which are qualified for the design basis earthquake (DBE) and have anchorage designed for the DBE loading, do not require an evaluation of the near-field earthquake (NFE) effects. However, safety class 1 acceleration sensitive equipment such as electrical relays must be evaluated for both NFE and DBE since they are known to malfunction when excited by high frequency seismic motions.

  2. Recognizing noun phrases in medical discharge summaries: an evaluation of two natural language parsers.

    PubMed Central

    Spackman, K. A.; Hersh, W. R.

    1996-01-01

    We evaluated the ability of two natural language parsers, CLARIT and the Xerox Tagger, to identify simple, noun phrases in medical discharge summaries. In twenty randomly selected discharge summaries, there were 1909 unique simple noun phrases. CLARIT and the Xerox Tagger exactly identified 77.0% and 68.7% of the phrases, respectively, and partially identified 85.7% and 80.8% of the phrases. Neither system had been specially modified or tuned to the medical domain. These results suggest that it is possible to apply existing natural language processing (NLP) techniques to large bodies of medical text, in order to empirically identify the terminology used in medicine. Virtually all the noun phrases could be regarded as having special medical connotation and would be candidates for entry into a controlled medical vocabulary. PMID:8947647

  3. For more information: Michele R. Guzmn, Assistant Director of Research and Evaluation | www.hogg.utexas.edu | michele.guzman@austin.utexas.edu | July 2013 EVALUATION SUMMARY REPORT

    E-print Network

    Texas at Austin, University of

    For more information: Michele R. Guzmán, Assistant Director of Research and Evaluation | www foundation documents were additional sources of information for the evaluation report. This evaluation.hogg.utexas.edu | michele.guzman@austin.utexas.edu | July 2013 1 EVALUATION SUMMARY REPORT BILINGUAL SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM

  4. Automated water monitor system field demonstration test report. Volume 2: Technical summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, R. L.; Jeffers, E. L.; Perreira, J.; Poel, J. D.; Nibley, D.; Nuss, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    The NASA Automatic Water Monitor System was installed in a water reclamation facility to evaluate the technical and cost feasibility of producing high quality reclaimed water. Data gathered during this field demonstration test are reported.

  5. EOR prospect evaluation using field manufactured polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Milton, H.W.; Argabright, P.A.; Gogarty, W.B.

    1983-03-01

    Prospect evaluation starts with laboratory studies of various enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes. Results of EOR floods in waterflooded cores are given for caustic, dilute surfactant, micellar solution flooding, and polymer augmented waterflooding. In this work, partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (PHPA) was used as the mobility control agent. A pilot scale PHPA manufacturing plant, built in the field, supplied polymer for both lab and field testing. Results are presented from a polymer injectivity test at a water injection well. The injection well completion and surface facilities used in the test are described. Water to polymer injectivity is compared as a function of polymer concentration. Pressure data are used to establish the effect of polymer on solution mobility in the reservoir. Computer modeling was also used to match the lab and field results and to predict field oil recoveries for making economic calculations. Economic studies are the final step in the prospect evaluation procedures. Economic results using the same example field project for two different EOR methods are presented.

  6. Performance evaluation of four field buses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Rubio Benito; J. M. Fuertes; E. Kahoraho; N. Perez Arzoz

    1999-01-01

    In this article, a comparative study of the performance of the CAN, the Profibus-DP, the Profibus-FMS and the Modbus Plus field buses is carried out. An analytical approach is adopted to evaluate the performance of the networks in an event-driven system in terms of throughput and responsiveness. Cyclic data exchanges are analysed in a deterministic way in terms of the

  7. Field evaluation of a VOST sampling method

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.D.; Johnson, L.D.; Fuerst, R.G. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Lab.; McGaughey, J.F.; Bursey, J.T.; Merrill, R.G. [Radian Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The VOST (SW-846 Method 0030) specifies the use of Tenax{reg_sign} and a particular petroleum-based charcoal (SKC Lot 104, or its equivalent), that is no longer commercially available. In field evaluation studies of VOST methodology, a replacement petroleum-based charcoal has been used: candidate replacement sorbents for charcoal were studied, and Anasorb{reg_sign} 747, a carbon-based sorbent, was selected for field testing. The sampling train was modified to use only Anasorb{reg_sign} in the back tube and Tenax{reg_sign} in the two front tubes to avoid analytical difficulties associated with the analysis of the sequential bed back tube used in the standard VOST train. The standard (SW-846 Method 0030) and the modified VOST methods were evaluated at a chemical manufacturing facility using a quadruple probe system with quadruple trains. In this field test, known concentrations of the halogenated volatile organic compounds, that are listed in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, Title 3, were introduced into the VOST train and the modified VOST train, using the same certified gas cylinder as a source of test compounds. Statistical tests of the comparability of methods were performed on a compound-by-compound basis. For most compounds, the VOST and modified VOST methods were found to be statistically equivalent.

  8. Summary of field operations Magazine Road North Wells MRN-1 and MRN-2

    SciTech Connect

    Fritts, J.E. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); McCord, J.P. [INTERA, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-03-01

    This report provides a summary of the field operations associated with the installation of the MRN-1 and MRN-2 test/monitoring wells. These wells were installed in December 1994 and January 1995 as part of the Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization (SWHC) task field program. The SWHC task is part of the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Environmental Restoration Project carried out by the Environmental Operations Center, 7500. MRN-1 and MRN-2 are paired wells located near the western edge of Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB), west of Technical Area 3 (TA3), and north of Magazine Road. (Note: MRN stands for Magazine Road North). During the MRN field operations, important subsurface geologic, hydrologic, chemical, and radiological data were obtained. Subsurface geologic data include descriptions of drill cuttings, core, and geophysical logs of the upper unit of the Santa Fe Group. The geology identified here can help determine the eastern limit of the ancestral Rio Grande lithofacies. Subsurface hydrologic data include borehole geophysical logs, and qualitative information obtained during well completion and development. In addition, future aquifer testing at the MRN site will generate data for the interpretation of aquifer parameters such as transmissivity. Samples were taken from core every 100 feet at MRN-1 for chemical and radiological analysis to provide background data for the Environmental Restoration Project.

  9. Review and evaluation of automotive fuel conservation technologies. Final summary report Mar 79-Mar 81

    SciTech Connect

    Marek, S.; Rohter, L.; Viergutz, O.J.

    1981-03-01

    In response to a legislative mandate to improve automotive fuel efficiency, NHTSA identified areas to be researched and analyzed to determine the costs, feasibility and impacts on various segments of the population. In all, nine tasks were completed and reported in individual reports. This final report presents a summary of the program and a brief description of the results. The reports discussed in this report include: 'Passenger Car/Pedestrian Impact Protection System Evaluation', 'Implementation Analysis of Brake Inspectability Requirements', 'Proposed Rear View Mirror Characteristics and Costs', 'Cost Analysis for Upgraded Passenger Car Rear Signal Lighting Requirements', 'Vehicle Weight/Cost Optimization', 'Cost and Economic Impact of Tire Reserve Load Requirements', 'Implementation Analysis for Daytime Use of Headlights', 'Weight and Detailed Process Cost Study of 1981 Chrysler K-Car (Reliant/Aries) Components', 'Impact of Upgraded FMVSS 105 on the Economy of Operation of the 1979 LDT Fleet', 'Cost, Producibility, and Feasibility Studies of Specific Automotive Systems'.

  10. Satellite power system: concept development and evaluation program. Volume 3: Power transmission and reception. Technical summary and assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, R.H.; Arndt, G.D.; Seyl, J.W.; Leopold, L.; Kelley, J.S.

    1981-07-01

    Efforts in the DOE/NASA concept development and evaluation program are discussed for the solar power satellite power transmission and reception system. A technical summary is provided together with a summary of system assessment activities. System options and system definition drivers are described. Major system assessment activities were in support of the reference system definition, solid state system studies, critical technology supporting investigations, and various system and subsystem tradeoffs. These activities are described together with reference system updates and alternative concepts for each of the subsystem areas. Conclusions reached as a result of the numerous analytical and experimental evaluations are presented. Remaining issues for a possible follow-on program are identified.

  11. Summary of the U.S. Geological Survey National Field Quality Assurance Program from 1979 through 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, D.L.; Boozer, T.M.; Schroder, L.J.

    1998-01-01

    Since the inception of the U.S. Geological Survey National Field Quality Assurance Program, over 85,000 proficiency samples have been analyzed by water-quality analysts. This includes more than 10,000 alkalinity samples, more than 15,000 pH samples, and more than 16,000 specific conductance samples, which were analyzed from 1990 through 1997, and a total of more than 43,000 proficiency samples analyzed from 1979 through 1989. The analyte values were evaluated to determine the fourth-spread, a measure of the width of the middle half of the data, and the F-pseudosigma, a robust replacement for the standard deviation, for each of the different measurement ranges. The result of the statistical evaluation showed that the vast majority of reference sample measurements made by water-quality analysts were within acceptable ranges. From 1990 to 1997, the measurement of pH had the highest level of acceptable results, 98.4 percent, followed by specific conductance with 95.2 percent acceptable results, and alkalinity with 88.6 percent acceptable results. The statistical summary of pH indicates the calculated fourth-spread values for the entire tested range is +0.06 pH units. For specific conductance, the magnitude of the fourth-spread increases as the magnitude of the specific conductance ranges increases. The average relative fourth-spread percent for all reported specific conductance values is +1.8 percent. From 1990 through 1997, the evaluation of the results for alkalinity measurement for the average fourth-spread was determined to be + 3.3 milligrams per liter as calcium carbonate.

  12. Field evaluation of prototype electrofibrous filters

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, W.D.; Bergman, W.; Biermann, A.H.; Lum, B.Y.

    1982-09-30

    New prototype electrofibrous filters were designed, built and evaluated in laboratory tests and in field installations. Two prototypes were designed for use in nuclear ventilation ducts as prefilters to HEPA filters. One prototype is designed to be a permanent component of the ventilation system while the other is a disposable unit. The disposable electrofibrous prefilter was installed in the exhaust stream of a glove box in which barrels of uranium turnings are burned. Preliminary tests show the disposal prefilter is effectively prolonging the HEPA filter life. An earlier prototype of the rolling prefilter was upgraded to meet the increased requirements for installation in a nuclear facility. This upgraded prototype was evaluated in the fire test facility at LLNL and shown to be effective in protecting HEPA filters from plugging under the most severe smoke conditions. The last prototype described in this report is a recirculating air filter. After demonstrating a high performance in laboratory tests the unit was shipped to Savannah River where it is awaiting installation in a Pu fuel fabrication facility. An analysis of the particulate problem in Savannah River indicates that four recirculating air filter will save $172,000 per year in maintenance costs.

  13. Northwest Energy Policy Project. Energy conservation policy evaluation: study module IA. Final report. Volume I. Summary report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Berney; W. R. Butcher; L. F. Carter; L. B. Craine; R. C. Dunlap; G. W. Hinman; K. A. Bergstresser

    1977-01-01

    This summary report identifies potential energy conservation measures and evaluates measures and policy options not likely to be suitable for adoption in the Pacific Northwest. Potential and incentives for energy conservation are specifically identified in the residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation sectors and through urban design. Selection of preferable policies and estimation of response to policies are next discussed. Finally,

  14. Review of "The Comprehensive Longitudinal Evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program: Summary of Fourth Year Reports"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, Clive

    2011-01-01

    This review is of "The Comprehensive Longitudinal Evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program: Summary of Fourth Year Reports," published by the School Choice Demonstration Project, University of Arkansas. The report makes eight claims about the effectiveness of the program, most of them positive. On the key issue of achievement of…

  15. Summary report on reprocessing evaluation of selected inactive uranium mill tailings sites

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has been assisting the Department of Energy in the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Actions Program (UMTRAP) the purpose of which is to implement the provisions of Title I of Public Law 95-604, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.'' As part of this program, there was a need to evaluate the mineral concentration of the residual radioactive materials at some of the designated processing sites to determine whether mineral recovery would be practicable. Accordingly, Sandia contracted Mountain States Research and Development (MSRD), a division of Mountain States Mineral Enterprises, to drill, sample, and test tailings at 12 sites to evaluate the cost of and the revenue that could be derived from mineral recovery. UMTRAP related environmental and engineering sampling and support activities were performed in conjunction with the MSRD operations. This summary report presents a brief description of the various activities in the program and of the data and information obtained and summarizes the results. 8 refs., 9 tabs.

  16. Design parameters Summary Design parameters Summary

    E-print Network

    Liske, Jochen

    Design parameters ­ Summary 634 Design parameters ­ Summary Overall characteristics Entrance pupil 13994.53 mm Diffraction-limited field of view (Strehl Ratio 0.80) As-designed =0.5 µm (on curved field mirror #12;Design parameters ­ Summary 635 Overall characteristics Focal stations 6 Incl. 1 reserved

  17. Integration Evaluation Report. Executive Summary, Introduction, Summaries and Recommendations, Conclusions, 1988-89. Publication No. 548, Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkin, Marvin; And Others

    In 1988-89, an evaluation was conducted to determine the impact of various integration programs designed to ameliorate the harms of racial isolation in the Los Angeles (California) Unified School District. The underlying intent was to specify ways in which levels of achievement, self-esteem, access to postsecondary education, and racial tolerance…

  18. Summary of Field Measurement on UF6 Cylinders Using Electro-Mechanically Cooled Systems

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, Brent R [ORNL; Smith, Steven E [ORNL; Solodov, Alexander A [ORNL; Whitaker, J Michael [ORNL; Morgan, James B [ORNL; MayerII, Richard L. [USEC, Inc.; Montgomery, J. Brent [U.S. Enrichment Corporation Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of the enrichment of solid state UF6 stored within large metal cylinders is a task commonly performed by plant operators and inspectors. The measurement technologies typically used range from low-resolution, high-efficiency sodium iodide detectors to high-resolution, moderate-efficiency high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. The technology used and methods deployed are dependent upon the material being measured, environmental conditions, time constraints, and measurement-precision requirements. Operators and inspectors typically use specially designed, HPGe detectors that are cooled with liquid nitrogen in situations where high-resolution measurements are required. However, the requirement for periodically refilling the system with liquid nitrogen makes remote usage cumbersome and slow. The task of cooling the detector reduces the available time for the inspector to perform other safeguards activities while on site. If the inspector has to reduce the count time for each selected cylinder to ensure that all preselected cylinders are measured during the inspection, the resulting measurement uncertainties may be increased, making it more difficult to detect and verify potential discrepancies in the operator's declarations. However, recent advances in electromechanically cooled HPGe detectors may provide the inspector with an improved verification tool by eliminating the need for liquid nitrogen. This report provides a summary of test results for field measurements performed using electromechanically cooled HPGe detectors on depleted, natural, and low-enriched uranium cylinders. The results of the study provide valuable information to inspectors and operators regarding the capabilities and limitations of electromechanically cooled systems based on true field-measurement conditions.

  19. Evaluation Field Building in South Asia: Reflections, Anecdotes, and Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    This article examines evaluation field building in South Asia and the role of international collaboration in this field building. The article explores aspects of the supply and demand of development evaluation and the political, historical, and systemic factors that bridge or block evaluation use. The article calls for and suggests elements to…

  20. A summary of 22 Years of Fish Screen Evaluation in the Yakima River Basin, Summary Report 1985-2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Chamness, Mickie A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2007-12-03

    Sixty fish screen facilities were constructed in the Yakima River basin between 1985 and 2006 as part of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council plan to mitigate the effects of federal hydroelectric projects on fish and wildlife populations. This report summarizes evaluations of some of those and other fish screen facilities conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) from 1985 through 2006. The objective of these studies was to determine if the newly designed and constructed fish screens were effective at providing juvenile salmonids safe passage past irrigation diversions. To answer that question, PNNL conducted release-and-catch studies at eight Phase I sites in the Yakima River basin. Increasing concerns about the impacts of hatchery fish releases on the wild fish population, as well as the cost and time necessary to perform these kinds of biological studies at more than 60 planned Phase II sites, required development of techniques to evaluate the effectiveness of the sites without releasing fish. The new techniques involved collecting information on screen design, operation, and effectiveness at guiding fish safely through the fish screen facility. Performance measures including water velocities and passage conditions provide a good alternative to biological studies at significantly lower cost and time. Physical techniques were used at all 10 Phase I and 28 Phase II sites evaluated by PNNL over the following 19 years. Results of these studies indicate the Phase I and II fish screen facilities are designed and capable of providing safe passage for juvenile salmonids so long as construction, maintenance, and operations meet the criteria used in the design of each site and the National Marine Fisheries Service criteria for juvenile fish screen design.

  1. Evaluation of the Ames Solid Waste Recovery System. Part I. Summary of environmental emissions: equipment, facilities, and economic evaluations. Interim report 5 Feb 76--4 Feb 77

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Even; S. K. Adams; P. Gheresus; D. E. Fiscus; C. A. Romine

    1977-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: characterization of the refuse derived fuel (RDF) produced; Equipment and plant performance evaluations; an analysis of plant maintenance and manpower requirements; and an analysis of plant operating costs. Also included is a brief summary of the boiler environmental emissions and boiler performance when mixtures of coal and RDF are burned. During the year the plant

  2. The Comprehensive Longitudinal Evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program: Summary of Final Reports. SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation Report #36

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    This report contains a summary of the findings from the various topical reports that comprise the author's comprehensive longitudinal study. As a summary, it does not include extensive details regarding the study samples and scientific methodologies employed in those topical studies. The research revealed a pattern of school choice results that…

  3. A summary of the research program in the broad field of electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Summary reports of research projects covering solid state materials, semiconductors and devices, quantum electronics, plasmas, applied electromagnetics, electrical engineering systems to include control communication, computer and power systems, biomedical engineering and mathematical biosciences.

  4. LoanSTAR Monitoring and Analysis Program: Presentation Summary of the State Capitol Complex Building Operation and Maintenance Field Test

    E-print Network

    Turner, W. D.; Houcek, J. K.; Liu, M.; Claridge, D. E.

    1993-01-01

    Complex Building O&M Field Test Report p. 2 SUMMARY REPORT During the Fall of 1992 a comprehensive survey was conducted on eight buildings at the State Capitol Complex to determine potential operations and maintenance (O&M) savings opportunities. A verbal... report of the findings was presented to General Services Commission and Governor's Energy Office personnel in October, 1992. In January, 1993, a formal written report titled "Potential Operation and Maintenance (O&M) Savings at the State Capitol Complex...

  5. Summary of evidence-based guideline update: Evaluation and management of concussion in sports

    PubMed Central

    Giza, Christopher C.; Kutcher, Jeffrey S.; Ashwal, Stephen; Barth, Jeffrey; Getchius, Thomas S.D.; Gioia, Gerard A.; Gronseth, Gary S.; Guskiewicz, Kevin; Mandel, Steven; Manley, Geoffrey; McKeag, Douglas B.; Thurman, David J.; Zafonte, Ross

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To update the 1997 American Academy of Neurology (AAN) practice parameter regarding sports concussion, focusing on 4 questions: 1) What factors increase/decrease concussion risk? 2) What diagnostic tools identify those with concussion and those at increased risk for severe/prolonged early impairments, neurologic catastrophe, or chronic neurobehavioral impairment? 3) What clinical factors identify those at increased risk for severe/prolonged early postconcussion impairments, neurologic catastrophe, recurrent concussions, or chronic neurobehavioral impairment? 4) What interventions enhance recovery, reduce recurrent concussion risk, or diminish long-term sequelae? The complete guideline on which this summary is based is available as an online data supplement to this article. Methods: We systematically reviewed the literature from 1955 to June 2012 for pertinent evidence. We assessed evidence for quality and synthesized into conclusions using a modified Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation process. We used a modified Delphi process to develop recommendations. Results: Specific risk factors can increase or decrease concussion risk. Diagnostic tools to help identify individuals with concussion include graded symptom checklists, the Standardized Assessment of Concussion, neuropsychological assessments, and the Balance Error Scoring System. Ongoing clinical symptoms, concussion history, and younger age identify those at risk for postconcussion impairments. Risk factors for recurrent concussion include history of multiple concussions, particularly within 10 days after initial concussion. Risk factors for chronic neurobehavioral impairment include concussion exposure and APOE ?4 genotype. Data are insufficient to show that any intervention enhances recovery or diminishes long-term sequelae postconcussion. Practice recommendations are presented for preparticipation counseling, management of suspected concussion, and management of diagnosed concussion. PMID:23508730

  6. Field Experience Evaluation: A Paradigm for Preservice Practica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBrayer, Daniel J.; Williamson, Ronald E.

    A description is given of an evaluation method which may be used as a tool in the comprehensive evaluation of preservice teacher education field experience programs. The "Parallel Pairs" construct is a theoretical model, empty of content, which can be used for a variety of purposes. This blank format, to be filled with field experience or practica…

  7. Development of KSC program for investigating and generating field failure rates. Volume 1: Summary and overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bean, E. E.; Bloomquist, C. E.

    1972-01-01

    A summary of the KSC program for investigating the reliability aspects of the ground support activities is presented. An analysis of unsatisfactory condition reports (RC), and the generation of reliability assessment of components based on the URC are discussed along with the design considerations for attaining reliable real time hardware/software configurations.

  8. Evaluation of innovative arsenic treatment technologies :the arsenic water technology partnership vendors forums summary report.

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, Randy L.; Siegel, Malcolm Dean; McConnell, Paul E.; Kirby, Carolyn (Comforce Technical Services, Inc.)

    2006-09-01

    The lowering of the drinking water standard (MCL) for arsenic from 50 {micro}g/L to 10 {micro}g/L in January 2006 could lead to significant increases in the cost of water for many rural systems throughout the United States. The Arsenic Water Technology Partnership (AWTP), a collaborative effort of Sandia National Laboratories, the Awwa Research Foundation (AwwaRF) and WERC: A Consortium for Environmental Education and Technology Development, was formed to address this problem by developing and testing novel treatment technologies that could potentially reduce the costs of arsenic treatment. As a member of the AWTP, Sandia National Laboratories evaluated cutting-edge commercial products in three annual Arsenic Treatment Technology Vendors Forums held during the annual New Mexico Environmental Health Conferences (NMEHC) in 2003, 2004 and 2005. The Forums were comprised of two parts. At the first session, open to all conference attendees, commercial developers of innovative treatment technologies gave 15-minute talks that described project histories demonstrating the effectiveness of their products. During the second part, these same technologies were evaluated and ranked in closed sessions by independent technical experts for possible use in pilot-scale field demonstrations being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories. The results of the evaluations including numerical rankings of the products, links to company websites and copies of presentations made by the representatives of the companies are posted on the project website at http://www.sandia.gov/water/arsenic.htm. This report summarizes the contents of the website by providing brief descriptions of the technologies represented at the Forums and the results of the evaluations.

  9. FIELD EVALUATION OF A NEW LINT CLEANER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field study comparing a modern controlled-batt, saw-type lint cleaner to a “new” USDA-developed lint cleaner that combines features of a cylinder cleaner used for seed cotton with the saw, grid bars and doffing brush from a standard lint cleaner but without the controlled-batt feature was conducte...

  10. The Status of Title VII Evaluation Practice: A Summary of a National Review of Title VII Evaluation and Improvement Practices. A Summary of a Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopstock, Paul; Young, Malcolm

    In 1989 the Department of Education contracted with Development Associates, Inc., to conduct a review of the evaluation and improvement practices of projects funded under Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, often known as the Bilingual Education Act. The study focused on local transitional bilingual education and special…

  11. PROJECT SUMMARY REPORT 1788-S EVALUATION OF THE CAPE SEAL PROCESS

    E-print Network

    Texas at Austin, University of

    No. FHWA/TX-99/1788-S 2. Government Accession No. 3. Recipient's Catalog No. 5. Report Date October. Contract or Grant No. 0-1788 13. Type of Report and Period Covered Project Summary Report (9/97 -- 8/98) 12 projects, most of the problems could be attributed to the underlying chip seal failing as a result

  12. Summary Report of Statewide Testing Program 1971-1972. Evaluation Report No. 81.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    Hawaii's testing program for 1971-72 is described, and test results are provided. Following an introduction and a glossary of technical terminology, narrative summaries of all the tests administered are provided. These tests are: California Test of Mental Maturity; California Achievement Test--Reading; SCAT; STEP--Reading, Mathematics, Writing,…

  13. Induction-motor field efficiency evaluation using instantaneous phasor method

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, J.S.

    1998-08-01

    Induction motors are the most commonly used motors in industry. They are important components in the chains of drive systems. Motor efficiency is the ratio of shaft output power to motor input power. IEEE Std 112 presents many methods for induction-motor efficiency tests that may not all be suitable for field efficiency evaluations. The new instantaneous phasor method originated by the author is applied for the evaluation of efficiency of induction motors installed in the field.

  14. Field Testing of Energy-Efficient Flood-Damage-Resistant Residential Envelope Systems Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Aglan, H.

    2005-08-04

    The primary purpose of the project was to identify materials and methods that will make the envelope of a house flood damage resistant. Flood damage resistant materials and systems are intended to be used to repair houses subsequent to flooding. This project was also intended to develop methods of restoring the envelopes of houses that have been flooded but are repairable and may be subject to future flooding. Then if the house floods again, damage will not be as extensive as in previous flood events and restoration costs and efforts will be minimized. The purpose of the first pair of field tests was to establish a baseline for typical current residential construction practice. The first test modules used materials and systems that were commonly found in residential envelopes throughout the U.S. The purpose of the second pair of field tests was to begin evaluating potential residential envelope materials and systems that were projected to be more flood-damage resistant and restorable than the conventional materials and systems tested in the first pair of tests. The purpose of testing the third slab-on-grade module was to attempt to dry flood proof the module (no floodwater within the structure). If the module could be sealed well enough to prevent water from entering, then this would be an effective method of making the interior materials and systems flood damage resistant. The third crawl space module was tested in the same manner as the previous modules and provided an opportunity to do flood tests of additional residential materials and systems. Another purpose of the project was to develop the methodology to collect representative, measured, reproducible (i.e. scientific) data on how various residential materials and systems respond to flooding conditions so that future recommendations for repairing flood damaged houses could be based on scientific data. An additional benefit of collecting this data is that it will be used in the development of a standard test procedure which could lead to the certification of building materials and systems as flood damage resistant.

  15. Summary and Evaluation of the Weather Communication Training Program: National Weather Service Pacific Region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah E. Sanderson

    1972-01-01

    The evolution of three different training programs conducted for the National Weather Service Pacific Region, with emphasis on the 1972 program, its summary and recommendations, is the focus for this article. The possible methods of operation for such training programs are discussed-instructor-controlled, learner-controlled, tutoring sessions, and training tasks incorporating all three-with the latter being recommended as the most effective mode.

  16. The rapid evaluation of potential fields in particle systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. F. Greengard

    1988-01-01

    The evaluation of Coulombic or gravitational interactions in large-scale ensembles of particles is an integral part of the numerical simulation of a large number of physical processes. Examples include celestial mechanics, plasma physics, the vortex method in fluid dynamics, and molecular dynamics. This thesis presents an algorithm for the rapid evaluation of the potential and force fields in large-scale systems

  17. Post-occupancy evaluation and field studies of thermal comfort

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fergus Nicol; Susan Roaf

    2005-01-01

    The similarities and differences are explored in both the aims and the methods between post-occupancy evaluations and field studies of thermal comfort in buildings. The interpretations of the field study results are explored, especially the ways the results differ from laboratory experiments. Particular attention is drawn to the dynamic nature of the interaction between buildings and their occupants. Answers to

  18. An evaluation of field total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Lambert; M. Fingas; M. Goldthorp

    2001-01-01

    An evaluation of several field kits and petroleum hydrocarbon measuring systems was conducted. The field kits were the immunoassay based EnviroGard petroleum fuels in soil test kit (EnviroGard, Millipore Canada, Mississauga, Ont., Canada), the turbidimetric based PetroFlag hydrocarbon test kit for soil (Dexsil, Hamden, CT, USA), a DR\\/2000 field kit (Hach Company, Loveland CO, USA) employing colorimetric test procedures and

  19. Compilation and summary of technical and economic assessments in the field of energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    DeVries, J.

    1981-10-01

    Information is presented which was extracted from various assessments of energy storage technologies conducted during the past four years, primarily under the auspices of the Office of Energy Systems Research and Development (formerly the Division of Energy Storage Systems). A thorough search of the relevant literature was conducted using the DOE/RECON computerized data base and other sources. Only tabular or graphic material was abstracted from the documents. The material has been organized in two ways: by the intended end use, i.e., vehicles, utility load leveling, residential load leveling, industrial, and solar, and within each end use, by technology. The summary tables attempt to compare the results of different studies of the same technology or end use. No attempt is made to summarize the conclusions of each individual study, but rather to point out areas of agreement or disagreement between them. The reader should be aware of the risks in making comparisons between studies conducted by researchers with possibly differing purposes and assumptions. Any conclusions based on the summary sections are more indicative than definitive.

  20. Research Summary Giles Hooker

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    Research Summary Giles Hooker My research interests lie principally in the fields of statistical Statement Giles Hooker Detailed Description of Research Directions and Achievements Throughout the following

  1. An evaluation of recent internal field models. [of earth magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mead, G. D.

    1979-01-01

    The paper reviews the current status of internal field models and evaluates several recently published models by comparing their predictions with annual means of the magnetic field measured at 140 magnetic observatories from 1973 to 1977. Three of the four models studied, viz. AWC/75, IGS/75, and Pogo 8/71, were nearly equal in their ability to predict the magnitude and direction of the current field. The fourth model, IGRF 1975, was significantly poorer in its ability to predict the current field. All models seemed to be able to extrapolate predictions quite well several years outside the data range used to construct the models.

  2. The Effects of Head Start Health Services: Executive Summary of the Head Start Health Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fosburg, Linda B.; And Others

    This report summarizes findings of an evaluation of Head Start health services. Chapter one presents an overview of the background of the evaluation project. Chapter two highlights findings for the major evaluation questions. These questions focus specifically on children's health status prior to entry into Head Start, health services subsequently…

  3. A summary of modeling studies of the Krafla Geothermal Field,Iceland

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Pruess, Karsten; Stefansson, Valgardur; Eliasson, Einar T.

    1983-08-01

    A comprehensive modeling study of the Krafla geothermalfield in Iceland has been carried out. The study consists of four tasks:the analysis of well test data, modeling of the natural state of summaryof the the field, the determination of the generating capability of thefield, and modeling of well performance. The results of all four tasksare consistent with field observation.

  4. A Method for Evaluating the Magnetic Field Homogeneity of a Radiofrequency Coil by Its Field Histogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Q. X.; Li, S. H.; Smith, M. B.

    The magnetic field homogeneity of a radiofrequency coil is very important in both magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. In this report, a method is proposed for quantitatively evaluating the RF magnetic field homogeneity from its histogram, which is obtained by either experimental measurement or theoretical calculation. The experimental histogram and theoretical histogram can be compared directly to verify the theoretical findings. The RF field homogeneities of the bird-cage coil, slotted-tube resonator, cosine wire coil, and a new radial plate coil design were evaluated using this method. The results showed that the experimental histograms and the corresponding theoretical histograms are consistent. This method provides an easy and sensitive way of evaluating the magnetic field homogeneity and facilitates the design and evaluation of new RF coil configurations.

  5. REDUCING CHILDREN'S RISK TO SOIL LEAD: SUMMARY OF A FIELD EXPERIMENT TO REDUCE SOIL LEAD BIOAVAILABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reducing risks associated with Pb in soil has typically been accomplished by soil removal, covering, or dilution by mixing with uncontaminated soil. EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) and DuPont Corporation established a collaborative effort to evaluation...

  6. A Summary of Properties Used to Evaluate INEEL Calcine Disposal in the Yucca Mountain Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, C.A.

    2003-07-14

    To support evaluations of the direct disposal of Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory calcines to the repository at Yucca Mountain, an evaluation of the performance of the calcine in the repository environment must be performed. This type of evaluation demonstrates, through computer modeling and analysis, the impact the calcine would have on the ability of the repository to perform its function of containment of materials during the repository lifetime. This report discusses parameters that were used in the scoping evaluation conducted in FY 2003. It provides nominal values for the parameters, with explanation of the source of the values, and how the values were modified for use in repository analysis activities.

  7. FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS; VOLUME III. FIELD EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of field tests conducted to determine the emission characteristics of a Babcock and Wilcox Circular burner and Dual Register burner (DRB). The field tests were performed at two utility boilers, generally comparable in design and size except for the burner...

  8. FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS VOLUME III. FIELD EVALUATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of field tests conducted to determine the emission characteristics of a Babcock and Wilcox Circular burner and Dual Register burner (DRB). The field tests were performed at two utility boilers, generally comparable in design and size except for the burner...

  9. The Rosen Scholars Program: A New Design for Mentoring Disadvantaged Youth for Postsecondary Success. Evaluation Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    The Rosen Scholars Program was a privately funded program for the support and mentorship of talented disadvantaged urban youth. After 6 years of planning and operation, the program was evaluated to assess effectiveness in terms of program objectives and outcomes. The evaluation was conducted by doctoral candidates from Teachers College, Columbia…

  10. Evaluation of National Geographic School Publishing Nonfiction Literacy Materials. Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Kim K.; Smith, Carl B.; Legan, Natalie A.

    During the 2001-02 academic year, a purposive, national evaluation was undertaken of "Windows on Literacy" and "Reading Expeditions," two new school-based programs produced by the School Publishing Division of the National Geographic Society (NGS). The evaluation sought to determine the efficacy of the new materials for teachers and students.…

  11. The National Evaluation of School Nutrition Programs. Review of Research: Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radzikowski, Jack

    Literature review components of the National Evaluation of School Nutrition Programs (a 30-month evaluation of the National School Lunch, School Breakfast, and Special Milk Programs) are summarized in this document. Chapters of the literature review describe the operations of school nutrition programs; examine the various methods for assessing the…

  12. Evaluation of statistical treatments of left-censored environmental data using coincident uncensored data sets: I. Summary statistics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Antweiler, R.C.; Taylor, H.E.

    2008-01-01

    The main classes of statistical treatment of below-detection limit (left-censored) environmental data for the determination of basic statistics that have been used in the literature are substitution methods, maximum likelihood, regression on order statistics (ROS), and nonparametric techniques. These treatments, along with using all instrument-generated data (even those below detection), were evaluated by examining data sets in which the true values of the censored data were known. It was found that for data sets with less than 70% censored data, the best technique overall for determination of summary statistics was the nonparametric Kaplan-Meier technique. ROS and the two substitution methods of assigning one-half the detection limit value to censored data or assigning a random number between zero and the detection limit to censored data were adequate alternatives. The use of these two substitution methods, however, requires a thorough understanding of how the laboratory censored the data. The technique of employing all instrument-generated data - including numbers below the detection limit - was found to be less adequate than the above techniques. At high degrees of censoring (greater than 70% censored data), no technique provided good estimates of summary statistics. Maximum likelihood techniques were found to be far inferior to all other treatments except substituting zero or the detection limit value to censored data.

  13. Field Evaluation of Personal Sampling Methods for Multiple Bioaerosols

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chi-Hsun; Chen, Bean T.; Han, Bor-Cheng; Liu, Andrew Chi-Yeu; Hung, Po-Chen; Chen, Chih-Yong; Chao, Hsing Jasmine

    2015-01-01

    Ambient bioaerosols are ubiquitous in the daily environment and can affect health in various ways. However, few studies have been conducted to comprehensively evaluate personal bioaerosol exposure in occupational and indoor environments because of the complex composition of bioaerosols and the lack of standardized sampling/analysis methods. We conducted a study to determine the most efficient collection/analysis method for the personal exposure assessment of multiple bioaerosols. The sampling efficiencies of three filters and four samplers were compared. According to our results, polycarbonate (PC) filters had the highest relative efficiency, particularly for bacteria. Side-by-side sampling was conducted to evaluate the three filter samplers (with PC filters) and the NIOSH Personal Bioaerosol Cyclone Sampler. According to the results, the Button Aerosol Sampler and the IOM Inhalable Dust Sampler had the highest relative efficiencies for fungi and bacteria, followed by the NIOSH sampler. Personal sampling was performed in a pig farm to assess occupational bioaerosol exposure and to evaluate the sampling/analysis methods. The Button and IOM samplers yielded a similar performance for personal bioaerosol sampling at the pig farm. However, the Button sampler is more likely to be clogged at high airborne dust concentrations because of its higher flow rate (4 L/min). Therefore, the IOM sampler is a more appropriate choice for performing personal sampling in environments with high dust levels. In summary, the Button and IOM samplers with PC filters are efficient sampling/analysis methods for the personal exposure assessment of multiple bioaerosols. PMID:25799419

  14. Summary of modeling studies of the East Olkaria geothermal field, Kenya

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Pruess, K.; Stefansson, V.; Bjornsson, S.; Ojiambo, S.B.

    1985-03-01

    A detailed three-dimensional well-by-well model of the East Olkaria geothermal field in Kenya has been developed. The model matches reasonably well the flow rate and enthalpy data from all wells, as well as the overall pressure decline in the reservoir. The model is used to predict the generating capacity of the field, well decline, enthalpy behavior, the number of make-up wells needed and the effects of injection on well performance and overall reservoir depletion. 26 refs., 10 figs.

  15. Evaluation of biological treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater with pac addition. Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, D.A.; Osantowski, R.A.

    1988-07-01

    The purposes of the study were to: (1) attempt to find the cause of the formation of the viscous floating mass of mixed liquor solids (VFMLS), (2) generate additional research data for total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal from pharmaceutical wastewater using the PACT process, (3) evaluate the efficiency of PACT in removing specific organics, (4) evaluate the effectiveness of PACT in reducing effluent aquatic toxicity, and (5) evaluate the use of a selector to improve the settling characteristics of the mixed liquor. One control unit, two PACT units, and a unit equipped with a series of selector basins were operated.

  16. Summary of South Fence Road phase II 1993 field operations at site SFR-3

    SciTech Connect

    Foutz, W.L. [Lamb Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); McCord, J.P. [INTERA, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This report is a basic data report fro field operations associated with the drilling, logging, completion, and development of South Fence Road Wells SFR-3P and SFR-3T. These test/monitoring wells were installed as part of Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Environmental Restoration Project.

  17. Summary of South Fence Road phase II 1993 field operations at Site SFR-4

    SciTech Connect

    Foutz, W.L. [Lamb Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); McCord, J.P. [INTERA, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This report is a basic data report for field operations associated with the drilling, logging, completion, and development of South Fence Road Wells SFR-4P and SFR-4T. These test/monitoring wells were installed as part of Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Environmental Restoration Project.

  18. Summary of recent progress in understanding the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, Baja, California, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1980-07-01

    Geological and geophysical studies indicate that the Cerro Prieto reservoir is quite heterogeneous due to complex lithofacies fault structures, and hydrothermal alteration. Geochemical investigations have provided clues on the origin of the geothermal fluids, their recharge paths and on the reservoir processes accompanying the exploitation of the field. Well tests have yielded information on the permeability of the reservoir. (MHR)

  19. Evaluation of nuclear power plant environmental impact prediction, based on monitoring programs. Summary and recommendations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. L. Gore; J. M. Thomas; L. D. Kannberg; D. G. Watson

    1977-01-01

    An evaluation of the effectivenss of non-radiological environmental monitoring programs is presented. The monitoring programs for Monticello, Haddam Neck, and Millstone Nuclear Generating Plants are discussed. Recommendations for improvements in monitoring programs are presented.

  20. Summary of sensor evaluation for the Fusion ELectromagnetic Induction eXperiment (FELIX)

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, M.J.

    1982-08-01

    As part of the First Wall/Blanket/Shield Engineering Test Program, a test bed called FELIX (Fusion ELectromagnetic Induction eXperiment) is now under construction at ANL. Its purpose will be to test, evaluate, and develop computer codes for the prediction of electromagnetically induced phenomenon in a magnetic environment modeling that of a fusion reaction. Crucial to this process is the sensing and recording of the various induced effects. Sensor evaluation for FELIX has reached the point where most sensor types have been evaluated and preliminary decisions are being made as to type and quantity for the initial FELIX experiments. These early experiments, the first, flat plate experiment in particular, will be aimed at testing the sensors as well as the pertinent theories involved. The reason for these evaluations, decisions, and proof tests is the harsh electrical and magnetic environment that FELIX presents.

  1. INNOVATIVE METHODS FOR EMISSION-INVENTORY DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION: WORKSHOP SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emission inventories are an essential tool for evaluating, managing, and regulating air pollution. Refinements and innovations in instruments that measure air pollutants, models that calculate emissions as well as techniques for data management and uncertainty assessment are nee...

  2. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: TORONTO HARBOUR COMMISSIONERS (THC) SOIL RECYCLE TREATMENT TRAIN. Project Summary

    EPA Science Inventory

    A demonstration of the Toronto Harbour Commissioners' (THC) Soil Recycle Treatment Train was performed under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program at a pilot plant facility in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The Soil Recycle Treatment Train, which consists of s...

  3. FIELD AND LABORATORY EVALUATION OF A WOODSTOVE DILUTION SAMPLING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses field and laboratory evaluation of a woodstove dilution sampling system. Two sampling methods have been developed and used by EPA to test emissions from woodstoves: both remove flue gas directly from the appliance chimney. The two methods have been developed t...

  4. FIELD EVALUATION OF A HIGH-VOLUME DICHOTOMOUS SAMPLER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study presents the field evaluation of a high-volume dichotomous sampler that collects coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5) particulate matter. The key feature of this device is the utilization of a round-nozzle virtual impactor with a 50% cutpoint at 2.5 5m to split PM10 into...

  5. EVALUATING THE SUCCESS OF PHOSPHORUS MANAGEMENT FROM FIELD TO WATERSHED

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies have demonstrated some phosphorus (P) loss reduction following implementation of remedial strategies at field scales. However, there has been little coordinated evaluation of Best Management Practices (BMPs) on a watershed scale to show where, when, and which work most effectively. Thus, i...

  6. Field Evaluation of Safety Impacts of Adaptive Cruise Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HESHAM RAKHA; JONATHAN HANKEY; ANGELA PATTERSON; MICHEL VAN AERDE

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides an attempt at evaluating the safety impacts of an Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) system relative to Conventional Cruise Control (CCC) utilizing data that were gathered as part of a Field Operational Test (FOT) in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The safety of the ACC system is quantified considering three surrogate safety measures. The first safety measure considers the car-following

  7. Content Evaluation of an Environmental Science Field Trip

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Doug Knapp; Elizabeth Barrie

    2001-01-01

    Two important content areas associated with informal environmental science programs are ecology\\/natural science topics and awareness of environmental problems\\/issues. This study attempted to evaluate which of these content areas may provide a more optimum learning experience. A quantitative analysis was conducted on two field trips to a science center that represented an ecological oriented program and an environmental issue presentation.

  8. Matrix stimulation planning. Part 2. Field history verifies control, evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paccaloni

    1979-01-01

    A method of matrix stimulation planning is described for use in obtaining better well control and evaluation. Gas-oil injectivity tests and actual well stimulation jobs are used to demonstrate use of the method. Field experience with over 50 wells reinforces the method applied. Highlights of the discussion are the following: (1) prediction of pumping parameters to be used during an

  9. FIELD EVALUATION OF RESOURCE RECOVERY OF HAZARDOUS WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Incineration of mixed waste solvents in two process kilns was investigated during two 1-week field testing programs. The overall objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the two process kilns in destroying hazardous wastes and quantify stack gas emissions. Duri...

  10. Summary of field operations Powerline Wells PL-1, PL-2, PL-3

    SciTech Connect

    Foutz, W.L. [Lamb Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-03-01

    This report summarizes field operations and hydrogeologic data obtained during installation of the Powerline monitoring/test wells near the western boundary of Kirtland Air Force Base. These wells were installed in 1994 as part of the Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization Project saturated zone investigation. The Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization Project is part of Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Environmental Restoration Project. Three wells were drilled and completed at this location, and named PL-1, PL-2, and PL-3. They are located northwest of Tech Area 3, and are named after a high-voltage powerline located just south of the wells. The objectives of the Powerline wells were to determine the depth to water, complete 2 water table wells and a deeper Santa Fe Group well, to determine the geologic provenance of Santa Fe Group sediments at this location, and to obtain background core samples for radiological analysis. During these field operations, important subsurface hydrogeologic data were obtained. These data include drill cuttings and lithologic descriptions, core samples with background analytical data, geophysical logs, water quality parameters, and water levels. Aquifer tests at the Powerline location will generate data that may yield information on anisotropy in the Santa Fe Group and constrain numerical modeling results that indicate that there is a major northward component of groundwater flow from McCormick Ranch and Tech Area 3 test sites toward City of Albuquerque and KAFB well fields.

  11. CONFERENCE REPORT: Summary of the Workshop on Electric Fields, Turbulence and Self-organization in Magnetized Plasmas (EFTSOMP) 2009: 6-7 July 2009, Sofia, Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoletnik, S.; Agostini, M.; Belonohy, E.; Bonhomme, G.; Dunai, D.; Lang, P.; Garcia-Martinez, P.; Gurchenko, A. D.; Hidalgo, C.; Kendl, A.; Kocsis, G.; Maszl, Ch.; McCormick, K.; Müller, H. W.; Spagnolo, S.; Solano, E. R.; Soldatov, S.; Spolaore, M.; Xu, Y.

    2010-04-01

    The Workshop on Electric Fields, Turbulence and Self-organization in Magnetized Plasmas (EFTSOMP) is held annually as a satellite meeting of the EPS Plasma Physics conference. The aim is to foster discussion on the above topic and allow dissemination of recent results and concepts. The paper represents a summary of the talks presented at the conference.

  12. Table 1. Summary of weed seedbank distribution, diversity (number of species per field) and density across all farms Unit Total Weeds Average Highest Lowest

    E-print Network

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    Table 1. Summary of weed seedbank distribution, diversity (number of species per field) and density across all farms Unit Total Weeds Average Highest Lowest Total Identified Weed Species number 67 13 21 5 Total Identified Weed Species Densityb no./ft 2 274 1081 30 Total Identified Broadleaf Weed Species

  13. IGE Evaluation Phase 1 Summary Report: Report from the Program on Evaluation of Practices in Individualized Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Gary G.; And Others

    The relationship of organizational and instructional features in Individually Guided Education (IGE) schools and the achievement of second and fifth grade students was studied in Phase I of the IGE evaluation. A positive relationship between organizational features and teacher job-satisfaction was found in a sample study of 156 schools. Reading…

  14. Evaluations Backgrounder: A Summary of Formal Evaluations of Afterschool Programs' Impact on Academics, Behavior, Safety and Family Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Afterschool programs have been operating for decades in communities across the country, and federal investment in afterschool has increased dramatically since the mid-1990s. However, even more investment in the field of afterschool, which includes before school, afterschool and summer learning programs, is needed to keep up with the growing…

  15. Urban Dispersion Program MSG05 Field Study: Summary of Tracer and Meteorological Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Allwine, K Jerry; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2006-08-09

    The Urban Dispersion Program is a multi-year project, funded by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, to better understand the flow and dispersion of airborne contaminants through and around the deep street canyons of New York City. The first tracer and meteorological field study was a limited study conducted during March 2005 near the Madison Square Garden in midtown Manhattan. Six safe, inert, gaseous perfluorocarbon tracers were released simultaneously at five street-level locations during two experimental days. In addition to collecting tracer data, meteorological data were also collected. Brookhaven National Laboratory conducted the bulk of the tracer and meteorological field efforts with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Stevens Institute of Technology assisting by measuring the vertical profile of winds. The Environmental Protection Agency worked with Brookhaven National Laboratory in accomplishing the personal exposure component of the study. This report presents some results from this analysis. In general, different release locations showed vastly different plume footprints for tracer materials, and the situation was made very complex with upwind and/or crosswind transport of tracer near street-level for the different release locations. Overall wind speeds and directions upwind and over the city were generally constant throughout each of the two experimental periods.

  16. Evaluation of the National Science Foundation's Local Course Improvement Program, Volume I: Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulik, James A.; And Others

    This report is the first of three volumes which summarize the results of a comprehensive evaluation of the National Science Foundation (NSF) Local Course Improvement (LOCI) program. Included are college teacher perceived needs of course improvement, profile of applicants for LOCI awards, appropriateness of program guidelines, and outcomes of LOCI…

  17. Conceptual design and evaluation of selected Space Station concepts: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The results of a space station conceptual design and evaluation study are summarized. The study represented a temporary focusing. Three space station configurations are characterized for user and crew requirements, operation and safety accommodations, engineering considerations including assembly and growth, structural dynamics, communications, thermal control and power systems, as well as system cost.

  18. Systematic evaluation program. Status summary report, August 1-31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    The status of the systematic evaluation program is presented for the following reactors: Big Rock Point Reactor; Dresden-1 Reactor; Dresden-2 Reactor; Ginna-1 Reactor; Connecticut Yankee Reactor; LACBWR Reactor; Oyster Creek-1 Reactor; Millstone-1 Reactor; Palisades-1 Reactor; San Onofre-1 Reactor; and Rowe Yankee Reactor.

  19. Evaluation of New Texas Charter Schools: Second Interim Report (2007-10). Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Catherine; Sheehan, Daniel; Rainey, Katharine

    2011-01-01

    The Texas Education Agency (TEA) was awarded Charter School Program (CSP) funding in 2007, and specified that the required evaluation would focus on the experiences and outcomes of new charter schools authorized to begin serving students across 4 school years: 2006-07, 2007-08, 2008-09, and 2009-10. TEA categorizes charter schools in terms of…

  20. The Texas Rural Technology (R-TECH) Pilot Program: Cycle 1 Final Evaluation Report. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Catherine; Sheehan, Daniel; Rainey, Katharine

    2010-01-01

    The evaluation of the Texas Rural Technology (R-Tech) Pilot sought to understand how districts implemented R-Tech grants, the effects of implementation on student and teacher outcomes, as well as the cost effectiveness and sustainability of R-Tech. The Texas legislature (80th Texas Legislature, Regular Session, 2007) authorized the creation of…

  1. Evaluation of soil liquefaction potential for level ground during earthquakes. A summary report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. B. Seed; I. Arango; C. K. Chan

    1975-01-01

    The results of a three-year research program conducted to investigate the settlement and liquefaction of sands under multi-directional shaking are evaluated. The investigation indicated that the behavior of a saturated sand under cyclic loading conditions is a function of its geologic and seismic history and grain structure as well as its placement density. It is concluded that the resistance to

  2. The 2001 World Trade Center Disaster - Summary and Evaluation of Experiences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN P. PRYOR

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To collect and analyze data from deaths and injuries, and from evaluation of the responses by medical services and by fire, rescue, and police services 1 year after the terror attack on World Trade Center. Methodology: Epidemiologic data were collected from all involved agencies and analyzed. The authors per- sonal experience from working at the scene during the event

  3. Secondary Analysis of the Emergency School Assistance Program. Executive Summary, Planning/Evaluation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC. Office of Planning, Budgeting, and Evaluation.

    A 1973 evaluation of the Emergency School Assistance Program (ESAP) showed that it was effective in improving the academic achievement of tenth grade black male students. This study further analyzes this important result with the aim of finding useful information for the operation of the Emergency School Aid Act (ESAA) which replaced ESAP. Several…

  4. Talking about Touching: Personal Safety Curricula (1996 Editions) Preschool to Grade 3. Curriculum Evaluation Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylvester, Leihua

    An evaluation of the "Talking about Touching" personal safety (1996 editions) curricula for Preschool/Kindergarten and Grades 1-3 was conducted to determine the extent to which students retained information and effectively demonstrated the skills taught in the program and to gather feedback from practitioners using the program to guide the final…

  5. Determining What Works for Girls in the Juvenile Justice System: A Summary of Evaluation Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahn, Margaret A.; Day, Jacob C.; Mihalic, Sharon F.; Tichavsky, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Despite increasing attention on gender-specific programming for girls involved in the juvenile justice system, not much is known about the effectiveness of gender-specific programs. The authors review the evidence base for the effectiveness of programs for girls in custody or under supervision by examining the evaluation evidence for nine…

  6. Summary of Outcome Evaluation Report for Preparing Educational Training Consultants: Skills Training (PETC-1).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Catherine; Green, David

    This report summarizes the technical report Outcome Evaluation Report for Preparing Educational Training Consultants: Skills Training (PETC-I) which presents the data collected about the three outcome studies of the PETC-I system. This information is primarily summative in nature and is designed to help those who may be considering the system as a…

  7. Family Planning Evaluation. Abortion Surveillance Report--Legal Abortions, United States, Annual Summary, 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Disease Control (DHEW/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This report summarizes abortion information received by the Center for Disease Control from collaborators in state health departments, hospitals, and other pertinent sources. While it is intended primarily for use by the above sources, it may also interest those responsible for family planning evaluation and hospital abortion planning. Information…

  8. Systematic Evaluation Program. Status summary report, July 31, 1983. Vol. 5, No. 7

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-07-31

    The status of the systematic evaluation program is presented for the following reactors: Big Rock Point reactor; Dresden-1 reactor; Dresden-2 reactor; Ginna-1 reactor; Connecticut Yankee reactor; LACBWR reactor; Millstone-1 reactor; Oyster Creek-1 reactor; Palisades-1 reactor; San Onofre-1 reactor; and Rowe Yankee reactor.

  9. Systematic Evaluation Program. Status summary report, November 1-30, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    The status of the systematic evaluation program is presented for Dresden-1 reactor, Dresden-2 reactor, Big Rock Point reactor, Ginna-1 reactor, LACBWR reactor, Millstone-1 reactor, Oyster Creek-1 reactor, Palisades-1 reactor, San Onofre-1 reactor, Rowe Yankee reactor, and Connecticut Yankee reactor.

  10. Summary of the electromagnetic compatibility evaluation of the proposed satellite power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, E. L., Jr.; Grant, W. B.; Davis, K. C.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of the proposed solar power satellite (SPS) operations on electronic equipment and systems by fundamental, harmonic, and intermodulation component emissions from the orbital station; and the fundamental, harmonic, and structural intermodulation emissions from the rectenna site were evaluated. The coupling and affects interactions affecting a wide spectrum of electronic equipment are considered. The primary EMC tasking areas are each discussed separately.

  11. Summary of the electromagnetic compatibility evaluation of the proposed satellite power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, E. L., Jr.; Grant, W. B.; Davis, K. C.

    1980-07-01

    The effects of the proposed solar power satellite (SPS) operations on electronic equipment and systems by fundamental, harmonic, and intermodulation component emissions from the orbital station; and the fundamental, harmonic, and structural intermodulation emissions from the rectenna site were evaluated. The coupling and affects interactions affecting a wide spectrum of electronic equipment are considered. The primary EMC tasking areas are each discussed separately.

  12. Ed School Essentials: Evaluating the Fundamentals of Teacher Training Programs in Texas. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Julie; Walsh, Kate

    2010-01-01

    In this report, the National Council on Teacher Quality evaluates key features of 67 undergraduate institutions elementary, secondary and special education teacher preparation in the state of Texas. The authors apply 25 standards that bear directly on the capacity of those programs to attract talented individuals and prepare them to teach…

  13. National Evaluation of the Comprehensive Technical Assistance Centers. Final Report. Executive Summary. NCEE 2011-4032

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Brenda J.; White, Richard N.; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Riley, Derek L.; Pistorino, Carol

    2011-01-01

    This final report presents findings from a multi-year evaluation of the Comprehensive Technical Assistance Centers, a federally funded program that provides technical assistance to states in connection with the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, as reauthorized by the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001. With the redesign of the Center…

  14. Evaluation of the Compressed Air Challenge(R) Training Program (Executive Summary)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-03-01

    The final report of the evaluation of the Compressed Air Challenge (CAC) Training Program. The training program is designed to provide plant personnel and compressed air system vendors with knowledge and tools required to effect improvements to the energy efficiency and overall performance of plant compressed air systems. As of May 2001, 3,029 individuals had attended the CAC Fundamentals of Compressed Air Training Systems and 925 individuals had attended ''Advanced Management of Compressed Air Systems''. These individuals represented 1,400-1,500 separate business establishments. The evaluation is based on three main research tasks: analysis of the CAC registration database, interviews with 100 end-user personnel who attended the CAC training, and interviews with 100 compressed air system vendors and consulting engineers who attended the training sessions.

  15. Yucca Mountain project container fabrication, closure and non-destructive evaluation development activities; Summary and viewgraphs

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, E.W.; Nelson, T.A.

    1989-06-01

    In this presentation, container fabrication, closure, and non-destructive evaluation (NDE) process development activities are described. All of these activities are interrelated, and will contribute to the metal barrier selection activity. The plan is to use a corrosion-resistant material in the form of a cylinder with a wall thickness of {approximately}1cm (2cm for pure copper.) The materials under consideration include the three austenitic alloys: stainless steel-304L, stainless steel-316L and alloy 825, as well as the three copper alloys: CDA 102, CDA 613, and CDA 715. This document reviews the recommended procedures and processes for fabricating, closing and evaluating each of the candidate materials. (KGD)

  16. Field evaluation of ventilation system performance in enclosed parking garages

    SciTech Connect

    Ayari, A.M.; Grot, D.A.; Krarti, M.

    2000-07-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a field study to determine the ventilation requirements and the contaminant levels in existing enclosed parking garages. The testing was conducted in seven parking garages with different sizes, traffic flow patterns, vehicle types, and locations. In particular, the study compares the actual ventilation rates measured using the tracer gas technique with the ventilation requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62-1989. In addition, the field test evaluated the effectiveness of the existing ventilation systems in maintaining acceptable contaminant levels within enclosed parking garages.

  17. An Evaluation of Technologies for Identifying Acute Cardiac Ischemia in the Emergency Department: Executive Summary of a National Heart Attack Alert Program Working Group Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harry P Selker; Robert J Zalenski; Elliott M Antman; Tom P Aufderheide; Sheilah Ann Bernard; Robert O Bonow; W. Brian Gibler; Michael D Hagen; Paula Johnson; Joseph Lau; Robert A McNutt; Joseph Ornato; J. Sanford Schwartz; Jane D Scott; Paul A Tunick; W. Douglas Weaver

    1997-01-01

    [Selker HP, Zalenski RJ, Antman EM, Aufderheide TP, Bernard SA, Bonow RO, Gibler WB, Hagen MD, Johnson P, Lau J, McNutt RA, Ornato J, Schwartz JS, Scott JD, Tunick PA, Weaver WD: An evaluation of technologies for identifying acute cardiac ischemia in the emergency department: Executive Summary of a National Heart Attack Alert Program Working Group report. Ann Emerg Med

  18. Summary of main findings of Dale Wright's MSc dissertation: Evaluating a citizen science research programme: Understanding the people who make it

    E-print Network

    de Villiers, Marienne

    Summary of main findings of Dale Wright's MSc dissertation: Evaluating a citizen science research and we hope will provide some improvements for other similar citizen science research projects. Whilst are primarily motivated to join citizen science programmes through five different major motivations. What

  19. Session 18: Geothermal Well Stimulation - Program Summary and the Beowawe Field Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Verity, R.V.

    1983-12-01

    Republic Geothermal, Inc. and its subcontractors have planned and executed laboratory studies and eight well stimulation field experiments under the Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program (GRWSP). The program, begun in February 1979, has concentrated on extending petroleum industry stimulation technology for use by the geothermal industry. The most recent experiment was in a naturally fractured Chevron well at Beowawe and involved an acid stimulation of a damaged interval which yielded a 2.3-fold increase in injectivity. Overall results to date have shown that stimulation is viable where adequate reservoirs are penetrated by wells encountering formation damage or locally tight formations. However, wells in marginal naturally fractured reservoirs have not been saved by the types of well stimulation jobs performed thus far. A recent discovery is that many wells can possibly be made outstanding producers by widening and propping compliant natural fractures. Confirmation of this constitutes unfinished business of the GRWSP, and offers one of the greatest potential opportunities for enhancing the economics of geothermal power production.

  20. Particle Bounce in a Personal Cascade Impactor: A Field Evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM C. HINDS; WEN-CHEN V. LIU; JOHN R. FROINES

    1985-01-01

    The collection characteristics of five types of substrates (collection surfaces) used in personal cascade impactors were evaluated for particle bounce in the laboratory with lead dioxide dust, and in the field with brass pouring fume and brass grinding dust. The substrates tested were uncoated stainless steel, silicon grease-coated stainless steel, oil-saturated Millipore membrane filter, oil-saturated Teflon membrane filter and oil-saturated

  1. Field evaluation of a personal cascade impactor sampler (PCIS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manisha Singh; Chandan Misra; Constantinos Sioutas

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the field evaluation of a personal cascade impactor sampler (PCIS). PCIS is a miniaturized cascade impactor, consisting of four impaction stages, followed by an after-filter. Particles are separated in the following aerodynamic particle diameter ranges: <0.25, 0.25–0.5, 0.5–1.0, 1.0–2.5 and 2.5–10?m. The PCIS operates at a flow rate of 9 liters per minute (l\\/min) using a very

  2. The 2001 World Trade Center Disaster: Summary and Evaluation of Experiences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John P. Pryor

    2009-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives:\\u000a   To collect and analyze data from deaths and injuries, and from evaluation of the responses by medical services and by fire,\\u000a rescue, and police services 1 year after the terror attack on World Trade Center.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methodology:\\u000a   Epidemiologic data were collected from all involved agencies and analyzed. The authors personal experience from working at\\u000a the scene during the event

  3. Summary and evaluation of hydraulic property data available for Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Spane, F.A. Jr.; Thorne, P.D.

    1994-07-01

    Most of the contaminant source areas at Eielson Air Force Base are located above an unconfined alluvial aquifer with relatively high hydraulic conductivity. Hydraulic tests that have been conducted on wells at the base were evaluated, and in some cases reanalyzed, to determine hydraulic conductivity and specific yield for the aquifer. The reviewed tests included 2 multiple-well pumping tests and 30 slug tests. One slug test was conducted on a well in the bedrock aquifer at Site 38. All the other tests were conducted on the alluvial aquifer.

  4. Preliminary technical and economic evaluation of vortex extraction devices. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Kornreich, T. R.; Kottler, Jr., R. J.; Jennings, D. M.

    1980-04-01

    The rotor subsystem represents one of the major cost drivers in conventional wind energy systems. Despite the fact that the two vortex extraction systems evaluated have the potential for substantially reducing rotor costs, these cost savings are more than offset by the additional costs required for the augmentation devices. Based on a preliminary analysis of the presently envisioned conceptual designs of the Tornado Wind Energy System and the Vortex Augmentor System, it does not appear that either system could achieve economic parity with conventional horizontal axis wind systems even if all of the technical uncertainties surrounding these innovative concepts are favorably resolved.

  5. Summary of Past Microgravity Experiment in Japanese Microgravity Science Field and Future Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, S.; Yoda, S.

    2002-01-01

    strategic plan for the early years of the 21st century is described experiments were carried out onboard various flight platforms such as airplanes, sounding rockets, free-flyers, and space shuttles. In Japan, microgravity experiments started with Skylab in 1973. In this first set of experiments, the results were scrutinized with keen interest and the usefulness of microgravity environment was evidenced. In the 1980's, the Japanese sounding rocket TT-500A, which provided microgravity conditions for several minutes, was used to verify the experimental facilities and the operations before long duration microgravity experiments were carried out. With the First International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-1) and the First Material Processing Test (FMPT) projects, the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) had the opportunity to perform sustained and genuine microgravity experiments. With the twenty-two experiments carried out in the FPMT, the Japanese microgravity community made rapid progress. Following this, space missions such as the Second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2) and the First Microgravity Science Laboratory (MSL-1) were performed. In addition, a series of seven sounding rockets TR-IA were launched to investigate scientific problems and to help develop technologies. Through these flight experiments, material sciences (Electrostatic Levitation Furnace; the diffusion coefficient measurement by shear-cell method; in-situ simultaneous observation of temperature and concentration field by two wavelength Mach-Zehnder microscope Interferometer) became at the forefront of science and technology in the world. measurement, and cell biology, are being carried out as phase C of NASDA strategic research. Research solicitation in microgravity sciences, among other fields, has seen substantial progress since its initiation in 1997. It is hoped that grant awardees will be the potential applicants of ISS flight experiments in the future. The science experiments selected for flight to fulfill the initial Japanese Experimental Module payloads are reviewed periodically by the Space Utilization Research Program (SURP) and necessary support is provided to Pls to baseline their experiments. phase is proceeding as planned, having not met any major problems in the past year. Among these hardware, the Gradient Heating Furnace (GHF) provides a temperature gradient under vacuum conditions with three independent heating zones. The Advanced Furnace for Microgravity Experiment with X-Ray Radiography (AFEX) is a multi-user image furnace facility which is dedicated to material science experiments. It comprises a 2-axe X-ray radiographies, a visible image video, an infrared sensor, and 5-channel thermocouples allowing observation and measurement of the melt. The Fluid Physics Experiment Facility (FPEF) is mainly dedicated for fundamental fluid physics studies, including Marangoni convection research in liquid bridges. The Solution/Protein Crystal Growth Facility (SPCF) provides opportunity for fundamental science investigation of crystal growth in liquid solution, such as protein crystallization. International Announcement of Opportunity 2000" ("IAO 2000") and selected five research projects as Principal Investigator (PI) themes and three as Co-Investigator (CI) themes. These themes will proceed to the definition phase and the research plans will be refined as flight investigations.

  6. Summary of results from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s vehicle evaluation data collection efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, P.; Kelly, K.; Motta, R.; Broderick, J.

    1996-05-01

    The U.S. DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted a data collection project for light-duty, alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) for about 4 years. The project has collected data on 10 vehicle models (from the original equipment manufacturers) spanning model years 1991 through 1995. Emissions data have also been collected from a number of vehicles converted to natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Most of the vehicles involved in the data collection and evaluation are part of the General Services Administration`s fleet of AFVs. This evaluation effort addressed the performance and reliability, fuel economy, and emissions of light- duty AFVs, with comparisons to similar gasoline vehicles when possible. Driver-reported complaints and unscheduled vehicle repairs were used to assess the performance and reliability of the AFVs compared to the comparable gasoline vehicles. Two sources of fuel economy were available, one from testing of vehicles on a chassis dynamometer, and the other from records of in-service fuel use. This report includes results from emissions testing completed on 169 AFVs and 161 gasoline control vehicles.

  7. Summary of Almost 20 Years of Storm Overflight Electric Field, Conductivity, Flash Rate, and Current Statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, Richard J.; Mach, Douglas M.; Bateman, Monte J.; Bailey, Jeffrey C.

    2011-01-01

    We present total conduction (Wilson) currents for more than 1000 high-altitude aircraft overflights of electrified clouds acquired over nearly two decades. The overflights include a wide geographical sample of storms over land and ocean, with and without lightning, and with positive (i.e., upward-directed) and negative current. Peak electric field, with lightning transients removed, ranged from -1.0 kV/m to 16. kV/m, with mean (median) of 0.9 kV/m (0.29 kV/m). Total conductivity at flight altitude ranged from 0.6 pS/m to 3.6 pS/m, with mean and median of 2.2 pS/m. Peak current densities ranged from -2.0 nA m(exp -2) to 33.0 nA m(exp -2) with mean (median) of 1.9 nA m(exp -2) (0.6 nA m(exp -2)). Total upward current flow from storms in our dataset ranged from -1.3 to 9.4 A. The mean current for storms with lightning is 1.7 A over ocean and 1.0 A over land. The mean current for electrified shower clouds (i.e. electrified storms without lightning) is 0.41 A for ocean and 0.13 A for land. About 78% (43%) of the land (ocean) storms have detectable lightning. Land storms have 2.8 times the mean flash rate as ocean storms (2.2 versus 0.8 flashes min-1, respectively). Approximately 7% of the overflights had negative current. The mean and median currents for positive (negative) polarity storms are 1.0 and 0.35 A (-0.30 and -0.26 A). We found no regional or latitudinal-based patterns in our storm currents, nor support for simple scaling laws between cloud top height and lightning flash rate.

  8. Evaluation of DNA Force Fields in Implicit Solvation

    PubMed Central

    Gaillard, Thomas; Case, David A.

    2011-01-01

    DNA structural deformations and dynamics are crucial to its interactions in the cell. Theoretical simulations are essential tools to explore the structure, dynamics, and thermodynamics of biomolecules in a systematic way. Molecular mechanics force fields for DNA have benefited from constant improvements during the last decades. Several studies have evaluated and compared available force fields when the solvent is modeled by explicit molecules. On the other hand, few systematic studies have assessed the quality of duplex DNA models when implicit solvation is employed. The interest of an implicit modeling of the solvent consists in the important gain in the simulation performance and conformational sampling speed. In this study, respective influences of the force field and the implicit solvation model choice on DNA simulation quality are evaluated. To this end, extensive implicit solvent duplex DNA simulations are performed, attempting to reach both conformational and sequence diversity convergence. Structural parameters are extracted from simulations and statistically compared to available experimental and explicit solvation simulation data. Our results quantitatively expose the respective strengths and weaknesses of the different DNA force fields and implicit solvation models studied. This work can lead to the suggestion of improvements to current DNA theoretical models. PMID:22043178

  9. The establishment of frequency dependent limits for electric and magnetic fields and evaluation of indirect effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Bernhardt

    1988-01-01

    Summary The biophysical model described in this paper has been used as basis for the preparation of the German standards which determine and define limits of exposure to electric or magnetic fields below several MHz, including 50\\/60 Hz. The electric field strength within the tissue is considered decisive for the biological effect in the low frequency range. Threshold values of

  10. Evaluating field-scale sampling methods for the estimation of mean plant densities of weeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NC OLBACH

    2000-01-01

    Summary The 1 weed flora (comprising seven species) of a field continuously grown with soyabean was simulated for 4 years, using semivariograms established from previous field observations. Various sampling methods were applied and compared for accurately estimating mean plant densities, for diÄering weed species and years. The tested methods were based on (a) random selection wherein samples were chosen either

  11. Satellite power system concept development and evaluation program. Volume 1: Technical assessment summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Candidate satellite power system (SPS) concepts were identified and evaluated in terms of technical and cost factors. A number of alternative technically feasible approaches and system concepts were investigated. A reference system was defined to facilitate economic, environmental, and societal assessments by the Department of Energy. All elements of the reference system were defined including the satellite and all its subsystems, the orbital construction and maintenance bases, all elements of the space transportation system, the ground receiving station, and the associated industrial facilities for manufacturing the required hardware. The reference conclusions and remaining issues are stated for the following topical areas: system definition; energy conversion and power management; power transmission and reception; structures, controls, and materials; construction and operations; and space transportation.

  12. A Summary Report on the NPH Evaluation of 105-L Disassembly Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, J.R.

    2002-04-30

    The L Area Disassembly Basin (LDB) is evaluated for the natural phenomena hazards (NPH) effects due to earthquake, wind, and tornado in accordance with DOE Order 420.1 and DOE-STD-1020. The deterministic analysis is performed for a Performance Category 3 (PC3) level of loads. Savannah River Site (SRS) specific NPH loads and design criteria are obtained from Engineering Standard 01060. It is demonstrated that the demand to capacity (D/C) ratios for primary and significant structural elements are acceptable (equal to or less than 1.0). Thus, 105-L Disassembly Basin building structure is qualified for the PC3 NPH effects in accordance with DOE Order 420.1.

  13. Algorithm Summary and Evaluation: Automatic Implementation of Ringdown Analysis for Electromechanical Mode Identification from Phasor Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ning; Huang, Zhenyu; Tuffner, Francis K.; Jin, Shuangshuang; Lin, Jenglung; Hauer, Matthew L.

    2010-02-28

    Small signal stability problems are one of the major threats to grid stability and reliability. Prony analysis has been successfully applied on ringdown data to monitor electromechanical modes of a power system using phasor measurement unit (PMU) data. To facilitate an on-line application of mode estimation, this paper develops a recursive algorithm for implementing Prony analysis and proposed an oscillation detection method to detect ringdown data in real time. By automatically detecting ringdown data, the proposed method helps guarantee that Prony analysis is applied properly and timely on the ringdown data. Thus, the mode estimation results can be performed reliably and timely. The proposed method is tested using Monte Carlo simulations based on a 17-machine model and is shown to be able to properly identify the oscillation data for on-line application of Prony analysis. In addition, the proposed method is applied to field measurement data from WECC to show the performance of the proposed algorithm.

  14. Evaluation of the EDGE detector in small-field dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hun-Joo; Kim, Myong-Ho; Choi, Ihl-Bohng; Kang, Young-nam; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Chio, Byung Ock; Jang, Hong Seok; Jung, Ji-Young; Son, Seok Hyun; Kay, Chul Seung

    2013-07-01

    This study evaluates a new diode detector design for small-field dosimetry. An accurate detector that has a small volume are necessary to compile data for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Two semiconductor diode detectors and one ionization chamber were used to measure the profiles, percent depth doses (PDDs), and relative output factors (OFs) of a Novalis 6-MV SRS beam. Profiles and PDD data were collected using 5.0-, 10.0-, 15.0-, 20.0-, 30.0-, and 50.0-mm micro multileaf collimators (mMLCs) at small fields and a 98.0 × 98.0-mm2 reference field. OFs were collected for each of the mMLCs. The EDGE diode detector, the diode detector, and the ion chamber (0.007 cc) were used in the study. Detector measurements were performed using the 3D water phantom with a source-to-surface distance of 100-cm at a depth of 1.5-cm. The measurements were analyzed using the IBA OmniPro Accept 7th version software. In addition, all data were compared to Monte Carlo simulations. The semiconductor diodes had similar OFs and PDDs for each of the mMLCs used. The Dmax values of the EDGE diode detector, measured from the PDD, ranged from 8.5 to 14.0-mm with an average of 12.4-mm. The field widths of the EDGE diode detector were found to have similar values. The performance of the EDGE diode detector was comparable for all small-field measurements. Additionally, no evidence of an energy response was observed for the EDGE detectors for a field of 98 × 98-mm2. This is particularly important when measuring the relative OF for small fields or gathering larger-sized field data for the commissioning of a treatment planning system.

  15. Evaluation of Hazardous Faults in the Intermountain West Region - Summary and Recommendations of a Workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crone, Anthony J.; Haller, Kathleen M.; Maharrey, Joseph Z.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Earthquake Hazards Program (EHP) has the responsibility to provide nationwide information and knowledge about earthquakes and earthquake hazards as a step to mitigating earthquake-related losses. As part of this mission, USGS geologists and geophysicists continue to study faults and structures that have the potential to generate large and damaging earthquakes. In addition, the EHP, through its External Grants Program (hereinafter called Program), supports similar studies by scientists employed by state agencies, academic institutions, and independent employers. For the purposes of earthquake hazard investigations, the Nation is geographically subdivided into tectonic regions. One such region is the Intermountain West (IMW), which here is broadly defined as starting at the eastern margin of the Rocky Mountains in New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana and extending westward to the east side of the Sierra Nevada mountains in eastern California and into the Basin and Range-High Plateaus of eastern Oregon and Washington. The IMW contains thousands of faults that have moved in Cenozoic time, hundreds of which have evidence of Quaternary movement, and thus are considered to be potential seismic sources. Ideally, each Quaternary fault should be studied in detail to evaluate its rate of activity in order to model the hazard it poses. The study of a single fault requires a major commitment of time and resources, and given the large number of IMW faults that ideally should be studied, it is impractical to expect that all IMW Quaternary faults can be fully evaluated in detail. A more realistic approach is to prioritize a list of IMW structures that potentially pose a significant hazard and to focus future studies on those structures. Accordingly, in June 2008, a two-day workshop was convened at the USGS offices in Golden, Colorado, to seek information from representatives of selected State Geological Surveys in the IMW and with knowledgeable regional experts to identify the important structures for future studies. Such a priority list allows Program managers to guide the limited resources toward studies of features that are deemed to potentially pose the most serious hazards in the IMW. It also provides the scientific community with a list of structures to investigate because they are deemed to pose a substantial hazard to population centers or critical structures. The IMW encompasses all or large parts of 12 states, including Arizona, New Mexico, extreme west Texas, Colorado, Utah, Nevada, eastern California, eastern Oregon, eastern Washington, Idaho, western Wyoming, and western Montana. In Utah, and more recently in Nevada, geoscientists have taken steps to evaluate geologic data related to well-studied faults and to develop a statewide priority list of hazardous structures. In contrast to Utah and Nevada, the other IMW states contain substantially fewer Quaternary faults, so there have not been any previous efforts to develop similar priority lists. This workshop was organized to address this matter and create a more balanced perspective of priorities throughout the entire IMW region. Because working groups and workshops had already been convened to specifically deal with Quaternary fault priorities in Utah and Nevada, this workshop specifically emphasized structures outside of these two states.

  16. Field Tests for Evaluating the Aerobic Work Capacity of Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Gavhed, Désirée; Malm, Christer

    2013-01-01

    Working as a firefighter is physically strenuous, and a high level of physical fitness increases a firefighter’s ability to cope with the physical stress of their profession. Direct measurements of aerobic capacity, however, are often complicated, time consuming, and expensive. The first aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlations between direct (laboratory) and indirect (field) aerobic capacity tests with common and physically demanding firefighting tasks. The second aim was to give recommendations as to which field tests may be the most useful for evaluating firefighters’ aerobic work capacity. A total of 38 subjects (26 men and 12 women) were included. Two aerobic capacity tests, six field tests, and seven firefighting tasks were performed. Lactate threshold and onset of blood lactate accumulation were found to be correlated to the performance of one work task (rs?=??0.65 and ?0.63, p<0.01, respectively). Absolute (mL·min?1) and relative (mL·kg?1·min?1) maximal aerobic capacity was correlated to all but one of the work tasks (rs?=??0.79 to 0.55 and ?0.74 to 0.47, p<0.01, respectively). Aerobic capacity is important for firefighters’ work performance, and we have concluded that the time to row 500 m, the time to run 3000 m relative to body weight (s·kg?1), and the percent of maximal heart rate achieved during treadmill walking are the most valid field tests for evaluating a firefighter’s aerobic work capacity. PMID:23844153

  17. Introducing Quasar Research to High School Science Teachers using the Cyberinfrastructure - An Evaluation Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols Yehling, Michelle; Fortson, L.

    2008-05-01

    This is an exciting time for astronomy research - never before has so much astronomy data been so easily available to the general public. The difficulty has been making it accessible to and usable by multiple audiences. Our team, led by the Adler Planetarium, has designed a successful teacher professional development and student research pilot program, funded by NSF, to allow participants to actively participate in quasar research using tools developed for the cyberinfrastructure (SCI-0537460), allowing students to learn about science by doing meaningful science research. This multi-partner endeavor was built on a prior project that was also funded through NSF: the Strategic Technology Astronomy Research Team (START) Collaboratory (STI 0334168). The START Collaboratory program sought to create online tools that would allow users to gather and manipulate data and information from external astronomy database websites, while housing student work in an electronic collaborative environment. The goal of this demonstration project was to bring 21st century science research techniques into high school classrooms using large Internet-accessible astronomy databases, specifically the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, remote-request telescopes, web visualization, and other online tools. The primary topic explored in the research scenario was the variability of visible light output by active galaxies, specifically quasars. Final program implementation evaluation results will be presented, as well as information about how others may use this program in the future.

  18. A Multi-Site Evaluation of Innovative Approaches to Increase Tuberculosis Case Notification: Summary Results

    PubMed Central

    Creswell, Jacob; Sahu, Suvanand; Blok, Lucie; Bakker, Mirjam I.; Stevens, Robert; Ditiu, Lucica

    2014-01-01

    Background Globally, TB notifications have stagnated since 2007, and sputum smear positive notifications have been declining despite policies to improve case detection. We evaluate results of 28 interventions focused on improving TB case detection. Methods We measured additional sputum smear positive cases treated, defined as the intervention area's increase in case notification during the project compared to the previous year. Projects were encouraged to select control areas and collect historical notification data. We used time series negative binomial regression for over-dispersed cross-sectional data accounting for fixed and random effects to test the individual projects' effects on TB notification while controlling for trend and control populations. Results Twenty-eight projects, 19 with control populations, completed at least four quarters of case finding activities, covering a population of 89.2 million. Among all projects sputum smear positive (SS+) TB notifications increased 24.9% and annualized notification rates increased from 69.1 to 86.2/100,000 (p?=?0.0209) during interventions. Among the 19 projects with control populations, SS+TB case notifications increased 36.9% increase while in the control populations a 3.6% decrease was observed. Fourteen (74%) of the 19 projects' SS+TB notification rates in intervention areas increased from the baseline to intervention period when controlling for historical trends and notifications in control areas. Conclusions Interventions were associated with large increases in TB notifications across many settings, using an array of interventions. Many people with TB are not reached using current approaches. Different methods and interventions tailored to local realities are urgently needed. PMID:24722399

  19. Comparative field evaluations of in ovo applied technology.

    PubMed

    Williams, C J; Zedek, A S

    2010-01-01

    Mass vaccination of poultry has advanced in recent years with field application of in ovo vaccination technologies in hatcheries worldwide. Working from a laboratory concept to a commercially available system within a matter of a decade, with subsequent full application to 90% of US broiler production a few years later, the commercial systems continue to be an area for study and continued understanding. Within the production setting, 2 methods to evaluate the types of equipment available for this technology were evaluated in this research. Utilizing a whole hatchery approach and paired testing in a field setting allowed for direct comparison of the 2 US-manufactured in ovo systems (Embrex Inovoject System and Intelliject). The results of the whole hatchery study showed an advantage for 1 system at d 18 and 19 transfer, with the Embrex Inovoject System showing as much as a 2.32% advantage in percentage of hatch. Paired testing showed a statistical difference in percentage of hatchability at d 18 of transfer favoring the Embrex Inovoject System but no difference at d 19 transfer. Differences in the 2 systems were additionally evaluated in terms of day of transfer and flock age. PMID:20008818

  20. NURE (National Uranium Resource Evaluation) HSSR (Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance) Data Summary Tables, United States: Volume 2. [By state

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-06-04

    This volume presents a summary of the distribution of elemental concentrations for water and sediment samples across states. Hawaii is missing from all tables since no sampling was done in that state. The following section briefly outlines the approach used by ISP in preparing these data tables. The third section contains the summary tables organized by sample type (water and sediment) and displaying elements within states and states within elements. These data summary tables show the general ranges of values present in the NURE Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance sample data in each quadrangle or state. As with all summaries, they represent the data according to the best judgement of the professionals doing the analysis. This section gives a general description of the procedures used to produce the quadrangle summary percentiles.

  1. Evaluation of flow field approximations for transonic compressor stages

    SciTech Connect

    Dorney, D.J. [Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo, MI (United States); Sharma, O.P. [Pratt and Whitney, East Hartford, CT (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The flow through gas turbine compressors is often characterized by unsteady, transonic, and viscous phenomena. Accurately predicting the behavior of these complex multi-blade-row flows with unsteady rotor-stator interacting Navier-Stokes analyses can require enormous computer resources. In this investigation, several methods for predicting the flow field, losses, and performance quantities associated with axial compressor stages are presented. The methods studied include: (1) the unsteady fully coupled blade row technique, (2) the steady coupled blade row method, (3) the steady single blade row technique, and (4) the loosely coupled blade row method. The analyses have been evaluated in terms of accuracy and efficiency.

  2. Laboratory and field evaluation of an underwater sand height gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, D. J. P.; Mcgrath, D. G.

    1972-01-01

    An underwater sand height gage was investigated. This instrument consisted of two transducers, one screened and one unscreened. Laboratory experimentation included static and dynamic tests with three test sands--fine, medium, and coarse. Field tests were conducted at Rudee Inlet, Virginia Beach, Virginia. Test results showed a linear response to up to 10 inches of sand loading. Deviation observed in identical tests appeared to be due to variation in the density of sand. Density differences reflected varying packing styles which, in turn, were a consequence of grain size and flow regime. Further evaluations of the sand height gage reflect this instrument's potential.

  3. Hypoacusis detector for evaluation of scholars in field.

    PubMed

    Mtz Partida, M A; Perez, S J; Cardiel, E; Moreno, J A; Hernandez, P R

    2006-01-01

    Hypoacusis on scholars has become not only a problem but also an indicator when attention disorders or misunderstood instructions from teachers are observed. A primary detection of hypoacusis, in particular in speech range, can help scholars, parents and teachers to improve or correct the learning process. A hypoacusis detector has been developed to be applied in field. This device is based on the generation of three tones and three sound level pressures in the speech range. Both the laboratory evaluation and a case of study results are reported in this document. PMID:17946278

  4. Numerical field evaluation of healthcare workers when bending towards high-field MRI magnets.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Trakic, A; Liu, F; Crozier, S

    2008-02-01

    In MRI, healthcare workers may be exposed to strong static and dynamic magnetic fields outside of the imager. Body motion through the strong, non-uniform static magnetic field generated by the main superconducting magnet and exposure to gradient-pulsed magnetic fields can result in the induction of electric fields and current densities in the tissue. The interaction of these fields and occupational workers has attracted an increasing awareness. To protect occupational workers from overexposure, the member states of the European Union are required to incorporate the Physical Agents Directive (PAD) 2004/40/EC into their legislation. This study presents numerical evaluations of electric fields and current densities in anatomically equivalent male and female human models (healthcare workers) as they lean towards the bores of three superconducting magnet models (1.5, 4, and 7 T) and x-, y-, and z- gradient coils. The combined effect of the 1.5 T superconducting magnet and the three gradient coils on the body models is compared with the contributions of the magnet and gradient coils in separation. The simulation results indicate that it is possible to induce field quantities of physiological significance, especially when the MRI operator is bending close towards the main magnet and all three gradient coils are switched simultaneously. PMID:18228572

  5. Evaluation of Alternative Field Buses for Lighting ControlApplications

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Ed; Rubinstein, Francis

    2005-03-21

    The Subcontract Statement of Work consists of two major tasks. This report is the Final Report in fulfillment of the contract deliverable for Task 1. The purpose of Task 1 was to evaluate existing and emerging protocols and standards for interfacing sensors and controllers for communicating with integrated lighting control systems in commercial buildings. The detailed task description follows: Task 1. Evaluate alternative sensor/field buses. The objective of this task is to evaluate existing and emerging standards for interfacing sensors and controllers for communicating with integrated lighting control systems in commercial buildings. The protocols to be evaluated will include at least: (1) 1-Wire Net, (2) DALI, (3) MODBUS (or appropriate substitute such as EIB) and (4) ZigBee. The evaluation will include a comparative matrix for comparing the technical performance features of the different alternative systems. The performance features to be considered include: (1) directionality and network speed, (2) error control, (3) latency times, (4) allowable cable voltage drop, (5) topology, and (6) polarization. Specifically, Subcontractor will: (1) Analyze the proposed network architecture and identify potential problems that may require further research and specification. (2) Help identify and specify additional software and hardware components that may be required for the communications network to operate properly. (3) Identify areas of the architecture that can benefit from existing standards and technology and enumerate those standards and technologies. (4) Identify existing companies that may have relevant technology that can be applied to this research. (5) Help determine if new standards or technologies need to be developed.

  6. Particle bounce in a personal cascade impactor: a field evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hinds, W C; Liu, W C; Froines, J R

    1985-09-01

    The collection characteristics of five types of substrates (collection surfaces) used in personal cascade impactors were evaluated for particle bounce in the laboratory with lead dioxide dust, and in the field with brass pouring fume and brass grinding dust. The substrates tested were uncoated stainless steel, silicon grease-coated stainless steel, oil-saturated Millipore membrane filter, oil-saturated Teflon membrane filter and oil-saturated sintered stainless steel. The use of coated and uncoated stainless steel plates to collect lead dioxide dust produced no difference in measured mass median diameter (MMD); however, with brass grinding dust, there was a 50% decrease in measured MMD when uncoated stainless steel substrates were used, as compared with coated stainless steel substrates. Oil-saturated Millipore membrane surfaces gave consistently lower MMDs than coated stainless steel surfaces. Coated and uncoated stainless steel gave similar MMDs when used to sample brass pouring fume. Oil-saturated Teflon membrane and oil-saturated sintered metal, surfaces for which the collection efficiency is presumed to be independent of the particle loading, gave MMDs similar to those measured for grease-coated stainless steel. The implications of these comparisons are discussed. It is concluded that bounce characteristics are strongly dependent on aerosol material and the suitability of collection surfaces needs to be determined by field evaluation. PMID:4050689

  7. Evaluation of bioaccumulation using in vivo laboratory and field studies.

    PubMed

    Weisbrod, Annie V; Woodburn, Kent B; Koelmans, Albert A; Parkerton, Thomas F; McElroy, Anne E; Borgå, Katrine

    2009-10-01

    A primary consideration in the evaluation of chemicals is the potential for substances to be absorbed and retained in an organism's tissues (i.e., bioaccumulated) at concentrations sufficient to pose health concerns. Substances that exhibit properties that enable biomagnification in the food chain (i.e., amplification of tissue concentrations at successive trophic levels) are of particular concern due to the elevated long-term exposures these substances pose to higher trophic organisms, including humans. Historically, biomarkers of in vivo chemical exposure (e.g., eggshell thinning, bill deformities) retrospectively led to the identification of such compounds, which were later categorized as persistent organic pollutants. Today, multiple bioaccumulation metrics are available to quantitatively assess the bioaccumulation potential of new and existing chemicals and identify substances that, upon or before environmental release, may be characterized as persistent organic pollutants. This paper reviews the various in vivo measurement approaches that can be used to assess the bioaccumulation of chemicals in aquatic or terrestrial species using laboratory-exposed, field-deployed, or collected organisms. Important issues associated with laboratory measurements of bioaccumulation include appropriate test species selection, test chemical dosing methods, exposure duration, and chemical and statistical analyses. Measuring bioaccumulation at a particular field site requires consideration of which test species to use and whether to examine natural populations or to use field-deployed populations. Both laboratory and field methods also require reliable determination of chemical concentrations in exposure media of interest (i.e., water, sediment, food or prey, etc.), accumulated body residues, or both. The advantages and disadvantages of various laboratory and field bioaccumulation metrics for assessing biomagnification potential in aquatic or terrestrial food chains are discussed. Guidance is provided on how to consider the uncertainty in these metrics and develop a weight-of-evidence evaluation that supports technically sound and consistent persistent organic pollutant and persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic chemical identification. Based on the bioaccumulation information shared in 8 draft risk profiles submitted for review under the United Nations Stockholm Convention, recommendations are given for the information that is most critical to aid transparency and consistency in decision making. PMID:19552500

  8. An evaluation of field total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) systems.

    PubMed

    Lambert, P; Fingas, M; Goldthorp, M

    2001-05-01

    An evaluation of several field kits and petroleum hydrocarbon measuring systems was conducted. The field kits were the immunoassay based EnviroGard petroleum fuels in soil test kit (EnviroGard, Millipore Canada, Mississauga, Ont., Canada), the turbidimetric based PetroFlag hydrocarbon test kit for soil (Dexsil, Hamden, CT, USA), a DR/2000 field kit (Hach Company, Loveland CO, USA) employing colorimetric test procedures and a total organic carbon (TOC) analysis instrument (Dohrmann Division, Rosemount Analytical Inc., Santa Clara, CA, USA) using oxidation principles. These procedures were compared to the traditional technique of extraction of the petroleum hydrocarbons using trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon 113) as the solvent and subsequent infrared (IR) analysis using a portable fixed wavelength analyzer (Buck Scientific, East Norwalk, CT, USA). The EnviroGard kit was affected by the sample matrix. The soil type and the presence or lack thereof specific chemical components affected the capability to detect the petroleum hydrocarbon concentration. The PetroFlag soil test kit tended to generate results higher than the accepted concentration. The IR method was better capable of producing results similar to the expected concentration values of the prepared samples. Results indicate that the total organic carbon analysis technique evaluated is best suited for samples containing dissolved hydrocarbons in water and is not a preferred procedure for water samples containing dispersed or floating oil. At low concentrations of 10ppm and less, the TOC method and IR method have concentration values within a few parts-per-million (ppm) of each other, however, an examination of the trends in the results for all samples shows no similarity. This would indicate that the traditional extraction and infrared method and the total organic carbon method are not measuring the same parameter.Finally, the colorimetric field kit was capable of quantifying the concentration of oil in water samples within limits. The results from the oil-in-water method built into the unit at the factory were not comparable with analysis carried out by the infrared technique. With specific methods for each oil incorporated into the spectrophotometer, the comparability of data increased significantly. Results generated by the kit are dependent upon the color and amount of the oil in the sample. The kit is best suited for dark colored oils and the water samples with concentrations in the range of 10 to 85ppm by weight. PMID:11267746

  9. Results of field testing the cement evaluation tool

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh, C.A.; Finlayson, C.G.; Van der Kolk, C.

    1984-01-01

    The Cement Evaluation Tool (CET) developed by Schlumberger employs a pulse-echo technique using eight sonic transducers to investigate the casing cement bond. The tool has been widely field tested in a clastic environment in Brunei (N.W. Borneo), across both oil and gas bearing reservoirs. Numerous comparisons of the CET with conventional CBL/VDL logs have been made. Across oil and water bearing intervals the CET is shown to compare favourably with the CBL/VDL and yields significant additional information on channeling, cement distribution, and the success of casing centralization. In addition, the accuracy of the acoustic calipers have proved sufficient to be used in assisting drilling and completion operations. The response of the tool to a microannulus has also been demonstrated by multiple runs under varying wellbore pressures.

  10. Field Evaluation of Low-E Storm Windows

    SciTech Connect

    Drumheller, S. Craig; Kohler, Christian; Minen, Stefanie

    2007-07-11

    A field evaluation comparing the performance of low emittance (low-e) storm windows with both standard clear storm windows and no storm windows was performed in a cold climate. Six homes with single-pane windows were monitored over the period of one heating season. The homes were monitored with no storm windows and with new storm windows. The storm windows installed on four of the six homes included a hard coat, pyrolitic, low-e coating while the storm windows for the other two homeshad traditional clear glass. Overall heating load reduction due to the storm windows was 13percent with the clear glass and 21percent with the low-e windows. Simple paybacks for the addition of the storm windows were 10 years for the clear glass and 4.5 years forthe low-e storm windows.

  11. Spectrally Enhanced Lighting Program Implementation for Energy Savings: Field Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Kelly L.; Sullivan, Gregory P.; Armstrong, Peter R.; Richman, Eric E.; Matzke, Brett D.

    2006-08-22

    This report provides results from an evaluation PNNL conducted of a spectrally enhanced lighting demonstration project. PNNL performed field measurements and occupant surveys at three office buildings in California before and after lighting retrofits were made in August and December 2005. PNNL measured the following Overhead lighting electricity demand and consumption, Light levels in the workspace, Task lighting use, and Occupant ratings of satisfaction with the lighting. Existing lighting, which varied in each building, was replaced with lamps with correlated color temperature (CCT) of 5000 Kelvin, color rendering index (CRI) of 85, of varying wattages, and lower ballast factor electronic ballasts. The demonstrations were designed to decrease lighting power loads in the three buildings by 22-50 percent, depending on the existing installed lamps and ballasts. The project designers hypothesized that this reduction in electrical loads could be achieved by the change to higher CCT lamps without decreasing occupant satisfaction with the lighting.

  12. Field evaluations of hearing protection devices at surface mining environments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of circumaural hearing protection devices and their predictability when they were being worn by mine employees performing normal work duties. The method employed relied on a physical measurement of the noise reduction of the hearing protectors by utilizing two FM-wireless transmitting and receiving systems. One system measured the outside hearing protector noise level, the second system measured the inside hearing protector noise level. The noise level data of both systems was transmitted back to the corresponding receivers and was recorded onto a two-channel tape recorder. Three methods of evaluating hearing protector performance were explored and compared to the Environmental Protection Agency, Noise Reduction Rating (EPA NRR) values. They were, (1) predicted National Institute for occupational Safety and Health`s (NIOSH) method No. 1 values, (2) field-calculated NIOSH No. 1 values, and (3) measured dBA reduction values, which was the arithmetic A-weighted differences between both microphone locations. The majority of the data was obtained on operators of mobile strip equipment, such as bulldozers, front-end-loaders, and overburden drills. A total of 107 individual tests were conducted using 11 different hearing protectors. The results indicate that the amount of protection, which can vary significantly, is related either to the spectrum shape of the noise, or the C-weighted minus the A-weighted (C-A) value. This is consistent with other researchers. The field measured noise reductions were equivalent to the EPA NRR values when the C-A values were negative or approaching zero. When the C-A values increased, the measured noise reductions significantly decreased.

  13. Summary of measured radiofrequency electric and magnetic fields (10 kHz to 30 GHz) in the general and work environment.

    PubMed

    Mantiply, E D; Pohl, K R; Poppell, S W; Murphy, J A

    1997-01-01

    We have plotted data from a number of studies on the range of radiofrequency (RF) field levels associated with a variety of environmental and occupational sources. Field intensity is shown in units of volts/meter (V/m) for electric field strength and amps/meter (A/m) for magnetic field strength. Duty factors, modulation frequencies, and modulation indices are also reported for some sources. This paper is organized into seven sections, each cataloging sources into appropriate RF frequency bands from very-low frequency (VLF) to super-high frequency (SHF), and covers frequencies from 10 kHz to 30 GHz. Sources included in this summary are the following: Coast Guard navigational transmitters, a Navy VLF transmitter, computer visual display terminals (VDTs), induction stoves or range tops, industrial induction and dielectric heaters, radio and television broadcast transmitters, amateur and citizens band (CB) transmitters, medical diathermy and electrosurgical units, mobile and handheld transmitters, cordless and cellular telephones, microwave ovens, microwave terrestrial relay and satellite uplinks, and police, air traffic, and aircraft onboard radars. For the sources included in this summary, the strongest fields are found near industrial induction and dielectric heaters, and close to the radiating elements or transmitter leads of high power antenna systems. Handheld transmitters can produce near fields of about 500 V/m at the antenna. Fields in the general urban environment are principally associated with radio and TV broadcast services and measure about 0.1 V/m root-mean-square (rms). Peak fields from air traffic radars sampled in one urban environment were about 10 V/m, 300 times greater than the rms value of 0.03 V/m when the duty factor associated with antenna rotation and pulsing are factored in. PMID:9383245

  14. PRELIMINARY FIELD EVALUATION OF MERCURY CONTROL USING COMBUSTION MODIFICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Vitali Lissianski; Antonio Marquez

    2004-02-19

    In this project General Electric Energy and Environmental Research Corporation conducts a preliminary field evaluation of a novel technology, referred to as Hg/NO{sub x}, that can reduce emissions of both mercury (Hg) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) from coal-fired power plants. The evaluation takes place in Green Station Unit 2 operated by Western Kentucky Energy. Reduction of Hg and NO{sub x} emissions in Unit 2 is achieved using coal reburning. Activities during first project year (January 23, 2003--January 22, 2004) included measurements of baseline Hg emissions in Unit 2 and pilot-scale testing. Baseline testing of Hg emissions in Green Unit 2 has been completed. Two fuels were tested with OFA system operating at minimum air flow. Mercury emissions were measured at ESP inlet and outlet, and at the stack using Ontario Hydro revised method. Testing demonstrated that baseline Hg reductions at ESP outlet and stack were 30-45% and 70-80%, respectively. Pilot-scale testing demonstrated good agreement with baseline measurements in Unit 2. Testing showed that fuel composition had an effect on the efficiency of Hg absorption on fly ash. Maximum achieved Hg removal in reburning was close to 90%. Maximum achieved Hg reduction at air staging conditions was 60%. Testing also demonstrated that lowering ESP temperature improved efficiency of Hg removal.

  15. Handheld standoff mine detection system (HSTAMIDS) field evaluation in Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doheny, Robert C.; Burke, Sean; Cresci, Roger; Ngan, Peter; Walls, Richard; Chernoff, Jeff

    2006-05-01

    The Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program of the US Army RDECOM CERDEC Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD), under the direction of the Office of Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations and Low-Intensity Conflict (OASD SO/LIC) and with participation from the International Test and Evaluation Program (ITEP) for humanitarian demining, conducted an in-country field evaluation of the Handheld Standoff Mine Detection System (HSTAMIDS) in the southern African country of Namibia. Participants included the US Humanitarian Demining Team of NVESD; ITEP personnel from several member countries; deminers from two non-governmental organizations in Angola, Menschen Gegen Minen (MgM) and HALO Trust; and CyTerra Corporation. The primary objectives were to demonstrate the performance of the U.S. Army's newest handheld multisensor mine detector, the HSTAMIDS, to the performance of the metal detector being used by local demining organizations and also to assess the performance of deminers using the HSTAMIDS after limited experience and training.

  16. Field evaluation of an avian risk assessment model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hulse, C.S.; Borges, S.L.; Bennett, R.S.; Torrez, M.; Williams, B.I.; Leffel, R.

    2006-01-01

    We conducted two laboratory subacute dietary toxicity tests and one outdoor subacute dietary toxicity test to determine the effectiveness of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's deterministic risk assessment model for evaluating the potential of adverse effects to birds in the field. We tested technical-grade diazinon and its D Z N- 50W (50% diazinon active ingredient wettable powder) formulation on Canada goose (Branta canadensis) goslings. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was measured, and the feathers and skin, feet. and gastrointestinal contents were analyzed for diazinon residues. The dose-response curves showed that diazinon was significantly more toxic to goslings in the outdoor test than in the laboratory tests. The deterministic risk assessment method identified the potential for risk to birds in general, but the factors associated with extrapolating from the laboratory to the field, and from the laboratory test species to other species, resulted in the underestimation of risk to the goslings. The present study indicates that laboratory-based risk quotients should be interpreted with caution.

  17. FIELD EVALUATION OF ARSENIC REMOVAL BY CONVENTIONAL PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper is a summary of two EPA reports prepared by Battelle Memorial Institute: "Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Coagulation/Filtration and Lime Softening" and "Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Iron Removal Plants." The paper presents the results of a year long...

  18. Field Evaluation of Broadband Electrical Impedance Tomography Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelter, M.; Huisman, J. A.; Zimmermann, E.; Treichel, A.; Kemna, A.; Vereecken, H.

    2014-12-01

    Laboratory measurements of the complex electrical conductivity in a broad frequency range (i.e. mHz to kHz) using spectral induced polarization (SIP) measurements have shown great promise to characterize important hydrological properties (e.g. hydraulic conductivity) and biogeochemical processes. However, translating these findings to field applications remains challenging, and significant improvements in spectral electrical impedance tomography (EIT) are still required to obtain images of the complex electrical conductivity with sufficient accuracy in the field. The aim of this study is to present recent improvements in the inversion and processing of broadband field EIT measurements, and to evaluate the accuracy and spectral consistency of the obtained images of the real and imaginary part of the electrical conductivity. In a first case study, time-lapse surface EIT measurements were performed during an infiltration experiment to investigate the spectral complex electrical conductivity as a function of water content. State-of-the-art data processing and inversion approaches were used to obtain images of the complex electrical conductivity in a frequency range of 100 mHz to 1 kHz, and integral parameters were obtained using Debye decomposition. Results showed consistent spectral and spatial variation of the phase of the complex electrical conductivity in a broad frequency range, and a complex dependence on water saturation that was reasonably consistent with laboratory EIT measurements. In a second case study, borehole EIT measurements were made in a well-characterized aquifer. These measurements were inverted to obtain broadband images of the complex conductivity after correction for inductive and capacitive coupling using recently developed procedures. The results showed good correspondence with reference laboratory SIP measurements in a broad frequency bandwidth up to 1 kHz only after application of the correction procedures.

  19. Field evaluation of a personal cascade impactor sampler (PCIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manisha; Misra, Chandan; Sioutas, Constantinos

    This paper presents the field evaluation of a personal cascade impactor sampler (PCIS). PCIS is a miniaturized cascade impactor, consisting of four impaction stages, followed by an after-filter. Particles are separated in the following aerodynamic particle diameter ranges: <0.25, 0.25-0.5, 0.5-1.0, 1.0-2.5 and 2.5-10 ?m. The PCIS operates at a flow rate of 9 liters per minute (l/min) using a very high efficiency, battery-operated light pump at a pressure drop of 11 in H 2O (2.7 kPa). For field evaluation, the PCIS was collocated with other samplers including the micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI), scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) in Los Angeles and Claremont, CA. PCIS and MOUDI agree very well for coarse particulate matter (PM) (PM 2.5-10) mass concentrations. The fine PM (PM 2.5) mass as measured by PCIS is in excellent agreement with SMPS-APS measurement (˜1.02 times) and slightly higher (˜1.1 times) than the MOUDI measurements. Time-integrated (size fractionated) PM 2.5 mass, inorganic ions (nitrate and sulfate), elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) concentrations obtained with PCIS and MOUDI were found to be in very good agreement with few differences in the <0.25 ?m size fraction, especially for OC and nitrate measurements. Near-continuous and size fractionated PM 2.5 nitrate and total carbon measurements by PCIS and MOUDI using the ADI and Sunset labs monitors are in close agreement for all size fractions, indicating that any differences between MOUDI and PCIS measurements for time-integrated data might be due to artifacts associated with long-term sampling and not to differences in individual cut-points. The performance of the PCIS was also evaluated in wind tunnel tests at wind speeds up to 8 km/h. These tests showed that particle sampling efficiency and separation characteristics of the PCIS are unaffected by the wind speeds for particles up to 10 ?m in aerodynamic diameter.

  20. Evaluation of Field-in-Field Technique for Total Body Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Onal, Cem, E-mail: hcemonal@hotmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Adana (Turkey)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Adana (Turkey); Sonmez, Aydan; Arslan, Gungor; Sonmez, Serhat; Efe, Esma; Oymak, Ezgi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Adana (Turkey)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Adana (Turkey)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical use of a field-in-field (FIF) technique for total body irradiation (TBI) using a treatment-planning system (TPS) and to verify TPS results with in vivo dose measurements using metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) detectors. Methods and Materials: Clinical and dosimetric data of 10 patients treated with TBI were assessed. Certain radiation parameters were measured using homogenous and regular phantoms at an extended distance of 380 cm, and the results were compared with data from a conventional standard distance of 100 cm. Additionally, dosimetric validation of TPS doses was performed with a Rando phantom using manual calculations. A three-dimensional computed tomography plan was generated involving 18-MV photon beams with a TPS for both open-field and FIF techniques. The midline doses were measured at the head, neck, lung, umbilicus, and pelvis for both open-field and FIF techniques. Results: All patients received planned TBI using the FIF technique with 18-MV photon energies and 2 Gy b.i.d. on 3 consecutive days. The difference in tissue maximum ratios between the extended and conventional distances was <2%. The mean deviation of manual calculations compared with TPS data was +1.6% (range, 0.1-2.4%). A homogenous dose distribution was obtained with 18-MV photon beams using the FIF technique. The mean lung dose for the FIF technique was 79.2% (9.2 Gy; range, 8.8-9.7 Gy) of the prescribed dose. The MOSFET readings and TPS doses in the body were similar (percentage difference range, -0.5% to 2.5%) and slightly higher in the shoulder and lung (percentage difference range, 4.0-5.5%). Conclusion: The FIF technique used for TBI provides homogenous dose distribution and is feasible, simple, and spares time compared with more-complex techniques. The TPS doses were similar to the midline doses obtained from MOSFET readings.

  1. Summary of the ECLOUD'04 Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Macek, R.; Furman, M.

    2004-11-30

    The 31st ICFA Advanced Beam Dynamics Workshop on Electron-Cloud Effects ''ECLOUD'04'' was held April 19-23, 2004 at Napa, CA, USA. A broad range of current topics in this field were illuminated by 53 talks in 7 sessions plus 6 session summaries at the final summary session. These covered a variety of experimental methods and results, along with progress on understanding of the topic obtained from simulations and analytic theory, and evaluations of the effectiveness of various methods/mechanisms for mitigation of the adverse impact on accelerator performance. In addition, a panel discussion was held on ''Future Needs and Future Directions''. A summary of progress on the major themes covered at ECLOUD'04 is presented.

  2. Evaluating the usefulness of mobile services based on captured usage data from longitudinal field trials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kasper Løvborg Jensen; Lars Bo Larsen

    2007-01-01

    It is widely discussed whether the usefulness of mobile sys- tems and services should be evaluated in the field or in the lab. The aim of this paper is to make a case for conduct- ing longitudinal field trials when evaluating the usefulness of mobile services, and to partly base such evaluations on quan- titative usage data automatically captured on

  3. Documenting the Impact of Multisite Evaluations on the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseland, Denise; Greenseid, Lija O.; Volkov, Boris B.; Lawrenz, Frances

    2011-01-01

    This chapter discusses the impact that four multisite National Science Foundation (NSF) evaluations had on the broader field of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education and evaluation. Three approaches were used to investigate the broader impact of these evaluations on the field: (a) a citation analysis, (b) an on-line survey,…

  4. EVALUATION OF A PROTOTYPE FIELD-PORTABLE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SYSTEM FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE SCREENING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A prototype field-portable X-ray fluorescence system developed by EPA and NASA was evaluated at a site contaminated with Pb, Zn, and Cu. The objective of the field test was to evaluate the effectiveness of the instrument as a field analytical tool for locating hot spots and as a ...

  5. Field evaluation of ultrasonic method for assessing well seals

    SciTech Connect

    Yesiller, N.; Benson, C.H.; Edil, T.B.

    1997-12-01

    Field tests were conducted in three boreholes using an ultrasonic testing method to evaluate its ability to assess contact between the seal and riser (casing). The ultrasonic method is used inside the riser without disturbing the riser, seal, or formation soil. The risers were 50-mm-diameter (2-inch) Schedule 40 steel pipes that are used for ground water monitoring wells. Different types of seals were placed around the risers and defects were purposely introduced in the seals to test the ultrasonic method. The ultrasonic response changed as the neat-cement seals cured or hydration of the bentonite seals changed. When adequate moisture was not available, the bentonite seals deteriorated, losing contact with the riser. When adequate moisture was available, however, the seals swelled into contact with the riser. Both conditions were detected with the ultrasonic method. The method also detected the intentional defects, as well as defects that were not intended. The boreholes were excavated to compare results of the ultrasonic tests with the actual condition of the seals. The condition of the seals agreed well with the results of the ultrasonic tests.

  6. EVALUATION OF THE AGRICULTURAL FIELD SCALE IRRIGATION REQUIREMENT SIMULATION (AFSIRS) IN PREDICTING GOLF COURSE

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    EVALUATION OF THE AGRICULTURAL FIELD SCALE IRRIGATION REQUIREMENT SIMULATION (AFSIRS) IN PREDICTING GOLF COURSE IRRIGATION REQUIREMENTS WITH SITE-SPECIFIC DATA By MARK W. MITCHELL A THESIS PRESENTED........................................................................................5 Agricultural Field Scale Irrigation Requirement Simulation (AFSIRS) ......................7

  7. Near earth magnetic disturbance in total field at high latitudes. 1: Summary of data from OGO's 2, 4, and 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langel, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Variations in the total (i.e. scalar) magnetic field data from the polar orbiting OGO-2, 4, and 6 spacecraft (altitudes 400-1510 km) are summarized for invariant latitudes above 55 deg. Data from all degrees of magnetic disturbance are included. The data are presented in terms of the quantity delta B(= measured field magnitude minus the field magnitude from a spherical harmonic model of the quiet field).

  8. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents summaries of three articles relevant to school crisis response: (1) "Factors Contributing to Posttraumatic Growth," summarized by Steve DeBlois; (2) "Psychological Debriefing in Cross-Cultural Contexts" (Stacey Rice); and (3) "Brain Abnormalities in PTSD" (Sunny Windingstad). The first summary reports the findings of a…

  9. summary99

    Cancer.gov

    Summary - 1999 NCI-Industry Meeting Comments MEETING SUMMARY NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE-INDUSTRY FORUM AND WORKSHOP ON BIOMEDICAL IMAGING IN ONCOLOGY September 1-2, 1999 Washington, D.C. The first National Cancer Institute (NCI)-Industry Forum and

  10. Evaluation of PMU Dynamic Performance in Both Lab Environments and under Field Operating Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhenyu; Hauer, John F.; Martin, Kenneth E.

    2007-06-28

    Abstract—Capturing system dynamics is one important feature of phasor measurements. To ensure PMU accurately reflect system dynamic behavior, one must evaluate the dynamic performance of a PMU. PMU dynamic performance evaluation includes three aspects: PMU modeling studies, laboratory testing and field evaluation. This paper briefly reviews the general PMU model structure, and then continues on PMU dynamic performance evaluation from actual field measurements. Reasons for field evaluation include: 1) inappropriate field settings of a PMU would generate unexpected phasor measurements; and 2) many conditions can not be easily produced in a lab environment. PMU field evaluation includes aspects like time synchronization, timing inconsistency due to filtering, frequency calculation issues, parasitic oscillations/processing artifacts, etc. Actual WECC measurement examples will be presented. Dynamic PMU testing in a lab environment is explored with a special focus on PMU filtering characteristics. How the phasor quality would impact derived system dynamic characteristics is addressed in the later part of this paper.

  11. RIDER executive summaryA_071306

    Cancer.gov

    RIDER Database Resource: Plans for a Public-Private Partnership Executive Summary 7-13-06 1. Executive Summary: The Reference Image Database to Evaluate Response (RIDER) to therapy in lung cancer began as a highly leveraged and collaborative

  12. Value-Added Estimates for Phase 1 of the Pennsylvania Teacher and Principal Evaluation Pilot. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipscomb, Stephen; Chiang, Hanley; Gill, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania plans to develop a new statewide evaluation system for teachers and principals in its public schools by school year 2013-2014. To inform the development of this evaluation system, the Team Pennsylvania Foundation (Team PA) undertook the first phase of the Pennsylvania Teacher and Principal Evaluation

  13. Field scale evaluation of spray drift reduction technologies from ground and aerial application systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this work is to evaluate a proposed Test Plan for the validation testing of pesticide spray drift reduction technologies for row and field crops, focusing on the testing of ground and aerial application systems under full-scale field evaluations. The measure of performance for a gi...

  14. Evaluation of internal electric field of PE\\/EVA composite systems by TSC-separation methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cai Guoxiong

    1990-01-01

    For the purpose of internal field evaluation of an insulating composite, the Maxwell-Wagner model is usually applied. However, it is constrained by the possibility of ignoring the influence of interfaces. In order to evaluate internal field under any conditions, the thermally stimulated current (TSC) separation method was developed. This method is useful for analysis of a composite if it is

  15. Performance evaluation of polymeric insulators aged in lab and field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Sundararajan; J. Graves; A. Mohammed; A. Baker

    2003-01-01

    Multistress accelerated lab aging of polymeric insulators simulating actual stresses encountered in the field has the merit of reproducing the actual service environment in the lab. This permits a better understanding of the ongoing mechanisms related to aging and life expectancy of the insulators in service. This paper presents the results of a one-year field and lab aging study of

  16. Hydrological Evaluation of Septic Disposal Field Design in Sloping Terrains

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    . "Hydraulic failure" happens when the water table inundates the disposal pipes or reaches the ground surface model for assessing the probability of failure for a set of hydrologic conditions, septic loading rates on these soils, the septic field and downslope field saturate, causing hydraulic failure of the septic system

  17. Eubank Field, Kansas: a formation evaluation and secondary recovery project 

    E-print Network

    Dexheimer, Dominique

    1999-01-01

    acreage in Haskell County (Kansas), a part of the Eubank Field. The Basal Chester sand in the Eubank Field as deposited in a paleovalley system that was incised in the Sainte Genevieve and Saint Louis limestones. Anadarko plans to develop a secondary...

  18. FIELD INVESTIGATION AND EVALUATION OF LAND TREATING TANNERY SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Land treatment of wastewater sludges from tannery processes has been investigated during a five-year field plot study. The experimental design included eight field test plots receiving selected applications of three types of tannery sludges over a three-year period. The five-year...

  19. REDUCING CHILDREN'S RISK TO SOIL LEAD: SUMMARY OF A FIELD EXPERIMENT TO REDUCE SOIL LEAD BIOAVAILABILITY (ABSTRACT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reducing risks associated with Pb in soil has typically been accomplished by soil removal, covering, or dilution by mixing with uncontaminated soil. EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) and DuPont Corporation established a collaborative effort to evaluation...

  20. A Summary of INEEL Calcine Properties Used to Evaluate Direct Calcine Disposal in the Yucca Mountain Repository

    SciTech Connect

    C. A. Dahl

    2003-07-01

    To support evaluations of the direct disposal of Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory calcines to the repository at Yucca Mountain, an evaluation of the performance of the calcine in the repository environment must be performed. This type of evaluation demonstrates, through computer modeling and analysis, the impact the calcine would have on the ability of the repository to perform its function of containment of materials during the repository lifetime. This report discusses parameters that were used in the scoping evaluation conducted in FY 2003. It provides nominal values for the parameters, with explanation of the source of the values, and how the values were modified for use in repository analysis activities.

  1. FIELD VALIDATION OF SEDIMENT TOXCITY IDENTIFCATION AND EVALUATION METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE) methods have been developed for both porewaters and whole sediments. These relatively simple laboratory methods are designed to identify specific toxicants or classes of toxicants in sediments; however, the question of whethe...

  2. FIELD EVALUATION OF DNAPL EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGIES: PROJECT OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five DNAPL remediation technologies were evaluated at the Dover National Test Site, Dover AFB, Delaware. The technologies were cosolvent solubilization, cosolvent mobilization, surfactant solubilization, complex sugar flushing and air sparging/soil vapor extraction. The effectiv...

  3. Field evaluation of gelled acid for carbonate formations

    SciTech Connect

    Church, D.C.; Quisenberry, J.L.; Fox, K.B.

    1981-12-01

    A new gelled acid was evaluated in the west Texas, southeast New Mexico, and Oklahoma areas. The purpose of this evaluation was to determine how successful a gelled acid, prepared from xanthan polymer, would be in several carbonate formations. Several types of acidizing techniques were employed. These treatments vary from one to nine stages, with and without diverting agents. More than 20 treatments are summarized. Production figures for the wells treated are discussed, as well as pertinent related information. 5 refs.

  4. Evaluation of carcinogenic effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF).

    PubMed

    Bayazit, Vahdettin; Bayram, Banu; Pala, Zeydin; Atan, Ozkan

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the carcinogenic effects of electromagnetic fields on human. There are many effects of electromagnetic fields on human such as cancer, epidemiology, acute and chronic effects. These effects vary according to the field strength and environmental conditions. There have been many instances of harmful effects of electromagnetic fields from such seemingly innocuous devices as mobile phones, computers, power lines and domestic wiring. The balance of epidemiologic evidence indicates that mobile phone use of less than 10 years does not pose any increased risk of brain tumour or acoustic neuroma. For long-term use, data are sparse, and the following conclusions are therefore uncertain and tentative. PMID:20846133

  5. An Alternative Approach to Specifying Test Electric Field Magnitude for Evaluation of Broadband LMR Antennas

    E-print Network

    Ellingson, Steven W.

    An Alternative Approach to Specifying Test Electric Field Magnitude for Evaluation of Broadband LMR the disadvantage that the magnitude of the applied electric field is determined by the performance at the nominal field magnitude that is not associated with an arbitrarily-determined frequency. In this report, we

  6. An Internal Evaluation of a Field-Based Training Component for School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Licata, Joseph W.

    Project ROME-FOCUS (Field-Oriented Competency Utilization System), a competency-based, field-oriented, training program for school administrators was field tested at Valdosta State College, Valdosta, Georgia, January - May, 1976. An internal evaluation conducted by the instructional staff suggested that principals preferred ROME-FOCUS training to…

  7. Field quality evaluation of the superconducting magnets of the relativistic heavy ion collider

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, J.; Gupta, R.C.; Jain, A.; Peggs, S.G.; Trahern, C.G.; Trbojevic, D.; Wanderer, P.

    1995-05-01

    In this paper, the authors first present the procedure established to evaluate the field quality, quench performance, and alignment of the superconducting magnets manufactured for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), and then discuss the strategies used to improve the field quality and to minimize undesirable effects by sorting the magnets. The field quality of the various RHIC magnets is briefly summarized.

  8. Evaluation of Field Insulation of Turbine-Generators with Higher Thyristor Excitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Nagano; M. Tari; T. Inohara; E. Koyanagi

    1986-01-01

    Application of a thyristor excitation system with high ceiling voltage to the turbine-generator field has required precise evaluation on field insulation, especially against spiky voltage. This paper reports on the investigation of breakdown through and over the surface of field insulating components for thyristor voltage. Particular emphasis is placed on the method for estimating voltage endurance characteristics for thyristor voltage

  9. Evaluation of field test kits including immunoassays for the detection of contaminants in soil and water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. C. Waters; R. R. Smith; R. W. Counts; J. H. Stewart; R. A. Jenkins

    1993-01-01

    Effective field test methods are needed for hazardous waste site characterization and remediation. Useful field methods should be rapid, analyte-specific, cost-effective and accurate in the concentration range at which the analyte is regulated. In this study, field test kits for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), mercury, lead and nitrate were evaluated with reference to these criteria. PCBs and mercury, in soils, were

  10. Reliability evaluation of a hydraulic truck crane using field data with fuzziness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H.-Z. Huang

    1996-01-01

    The feedback information (field data) of the machines from the actual users forms the main data used to analyse their reliability. Due to the fuzziness of the field data, however, it is difficult to analyse their reliability by the field data. Thus, taking the hydraulic truck crane model QY20A as an example, this paper proposed a method to evaluate the

  11. Field evaluation of hazardous waste site bioassessment protocols. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.M.; Cline, J.F.; Gano, K.A.; McShane, M.C.; Rogers, J.E.; Rogers, L.E.; Simpson, J.C.; Skalski, J.R.

    1984-04-01

    The overall goal of the plan was to demonstrate that honeybees could be used in detecting likely areas of chemical pollution, to demonstrate the usefulness of microbial and plant phytoassays, and to demonstrate a relationship between laboratory derived phytotoxicity results and field observations of plant community structure and diversity. Field studies were conducted through a cooperative arrangement with the US Army arsenal in Commerce City, Colorado.

  12. Accountability Study of the Program for Trainable Mentally Retarded Children and Youth. Summary Evaluation Report 1971-72.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duval County School Board, Jacksonville, FL.

    Summarized are evaluation activities and results for the first year of an accountability study for trainable mentally retarded (TMR) children and youth carried out by the Duval County School Board of Jacksonville, Florida. It is explained that the evaluation design included the construction and implementation of criterion measures, statistical…

  13. Evaluation of the Texas Technology Immersion Pilot: An Analysis of Second-Year (2005-06) Implementation. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Center for Educational Research, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Technology Immersion Pilot (TIP), a project sponsored by the Texas Education Agency (TEA), leverages federal Title II, Part D funds to support a wireless learning environment for high-need middle schools. A concurrent research project funded by a federal Evaluating State Educational Technology Programs grant is evaluating whether student…

  14. Bear Creek Valley Floodplain hot spot removal early action characterization field data summary report, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report summarizes the field and laboratory efforts as a result of the Bear Creek Floodplain Hot Spot Removal Project Early Action. The purpose of this project was to collect data necessary to assess contaminant levels in the Bear Creek Valley Floodplain and evaluate the risk posed by the sites. This report provides information on the background of the site, characterization of site and field activities, results of field and laboratory data collected, extent and distribution of contamination, and an assessment of the future risk posed by the site.

  15. Inhibitor evaluations and correlation of laboratory and field data in CO{sub 2} environments

    SciTech Connect

    Abayarathna, D.; Naraghi, A.; Grahmann, N.; Buchholz, B. [Champion Technologies Inc., Fresno, TX (United States); Blumer, D.J. [ARCO Alaska Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States)

    1999-11-01

    In oil and gas production environments, one of the techniques utilized for the corrosion control of carbon steel is the application of corrosion inhibitors. The corrosion inhibitors, which are formulated specifically for given field conditions, undergo rigorous qualification and performance evaluations at the laboratory before being submitted for a field application. At the field, the selected chemicals are evaluated in stages, at various production locations before being applied in the main production lines. The corrosion monitoring programs implemented in the production field provide not only the evaluations of chemicals in use but also the overall success of the corrosion control program. Successful corrosion control programs demand cost effective corrosion inhibitors with optimized performance. This paper describes the selection process of a performance optimized cost effective corrosion inhibitor. Various chemical evaluation techniques utilized in the laboratory and the field are discussed and the correlation of these data is presented.

  16. Engineers evaluate submersible pumps in North Sea field

    SciTech Connect

    Way, A.R.; Hewett, M.A.

    1982-07-01

    Experimentation with several different electric submersible pump designs and installations in the UK's Montrose field, whose oil production has been hindered by increasing water cuts and highly deviated wells turning up marginal amounts of sand is described. Gas lift is a possible alternative to the pumps since there is platform space for facilities to be installed, and sufficient gas production during the major part of the field life. Submersible pumps as artificial lifts require a continuing operating cost to pull and regularly replace failed units.

  17. Technical Evaluation Summary of the In Situ Vitrification Melt Expulsion at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on April 21, 1996, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    This Technical Evaluation Summary of the In Situ Vitrification Melt Expulsion at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on April 21, 1996, was prepared at the request of the Department of Energy as a supporting reference document for the Final Unusual Occurrence Report to fully explore the probable causes that lead to the subject incident. This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with the technical information on the performance of the in situ vitrification treatability study operations at ORNL pit 1 up to and including the time of the melt expulsion incident. This document also attempts to diagnose the causes of the melt expulsion event the consequent damages to equipment the radiological impacts of the event, and the equipment design modifications and procedural changes necessary for future safe ISV operations.

  18. Summary of Testimony for the February 21, 2002 Field Hearing on The Role of Fuel Cells in

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    of environmentally and economically appropriate design. I hope this hearing will provide the impetus to move the U. SSummary of Testimony for the February 21, 2002 Field Hearing on The Role of Fuel Cells in The Renewable Roadmap to Energy Independence Subcommittee on Energy of the Committee on Science, United States

  19. Field Summary Report for Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    L.C. Hulstrom

    2010-09-28

    This report documents field activity associated with the collection, preparation, and shipment of fish samples. The purpose of the report is to describe the sampling locations, identify samples collected, and describe any modifications and additions made to the sampling and analysis plan.

  20. Thesis Summary It has been known for over three decades that magnetic fields can influence the rates and yields of

    E-print Network

    van den Brink, Jeroen

    takes place during illumination. Low- temperature spectroscopy and frequency-modulated absorbance the magnetic field effect (MFE), a) the magnetite mechanism; b) the radical pair mechanism. The only mechanism far proved impossible to demonstrate convincingly a biological RPM effect. The studies

  1. Botulinum toxin field assays evaluated using cosmetic botox preparations.

    PubMed

    Slotved, Hans-Christian; Tanassi, Julia Tanas; Sparding, Nadja; Lindqvist, Anja; Steenhard, Nina R; Heegaard, Niels H H

    2013-12-01

    Several quick tests for identifying botulinum toxins (BoNTs) are commercially available, but generally these tests have not been evaluated by independent laboratories. This study presents data on the evaluation of a number of commercial tests and demonstrates the use of cosmetic preparations of BoNT A and B as positive controls. For reference we used an in-house ELISA procedure. The cosmetic toxins, Botox(®) and Neurobloc(®), were found to be useful-that is, they had a sufficiently high toxin content to be used in test evaluation studies. Some commercial kits based on columns (ABICAP(®)) or lateral flow technology were tested for their detection limits. The ABICAP column system was found to be a useful alternative to an in-house ELISA method. In general, the lateral flow-based test systems evaluated here were not able to detect BoNT, and a large proportion of the tests showed construction failures. In conclusion, this study showed that cosmetic BoNT products have enough toxin content to be used as convenient and accessible means of testing commercially available quick tests. The lateral flow tests used in this study were not satisfactory, while the ABICAP system was found to be a good alternative to an ELISA. PMID:24219493

  2. Rapid evaluation of potential fields in particle systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Greengard

    1987-01-01

    The evaluation of Coulombic or gravitational interactions in large-scale ensembles of particles is an integral part of the numerical simulation of a large number of physical processes. Examples include celestial mechanics, plasma physics, the vortex method in fluid dynamics, molecular dynamics, and the solution of the Laplace equation via potential theory. In a typical application, a numerical model follows the

  3. FIELD EVALUATION OF A UTILITY DRY SCRUBBING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of the first independent evaluation of a full-scale utility spray-dryer/baghouse dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. The system treats flue gas from a nominal 100 MW of coal-fired power generation. The test program, conducted during July-October 19...

  4. COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION OF A FIELD TEST KIT FOR LEAD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Hach Lead-Trak(R) test kit for lead in water was tested in a laboratory evaluation. onsidered were: perator bias, precision, accuracy, linear calibration range, and potential drinking water interferences. nterferences tested were realistic levels off: a, Mg, Ni, Sb, Mn, Cd, C...

  5. ESTIMATING SAMPLE REQUIREMENTS FOR FIELD EVALUATIONS OF PESTICIDE LEACHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method is presented for estimating the number of samples needed to evaluate pesticide leaching threats to ground water at a desired level of precision. Sample size projections are based on desired precision (exhibited as relative tolerable error), level of confidence (90 or 95%...

  6. Field Evaluation of an Avian Risk Assessment Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted two laboratory subacute dietary toxicity tests and one outdoor subacute dietary toxicity test to determine the effectiveness of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's deterministic risk assessment model for evaluating the potential of adverse effects to birds in ...

  7. Field Testing of the Discrete-Trials Teaching Evaluation Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeanson, Brigitte; Thiessen, Carly; Thomson, Kendra; Vermeulen, Rhiannon; Martin, Garry L.; Yu, C. T.

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the reliability and validity of the discrete-trials teaching evaluation form (DTTEF), a 21-item checklist for assessing instructors conducting discrete-trials teaching (DTT). In Phase 1, six consultants in an applied behavior analysis program for children with autism rated the 21 components of the DTTEF with a mean of 6.2 on a 7-point…

  8. Laboratory and field evaluation of broiler litter nitrogen mineralization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. R. Sistani; A. Adeli; S. L. McGowen; H. Tewolde; G. E. Brink

    2008-01-01

    Two studies were conducted for this research. First, a laboratory incubation to quantify broiler litter N mineralization with the following treatments: two soil moisture regimes, constant at 60% water fill pore space (WFPS) and fluctuating (60–30% WFPS), three soil types, Brooksville silty clay loam, Ruston sandy loam from Mississippi, and Catlin silt loam from Illinois. Second, a field incubation study

  9. BIOREMEDIATION FIELD EVALUATION - HILL AIR FORCE BASE, UTAH

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1990, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the Bioremediation Field Initiative as part of its overall strategy to increase the use of bioremediation to treat hazardous wastes at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liabil- ity Act (C...

  10. A Field Evaluation of Rain Garden Flow and Pollutant Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael E. Dietz; John C. Clausen

    2005-01-01

    Rain gardens have been recommended as a best management practice to treat stormwater runoff. However, no published field performance data existed on pollutant removal capabilities. Replicated rain gardens were constructed in Haddam, CT, to capture shingled-roof runoff. The gardens were sized to store the first 2.54 cm (1 inch) of runoff. Influent, overflow and percolate flow were measured using tipping

  11. FIELD ANALYTICAL SCREENING PROGRAM: PCP METHOD - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Field Analytical Screening Program (FASP) pentachlorophenol (PCP) method uses a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a megabore capillary column and flame ionization detector (FID) and electron capture detector (ECD) to identify and quantify PCP. The FASP PCP method is design...

  12. Field Evaluation of a Mini Learning Resource Aided Instruction System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attala, Emile E.; Howard, James A.

    Very little work has been done in the broad field of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) to exploring the use of a minicomputer as another learning resource in the instructional process. Accordingly a cost-effective Learning Resource Aided Instruction (LRAI) System centered around a Data General NOVA minicomputer augmented with slide…

  13. BWR Radiation Assessment and Control Program: assessment and control of BWR radiation fields. Volume 1. Executive summary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anstine

    1983-01-01

    This report covers work on the BWR Radiation Assessment and Control (BRAC) Program from 1978 to 1982. The major activities during this report period were assessment of the radiation-level trends in BWRs, evaluation of the effects of forward-pumped heater drains on BWR water quality, installation and operation of a corrosion-product deposition loop in an operating BWR, and analyzation of fuel-deposit

  14. Development of a Visual Inspection Checklist for Evaluation of Fielded PV Module Condition (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Packard, C. E; Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-03-01

    A visual inspection checklist for the evaluation of fielded photovoltaic (PV) modules has been developed to facilitate collection of data describing the field performance of PV modules. The proposed inspection checklist consists of 14 sections, each documenting the appearance or properties of a part of the module. This tool has been evaluated through the inspection of over 60 PV modules produced by more than 20 manufacturers and fielded at two different sites for varying periods of time. Aggregated data from a single data collection tool such as this checklist has the potential to enable longitudinal studies of module condition over time, technology evolution, and field location for the enhancement of module reliability models.

  15. Field evaluation of gelled acid for carbonate formations

    SciTech Connect

    Church, D.C.; Quisenberry, J.L.; Fox, K.B.

    1981-01-01

    A new gelled acid was evaluated in W. Texas, S.E. New Mexico, and Oklahoma. The evaluation determined how successful a gelled acid, prepared from xanthan polymer, would be in the following formations: Ellenburger, Blinebry, San Andres, Clearfork, Canyon Lime, Strawn Lime, Grayburg, Devonian, Drinkard Dolomite, Viola and Chester. Treatment depths vary from 4000 to 22,000 ft. Treatment temperatures vary from 70 to 310 F. Treatments were performed on both oil and gas wells. The age of the wells stimulated varies from new to 30 yr old. The concentration of gelled acid remained constant at 15% HCl. The concentration of gelling agent remained constant at 60 lb/1000 gal. The size of the treatments varied from 5000 to 80,000 gal of gelled acid. More than 20 treatments are summarized. Production figures for the well treated are summarized. Production figures for the wells treated are discussed, as well as pertinent related information.

  16. Personal Radiation Detector Field Test and Evaluation Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Chris A. Hodge, Ding Yuan, Raymond P. Keegan, Michael A. Krstich

    2007-07-09

    Following the success of the Anole test of portable detection system, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Domestic Nuclear Detection Office organized a test and evaluation campaign for personal radiation detectors (PRDs), also known as 'Pagers'. This test, 'Bobcat', was conducted from July 17 to August 8, 2006, at the Nevada Test Site. The Bobcat test was designed to evaluate the performance of PRDs under various operational scenarios, such as pedestrian surveying, mobile surveying, cargo container screening, and pedestrian chokepoint monitoring. Under these testing scenarios, many operational characteristics of the PRDs, such as gamma and neutron sensitivities, positive detection and false alarm rates, response delay times, minimum detectable activities, and source localization errors, were analyzed. This paper will present the design, execution, and methodologies used to test this equipment for the DHS.

  17. Performance evaluation of parallel electric field tunnel field-effect transistor by a distributed-element circuit model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Yukinori; Mori, Takahiro; Migita, Shinji; Mizubayashi, Wataru; Tanabe, Akihito; Fukuda, Koichi; Matsukawa, Takashi; Endo, Kazuhiko; O'uchi, Shin-ichi; Liu, Yongxun; Masahara, Meishoku; Ota, Hiroyuki

    2014-12-01

    The performance of parallel electric field tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs), in which band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) was initiated in-line to the gate electric field was evaluated. The TFET was fabricated by inserting an epitaxially-grown parallel-plate tunnel capacitor between heavily doped source wells and gate insulators. Analysis using a distributed-element circuit model indicated there should be a limit of the drain current caused by the self-voltage-drop effect in the ultrathin channel layer.

  18. An evaluation of field projects of steam with additives

    SciTech Connect

    Castanier, L.M.; Brigham, W.E. (Stanford University (US))

    1991-02-01

    The use of additives to improve both steamdrive and cyclic steam injection in field projects has been tested under a variety of conditions. This technique attempts to reduce gravity override and channeling of the steam by foam generation. Another mechanism appears to be detergent cleaning near wellbores by surface-active agents. When successful, this technology seems to be economic even at a low oil price. The results, however, have ranged from excellent to negative. In this paper, the authors attempt toe valuate the field projects published to date. The results of this study show that the use of additives with steam can provide significant benefits over the use of steam alone. Indeed, addition of surfactant to the steam has proved to be both technically and economically successful when the proper products and procedures were used. Caustics have given mixed results but seem to have been effective in at least one cyclic-steam project.

  19. Field evaluation of triclopyr ester toxicity to fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. P. Kreutzweiser; D. G. Thompson; S. S. Capell; D. R. Thomas; B. Staznik

    1995-01-01

    Two field experiments were conducted to assess the predictions of laboratory time-toxicity tests regarding lethal effects of triclopyr butoxyethyl ester (TBEE) on fish in standing and flowing water bodies. Large lake enclosures were treated with TBEE by backpack sprayer at concentrations of 0.25–7.6 mg\\/L, expressed as acid equivalents. Median dissipation times for TBEE in lake water ranged from 4–8 d.Effects

  20. Rice and cold stress: methods for its evaluation and summary of cold tolerance-related quantitative trait loci

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cold stress adversely affects rice (Oryza sativa L.) growth and productivity, and has so far determined its geographical distribution. Dissecting cold stress-mediated physiological changes and understanding their genetic causes will facilitate the breeding of rice for cold tolerance. Here, we review recent progress in research on cold stress-mediated physiological traits and metabolites, and indicate their roles in the cold-response network and cold-tolerance evaluation. We also discuss criteria for evaluating cold tolerance and evaluate the scope and shortcomings of each application. Moreover, we summarize research on quantitative trait loci (QTL) related to cold stress at the germination, seedling, and reproductive stages that should provide useful information to accelerate progress in breeding cold-tolerant rice. PMID:25279026

  1. Effects of temperature on bacterial transport and destruction in bioretention media: Field and laboratory evaluations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial activities (such as metabolism, predation, and proliferation) are significantly influenced by temperature. This study investigated the effects of temperature on the capture and destruction of bacteria from urban stormwater runoff in bioretention media using 2-yr field evaluations coupled ...

  2. Evaluation of WRF mesoscale simulations and particle trajectory analysis for the MILAGRO field campaign

    E-print Network

    de Foy, B.

    Accurate numerical simulations of the complex wind flows in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) can be an invaluable tool for interpreting the MILAGRO field campaign results. This paper uses three methods to evaluate ...

  3. Putting Youth Relationship Education on the Child Welfare Agenda: Findings from a Research and Evaluation Review. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Mindy E.; Moore, Kristin Anderson; Hawkins, Alan J.; Malm, Karin; Beltz, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Child Trends reviewed existing evidence on a somewhat neglected topic: relationship education for youth in foster care. The goals of this research review were to identify the needs of disadvantaged young people around intimate partner relationships, to identify evaluated relationship education programs, to highlight and synthesize common themes…

  4. Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of Leadership/Management Training Within Army Battalions: Volume I: Summary of Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, John P.; Cliborn, Robert E.

    The report describes the development and evaluation of an in-unit, leadership/management training program (based on experimental training methodology for providing Army leaders with behavioral skills and techniques) implemented within three battalion-sized combat units at Fort Bliss, Texas, in 1974. The program was organized around workshops…

  5. Summary of the Fourth Report on the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2004-01-01

    This is a special report by The Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents to inform clinicians on recent scientific evidence related to blood pressure in children and to offer recommendations for evaluation and treatment of hypertension in these patients.

  6. Review and Evaluation of Current Training Programs Found in Various Mining Environments. Final Report. Volume I, Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, John; And Others

    A project was designed to produce a broad description of current mining training programs and to evaluate their effectiveness with respect to reducing mine injuries. The research strategy was built on the ranking of mines according to the effectiveness of their training with an effective training effort being defined as that training which is…

  7. EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR CERCLA SOILS AND DEBRIS (SUMMARY OF PHASE I AND PHASE II)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted in two phases. n the first phase, a synthetic soil matrix was prepared as a theoretical composite of Superfund soils nationwide. n the second phase, soils from actual Superfund sites were treated. hree treatment technologies were evaluated in both phases:...

  8. Alternative Student Growth Measures for Teacher Evaluation: Profiles of Early-Adopting Districts. Summary. REL 2014-016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Brian; English, Brittany; Furgeson, Joshua; McCullough, Moira

    2014-01-01

    States and districts are beginning to use student achievement growth--as measured by state assessments (often using statistical techniques known as value-added models or student growth models)--as part of their teacher evaluation systems. But this approach has limited application in most states, because their assessments are typically administered…

  9. Case Studies in Evaluating the Benefits and Costs of Mediated Instruction and Distributed Learning: Synopses/Summaries of Eight Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Frank

    This report summarizes eight case studies undertaken to evaluate the benefits and costs of mediated instruction and distributed learning. The case studies included: (1) "The Master's Degree in Social Work at Cleveland State University and the University of Akron: A Case Study of the Benefits and Costs of a Joint Degree Program Offered via…

  10. Accountability Study of the Program for Trainable Mentally Retarded Children and Youth. Summary Evaluation Report, 1973-74.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, William L.; Guertin, Wilson H.

    Monies granted under Title VI-B of the Education of the Handicapped Act funded an accountability study of the Duval County Program (Jacksonville, Florida) for trainable mentally handicapped (TMH) children and youth. An organized collection of approximately 675 behavioral objectives and accompanying criterion test items was developed for evaluating

  11. An Evaluation of the Teacher Learning Academy: Phases 1 and 2. Final Report (Summary Report and Full Report)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moor, Helen; Lamont, Emily; Lord, Pippa; Gulliver, Caroline

    2006-01-01

    This research sets out key findings from an evaluation of Phases 1 and 2 of the pilot Teacher Learning Academy (TLA). The pilot TLA was established by the General Teaching Council for England (GTC) to provide professional and public recognition for teacher learning and development work. The Academy offers the opportunity for the learning that…

  12. Laboratory and field evaluation of broiler litter nitrogen mineralization.

    PubMed

    Sistani, K R; Adeli, A; McGowen, S L; Tewolde, H; Brink, G E

    2008-05-01

    Two studies were conducted for this research. First, a laboratory incubation to quantify broiler litter N mineralization with the following treatments: two soil moisture regimes, constant at 60% water fill pore space (WFPS) and fluctuating (60-30% WFPS), three soil types, Brooksville silty clay loam, Ruston sandy loam from Mississippi, and Catlin silt loam from Illinois. Second, a field incubation study to quantify broiler litter N mineralization using similar soils and litter application rates as the laboratory incubation. Broiler litter was applied at an equivalent rate of 350 kg total N ha(-1) for both studies except for control treatments. Subsamples were taken at different timing for both experiments for NO3-N and NH4-N determinations. In the laboratory experiment, soil moisture regimes had no significant impact on litter-derived inorganic N. Total litter-derived inorganic N across all treatments increased from 23 mg kg(-1) at time 0, to 159 mg kg(-1) at 93 d after litter application. Significant differences were observed among the soil types. Net litter-derived inorganic N was greater for Brooksville followed by Ruston and Catlin soils. For both studies and all soils, NH4-N content decreased while NO3-N content increased indicating a rapid nitrification of the mineralized litter N. Litter mineralization in the field study followed the same trend as the laboratory study but resulted in much lower net inorganic N, presumably due to environmental conditions such as precipitation and temperature, which may have resulted in more denitrification and immobilization of mineralized litter N. Litter-derived inorganic N from the field study was greater for Ruston than Brooksville. Due to no impact by soil moisture regimes, additional studies are warranted in order to develop predictive relationships to quantify broiler litter N availability. PMID:17604161

  13. Symmetry Summary

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dexter Perkins

    This summary exercise involves crystal system and point group identification and stereo diagram construction. Students are presented with 5 blocks and for each block they must determine it's point group and crystal system, make stereo diagrams showing all symmetry and faces, and draw the blocks by hand or with SHAPE and label the Miller Indices.

  14. Conference Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, P.; Koenigsberger, G.

    2008-08-01

    In this summary we will first talk a little bit about the woman whose work so inspired us and brought us here. We will then describe what we feel we learned this week, and finally we will pose some of the big questions that we are left with.

  15. MEETING SUMMARY

    Cancer.gov

    MEETING SUMMARY PRESIDENT'S CANCER PANEL A DIALOGUE BETWEEN THE PRESIDENT’S CANCER PANEL AND THE YAKAMA NATION J u l y 2 9 – 3 0 , 2 0 0 2 T o p p e n i s h , W a s h i n g t o n OVERVIEW The President’s Cancer Panel was chartered to

  16. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents summaries of three recent crisis management publications: (1) "School Violence: Associations With Control, Security/Enforcement, Educational/Therapeutic Approaches, and Demographic Factors," reviewed by Ashlee Barton; (2) "The Relationship Between Cognitive Coping Styles and PTSD in Survivors of Traffic Accidents," summarized…

  17. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents summaries of four recent crisis management publications: (1) "Crisis Intervention for Children/Caregivers Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence," summarized by Donna DeVaughn Kreskey; (2) "Predictors of Trauma Reactions Following the 9/11 Terrorist Attacks," summarized by Kelly O'Connor; (3) "Cognitive Coping Styles and PTSD…

  18. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    In this column, members of the NASP Crisis Management in the Schools Interest Group provide summaries of three studies relevant to school crisis response. The first study investigated the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among rescue workers. The second article explored the Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention, which is…

  19. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This column features summaries of five research articles relevant to school crisis response. The first, "High School Teachers' Experiences With Suicidal Students," summarized by Robyn Bratica, offers the results of a study examining high school teachers' experiences with suicidal students and suggests that contact with suicidal students is very…

  20. Field evaluation of environmental sanitation measures against cholera*

    PubMed Central

    Azurin, J. C.; Alvero, M.

    1974-01-01

    Data obtained in a controlled field study over 5 years in 4 communities showed that the provision of sanitary facilities for human waste disposal can reduce the incidence of cholera by as much as 68%, while the provision of a safe water supply can decrease it by 73%. Where both toilets and water supplies are provided, the incidence can be reduced by as much as 76%. There was evidence that cholera infection gaining access to communities with these facilities tends to spread less and produce fewer secondary cases than in a community where such facilities are not provided. PMID:4549038

  1. Generation of infant anatomical models for evaluating electromagnetic field exposures.

    PubMed

    Li, Congsheng; Chen, Zhiye; Yang, Lei; Lv, Bin; Liu, Jianzhe; Varsier, Nadège; Hadjem, Abdelhamid; Wiart, Joe; Xie, Yi; Ma, Lin; Wu, Tongning

    2015-01-01

    Realistic anatomical modeling is essential in analyzing human exposure to electromagnetic fields. Infants have significant physical and anatomical differences compared with other age groups. However, few realistic infant models are available. In this work, we developed one 12-month-old male whole body model and one 17-month-old male head model from magnetic resonance images. The whole body and head models contained 28 and 30 tissues, respectively, at spatial resolution of 1 mm × 1 mm × 1 mm. Fewer identified tissues in the whole body model were a result of the low original image quality induced by the fast imaging sequence. The anatomical and physical parameters of the models were validated against findings in published literature (e.g., a maximum deviation as 18% in tissue mass was observed compared with the data from International Commission on Radiological Protection). Several typical exposure scenarios were realized for numerical simulation. Dosimetric comparison with various adult and child anatomical models was conducted. Significant differences in the physical and anatomical features between adult and child models demonstrated the importance of creating realistic infant models. Current safety guidelines for infant exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields may not be conservative. PMID:25328088

  2. Evaluation of residential exposure to intermediate frequency magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Yoshika; Nitta, Hiroshi; Kabuto, Michinori

    2004-12-01

    The authors measured the exposure to intermediate-frequency (IF: 10 kHz to 30 MHz) electromagnetic fields (EMF) in residential environments. They developed a system to acquire and record waveforms of IF magnetic fields (MFs) and set 5 nanotesla (nT) for the trigger level of acquisition. They operated the system near power lines, railroads, and electrical appliances as possible sources of IF-MFs. Most of the maximum values of magnetic flux density and the time derivative for each wave were below the upper limit of the measurable range of our system (i.e., 53 nT and 10 T/s); these values were much lower than the minimum amplitudes that can theoretically induce heating or membrane excitation within biological systems. Moreover, the amplitudes of the IF-MFs were not related to those of extremely low frequency (ELF) MF measured simultaneously, indicating that IF-MFs do not underlie the associations, observed in several epidemiological studies, between residential exposure to ELF-EMF and childhood cancer. PMID:16789479

  3. Evaluation of Occupational Cold Environments: Field Measurements and Subjective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    OLIVEIRA, A. Virgílio M.; GASPAR, Adélio R.; RAIMUNDO, António M.; QUINTELA, Divo A.

    2014-01-01

    The present work is dedicated to the study of occupational cold environments in food distribution industrial units. Field measurements and a subjective assessment based on an individual questionnaire were considered. The survey was carried out in 5 Portuguese companies. The field measurements include 26 workplaces, while a sample of 160 responses was considered for the subjective assessment. In order to characterize the level of cold exposure, the Required Clothing Insulation Index (IREQ) was adopted. The IREQ index highlights that in the majority of the workplaces the clothing ensembles worn are inadequate, namely in the freezing chambers where the protection provided by clothing is always insufficient. The questionnaires results show that the food distribution sector is characterized by a female population (70.6%), by a young work force (60.7% are less than 35?yr old) and by a population with a medium-length professional career (80.1% in this occupation for less than 10?yr). The incidence of health effects which is higher among women, the distribution of protective clothing (50.0% of the workers indicate one garment) and the significant percentage of workers (>75%) that has more difficulties in performing the activity during the winter represent other important results of the present study. PMID:24583510

  4. Sudbury project (University of Muenster-Ontario Geological Survey): Field studies 1984-1989 - summary of results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bischoff, L.; Dressler, B. O.; Avermann, M. E.; Brockmeyer, P.; Lakomy, R.; Mueller-Mohr, V.

    1992-01-01

    In cooperation between the Ontario Geological Survey and the Institute of Geology and Institute of Planetology, geological, petrological, and geochemical studies were carried out on impact-related phenomena of the Sudbury structure during the last decade. The main results of the field studies are briefly reviewed. Footwall rocks, sublayer, and lower sections of the Sudbury Igneous Complex (SIC) were mainly mapped and sampled in the northern (Levack Township) and western (Trillabelle and Sultana Properties) parts of the north range. Within these mapping areas Sudbury Breccias (SB) and Footwall Breccias (FB) were studied; SB were also investigated along extended profiles beyond the north and south ranges up to 55 km from the SIC. The Onaping Formation (OF) and the upper section of the SIC were studied both in the north range (Morgan and Dowling Townships) and in the southern east range (Capreol and McLennan Townships).

  5. Comprehensive evaluation of a field test kit for lead

    SciTech Connect

    George, G.K.; Schock, M.R.; Kelty, K.C.

    1991-01-01

    The Hach Lead-Trak test kit for lead in water was tested in a laboratory evaluation. Considered were: operator bias, precision, accuracy, linear calibration range, and potential drinking water interferences. Interferences tested were realistic levels of: Ca, Mg, Ni, Sb, Mn, Cd, Cu, Zn, Fe(II), Fe(III), Al, NO3(-), Cl(-), F(-), PO4(3-), P2O7(4-), P6O18(-6), and P3O10(5-). Interferences were tested individually in deionized water, using a linear regression slope technique to detect bias. Results of analyses of split spiked samples and actual drinking water samples were compared to GFAAS values. Agreement with GFAAS was generally good from 0 to 50 micrograms Pb/L, but the kit suffered from significant negative interferences from Fe(II), Zn(II), and all polyphosphates. Recoveries of Pb from 6 different tap waters ranged from 81 to 109%. No operator bias was found.

  6. Evaluations of carbon nanotube field emitters for electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakahara, Hitoshi; Kusano, Yoshikazu; Kono, Takumi; Saito, Yahachi

    2009-11-01

    Brightness of carbon nanotube (CNT) emitters was already reported elsewhere. However, brightness of electron emitter is affected by a virtual source size of the emitter, which strongly depends on electron optical configuration around the emitter. In this work, I- V characteristics and brightness of a CNT emitter are measured under a practical field emission electron gun (e-gun) configuration to investigate availability of CNT for electron microscopy. As a result, it is obtained that an emission area of MWNT is smaller than its tip surface area, and the emission area corresponds to a five-membered-ring with 2nd nearest six-membered-rings on the MWNT cap surface. Reduced brightness of MWNT is measured as at least 2.6×109 A/m 2 sr V. It is concluded that even a thick MWNT has enough brightness under a practical e-gun electrode configuration and suitable for electron microscopy.

  7. Pilot Study and Field Test Data and Experiences for the Georgia Media Specialist Evaluation Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullinax, Jane P.

    An overview of the 1988-89 pilot study and 1989-90 field test for the Georgia Media Specialist Evaluation Program is provided. Development of an annual evaluation program for media specialists began in 1987 with the formation of an advisory committee of media specialists, administrators, university personnel, and Georgia Education Department…

  8. Greenhouse and Field Nursery Evaluation for Potato Common Scab Tolerance in a Tetraploid Population

    E-print Network

    Douches, David S.

    Greenhouse and Field Nursery Evaluation for Potato Common Scab Tolerance in a Tetraploid Population, but they are skewed toward susceptibility. A greenhouse-based screening procedure was evaluated to discern tolerant strain MSDPZ at a concentration of 3 X 108 CFU/ml. This greenhouse assay effectively discerned tolerant

  9. Field Test Evaluation of Educational Software: A Description of One Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tovar, Mariela; Barker, Nicholas

    1986-01-01

    The summative evaluation of a courseware program designed to assist in writing the lower-case alphabet is described to demonstrate the effectiveness of a field test for answering specific evaluation questions, collecting maximum evidence on which to base conclusions of instructional effectiveness, and being flexible enough for use in normal…

  10. Field Evaluation of a Leachate Collection System Constructed with Scrap Tires

    E-print Network

    Aydilek, Ahmet

    Field Evaluation of a Leachate Collection System Constructed with Scrap Tires Ahmet H. Aydilek1 is the use of tire chips as a leachate collection material in municipal solid waste landfills. Laboratory to evaluate the hydraulic performance as well as the potential for spontaneous combustion. Leachate collected

  11. Field Experience Supervision: A Comparison of Cooperating Teachers' and College Supervisors' Evaluations of Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunn, Lorie L.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored and compared the ways in which school-based cooperating teachers and college supervisors evaluate student teachers. The scores allocated to student teachers by school-based cooperating teachers and college supervisors in the final field experience evaluations of student teachers were analyzed. A mixed methods research design…

  12. Design and Field Testing of a Systematic Procedure for Evaluating Vocational Programs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Public Schools, OR.

    The purpose of a project was to design and field-test a system for evaluating the adequacy of the vocational curriculum utilized by the Vocational Village, an alternative school for the training of individuals who have experienced failure in other educational settings. Focus was on the development of an evaluation model which will assess the…

  13. Optical surface pressure measurements: Accuracy and application field evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukov, A.; Mosharov, V.; Orlov, A.; Pesetsky, V.; Radchenko, V.; Phonov, S.; Matyash, S.; Kuzmin, M.; Sadovskii, N.

    1994-07-01

    Optical pressure measurement (OPM) is a new pressure measurement method rapidly developed in several aerodynamic research centers: TsAGI (Russia), Boeing, NASA, McDonnell Douglas (all USA), and DLR (Germany). Present level of OPM-method provides its practice as standard experimental method of aerodynamic investigations in definite application fields. Applications of OPM-method are determined mainly by its accuracy. The accuracy of OPM-method is determined by the errors of three following groups: (1) errors of the luminescent pressure sensor (LPS) itself, such as uncompensated temperature influence, photo degradation, temperature and pressure hysteresis, variation of the LPS parameters from point to point on the model surface, etc.; (2) errors of the measurement system, such as noise of the photodetector, nonlinearity and nonuniformity of the photodetector, time and temperature offsets, etc.; and (3) methodological errors, owing to displacement and deformation of the model in an airflow, a contamination of the model surface, scattering of the excitation and luminescent light from the model surface and test section walls, etc. OPM-method allows getting total error of measured pressure not less than 1 percent. This accuracy is enough to visualize the pressure field and allows determining total and distributed aerodynamic loads and solving some problems of local aerodynamic investigations at transonic and supersonic velocities. OPM is less effective at low subsonic velocities (M less than 0.4), and for precise measurements, for example, an airfoil optimization. Current limitations of the OPM-method are discussed on an example of the surface pressure measurements and calculations of the integral loads on the wings of canard-aircraft model. The pressure measurement system and data reduction methods used on these tests are also described.

  14. Design and evaluation of a computer tutorial on electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, Jeanne Jackson

    Research has shown that students do not fully understand electric fields and their interactions with charged particles after completing traditional classroom instruction. The purpose of this project was to develop a computer tutorial to remediate some of these difficulties. Research on the effectiveness of computer-delivered instructional materials showed that students would learn better from media incorporating user-controlled interactive graphics. Two versions of the tutorial were tested. One version used interactive graphics and the other used static graphics. The two versions of the tutorial were otherwise identical. This project was done in four phases. Phases I and II were used to refine the topics covered in the tutorial and to test the usability of the tutorial. The final version of the tutorial was tested in Phases III and IV. The tutorial was tested using a pretest-posttest design with a control group. Both tests were administered in an interview setting. The tutorial using interactive graphics was more effective at remediating students' difficulties than the tutorial using static graphics for students in Phase III (p = 0.001). In Phase IV students who viewed the tutorial with static graphics did better than those viewing interactive graphics. The sample size in Phase IV was too small for this to be a statistically meaningful result. Some student reasoning errors were noted during the interviews. These include difficulty with the vector representation of electric fields, treating electric charge as if it were mass, using faulty algebraic reasoning to answer questions involving ratios and proportions, and using Coulomb's law in situations in which it is not appropriate.

  15. The DESC field failure evaluation program “a cradle to grave approach”

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. Lantz; B. P. McNicholl

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the Defense Electronics Supply Center's field failure evaluation program and the results achieved. The primary objective of the program is to take positive corrective action steps to assure that quality electronics parts are used in DoD weapon systems. The corrective action steps start with the validation of field failures through lab testing. Lab testing is vital in

  16. FIELD-SCALE EVALUATION OF IN SITU COSOLVENT FLUSHING FOR ENCHANCED AQUIFER REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comprehensive, field-scale evaluation of in situ cosolvent flushing for enhanced remediation of nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL)-contaminated aquifers was performed in a hydraulically isolated test cell (about 4.3 m x 3.6 m) constructed at a field site at Hill Air Force Base, Uta...

  17. A Performance Evaluation of Gradient Field HOG Descriptor for Sketch Based Image Retrieval

    E-print Network

    Collomosse, John

    A Performance Evaluation of Gradient Field HOG Descriptor for Sketch Based Image Retrieval Rui Hua-hand sketches depicting shape. We describe Gradient Field HOG (GF-HOG); an adapted form of the HOG descriptor suitable for sketch based image retrieval (SBIR). We incorporate GF-HOG into a Bag of Visual Words (Bo

  18. A Field Training Model for Creative Arts Therapies: Report from a 3-Year Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orkibi, Hod

    2012-01-01

    Clinical field training is an essential component of educating future therapists. This article discusses a creative arts therapies field training model in Israel as designed and modified from 3 years of program evaluation in a changing regulatory context. A clinical seminar structure puts beginning students in the role of participant-observer in…

  19. Evaluation of One- and Two-Day Forestry Field Programs for Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Amy L.

    2004-01-01

    The methods and findings from a program evaluation of a forestry field visit for second grade students are detailed in this article. A pretest, posttest methodology was used to determine changes in students' (n = 133) attitudes and knowledge before and after the field experience(s). Interviews and surveys were conducted with students, teachers (n…

  20. Field test implementation to evaluate a flash LIDAR as a primary sensor for safe lunar landing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Keim; S. Mobasser; Da Kuang; Yang Cheng; T. Ivanov; A. E. Johnson; H. R. Goldberg; G. Khanoyan; D. B. Natzic

    2010-01-01

    From May 2 through May 7 of 2008, the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Exploration Technology Development Program carried out a helicopter field test to assess the use of a flash LIDAR as a primary sensor during lunar landing. The field test data has been used to evaluate the performance of the LIDAR system and of algorithms for

  1. Development and evaluation of a field-based high-throughput phenotyping platform

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physiological and developmental traits that vary over time are difficult to phenotype under relevant growing conditions. In response to this challenge, we developed a novel system for phenotyping dynamic traits in the field. System performance was evaluated on a field experiment of 25 Pima cotton cu...

  2. Disbond Thickness Evaluation Employing Multiple-Frequency Near-Field Microwave Measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed Ahmed Abou-Khousa; Reza Zoughi

    2007-01-01

    Near-field microwave nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques have shown great potential for disbond detection in multilayer dielectric composite structures. The high detection capability associated with these techniques stems from the fact that near-field microwave signals are sensitive to minute variations in the dielectric properties and geometry of the medium in which they propagate. In the past, the sensitivity of the near-field

  3. Soil gas carbon dioxide probe: laboratory testing and field evaluation.

    PubMed

    Patterson, B M; Furness, A J; Bastow, T P

    2013-05-01

    An automated semi-continuous on-line instrument has been developed to measure CO2 gas concentrations in the vadose zone. The instrument uses semi-permeable polymer tubing (CO2 probe) for diffusion based sampling, coupled to an infra red sensor. The system operated automatically by intermittently purging the CO2 probe, which was installed in the vadose zone, with a non-CO2 gas at a low flow rate. The gas exiting the CO2 probe was monitored at the ground surface using a miniature infra red sensor and the response related to the vadose zone soil gas CO2 concentration. The in situ CO2 probes provided a reliable monitoring technique under long-term (18 months) aggressive and dynamic field conditions, with no interference observed from non-CO2 gases and volatile organic compounds. The probes provided data that were comparable to conventional grab sampling techniques without the labour-intensive sample collection and processing associated with these conventional techniques. Also, disturbance to vadose zone CO2 profiles from repeated grab samples during long-term semi-continuous monitoring could potential be reduced by using the diffusion based sampling technique. PMID:23563305

  4. Development of a Characterized Radiation Field for Evaluating Sensor Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, D.M.; Coggins, T.L.; Marsh, J.; Mann, St.D.; Waggoner, Ch.A. [Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET) and Office of Regulatory Compliance, Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Numerous efforts are funded by US agencies (DOE, DoD, DHS) for development of novel radiation sensing and measurement systems. An effort has been undertaken to develop a flexible shielding system compatible with a variety of sources (beta, X-ray, gamma, and neutron) that can be highly characterized using conventional radiation detection and measurement systems. Sources available for use in this system include americium-beryllium (AmBe), plutonium-beryllium (PuBe), strontium-90 (Sr-90), californium-252 (Cf-252), krypton-85 (Kr-85), americium-241 (Am-241), and depleted uranium (DU). Shielding can be varied by utilization of materials that include lexan, water, oil, lead, and polyethylene. Arrangements and geometries of source(s) and shielding can produce symmetrical or asymmetrical radiation fields. The system has been developed to facilitate accurately repeatable configurations. Measurement positions are similarly capable of being accurately re-created. Stand-off measurement positions can be accurately re-established using differential global positioning system (GPS) navigation. Instruments used to characterize individual measurement locations include a variety of sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) (3 x 3 inch, 4 x 4 x 16 inch, Fidler) and lithium iodide (LiI(Eu)) detectors (for use with multichannel analyzer software) and detectors for use with traditional hand held survey meters such as boron trifluoride (BF{sub 3}), helium-3 ({sup 3}He), and Geiger-Mueller (GM) tubes. Also available are Global Dosimetry thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), CR39 neutron chips, and film badges. Data will be presented comparing measurement techniques with shielding/source configurations. The system is demonstrated to provide a highly functional process for comparison/characterization of various detector types relative to controllable radiation types and levels. Particular attention has been paid to use of neutron sources and measurements. (authors)

  5. Field evaluation of an acid rain-drought stress interaction.

    PubMed

    Banwart, W L

    1988-01-01

    Various methods have been proposed to simulate natural field conditions for growing agricultural crops while controlling conditions to study specific environmental effects. This report briefly describes the use of moveable rain exclusion shelters (10.4 x 40.9 m) to study the results of the interaction of acid rain and drought stress on corn and soybean yields. The rain exclusion shelters are constructed of galvanized pipe framing and covered with polyethylene film. Movement is automated by a rain switch to protect crops from ambient rainfall and to treat them with simulated acid rain The facility simulates a real environment with respect to variables such as solar exposure, wind movement, dew formation, and insect exposure, while allowing careful control of moisture regimes. Soybeans and corn were treated with average rainfall amounts, and with one-half and one-quarter of these rainfall amounts (drought stress) at two levels of rainfall acidity, pH 5.6 and 3.0. While drought stress resulted in considerable yield reduction for Amsoy and Williams soybeans, no additional reduction in yield was observed with rainfall of pH 3.0, as compared to rainfall of approximately pH 5.6. Similar results were observed for one corn cultivar, Pioneer 3377. For one year of the study however, yield of B73 x Mo17 (corn) was reduced 3139 kg ha(-1) by the most severe drought, and an additional 1883 kg ha(-1) by acid rain of pH 3.0, as compared to the control (pH 5.6). Yield reduction from acidic rain was considerably less at full water rates, resulting in a significant pH by drought stress interaction. However, during the second year of the experiment, no pH effect or drought by pH interaction was observed for this cultivar. The reason for the difference in the two years was not identified. PMID:15092545

  6. MPhil initiatives summary

    E-print Network

    2009-07-13

    CMI Summary of MPhil Initiatives M.Phil in BioScience Enterprise (launched October 2002). Aimed at bio-entrepreneurs, this programme offers teaching on the latest advances in biomedical science, business management, and ethical, legal... in neuroscience (BE.S4) Plant biotechnology (BE.S6) Bioengineering (BE.S7) Seminar series, etc.: Entrepreneurship seminar series: basics of building an enterprise Business and consumer psychology workshop Spotlight seminar series Analysts’ club Evaluating...

  7. Summary of Almost 20 Years of Storm Overflight Electric Field, Conductivity, Flash Rates, and Electric Current Statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, Richard J.; Mach, Douglas M.; Bateman, Monte J.; Bailey, Jeffrey C.

    2011-01-01

    We determined total conduction currents and flash rates for around 900 high-altitude aircraft overflights of electrified clouds over 17 years. The overflights include a wide geographical sample of storms over land and ocean, with and without lightning, and with positive (i.e., upward-directed) and negative current. Peak electric field, with lightning transients removed, ranged from -1.0 kV m(sup -1) to 16. kV m(sup -1), with mean (median) of 0.9 kV m(sup -1) (0.29 kV m(sup -1)). Total conductivity at flight altitude ranged from 0.6 pS m(sup -1) to 3.6 pS m(sup -1), with mean and median of 2.2 pS m(sup -1). Peak current densities ranged from -2.0 nA m(sup -2) to 33.0 nA m(sup -2) with mean (median) of 1.9 nA m(sup -2) (0.6 nA m(sup -2)). Total upward current flow from storms in our dataset ranged from -1.3 to 9.4 A. The mean current for storms with lightning is 1.6 A over ocean and 1.0 A over land. The mean current for electrified shower clouds (i.e. electrified storms without lightning) is 0.39 A for ocean and 0.13 A for land. About 78% (43%) of the land (ocean) storms have detectable lightning. Land storms have 2.8 times the mean flash rate as ocean storms (2.2 versus 0.8 flashes min(sup -1), respectively). Approximately 7% of the overflights had negative current. The mean and median currents for positive (negative) polarity storms are 1.0 and 0.35 A (-0.30 and -0.26 A). We found no regional or latitudinal-based patterns in our storm currents, nor support for simple scaling laws between cloud top height and lightning flash rate.

  8. Evaluation of melter technologies for vitrification of Hanford site low-level tank waste - phase 1 testing summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.N., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-27

    Following negotiation of the fourth amendment to the Tri- Party Agreement for Hanford Site cleanup, commercially available melter technologies were tested during 1994 and 1995 for vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream to be derived from retrieval and pretreatment of the radioactive defense wastes stored in 177 underground tanks. Seven vendors were selected for Phase 1 testing to demonstrate vitrification of a high-sodium content liquid LLW simulant. The tested melter technologies included four Joule-heated melters, a carbon electrode melter, a combustion melter, and a plasma melter. Various dry and slurry melter feed preparation processes also were tested. The technologies and Phase 1 testing results were evaluated and a preliminary technology down-selection completed. This report describes the Phase 1 LLW melter vendor testing and the tested technologies, and summarizes the testing results and the preliminary technology recommendations.

  9. Evaluation and Ranking of Geothermal Resources for Electrical Generation or Electrical Offset in Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington. Executive Summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomquist, R. Gordon

    1985-06-01

    The objective was to consolidate and evaluate all geologic, environmental, legal, and institutional information in existing records and files, and to apply a uniform methodology to the evaluation and ranking of all known geothermal sites. This data base would enhance the making of credible forecasts of the supply of geothermal energy which could be available in the region over a 20 year planning horizon. The four states, working under a cooperative agreement, identified a total of 1265 potential geothermal sites. The 1265 sites were screened to eliminate those with little or no chance of providing either electrical generation and/or electrical offset. Two hundred and forty-five of the original 1265 sites were determined to warrant further study. On the basis of a developability index, 78 high temperature sites and 120 direct utilization sites were identified as having ''good'' or ''average'' potential for development and should be studied in detail. On the basis of cost, at least 29 of the high temperature sites appear to be technically capable of supporting a minimum total of at least 1000 MW of electrical generation which could be competitive with the busbar cost of conventional thermal generating technologies. Sixty direct utilization sites have a minimum total energy potential of 900+ MW and can be expected to provide substantial amounts of electrical offset at or below present conventional energy prices. Five direct utilization sites and eight high temperature sites were identified with both high development and economic potential. An additional 27 sites were shown to have superior economic characteristics, but development problems. 14 refs., 15 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Evaluation and Ranking of Geothermal Resources for Electrical Generation or Electrical Offset in Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington. Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Black, G.L.; Parker, D.S.; Sifford, A.; Simpson, S.J.; Street, L.V.

    1985-06-01

    In 1983, the Bonneville Power Administration contracted for an evaluation and ranking of all geothermal resource sites in the states of Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington which have a potential for electrical generation and/or electrical offset through direct utilization of the resource. The objective of this program was to consolidate and evaluate all geologic, environmental, legal, and institutional information in existing records and files, and to apply a uniform methodology to the evaluation and ranking of all known geothermal sites. This data base would enhance the making of credible forecasts of the supply of geothermal energy which could be available in the region over a 20 year planning horizon. The four states, working together under a cooperative agreement, identified a total of 1,265 potential geothermal sites. The 1,265 sites were screened to eliminate those with little or no chance of providing either electrical generation and/or electrical offset. Two hundred and forty-five of the original 1,265 sites were determined to warrant further study. The Four-State team proceeded to develop a methodology which would rank the sites based upon an estimate of development potential and cost. Development potential was estimated through the use of weighted variables selected to approximate the attributes which a geothermal firm might consider in its selection of a site for exploration and possible development. Resource; engineering; and legal, institutional, and environmental factors were considered. Cost estimates for electrical generation and direct utilization sites were made using the computer programs CENTPLANT, WELLHEAD, and HEATPLAN. Finally, the sites were ranked utilizing a technique which allowed for the integration of development and cost information. On the basis of the developability index, 78 high temperature sites and 120 direct utilization sites were identified as having ''good'' or ''average'' potential for development and should be studied in detail. On the basis of cost, at least 29 of the high temperature sites appear to be technically capable of supporting a minimum total of at least 1,000 MW of electrical generation which could be competitive with the busbar cost of conventional thermal generating technologies. Sixty direct utilization sites have a minimum total energy potential of 900+ MW and can be expected to provide substantial amounts of electrical offset at or below present conventional energy prices. The combined development and economic rankings can be used to assist in determining sites with superior characteristics of both types. Five direct utilization sites and eight high temperature sites were identified with both high development and economic potential. An additional 27 sites were shown to have superior economic characteristics, but development problems. The procedure seems validated by the fact that two of the highest ranking direct utilization sites are ones that have already been developed--Boise, Idaho and Klamath Falls, Oregon. Most of the higher ranking high temperature sites have received serious examination in the past as likely power production candidates.

  11. Economic evaluation of the Annual Cycle Energy System. Volume I. Executive summary. Final report. [In Minneapolis, Atlanta, and Philadelphia

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the energy effectiveness and the economic viability of the ACES concept. Three different classes of building are investigated, namely: single-family residence; multi-family residence; and commercial office building. The application of ACES to each of these building types is studied in three different climatic regions: Minneapolis, Atlanta, and Philadelphia. Computer programs - ACESIM for the residences and CACESS for the office building - were used, each comprised of four modules: loads; design; simulation; and economic. For each building type in each geographic location, the economic evaluation of the ACES is based on a comparison of the present worth of the ACES to the present worth of a number of conventional systems. The results of this analysis indicate that the economic viability of the ACES is very sensitive to the assumed value of the property tax, maintenace cost, and fuel-escalation rates, while it is relatively insensitive to the assumed values of other parameters. Fortunately, any conceivable change in the fuel-escalation rates would tend to increase the viability of the ACES concept. An increase in the assumed value of the maintenance cost or property tax would tend to make the ACES concept less viable; a decrease in either would tend to make the ACES concept more viable. The detailed results of this analysis are given in Section 5.4 of Volume II. 2 figures, 21 tables.

  12. FY 1994 program summary: Office of Technology Development, Office of Research and Development, Office of Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management, formerly the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), was established in November 1989 as the first step toward correcting contamination problems resulting from nearly 50 years of nuclear weapons production and fuel processing activities. EM consolidates several DOE organizations previously responsible for the handling, treatment, and disposition of radioactive and hazardous waste. Within EM, the Office of Technology Development (OTD/EM-50) is responsible for developing technologies to meet DOE`s goal for environmental restoration. OTD manages an aggressive national program of applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation (RDDT and E) for environmental cleanup, waste management, and related technologies. The program is designed to resolve major technical issues, to rapidly advanced beyond current technologies for environmental restoration and waste management operations, and to expedite compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations. This report summarizes Fiscal Year 1994 (FY94) programmatic information, accomplishments, and planned activities relevant to the individual activities within OTD`s RDDT and E.

  13. National Uranium Resource Evaluation. Volume 1. Summary of the geology and uranium potential of Precambrian conglomerates in southeastern Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Karlstrom, K.E.; Houston, R.S.; Flurkey, A.J.; Coolidge, C.M.; Kratochvil, A.L.; Sever, C.K.

    1981-02-01

    A series of uranium-, thorium-, and gold-bearing conglomerates in Late Archean and Early Proterozoic metasedimentary rocks have been discovered in southern Wyoming. The mineral deposits were found by applying the time and strata bound model for the origin of uranium-bearing quartz-pebble conglomerates to favorable rock types within a geologic terrane known from prior regional mapping. No mineral deposits have been discovered that are of current (1981) economic interest, but preliminary resource estimates indicate that over 3418 tons of uranium and over 1996 tons of thorium are present in the Medicine Bow Mountains and that over 440 tons of uranium and 6350 tons of thorium are present in Sierra Madre. Sampling has been inadequate to determine gold resources. High grade uranium deposits have not been detected by work to date but local beds of uranium-bearing conglomerate contain as much as 1380 ppM uranium over a thickness of 0.65 meters. This project has involved geologic mapping at scales from 1/6000 to 1/50,000 detailed sampling, and the evaluation of 48 diamond drill holes, but the area is too large to fully establish the economic potential with the present information. This first volume summarizes the geologic setting and geologic and geochemical characteristics of the uranium-bearing conglomerates. Volume 2 contains supporting geochemical data, lithologic logs from 48 drill holes in Precambrian rocks, and drill site geologic maps and cross-sections from most of the holes. Volume 3 is a geostatistical resource estimate of uranium and thorium in quartz-pebble conglomerates.

  14. [Comments on evaluation method for equivalent square fields to the collimator scatter factors of rectangular fields].

    PubMed

    Nara, Tetsuzo; Iwasaki, Akira; Sato, Kazuhiko; Horanai, Yoshiaki; Komai, Fumio; Fukushi, Hideto

    2002-06-01

    In the measurement of 4 MV and 10 MV X-ray collimator scatter factors (S(c)), the method of using an acrylic mini-phantom showed no significant differences between cases in which the chamber axis was either parallel or perpendicular to the beam axis. Chamber readings with an aluminum or acrylic build-up cap were not reflected by contaminant electrons when the chamber axis was parallel to the beam axis. On the basis of the data on 4 MV and 10 MV X-ray collimator Sc measured using an acrylic mini-phantom, we examined three methods of obtaining square fields equivalent to rectangular fields, and reached the following conclusions: (1) The A/P method was not accurate because it did not take into account the structure of the radiation head. (2) Regarding the geometrical weight factor (k) used in the field-mapping method, more accurate k values were obtained when using the geometrical places of the flattening filter (or the second source, taken from the concept of extra-focal radiation), the upper and lower collimators, and the chamber, rather than when using the geometrical places of the source, the upper and lower collimators, and the chamber. (3) The most accurate k values could, in general, be obtained when determined on the basis of measured S(c) data. PMID:12518107

  15. Office of Technology Development FY 1993 program summary: Office of Research and Development, Office of Demonstration, Testing and Evaluation. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This report summarizes significant FY93 programmatic information and accomplishments relevant to the individual activities within the Office of Technology Development Program for Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT&E). A brief discussion of the mission of the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) and the Office of Technology Development is presented. An overview is presented of the major problem areas confronting DOE. These problem areas include: groundwater and soils cleanup; waste retrieval and processing; and pollution prevention. The organizational elements within EM are highlighted. An EM-50 Funding Summary for FY92 and FY93 is also provided. RDDT&E programs are discussed and their key problem areas are summarized. Three salient program-formulating concepts are explained. They are: Integrated Demonstrations, Integrated Programs, and the technology window of opportunity. Detailed information for each of the programs within RDDT&E is presented and includes a fact sheet, a list of technical task plans and an accomplishments and objectives section.

  16. Evaluation of models proposed for the 1991 revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peddie, N.W.

    1992-01-01

    The 1991 revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) comprises a definitive main-field model for 1985.0, a main-field model for 1990.0, and a forecast secular-variation model for the period 1990-1995. The five 1985.0 main-field models and five 1990.0 main-field models that were proposed have been evaluated by comparing them with one another, with magnetic observatory data, and with Project MAGNET aerial survey data. The comparisons indicate that the main-field models proposed by IZMIRAN, and the secular-variation model proposed jointly by the British Geological Survey and the US Naval Oceanographic Office, should be assigned relatively lower weight in the derivation of the new IGRF models. -Author

  17. Evaluation of Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2002-2006 Project Completion Summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Faler, Michael P. [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Mendel, Glen; Fulton, Carl [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2008-11-20

    The Columbia River Distinct Population Segment of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) was listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 1998. One of the identified major threats to the species is fragmentation resulting from dams on over-wintering habitats of migratory subpopulations. A migratory subgroup in the Tucannon River appeared to utilize the Snake River reservoirs for adult rearing on a seasonal basis. As a result, a radio telemetry study was conducted on this subgroup from 2002-2006, to help meet Reasonable and Prudent Measures, and Conservation Recommendations associated with the lower Snake River dams in the FCRPS Biological Opinion, and to increase understanding of bull trout movements within the Tucannon River drainage. We sampled 1,109 bull trout in the Tucannon River; 124 of these were surgically implanted with radio tags and PIT tagged, and 681 were only PIT tagged. The remaining 304 fish were either recaptures, or released unmarked. Bull trout seasonal movements within the Tucannon River were similar to those described for other migratory bull trout populations. Bull trout migrated upstream in spring and early summer to the spawning areas in upper portions of the Tucannon River watershed. They quickly moved off the spawning areas in the fall, and either held or continued a slower migration downstream through the winter until early the following spring. During late fall and winter, bull trout were distributed in the lower half of the Tucannon River basin, down to and including the mainstem Snake River below Little Goose Dam. We were unable to adequately radio track bull trout in the Snake River and evaluate their movements or interactions with the federal hydroelectric dams for the following reasons: (1) none of our radio-tagged fish were detected attempting to pass a Snake River dam, (2) our radio tags had poor transmission capability at depths greater than 12.2 m, and (3) the sample size of fish that actually entered the Snake River was small (n=6). In spite of this project's shortcomings, bull trout continue to be observed in low numbers at Snake River dam fish facilities. It is highly possible that bull trout observed at the Snake River dam fish facilities are originating from sources other than the Tucannon River. We suggest that these fish might come from upstream sources like the Clearwater or Salmon rivers in Idaho, and are simply following the outmigration of juvenile anadromous fish (a food supply) as they emigrate toward the Pacific Ocean. Based on our study results, we recommend abandoning radio telemetry as a tool to monitor bull trout movements in the mainstem Snake River. We do recommend continuing PIT tagging and tag interrogation activities to help determine the origin of bull trout using the Snake River hydropower facilities. As a complementary approach, we also suggest the use of genetic assignment tests to help determine the origin of these fish. Lastly, several recommendations are included in the report to help manage and recover bull trout in the Tucannon subbasin.

  18. Development of a Visual Inspection Data Collection Tool for Evaluation of Fielded PV Module Condition

    SciTech Connect

    Packard, C. E.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-08-01

    A visual inspection data collection tool for the evaluation of fielded photovoltaic (PV) modules has been developed to facilitate describing the condition of PV modules with regard to field performance. The proposed data collection tool consists of 14 sections, each documenting the appearance or properties of a part of the module. This report instructs on how to use the collection tool and defines each attribute to ensure reliable and valid data collection. This tool has been evaluated through the inspection of over 60 PV modules produced by more than 20 manufacturers and fielded at two different sites for varying periods of time. Aggregated data from such a single data collection tool has the potential to enable longitudinal studies of module condition over time, technology evolution, and field location for the enhancement of module reliability models.

  19. Field technology evaluations in EPA`s Environmental Technology Verification (ETC) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dindal, A.; Bayne, C.; Jenkins, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Carden, D. [Dept. of Energy Oak Ridge Operations, TN (United States); Bottrell, D. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States); Billets, S. [Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, NV (United States). National Exposure Research Lab.

    1998-01-01

    The performance evaluation of innovative environmental technologies is an integral part of the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) mission. The Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program was created by the Agency to facilitate the deployment of innovative technologies through performance verification and information dissemination. The goal of the ETV Program is to further environmental protection by substantially accelerating the acceptance and use of improved and cost-effective technologies by providing independent and credible assessments of environmental technologies. This report will overview ORNL`s verification activities, including evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyl field analytical techniques, decision support software, and field extraction technologies.

  20. Evaluation of near field atmospheric dispersion around nuclear facilities using a Lorentzian distribution methodology.

    PubMed

    Hawkley, Gavin

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric dispersion modeling within the near field of a nuclear facility typically applies a building wake correction to the Gaussian plume model, whereby a point source is modeled as a plane source. The plane source results in greater near field dilution and reduces the far field effluent concentration. However, the correction does not account for the concentration profile within the near field. Receptors of interest, such as the maximally exposed individual, may exist within the near field and thus the realm of building wake effects. Furthermore, release parameters and displacement characteristics may be unknown, particularly during upset conditions. Therefore, emphasis is placed upon the need to analyze and estimate an enveloping concentration profile within the near field of a release. This investigation included the analysis of 64 air samples collected over 128 wk. Variables of importance were then derived from the measurement data, and a methodology was developed that allowed for the estimation of Lorentzian-based dispersion coefficients along the lateral axis of the near field recirculation cavity; the development of recirculation cavity boundaries; and conservative evaluation of the associated concentration profile. The results evaluated the effectiveness of the Lorentzian distribution methodology for estimating near field releases and emphasized the need to place air-monitoring stations appropriately for complete concentration characterization. Additionally, the importance of the sampling period and operational conditions were discussed to balance operational feedback and the reporting of public dose. PMID:25353236

  1. Production and Evaluation of Biodiesel from Field Pennycress ( Thlaspi arvense L.) Oil †

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryan R. Moser; Gerhard Knothe; Steven F. Vaughn; Terry A. Isbell

    2009-01-01

    Field pennycress (Thlaspi arVense L.) oil is evaluated for the first time as a feedstock for biodiesel production. Biodiesel was obtained in 82 wt % yield by a standard transesterification procedure with methanol and sodium methoxide catalyst at 60 °C and an alcohol to oil molar ratio of 6:1. Acid-catalyzed pretreatment to reduce the acid value of crude field pennycress

  2. Evaluation of the effectiveness of X-ray protective aprons in experimental and practical fields.

    PubMed

    Mori, Hiroshige; Koshida, Kichiro; Ishigamori, Osamu; Matsubara, Kosuke

    2014-01-01

    Few practical evaluation studies have been conducted on X-ray protective aprons in workplaces. We examined the effects of exchanging the protective apron type with regard to exposure reduction in experimental and practical fields, and discuss the effectiveness of X-ray protective aprons. Experimental field evaluations were performed by the measurement of the X-ray transmission rates of protective aprons. Practical field evaluations were performed by the estimation of the differences in the transit doses before and after the apron exchange. A 0.50-mm lead-equivalent-thick non-lead apron had the lowest transmission rate among the 7 protective aprons, but weighed 10.9 kg and was too heavy. The 0.25 and 0.35-mm lead-equivalent-thick non-lead aprons differed little in the practical field of interventional radiology. The 0.35-mm lead apron had lower X-ray transmission rates and transit doses than the 0.25-mm lead-equivalent-thick non-lead apron, and each of these differences exceeded 8% in the experimental field and approximately 0.15 mSv/month in the practical field of computed tomography (p < 0.01). Therefore, we concluded that the 0.25-mm lead-equivalent-thick aprons and 0.35-mm lead apron are effective for interventional radiology operators and computed tomography nurses, respectively. PMID:24338033

  3. Field to thermo-field to thermionic electron emission: A practical guide to evaluation and electron emission from arc cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benilov, M. S.; Benilova, L. G.

    2013-08-01

    This work is concerned with devising a method of evaluation of electron emission in the framework of the Murphy-Good theory, which would be as simple and computationally efficient as possible while being accurate in the full range of conditions of validity of the theory. The method relies on Padé approximants. A comparative study of electron emission from cathodes of arcs in ambient gas and vacuum arcs is performed with the use of this method. Electron emission from cathodes of arcs in ambient gas is of thermionic nature even for extremely high gas pressures characteristic of projection and automotive arc lamps and is adequately described by the Richardson-Schottky formula. The electron emission from vaporizing (hot) cathodes of vacuum arcs is of thermo-field nature and is adequately described by the Hantzsche fit formula. Since no analytical formulas are uniformly valid for field to thermo-field to thermionic emission, a numerical evaluation of the Murphy-Good formalism is inevitable in cases where a unified description of the full range of conditions is needed, as is the general case of plasma-cathode interaction in vacuum arcs, and the technique proposed in this work may be the method of choice to this end.

  4. Summary28

    Cancer.gov

    Common Themes Big Data Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial National Digital Mammography Archive Lung Image Database Consortium Radiotherapy Databases Dermatology Atlas Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program BIRN R.

  5. Evaluation of near-field thermal environment conditions for a spent fuel repository in tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Altenhofen, M.K.; Eslinger, P.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)

    1990-10-01

    This paper discusses an evaluation of near-field host rock and waste package surface temperatures for a spent fuel repository system located in a tuff geologic medium. A spent fuel logistics model of the waste management system is examined. Resulting temporal and spatial distributions are presented.

  6. Plant Disease / March 2004 259259 Field Evaluation of Tomato spotted wilt virus Resistance

    E-print Network

    Pappu, Hanu R.

    plants (17,26). Since then, the generation of virus resistance through transgenic expression of the viral AND METHODS Plant materials. Transgenic event 62-2a was selected from several transgenic plants that had beenPlant Disease / March 2004 259259 Field Evaluation of Tomato spotted wilt virus Resistance

  7. APICULTURE AND SOCIAL INSECTS Field and Semifield Evaluation of Impacts of Transgenic Canola Pollen

    E-print Network

    Huang, Zachary

    the potential impact of transgenic plants on honey bees. Malone and Pham-Dele`gue (2001) reviewed 16 laboratory of transgenic plants by exposing honey bee larvae to a puriÞed transgene-product (serine proteinase inhib- itorAPICULTURE AND SOCIAL INSECTS Field and Semifield Evaluation of Impacts of Transgenic Canola Pollen

  8. Greenhouse and Field Nursery Evaluation for Potato Common Scab Tolerance in a Tetraploid Population

    E-print Network

    Douches, David S.

    Greenhouse and Field Nursery Evaluation for Potato Common Scab Tolerance in a Tetraploid Population were also observed, but they are skewed toward susceptibility. A greenhouse-based screening procedure with a pathogenic S. scabies strain MSDPZ at a concentration of 3 X 108 CFU/ml. This greenhouse assay effectively

  9. MULTI-SITE FIELD EVALUATION OF CANDIDATE SAMPLERS FOR MEASURING COARSE-MODE PM

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to expected changes to the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate matter, comprehensive field studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of sampling methods for measuring coarse mode aerosols (i.e. PMc). Five separate PMc sampling approaches w...

  10. Thermal Energy Storage Evaluation Program: 1986 annual report. [Economic planning, technical assessment, field tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. Drost; J. M. Bates; D. R. Brown; R. O. Weijo

    1987-01-01

    The Thermal Energy Storage Evaluation Program activities were initiated to provide economic planning, technical assessment and field testing support for the thermal energy storage program, as well as management of the overall program for the DOE. Economic planning included two assessment studies. In technical assessment, issues that might affect an assessment were outlined for the development of a standard methodology

  11. Field Evaluation of Apple Rootstocks for Orchard Performance and Fire Blight Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2002, apple rootstock trials using three scion cultivars were established at Geneva, NY to evaluate 64 apple (Malus X domestica) rootstocks for horticultural performance and fire blight resistance. Field trials compared several elite Geneva® apple rootstocks, which were bred for tolerance to fir...

  12. Evaluating the potential of mycorrhizal fungi to boost yields in field grown leeks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    UMaine Cooperative Extension faculty collaborated with a local organic grower and the USDA-ARS Research Center in Wyndmoor, PA to evaluate the potential of mycorrhizal fungi to boost yields in field grown leeks using both commercially available mycorrhizal inocula and a “farm raised” mycorrhizal ino...

  13. Field evaluation of a dyed food marking technique for Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method of marking adult Cx. quinquefasciatus Say by feeding the larvae commercial hog chow dyed with methylene blue, Giemsa, and crystal violet was evaluated under field conditions. Larvae were offered the dyed food in outdoor basins containg a mixture of dairy effluent and fresh water. Newly emer...

  14. Laboratory and field evaluation of an oviposition trap for Culex quinquefasciatus(Diptera: Culicidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Souto; Alvaro E Eiras; Lêda Regis

    2007-01-01

    An ovitrap (BR-OVT) based on physical and chemical stimuli for attracting gravid Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) females was developed and evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Attractants were assayed using alternative chamber bioassays prior to being used in the BR-OVT oviposition trap. A sig- nificant preference of gravid females for sites containing conspecific egg rafts was observed, as a response

  15. Evaluation of Traffic Data Obtained via GPS-Enabled Mobile Phones: the Mobile Century Field Experiment

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    of such a system. Mobile Century included 100 vehicles carrying a GPS-enabled Nokia N95 phone driving loops on a 10 of cell phones in the driver population is enough to provide accurate measurements of the velocityEvaluation of Traffic Data Obtained via GPS-Enabled Mobile Phones: the Mobile Century Field

  16. FIELD EVALUATION OF LIGNIN-DEGRADING FUNGI TO TREAT CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field study to determine the ability of selected lignin-degrading fungi to remediate soil contaminated with pentachlorophenol and creosote was performed at a wood treating facility in south central Mississippi in the Autumn of 1991. he study was designed to evaluate 7 fungal tr...

  17. A method to evaluate electric fields induction of overhead lines and substation's equipment in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Ala; P. Buccheri; M. Inzerillo

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a method to accurately simulate the human body under a high voltage overhead line or in proximity to substation equipment is proposed, in order to evaluate the electric field and currents on the human body surface. Based on the charge simulation and Maxwell sub-areas methods, the computer program developed allows complex systems to be considered, including three-dimensional

  18. LABORATORY AND FIELD EVALUATION OF THE SEMI-VOST (SEMI-VOLATILE ORGANIC SAMPLING TRAIN) METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory studies and a second field evaluation have been completed to assess the performance of the Semi-Volatile Organic Sampling Train (Semi-VOST) method for measuring concentrations of principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs) with boiling points greater than 100 deg ...

  19. Numerical method of near-field evaluation, in electromagnetic interference problems in presence of the earth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Faure; J. M. Fontaine; P. Kouteynikoff

    1979-01-01

    In many EMC applications the frequency-domain and transient responses of linear antennas over lossy ground must be investigated. The basic difficulty in allowing for ground effects is the accurate evaluation of Sommerfeld-type integrals when analyzing the electromagnetic field components. This paper presents a fast numerical method for the calculation of Sommerfeld integrals with a specified accuracy. The accuracy of calculation

  20. Field evaluation of distance-estimation error during wetland-dependent bird surveys

    E-print Network

    Conway, Courtney J.

    Field evaluation of distance-estimation error during wetland-dependent bird surveys Christopher P to calling birds in a wetland ecosystem. Methods. We used two approaches to estimate the error associated-count surveys involve recording a distance between the survey point and individual birds detected during

  1. Evaluation of GSt 250/350, Project-Oriented Field Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunneborg, Patricia W.; Mitchell, Sandra K.

    This report evaluates the effectiveness of an experiential field study course at the University of Washington. The course, titled GST 250/350, has different goals from a traditional volunteer program in that the student's education and experience are paramount; the services he provides are secondary. The student's motivation also differs somewhat…

  2. Preliminary Technical and Legal Evaluation of Disposing of Nonhazardous Oil Field Waste into Salt Caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, Robert C.; Caudle, Dan; Elcock, Deborah; Raivel, Mary; Veil, John; and Grunewald, Ben

    1999-01-21

    This report presents an initial evaluation of the suitability, feasibility, and legality of using salt caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes. Given the preliminary and general nature of this report, we recognize that some of our findings and conclusions maybe speculative and subject to change upon further research on this topic.

  3. FIELD EVALUATION OF A SWIRL DEGRITTER AT TAMWORTH, NEW SOUTH WALES, AUSTRALIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This field evaluation program was initiated with the overall objective of providing information on the behaviour of a full scale swirl degritter designed and constructed in accordance with the shapes and proportions developed during model studies. The swirl degritter was designed...

  4. Production and Evaluation of Biodiesel from Field Pennycress (Thlaspi Arvense L.) Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) oil is evaluated for the first time as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Biodiesel was obtained in 82 wt % yield by a standard transesterification procedure with methanol and sodium methoxide catalyst at 60 deg C and an alcohol to oil ratio of 6:1...

  5. ODOR INTENSITY OF A REAL ROOM FIELD EVALUATION AND LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ® bags, Field evaluation, Perceived air quality INTRODUCTION Indoor air quality is usually assessed and often employed in perceived air quality studies (Wargocki, Wyon, Sundell et al., 2000). However references has been applied to indoor air quality (IAQ) assessments with or without moduli (numbers

  6. Evaluating MEDLINE on CD-ROM: An Overview of Field Tests in Library and Clinical Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, Barbara A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presents an overview of the National Library of Medicine's 1988 field test and evaluation project on the use of MEDLINE products on CD-ROM. Results are summarized in the areas of user characteristics, search characteristics, user satisfaction, product features and costs, and impact on online searching. (10 references) (LRW)

  7. Stellar Systems Inc. Series 800/5000 E-Field sensor evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Follis, R.L.

    1990-08-01

    This report concerns the evaluation of the Stellar Systems Inc. E-Field intrusion detection system Series 800 control unit and the 5000 Series hardware components. Included are functional descriptions, installation procedures, testing procedures, and testing/operational results. 35 figs.

  8. A field study evaluation of short-term refined Gaussian dispersion models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1996-01-01

    A tracer study was conducted at the Duke Forest Site in Chapel Hill, North Carolina in January, 1995 to evaluate the ability of three short-term refined Gaussian dispersion models to predict the fate of volume source emissions under field study conditions. Study participants included the American Petroleum Institute (API), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the US Department of Energy

  9. Original article Field trial evaluation of two teat dips containing nisin

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Field trial evaluation of two teat dips containing nisin or polyvinylpyrrolidone teats in a 0.25% polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) iodophor product followed by wiping with paper towels'un polyvinylpyrrolidone iodophore conçus pour une utilisation avant et après la traite. Dans un premier essai réalisé dans

  10. Field Evaluation of Digital Optical Method to Quantify the Visual Opacity of Plumes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ke Du; Mark J. Rood; Byung J. Kim; Michael R. Kemme; Bill J. Franek; Kevin Mattison; Joan Cook; Qingci He; Hung-Mo Lin; Lingli Kong; Duanping Liao; Niannian Yang; Christy Bentley; Shuangqing Xu; Benjamin Burns; Kenneth Krach; Charles Cole; Jessica Mangus; Howard Butler; Baikun Li; Donald Robinson; Ronke Luke-Boone; Vineet Aggarwal; Buzz Harris; Eric Anderson; David Ranum; Thomas Kulp; Karla Armstrong; Ricky Sommers; Thomas McRae; Karin Ritter; Jeffrey Siegell; Doug Pelt; Mike Smylie; Eugene Kim; Philip Hopke; Yi-Ming Kuo; Jian-Wen Wang; Cheng-Hsien Tsai; Stephen Musson; Timothy Townsend; Kurt Seaburg; John Mousa; Sonja Sax; Petros Koutrakis; Pablo Rudolph; Francisco Cereceda-Balic; Ernesto Gramsch; Pedro Oyola; James Noel; Pratim Biswas; Daniel Giammar; Jorge Jimenez; Candis Claiborn; Timothy Larson; Timothy Gould; Thomas Kirchstetter; Lara Gundel

    2007-01-01

    Visual Determination of the Opacity of Emissions from Stationary Sources (Method 9) is a reference method established by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to quantify plume opacity. However, Method 9 relies on observations from humans, which introduces subjectivity. In addition, it is expensive to teach and certify personnel to evaluate plume opacity on a semiannual basis. In this study, field

  11. Field evaluation of a model of photothermal flowering responses in a world lentil collection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. E. Erskine; A. Hussain; M. Tahir; A. Bahksh; R. H. Ellis; R. J. Summerfield; E. H. Roberts

    1994-01-01

    A model to predict flowering time in diverse lentil genotypes grown under widely different photothermal conditions was developed in controlled environments. The present study evaluated that model with a world germ plasm collection of 369 accessions using two field environments in Syria and two in Pakistan. Photoperiod alone accounted for 69% of the variance in 1\\/f, the reciprocal of time

  12. Evaluation of Three Field-Based Methods for Quantifying Soil Carbon

    E-print Network

    Ohta, Shigemi

    to soil C densities while the INS method does not require soil sampling. We conclude that, in comparisonEvaluation of Three Field-Based Methods for Quantifying Soil Carbon Roberto C. Izaurralde1). The measurements and soil samples were acquired at Beltsville, MD, USA and at Centro International para el

  13. DNAPL SITE EVALUATION - Project Summary

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dense nonaqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs), especially chlorinated solvents, are among the most prevalent subsurface contaminants identified in ground-water supplies and at waste disposal sites. There are several site-characterization issues specific to DNAPL sites including (a) the...

  14. The Sandia/Arzamas-16 Magazine-to-Magazine Remote Monitoring Field Trial Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Barkanov, Boris; Blagin, Sergei; Croessmann, Dennis; Damico, Joe; Ehle, Steve; Nilsen, Curt

    1999-07-12

    Sandia National Laboratories and the Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All Russian Research Institute for Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) (also known as Arzamas-16) are collaborating on ways to assure the highest standards of safety, security, and international accountability of fissile material. For these collaborations, sensors and information technologies have been identified as important in reaching these standards in a cost-effective manner. Specifically, Sandia and VNIIEF have established a series of remote monitoring field trials to provide a mechanism for joint research and development on storage monitoring systems. These efforts consist of the ''Container-to-Container'', ''Magazine-to-Magazine'', and ''Facility-to-Facility'' field trials. This paper will describe the evaluation exercise Sandia and VNIIEF conducted on the Magazine-to-Magazine systems. Topics covered will include a description of the evaluation philosophy, how the various sensors and system features were tested, evaluation results, and lessons learned.

  15. Development and field evaluation of a pipe renewal system for high pressure gas mains

    SciTech Connect

    Beckendorf, P. [Gas Research Institute, Chicago, IL (United States); Driver, F.T. [Insituform Technologies, Inc., Chesterfield, MO (United States); Lawrence, S. [Pacific Gas & Electric, San Ramon, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes a cured-in-place pipe renewal product, the high pressure liner, for use in natural gas pipelines at up to 450 psig. The liner development, testing of liner strength and durability, state approval, and field evaluation results are summarized. Problems encountered during field testing included: (1) modifications required for end seals, including methods for installation and seal integrity pressure testing; (2) gas leakage betweem the liner and the pipe; (3) liner wrinkling at a 20 degree miter joint. These problems are being addressed by redesign and/or further study; overall, the initial field evaluation successfully advanced the development of a high pressure liner as a significantly lower cost alternative for pipeline renewal.

  16. Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF) RAPID Program Engineering Project 8: FINAL REPORT, Evaluation of Field Reduction Technologies, Volume 1 (Report) and Volume 2 (Appendices)

    SciTech Connect

    Commonwealth Associates, Inc.; IIT Research Institute

    1997-08-01

    This draft report consists of two volumes. Volume 1, the main body, contains an introducto~ sectionj an overview of magnetic fields sectio~ and field reduction technology evaluation section. Magnetic field reduction methods are evalpated for transmission lines, distribution Iines,sulxtations, building wiring applkmd machinery, and transportation systems. The evaluation considers effectiveness, co% and other ftiors. Volume 2 contains five appendices, Append~ A presents magnetic field shielding information. Appendices B and C present design assumptions and magnetic field plots for transmission and distribution lines, respectively. Appendices D and E present cost estimate details for transmission and distribution limes, respectively.

  17. The {open_quotes}INVERSE PROBLEM{close_quotes} to the evaluation of the magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.

    1995-06-01

    In the design of superconducting magnet elements, such as may be required to guide and focus ions in a particle accelerator, one frequently premises some particular current distribution and then proceeds to compute the consequent magnetic field through use of the laws of Blot and Savart or of Ampere. When working in this manner one of course may need to revise frequently the postulated current distribution before arriving at a resulting magnetic field of acceptable field quality. It therefore is of interest to consider an alternative ({open_quotes}inverse{close_quotes}) procedure in which one specifies a desired character for the field required in the region interior to the winding and undertakes then to evaluate the current distribution on the specified winding surface that would provide this desired field. By evaluating the specified potential in the region interior to the winding along the interface, the authors have determined that a relaxation solution to the potential in the region outside the winding can be converged and used to calculate wire location. They have demonstrated this method by applying a slightly modified version of the program POISSON to a periodic alternating sinusoidal quadrupole field.

  18. Evaluation of the proximal flow field to circular and noncircular orifices of different aspect ratios.

    PubMed

    Myers, J G; Fox, J F; Elmahdi, A M; Perry, G J; Anayiotos, A S

    1997-08-01

    Investigations of valvular regurgitation attempt to specify flow field characteristics and apply them to the proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) method for quantifying regurgitant flow. Most investigators assume a hemispherical shape to these equivelocity shells proximal to an axisymmetric (circular) orifice. However, in vivo flow fields are viscous and regurgitant openings vary in shape and size. By using centerline profiles and isovelocity surfaces, this investigation describes the flow field proximal to circular and elliptical orifices. Steady, proximal flow fields are obtained with two- and three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations. These simulations are verified by in vitro, laser-Doppler velocimetry (LDV) experiments. The data show that a unique, normalized proximal flow field results for each orifice shape independent of orifice flow or size. The distinct differences in flow field characteristics with orifice shape may provide a mechanism for evaluating orifice characteristics and regurgitant flows. Instead of the hemispherical approximation technique, this study attempts to show the potential to define a universal flow evaluation method based on the details of the flowfield according to orifice shape. Preliminary results indicate that Magnetic Resonance (MR) and Color Doppler (CD) may reproduce these flow details and allow such a procedure in vivo. PMID:9285349

  19. Evaluation of Breast Sentinel Lymph Node Coverage by Standard Radiation Therapy Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinovitch, Rachel [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Cancer Center, Aurora, CO (United States)], E-mail: Rachel.rabinovitch@uchsc.edu; Ballonoff, Ari; Newman, Francis M.S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Cancer Center, Aurora, CO (United States); Finlayson, Christina [Department of GI, Tumor, and Endocrine Surgery, University of Colorado Cancer Center, Aurora, CO (United States)

    2008-04-01

    Background: Biopsy of the breast sentinel lymph node (SLN) is now a standard staging procedure for early-stage invasive breast cancer. The anatomic location of the breast SLN and its relationship to standard radiation fields has not been described. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review of radiotherapy treatment planning data sets was performed in patients with breast cancer who had undergone SLN biopsy, and those with a surgical clip at the SLN biopsy site were identified. The location of the clip was evaluated relative to vertebral body level on an anterior-posterior digitally reconstructed radiograph, treated whole-breast tangential radiation fields, and standard axillary fields in 106 data sets meeting these criteria. Results: The breast SLN varied in vertebral body level position, ranging from T2 to T7 but most commonly opposite T4. The SLN clip was located below the base of the clavicle in 90%, and hence would be excluded from standard axillary radiotherapy fields where the inferior border is placed at this level. The clip was within the irradiated whole-breast tangent fields in 78%, beneath the superior-posterior corner multileaf collimators in 12%, and outside the tangent field borders in 10%. Conclusions: Standard axillary fields do not encompass the lymph nodes at highest risk of containing tumor in breast cancer patients. Elimination of the superior-posterior corner MLCs from the tangent field design would result in inclusion of the breast SLN in 90% of patients treated with standard whole-breast irradiation.

  20. Sedimentation and resuspendability evaluation of pharmaceutical suspensions by low-field one dimensional pulsed field gradient NMR profilometry.

    PubMed

    Wuxin, Zhu; Martins, José; Saveyn, Pieter; Govoreanu, Ruxandra; Verbruggen, Katrien; Ariën, Tina; Verliefde, Arne; Van der Meeren, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the sedimentation of pharmaceutical suspensions using low-field one dimensional pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (1D pfg NMR) profilometry, the accuracy of signal acquisition as well as the spatial resolution of a commercial spectrometer operating at 23.4 MHz was investigated. The use of a solid Teflon spacer revealed that the accuracy of signal acquisition was independent of spatial position (height). The standard deviation of distance determinations was less than 150 µm, whereas the accuracy of water content determination was within 2% in the central part of the detection zone and deteriorated to 4% in the outer parts. The study of aqueous paramagnetic MnCl2 solutions indicated an exponential relationship between the relative signal intensity and the transverse relaxation decay constant. From this relationship, the relative water content of suspensions could be derived from their signal intensity relative to that of water. Using concentrated paliperidone palmitate dispersions as model suspensions, low-field 1D pfg NMR profilometry has been proven to be suitable for the evaluation of both the sedimentation and resuspendability behavior of viscous, opaque suspensions, for which visual detection of homogeneity may be difficult. PMID:21961765

  1. Evaluating the capabilities of watershed-scale models in estimating sediment yield at field-scale.

    PubMed

    Sommerlot, Andrew R; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan; Woznicki, Sean A; Giri, Subhasis; Prohaska, Michael D

    2013-09-30

    Many watershed model interfaces have been developed in recent years for predicting field-scale sediment loads. They share the goal of providing data for decisions aimed at improving watershed health and the effectiveness of water quality conservation efforts. The objectives of this study were to: 1) compare three watershed-scale models (Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), Field_SWAT, and the High Impact Targeting (HIT) model) against calibrated field-scale model (RUSLE2) in estimating sediment yield from 41 randomly selected agricultural fields within the River Raisin watershed; 2) evaluate the statistical significance among models; 3) assess the watershed models' capabilities in identifying areas of concern at the field level; 4) evaluate the reliability of the watershed-scale models for field-scale analysis. The SWAT model produced the most similar estimates to RUSLE2 by providing the closest median and the lowest absolute error in sediment yield predictions, while the HIT model estimates were the worst. Concerning statistically significant differences between models, SWAT was the only model found to be not significantly different from the calibrated RUSLE2 at ? = 0.05. Meanwhile, all models were incapable of identifying priorities areas similar to the RUSLE2 model. Overall, SWAT provided the most correct estimates (51%) within the uncertainty bounds of RUSLE2 and is the most reliable among the studied models, while HIT is the least reliable. The results of this study suggest caution should be exercised when using watershed-scale models for field level decision-making, while field specific data is of paramount importance. PMID:23764473

  2. Position Summary Employee Details

    E-print Network

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    : TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER CENTER - 061801 Position: STRAWBERRY LICENSING FIELD REPRESENTATIVE HEERA support to propagators and growers of University strawberry cultivars; evaluating licensing compliance of propagators; and support, market, and monitor production of strawberry cultivars. Responsible for activities

  3. Remote-Sensing-Based Evaluation of Relative Consumptive Use Between Flood- and Drip-Irrigated Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Baquero, G. F.; Jordan, D. L.; Whittaker, A. T.; Allen, R. G.

    2013-12-01

    Governments and water authorities are compelled to evaluate the impacts of agricultural irrigation on economic development and sustainability as water supply shortages continue to increase in many communities. One of the strategies commonly used to reduce such impacts is the conversion of traditional irrigation methods towards more water-efficient practices. As part of a larger effort by the New Mexico Interstate Stream Commission to understand the environmental and economic impact of converting from flood irrigation to drip irrigation, this study evaluates the water-saving effectiveness of drip irrigation in Deming, New Mexico, using a remote-sensing-based technique combined with ground data collection. The remote-sensing-based technique used relative temperature differences as a proxy for water use to show relative differences in crop consumptive use between flood- and drip-irrigated fields. Temperature analysis showed that, on average, drip-irrigated fields were cooler than flood-irrigated fields, indicating higher water use. The higher consumption of water by drip-irrigated fields was supported by a determination of evapotranspiration (ET) from all fields using the METRIC Landsat-based surface energy balance model. METRIC analysis yielded higher instantaneous ET for drip-irrigated fields when compared to flood-irrigated fields and confirmed that drip-irrigated fields consumed more water than flood-irrigated fields planted with the same crop. More water use generally results in more biomass and hence higher crop yield, and this too was confirmed by greater relative Normalized Difference Vegetation Index for the drip irrigated fields. Results from this study confirm previous estimates regarding the impacts of increased efficiency of drip irrigation on higher water consumption in the area (Ward and Pulido-Velazquez, 2008). The higher water consumption occurs with drip because, with the limited water supplies and regulated maximum limits on pumping amounts, the higher efficiency of drip enables producers to convert larger percentages of pumped ground-water into evapotranspiration and reduces the ';return' of percolation ';losses' back to the ground-water system that previously re-recharged the aquifer. This study illustrates the usefulness of remote sensing techniques to evaluate spatial patterns of ET by different irrigation methods. These results illustrate a first-step quantitative tool that can be used by water resources managers in formulation of policy to limit net water consumption and maintain reliable water supply sources.

  4. Thermohydrological Conceptual Model Evaluation Using Laboratory- and Field-Scale Heater Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, R. T.; Painter, S.; Fratesi, B.

    2003-12-01

    Coupled heat and mass transfer observations and measurements from heater tests conducted at two scales, laboratory and field, provide a basis to evaluate thermohydrological conceptual models. The U.S. Department of Energy is conducting a long-term drift-scale heater test (DST) as part of a comprehensive evaluation of a proposed geologic high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Laboratory-scale heater tests conducted at CNWRA provide results of similar heat and mass transfer processes, but at a different scale. Comparison of results from tests at different scales provides an opportunity to examine different conceptual models for matrix-fracture interactions expected at the proposed repository. Conceptual models used for heat and mass transfer between the fractures and matrix are evaluated because they have been found to have a profound effect on simulations of thermohydrological processes. In addition, the effects of selected property (i.e., matrix and fracture permeability, thermal conductivity, and the air-entry pressure) values are evaluated in terms of their importance to the evolution of temperature and saturation in the simulations. The multiphase simulator, MULTIFLO, was used to perform the conceptual model evaluations. Simulated temperature and fracture saturation were used to compare the ability of the conceptual models to replicate the laboratory- and field-scale results and the importance of the property values assigned to key parameters in the numerical models. This abstract is an independent product of the CNWRA and does not necessarily reflect the views or regulatory position of the NRC.

  5. Hydrologic monitoring of selected streams in coal fields of central and southern Utah - Summary of data collected, August 1978-September 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D.; Plantz, G.G.

    1987-01-01

    The US Geological Survey conducted a coal-hydrology monitoring program in coal-field areas of central and southern Utah during August 1978-September 1984 to determine possible hydrologic impacts of future mining and to provide a better understanding of the hydrologic systems of the coal resource areas monitored. Data were collected at 19 gaging stations - 18 stations in the Price, San Rafael, and Dirty Devil River basins, and 1 in the Kanab Creek Basin. Types of data collected at each station included quantity and quality of stream-flow; suspended sediment concentrations; and descriptions of stream bottom sediments, benthic invertebrate, and phytoplankton samples. Also, base flow measurements were made annually upstream from 12 of the gaging stations. Stream bottom sediment sampled at nearly all the monitoring sites contained small to moderate quantities of coal, which may be attributed chiefly to pre-monitoring mining. Streamflow sampled at several sites contained large concentrations of sulfate and dissolved solids. Also, concentrations of various trace elements at 10 stations, and phenols at 18 stations, exceeded the criteria of the EPA for drinking water. The data collected during the complete water years (1979-84) of monitoring do provide a better understanding of the hydrologic systems of the coal field areas monitored. The data also provide a definite base by which to evaluate hydrologic impacts of continued or increased coal mining in those areas. 14 refs., 32 figs., 21 tabs.

  6. Preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste into salt caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.; Elcock, D.; Raivel, M.; Caudle, D.; Ayers, R.C. Jr.; Grunewald, B.

    1996-06-01

    Caverns can be readily formed in salt formations through solution mining. The caverns may be formed incidentally, as a result of salt recovery, or intentionally to create an underground chamber that can be used for storing hydrocarbon products or compressed air or disposing of wastes. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the feasibility, suitability, and legality of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration, development, and production wastes (hereafter referred to as oil field wastes, unless otherwise noted) in salt caverns. Chapter 2 provides background information on: types and locations of US subsurface salt deposits; basic solution mining techniques used to create caverns; and ways in which salt caverns are used. Later chapters provide discussion of: federal and state regulatory requirements concerning disposal of oil field waste, including which wastes are considered eligible for cavern disposal; waste streams that are considered to be oil field waste; and an evaluation of technical issues concerning the suitability of using salt caverns for disposing of oil field waste. Separate chapters present: types of oil field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location; disposal operations; and closure and remediation. This report does not suggest specific numerical limits for such factors or variables as distance to neighboring activities, depths for casings, pressure testing, or size and shape of cavern. The intent is to raise issues and general approaches that will contribute to the growing body of information on this subject.

  7. [Summary of the World Conference on Education for All.] The Major Project in the Field of Education in the Latin American and Caribbean Region. Bulletin 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and Caribbean.

    This bulletin features four papers, a summary of the World Conference on Education for All held in Jomtien, Thailand in March of 1990, the World Declaration on Education for All, and a framework for action to meet basic learning needs. The four presentations include: "Educational Planning in the Future" (Jesus M. Gurriaran); "An Analysis of…

  8. A field bioassay to evaluate potential spatial repellents against natural mosquito populations.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, K R; Aldrich, J R; McCardle, P W; White, G B; Webb, R E

    2012-12-01

    A field bioassay evaluating candidate chemicals as aerial repellents was developed and evaluated against natural mosquito populations in Beltsville, MD. The bioassay consisted of an attractive source surrounded by a grid of 16 septa containing a volatile candidate aerial repellent, compared with an attractive source without such a grid. The attractive source was a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light trap supplemented with carbon dioxide. Significant sources of variation included weather, position, and the differential response of mosquito species. Despite these sources of variation, significant repellent responses were obtained for catnip oil, E,Z-dihydronepetalactone, and DEET. PMID:23393752

  9. A new parameter to evaluate the quality of fiber count data of slides with relocatable fields.

    PubMed

    Pang, Thomas

    2007-02-01

    Asbestos reference slides with relocatable fields are effective in determining the fiber counting errors and evaluating intercounter precision and accuracy. The process is time consuming and expensive as it requires (a) the analysts to record the number and the positions of the fibers and (b) an experienced microscopist to determine the errors. A new parameter based on the discrepancies between the reported fibers and the verified fibers is being investigated for monitoring the quality of fiber counts. The discrepancies are related to the fiber counting errors. The new process requires the analysts to report only the fibers in each field examined. PMID:17249148

  10. Beam profile measurement and evaluation of far field high energy laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Pengling; Feng, Guobin; Wang, Zhenbao; Wang, Ping; Wu, Yong; Zhang, Jianmin; Cheng, Shaowu; Feng, Gang; Wang, Fei; Shao, Bibo

    2015-05-01

    The far field beam profile is of significant importance to the analysis of the atmospheric propagation effect and evaluation of the beam control capability, tracking and aiming precision of laser system. In the paper, technology of laser beam measurement such as mid-infrared laser detection at wide temperature range, power density attenuation, photoelectric and calorimetric compound method for laser measurement, synchronous detecting of multi-channel pulsed signal are introduced. A series of instrumented target with detector array are developed for laser beam power density distribution measurement at far field. The power in the bucket, strehl ratio, centroid and jitter of beam can be calculated from the measured results.

  11. Comprehensive evaluation of attitude and orbit estimation using real earth magnetic field data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschmann, Julie; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack

    1997-01-01

    A single, augmented extended Kalman filter (EKF) which simultaneously and autonomously estimates spacecraft attitude and orbit was developed and tested with simulated and real magnetometer and rate data. Since the earth's magnetic field is a function of time and position, and since time is accurately known, the differences between the computed and measured magnetic field components, as measured by the magnetometers throughout the entire spacecraft's orbit, are a function of orbit and attitude errors. These differences can be used to estimate the orbit and attitude. The test results of the EKF with magnetometer and gyro data from three NASA satellites are presented and evaluated.

  12. Flowpath evaluation and reconnaissance by remote field Eddy current testing (FERRET)

    SciTech Connect

    Smoak, A.E.; Zollinger, W.T.

    1993-12-31

    This document describes the design and development of FERRET (Flowpath Evaluation and Reconnaisance by Remote-field Eddy current Testing). FERRET is a system for inspecting the steel pipes which carry cooling water to underground nuclear waste storage tanks. The FERRET system has been tested in a small scale cooling pipe mock-up, an improved full scale mock-up, and in flaw detection experiments. Early prototype designs of FERRET and the FERRET launcher (a device which inserts, moves, and retrieves probes from a piping system) as well as the field-ready design are discussed.

  13. Symposium Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitherer, Claus

    2008-06-01

    I summarize the highlights of the conference. First I provide a brief history of the beach symposia series our massive star community has been organizing. Then I use most of my allocated space discussing what I believe are the main answered and open questions in the field. Finally I conclude with a perspective of the future of massive star research.

  14. Shen et al. Collaborative Online Examination: Field Evaluation Results Traditional In-class Examination vs. Collaborative Online

    E-print Network

    Bieber, Michael

    on Information Systems, New York, New York, August 2004 2998 #12;Shen et al. Collaborative Online ExaminationShen et al. Collaborative Online Examination: Field Evaluation Results Traditional In-class Examination vs. Collaborative Online Examination in Asynchronous Learning Networks: Field Evaluation Results

  15. Laser diagnostic methods - A summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trolinger, J. D.; Azazzy, M.; Modarress, D.; Craig, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    This is a summary and discussion of the state of the art in the use of laser diagnostics in fluid and plasma dynamics. This will encompass: interferometry, scattering, spectroscopy, and velocimetry. Examples of such applications will be provided in the area of fluid dynamics of particle generation and breakup, analysis of three-dimensional density fields, and applications in combustion.

  16. Evaluation of Basic Parameters for Packaging, Storage and Transportation of Biomass Material from Field to Biorefinery 

    E-print Network

    Paliwal, Richa

    2012-02-14

    of Department, Dennis O?Neal December 2010 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering iii ABSTRACT Evaluation of Basic Parameters for Packaging, Storage and Transportation of Biomass Material from Field to Biorefinery. (December 2010) Richa Paliwal, B... the comparison of compression behavior of wheat, barley straws, corn stover and switchgrass grinds using three compaction equations: Heckel, Cooper-Eaton, and Kawakita- Ludde models. They studied the compaction mechanism of grinds using variables like applied...

  17. A FIELD EVALUATION OF BAITS FOR DELIVERING ORAL RABIES VACCINES TO RACCOONS (PROCYON LOTOR)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel B. Linhart; F. Sherman; Richard M. Engeman; Harvey L. Hill; Tip Hon; Douglas I. Hall; John H. Shaddock

    Eight field trials were conducted in 1989 and 1990 in Georgia (USA) and Maryland (USA) to evaluate baits and baiting strategies for delivering oral rabies vaccines to raccoons (Proc yon lotor). Bait packets consisting of corn meal and egg batter-based baits enclosed in plastic bags were placed at 1.0-m diameter, raked tracking stations and checked daily. Packets were well accepted

  18. Hedysarum, a new temperate forage legume with great potential - Field Evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolyn de Koning; David Lloyd; Steve Hughes; Don McLachlan; Graham Crocker; Suzanne Boschma; Andrew Craig

    Hedysarum has great potential in Australian farming systems. Field evaluation has commenced in SA, QLD and NSW and results to date are encouraging. Hedysarum has the capacity to produce high levels of quality dry matter in winter (5.5 t\\/ha, Moree, NSW) and spring (26 t\\/ha, Moree, NSW). In addition, Hedysarum recruits seedlings readily (up to ave. 1,884 plants\\/m2 for H.

  19. Evaluation of plant-based water status indicators in mature apple trees under field conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jordi Doltra; José Antonio Oncins; Joan Bonany; Moshe Cohen

    2007-01-01

    The performance of different indicators of plant water status as a tool for irrigation management was evaluated in mature\\u000a field grown ‘Golden Delicious’ apple trees during the late summer of 1998. Control (C) and stress (S) treatments were studied.\\u000a In the C treatment trees were irrigated daily at 100% ETc whereas in the S treatment water was withheld during 31 days

  20. Design, Operation, and Evaluation of a Surfactant\\/Polymer Field Pilot Test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Holley; J. L. Cayias

    1992-01-01

    Oryx Energy Co. evaluated the design and operation of a low-tension surfactant\\/polymer pilot in the McCleskey sandstone of the Ranger field in Eastland County, TX. The test was performed in a watered-out area developed on 40-acre spacing that was chosen because good reservoir permeability, the availability of fresh water, and high residual oil saturation (ROS's) made it suitable for a

  1. Performance evaluation of a large axial field-of-view PET scanner: SET2400W

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takehiko Fujiwara; Shoichi Watanuki; Seiichi Yamamoto; Masayasu Miyake; Shinya Seo; Masatoshi Itoh; Keizou Ishii; Hikonojyou Orihara; Hiroshi Fukuda; Tomohiko Satoh; Keishi Kitamura; Kazumi Tanaka; Shigekazu Takahashi

    1997-01-01

    The SET-2400W is a newly designed whole-body PET scanner with a large axial field of view (20 cm). Its physical performance\\u000a was investigated and evaluated. The scanner consists of four rings of 112 BGO detector units (22.8 mm in-plane × 50 mm axial\\u000a × 30 mm depth). Each detector unit has a 6 (in-plane) × 8 (axial) matrix of BGO

  2. Stress Evaluation in a Bulk High-Temperature Superconductor during Field-Cooling Magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takashima, Hideyoshi; Tsuchimoto, Masanori; Onishi, Toshitada

    2001-05-01

    Stresses in a bulk high-temperature superconductor are numerically evaluated during the magnetization process by field cooling. Shielding current distributions are obtained through a macroscopic numerical simulation with the Maxwell equations and the critical state model. The stress distributions are obtained through numerical analysis with the finite-difference method. Two numerical codes are combined in the iterative calculation. Peak values of the maximum hoop, radial and shear stresses are obtained under different conditions during the magnetization.

  3. Field monitoring evaluation of geotextile-reinforced soil-retaining walls

    E-print Network

    Zornberg, Jorge G.

    Field monitoring evaluation of geotextile-reinforced soil-retaining walls C. V. S. Benjamim1 , B. S~o Paulo/SP, Brazil, Telephone: +55 11 6090 3328, Telefax: +55 11 6693 4701, E-mail: vbenjamim@yahoo.com 2~o Carlos/SP, Brazil, Telephone: +55 16 3373 9505, Telefax: +55 16 3373 9509, E-mail: bsbueno@sc.usp.br 3

  4. Project summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    California Polytechnic State University's design project for the 1990-91 school year was the design of a close air support aircraft. There were eight design groups that participated and were given requests for proposals. These proposals contained mission specifications, particular performance and payload requirements, as well as the main design drivers. The mission specifications called for a single pilot weighing 225 lb with equipment. The design mission profile consisted of the following: (1) warm-up, taxi, take off, and accelerate to cruise speed; (2) dash at sea level at 500 knots to a point 250 nmi from take off; (3) combat phase, requiring two combat passes at 450 knots that each consist of a 360 deg turn and an energy increase of 4000 ft. - at each pass, half of air-to-surface ordnance is released; (4) dash at sea level at 500 knots 250 nmi back to base; and (5) land with 20 min of reserve fuel. The request for proposal also specified the following performance requirements with 50 percent internal fuel and standard stores: (1) the aircraft must be able to accelerate from Mach 0.3 to 0.5 at sea level in less than 20 sec; (2) required turn rates are 4.5 sustained g at 450 knots at sea level; (3) the aircraft must have a reattack time of 25 sec or less (reattack time was defined as the time between the first and second weapon drops); (4) the aircraft is allowed a maximum take off and landing ground roll of 2000 ft. The payload requirements were 20 Mk 82 general-purpose free-fall bombs and racks; 1 GAU-8A 30-mm cannon with 1350 rounds; and 2 AIM-9L Sidewinder missiles and racks. The main design drivers expressed in the request for proposal were that the aircraft should be survivable and maintainable. It must be able to operate in remote areas with little or no maintenance. Simplicity was considered the most important factor in achieving the former goal. In addition, the aircraft must be low cost both in acquisition and operation. The summaries of the aircraft configurations developed by the eight groups are presented.

  5. Objective evaluation of 3-D wide-field effect by human postural control analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Toshihiro; Yano, Sumio; Mitsuhashi, Tetsuo

    1992-08-01

    A new evaluation method of visual wide-field effects using human postural control analysis is proposed. In designing a television system for future, it is very important to understand the dynamic response of human beings in order to evaluate the visual effects of displayed images objectively. Visual effects produced by 3-D wide-field images are studied. An observer's body sway produced by postural control is discussed using rotating 2-D and 3-D images. Comparisons between stationary and rotating images are also performed. A local peak appears in power spectra of the body sway for the rotating images (3-D and 2-D). On the other hand, no distinctive component appears in the power spectra for the stationary images. By extending the visual field, the cyclic component can be proved from the audio-correlation function of the body sway for the rotating images. These results suggest that displayed images induce the postural control. The total length of the body sway locus is also analyzed to evaluate the postural control. The total length for the rotating images increases in proportion to viewing angles, and is nearly saturated after 50 (deg). Moreover, it is shown that the total length for the rotating 3-D image is greater than for the rotating 2-D image.

  6. Coupled acoustic-gravity field for dynamic evaluation of ion exchange with a single resin bead.

    PubMed

    Kanazaki, Takahiro; Hirawa, Shungo; Harada, Makoto; Okada, Tetsuo

    2010-06-01

    A coupled acoustic-gravity field is efficient for entrapping a particle at the position determined by its acoustic properties rather than its size. This field has been applied to the dynamic observation of ion-exchange reactions occurring in a single resin bead. The replacement of counterions in an ion-exchange resin induces changes in its acoustic properties, such as density and compressibility. Therefore, we can visually trace the advancement of an ion-exchange reaction as a time change in the levitation position of a resin bead entrapped in the field. Cation-exchange reactions occurring in resin beads with diameters of 40-120 microm are typically completed within 100-200 s. Ion-exchange equilibrium or kinetics is often evaluated with off-line chemical analyses, which require a batch amount of ion exchangers. Measurements with a single resin particle allow us to evaluate ion-exchange dynamics and kinetics of ions including those that are difficult to measure by usual off-line analyses. The diffusion properties of ions in resins have been successfully evaluated from the time change in the levitation positions of resin beads. PMID:20462180

  7. English Summary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georg Potyka

    \\u000a The great problems of our times ¡ª overpopulation, impoverishment and overindebtedness of many countries, hunger and drought\\u000a catastrophies, destruction of the environment and the danger of an atomic war ¡ª cannot be solved immediately by the application\\u000a of general international law, but only by newly created rules, such as those contained in the various conventions in the field\\u000a of environment

  8. I-80 HOV lane evaluation study appendices, project No. 7290. Final report, March 1994-March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    Tables providing supplementary data and data analysis procedures for the I-80 HOV Lane Evaluation Study. Appendix contents include: Field Traffic Count Summaries; Statistical Analysis Formulas; Data Summary Tables; Air Quality Benefits Analysis; Park and Ride Lot Utilization Data; Accident Data; and State Police Enforcement Data.

  9. Evaluations of Firms and Professionals Who Provide Consumer Services. An Annotated Bibliography of Consumer Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Gregg B.; Meyer, Francine H.

    This annotated bibliography contains summaries of studies of consumer services in 39 fields, plus summaries of publications of interest to consumer advocates, published during the past 10 years. Since most service providers do business in a single locale, the evaluations are usually local in scope (for example, a comparison of major appliance…

  10. Summary report, California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection evaluation of full-face air-purifying respirators for wildland fire fighting use

    SciTech Connect

    Beason, D.G.; Johnson, J.S.; Foote, K.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Weaver, W.A. [California Dept. of Forestry and Fire Protection, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Wildland fire suppression personnel employed by the CDF do not currently have the equipment to protect themselves from the short-term acute affects of smoke from wildland fires. In addition, no regulations exist that specify appropriate respiratory protection and the current air-purifying respirator technology and carbon monoxide monitoring has not been adapted to fit wildland fire suppression requirements. This three-year limited study evaluated the ability of wildland fire fighters to perform their normal job function while wearing full-face air-purifying respirators. In the first two years of this study we designed, developed and field tested a prototype ``smart`` air-purifying respirator which incorporated a real-time carbon monoxide monitor into a commercial full-face respirator.` Data on carbon monoxide exposure while fighting wildland fires was collected. During the third year of this study we evaluated eight different commercially available full-face air-purifying respirators equipped with a variety of cartridges. Apparatus to aid the fire fighter in carrying the respirator and carbon monoxide personal monitor was designed and fabricated. A smoke exposure test method was developed and a laboratory study on the penetration of smoke through respirator cartridges was conducted.

  11. Surface wind convergence as a short-term predictor of cloud-to-ground lightning at Kennedy Space Center: A four-year summary and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew I.; Holle, Ronald L.; Lopez, Raul E.; Nicholson, James R.

    1991-01-01

    Since 1986, USAF forecasters at NASA-Kennedy have had available a surface wind convergence technique for use during periods of convective development. In Florida during the summer, most of the thunderstorm development is forced by boundary layer processes. The basic premise is that the life cycle of convection is reflected in the surface wind field beneath these storms. Therefore the monitoring of the local surface divergence and/or convergence fields can be used to determine timing, location, longevity, and the lightning hazards which accompany these thunderstorms. This study evaluates four years of monitoring thunderstorm development using surface wind convergence, particularly the average over the area. Cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning is related in time and space with surface convergence for 346 days during the summers of 1987 through 1990 over the expanded wind network at KSC. The relationships are subdivided according to low level wind flow and midlevel moisture patterns. Results show a one in three chance of CG lightning when a convergence event is identified. However, when there is no convergence, the chance of CG lightning is negligible.

  12. Laboratory and field evaluation of polyurethane foam for lost circulation control

    SciTech Connect

    Glowka, D.A.; Loeppke, G.E.; Rand, P.B.; Wright, E.K. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1989-01-01

    A two-part polyurethane foam has been tested in the laboratory and in the field to assess its utility in controlling lost circulation encountered when drilling geothermal wells. A field test was conducted in The Geysers in January, 1988, to evaluate the chemical formulation and downhole tool used to deploy the chemicals. Although the tool apparently functioned properly in the field test, the chemicals failed to expand sufficiently downhole, instead forming a dense polymer that may be ineffective in sealing loss zones. Subsequent laboratory tests conducted under simulated downhole conditions indicate that the foam chemical undergo sever mixing with water in the wellbore, which disturbs the kinetics of the chemical reaction more than was previously contemplated. The results indicate that without significant changes in the foam chemical formulation or delivery technique, the foam system will be ineffective in lost circulation control except under very favorable conditions. 4 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Effect of the static magnetic field of the MR-scanner on ERPs: Evaluation of visual, cognitive and motor potentials

    E-print Network

    Effect of the static magnetic field of the MR-scanner on ERPs: Evaluation of visual, cognitive December 2009 Available online 25 January 2010 Keywords: ERP EEG­fMRI 3 T static magnetic field of the static magnetic field of the MR-scanner on ERPs extracted from simultaneous EEG­fMRI recordings

  14. Self-contained self-rescuer long term field evaluation: combined eighth and ninth phase results

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    2006-10-15

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory (NPPTL) and the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) conduct a Long Term Field Evaluation (LTFE) program to evaluate deployed self-contained self rescuers (SCSRs). The objective of the program is to evaluate how well SCSRs endure the underground coal mining environment with regard to both physical damage and aging when they are deployed in accordance with Federal regulations (30 CFR 75.1714). This report presents findings of the combined eighth and ninth phases of the LTFE. For these phases, over four hundred SCSRs were evaluated. The units tested include the CSE SR-100, Draeger Oxy K-Plus, MSA Life-saver 60, and the OCENCO EBA 6.5. The OCENCO 20 was evaluated only in Phase 9. Testing was performed between December 2000 and April 2004. Results of the evaluation indicate that all SCSRs experience some performance degradation due to the mining environment. Observed degradation varies from elevated levels of carbon dioxide, high breathing resistance, and reduced capacity. Mechanical degradation to the SCSR components included breathing hoses, chemical beds, outer cases and seals. The LTFE tests discussed in this report are different from tests performed for SCSR certification to the requirements of 42 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 84 (42 CFR, Part 84). LTFE tests reported here are conducted to an end point, oxygen depletion, to enable comparison of the duration of new and deployed SCSRs. The method for obtaining deployed SCSRs for this evaluation was not a random selection from the deployed population of SCSRs. Although the results of these tests are useful for observing performance of the tested SCSRs, they are not representative of all deployed SCSRs. 9 refs., 10 figs., 9 tabs., 3 apps.

  15. Promoting Diversity in the Field of Evaluation: Reflections on the First Year of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Evaluation Fellowship Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina A. Christie; Anne T. Vo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe an evaluation training program sponsored by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and led by Duquesne University and OMG Center for Collaborative Learning designed to meet the challenge of developing a cadre of diverse evaluation professionals, specifically those from traditionally underrepresented or underserved communities, who have come to the field with little formal academic training in

  16. Porous media experience applicable to field evaluation for compressed air energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.D.; Gutknecht, P.J.

    1980-06-01

    A survey is presented of porous media field experience that may aid in the development of a compressed air energy storage field demonstration. Work done at PNL and experience of other groups and related industries is reviewed. An overall view of porous media experience in the underground storage of fluids is presented. CAES experience consists of site evaluation and selection processes used by groups in California, Kansas, and Indiana. Reservoir design and field evaluation of example sites are reported. The studies raised questions about compatibility with depleted oil and gas reservoirs, storage space rights, and compressed air regulations. Related experience embraces technologies of natural gas, thermal energy, and geothermal and hydrogen storage. Natural gas storage technology lends the most toward compressed air storage development, keeping in mind the respective differences between stored fluids, physical conditions, and cycling frequencies. Both fluids are injected under pressure into an aquifer to form a storage bubble confined between a suitable caprock structure and partially displaced ground water. State-of-the-art information is summarized as the necessary foundation material for field planning. Preliminary design criteria are given as recommendations for basic reservoir characteristics. These include geometric dimensions and storage matrix properties such as permeability. Suggested ranges are given for injection air temperature and reservoir pressure. The second step in developmental research is numerical modeling. Results have aided preliminary design by analyzing injection effects upon reservoir pressure, temperature and humidity profiles. Results are reported from laboratory experiments on candidate sandstones and caprocks. Conclusions are drawn, but further verification must be done in the field.

  17. Evaluations of CALPUFF, HPAC, and VLSTRACK with Two Mesoscale Field Datasets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Joseph C.; Franzese, Pasquale; Chayantrakom, Kittisak; Hanna, Steven R.

    2003-04-01

    Results of evaluations of transport and dispersion models with field data are summarized. The California Puff (CALPUFF), Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC), and Chemical/Biological Agent Vapor, Liquid, and Solid Tracking (VLSTRACK) models were compared using two recent mesoscale field datasets-the Dipole Pride 26 (DP26) and the Overland Along-wind Dispersion (OLAD). Both field experiments involved instantaneous releases of sulfur hexafluoride tracer gas in a mesoscale region with desert basins and mountains. DP26 involved point sources, and OLAD involved line sources. Networks of surface wind observations and special radiosonde and pilot balloon soundings were available, and tracer concentrations were observed along lines of whole-air samplers and some fast-response instruments at distances up to 20 km. The models were evaluated using the maximum 3-h dosage (concentration integrated over time) along a sampling line. It was found that the solutions were highly dependent upon the diagnostic wind field model used to interpolate the spatially variable observed wind fields. At the DP26 site, CALPUFF and HPAC had better performance than VLSTRACK. Overall, the three models had mean biases within 35% and random scatters of about a factor of 3-4. About 50%-60% of CALPUFF and HPAC predictions and about 40% of VLSTRACK predictions were within a factor of 2 of observations. At the OLAD site, all three models underpredicted by a factor of 2-3, on average, with random scatters of a factor of 3-7. About 50% of HPAC predictions and only 25%-30% of CALPUFF and VLSTRACK predictions were within a factor of 2 of observations.

  18. Dosimetric evaluation of Tomotherapy and four-box field conformal radiotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Mina; Jang, Hong Seok; Jeon, Dong Min; Cheon, Geum Seong; Lee, Hyo Chun; Chung, Mi Joo; Kim, Sung Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To report the results of dosimetric comparison between intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using Tomotherapy and four-box field conformal radiotherapy (CRT) for pelvic irradiation of locally advanced rectal cancer. Materials and Methods Twelve patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who received a short course preoperative chemoradiotherapy (25 Gy in 5 fractions) on the pelvis using Tomotherapy, between July 2010 and December 2010, were selected. Using their simulation computed tomography scans, Tomotherapy and four-box field CRT plans with the same dose schedule were evaluated, and dosimetric parameters of the two plans were compared. For the comparison of target coverage, we analyzed the mean dose, Vn Gy, Dmin, Dmax, radical dose homogeneity index (rDHI), and radiation conformity index (RCI). For the comparison of organs at risk (OAR), we analyzed the mean dose. Results Tomotherapy showed a significantly higher mean target dose than four-box field CRT (p = 0.001). But, V26.25 Gy and V27.5 Gywere not significantly different between the two modalities. Tomotherapy showed higher Dmax and lower Dmin. The Tomotherapy plan had a lower rDHI than four-box field CRT (p = 0.000). Tomotherapy showed better RCI than four-box field CRT (p = 0.007). For OAR, the mean irradiated dose was significantly lower in Tomotherapy than four-box field CRT. Conclusion In locally advanced rectal cancer, Tomotherapy delivers a higher conformal radiation dose to the target and reduces the irradiated dose to OAR than four-box field CRT. PMID:24501715

  19. Evaluating the impact of field-scale management strategies on sediment transport to the watershed outlet.

    PubMed

    Sommerlot, Andrew R; Pouyan Nejadhashemi, A; Woznicki, Sean A; Prohaska, Michael D

    2013-10-15

    Non-point source pollution from agricultural lands is a significant contributor of sediment pollution in United States lakes and streams. Therefore, quantifying the impact of individual field management strategies at the watershed-scale provides valuable information to watershed managers and conservation agencies to enhance decision-making. In this study, four methods employing some of the most cited models in field and watershed scale analysis were compared to find a practical yet accurate method for evaluating field management strategies at the watershed outlet. The models used in this study including field-scale model (the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation 2 - RUSLE2), spatially explicit overland sediment delivery models (SEDMOD), and a watershed-scale model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool - SWAT). These models were used to develop four modeling strategies (methods) for the River Raisin watershed: Method 1) predefined field-scale subbasin and reach layers were used in SWAT model; Method 2) subbasin-scale sediment delivery ratio was employed; Method 3) results obtained from the field-scale RUSLE2 model were incorporated as point source inputs to the SWAT watershed model; and Method 4) a hybrid solution combining analyses from the RUSLE2, SEDMOD, and SWAT models. Method 4 was selected as the most accurate among the studied methods. In addition, the effectiveness of six best management practices (BMPs) in terms of the water quality improvement and associated cost were assessed. Economic analysis was performed using Method 4, and producer requested prices for BMPs were compared with prices defined by the Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP). On a per unit area basis, producers requested higher prices than EQIP in four out of six BMP categories. Meanwhile, the true cost of sediment reduction at the field and watershed scales was greater than EQIP in five of six BMP categories according to producer requested prices. PMID:23851319

  20. Field evaluation of a new prototype self-contained breathing apparatus.

    PubMed

    Coca, Aitor; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Duffy, Richard; Williams, W Jon

    2011-12-01

    Firefighters are required to use a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) for respiratory protection when engaged in a variety of firefighting duties. While the SCBA provides crucial respiratory support and protection, it is also cumbersome and heavy, thus adding to the physical work performed by the firefighter. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate and compare the low profile SCBA prototype to a standard SCBA, as assessed by the objective and subjective measures of mobility and comfort, time of donning/doffing, as well as by acquiring user feedback on SCBA design features during field activities. The results of the present study indicated that the prototype SCBA was rated as a significant improvement over the standard SCBA in the areas of range of motion (ROM), mobility, comfort, induction of fatigue, interaction with protective clothing, and operability when worn over a standard firefighter ensemble, while performing a series of International Association of Fire Fighters Fire Ground Survival Program training exercises. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: A prototype SCBA was evaluated and compared with a standard SCBA, focusing on the objective and subjective measures of mobility and comfort during field activities. Feedback from end users was collected during the evaluation. The findings of the present study can be used for improving the system design and overall performance of new prototype SCBAs. PMID:22103727

  1. Merit function for the evaluation of color uniformity in the far field of LED spot lights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teupner, Anne; Bergenek, Krister; Wirth, Ralph; Miñano, Juan C.; Benítez, Pablo

    2014-02-01

    The scope of the present paper is the derivation of a merit function which predicts the visual perception of LED spot lights. The color uniformity level Usl is described by a linear regression function of the spatial color distribution in the far field. Hereby, the function is derived from four basic functions. They describe the color uniformity of spot lights through different features. The result is a reliable prediction for the perceived color uniformity in spot lights. A human factor experiment was performed to evaluate the visual preferences for colors and patterns. A perceived rank order was derived from the subjects' answers and compared with the four basic functions. The correlation between the perceived rank order and the basic functions was calculated resulting in the definition of the merit function Usl. The application of this function is shown by a comparison of visual evaluations and measurements of LED retrofit spot lamps. The results enable a prediction of color uniformity levels of simulations and measurements concerning the visual perception. The function provides a possibility to evaluate the far field of spot lights without individual subjective judgment.

  2. Evaluating biological variation in non-transgenic crops: executive summary from the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute workshop, November 16-17, 2009, Paris, France.

    PubMed

    Doerrer, Nancy; Ladics, Gregory; McClain, Scott; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Poulsen, Lars K; Privalle, Laura; Stagg, Nicola

    2010-12-01

    The International Life Sciences Institute Health and Environmental Sciences Institute Protein Allergenicity Technical Committee hosted an international workshop November 16-17, 2009, in Paris, France, with over 60 participants from academia, government, and industry to review and discuss the potential utility of "-omics" technologies for assessing the variability in plant gene, protein, and metabolite expression. The goal of the workshop was to illustrate how a plant's constituent makeup and phenotypic processes can be surveyed analytically. Presentations on the "-omics" techniques (i.e., genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) highlighted the workshop, and summaries of these presentations are published separately in this supplemental issue. This paper summarizes key messages, as well as the consensus points reached, in a roundtable discussion on eight specific questions posed during the final session of the workshop. The workshop established some common, though not unique, challenges for all "-omics" techniques, and include (a) standardization of separation/extraction and analytical techniques; (b) difficulty in associating environmental impacts (e.g., planting, soil texture, location, climate, stress) with potential alterations in plants at genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic levels; (c) many independent analytical measurements, but few replicates/subjects--poorly defined accuracy and precision; and (d) bias--a lack of hypothesis-driven science. Information on natural plant variation is critical in establishing the utility of new technologies due to the variability in specific analytes that may result from genetic differences (crop genotype), different crop management practices (conventional high input, low input, organic), interaction between genotype and environment, and the use of different breeding methods. For example, variations of several classes of proteins were reported among different soybean, rice, or wheat varieties or varieties grown at different locations. Data on the variability of allergenic proteins are important in defining the risk of potential allergenicity. Once established as a standardized assay, survey approaches such as the "-omics" techniques can be considered in a hypothesis-driven analysis of plants, such as determining unintended effects in genetically modified (GM) crops. However, the analysis should include both the GM and control varieties that have the same breeding history and exposure to the same environmental conditions. Importantly, the biological relevance and safety significance of changes in "-omic" data are still unknown. Furthermore, the current compositional assessment for evaluating the substantial equivalence of GM crops is robust, comprehensive, and a good tool for food safety assessments. The overall consensus of the workshop participants was that many "-omics" techniques are extremely useful in the discovery and research phases of biotechnology, and are valuable for hypothesis generation. However, there are many methodological shortcomings identified with "-omics" approaches, a paucity of reference materials, and a lack of focused strategy for their use that currently make them not conducive for the safety assessment of GM crops. PMID:20615445

  3. Evaluation of the induced electric field and compliance procedure for a wireless power transfer system in an electrical vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa

    2013-11-01

    In this study, an induced electric field in a human body is evaluated for the magnetic field leaked from a wireless power transfer system for charging an electrical vehicle. The magnetic field from the wireless power transfer system is modelled computationally, and its effectiveness is confirmed by comparison with the field measured in a previous study. The induced electric field in a human standing around the vehicle is smaller than the allowable limit prescribed in international guidelines, although the magnetic field strength in the human body is locally higher than the allowable external field strength. Correlation between the external magnetic field and the induced electric field is confirmed to be reasonable at least in the standing posture, which is the case discussed in the international standard. Based on this finding, we discussed and confirmed the applicability of a three-point magnetic field measurement at heights of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 m for safety compliance.

  4. Intern Summary Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Topics covered include: Probe Station Antenna Range; LERCIP 2004 Summary; L.E.R.C.I.P. Internship Summary; Hubble Space Telescope Bi-Stem Thermal Shield Analyses; GRABER - the Duct Tape of Space and JIMO Heat Conducting Foam; CDF and PDF Comparison Between Humacao, Puerto Rico and Florida; Development of the On-board Aircraft Network; Development of the Planar Inlet Design and Analysis Process (PINDAP); An Overview of My 2004 Summer Internship [Non-destructive Evaluation]; My Summer Experience as an Administrative Officer Assistant [in the Safety and Assurance Directorate Office]; Programming an Experiment Control System; Reducing the Cation Exchange Capacity of Lithium Clay to Form Better Dispersed; Polymer-Clay Nanocomposites; Feasibility of EB Welded Hastelloy X and Combination of Refractory Metals; My Work in the NASA Glenn History Office and Records Management Office; Education, Technology, and Media: A Peak into My Summer Internship at NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio; [The Engineering and Technical Services Directorate at the Glenn Research Center]; Drinking Water Database; Design of an EXB Probe; and Texturing Carbon-carbon Composite Radiator Surfaces Utilizing Atomic Oxygen.

  5. Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, James J.; Cook, Kristin A.

    2005-05-09

    Motivation Our country faces profound challenges that must be addressed in order to ensure our continued freedom and security. As the September 11, 2001, attacks on the Pentagon and World Trade Center illustrate, threats to the United States are present within our borders. On that day, after at least 20 months of planning and preparation, nineteen terrorists hijacked four airliners at three different airports in a coordinated attack. The hijackers crashed two planes into the World Trade Center’s twin towers and one plane into the Pentagon. The fourth plane, intended to attack another U.S. landmark, crashed in a field in Pennsylvania. 2973 people lost their lives as a result of this attack. As the attack unfolded, government agencies and emergency response personnel had to respond in real time to situations for which policies and procedures did not exist. They were forced to assess situations and make decisions under extreme pressure, often without having critical information that would help them save additional lives. [National Commission on Terrorist Attacks, 2004

  6. Handheld standoff mine detection system (HSTAMIDS) field evaluation in Thailand (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doheny, Robert C.; Burke, Sean; Cresci, Roger; Ngan, Peter; Walls, Richard

    2005-06-01

    The Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program of Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD), under the direction of the Office of Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations and Low-Intensity Conflict (OASD/SOLIC) and with participation from the International Test and Evaluation Project (ITEP) for Humanitarian Demining, conducted an in-country field evaluation of HSTAMIDS in the region of Humanitarian Demining Unit #1 (HMAU1) in Thailand. Participants included the US Humanitarian Demining Team of NVESD, ITEP personnel, Thailand Mine Action Center (TMAC), HALO Trust organization from Cambodia, and CyTerra Corporation. The primary objectives were to demonstrate the performance of the U.S. Army's latest handheld multisensor mine detector, the AN/PSS-14, in a demining environment in comparison to the performance of the metal detector being used by the local deminers and also to assess the performance of the trained deminers after limited experience and training with the HSTAMIDS.

  7. Evaluation of two rodenticides in the paddy fields during Samba and Thaladi seasons.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, J; Kanakasabai, R; Neelanarayanan, P

    1995-02-01

    The single dose anticoagulant rodenticide, bromadiolone (0.005%) and the acute rodenticide, zinc phosphide (2%) were evaluated in the paddy fields during Samba and Thaladi seasons for two crop stages, viz. 20 and 40 days after transplantation. Three baiting methods namely, burrow, station and burrow+station were adopted for both rodenticides. Both the rodenticides were exposed for one and two days in the partitioned plots. In the plots with 20 days after transplantation, the two day exposure of both rodenticides in burrow+station baitings during both seasons cleared cent percent rodent population. The cost-benefit ratio of the employed rodenticides favoured zinc phosphide than bromadiolone. Thus, zinc phosphide is deemed to be an economic rodenticide than bromadiolone and it can be suggested for the control of rodent population with two day exposure by burrow+station baiting methods preferably 20 days after transplanted paddy fields in both seasons. PMID:7759123

  8. EVALUATION OF SILICON DIODES AS IN-SITU CRYOGENIC FIELD EMISSION DETECTORS FOR SRF CAVITY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Ari Palczewski, Rongli Geng

    2012-07-01

    We performed in-situ cryogenic testing of four silicon diodes as possible candidates for field emission (FE) monitors of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities during qualification testing and in accelerator cryo-modules. We evaluated diodes from 2 companies - from Hamamatsu corporation model S1223-01; and from OSI Optoelectronics models OSD35-LR-A, XUV-50C, and FIL-UV20. The measurements were done by placing the diodes in superfluid liquid helium near the top of a field emitting 9-cell cavity during its vertical test. For each diode, we will discuss their viability as a 2K cryogenic detector for FE mapping of SRF cavities and the directionality of S1223-01 in such environments. We will also present calibration curves between the diodes and JLab's standard radiation detector placed above the Dewar's top plate.

  9. Numerical evaluation of electromagnetic fields due to dipole antennas in the presence of stratified media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, L.; Brown, R.; Kong, J. A.; Simmons, G.

    1974-01-01

    Two numerical methods are used to evaluate the integrals that express the em fields due to dipole antennas radiating in the presence of a stratified medium. The first method is a direct integration by means of Simpson's rule. The second method is indirect and approximates the kernel of the integral by means of the fast Fourier transform. In contrast to previous analytical methods that applied only to two-layer cases the numerical methods can be used for any arbitrary number of layers with general properties.

  10. Field analytical techniques for mercury in soils technology evaluation. Topical report, November 1994--March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Solc, J.; Harju, J.A.; Grisanti, A.A.

    1998-02-01

    This report presents the evaluation of the four field analytical techniques for mercury detection in soils, namely (1) an anodic stripping voltametry technique (ASV) developed and tested by General Electric Corporation; (2) a static headspace analysis (SHSA) technique developed and tested by Dr. Ralph Turner of Oak Ridge National Laboratory; (3) the BiMelyze{reg_sign} Mercury Immunoassay (Bio) developed and tested by BioNebraska, Inc.; and (4) a transportable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) instrument/technique developed and tested by Spectrace, Inc.

  11. Refined MCHF evaluations of field isotope shift and hyperfine structure in the calcium atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, A. L. A.; Bauche, J.

    1984-08-01

    In the calcium atom, the MCHF method has been applied for evaluating the field-shift electronic parts of both 4 s 2-4 s4 p lines, and the hyperfine-structure electronic effective parameters of the 4 s4 p 3 P 2 and1 P 1 levels. For the hyperfine structures, the far-configuration mixing corrections have been computed with the assumption that the lower state is itself a two-component sp+dp state in close-configuration mixing.

  12. Evaluation of sound fields in a concert hall involving scattered reflections applying the subjective preference theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzumura, Yukio

    2003-08-01

    Convex tilted rear walls in a stage enclosure, an array of circular columns installed in front of walls, and triangular reflectors above the stage were newly adopted as scattering obstacles in an acoustic design of Tsuyama Music Cultural Hall, called ``Bell Fole?t Tsuyama.'' The fundamental shape of the hall was designed using the theory of subjective preference. To calculate the effects of scattered reflections on a sound field in a real concert hall is extremely laborious. For this reason, the evaluation of effects of scattered reflections on the sound field in the hall was made experimentally by use of a 110 acoustical scale. After construction of the hall, therefore, sound fields of the hall, which involves scattered reflections caused by the tilted convex rear, by the array of circular columns, and by the triangular reflectors, were measured using four orthogonal physical factors (LL, ?t1, Tsub, IACC) described in the theory and the acoustical character of these scattering obstacles was clarified. Results clearly showed that these new attempts on scattered reflections substantially improved the quality of the sound field in the hall. Thesis advisor: Yoichi Ando Copies of this thesis written in English can be obtained from Yukio Suzumura. E-mail address: ysuzu11@lapis.plala.or.jp

  13. Evaluation of six pesticides leaching indexes using field data of herbicide application in Casablanca Valley, Chile.

    PubMed

    Kogan, M; Rojas, S; Gómez, P; Suárez, F; Muñoz, J F; Alister, C

    2007-01-01

    A field study was performed to evaluate the accuracy of six pesticide screening leaching indexes for herbicide movement. Adsorption, dissipation and soil movement were studied in a vineyard in a sandy loam soil during 2005 season. Simazine, diuron, pendimethalin, oxyfluorfen and flumioxazin were applied to bare soil at rates commonly used, and their soil concentrations throughout soil profile were determined at 0, 10, 20, 40 and 90 days after application (DAA). Herbicides were subjected to two pluviometric regimens, natural field condition and modified conditions (plus natural rainfall 180 mm). Leaching indexes utilized were: Briggs's Rf, Hamaker's Rf, LEACH, LPI, GUS and LIX. Simazine reached 120 cm, diuron 90 cm, flumioxazin 30 cm soil depth respectively. Pendimethalin and oxyfluorfen were retained up to 5 cm. None of the herbicides leaching was affected by rainfall regimen. Only flumioxazin field dissipation was clearly affected by pluviometric condition. The best representation of the herbicide soil depth movement and leaching below 15 cm soil depth were: Hamaker's Rf < Briggs's Rf < GUS < LPI, < LEACH < LIX. Field results showed a good correlation between herbicides K(d) and their soil depth movement and mass leached below 15 cm soil depth. PMID:17849992

  14. A field study evaluation of short-term refined Gaussian dispersion models

    SciTech Connect

    Piper, A.

    1996-12-31

    A tracer study was conducted at the Duke Forest Site in Chapel Hill, North Carolina in January, 1995 to evaluate the ability of three short-term refined Gaussian dispersion models to predict the fate of volume source emissions under field study conditions. Study participants included the American Petroleum Institute (API), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the US Department of Energy (DOE), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and private consulting firms. The models evaluated were Industrial Source Complex--Short Term versions 2 and 3 (ISC2, ISC3) and the American Meteorological Society (AMS) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Regulatory Model Improvement Committee (AERMIC) model, AERMOD. All three models are based on the steady-state Gaussian plume dispersion equation, which predicts concentrations at downwind receptor locations when integrated over the distance between the source and receptor. Chemicals were released at known rates and measurements were taken at various points in the study field using Tedlar bag point sampling and open-path Fourier Transform infrared (OP-FTIR) monitoring. The study found that ISC and AERMOD underpredicted the measured concentrations for each dataset collected in the field study. ISC and AERMOD each underpredicted the OPFTIR dataset by a factor of approximately 1.6. ISC underpredicted the Tedlar{reg_sign} dataset by approximately 2.1, while AERMOD underpredicted by a factor of approximately 2.6. Regardless of source configuration or measurement technique used, under-prediction with respect to the measured concentration was consistently observed. This indicates that safety factors or other corrections may be necessary in predicting contaminant concentrations over the distances examined in this study, i.e., in the near field of less than 200 meters.

  15. Requirements for the Effective Use of the Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC) -- Determined by Field Evaluation 

    E-print Network

    Herbich, J. B.; Smith, E. B.; Benson, J. D.

    1969-11-15

    A field evaluation study of user requirements for effective use of the Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC) is described. The study included several components including an analysis of potential users classified...

  16. Requirements for the Effective Use of the Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC) -- Determined by Field Evaluation

    E-print Network

    Herbich, J. B.; Smith, E. B.; Benson, J. D.

    1969-11-15

    A field evaluation study of user requirements for effective use of the Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC) is described. The study included several components including an analysis of potential users classified...

  17. Ozone production efficiency and NOx depletion in an urban plume: Interpretation of field observations and implications for evaluating

    E-print Network

    and Atmospheric Dynamics: Theoretical modeling; KEYWORDS: air pollution, Lagrangian modeling, aircraftOzone production efficiency and NOx depletion in an urban plume: Interpretation of field observational and modeling techniques to evaluate various operational definitions of OPEs using aircraft

  18. LABORATORY AND FIELD EVALUATION OF A METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINATION OF HYDROGEN CHLORIDE EMISSIONS FROM MUNICIPAL AND HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory and field studies were performed to develop and evaluate a sampling and analytical technique for measuring hydrogen chloride (HCl) from stationary sources. Studies were conducted in three phases: (1) literature search and development of a candidate sampling and analysi...

  19. Evaluation of WRF-SFIRE performance with field observations from the FireFlux experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochanski, A. K.; Jenkins, M. A.; Mandel, J.; Beezley, J. D.; Clements, C. B.; Krueger, S.

    2013-01-01

    This study uses in-situ measurements collected during the FireFlux field experiment to evaluate and improve the performance of coupled atmosphere-fire model WRF-SFIRE. The simulation of the experimental burn shows that WRF-SFIRE is capable of providing realistic head fire rate-of-spread and the vertical temperature structure of the fire plume, and, up to 10 m above ground level, fire-induced surface flow and vertical velocities within the plume. The model captured the changes in wind speed and direction before, during, and after fire front passage, along with arrival times of wind speed, temperature, and updraft maximae, at the two instrumented flux towers used in FireFlux. The model overestimated vertical velocities and underestimated horizontal wind speeds measured at tower heights above the 10 m, and it is hypothesized that the limited model resolution over estimated the fire front depth, leading to too high a heat release and, subsequently, too strong an updraft. However, on the whole, WRF-SFIRE fire plume behavior is consistent with the interpretation of FireFlux observations. The study suggests optimal experimental pre-planning, design, and execution of future field campaigns that are needed for further coupled atmosphere-fire model development and evaluation.

  20. Evaluation of WRF-SFIRE performance with field observations from the FireFlux experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochanski, A. K.; Jenkins, M. A.; Mandel, J.; Beezley, J. D.; Clements, C. B.; Krueger, S.

    2013-08-01

    This study uses in situ measurements collected during the FireFlux field experiment to evaluate and improve the performance of the coupled atmosphere-fire model WRF-SFIRE. The simulation by WRF-SFIRE of the experimental burn shows that WRF-SFIRE is capable of providing realistic head-fire rate of spread and vertical temperature structure of the fire plume, and fire-induced surface flow and vertical velocities within the plume up to 10 m above ground level. The simulation captured the changes in wind speed and direction before, during, and after fire front passage, along with the arrival times of wind speed, temperature, and updraft maxima, at the two instrumented flux towers used in FireFlux. The model overestimated vertical wind speeds and underestimated horizontal wind speeds measured at tower heights above 10 m. It is hypothesized that the limited model spatial resolution led to overestimates of the fire front depth, heat release rate, and updraft speed. However, on the whole, WRF-SFIRE simulated fire plume behavior that is consistent with FireFlux observations. The study suggests optimal experimental pre-planning, design, and execution strategies for future field campaigns that are intended to evaluate and develop further coupled atmosphere-fire models.

  1. Evaluation of a Portable Automated Serum Chemistry Analyzer for Field Assessment of Harlequin Ducks, Histrionicus histrionicus

    PubMed Central

    Stoskopf, Michael K.; Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Esler, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    A portable analytical chemistry analyzer was used to make field assessments of wild harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) in association with telemetry studies of winter survival in Prince William Sound, Alaska. We compared serum chemistry results obtained on-site with results from a traditional laboratory. Particular attention was paid to serum glucose and potassium concentrations as potential indicators of high-risk surgical candidates based on evaluation of the field data. The median differential for glucose values (N = 82) between methods was 0.6?mmol/L (quartiles 0.3 and 0.9?mmol/L) with the median value higher when assayed on site. Analysis of potassium on site returned a median of 2.7?mmol/L (N = 88; quartiles 2.4 and 3.0?mmol/L). Serum potassium values were too low for quantitation by the traditional laboratory. Changes in several serum chemistry values following a three-day storm during the study support the value of on site evaluation of serum potassium to identify presurgical patients with increased anesthetic risk. PMID:20445783

  2. Evaluation of a Portable Automated Serum Chemistry Analyzer for Field Assessment of Harlequin Ducks, Histrionicus histrionicus.

    PubMed

    Stoskopf, Michael K; Mulcahy, Daniel M; Esler, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    A portable analytical chemistry analyzer was used to make field assessments of wild harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) in association with telemetry studies of winter survival in Prince William Sound, Alaska. We compared serum chemistry results obtained on-site with results from a traditional laboratory. Particular attention was paid to serum glucose and potassium concentrations as potential indicators of high-risk surgical candidates based on evaluation of the field data. The median differential for glucose values (N = 82) between methods was 0.6 mmol/L (quartiles 0.3 and 0.9 mmol/L) with the median value higher when assayed on site. Analysis of potassium on site returned a median of 2.7 mmol/L (N = 88; quartiles 2.4 and 3.0 mmol/L). Serum potassium values were too low for quantitation by the traditional laboratory. Changes in several serum chemistry values following a three-day storm during the study support the value of on site evaluation of serum potassium to identify presurgical patients with increased anesthetic risk. PMID:20445783

  3. Summary of the Georgia Agricultural Water Conservation and Metering Program and evaluation of methods used to collect and analyze irrigation data in the middle and lower Chattahoochee and Flint River basins, 2004-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torak, Lynn J.; Painter, Jaime A.

    2011-01-01

    Since receiving jurisdiction from the State Legislature in June 2003 to implement the Georgia Agricultural Water Conservation and Metering Program, the Georgia Soil and Water Conservation Commission (Commission) by year-end 2010 installed more than 10,000 annually read water meters and nearly 200 daily reporting, satellite-transmitted, telemetry sites on irrigation systems located primarily in southern Georgia. More than 3,000 annually reported meters and 50 telemetry sites were installed during 2010 alone. The Commission monitored rates and volumes of agricultural irrigation supplied by groundwater, surface-water, and well-to-pond sources to inform water managers on the patterns and amounts of such water use and to determine effective and efficient resource utilization. Summary analyses of 4 complete years of irrigation data collected from annually read water meters in the middle and lower Chattahoochee and Flint River basins during 2007-2010 indicated that groundwater-supplied fields received slightly more irrigation depth per acre than surface-water-supplied fields. Year 2007 yielded the largest disparity between irrigation depth supplied by groundwater and surface-water sources as farmers responded to severe-to-exceptional drought conditions with increased irrigation. Groundwater sources (wells and well-to-pond systems) outnumbered surface-water sources by a factor of five; each groundwater source applied a third more irrigation volume than surface water; and, total irrigation volume from groundwater exceeded that of surface water by a factor of 6.7. Metered irrigation volume indicated a pattern of low-to-high water use from northwest to southeast that could point to relations between agricultural water use, water-resource potential and availability, soil type, and crop patterns. Normalizing metered irrigation-volume data by factoring out irrigated acres allowed irrigation water use to be expressed as an irrigation depth and nearly eliminated the disparity between volumes of applied irrigation derived from groundwater and surface water. Analysis of per-acre irrigation depths provided a commonality for comparing irrigation practices across the entire range of field sizes in southern Georgia and indicated underreporting of irrigated acres for some systems. Well-to-pond systems supplied irrigation at depths similar to groundwater and can be combined with groundwater irrigation data for subsequent analyses. Average irrigation depths during 2010 indicated an increase from average irrigation depths during 2008 and 2009, most likely the result of relatively dry conditions during 2010 compared to conditions in 2008 and 2009. Geostatistical models facilitated estimation of irrigation water use for unmetered systems and demonstrated usefulness in redesigning the telemetry network. Geospatial analysis evaluated the ability of the telemetry network to represent annually reported water-meter data and presented an objective, unbiased method for revising the network.

  4. Instrumentation Working Group Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaller, Michelle; Miake-Lye, Richard

    1999-01-01

    The Instrumentation Working Group compiled a summary of measurement techniques applicable to gas turbine engine aerosol precursors and particulates. An assessment was made of the limits, accuracy, applicability, and technology readiness of the various techniques. Despite advances made in emissions characterization of aircraft engines, uncertainties still exist in the mechanisms by which aerosols and particulates are produced in the near-field engine exhaust. To adequately assess current understanding of the formation of sulfuric acid aerosols in the exhaust plumes of gas turbine engines, measurements are required to determine the degree and importance of sulfur oxidation in the turbine and at the engine exit. Ideally, concentrations of all sulfur species would be acquired, with emphasis on SO2 and SO3. Numerous options exist for extractive and non-extractive measurement of SO2 at the engine exit, most of which are well developed. SO2 measurements should be performed first to place an upper bound on the percentage of SO2 oxidation. If extractive and non-extractive techniques indicate that a large amount of the fuel sulfur is not detected as SO2, then efforts are needed to improve techniques for SO3 measurements. Additional work will be required to account for the fuel sulfur in the engine exhaust. Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CI-MS) measurements need to be pursued, although a careful assessment needs to be made of the sampling line impact on the extracted sample composition. Efforts should also be placed on implementing non-intrusive techniques and extending their capabilities by maximizing exhaust coverage for line-of-sight measurements, as well as development of 2-D techniques, where feasible. Recommendations were made to continue engine exit and combustor measurements of particulates. Particulate measurements should include particle size distribution, mass fraction, hydration properties, and volatile fraction. However, methods to ensure that unaltered samples are obtained need to be developed. Particulate speciation was also assigned a high priority for quantifying the fractions of carbon soot, PAH, refractory materials, metals, sulfates, and nitrates. High priority was also placed on performing a comparison of particle sizing instruments. Concern was expressed by the workshop attendees who routinely make particulate measurements about the variation in number density measured during in-flight tests by different instruments. In some cases, measurements performed by different groups of researchers during the same flight tests showed an order of magnitude variation. Second priority was assigned to measuring concentrations of odd hydrogen and oxidizing species. Since OH, HO2, H2O2, and O are extremely reactive, non-extractive measurements are recommended. A combination of absorption and fluorescence is anticipated to be effective for OH measurements in the combustor and at the engine exit. Extractive measurements of HO2 have been made in the stratosphere, where the ambient level of OH is relatively low. Use of techniques that convert HO2 to OH for combustor and engine exit measurements needs to be evaluated, since the ratio of HO2/OH may be 1% or less at both the combustor and engine exit. CI-MS might be a viable option for H2O2, subject to sampling line conversion issues. However, H2O2 is a low priority oxidizing species in the combustor and at the engine exit. Two candidates for atomic oxygen measurements are Resonance Enhanced Multi-Photon Ionization (REMPI) and Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF). Particulate measurement by simultaneous extractive and non-extractive techniques was given equal priority to the oxidizer measurements. Concern was expressed over the ability of typical ground test sampling lines to deliver an unaltered sample to a remotely located instrument. It was suggested that the sampling probe and line losses be checked out by attempting measurements using an optical or non-extractive technique immediately upstream of the sampling probe. This is a possible application for Laser Induced Incandesc

  5. Efficient models for the evaluation and estimation of the gravity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Brandon A.

    2010-11-01

    Current astrodynamics applications require a rapid evaluation of the gravity field and an efficient approach to gravity estimation. The commonly used spherical harmonic model does not meet either of these needs. To address these issues, this research considers two new gravity representations: the cubed-sphere and the MRQSphere models. Offering a means for rapid evaluation, the cubed-sphere model yields an effectively constant computation time for any degree of the modeled gravity field. Analyzing the model's performance in a series of Monte-Carlo-like tests characterizes its effects on both orbit propagation and determination. When compared to the spherical harmonic gravity model, the cubed-sphere model improves computational efficiency without causing any significant deviation in resulting trajectories. Using this new model in sequential orbit determination improves the computational efficiency of the time update. As a result, the measurement update now dominates the filter execution time for near real-time applications. Since cubed-sphere models of higher degree require only a slight change in computation time, orbit propagation and determination systems may now use this model to improve fidelity without any significant change in cost. To address the gravity estimation problem, combining a new multiresolution technique with nearly optimal quadratures (for the sphere) invariant under the icosahedral group defines the MRQSphere model. This new multiresolution representation allows for gravity estimation via a naturally staged approach to a celestial body with an unknown gravity field, which aids in the design of missions to small bodies. To test the new model's capabilities, this research simulates a mission to an asteroid. Tests include the characterization of a MRQSphere model derived from the asteroid's spherical harmonic model, and the estimation of a model via observations of the gravity potential. For such a simplified scenario, the results indicate that the MRQSphere model meets the estimation accuracy requirements; future work is recommended to fully explore its capabilities.

  6. EVALUATION OF HARVEST AIDS ON HAILED-ON COTTON

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    YEAR: 1999 EVALUATION OF HARVEST AIDS ON HAILED-ON COTTON COOPERATOR Hal Curry COORDINATORS Kerry Siders, Extension Agent-IPM, Hockley and Cochran Counties Hockley County SUMMARY: Cotton can receive hail. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cotton harvest aid products on damaged cotton. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Field plots

  7. Feasibility study for a numerical aerodynamic simulation facility: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lincoln, N. R.

    1979-01-01

    The Ames Research Center of NASA is engaged in the development and investigation of numerical methods and computer technologies to be employed in conjunction with physical experiments, particularly utilizing wind tunnels in the furtherance of the field of aircraft and aerodynamic body design. Several studies, aimed primarily at the areas of development and production of extremely high-speed computing facilities, were conducted. The studies focused on evaluating the aspects of feasibility, reliability, costs, and practicability of designing, constructing, and bringing into effect production of a special-purpose system. An executive summary of the activities for this project is presented in this volume.

  8. Field evaluation of a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for Mycoplasma hyorhinis.

    PubMed

    Clavijo, Maria J; Oliveira, Simone; Zimmerman, Jeffrey; Rendahl, Aaron; Rovira, Albert

    2014-11-01

    Mycoplasma hyorhinis has emerged as an important cause of systemic disease in nursery pigs. However, this bacterium can also be found in the upper respiratory tract of healthy swine. The current study describes the development of a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of M. hyorhinis and the evaluation of the assay in both disease diagnosis and disease surveillance using a large number of field samples. The analytical sensitivity was estimated to be 12 genome equivalents/?l. The assay was highly specific, detecting all 25 M. hyorhinis isolates tested and none of the 19 nontarget species tested. Assay repeatability was evaluated by testing different matrices spiked with known amounts of M. hyorhinis. Overall, assessment of the repeatability of the assay showed suitable precision within and between runs for all matrices. The coefficient of variation ranged from 10% to 24%. Mycoplasma hyorhinis DNA was detected in 48% of samples (pericardium, pleura, joints, nasal cavity, and lungs) from pigs with systemic disease. Mycoplasma hyorhinis was detected in nasal (92%) and oropharyngeal swabs (66%), as well as in oral fluids (100%). Potential uses of this tool involve the characterization of the prevalence of this pathogen in swine herds as well as bacterial quantification to evaluate intervention efficacy. PMID:25319032

  9. Sensor design for outdoor racing bicycle field testing for human vibration comfort evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanwalleghem, Joachim; De Baere, Ives; Loccufier, Mia; Van Paepegem, Wim

    2013-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the vibrational comfort evaluation of the cyclist when cycling a rough surface. Outdoor comfort tests have so far only been done through instrumenting the bicycle with accelerometers. This work instruments a racing bicycle with custom-made contact force sensors and velocity sensors to acquire human comfort through the absorbed power method. Comfort evaluation is assessed at the hand-arm and seat interface of the cyclist with the bicycle. By means of careful finite-element analysis for designing the force gauges at the handlebar and the seat combined with precise calibration of both force and velocity sensors, all sensors have proven to work properly. Initial field tests are focused on the proper functioning of the designed sensors and their suitability for vibration comfort measurements. Tests on a cobblestone road reveal that the outcome of the absorbed power values is within the same range as those from laboratory tests found in the literature. This sensor design approach for outdoor testing with racing bicycles may give a new interpretation on evaluating the cyclist's comfort since the vibrational load is not only quantified in terms of acceleration but also in terms of force and velocity at the bicycle-cyclist contact points.

  10. Visualizing simulated electrical fields from electroencephalography and transcranial electric brain stimulation: a comparative evaluation.

    PubMed

    Eichelbaum, Sebastian; Dannhauer, Moritz; Hlawitschka, Mario; Brooks, Dana; Knösche, Thomas R; Scheuermann, Gerik

    2014-11-01

    Electrical activity of neuronal populations is a crucial aspect of brain activity. This activity is not measured directly but recorded as electrical potential changes using head surface electrodes (electroencephalogram - EEG). Head surface electrodes can also be deployed to inject electrical currents in order to modulate brain activity (transcranial electric stimulation techniques) for therapeutic and neuroscientific purposes. In electroencephalography and noninvasive electric brain stimulation, electrical fields mediate between electrical signal sources and regions of interest (ROI). These fields can be very complicated in structure, and are influenced in a complex way by the conductivity profile of the human head. Visualization techniques play a central role to grasp the nature of those fields because such techniques allow for an effective conveyance of complex data and enable quick qualitative and quantitative assessments. The examination of volume conduction effects of particular head model parameterizations (e.g., skull thickness and layering), of brain anomalies (e.g., holes in the skull, tumors), location and extent of active brain areas (e.g., high concentrations of current densities) and around current injecting electrodes can be investigated using visualization. Here, we evaluate a number of widely used visualization techniques, based on either the potential distribution or on the current-flow. In particular, we focus on the extractability of quantitative and qualitative information from the obtained images, their effective integration of anatomical context information, and their interaction. We present illustrative examples from clinically and neuroscientifically relevant cases and discuss the pros and cons of the various visualization techniques. PMID:24821532

  11. Field evaluation of cotton near-isogenic lines introgressed with QTLs for productivity and drought related traits

    E-print Network

    Chee, Peng W.

    Field evaluation of cotton near-isogenic lines introgressed with QTLs for productivity and drought) between elite cultivars of the two cotton species Gossypium barbadense cv. F-177 and G. hirsutum cv. Siv, in order to (1) evaluate the potential to improve cotton drought resistance by MAS and (2) test the role

  12. The Mobile Field Study Unit in South-West Queensland. Priority Country Area Program Evaluation Series: Report No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Clifford F.

    Effectiveness of the Mobile Field Study Unit's work in environmental education in south-west Queensland during 1979-1980 was evaluated through records kept by the Unit and the Priority Country Area Program (PCAP) office, evaluations by teachers, interviews with teachers and educational administrators, and participant observation of the Unit. The…

  13. Evaluation of the Prothrombin Time for Measuring Rivaroxaban Plasma Concentrations Using Calibrators and Controls: Results of a Multicenter Field Trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meyer Michel Samama; Genevieve Contant; Theodore E. Spiro; Elisabeth Perzborn; Lena Le Flem; Céline Guinet; Yves Gourmelin; Jean Luc Martinoli

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the prothrombin time (PT) assay for the measurement of plasma concentrations of rivaroxaban using calibrators and controls. The intra- and interlaboratory precision of the measurement was investigated in a field trial involving 21 laboratories. Each laboratory was provided with rivaroxaban calibrators and control plasma samples containing different concentrations of rivaroxaban, and PT reagents. The evaluation was carried

  14. It's worth the hassle!: the added value of evaluating the usability of mobile systems in the field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Monrad Nielsen; Michael Overgaard; Michael Bach Pedersen; Jan Stage; Sigge Stenild

    2006-01-01

    The distinction between field and laboratory is classical in research methodology. In human-computer interaction, and in usability evaluation in particular, it has been a controversial topic for several years. The advent of mobile devices has revived this topic. Empirical studies that compare evaluations in the two settings are beginning to appear, but they provide very different results. This paper presents

  15. Development and evaluation of sampling methods for fields with infestation foci of potato cyst nematodes (Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. H. Been; C. H. Schomaker

    2000-01-01

    Been, T. H., and Schomaker, C. H. 2000. Development and evaluation of sampling methods for fields with infestation foci of potato cyst nematodes (Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida). Phytopathology 90:647-656. A computer program, SAMPLE, was developed to evaluate existing and create new sampling methods for the detection of infestation foci of the potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida).

  16. FLIGHT TUNNEL AND FIELD EVALUATIONS OF STICKY TRAPS FOR MONITORING CODLING MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE) IN SEX PHEROMONE-TREATED ORCHARDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emission rate, isomeric stability, and relative attractiveness of field-aged gray halo-butyl elastomer and red rubber septa loaded with codlemone, the major sex pheromone component for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., were evaluated. Initially, field-aged red septa loaded with 10.0 mg had highe...

  17. FIELD-BASED EVALUATION OF VERNALIZATION REQUIREMENT, PHOTOPERIOD RESPONSE AND EARLINESS PER SE IN BREAD WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vernalization requirement, photoperiod response and earliness per se (EPS) of bread wheat cultivars are often determined using controlled environments. However, use of non-field conditions may reduce the applicability of results for predicting field performance as well as increase the cost of evalu...

  18. Evaluation of dynamic loads on a skew box girder continuous bridge Part I: Field test and modal analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Demeke B. Ashebo; Tommy H. T. Chan; Ling Yu

    2007-01-01

    Field measurements were carried out to evaluate dynamic loads on an existing skew box girder continuous bridge. This paper presents the experimental procedure, the data acquisition system, the calibration test, the modal analysis and the load distribution in a transversal direction. A three-axle heavy truck was hired for use in the test to calibrate the field measurements. The static and

  19. Global oil, gas fields, sizes tallied, analyzed

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanhoe, L.F.; Leckie, G.

    1993-02-15

    Oil company explorationists and government planners concerned with future oil and gas supplies need realistic numbers on the sizes and distribution of known fields to help compare regions and estimate what sizes of fields may still be expected in any nation or oil province. Clearly regional summaries are not substitutes for details on individual countries or basins when evaluating the local prospectivity of any area or oil province, each of which must be appraised on its own merits. The authors hope that publication of these regional summaries will encourage others to release similar and more detailed data on individual nations and basins.

  20. Evaluation of mean glandular dose in a full-field digital mammography unit in Tabriz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh Riabi, Hamed; Mehnati, Parinaz; Mesbahi, Asghar

    2010-12-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the mean glandular dose (MGD) and affecting factors during mammography examinations by a full-field digital mammography unit. An extensive quality control program was performed to assure that the unit is properly working. Required information including compressed breast thickness (CBT), breast parenchymal pattern and technical factors used for imaging were recorded. An entrance skin exposure measurement was also performed using slabs of polymethylmethacrylate with 2-8 cm thickness. On the basis of recorded information and measured data, the MGD was estimated for 1145 mammography examinations obtained from 298 patients. Mean CBTs of 4.9 and 5.8 cm and MGDs of 2 and 2.4 mGy were observed for craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique views, respectively. Significant correlation was seen between MGD and CBT, breast parenchymal pattern and applied kVp and mAs. PMID:20823039

  1. Evaluation of naturally fractured gas shale production utilizing multiwell transient tests: A field study

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.C.; Alam, J.; Blanton, T.L.; Vozniak, J.P.

    1984-05-01

    A series of multiple well transient tests were conducted in a Devonian shale gas field in Meigs County, Ohio. Production parameters were quantified and it was determined that the reservoir is highly anisotropic, which is a significant factor in calculating half-fracture length from pressure transient data. Three stimulation treatments, including conventional explosive shooting, nitrogen foam frac, and high energy gas frac (HEGF), were compared on the basis of overall effectiveness and performance. Based on the evaluation of results, the nitrogen foam frac provided the most improved productivity. The study provided new type curves and analytical solutions for the mathematical representation of naturally fractured reservoirs and confirmed that the shale reservoir in Meigs County can be modeled as a dual porosity system using pseudosteady-state gas transfer from the matrix to the fracture system.

  2. A method for evaluating personal dosemeters in workplace with neutron fields.

    PubMed

    de Freitas Nascimento, Luana; Cauwels, Vanessa; Vanhavere, Filip

    2012-04-01

    Passive detectors, as albedo or track-etch, still dominate the field of neutron personal dosimetry, mainly due to their low-cost, high-reliability and elevated throughput. However, the recent appearance in the market of electronic personal dosemeters for neutrons presents a new option for personal dosimetry. In addition to passive detectors, electronic personal dosemeters necessitate correction factors, concerning their energy and angular response dependencies. This paper reports on the results of a method to evaluate personal dosemeters for workplace where neutrons are present. The approach here uses few instruments and does not necessitate a large mathematical workload. Qualitative information on the neutron energy spectrum is acquired using a simple spectrometer (Nprobe), reference values for H*(10) are derived from measurements with ambient detectors (Studsvik, Berthold and Harwell) and angular information is measured using personal dosemeters (electronic and bubbles dosemeters) disposed in different orientations on a slab phantom. PMID:21565843

  3. Role of Biopersistence in the Pathogenicity of Man-made Fibers and Methods for Evaluating Biopersistence: A Summary of Two Round-table Discussions

    PubMed Central

    McClellan, Roger O.; Hesterberg, Thomas W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper summarizes two roundtable discussions held at the conclusion of the International Conference on Biopersistence of Respirable Synthetic Fibres and Minerals. The first round table addressed the role of biopersistence in the pathogenicity of fiber-induced disease. The panel included T. W. Hesterberg (Chairman), J.M.G. Davis, K. Donaldson, B. Fubini, N.F. Johnson, G. Oberdoerster, P. Sébastien, and D. Warheit. The second panel addressed the issue of methods for assessing biopersistence. It included R.O. McClellan (Chairman), J. Brain, A. Langer, A. Morgan, C. Morscheidt, H. Muhle, and R. Musselman. The two chairmen acknowledge the excellent contributions of all the members of the panels, whose comments formed the basis of this summary. Nonetheless, the authors assume full responsibility for the written text, recognizing that it was not reviewed by the discussants of the two panels.—Environ Health Perspect 102(Suppl 5):277–283 (1994) PMID:7882950

  4. Evaluation of lightning field-to-current conversion equations using triggered-lightning data: An update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallick, S.; Rakov, V. A.

    2013-12-01

    Return-stroke peak current can be obtained from measurement of channel-base current at the strike object (which is difficult because of the random occurrence of natural lightning in space and time) or can be estimated from measurement of the corresponding electric or magnetic field at a typical distance of several kilometers or more from the lightning channel. A field-to-current conversion procedure is required for the estimation of lightning return stroke peak currents from measured fields. The following empirical formula was proposed by Rakov et al. [1992] to estimate the return-stroke peak current I from the initial (essentially radiation) electric field peak E and distance r to the lightning channel: I=1.5-0.037rE (1) where I is in kA and taken as negative, E is positive and in V/m, and r is in km. Eq. (1) was derived using data for 28 triggered-lightning strokes acquired by Willett et al. [1989] at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. Another approach is the use of the radiation-field-to-current conversion equation based on the transmission-line model [Uman and McLain, 1969]: I= (2??_0 c^2 r)/v E (2) where ?0 is the permittivity of free space, c is the speed of light, and v is the return-stroke speed (assumed to be constant). The return-stroke speed is generally unknown and its range of variation from one event to another is typically from c/3 to 2c/3. Both I and E in Eq. (2) are absolute values. Perfectly conducting ground is assumed. Electric field peaks, recorded at the Lightning Observatory in Gainesville (LOG), Florida, for 89 strokes in 22 lightning flashes triggered at Camp Blanding (CB), Florida, in 2008-2010 were used to estimate peak currents based on the two methods outlined above and were compared with peak currents directly measured at CB [Mallick et al., 2012]. The distance between CB and LOG is 45 km. The empirical formula was found to overestimate peak currents with the median absolute errors being 21%. The field-to-current conversion equation based on the transmission-line model gave the best match with directly measured peak currents for return-stroke speeds between c/2 and 2c/3. In this paper, we extend the study of Mallick et al. [2012] to evaluate the field-to-current conversion equations using a larger data set acquired at CB and LOG in 2008-2012. In 2008-2012, 66 flashes containing 227 strokes were triggered at CB. Electric fields for 45 flashes containing 211 strokes were recorded at LOG. CB peak currents used here were previously used by Mallick et al. [2013] for estimating errors in peak currents reported by the NLDN. Acknowledgments: This research was supported in part by NSF Grant ATM-0852869 and DARPA Grant HR0011-10-1-0061. Acquisition of triggered-lightning current data used in this study would not be possible without efforts of many individuals, including, in alphabetical order, W. R. Gamerota, J. D. Hill, D. M. Jordan, T. Ngin, R. C. Olsen III, J. T. Pilkey, and M. A. Uman, to name those who deserve special thanks. References: Mallick et al. (2012), Atmos. Res., http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2012.08.008. Mallick et al. (2013), Proc. 8th APL, paper LDIA-433. Rakov et al. (1992), J. Geophys. Res., 97(D11), 11527-11533. Uman and McLain (1969), J. Geophys. Res., 74(D28), 6899-6910. Willett et al. (1989), J. Geophys. Res., 94(D11), 13275-13286.

  5. Evaluation of GEOS-5 sulfur dioxide simulations during the Frostburg, MD 2010 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchard, V.; da Silva, A. M.; Colarco, P.; Krotkov, N.; Dickerson, R. R.; Stehr, J. W.; Mount, G.; Spinei, E.; Arkinson, H. L.; He, H.

    2013-08-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a major atmospheric pollutant with a strong anthropogenic component mostly produced by the combustion of fossil fuel and other industrial activities. As a precursor of sulfate aerosols that affect climate, air quality, and human health, this gas needs to be monitored on a global scale. Global climate and chemistry models including aerosol processes along with their radiative effects are important tools for climate and air quality research. Validation of these models against in-situ and satellite measurements is essential to ascertain the credibility of these models and to guide model improvements. In this study the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) module running on-line inside the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) model is used to simulate aerosol and SO2 concentrations. Data taken in November 2010 over Frostburg, Maryland during an SO2 field campaign involving ground instrumentation and aircraft are used to evaluate GEOS-5 simulated SO2 concentrations. Preliminary data analysis indicated the model overestimated surface SO2 concentration, which motivated the examination of mixing processes in the model and the specification of SO2 anthropogenic emission rates. As a result of this analysis, a revision of anthropogenic emission inventories in GEOS-5 was implemented, and the vertical placement of SO2 sources was updated. Results show that these revisions improve the model agreement with observations locally and in regions outside the area of this field campaign. In particular, we use the ground-based measurements collected by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for the year 2010 to evaluate the revised model simulations over North America.

  6. Evaluation of GEOS-5 sulfur dioxide simulations during the Frostburg, MD 2010 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchard, V.; da Silva, A. M.; Colarco, P.; Krotkov, N.; Dickerson, R. R.; Stehr, J. W.; Mount, G.; Spinei, E.; Arkinson, H. L.; He, H.

    2014-02-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a major atmospheric pollutant with a strong anthropogenic component mostly produced by the combustion of fossil fuel and other industrial activities. As a precursor of sulfate aerosols that affect climate, air quality, and human health, this gas needs to be monitored on a global scale. Global climate and chemistry models including aerosol processes along with their radiative effects are important tools for climate and air quality research. Validation of these models against in-situ and satellite measurements is essential to ascertain the credibility of these models and to guide model improvements. In this study, the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) module running on-line inside the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) model is used to simulate aerosol and SO2 concentrations. Data taken in November 2010 over Frostburg, Maryland during an SO2 field campaign involving ground instrumentation and aircraft are used to evaluate GEOS-5 simulated SO2 concentrations. Preliminary data analysis indicated the model overestimated surface SO2 concentration, which motivated the examination of the specification of SO2 anthropogenic emission rates. As a result of this analysis, a revision of anthropogenic emission inventories in GEOS-5 was implemented, and the vertical placement of SO2 sources was updated. Results show that these revisions improve the model agreement with observations locally and in regions outside the area of this field campaign. In particular, we use the ground-based measurements collected by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for the year 2010 to evaluate the revised model simulations over North America.

  7. Field-based evaluations of horizontal flat-plate fish screens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, B.P.; Mesa, M.G.; Barbin-Zydlewski, G.

    2008-01-01

    Diversions from streams are often screened to prevent the loss of or injury to fish. Hydraulic criteria meant to protect fish that encounter screens have been developed, but primarily for screens that are vertical to the water flow rather than horizontal. For this reason, we measured selected hydraulic variables and released wild rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss over two types of horizontal flat-plate fish screens in the field. Our goal was to assess the efficacy of these screens under a variety of conditions in the field and provide information that could be used to develop criteria for safe fish passage. We evaluated three different invertedweir screens over a range of stream (0.24-1.77 m3/s) and diversion flows (0.10-0.31 m3/s). Approach velocities (AVs) ranged from 3 to 8 cm/s and sweeping velocities (SVs) from 69 to 143 cm/s. We also evaluated a simple backwatered screen over stream flows of 0.23-0.79 m3/s and diversion flows of 0.08-0.32 m3/s. The mean SVs for this screen ranged from 15 to 66 cm/s and the mean AVs from 1 to 5 cm/s. The survival rates of fish held for 24 h after passage over these screens exceeded 98%. Overall, the number of fish-screen contacts was low and the injuries related to passage were infrequent and consisted primarily of minor fin injuries. Our results indicate that screens of this type have great potential as safe and effective fish screens for small diversions. Care must be taken, however, to avoid operating conditions that produce shallow or no water over the screen surface, situations of high AVs and low SVs at backwatered screens, and situations producing a localized high AV with spiraling flow. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  8. Field evaluation of a direct push deployed sensor probe for vertical soil water content profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vienken, Thomas; Reboulet, Ed; Leven, Carsten; Kreck, Manuel; Zschornack, Ludwig; Dietrich, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Reliable high-resolution information about vertical variations in soil water content, i.e. total porosity in the saturated zone, is essential for flow and transport predictions within the subsurface. However, porosity measurements are often associated with high efforts and high uncertainties, e.g. caused by soil disturbance during sampling or sensor installation procedures. In hydrogeological practice, commonly applied tools for the investigation of vertical soil water content distribution include gravimetric laboratory analyses of soil samples and neutron probe measurements. A yet less well established technique is the use of direct push-deployed sensor probes. Each of these methods is associated with inherent advantages and limitations due to their underlying measurement principles and operation modes. The presented study describes results of a joint field evaluation of the individual methods under different depositional and hydrogeological conditions with special focus on the performance on the direct push-deployed water content profiler. Therefore, direct push-profiling results from three different test sites are compared with results obtained from gravimetric analysis of soil cores and neutron probe measurements. In direct comparison, the applied direct push-based sensor probe proved to be a suitable alternative for vertical soil water content profiling to neutron probe technology, and, in addition, proved to be advantageous over gravimetric analysis in terms vertical resolution and time efficiency. Results of this study identify application-specific limitations of the methods and thereby highlight the need for careful data evaluation, even though neutron probe measurements and gravimetric analyses of soil samples are well established techniques (see Vienken et al. 2013). Reference: Vienken, T., Reboulet, E., Leven, C., Kreck, M., Zschornack, L., Dietrich, P., 2013. Field comparison of selected methods for vertical soil water content profiling. Journal of Hydrology, 501: 205-212.

  9. Field performance evaluation of a newly developed PM?.? sampler at IIT Kanpur.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Tarun; Jaiprakash; Dubey, Shefali

    2011-08-15

    In order to meet the challenges of growing air pollution for a developing nation and to measure the ambient fine particles (PM?.?, particles having aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 ?m) on routine basis an air sampler was designed, developed and evaluated in the field. The impactor removes particles greater than 2.5 ?m from the air stream via impacting them onto a vacuum grease substrate and finer particles get eventually collected on a backup filter. Various impactor nozzles with conical geometry were designed based on the published theoretical design equations. A detail parametric investigation was carried out which resulted in the optimum impactor nozzle design. For this exercise, a novel dry aerosol generator was employed in addition to the well known time-of-flight instrument, APS (Aerodynamic Particle Sizer, Model 3021, TSI Inc.). The average particle losses for the impactor nozzle as well as the sampler body were below 10% and the overall pressure drop (including a backup 47 mm filter) through the PM?.? sampler was only 2 in. of H?O. This developed PM?.? sampler operates at a flow rate of 15 LPM. Field performance of this sampler was evaluated through co-located sampling with a high volume PM?.? reference sampler (HVS, GEM-BLI Model 2360, Tisch Environment Instrument) within the IIT Kanpur campus. The sampling period was 10 h long and it was carried out on six different days. The entire sets of filters were analyzed gravimetrically followed by their chemical analysis for elemental and anionic analyses. The particle mass, elemental, and anionic concentrations obtained with this newly developed PM?.? sampler as well as those from the reference HVS sampler showed moderate to good correlation. PMID:21641629

  10. WIPP-025, Rev. 0 Summary of Nuclear Criticality Safety

    E-print Network

    WIPP-025, Rev. 0 Summary of Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation for Shielded Containers at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant #12;SUMMARY OF NUCLEAR CRITICALITY SAFETY EVALUATION FOR SHIELDED CONTAINERS for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness, of any information, apparatus, product or process disclosed herein

  11. The AIR Evaluation of the Impact of ESEA Title VII Spanish/English Bilingual Education Programs: An IDRA Response with a Summary by Dr. Jose A. Cardenas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intercultural Development Research Association, San Antonio, TX.

    This analysis reveals critical weaknesses surrounding the theoretical basis for the AIR (American Institutes for Research) evaluation design. It poses questions concerning the evaluation methodology. Specifically, it identifies major discrepancies in the identification of the target population, the selection of comparable control groups, test…

  12. Evaluation of the Texas Technology Immersion Pilot: An Analysis of the Baseline Conditions and First-Year Implementation of Technology Immersion in Middle Schools. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapley, Kelly; Sheehan, Daniel; Sturges, Keith; Caranikas-Walker, Fanny; Huntsberger, Briana; Maloney, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    The Texas Education Agency (TEA) used Title II, Part D monies to fund a wireless learning environment for high-need middle schools through the Technology Immersion Pilot (TIP). A concurrent research project funded by a federal Evaluating State Education Technology Programs grant is scientifically evaluating whether student achievement improves…

  13. Field measurements for evaluating the RZWQM and PESTFADE models for the tropical zone of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Sangam; Datta, Avishek

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of the field scale agricultural non-point source (NPS) simulation model against field experimental data is an important step that must be considered before a model can be used as a management tool. Therefore, the present study focuses on the testing of two NPS models known as the RZWQM (Root Zone Water Quality Model) and the PESTFADE (PESTicide Fate And Dynamics in the Environment). These models are used to predict the soil water content, metribuzin fate, and transport in a sprinkler-irrigated soybean field located at the experimental farm of the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) in the Pathumthani Province, Thailand. Field soil water content and metribuzin residue adsorbed at soil profile depths of 0-10, 10-20, and 30-40 cm at different time periods were intensively measured by the gravimetric method and Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), respectively. When comparing the field measured data, it was observed that the RZWQM performed better in simulating the soil water fcontent, whereas the performance of the PESTFADE model was better at simulating the metribuzin residue in the soil. Specifically, a reasonable agreement existed between the measured soil water content and that predicted by the RZWQM for 0-10 and 30-40 cm soil depths. The model slightly overpredicted the metribuzin residue at 0-10 cm soil depth one day after herbicide application, whereas the prediction of metribuzin residue at 10-20 and 30-40 cm soil depths was in accordance with the measured values. The PESTFADE model performed relatively well in simulating the soil water content at 10-20 cm and metribuzin residue concentration at 0-10 and 10-20 cm soil profile depths. However, the model performed relatively poorly at 30-40 cm soil profile depth. These results indicate that when properly calibrated, both the RZWQM and PESTFADE models can be used to predict the movement of water and metribuzin residue in the soil of tropical zones. PMID:25288050

  14. Evaluation of a debris-flow entrainment model on field cases from the Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Florian; McArdell, Brian; Huggel, Christian; Vieli, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Debris-flow erosion is an important process for shaping the landscape and highly relevant in terms of hazard due to the potential of substantially increasing the flow magnitude. Here we describe the development and testing of a model for the erosion of sediment deposits by entrainment. The model is based on a generalization of field data from the Illgraben torrent channel in Switzerland, where the slope of the channel on the fan varies between 8% and 10%. The entrainment model predicts the maximum depth of erosion as a function of basal shear stress (Schürch et al., 2011), and limits the rate of erosion to be less than the maximum erosion rate observed at the Illgraben by Berger et al. (2010, 2011). The entrainment model is a module implemented in the RAMMS debris-flow runout model which solves the 2D shallow water equations of motion for granular flows and includes the Voellmy friction relation (Christen et al., 2012). The intention of the model is to provide a tool to researchers and practitioners to estimate and investigate the influence of debris-flow erosion on the runout of debris flows, at least until new physically-based models are available. After calibration of the friction coefficients without considering entrainment, the model was systematically tested at two field sites where both the sequence of debris flows is known and where differential terrain elevation models have been used to identify the spatial pattern of erosion. Tests at the field site Spreitgraben (Canton Berne), where the channel slope on the fan is approximately 30%, indicate that the new model is better at predicting the flow pattern in comparison with model results without entrainment. Additionally, when sediment erosion is included in model, the shape of the debris-flow wave (flow depth as a function of time) has a generally steep debris-flow front, which is typical of field observations of debris flows. The model as also evaluated at the field site Meretschibach catchment (Canton Valais) where the channel slope varies between 40% and 60% providing a test of the performance of the model on very steep slopes and with much smaller initial sediment volumes.

  15. Characterization of a MEMS deformable mirror by far field intensity evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiner, Cherry; Finn, Susanna; Choi, Stacey; Doble, Nathan

    2013-03-01

    The performance of an adaptive optics (AO) system is typically measured using the wavefront sensor (WFS). However, another method is to use the point spread function (PSF), which is sensitive to scatter, does not act as a low pass filter and is not dependent on the WFS calibration. We decided to examine the performance of an AO system built for vision science that employed a micromechanical systems (MEMS) based deformable mirror (DM). Specifically, the MEMS DM consists of 489 actuators, resulting in 163 segments each with individual piston/tip/tilt control. Initial evaluation of the DM with a model eye included determining the ability of the DM to generate individual Zernike polynomials and evaluating the far field PSF to measure wavefront correction performance. For individual Zernike polynomial terms, the DM was found to be capable of correcting the aberration magnitudes expected from previously published human population studies.1, 2 Finally, the DM was used in an AO fundus camera to successfully acquire images of cone photoreceptors in a living human eye. This is part of ongoing work which will incorporate the MEMS DM into both an AO scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) and an AO optical coherence tomography (OCT) system where the form of the PSF at the confocal pinhole/optical fiber is important for optimal imaging.

  16. Evaluation and selection of soil amendments for field testing to reduce P losses

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, G.A.; Brinton, S.; Silveira, M.L. [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Soil & Water Science

    2005-07-01

    The effectiveness of chemical amendments in reducing P losses from manure impacted Florida soil was evaluated using a variety of protocols, including total elemental analysis, short-term laboratory equilibrations, column leaching experiments, and simulated rainfall studies. Amendments used included: two Fe-humates (a Fe-water treatment residual (WTR) and a titanium-mine waste), two Al-WTRs, one Ca-WTR, a coal combustion slag, a Si-rich material (Pro-Sil), a Leonardite material (dinoSoil), and two agricultural materials (lime and gypsum). In equilibration studies, Al-WTRs were the most effective at sorbing P, while Fe-humate sorbed the least P of all treatments. Other amendments effectively reduced soluble P, but increased suspension pH and electrical conductivity (EC) to an extent expected to adversely affect plant growth. Gypsum was the most effective amendment in reducing P leaching in small column studies. DinoSoil treatment significantly altered the soil hydraulic properties, yielding the greatest runoff volumes in a simulated rainfall study. Total P loss (runoff + leachate) was largely determined by the leaching component, and was essentially all soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) for both bare and grassed soil surfaces. AD treatments reduced runoff SRP compared to the control. Amendment effects in the grassed rainfall study (dominated by leaching) were inconsistent with results from the small column leaching study, possibly due to the different hydraulic conditions and kinetic factors involved in the two studies. The Al-WTRs amendments were recommended for field evaluation.

  17. A field evaluation of two vaccines against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection in pigs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A field trial was carried out with two Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccines in order to investigate the benefit of vaccination under field conditions in modern Danish pig production facilities with pigs being positive for M. hyopneumoniae. The M. hyopneumoniae infection of the herd was confirmed through blood samples that were positive for antibodies against M. hyopneumoniae combined with gross lesions of the lungs related to M. hyopneumoniae at slaughter and detection of M. hyopneumoniae by polymerace chain reaction in these lesions. Results A total of 2,256 pigs from two herds were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 received 2 mL ThoroVAX®VET, Group 2 received 1 mL Ingelvac®MycoFLEX, and Group 3 was a non-vaccinated control group. The vaccination was performed by a person who was not involved in the rest of the trial and vaccination status thereby blinded to the evaluators. The prevalence of lung lesions related to M. hyopneumoniae were significantly lower for pigs vaccinated with ThoroVAX®VET but not for pigs vaccinated with Ingelvac®MycoFLEX®, when compared to non-vaccinated pigs. There was no significant effect of vaccination on growth rate, antibiotic consumption or mortality. Conclusion This trial demonstrated that vaccination with Thoro®VAX VET was effective in reducing the prevalence of lung lesion in pig units infected with M. hyopneumoniae. PMID:24739629

  18. Evaluation of two pesticide leaching models in an irrigated field cropped with corn.

    PubMed

    Giannouli, Dorothea D; Antonopoulos, Vassilis Z

    2015-03-01

    Pesticide leaching models is an easy and cost effective method used in the prediction of surface and groundwater pollution. In this paper, the ability of two pesticide leaching models, MACRO and PEARL, to describe soil water dynamics and atrazine's transport through the soil profile was examined. The data used for the comparison was obtained from an experiment in an irrigated corn field in the plain of the Ardas River, in north-eastern Greece. Both models were parameterized using pedotransfer functions, field and laboratory data. The uncalibrated simulation showed several discrepancies, therefore the retention curve and the sorption parameters were calibrated according to the trial and error method. The comparison of both models indicated that soil water flow was described similarly. The simulated results of atrazine's concentration were evaluated and compared to the measured concentrations at specific depths, using statistical criteria. Atrazine transport was simulated in a satisfactory manner as confirmed by model efficiency (EF) values, that are very close to unit. Coefficient of residual mass (CRM) values for both models are positive, indicating that both models underestimate the measured data. MACRO estimated higher accumulated actual evapotranspiration values, and less percolated water from soil profile than PEARL, and as a result, change in water content was higher in the latter. PEARL also predicted that half the amount of the applied mass was decayed two days earlier than the day estimated by MACRO. Generally, MACRO simulated the fate of atrazine in soil better than PEARL. PMID:25560660

  19. Aneurysm clips: evaluation of magnetic field interactions with an 8.0 T MR system.

    PubMed

    Kangarlu, A; Shellock, F G

    2000-07-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate magnetic field interactions for aneurysm clips exposed to an 8.0 T magnetic resonance (MR) system. Twenty-six different aneurysm clips were tested for magnetic field translational attraction (deflection angle test) and torque (qualitative assessment method) using previously described techniques. Six of the specific aneurysm clips (i.e. type, model, blade length) made from stainless steel alloy (Perneczky) and Phynox (Yasargil, models FE 748 and FE 750) displayed deflection angles above 45 degrees and torque measurements of +4, indicating that these aneurysm clips maybe unsafe for patients or individuals in an 8.0 T MR environment. The specific aneurysm clips (i.e. type, model, blade length) made from commercially pure titanium (Spetzler), Elgiloy (Sugita), titanium alloy (Yasargil, model FE 750T), and MP35N (Sundt) displayed deflection angles less than 45 degrees and torque that ranged from + 1 to +4. Accordingly, these aneurysm clips are likely to be safe for patients or individuals exposed to an 8.0 T MR system. Depending on the actual dimensions and mass, an aneurysm clip made from Elgiloy may or may not be acceptable for a patient or individual in the 8.0 T MR environment. PMID:10931570

  20. Joint use of laboratory bioassays and field-collected invertebrates to evaluate toxicity and contaminant bioaccumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Long, S.P.; Byron, E.R.; Ohlendorf, H.M. [CH2M Hill, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Soil toxicity tests using earthworms (Eisenia andrei) were conducted using soil samples collected as part of ecological risk assessments for several sites at two facilities in California. At some sites, earthworms or other terrestrial invertebrates were collected in the field for chemical analysis. Ecological concerns focused on exposures to soil invertebrates and their secondary consumers, such as birds and small mammals. The toxicity tests were used to assess potential exposures to a variety of site-specific contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, PAHs, petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and other inorganic substances. Site soils were combined with clean control soils to produce toxicity test soil dilutions containing 100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, and 0% site soils. Earthworm mortality and other observations were made at day 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Toxicity test results were combined with soil chemical analytical results and physical characteristics to establish NOAELs and LOAELs. Bioaccumulation in the laboratory earthworms and field-collected invertebrates was evaluated by comparing whole-body contaminant to soil contaminant concentrations. Allometric equations and sublethal toxicity data were used to predict potential effects on birds and small mammals. Earthworm toxicity tests indicated a wide range of sensitivity to on-site contaminants and showed the importance of considering potential confounding influences due to soil parameters other than contaminant concentration.

  1. [Evaluation of nursing processes in psychiatry--a field study project].

    PubMed

    Bertram, Mathias; Ostermann, Thomas; Adam, Klaus; Alvater, Thomas; Gude, Dieter; Heinis, Renate; Löber, Reinhard; Roknic, Marko; Steger, Lucia

    2009-10-01

    Professional nursing care can be characterised as a support in handling of and coping with activities of daily living. While somatic care mainly focusses on the compensation of physical complaints, the needs in the field of psychiatry leading to nursing interventions are quite different. The descriptive and explorative study presented here aims at finding typical needs for psychiatric nursing care and characteristic intervention patterns of nurses. Within the setting of a qualitative field study in an anthroposophically oriented hospital for mental disorders heuristic methods (Grounded Theory) were applied to evaluate those nursing events which induced a unique and specific nursing benefit. The narrative data from 59 episodes generated this way yielded four typical patterns of interpretation of nursing needs: integration versus autonomy and routine nursing versus crisis intervention. Our results are limited by the fact that only data of one hospital were analysed. However, due to quality control of internal and external validity, and adjustment of the results towards current findings it can be concluded that the study results have a heuristic potential for describing and precising other settings within and outside psychiatric care. PMID:19838997

  2. Field evaluation of controlled release copper glass as a molluscicide in snail control.

    PubMed

    Chandiwana, S K; Ndamba, J; Makura, O; Taylor, P

    1987-01-01

    Limited field evaluation of a new molluscicide, copper controlled release glass (CRG), was carried out in 4 human water contact sites in shallow and slow flowing streams in the highveld region of Zimbabwe during 1984 to 1986. The results indicate that the copper CRG has great potential as an inexpensive snail control agent to reduce schistosomiasis transmission. There was a marked reduction in snail numbers in the treated sites after application of 2 forms of the copper molluscicide; a "fast" CRG with approximately 24-h solution time in water and a "slow" CRG with about 1-year solution time. Snail numbers remained depressed during the observation period while frogs and fish were not affected. Fluctuations in snail numbers in the untreated sites showed no clear pattern, being erratic and unpredictable and probably attributable to seasonal effects. Problems of the correct amounts of molluscicide to apply to a site are to an extent overcome by knowledge of the copper binding capacity of the mud substrate. The mud sediment can be saturated by the "fast" release copper glass to achieve a snail killing concentration in the water which can be sustained by the "slow" release glass. It appears that the main difficulty in maintaining desirable copper levels in the water is flow, which causes rapid removal of copper from the treated waterbody. Thus, under field conditions on the highveld region of Zimbabwe, the CRG molluscicide is likely to be effective only during the stable conditions of the dry season which is, however, the main transmission period. PMID:3503415

  3. Wind Resource Evaluation at the Caltech Field Laboratory for Optimized Wind Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulligan, Quinn; Kinzel, Matthias; Dabiri, John

    2011-11-01

    Wind resources are evaluated at the Caltech Field Laboratory in order to understand how an array of vertical-axis wind turbines extracts energy from the flow. A tower with sonic anemometers placed every meter over the turbine's rotor height is deployed in upwind and downwind positions relative to the array of turbines to obtain the three dimensional wind velocity vectors. Upwind of the array, far enough to be considered free stream, the measured velocity profile represents the turbulent boundary layer flow at the site. Downwind, the measured wind velocities are reduced significantly and display a smaller variance over the rotor height. The topmost sensor, located above the top of the rotor height, reports flow velocities close to the free stream quantities. Sweeps and ejections are both present in the downwind velocity profile. The talk will present the data from these field measurements, discuss the similarities and differences to canopy flows and draw conclusions about the interaction between the wind turbine array and the flow. The financial support of the Moore Foundation is gratefully acknowledged.

  4. Integrated field lysimetry and porewater sampling for evaluation of chemical mobility in soils and established vegetation.

    PubMed

    Matteson, Audrey R; Mahoney, Denis J; Gannon, Travis W; Polizzotto, Matthew L

    2014-01-01

    Potentially toxic chemicals are routinely applied to land to meet growing demands on waste management and food production, but the fate of these chemicals is often not well understood. Here we demonstrate an integrated field lysimetry and porewater sampling method for evaluating the mobility of chemicals applied to soils and established vegetation. Lysimeters, open columns made of metal or plastic, are driven into bareground or vegetated soils. Porewater samplers, which are commercially available and use vacuum to collect percolating soil water, are installed at predetermined depths within the lysimeters. At prearranged times following chemical application to experimental plots, porewater is collected, and lysimeters, containing soil and vegetation, are exhumed. By analyzing chemical concentrations in the lysimeter soil, vegetation, and porewater, downward leaching rates, soil retention capacities, and plant uptake for the chemical of interest may be quantified. Because field lysimetry and porewater sampling are conducted under natural environmental conditions and with minimal soil disturbance, derived results project real-case scenarios and provide valuable information for chemical management. As chemicals are increasingly applied to land worldwide, the described techniques may be utilized to determine whether applied chemicals pose adverse effects to human health or the environment. PMID:25045915

  5. FIELD TEST PROGRAM FOR EVALUATION OF SORBENT INJECTION FOR MERCURY CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Sharon Sjostrom

    2004-02-12

    The power industry in the U.S. is faced with meeting new regulations to reduce the emissions of mercury compounds from coal-fired plants. These regulations are directed at the existing fleet of nearly 1,100 boilers. These plants are relatively old with an average age of over 40 years. Although most of these units are capable of operating for many additional years, there is a desire to minimize large capital expenditures because of the reduced (and unknown) remaining life of the plant to amortize the project. Injecting a sorbent such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. The overall objective of this test program described in this quarterly report is to evaluate the capabilities of activated carbon injection at four plants with configurations that together represent 78% of the existing coal-fired generation plants. This technology was successfully evaluated in NETL's Phase I tests at scales up to 150 MW, on plants burning subbituminous and bituminous coals and with ESPs and fabric filters. The tests also identified issues that still need to be addressed, such as evaluating performance on other configurations, optimizing sorbent usage (costs), and gathering longer term operating data to address concerns about the impact of activated carbon on plant equipment and operations. The four sites identified for testing are Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station, AmerenUE's Meramec Station, AEP's Conesville Station, and Ontario Power Generation's Nanticoke Station. This is the first quarterly report for this project. This report includes an overview of the plans for the project. Field testing is scheduled to begin next quarter. In general, quarterly reports will be used to provide project overviews, project status, and technology transfer information. Topical reports will be prepared to present detailed technical information.

  6. Evaluation of required HMD resolution and field of view for a virtual cockpit simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiefele, Jens; Albert, Oliver; Doerr, Kai Uwe; Kelz, Martin; Schmidt-Winkel, Norman

    1999-07-01

    2For some of today's simulations very expensive, heavy, and large equipment is needed. In order to reduce prototyping and training costs, immersive 'Virtual Cockpit Simulation' (VCS) becomes very attractive. Head Mounted Displays (HMD), datagloves, and cheap 'Seating Bucks' are used to generate an immersive stereoscopic virtual environment (VE) for designers, engineers, and trainees. The entire cockpit, displays, and a visual are modeled as 3D computer generated geometry with textured surfaces. HMD resolution, field of view (FOV), tracker lag, and missing force feedback are critical human machine interface (HMI) components in VCS. For VCS applications task performance and transfer of training into reality have to be evaluated. In this paper two test series evaluating the VCS HMI dependencies based on HMD resolution and FOV are described. FOV limitations are especially important for a two seater virtual cockpit. Cross viewing, observing overhead, glareshield, and pedestal are critical for flying. Test persons had to deal with different FOV settings varying from 30 degrees to 100 degrees. Their task was to find and count light arbitrary points located at different panels in a limited time. To evaluate cross viewing test persons also had to detect light points besides them while reading text in front of them. Based on the test results a recommendation for a necessary FOV was given. The most demanding component for HMD resolution are virtual flight guidance displays rendered in a virtual scene at correct size and location. They consist of small moving low contrast symbols. Under a hi-resolution (1280 X 1024) HMD test persons were asked to read-out letters, numbers, and symbols of different sizes, movement speeds, and contrasts. Some test persons also had to fulfill an additional task to reduce their attention. From the test results a minimal necessary symbol, letter, and numbersize was determined for hi-resolution (hires) HMDs.

  7. Field evaluation of distance-estimation error during wetland-dependent bird surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nadeau, Christopher P.; Conway, Courtney J.

    2012-01-01

    Context: The most common methods to estimate detection probability during avian point-count surveys involve recording a distance between the survey point and individual birds detected during the survey period. Accurately measuring or estimating distance is an important assumption of these methods; however, this assumption is rarely tested in the context of aural avian point-count surveys. Aims: We expand on recent bird-simulation studies to document the error associated with estimating distance to calling birds in a wetland ecosystem. Methods: We used two approaches to estimate the error associated with five surveyor's distance estimates between the survey point and calling birds, and to determine the factors that affect a surveyor's ability to estimate distance. Key results: We observed biased and imprecise distance estimates when estimating distance to simulated birds in a point-count scenario (x?error = -9 m, s.d.error = 47 m) and when estimating distances to real birds during field trials (x?error = 39 m, s.d.error = 79 m). The amount of bias and precision in distance estimates differed among surveyors; surveyors with more training and experience were less biased and more precise when estimating distance to both real and simulated birds. Three environmental factors were important in explaining the error associated with distance estimates, including the measured distance from the bird to the surveyor, the volume of the call and the species of bird. Surveyors tended to make large overestimations to birds close to the survey point, which is an especially serious error in distance sampling. Conclusions: Our results suggest that distance-estimation error is prevalent, but surveyor training may be the easiest way to reduce distance-estimation error. Implications: The present study has demonstrated how relatively simple field trials can be used to estimate the error associated with distance estimates used to estimate detection probability during avian point-count surveys. Evaluating distance-estimation errors will allow investigators to better evaluate the accuracy of avian density and trend estimates. Moreover, investigators who evaluate distance-estimation errors could employ recently developed models to incorporate distance-estimation error into analyses. We encourage further development of such models, including the inclusion of such models into distance-analysis software.

  8. Application of Near-Field Microwave and Millimeter Wave Nondestructive Testing for Evaluation of Fiber Breakage and Orientation Evaluation in CFRP Composite Patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharkovsky, S.; Zoughi, R.

    2005-04-01

    Near-field microwave and millimeter wave nondestructive testing and evaluation techniques have been successfully used for detecting defects such as disbond and delamination in complex composite structures. This paper presents the results of fiber breakage detection and fiber orientation determination in carbon fiber reinforced polymer patches which are used in aerospace industry and civil infrastructure.

  9. Evaluating the efficacy of trawl exclusion zones for preserving prey fields of Steller sea lions foraging on Atka mackerel. II. Site specific estimates to evaluate availability of

    E-print Network

    fields of Steller sea lions foraging on Atka mackerel. II. Site specific estimates to evaluate availability of Atka mackerel production for sea lion consumption Ivonne Ortiz1,2 and Elizabeth Logerwell1 1 whether Atka mackerel production inside trawl exclusion zones in 5 local areas in the Aleutian Islands

  10. A FIELD EVALUATION OF IN-SITU BIODEGRADATION OF CHLORINATED ETHENES: PART I, METHODOLOGY AND FIELD SITE CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Careful site characterization and implementation of quantitative monitoring methods are prerequisites for a convincing evaluation of enhanced biostimulation for aquifer restoration. This paper describes the characterization of a site at Moffett Naval Air Station, Mountain View, C...

  11. Guidance for evaluating mass communication health initiatives: summary of an expert panel discussion sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Abbatangelo-Gray, Jodie; Cole, Galen E; Kennedy, May G

    2007-09-01

    In May 2004, 12 experts in evaluating large-scale health communication programs came to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to participate in an electronic focus group discussion. They offered advice on topics ranging from the role of logic models to the best strategies for controlling for self-selection bias in surveys regarding outcomes of exposure to mass media health messages. The experts also highlighted health communication evaluation topics that have received too little scientific attention. Finally, they made strategic policy recommendations. Use of the state-of-the-art evaluation methods that they recommended could improve the communication of factual and persuasive health messages and help to guard the public health of the nation. Their advice may also advance evaluation practice in other substantive areas, especially where it is difficult or impossible to implement randomized designs. PMID:17693617

  12. "Become a leader in the field of program evaluation." carleton.ca/sppa

    E-print Network

    ) provides advanced knowledge and skills in both the method and management of evaluation. The six evaluation managed jointly by Carleton University and the Independent Evaluation Group of the World Bank students for roles as evaluators and as managers of evaluation -- whether in government, non

  13. Evaluation of volcano-style field ionization source and field emitting cathodes for mass spectrometry and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buttrill, S. E., Jr.; Spindt, C. A.

    1978-01-01

    A volcano-style field ionization source was tested with eight different gases: hydrogen, helium, ammonia, methane, argon, neon, water vapor, and hydrogen sulfide. For ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and water, the ionization efficiency of the field ionization source was determined as a function of the electrical potential difference between the ionizer and its counterelectrode. The ionization efficiencies for the other gases were too low to be measured in the present apparatus. The operating characteristics of a field emission cathode, were studied, in the presence of the same eight gases at pressures up to 0.00001 torr. The presence of the gases caused little or no significant change in the electron emission from the cathodes. Results indicate that the field emission cathode has advantages over electrically heated cathodes as a source of an electron beam in spacecraft mass spectrometers.

  14. Evaluation and interpretation of bubble size distributions in pulsed megasonic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauptmann, M.; Struyf, H.; De Gendt, S.; Glorieux, C.; Brems, S.

    2013-05-01

    The occurrence of acoustic cavitation is incorporating a multitude of interdependent effects that strongly depend on the bubble size. Therefore, bubble size control would be beneficial for biological and industrial processes that rely on acoustic cavitation. A pulsed acoustic field can result in bubble size control and the repeated dissolution and reactivation ("recycling") of potentially active bubbles. As a consequence, a pulsed field can strongly enhance cavitation activity. In this paper, we present a modified methodology for the evaluation of the active bubble size distribution by means of a combination of cavitation noise measurements and ultrasonic pulsing. The key component of this modified methodology is the definition of an upper size limit, below which bubbles—in between subsequent pulses—have to dissolve, in order to be sustainably recycled. This upper limit makes it possible to explain and link the enhancement of cavitation activity to a bubble size distribution. The experimentally determined bubble size distributions for different power densities are interpreted in the frame of numerical calculations of the oscillatory responses of the bubbles to the intermittent driving sound field. The distributions are found to be shaped by the size dependent interplay between bubble pulsations, rectified diffusion, coalescence, and the development of parametrically amplified shape instabilities. Also, a phenomenological reactivation-deactivation model is proposed to explain and quantify the observed enhancement of cavitation activity under pulsed, with respect to continuous sonication. In this model, the pulse-duration determines the magnitude of the reactivation of partially dissolved bubbles and the deactivation of activated bubbles by coalescence. It is shown that the subsequent recycling of previously active bubbles leads to an accumulation of cavitation activity, which saturates after a certain number of pulses. The model is fitted to the experimental data for the cavitation activity measured by means of ultraharmonic cavitation noise as a function of the pulse duration. Measurements of the development of the cavitation noise and sonochemiluminescence over a sequence of pulses for different pulse durations and separations confirm the general validity of the proposed model. Size distributions of the larger, inactive bubbles that were extracted from High-speed images of the cavitation field, relate the deactivation of activated bubbles by coalescence to the increase in volume concentrations of larger bubbles as observed by others.

  15. Evaluation of single-field macro element for predicting 3 D material properties of plain weave composites

    E-print Network

    Noh, Jae Huek

    1997-01-01

    EVALUATION OF SINGLE-FIELD MACRO ELEMENT FOR PREDICTING 3 D MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF PLAIN WEAVE COMPOSITES A Thesis by JAE HUEK NOH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1997 Major Subject: Aerospace Engineering EVALUATION OF SINGLE-FIELD MACRO ELEMENT FOR PREDICTING 3 D MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF PLAIN WEAVE COMPOSITES A Thesis JAE HUEK NOH Submitted to Texas AkM University in partial...

  16. Evaluation of single-field macro element for predicting 3D material properties of plain weave composites 

    E-print Network

    Noh, Jae Huek

    1997-01-01

    EVALUATION OF SINGLE-FIELD MACRO ELEMENT FOR PREDICTING 3D MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF PLAIN WEAVE COMPOSITES A Thesis by JAE HUEK NOH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1997 Major Subject: Aerospace Engineering EVALUATION OF SINGLE-FIELD MACRO ELEMENT FOR PREDICTING 3D MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF PLAIN WEAVE COMPOSITES A Thesis JAE HUEK NOH Submitted to Texas AkM University in partial...

  17. Integrated field and laboratory tests to evaluate effects of metals-impacted wetlands on amphibians: A case study from Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Linder, G.

    2003-01-01

    Mining activities frequently impact wildlife habitats, and a wide range of habitats may require evaluations of the linkages between wildlife and environmental stressors common to mining activities (e.g., physical alteration of habitat, releases of chemicals such as metals and other inorganic constituents as part of the mining operation). Wetlands, for example, are frequently impacted by mining activities. Within an ecological assessment for a wetland, toxicity evaluations for representative species may be advantageous to the site evaluation, since these species could be exposed to complex chemical mixtures potentially released from the site. Amphibian species common to these transition zones between terrestrial and aquatic habitats are one key biological indicator of exposure, and integrated approaches which involve both field and laboratory methods focused on amphibians are critical to the assessment process. The laboratory and field evaluations of a wetland in western Montana illustrates the integrated approach to risk assessment and causal analysis. Here, amphibians were used to evaluate the potential toxicity associated with heavy metal-laden sediments deposited in a reservoir. Field and laboratory methods were applied to a toxicity assessment for metals characteristic of mine tailings to reduce potential "lab to field" extrapolation errors and provide adaptive management programs with critical site-specific information targeted on remediation.

  18. Experimental and field evaluation of a live vaccine against avian pneumovirus.

    PubMed

    Patnayak, Devi P; Sheikh, Anwar M; Gulati, Baldev R; Goyal, Sagar M

    2002-08-01

    The attenuation of an avian pneumovirus (APV) isolate (APV/MN/turkey/1-a/97) by 63 serial passages in cell culture (seven in chicken embryo fibroblasts and 56 in Vero cells) and its evaluation as a live attenuated vaccine in turkey poults is described. The birds were vaccinated with two different doses of attenuated virus (10(4.5) median tissue culture infectious dose (TCID(50))/ml and 10(2.5) TCID(50) /ml) at 2 weeks of age, and were challenged 2 weeks later with virulent APV. No clinical signs were seen in vaccinated, challenged birds, whereas severe clinical signs were observed in the mock-vaccinated, challenged group. Vaccinated birds developed anti-APV antibodies, which increased in titre following challenge with virulent virus. On challenge, none of the vaccinates was found to shed viral nucleic acid as detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, but non-vaccinated, challenged birds did. The vaccine virus was also evaluated under field conditions in two farms. At one farm, the 'seeder bird approach' was used and two birds per 1,000 birds were vaccinated by the oculo-nasal route. In the second farm, the virus was given to all birds simultaneously in the drinking water. The birds vaccinated by the drinking water route seroconverted earlier and continued to shed virus for longer as compared with birds inoculated by the seeder bird approach. The overall results of this study indicate that the 63rd passage of APV was sufficiently attenuated and offered protection against challenge with virulent virus. PMID:12396339

  19. Blood collected on filter paper for wildlife serology: evaluating storage and temperature challenges of field collections.

    PubMed

    Curry, Patricia S; Ribble, Carl; Sears, William C; Orsel, Karin; Hutchins, Wendy; Godson, Dale; Lindsay, Robbin; Dibernardo, Antonia; Campbell, Mitch; Kutz, Susan J

    2014-04-01

    Filter-paper (FP) blood sampling can facilitate wildlife research and expand disease surveillance. Previous work indicated that Nobuto FP samples from caribou and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus subspecies) had comparable sensitivity and specificity to serum samples (? 80% for both) in competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (cELISAs) for Brucella spp., Neospora caninum, and West Nile virus. The same sensitivity and specificity criteria were met in indirect ELISAs for Brucella spp., bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1), parainfluenza virus type 3 (PI-3), and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), with adjusted FP thresholds used for PI-3 and BRSV. Comparable sensitivity and specificity values to serum were also observed for FP in virus neutralization (VN) assays for bovine viral diarrhea virus types I and II; however, reduced sensitivity is a potential limitation of FP samples in protocols that require undiluted serum (i.e., VN and N. caninum cELISA). We evaluated the performance of FP samples from reindeer and caribou in these nine assays after simulating potential challenges of high-latitude field collections: 1) different durations of storage and 2) different processing/storage regimes involving freezing or drying. Sample pairs (serum and FP) were collected from reindeer and caribou populations in 2007-10 and were tested in duplicate. Comparable performance to serum was defined as sensitivity and specificity ? 80%. In the storage experiments, FP performance was determined after 2 mo of storage dry at room temperature, and after two longer periods (variable depending on assay; up to 2 yr). After 1 yr, compared to frozen serum stored for the same period, sensitivity was ? 88% for all but two assays (68% BHV-1; 75% PI-3), and specificity remained >90%. A limited trial evaluated the effect of freezing FP samples as opposed to drying them for storage. There were no observed detrimental effects of freezing on FP sample performance, but rigorous investigation is warranted. PMID:24499329

  20. Evaluation of lid speculum with a drape (LiDrape®) for preventing surgical-field contamination

    PubMed Central

    Urano, Toru; Kasaoka, Masataka; Sagawa, Kimitaka; Yamakawa, Ryoji

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the degree of surgical-field contamination in cataract surgeries between a new draping method using a lid speculum with a drape (LiDrape®) and a conventional draping method. Methods Cataract surgery was performed on 21 eyes using LiDrape® (LiDrape® group) and on 22 eyes using a conventional draping method (conventional group). Contamination was evaluated by bacterial culture of conjunctival sac scrapings and ocular surface irrigation fluid. Conjunctival sac scrapings were collected before and after application of preoperative antibiotics. Ocular surface irrigation fluid was collected before incision placement and during surgery. Bacterial detection rate and types of organisms isolated at these four time points were examined. Results Bacterial detection rates were significantly decreased in the LiDrape® group at all time points after the application of antibiotics compared with preapplication. Regarding between-group comparisons, the bacterial detection rate in the LiDrape® group was only significantly lower than that in the conventional group in the intraoperative sample. Propionibacterium acnes was the most common organism isolated from ocular surface irrigation fluid. The number of P. acnes in the intraoperative sample was significantly lower in the LiDrape® group compared with the conventional group. There were no significant differences in detection rates for other bacteria between the groups. Conclusion LiDrape® was as effective as conventional draping for preventing surgical-field contamination. The number of P. acnes during surgery was significantly lower in the LiDrape® group compared with the conventional group, suggesting that LiDrape® may contribute to the prevention of postoperative infection. PMID:26185413

  1. Field evaluation of in vitro-induced tetraploid and diploid Centella asiatica (L.) Urban.

    PubMed

    Thong-On, Wachiraporn; Arimatsu, Panida; Pitiporn, Supaporn; Soonthornchareonnon, Noppamas; Prathanturarug, Sompop

    2014-04-01

    Centella asiatica-a medicinal plant that produces high-value active triterpenoids-is in increasing demand by the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. The aim of this study was to field-test one induced tetraploid and three diploid C. asiatica lines for the selection of high-quality plants with high phytomass and triterpenoid content and to determine their optimal harvesting time. All tested C. asiatica were micropropagated using an established protocol. One-month-old plantlets were acclimatized for the field experiment. The plants were grown in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications, ten plantlets per replication, and the experimental bed site was 0.6 × 1.0 m. Growth parameters, phytomass and the amounts of four active triterpenoids were evaluated. All lines exhibited the highest growth, yields and triterpenoids at 4 months after cultivation. The tetraploid line showed significantly better characteristics, i.e., larger leaf area, leaf width, petiole length, and greater yields, than diploid lines. Dry weight per cultivated area (77.53 ± 3.07 g/m(2)) and total triterpenoids (15.38 ± 0.76 % dry weight) were increased significantly in tetraploid plants of C. asiatica. Furthermore, the harvesting time had an effect on the yield and triterpenoid content (P < 0.001). In all tetraploid and diploid lines, the yields and triterpenoid content per cultivated area reached their maximum at 4 months after planting. Our results demonstrated that polyploidy induction is a beneficial tool that can be used to improve the medicinal value of C. asiatica. PMID:23529542

  2. Applications of quantum field theory to atomic collisions and chemical reactions. Renewal proposal summary 1 July 83-30 June 84

    SciTech Connect

    Girardeau, M.D.

    1983-04-01

    Methods of quantum field theory will be applied to prediction of atomic and molecular collision and reaction phenomena. Emphasis will be on (a) reactive collisions such as D+H2yieldD+H+, D+H2yieldD+H+2, and A+BCyieldAB+C; (b) theory of resonance and transition states and their influence on such reactive processes and on scattering processes such as e+Hyielde+h; (c) electromagnetic absorption due to such transition states.

  3. A Dosimetric Evaluation of Conventional Helmet Field Irradiation Versus Two-Field Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, James B. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Shiao, Stephen L. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, CT (United States); Knisely, Jonathan [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States) and Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, CT (United States)]. E-mail: jonathan.knisely@yale.edu

    2007-06-01

    Purpose: To compare dosimetric differences between conventional two-beam helmet field irradiation (external beam radiotherapy, EBRT) of the brain and a two-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) technique. Methods and Materials: Ten patients who received helmet field irradiation at our institution were selected for study. External beam radiotherapy portals were planned per usual practice. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy fields were created using the identical field angles as the EBRT portals. Each brain was fully contoured along with the spinal cord to the bottom of the C2 vertebral body. This volume was then expanded symmetrically by 0.5 cm to construct the planning target volume. An IMRT plan was constructed using uniform optimization constraints. For both techniques, the nominal prescribed dose was 3,000 cGy in 10 fractions of 300 cGy using 6-MV photons. Comparative dose-volume histograms were generated for each patient and analyzed. Results: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy improved dose uniformity over EBRT for whole brain radiotherapy. The mean percentage of brain receiving >105% of dose was reduced from 29.3% with EBRT to 0.03% with IMRT. The mean maximum dose was reduced from 3,378 cGy (113%) for EBRT to 3,162 cGy (105%) with IMRT. The mean percent volume receiving at least 98% of the prescribed dose was 99.5% for the conventional technique and 100% for IMRT. Conclusions: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy reduces dose inhomogeneity, particularly for the midline frontal lobe structures where hot spots occur with conventional two-field EBRT. More study needs to be done addressing the clinical implications of optimizing dose uniformity and its effect on long-term cognitive function in selected long-lived patients.

  4. NFSMI Research Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettles, Mary Frances

    2014-01-01

    The NFSMI Research Summary is a continuing series of summaries reporting recently completed research and research-based resources funded by the National Food Service Management Institute. The following research studies are summarized in this article: (1) Succession Planning for Management Level Staff in School Nutrition Programs; (2)…

  5. PDQ® Cancer Information Summaries

    Cancer.gov

    PDQ cancer information summaries are peer-reviewed, evidence-based summaries on topic including adult and pediatric cancer treatment, supportive and palliative care, screening, prevention, genetics, and complementary and alternative medicine, typically available in both a Patient and Health Professional format.

  6. Summary report Wellcome Trust

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    postdoctoral researchers to build a research portfolio and reputation. · ResearchCareerSummary report Wellcome Trust Basic Science Career Tracker Results of wave 5 (2013) #12;2 | Summary report: Basic Science Career Tracker Wellcome Trust Basic Science Career Tracker: Results of wave 5 (2013

  7. Field evaluation of a prototype paper-based point-of-care fingerstick transaminase test.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Nira R; McGray, Sarah; Colby, Donn J; Noubary, Farzad; Nguyen, Huyen; Nguyen, The Anh; Khormaee, Sariah; Jain, Sidhartha; Hawkins, Kenneth; Kumar, Shailendra; Rolland, Jason P; Beattie, Patrick D; Chau, Nguyen V; Quang, Vo M; Barfield, Cori; Tietje, Kathy; Steele, Matt; Weigl, Bernhard H

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring for drug-induced liver injury (DILI) via serial transaminase measurements in patients on potentially hepatotoxic medications (e.g., for HIV and tuberculosis) is routine in resource-rich nations, but often unavailable in resource-limited settings. Towards enabling universal access to affordable point-of-care (POC) screening for DILI, we have performed the first field evaluation of a paper-based, microfluidic fingerstick test for rapid, semi-quantitative, visual measurement of blood alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Our objectives were to assess operational feasibility, inter-operator variability, lot variability, device failure rate, and accuracy, to inform device modification for further field testing. The paper-based ALT test was performed at POC on fingerstick samples from 600 outpatients receiving HIV treatment in Vietnam. Results, read independently by two clinic nurses, were compared with gold-standard automated (Roche Cobas) results from venipuncture samples obtained in parallel. Two device lots were used sequentially. We demonstrated high inter-operator agreement, with 96.3% (95% C.I., 94.3-97.7%) agreement in placing visual results into clinically-defined "bins" (<3x, 3-5x, and >5x upper limit of normal), >90% agreement in validity determination, and intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.89 (95% C.I., 0.87-0.91). Lot variability was observed in % invalids due to hemolysis (21.1% for Lot 1, 1.6% for Lot 2) and correlated with lots of incorporated plasma separation membranes. Invalid rates <1% were observed for all other device controls. Overall bin placement accuracy for the two readers was 84% (84.3%/83.6%). Our findings of extremely high inter-operator agreement for visual reading-obtained in a target clinical environment, as performed by local practitioners-indicate that the device operation and reading process is feasible and reproducible. Bin placement accuracy and lot-to-lot variability data identified specific targets for device optimization and material quality control. This is the first field study performed with a patterned paper-based microfluidic device and opens the door to development of similar assays for other important analytes. PMID:24098705

  8. Field Evaluation of a Prototype Paper-Based Point-of-Care Fingerstick Transaminase Test

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Nira R.; McGray, Sarah; Colby, Donn J.; Noubary, Farzad; Nguyen, Huyen; Nguyen, The Anh; Khormaee, Sariah; Jain, Sidhartha; Hawkins, Kenneth; Kumar, Shailendra; Rolland, Jason P.; Beattie, Patrick D.; Chau, Nguyen V.; Quang, Vo M.; Barfield, Cori; Tietje, Kathy; Steele, Matt; Weigl, Bernhard H.

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring for drug-induced liver injury (DILI) via serial transaminase measurements in patients on potentially hepatotoxic medications (e.g., for HIV and tuberculosis) is routine in resource-rich nations, but often unavailable in resource-limited settings. Towards enabling universal access to affordable point-of-care (POC) screening for DILI, we have performed the first field evaluation of a paper-based, microfluidic fingerstick test for rapid, semi-quantitative, visual measurement of blood alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Our objectives were to assess operational feasibility, inter-operator variability, lot variability, device failure rate, and accuracy, to inform device modification for further field testing. The paper-based ALT test was performed at POC on fingerstick samples from 600 outpatients receiving HIV treatment in Vietnam. Results, read independently by two clinic nurses, were compared with gold-standard automated (Roche Cobas) results from venipuncture samples obtained in parallel. Two device lots were used sequentially. We demonstrated high inter-operator agreement, with 96.3% (95% C.I., 94.3–97.7%) agreement in placing visual results into clinically-defined “bins” (<3x, 3–5x, and >5x upper limit of normal), >90% agreement in validity determination, and intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.89 (95% C.I., 0.87–0.91). Lot variability was observed in % invalids due to hemolysis (21.1% for Lot 1, 1.6% for Lot 2) and correlated with lots of incorporated plasma separation membranes. Invalid rates <1% were observed for all other device controls. Overall bin placement accuracy for the two readers was 84% (84.3%/83.6%). Our findings of extremely high inter-operator agreement for visual reading–obtained in a target clinical environment, as performed by local practitioners–indicate that the device operation and reading process is feasible and reproducible. Bin placement accuracy and lot-to-lot variability data identified specific targets for device optimization and material quality control. This is the first field study performed with a patterned paper-based microfluidic device and opens the door to development of similar assays for other important analytes. PMID:24098705

  9. Model Development, Implementation and Evaluation of Faculty Development Workshops in Training of Physician's Assistants. Executive Summary of Final Report, October 1, 1977-June 30, 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Dept. of Health Care Sciences.

    An educational workshop series was created to prepare clinical coordinators in Physician's Assistant (PA) programs to assist clinical instructors and preceptors in designing, implementing, and evaluating learning experiences for PA students that focus on clinical skills. Six goals were established: (1) develop a strategy for outlining the student…

  10. Scaling and Summary Statistics for the Curriculum Implementation and Program Customizing Variables. Comparative Study of Phase IV IGE Evaluation Project. Phase IV, Project Paper 80-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nerenz, Anne G.; And Others

    This is one of a series of reports which provide definitions of and descriptive data on the variables used in the Comparative Study of Phase IV of the Individually Guided Education (IEG) Evaluation Project. Phase IV investigated three curriculum programs specifically designed to be compatible with instructional programming for the individual…

  11. Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation of Avian Predation on Salmonid Smolts in the Lower and Mid-Columbia River, 2006 Final Season Summary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel D. Roby; Ken Collis; Donald E. Lyons

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates predation by piscivorous waterbirds on juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) from throughout the Columbia River Basin. During 2006, study objectives in the Columbia River estuary, work funded by the Bonneville Power Administration, were to (1) monitor and evaluate previous management initiatives to reduce Caspian tern (Hydroprogne caspia) predation on juvenile salmonids (smolts); (2) measure the impact of double-crested

  12. Evaluating the Impact of Health Promotion Programs: Using the RE-AIM Framework to Form Summary Measures for Decision Making Involving Complex Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasgow, Russell E.; Klesges, Lisa M.; Dzewaltowski, David A.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Vogt, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    Current public health and medical evidence rely heavily on efficacy information to make decisions regarding intervention impact. This evidence base could be enhanced by research studies that evaluate and report multiple indicators of internal and external validity such as Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance (RE-AIM) as…

  13. Evaluation of the MOST (Making the Most of Out-of-School Time) Initiative: Final Report. Summary of Findings. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Robert; Spielberger, Julie; Robb, Sylvan

    The University of Chicago's Chapin Hall Center for Children conducted an evaluation of the first phase (1995-1998) of the MOST (Making the Most of Out-of-School Time) Initiative of the Wallace-Reader's Digest Funds. The objectives of this initiative were to contribute to the supply, accessibility, affordability, and quality of after-school…

  14. Making the Most of Out-of-School Time. Executive Summary: Interim Findings from an Evaluation Conducted by Chapin Hall Center for Children at the University of Chicago.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Robert; Spielberger, Julie; Robb, Sylvan; Stevens, Rachel

    The University of Chicago's Chapin Hall Center for Children evaluated the progress of the Making the Most of Out-of-School Time (MOST) Initiative in Boston, Chicago, and Seattle. MOST's goals are to improve the supply, accessibility, affordability and quality of school-age care, especially for low-income children; and to strengthen the overall…

  15. WISELI'S EVALUATION OF CAMPUS CHILDCARE: A SUMMARY Having children as a faculty member requires a balance between responsibilities at home and the demands

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    and Evaluation Team, faculty members had varying degrees of success at the work-life balance. Women and the Work.0% of women compared to 38.8% of men). ACHIEVING BALANCE Make children and work the main priorities Women of daycare for children is the right answer for women or men who choose to be really involved in their family

  16. PRESIDENTIAL FINALIST CAMPUS CONSTITUENCY SUMMARY SHEET The Board of Trustees seeks your input in evaluating finalists during the presidential selection process. Please

    E-print Network

    Mitchener, W. Garrett

    in evaluating finalists during the presidential selection process. Please review the rating sheet below and fill: _________________________________________________________________________ Please indicate whether you are faculty, staff, student, or a member of a campus constituency group (i finalist. Part III: Based on all the evidence, explain why this finalist is or is not capable of serving

  17. Who Said What About Title I Evaluation at the AERA/NCME Annual Meeting, Toronto, March, 1978: Summaries of Selected Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Theresa

    Twenty-six papers concerning Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title I program evaluation--presented at the 1978 American Educational Research Association/National Council on Measurement in Education meeting--are summarized. Speakers from the federal government are: C.T. Cross (see ED 156 695); R.L. Fishbein; and D. Ozenne. State department…

  18. Summary Theory Seabed Pressure Ozone Comments Eliminating the practical boundary between

    E-print Network

    Steinsland, Ingelin

    Summary Theory Seabed Pressure Ozone Comments Eliminating the practical boundary between Markov@maths.lth.se Markov and other Gaussian random fields, Trondheim, 2009-05-15 #12;Summary Theory Seabed Pressure Ozone Gaussian random fields, Trondheim, 2009-05-15 #12;Summary Theory Seabed Pressure Ozone Comments Background

  19. Field evaluation of natural gas and dry sorbent injection for MWC emissions control

    SciTech Connect

    Wohadlo, S.; Abbasi, H.; Cygan, D. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)] Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), in cooperation with the Olmsted Waste-to-Energy Facility (OWEF) and with subcontracted engineering services from the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), has completed the detailed engineering and preparation of construction specifications for an Emissions Reduction Testing System (ERTS). The ERTS has been designed for retrofit to one of two 100-ton/day municipal waste combustors at the OWEF, located in Rochester, Minnesota. The purpose of the retrofit is to conduct a field evaluation of a combined natural gas and sorbent injection process (IGT`s METHANE de-TOX{sup SM}, IGT Patent No. 5,105,747) for reducing the emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), hydrochloric acid (HCI), oxides of sulfur (SO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons (THC), and chlorinated hydrocarbons (dioxin/furans). In addition, the design includes modifications for the control of heavy metals (HM). Development of the process should allow the waste-to-energy industry to meet the Federal New Source Performance Standards for these pollutants at significantly lower costs when compared to existing technology of Thermal deNO{sub x} combined with spray dryer scrubber/fabric filters. Additionally, the process should reduce boiler corrosion and increase both the thermal and power production efficiency of the facility.

  20. Laboratory and field evaluation of spinosad formulation Natular T30 against immature Culex mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Su, Tianyun; Cheng, Min-Lee; Thieme, Jennifer

    2014-07-01

    Spinosad consisting of spinosyn A and D is derived from a naturally occurring, soil-dwelling bacterium, Saccharopolyspora spinosa. Spinosyns are neurotoxins that activate postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors and cause rapid excitation of the insect nervous system and ultimately exhaustion and death of the targets. During the past 30 yr, numerous spinosad-based formulations have been developed and applied to control various arthropod pests of agricultural importance. Natular T-30 is a new slow-release formulation containing 8.33% spinosad for use in mosquito larval control programs. High-level larvicidal activity, as indicated by low LC50 and LC90 levels, was demonstrated against Culex quinquefasciatus Say in the laboratory. Larvicidal efficacy was evaluated in semifield microcosms, field mesocosms, and underground storm drains. Fair performance against larval populations of Culex spp. and other mosquito species was achieved, although low efficacy during the initial few days posttreatment was encountered. This slow-release formulation will play an important role in controlling mosquitoes in persistent breeding sources. PMID:25118417