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1

DWPF MATERIALS EVALUATION SUMMARY REPORT  

SciTech Connect

To better ensure the reliability of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) remote canyon process equipment, a materials evaluation program was performed as part of the overall startup test program. Specific test programs included FA-04 ('Process Vessels Erosion/Corrosion Studies') and FA-05 (melter inspection). At the conclusion of field testing, Test Results Reports were issued to cover the various test phases. While these reports completed the startup test requirements, DWPF-Engineering agreed to compile a more detailed report which would include essentially all of the materials testing programs performed at DWPF. The scope of the materials evaouation programs included selected equipment from the Salt Process Cell (SPC), Chemical Process Cell (CPC), Melt Cell, Canister Decon Cell (CDC), and supporting facilities. The program consisted of performing pre-service baseline inspections (work completed in 1992) and follow-up inspections after completion of the DWPF cold chemical runs. Process equipment inspected included: process vessels, pumps, agitators, coils, jumpers, and melter top head components. Various NDE (non-destructive examination) techniques were used during the inspection program, including: ultrasonic testing (UT), visual (direct or video probe), radiography, penetrant testing (PT), and dimensional analyses. Finally, coupon racks were placed in selected tanks in 1992 for subsequent removal and corrosion evaluation after chemical runs.

Gee, T.; Chandler, G.; Daugherty, W.; Imrich, K.; Jankins, C.

1996-09-12

2

Evaluation Report Summary Darwin Education Initiative  

E-print Network

celebratory activities marking the 200th anniversary of the birth of Charles Darwin. It aimed to stimulateEvaluation Report Summary Darwin Education Initiative January 2011 #12;1 Evaluation of the Darwin to conduct an independent evaluation of the Darwin Education Initiative. The initiative featured

Rambaut, Andrew

3

5-Year Review: Summary & Evaluation of  

E-print Network

5-Year Review: Summary & Evaluation of Snake River Sockeye Snake River Spring-Summer Chinook Snake River Fall-Run Chinook Snake River Basin Steelhead National Marine Fisheries Service Northwest Region Marine Fisheries Service Science, Service, Stewardship #12;5-Year Review: Snake River basin NOAA

4

Energy-efficient buildings program evaluations. Volume 2: Evaluation summaries  

SciTech Connect

This document presents summaries of code and utility building program evaluations reviewed as the basis for the information presented in Energy-Efficient Buildings Program Evaluations, Volume 1: Findings and Recommendations, DOE/EE/OBT-11569, Vol. 1. The main purpose of this volume is to summarize information from prior evaluations of similar programs that may be useful background for designing and conducting an evaluation of the BSGP. Another purpose is to summarize an extensive set of relevant evaluations and provide a resource for program designers, mangers, and evaluators.

Lee, A.D.; Mayi, D.; Edgemon, S.D.

1997-04-01

5

FIELD EVALUATION (FIRST) OF VOST AND SEMIVOST METHODS FOR SELECTED CAAA ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AT A COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT--PROJECT SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory and field studies for volatile organic sampling trains (VOST) and semivolatile organic sampling trains (SemiVOST) have been performed to evaluate the performance of halogenated volatile and semivolatile organic analytes from Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments (C...

6

Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

From FY 2000 through FY 2003, a series of vadose zone transport field experiments were conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project Science and Technology Project, now known as the Remediation and Closure Science Project, and managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The series of experiments included two major field campaigns, one at a 299-E24-11 injection test site near PUREX and a second at a clastic dike site off Army Loop Road. The goals of these experiments were to improve our understanding of vadose zone transport processes; to develop data sets to validate and calibrate vadose zone flow and transport models; and to identify advanced monitoring techniques useful for evaluating flow-and-transport mechanisms and delineating contaminant plumes in the vadose zone at the Hanford Site. This report summarizes the key findings from the field studies and demonstrates how data collected from these studies are being used to improve conceptual models and develop numerical models of flow and transport in Hanford’s vadose zone. Results of these tests have led to a better understanding of the vadose zone. Fine-scale geologic heterogeneities, including grain fabric and lamination, were observed to have a strong effect on the large-scale behavior of contaminant plumes, primarily through increased lateral spreading resulting from anisotropy. Conceptual models have been updated to include lateral spreading and numerical models of unsaturated flow and transport have revised accordingly. A new robust model based on the concept of a connectivity tensor was developed to describe saturation-dependent anisotropy in strongly heterogeneous soils and has been incorporated into PNNL’s Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator. Application to field-scale transport problems have led to a better understanding plume behavior at a number of sites where lateral spreading may have dominated waste migration (e.g. BC Cribs and Trenches). The improved models have been also coupled with inverse models and newly-developed parameter scaling techniques to allow estimation of field-scale and effective transport parameters for the vadose zone. The development and utility of pedotransfer functions for describing fine-scale hydrogeochemical heterogeneity and for incorporating this heterogeneity into reactive transport models was explored. An approach based on grain-size statistics appears feasible and has been used to describe heterogeneity in hydraulic properties and sorption properties, such as the cation exchange capacity and the specific surface area of Hanford sediments. This work has also led to the development of inverse modeling capabilities for time-dependent, subsurface, reactive transport with transient flow fields using an automated optimization algorithm. In addition, a number of geophysical techniques investigated for their potential to provide detailed information on the subtle changes in lithology and bedding surfaces; plume delineation, leak detection. High-resolution resistivity is now being used for detecting saline plumes at several waste sites at Hanford, including tank farms. Results from the field studies and associated analysis have appeared in more than 46 publications generated over the past 4 years. These publications include test plans and status reports, in addition to numerous technical notes and peer reviewed papers.

Ward, Andy L.; Conrad, Mark E.; Daily, William D.; Fink, James B.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Hoversten, Gary M.; Keller, Jason M.; Majer, Ernest L.; Murray, Christopher J.; White, Mark D.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Zhang, Z. F.

2006-07-31

7

Aleph Field Solver Challenge Problem Results Summary.  

SciTech Connect

Aleph models continuum electrostatic and steady and transient thermal fields using a finite-element method. Much work has gone into expanding the core solver capability to support enriched mod- eling consisting of multiple interacting fields, special boundary conditions and two-way interfacial coupling with particles modeled using Aleph's complementary particle-in-cell capability. This report provides quantitative evidence for correct implementation of Aleph's field solver via order- of-convergence assessments on a collection of problems of increasing complexity. It is intended to provide Aleph with a pedigree and to establish a basis for confidence in results for more challeng- ing problems important to Sandia's mission that Aleph was specifically designed to address.

Hooper, Russell; Moore, Stan Gerald

2015-01-01

8

Summary of field operations, well TRN-1  

SciTech Connect

TRN-1 was drilled near the SE corner of Kirtland Air Force Base to a depth of 510 feet. This well is in the Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization task field program, which is part of Sandia`s Environmental Restoration Project. After drilling, the borehole was logged, plugged to a depth of 352 ft, and completed as a monitoring well. Sand pack interval is from 305 to 352 ft and the screen interval is from 320 to 340 ft. During field operations, important subsurface geologic and hydrologic data were obtained (drill cuttings, geophysical logs of alluvial cover). Identification of the Abo formation in the subsurface will be useful. The subsurface hydrologic data will help define the local hydrostratigraphic framework within the bedrock. Future aquifer testing will be conducted for transmissivity, etc.

Fritts, J.E.; Thomas, E. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); McCord, J.P. [INTERA, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-03-01

9

Summary of reservoir engineering data: Wairakei geothermal field, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an abbreviated summary of the final project report on an extensive collection of fundamental field information concerning the history of the Wairakei geothermal field in New Zealand. The purpose of the effort was to accumulate any and all pertinent data so that various theoretical reservoir simulation studies may be carried out in the future in a meaningful way.

J. W. Pritchett; L. F. Rice; S. K. Garg

1979-01-01

10

Columbia River Component Data Evaluation Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Columbia River Component Data Compilation and Evaluation task was to compile, review, and evaluate existing information for constituents that may have been released to the Columbia River due to Hanford Site operations. Through this effort an extensive compilation of information pertaining to Hanford Site-related contaminants released to the Columbia River has been completed for almost 965 km of the river.

C.S. Cearlock

2006-08-02

11

The GLAD Project Evaluation Summary: 1994 Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report evaluates the Ganado Learning Arts Development Project (GLAD), a program implemented at the Ganado Primary School in Arizona. The school serves K-2 students from the Navajo reservation and emphasizes integration of traditional Navajo teachings and culture with Western knowledge. The report covers the following data: (1) student average…

Boloz, Sigmund A.

12

Including Summaries in System Evaluation Andrew Turpin  

E-print Network

, it has a strong history, having been the dominant paradigm of system evaluation for over 30 years to each other, by these mean metric values. Recent research has shown that, even if System A has statistically significantly higher mean metric values than System B, there is no guarantee that users

Wu, Mingfang

13

Research Summary West Midlands woodland and health pilot evaluation  

E-print Network

Research Summary West Midlands woodland and health pilot evaluation Increasingly, research- related activity in woodlands through use of a Woodland Improvement Grant. Those who successfully bid, the production of leaflets, launch events and interpretation. An evaluation was undertaken by Interface IRM

14

REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY: LAMBERT FIELD GRAPHICAL WEATHER SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

A graphical summary of National Weather Service (NWS) 3-hour weather observations from Lambert Field Airport, St. Louis, Missouri has been prepared for use by individuals involved in the analysis and application of Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS) data. It is intended as a ref...

15

DUAL ALKALI TEST AND EVALUATION PROGRAM. VOLUME I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

Volume I of the report is an executive summary of the results of a three-task program to investigate, characterize, and evaluate the basic process chemistry and the various operating modes of sodium-based dual alkali scrubbing processes. The tasks were: I, laboratory studies at b...

16

Wisconsin Rural Reading Improvement Project 1987-1988. Evaluation Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This evaluation summary synthesizes the results of the first year of the Wisconsin Rural Reading Improvement Project (WRRIP), a project aimed at helping small, rural schools improve reading instruction by teaching reading as thinking (also termed "strategic reading"). The means used is staff development: specifically, a leadership team composed of…

Nowakowski, Jeri; And Others

17

Project Developmental Continuity Evaluation: Final Report. Executive Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This executive summary presents the major results of the longitudinal evaluation of Project Developmental Continuity (PDC). A Head Start demonstration project initiated by the Administration for Children, Youth and Families (ACYF) in 1974, the PDC aimed to stimulate the development and implementation of comprehensive programs linking Head Start…

Bond, James T.; Rosario, Jose

18

The evaluation of Earth System Models: discussion summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex Earth system models, and their various sub-components, are not yet subject to rigorous evaluation against observations as much as they should be, despite the existence of hundreds of proposed diagnostics. A concerted process is urgently needed to make this the norm, not the exception. Earth Observation, field observations and palaeo data can be applied to contexts as diverse as

Sönke Zaehle; Colin Prentice; Sarah Cornell

2011-01-01

19

PROJECT SUMMARY REPORT 2954-3F EVALUATION OF THE PERFORMANCE OF  

E-print Network

PROJECT SUMMARY REPORT 2954-3F EVALUATION OF THE PERFORMANCE OF PERMANENT RUNOFF CONTROLS: SUMMARY October 1997 Revised: September 1998 4. Title and Subtitle EVALUATION OF THE PERFORMANCE OF PERMANENT RUNOFF CONTROLS: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 6. Performing Organization Code 7. Author(s) Michael E. Barrett

Texas at Austin, University of

20

Texas Educator Excellence Grant (TEEG) Program: Year One Evaluation Report. Policy Evaluation Report. [Executive Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This executive summary presents findings from the first-year evaluation of the Texas Educator Excellence Grant (TEEG) program, one of several statewide performance incentive programs in Texas. In June 2006, Governor Perry and the 79th Texas Legislature created the Governor's Educator Excellence Award Program, one component of which is the TEEG…

Springer, Matthew G.; Podgursky, Michael J.; Lewis, Jessica L.; Ehlert, Mark W.; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Gronberg, Timothy J.; Hamilton, Laura S.; Jansen, Dennis W.; Lopez, Omar S.; Patterson, Christine H.; Stecher, Brian M.; Taylor, Lori L.

2008-01-01

21

The National Evaluation of Upward Bound. Summary of First-Year Impacts and Program Operations. Executive Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph presents the executive summary of a study evaluating the first-year impacts and program operations of Upward Bound, a federal pre-college program designed to help economically disadvantaged students complete high school and gain access to post-secondary education. In 1996, 45,000 students participated in the program through projects…

Myers, David E.; Moore, Mary T.

22

FIELD EVALUATION OF THE MYRTLE CREEK ADVANCED  

E-print Network

FIELD EVALUATION OF THE MYRTLE CREEK ADVANCED CURVE WARNING SYSTEM Final Report SPR 352 #12;#12;FIELD EVALUATION OF THE MYRTLE CREEK ADVANCED CURVE WARNING SYSTEM SPR 352 Final Report by Robert L's Catalog No. 5. Report Date June 2006 4. Title and Subtitle Field Evaluation of the Myrtle Creek Advanced

Bertini, Robert L.

23

Three Years of Intelligent Tutoring Evaluation: A Summary of Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past 3 years, a variety of studies in intelligent tutoring system (ITS) effectiveness have been conducted. A summary is provided of the research into the use of POSIT, MALM, and the Mobile Subscriber Remote-Telephone Terminal (MSRT) Tutor. POSIT is an ITS for the tutoring of whole-number subtraction. It assumes that the learning of a…

Orey, Michael

24

An updated summary of MATHEW/ADPIC model evaluation studies  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the major model evaluation studies conducted for the MATHEW/ADPIC atmospheric transport and diffusion models used by the US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability. These studies have taken place over the last 15 years and involve field tracer releases influenced by a variety of meteorological and topographical conditions. Neutrally buoyant tracers released both as surface and elevated point sources, as well as material dispersed by explosive, thermally bouyant release mechanisms have been studied. Results from these studies show that the MATHEW/ADPIC models estimate the tracer air concentrations to within a factor of two of the measured values 20% to 50% of the time, and within a factor of five of the measurements 35% to 85% of the time depending on the complexity of the meteorology and terrain, and the release height of the tracer. Comparisons of model estimates to peak downwind deposition and air concentration measurements from explosive releases are shown to be generally within a factor of two to three. 24 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

Foster, K.T.; Dickerson, M.H.

1990-05-01

25

BIOREMEDIATION FIELD EVALUATION: EIELSON AIR FORCE BASE, ALASKA (EPA/540/R-95/533)  

EPA Science Inventory

This publication, one of a series presenting the findings of the Bioremediation Field Initiatives bioremediation field evaluations, provides a detailed summary of the evaluation conducted at the Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) Superfund site in Fairbanks, Alaska. At this site, the ...

26

Summary status on the seismic evaluations of Hanford Site radioactive waste storage tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive defense waste, resulting from the chemical processing of spent nuclear fuel, has been accumulating at the Hanford Site since 1944. This waste is stored in underground waste storage tanks. This paper provides a summary status of the seismic evaluations of the tanks and a summary of past safety assessments of the safety-related equipment that may be required to maintain

D. L. Becker; R. A. Marusich; J. A. Ryan; D. A. Smith; A. M. Tallman; G. R. Wagenblast

1990-01-01

27

Thirteen year summary of field-scale herbicide volatilization  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Once lost to the atmosphere, herbicide transport can result in unintended re-deposition to inhabited areas, streams, rivers, and lakes. To better understand factors governing herbicide volatilization and to determine its impact relative to other loss pathways, field-scale turbulent volatilization fl...

28

Remedial site evaluation report for the waste area grouping 10 wells associated with the new hydrofracture facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Field activities and well summaries  

SciTech Connect

Four hydrofracture sites at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) were used for development, demonstration, and disposal from 1959 to 1984. More than 10 million gal of waste grout mix was disposed of via hydrofracture. Various types of wells were installed to monitor the hydrofracture operations. The primary goal of this remedial investigation was to gather information about the wells in order to recommend the type and best method of final disposition for the wells. Evaluations were performed to determine the integrity of well castings, confirm construction details for each well, evaluate the extent of contamination, assist in planning for future activities, and determine the suitability of the wells for future temporary site monitoring.

NONE

1996-08-01

29

EVALUATION OF THE AMES SOLID WASTE RECOVERY SYSTEM. PART I. SUMMARY OF ENVIRONMENTAL EMISSIONS: EQUIPMENT, FACILITIES, AND ECONOMIC EVALUATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes the following: Characterization of the refuse derived fuel (RDF) produced; Equipment and plant performance evaluations; An analysis of plant maintenance and manpower requirements; An analysis of plant operating costs. Also included is a brief summary of the ...

30

Urban Dispersion Program Overview and MID05 Field Study Summary  

SciTech Connect

The Urban Dispersion Program (UDP) was a 4-year project (2004–2007) funded by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security with additional support from the Defense Threat Reduction Agency. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) also contributed to UDP through funding a human-exposure component of the New York City (NYC) field studies in addition to supporting an EPA scientist in conducting modeling studies of NYC. The primary goal of UDP was to improve the scientific understanding of the flow and diffusion of airborne contaminants through and around the deep street canyons of NYC. The overall UDP project manager and lead scientist was Dr. Jerry Allwine of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. UDP had several accomplishments that included conducting two tracer and meteorological field studies in Midtown Manhattan.

Allwine, K Jerry; Flaherty, Julia E.

2007-07-31

31

Vegetation and soils field research data base: Experiment summaries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Understanding of the relationships between the optical, spectral characteristics and important biological-physical parameters of earth-surface features can best be obtained by carefully controlled studies over fields and plots where complete data describing the condition of targets are attainable and where frequent, timely spectral measurement can be obtained. Development of a vegetation and soils field research data base was initiated in 1972 at Purdue University's Laboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing and expanded in the fall of 1974 by NASA as part of LACIE. Since then, over 250,000 truck-mounted and helicopter-borne spectrometer/multiband radiometer observations have been obtained of more than 50 soil series and 20 species of crops, grasses, and trees. These data are supplemented by an extensive set of biophysical and meteorological data acquired during each mission. The field research data form one of the most complete and best-documented data sets acquired for agricultural remote sensing research. Thus, they are well-suited to serve as a data base for research to: (1) quantiatively determine the relationships of spectral and biophysical characteristics of vegetation, (2) define future sensor systems, and (3) develop advanced data analysis techniques.

Biehl, L. L.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Bauer, M. E.

1984-01-01

32

5.1 FACULTY EVALUATION PROCEDURE SUMMARY For complete information on Performance Evaluations, see Section 7 of the Faculty Handbook.  

E-print Network

5.1 FACULTY EVALUATION PROCEDURE SUMMARY For complete information on Performance Evaluations, see Section 7 of the Faculty Handbook. Annual evaluation of the faculty of the Colorado School of Mines should or exemplary performance, or to give appropriate counsel to those individuals whose performance

33

PROJECT SUMMARY REPORT 1508-1F PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THE UT  

E-print Network

PROJECT SUMMARY REPORT 1508-1F PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THE UT AUTOMATED ROAD MAINTENANCE MACHINE PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THE UT AUTOMATED ROAD MAINTENANCE MACHINE 5. Report Date October 1997 6. Performing This final report mainly focuses on evaluating the overall performance of The University of Texas Automated

Texas at Austin, University of

34

Students Training for Academic Readiness (STAR): Year Three Evaluation Report. Executive Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This executive summary presents findings from the Year 3 evaluation of Texas' state-level Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs, or GEAR UP, grant. GEAR UP grant requirements include an evaluation component designed to assess program effectiveness and to measure progress toward project goals. To this end, the evaluation

Texas Center for Educational Research, 2010

2010-01-01

35

Summary of 2008 CUAA Chinese University Evaluation and Research Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2002, the University Evaluation Task Force of China University Alumni Association Network (CUAA), "University Weekly" and "21st Century Talent Report" have made joint efforts in the evaluation of higher education institutions in China. Compared with the ranking in 2007, China's University Ranking in the 2008 report is different mainly due to…

Deguo, Zhao; Yanhou, Cai; Yongjun, Feng; Lingfeng, Wang

2009-01-01

36

The Evaluation of the Calgary Learning Centre. Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report summarizes evaluation findings on the Learning Centre, a research and demonstration centre of the Calgary Society for Students with Learning Difficulties. The report addresses evaluation of formal research projects (on such topics as instrumental enrichment with low achieving adolescents); pilot projects (such as an animation film…

Conte, Richard; And Others

37

PUBLIC HEALTH AIR SURVEILLANCE EVALUATION (PHASE) - A SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

NERL's Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division and other participants in the Public Health Air Surveillance Evaluation (PHASE) project will be discussing their results with European Commission, Directorate General Environment, and French Agency for Environment an...

38

South Fence Road -- Phase 1 field operations summary  

SciTech Connect

The South Fence Road (SFR) project is part of the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization (SWHC) task. The SWHC task has as its objective the reduction of uncertainty about the rate and direction of groundwater flow in the SNL/NM/Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) area. The SFR project area is located along the southern boundary of SNL/KAFB. This project area was selected to provide site-specific information related to geology and groundwater hydrology within the Hubbell Spring/Tijeras/Sandia fault complex. Specific objectives included determining the depth to the Santa Fe Group/bedrock contact, the depth to the water table, and the hydrogeologic complexities related to faulting. This report is a basic data report from the first phase of field operations associated with the drilling, logging, completion, and development of South Fence Road Wells SFR-1D and SFR-1S, SFR-2, SFR-3D and SFR-3S, and SFR-4. These test/monitoring wells were installed as part of Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Environmental Restoration Project.

McCord, J.P. [INTERA, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Neel, D. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-03-01

39

Summary of monitoring station component evaluation project 2009-2011.  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is regarded as a center for unbiased expertise in testing and evaluation of geophysical sensors and instrumentation for ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring (GNEM) systems. This project will sustain and enhance our component evaluation capabilities. In addition, new sensor technologies that could greatly improve national monitoring system performance will be sought and characterized. This work directly impacts the Ground-based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring mission by verifying that the performance of monitoring station sensors and instrumentation is characterized and suitable to the mission. It enables the operational monitoring agency to deploy instruments of known capability and to have confidence in operational success. This effort will ensure that our evaluation capabilities are maintained for future use.

Hart, Darren M.

2012-02-01

40

Medical evaluations on the KC-135 1990 flight report summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The medical investigations completed on the KC-135 during FY 1990 in support of the development of the Health Maintenance Facility and Medical Operations are discussed. The experiments are comprised of engineering evaluations of medical hardware and medical procedures. The investigating teams are made up of both medical and engineering personnel responsible for the development of medical hardware and medical operations. The hardware evaluated includes dental equipment, a coagulation analyzer, selected pharmaceutical aerosol devices, a prototype air/fluid separator, a prototype packaging and stowage system for medical supplies, a microliter metering system, and a workstation for minor surgical procedures. The results of these engineering evaluations will be used in the design of fleet hardware as well as to identify hardware specific training requirements.

Lloyd, Charles W.; Guess, Terrell M.; Whiting, Charles W.; Doarn, Charles R.

1991-01-01

41

Evaluating the Safety of New Vaccines: Summary of a Workshop  

PubMed Central

Public concerns about the safety of vaccines arise on a regular basis. In November 2000, a workshop titled “Evaluation of New Vaccines: How Much Safety Data?” was convened by US Public Health Service agencies, including the Food and Drug Administration, the National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Health Resources and Services Administration, to discuss appropriate methods for evaluating the safety of new vaccines. Workshop presentations addressed the current standards and approaches for new vaccine evaluation and postlicensure surveillance, as well as public views about vaccine safety and alternative approaches that could be considered. The advantages and disadvantages of conducting large controlled trials before licensure or widespread use of a new vaccine were discussed. We summarize these presentations and discussions. PMID:15855455

Ellenberg, Susan S.; Foulkes, Mary A.; Midthun, Karen; Goldenthal, Karen L.

2005-01-01

42

Summary of the hydraulic evaluation of LWBR (LWBR development program)  

SciTech Connect

The principal hydraulic performance features of the Light Water Breeder Reactor are summarized in this report. The calculational models and procedures used for prediction of reactor flow and pressure distributions under steady-state and transient operating conditions are described. Likewise, the analysis models for evaluation of the static and dynamic performance characteristics of the hydraulically-balanced and hydraulically-buffered movable-fuel reactivity-control system are outlined. An extensive test program was conducted for qualification of the subject LWBR hydraulic evaluation models. The projected LWBR hydraulic performance is shown to fulfill design objectives and functional requirements.

Stout, J.W.; Lerner, S.; McWilliams, K.D.; Turner, J.R. (eds.)

1981-04-01

43

College Readiness Program Evaluation 1988-1989. Summary Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document summarizes an evaluation of the 1988/89 College Readiness Program (CRP) in the Columbus (Ohio) Public Schools. The CRP targets middle school students who demonstrate potential for success in college but who are not planning to attend college because of their families' financial status or because higher education is not part of their…

Brierley, Miriam; Thompson, Gary

44

The Comprehensive Longitudinal Evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program: Summary of Baseline Reports. SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation Report #1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides an overview of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program and the author's plan for evaluating it over a five year period. It also presents a brief summary of the main findings of the four distinct topical reports that the author and his colleagues have completed for 2006-07--the baseline year of the evaluation. Those four…

Wolf, Patrick J.

2008-01-01

45

The Comprehensive Longitudinal Evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program: Summary of Second Year Reports. SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation Report #6  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report discusses the progress of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP) evaluation and presents a brief summary of the main findings of the seven distinct topical reports that have been completed for 2007-08--the second year of the evaluation. Those seven specialized reports build on the five reports that were released in 2008 and are:…

Wolf, Patrick J.

2009-01-01

46

Evaluating Soil Health Summary: Soil health can be measured, monitored and managed to increase sustainability and  

E-print Network

to assess the effect of management or evaluate problem areas. Chemical soil characteristics, including pH, soil organic matter, nutrient levels and cation exchange capacity are often part of routine soilEvaluating Soil Health Summary: Soil health can be measured, monitored and managed to increase

Lawrence, Rick L.

47

Youth Employment Strategy (YES) 1997-2002: Summary of Recent Summative Evaluation Results. Final Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides a summary of six summative evaluation studies that were implemented and completed between 1999 and 2002. The evaluations were conducted on three different streams of Canada's Youth Employment Strategy (YES). The Youth Employment Strategy was introduced by the federal government in 1997 to address employment related challenges…

Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2004

2004-01-01

48

Japanese fitness-for-service code for nuclear power plants—summary of flaw evaluation procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Japanese fitness-for-service code for nuclear power plant components has been developed at the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. The code prescribes methods for the evaluation of flaws, which are detected during inservice inspection for pressure vessels and pipes in nuclear power plants. This paper describes the summary of flaw evaluation procedures, including comparisons with the ASME Code Section XI.

Hideo Kobayashi; Koichi Kashima

2002-01-01

49

Day Care in Caracas: A Day Care Homes Program Evaluation Report. Volume I: Executive Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides a summary of a formative evaluation research project concerning the neighborhood day care homes program in Caracas, Venezuela. The evaluation included nine lines of study: (1) an assessment of sociodemographic conditions of Venezuelan preschool age children, legal and employment status of Venezuelan women, and general social…

de Ruesta, Maria Carlota; de Vidal, Amalia Barrios

50

Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Volume 2, Participants program final summary evaluation  

SciTech Connect

This 4.5-year project consisted of routine analytical support to DOE`s direct liquefaction process development effort (the Base Program), and an extensive effort to develop, demonstate, and apply new analytical methods for the characterization of liquefaction process streams (the Participants Program). The objective of the Base Program was to support the on-going DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program. Feed, process, and product samples were used to assess process operations, product quality, and the effects of process variables, and to direct future testing. The primary objective of the Participants Program was to identify and demonstrate analytical methods for use in support of liquefaction process develpment, and in so doing, provide a bridge between process design, development, and operation and analytical chemistry. To achieve this direct coal liquefaction-derived materials. CONSOL made an evaluation of each analytical technique. During the performance of this project, we obtained analyses on samples from numerous process development and research programs and we evaluated a variety of analytical techniques for their usefulness in supporting liquefaction process development. Because of the diverse nature of this program, we provide here an annotated bibliography of the technical reports, publications, and formal presentations that resulted from this program to serve as a comprehensive summary of contract activities.

Brandes, S.D.; Robbins, G.A.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

1994-05-01

51

Summary of the Solar Two Test and Evaluation Program  

SciTech Connect

Solar Two was a collaborative, cost-shared project between eleven US industry and utility partners and the U. S. Department of Energy to validate molten-salt power tower technology. The Solar Two plant, located east of Barstow, CA, was comprised of 1926 heliostats, a receiver, a thermal storage system and a steam generation system. Molten nitrate salt was used as the heat transfer fluid and storage media. The steam generator powered a 10 MWe, conventional Rankine cycle turbine. Solar Two operated from June 1996 to April 1999. The major objective of the test and evaluation phase of the project was to validate the technical characteristics of a molten salt power tower. This paper describes the significant results from the test and evaluation activities.

PACHECO,JAMES E.; REILLY,HUGH E.; KOLB,GREGORY J.; TYNER,CRAIG E.

2000-02-08

52

SIMS analysis: Development and evaluation 1995 summary report  

SciTech Connect

Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was evaluated for characterizing Hg salts. It was found that sulfate and chloride species could be identified directly without sample preparation. Mercuric oxide could be identified by complexation with formic acid. Hg nitrates could be identified by complexation with cyclohexylamine (CHA). Laser desorption ion trap MS was evaluated for characterizing EDTA on environmental samples. No intact EDTA ions were observed, but a series of EDTA fragment ions were visible, particularly on basalt and soil. An ion trap SIMS was developed: a perrhenate ion gun was interfaced to a Teledyne ion trap spectrometer, and the entire device was mounted on a cart. The technology was demonstrated using a prototype ion trap SIMS instrument for detecting Hg{center_dot}CHA complexes formed from nitrate salts. Intensity of the ion gun was improved, and the surface damage of the particle was small, and ion gun technology transfer to Phi-Evans, Inc. is being considered. Two technology end users are at INEL`s Central Facilities Area 674 pond and acid pit of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex; target problem at both sites is the need for Hg speciation on soil samples.

Groenewold, G.S.; Appelhans, A.D.; Ingram, J.C.; Delmore, J.E.; Dahl, D.A.

1995-10-01

53

SIMS analysis: Development and evaluation 1994 summary report  

SciTech Connect

Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was evaluated for applicability to the characterization of salt cake and environmental samples. Salt cake is representative of waste found in radioactive waste storage tanks located at Hanford and at other DOE sites; it consists of nitrate, nitrite, hydroxide, and ferrocyanide salts, and the samples form the tanks are extremely radioactive. SIMS is an attractive technology for characterizing these samples because it has the capability for producing speciation information with little or no sample preparation, and it generates no additional waste. Experiments demonstrated that substantial speciation information could be readily generated using SIMS: metal clusters which include nitrate, nitrite, hydroxide, carbonate, cyanide, ferrocyanide and ferricyanide were observed. In addition, the mechanism of SIMS desorption of tributyl phosphate (TBP) was clearly identified, and minimum detection limit studies involving TBP were performed. Procurements leading to the construction of an ion trap SIMS instrument were initiated. Technology transfer of SIMS components to three instrument vendors was initiated. For FY-95, the SIMS evaluation program has been redirected toward identification of metal species on environmental samples.

Groenewold, G.S.; Appelhans, A.D.; Ingram, J.C.; Delmore, J.E.; Dahl, D.A.

1994-12-01

54

Engineering and Industrial Fields. Revised Summary Report: Technical Employment in Northeast Florida.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document is one of five summary reports, all part of a Pre-Technical Curriculum Planning Project for secondary students who aspire to technical employment or post secondary technical education. This report represents the results of an assessment of the northeast Florida area's technical occupations in engineering and industrial fields. A…

Baker, William E.; And Others

55

Summary of current research interests Field of Research: Retinal Stem Cell Biology, Development of Stem Cell  

E-print Network

Summary of current research interests Field of Research: Retinal Stem Cell Biology, Development of Stem Cell Based Therapies to treat Retinal Diseases, Endogenous Regeneration of the human Retina Stem is to investigate the application of Müller stem cells in cell replacement therapies for glaucomatous degeneration

Saunders, Mark

56

Field Evaluation of Programmable Thermostats  

SciTech Connect

Prior research suggests that poor programmable thermostats usability may prevent their effective use to save energy. We hypothesized that home occupants with a high-usability thermostats would be more likely to use them to save energy than people with a basic thermostat. We randomly installed a high-usability thermostat in half the 77 apartments of an affordable housing complex, installing a basic thermostat in the other half. During the heating season, we collected space temperature and furnace on-off data to evaluate occupant interaction with the thermostats, foremost nighttime setbacks. We found that thermostat usability did not influence energy-saving behaviors, finding no significant difference in temperature maintained among apartments with high- and low-usability thermostats.

Sachs, O.; Tiefenbeck, V.; Duvier, C.; Qin, A.; Cheney, K.; Akers, C.; Roth, K.

2012-12-01

57

A Method for Evaluating Volt-VAR Optimization Field Demonstrations  

SciTech Connect

In a regulated business environment a utility must be able to validate that deployed technologies provide quantifiable benefits to the end-use customers. For traditional technologies there are well established procedures for determining what benefits will be derived from the deployment. But for many emerging technologies procedures for determining benefits are less clear and completely absent in some cases. Volt-VAR Optimization is a technology that is being deployed across the nation, but there are still numerous discussions about potential benefits and how they are achieved. This paper will present a method for the evaluation, and quantification of benefits, for field deployments of Volt-VAR Optimization technologies. In addition to the basic methodology, the paper will present a summary of results, and observations, from two separate Volt-VAR Optimization field evaluations using the proposed method.

Schneider, Kevin P.; Weaver, T. F.

2014-08-31

58

Energy Extension Service Pilot Program: evaluation report after two years. Volume I. Evaluation summary  

SciTech Connect

The EES pilot program was initiated in August 1977, when 10 states were selected on a competitive basis for participation. The pilot states (Alabama, Connecticut, Michigan, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming) devoted the first 6 months to start-up activities. This document is a follow-up report to the three volume Evaluation Summary of the first year of the pilot EES program published in September 1979. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the impacts and costs of the two years of the pilot program, and to check the consistency of findings over the two year period. The analysis addresses the following: (1) were the impact findings of Year I and Year II consistent, or did Year I and Year II attitudes and behavior vary. If variation existed, could it be attributed to program changes as the EES progressed from a start-up phase (Year I) to more normal service delivery (Year II); and (2) did costs of service delivery change (again reflecting start-up and normal service delivery costs). Did cost changes affect conclusions about the relative cost effectiveness of delivering services to different target audiences.

None

1980-04-01

59

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF FULL-SCALE HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS. VOLUME 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

This report is Volume I, Executive Summary, of a series of extensive performance data EPA obtained through eight (8) field tests of actual industrial/commercial incinerators, was prepared in response to the Agency's need to conduct a regulatory impact analysis (RIA) for hazardous...

60

A Summary of Six Major Evaluation Reports on Follow Through in Philadelphia, 1973-l1974.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is a non-technical summary of six major evaluation reports on the Follow Through Program in Philadelphia, 1973-74. Positive findings are presented in the areas of pupil achievement, teacher and pupil continuance and pupil absence, and supportive services and parent involvement. The Follow Through Program in Philadelphia is comprised of…

Goodwin, Judith

61

Family English Literacy Network, 1986-1989. Three Year Summary Evaluation Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 3-year summary evaluation report is presented concerning the success of the Family English Literacy Network (FELN) project of Florida International University. The report addresses the following questions: (1) Did the project meet its proposed objectives in a timely fashion? (2) Did the project participants demonstrate a significant increase in…

Florida International Univ., Miami. Coll. of Education.

62

Preventing Youth Violence. A Summary of Program Evaluations. Urban Health Initiative Monograph Series, Monograph 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This summary explaining the results of evaluations of programs to prevent youth violence is an attempt to fill the gap in information about what works and what does not. An effort is made to place the problem of youth violence in perspective, using information largely taken from Bureau of Justice statistics. The existing programs are divided into…

Kellermann, Arthur L.; Fuqua-Whitley, Dawna S.; Rivara, Frederick P.

63

UNH Jerard/Fussell 1 Project Summary -Dynamic Evaluation of Machine Tool Process Capability  

E-print Network

UNH ­ Jerard/Fussell 1 Project Summary - Dynamic Evaluation of Machine Tool Process Capability with cutting tools, machining strategies, age and environment. This lack of a reliable quality measure impacts operations. Cp for a machine tool is currently ill-defined, since machine tool builders only provide a static

New Hampshire, University of

64

Evaluation of near-field earthquake effects  

SciTech Connect

Structures and equipment, which are qualified for the design basis earthquake (DBE) and have anchorage designed for the DBE loading, do not require an evaluation of the near-field earthquake (NFE) effects. However, safety class 1 acceleration sensitive equipment such as electrical relays must be evaluated for both NFE and DBE since they are known to malfunction when excited by high frequency seismic motions.

Shrivastava, H.P.

1994-11-01

65

Economical Evaluation of an Oil Field Reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, economical evaluation of an oil field reservoir was performed using software. The software used in this study consists of different sub-programs to determine recoverable oil, recovery factor, initial and final productions, production rates, and original oil and gas in place for different types of reservoirs. Recovery efficiency was found to be 29% for water drive and 4.78%

M. V. Kok

2011-01-01

66

Field evaluation of Bemisia parasitoids in Texas  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two methods were employed to assess the potential of candidate parasitoid species/strains to parasitize B. tabaci under field conditions in Texas. Sleeve cage evaluations were conducted in kale, cantaloupe melons, and cotton in 1994–1995. In kale, the highest parasitism rates were observed for two s...

67

Meta-Analytic Evaluation of a Virtual Field Trip to Connect Middle School Students with University Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although virtual field trips are becoming popular, there are few empirical studies of their impacts on student outcomes. This study reports on a meta-analytic evaluation of the impact of a virtual field trip on student perceptions of scientists. Specifically, the study examined the summary effect of zipTrips broadcasts on evaluation

Adedokun, Omolola A.; Liu, Jia; Parker, Loran Carleton; Burgess, Wilella

2015-01-01

68

Static magnetic fields: A summary of biological interactions, potential health effects, and exposure guidelines  

SciTech Connect

Interest in the mechanisms of interaction and the biological effects of static magnetic fields has increased significantly during the past two decades as a result of the growing number of applications of these fields in research, industry and medicine. A major stimulus for research on the bioeffects of static magnetic fields has been the effort to develop new technologies for energy production and storage that utilize intense magnetic fields (e.g., thermonuclear fusion reactors and superconducting magnet energy storage devices). Interest in the possible biological interactions and health effects of static magnetic fields has also been increased as a result of recent developments in magnetic levitation as a mode of public transportation. In addition, the rapid emergence of magnetic resonance imaging as a new clinical diagnostic procedure has, in recent years, provided a strong rationale for defining the possible biological effects of magnetic fields with high flux densities. In this review, the principal interaction mechanisms of static magnetic fields will be described, and a summary will be given of the present state of knowledge of the biological, environmental, and human health effects of these fields.

Tenforde, T.S.

1992-05-01

69

Summary of the planning, management, and evaluation process for the Geothermal Program Review VI conference  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to present an overview of the planning, facilitation, and evaluation process used to conduct the Geothermal Program Review VI (PR VI) conference. This document was also prepared to highlight lessons learned from PR VI and, by utilizing the evaluation summaries and recommendations, be used as a planning tool for PR VII. The conference, entitled Beyond Goals and Objectives,'' was sponsored by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Technology Division (GTD), PR VI was held in San Francisco, California on April 19--21, 1988 and was attended by 127 participants. PR VI was held in conjunction with the National Geothermal Association's (NGA) Industry Round Table. This document presents a brief summary of the activities, responsibilities, and resources for implementing the PR VI meeting and provides recommendations, checklists, and a proposed schedule for assisting in planning PR VII.

Not Available

1988-10-01

70

Entry control technology biometric field evaluations  

SciTech Connect

Throughout the years, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has performed various laboratory evaluations of entry control devices, including biometric identity verifiers. The reports which resulted from this testing have been very well received by the physical security community. This same community now requires equally informative field study data. To meet this need we have conducted a field study in an effort to develop the tools and methods which our customers can use to translate laboratory data into operational field performance. The field testing described in this report was based on the Recognition Systems Inc.`s (RSI) model ID3D HandKey biometric verifier. This device was selected because it is referenced in DOE documents such as the Guide for Implementation of the DOE Standard Badge and is the de facto biometric standard for the DOE. The ID3D HandKey is currently being used at several DOE sites such as Hanford, Rocky Flats, Pantex, Savannah River, and Idaho Nuclear Engineering Laboratory. The ID3D HandKey was laboratory tested at SNL. It performed very well during this test, exhibiting an equal error point of 0.2 percent. The goals of the field test were to identify operational characteristics and design guidelines to help system engineers translate laboratory data into field performance. A secondary goal was to develop tools which could be used by others to evaluate system effectiveness or improve the performance of their systems. Operational characteristics were determined by installing a working system and studying its operation over a five month period. Throughout this test we developed tools which could be used by others to similarly gauge system effectiveness.

Rodriguez, J.R.; Ahrens, J.S.; Lowe, D.L.

1995-07-01

71

Evaluation Field Building in South Asia: Reflections, Anecdotes, and Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines evaluation field building in South Asia and the role of international collaboration in this field building. The article explores aspects of the supply and demand of development evaluation and the political, historical, and systemic factors that bridge or block evaluation use. The article calls for and suggests elements to include in constructing a framework for evaluation field

Katherine Hay

2010-01-01

72

Field evaluation of a VOST sampling method  

SciTech Connect

The VOST (SW-846 Method 0030) specifies the use of Tenax{reg_sign} and a particular petroleum-based charcoal (SKC Lot 104, or its equivalent), that is no longer commercially available. In field evaluation studies of VOST methodology, a replacement petroleum-based charcoal has been used: candidate replacement sorbents for charcoal were studied, and Anasorb{reg_sign} 747, a carbon-based sorbent, was selected for field testing. The sampling train was modified to use only Anasorb{reg_sign} in the back tube and Tenax{reg_sign} in the two front tubes to avoid analytical difficulties associated with the analysis of the sequential bed back tube used in the standard VOST train. The standard (SW-846 Method 0030) and the modified VOST methods were evaluated at a chemical manufacturing facility using a quadruple probe system with quadruple trains. In this field test, known concentrations of the halogenated volatile organic compounds, that are listed in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, Title 3, were introduced into the VOST train and the modified VOST train, using the same certified gas cylinder as a source of test compounds. Statistical tests of the comparability of methods were performed on a compound-by-compound basis. For most compounds, the VOST and modified VOST methods were found to be statistically equivalent.

Jackson, M.D.; Johnson, L.D.; Fuerst, R.G. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Lab.; McGaughey, J.F.; Bursey, J.T.; Merrill, R.G. [Radian Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1994-12-31

73

Governor's Educator Excellence Grant (GEEG) Program: Year One Evaluation Report. Policy Evaluation Report. [Executive Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents findings stemming from the first-year evaluation of the Governor's Educator Excellence Grant (GEEG) program, one of several statewide performance incentive programs in Texas. In the fall of 2006, the GEEG program made available non-competitive, three-year grants to 99 schools ranging from $60,000 to $220,000 per year. Grants…

Springer, Matthew G.; Podgursky, Michael J.; Lewis, Jessica L.; Ehlert, Mark W.; Gardner, Catherine G.; Ghoshdastidar, Bonnie; Lopez, Omar S.; Patterson, Christine H.; Taylor, Lori L.

2007-01-01

74

A generic method for the evaluation of interval type-2 fuzzy linguistic summaries.  

PubMed

Linguistic summarization has turned out to be an important knowledge discovery technique by providing the most relevant natural language-based sentences in a human consistent manner. While many studies on linguistic summarization have handled ordinary fuzzy sets [type-1 fuzzy set (T1FS)] for modeling words, only few of them have dealt with interval type-2 fuzzy sets (IT2FS) even though IT2FS is better capable of handling uncertainties associated with words. Furthermore, the existent studies work with the scalar cardinality based degree of truth which might lead to inconsistency in the evaluation of interval type-2 fuzzy (IT2F) linguistic summaries. In this paper, to overcome this shortcoming, we propose a novel probabilistic degree of truth for evaluating IT2F linguistic summaries in the forms of type-I and type-II quantified sentences. We also extend the properties that should be fulfilled by any degree of truth on linguistic summarization with T1FS to IT2F environment. We not only prove that our probabilistic degree of truth satisfies the given properties, but also illustrate by examples that it provides more consistent results when compared to the existing degree of truth in the literature. Furthermore, we carry out an application on linguistic summarization of time series data of Europe Brent Spot Price, along with a comparison of the results achieved with our approach and that of the existing degree of truth in the literature. PMID:25137691

Boran, Fatih Emre; Akay, Diyar

2014-09-01

75

Evaluating Summary Methods for Multilocus Species Tree Estimation in the Presence of Incomplete Lineage Sorting.  

PubMed

Species tree estimation is complicated by processes, such as gene duplication and loss and incomplete lineage sorting (ILS), that cause discordance between gene trees and the species tree. Furthermore, while concatenation, a traditional approach to tree estimation, has excellent performance under many conditions, the expectation is that the best accuracy will be obtained through the use of species tree estimation methods that are specifically designed to address gene tree discordance. In this article, we report on a study to evaluate MP-EST-one of the most popular species tree estimation methods designed to address ILS-as well as concatenation under maximum likelihood, the greedy consensus, and two supertree methods (Matrix Representation with Parsimony and Matrix Representation with Likelihood). Our study shows that several factors impact the absolute and relative accuracy of methods, including the number of gene trees, the accuracy of the estimated gene trees, and the amount of ILS. Concatenation can be more accurate than the best summary methods in some cases (mostly when the gene trees have poor phylogenetic signal or when the level of ILS is low), but summary methods are generally more accurate than concatenation when there are an adequate number of sufficiently accurate gene trees. Our study suggests that coalescent-based species tree methods may be key to estimating highly accurate species trees from multiple loci. PMID:25164915

Mirarab, Siavash; Bayzid, Md Shamsuzzoha; Warnow, Tandy

2014-08-26

76

Unit evaluation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site: summary report and recommendation  

SciTech Connect

Of the four potential repository units, identified at Yucca Mountain, two potential units the welded, devitrified portions of the Bullfrog and Tram Members of the Crater Flat Tuff are below the water table. The welded, devitrified Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff and the nonwelded, zeolitized Tuffaceous Beds of Calico Hills are above the water table. The results of a study of the four potential repository units are to provide a technical basis for selecting a single target repository unit for future test and evaluation. The unit evaluation studies compared the units rather than provided and absolute assessment. The four ranking evaluation criteria used were: radionuclide isolation time; allowable repository gross thermal loading; excavation stability; and relative economics. Considered the most important of the criteria as well as the most difficult, radionuclide isolation times were estimated using the limited existing data. The allowable repository gross thermal loadings determined from near-field calculations, were nearly the same for all four units. The gross thermal loading supported other criteria by providing the heat source for succeeding thermally related evaluation studies. A large number of studies evaluated excavation stability, including near-field mechanical and thermomechanical finite element code calculations studies. A large number of studies evaluated excavation stability, including near-field mechanical and thermomechanical finite element code calculations, rock matrix property evaluation, and rock mass classification. Relative economics, a minor criterion, did not play an explicit role in the final ranking. Based on all of the analyses, the final recommendation was that the Topopah Springs be selected as the target unit, followed, in order, by the Calico Hills, Bullfrog, and Tram.

Johnstone, J.K.; Peters, R.R.; Gnirk, P.F.

1984-06-01

77

Hazardous gas model evaluation with field observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fifteen hazardous gas models were evaluated using data from eight field experiments. The models include seven publicly available models (AFTOX, DEGADIS, HEGADAS, HGSYSTEM, INPUFF, OB/DG and SLAB), six proprietary models (AIRTOX, CHARM, FOCUS, GASTAR, PHAST and TRACE), and two "benchmark" analytical models (the Gaussian Plume Model and the analytical approximations to the Britter and McQuaid Workbook nomograms). The field data were divided into three groups—continuous dense gas releases (Burro LNG, Coyote LNG, Desert Tortoise NH 3-gas and aerosols, Goldfish HF-gas and aerosols, and Maplin Sands LNG), continuous passive gas releases (Prairie Grass and Hanford), and instantaneous dense gas releases (Thorney Island freon). The dense gas models that produced the most consistent predictions of plume centerline concentrations across the dense gas data sets are the Britter and McQuaid, CHARM, GASTAR, HEGADAS, HGSYSTEM, PHAST, SLAB and TRACE models, with relative mean biases of about ±30% or less and magnitudes of relative scatter that are about equal to the mean. The dense gas models tended to overpredict the plume widths and underpredict the plume depths by about a factor of two. All models except GASTAR, TRACE, and the area source version of DEGADIS perform fairly well with the continuous passive gas data sets. Some sensitivity studies were also carried out. It was found that three of the more widely used publicly-available dense gas models (DEGADIS, HGSYSTEM and SLAB) predicted increases in concentration of about 70% as roughness length decreased by an order of magnitude for the Desert Tortoise and Goldfish field studies. It was also found that none of the dense gas models that were considered came close to simulating the observed factor of two increase in peak concentrations as averaging time decreased from several minutes to 1 s. Because of their assumption that a concentrated dense gas core existed that was unaffected by variations in averaging time, the dense gas models predicted, at most, a 20% increase in concentrations for this variation in averaging time.

Hanna, S. R.; Chang, J. C.; Strimaitis, D. G.

78

Evaluation Field Building in South Asia: Reflections, Anecdotes, and Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines evaluation field building in South Asia and the role of international collaboration in this field building. The article explores aspects of the supply and demand of development evaluation and the political, historical, and systemic factors that bridge or block evaluation use. The article calls for and suggests elements to…

Hay, Katherine

2010-01-01

79

Summary of Field Measurement on UF6 Cylinders Using Electro-Mechanically Cooled Systems  

SciTech Connect

Measurement of the enrichment of solid state UF6 stored within large metal cylinders is a task commonly performed by plant operators and inspectors. The measurement technologies typically used range from low-resolution, high-efficiency sodium iodide detectors to high-resolution, moderate-efficiency high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. The technology used and methods deployed are dependent upon the material being measured, environmental conditions, time constraints, and measurement-precision requirements. Operators and inspectors typically use specially designed, HPGe detectors that are cooled with liquid nitrogen in situations where high-resolution measurements are required. However, the requirement for periodically refilling the system with liquid nitrogen makes remote usage cumbersome and slow. The task of cooling the detector reduces the available time for the inspector to perform other safeguards activities while on site. If the inspector has to reduce the count time for each selected cylinder to ensure that all preselected cylinders are measured during the inspection, the resulting measurement uncertainties may be increased, making it more difficult to detect and verify potential discrepancies in the operator's declarations. However, recent advances in electromechanically cooled HPGe detectors may provide the inspector with an improved verification tool by eliminating the need for liquid nitrogen. This report provides a summary of test results for field measurements performed using electromechanically cooled HPGe detectors on depleted, natural, and low-enriched uranium cylinders. The results of the study provide valuable information to inspectors and operators regarding the capabilities and limitations of electromechanically cooled systems based on true field-measurement conditions.

McGinnis, Brent R [ORNL; Smith, Steven E [ORNL; Solodov, Alexander A [ORNL; Whitaker, J Michael [ORNL; Morgan, James B [ORNL; MayerII, Richard L. [USEC, Inc.; Montgomery, J. Brent [U.S. Enrichment Corporation Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

2009-01-01

80

Effects of 60 Hz electrical fields on operant and social stress behaviors of nonhuman primates: Summary  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this program is to investigate, using the baboon as a nonhuman primate surrogate for the human, behavioral effects associated with exposure to 60-Hz electric fields. Results from this program, along with information from experiments conducted elsewhere, could be used to estimate and evaluate the likelihood of deleterious consequences resulting from exposure of humans to the electric fields associated with power transmission over high voltage lines. This program is being conducted at Southwest Research Institute as part of an international collaborative information exchange and scientific research effort involving the United State Department of Energy, Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry, and Japan's Central Research Institute of the Electric Power Industry. Since August of 1984, four major research projects were successfully completed. 48 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

Rogers, W.R.; Coelho, A.M. Jr.; Easley, S.P.; Orr, J.L.

1988-04-06

81

Field evaluations of marine oil spill bioremediation.  

PubMed Central

Bioremediation is defined as the act of adding or improving the availability of materials (e.g., nutrients, microorganisms, or oxygen) to contaminated environments to cause an acceleration of natural biodegradative processes. The results of field experiments and trials following actual spill incidents have been reviewed to evaluate the feasibility of this approach as a treatment for oil contamination in the marine environment. The ubiquity of oil-degrading microorganisms in the marine environment is well established, and research has demonstrated the capability of the indigenous microflora to degrade many components of petroleum shortly after exposure. Studies have identified numerous factors which affect the natural biodegradation rates of oil, such as the origin and concentration of oil, the availability of oil-degrading microorganisms, nutrient concentrations, oxygen levels, climatic conditions, and sediment characteristics. Bioremediation strategies based on the application of fertilizers have been shown to stimulate the biodegradation rates of oil in aerobic intertidal sediments such as sand and cobble. The ratio of oil loading to nitrogen concentration within the interstitial water has been identified to be the principal controlling factor influencing the success of this bioremediation strategy. However, the need for the seeding of natural environments with hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria has not been clearly demonstrated under natural environmental conditions. It is suggested that bioremediation should now take its place among the many techniques available for the treatment of oil spills, although there is still a clear need to set operational limits for its use. On the basis of the available evidence, we have proposed preliminary operational guidelines for bioremediation on shoreline environments. PMID:8801437

Swannell, R P; Lee, K; McDonagh, M

1996-01-01

82

Satellite power system: Concept development and evaluation program. Volume 3: Power transmission and reception. Technical summary and assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efforts in the DOE/NASA concept development and evaluation program are discussed for the solar power satellite power transmission and reception system. A technical summary is provided together with a summary of system assessment activities. System options and system definition drivers are described. Major system assessment activities were in support of the reference system definition, solid state system studies, critical technology supporting investigations, and various system and subsystem tradeoffs. These activities are described together with reference system updates and alternative concepts for each of the subsystem areas. Conclusions reached as a result of the numerous analytical and experimental evaluations are presented. Remaining issues for a possible follow-on program are identified.

Dietz, R. H.; Arndt, G. D.; Seyl, J. W.; Leopold, L.; Kelley, J. S.

1981-01-01

83

Summary report on reprocessing evaluation of selected inactive uranium mill tailings sites  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has been assisting the Department of Energy in the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Actions Program (UMTRAP) the purpose of which is to implement the provisions of Title I of Public Law 95-604, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.'' As part of this program, there was a need to evaluate the mineral concentration of the residual radioactive materials at some of the designated processing sites to determine whether mineral recovery would be practicable. Accordingly, Sandia contracted Mountain States Research and Development (MSRD), a division of Mountain States Mineral Enterprises, to drill, sample, and test tailings at 12 sites to evaluate the cost of and the revenue that could be derived from mineral recovery. UMTRAP related environmental and engineering sampling and support activities were performed in conjunction with the MSRD operations. This summary report presents a brief description of the various activities in the program and of the data and information obtained and summarizes the results. 8 refs., 9 tabs.

Not Available

1983-09-01

84

Field Evaluation of a Prototype Laser Safety Decision Support System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field evaluation of a decision support system prototype is described. The system is designed to aid the decision making of laser safety hazard assessors and laser manufacturers. The aims of the evaluation were to establish the usefulness and usability of the system, and to indicate where design changes might be needed. Three complementary methods namely observation evaluation, expert evaluation,

Anthony Clarke; Basil Soufi; Luise Vassie; John Tyrer

1995-01-01

85

A summary of 22 Years of Fish Screen Evaluation in the Yakima River Basin, Summary Report 1985-2007.  

SciTech Connect

Sixty fish screen facilities were constructed in the Yakima River basin between 1985 and 2006 as part of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council plan to mitigate the effects of federal hydroelectric projects on fish and wildlife populations. This report summarizes evaluations of some of those and other fish screen facilities conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) from 1985 through 2006. The objective of these studies was to determine if the newly designed and constructed fish screens were effective at providing juvenile salmonids safe passage past irrigation diversions. To answer that question, PNNL conducted release-and-catch studies at eight Phase I sites in the Yakima River basin. Increasing concerns about the impacts of hatchery fish releases on the wild fish population, as well as the cost and time necessary to perform these kinds of biological studies at more than 60 planned Phase II sites, required development of techniques to evaluate the effectiveness of the sites without releasing fish. The new techniques involved collecting information on screen design, operation, and effectiveness at guiding fish safely through the fish screen facility. Performance measures including water velocities and passage conditions provide a good alternative to biological studies at significantly lower cost and time. Physical techniques were used at all 10 Phase I and 28 Phase II sites evaluated by PNNL over the following 19 years. Results of these studies indicate the Phase I and II fish screen facilities are designed and capable of providing safe passage for juvenile salmonids so long as construction, maintenance, and operations meet the criteria used in the design of each site and the National Marine Fisheries Service criteria for juvenile fish screen design.

Chamness, Mickie A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

2007-12-03

86

A summary of the research program in the broad field of electronics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Summary reports of research projects covering solid state materials, semiconductors and devices, quantum electronics, plasmas, applied electromagnetics, electrical engineering systems to include control communication, computer and power systems, biomedical engineering and mathematical biosciences.

1972-01-01

87

Review of "The Comprehensive Longitudinal Evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program: Summary of Fourth Year Reports"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review is of "The Comprehensive Longitudinal Evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program: Summary of Fourth Year Reports," published by the School Choice Demonstration Project, University of Arkansas. The report makes eight claims about the effectiveness of the program, most of them positive. On the key issue of achievement of…

Belfield, Clive

2011-01-01

88

Proposal Title: Modeling stroke in the female nonhuman primate to evaluate gender differences. I. Summary and Significance.  

E-print Network

Proposal Title: Modeling stroke in the female nonhuman primate to evaluate gender differences. I. Summary and Significance. Stroke kills more women today than breast cancer and AIDS combined and unfortunately none of the available clinical treatments are very effective. While the incidence of stroke

Chapman, Michael S.

89

A Process Evaluation of Project Developmental Continuity. Interim Report III, Executive Summary: Preliminary Recommendations for the Study of Child Impact.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This executive summary presents the major findings of Interim Report III, which reports preliminary evaluation of Project Developmental Continuity (PDC). A Head Start demonstration program, PDC is aimed at promoting greater educational and developmental continuity as children make the transition from preschool to school. The report addresses three…

Granville, Arthur C.; And Others

90

Staying on Course: Three-Year Results of the National Guard Youth ChalleNGe Evaluation. Executive Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High school dropouts face an uphill battle in a labor market that increasingly rewards skills and postsecondary credentials: they are more likely than their peers to need public assistance, be arrested or incarcerated, and less likely to marry. This executive summary summarizes results from a rigorous evaluation of the National Guard Youth…

Millenky, Megan; Bloom, Dan; Muller-Ravett, Sara; Broadus, Joseph

2011-01-01

91

Evaluation of low-emission coal burner technology on industrial boilers. Project summary  

SciTech Connect

The Distributed Mixing Burner (DMB) is a low-NOx pulverized-coal burner for wall-fired boiler applications. The burner operates under reducing conditions in the primary flame zone to minimize NOx emissions while an overall oxidizing environment is maintained in the furnace to minimize slagging and corrosion. The operation is accomplished by using air ports around the burner throat to provide staged combustion conditions at each individual burner. The report gives results of a field evaluation of the DMB on a 98 kg/hr (215,000 lb/hr) steaming capacity, four-burner, front-wall-fired boiler.

Folson, B.A.; Abele, A.R.; Reese, J.L.; Sommer, T.M.

1989-01-01

92

The Comprehensive Longitudinal Evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program: Summary of Final Reports. SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation Report #36  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains a summary of the findings from the various topical reports that comprise the author's comprehensive longitudinal study. As a summary, it does not include extensive details regarding the study samples and scientific methodologies employed in those topical studies. The research revealed a pattern of school choice results that…

Wolf, Patrick J.

2012-01-01

93

Hanford 100-D Area Biostimulation Soluble Substrate Field Test: Interim Data Summary for the Substrate Injection and Process Monitoring Phases of the Field Test  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is conducting a treatability test designed to demonstrate that in situ biostimulation can be applied to help meet cleanup goals in the Hanford Site 100-D Area. The in situ biostimulation technology is intended to provide supplemental treatment upgradient of the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) barrier by reducing the concentration of the primary oxidizing species in groundwater (i.e., nitrate and dissolved oxygen) and chromate, and thereby increasing the longevity of the ISRM barrier. This report summarizes the initial results from field testing of an in situ biological treatment zone implemented through injection of a soluble substrate. The field test is divided into operational phases that include substrate injection, process monitoring, and performance monitoring. The results summarized herein are for the substrate injection and process monitoring phase encompassing the first approximately three months of field testing. Performance monitoring is ongoing at the time this report was prepared and is planned to extend over approximately 18 months. As such, this report is an interim data summary report for the field test. The treatability testing has multiple objectives focused on evaluating the performance of biostimulation as a reducing barrier for nitrate, oxygen, and chromate. The following conclusions related to these objectives are supported by the data provided in this report. Substrate was successfully distributed to a radius of about 15 m (50 ft) from the injection well. Monitoring data indicate that microbial growth initiated rapidly, and this rapid growth would limit the ability to inject substrate to significantly larger zones from a single injection well. As would be expected, the uniformity of substrate distribution was impacted by subsurface heterogeneity. However, subsequent microbial activity and ability to reduce the targeted species was observed throughout the monitored zone during the process monitoring period, and low nitrate and oxygen concentrations were maintained. Chromate concentrations in the treatment zone began to increase about two months after substrate injection, up to about 30 percent of the background concentration upgradient of the test site. The performance monitoring phase will provide additional data to interpret the performance of the biostimulation process and information for scale-up as a reducing barrier.

Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Mackley, Rob D.; Fritz, Brad G.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Johnson, Christian D.; Elmore, Rebecca P.; Brockman, Fred J.; Bilskis, Christina L.

2008-06-01

94

LoanSTAR Monitoring and Analysis Program: Presentation Summary of the State Capitol Complex Building Operation and Maintenance Field Test  

E-print Network

off AHUs during unoccupied hours (la). 2. Turn exhaust fans off during unoccupied hours. 3. Turn lighting off during unoccupied hours. 4. Turn PCs, computer screens, printers, and copying machines off during unoccupied hours. Annual O&M Potential...LoanSTAR Monitoring and Analysis Program Presentation Summary of the State Capitol Complex Building Operation and Maintenance Field Test Presented to the State Purchasing and General Services Commission By the Monitoring Analysis Task E Dr. W. D...

Turner, W. D.; Houcek, J. K.; Liu, M.; Claridge, D. E.

1993-01-01

95

FIELD EVALUATION OF A NEW LINT CLEANER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A field study comparing a modern controlled-batt, saw-type lint cleaner to a “new” USDA-developed lint cleaner that combines features of a cylinder cleaner used for seed cotton with the saw, grid bars and doffing brush from a standard lint cleaner but without the controlled-batt feature was conducte...

96

Summary of evidence-based guideline update: Evaluation and management of concussion in sports  

PubMed Central

Objective: To update the 1997 American Academy of Neurology (AAN) practice parameter regarding sports concussion, focusing on 4 questions: 1) What factors increase/decrease concussion risk? 2) What diagnostic tools identify those with concussion and those at increased risk for severe/prolonged early impairments, neurologic catastrophe, or chronic neurobehavioral impairment? 3) What clinical factors identify those at increased risk for severe/prolonged early postconcussion impairments, neurologic catastrophe, recurrent concussions, or chronic neurobehavioral impairment? 4) What interventions enhance recovery, reduce recurrent concussion risk, or diminish long-term sequelae? The complete guideline on which this summary is based is available as an online data supplement to this article. Methods: We systematically reviewed the literature from 1955 to June 2012 for pertinent evidence. We assessed evidence for quality and synthesized into conclusions using a modified Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation process. We used a modified Delphi process to develop recommendations. Results: Specific risk factors can increase or decrease concussion risk. Diagnostic tools to help identify individuals with concussion include graded symptom checklists, the Standardized Assessment of Concussion, neuropsychological assessments, and the Balance Error Scoring System. Ongoing clinical symptoms, concussion history, and younger age identify those at risk for postconcussion impairments. Risk factors for recurrent concussion include history of multiple concussions, particularly within 10 days after initial concussion. Risk factors for chronic neurobehavioral impairment include concussion exposure and APOE ?4 genotype. Data are insufficient to show that any intervention enhances recovery or diminishes long-term sequelae postconcussion. Practice recommendations are presented for preparticipation counseling, management of suspected concussion, and management of diagnosed concussion. PMID:23508730

Giza, Christopher C.; Kutcher, Jeffrey S.; Ashwal, Stephen; Barth, Jeffrey; Getchius, Thomas S.D.; Gioia, Gerard A.; Gronseth, Gary S.; Guskiewicz, Kevin; Mandel, Steven; Manley, Geoffrey; McKeag, Douglas B.; Thurman, David J.; Zafonte, Ross

2013-01-01

97

Evaluating 6 ricin field detection assays.  

PubMed

This study presents data showing the performance of 6 commercial detection assays against ricin around concentrations specified as detection limits by the producers. A 2-fold dilution series of 20?ng/ml ricin was prepared and used for testing the lateral-flow kits: BADD, Pro Strips™, ENVI, RAID DX, Ricin BioThreat Alert, and IMASS™ device. Three of the 6 tested field assays (IMASS™ device, ENVI assay, and the BioThreat Alert assay) were able to detect ricin, although differences in the measured detection limits compared to the official detection limits and false-negative results were observed. We were not able to get the BADD, Pro Strips™, and RAID assays to function in our laboratory. We conclude that when purchasing a field responder assay, there is large variation in the specificity of the assays, and a number of in-house tests must be performed to ensure functionality. PMID:24978020

Slotved, Hans-Christian; Sparding, Nadja; Tanassi, Julia Tanas; Steenhard, Nina R; Heegaard, Niels H H

2014-01-01

98

Condensing Hybrid Water Heater Monitoring Field Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the Mascot home, an abandoned property that was extensively renovated. Several efficiency upgrades were integrated into this home, of particular interest, a unique water heater (a Navien CR240-A). Field monitoring was performed to determine the in-use efficiency of the hybrid condensing water heater. The results were compared to the unit's rated efficiency. This unit is Energy Star qualified and one of the most efficient gas water heaters currently available on the market.

Maguire, J.; Earle, L.; Booten, C.; Hancock, C. E.

2011-10-01

99

Evaluation of innovative arsenic treatment technologies :the arsenic water technology partnership vendors forums summary report.  

SciTech Connect

The lowering of the drinking water standard (MCL) for arsenic from 50 {micro}g/L to 10 {micro}g/L in January 2006 could lead to significant increases in the cost of water for many rural systems throughout the United States. The Arsenic Water Technology Partnership (AWTP), a collaborative effort of Sandia National Laboratories, the Awwa Research Foundation (AwwaRF) and WERC: A Consortium for Environmental Education and Technology Development, was formed to address this problem by developing and testing novel treatment technologies that could potentially reduce the costs of arsenic treatment. As a member of the AWTP, Sandia National Laboratories evaluated cutting-edge commercial products in three annual Arsenic Treatment Technology Vendors Forums held during the annual New Mexico Environmental Health Conferences (NMEHC) in 2003, 2004 and 2005. The Forums were comprised of two parts. At the first session, open to all conference attendees, commercial developers of innovative treatment technologies gave 15-minute talks that described project histories demonstrating the effectiveness of their products. During the second part, these same technologies were evaluated and ranked in closed sessions by independent technical experts for possible use in pilot-scale field demonstrations being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories. The results of the evaluations including numerical rankings of the products, links to company websites and copies of presentations made by the representatives of the companies are posted on the project website at http://www.sandia.gov/water/arsenic.htm. This report summarizes the contents of the website by providing brief descriptions of the technologies represented at the Forums and the results of the evaluations.

Everett, Randy L.; Siegel, Malcolm Dean; McConnell, Paul E.; Kirby, Carolyn (Comforce Technical Services, Inc.)

2006-09-01

100

A Case for Field-Experimentation in Program Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the limitations of laboratory research in evaluating second language instruction, arguing that field research, which fosters a concern for what works in the classroom first, is more desirable because it provides direct feedback to instructors. (Author/CB)

Beretta, Alan

1986-01-01

101

FIELD ANALYTICAL SCREENING PROGRAM: PCP METHOD - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

This innovative technology evaluation report (ITER) presents information on the demonstration of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 7 Superfund Field Analytical Screening Program (FASP) method for determining pentachlorophenol (PCP) contamination in soil and wa...

102

FIELD ANALYTICAL SCREENING PROGRAM PCB METHOD: INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

This innovative technology evaluation report (ITER) presents information on the demonstration of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 7 Superfund Field Analytical Screening Program (FASP) method for determining polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in soil...

103

FIELD EVALUATION OF AN AUTOISOKINETIC STACK PARTICULATE SAMPLING SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The performance of a prototype autoisokinetic stack particulate sampling system, designed to maintain automatically isokinetic sampling conditions, was evaluated in field tests at stationary sources. Tests were conducted to determine the operating limits and characteristics of th...

104

Field evaluation of two commonly used slipmeters.  

PubMed

A variety of slipmeters have been used to assess the slipperiness of floor surfaces. International standards for the operation of slipmeters describe the protocol for a single measurement. These standards usually do not cover some of the critical elements in safety assessment such as methods for the selection of measurement locations and the necessary number of repeated measurements at each location. Furthermore, most of the slipmeters were evaluated in laboratory settings with new floor surfaces and artificial contaminants. Two commonly used slipmeters, the Brungraber Mark II and the English XL, were evaluated at actual worksites in this experiment. Four floor tiles in each of four different work areas in the kitchens of 18 fast food restaurants were selected for repeated measurements with these two slipmeters. The results indicated that sanding of footwear materials has a significant effect on the outcomes of friction measurements, and the tile-to-tile variations in friction in the same areas of restaurants were also mostly statistically significant. Significant local variation in friction among tiles in the same area could potentially increase the chances of slip and fall incidents. Both slipmeters used in this experiment could potentially have problems in the areas with grease, such as grill and fryer areas, since the build-up of grease during repeated strikes could alter the outcome of friction measured. PMID:12523805

Chang, Wen-Ruey; Cotnam, John P; Matz, Simon

2003-01-01

105

Field Testing of Energy-Efficient Flood-Damage-Resistant Residential Envelope Systems Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of the project was to identify materials and methods that will make the envelope of a house flood damage resistant. Flood damage resistant materials and systems are intended to be used to repair houses subsequent to flooding. This project was also intended to develop methods of restoring the envelopes of houses that have been flooded but are repairable and may be subject to future flooding. Then if the house floods again, damage will not be as extensive as in previous flood events and restoration costs and efforts will be minimized. The purpose of the first pair of field tests was to establish a baseline for typical current residential construction practice. The first test modules used materials and systems that were commonly found in residential envelopes throughout the U.S. The purpose of the second pair of field tests was to begin evaluating potential residential envelope materials and systems that were projected to be more flood-damage resistant and restorable than the conventional materials and systems tested in the first pair of tests. The purpose of testing the third slab-on-grade module was to attempt to dry flood proof the module (no floodwater within the structure). If the module could be sealed well enough to prevent water from entering, then this would be an effective method of making the interior materials and systems flood damage resistant. The third crawl space module was tested in the same manner as the previous modules and provided an opportunity to do flood tests of additional residential materials and systems. Another purpose of the project was to develop the methodology to collect representative, measured, reproducible (i.e. scientific) data on how various residential materials and systems respond to flooding conditions so that future recommendations for repairing flood damaged houses could be based on scientific data. An additional benefit of collecting this data is that it will be used in the development of a standard test procedure which could lead to the certification of building materials and systems as flood damage resistant.

Aglan, H.

2005-08-04

106

Post-occupancy evaluation and field studies of thermal comfort  

Microsoft Academic Search

The similarities and differences are explored in both the aims and the methods between post-occupancy evaluations and field studies of thermal comfort in buildings. The interpretations of the field study results are explored, especially the ways the results differ from laboratory experiments. Particular attention is drawn to the dynamic nature of the interaction between buildings and their occupants. Answers to

Fergus Nicol; Susan Roaf

2005-01-01

107

FIELD EVALUATION OF A MODIFIED VOST SAMPLING METHOD  

EPA Science Inventory

A field test was performed to evaluate a possible replacement sorbent for sampling volatile organic compounds in stationary sources using SW-846 Method 0030. n the basis of laboratory results, Anasorb 747 was selected for testing in the field using dynamic spiking procedures. his...

108

DISPOSAL OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION WASTES: EPA SHAWNEE FIELD EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes results of the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) waste disposal field evaluation project sponsored by EPA at TVA's Shawnee steam plant, Paducah, KY. This pilot-scale project, initiated in 1974 and completed in September 1980, evaluated methods and costs for dis...

109

Laboratory and Field Evaluation of Acoustic Velocity Meters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to evaluate the performance of 27 acoustic flowmeters used at Hoover, Davis, and Parker Dams on the lower Colorado River. Field surveys and laboratory testing were used to evaluate and enhance the performance of the chordal-path acoustic velocity meters. A hydraulic model and a laser doppler anemometer were used to determine velocity distributions for two nonstandard

Tracy Vermeyen

1994-01-01

110

Pressure field evaluation in microchannel junction flows through ?PIV measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental method for evaluating pressure fields in a microchannel flow was studied using ?PIV measurement in conjunction with the pressure Poisson equation. The pressure error due to the influence of numbers of measurement planes, computational grids for solving pressure Poisson equation, and an experimental error in ?PIV measurement was evaluated with respect to the exact solution of Navier–Stokes equation

N. Fujisawa; Y. Nakamura; F. Matsuura; Y. Sato

2006-01-01

111

Hydrologic evaluation of salinity control and reclamation projects in the Indus Plain, Pakistan--A summary  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report summarizes the observations and findings of a team of four specialists from the U.S. Geological Survey assigned to Pakistan under the auspices of the U.S. Agency for International Development during May to August 1972 for a hydrologic evaluation of Salinity Control and Reclamation Projects in the Indus Plain Individual members of the team undertook comprehensive studies related to climatology, surface-water hydrology, and the canal system; streamflow and sediment yields of the rivers; computer applications to hydrologic data; aquifer characteristics; hydrologic evaluation of Salinity Control and Reclamation Projects (SCARPs); tubewell performance; hydrology of shallow versus deep tubewells; well and well-screen design in the Indus Plain; evaluation of observed and anticipated trends in both private and public tubewell development; evaluation of water-quality programs, data analysis, and records, and computer coding of special water-quality data; and evaluation of water-level data, well discharge and specific-capacity tests and aquifer tests. The reclamation program, by pumping from tubewells, has been notably successful in lowering the water table, in providing supplemental water for irrigation and for leaching of salinized soils, and in improving crop production. Some changes in water quality have been observed in SCARP-I and the Mona Scheme of SCARP-II, but these have not as yet (1972) significantly affected the utility of the water for irrigation. Problems associated with reclamation include control of deterioration in performance of tubewells and their rehabilitation, local brackish or saline-water encroachment, and maintenance of a favorable salt balance in the ground-water system. Rapid and as yet (1972) unregulated growth of shallow private tubewell development in the past decade has introduced complicating factors to the reclamation planning of the early 1960's which had emphasized public tubewell development through the SCARP program. In comparing shallow (0-200 feet) with deep (200-400 feet} tubewell development, it is concluded that long-term response of the water table is the same, whether many shallow wells of small capacity or fewer deeper wells of large capacity pump the same total volume of water in the same area. Moreover, it is concluded that there is no definite advantage for either type of pumping regime with respect to water quality. Utilization of the Punjab aquifer could be greatly enhanced by recharge of high-quality water diverted from the Chenab and Jhelum Rivers to the Ravi and Sutlej Rivers by way of the link and irrigation canals during periods of surplus flow. Recharge to the aquifer could also be improved by diversion of high-quality water from the Chenab and the Jhelum to natural nalas and other surface drainageways during periods of surplus flow. Such recharge would be of much better quality than water leaching downward from irrigated fields. Continued monitoring of the hydrologic system and research on problems engendered by reclamation are essential to the viability of the SCARP program and related water-resources development in the Indus River Basin.

Mundorff, Maurice John; Carrigan, P.H., Jr.; Steele, T.D.; Randall, A.D.

1976-01-01

112

Compilation and summary of technical and economic assessments in the field of energy storage  

SciTech Connect

Information is presented which was extracted from various assessments of energy storage technologies conducted during the past four years, primarily under the auspices of the Office of Energy Systems Research and Development (formerly the Division of Energy Storage Systems). A thorough search of the relevant literature was conducted using the DOE/RECON computerized data base and other sources. Only tabular or graphic material was abstracted from the documents. The material has been organized in two ways: by the intended end use, i.e., vehicles, utility load leveling, residential load leveling, industrial, and solar, and within each end use, by technology. The summary tables attempt to compare the results of different studies of the same technology or end use. No attempt is made to summarize the conclusions of each individual study, but rather to point out areas of agreement or disagreement between them. The reader should be aware of the risks in making comparisons between studies conducted by researchers with possibly differing purposes and assumptions. Any conclusions based on the summary sections are more indicative than definitive.

DeVries, J.

1981-10-01

113

An evaluation of recent internal field models. [of earth magnetism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper reviews the current status of internal field models and evaluates several recently published models by comparing their predictions with annual means of the magnetic field measured at 140 magnetic observatories from 1973 to 1977. Three of the four models studied, viz. AWC/75, IGS/75, and Pogo 8/71, were nearly equal in their ability to predict the magnitude and direction of the current field. The fourth model, IGRF 1975, was significantly poorer in its ability to predict the current field. All models seemed to be able to extrapolate predictions quite well several years outside the data range used to construct the models.

Mead, G. D.

1979-01-01

114

A Method for Evaluating the Magnetic Field Homogeneity of a Radiofrequency Coil by Its Field Histogram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic field homogeneity of a radiofrequency coil is very important in both magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. In this report, a method is proposed for quantitatively evaluating the RF magnetic field homogeneity from its histogram, which is obtained by either experimental measurement or theoretical calculation. The experimental histogram and theoretical histogram can be compared directly to verify the theoretical findings. The RF field homogeneities of the bird-cage coil, slotted-tube resonator, cosine wire coil, and a new radial plate coil design were evaluated using this method. The results showed that the experimental histograms and the corresponding theoretical histograms are consistent. This method provides an easy and sensitive way of evaluating the magnetic field homogeneity and facilitates the design and evaluation of new RF coil configurations.

Yang, Q. X.; Li, S. H.; Smith, M. B.

115

The summary database system for the RFX reversed field pinch experiment  

SciTech Connect

The RFX Summary Database System contains the most important experimental data, and provides tools to collect and insert the data and to interactively study their dependence. It was developed to allow a fast search for shots with given characteristics for follow-up, detailed shot analysis, and study of the scaling laws of the RFX plasmas. The database uses the Rdb/VMS relational database and is accessed using Structured Query Language syntax. A program automatically inserts the most important data for each shot while the users can access the database with their own programs using high-level routines. An Interactive Data Language interface to the database allows the users to interactively insert and extract data from the database, combine, or modify the data as they want, plot and fit the extracted or computed data, and perform general multiple regression analysis.

Innocente, P. (Istituto Gas Ionizzati del CNR, Ass. Euratom-ENEA-CNR, 35020 Padova (Italy)); Klare, K. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States))

1995-01-01

116

REDUCING CHILDREN'S RISK TO SOIL LEAD: SUMMARY OF A FIELD EXPERIMENT TO REDUCE SOIL LEAD BIOAVAILABILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Reducing risks associated with Pb in soil has typically been accomplished by soil removal, covering, or dilution by mixing with uncontaminated soil. EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) and DuPont Corporation established a collaborative effort to evaluation...

117

Summary of gas bearing applications in the field of space electric power systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The testing and evaluation of different bearing systems to be used in the turbine-alternator-compressor of a closed Brayton cycle electric power system are described. A specification of each bearing is presented along with the results of the evaluation and a comparison of the merits and limitations of each bearing. The contribution of improved bearings to the power supply reliability, potential life, and ability to accept shock and vibration is examined.

Dunn, J. H.; Ream, L. W.

1972-01-01

118

Evaluation of the denitrification rate of terraced paddy fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryRice is one of the most important staple foods in the world. Lowland paddy fields are well known for functioning as denitrification areas, but few studies have been conducted of paddy fields situated on hill slopes (terraced paddy fields). These terraced paddy fields have a characteristic artificial stepped shape, and this unique shape and periodic ponding from rice production may configure unique hydrological properties that might be different from lowland paddy fields. The shape and hydrological properties may also affect transport of nutrients such as nitrogen. This study is particularly focused on the denitrification rate in terraced paddy fields. To understand the hydrological properties of terraced paddy fields, a detailed water budget including the subsurface flow components was calculated. Combining the water budget components and chemical measurements of surface and subsurface water, a nitrogen budget was calculated. The results showed that about 10% of the total nitrogen input, mainly from fertilizers, was lost, suggesting the occurrence of denitrification in the area. The average denitrification rate of the study site was estimated at about 0.53-0.67 g N m-2 year-1. Spatial variations in the measured groundwater nitrate concentration suggest that denitrification is important in both the plough layer and the sloping area. The denitrification rate in the sloping area was estimated at 0.67-0.78 g N m-2 year-1, which is slightly higher than the estimates of denitrification rate in paddy lots, i.e., 0.56-0.61 g N m-2 year-1. The result indicates the importance of sloping areas for denitrification in terraced paddy fields.

Onishi, Takeo; Nakamura, Kimihito; Horino, Haruhiko; Adachi, Toru; Mitsuno, Toru

2012-05-01

119

Research Summaries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This column features summaries of research articles from 3 recent crisis management publications. The first, "School Shootings and Counselor Leadership: Four Lessons from the Field" summarized by Kristi Fenning, was conducted as the result of the increased demand for trained crisis personnel on school campuses. Survey participants were leaders…

Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

2010-01-01

120

Meeting Summary  

Cancer.gov

MEETING SUMMARY PRESIDENT'S CANCER PANEL THE NATIONAL DIALOGUE ON CANCER RESPONDS TO VOICES OF A BROKEN SYSTEM D e c e m b e r 7 , 2 0 0 2 W a s h i n g t o n , D C OVERVIEW The President’s Cancer Panel (PCP) was chartered to monitor and evaluate

121

FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS VOLUME III. FIELD EVALUATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of field tests conducted to determine the emission characteristics of a Babcock and Wilcox Circular burner and Dual Register burner (DRB). The field tests were performed at two utility boilers, generally comparable in design and size except for the burner...

122

FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS; VOLUME III. FIELD EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of field tests conducted to determine the emission characteristics of a Babcock and Wilcox Circular burner and Dual Register burner (DRB). The field tests were performed at two utility boilers, generally comparable in design and size except for the burner...

123

Dielectric EM Field Probes for HPM Test & Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To meet test and evaluation needs for high power microwave (HPM), we describe developments on miniature all-dielectric optical E-field sensors with flat RF sensing response from ~ MHz to 12 GHz, with negligible field perturbation, good sensitivity (~2V\\/m), and >100dB dynamic range. Initial devices use a 20 mm long sensing region in an integrated optical (IO) waveguide Mach- Zehnder interferometer

Richard Forber; W. C. Wang; De-Yu Zang; Stephen Schultz; Richard Selfridge

124

Handheld standoff mine detection system (HSTAMIDS) field evaluation in Namibia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program of the US Army RDECOM CERDEC Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD), under the direction of the Office of Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations and Low-Intensity Conflict (OASD SO\\/LIC) and with participation from the International Test and Evaluation Program (ITEP) for humanitarian demining, conducted an in-country field evaluation of the

Robert C. Doheny; Sean Burke; Roger Cresci; Peter Ngan; Richard Walls; Jeff Chernoff

2006-01-01

125

Enhancing Field Instruction in Child Welfare: Evaluation of a Training Program to Promote Quality Field Instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field placements in child welfare are generally recognized as a recruitment tool for professional social workers. However, little attention has been given to improving these placements in an effort to enhance recruitment. This study evaluates a comprehensive professional development curriculum for child welfare practitioners that is designed to provide participants with the knowledge and skills necessary to provide quality field

Alan J. Dettlaff

2008-01-01

126

Summary of modeling studies of the East Olkaria geothermal field, Kenya  

SciTech Connect

A detailed three-dimensional well-by-well model of the East Olkaria geothermal field in Kenya has been developed. The model matches reasonably well the flow rate and enthalpy data from all wells, as well as the overall pressure decline in the reservoir. The model is used to predict the generating capacity of the field, well decline, enthalpy behavior, the number of make-up wells needed and the effects of injection on well performance and overall reservoir depletion. 26 refs., 10 figs.

Bodvarsson, G.S.; Pruess, K.; Stefansson, V.; Bjornsson, S.; Ojiambo, S.B.

1985-03-01

127

A summary of Brunhes paleomagnetic field variability recorded in Ocean Drilling Program cores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) has recovered many long sediment sequences from around the World that contain medium to high-resolution paleomagnetic records of Brunhes age. These records have provided an important new global view of geomagnetic field variability during ‘stable’ magnetic (dipole) polarity that could not be recovered by conventional terrestrial or deep-sea piston coring. The ODP paleomagnetic records of

Steve Lund; Joseph S. Stoner; James E. T. Channell; Gary Acton

2006-01-01

128

Space shuttle orbiter approach and landing test evaluation report. Captive-active flight test summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Captive-active tests consisted of three mated carrier aircraft/Orbiter flights with an active manned Orbiter. The objectives of this series of flights were to (1) verify the separation profile, (2) verify the integrated structure, aerodynamics, and flight control system, (3) verify Orbiter integrated system operations, and (4) refine and finalize carrier aircraft, Orbiter crew, and ground procedures in preparation for free flight tests. A summary description of the flights is presented with assessments of flight test requirements, and of the performance operations, and of significant flight anomalies is included.

1977-01-01

129

A Summary of Properties Used to Evaluate INEEL Calcine Disposal in the Yucca Mountain Repository  

SciTech Connect

To support evaluations of the direct disposal of Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory calcines to the repository at Yucca Mountain, an evaluation of the performance of the calcine in the repository environment must be performed. This type of evaluation demonstrates, through computer modeling and analysis, the impact the calcine would have on the ability of the repository to perform its function of containment of materials during the repository lifetime. This report discusses parameters that were used in the scoping evaluation conducted in FY 2003. It provides nominal values for the parameters, with explanation of the source of the values, and how the values were modified for use in repository analysis activities.

Dahl, C.A.

2003-07-14

130

FIELD EVALUATION OF A HIGH-VOLUME DICHOTOMOUS SAMPLER  

EPA Science Inventory

This study presents the field evaluation of a high-volume dichotomous sampler that collects coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5) particulate matter. The key feature of this device is the utilization of a round-nozzle virtual impactor with a 50% cutpoint at 2.5 5m to split PM10 into...

131

Field Evaluation of Low-E Storm Windows  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field evaluation comparing the performance of low emittance (low-e) storm windows with both standard clear storm windows and no storm windows was performed in a cold climate. Six homes with single-pane windows were monitored over the period of one heating season. The homes were monitored with no storm windows and with new storm windows. The storm windows installed on

S. Craig Drumheller; Christian Kohler; Stefanie Minen

2007-01-01

132

Evaluation of lightning induced magnetic fields inside reinforced concrete buildings  

E-print Network

of the structure lightning protection system (LPS) [1-4]. This paper proposes to evaluate, using numerical Author manuscript, published in "XII International Symposium on Lightning Protection (SIPDA), BELOEvaluation of lightning induced magnetic fields inside reinforced concrete buildings C. Miry, E

133

RESEARCH Open Access Design and field evaluation of geographical  

E-print Network

RESEARCH Open Access Design and field evaluation of geographical location-aware service discovery://jwcn.eurasipjournals.com/content/2012/1/29 © 2012 Noguchi et al; licensee Springer. This is an Open Access article distributed under position inside dynamic mobile environments. In this article, we propose a geographical location aware

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

134

FIELD EVALUATION OF ANHYDROUS AMMONIA MANIFOLD PERFORMANCE AND VARIABILITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Experiments conducted between August 1999 and April 2002 evaluated anhydrous ammonia (NH3) manifold distribution during field application at 84 kg N/ha and 168 kg N/ha application rates. Conventional, Vertical-Dam, Rotaflow [tm], Equa-flow [tm], FD-1200 prototype, and a new prototype manifold named ...

135

Content Evaluation of an Environmental Science Field Trip  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two important content areas associated with informal environmental science programs are ecology\\/natural science topics and awareness of environmental problems\\/issues. This study attempted to evaluate which of these content areas may provide a more optimum learning experience. A quantitative analysis was conducted on two field trips to a science center that represented an ecological oriented program and an environmental issue presentation.

Doug Knapp; Elizabeth Barrie

2001-01-01

136

An evaluation of CARS phase matching techniques for field application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The different phase matching geometries for coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) temperature measurements have been evaluated for field application. A comparison of the interaction length and relative signal strength of various phase matching geometries was made with CO2 CARS measurements in a cell. Collinear CARS and folded BOXCARS were selected for further study. The CARS temperature measurement with those two

J. Singh; F. Yueh

1991-01-01

137

ADVANCING THE FIELD EVALUATIONS AND APPLICATIONS OF LANDFILL BIOREACTORS  

EPA Science Inventory

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is undertaking a long-term program to conduct field evaluations of landfill bioreactors. The near-term effort is focused on the development of appropriate monitoring strategies to ensure adequate control of the landfill bioreactors an...

138

EVALUATING THE SUCCESS OF PHOSPHORUS MANAGEMENT FROM FIELD TO WATERSHED  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Studies have demonstrated some phosphorus (P) loss reduction following implementation of remedial strategies at field scales. However, there has been little coordinated evaluation of Best Management Practices (BMPs) on a watershed scale to show where, when, and which work most effectively. Thus, i...

139

Field evaluation of ultrasonic method for assessing well seals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field tests were conducted in three boreholes using an ultrasonic testing method to evaluate its ability to assess contact between the seal and riser (casing). The ultrasonic method is used inside the riser without disturbing the riser, seal, or formation soil. The risers were 50-mm-diameter (2-inch) Schedule 40 steel pipes that are used for ground water monitoring wells. Different types

Nazli Yesiller; Craig H. Benson; Tuncer B. Edil

1997-01-01

140

A summary of modeling studies of the Nesjavellir Geothermal Field, Iceland  

SciTech Connect

The Nesjavellir geothermal field in Iceland is being developed to provide the capital city of Reykjavik and surrounding areas with hot water for space heating. In the last few years, many wells have been drilled at the site and various geothermal studies have been conducted. The main upflow to the system is underneath the nearby Hengill volcano, and the natural recharge rate and enthalpy are estimated to be 65 kg/s and 1850 kJ/kg, respectively. An extensive vapor zone is believed to be present in the upflow region. Permeabilities and porosities of the system range between 1 and 50 md and 1 and 10 percent, respectively. In this paper, the characteristics of the Nesjavellir field are described and a three-dimensional numerical model of the resource is discussed.

Bodvarsson, G.S.; Bjornsson, S.; Gunnarsson, A.; Gunnlaugsson, E.; Sigurdsson, O.; Stefansson, V.; Steingrimsson, B.

1988-01-01

141

Summary of extremely low frequency (ELF) field strength measurements made in Connecticut during 1975  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both 42- and 76-Hz, horizontal, magnetic-field-strength measurements (amplitude and relative phase) were made in Connecticut during 1975. These measurements were taken to further investigate sunrise, daytime, sunset, nighttime, and seasonal extremely low frequency (ELF) propagation variations. The transmission source for these 1.6-Mm range measurements was the US Navy ELF Wisconsin Test Facility. It was determined from these measurements that (1)

Peter R. Bannister

1979-01-01

142

Lead-Based Paint Testing Technologies: Summary of an EPA\\/HUD Field Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development sponsored a field study of portable technologies for testing for lead in paint in three U.S. cities in 1993. Six chemical test kits and six X-ray fluorescence instruments, which represented the two main types of portable technologies available for residential lead testing at that time, were

R. L. Schmehl; D. C. Cox; F. G. Dewalt; M. M. Haugen; R. A. Koyak; J. G. Schwemberger Jr; J. V. Scalera

1999-01-01

143

Performance evaluation of infrared imaging system in field test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared imaging system has been applied widely in both military and civilian fields. Since the infrared imager has various types and different parameters, for system manufacturers and customers, there is great demand for evaluating the performance of IR imaging systems with a standard tool or platform. Since the first generation IR imager was developed, the standard method to assess the performance has been the MRTD or related improved methods which are not perfect adaptable for current linear scanning imager or 2D staring imager based on FPA detector. For this problem, this paper describes an evaluation method based on the triangular orientation discrimination metric which is considered as the effective and emerging method to evaluate the synthesis performance of EO system. To realize the evaluation in field test, an experiment instrument is developed. And considering the importance of operational environment, the field test is carried in practical atmospheric environment. The test imagers include panoramic imaging system and staring imaging systems with different optics and detectors parameters (both cooled and uncooled). After showing the instrument and experiment setup, the experiment results are shown. The target range performance is analyzed and discussed. In data analysis part, the article gives the range prediction values obtained from TOD method, MRTD method and practical experiment, and shows the analysis and results discussion. The experimental results prove the effectiveness of this evaluation tool, and it can be taken as a platform to give the uniform performance prediction reference.

Wang, Chensheng; Guo, Xiaodong; Ren, Tingting; Zhang, Zhi-jie

2014-11-01

144

Evaluation of the Norwegian Manifesto against Bullying, 2002-2004. A Summary of the Final Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper summarises the main results of the research-based evaluation of the Norwegian Manifesto against bullying. Besides schools, the evaluation was to include bullying also in kindergartens and publicly organised leisure activities. Furthermore, the work in Manifesto was to be covered on national, regional and local levels. The goal setting…

Tikkanen, Tarja I.

2005-01-01

145

Field Artillery Ammunition Processing System (FAAPS) concept evaluation study  

SciTech Connect

The Field Artillery Ammunition Processing System (FAAPS) is an initiative to introduce a palletized load system (PLS) that is transportable with an automated ammunition processing and storage system for use on the battlefield. System proponents have targeted a 20% increase in the ammunition processing rate over the current operation while simultaneously reducing the total number of assigned field artillery battalion personnel by 30. The overall objective of the FAAPS Project is the development and demonstration of an improved process to accomplish these goals. The initial phase of the FAAPS Project and the subject of this study is the FAAPS concept evaluation. The concept evaluation consists of (1) identifying assumptions and requirements, (2) documenting the process flow, (3) identifying and evaluating technologies available to accomplish the necessary ammunition processing and storage operations, and (4) presenting alternative concepts with associated costs, processing rates, and manpower requirements for accomplishing the operation. This study provides insight into the achievability of the desired objectives.

Kring, C.T.; Babcock, S.M.; Watkin, D.C.; Oliver, R.P.

1992-06-01

146

Evaluation of biological treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater with pac addition. Project summary  

SciTech Connect

The purposes of the study were to: (1) attempt to find the cause of the formation of the viscous floating mass of mixed liquor solids (VFMLS), (2) generate additional research data for total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal from pharmaceutical wastewater using the PACT process, (3) evaluate the efficiency of PACT in removing specific organics, (4) evaluate the effectiveness of PACT in reducing effluent aquatic toxicity, and (5) evaluate the use of a selector to improve the settling characteristics of the mixed liquor. One control unit, two PACT units, and a unit equipped with a series of selector basins were operated.

Gardner, D.A.; Osantowski, R.A.

1988-07-01

147

Urban Dispersion Program MSG05 Field Study: Summary of Tracer and Meteorological Measurements  

SciTech Connect

The Urban Dispersion Program is a multi-year project, funded by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, to better understand the flow and dispersion of airborne contaminants through and around the deep street canyons of New York City. The first tracer and meteorological field study was a limited study conducted during March 2005 near the Madison Square Garden in midtown Manhattan. Six safe, inert, gaseous perfluorocarbon tracers were released simultaneously at five street-level locations during two experimental days. In addition to collecting tracer data, meteorological data were also collected. Brookhaven National Laboratory conducted the bulk of the tracer and meteorological field efforts with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Stevens Institute of Technology assisting by measuring the vertical profile of winds. The Environmental Protection Agency worked with Brookhaven National Laboratory in accomplishing the personal exposure component of the study. This report presents some results from this analysis. In general, different release locations showed vastly different plume footprints for tracer materials, and the situation was made very complex with upwind and/or crosswind transport of tracer near street-level for the different release locations. Overall wind speeds and directions upwind and over the city were generally constant throughout each of the two experimental periods.

Allwine, K Jerry; Flaherty, Julia E.

2006-08-09

148

Vibroacoustic Response of Residential Housing due to Sonic Boom Exposure: A Summary of two Field Tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two experiments have been performed to measure the vibroacoustic response of houses exposed to sonic booms. In 2006, an old home in the base housing area of Edwards Air Force Base, built around 1960 and demolished in 2007, was instrumented with 288 transducers. During a 2007 follow-on test, a newer home in the base housing area, built in 1997, was instrumented with 112 transducers. For each experiment, accelerometers were placed on walls, windows and ceilings in bedrooms of the house to measure the vibration response of the structure. Microphones were placed outside and inside the house to measure the excitation field and resulting interior sound field. The vibroacoustic response of each house was measured for sonic boom amplitudes spanning from 2.4 to 96 Pa (0.05 to 2 lbf/sq ft). The boom amplitudes were systematically varied using a unique dive maneuver of an F/A-18 airplane. In total, the database for both houses contains vibroacoustic response data for 154 sonic booms. In addition, several tests were performed with mechanical shaker excitation of the structure to characterize the forced response of the houses. The purpose of this paper is to summarize all the data from these experiments that are available to the research community, and to compare and contrast the vibroacoustic behavior of these two dissimilar houses.

Klos, Jacob; Buehrle, Ralph; Sullivan, Brenda; Gavin, Joseph; Salamone, Joseph; Haering, Edward A., jr.; Miller, Denise M.

2008-01-01

149

TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: TORONTO HARBOUR COMMISSIONERS (THC) SOIL RECYCLE TREATMENT TRAIN. Project Summary  

EPA Science Inventory

A demonstration of the Toronto Harbour Commissioners' (THC) Soil Recycle Treatment Train was performed under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program at a pilot plant facility in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The Soil Recycle Treatment Train, which consists of s...

150

Summary of sensor evaluation for the Fusion ELectromagnetic Induction eXperiment (FELIX)  

SciTech Connect

As part of the First Wall/Blanket/Shield Engineering Test Program, a test bed called FELIX (Fusion ELectromagnetic Induction eXperiment) is now under construction at ANL. Its purpose will be to test, evaluate, and develop computer codes for the prediction of electromagnetically induced phenomenon in a magnetic environment modeling that of a fusion reaction. Crucial to this process is the sensing and recording of the various induced effects. Sensor evaluation for FELIX has reached the point where most sensor types have been evaluated and preliminary decisions are being made as to type and quantity for the initial FELIX experiments. These early experiments, the first, flat plate experiment in particular, will be aimed at testing the sensors as well as the pertinent theories involved. The reason for these evaluations, decisions, and proof tests is the harsh electrical and magnetic environment that FELIX presents.

Knott, M.J.

1982-08-01

151

INNOVATIVE METHODS FOR EMISSION-INVENTORY DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION: WORKSHOP SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

Emission inventories are an essential tool for evaluating, managing, and regulating air pollution. Refinements and innovations in instruments that measure air pollutants, models that calculate emissions as well as techniques for data management and uncertainty assessment are nee...

152

Field evaluation of personal sampling methods for multiple bioaerosols.  

PubMed

Ambient bioaerosols are ubiquitous in the daily environment and can affect health in various ways. However, few studies have been conducted to comprehensively evaluate personal bioaerosol exposure in occupational and indoor environments because of the complex composition of bioaerosols and the lack of standardized sampling/analysis methods. We conducted a study to determine the most efficient collection/analysis method for the personal exposure assessment of multiple bioaerosols. The sampling efficiencies of three filters and four samplers were compared. According to our results, polycarbonate (PC) filters had the highest relative efficiency, particularly for bacteria. Side-by-side sampling was conducted to evaluate the three filter samplers (with PC filters) and the NIOSH Personal Bioaerosol Cyclone Sampler. According to the results, the Button Aerosol Sampler and the IOM Inhalable Dust Sampler had the highest relative efficiencies for fungi and bacteria, followed by the NIOSH sampler. Personal sampling was performed in a pig farm to assess occupational bioaerosol exposure and to evaluate the sampling/analysis methods. The Button and IOM samplers yielded a similar performance for personal bioaerosol sampling at the pig farm. However, the Button sampler is more likely to be clogged at high airborne dust concentrations because of its higher flow rate (4 L/min). Therefore, the IOM sampler is a more appropriate choice for performing personal sampling in environments with high dust levels. In summary, the Button and IOM samplers with PC filters are efficient sampling/analysis methods for the personal exposure assessment of multiple bioaerosols. PMID:25799419

Wang, Chi-Hsun; Chen, Bean T; Han, Bor-Cheng; Liu, Andrew Chi-Yeu; Hung, Po-Chen; Chen, Chih-Yong; Chao, Hsing Jasmine

2015-01-01

153

Field Evaluation of Personal Sampling Methods for Multiple Bioaerosols  

PubMed Central

Ambient bioaerosols are ubiquitous in the daily environment and can affect health in various ways. However, few studies have been conducted to comprehensively evaluate personal bioaerosol exposure in occupational and indoor environments because of the complex composition of bioaerosols and the lack of standardized sampling/analysis methods. We conducted a study to determine the most efficient collection/analysis method for the personal exposure assessment of multiple bioaerosols. The sampling efficiencies of three filters and four samplers were compared. According to our results, polycarbonate (PC) filters had the highest relative efficiency, particularly for bacteria. Side-by-side sampling was conducted to evaluate the three filter samplers (with PC filters) and the NIOSH Personal Bioaerosol Cyclone Sampler. According to the results, the Button Aerosol Sampler and the IOM Inhalable Dust Sampler had the highest relative efficiencies for fungi and bacteria, followed by the NIOSH sampler. Personal sampling was performed in a pig farm to assess occupational bioaerosol exposure and to evaluate the sampling/analysis methods. The Button and IOM samplers yielded a similar performance for personal bioaerosol sampling at the pig farm. However, the Button sampler is more likely to be clogged at high airborne dust concentrations because of its higher flow rate (4 L/min). Therefore, the IOM sampler is a more appropriate choice for performing personal sampling in environments with high dust levels. In summary, the Button and IOM samplers with PC filters are efficient sampling/analysis methods for the personal exposure assessment of multiple bioaerosols. PMID:25799419

Wang, Chi-Hsun; Chen, Bean T.; Han, Bor-Cheng; Liu, Andrew Chi-Yeu; Hung, Po-Chen; Chen, Chih-Yong; Chao, Hsing Jasmine

2015-01-01

154

Integration and Evaluation of Nanophotonic Devices Using Optical Near Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this chapter, we review the optical near-field phenomena and their applications to realize the nanophotonic device. To realize the nanometer-scale controllability in size and position, we demonstrate the feasibility of nanometer-scale chemical vapor deposition using optical near-field techniques (see Sect. 15.2). In which, the probe-less fabrication method for mass production is also demonstrated. To confirm the promising optical properties of individual ZnO for realizing nanophotonic devices, we performed the near-field evaluation of the ZnO quantum structure (see Sect. 15.3). To drive the nanophotonic device with external conventional diffraction-limited photonic device, the far-/near-field conversion device is required. Section 15.4 reviews nanometer-scale waveguide to be used as such a conversion device of the nanophotonic ICs.

Yatsui, Takashi; Nomura, Wataru; Yi, Gyu-Chul; Ohtsu, Motoichi

155

Diagnosis, evaluation, and management of acute kidney injury: a KDIGO summary (Part 1)  

PubMed Central

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and serious problem affecting millions and causing death and disability for many. In 2012, Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes completed the first ever, international, multidisciplinary, clinical practice guideline for AKI. The guideline is based on evidence review and appraisal, and covers AKI definition, risk assessment, evaluation, prevention, and treatment. In this review we summarize key aspects of the guideline including definition and staging of AKI, as well as evaluation and nondialytic management. Contrast-induced AKI and management of renal replacement therapy will be addressed in a separate review. Treatment recommendations are based on systematic reviews of relevant trials. Appraisal of the quality of the evidence and the strength of recommendations followed the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Limitations of the evidence are discussed and a detailed rationale for each recommendation is provided. PMID:23394211

2013-01-01

156

The GH-IGF-I response to typical field sports practices in adolescent athletes: a summary.  

PubMed

The present study compares previous reports on the effect of "real-life" typical field individual (i.e., cross-country running and wrestling--representing combat versus noncombat sports) and team sports (i.e., volleyball and water polo-representing water and land team sports) training on GH and IGF-1, the main growth factors of the GH?IGF axis, in male and female late pubertal athletes. Cross-country running practice and volleyball practice in both males and females were associated with significant increases of circulating GH levels, while none of the practices led to a significant increase in IGF-I levels. The magnitude (percent change) of the GH response to the different practices was determined mainly by preexercise GH levels. There was no difference in the training-associated GH response between individual and team sports practices. The GH response to the different typical practices was not influenced by the practice-associated lactate change. Further studies are needed to better understand the effect of real-life typical training in prepubertal and adolescent athletes and their role in exercise adaptations. PMID:25372377

Eliakim, Alon; Cooper, Dan M; Nemet, Dan

2014-11-01

157

Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program 1992--1993 report and summary of BSEP data since 1982  

SciTech Connect

This report is the last one that is currently scheduled in the sequence of reports of new data, and therefore, also includes summary comments referencing important data obtained by BSEP since 1983. These BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the (WIPP) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. A project concern is that enough brine might be present after sealing and closure to generate large quantities of hydrogen gas by corroding the metal in the waste drums and waste inventory. This report describes progress made during the calendar years 1992 and 1993 and focuses on four major areas: (1) monitoring of brine inflow, e.g., measuring brines recovered from holes drilled downward from the underground drifts (downholes), upward from the underground drifts (upholes), and from subhorizontal holes from the underground drifts; (2) observations of weeps in the Air Intake Shaft (AIS); (3) further characterization of brine geochemistry; and (4) additional characterization of the hydrologic conditions in the fractured zone beneath the excavations.

Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J. [I. T. Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States); Belski, D.S. [USDOE Albuquerque Operations Office, Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Project Office

1995-04-01

158

Evaluation of the New York City Beacons. Summary of Phase I Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents findings from Phase 1 of an evaluation of the New York City Beacons initiative, a model of school-community-family partnerships initiated in 1991. Beacons are community centers located in public schools, offering a range of activities and services to participants of all ages, before and after school, in the evenings, and on…

Warren, Constancia

159

EVALUATION OF A PROCESS TO CONVERT BIOMASS TO METHANOL FUEL - PROJECT SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a review of the design of a reactor capable of gasifying approximately 50 lb/hr of biomass for a pilot-scale facility to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate the Hynol Process, a high-temperature, high-pressure method for converting biomass into methanol...

160

Evaluation of New Texas Charter Schools: Second Interim Report (2007-10). Executive Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Texas Education Agency (TEA) was awarded Charter School Program (CSP) funding in 2007, and specified that the required evaluation would focus on the experiences and outcomes of new charter schools authorized to begin serving students across 4 school years: 2006-07, 2007-08, 2008-09, and 2009-10. TEA categorizes charter schools in terms of…

Maloney, Catherine; Sheehan, Daniel; Rainey, Katharine

2011-01-01

161

Making the Transition: Interim Results of the National Guard Youth ChalleNGe Evaluation. [Executive Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young people who drop out of high school face long odds of success in a labor market that increasingly values education and skills. This report presents interim results from a rigorous, ongoing evaluation of the National Guard Youth ChalleNGe Program, which aims to "reclaim the lives of at-risk youth" who have dropped out of high school. ChalleNGe…

Millenky, Megan; Bloom, Dan; Dillon, Colleen

2010-01-01

162

Ed School Essentials: Evaluating the Fundamentals of Teacher Training Programs in Texas. Executive Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this report, the National Council on Teacher Quality evaluates key features of 67 undergraduate institutions elementary, secondary and special education teacher preparation in the state of Texas. The authors apply 25 standards that bear directly on the capacity of those programs to attract talented individuals and prepare them to teach…

Greenberg, Julie; Walsh, Kate

2010-01-01

163

Conceptual design and evaluation of selected Space Station concepts: Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a space station conceptual design and evaluation study are summarized. The study represented a temporary focusing. Three space station configurations are characterized for user and crew requirements, operation and safety accommodations, engineering considerations including assembly and growth, structural dynamics, communications, thermal control and power systems, as well as system cost.

1983-01-01

164

Evaluation of Child Care Subsidy Strategies: Massachusetts Family Child Care Study. Executive Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents findings from the Massachusetts Family Child Care study, a two-year evaluation designed to examine the impacts on providers and children of an early childhood education program aimed at improving the development and learning opportunities in the care settings and, as a consequence, the outcomes for children in care. The early…

Collins, Ann; Goodson, Barbara

2010-01-01

165

National Evaluation of the Comprehensive Technical Assistance Centers. Final Report. Executive Summary. NCEE 2011-4032  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This final report presents findings from a multi-year evaluation of the Comprehensive Technical Assistance Centers, a federally funded program that provides technical assistance to states in connection with the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, as reauthorized by the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001. With the redesign of the Center…

Turnbull, Brenda J.; White, Richard N.; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Riley, Derek L.; Pistorino, Carol

2011-01-01

166

The 2001 World Trade Center Disaster - Summary and Evaluation of Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To collect and analyze data from deaths and injuries, and from evaluation of the responses by medical services and by fire, rescue, and police services 1 year after the terror attack on World Trade Center. Methodology: Epidemiologic data were collected from all involved agencies and analyzed. The authors per- sonal experience from working at the scene during the event

JOHN P. PRYOR

2003-01-01

167

Statewide Evaluation of Year-Round and Extended-Day Schools. Executive Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes the statewide evaluation of Utah's year-round and extended-day schools, two scheduling models developed to expand the capacity of existing school facilities to serve the needs of a burgeoning student population in some Utah school districts. When asked about their family's experience with year-round education, a substantial…

Utah State Board of Education, Salt Lake City.

168

Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation; 1998-2002 Summary Report.  

SciTech Connect

The Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project (WWNPME) was funded by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as directed by section 4(h) of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 (P. L. 96-501). This project is in accordance with and pursuant to measures 4.2A, 4.3C.1, 7.1A.2, 7.1C.3, 7.1C.4 and 7.1D.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Work was conducted by the Fisheries Program of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) under the Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project (UBNPME). Chapter One provides an overview of the entire report and shows how the objectives of each statement of work from 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2002 contract years are organized and reported. This chapter also provides background information relevant to the aquatic resources of the Umatilla River Basin. (Figure 1-1, Tables 1-1 and 1-2). Data and reports from this and previous efforts are available on the CTUIR website http://www.umatilla.nsn.us. This project was one of several subprojects of the Umatilla River Basin Fisheries Restoration Master Plan (CTUIR 1984, ODFW 1986) orchestrated to rehabilitate salmon and steelhead runs in the Umatilla River Basin. Subprojects in additions to this project include: Watershed Enhancement and Rehabilitation; Hatchery Construction and Operation; Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation; Satellite Facility Construction and Operations for Juvenile Acclimation and Adult Holding and Spawning; Fish Passage Construction and Operation; Juvenile and Adult Passage Facility Evaluations; Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin, and Flow Augmentation to Increase Stream Flows below Irrigation Diversions.

Contor, Craig R. (Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Department of Natural Resources, Pendleton, OR)

2004-07-01

169

Field Evaluations of a Damped MEMS Shock Sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from pyrotechnic, penetration and metal-to- metal impact field evaluations are presented which prove the performance of a new piezoresistive (PR) shock accelerometer. The micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) sensor incorporates sufficient squeeze-film damping to reduce resonant amplification during violent events by orders of ma gnitude over conventional undamped PR MEMS designs. Such damping enhances survivability and reduces the need for filtration,

Robert D. Sill

170

Field evaluation of insect-resistant transgenic Populus nigra trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of insect-resistant transgenic poplar trees (Populusnigra) expressing a Cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Kurstaki HD-1 against poplar defoliators was evaluated in the field at the Manas Forest Station in Xinjiang Uygur\\u000a Autonomous Region during1994–1997. The results showed that the average percentage of highly damaged leaves on the transgenic\\u000a trees was 10% while that on the control trees

J. J. Hu; Y. C. Tian; Y. F. Han; L. Li; B. E. Zhang

2001-01-01

171

The ``inverse problem`` to the evaluation of magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

In the design of superconducting magnet elements, such as may be required to guide and focus ions in a particle accelerator, one frequently premises some particular current distribution and then proceeds to compute the consequent magnetic field through use of the laws of Biot and Savart or of Ampere. When working in this manner one of course may need to revise frequently the postulated current distribution before arriving at a resulting magnetic field of acceptable field quality. It therefore is of interest to consider an alternative (``inverse``) procedure in which one specifies a desired character for the field required in the region interior to the winding and undertakes then to evaluate the current distribution on the specified winding surface that would provide this desired field. We may note that in undertaking such an inverse procedure we would wish, on practical grounds, to avoid the use of any ``double-layer`` distributions of current on the winding surface or interface but would not demand that no fields be generated in the exterior region, so that in this respect the goal would differ in detail from that discussed by other authors, in analogy to the distribution sought in electrostatics by the so-caged Green`s equivalent stratum.

Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.; Brady, V.

1992-12-04

172

The inverse problem'' to the evaluation of magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

In the design of superconducting magnet elements, such as may be required to guide and focus ions in a particle accelerator, one frequently premises some particular current distribution and then proceeds to compute the consequent magnetic field through use of the laws of Biot and Savart or of Ampere. When working in this manner one of course may need to revise frequently the postulated current distribution before arriving at a resulting magnetic field of acceptable field quality. It therefore is of interest to consider an alternative ( inverse'') procedure in which one specifies a desired character for the field required in the region interior to the winding and undertakes then to evaluate the current distribution on the specified winding surface that would provide this desired field. We may note that in undertaking such an inverse procedure we would wish, on practical grounds, to avoid the use of any double-layer'' distributions of current on the winding surface or interface but would not demand that no fields be generated in the exterior region, so that in this respect the goal would differ in detail from that discussed by other authors, in analogy to the distribution sought in electrostatics by the so-caged Green's equivalent stratum.

Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.; Brady, V.

1992-12-04

173

Comprehensive Evaluation of the Title VII, Part B, of the Rehabilitation Act as Amended. Centers for Independent Living Program. Executive Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This executive summary briefly presents the results of an evaluation of the Centers for Independent Living Program, required by the 1984 amendments to the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Part B. The evaluation, which assessed the impact of the centers in increasing opportunities for disabled individuals, was based upon data acquired through: mail…

1986

174

Position Summary Review Form A request for a job evaluation may be made when a job changes significantly in scope or responsibility. This form has been designed to  

E-print Network

Position Summary Review Form A request for a job evaluation may be made when a job changes a request for an evaluation of the salary/grade level for a position, as well as to provide detailed information about the attributes related to a new position, such as minimum requirements, skills

Hutcheon, James M.

175

Meta-analytic Evaluation of a Virtual Field Trip to Connect Middle School Students with University Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although virtual field trips are becoming popular, there are few empirical studies of their impacts on student outcomes. This study reports on a meta-analytic evaluation of the impact of a virtual field trip on student perceptions of scientists. Specifically, the study examined the summary effect of zipTrips broadcasts on evaluation participants' perceptions of scientists, as well as the moderating effect of program type on program impact. The results showed statistically significant effect of each broadcast, as well as statistically significant summary (combined) effect of zipTrips on evaluation participants' perceptions of scientists. Results of the moderation analysis showed that the effect was greater for the students that participated in the evaluation of the 8th grade broadcasts, providing additional insight into the role of program variation in predicting differential program impact. This study illustrates how meta-analysis, a methodology that should be of interest to STEM education researchers and evaluation practitioners, can be used to summarize the effects of multiple offerings of the same program. Other implications for STEM educators are discussed.

Adedokun, Omolola A.; Liu, Jia; Parker, Loran Carleton; Burgess, Wilella

2015-02-01

176

Evaluation of the EDGE detector in small-field dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study evaluates a new diode detector design for small-field dosimetry. An accurate detector that has a small volume are necessary to compile data for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Two semiconductor diode detectors and one ionization chamber were used to measure the profiles, percent depth doses (PDDs), and relative output factors (OFs) of a Novalis 6-MV SRS beam. Profiles and PDD data were collected using 5.0-, 10.0-, 15.0-, 20.0-, 30.0-, and 50.0-mm micro multileaf collimators (mMLCs) at small fields and a 98.0 × 98.0-mm2 reference field. OFs were collected for each of the mMLCs. The EDGE diode detector, the diode detector, and the ion chamber (0.007 cc) were used in the study. Detector measurements were performed using the 3D water phantom with a source-to-surface distance of 100-cm at a depth of 1.5-cm. The measurements were analyzed using the IBA OmniPro Accept 7th version software. In addition, all data were compared to Monte Carlo simulations. The semiconductor diodes had similar OFs and PDDs for each of the mMLCs used. The Dmax values of the EDGE diode detector, measured from the PDD, ranged from 8.5 to 14.0-mm with an average of 12.4-mm. The field widths of the EDGE diode detector were found to have similar values. The performance of the EDGE diode detector was comparable for all small-field measurements. Additionally, no evidence of an energy response was observed for the EDGE detectors for a field of 98 × 98-mm2. This is particularly important when measuring the relative OF for small fields or gathering larger-sized field data for the commissioning of a treatment planning system.

Shin, Hun-Joo; Kim, Myong-Ho; Choi, Ihl-Bohng; Kang, Young-nam; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Chio, Byung Ock; Jang, Hong Seok; Jung, Ji-Young; Son, Seok Hyun; Kay, Chul Seung

2013-07-01

177

Summary and evaluation of hydraulic property data available for Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska  

SciTech Connect

Most of the contaminant source areas at Eielson Air Force Base are located above an unconfined alluvial aquifer with relatively high hydraulic conductivity. Hydraulic tests that have been conducted on wells at the base were evaluated, and in some cases reanalyzed, to determine hydraulic conductivity and specific yield for the aquifer. The reviewed tests included 2 multiple-well pumping tests and 30 slug tests. One slug test was conducted on a well in the bedrock aquifer at Site 38. All the other tests were conducted on the alluvial aquifer.

Spane, F.A. Jr.; Thorne, P.D.

1994-07-01

178

Environmental effects of dredging. Evaluation of sediment genotoxicity. Workshop summary and conclusions. Technical notes  

SciTech Connect

This Technical Note summarizes the proceedings of a workshop that was held March 6-8,1990, at the Environmental Laboratory, US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. The purpose of the workshop was to gain guidance from recognized authorities for the development of sediment bioassays of genotoxicity, that is, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, immunotoxicity, teratogenicity, and histopathologic potential. The conclusions of the workshop are being used to identify existing genotoxicity bioassays that show promise for application in evaluating sediments, to recommend modifications for testing sediments, and to help direct subsequent research and development of bioassays of genotoxicity by the US Army Corps of Engineers.

NONE

1990-10-01

179

Evaluation of laminar flow control systems for subsonic commercial transport aircraft: Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation was made of laminar flow control (LFC) system concepts for subsonic commercial transport aircraft. Configuration design studies, performance analyses, fabrication development, structural testing, wind tunnel testing, and contamination-avoidance techniques were included. As a result of trade studies, a configuration with LFC on the upper wing surface only, utilizing an electron beam-perforated suction surface, and employing a retractable high-lift shield for contamination avoidance, was selected as the most practical LFC system. The LFC aircraft was then compared with an advanced turbulent aircraft designed for the same mission. This comparison indicated significant fuel savings.

Pearce, W. E.

1982-01-01

180

The 2001 World Trade Center Disaster: Summary and Evaluation of Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives:\\u000a   To collect and analyze data from deaths and injuries, and from evaluation of the responses by medical services and by fire,\\u000a rescue, and police services 1 year after the terror attack on World Trade Center.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methodology:\\u000a   Epidemiologic data were collected from all involved agencies and analyzed. The authors personal experience from working at\\u000a the scene during the event

John P. Pryor

2009-01-01

181

Summary of results from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s vehicle evaluation data collection efforts  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted a data collection project for light-duty, alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) for about 4 years. The project has collected data on 10 vehicle models (from the original equipment manufacturers) spanning model years 1991 through 1995. Emissions data have also been collected from a number of vehicles converted to natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Most of the vehicles involved in the data collection and evaluation are part of the General Services Administration`s fleet of AFVs. This evaluation effort addressed the performance and reliability, fuel economy, and emissions of light- duty AFVs, with comparisons to similar gasoline vehicles when possible. Driver-reported complaints and unscheduled vehicle repairs were used to assess the performance and reliability of the AFVs compared to the comparable gasoline vehicles. Two sources of fuel economy were available, one from testing of vehicles on a chassis dynamometer, and the other from records of in-service fuel use. This report includes results from emissions testing completed on 169 AFVs and 161 gasoline control vehicles.

Whalen, P.; Kelly, K.; Motta, R.; Broderick, J.

1996-05-01

182

Laboratory or field tests for evaluating firefighters' work capacity?  

PubMed

Muscle strength is important for firefighters work capacity. Laboratory tests used for measurements of muscle strength, however, are complicated, expensive and time consuming. The aims of the present study were to investigate correlations between physical capacity within commonly occurring and physically demanding firefighting work tasks and both laboratory and field tests in full time (N?=?8) and part-time (N?=?10) male firefighters and civilian men (N?=?8) and women (N?=?12), and also to give recommendations as to which field tests might be useful for evaluating firefighters' physical work capacity. Laboratory tests of isokinetic maximal (IM) and endurance (IE) muscle power and dynamic balance, field tests including maximal and endurance muscle performance, and simulated firefighting work tasks were performed. Correlations with work capacity were analyzed with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs). The highest significant (p<0.01) correlations with laboratory and field tests were for Cutting: IE trunk extension (rs?=?0.72) and maximal hand grip strength (rs?=?0.67), for Stairs: IE shoulder flexion (rs?=?-0.81) and barbell shoulder press (rs?=?-0.77), for Pulling: IE shoulder extension (rs?=?-0.82) and bench press (rs?=?-0.85), for Demolition: IE knee extension (rs?=?0.75) and bench press (rs?=?0.83), for Rescue: IE shoulder flexion (rs?=?-0.83) and bench press (rs?=?-0.82), and for the Terrain work task: IE trunk flexion (rs?=?-0.58) and upright barbell row (rs?=?-0.70). In conclusion, field tests may be used instead of laboratory tests. Maximal hand grip strength, bench press, chin ups, dips, upright barbell row, standing broad jump, and barbell shoulder press were strongly correlated (rs?0.7) with work capacity and are therefore recommended for evaluating firefighters work capacity. PMID:24614596

Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Malm, Christer

2014-01-01

183

Laboratory or Field Tests for Evaluating Firefighters' Work Capacity?  

PubMed Central

Muscle strength is important for firefighters work capacity. Laboratory tests used for measurements of muscle strength, however, are complicated, expensive and time consuming. The aims of the present study were to investigate correlations between physical capacity within commonly occurring and physically demanding firefighting work tasks and both laboratory and field tests in full time (N?=?8) and part-time (N?=?10) male firefighters and civilian men (N?=?8) and women (N?=?12), and also to give recommendations as to which field tests might be useful for evaluating firefighters' physical work capacity. Laboratory tests of isokinetic maximal (IM) and endurance (IE) muscle power and dynamic balance, field tests including maximal and endurance muscle performance, and simulated firefighting work tasks were performed. Correlations with work capacity were analyzed with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs). The highest significant (p<0.01) correlations with laboratory and field tests were for Cutting: IE trunk extension (rs?=?0.72) and maximal hand grip strength (rs?=?0.67), for Stairs: IE shoulder flexion (rs?=??0.81) and barbell shoulder press (rs?=??0.77), for Pulling: IE shoulder extension (rs?=??0.82) and bench press (rs?=??0.85), for Demolition: IE knee extension (rs?=?0.75) and bench press (rs?=?0.83), for Rescue: IE shoulder flexion (rs?=??0.83) and bench press (rs?=??0.82), and for the Terrain work task: IE trunk flexion (rs?=??0.58) and upright barbell row (rs?=??0.70). In conclusion, field tests may be used instead of laboratory tests. Maximal hand grip strength, bench press, chin ups, dips, upright barbell row, standing broad jump, and barbell shoulder press were strongly correlated (rs?0.7) with work capacity and are therefore recommended for evaluating firefighters work capacity. PMID:24614596

Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Malm, Christer

2014-01-01

184

Algorithm Summary and Evaluation: Automatic Implementation of Ringdown Analysis for Electromechanical Mode Identification from Phasor Measurements  

SciTech Connect

Small signal stability problems are one of the major threats to grid stability and reliability. Prony analysis has been successfully applied on ringdown data to monitor electromechanical modes of a power system using phasor measurement unit (PMU) data. To facilitate an on-line application of mode estimation, this paper develops a recursive algorithm for implementing Prony analysis and proposed an oscillation detection method to detect ringdown data in real time. By automatically detecting ringdown data, the proposed method helps guarantee that Prony analysis is applied properly and timely on the ringdown data. Thus, the mode estimation results can be performed reliably and timely. The proposed method is tested using Monte Carlo simulations based on a 17-machine model and is shown to be able to properly identify the oscillation data for on-line application of Prony analysis. In addition, the proposed method is applied to field measurement data from WECC to show the performance of the proposed algorithm.

Zhou, Ning; Huang, Zhenyu; Tuffner, Francis K.; Jin, Shuangshuang; Lin, Jenglung; Hauer, Matthew L.

2010-02-28

185

Satellite power system concept development and evaluation program. Volume 1: Technical assessment summary report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Candidate satellite power system (SPS) concepts were identified and evaluated in terms of technical and cost factors. A number of alternative technically feasible approaches and system concepts were investigated. A reference system was defined to facilitate economic, environmental, and societal assessments by the Department of Energy. All elements of the reference system were defined including the satellite and all its subsystems, the orbital construction and maintenance bases, all elements of the space transportation system, the ground receiving station, and the associated industrial facilities for manufacturing the required hardware. The reference conclusions and remaining issues are stated for the following topical areas: system definition; energy conversion and power management; power transmission and reception; structures, controls, and materials; construction and operations; and space transportation.

1980-01-01

186

A Summary Report on the NPH Evaluation of 105-L Disassembly Basin  

SciTech Connect

The L Area Disassembly Basin (LDB) is evaluated for the natural phenomena hazards (NPH) effects due to earthquake, wind, and tornado in accordance with DOE Order 420.1 and DOE-STD-1020. The deterministic analysis is performed for a Performance Category 3 (PC3) level of loads. Savannah River Site (SRS) specific NPH loads and design criteria are obtained from Engineering Standard 01060. It is demonstrated that the demand to capacity (D/C) ratios for primary and significant structural elements are acceptable (equal to or less than 1.0). Thus, 105-L Disassembly Basin building structure is qualified for the PC3 NPH effects in accordance with DOE Order 420.1.

Joshi, J.R.

2002-04-30

187

Summary of applications of TOUGH2 to the evaluation of multiphase flow processes at the WIPP  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) research and development facility for the underground disposal of transuranic waste in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP repository is located 655 m below the land surface in the lower portion of the Salado Formation, which is comprised of beds of pure and impure halite with thin interbeds of anhydrite and related clay seams. The regional dip of the Salado Formation is approximately 1{degree} southeast in the vicinity of the repository. The proposed waste storage area has eight waste disposal panels, each of which will contain seven rooms. The repository is designed to follow a single stratigraphic horizon. Due to the dip, the north end of the repository will be about 10 meters higher than the south end. Waste that is emplaced in the disposal rooms will generate gas due to microbial degradation, anoxic corrosion, and radiolysis. Brine inflow to the rooms from the surrounding Salado Formation may significantly influence the gas generation rate and the total amount of gas generated. The salt surrounding the repository will creep in response to the excavation, reducing the room volume. Gas generation in the room may increase the pressure sufficiently to drive brine and gas into the surrounding Salado Formation. Migration of gas and brine in the Salado is an important factor in evaluating the performance of the repository. The studies summarized in this paper have. been performed to evaluate brine and gas flow processes in the WIPP disposal system and to identify some of the important processes. These studies are done in support of, but are not part of, the formal Performance Assessment (PA) effort. Because of probabilistic and system-scale requirements, the PA effort uses the Sandia-developed BRAGFLO (BRine And Gas FLOw) code for multiphase flow calculations.

Webb, S.W.; Larson, K.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Freeze, G.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[INTERA, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Christian-Frear, T.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[RE/SPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-04-01

188

Research strategies for geriatric evaluation and management: conference summary and recommendations.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present the consensus statement from a national conference on research priorities and methodologies for studying geriatric evaluation and management (GEM) programs. These conclusions, discussion points, and recommendations resulted from discussions of plenary papers, working group deliberations, and a final session in which findings were synthesized by the conference co-chairmen and presented to conference participants for final review. Major conclusions included: (1) The importance of linking geriatric evaluation with care management in future studies; (2) The need for multi-center trials of inpatient units to establish efficacy; (3) The importance of studying criteria for targeting GEM care on patients who are most likely to benefit; (4) The need for further developmental studies of outpatient GEM clinics; (5) The importance of assessing a range of outcomes including mortality, patient function, satisfaction, caregiver burden, and cost; and (6) The need to define more carefully the nature of the intervention that is being studied to aid in comparing and extrapolating findings. The following research priorities for GEMS were formulated based on the conference: (1) Within the VA health care system, a multi-site randomized trial of inpatient GEM units should be initiated; (2) Multi-site studies of inpatient GEM units and consultation teams linked to outpatient care should be initiated in non-VA settings; (3) Studies should identify the components of GEM that are most critical to outcome; (4) Studies should explore efficacy of GEM in settings that have not been well studied to date such as nursing homes; and (5) Studies are needed to test screening methods and targeting criteria for GEM in all settings. PMID:1885880

Kramer, A; Deyo, R; Applegate, W; Meehan, S

1991-09-01

189

Toxicological evaluation of realistic emission source aerosols (TERESA): summary and conclusions  

PubMed Central

The toxicological evaluation of realistic emissions of source aerosols (TERESA) study seeks to delineate health effects of aerosols formed from emissions of particulate matter sources. This series of papers reports the findings of experiments using coal-fired power plants as the source of emissions and this paper summarizes the findings and knowledge acquired from these studies. Emissions were drawn directly from the stacks of three coal-fired power plants in the US, and photochemically aged in a mobile laboratory to simulate downwind power plant plume processing. The power plants used different sources of coal and had different emission controls. Exposure scenarios included primary particles, secondary particles and mixtures of these with common atmospheric constituents (?-pinene and ammonia). Extensive exposure characterization was carried out, and toxicological outcomes were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to different emission scenarios. Breathing pattern, pulmonary inflammatory responses, in vivo pulmonary and cardiac chemiluminescence and cardiac response in a model of acute myocardial infarction were assessed. The results showed no response or relatively mild responses to the inhaled aerosols studied; complex scenarios which included oxidized emissions and ?-pinene to simulate biogenic secondary organic aerosol tended to induce more statistically significant responses than scenarios of oxidized and non-oxidized emissions alone. Relating adverse effects to specific components did not consistently identify a toxic constituent. These findings are consistent with most of the previously published studies using pure compounds to model secondary power plant emissions, but importantly add substantial complexity and thus have considerable merit in defining toxicological responses. PMID:21913822

Godleski, John J.; Rohr, Annette C.; Coull, Brent A.; Kang, Choong-Min; Diaz, Edgar A.; Koutrakis, Petros

2013-01-01

190

Use of field experimental studies to evaluate emergency response models  

SciTech Connect

The three-dimensional diagnostic wind field model (MATHEW) and the particle-in-cell atmospheric transport and diffusion model (ADPIC) are used by the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability to estimate the environmental consequences of accidental releases of radioactivity into the atmosphere. These models have undergone extensive evaluations against field experiments conducted in a variety of environmental settings ranging from relatively flat to very complex terrain areas. Simulations of tracer experiments conducted in a complex mountain valley setting revealed that 35 to 50% of the comparisons between calculated and measured tracer concentrations were within a factor of 5. This may be compared with a factor of 2 for 50% of the comparisons for relatively flat terrain. This degradation of results in complex terrain is due to a variety of factors such as the limited representativeness of measurements in complex terrain, the limited spatial resolution afforded by the models, and the turbulence parameterization based on sigma/sub theta/ measurements to evaluate the eddy diffusivities. Measurements of sigma/sub theta/ in complex terrain exceed those measured over flat terrain by a factor of 2 to 3 leading to eddy diffusivities that are unrealistically high. The results of model evaluations are very sensitive to the quality and the representativeness of the meteorological data. This is particularly true for measurements near the source. The capability of the models to simulate the dispersion of an instantaneously produced cloud of particulates was illustrated to be generally within a factor of 2 over flat terrain. 19 refs., 16 figs.

Gudiksen, P.H.; Lange, R.; Rodriguez, D.J.; Nasstrom, J.S.

1985-07-16

191

Table 1. Summary of weed seedbank distribution, diversity (number of species per field) and density across all farms Unit Total Weeds Average Highest Lowest  

E-print Network

Table 1. Summary of weed seedbank distribution, diversity (number of species per field) and density across all farms Unit Total Weeds Average Highest Lowest Total Identified Weed Species number 67 13 21 5 Total Identified Weed Species Densityb no./ft 2 274 1081 30 Total Identified Broadleaf Weed Species

Hayden, Nancy J.

192

Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Intergrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) Summary Manual  

SciTech Connect

The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) is a software application developed for performing a complete probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) using a personal computer (PC) running the Microsoft Windows operating system. SAPHIRE is primarily funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and developed by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). INL's primary role in this project is that of software developer and tester. However, INL also plays an important role in technology transfer by interfacing and supporting SAPHIRE users, who constitute a wide range of PRA practitioners from the NRC, national laboratories, the private sector, and foreign countries. SAPHIRE can be used to model a complex system’s response to initiating events and quantify associated consequential outcome frequencies. Specifically, for nuclear power plant applications, SAPHIRE can identify important contributors to core damage (Level 1 PRA) and containment failure during a severe accident which lead to releases (Level 2 PRA). It can be used for a PRA where the reactor is at full power, low power, or at shutdown conditions. Furthermore, it can be used to analyze both internal and external initiating events and has special features for transforming an internal events model to a model for external events, such as flooding and fire analysis. It can also be used in a limited manner to quantify risk in terms of release consequences to the public and environment (Level 3 PRA). SAPHIRE also includes a separate module called the Graphical Evaluation Module (GEM). GEM is a special user interface linked to SAPHIRE that automates the SAPHIRE process steps for evaluating operational events at commercial nuclear power plants. Using GEM, an analyst can estimate the risk associated with operational events (for example, to calculate a conditional core damage probability) very efficiently and expeditiously. This report provides an overview of the functions available in SAPHIRE and presents general instructions for using the software. Section 1 presents SAPHIRE’s historical evolution and summarizes its capabilities. Section 2 presents instructions for installing and using the code. Section 3 explains the database structure used in SAPHIRE and discusses database concepts. Section 4 explains how PRA data (event frequencies, human error probabilities, etc.) can be generated and manipulated using “change sets.” Section 5 deals with fault tree operations, including constructing, editing, solving, and displaying results. Section 6 presents operations associated with event trees, including rule application for event tree linking, partitioning, and editing sequences. Section 7 presents how accident sequences are generated, solved, quantified, and analyzed. Section 8 discusses the functions available for performing end state analysis. Section 9 explains how to modify data stored in a SAPHIRE database. Section 10 illustrates how to generate and customize reports. Section 11 covers SAPHIRE utility options to perform routine functions such as defining constant values, recovering databases, and loading data from external sources. Section 12 provides an overview of GEM’s features and capabilities. Finally, Section 13 summarizes SAPHIRE’s quality assurance process.

C. L. Smith

2008-08-01

193

An evaluation of RAMS radiation schemes by field measurements  

SciTech Connect

At present, two radiation schemes are used in RAMS: the Mahrer and Pielke (M-P) scheme and the Chen and Cotton (C-C) scheme. The M-P scheme requires little computational expense, but does not include the radiative effects of liquid water or ice; the C-C scheme accounts for the radiative effects of liquid water and ice but is fairly expensive computationally. For simulations with clouds, the C-C scheme is obviously a better choice, but for clear sky conditions, RAMS users face a decision regarding which radiation scheme to use. It has been noted that the choice of radiation scheme may result in significantly different results for the same case. To examine the differences in the radiative fluxes and the boundary-layer structure corresponding to the two radiation schemes in RAMS we have carried out a study where Rams was used to simulate the same case with two different radiation schemes. The modeled radiative fluxes by the two schemes were then compared with the field measurements. A description of the observations and the case study, a comparison and discussion of the results, and a summary and conclusions follow.

Zhong, S; Doran, J C

1994-02-01

194

Summary and evaluation of the Strategic Defense Initiative Space Power Architecture Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Power Architecture Study (SPAS) identified and evaluated power subsystem options for multimegawatt electric (MMWE) space based weapons and surveillance platforms for the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) applications. Steady state requirements of less than 1 MMWE are adequately covered by the SP-100 nuclear space power program and hence were not addressed in the SPAS. Four steady state power systems less than 1 MMWE were investigated with little difference between them on a mass basis. The majority of the burst power systems utilized H(2) from the weapons and were either closed (no effluent), open (effluent release) or steady state with storage (no effluent). Closed systems used nuclear or combustion heat source with thermionic, Rankine, turboalternator, fuel cell and battery conversion devices. Open systems included nuclear or combustion heat sources using turboalternator, magnetohydrodynamic, fuel cell or battery power conversion devices. The steady state systems with storage used the SP-100 or Star-M reactors as energy sources and flywheels, fuel cells or batteries to store energy for burst applications. As with other studies the open systems are by far the lightest, most compact and simplist (most reliable) systems. However, unlike other studies the SPAS studied potential platform operational problems caused by effluents or vibration.

Edenburn, M. (editor); Smith, J. M. (editor)

1989-01-01

195

Introducing Quasar Research to High School Science Teachers using the Cyberinfrastructure - An Evaluation Summary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is an exciting time for astronomy research - never before has so much astronomy data been so easily available to the general public. The difficulty has been making it accessible to and usable by multiple audiences. Our team, led by the Adler Planetarium, has designed a successful teacher professional development and student research pilot program, funded by NSF, to allow participants to actively participate in quasar research using tools developed for the cyberinfrastructure (SCI-0537460), allowing students to learn about science by doing meaningful science research. This multi-partner endeavor was built on a prior project that was also funded through NSF: the Strategic Technology Astronomy Research Team (START) Collaboratory (STI 0334168). The START Collaboratory program sought to create online tools that would allow users to gather and manipulate data and information from external astronomy database websites, while housing student work in an electronic collaborative environment. The goal of this demonstration project was to bring 21st century science research techniques into high school classrooms using large Internet-accessible astronomy databases, specifically the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, remote-request telescopes, web visualization, and other online tools. The primary topic explored in the research scenario was the variability of visible light output by active galaxies, specifically quasars. Final program implementation evaluation results will be presented, as well as information about how others may use this program in the future.

Nichols Yehling, Michelle; Fortson, L.

2008-05-01

196

Improved field experimental designs and quantitative evaluation of aquatic ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

The paired-station concept and a log transformed analysis of variance were used as methods to evaluate zooplankton density data collected during five years at an electrical generation station on Lake Michigan. To discuss the example and the field design necessary for a valid statistical analysis, considerable background is provided on the questions of selecting (1) sampling station pairs, (2) experimentwise error rates for multi-species analyses, (3) levels of Type I and II error rates, (4) procedures for conducting the field monitoring program, and (5) a discussion of the consequences of violating statistical assumptions. Details for estimating sample sizes necessary to detect changes of a specified magnitude are included. Both statistical and biological problems with monitoring programs (as now conducted) are addressed; serial correlation of successive observations in the time series obtained was identified as one principal statistical difficulty. The procedure reduces this problem to a level where statistical methods can be used confidently. 27 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

McKenzie, D.H.; Thomas, J.M.

1984-05-01

197

Evaluation of abutment scour prediction equations with field data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with FHWA, compared predicted abutment scour depths, computed with selected predictive equations, with field observations collected at 144 bridges in South Carolina and at eight bridges from the National Bridge Scour Database. Predictive equations published in the 4th edition of Evaluating Scour at Bridges (Hydraulic Engineering Circular 18) were used in this comparison, including the original Froehlich, the modified Froehlich, the Sturm, the Maryland, and the HIRE equations. The comparisons showed that most equations tended to provide conservative estimates of scour that at times were excessive (as large as 158 ft). Equations also produced underpredictions of scour, but with less frequency. Although the equations provide an important resource for evaluating abutment scour at bridges, the results of this investigation show the importance of using engineering judgment in conjunction with these equations.

Benedict, S.T.; Deshpande, N.; Aziz, N.M.

2007-01-01

198

Evaluating the success of phosphorus management from field to watershed.  

PubMed

Studies have demonstrated some P loss reduction following implementation of remedial strategies at field scales. However, there has been little coordinated evaluation of best management practices (BMPs) on a watershed scale to show where, when, and which work most effectively. Thus, it is still difficult to answer with a degree of certainty, critical questions such as, how long before we see a response and where would we expect to observe the greatest or least response? In cases where field and watershed scales are monitored, it is not uncommon for trends in P loss to be disconnected. We review case studies demonstrating that potential causes of the disconnect varies, from competing sources of P at watershed scales that are not reflected in field monitoring to an abundance of sinks at watershed scales that buffer field sources. To be successful, P-based mitigation strategies need to occur iteratively, involve stakeholder driven programs, and address the inherent complexity of all P sources within watersheds. PMID:19704141

Sharpley, Andrew N; Kleinman, Peter J A; Jordan, Philip; Bergström, Lars; Allen, Arthur L

2009-01-01

199

Laboratory and field evaluation of an underwater sand height gage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An underwater sand height gage was investigated. This instrument consisted of two transducers, one screened and one unscreened. Laboratory experimentation included static and dynamic tests with three test sands--fine, medium, and coarse. Field tests were conducted at Rudee Inlet, Virginia Beach, Virginia. Test results showed a linear response to up to 10 inches of sand loading. Deviation observed in identical tests appeared to be due to variation in the density of sand. Density differences reflected varying packing styles which, in turn, were a consequence of grain size and flow regime. Further evaluations of the sand height gage reflect this instrument's potential.

Swift, D. J. P.; Mcgrath, D. G.

1972-01-01

200

AVIRIS performance during the 1987 flight season: An AVIRIS project assessment and summary of the NASA-sponsored performance evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented of the assessment of AVIRIS performance during the 1987 flight season by the AVIRIS project and the earth scientists who were chartered by NASA to conduct an independent data quality and sensor performance evaluation. The AVIRIS evaluation program began in late June 1987 with the sensor meeting most of its design requirements except for signal-to-noise ratio in the fourth spectrometer, which was about half of the required level. Several events related to parts failures and design flaws further reduced sensor performance over the flight season. Substantial agreement was found between the assessments by the project and the independent investigators of the effects of these various factors. A summary of the engineering work that is being done to raise AVIRIS performance to its required level is given. In spite of degrading data quality over the flight season, several exciting scientific results were obtained from the data. These include the mapping of the spatial variation of atmospheric precipitable water, detection of environmentally-induced shifts in the spectral red edge of stressed vegetation, detection of spectral features related to pigment, leaf water and ligno-cellulose absorptions in plants, and the identification of many diagnostic mineral absorption features in a variety of geological settings.

Vane, Gregg; Porter, Wallace M.; Reimer, John H.; Chrien, Thomas G.; Green, Robert O.

1988-01-01

201

Evaluation of the Rockwell International flash-hydroliquefaction process. Final summary report  

SciTech Connect

At the request of the Department of Energy, UOP/SDC has evaluated the Rockwell Hydroliquefaction Process to determine the adequacy of the existing PDU data base and to assess the practicability and operability of the process. UOP/SDC conducted nine studies. Their findings follow: (1) A complete designed set of experiments must be run on the present PDU to make possible satisfactory analysis of the effects of variables especially the effect of diluents in the H/sub 2/ feed and the possibility of carbon deposition problems. (2) Basic improvements in the equipment and operation of the PDU should first be made (Ten specific recommendations are made). (3) A reactor design concept must be developed that looks feasible for design, fabrication, and operation. (4) A conceptual commercial design and economics should be prepared based on a realistic set of design bases and criteria. (5) If the above are accomplished successfully with attractive results, then and only then: (a) A study should be made of the refining requirements of the product, which are expected to be expensive based on the H/C ratio. (b) The PDU should be modified for continuous runs of up to one month to: Confirm the data correlations, estimate the reliability of the reactor and process, adhere to the requirements stated above, test cryogenic gas separation, study fouling and erosion, study lockhopper feeding, establish initial reliability of the coal injector and precombustion assembly head, collect scale-up and design data, and conduct a materials study and confirm materials choices. (c) Determine particle size of the char and of the solids in the oil product, the degree to which they may be separated, and how the ash should be removed from the product oil.

Sirohi, V.P.

1980-09-01

202

Summary and evaluation of hydraulic property data available for the Hanford Site upper basalt confined aquifer system  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory, as part of the Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance Project, examines the potential for offsite migration of contamination within the upper basalt confined aquifer system. For the past 40 years, hydrologic testing of the upper basalt confined aquifer has been conducted by a number of Hanford Site programs. Hydraulic property estimates are important for evaluating aquifer flow characteristics (i.e., ground-water flow patterns, flow velocity, transport travel time). Presented are the first comprehensive Hanford Site-wide summary of hydraulic properties for the upper basalt confined aquifer system (i.e., the upper Saddle Mountains Basalt). Available hydrologic test data were reevaluated using recently developed diagnostic test analysis methods. A comparison of calculated transmissivity estimates indicates that, for most test results, a general correspondence within a factor of two between reanalysis and previously reported test values was obtained. For a majority of the tests, previously reported values are greater than reanalysis estimates. This overestimation is attributed to a number of factors, including, in many cases, a misapplication of nonleaky confined aquifer analysis methods in previous analysis reports to tests that exhibit leaky confined aquifer response behavior. Results of the test analyses indicate a similar range for transmissivity values for the various hydro-geologic units making up the upper basalt confined aquifer. Approximately 90% of the calculated transmissivity values for upper basalt confined aquifer hydrogeologic units occur within the range of 10{sup 0} to 10{sup 2} m{sup 2}/d, with 65% of the calculated estimate values occurring between 10{sup 1} to 10{sup 2} m{sup 2}d. These summary findings are consistent with the general range of values previously reported for basalt interflow contact zones and sedimentary interbeds within the Saddle Mountains Basalt.

Spane, F.A. Jr.; Vermeul, V.R.

1994-09-01

203

Summary and Evaluation of the Quality of Stormwater in Denver, Colorado, October 2001 to October 2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stormwater in the Denver area was sampled by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Urban Drainage and Flood Control District, in a network of five monitoring stations - three on the South Platte River and two on tributary streams, beginning in October 2001 and continuing through October 11, 2005. Composite samples of stormwater were analyzed at the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory during water years 2003-2005 and the Metro Wastewater Reclamation District Laboratory during water year 2002 for water-quality properties such as pH, specific conductance, hardness, and residue on evaporation at 105 degrees Celsius; and for constituents such as major ions (calcium, chloride, fluoride, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and sulfate) in 2005, organic carbon and nutrients, including ammonia, nitrite plus nitrate, ammonia plus organic nitrogen, phosphorus, and orthophosphate; and for metals, including total and dissolved phases of copper, lead, manganese, and zinc. Samples analyzed for bacteriological indicators such as Escherichia coli and fecal coliform collected during selected storms also were analyzed at the Metro Wastewater Reclamation Laboratory. Discrete samples collected during selected storms were analyzed at the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory for a suite of water-quality properties and constituents similar to those analyzed in the composite samples but that did not include determinations for total phases of metals. Streamflow characteristics associated with 176 composite stormwater samples indicate that most samples were collected from hydrographs classified as falling or event hydrographs and that only a few samples were collected from rising hydrographs. Results from laboratory analyses of the composite samples indicate spatial patterns in which concentrations for some constituents increase with contributing drainage area in the South Platte River and Sand Creek, but no well-defined relation with the amount of urban land cover was identified using data available from the U.S. Geological Survey National Land Cover data. Results from 22 discrete samples collected during two storms and used to obtain composited results with various weighting methods indicate that correlation coefficients between time-weighted and volume-weighted concentrations were generally at least 0.65, indicating a strong direct correlation between the two weighting methods for the stations involved in this study. In addition, the central tendency for relative percent differences between the time- and volume-weighting methods typically has an absolute value of about 10 or less, indicating good agreement for these weighting methods for data collected as part of this study. Comparison of stormwater results to numeric standards for streams developed by the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment on the basis of use classifications indicates that, for water-quality properties and constituents other than bacteriological indicators, there were very few exceptions to numeric standards. Bacteriological indicators, however, such as Escherichia coli and fecal coliform consistently exceeded numeric standards in all bacteriological samples. An evaluation of laboratory results from composite samples on the basis of annual means indicates the presence of some simple upward and downward temporal trends in concentrations. In general, for annual means of results for all stations, hardness, ammonia plus organic nitrogen, total phosphorus, most dissolved metals (lead, manganese, and zinc), and all total metals (copper, lead, manganese, and zinc) all indicate annual means that decrease each year, or downward trends. Some trends were indicated only at individual stations in the network rather than at all stations. Ammonia as nitrogen at Union, Denver, and Henderson, orthophosphate at Sand Creek, and nitrite plus nitrate at Denver and Henderson all indicate decreasing annual means, or downward tr

Bossong, Clifford R.; Fleming, Andrea C.

2008-01-01

204

Household insecticides: evaluation and assessment of inhalation toxicity: a workshop summary.  

PubMed

Particularly in tropical countries household insecticides are used on a day-by-day basis to control mosquitoes, other crawling and flying insects to prevent the spread of vector-borne diseases. The products used most often are spray-cans, oil-sprays, mosquito coils as well as slow-release vaporising systems such as mats and liquid vaporiser. The extent and duration of exposure of humans is highly dependent on the type of product used. The objective of this workshop was to analyse the necessity and feasibility of inhalation studies with household insecticides taking into account the specific constrains associated with each type of end-use product. The standardisation of inhalation studies with regard to the generation of test atmospheres, mode and duration of exposure, and selection of adequate toxicological endpoints were addressed. Due to the complex nature of exposure atmospheres generated by some household insecticides, viz. mosquito coils, it is scientifically challenging to characterise the pathomechanism of most concern, since irritant combustion gases, volatile and semi-volatile organic substances, particulates (soot), condensation aerosols and re-condensed substances onto particulates may act independently, synergistically or mixture specific. It has been concluded that for the comparative safety evaluation and risk assessment of indoor insecticide end-use products generally recognised guidance for harmonised inhalation testing is required: 1) For high-dose release products, such as spray-cans, acute inhalation testing appears to be most relevant. 2) For low-dose, slow-release devices, subchronic inhalation studies of 13-weeks, duration of exposure 6 hours/day for 5 consecutive days per week, should be performed on rats preferably with the end-use product. A dose-range finding study of 2-weeks duration, daily exposure, should be available for the justification of dose selection and to demonstrate that the findings of 5 days/week exposure is not different from that utilising a daily exposure. 3) In certain instances, inhalation testing of shorter duration, for example 2 or 4 weeks, may be appropriate if the inhalation toxicity of the basic formula has already been characterised or the major constituents contained in the formulation have been examined in extant studies. The duration of study should also depend on actual use and exposure pattern, the accumulation potential and the mode of action of the ingredients of concern. 4) Particularly for mosquito coil smokes, the possible physico-chemical interactions of particulates, potentially irritant water soluble or nonsoluble vapours and aerosol or vapours of the active ingredient(s) are virtually impossible to predict without appropriate inhalation testing. 5) Physiological measurements may be useful for the detection and quantification of the respiratory tract sensory irritation potency. Biochemical endpoints in lung lavage and conventional histopathology of the lungs and extrathoracic airways are considered to be important. 6) It has been agreed that the nose-only exposure technique provides the most cost-effective and controlled means to expose small laboratory animals to well defined atmospheres as long as the limitations of this technique are taken into account. PMID:9570504

Achmadi, U F; Pauluhn, J

1998-03-01

205

Evaluation of Alternative Field Buses for Lighting ControlApplications  

SciTech Connect

The Subcontract Statement of Work consists of two major tasks. This report is the Final Report in fulfillment of the contract deliverable for Task 1. The purpose of Task 1 was to evaluate existing and emerging protocols and standards for interfacing sensors and controllers for communicating with integrated lighting control systems in commercial buildings. The detailed task description follows: Task 1. Evaluate alternative sensor/field buses. The objective of this task is to evaluate existing and emerging standards for interfacing sensors and controllers for communicating with integrated lighting control systems in commercial buildings. The protocols to be evaluated will include at least: (1) 1-Wire Net, (2) DALI, (3) MODBUS (or appropriate substitute such as EIB) and (4) ZigBee. The evaluation will include a comparative matrix for comparing the technical performance features of the different alternative systems. The performance features to be considered include: (1) directionality and network speed, (2) error control, (3) latency times, (4) allowable cable voltage drop, (5) topology, and (6) polarization. Specifically, Subcontractor will: (1) Analyze the proposed network architecture and identify potential problems that may require further research and specification. (2) Help identify and specify additional software and hardware components that may be required for the communications network to operate properly. (3) Identify areas of the architecture that can benefit from existing standards and technology and enumerate those standards and technologies. (4) Identify existing companies that may have relevant technology that can be applied to this research. (5) Help determine if new standards or technologies need to be developed.

Koch, Ed; Rubinstein, Francis

2005-03-21

206

Evaluation of bioaccumulation using in vivo laboratory and field studies.  

PubMed

A primary consideration in the evaluation of chemicals is the potential for substances to be absorbed and retained in an organism's tissues (i.e., bioaccumulated) at concentrations sufficient to pose health concerns. Substances that exhibit properties that enable biomagnification in the food chain (i.e., amplification of tissue concentrations at successive trophic levels) are of particular concern due to the elevated long-term exposures these substances pose to higher trophic organisms, including humans. Historically, biomarkers of in vivo chemical exposure (e.g., eggshell thinning, bill deformities) retrospectively led to the identification of such compounds, which were later categorized as persistent organic pollutants. Today, multiple bioaccumulation metrics are available to quantitatively assess the bioaccumulation potential of new and existing chemicals and identify substances that, upon or before environmental release, may be characterized as persistent organic pollutants. This paper reviews the various in vivo measurement approaches that can be used to assess the bioaccumulation of chemicals in aquatic or terrestrial species using laboratory-exposed, field-deployed, or collected organisms. Important issues associated with laboratory measurements of bioaccumulation include appropriate test species selection, test chemical dosing methods, exposure duration, and chemical and statistical analyses. Measuring bioaccumulation at a particular field site requires consideration of which test species to use and whether to examine natural populations or to use field-deployed populations. Both laboratory and field methods also require reliable determination of chemical concentrations in exposure media of interest (i.e., water, sediment, food or prey, etc.), accumulated body residues, or both. The advantages and disadvantages of various laboratory and field bioaccumulation metrics for assessing biomagnification potential in aquatic or terrestrial food chains are discussed. Guidance is provided on how to consider the uncertainty in these metrics and develop a weight-of-evidence evaluation that supports technically sound and consistent persistent organic pollutant and persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic chemical identification. Based on the bioaccumulation information shared in 8 draft risk profiles submitted for review under the United Nations Stockholm Convention, recommendations are given for the information that is most critical to aid transparency and consistency in decision making. PMID:19552500

Weisbrod, Annie V; Woodburn, Kent B; Koelmans, Albert A; Parkerton, Thomas F; McElroy, Anne E; Borgå, Katrine

2009-10-01

207

Summaries of Conference Papers, Theme 2, Methodology. International Conference on Evaluation and Research in Educational Television and Radio (Milton Keynes, England, April 9-13, 1976).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifteen papers on evaluation methodology in communications programs are summarized in this document. A discussion of the development of instructional media is followed by a description of a study of patterns of use and effectiveness in a British Broadcasting Corporation multi-media German course. The document includes summaries of five papers on…

Open Univ., Walton, Bletchley, Bucks (England).

208

Findings from the Evaluation of the National Library Power Program. Executive Summary. An Initiative of the DeWitt Wallace-Reader's Digest Fund.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents the executive summary of an evaluation of Library Power, a program of the DeWitt Wallace-Reader's Digest Fund to enhance and elevate the role of libraries in public schools. The report begins with an examination of Library Power's core components (collection development, facilities refurbishing, flexible scheduling,…

Zweizig, Douglas; Hopkins, Dianne McAfee

209

Position Summary Review Form A request for a job evaluation may be made when a job changes significantly in scope or responsibility. This form has been designed to  

E-print Network

of the job grouping related duties together in a sentence or paragraph. After listing the specific dutiesPosition Summary Review Form A request for a job evaluation may be made when a job changes Information POSITION RECOMMENDATION HR RECOMMENDATION Title (BCAT) Pay Grade Starting Salary FLSA Status Non

Hutcheon, James M.

210

Motivation Literature Trans. Network Models Relative Total Cost Indices Numerical Examples Summary A Relative Total Cost Index for the Evaluation of  

E-print Network

Motivation Literature Trans. Network Models Relative Total Cost Indices Numerical Examples Summary A Relative Total Cost Index for the Evaluation of Transportation Network Robustness in the Presence INFORMS Annual Meeting, Washington DC October 12-15, 2008 Anna Nagurney, Qiang Qiang Relative Total Cost

Nagurney, Anna

211

An Evaluation of Technologies for Identifying Acute Cardiac Ischemia in the Emergency Department: Executive Summary of a National Heart Attack Alert Program Working Group Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Selker HP, Zalenski RJ, Antman EM, Aufderheide TP, Bernard SA, Bonow RO, Gibler WB, Hagen MD, Johnson P, Lau J, McNutt RA, Ornato J, Schwartz JS, Scott JD, Tunick PA, Weaver WD: An evaluation of technologies for identifying acute cardiac ischemia in the emergency department: Executive Summary of a National Heart Attack Alert Program Working Group report. Ann Emerg Med

Harry P Selker; Robert J Zalenski; Elliott M Antman; Tom P Aufderheide; Sheilah Ann Bernard; Robert O Bonow; W. Brian Gibler; Michael D Hagen; Paula Johnson; Joseph Lau; Robert A McNutt; Joseph Ornato; J. Sanford Schwartz; Jane D Scott; Paul A Tunick; W. Douglas Weaver

1997-01-01

212

An evaluation of field total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) systems.  

PubMed

An evaluation of several field kits and petroleum hydrocarbon measuring systems was conducted. The field kits were the immunoassay based EnviroGard petroleum fuels in soil test kit (EnviroGard, Millipore Canada, Mississauga, Ont., Canada), the turbidimetric based PetroFlag hydrocarbon test kit for soil (Dexsil, Hamden, CT, USA), a DR/2000 field kit (Hach Company, Loveland CO, USA) employing colorimetric test procedures and a total organic carbon (TOC) analysis instrument (Dohrmann Division, Rosemount Analytical Inc., Santa Clara, CA, USA) using oxidation principles. These procedures were compared to the traditional technique of extraction of the petroleum hydrocarbons using trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon 113) as the solvent and subsequent infrared (IR) analysis using a portable fixed wavelength analyzer (Buck Scientific, East Norwalk, CT, USA). The EnviroGard kit was affected by the sample matrix. The soil type and the presence or lack thereof specific chemical components affected the capability to detect the petroleum hydrocarbon concentration. The PetroFlag soil test kit tended to generate results higher than the accepted concentration. The IR method was better capable of producing results similar to the expected concentration values of the prepared samples. Results indicate that the total organic carbon analysis technique evaluated is best suited for samples containing dissolved hydrocarbons in water and is not a preferred procedure for water samples containing dispersed or floating oil. At low concentrations of 10ppm and less, the TOC method and IR method have concentration values within a few parts-per-million (ppm) of each other, however, an examination of the trends in the results for all samples shows no similarity. This would indicate that the traditional extraction and infrared method and the total organic carbon method are not measuring the same parameter.Finally, the colorimetric field kit was capable of quantifying the concentration of oil in water samples within limits. The results from the oil-in-water method built into the unit at the factory were not comparable with analysis carried out by the infrared technique. With specific methods for each oil incorporated into the spectrophotometer, the comparability of data increased significantly. Results generated by the kit are dependent upon the color and amount of the oil in the sample. The kit is best suited for dark colored oils and the water samples with concentrations in the range of 10 to 85ppm by weight. PMID:11267746

Lambert, P; Fingas, M; Goldthorp, M

2001-05-01

213

Field Evaluation of Low-E Storm Windows  

SciTech Connect

A field evaluation comparing the performance of low emittance (low-e) storm windows with both standard clear storm windows and no storm windows was performed in a cold climate. Six homes with single-pane windows were monitored over the period of one heating season. The homes were monitored with no storm windows and with new storm windows. The storm windows installed on four of the six homes included a hard coat, pyrolitic, low-e coating while the storm windows for the other two homeshad traditional clear glass. Overall heating load reduction due to the storm windows was 13percent with the clear glass and 21percent with the low-e windows. Simple paybacks for the addition of the storm windows were 10 years for the clear glass and 4.5 years forthe low-e storm windows.

Drumheller, S. Craig; Kohler, Christian; Minen, Stefanie

2007-07-11

214

Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicle Field Evaluations (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation discusses field evaluations of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles performed by NREL. The project provides medium-duty (MD) and heavy-duty (HD) test results, aggregated data, and detailed analysis, including 3rd party unbiased data (data that would not normally be shared by industry in an aggregated and detailed manner). Over 5.6 million miles of advanced technology MD and HD truck data have been collected, documented, and analyzed on over 240 different vehicles since 2002. Data, analysis, and reports are shared within DOE, national laboratory partners, and industry for R&D planning and strategy. The results help guide R&D for new technology development, help define intelligent usage of newly developed technology, and help fleets/users understand all aspects of advanced technology.

Walkowicz, K.

2014-06-01

215

Spectrally Enhanced Lighting Program Implementation for Energy Savings: Field Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

This report provides results from an evaluation PNNL conducted of a spectrally enhanced lighting demonstration project. PNNL performed field measurements and occupant surveys at three office buildings in California before and after lighting retrofits were made in August and December 2005. PNNL measured the following Overhead lighting electricity demand and consumption, Light levels in the workspace, Task lighting use, and Occupant ratings of satisfaction with the lighting. Existing lighting, which varied in each building, was replaced with lamps with correlated color temperature (CCT) of 5000 Kelvin, color rendering index (CRI) of 85, of varying wattages, and lower ballast factor electronic ballasts. The demonstrations were designed to decrease lighting power loads in the three buildings by 22-50 percent, depending on the existing installed lamps and ballasts. The project designers hypothesized that this reduction in electrical loads could be achieved by the change to higher CCT lamps without decreasing occupant satisfaction with the lighting.

Gordon, Kelly L.; Sullivan, Gregory P.; Armstrong, Peter R.; Richman, Eric E.; Matzke, Brett D.

2006-08-22

216

Field evaluations of hearing protection devices at surface mining environments  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of circumaural hearing protection devices and their predictability when they were being worn by mine employees performing normal work duties. The method employed relied on a physical measurement of the noise reduction of the hearing protectors by utilizing two FM-wireless transmitting and receiving systems. One system measured the outside hearing protector noise level, the second system measured the inside hearing protector noise level. The noise level data of both systems was transmitted back to the corresponding receivers and was recorded onto a two-channel tape recorder. Three methods of evaluating hearing protector performance were explored and compared to the Environmental Protection Agency, Noise Reduction Rating (EPA NRR) values. They were, (1) predicted National Institute for occupational Safety and Health`s (NIOSH) method No. 1 values, (2) field-calculated NIOSH No. 1 values, and (3) measured dBA reduction values, which was the arithmetic A-weighted differences between both microphone locations. The majority of the data was obtained on operators of mobile strip equipment, such as bulldozers, front-end-loaders, and overburden drills. A total of 107 individual tests were conducted using 11 different hearing protectors. The results indicate that the amount of protection, which can vary significantly, is related either to the spectrum shape of the noise, or the C-weighted minus the A-weighted (C-A) value. This is consistent with other researchers. The field measured noise reductions were equivalent to the EPA NRR values when the C-A values were negative or approaching zero. When the C-A values increased, the measured noise reductions significantly decreased.

Not Available

1993-12-31

217

First World Conference on Continuing Engineering Education, Summary & Evaluation (Mexico City, Mexico, April 25-27, 1979).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proceedings of the First World Conference on Engineering Education focus on future directions, case studies, and unique high-impact programs. The report contains the following: (1) a list of summary statements on ideas, trends and observations; (2) summaries of the 16 sessions in which salient points are noted; and (3) the complete text of…

Klus, John P., Ed.; Jones, Judy A., Ed.

218

Field evaluation of an avian risk assessment model  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We conducted two laboratory subacute dietary toxicity tests and one outdoor subacute dietary toxicity test to determine the effectiveness of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's deterministic risk assessment model for evaluating the potential of adverse effects to birds in the field. We tested technical-grade diazinon and its D Z N- 50W (50% diazinon active ingredient wettable powder) formulation on Canada goose (Branta canadensis) goslings. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was measured, and the feathers and skin, feet. and gastrointestinal contents were analyzed for diazinon residues. The dose-response curves showed that diazinon was significantly more toxic to goslings in the outdoor test than in the laboratory tests. The deterministic risk assessment method identified the potential for risk to birds in general, but the factors associated with extrapolating from the laboratory to the field, and from the laboratory test species to other species, resulted in the underestimation of risk to the goslings. The present study indicates that laboratory-based risk quotients should be interpreted with caution.

Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hulse, C.S.; Borges, S.L.; Bennett, R.S.; Torrez, M.; Williams, B.I.; Leffel, R.

2006-01-01

219

Field evaluation of an avian risk assessment model.  

PubMed

We conducted two laboratory subacute dietary toxicity tests and one outdoor subacute dietary toxicity test to determine the effectiveness of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's deterministic risk assessment model for evaluating the potential of adverse effects to birds in the field. We tested technical-grade diazinon and its D.Z.N 50W (50% diazinon active ingredient wettable powder) formulation on Canada goose (Branta canadensis) goslings. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was measured, and the feathers and skin, feet, and gastrointestinal contents were analyzed for diazinon residues. The dose-response curves showed that diazinon was significantly more toxic to goslings in the outdoor test than in the laboratory tests. The deterministic risk assessment method identified the potential for risk to birds in general, but the factors associated with extrapolating from the laboratory to the field, and from the laboratory test species to other species, resulted in the underestimation of risk to the goslings. The present study indicates that laboratory-based risk quotients should be interpreted with caution. PMID:16833136

Vyas, Nimish B; Spann, James W; Hulse, Craig S; Borges, Shannon L; Bennett, Richard S; Torrez, Martin; Williams, Bruce I; Leffel, Robert

2006-07-01

220

Handheld standoff mine detection system (HSTAMIDS) field evaluation in Namibia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program of the US Army RDECOM CERDEC Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD), under the direction of the Office of Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations and Low-Intensity Conflict (OASD SO/LIC) and with participation from the International Test and Evaluation Program (ITEP) for humanitarian demining, conducted an in-country field evaluation of the Handheld Standoff Mine Detection System (HSTAMIDS) in the southern African country of Namibia. Participants included the US Humanitarian Demining Team of NVESD; ITEP personnel from several member countries; deminers from two non-governmental organizations in Angola, Menschen Gegen Minen (MgM) and HALO Trust; and CyTerra Corporation. The primary objectives were to demonstrate the performance of the U.S. Army's newest handheld multisensor mine detector, the HSTAMIDS, to the performance of the metal detector being used by local demining organizations and also to assess the performance of deminers using the HSTAMIDS after limited experience and training.

Doheny, Robert C.; Burke, Sean; Cresci, Roger; Ngan, Peter; Walls, Richard; Chernoff, Jeff

2006-05-01

221

Preliminary Field Evaluation of Mercury Control Using Combustion Modifications  

SciTech Connect

In this project EER conducted a preliminary field evaluation of the integrated approach for mercury (Hg) and NO{sub x} control. The approach enhanced the 'naturally occurring' Hg capture by fly ash through combustion optimization, increasing carbon in ash content, and lowering ESP temperature. The evaluation took place in Green Station Units 1 and 2 located near Henderson, Kentucky and operated by Western Kentucky Energy. Units 1 and 2 are equipped with cold-side ESPs and wet scrubbers. Green Station Units 1 and 2 typically fire two types of fuel: a bituminous coal and a blend of bituminous coals based on availability. Testing of Hg emissions in Unit 2 without reburning system in operation and at minimum OFA demonstrated that efficiencies of Hg reduction downstream of the ESP were 30-40%. Testing also demonstrated that OFA system operation at 22% air resulted in 10% incremental increase in Hg removal efficiency at the ESP outlet. About 80% of Hg in flue gas at ESP outlet was present in the oxidized form. Testing of Hg emissions under reburning conditions showed that Hg emissions decreased with LOI increase and ESP temperature decrease. Testing demonstrated that maximum Hg reduction downstream of ESP was 40-45% at ESP temperatures higher than 300 F and 60-80% at ESP temperatures lower than 300 F. The program objective to demonstrate 80% Hg removal at the ESP outlet has been met.

V. Lissianski; P. Maly; T. Marquez

2005-01-22

222

Evaluation of Field-in-Field Technique for Total Body Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the clinical use of a field-in-field (FIF) technique for total body irradiation (TBI) using a treatment-planning system (TPS) and to verify TPS results with in vivo dose measurements using metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) detectors. Methods and Materials: Clinical and dosimetric data of 10 patients treated with TBI were assessed. Certain radiation parameters were measured using homogenous and regular phantoms at an extended distance of 380 cm, and the results were compared with data from a conventional standard distance of 100 cm. Additionally, dosimetric validation of TPS doses was performed with a Rando phantom using manual calculations. A three-dimensional computed tomography plan was generated involving 18-MV photon beams with a TPS for both open-field and FIF techniques. The midline doses were measured at the head, neck, lung, umbilicus, and pelvis for both open-field and FIF techniques. Results: All patients received planned TBI using the FIF technique with 18-MV photon energies and 2 Gy b.i.d. on 3 consecutive days. The difference in tissue maximum ratios between the extended and conventional distances was <2%. The mean deviation of manual calculations compared with TPS data was +1.6% (range, 0.1-2.4%). A homogenous dose distribution was obtained with 18-MV photon beams using the FIF technique. The mean lung dose for the FIF technique was 79.2% (9.2 Gy; range, 8.8-9.7 Gy) of the prescribed dose. The MOSFET readings and TPS doses in the body were similar (percentage difference range, -0.5% to 2.5%) and slightly higher in the shoulder and lung (percentage difference range, 4.0-5.5%). Conclusion: The FIF technique used for TBI provides homogenous dose distribution and is feasible, simple, and spares time compared with more-complex techniques. The TPS doses were similar to the midline doses obtained from MOSFET readings.

Onal, Cem, E-mail: hcemonal@hotmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Adana (Turkey)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Adana (Turkey); Sonmez, Aydan; Arslan, Gungor; Sonmez, Serhat; Efe, Esma; Oymak, Ezgi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Adana (Turkey)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Adana (Turkey)

2012-08-01

223

On-site field tests for study of low-rank western coal fly ash. Technical summary report, field test No. 3. Big Brown Station electrostatic precipitator  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of field and laboratory studies of combined NH/sub 3/ and SO/sub 3/ conditioning at the Big Brown Station of Texas Utilities Generating Company. This unusual combination of conditioning agents is used routinely at the Big Brown Station in order to improve the performance of the cold-side electrostatic precipitators. The primary objectives of this field study were to evaluate the performance of one of the Big Brown precipitators, and to obtain data on the concentration, composition, and size distribution of the fly ash, as well as the composition of the flue gas and the overall and fractional collection efficiencies of the precipitator. The laboratory studies of the Big Brown fly ash were intended to further characterize the ash both physically and chemically, and to study the attenuation of the electrical resistivity of the ash associated with the surface film produced by the dual conditioning process and by the use of SO/sub 3/ conditioning alone. 6 references, 22 figures, 9 tables.

Dahlin, R. S.; Bickelhaupt, R. E.; Marchant, Jr., G. H.; Gooch, J. P.

1984-02-01

224

2-Page Summary for Neptunium solubility in the Near-field Environment of A Proposed Yucca Mountain Repository  

SciTech Connect

The total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, NV, includes a wide variety of processes to evaluate the potential release of radionuclides from the Engineered Barrier System into the unsaturated zone of the geosphere. The principal processes controlling radionuclide release and mobilization from the waste forms are captured in the model to assess the dissolved concentrations of radionuclides in the source-term. The TSPA model of the source-term incorporates the far-from-equilibrium dissolution of, for example, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to capture bounding rates of radionuclide availability as the SNF degrades. In addition, for individual radionuclides, the source-term model evaluates solubility constraints that are more indicative of longer-term, equilibrium processes that can limit the potential mass transport from the source term in those cases. These solubility limits represent phase saturation and precipitation processes that can occur either at the waste form as it alters, or at other locations in the near-field environment (e.g., within the invert) if chemical conditions are different. Identification and selection of applicable constraints for solubility-limited radionuclide concentrations is a primary focus in formulating the source-term model for the TSPA. Neptunium is a long-lived radionuclide that becomes a larger fraction of the potential dose as radioactive decay of other radionuclides proceeds. To delineate appropriate long-term source-term controls on dissolved neptunium concentrations, a number of alternative models have been defined. The models are based on data both collected within the Yucca Mountain Project and taken from published literature, and have been evaluated against independent data sets to assess their applicability. The alternative models encompass ones based on precipitation of neptunium within its own separate oxide phases (i.e., ''pure'' Np-phases), and those where neptunium is incorporated into the secondary (tertiary, quaternary, etc.) uranyl phases forming as alteration products of SNF (secondary phases). The constraints on dissolved neptunium concentrations from ''pure'' Np-phase models provide more elevated bounds compared to the values derived from models of trace incorporation of Np into secondary uranyl phases. Such secondary phase models depend on a larger set of processes and variables compared to more idealized solubility models for Np-oxides, and therefore, secondary phase models generally will have more complex bases to define adequately the expected behavior.

D. Sassani; A. Van Luik; J. Summerson

2005-03-29

225

Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Astrotech 21 Optical Systems Technology Workshop was held in Pasadena, California on March 6-8, 1991. The purpose of the workshop was to examine the state of Optical Systems Technology at the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA), and in industry and academia, in view of the potential Astrophysics mission set currently being considered for the late 1990's through the first quarter of the 21st century. The principal result of the workshop is this publication, which contains an assessment of the current state of the technology, and specific technology advances in six critical areas of optics, all necessary for the mission set. The workshop was divided into six panels, each of about a dozen experts in specific fields, representing NASA, industry, and academia. In addition, each panel contained expertise that spanned the spectrum from x-ray to submillimeter wavelengths. This executive summary contains the principal recommendations of each panel. The six technology panels and their chairs were: (1) Wavefront Sensing, Control, and Pointing, Thomas Pitts, Itek Optical Systems, A Division of Litton; (2) Fabrication, Roger Angel, Steward Observatory, University of Arizona; (3) Materials and Structures, Theodore Saito, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; (4) Optical Testing, James Wyant, WYKO Corporation; (5) Optical Systems Integrated Modeling, Robert R. Shannon, Optical Sciences Center, University of Arizona; and (6) Advanced Optical Instruments Technology, Michael Shao, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology. This Executive Summary contains the principal recommendations of each panel.

Ayon, Juan A.

1992-01-01

226

FIELD EVALUATION OF ARSENIC REMOVAL BY CONVENTIONAL PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper is a summary of two EPA reports prepared by Battelle Memorial Institute: "Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Coagulation/Filtration and Lime Softening" and "Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Iron Removal Plants." The paper presents the results of a year long...

227

EVALUATION OF A PROTOTYPE FIELD-PORTABLE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SYSTEM FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE SCREENING  

EPA Science Inventory

A prototype field-portable X-ray fluorescence system developed by EPA and NASA was evaluated at a site contaminated with Pb, Zn, and Cu. The objective of the field test was to evaluate the effectiveness of the instrument as a field analytical tool for locating hot spots and as a ...

228

A Set of Principles for Conducting and Evaluating Interpretive Field Studies in Information Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the conduct and evaluation of interpretive research in information systems. While the conventions for evaluating information systems case studies conducted according to the natural science model of social science are now widely accepted, this is not the case for interpre- tive field studies. A set of principles for the con- duct and evaluation of interpretive field research

Heinz K. Klein; Michael D. Myers

1999-01-01

229

Evaluation of different field methods for measuring soil water infiltration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil infiltrability, together with rainfall characteristics, is the most important hydrological parameter for the evaluation and diagnosis of the soil water balance and soil moisture regime. Those balances and regimes are the main regulating factors of the on site water supply to plants and other soil organisms and of other important processes like runoff, surface and mass erosion, drainage, etc, affecting sedimentation, flooding, soil and water pollution, water supply for different purposes (population, agriculture, industries, hydroelectricity), etc. Therefore the direct measurement of water infiltration rates or its indirect deduction from other soil characteristics or properties has become indispensable for the evaluation and modelling of the previously mentioned processes. Indirect deductions from other soil characteristics measured under laboratory conditions in the same soils, or in other soils, through the so called "pedo-transfer" functions, have demonstrated to be of limited value in most of the cases. Direct "in situ" field evaluations have to be preferred in any case. In this contribution we present the results of past experiences in the measurement of soil water infiltration rates in many different soils and land conditions, and their use for deducing soil water balances under variable climates. There are also presented and discussed recent results obtained in comparing different methods, using double and single ring infiltrometers, rainfall simulators, and disc permeameters, of different sizes, in soils with very contrasting surface and profile characteristics and conditions, including stony soils and very sloping lands. It is concluded that there are not methods universally applicable to any soil and land condition, and that in many cases the results are significantly influenced by the way we use a particular method or instrument, and by the alterations in the soil conditions by the land management, but also due to the manipulation of the surface soil before and during the measurement. Due to the commonly found high variability, natural or induced by land management, of the soil surface and subsurface hydrological properties, and to the limitations imposed by the requirements of water for the measurements, there is proposed a simple and handy method, which do not use high volumes of water, adaptable to very different soil and land conditions, and that allow many repeated measurements with acceptable accuracy for most of the purposes. References Pla, I., 1997. A soil water balance model for monitoring soil erosion processes and effects on steep lands in the tropics. Soil Technology. 11(1):17-30. Elsevier Pla, I., 2006. Hydrological approach for assessing desertification processes in the Mediterranean region. In W.G. Kepner et al. (Editors), Desertification in the Mediterranean Region. A Security Issue. 579-600 Springer. Heidelberg (Germany) Reynolds W.D., B.T. Bowman, R.R. Brunke, C.F. Drury and C.S. Tan. 2000. Comparison of Tension Infiltrometer, Pressure Infiltrometer, and Soil Core Estimates of Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity . Soil Science Society of America Journal 64:478-484 Segal, E., S.A.Bradford, P. Shouse; N. Lazarovich, and D. Corwin. 2008. Integration of Hard and Soft Data to Characterize Field-Scale Hydraulic Properties for Flow and Transport Studies. Vadose Zone J 7:878-889 Young, E. 1991. Infiltration measurements, a review. Hydrological processes 5: 309-320.

Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso; Fonseca, Francisco

2010-05-01

230

Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste. Volume 1: Executive summary  

SciTech Connect

A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation (PE) to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 1 is an executive summary both of the PE methodology and of the results obtained from the PEs. While this volume briefly reviews the scope and method of analyses, its main objective is to emphasize the important insights and conclusions derived from the conduct of the PEs. Volume 2 provides details about the site-selection process, the performance-evaluation methodology, and the overall results of the analysis. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussions of the results for each site.

NONE

1996-03-01

231

Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects. Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor building decontamination. Summary status report. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes information relating to decontamination of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor building. The report covers activities for the period of June 1, 1979 through March 29, 1985. The data collected from activity reports, reactor containment entry records, and other sources were entered into a computerized data system which permits extraction/manipulation of specific information which can be used in planning for recovery from an accident similar to that experienced at TMI-2 on March 28, 1979. This report contains summaries of man-hours, manpower, and radiation exposures incurred during decontamination of the reactor building. Support activities conducted outside of radiation areas are excluded from the scope of this report. Computerized reports included in this document are: a chronological summary listing work performed relating to reactor building decontamination for the period specified; and summary reports for each major task during the period. Each task summary is listed in chronological order for zone entry and subtotaled for the number of personnel entries, exposures, and man-hours. Manually-assembled table summaries are included for: labor and exposures by department and labor and exposures by major activity.

Doerge, D.H.; Miller, R.L.; Scotti, K.S.

1986-05-01

232

EVALUATION OF SAMPLING AND FIELD FILTRATION METHODS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF TRACE METALS IN GROUND WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Selected groundwater sampling and filtering methods were evaluated to determine their effects on field parameters and trace metal concentrations in samples collected under several types of field conditions. he study focused on sampling in conventional standpipe monitoring wells u...

233

Summary of lightning activities by NASA for the Apollo Soyuz test project: Supplement no. 1 to Apollo Soyuz mission evaluation report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To avoid the possibility of an unnecessary launch delay, a special program was initiated to provide aircraft measurement of electric fields at various altitudes over the Apollo vehicle launch pad. Eight aircraft, each equipped with electric field meters, were used in the program. This program and some of the more important findings are discussed. Also included is a summary of the history of manned space vehicle involvement with lightning, a brief description of the lightning instrumentation in use at KSC (Kennedy Space Center) at the time of the Apollo Soyuz mission and a discussion of the airborne instrumentation and related data.

1976-01-01

234

Field Test Evaluation Report on Introduction to Polymer Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After describing a continuing education course in polymer chemistry, summarizes materials, methods, and results of an extensive evaluation of the course. Includes a discussion of benefits for participants and a list of 14 recommendations based on the evaluation. (JN)

Chapman, Kenneth; Fleming, Janice

1981-01-01

235

Evaluating Differences in Landscape Interpretation between Webcam and Field-Based Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Field trips have become less common due to issues including budget constraints and large class sizes. Research suggests that virtual field trips can substitute for field visits, but the role of webcams has not been evaluated. To investigate the potential for webcams to substitute for field trips, participants viewed urban and physical landscapes…

Kolivras, Korine N.; Luebbering, Candice R.; Resler, Lynn M.

2012-01-01

236

OISE/UT Evaluation of the Implementation of the National Literacy and Numeracy Strategies. Summary: First Annual Report. Watching & Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Literacy and the National Numeracy Strategies (NLNS) are part of the British government's major education reform initiative, an attempt to significantly raise standards of achievement in schools. This report is a summary of the first annual report from the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education of the University of Toronto…

Earl, Lorna; Fullan, Michael; Leithwood, Ken; Watson, Nancy

237

Medical Evaluation of Man Working in AC Electric Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper covers an investigation of the effects of HV 60-Hz ac fields on human beings. Experimental results of the intensity of the electric fields to which linemen are subjected when doing maintenance work on energized HV lines are presented. The protection offered by Faraday screens is discussed. The results of a series of physiological examinations that were carried out

W. B. Kouwenhoven; O. R. Langworthy; M. L. Singewald; G. G. Knickerbocker

1967-01-01

238

Evaluating Sound Field Amplification Technology in New Brunswick Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

(Purpose) The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of classroom sound field amplification on communication in kindergarten through grade 3 classrooms. (Methodology) Sixty classrooms were involved in the study; half of the classrooms were provided with sound field amplification. The flow of communication was measured through…

Rubin, Rhonda; Aquino-Russell, Catherine; Flagg-Williams, Joan

2007-01-01

239

Evaluating near-field radiation patterns of commercial antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A source reconstruction technique from the measured near fields is proposed to obtain a set of equivalent currents that will characterize the forward and backward radiation patterns of an antenna. Once the equivalent sources are determined, the electromagnetic field at any aspect angle and distance from the antenna can be calculated. In this paper, the method is applied to the

Fernando Las-Heras; Marcos Rodríguez Pino; Susana Loredo; Yuri Alvarez; Tapan K. Sarkar

2006-01-01

240

Output power evaluation of a dry geothermal field plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The output power of a simple irreversible dry geothermal field power plant is analyzed. The plant uses a secondary vapour Rankine cycle coupled to the dry geothermal field heating fluid (heat source) and a cooling fluid (heat sink) by heat transfer. A mathematical expression is derived for the power output of the irreversible geothermal heat engine. The maximum power output

Chih Wu

1988-01-01

241

Electromagnetic Scattered Field Evaluation and Data Compression Using Imaging Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the final report on Project #727625 between The Ohio State University and NASA, Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. Under this project, a data compression technique for scattered field data of electrically large targets is developed. The technique was applied to the scattered fields of two targets of interest. The backscattered fields of the scale models of these targets were measured in a ra compact range. For one of the targets, the backscattered fields were also calculated using XPATCH computer code. Using the technique all scattered field data sets were compressed successfully. A compression ratio of the order 40 was achieved. In this report, the technique is described briefly and some sample results are included.

Gupta, I. J.; Burnside, W. D.

1996-01-01

242

Nonprofits and Evaluation: Empirical Evidence from the Field  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors explore what evaluation looks like, in practice, among today's nonprofit organizations on the basis of their survey results. The types of evaluation activities nonprofit organizations are engaging in on a regular basis, as well as the types of data they are collecting and how they are using these data, are described. How nonprofits…

Carman, Joanne G.; Fredericks, Kimberly A.

2008-01-01

243

Using Simulated Rainfall to Evaluate Field and Indoor Surface Runoff Phosphorus Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

While numerous studies have evaluated the efficacy of outdoor rainfall simulations to predict P concentrations in surface runoff, few studies have linked indoor rainfall simulations to P concentrations in surface runoff from agricultural fields. The objective of this study was to evaluate the capacity of indoor rainfall simulation to predict total dissolved P concentrations (TP(,0.45)) in field runoff for four

A. R. Guidry; F. V. Schindler; D. R. German; R. H. Gelderman; J. R. Gerwing

2006-01-01

244

A Comment on "Evaluation Field Building in South Asia: Reflections, Anecdotes, and Questions"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the author's comment on "Evaluation Field Building in South Asia: Reflections, Anecdotes, and Questions" by Katherine Hay. Hay raises a number of extremely relevant issues relating to evaluation field building in South Asia. In this paper, the author aims to underscore the importance of three priorities for initiating public…

Kumar, A. K. Shiva

2010-01-01

245

A Set Of Principles For Conducting And Evaluating Interpretive Field Studies In Information Systems  

E-print Network

This article discusses the conduct and evaluation of interpretive research in information systems. While the conventions for evaluating information systems case studies conducted according to the natural science model of social science are now widely accepted, this is not the case for interpretive field studies. A set of principles for the conduct and evaluation of interpretive field research in information systems is proposed, along with their philosophical rationale. The usefulness of the principles is illustrated by evaluating three published interpretive field studies drawn from the IS research literature. The intention of the paper is to further reflection and debate on the important subject of grounding interpretive research methodology.

Heinz K. Klein; Michael D. Myers

1999-01-01

246

EMERGING TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY: THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MODELING OF MULTI-SPECIES TRANSPORT IN SOILS UNDER ELECTRIC FIELDS  

EPA Science Inventory

This project investigated an innovative approach for transport of inorganic species under the influence of electric fields. This process, commonly known as electrokinetics uses low-level direct current (dc) electrical potential difference across a soil mass applied through inert...

247

REDUCING CHILDREN'S RISK TO SOIL LEAD: SUMMARY OF A FIELD EXPERIMENT TO REDUCE SOIL LEAD BIOAVAILABILITY (ABSTRACT)  

EPA Science Inventory

Reducing risks associated with Pb in soil has typically been accomplished by soil removal, covering, or dilution by mixing with uncontaminated soil. EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) and DuPont Corporation established a collaborative effort to evaluation...

248

An Examination of Performance-Based Teacher Evaluation Systems in Five States. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 129  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reports on performance-based teacher evaluation systems in five states that have implemented such systems. It investigates two primary research questions: (1) What are the key characteristics of state-level performance-based teacher evaluation systems in the study states?; and (2) How do state teacher evaluation measures, the teaching…

Shakman, Karen; Riordan, Julie; Sanchez, Maria Teresa; Cook, Kyle DeMeo; Fournier, Richard; Brett, Jessica

2012-01-01

249

Value-Added Estimates for Phase 1 of the Pennsylvania Teacher and Principal Evaluation Pilot. Executive Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania plans to develop a new statewide evaluation system for teachers and principals in its public schools by school year 2013-2014. To inform the development of this evaluation system, the Team Pennsylvania Foundation (Team PA) undertook the first phase of the Pennsylvania Teacher and Principal Evaluation

Lipscomb, Stephen; Chiang, Hanley; Gill, Brian

2012-01-01

250

Microwave Remote Sensing Monitoring of Rice Field on Evaluation Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In recent days the use of the exact on line information about the instantaneous conditions of the corn fields is an important\\u000a agent for agricultural technology control. In the modern agriculture, the Remote Sensing Technique demonstrates in many cases\\u000a new ways to the resolutions of the problems for field investigation, monitoring and control. The utilization of the microwave\\u000a remote sensing

M. A. Michalev; D. M. Chung

251

Field evaluation of hazardous waste site bioassessment protocols. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of the plan was to demonstrate that honeybees could be used in detecting likely areas of chemical pollution, to demonstrate the usefulness of microbial and plant phytoassays, and to demonstrate a relationship between laboratory derived phytotoxicity results and field observations of plant community structure and diversity. Field studies were conducted through a cooperative arrangement with the US Army arsenal in Commerce City, Colorado.

Thomas, J.M.; Cline, J.F.; Gano, K.A.; McShane, M.C.; Rogers, J.E.; Rogers, L.E.; Simpson, J.C.; Skalski, J.R.

1984-04-01

252

FIELD EVALUATION OF DNAPL EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGIES: PROJECT OVERVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

Five DNAPL remediation technologies were evaluated at the Dover National Test Site, Dover AFB, Delaware. The technologies were cosolvent solubilization, cosolvent mobilization, surfactant solubilization, complex sugar flushing and air sparging/soil vapor extraction. The effectiv...

253

FIELD VALIDATION OF SEDIMENT TOXCITY IDENTIFCATION AND EVALUATION METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

Sediment Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE) methods have been developed for both porewaters and whole sediments. These relatively simple laboratory methods are designed to identify specific toxicants or classes of toxicants in sediments; however, the question of whethe...

254

Co-ordination of the International Network of Nuclear Structure and Decay Data Evaluators; Summary Report of an IAEA Technical Meeting  

SciTech Connect

The IAEA Nuclear Data Section convened the 18th meeting of the International Network of Nuclear Structure and Decay Data Evaluators at the IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, 23 to 27 March 2009. This meeting was attended by 22 scientists from 14 Member States, plus IAEA staff, concerned with the compilation, evaluation and dissemination of nuclear structure and decay data. A summary of the meeting, recommendations/conclusions, data centre reports, and various proposals considered, modified and agreed by the participants are contained within this document. The International Network of Nuclear Structure and Decay Data (NSDD) Evaluators holds biennial meetings under the auspices of the IAEA, and consists of evaluation groups and data service centres in several countries. This network has the objective of providing up-to-date nuclear structure and decay data for all known nuclides by evaluating all existing experimental data. Data resulting from this international evaluation collaboration is included in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) and published in the journals Nuclear Physics A and Nuclear Data Sheets (NDS).

Abriola, D.; Tuli, J.

2009-03-23

255

An Alternative Approach to Specifying Test Electric Field Magnitude for Evaluation of Broadband LMR Antennas  

E-print Network

An Alternative Approach to Specifying Test Electric Field Magnitude for Evaluation of Broadband LMR the disadvantage that the magnitude of the applied electric field is determined by the performance at the nominal field magnitude that is not associated with an arbitrarily-determined frequency. In this report, we

Ellingson, Steven W.

256

Assessment of Program Impact Through First Grade, Volume VI: Summary of Impact on Institutions, Teachers and Classrooms, Parents and Children. An Evaluation of Project Developmental Continuity. Interim Report X.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The final volume in a series of six evaluation reports, this document provides a summary of the results of the evaluation of Project Developmental Continuity (PDC), conducted when the evaluation study's cohort of children had completed grade 1. Begun at 15 sites in 1974 with the purpose of ensuring that disadvantaged children receive continuous…

Powell, Marjorie; And Others

257

summary99  

Cancer.gov

Summary - 1999 NCI-Industry Meeting Comments MEETING SUMMARY NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE-INDUSTRY FORUM AND WORKSHOP ON BIOMEDICAL IMAGING IN ONCOLOGY September 1-2, 1999 Washington, D.C. The first National Cancer Institute (NCI)-Industry Forum and

258

Field Summary Report for Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes field sampling activities conducted in support of WCH’s Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River. This work was conducted form 2008 through 2010. The work included preliminary mapping and measurement of Hanford Site contaminants in sediment, pore water, and surface water located in areas where groundwater upwelling were found.

L.C. Hulstrom

2010-08-11

259

Field Summary Report for Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Coumbia River, Hanford Site, Washington  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes field sampling activities conducted in support of WCH’s Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River. This work was conducted form 2008 through 2010. The work included preliminary mapping and measurement of Hanford Site contaminants in sediment, pore water, and surface water located in areas where groundwater upwelling were found.

L.C. Hulstrom

2010-11-10

260

SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: SUMMARY REPORT ON THE FIELD INVESTIGATION OF THE SAPP BATTERY SITE JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

This treatability study presents the results of field investigations at the Sapp Battery site in Florida, an abandoned battery recycling operation. The site is estimated to contain 14,300 cubic yards of soils with lead levels in excess of 1,000 ppm. The soils in the immediate v...

261

Field Summary Report for Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington  

SciTech Connect

This report documents field activity associated with the collection, preparation, and shipment of fish samples. The purpose of the report is to describe the sampling locations, identify samples collected, and describe any modifications and additions made to the sampling and analysis plan.

L.C. Hulstrom

2010-09-28

262

The Major Project in the Field of Education in the Latin American and Caribbean Region: Summary. Bulletin 20.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This UNESCO bulletin includes reports that focus on diagnoses and strategies that ratify the validity of the goals set by the Major Project in the Field of Education in the Latin American and Caribbean Region. Four articles are featured: "Literacy, Human Rights and Democracy" (Jose Rivero H.); "Primary Schooling and Illiteracy in Latin America and…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and Caribbean.

263

A Summary of INEEL Calcine Properties Used to Evaluate Direct Calcine Disposal in the Yucca Mountain Repository  

SciTech Connect

To support evaluations of the direct disposal of Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory calcines to the repository at Yucca Mountain, an evaluation of the performance of the calcine in the repository environment must be performed. This type of evaluation demonstrates, through computer modeling and analysis, the impact the calcine would have on the ability of the repository to perform its function of containment of materials during the repository lifetime. This report discusses parameters that were used in the scoping evaluation conducted in FY 2003. It provides nominal values for the parameters, with explanation of the source of the values, and how the values were modified for use in repository analysis activities.

C. A. Dahl

2003-07-01

264

Eubank Field, Kansas: a formation evaluation and secondary recovery project  

E-print Network

of the wells in this field have well logs, five wells were cored, and a 26 square-mile, 3-D seismic survey was performed in 1995. I have summarized all of the data available to date-well logs, production data, core data, PVT data, pressure transient tests...

Dexheimer, Dominique

1999-01-01

265

FIELD EVALUATION OF EVAPO-TRANSPIRATION (ET) CAPS  

EPA Science Inventory

A field study was conducted to assess the ability of landfill covers to control percolation into the waste. Performance of one conventional cover was compared to that of two evapotranspiration (ET) tree covers, using large (7 x 14 m) lined lysimeters at the Leon County Solid W...

266

BIOREMEDIATION FIELD EVALUATION - HILL AIR FORCE BASE, UTAH  

EPA Science Inventory

In 1990, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the Bioremediation Field Initiative as part of its overall strategy to increase the use of bioremediation to treat hazardous wastes at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liabil- ity Act (C...

267

FIELD ANALYTICAL SCREENING PROGRAM: PCP METHOD - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The Field Analytical Screening Program (FASP) pentachlorophenol (PCP) method uses a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a megabore capillary column and flame ionization detector (FID) and electron capture detector (ECD) to identify and quantify PCP. The FASP PCP method is design...

268

FIELD EVALUATION OF A UTILITY DRY SCRUBBING SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of the first independent evaluation of a full-scale utility spray-dryer/baghouse dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. The system treats flue gas from a nominal 100 MW of coal-fired power generation. The test program, conducted during July-October 19...

269

COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION OF A FIELD TEST KIT FOR LEAD  

EPA Science Inventory

The Hach Lead-Trak(R) test kit for lead in water was tested in a laboratory evaluation. onsidered were: perator bias, precision, accuracy, linear calibration range, and potential drinking water interferences. nterferences tested were realistic levels off: a, Mg, Ni, Sb, Mn, Cd, C...

270

Field Evaluation of a Near Zero Energy Home in Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

The authors evaluated a zero energy home built by Ideal Homes in Edmond, Oklahoma, that included an extensive package of energy-efficient technologies and a photovoltaic array for site electricity generation. The home was part of a Building America research project in partnership with the Building Science Consortium to exhibit high efficiency technologies while keeping costs within the reach of average home buyers.

Hendron, R.; Hancock, E.; Barker, G.; Reeves, P.

2008-08-01

271

Field Testing of the Discrete-Trials Teaching Evaluation Form  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We assessed the reliability and validity of the discrete-trials teaching evaluation form (DTTEF), a 21-item checklist for assessing instructors conducting discrete-trials teaching (DTT). In Phase 1, six consultants in an applied behavior analysis program for children with autism rated the 21 components of the DTTEF with a mean of 6.2 on a 7-point…

Jeanson, Brigitte; Thiessen, Carly; Thomson, Kendra; Vermeulen, Rhiannon; Martin, Garry L.; Yu, C. T.

2010-01-01

272

ESTIMATING SAMPLE REQUIREMENTS FOR FIELD EVALUATIONS OF PESTICIDE LEACHING  

EPA Science Inventory

A method is presented for estimating the number of samples needed to evaluate pesticide leaching threats to ground water at a desired level of precision. Sample size projections are based on desired precision (exhibited as relative tolerable error), level of confidence (90 or 95%...

273

Evaluation of the DC Opportunity Scholarship Program: Impacts after Two Years. Executive Summary. NCEE 2008-4024  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of the "District of Columbia School Choice Incentive Act of 2003" Congress mandated evaluation of this first federally funded, private school voucher program in the United States (now called the DC Opportunity Scholarship Program (OSP). This report presents findings from the evaluation on the impacts 2 years after families who applied were…

Wolf, Patrick; Gutmann, Babette; Puma, Michael; Kisida, Brian; Rizzo, Lou; Eissa, Nada

2008-01-01

274

Rome/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) magnetic field experiment: A summary of results. [flux gate magnetometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A triaxial flux gate magnetometer (E3) was developed and operated to accurately measure the vector magnetic field onboard Helios 1 and 2. Observations of large-scale variations and sector structure confirm theoretical descriptions and compuations. Limits on the configuration of a magnetic cloud are set, and the source of at least one magnetic cloud is identified as a coronal mass ejection. Two types of interplanetary flow pattern are identified: a corotating stream and interaction region related to the boundary, and a transient flow associated with a shock wave. Discontinuities in the direction and/or strength of the magnetic field are explained. Alfven waves and magnetic turbulence are characterized by simultaneous Helios 1 and 2 observations.

Mariani, F.; Ness, N.; Bavassano, B.; Burlaga, L. F.; Cantarano, S.; Scearce, C.; Terenzi, R.; Villante, U.

1984-01-01

275

Practical method for evaluating the sound field radiated from a waveguide.  

PubMed

This letter presents a simple and practical method for evaluating the sound field radiated from a waveguide. By using the proposed method, detailed information about the radiated sound field can be obtained by measuring the sound field in the mouth of the baffled waveguide. To examine this method's effectiveness, the radiated sound pressure distribution in space was first evaluated by using the proposed method, and then it was measured directly for comparison. Experiments using two different waveguides showed good agreement between the evaluated and the measured radiated sound pressure distributions. PMID:25618097

Feng, Xuelei; Shen, Yong; Chen, Simiao; Zhao, Ye

2015-01-01

276

Improving decision making for environmental health in Cape Town -- the HEADLAMP field study. Summary of interim findings and future directions.  

PubMed

This article presents interim findings of a field study in Cape Town, South Africa, to identify specific environmental health (EH) problems, to describe the local decision-making process in EH, and to field test a proposed set of Environmental Health Indicators (EHIs). Research methods included a literature review, in-depth interviews, focus groups, and workshops. Findings were hampered by the lack of accurate population estimates for Cape Town and the paucity of data on morbidity. Findings indicate that the infant mortality rate was 20.76/1000 live births in 1993; 13.8/1000 for Whites and 33.9/1000 for Blacks. The main causes were prematurity, ill-defined causes, diarrhea and enteritis, congenital abnormalities, and pneumonia. Major adult causes were malignancies, ill-defined causes, heart disease, homicides, and respiratory conditions. The largest causes of death for people aged 15-44 years were homicides and motor vehicle accidents. Health services are in the process of restructuring. Data on environmental conditions is weak at the district or suburb level. Environmental data for this field study were derived from ad hoc surveys of environmental conditions in Western Cape Province, South Africa. Access to basic facilities such as water, sanitation, housing, refuse disposal, and electricity, varied by race. Existing EH data are not related to program objectives and management or planning needs, and do not include baseline data. Quality of data is not monitored. EH services should focus on the basics and poverty problems and should be reformed. PMID:12178479

Lewin, S

1995-09-01

277

Performance evaluation of parallel electric field tunnel field-effect transistor by a distributed-element circuit model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of parallel electric field tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs), in which band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) was initiated in-line to the gate electric field was evaluated. The TFET was fabricated by inserting an epitaxially-grown parallel-plate tunnel capacitor between heavily doped source wells and gate insulators. Analysis using a distributed-element circuit model indicated there should be a limit of the drain current caused by the self-voltage-drop effect in the ultrathin channel layer.

Morita, Yukinori; Mori, Takahiro; Migita, Shinji; Mizubayashi, Wataru; Tanabe, Akihito; Fukuda, Koichi; Matsukawa, Takashi; Endo, Kazuhiko; O'uchi, Shin-ichi; Liu, Yongxun; Masahara, Meishoku; Ota, Hiroyuki

2014-12-01

278

Performance evaluation of a high-field orbitrap mass analyzer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new design of the Orbitrap™ mass analyzer is presented. Higher frequencies of ion oscillations and hence higher resolving power over fixed acquisition\\u000a time are achieved by decreasing the gap between the inner and outer Orbitrap electrodes, thus providing higher field strength\\u000a for a given voltage. Experimental results confirm maximum FWHM resolving power in excess of 350,000 at m\\/z 524

Alexander Makarov; Eduard Denisov; Oliver Lange

2009-01-01

279

Evaluation in context: ATC automation in the field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The process for incorporating advanced technologies into complex aviation systems is as important as the final product itself. This paper described a process that is currently being applied to the development and assessment of an advanced ATC automation system, CTAS. The key element of the process is field exposure early in the system development cycle. The process deviates from current established practices of system development -- where field testing is an implementation endpoint -- and has been deemed necessary by the FAA for streamlining development and bringing system functions to a level of stability and usefulness. Methods and approaches for field assessment are borrowed from human factors engineering, cognitive engineering, and usability engineering and are tailored for the constraints of an operational ATC environment. To date, the focus has been on the qualitative assessment of the match between TMA capabilities and the context for their use. Capturing the users' experience with the automation tool and understanding tool use in the context of the operational environment is important, not only for developing a tool that is an effective problem-solving instrument but also for defining meaningful operational requirements. Such requirements form the basis for certifying the safety and efficiency of the system. CTAS is the first U.S. advanced ATC automation system of its scope and complexity to undergo this field development and assessment process. With the rapid advances in aviation technologies and our limited understanding of their impact on system performance, it is time we opened our eyes to new possibilities for developing, validating, and ultimately certifying complex aviation systems.

Harwood, Kelly; Sanford, Beverly

1994-01-01

280

Personal Radiation Detector Field Test and Evaluation Campaign  

SciTech Connect

Following the success of the Anole test of portable detection system, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Domestic Nuclear Detection Office organized a test and evaluation campaign for personal radiation detectors (PRDs), also known as 'Pagers'. This test, 'Bobcat', was conducted from July 17 to August 8, 2006, at the Nevada Test Site. The Bobcat test was designed to evaluate the performance of PRDs under various operational scenarios, such as pedestrian surveying, mobile surveying, cargo container screening, and pedestrian chokepoint monitoring. Under these testing scenarios, many operational characteristics of the PRDs, such as gamma and neutron sensitivities, positive detection and false alarm rates, response delay times, minimum detectable activities, and source localization errors, were analyzed. This paper will present the design, execution, and methodologies used to test this equipment for the DHS.

Chris A. Hodge, Ding Yuan, Raymond P. Keegan, Michael A. Krstich

2007-07-09

281

BOBCAT Personal Radiation Detector Field Test and Evaluation Campaign  

SciTech Connect

Following the success of the Anole test of portable detection system, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Domestic Nuclear Detection Office organized a test and evaluation campaign for personal radiation detectors (PRDs), also known as “Pagers.” This test, “Bobcat,” was conducted from July 17 to August 8, 2006, at the Nevada Test Site. The Bobcat test was designed to evaluate the performance of PRDs under various operational scenarios, such as pedestrian surveying, mobile surveying, cargo container screening, and pedestrian chokepoint monitoring. Under these testing scenarios, many operational characteristics of the PRDs, such as gamma and neutron sensitivities, positive detection and false alarm rates, response delay times, minimum detectable activities, and source localization errors, were analyzed. This paper will present the design, execution, and methodologies used to test this equipment for the DHS.

Chris Hodge

2008-03-01

282

Field Evaluation of Anti-Biofouling Compounds on Optical Instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biofouling has been a serious question in the stability of optical measurements in the ocean, particularly in moored and drifting buoy applications. Many investigators coat optical surfaces with various compounds to reduce the amount of fouling; to our knowledge, however, there are no objective, in-situ comparative testing of these compounds to evaluate their effectiveness with respect to optical stability relative to untreated controls. We have tested a wide range of compounds at in-situ locations in Halifax Harbour and in the Adriatic Sea on passive optical sensors. Compounds tested include a variety of TBT formulations, antifungal agents, and low-friction silicone-based compounds; time-scales of up to four months were evaluated. The results of these experiments are discussed.

McLean, Scott; Schofield, Bryan; Zibordi, Giuseppe; Lewis, Marlon; Hooker, Stanford; Weidemann, Alan

1997-01-01

283

1 Executive Summary EXECUTIVE SUMMARY  

E-print Network

, and the transportation sector's dependence on oil, the resulting price shocks could seriously affect the state's overall production, in Alaska as well as California, will result in greater California dependency on foreign oil1 Executive Summary EXECUTIVE SUMMARY WORLD OIL TRENDS If world oil demand increases more rapidly

284

Executive Summary 11 Executive Summary  

E-print Network

Executive Summary 11 Executive Summary 1. World Robotics 2014 Industrial Robots 2. World Robotics 2014 Service Robots 1. World Robotics 2014 Industrial Robots 2013: The highest number of industrial recorded for one year. Sales of industrial robots to the automotive, the chemical, and the rubber

De Luca, Alessandro

285

10 Executive Summary Executive Summary  

E-print Network

10 Executive Summary Executive Summary 1. World Robotics 2013 Industrial Robots 2. World Robotics 2013 Service Robots 1. World Robotics 2013 Industrial Robots 2012: Second highest number of robots sold recorded for one year. The decline of robot sales to the electrical electronics industry was the main cause

De Luca, Alessandro

286

Forest health monitoring: 1991 Georgia indicator evaluation and field study  

SciTech Connect

The pilot study was designed to test methods for quantifying vegetation structure, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), dendrochronology, and selected root fungi. Testing the methods included comparing different data collection procedures for individual indicators, estimating sampling efficiency (both of the sampling design and the sampling unit design), and evaluating spatial variability. In addition, the accuracy and precision of tree height instruments were determined as part of the pilot study.

Alexander, S.A.; Baldwin, M.; Bechtold, W.A.; Cassell, D.L.; Cline, S.

1994-03-01

287

Development of a Visual Inspection Checklist for Evaluation of Fielded PV Module Condition (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

A visual inspection checklist for the evaluation of fielded photovoltaic (PV) modules has been developed to facilitate collection of data describing the field performance of PV modules. The proposed inspection checklist consists of 14 sections, each documenting the appearance or properties of a part of the module. This tool has been evaluated through the inspection of over 60 PV modules produced by more than 20 manufacturers and fielded at two different sites for varying periods of time. Aggregated data from a single data collection tool such as this checklist has the potential to enable longitudinal studies of module condition over time, technology evolution, and field location for the enhancement of module reliability models.

Packard, C. E; Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Kurtz, S. R.

2012-03-01

288

Evaluation of Spray Drift from Tea Field during Pesticides Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spray drift from tea field was measured by using water-sensitive papers(WSP). 1)Automated thresholding by "ImageJ", which is an open architecture image analysis program, was able to apply for extracting deposits on WSP. In order to analyze spot size of deposits and percent area coverage on WSP, the command of analyze particle was used. However, the stain area obtained by automated thresholding was larger than one by optimal threshold. The correction factor was 0.7411. 2)Although the spraying method and the nozzle type were different, 99% of the number of droplets was less than 200?m in the diameter and 80% was less than 125?m. 3)Among all nozzle treatments by manual spraying and by a riding type boom sprayer,bigger droplet size nozzles decreased drift, but there was no difference in droplet density on tea leaves. 4)Hydraulic application by a riding type boom sprayer was less spray drift than manual spraying, because a riding type boom sprayer can keep the distance from tea hedge canopy to a boom nozzle shorter than manual spraying. 5)Although the anti-drift cover for a riding type boom sprayer reduced drift when smallerdroplet size nozzle was used, bigger droplet size nozzle was recommended to use for avoiding drift risk. 6)Since the distance from tea hedge canopy to a boom nozzle can be short, the drift value (total droplet volume par unit area / sprayed volume par unit area) obtained in tea field was only 1/10 of the data reported by drift assessment in vegetable field.

Sumikawa, Osamu; Miyama, Daisuke; Araki, Takuya

289

Evaluation of the intranasal flow field through computational fluid dynamics.  

PubMed

A reliable and comprehensive assessment of nasal breathing is problematic and still a common issue in rhinosurgery. Impairments of nasal breathing need an objective approach. In this regard, currently rhinomanometry is the only standard diagnostic tool available but has various limitations. However, in the last decade, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has become a promising method in facing the challenge of qualifying nasal breathing. This article presents use of CFD with a symptom-free subject and a symptomatic patient. Thereby, certain flow field features and changes before and after surgery were investigated. Moreover, the study outlines suggestions for concrete rhinologic CFD applications. PMID:23564240

Hildebrandt, Thomas; Goubergrits, Leonid; Heppt, Werner Johannes; Bessler, Stephan; Zachow, Stefan

2013-04-01

290

Field evaluation of environmental sanitation measures against cholera*  

PubMed Central

Data obtained in a controlled field study over 5 years in 4 communities showed that the provision of sanitary facilities for human waste disposal can reduce the incidence of cholera by as much as 68%, while the provision of a safe water supply can decrease it by 73%. Where both toilets and water supplies are provided, the incidence can be reduced by as much as 76%. There was evidence that cholera infection gaining access to communities with these facilities tends to spread less and produce fewer secondary cases than in a community where such facilities are not provided. PMID:4549038

Azurin, J. C.; Alvero, M.

1974-01-01

291

COMPARISON AND EVALUATION OF FIELD AND LABORATORY TOXICITY TESTS WITH FENVALERATE ON AN ESTUARINE CRUSTACEAN  

EPA Science Inventory

A combination of laboratory toxicity tests was conducted on the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio. est results were compared with field toxicity tests to evaluate the usefulness of laboratory testing in estimating mortality from fenvalerate exposure associated with agricultural ru...

292

Demonstration and Field Evaluation of Streambank Stabilization with Submerged Vanes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effectiveness of submerged vanes for reducing bank erosion and improving aquatic habitat is being evaluated at a site on North Fish Creek, a Lake Superior tributary. Increased runoff from agricultural areas with clayey soils has increased flood magnitudes and the erosion potential/transport capacity of the stream. Most of the creek's sediment load originates from the erosion of 17 large bluffs. This creek contains important recreational fisheries that are potentially limited by the loss of aquatic habitat from deposition of sediment on spawning beds. Submerged vanes are a cost effective and environmentally less intrusive alternative to traditional structural stabilization measures. Submerged vanes protrude from a channel bed, are oriented at an angle to the local velocity, and are distributed along a portion of channel. They induce a transverse force and torque on the flow along with longitudinal vortexes that alter the cross sectional shape and alignment of the channel. Submerged vanes were installed at a bluff/bend site in summer and fall 2000. The number, size, and layout of the vanes were based upon the channel morphology under estimated bankfull conditions. The effectiveness of the vanes will be evaluated by comparing surveys of the bluff face, streamflow, and channel conditions for several years after installation of the submerged vanes with surveys before and immediately after their installation.

Whitman, H.; Hoopes, J.; Poggi, D.; Fitzpatrick, F.; Walz, K.

2001-01-01

293

Evaluation of field development plans using 3-D reservoir modelling  

SciTech Connect

Three-dimensional reservoir modelling has become an accepted tool in reservoir description and is used for various purposes, such as reservoir performance prediction or integration and visualisation of data. In this case study, a small Northern North Sea turbiditic reservoir was to be developed with a line drive strategy utilising a series of horizontal producer and injector pairs, oriented north-south. This development plan was to be evaluated and the expected outcome of the wells was to be assessed and risked. Detailed analyses of core, well log and analogue data has led to the development of two geological {open_quotes}end member{close_quotes} scenarios. Both scenarios have been stochastically modelled using the Sequential Indicator Simulation method. The resulting equiprobable realisations have been subjected to detailed statistical well placement optimisation techniques. Based upon bivariate statistical evaluation of more than 1000 numerical well trajectories for each of the two scenarios, it was found that the wells inclinations and lengths had a great impact on the wells success, whereas the azimuth was found to have only a minor impact. After integration of the above results, the actual well paths were redesigned to meet external drilling constraints, resulting in substantial reductions in drilling time and costs.

Seifert, D.; Lewis, J.J.M. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Newbery, J.D.H. [Conoco, UK Ltd., Aberdeen (United Kingdom)] [and others

1997-08-01

294

A field evaluation of experimental passive railroad-highway grade crossing warning systems  

E-print Network

A FIELD EVALUATION OF EKPERIMENTAL PASSIVE RAILROAD-HIGHWAY GRADE CROSSING WARNING SYSTEMS A Thesis MICHAEL MORGAN BEITLER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1993 Major Subject: Civil Engineering )~~I ABSTRACT A Field Evaluation of Experimental Passive Railroad- Highway Grade Crossing Warning Systems. (August 1993) Michael Morgan Beitler, B. S. , University...

Beitler, Michael Morgan

1993-01-01

295

Performance evaluation of a high-field Orbitrap mass analyzer.  

PubMed

A new design of the Orbitrap mass analyzer is presented. Higher frequencies of ion oscillations and hence higher resolving power over fixed acquisition time are achieved by decreasing the gap between the inner and outer Orbitrap electrodes, thus providing higher field strength for a given voltage. Experimental results confirm maximum FWHM resolving power in excess of 350,000 at m/z 524 and 600,000 at m/z 195, isotopic resolution of proteins above 40 kDa, and a single-shot dynamic range of 25,000. It was also found that mass shifts in the new design depend very little on space charge inside the analyzer. This performance was achieved using higher voltages and by careful balancing of construction tolerances and operation parameters, which appeared to vary in narrower ranges of tuning than for a standard Orbitrap analyzer. PMID:19216090

Makarov, Alexander; Denisov, Eduard; Lange, Oliver

2009-08-01

296

Evaluations of carbon nanotube field emitters for electron microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brightness of carbon nanotube (CNT) emitters was already reported elsewhere. However, brightness of electron emitter is affected by a virtual source size of the emitter, which strongly depends on electron optical configuration around the emitter. In this work, I- V characteristics and brightness of a CNT emitter are measured under a practical field emission electron gun (e-gun) configuration to investigate availability of CNT for electron microscopy. As a result, it is obtained that an emission area of MWNT is smaller than its tip surface area, and the emission area corresponds to a five-membered-ring with 2nd nearest six-membered-rings on the MWNT cap surface. Reduced brightness of MWNT is measured as at least 2.6×109 A/m 2 sr V. It is concluded that even a thick MWNT has enough brightness under a practical e-gun electrode configuration and suitable for electron microscopy.

Nakahara, Hitoshi; Kusano, Yoshikazu; Kono, Takumi; Saito, Yahachi

2009-11-01

297

Evaluation of arsine generation in arsenic field kit  

SciTech Connect

The recent outbreak of arsenic in groundwater of Bangladesh has prompted the widespread use of arsenic field kits. The kit involves the generation of arsine (AsH{sub 3}) from inorganic arsenic species by reduction with Zn and HCI. The arsine then reacts with a test strip containing HgBr{sub 2} to produce a color that is compared with a color scale for quantitation. It is known that arsine gas is one of the most toxic substances known to man. The objective of this work is to measure the concentration of ambient arsine produced during the test and suggest a safe handling procedure. The analytical method is based on integrated AsH{sub 3} measurement by a single-point arsine monitor. The method can be used to measure 4--50 ppb arsenic in water with 10% in precision and accuracy. Experiments show that a typical test kit produces arsine with a 90% efficiency. The concentration of arsine produced even at low level can be more than 9 times above the 50 ppbv threshold limiting value (TLV). Actual kit experiments show that 50% of the arsine escapes the reaction cell during the test. The authors estimate that the maximum arsine concentration in the immediate vicinity of the kit can be more than 35 times TLV of arsine from a single experiment with 100 ppb total arsenic in solution. Particularly, field workers performing a large number of tests in highly affected areas are exposed to a much higher level or arsine. They suggest that the tests should be performed in well-ventilated places and that the worker should be provided with a gas mask to minimize arsine inhalation.

Hussam, A.; Alauddin, M.; Khan, A.H.; Rasul, S.B.; Munir, A.K.M.

1999-10-15

298

Rice and cold stress: methods for its evaluation and summary of cold tolerance-related quantitative trait loci  

PubMed Central

Cold stress adversely affects rice (Oryza sativa L.) growth and productivity, and has so far determined its geographical distribution. Dissecting cold stress-mediated physiological changes and understanding their genetic causes will facilitate the breeding of rice for cold tolerance. Here, we review recent progress in research on cold stress-mediated physiological traits and metabolites, and indicate their roles in the cold-response network and cold-tolerance evaluation. We also discuss criteria for evaluating cold tolerance and evaluate the scope and shortcomings of each application. Moreover, we summarize research on quantitative trait loci (QTL) related to cold stress at the germination, seedling, and reproductive stages that should provide useful information to accelerate progress in breeding cold-tolerant rice. PMID:25279026

2014-01-01

299

FIELD-SCALE EVALUATION OF IN SITU COSOLVENT FLUSHING FOR ENCHANCED AQUIFER REMEDIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A comprehensive, field-scale evaluation of in situ cosolvent flushing for enhanced remediation of nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL)-contaminated aquifers was performed in a hydraulically isolated test cell (about 4.3 m x 3.6 m) constructed at a field site at Hill Air Force Base, Uta...

300

Evaluation of measurement reproducibility using the standard-sites data, 1994 Fernald field characterization demonstration project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Department of Energy conducted the 1994 Fernald (Ohio) field characterization demonstration project to evaluate the performance of a group of both industry-standard and proposed alternative technologies in describing the nature and extent of uranium contamination in surficial soils. Detector stability and measurement reproducibility under actual operating conditions encountered in the field is critical to establishing the credibility of

Rautman

1996-01-01

301

A Field Training Model for Creative Arts Therapies: Report from a 3-Year Program Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Clinical field training is an essential component of educating future therapists. This article discusses a creative arts therapies field training model in Israel as designed and modified from 3 years of program evaluation in a changing regulatory context. A clinical seminar structure puts beginning students in the role of participant-observer in…

Orkibi, Hod

2012-01-01

302

Regional School Counselor Trainings for Children from Dysfunctional Families with Alcohol and Drug Problems: Final Evaluation Report Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School personnel need help in assisting at-risk students. The efforts of one school district to accomplish this goal are summarized here. The project provided a variety of training in: (1) the field of drug and alcohol prevention; (2) counseling and referral services to school counselors, nurses, psychologists, and social workers involved in…

Armijo, Eduardo J.; Smith, Albert J., Jr.

303

A Performance Evaluation of ARM ISA Extension for Elliptic Curve Cryptography over Binary Finite Fields  

E-print Network

A Performance Evaluation of ARM ISA Extension for Elliptic Curve Cryptography over Binary Finite, we present an evaluation of possible ARM instruction set extension for Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) over binary finite fields GF(2m ). The use of elliptic curve cryptography is becoming common

Giorgi, Roberto

304

Field evaluation of fungicides for control of Ascochyta blight of chickpea, 2006.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To evaluate foliar fungicides against Ascochyta bligt of chickpea caused by Ascochyta rabiei, field plots were set up at Pullman, WA and Genesee, ID. The fungicides evaluated were Bravo, Headline, Proline, Quadris opti, and Tanos. Disease pressure was higher at the Pullman location than the Genese...

305

DISPOSAL OF FLUE GAS CLEANING WASTES: EPA SHAWNEE FIELD EVALUATION. SECOND ANNUAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes progress made during the first two years of a field evaluation of treated and untreated ponding techniques for the disposal of power plant flue gas desulfurization sludges. The evaluation used two 10 MW lime and limestone flue gas scrubbers of TVA's Shawnee P...

306

Field Experience Supervision: A Comparison of Cooperating Teachers' and College Supervisors' Evaluations of Student Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored and compared the ways in which school-based cooperating teachers and college supervisors evaluate student teachers. The scores allocated to student teachers by school-based cooperating teachers and college supervisors in the final field experience evaluations of student teachers were analyzed. A mixed methods research design…

Hunn, Lorie L.

2009-01-01

307

Evaluation Field Building in South Asia: Insights from the Rear View Mirror  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author enjoyed reading Katharine Hay's ambitious and humbling visions for evaluation field building in South Asia. She has successfully positioned herself on a high mountain with a wonderful set of binoculars that enable her to see the entire evaluation landscape of South Asia. She magically sees and describes significant historical forces and…

Grob, George F.

2010-01-01

308

DISPOSAL OF FLUE GAS CLEANING WASTES: EPA SHAWNEE FIELD EVALUATION - THIRD ANNUAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes progress made on a field evaluation project being conducted by the EPA to assess techniques for disposing of power plant flue gas cleaning (FGC) wastes. The evaluation site is at TVA's Shawnee steam plant in Paducah, KY. Two prototype scrubbers, using lime an...

309

Putting Youth Relationship Education on the Child Welfare Agenda: Findings from a Research and Evaluation Review. Executive Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Child Trends reviewed existing evidence on a somewhat neglected topic: relationship education for youth in foster care. The goals of this research review were to identify the needs of disadvantaged young people around intimate partner relationships, to identify evaluated relationship education programs, to highlight and synthesize common themes…

Scott, Mindy E.; Moore, Kristin Anderson; Hawkins, Alan J.; Malm, Karin; Beltz, Martha

2012-01-01

310

A PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A VARIABLE SPEED, MIXED REFRIGERANT HEAT PUMP. SUMMARY. EPA/600/SR-92/053  

EPA Science Inventory

The performance of an innovative heat pump, equipped with a distillation column to shift the composition of a zeotropic refrigerant mixture, was evaluated. The results of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) rating tests and seasonal energy calcuations are reported with the main cycl...

311

Summary of the Fourth Report on the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a special report by The Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents to inform clinicians on recent scientific evidence related to blood pressure in children and to offer recommendations for evaluation and treatment of hypertension in these patients.

2004-01-01

312

The Case for Pre-K in Education Reform: A Summary of Program Evaluation Findings. Research Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For state and federal officials seeking to improve school performance, 50 years of evidence shows that high-quality, voluntary pre-kindergarten is among the best strategies for education reform. This brief from Pew's Pre-K Now initiative highlighted findings from evaluations of state-funded Pre-K programs that continue to document gains in key…

Wat, Albert

2010-01-01

313

Field evaluation of FR5 glass optical current transducer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the operation of an optical current transducer (OCT). The OCT operates by measuring changes in the polarization state of light traveling through a magneto- optic sensor head exposed to the magnetic field of a current carrying conductor. The changes in polarization state are directly related to the magnitude of the current flowing within the bus bar but ia also influenced by external environmental parameters such as temperature and mechanical disturbance. Engineering solutions to these influences have been implemented. Thermally induced errors of greater than 25% are shown to be corrected to less than 0.2% over a range of temperatures from -45 degree(s)C to 140 degree(s)C. In addition to this, signal waveform distortion resulting from mechanical vibration is automatically reduced by more than 30 dB over a range of frequencies from 0 Hz to 5 kHz. This paper reports on the design of this OCT and on detailed investigations carried out at the British Short-Circuit Testing Station to establish the operational characteristics of the OCT when subjected to transient current signals often with a significant dc component.

Niewczas, Pawel; Michie, W. Craig; Madden, Iain W.; Cruden, Andrew; McDonald, James R.

2000-08-01

314

Radiation Isotope Identification Device (RIIDs) Field Test and Evaluation Campaign  

SciTech Connect

Handheld, backpack, and mobile sensors are elements of the Global Nuclear Detection System for the interdiction and control of illicit radiological and nuclear materials. They are used by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and other government agencies and organizations in various roles for border protection, law enforcement, and nonproliferation monitoring. In order to systematically document the operational performance of the common commercial off-the-shelf portable radiation detection systems, the DHS Domestic Nuclear Detection Office conducted a test and evaluation campaign conducted at the Nevada Test Site from January 18 to February 27, 2006. Named 'Anole', it was the first test of its kind in terms of technical design and test complexities. The Anole test results offer users information for selecting appropriate mission-specific portable radiation detection systems. The campaign also offered manufacturers the opportunity to submit their equipment for independent operationally relevant testing to subsequently improve their detector performance. This paper will present the design, execution, and methodologies of the DHS Anole portable radiation detection system test campaign.

Christopher Hodge, Raymond Keegan

2007-08-01

315

Evaluation of Cottonwood Creek field complex, Bighorn basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Most of the 83 million bbl of oil produced from Cottonwood Creek and associated fields (Worland, Rattlesnake, South Frisby) is from a suite of peritidal dolomite facies that were deposited in and on the flanks of an ancient estuarine system. Isopach and facies maps suggest that the Tensleep fault and related northwest-southeast-oriented basement fault blocks, controlled the formation of this estuary during Late Pennsylvanian/Early Permian time and the pattern of late Ervay deposition within the estuary. Upper Ervay pisolitic and algal-laminated units, along with intraclast grainstones, map as thick (40 to 90 ft), 1 to 2-mi wide and 2 to 5-mi long pods that represent a northwest-southeast peninsular system of islands. The thickest (i.e., central and highest) portions of these islands are made up of extensively altered pisolitic, brecciated units whose porosity systems were destroyed by aragonite and calcite cementation during periodically low sea level stands. The thinner margins of these island pods are made up of reservoir-quality peritidal fenestral fabric, algal-laminated units, and intraclast grainstones that were subjected to significantly less cementation because of less-frequent exposure. Permeability in these units may be enhanced by preferential fracturing because they were deposited along paleostructural zones of weakness. As a result of these depositional, diagenetic, and fracture patterns, cumulative production is commonly much higher (> 200,000 bbl/well) from the flank positions of these pods. Lagoonal dolomite mudstones and red-bed/evaporite sequences were deposited between and behind these islands, respectively, and form the major updip hydrocarbon seals.

Inden, R.; Anderson, R.

1986-08-01

316

Development of a Characterized Radiation Field for Evaluating Sensor Performance  

SciTech Connect

Numerous efforts are funded by US agencies (DOE, DoD, DHS) for development of novel radiation sensing and measurement systems. An effort has been undertaken to develop a flexible shielding system compatible with a variety of sources (beta, X-ray, gamma, and neutron) that can be highly characterized using conventional radiation detection and measurement systems. Sources available for use in this system include americium-beryllium (AmBe), plutonium-beryllium (PuBe), strontium-90 (Sr-90), californium-252 (Cf-252), krypton-85 (Kr-85), americium-241 (Am-241), and depleted uranium (DU). Shielding can be varied by utilization of materials that include lexan, water, oil, lead, and polyethylene. Arrangements and geometries of source(s) and shielding can produce symmetrical or asymmetrical radiation fields. The system has been developed to facilitate accurately repeatable configurations. Measurement positions are similarly capable of being accurately re-created. Stand-off measurement positions can be accurately re-established using differential global positioning system (GPS) navigation. Instruments used to characterize individual measurement locations include a variety of sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) (3 x 3 inch, 4 x 4 x 16 inch, Fidler) and lithium iodide (LiI(Eu)) detectors (for use with multichannel analyzer software) and detectors for use with traditional hand held survey meters such as boron trifluoride (BF{sub 3}), helium-3 ({sup 3}He), and Geiger-Mueller (GM) tubes. Also available are Global Dosimetry thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), CR39 neutron chips, and film badges. Data will be presented comparing measurement techniques with shielding/source configurations. The system is demonstrated to provide a highly functional process for comparison/characterization of various detector types relative to controllable radiation types and levels. Particular attention has been paid to use of neutron sources and measurements. (authors)

Rogers, D.M.; Coggins, T.L.; Marsh, J.; Mann, St.D.; Waggoner, Ch.A. [Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET) and Office of Regulatory Compliance, Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS (United States)

2008-07-01

317

Application of digital interferogram evaluation techniques to the measurement of 3-D flow fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system for digitally evaluating interferograms, based on an image processing system connected to a host computer, was implemented. The system supports one- and two-dimensional interferogram evaluations. Interferograms are digitized, enhanced, and then segmented. The fringe coordinates are extracted, and the fringes are represented as polygonal data structures. Fringe numbering and fringe interpolation modules are implemented. The system supports editing and interactive features, as well as graphic visualization. An application of the system to the evaluation of double exposure interferograms from the transonic flow field around a helicopter blade and the reconstruction of the three dimensional flow field is given.

Becker, Friedhelm; Yu, Yung H.

1987-01-01

318

Mixed Waste Focus Area/Characterization Monitoring Sensor Technology Nondestructive Waste Assay Capability Evaluation Project End-User Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) in conjunction with the Characterization Monitoring and Sensor Technology (CMST) crosscut program identified the need to objectively evaluate the capability of nondestructive waste assay (NDA) technologies. This was done because of a general lack of NDA technology performance data with respect to a representative cross section of waste form configurations comprising the Department of Energy (DOE) contact-handled alpha contaminated [e.g., transuranic (TRU) waste]. The overall objective of the Capability Evaluation Project (CEP) was to establish a known and unbiased NDA data and information base that can be used to support end-user decisions with regards to technology system selection and to support technology development organizations in identifying technology system deficiencies. The primary performance parameters evaluated in the CEP were measurement bias and relative precision. The performance of a given NDA technology is a direct function of the attributes represented by the waste matrix configuration. Such attributes include matrix density, matrix elemental composition, radionuclidic composition, radionuclide mass loading, and the spatial variation of these components. Analyzing the manner in which bias and precision vary as a function of test sample attribute and NDA technology provides a foundation for deriving performance capability and limitation statements and determines which waste matrix attributes, or combinations of attributes, are compatible or incompatible with existing technologies. The CEP achieved the stated end-user objective. The data indicate that the nondestructive waste assay systems evaluated have a definite capability to perform assay of contact-handled TRU waste packaged in 55-gallon drums. There is, however, a performance envelope where this capability exists, an area near the envelope boundaries where it is questionable, and a realm outside the envelope where the technologies do not perform. Therefore, the end user must be aware of this envelope and ensure the appropriate technology is selected. This program provides the end user with waste type specific performance data to assist in the assessment and selection of a given waste NDA technology. Additionally, the CEP afforded the private sector participants the opportunity to evaluate system performance using National Institute of Standards and Technology traceable radioactive significant enhancements to their respective systems and supported all participants in attaining DOE-CAO certification. Ultimately, the DOE end users will benefit from these enhancements.

G. K. Becker; M. E. McIlwain; M. J. Connolly

1998-11-01

319

Technical Evaluation Summary of the In Situ Vitrification Melt Expulsion at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on April 21, 1996, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This Technical Evaluation Summary of the In Situ Vitrification Melt Expulsion at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on April 21, 1996, was prepared at the request of the Department of Energy as a supporting reference document for the Final Unusual Occurrence Report to fully explore the probable causes that lead to the subject incident. This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with the technical information on the performance of the in situ vitrification treatability study operations at ORNL pit 1 up to and including the time of the melt expulsion incident. This document also attempts to diagnose the causes of the melt expulsion event the consequent damages to equipment the radiological impacts of the event, and the equipment design modifications and procedural changes necessary for future safe ISV operations.

NONE

1996-11-01

320

Spent-Fuel Test - Climax: An evaluation of the technical feasibility of geologic storage of spent nuclear fuel in granite: Executive summary of final results  

SciTech Connect

This summary volume outlines results that are covered in more detail in the final report of the Spent-Fuel Test - Climate project. The project was conducted between 1978 and 1983 in the granitic Climax stock at the Nevada Test Site. Results indicate that spent fuel can be safely stored for periods of years in this host medium and that nuclear waste so emplaced can be safely retrieved. We also evaluated the effects of heat and radiation (alone and in combination) on emplacement canisters and the surrounding rock mass. Storage of the spent-fuel affected the surrounding rock mass in measurable ways, but did not threaten the stability or safety of the facility at any time.

Patrick, W.C.

1986-09-02

321

Field-based data collection techniques for the evaluation of information fusion systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to effectively evaluate information fusion systems or emerging technologies, it is critical to quickly, efficient, and accurately collect functional and observational data about such systems. One of the best ways to test a system's capabilities is to have an end user operate it in controlled but realistic field-based situations. Evaluation data of the systems' performance as well as observational data of the user's interactions can then be collected and analyzed. This analysis often gives insight into how the system may perform in the intended environment and of any potential areas for improvement. One common method for collection of this data involves an evaluator/observer generating hand-written notes, comments, and sketches. This often proves to be inefficient in complex sensor technology field-based evaluation environments. Personnel at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have been tasked with collecting such evaluation data for emerging soldier-worn sensor systems. Lessons learned from the on-going development of efficient field-based evaluation data collection techniques will be discussed. The most recent evaluation data collection using a personal digital assistant (PDA)-style system and details of its use during an evaluation of a multi-team study will also be described.

Antonishek, Brian; Weiss, Brian A.; Schlenoff, Craig

2009-04-01

322

[Executive summary of the recommendations on the evaluation and management of renal disease in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients].  

PubMed

The aim of this article is to update the 2010 recommendations on the evaluation and management of renal disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Renal function should be monitored in all HIV-infected patients. The basic renal work-up should include measurements of serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate by CKD-EPI, urine protein-to-creatinine ratio, and urinary sediment. Tubular function tests should include determination of serum phosphate levels and urine dipstick for glycosuria. In the absence of abnormal values, renal screening should be performed annually. In patients treated with tenofovir, or with risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD), more frequent renal screening is recommended. In order to prevent disease progression, potentially nephrotoxic antiretroviral drugs are not recommended in patients with CKD or risk factors for CKD. The document provides indications for renal biopsy and advises on the optimal time for referral of a patient to the nephrologist. The indications for and evaluation and management of dialysis and renal transplantation are also addressed. PMID:25303781

Gorriz, José L; Gutiérrez, Félix; Trullàs, Joan C; Arazo, Piedad; Arribas, Jose R; Barril, Guillermina; Cervero, Miguel; Cofán, Frederic; Domingo, Pere; Estrada, Vicente; Fulladosa, Xavier; Galindo, María J; Gràcia, Sílvia; Iribarren, José A; Knobel, Hernando; López-Aldeguer, José; Lozano, Fernando; Martínez-Castelao, Alberto; Martínez, Esteban; Mazuecos, Maria A; Miralles, Celia; Montañés, Rosario; Negredo, Eugenia; Palacios, Rosario; Pérez-Elías, María J; Portilla, Joaquín; Praga, Manuel; Quereda, Carlos; Rivero, Antonio; Santamaría, Juan M; Sanz, José; Sanz, Jesús; Miró, José M

2014-11-01

323

Symmetry Summary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This summary exercise involves crystal system and point group identification and stereo diagram construction. Students are presented with 5 blocks and for each block they must determine it's point group and crystal system, make stereo diagrams showing all symmetry and faces, and draw the blocks by hand or with SHAPE and label the Miller Indices.

Dexter Perkins

324

Research Summaries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents summaries of three recent crisis management publications: (1) "School Violence: Associations With Control, Security/Enforcement, Educational/Therapeutic Approaches, and Demographic Factors," reviewed by Ashlee Barton; (2) "The Relationship Between Cognitive Coping Styles and PTSD in Survivors of Traffic Accidents," summarized…

Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

2009-01-01

325

MEETING SUMMARY  

Cancer.gov

MEETING SUMMARY PRESIDENT'S CANCER PANEL A DIALOGUE BETWEEN THE PRESIDENT’S CANCER PANEL AND THE YAKAMA NATION J u l y 2 9 – 3 0 , 2 0 0 2 T o p p e n i s h , W a s h i n g t o n OVERVIEW The President’s Cancer Panel was chartered to

326

Research Summaries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents summaries of two recent crisis management publications: (1) "Social Validity of the CISM Model for School Crisis Intervention," summarized by Jack R. Dempsey; and (2) "School Violence: Associations With Control, Security/Enforcement, Educational/Therapeutic Approaches, and Demographic Factors," summarized by Ashlee Barton.…

Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

2009-01-01

327

Research Summaries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents summaries of three recent crisis management publications: (1) "The Impact of School Violence on School Personnel," summarized by Kimberly de Deaux; (2) "Children Exposed to War/Terrorism," summarized by Jennifer DeFago; and (3) "Suicide Survivors Seeking Mental Health Services," summarized by Kimberly de Deaux. The first…

Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

2009-01-01

328

Research Summaries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this column, members of the NASP Crisis Management in the Schools Interest Group provide summaries of three studies relevant to school crisis response. The first study investigated the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among rescue workers. The second article explored the Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention, which is…

Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

2012-01-01

329

Evaluation of melter technologies for vitrification of Hanford site low-level tank waste - phase 1 testing summary report  

SciTech Connect

Following negotiation of the fourth amendment to the Tri- Party Agreement for Hanford Site cleanup, commercially available melter technologies were tested during 1994 and 1995 for vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream to be derived from retrieval and pretreatment of the radioactive defense wastes stored in 177 underground tanks. Seven vendors were selected for Phase 1 testing to demonstrate vitrification of a high-sodium content liquid LLW simulant. The tested melter technologies included four Joule-heated melters, a carbon electrode melter, a combustion melter, and a plasma melter. Various dry and slurry melter feed preparation processes also were tested. The technologies and Phase 1 testing results were evaluated and a preliminary technology down-selection completed. This report describes the Phase 1 LLW melter vendor testing and the tested technologies, and summarizes the testing results and the preliminary technology recommendations.

Wilson, C.N., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-06-27

330

Evaluation and Ranking of Geothermal Resources for Electrical Generation or Electrical Offset in Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington. Executive Summary.  

SciTech Connect

The objective was to consolidate and evaluate all geologic, environmental, legal, and institutional information in existing records and files, and to apply a uniform methodology to the evaluation and ranking of all known geothermal sites. This data base would enhance the making of credible forecasts of the supply of geothermal energy which could be available in the region over a 20 year planning horizon. The four states, working under a cooperative agreement, identified a total of 1265 potential geothermal sites. The 1265 sites were screened to eliminate those with little or no chance of providing either electrical generation and/or electrical offset. Two hundred and forty-five of the original 1265 sites were determined to warrant further study. On the basis of a developability index, 78 high temperature sites and 120 direct utilization sites were identified as having ''good'' or ''average'' potential for development and should be studied in detail. On the basis of cost, at least 29 of the high temperature sites appear to be technically capable of supporting a minimum total of at least 1000 MW of electrical generation which could be competitive with the busbar cost of conventional thermal generating technologies. Sixty direct utilization sites have a minimum total energy potential of 900+ MW and can be expected to provide substantial amounts of electrical offset at or below present conventional energy prices. Five direct utilization sites and eight high temperature sites were identified with both high development and economic potential. An additional 27 sites were shown to have superior economic characteristics, but development problems. 14 refs., 15 figs., 10 tabs.

Bloomquist, R. Gordon

1985-06-01

331

Evaluation and Ranking of Geothermal Resources for Electrical Generation or Electrical Offset in Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington. Executive Summary  

SciTech Connect

In 1983, the Bonneville Power Administration contracted for an evaluation and ranking of all geothermal resource sites in the states of Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington which have a potential for electrical generation and/or electrical offset through direct utilization of the resource. The objective of this program was to consolidate and evaluate all geologic, environmental, legal, and institutional information in existing records and files, and to apply a uniform methodology to the evaluation and ranking of all known geothermal sites. This data base would enhance the making of credible forecasts of the supply of geothermal energy which could be available in the region over a 20 year planning horizon. The four states, working together under a cooperative agreement, identified a total of 1,265 potential geothermal sites. The 1,265 sites were screened to eliminate those with little or no chance of providing either electrical generation and/or electrical offset. Two hundred and forty-five of the original 1,265 sites were determined to warrant further study. The Four-State team proceeded to develop a methodology which would rank the sites based upon an estimate of development potential and cost. Development potential was estimated through the use of weighted variables selected to approximate the attributes which a geothermal firm might consider in its selection of a site for exploration and possible development. Resource; engineering; and legal, institutional, and environmental factors were considered. Cost estimates for electrical generation and direct utilization sites were made using the computer programs CENTPLANT, WELLHEAD, and HEATPLAN. Finally, the sites were ranked utilizing a technique which allowed for the integration of development and cost information. On the basis of the developability index, 78 high temperature sites and 120 direct utilization sites were identified as having ''good'' or ''average'' potential for development and should be studied in detail. On the basis of cost, at least 29 of the high temperature sites appear to be technically capable of supporting a minimum total of at least 1,000 MW of electrical generation which could be competitive with the busbar cost of conventional thermal generating technologies. Sixty direct utilization sites have a minimum total energy potential of 900+ MW and can be expected to provide substantial amounts of electrical offset at or below present conventional energy prices. The combined development and economic rankings can be used to assist in determining sites with superior characteristics of both types. Five direct utilization sites and eight high temperature sites were identified with both high development and economic potential. An additional 27 sites were shown to have superior economic characteristics, but development problems. The procedure seems validated by the fact that two of the highest ranking direct utilization sites are ones that have already been developed--Boise, Idaho and Klamath Falls, Oregon. Most of the higher ranking high temperature sites have received serious examination in the past as likely power production candidates.

Bloomquist, R.G.; Black, G.L.; Parker, D.S.; Sifford, A.; Simpson, S.J.; Street, L.V.

1985-06-01

332

The Potential Impact of High-End Capability Computing on Four Illustrative Fields of Science and Engineering (Free Executive Summary) http://www.nap.edu/catalog/12451.html  

E-print Network

and Engineering (Free Executive Summary) http://www.nap.edu/catalog/12451.html Free Executive Summary ISBN: 978-0-309-12485-0, 154 pages, 8 1/2 x 11, paperback (2008) This executive summary plus thousands more available at www.nap in reading the full book, please visit us online at http://www.nap.edu/catalog/12451.html . You may browse

Patel, Nipam H.

333

RIDER executive summaryA_071306  

Cancer.gov

RIDER Database Resource: Plans for a Public-Private Partnership Executive Summary 7-13-06 1. Executive Summary: The Reference Image Database to Evaluate Response (RIDER) to therapy in lung cancer began as a highly leveraged and collaborative

334

FY 1994 program summary: Office of Technology Development, Office of Research and Development, Office of Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management, formerly the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), was established in November 1989 as the first step toward correcting contamination problems resulting from nearly 50 years of nuclear weapons production and fuel processing activities. EM consolidates several DOE organizations previously responsible for the handling, treatment, and disposition of radioactive and hazardous waste. Within EM, the Office of Technology Development (OTD/EM-50) is responsible for developing technologies to meet DOE`s goal for environmental restoration. OTD manages an aggressive national program of applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation (RDDT and E) for environmental cleanup, waste management, and related technologies. The program is designed to resolve major technical issues, to rapidly advanced beyond current technologies for environmental restoration and waste management operations, and to expedite compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations. This report summarizes Fiscal Year 1994 (FY94) programmatic information, accomplishments, and planned activities relevant to the individual activities within OTD`s RDDT and E.

Not Available

1994-10-01

335

8 Executive Summary Executive Summary  

E-print Network

, 43% more than in 2010, a new peak level. This was again the result of considerable investments installations between 2006 and 2009. Robot sales to the Central/Eastern European countries surged again by 89 were considerably up by 156% to 864 units in 2011, a new peak level. #12;Executive Summary 9 Asia

De Luca, Alessandro

336

Development of a Visual Inspection Data Collection Tool for Evaluation of Fielded PV Module Condition  

SciTech Connect

A visual inspection data collection tool for the evaluation of fielded photovoltaic (PV) modules has been developed to facilitate describing the condition of PV modules with regard to field performance. The proposed data collection tool consists of 14 sections, each documenting the appearance or properties of a part of the module. This report instructs on how to use the collection tool and defines each attribute to ensure reliable and valid data collection. This tool has been evaluated through the inspection of over 60 PV modules produced by more than 20 manufacturers and fielded at two different sites for varying periods of time. Aggregated data from such a single data collection tool has the potential to enable longitudinal studies of module condition over time, technology evolution, and field location for the enhancement of module reliability models.

Packard, C. E.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Kurtz, S. R.

2012-08-01

337

National Uranium Resource Evaluation. Volume 1. Summary of the geology and uranium potential of Precambrian conglomerates in southeastern Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

A series of uranium-, thorium-, and gold-bearing conglomerates in Late Archean and Early Proterozoic metasedimentary rocks have been discovered in southern Wyoming. The mineral deposits were found by applying the time and strata bound model for the origin of uranium-bearing quartz-pebble conglomerates to favorable rock types within a geologic terrane known from prior regional mapping. No mineral deposits have been discovered that are of current (1981) economic interest, but preliminary resource estimates indicate that over 3418 tons of uranium and over 1996 tons of thorium are present in the Medicine Bow Mountains and that over 440 tons of uranium and 6350 tons of thorium are present in Sierra Madre. Sampling has been inadequate to determine gold resources. High grade uranium deposits have not been detected by work to date but local beds of uranium-bearing conglomerate contain as much as 1380 ppM uranium over a thickness of 0.65 meters. This project has involved geologic mapping at scales from 1/6000 to 1/50,000 detailed sampling, and the evaluation of 48 diamond drill holes, but the area is too large to fully establish the economic potential with the present information. This first volume summarizes the geologic setting and geologic and geochemical characteristics of the uranium-bearing conglomerates. Volume 2 contains supporting geochemical data, lithologic logs from 48 drill holes in Precambrian rocks, and drill site geologic maps and cross-sections from most of the holes. Volume 3 is a geostatistical resource estimate of uranium and thorium in quartz-pebble conglomerates.

Karlstrom, K.E.; Houston, R.S.; Flurkey, A.J.; Coolidge, C.M.; Kratochvil, A.L.; Sever, C.K.

1981-02-01

338

Evaluation of Near Field Atmospheric Dispersion Around Nuclear Facilities Using a Lorentzian Distribution Methodology  

SciTech Connect

Abstract: Atmospheric dispersion modeling within the near field of a nuclear facility typically applies a building wake correction to the Gaussian plume model, whereby a point source is modeled as a plane source. The plane source results in greater near field dilution and reduces the far field effluent concentration. However, the correction does not account for the concentration profile within the near field. Receptors of interest, such as the maximally exposed individual, may exist within the near field and thus the realm of building wake effects. Furthermore, release parameters and displacement characteristics may be unknown, particularly during upset conditions. Therefore, emphasis is placed upon the need to analyze and estimate an enveloping concentration profile within the near field of a release. This investigation included the analysis of 64 air samples collected over 128 wk. Variables of importance were then derived from the measurement data, and a methodology was developed that allowed for the estimation of Lorentzian-based dispersion coefficients along the lateral axis of the near field recirculation cavity; the development of recirculation cavity boundaries; and conservative evaluation of the associated concentration profile. The results evaluated the effectiveness of the Lorentzian distribution methodology for estimating near field releases and emphasized the need to place air-monitoring stations appropriately for complete concentration characterization. Additionally, the importance of the sampling period and operational conditions were discussed to balance operational feedback and the reporting of public dose.

Gavin Hawkley

2014-12-01

339

Evaluation of near field atmospheric dispersion around nuclear facilities using a Lorentzian distribution methodology.  

PubMed

Atmospheric dispersion modeling within the near field of a nuclear facility typically applies a building wake correction to the Gaussian plume model, whereby a point source is modeled as a plane source. The plane source results in greater near field dilution and reduces the far field effluent concentration. However, the correction does not account for the concentration profile within the near field. Receptors of interest, such as the maximally exposed individual, may exist within the near field and thus the realm of building wake effects. Furthermore, release parameters and displacement characteristics may be unknown, particularly during upset conditions. Therefore, emphasis is placed upon the need to analyze and estimate an enveloping concentration profile within the near field of a release. This investigation included the analysis of 64 air samples collected over 128 wk. Variables of importance were then derived from the measurement data, and a methodology was developed that allowed for the estimation of Lorentzian-based dispersion coefficients along the lateral axis of the near field recirculation cavity; the development of recirculation cavity boundaries; and conservative evaluation of the associated concentration profile. The results evaluated the effectiveness of the Lorentzian distribution methodology for estimating near field releases and emphasized the need to place air-monitoring stations appropriately for complete concentration characterization. Additionally, the importance of the sampling period and operational conditions were discussed to balance operational feedback and the reporting of public dose. PMID:25353236

Hawkley, Gavin

2014-12-01

340

Field performance evaluation and genetic integrity assessment of cryopreserved papaya clones  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the first report of field performance and evaluation of morphological traits following cryopreservation in four\\u000a genotypes of Carica papaya (Z6, 97, TS2 and 35). It also describes the successful establishment of in vitro plantlets following vitrification-based\\u000a cryopreservation of shoot tips and their acclimatisation through to field establishment. Cloned plants resulting from untreated\\u000a controls, as well as controls

Adam Kaity; S. E. Ashmore; R. A. Drew

2009-01-01

341

Site selection for small wind energy conversion systems for US Department of Energy field evaluation program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The site selection procedure followed to locate two qualified sites for the installed and monitoring of two commercially available small wind energy conversion systems as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Field Evaluation Program is described. The aim of the evaluation program is to gain operating experience with wind systems in actual locations and to identify the siting and operational issues involving wind energy conversion systems. The two sites selected were approved as test sites for the program.

Bailey, B. H.

1980-10-01

342

Handheld standoff mine detection system (HSTAMIDS) field evaluation in Thailand (Invited Paper)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program of Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD), under the direction of the Office of Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations and Low-Intensity Conflict (OASD\\/SOLIC) and with participation from the International Test and Evaluation Project (ITEP) for Humanitarian Demining, conducted an in-country field evaluation of HSTAMIDS in the region of Humanitarian Demining

Robert C. Doheny; Sean Burke; Roger Cresci; Peter Ngan; Richard Walls

2005-01-01

343

Field methods to evaluate effects of pesticides on wildlife of the northwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Field .methods used to evaluate the impact of organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides on wildlife populations in the Pacific Northwest are reviewed. Five field studies, presented in a CASE HISTORY format, illustrate study designs .and thetypes of information collected. The pesticides investigated included DDT, heptachlor, endr1n, and famphur, and the species studied included the American kestrel (Falco sparverius), Canada goose (Branta canadensis}, black--crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorac), and black-billed magpie (Pica pica). Wildlife biologists conducting field studies of pesticides encounter a variety of design and logistics problems. However, a number of procedures are now available to the researcher for field evaluations. The three principa1 types of insecticides (organochlorines (OC's), organophosphates (OP's) and carbamates (CB's) require different field approaches. In this paper, five field studies, conducted by my colleagues and me between 1974 and 1982, in the northwestern portion of the United States (Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and northern Nevada), are reviewed to illustrate procedures for evaluating the effects of these insecticides.on wildlife populations. Althought most OC pesticides were banned in the United States during the 1970's (.for review, see F1eming et al. 1983), we studied several OC applications, including the last major DDT spray project in 1974. Use of OP's and CB's increased during the 1970's and 1980s as the OC's were phased out.

Henny, C.J.

1987-01-01

344

Evaluation of Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2002-2006 Project Completion Summary.  

SciTech Connect

The Columbia River Distinct Population Segment of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) was listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 1998. One of the identified major threats to the species is fragmentation resulting from dams on over-wintering habitats of migratory subpopulations. A migratory subgroup in the Tucannon River appeared to utilize the Snake River reservoirs for adult rearing on a seasonal basis. As a result, a radio telemetry study was conducted on this subgroup from 2002-2006, to help meet Reasonable and Prudent Measures, and Conservation Recommendations associated with the lower Snake River dams in the FCRPS Biological Opinion, and to increase understanding of bull trout movements within the Tucannon River drainage. We sampled 1,109 bull trout in the Tucannon River; 124 of these were surgically implanted with radio tags and PIT tagged, and 681 were only PIT tagged. The remaining 304 fish were either recaptures, or released unmarked. Bull trout seasonal movements within the Tucannon River were similar to those described for other migratory bull trout populations. Bull trout migrated upstream in spring and early summer to the spawning areas in upper portions of the Tucannon River watershed. They quickly moved off the spawning areas in the fall, and either held or continued a slower migration downstream through the winter until early the following spring. During late fall and winter, bull trout were distributed in the lower half of the Tucannon River basin, down to and including the mainstem Snake River below Little Goose Dam. We were unable to adequately radio track bull trout in the Snake River and evaluate their movements or interactions with the federal hydroelectric dams for the following reasons: (1) none of our radio-tagged fish were detected attempting to pass a Snake River dam, (2) our radio tags had poor transmission capability at depths greater than 12.2 m, and (3) the sample size of fish that actually entered the Snake River was small (n=6). In spite of this project's shortcomings, bull trout continue to be observed in low numbers at Snake River dam fish facilities. It is highly possible that bull trout observed at the Snake River dam fish facilities are originating from sources other than the Tucannon River. We suggest that these fish might come from upstream sources like the Clearwater or Salmon rivers in Idaho, and are simply following the outmigration of juvenile anadromous fish (a food supply) as they emigrate toward the Pacific Ocean. Based on our study results, we recommend abandoning radio telemetry as a tool to monitor bull trout movements in the mainstem Snake River. We do recommend continuing PIT tagging and tag interrogation activities to help determine the origin of bull trout using the Snake River hydropower facilities. As a complementary approach, we also suggest the use of genetic assignment tests to help determine the origin of these fish. Lastly, several recommendations are included in the report to help manage and recover bull trout in the Tucannon subbasin.

Faler, Michael P. [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Mendel, Glen; Fulton, Carl [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

2008-11-20

345

Field programmable gate arrays: Evaluation report for space-flight application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Field Programmable Gate Arrays commonly called FPGA's are the newer generation of field programmable devices and offer more flexibility in the logic modules they incorporate and in how they are interconnected. The flexibility, the number of logic building blocks available, and the high gate densities achievable are why users find FPGA's attractive. These attributes are important in reducing product development costs and shortening the development cycle. The aerospace community is interested in incorporating this new generation of field programmable technology in space applications. To this end, a consortium was formed to evaluate the quality, reliability, and radiation performance of FPGA's. This report presents the test results on FPGA parts provided by ACTEL Corporation.

Sandoe, Mike; Davarpanah, Mike; Soliman, Kamal; Suszko, Steven; Mackey, Susan

1992-01-01

346

Field evaluation of a fast anti- Leishmania antibody detection assay in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fast agglutination screening test (FAST) for the detection of Leishmania antibodies in human serum samples was evaluated under harsh field conditions in northern Ethiopia. Test performance was compared with a standard serological test, namely the direct agglutination test (DAT), and with parasitology. In total, 103 suspected cases were recruited for the study. Based on parasitological examination, 49 patients were

A. Hailu; G. J. Schoone; E. Diro; A. Tesfaye; Y. Techane; T. Tefera; Y. Assefa; A. Genetu; Y. Kebede; T. Kebede; H. D. F. H. Schallig

2006-01-01

347

FIELD EVALUATION OF CARROT CULTIVARS FOR SUSCEPTIBILITY TO FUNGAL LEAF BLIGHT DISEASES IN NEW YORK  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carrot cultivars grown in New York were evaluated for susceptibility to the fungal leaf blight pathogens Alternaria dauci (1999) and Cercospora carotae (2000 to 2003)in an experimental field under continuous carrot cultivation since 1996. Replicated plots were established in a randomized complete b...

348

108 Florida Entomologist 97(1) March 2014 FIELD EVALUATION OF PETROLEUM SPRAY OIL AND CARBARYL  

E-print Network

108 Florida Entomologist 97(1) March 2014 Proof FIELD EVALUATION OF PETROLEUM SPRAY OIL in the West Indies, Bahamas, southern USA, Nicara- gua, Argentina, Brazil and Southeast Asia. Eggplant growers shown petroleum spray oil (PSO) to be effective against T. marianae. We therefore examined

Reddy, Gadi VP

349

Original article Field trial evaluation of two teat dips containing nisin  

E-print Network

Original article Field trial evaluation of two teat dips containing nisin or polyvinylpyrrolidone teats in a 0.25% polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) iodophor product followed by wiping with paper towels'un polyvinylpyrrolidone iodophore conçus pour une utilisation avant et après la traite. Dans un premier essai réalisé dans

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

350

A Performance Evaluation of ARM ISA Extension for Elliptic Curve Cryptography over Binary Finite Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present an evaluation of possible ARM instruction set extension for Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) over binary finite fields GF(2m). The use of elliptic curve cryptography is becoming common in embedded domain, where its reduced key size at a security level equivalent to standard public- key methods (such as RSA) allows for power consumption savings and more

Sandro Bartolini; Irina Branovic; Roberto Giorgi; Enrico Martinelli

2004-01-01

351

Field-Based Evaluation Tool for Riparian Buffer Zones in Agricultural Catchments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Riparian buffer zones can improve water quality and enhance habitat, but a comprehensive yet rapid method that can assist the resource manager in assessing the effectiveness of buffers is not available. The aim of this paper is to describe and illustrate the use of a newly developed field-based evaluation tool for riparian buffer zones in agricultural catchments. The Buffer Zone

Caroline M. J. Ducros; Chris B. Joyce

2003-01-01

352

Thermal Energy Storage Evaluation Program: 1986 annual report. [Economic planning, technical assessment, field tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Thermal Energy Storage Evaluation Program activities were initiated to provide economic planning, technical assessment and field testing support for the thermal energy storage program, as well as management of the overall program for the DOE. Economic planning included two assessment studies. In technical assessment, issues that might affect an assessment were outlined for the development of a standard methodology

M. K. Drost; J. M. Bates; D. R. Brown; R. O. Weijo

1987-01-01

353

A field study evaluation of short-term refined Gaussian dispersion models  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tracer study was conducted at the Duke Forest Site in Chapel Hill, North Carolina in January, 1995 to evaluate the ability of three short-term refined Gaussian dispersion models to predict the fate of volume source emissions under field study conditions. Study participants included the American Petroleum Institute (API), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the US Department of Energy

1996-01-01

354

An MLPO Algorithm for Fast Evaluation of the Focal Plane Fields of Reflector Antennas  

E-print Network

An MLPO Algorithm for Fast Evaluation of the Focal Plane Fields of Reflector Antennas Christine antennas for a range of incidence angles and frequencies is proposed. The algorithm is based and phase correction. Keywords- reflector antennas; physical optics; fast multilevel algorithms. I

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

355

Preliminary Technical and Legal Evaluation of Disposing of Nonhazardous Oil Field Waste into Salt Caverns  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an initial evaluation of the suitability, feasibility, and legality of using salt caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes. Given the preliminary and general nature of this report, we recognize that some of our findings and conclusions maybe speculative and subject to change upon further research on this topic.

Ayers, Robert C.; Caudle, Dan; Elcock, Deborah; Raivel, Mary; Veil, John; and Grunewald, Ben

1999-01-21

356

An evaluation of field-flow fractionation for molecular weight characterization of polymeric materials  

SciTech Connect

An evaluation has been made of field-flow fractionation for potential polymer molecular weight characterization applications at Allied- Signal Inc., Kansas City Division. The data obtained show that the technique can provide useful information regarding polymer molecular weights which are analogous to those obtained by gel permeation chromatography. 13 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs.

Fuller, E.N.

1992-08-01

357

An evaluation of field-flow fractionation for molecular weight characterization of polymeric materials. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An evaluation has been made of field-flow fractionation for potential polymer molecular weight characterization applications at Allied- Signal Inc., Kansas City Division. The data obtained show that the technique can provide useful information regarding polymer molecular weights which are analogous to those obtained by gel permeation chromatography. 13 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs.

Fuller, E.N.

1992-08-01

358

Production and Evaluation of Biodiesel from Field Pennycress (Thlaspi Arvense L.) Oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) oil is evaluated for the first time as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Biodiesel was obtained in 82 wt % yield by a standard transesterification procedure with methanol and sodium methoxide catalyst at 60 deg C and an alcohol to oil ratio of 6:1...

359

Evaluation of Two New Arsenic Field Test Kits Capable of Detecting  

E-print Network

and remediation programs. Introduction Inorganic arsenic (InAs) occurs naturally in the groundwater of many partsEvaluation of Two New Arsenic Field Test Kits Capable of Detecting Arsenic Water Concentrations A . K A L M A N , § A N D A L L A N H . S M I T H Arsenic Health Effects Research Program, 140 Warren

California at Berkeley, University of

360

Field Evaluation of Digital Optical Method to Quantify the Visual Opacity of Plumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual Determination of the Opacity of Emissions from Stationary Sources (Method 9) is a reference method established by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to quantify plume opacity. However, Method 9 relies on observations from humans, which introduces subjectivity. In addition, it is expensive to teach and certify personnel to evaluate plume opacity on a semiannual basis. In this study, field

Ke Du; Mark J. Rood; Byung J. Kim; Michael R. Kemme; Bill J. Franek; Kevin Mattison; Joan Cook; Qingci He; Hung-Mo Lin; Lingli Kong; Duanping Liao; Niannian Yang; Christy Bentley; Shuangqing Xu; Benjamin Burns; Kenneth Krach; Charles Cole; Jessica Mangus; Howard Butler; Baikun Li; Donald Robinson; Ronke Luke-Boone; Vineet Aggarwal; Buzz Harris; Eric Anderson; David Ranum; Thomas Kulp; Karla Armstrong; Ricky Sommers; Thomas McRae; Karin Ritter; Jeffrey Siegell; Doug Pelt; Mike Smylie; Eugene Kim; Philip Hopke; Yi-Ming Kuo; Jian-Wen Wang; Cheng-Hsien Tsai; Stephen Musson; Timothy Townsend; Kurt Seaburg; John Mousa; Sonja Sax; Petros Koutrakis; Pablo Rudolph; Francisco Cereceda-Balic; Ernesto Gramsch; Pedro Oyola; James Noel; Pratim Biswas; Daniel Giammar; Jorge Jimenez; Candis Claiborn; Timothy Larson; Timothy Gould; Thomas Kirchstetter; Lara Gundel

2007-01-01

361

Stellar Systems Inc. Series 800/5000 E-Field sensor evaluation  

SciTech Connect

This report concerns the evaluation of the Stellar Systems Inc. E-Field intrusion detection system Series 800 control unit and the 5000 Series hardware components. Included are functional descriptions, installation procedures, testing procedures, and testing/operational results. 35 figs.

Follis, R.L.

1990-08-01

362

MULTI-SITE FIELD EVALUATION OF CANDIDATE SAMPLERS FOR MEASURING COARSE-MODE PM  

EPA Science Inventory

In response to expected changes to the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate matter, comprehensive field studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of sampling methods for measuring coarse mode aerosols (i.e. PMc). Five separate PMc sampling approaches w...

363

FIELD EVALUATION OF A SWIRL DEGRITTER AT TAMWORTH, NEW SOUTH WALES, AUSTRALIA  

EPA Science Inventory

This field evaluation program was initiated with the overall objective of providing information on the behaviour of a full scale swirl degritter designed and constructed in accordance with the shapes and proportions developed during model studies. The swirl degritter was designed...

364

Field Evaluation of Apple Rootstocks for Orchard Performance and Fire Blight Resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 2002, apple rootstock trials using three scion cultivars were established at Geneva, NY to evaluate 64 apple (Malus X domestica) rootstocks for horticultural performance and fire blight resistance. Field trials compared several elite Geneva® apple rootstocks, which were bred for tolerance to fir...

365

Non-destructive and rapid evaluation of chemical vapor deposition graphene by dark field optical microscopy  

E-print Network

a route to the synthesis of very large area graphene.1­5 Large-area graphene is typically graphene growth and for assessing the quality of graphene samples of large lateral size, and thus alsoNon-destructive and rapid evaluation of chemical vapor deposition graphene by dark field optical

366

Evaluating the potential of mycorrhizal fungi to boost yields in field grown leeks  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

UMaine Cooperative Extension faculty collaborated with a local organic grower and the USDA-ARS Research Center in Wyndmoor, PA to evaluate the potential of mycorrhizal fungi to boost yields in field grown leeks using both commercially available mycorrhizal inocula and a “farm raised” mycorrhizal ino...

367

Energy Conservation Field Projects. Phase 2: External Evaluation. Document II: Appendices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provided are appendices which contain supporting documentation related to an external evaluation of the Phase 2: Energy Conservation Field Projects. Objectives of this program were to: test the generalizability of the energy conservations measures outlined in "Guidelines for Conserving Energy in Alberta Schools" and augment these guidelines as…

Stanley Associates, Edmonton (Alberta).

368

LABORATORY AND FIELD EVALUATION OF THE SEMI-VOST (SEMI-VOLATILE ORGANIC SAMPLING TRAIN) METHOD  

EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory studies and a second field evaluation have been completed to assess the performance of the Semi-Volatile Organic Sampling Train (Semi-VOST) method for measuring concentrations of principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs) with boiling points greater than 100 deg ...

369

Field evaluation of fungicides in controlling chickpea Ascochyta blight in Washington, 2011  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field evaluation of five fungicides of different fungicide classes showed that the fungicides can reduce disease severity and increase yield of chickpea. Alternative fungicides to traditional strobilurin fungicides were identified, and can be used to prevent development of strobilurin resistance in...

370

Usability evaluation for mobile device: a comparison of laboratory and field tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Usability testing of mobile devices is an emerging area of research in the field of Human-Computer Interaction. Guidelines had been established as to how usability tests should be conducted. However, there are limitations to the effectiveness of conventional usability tests, especially for mobile devices. Mobile devices typically are used in different situations, but current evaluation method cannot uncover problems in

Henry Been-lirn Duh; Gerald C. B. Tan; Vivian Hsueh-hua Chen

2006-01-01

371

FIELD EVALUATION OF LIGNIN-DEGRADING FUNGI TO TREAT CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

A field study to determine the ability of selected lignin-degrading fungi to remediate soil contaminated with pentachlorophenol and creosote was performed at a wood treating facility in south central Mississippi in the Autumn of 1991. he study was designed to evaluate 7 fungal tr...

372

EVALUATION OF BAITS FOR ORAL RABIES VACCINATION OF MONGOOSES: PILOT FIELD TRIALS IN ANTIGUA, WEST INDIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field study was conducted on the island of Antigua, West Indies, to evaluate baits for delivering an oral rabies vaccine to the small Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus). Tracking tiles were used to determine that mongooses were nonselective and took both egg- flavored polyurethane baits and fish-flavored polymer baits containing several different food ma- terials. A high proportion of baits

S. B. Linhart; T. E. Creekmore; J. L. Corn; M. D. Whitney; B. D. Snyder; V. F. Nettles

373

Evaluation of pesticide toxicity at their field recommended doses to honeybees, Apis cerana and A. mellifera through laboratory, semi-field and field studies.  

PubMed

A series of experiments were carried out to determine the acute toxicity of pesticides in the laboratory, toxicity through spray on flowering plants of mustard (Tier II evaluation) and field on both Apis cerana and A. mellifera bees. The overall mortality of honey bees through topical (direct contact) were found significantly higher than that of indirect filter paper contamination assays. Insecticides viz., chlorpyriphos, dichlorvos, malathion, profenofos, monocrotophos and deltamethrin when exposed directly or indirectly at their field recommended doses caused very high mortality up to 100% to both the bees at 48 HAT. The insecticides that caused less mortality through filter paper contamination viz., flubendiamide, methyl demeton, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam caused very high morality through direct exposure. Apart from all the fungicides tested, carbendazim, mancozeb, chlorothalonil and propiconazole, insecticides acetamiprid and endosulfan were found safer to both the bees either by direct or indirect exposures. Tier II evaluation by spray of pesticides at their field recommended doses on potted mustard plants showed monocrotophos as the highly toxic insecticide with 100% mortality even with 1h of exposure followed by thiamethoxam, dichlorvos, profenofos and chlorpyriphos which are not to be recommended for use in pollinator attractive flowering plants. Acetamiprid and endosulfan did not cause any repellent effect on honey bees in the field trials endorse the usage of acetamiprid against sucking pest in flowering plants. PMID:25150969

Stanley, Johnson; Sah, Khushboo; Jain, S K; Bhatt, J C; Sushil, S N

2015-01-01

374

Home Start Evaluation Study. Interim Case Studies IIb.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The eight interim case study summaries included in this booklet are part of "Report II" of the "Home Start Evaluation Study." Each case study was developed after field visits to each of the demonstration programs by case study workers from the evaluation agencies. The summaries are divided into six areas: (1) a statistical description of the…

High/Scope Educational Research Foundation, Ypsilanti, MI.

375

Neurophysiology Summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The terrestrial gravitational field serves as an important orientation reference for human perception and movement, being continually monitored by sensory receptors in the skin, muscles, joints, and vestibular otolith organs. Cues from these graviceptors are used by the brain to estimate spatial orientation and to control balance and movement. Changes in these cues associated with the tonic changes in gravity (gravito-inertial force),during the launch and entry phases of space flight missions result in altered perceptions, degraded motor control performance, and in some cases, "motion" sickness during, and for a period of time after, the g-transitions. In response to these transitions, however, physiological and behavioral response mechanisms are triggered to compensate for altered graviceptor cues and/or to adapt to the new sensory environment. Basic research in the neurophysiology discipline is focused on understanding the characteristic features of and the underlying mechanisms for the normal human response to tonic changes in the gravito-inertial force environment. These studies address fundamental questions regarding the role of graviceptors in orientation and movement in the terrestrial environment, as well as the capacity, specificity, and modes for neural plasticity in the sensory-motor and perceptual systems of the brain. At the 2001 workshop basic research studies were presented addressing: neuroanatomical responses to altered gravity environments, the neural mechanisms for resolving the ambiguity between tilting and translational stimuli in otolith organ sensory input, interactions between the vestibular system and the autonomic nervous system , the roles of haptic and visual cues in spatial orientation, mechanisms for training environment-appropriate sensorimotor responses triggered by environment-specific context cues, and studies of sensori-motor control of posture and locomotion in the terrestrial environment with and without recent exposure to space flight. Building on these basic research studies are more applied studies focused on the development of countermeasures to the untoward neurophysiological responses to space flight. At the 2001 workshop, applied research studies were presented addressing issues related to the use of rotational artificial gravity (centripetal acceleration) as a multisystem (bone, muscle, cardiovascular, and, perhaps, neurovestibular) countermeasure. Also presented was a clinical study reporting on a new rating system for clinical evaluation of postflight functional neurological status.

Paloski, William H.

2001-01-01

376

Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF) RAPID Program Engineering Project 8: FINAL REPORT, Evaluation of Field Reduction Technologies, Volume 1 (Report) and Volume 2 (Appendices)  

SciTech Connect

This draft report consists of two volumes. Volume 1, the main body, contains an introducto~ sectionj an overview of magnetic fields sectio~ and field reduction technology evaluation section. Magnetic field reduction methods are evalpated for transmission lines, distribution Iines,sulxtations, building wiring applkmd machinery, and transportation systems. The evaluation considers effectiveness, co% and other ftiors. Volume 2 contains five appendices, Append~ A presents magnetic field shielding information. Appendices B and C present design assumptions and magnetic field plots for transmission and distribution lines, respectively. Appendices D and E present cost estimate details for transmission and distribution limes, respectively.

Commonwealth Associates, Inc.; IIT Research Institute

1997-08-01

377

Summary28  

Cancer.gov

Common Themes Big Data Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial National Digital Mammography Archive Lung Image Database Consortium Radiotherapy Databases Dermatology Atlas Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program BIRN R.

378

Efficiently approximate method for near field uniformity evaluation of finite-sized multilayered dielectric plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for joint transmission line and aperture field integration (TL-AFIM) is proposed and utilized to efficiently compute the near-field distribution of the finite-sized multilayered dielectric plates. Four indicators Epv, Erms, ?pv, and ?rms representing the amplitude and phase variations are proposed to evaluate the near-field uniformity. A multilayered dielectric plate containing three dielectric layers is analyzed and evaluated by TL-AFIM. Compared to the commonly used multilevel fast multipole method (MLFMM), the memory requirement and CPU time consumption are drastically reduced from 61.3 GB and 20.2 h to 4.4 MB and 2.5 s, respectively. The calculation accuracy is better than 90%.

Tian, Yi; Yan, Hui; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Li; Li, Zhuo

2015-02-01

379

Field Artillery Ammunition Processing System (FAAPS) concept evaluation study. Ammunition Logistics Program  

SciTech Connect

The Field Artillery Ammunition Processing System (FAAPS) is an initiative to introduce a palletized load system (PLS) that is transportable with an automated ammunition processing and storage system for use on the battlefield. System proponents have targeted a 20% increase in the ammunition processing rate over the current operation while simultaneously reducing the total number of assigned field artillery battalion personnel by 30. The overall objective of the FAAPS Project is the development and demonstration of an improved process to accomplish these goals. The initial phase of the FAAPS Project and the subject of this study is the FAAPS concept evaluation. The concept evaluation consists of (1) identifying assumptions and requirements, (2) documenting the process flow, (3) identifying and evaluating technologies available to accomplish the necessary ammunition processing and storage operations, and (4) presenting alternative concepts with associated costs, processing rates, and manpower requirements for accomplishing the operation. This study provides insight into the achievability of the desired objectives.

Kring, C.T.; Babcock, S.M.; Watkin, D.C.; Oliver, R.P.

1992-06-01

380

Evaluation of wind fields used in Grand Canyon Visibility Transport Commission analyses.  

PubMed

The Grand Canyon Visibility Transport Commission (GCVTC) was established by the U.S. Congress to assess the potential impacts of projected growth on atmospheric visibility at Grand Canyon National Park and to make recommendations to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency on what measures could be taken to avoid such adverse impacts. A critical input to the assessment tool used by the commission was three-dimensional model-derived wind fields used to transport the emissions. This paper describes the evaluation of the wind fields used at various stages in the assessment. Wind fields evaluated included those obtained from the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), the National Meteorological Center's Nested Grid Model (NGM), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Atmospheric Transport and Dispersion (ATAD) trajectory model. The model-derived wind fields were evaluated at multiple vertical levels at several locations in the southwestern United States by determining differences between model predicted winds and winds that were measured using radiosonde and radar wind profiler data. Model-derived winds were also evaluated by determining the percent of time that they were within acceptable differences from measured winds. All models had difficulties, generally meeting the acceptable criteria for less than 50% of the predictions. The RAMS model had a persistent bias toward southwesterly winds at the expense of other directions, especially failing to represent channeling by north-south mountain ranges in the lower levels. The NGM model exhibited a substantial bias in the summer months by extending northwesterly winds in the eastern Pacific Ocean well inland, in contrast to the observed southwesterlies at inland locations. The simpler ATAD trajectory model performed somewhat better than the other models, probably because of its use of more upper air sites. The results of the evaluation indicated that these wind fields could not be used to reliably predict source-receptor impacts on a particular day; thus, seasonally averaged impacts were used in the GCVTC assessment. PMID:10842944

Green, M C; Pai, P; Ashbaugh, L; Farber, R J

2000-05-01

381

Office of Technology Development FY 1993 program summary: Office of Research and Development, Office of Demonstration, Testing and Evaluation. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes significant FY93 programmatic information and accomplishments relevant to the individual activities within the Office of Technology Development Program for Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT&E). A brief discussion of the mission of the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) and the Office of Technology Development is presented. An overview is presented of the major problem areas confronting DOE. These problem areas include: groundwater and soils cleanup; waste retrieval and processing; and pollution prevention. The organizational elements within EM are highlighted. An EM-50 Funding Summary for FY92 and FY93 is also provided. RDDT&E programs are discussed and their key problem areas are summarized. Three salient program-formulating concepts are explained. They are: Integrated Demonstrations, Integrated Programs, and the technology window of opportunity. Detailed information for each of the programs within RDDT&E is presented and includes a fact sheet, a list of technical task plans and an accomplishments and objectives section.

Not Available

1994-02-01

382

Thiokol/Wasatch installation evaluation of the redesigned field joint protection system (concepts 1 and 3)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The procedures, performance, and results obtained from the Thiokol Corporation/Wasatch Redesigned Field Joint Protection System (FJPS) Installation Evaluation are documented. The purpose of the evaluation was to demonstrate and develop the procedures required to install two different concepts (referred to as Concepts 1 and 3) of the redesigned FJPS. The processing capability of each configuration was then evaluated and compared. The FJPS is installed on redesigned solid rocket motors (RSRM) to protect the field joints from rain intrusion and to maintain the joint temperature sensor measurement between 85 and 122 F while the boosters are on the launch pad. The FJPS is being redesigned to reduce installation timelines at KSC and to simplify or eliminate installation processing problems related to the present design of an EPDM moisture seal/extruded cork combination. Several installation techniques were evaluated, and a preferred method of application was developed for each concept. The installations were performed with the test article in the vertical (flight) position. Comparative timelines between the two concepts were also developed. An additional evaluation of the Concept 3 configuration was performed with the test article in the horizontal position, to simulate an overhead installation on a technical evaluation motor (TEM).

Cook, M.

1989-01-01

383

DNAPL SITE EVALUATION - Project Summary  

EPA Science Inventory

Dense nonaqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs), especially chlorinated solvents, are among the most prevalent subsurface contaminants identified in ground-water supplies and at waste disposal sites. There are several site-characterization issues specific to DNAPL sites including (a) the...

384

Sedimentation and resuspendability evaluation of pharmaceutical suspensions by low-field one dimensional pulsed field gradient NMR profilometry.  

PubMed

In order to study the sedimentation of pharmaceutical suspensions using low-field one dimensional pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (1D pfg NMR) profilometry, the accuracy of signal acquisition as well as the spatial resolution of a commercial spectrometer operating at 23.4 MHz was investigated. The use of a solid Teflon spacer revealed that the accuracy of signal acquisition was independent of spatial position (height). The standard deviation of distance determinations was less than 150 µm, whereas the accuracy of water content determination was within 2% in the central part of the detection zone and deteriorated to 4% in the outer parts. The study of aqueous paramagnetic MnCl2 solutions indicated an exponential relationship between the relative signal intensity and the transverse relaxation decay constant. From this relationship, the relative water content of suspensions could be derived from their signal intensity relative to that of water. Using concentrated paliperidone palmitate dispersions as model suspensions, low-field 1D pfg NMR profilometry has been proven to be suitable for the evaluation of both the sedimentation and resuspendability behavior of viscous, opaque suspensions, for which visual detection of homogeneity may be difficult. PMID:21961765

Wuxin, Zhu; Martins, José; Saveyn, Pieter; Govoreanu, Ruxandra; Verbruggen, Katrien; Ariën, Tina; Verliefde, Arne; Van der Meeren, Paul

2013-01-01

385

Evaluating the capabilities of watershed-scale models in estimating sediment yield at field-scale.  

PubMed

Many watershed model interfaces have been developed in recent years for predicting field-scale sediment loads. They share the goal of providing data for decisions aimed at improving watershed health and the effectiveness of water quality conservation efforts. The objectives of this study were to: 1) compare three watershed-scale models (Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), Field_SWAT, and the High Impact Targeting (HIT) model) against calibrated field-scale model (RUSLE2) in estimating sediment yield from 41 randomly selected agricultural fields within the River Raisin watershed; 2) evaluate the statistical significance among models; 3) assess the watershed models' capabilities in identifying areas of concern at the field level; 4) evaluate the reliability of the watershed-scale models for field-scale analysis. The SWAT model produced the most similar estimates to RUSLE2 by providing the closest median and the lowest absolute error in sediment yield predictions, while the HIT model estimates were the worst. Concerning statistically significant differences between models, SWAT was the only model found to be not significantly different from the calibrated RUSLE2 at ? = 0.05. Meanwhile, all models were incapable of identifying priorities areas similar to the RUSLE2 model. Overall, SWAT provided the most correct estimates (51%) within the uncertainty bounds of RUSLE2 and is the most reliable among the studied models, while HIT is the least reliable. The results of this study suggest caution should be exercised when using watershed-scale models for field level decision-making, while field specific data is of paramount importance. PMID:23764473

Sommerlot, Andrew R; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan; Woznicki, Sean A; Giri, Subhasis; Prohaska, Michael D

2013-09-30

386

Evaluating Population Receptive Field Estimation Frameworks in Terms of Robustness and Reproducibility  

PubMed Central

Within vision research retinotopic mapping and the more general receptive field estimation approach constitute not only an active field of research in itself but also underlie a plethora of interesting applications. This necessitates not only good estimation of population receptive fields (pRFs) but also that these receptive fields are consistent across time rather than dynamically changing. It is therefore of interest to maximize the accuracy with which population receptive fields can be estimated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) setting. This, in turn, requires an adequate estimation framework providing the data for population receptive field mapping. More specifically, adequate decisions with regard to stimulus choice and mode of presentation need to be made. Additionally, it needs to be evaluated whether the stimulation protocol should entail mean luminance periods and whether it is advantageous to average the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal across stimulus cycles or not. By systematically studying the effects of these decisions on pRF estimates in an empirical as well as simulation setting we come to the conclusion that a bar stimulus presented at random positions and interspersed with mean luminance periods is generally most favorable. Finally, using this optimal estimation framework we furthermore tested the assumption of temporal consistency of population receptive fields. We show that the estimation of pRFs from two temporally separated sessions leads to highly similar pRF parameters. PMID:25463652

Senden, Mario; Reithler, Joel; Gijsen, Sven; Goebel, Rainer

2014-01-01

387

Evaluating effects of spectral training data distribution on continuous field mapping performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous field mapping has to address two conflicting remote sensing requirements when collecting training data. On one hand, continuous field mapping trains fractional land cover and thus favours mixed training pixels. On the other hand, the spectral signature has to be preferably distinct and thus favours pure training pixels. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of training data distribution along fractional and spectral gradients on the resulting mapping performance. We derived four continuous fields (tree, shrubherb, bare, water) from aerial photographs as response variables and processed corresponding spectral signatures from multitemporal Landsat 5 TM data as explanatory variables. Subsequent controlled experiments along fractional cover gradients were then based on generalised linear models. Resulting fractional and spectral distribution differed between single continuous fields, but could be satisfactorily trained and mapped. Pixels with fractional or without respective cover were much more critical than pure full cover pixels. Error distribution of continuous field models was non-uniform with respect to horizontal and vertical spatial distribution of target fields. We conclude that a sampling for continuous field training data should be based on extent and densities in the fractional and spectral, rather than the real spatial space. Consequently, adequate training plots are most probably not systematically distributed in the real spatial space, but cover the gradient and covariate structure of the fractional and spectral space well.

Mathys, L.; Guisan, A.; Kellenberger, T. W.; Zimmermann, N. E.

388

Evaluation of unsteady pressure fields and forces in rotating airfoils from time-resolved PIV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The instantaneous pressure fields and aerodynamic loads are obtained for rotating airfoils from time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV) measurements. These allowed evaluating the contribution from the local acceleration (unsteady acceleration) to the instantaneous forces. Traditionally, this term has been neglected for wind turbines with quasi-steady flows, but results show that it is a dominant term in the wake where high temporal variations in the flow field are present due to vortex shedding. Briefly, time-resolved particle image velocimetry TR-PIV measurements are used to calculate flow velocity fields and corresponding spatial and temporal derivatives. These derivatives are then used in the Poisson equation to solve for the pressure field and later used in the integral momentum equation to solve for the instantaneous forces. The robustness of the measurements is analyzed by calculating the PIV uncertainty and the independence of the calculated forces. The experimental mean aerodynamic forces are compared with theoretical predictions from the blade element momentum theory showing good agreement. The instantaneous pressure field showed dependence with time in the wake due to vortex shedding. The contribution to the instantaneous forces from each term in the integral momentum equation is evaluated. The analysis shows that the larger contributions to the normal force coefficient are from the unsteady and the pressure terms, and the larger contribution to the tangential force coefficient is from the convective term.

Villegas, A.; Diez, F. J.

2014-04-01

389

Preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste into salt caverns  

SciTech Connect

Caverns can be readily formed in salt formations through solution mining. The caverns may be formed incidentally, as a result of salt recovery, or intentionally to create an underground chamber that can be used for storing hydrocarbon products or compressed air or disposing of wastes. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the feasibility, suitability, and legality of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration, development, and production wastes (hereafter referred to as oil field wastes, unless otherwise noted) in salt caverns. Chapter 2 provides background information on: types and locations of US subsurface salt deposits; basic solution mining techniques used to create caverns; and ways in which salt caverns are used. Later chapters provide discussion of: federal and state regulatory requirements concerning disposal of oil field waste, including which wastes are considered eligible for cavern disposal; waste streams that are considered to be oil field waste; and an evaluation of technical issues concerning the suitability of using salt caverns for disposing of oil field waste. Separate chapters present: types of oil field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location; disposal operations; and closure and remediation. This report does not suggest specific numerical limits for such factors or variables as distance to neighboring activities, depths for casings, pressure testing, or size and shape of cavern. The intent is to raise issues and general approaches that will contribute to the growing body of information on this subject.

Veil, J.; Elcock, D.; Raivel, M.; Caudle, D.; Ayers, R.C. Jr.; Grunewald, B.

1996-06-01

390

Non-destructive and rapid evaluation of chemical vapor deposition graphene by dark field optical microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-destructive and rapid evaluation of graphene directly on the growth substrate (Cu foils) by dark field (DF) optical microscopy is demonstrated. Without any additional treatment, graphene on Cu foils with various coverages can be quickly identified by DF imaging immediately after chemical vapor deposition growth with contrast comparable to scanning electron microscopy. The improved contrast of DF imaging compared to bright field optical imaging was found to be due to Rayleigh scattering of light by the copper steps beneath graphene. Indeed, graphene adlayers are readily distinguished, due to the different height of copper steps beneath graphene regions of different thickness.

Kong, X. H.; Ji, H. X.; Piner, R. D.; Li, H. F.; Magnuson, C. W.; Tan, C.; Ismach, A.; Chou, H.; Ruoff, R. S.

2013-07-01

391

Field Monitoring and Data Validation for Evaluating the Performance of Cool Storage Systems  

E-print Network

AC-02-19-2 (RP-1004) ~Field Monitoring and Data Validation for Evaluating the Performance of Cool Storage Systems James S. Elleson, P.E. MemberASHRAE Jeff S. Haberl, Ph.D., P.E. MemberASHRAE T. Agaml Reddy, Ph.D., P.E. MemberASHRAE ABSTRACT... for field monitoring are alsoprovided. The companion paper describes the details 0/the meth­ odology development and its application to three case study sites(Reddy et al. 2002). INTRODUCTION This paper and its companion (Reddy et al. 2002) report...

Elleson, J.S; Haberl, J.S.; Reddy, T.A.

392

A new parameter to evaluate the quality of fiber count data of slides with relocatable fields.  

PubMed

Asbestos reference slides with relocatable fields are effective in determining the fiber counting errors and evaluating intercounter precision and accuracy. The process is time consuming and expensive as it requires (a) the analysts to record the number and the positions of the fibers and (b) an experienced microscopist to determine the errors. A new parameter based on the discrepancies between the reported fibers and the verified fibers is being investigated for monitoring the quality of fiber counts. The discrepancies are related to the fiber counting errors. The new process requires the analysts to report only the fibers in each field examined. PMID:17249148

Pang, Thomas

2007-02-01

393

Flowpath evaluation and reconnaissance by remote field Eddy current testing (FERRET)  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the design and development of FERRET (Flowpath Evaluation and Reconnaisance by Remote-field Eddy current Testing). FERRET is a system for inspecting the steel pipes which carry cooling water to underground nuclear waste storage tanks. The FERRET system has been tested in a small scale cooling pipe mock-up, an improved full scale mock-up, and in flaw detection experiments. Early prototype designs of FERRET and the FERRET launcher (a device which inserts, moves, and retrieves probes from a piping system) as well as the field-ready design are discussed.

Smoak, A.E.; Zollinger, W.T.

1993-12-31

394

A field bioassay to evaluate potential spatial repellents against natural mosquito populations.  

PubMed

A field bioassay evaluating candidate chemicals as aerial repellents was developed and evaluated against natural mosquito populations in Beltsville, MD. The bioassay consisted of an attractive source surrounded by a grid of 16 septa containing a volatile candidate aerial repellent, compared with an attractive source without such a grid. The attractive source was a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light trap supplemented with carbon dioxide. Significant sources of variation included weather, position, and the differential response of mosquito species. Despite these sources of variation, significant repellent responses were obtained for catnip oil, E,Z-dihydronepetalactone, and DEET. PMID:23393752

Chauhan, K R; Aldrich, J R; McCardle, P W; White, G B; Webb, R E

2012-12-01

395

PYREX: A Summary of Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

About six years ago, the planned field experiment Pyrenean Experiment (PYREX) was presented in the Bulletin. After a successful field phase in October and November 1990, and much work to prepare a consistent database, interpret the measurements, and compare model results with observations, it is possible to present today a summary of scientific results. New insight has been obtained in

P. Bougeault; B. Benech; P. Bessemoulin; B. Carissimo; A. Jansa Clar; J. Pelon; M. Petitdidier; E. Richard

1997-01-01

396

FIELD EVALUATION OF THE UV/OXIDATION TECHNOLOGY TO TREAT CONTAMINATED GROUND WATER AT A HAZARDOUS WASTE SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents the field evaluation results of the ultraviolet radiation (UV)/oxidation technology developed by Ultrox International, Santa Ana, California. The field evaluation of the technology was performed at the Lorentz Barrel and Drum (LB&D) site in San Jose, Californi...

397

CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery Feasibility Evaluation for East Texas Oil Field  

E-print Network

CO2 ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY FEASIBILITY EVALUATION FOR EAST TEXAS OIL FIELD BY PING LU Submitted to the graduate degree program in Petroleum Engineering and the Graduate Faculty of the University of Kansas in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science Chairperson: Jenn-Tai Liang Jyun-Syung Tsau Russ Ostermann Date Defended: 07-23-2012 ii The Thesis Committee for PING LU certifies...

Lu, Ping

2012-08-31

398

Field tests and evaluations of the IAEA Active-Well Coincidence Counter  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes and evaluates field tests of the Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC) at Winfrith and Dounreay, United Kingdom. The applicability of the AWCC for assaying the uranium content of a wide variety of materials was demonstrated and calibration curves were generated. The AWCC was used in three modes (fast, thermal, and passive) while assaying powders, pellets, cartridges, plates, assorted residues, and materials-testing-reactor fuel assemblies.

Krick, M.S.; Rinard, P.M.

1982-12-01

399

Field evaluation of T-NASA: taxi navigation and situation awareness system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of a field evaluation of an advanced taxi navigation and situation awareness (T-NASA) system, aimed at improving the efficiency of aircraft ground taxi operations under low-visibility conditions. T-NASA consists of two main components: 1) a panel-mounted electronic taxi map display and 2) a heads-up scene-linked display (HUD). These components were installed in NASA's B-757 research

A. D. Andre; B. L. Hooey; D. C. Foyle; R. S. McCann

1998-01-01

400

A FIELD EVALUATION OF BAITS FOR DELIVERING ORAL RABIES VACCINES TO RACCOONS (PROCYON LOTOR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight field trials were conducted in 1989 and 1990 in Georgia (USA) and Maryland (USA) to evaluate baits and baiting strategies for delivering oral rabies vaccines to raccoons (Proc yon lotor). Bait packets consisting of corn meal and egg batter-based baits enclosed in plastic bags were placed at 1.0-m diameter, raked tracking stations and checked daily. Packets were well accepted

Samuel B. Linhart; F. Sherman; Richard M. Engeman; Harvey L. Hill; Tip Hon; Douglas I. Hall; John H. Shaddock

401

Smog Check II Executive Summary  

E-print Network

Smog Check II Evaluation Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . Lynn Scarlett, Chair Donald Bea June 19, 2000 #12;ES-1 1. Goals of the IMRC Smog Check Evaluation The Smog Check Program is intended. Smog Check targets three types of pollution from vehicles: hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx

Denver, University of

402

Implementation and Evaluation of the Virtual Fields Method: Determining Constitutive Model Parameters From Full-Field Deformation Data.  

SciTech Connect

The Virtual Fields Method (VFM) is an inverse method for constitutive model parameter identication that relies on full-eld experimental measurements of displacements. VFM is an alternative to standard approaches that require several experiments of simple geometries to calibrate a constitutive model. VFM is one of several techniques that use full-eld exper- imental data, including Finite Element Method Updating (FEMU) techniques, but VFM is computationally fast, not requiring iterative FEM analyses. This report describes the im- plementation and evaluation of VFM primarily for nite-deformation plasticity constitutive models. VFM was successfully implemented in MATLAB and evaluated using simulated FEM data that included representative experimental noise found in the Digital Image Cor- relation (DIC) optical technique that provides full-eld displacement measurements. VFM was able to identify constitutive model parameters for the BCJ plasticity model even in the presence of simulated DIC noise, demonstrating VFM as a viable alternative inverse method. Further research is required before VFM can be adopted as a standard method for constitu- tive model parameter identication, but this study is a foundation for ongoing research at Sandia for improving constitutive model calibration.

Kramer, Sharlotte Lorraine Bolyard; Scherzinger, William M.

2014-09-01

403

Coupled acoustic-gravity field for dynamic evaluation of ion exchange with a single resin bead.  

PubMed

A coupled acoustic-gravity field is efficient for entrapping a particle at the position determined by its acoustic properties rather than its size. This field has been applied to the dynamic observation of ion-exchange reactions occurring in a single resin bead. The replacement of counterions in an ion-exchange resin induces changes in its acoustic properties, such as density and compressibility. Therefore, we can visually trace the advancement of an ion-exchange reaction as a time change in the levitation position of a resin bead entrapped in the field. Cation-exchange reactions occurring in resin beads with diameters of 40-120 microm are typically completed within 100-200 s. Ion-exchange equilibrium or kinetics is often evaluated with off-line chemical analyses, which require a batch amount of ion exchangers. Measurements with a single resin particle allow us to evaluate ion-exchange dynamics and kinetics of ions including those that are difficult to measure by usual off-line analyses. The diffusion properties of ions in resins have been successfully evaluated from the time change in the levitation positions of resin beads. PMID:20462180

Kanazaki, Takahiro; Hirawa, Shungo; Harada, Makoto; Okada, Tetsuo

2010-06-01

404

Preparing international relief workers for health care in the field: an evaluation of organizational practices.  

PubMed

The growth of the humanitarian aid industry has led to the proliferation of relief programs and the rapid rise in the number of relief personnel working in the field. One major necessity in developing successful international programs is appropriately trained field personnel. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the educational practice and training methods for field workers by non-government organizations (NGO). Of the 53 organizations surveyed, 64% responded that they sent health care workers to acute human emergencies. A majority of organizations, 31/53 (59%), used manuals as the primary method of training for workers before going into the field. Eighty-five percent of organizations (45/53) supplied their workers with trip briefings from prior personnel before going into the field, and 91% (48/53) had an on-site coordinator. Only 34% (18/53) provided classroom teaching or orientation prior to departure. The average number of months spent by workers abroad was < or = 1 for nearly half (49%) of the NGOs. Only 34% (18/53) of the NGOs required that personnel had previous international experience. Training of humanitarian workers varies significantly between non-governmental organizations. Lack of standardization in training programs and wide variation of provider preparedness indicates the need by NGOs for enhanced training for field personnel. PMID:12090207

Moresky, R T; Eliades, M J; Bhimani, M A; Bunney, E B; VanRooyen, M J

2001-01-01

405

Evaluation of measurement reproducibility using the standard-sites data, 1994 Fernald field characterization demonstration project  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy conducted the 1994 Fernald (Ohio) field characterization demonstration project to evaluate the performance of a group of both industry-standard and proposed alternative technologies in describing the nature and extent of uranium contamination in surficial soils. Detector stability and measurement reproducibility under actual operating conditions encountered in the field is critical to establishing the credibility of the proposed alternative characterization methods. Comparability of measured uranium activities to those reported by conventional, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-certified laboratory methods is also required. The eleven (11) technologies demonstrated included (1) EPA-standard soil sampling and laboratory mass-spectroscopy analyses, and currently-accepted field-screening techniques using (2) sodium-iodide scintillometers, (3) FIDLER low-energy scintillometers, and (4) a field-portable x-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Proposed advanced characterization techniques included (5) alpha-track detectors, (6) a high-energy beta scintillometer, (7) electret ionization chambers, (8) and (9) a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer in two different configurations, (10) a field-adapted laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) technique, and (11) a long-range alpha detector. Measurement reproducibility and the accuracy of each method were tested by acquiring numerous replicate measurements of total uranium activity at each of two ``standard sites`` located within the main field demonstration area. Meteorological variables including temperature, relative humidity. and 24-hour rainfall quantities were also recorded in conjunction with the standard-sites measurements.

Rautman, C.A.

1996-02-01

406

Evaluation of the effects of electric fields on implanted cardiac pacemakers. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The effects of extra high voltage (EHV) transmission line electric fields on pacemaker function were evaluated in 11 patients with seven different implanted pacemaker models from four manufacturers. Alteration in pacemaker function was demonstrated in five unipolar units (three different models) from two manufacturers during exposure to electric fields ranging from 2 to 9 kV/m, with total body currents from 47 to 175 ..mu..A. These electric fields and body currents are representative of values that can be encountered by individuals standing beneath EHV transmission lines. Transient alterations in pacemaker function observed in this study included inappropriate triggered activity, inhibition of impulse generation, reduction in rate, and reversion from demand to asynchronous mode. Electromagnetic interference from high voltage transmission lines can induce alterations in pacemaker function in certain designs of these devices. However, pacemaker manufacturers can incorporate appropriate circuits in the pacemaker design to eliminate this problem. 8 references.

Moss, A.J.; Carstensen, E.

1985-02-01

407

Evaluation of hemostatic field dressing for bacteria, mycobacteria, or fungus contamination.  

PubMed

Infectious complications have a major impact on wounded warriors. Pathogens causing infections include multidrug-resistant bacteria, fungi, and mycobacteria. The potential sources for these pathogens include nosocomial transmission, the environment (e.g., dirt), or the patients (skin flora) themselves. The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the possibility that hemostatic field dressings might act as an inoculation source of pathogens into wounds. To accomplish this, hemostatic field dressings were assessed for the presence of bacterial, fungal, or mycobacterial contamination. We evaluated two samples of QuikClot Combat Gauze and two samples of CELOX Gauze subjected to normal stresses associated with storage after receipt from the manufacturer. We then evaluated 16 samples of QuikClot Combat Gauze that were collected from personnel deployed in Afghanistan and had undergone routine mechanical stress. Samples underwent screening with Trypticase Soy Broth, blood agar plates, MacConkey agar plates, CHROMagar Staphylococcus aureus plates, chocolate agar plates, Potato Flake agar, Lowenstein-Jensen media, and Middlebrook 7H11 media. No bacteria, fungi, or mycobacteria were recovered from the dressings. It does not appear that hemostatic field dressings are contaminated, even after subjected to field conditions. Further research is needed to identify inoculation sources of fungi and mycobacteria, which cause infections. PMID:23707133

Murray, Clinton K; Brunstetter, Tyson; Beckius, Miriam; Dunne, James R; Mende, Katrin

2013-03-01

408

Evaluation of the snow regime in dynamic vegetation land surface models using field measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An increasing number of studies have demonstrated significant climatic and ecological changes occurring in the northern latitudes over the past decades. As coupled Earth-system models attempt to describe and simulate the dynamics and complex feedbacks of the Arctic environment, it is important to reduce their uncertainties in short-term predictions by improving the description of both system processes and its initial state. This study focuses on snow-related variables and makes extensive use of a historical data set (1966-1996) of field snow measurements acquired across the extent of the former Soviet Union to evaluate a range of simulated snow metrics produced by several land surface models, most of them embedded in IPCC-standard climate models. We reveal model-specific failings in simulating snowpack properties such as magnitude, inter-annual variability, timings of snow water equivalent and evolution of snow density. We develop novel and model-independent methodologies that use the field snow measurements to extract the values of fresh snow density and snowpack sublimation, and exploit them to assess model outputs. By directly forcing the surface heat exchange formulation of a land surface model with field data on snow depth and snow density, we evaluate how inaccuracies in simulating snow metrics affect soil temperature, thaw depth and soil carbon decomposition. We also show how field data can be assimilated into models using optimization techniques in order to identify model defects and improve model performance.

Kantzas, E.; Quegan, S.; Lomas, M.; Zakharova, E.

2014-03-01

409

Far-field beam quality evaluation of high-power unstable resonators TEA CO2 Laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High average power pulsed TEA CO2 lasers have many important applications, such as laser manufacturing, military applications, but there rarely have reports about the theoretical and experimental studies on the virtual confocus resonator of pulsed TEA CO2 laser, especially its far field optical quality. Based on the real date of the unstable resonator modified by the stable resonator of high power TEA CO2, three common theoretical evaluations and analyzes were conducted and compared with the measured results of far field light intensity distribution with 2 kW designed unstable resonator laser with the block ratio is ?=0.404. The results show that the unstable resonator can obtain near diffraction limitation and high optical quality beam. The ? factor is smaller than 4 times than the stable resonator. Furthermore, the smaller block factor can make higher power in bucket for the unstable resonator. The comprehensive prediction and evaluation of designed unstable resonator need to synthetically use these three theoretical methods of the evaluations. The simulation results, with considering the optical aberration, heat distortion and atmospheric effect, agree well with the real recording image by the infrared imaging system in the distance of 300m. The research of this paper has very important reference value for evaluating the tactical effectiveness and optimization design of high power TEA CO2 laser system with different unstable resonators.

Guo, Ruhai; Chen, Ning; Shi, Kui; Wang, Bing

2013-05-01

410

Field evaluation of Fourier transform infrared continuous emissions monitoring (FTIR CEM) systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent environmental regulations, including the Clean Air Act and the Enhanced Monitoring Regulations, may require continuous emissions monitoring (CEM) of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). A promising technique for this application is Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). FTIR spectroscopy can, in principle, be used to monitor virtually any gas phase species. Two evaluations of FTIR CEM systems are discussed. The first study, performed in 1993 - 94, compared two FTIR CEM systems on a side-by-side basis in an extended field test at two coal-fired electric power plants. The FTIR CEM systems monitored the legally mandated criteria pollutants and diluents (CO, CO2, NO, NO2, and SO2) as well as H2O. In addition, one system monitored two HAPs (HCl and HF) and NH3. The FTIR CEM measurements were compared with those from the compliance CEM systems at the facilities. Several relative accuracy test audits were also performed to verify the FTIR CEM accuracy. The second evaluation was recently commenced on behalf of the Environmental Protection Agency. In this study, FTIR CEM systems are evaluated specifically for the monitoring of HAP species by conducting laboratory and field tests. The evaluation culminates in the development of proposed performance specifications and protocols for FTIR CEM systems.

Dunder, Thomas A.; Geyer, Thomas J.; Kinner, Laura L.; Plummer, Grant M.

1995-02-01

411

A new generation of electromagnetic and ultrasonic techniques for subsurface evaluation of oil field tubulars  

SciTech Connect

In the past few years, corrosion and mechanical fatigue have been becoming a more visible issue in the oil and gas industry. The issue of lost profits from lost production and the cost and liability resulting from failure has overcome the obvious concern of simple mechanical integrity. A new generation of tool designs have been developed for in-situ evaluation of well casings. These designs along with improvements to existing designs have just recently been introduced to address some of the limitations in subsurface well casing evaluation. These new hardware developments and interpretation techniques can now provide unpredecented accuracy for evaluating downhole tubular conditions. This paper reviews four recent designs while discussing the principals of measurement and offering actual field data in several comparisons. The four designs include: Electromagnetic: AC Types, DC Types, Casing Potential Profiling; Ultrasonic: Ultrasonic Thickness Types. An interpretation technique using sequential measurements to predict and manage for corrosion problems is also presented.

Lewis, R.G.

1988-01-01

412

Investigation and evaluation of geopressured-geothermal wells. Summary of Gruy Federal's Well-of-Opportunity Program to January 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect

Scouting and monitoring techniques peculiar to geopressured-geothermal wells and legal problems are presented. The following are tabulated: priority wells actively monitored, industry contacts, and the summary of industry responses to well-or-opportunity solicitation. (MHR)

Not Available

1980-03-01

413

Evaluation of immune effects of fowlpox vaccine strains and field isolates.  

PubMed

The immune effects of fowlpox virus (FPV) field isolates and vaccine strains were evaluated in chickens infected at the age of 1 day and 6 weeks. The field isolates and the obsolete vaccine strain (FPV S) contained integrated reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) provirus, while the current vaccine strain (FPVST) carries only REV LTR sequences. An indirect antibody ELISA was used to measure the FPV-specific antibody response. The non-specific humoral response was evaluated by injection of two T-cell-dependent antigens, sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). There was no significant difference in the antibody response to FPV between chickens infected with FPV various isolates and strains at either age. In contrast, antibody responses to both SRBC and BSA were significantly lower in 1-day-old chickens inoculated with field isolates and FPV S at 2-3 weeks post-inoculation. Furthermore, cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses measured by in vitro lymphocyte proliferation assay and in vivo using a PHA-P skin test were significantly depressed in chickens inoculated with field isolates and FPV S at the same periods. In addition, thymus and bursal weights were lower in infected chickens. These immunosuppressive effects were not observed in chickens inoculated with the current vaccine strain, FPVST, at any time. The results of this study suggest that virulent field isolates and FPV S have immunosuppressive effects when inoculated into young chickens, which appeared in the first 3 weeks post infection. REV integrated in the FPV field isolates and FPV S may have played a central role in the development of immunosuppression. PMID:16650660

Wang, Jianning; Meers, Joanne; Spradbrow, Peter B; Robinson, Wayne F

2006-08-25

414

Evaluation of Aqua-Ammonia Chiller Technologies and Field Site Installation  

SciTech Connect

The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) has sponsored Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to review, select, and evaluate advanced, gas-fired, 5-ton, aqua-ammonia, chiller technologies. The selection criteria was that units have COP values of 0.67 or better at Air-conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) 95 F outdoor rating conditions, an active refrigerant flow control, and a variable-speed condenser fan. These features are expected to allow these units to operate at higher ambient temperatures (up to the maximum operating temperature of 110 F) with minimal degradation in performance. ORNL evaluated three potential manufacturers of advanced, gas-fired, 5-ton, aqua-ammonia chillers-Robur, Ambian, and Cooling Technologies. Unfortunately, Robur did not meet the COP requirements and Cooling Technologies could not deliver a unit to be tested at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-ORNL environmental chamber testing facility for thermally activated heat pumps. This eliminated these two technologies from further consideration, leaving only the Ambian chillers for evaluation. Two Ambian chillers were evaluated at the DOE-ORNL test facility. Overall these chillers operated well over a wide range of ambient conditions with minimal degradation in performance due to several control strategies used such as a variable speed condenser fan, a modulating burner, and active refrigerant flow control. These Ambian pre-commercial units were selected for installation and field testing at three federal facilities. NFESC worked with ORNL to assist with the site selection for installation and evaluation of these chillers. Two sites (ORNL and Naval Surface Warfare Center [NSWC] Corona) had a single chiller unit installed; and at one site (Naval Amphibious Base [NAB] Little Creek), two 5-ton chillers linked together were installed to provide 10 tons of cooling. A chiller link controller developed under this project was evaluated in the field test at Little Creek.

Zaltash, Abdolreza [ORNL

2007-09-01

415

Evaluating occupational 60-hertz electric-field exposures for guideline compliance.  

PubMed

This article examines determination of compliance of 60-Hz electric-field exposures with occupational guideline limits. The guidelines are expressed as a limit on the unperturbed electric field without allowance for the severity of potential spark discharges. A line worker on a 500-kV transmission-line tower provided a practical example of an occupational exposure. In this realistic case, the worker's posture, the uniformity of the field, and the field orientation differed from the guideline exposure scenario of standing erect in a vertical uniform field. An accurate estimate of the unperturbed nonuniform fields in the climbing space of a lattice steel structure was computed using Monte Carlo methods that modeled surface and spatial electric fields on and near standard geometrical elements. Fields were computed at 20 points in a three-dimensional array, simulating the location of the human body on the tower. We estimated the average unperturbed electric field, space potential, induced short-circuit current, induced open-circuit voltage, and the stored charge and energy available for a discharge over a range of capacitances to ground. The on-tower exposure parameters were compared with those from the idealistic guideline exposure scenario. The average electric field of 24.4 kV/m for the on-tower exposure exceeded the limit of 20 kV/m stated in the recently adopted IEEE Standard C95.6 2002. However, the charge available for a spark discharge during the on-tower exposure was less than that for the guideline exposure scenario. Thus, for an exposure limit based on a constant-charge criterion for adverse reaction to spark discharges, guideline on-tower exposure would be below the limit established for the guideline exposure scenario. Evaluation of electric-field exposures in terms of the charge associated with spark discharges provides a means of comparing any electric-field exposure scenario with the ideal guideline scenario in terms of an effects-related physical quantity. This approach is consistent with the exposure limit/basic restriction methodology that employs a basic restriction on a physical quantity as the ultimate determinant of compliance. PMID:15631058

Bracken, T Dan; Senior, Russell; Tuominen, Monty

2004-10-01

416

Evaluation of the sound field in small fitted enclosures in the modal F. B. Konkel, B. A. T. Petersson  

E-print Network

Evaluation of the sound field in small fitted enclosures in the modal range F. B. Konkel, B. A. T.konkel@tu-berlin.de Introduction This paper deals with the sound field in small fitted enclosures that are filled to different degrees with rigid obstacles. In a previous work the sound field is divided into three distinguishing

Berlin,Technische Universität

417

Wavelet-based spatial comparison technique for analysing and evaluating two-dimensional geophysical model fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complex numerical models of the Earth's environment, based around 3-D or 4-D time and space domains are routinely used for applications including climate predictions, weather forecasts, fishery management and environmental impact assessments. Quantitatively assessing the ability of these models to accurately reproduce geographical patterns at a range of spatial and temporal scales has always been a difficult problem to address. However, this is crucial if we are to rely on these models for decision making. Satellite data are potentially the only observational dataset able to cover the large spatial domains analysed by many types of geophysical models. Consequently optical wavelength satellite data is beginning to be used to evaluate model hindcast fields of terrestrial and marine environments. However, these satellite data invariably contain regions of occluded or missing data due to clouds, further complicating or impacting on any comparisons with the model. A methodology has recently been developed to evaluate precipitation forecasts using radar observations. It allows model skill to be evaluated at a range of spatial scales and rain intensities. Here we extend the original method to allow its generic application to a range of continuous and discontinuous geophysical data fields, and therefore allowing its use with optical satellite data. This is achieved through two major improvements to the original method: (i) all thresholds are determined based on the statistical distribution of the input data, so no a priori knowledge about the model fields being analysed is required and (ii) occluded data can be analysed without impacting on the metric results. The method can be used to assess a model's ability to simulate geographical patterns over a range of spatial scales. We illustrate how the method provides a compact and concise way of visualising the degree of agreement between spatial features in two datasets. The application of the new method, its handling of bias and occlusion and the advantages of the novel method are demonstrated through analyzing model fields from a marine ecosystem model.

Saux Picart, S.; Butenschön, M.; Shutler, J. D.

2011-11-01

418

Field Cage Studies and Progressive Evaluation of Genetically-Engineered Mosquitoes  

PubMed Central

Background A genetically-engineered strain of the dengue mosquito vector Aedes aegypti, designated OX3604C, was evaluated in large outdoor cage trials for its potential to improve dengue prevention efforts by inducing population suppression. OX3604C is engineered with a repressible genetic construct that causes a female-specific flightless phenotype. Wild-type females that mate with homozygous OX3604C males will not produce reproductive female offspring. Weekly introductions of OX3604C males eliminated all three targeted Ae. aegypti populations after 10–20 weeks in a previous laboratory cage experiment. As part of the phased, progressive evaluation of this technology, we carried out an assessment in large outdoor field enclosures in dengue endemic southern Mexico. Methodology/Principal Findings OX3604C males were introduced weekly into field cages containing stable target populations, initially at 10?1 ratios. Statistically significant target population decreases were detected in 4 of 5 treatment cages after 17 weeks, but none of the treatment populations were eliminated. Mating competitiveness experiments, carried out to explore the discrepancy between lab and field cage results revealed a maximum mating disadvantage of up 59.1% for OX3604C males, which accounted for a significant part of the 97% fitness cost predicted by a mathematical model to be necessary to produce the field cage results. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that OX3604C may not be effective in large-scale releases. A strain with the same transgene that is not encumbered by a large mating disadvantage, however, could have improved prospects for dengue prevention. Insights from large outdoor cage experiments may provide an important part of the progressive, stepwise evaluation of genetically-engineered mosquitoes. PMID:23350003

Facchinelli, Luca; Valerio, Laura; Ramsey, Janine M.; Gould, Fred; Walsh, Rachael K.; Bond, Guillermo; Robert, Michael A.; Lloyd, Alun L.; James, Anthony A.; Alphey, Luke; Scott, Thomas W.

2013-01-01

419

Surface wind convergence as a short-term predictor of cloud-to-ground lightning at Kennedy Space Center: A four-year summary and evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since 1986, USAF forecasters at NASA-Kennedy have had available a surface wind convergence technique for use during periods of convective development. In Florida during the summer, most of the thunderstorm development is forced by boundary layer processes. The basic premise is that the life cycle of convection is reflected in the surface wind field beneath these storms. Therefore the monitoring of the local surface divergence and/or convergence fields can be used to determine timing, location, longevity, and the lightning hazards which accompany these thunderstorms. This study evaluates four years of monitoring thunderstorm development using surface wind convergence, particularly the average over the area. Cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning is related in time and space with surface convergence for 346 days during the summers of 1987 through 1990 over the expanded wind network at KSC. The relationships are subdivided according to low level wind flow and midlevel moisture patterns. Results show a one in three chance of CG lightning when a convergence event is identified. However, when there is no convergence, the chance of CG lightning is negligible.

Watson, Andrew I.; Holle, Ronald L.; Lopez, Raul E.; Nicholson, James R.

1991-01-01

420

A field screening method using earthworms (Eisenia foetida andrei) to evaluate contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

An on-site biological assessment for soil toxicity was performed using a lumbricid earthworm, Eisenia foetida andrei, at the Milltown Reservoir Superfund Site on the Clark Fork River near Missoula, MT. The assessment provided an opportunity to evaluate test containers and methodologies. Sixty-four field test stations, each consisting of three test containers of site soil, a control container of artificial soil, and a container to house soil moisture and temperature recording devices, were used. Laboratory tests were conducted on soil samples from selected field stations. The test containers were constructed from sections of polyvinyl chloride pipe and were found to be suitable in preventing escape of test organisms and damage by animals. The site soils had levels of arsenic, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc higher than those in surrounding watersheds. Combined mortality for exposure to the site soil was similar in both the laboratory and field tests. Combined sublethal responses to the site soil were also similar in both laboratory and field tests. Artificial soil controls in both field and laboratory tests resulted in combined mortality rates of 1% or less. The methodologies employed proved successful in maintaining an adequate soil moisture level and allowed for measurement of soil temperature.

Wilborn, D.C.; Bollman, M.A.; Gillett, C.S.; Ott, S.L.; Linder, G.L. [Takena Ecological Services, Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States)

1997-09-01

421

Evaluation of field test kits including immunoassays for the detection of contaminants in soil and water  

SciTech Connect

Effective field test methods are needed for hazardous waste site characterization and remediation. Useful field methods should be rapid, analyte-specific, cost-effective and accurate in the concentration range at which the analyte is regulated. In this study, field test kits for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), mercury, lead and nitrate were evaluated with reference to these criteria. PCBs and mercury, in soils, were analyzed by immunoassay. Ionic lead and nitrate, in water, were measured chemically using test strips. Except for lead, each analyte was measured in both spiked and actual field samples. Twenty to 40 samples per day can be analyzed with the immunoassays and even more with the strip tests. The sensitivity of the immunoassays is in the 1-3 ppM range. Nitrate was consistently detected at [ge]5 ppM; lead ions at [ge]20 ppM. Results obtained using these methods compared favorably with those obtained by standard laboratory methods. In addition to being useful field screening methods, these kits can be used in the laboratory to sort out negative samples and/or to define proper dilutions for positive samples requiring further analysis.

Waters, L.C.; Smith, R.R.; Counts, R.W.; Stewart, J.H.; Jenkins, R.A.

1993-01-01

422

Evaluation of field test kits including immunoassays for the detection of contaminants in soil and water  

SciTech Connect

Effective field test methods are needed for hazardous waste site characterization and remediation. Useful field methods should be rapid, analyte-specific, cost-effective and accurate in the concentration range at which the analyte is regulated. In this study, field test kits for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), mercury, lead and nitrate were evaluated with reference to these criteria. PCBs and mercury, in soils, were analyzed by immunoassay. Ionic lead and nitrate, in water, were measured chemically using test strips. Except for lead, each analyte was measured in both spiked and actual field samples. Twenty to 40 samples per day can be analyzed with the immunoassays and even more with the strip tests. The sensitivity of the immunoassays is in the 1-3 ppM range. Nitrate was consistently detected at {ge}5 ppM; lead ions at {ge}20 ppM. Results obtained using these methods compared favorably with those obtained by standard laboratory methods. In addition to being useful field screening methods, these kits can be used in the laboratory to sort out negative samples and/or to define proper dilutions for positive samples requiring further analysis.

Waters, L.C.; Smith, R.R.; Counts, R.W.; Stewart, J.H.; Jenkins, R.A.

1993-05-01

423

Do toxicity identification and evaluation laboratory-based methods reflect causes of field impairment?  

PubMed

Sediment toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) methods are relatively simple laboratory methods designed to identify specific toxicants or classes of toxicants in sediments; however, the question of whether the same toxicant identified in the laboratory is causing effects in the field remains unanswered. The objective of our study was to determine if laboratory TIE methods accurately reflect field effects. A TIE performed on sediments collected from the Elizabeth River (ER) in Virginia identified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as the major toxicants. Several lines of evidence indicated PAHs were the major toxic agents in the field, including elevated PAH concentrations in ER sediments, comet assay results from in situ caged Merceneria merceneria, and chemical analyses of exposed M. merceneria, which indicated high PAH concentrations in the bivalve tissue. Our final evidence was the response from test organisms exposed to ER sediment extracts and then ultraviolet (UV) radiation. UV radiation caused a toxic diagnostic response unique to PAHs. The aggregation of these various lines of evidence supports the conclusion that PAHs were the likely cause of effects in laboratory- and field-exposed organisms, and that laboratory-based TIE findings reflect causes of field impairment PMID:19764260

Ho, Kay T; Gielazyn, Michel L; Pelletier, Marguerite C; Burgess, Robert M; Cantwell, Mark C; Perron, Monique M; Serbst, Jonathan R; Johnson, Roxanne L

2009-09-01

424

Summary report, California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection evaluation of full-face air-purifying respirators for wildland fire fighting use  

SciTech Connect

Wildland fire suppression personnel employed by the CDF do not currently have the equipment to protect themselves from the short-term acute affects of smoke from wildland fires. In addition, no regulations exist that specify appropriate respiratory protection and the current air-purifying respirator technology and carbon monoxide monitoring has not been adapted to fit wildland fire suppression requirements. This three-year limited study evaluated the ability of wildland fire fighters to perform their normal job function while wearing full-face air-purifying respirators. In the first two years of this study we designed, developed and field tested a prototype ``smart`` air-purifying respirator which incorporated a real-time carbon monoxide monitor into a commercial full-face respirator.` Data on carbon monoxide exposure while fighting wildland fires was collected. During the third year of this study we evaluated eight different commercially available full-face air-purifying respirators equipped with a variety of cartridges. Apparatus to aid the fire fighter in carrying the respirator and carbon monoxide personal monitor was designed and fabricated. A smoke exposure test method was developed and a laboratory study on the penetration of smoke through respirator cartridges was conducted.

Beason, D.G.; Johnson, J.S.; Foote, K.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Weaver, W.A. [California Dept. of Forestry and Fire Protection, Sacramento, CA (United States)

1996-02-01

425

Porous media experience applicable to field evaluation for compressed air energy storage  

SciTech Connect

A survey is presented of porous media field experience that may aid in the development of a compressed air energy storage field demonstration. Work done at PNL and experience of other groups and related industries is reviewed. An overall view of porous media experience in the underground storage of fluids is presented. CAES experience consists of site evaluation and selection processes used by groups in California, Kansas, and Indiana. Reservoir design and field evaluation of example sites are reported. The studies raised questions about compatibility with depleted oil and gas reservoirs, storage space rights, and compressed air regulations. Related experience embraces technologies of natural gas, thermal energy, and geothermal and hydrogen storage. Natural gas storage technology lends the most toward compressed air storage development, keeping in mind the respective differences between stored fluids, physical conditions, and cycling frequencies. Both fluids are injected under pressure into an aquifer to form a storage bubble confined between a suitable caprock structure and partially displaced ground water. State-of-the-art information is summarized as the necessary foundation material for field planning. Preliminary design criteria are given as recommendations for basic reservoir characteristics. These include geometric dimensions and storage matrix properties such as permeability. Suggested ranges are given for injection air temperature and reservoir pressure. The second step in developmental research is numerical modeling. Results have aided preliminary design by analyzing injection effects upon reservoir pressure, temperature and humidity profiles. Results are reported from laboratory experiments on candidate sandstones and caprocks. Conclusions are drawn, but further verification must be done in the field.

Allen, R.D.; Gutknecht, P.J.

1980-06-01

426

Evaluations of CALPUFF, HPAC, and VLSTRACK with Two Mesoscale Field Datasets.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of evaluations of transport and dispersion models with field data are summarized. The California Puff (CALPUFF), Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC), and Chemical/Biological Agent Vapor, Liquid, and Solid Tracking (VLSTRACK) models were compared using two recent mesoscale field datasets-the Dipole Pride 26 (DP26) and the Overland Along-wind Dispersion (OLAD). Both field experiments involved instantaneous releases of sulfur hexafluoride tracer gas in a mesoscale region with desert basins and mountains. DP26 involved point sources, and OLAD involved line sources. Networks of surface wind observations and special radiosonde and pilot balloon soundings were available, and tracer concentrations were observed along lines of whole-air samplers and some fast-response instruments at distances up to 20 km. The models were evaluated using the maximum 3-h dosage (concentration integrated over time) along a sampling line. It was found that the solutions were highly dependent upon the diagnostic wind field model used to interpolate the spatially variable observed wind fields. At the DP26 site, CALPUFF and HPAC had better performance than VLSTRACK. Overall, the three models had mean biases within 35% and random scatters of about a factor of 3-4. About 50%-60% of CALPUFF and HPAC predictions and about 40% of VLSTRACK predictions were within a factor of 2 of observations. At the OLAD site, all three models underpredicted by a factor of 2-3, on average, with random scatters of a factor of 3-7. About 50% of HPAC predictions and only 25%-30% of CALPUFF and VLSTRACK predictions were within a factor of 2 of observations.

Chang, Joseph C.; Franzese, Pasquale; Chayantrakom, Kittisak; Hanna, Steven R.

2003-04-01

427

Self-contained self-rescuer long term field evaluation: combined eighth and ninth phase results  

SciTech Connect

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory (NPPTL) and the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) conduct a Long Term Field Evaluation (LTFE) program to evaluate deployed self-contained self rescuers (SCSRs). The objective of the program is to evaluate how well SCSRs endure the underground coal mining environment with regard to both physical damage and aging when they are deployed in accordance with Federal regulations (30 CFR 75.1714). This report presents findings of the combined eighth and ninth phases of the LTFE. For these phases, over four hundred SCSRs were evaluated. The units tested include the CSE SR-100, Draeger Oxy K-Plus, MSA Life-saver 60, and the OCENCO EBA 6.5. The OCENCO 20 was evaluated only in Phase 9. Testing was performed between December 2000 and April 2004. Results of the evaluation indicate that all SCSRs experience some performance degradation due to the mining environment. Observed degradation varies from elevated levels of carbon dioxide, high breathing resistance, and reduced capacity. Mechanical degradation to the SCSR components included breathing hoses, chemical beds, outer cases and seals. The LTFE tests discussed in this report are different from tests performed for SCSR certification to the requirements of 42 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 84 (42 CFR, Part 84). LTFE tests reported here are conducted to an end point, oxygen depletion, to enable comparison of the duration of new and deployed SCSRs. The method for obtaining deployed SCSRs for this evaluation was not a random selection from the deployed population of SCSRs. Although the results of these tests are useful for observing performance of the tested SCSRs, they are not representative of all deployed SCSRs. 9 refs., 10 figs., 9 tabs., 3 apps.

NONE

2006-10-15

428

Student FTE Summary Student FTE Summary  

E-print Network

Student FTE Summary Fall 2010 #12;1 Student FTE Summary Fall Term 2010 Table of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Percentage of Student FTE by College. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Student FTE by Student Level

429

Partnership in Practice: Evaluating Quality in Workplace Education with Planning and Evaluation Teams. Executive Summary of the Report of the Cycle 5 Evaluation of the Massachusetts Workplace Education Initiative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An evaluation of the fifth cycle of operation of the Massachusetts Workplace Education Initiative had several purposes: (1) to identify the indicators of quality in workplace education; (2) to begin to design an evaluation system for each program; and (3) to assess the indicators of quality for workplace education programs against the national…

Evaluation Research, Newton Highlands, MA.

430

Electromagnetic Imaging Methods for Nondestructive Evaluation Applications  

PubMed Central

Electromagnetic nondestructive tests are important and widely used within the field of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The recent advances in sensing technology, hardware and software development dedicated to imaging and image processing, and material sciences have greatly expanded the application fields, sophisticated the systems design and made the potential of electromagnetic NDE imaging seemingly unlimited. This review provides a comprehensive summary of research works on electromagnetic imaging methods for NDE applications, followed by the summary and discussions on future directions. PMID:22247693

Deng, Yiming; Liu, Xin

2011-01-01

431

Improvement on a portable laser profiler for gully volume evaluation: laboratory and field testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gullies are some of the most important sediment sources in the semi-arid environment, which cannot be documented sufficiently through measure conventional methods which usually are very expensive and time-consuming. This communication describes the improved technical characteristics and the expected accuracy of the laser distance sensor when is used for gully volume quantification under laboratory and field conditions. The implementation of magnetometers and accelerometers on a laser profiler have allowed to register the orientation and the inclination of the sensor. In addition, a 7 m- resolution global position system (GPS) was used to determine the approximate location of the measurements. The accuracy of the device is evaluated against the measurement distance, angle of incidence, colour and roughness of target surfaces and lighting conditions at the laboratory. Field studies have been conducted to assess the performance of the device in actual soil samples and gully configurations.

Castillo, C.; Pérez, R.; Taguas, E. V.; Lora, J. S.; Giráldez, J. V.; Gómez, J. A.

2012-04-01

432

EVALUATION OF SILICON DIODES AS IN-SITU CRYOGENIC FIELD EMISSION DETECTORS FOR SRF CAVITY DEVELOPMENT  

SciTech Connect

We performed in-situ cryogenic testing of four silicon diodes as possible candidates for field emission (FE) monitors of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities during qualification testing and in accelerator cryo-modules. We evaluated diodes from 2 companies - from Hamamatsu corporation model S1223-01; and from OSI Optoelectronics models OSD35-LR-A, XUV-50C, and FIL-UV20. The measurements were done by placing the diodes in superfluid liquid helium near the top of a field emitting 9-cell cavity during its vertical test. For each diode, we will discuss their viability as a 2K cryogenic detector for FE mapping of SRF cavities and the directionality of S1223-01 in such environments. We will also present calibration curves between the diodes and JLab's standard radiation detector placed above the Dewar's top plate.

Ari Palczewski, Rongli Geng

2012-07-01

433

Evaluation of a PIN Photodiode Detector in Neutron-Gamma Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semiconductor detectors are suitable for applications in radiation dosimetry in nuclear research reactors and for radiation protection purposes. The performance of these detectors depends on the quality of their semiconductor. The aim of this work was to evaluate a commercial PIN Photodiode in the neutron-gamma fields of the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor and from an AmBe neutron source. This semiconductor was studied as a neutron detector using some types of converters to determine a dose-to-counts conversion factor to dose equivalent. The results have shown that this component may be implemented for assessing the neutron spectra in some radiation fields and in dose equivalent in radiation protection routines.

Cárdenas, José Patricio N.; Campos, Letícia L.; Filho, Tufic Madi

2011-08-01

434

Summary of measured radiofrequency electric and magnetic fields (10 kHz to 30 GHz) in the general and work environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have plotted data from a number of studies on the range of radiofrequency (RF) field levels associated with a variety of environmental and occupational sources. Field intensity is shown in units of volts\\/meter (V\\/m) for electric field strength and amps\\/meter (A\\/m) for magnetic field strength. Duty factors, modulation frequencies, and modulation indices are also reported for some sources. This

Edwin D. Mantiply; Kenneth R. Pohl; Samuel W. Poppell; Julia A. Murphy

1997-01-01

435

Field evaluation of a standard test method for screening fuels in soils at a railroad site  

SciTech Connect

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Method D-5831-95 is a standard test method for screening fuel contamination in soils. This method uses low-toxicity chemicals and can be used to screen organic-rich soils. It is also fast, easy, and inexpensive to perform. The screening method calls for extracting a sample of soil with isopropyl alcohol (IPA) following treatment with calcium oxide. The resulting extract is filtered, and the ultraviolet (UV) absorbance of the extract is measured at 254 nm. Depending on the information available concerning the contaminant fuel type and availability of the contaminant fuel for calibration, the method can be used to determine the approximate concentration of fuel contamination, an estimated value of fuel contamination, or an indication of the presence or absence of fuel contamination. Fuels containing aromatic compounds, such as diesel fuel and gasoline, as well as other aromatic-containing hydrocarbon materials, such as motor oil, crude oil, and coal oil can be determined. ASTM Method D-5831 was evaluated by using the method to screen soil samples at an actual field site. Soil contaminated with weathered and fresh diesel fuel was sampled and tested for its contaminant concentration. Soil samples were screened in the field using ASTM Method D-5831 and a portable soil test kit. In addition, splits of the soil samples were analyzed in the laboratory using an extractable petroleum hydrocarbon method. Field and laboratory data were compared and show good correlation between field screening and laboratory results.

Schabron, J.F.; Sorini, S.S. [Western Research Institute, Laramie, WY (United States); Butler, E.L. [Gradient Corp., Cambridge, MA (United States); Frisbie, S. [Johnson Co., Inc., Montpelier, VT (United States)

1997-12-31

436

Standard practice for evaluating and qualifying oil field and refinery corrosion inhibitors using rotating cage  

E-print Network

1.1 This practice covers a generally accepted procedure to use the rotating cage (RC) for evaluating corrosion inhibitors for oil field and refinery applications. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2006-01-01

437

Field analytical techniques for mercury in soils technology evaluation. Topical report, November 1994--March 1997  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the evaluation of the four field analytical techniques for mercury detection in soils, namely (1) an anodic stripping voltametry technique (ASV) developed and tested by General Electric Corporation; (2) a static headspace analysis (SHSA) technique developed and tested by Dr. Ralph Turner of Oak Ridge National Laboratory; (3) the BiMelyze{reg_sign} Mercury Immunoassay (Bio) developed and tested by BioNebraska, Inc.; and (4) a transportable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) instrument/technique developed and tested by Spectrace, Inc.

Solc, J.; Harju, J.A.; Grisanti, A.A.

1998-02-01

438

Numerical evaluation of electromagnetic fields due to dipole antennas in the presence of stratified media  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two numerical methods are used to evaluate the integrals that express the em fields due to dipole antennas radiating in the presence of a stratified medium. The first method is a direct integration by means of Simpson's rule. The second method is indirect and approximates the kernel of the integral by means of the fast Fourier transform. In contrast to previous analytical methods that applied only to two-layer cases the numerical methods can be used for any arbitrary number of layers with general properties.

Tsang, L.; Brown, R.; Kong, J. A.; Simmons, G.

1974-01-01

439

Evaluation of Five Simulation Models for Predicting Aldicarb and Bromide Behavior Under Field Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five pesticide simulation models (Chemical Movement in Layered Soils (CLMS), Method of Underground Solute Evaluation (MOUSE), Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM), Groundwater Leading Effects of Agriculture Management Systems (GLEAMS), and Leaching Estimation and Chemistry Model-Pesticides (LEACHMP)) were evaluated using data for the transport and transformation of aldicarb and bromide in the unsaturated zone. Although these models have been tested separately, to date no effort has been made to evaluate all of them using a comprehensive data set from a single field study. Model performance was evaluated based on their ability to predict: the depth of solute center of mass, solute dissipation, and solute concentration distributions within the soil profile. GLEAMS and MOUSE underestimated bromide and aldicarb dissipation, while the other models provided satisfactory predictions of both solute center of mass and pesticide degradation. None of the models accurately described measured solute concentration distributions. Recommendations are made for the selection and use of the models based on objective and subjective criteria including graphical analysis, objective functions, intended model use, and the difficulty in obtaining model input data.

Pennell, K. D.; Hornsby, A. G.; Jessup, R. E.; Rao, P. S. C.

1990-11-01

440

A field study evaluation of short-term refined Gaussian dispersion models  

SciTech Connect

A tracer study was conducted at the Duke Forest Site in Chapel Hill, North Carolina in January, 1995 to evaluate the ability of three short-term refined Gaussian dispersion models to predict the fate of volume source emissions under field study conditions. Study participants included the American Petroleum Institute (API), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the US Department of Energy (DOE), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and private consulting firms. The models evaluated were Industrial Source Complex--Short Term versions 2 and 3 (ISC2, ISC3) and the American Meteorological Society (AMS) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Regulatory Model Improvement Committee (AERMIC) model, AERMOD. All three models are based on the steady-state Gaussian plume dispersion equation, which predicts concentrations at downwind receptor locations when integrated over the distance between the source and receptor. Chemicals were released at known rates and measurements were taken at various points in the study field using Tedlar bag point sampling and open-path Fourier Transform infrared (OP-FTIR) monitoring. The study found that ISC and AERMOD underpredicted the measured concentrations for each dataset collected in the field study. ISC and AERMOD each underpredicted the OPFTIR dataset by a factor of approximately 1.6. ISC underpredicted the Tedlar{reg_sign} dataset by approximately 2.1, while AERMOD underpredicted by a factor of approximately 2.6. Regardless of source configuration or measurement technique used, under-prediction with respect to the measured concentration was consistently observed. This indicates that safety factors or other corrections may be necessary in predicting contaminant concentrations over the distances examined in this study, i.e., in the near field of less than 200 meters.

Piper, A.

1996-12-31

441

FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BURNERS VOLUME V. BURNER EVALUATION DATA APPENDICES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives a detailed summary of data which were generated during the testing of experimental burners on EPA's Large Watertube Simulator (LWS) test facility. The test data are presented as a series of appendices. Appendix A describe the data quality assurance procedures whi...

442

Requirements for the Effective Use of the Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC) -- Determined by Field Evaluation  

E-print Network

A field evaluation study of user requirements for effective use of the Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC) is described. The study included several components including an analysis of potential users classified...

Herbich, J. B.; Smith, E. B.; Benson, J. D.

1969-11-15

443

The mineralogic evaluation of mining sites in Wyoming using hyperspectral field and imaging systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two mining sites in Wyoming were analyzed to evaluate different methods of processing and interpreting data from hyperspectral field and imaging systems. This resulted in two projects being undertaken, one to compare the performance of data processing techniques on hyperspectral imagery, and the other to investigate the usefulness of field spectroscopy for identifying alteration. The first project, located near Atlantic City, Wyoming, applied the USGS Tetracorder and the ENVI software package to AVIRIS data of the site. The results from both methods were checked against field maps and field spectroscopy data collected for the study. Several rock units in the Atlantic City image were successfully identified, including supracrustal rocks, granite and granite-peiss, and some sedimentary units. By comparing the results from each processing method, the strong and weak points of each program were identified and improvements suggested. The Silver Crown project was undertaken to characterize alteration associated with a gold-copper ore deposit located near Cheyenne, Wyoming. This was accomplished using spectral analyses of drill hole samples and airborne spectroscopic data. Analyses of drill hole samples with reflectance spectroscopy techniques are relatively undeveloped and undocumented, so new methods had to be derived, Several alteration zones in the Silver Crown area were successfully identified by spectral analysis of cutting samples. The results suggest the spectral analysis of such samples can facilitate the geologic and mineralogic assessment of a prospect area. Results confirm the potential of hyperspectral imaging and spectrometry as significant new tools for geologic mapping and mineral analysis. The results also indicate important limitations resulting from varying field conditions, methods of data collection, and different processing routines. Both the positive and negative results may serve as a guide to the future development and application of hyperspectral techniques and speed future users in their efforts to produce mineralogic maps and identify alteration at mining sites.

Wawrzynski, Alecia Lucille

1999-11-01

444

Laboratory and field evaluation of a biological monitoring system using Corbicula fluminea and Mulinia lateralis  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory and field experiments have been performed to evaluate a non-invasive biomonitoring system using the Asiatic clam Corbicula fluminea and Mulinia lateralis. C. fluminea was exposed to simulated episodic toxicity events in the laboratory using copper, diazinon, and regulated flow rates. Group behavior during these simulated events was compared to behavior during unstressed periods to develop a statistical model and an alarm criteria. Bayou Chico, Pensacola Bay, FL, was the site for field experiments in which M. lateralis was placed in situ to evaluate the performance of the biomonitoring system. The biomonitoring system consists of proximity sensors which detect an aluminum foil target attached to the valve of an organism. Valve movements of the clams are then digitally recorded using a personal computer. Data collected from remote sites are telemetered to the lab using short wave radio. In its final form, the authors envision an in situ biological monitoring system using bivalves deployed in aquatic systems in conjunction with automated monitoring systems like those found at USGS gauging stations. A tool such as this could be used as a warning system to increase the probability of detecting toxic events as they occur.

Waller, W.T.; Allen, H.J.; Schwalm, F.U.; Acevedo, M.F.; Ammann, L.P.; Dickson, K.L.; Kennedy, J.H. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Morgan, E.L. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States)

1995-12-31

445

Evaluation of a modified-live, gene deletion mutant pseudorabies virus vaccine for field use in swine  

E-print Network

EVALUATION OF A MODIFIED-LIVE, GENE DELETION MUTANT PSEUDORABIES VIRUS VACCINE FOR FIELD USE IN SWINE A Thesis by DONALD BRUCE LAWHORN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1989 Major Subject: Veterinary Microbiblogy EVALUATION OF A MODIFIED-LIVE, GENE DELETION MUTANT PSEUDORABIES VIRUS VACCINE FOR FIELD USE IN SWINE A Thesis by DONALD BRUCE LAWHORN Approved...

Lawhorn, Donald Bruce

1989-01-01

446

Wavelet-based spatial comparison technique for analysing and evaluating two-dimensional geophysical model fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complex numerical models of the Earth's environment, based around 3-D or 4-D time and space domains are routinely used for applications including climate predictions, weather forecasts, fishery management and environmental impact assessments. Quantitatively assessing the ability of these models to accurately reproduce geographical patterns at a range of spatial and temporal scales has always been a difficult problem to address. However, this is crucial if we are to rely on these models for decision making. Satellite data are potentially the only observational dataset able to cover the large spatial domains analysed by many types of geophysical models. Consequently optical wavelength satellite data is beginning to be used to evaluate model hindcast fields of terrestrial and marine environments. However, these satellite data invariably contain regions of occluded or missing data due to clouds, further complicating or impacting on any comparisons with the model. This work builds on a published methodology, that evaluates precipitation forecast using radar observations based on predefined absolute thresholds. It allows model skill to be evaluated at a range of spatial scales and rain intensities. Here we extend the original method to allow its generic application to a range of continuous and discontinuous geophysical data fields, and therefore allowing its use with optical satellite data. This is achieved through two major improvements to the original method: (i) all thresholds are determined based on the statistical distribution of the input data, so no a priori knowledge about the model fields being analysed is required and (ii) occluded data can be analysed without impacting on the metric results. The method can be used to assess a model's ability to simulate geographical patterns over a range of spatial scales. We illustrate how the method provides a compact and concise way of visualising the degree of agreement between spatial features in two datasets. The application of the new method, its handling of bias and occlusion and the advantages of the novel method are demonstrated through the analysis of model fields from a marine ecosystem model.

Saux Picart, S.; Butenschön, M.; Shutler, J. D.

2012-02-01

447

Efficient models for the evaluation and estimation of the gravity field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current astrodynamics applications require a rapid evaluation of the gravity field and an efficient approach to gravity estimation. The commonly used spherical harmonic model does not meet either of these needs. To address these issues, this research considers two new gravity representations: the cubed-sphere and the MRQSphere models. Offering a means for rapid evaluation, the cubed-sphere model yields an effectively constant computation time for any degree of the modeled gravity field. Analyzing the model's performance in a series of Monte-Carlo-like tests characterizes its effects on both orbit propagation and determination. When compared to the spherical harmonic gravity model, the cubed-sphere model improves computational efficiency without causing any significant deviation in resulting trajectories. Using this new model in sequential orbit determination improves the computational efficiency of the time update. As a result, the measurement update now dominates the filter execution time for near real-time applications. Since cubed-sphere models of higher degree require only a slight change in computation time, orbit propagation and determination systems may now use this model to improve fidelity without any significant change in cost. To address the gravity estimation problem, combining a new multiresolution technique with nearly optimal quadratures (for the sphere) invariant under the icosahedral group defines the MRQSphere model. This new multiresolution representation allows for gravity estimation via a naturally staged approach to a celestial body with an unknown gravity field, which aids in the design of missions to small bodies. To test the new model's capabilities, this research simulates a mission to an asteroid. Tests include the characterization of a MRQSphere model derived from the asteroid's spherical harmonic model, and the estimation of a model via observations of the gravity potential. For such a simplified scenario, the results indicate that the MRQSphere model meets the estimation accuracy requirements; future work is recommended to fully explore its capabilities.

Jones, Brandon A.

2010-11-01

448

Evaluation of Specific Absorption Rate as a Dosimetric Quantity for Electromagnetic Fields Bioeffects  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate SAR as a dosimetric quantity for EMF bioeffects, and identify ways for increasing the precision in EMF dosimetry and bioactivity assessment. Methods We discuss the interaction of man-made electromagnetic waves with biological matter and calculate the energy transferred to a single free ion within a cell. We analyze the physics and biology of SAR and evaluate the methods of its estimation. We discuss the experimentally observed non-linearity between electromagnetic exposure and biological effect. Results We find that: a) The energy absorbed by living matter during exposure to environmentally accounted EMFs is normally well below the thermal level. b) All existing methods for SAR estimation, especially those based upon tissue conductivity and internal electric field, have serious deficiencies. c) The only method to estimate SAR without large error is by measuring temperature increases within biological tissue, which normally are negligible for environmental EMF intensities, and thus cannot be measured. Conclusions SAR actually refers to thermal effects, while the vast majority of the recorded biological effects from man-made non-ionizing environmental radiation are non-thermal. Even if SAR could be accurately estimated for a whole tissue, organ, or body, the biological/health effect is determined by tiny amounts of energy/power absorbed by specific biomolecules, which cannot be calculated. Moreover, it depends upon field parameters not taken into account in SAR calculation. Thus, SAR should not be used as the primary dosimetric quantity, but used only as a complementary measure, always reporting the estimating method and the corresponding error. Radiation/field intensity along with additional physical parameters (such as frequency, modulation etc) which can be directly and in any case more accurately measured on the surface of biological tissues, should constitute the primary measure for EMF exposures, in spite of similar uncertainty to predict the biological effect due to non-linearity. PMID:23750202

Panagopoulos, Dimitris J.; Johansson, Olle; Carlo, George L.

2013-01-01

449

Laboratory and field evaluation of a SAW microsensor array for measuring perchloroethylene in breath.  

PubMed

This article describes the laboratory and field performance evaluation of a small prototype instrument employing an array of six polymer-coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors and a thermal desorption preconcentration unit for rapid analysis of perchloroethylene in breath. Laboratory calibrations were performed using breath samples spiked with perchloroethylene to prepare calibration standards spanning a concentration range of 0.1-10 ppm. A sample volume of 250 mL was preconcentrated on 40 mg of Tenax GR at a flow rate of 100 mL/min, followed by a dry air purge and thermal desorption at a temperature of 200 degrees C. The resulting pulse of vapor was passed over the sensor array at a flow rate of 20 mL/min and sensor responses were recorded and displayed using a laptop computer. The total time per analysis was 4.5 min. SAW sensor responses were linear, and the instrument's limit of detection was estimated to be 50 ppb based on the criterion that four of the six sensors show a detectable response. Field performance was evaluated at a commercial dry-cleaning operation by comparing prototype instrument results for breath samples with those of a portable gas chromatograph (NIOSH 3704). Four breath samples were collected from a single subject over the course of the workday and analyzed using the portable gas chromatograph (GC) and SAW instruments. An additional seven spiked breath samples were prepared and analyzed so that a broader range of perchloroethylene concentrations could be examined. Linear regression analysis showed excellent agreement between prototype instrument and portable GC breath sample results with a correlation coefficient of 0.99 and a slope of 1.04. The average error for the prototype instrument over a perchloroethylene breath concentration range of 0.9-7.2 ppm was 2.6% relative to the portable GC. These results demonstrate the field capabilities of SAW microsensor arrays for rapid analysis of organic vapors in breath. PMID:15742707

Groves, William A; Achutan, Chandran

2004-12-01

450

Use of a semi-field system to evaluate the efficacy of topical repellents under user conditions provides a disease exposure free technique comparable with field data  

PubMed Central

Background Before topical repellents can be employed as interventions against arthropod bites, their efficacy must be established. Currently, laboratory or field tests, using human volunteers, are the main methods used for assessing the efficacy of topical repellents. However, laboratory tests are not representative of real life conditions under which repellents are used and field-testing potentially exposes human volunteers to disease. There is, therefore, a need to develop methods to test efficacy of repellents under real life conditions while minimizing volunteer exposure to disease. Methods A lotion-based, 15%?N, N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) repellent and 15% DEET in ethanol were compared to a placebo lotion in a 200 sq m (10 m?×?20 m) semi-field system (SFS) against laboratory-reared Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes and in full field settings against wild malaria vectors and nuisance-biting mosquitoes. The average percentage protection against biting mosquitoes over four hours in the SFS and field setting was determined. A Poisson regression model was then used to determine relative risk of being bitten when wearing either of these repellents compared to the placebo. Results Average percentage protection of the lotion-based 15% DEET repellent after four hours of mosquito collection was 82.13% (95% CI 75.94-88.82) in the semi-field experiments and 85.10% (95% CI 78.97-91.70) in the field experiments. Average percentage protection of 15% DEET in ethanol after four hours was 71.29% (CI 61.77-82.28) in the semi-field system and 88.24% (84.45-92.20) in the field. Conclusions Semi-field evaluation results were comparable to full-field evaluations, indicating that such systems could be satisfactorily used in measuring efficacy of topically applied mosquito repellents, thereby avoiding risks of exposure to mosquito-borne pathogens, associated with field testing. PMID:24767458

2014-01-01

451

Determination of hydrocarbon emissions from oil-field-production sump; evaluation report  

SciTech Connect

Hydrocarbon emissions from seven oil-field-production sumps were determined using a flux box draft-test method developed by the Engineering Evaluation Branch of the California Air Resources Board. The method involves drawing a measured amount of air through the open face of an open-bottom containment vessel which is floated on the sump. The total hydrocarbon and methane concentrations of the air entering and leaving the containment vessel are determined using both continuous analyzer and Tedlar bag sample analysis techniques. The field tests took place during the spring and summer of 1986 in Kern County, California. The sumps tested were characterized as primary, secondary or tertiary sumps as defined by their stage in the oil-water separation process. Average emission rates were found to range from 4.6 times ten to the sixth power to 186 x ten to sixth power lbs/min/sq. ft. Calculated daily emissions from individual sumps ranged from 26 to 1080 lbs/day. Because of known and unknown factors causing variability in the data, it is not recommended that an overall average emission factor be applied to predict hydrocarbon emissions from oil field production sumps.

Castronovo, C.L.

1986-12-01

452

Evaluation of the photoneutron field produced in a medical linear accelerator.  

PubMed

The doses and spectra of photoneutrons produced in a medical linear accelerator with photon energies of 10 and 15 MV were evaluated. The Monte Carlo code, MCNPX, was used to simulate the transport of these photoneutrons around the head for 10 and 15 MV photons. The fully-described geometry of the accelerator head was used in this calculation. The photoneutron energy spectra and doses for various photon field sizes were calculated at each of 20 positions. The results indicate that the maximum dose equivalents are observed in 20 x 20 cm(2) case among photon fields. It was found the neutron average energy at isocenter for a 0 x 0 cm(2) field is 0.38 MeV for 10 MV and is 0.45 MeV for 15 MV. The neutron doses at 10 positions around the head in the treatment room of the operation facility at 10 and 15 MV were measured using the bubble detectors. Measurements were compared with the calculations under the same geometry in the experiment. It was found that the majority of the calculated results agreed to within the standard deviations of the measurements. These above results can be applied in the verification of maximum allowed neutron leakage percentage of treatment dose defined in the IEC. We have been employing them to derive the empirical formula for neutron dose equivalent level at the maze entrance of medical accelerator treatment rooms in a study that is still underway. PMID:17077093

Kim, H S; Park, Y H; Koo, B C; Kwon, J W; Lee, J-S; Choi, H S

2007-01-01

453

Evaluating biological variation in non-transgenic crops: executive summary from the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute workshop, November 16-17, 2009, Paris, France.  

PubMed

The International Life Sciences Institute Health and Environmental Sciences Institute Protein Allergenicity Technical Committee hosted an international workshop November 16-17, 2009, in Paris, France, with over 60 participants from academia, government, and industry to review and discuss the potential utility of "-omics" technologies for assessing the variability in plant gene, protein, and metabolite expression. The goal of the workshop was to illustrate how a plant's constituent makeup and phenotypic processes can be surveyed analytically. Presentations on the "-omics" techniques (i.e., genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) highlighted the workshop, and summaries of these presentations are published separately in this supplemental issue. This paper summarizes key messages, as well as the consensus points reached, in a roundtable discussion on eight specific questions posed during the final session of the workshop. The workshop established some common, though not unique, challenges for all "-omics" techniques, and include (a) standardization of separation/extraction and analytical techniques; (b) difficulty in associating environmental impacts (e.g., planting, soil texture, location, climate, stress) with potential alterations in plants at genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic levels; (c) many independent analytical measurements, but few replicates/subjects--poorly defined accuracy and precision; and (d) bias--a lack of hypothesis-driven science. Information on natural plant variation is critical in establishing the utility of new technologies due to the variability in specific analytes that may result from genetic differences (crop genotype), different crop management practices (conventional high input, low input, organic), interaction between genotype and environment, and the use of different breeding methods. For example, variations of several classes of proteins were reported among different soybean, rice, or wheat varieties or varieties grown at different locations. Data on the variability of allergenic proteins are important in defining the risk of potential allergenicity. Once established as a standardized assay, survey approaches such as the "-omics" techniques can be considered in a hypothesis-driven analysis of plants, such as determining unintended effects in genetically modified (GM) crops. However, the analysis should include both the GM and control varieties that have the same breeding history and exposure to the same environmental conditions. Importantly, the biological relevance and safety significance of changes in "-omic" data are still unknown. Furthermore, the current compositional assessment for evaluating the substantial equivalence of GM crops is robust, comprehensive, and a good tool for food safety assessments. The overall consensus of the workshop participants was that many "-omics" techniques are extremely useful in the discovery and research phases of biotechnology, and are valuable for hypothesis generation. However, there are many methodological shortcomings identified with "-omics" approaches, a paucity of reference materials, and a lack of focused strategy for their use that currently make them not conducive for the safety assessment of GM crops. PMID:20615445

Doerrer, Nancy; Ladics, Gregory; McClain, Scott; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Poulsen, Lars K; Privalle, Laura; Stagg, Nicola

2010-12-01

454

Field evaluations of topical arthropod repellents in North, Central, and South America.  

PubMed

Recently, vector-borne diseases have been resurging in endemic areas and expanding their geographic range into nonendemic areas. Such changes have refocused attention to the potential for major public health events, as naive populations are exposed to these pathogens. Personal topical repellents, recommended by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and World Health Organization, remain a first line of protection against infection. The current study evaluated the repellent efficacy of four new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-registered topical repellent products, two with picaridin as the active ingredient and two with IR3535, against a standard DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide)-based product. All products were evaluated against a wide range of vector species under field conditions across the Americas. Human volunteers were used to evaluate product efficacy as compared with a well-known DEET-based formulation and determine suitability for use by the U.S. military. Findings demonstrated the new formulations performed as well as the standard U.S. military repellent and could be recommended for use. PMID:25276927

Lawrence, Kendra L; Achee, Nicole L; Bernier, Ulrich R; Mundal, Kirk D; Benante, John Paul

2014-09-01

455

Evaluation of resistance to Cylindrocladium parasiticum in peanut in naturally infested or inoculated fields, and in the greenhouse  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our objective was to evaluate six runner peanut (Arachis hypogaea) genotypes with varying resistance to Cylindrocladium black rot (CBR) in a naturally infested field, an inoculated field, and in greenhouse trials. The genotypes GA-02C and Georganic had low plant mortalities, whereas C-99R and DP-1 h...

456

Field Manual of Techniques in Invertebrate Pathology: Application and Evaluation of Pathogens for Control of Insects and Other Invertebrate Pests  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Field Manual of Techniques in Invertebrate Pathology is designed to provide background and instruction on a broad spectrum of techniques and their use in the evaluation of entomopathogens in the field. The intended audience includes researchers, graduate students, practitioners of integrated pes...

457

FLIGHT TUNNEL AND FIELD EVALUATIONS OF STICKY TRAPS FOR MONITORING CODLING MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE) IN SEX PHEROMONE-TREATED ORCHARDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The emission rate, isomeric stability, and relative attractiveness of field-aged gray halo-butyl elastomer and red rubber septa loaded with codlemone, the major sex pheromone component for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., were evaluated. Initially, field-aged red septa loaded with 10.0 mg had highe...

458

Clinical evaluation of safety and human tolerance of electrical sensation induced by electric fields with non-invasive electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the first clinical safety study of human tolerance of electrical sensation using non-invasive, flexible surface-type electrodes and exponentially decaying electric pulses. The study evaluated the effect of electric fields in the absence of a drug and an anesthetic, and was performed in light of potential applications in the field of erectile dysfunction (ED). Twenty impotent patients who

L Zhang; D. P Rabussay

2002-01-01

459

The Mobile Field Study Unit in South-West Queensland. Priority Country Area Program Evaluation Series: Report No. 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effectiveness of the Mobile Field Study Unit's work in environmental education in south-west Queensland during 1979-1980 was evaluated through records kept by the Unit and the Priority Country Area Program (PCAP) office, evaluations by teachers, interviews with teachers and educational administrators, and participant observation of the Unit. The…

Fowler, Clifford F.

460

Field evaluation of cotton near-isogenic lines introgressed with QTLs for productivity and drought related traits  

E-print Network

Field evaluation of cotton near-isogenic lines introgressed with QTLs for productivity and drought Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008 Abstract Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for yield and drought, in order to (1) evaluate the potential to improve cotton drought resistance by MAS and (2) test the role

Chee, Peng W.

461

Reference Group Summaries: October 1987.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides a statistical summary for data included in the October 1987 Comprehensive Assessment Reports and of the results of the spring 1987 administration of the Pupil Evaluation Program (PEP) tests for New York State. The data for the 1986-87 school year in this report will enable school administrators to compare test results for…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Information Center on Education.

462

Saturated flow in a single fracture: Evaluation of the Reynolds equation in measured aperture fields  

SciTech Connect

Fracture transmissivity and detailed aperture fields are measured in analog fractures specially designed to evaluate the utility of the Reynolds equation. The authors employ a light transmission technique with well-defined accuracy ({approximately}1% error) to measure aperture fields at high spatial resolution ({approximately}0.015 cm). A Hele-Shaw cell is used to confirm the approach by demonstrating agreement between experimental transmissivity, simulated transmissivity on the measured aperture field, and the parallel plate law. In the two rough-walled analog fractures considered, the discrepancy between the experimental and numerical estimates of fracture transmissivity was sufficiently large ({approximately} 22--47%) to exclude numerical and experimental errors (< 2%)as a source. They conclude that the three-dimensional character of the flow field is important for fully describing fluid flow in the two rough-walled fractures considered, and that the approach of depth averaging inherent in the formulation of the Reynolds equation is inadequate. They also explore the effects of spatial resolution, aperture measurement technique, and alternative definitions for link transmissivities in the finite-difference formulation, including some that contain corrections for tortuosity perpendicular to the mean fracture plane and Stokes flow. Various formulations for link transmissivity are shown to converge at high resolution ({approximately} 1/5 the spatial correlation length) in the smoothly varying fracture. At coarser resolutions, the solution becomes increasingly sensitive to definition of link transmissivity and measurement technique. Aperture measurements that integrate over individual grid blocks were less sensitive to measurement scale and definition of link transmissivity than point sampling techniques.

NICHOLL,M.J.; RAJARAM,H.; GLASS JR.,ROBERT J.; DETWILER,R.

2000-01-28

463

Field test evaluation of aerobic, anaerobic, and wheelchair basketball skill performances.  

PubMed

Forty-six male wheelchair basketball players performed a set of field tests to evaluate aerobic capacity (25 m shuttle run), anaerobic capacity (30s sprint), and six specific wheelchair basketball skills. Overall test-retest reliability (n = 20) ranged from r = 0.65 to r = 0.97. To study the validity (criterion related evidence) of the shuttle run test, heart rate (HR) was recorded for 15 subjects, who also performed a continuous, multistage arm cranking exercise until volitional fatigue. Moderate to high correlations were calculated between shuttle run distances covered (1375 243,6 m) and VO2max (2208+/-461.6 mL/min) and POmax (93.8+/-17.97 W), measured during maximal arm cranking (respectively r = 0.64 and r = 0.87). Maximal HR during shuttle run (174.9+/-16.6 B/min) and arm cranking (169+/-14.21 B/min) were correlated (r = 0.78). High correlations between shuttle run test and anaerobic field tests, however, indicate high implication of anaerobic and wheelchair maneuverability performances. The 30 s sprint test was validated (n = 15) against a Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) on a roller ergometer. Comparing distance (field test: 90+/-6.7 m) with mean power output (WAnT: 852.1+/-234.9 W) the correlation was r = 0.93. Principal components factor analysis identified 'wheelchair propulsion dynamics' and 'eye-hand-coordination' as the underlying constructs of the six skill proficiency measurements, accounting for 80.1% of the variance. In conclusion, the newly developed field test battery is a reliable and valid tool for anaerobic capacity and skill proficiency assessment in wheelchair basketball players. PMID:10606220

Vanlandewijck, Y C; Daly, D J; Theisen, D M

1999-11-01

464

Evaluation of the snow regime in dynamic vegetation land surface models using field measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An increasing number of studies have demonstrated the significant climatic and ecological changes occurring in the northern latitudes over the past decades. As coupled, earth-system models attempt to describe and simulate the dynamics and complex feedbacks of the Arctic environment, it is important to reduce their uncertainties in short-term predictions by improving the description of both the systems processes and its initial state. This study focuses on snow-related variables and extensively utilizes a historical data set (1966-1996) of field snow measurements acquired across the extend of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) to evaluate a range of simulated snow metrics produced by a variety of land surface models, most of them embedded in IPCC-standard climate models. We reveal model-specific issues in simulating snow dynamics such as magnitude and timings of SWE as well as evolution of snow density. We further employ the field snow measurements alongside novel and model-independent methodologies to extract for the first time (i) a fresh snow density value (57-117 kg m-3) for the region and (ii) mean monthly snowpack sublimation estimates across a grassland-dominated western (November-February) [9.2, 6.1, 9.15, 15.25] mm and forested eastern sub-sector (November-March) [1.53, 1.52, 3.05, 3.80, 12.20] mm; we subsequently use the retrieved values to assess relevant model outputs. The discussion session consists of two parts. The first describes a sensitivity study where field data of snow depth and snow density are forced directly into the surface heat exchange formulation of a land surface model to evaluate how inaccuracies in simulating snow metrics affect important modeled variables and carbon fluxes such as soil temperature, thaw depth and soil carbon decomposition. The second part showcases how the field data can be assimilated with ready-available optimization techniques to pinpoint model issues and improve their performance.

Kantzas, E.; Lomas, M.; Quegan, S.; Zakharova, E.

2013-06-01

465

Configuration and Evaluation of a Dual-Doppler 3-D Wind Field System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current LSP, GSDO, and SLS space vehicle operations are halted when wind speeds from specific directions exceed defined thresholds and when lightning is a threat. Strong winds and lightning are difficult parameters for the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) to forecast, yet are important in the protection of customer vehicle operations and the personnel that conduct them. A display of the low-level horizontal wind field to reveal areas of high winds or convergence would be a valuable tool for forecasters in assessing the timing of high winds, or convection initiation and subsequent lightning occurrence. This is especially important for areas where no weather observation platforms exist. Developing a dual-Doppler radar capability would provide such a display to assist forecasters in predicting high winds and convection initiation. The wind fields can also be used to initialize a local mesoscale numerical weather prediction model to help improve the model forecast winds, convection initiation, and other phenomena. The 45 WS and NWS MLB tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to develop a dual- Doppler wind field display using data from the 45th Space Wing radar, known as the Weather Surveillance Radar (WSR), NWS MLB Weather Surveillance Radar 1988 Doppler (KMLB), and the Orlando International Airport Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (KMCO). They also stipulated that the software used should be freely available. The AMU evaluated two software packages and, with concurrence from NWS MLB and the 45 WS, chose the Warning Decision Support System-Integrated Information (WDSS-II). The AMU collected data from two significant weather cases: a tornadic event on 14 April 2013 and a severe wind and hail event on 12 February 2014. For the 14 April case, the data were from WSR and KMLB. For the 12 February case, the data were from KMCO and KMLB. The AMU installed WDSS-II on a Linux PC, then processed and quality controlled the radar data for display and analysis using WDSS-II tools. Because of issues with de-aliasing the WSR velocity field, the AMU did not use data from this radar in this study and only analyzed the 12 February case. Merging the data to create the dual-Doppler analysis involved several steps. The AMU used instructions from the WDSS-II website and discussion forum to determine the correct tools to use for the analysis, and was successful in creating a merged reflectivity field, which was critical to the success of creating a merged velocity field. However, the AMU was unable to create a merged velocity field. The AMU researched the WDSS-II forum for discussions on similar issues, asked questions on the forum, and tested different options and values in the merger tool with no success. Developing a dual-Doppler wind field was the main goal of this task, but that was not accomplished. It could be an issue of not using the correct options or the correct value for the options used, or there could be issues with the radar data. There is a follow-on AMU task to install the operational version of WDSS-II in the NWS MLB office. This will provide more opportunities to try different options and input values in order to create a merged wind field from KMCO and KMLB.

Crawford, Winifred C.

2014-01-01

466

A method for evaluating personal dosemeters in workplace with neutron fields.  

PubMed

Passive detectors, as albedo or track-etch, still dominate the field of neutron personal dosimetry, mainly due to their low-cost, high-reliability and elevated throughput. However, the recent appearance in the market of electronic personal dosemeters for neutrons presents a new option for personal dosimetry. In addition to passive detectors, electronic personal dosemeters necessitate correction factors, concerning their energy and angular response dependencies. This paper reports on the results of a method to evaluate personal dosemeters for workplace where neutrons are present. The approach here uses few instruments and does not necessitate a large mathematical workload. Qualitative information on the neutron energy spectrum is acquired using a simple spectrometer (Nprobe), reference values for H*(10) are derived from measurements with ambient detectors (Studsvik, Berthold and Harwell) and angular information is measured using personal dosemeters (electronic and bubbles dosemeters) disposed in different orientations on a slab phantom. PMID:21565843

de Freitas Nascimento, Luana; Cauwels, Vanessa; Vanhavere, Filip

2012-04-01

467

A workstation-based evaluation of a far-field route planner for helicopters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Helicopter flight missions at very low, nap of the Earth, altitudes place a heavy workload on the pilot. To aid in reducing this workload, Ames Research Center has been investigating various types of automated route planners. As part of an automated preflight mission planner, a route planner algorithm aids in selecting the overall (far-field) route to be flown. During the mission, the route planner can be used to replan a new route in case of unexpected threats or change in mission requirements. An evaluation of a candidate route planning algorithm, based on dynamic programming techniques is described. This algorithm meets most of the requirements for route planning, both preflight and during the mission. In general, the requirements are to minimize the distance and/or fuel and the deviation from a flight time schedule, and must be flyable within the constraints of available fuel and time.

Warner, David N., Jr.; Moran, Francis J.

1991-01-01

468