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Summary and evaluation of field performance data on unitary heat pumps  

SciTech Connect

Thirty-eight programs involving over 700 heat pump units were categorized in three levels: Level I programs measured energy input normally using utility load research methods, to obtain semi-quantitative performance information and ''hands on'' operating experience. In Level II programs (almost 150 units) both energy input and output were obtained allowing estimation of HSPF. Level III programs involved measurement of input, output and at least some isolation of dynamic losses due to part load cycling and frost/defrost. Energy input data is abundant and frequently reliable but the results are seldom either statically valid or easily generalized. A considerable amount of HSPF (and much less SEER) data is also available. Certain comparisons of these experimental performance factors with ARI 240-81 predictions have indicated good apparent agreement. Dynamic losses can degrade seasonal performance by over 20% in some instances. Unresolved experimental problems include optimization of flip-flop techniques, practical field measurement of cooling load and means of detecting performance degradation. Also very few programs presented error analyses.

Burke, J.C.; Fitzgerald, K.F.; Frantzis, L.



Evaluation Report Summary Darwin Education Initiative  

E-print Network

celebratory activities marking the 200th anniversary of the birth of Charles Darwin. It aimed to stimulateEvaluation Report Summary Darwin Education Initiative January 2011 #12;1 Evaluation of the Darwin to conduct an independent evaluation of the Darwin Education Initiative. The initiative featured

Rambaut, Andrew


Model Selection in Summary Evaluation  

E-print Network

A difficulty in the design of automated text summarization algorithms is in the objective evaluation. Viewing summarization as a tradeoff between length and information content, we introduce a technique based on ...

Perez-Breva, Luis



ROUGE: A Package for Automatic Evaluation of Summaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

ROUGE stands for Recall-Oriented Understudy for Gisting Evaluation. It includes measures to auto- matically determine the quality of a summary by comparing it to other (ideal) summaries created by humans. The measures count the number of ove r- lapping units such as n-gram, word sequences, and word pairs between the computer-generated sum- mary to be evaluated and the ideal summaries

Chin-Yew Lin



Lesson Summary Students will learn about the magnetic fields of  

E-print Network

Knowledge & Skills Understanding of: · Magnetic field lines · Magnetic field strength decreases. Introducing the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) and Solar Wind 1. First have the students answerLesson Summary Students will learn about the magnetic fields of the Sun and Earth. This activity

Mojzsis, Stephen J.


Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

From FY 2000 through FY 2003, a series of vadose zone transport field experiments were conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energys Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project Science and Technology Project, now known as the Remediation and Closure Science Project, and managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The series of experiments included two major field campaigns, one at a 299-E24-11 injection test site near PUREX and a second at a clastic dike site off Army Loop Road. The goals of these experiments were to improve our understanding of vadose zone transport processes; to develop data sets to validate and calibrate vadose zone flow and transport models; and to identify advanced monitoring techniques useful for evaluating flow-and-transport mechanisms and delineating contaminant plumes in the vadose zone at the Hanford Site. This report summarizes the key findings from the field studies and demonstrates how data collected from these studies are being used to improve conceptual models and develop numerical models of flow and transport in Hanfords vadose zone. Results of these tests have led to a better understanding of the vadose zone. Fine-scale geologic heterogeneities, including grain fabric and lamination, were observed to have a strong effect on the large-scale behavior of contaminant plumes, primarily through increased lateral spreading resulting from anisotropy. Conceptual models have been updated to include lateral spreading and numerical models of unsaturated flow and transport have revised accordingly. A new robust model based on the concept of a connectivity tensor was developed to describe saturation-dependent anisotropy in strongly heterogeneous soils and has been incorporated into PNNLs Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator. Application to field-scale transport problems have led to a better understanding plume behavior at a number of sites where lateral spreading may have dominated waste migration (e.g. BC Cribs and Trenches). The improved models have been also coupled with inverse models and newly-developed parameter scaling techniques to allow estimation of field-scale and effective transport parameters for the vadose zone. The development and utility of pedotransfer functions for describing fine-scale hydrogeochemical heterogeneity and for incorporating this heterogeneity into reactive transport models was explored. An approach based on grain-size statistics appears feasible and has been used to describe heterogeneity in hydraulic properties and sorption properties, such as the cation exchange capacity and the specific surface area of Hanford sediments. This work has also led to the development of inverse modeling capabilities for time-dependent, subsurface, reactive transport with transient flow fields using an automated optimization algorithm. In addition, a number of geophysical techniques investigated for their potential to provide detailed information on the subtle changes in lithology and bedding surfaces; plume delineation, leak detection. High-resolution resistivity is now being used for detecting saline plumes at several waste sites at Hanford, including tank farms. Results from the field studies and associated analysis have appeared in more than 46 publications generated over the past 4 years. These publications include test plans and status reports, in addition to numerous technical notes and peer reviewed papers.

Ward, Andy L.; Conrad, Mark E.; Daily, William D.; Fink, James B.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Hoversten, Gary M.; Keller, Jason M.; Majer, Ernest L.; Murray, Christopher J.; White, Mark D.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Zhang, Z. F.



ASCOT 91 field experiment : PNL airsonde data summary.  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) participated in the Winter 1991 Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) field experiment conducted in the vicinity of the Rocky Flats Plant between Boulder and Denver, Colorado. This report contains a summary of operations and data associated with free-release-ball oon-borne atmospheric soundings made by PNL between January 29 and February 8, 1991. Given here are descriptions of the site and instrumentation, a brief summary of the soundings, and a description of the data post processing. The appendices contain a detailed summary of all soundings and ASCOT plots of completed soundings.

JM Hubbe and KJ Allwine



Integrated Summary Report: Evaluation of Economic  

E-print Network

Generation 39 4.3 Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) 43 4.3.1 Economic Impact of the Introduction of Natural Gas to Hawaii 48 4.3.2 The Hydrogen Option 49 4.3.3 Summary of Natural Gas Option Analysis 50 4.4 The Potential of Hawaii Hawaii Natural Energy Institute School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology October 2007 #12


Aleph Field Solver Challenge Problem Results Summary.  

SciTech Connect

Aleph models continuum electrostatic and steady and transient thermal fields using a finite-element method. Much work has gone into expanding the core solver capability to support enriched mod- eling consisting of multiple interacting fields, special boundary conditions and two-way interfacial coupling with particles modeled using Aleph's complementary particle-in-cell capability. This report provides quantitative evidence for correct implementation of Aleph's field solver via order- of-convergence assessments on a collection of problems of increasing complexity. It is intended to provide Aleph with a pedigree and to establish a basis for confidence in results for more challeng- ing problems important to Sandia's mission that Aleph was specifically designed to address.

Hooper, Russell; Moore, Stan Gerald



Project Developmental Continuity Evaluation: Final Report. Executive Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This executive summary presents the major results of the longitudinal evaluation of Project Developmental Continuity (PDC). A Head Start demonstration project initiated by the Administration for Children, Youth and Families (ACYF) in 1974, the PDC aimed to stimulate the development and implementation of comprehensive programs linking Head Start

Bond, James T.; Rosario, Jose


Evaluation Summary Report Proposal number: 035651-1  

E-print Network

-similar structure of fractal spaces, objects or processes, by methods of space-time conformal rescaling. This keyEvaluation Summary Report Proposal number: 035651-1 Proposal acronym: CODY Proposal title/month appointments for ESR's and 180 person/month appointments for ER's. Through innovative boundary

d'Orléans, Université



EPA Science Inventory

Volume I of the report is an executive summary of the results of a three-task program to investigate, characterize, and evaluate the basic process chemistry and the various operating modes of sodium-based dual alkali scrubbing processes. The tasks were: I, laboratory studies at b...


Evaluation of military field-water quality  

SciTech Connect

This is the first and summary volume of the nine-volume study entitled Evaluation of Military Field-Water Quality. This study is a comprehensive assessment of the chemical, radiological, and biological constituents of field-water supplied that could pose health risks to military personnel around the world; it also provides a detailed evaluation of the field-water-treatment capability of the US Armed Forces. This study identifies as being of concern three physical properties, i.e., turbidity, color, and total dissolved solids; seven chemical constituents, i.e., chloride, magnesium, sulfate, arsenic, cyanide, lindane, and metabolites of algae and associated aquatic bacteria; and over twenty types of water-related pathogenic microorganisms. It also addresses five threat agents, i.e., hydrogen cyanide, radioactivity, organophosphorous nerve agents, the trichotecene mycotoxin T-2, and lewisite. An overview of the criteria and recommendations for standards for these constituents for short- term and long-term exposure periods are presented in this volume, as are health-effects summaries for assessing the potential soldier performance degradation when recommended standards are exceeded. In addition, the existing military field-water-treatment capability is reviewed, and an abbreviated discussion is presented of the general physical, chemical, and biological qualities of field waters in geographic regions worldwide, representing potential theaters of operation for US military forces. Finally, research recommendations are outlined. 18 figs., 6 tabs.

Daniels, J.I.; Gallegos, G.M. (eds.)



Texas Educator Excellence Grant (TEEG) Program: Year One Evaluation Report. Policy Evaluation Report. [Executive Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This executive summary presents findings from the first-year evaluation of the Texas Educator Excellence Grant (TEEG) program, one of several statewide performance incentive programs in Texas. In June 2006, Governor Perry and the 79th Texas Legislature created the Governor's Educator Excellence Award Program, one component of which is the TEEG

Springer, Matthew G.; Podgursky, Michael J.; Lewis, Jessica L.; Ehlert, Mark W.; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Gronberg, Timothy J.; Hamilton, Laura S.; Jansen, Dennis W.; Lopez, Omar S.; Patterson, Christine H.; Stecher, Brian M.; Taylor, Lori L.



Automatic Evaluation of Summaries Using N-gram Co-occurrence Statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the recent adoption by the machine translation community of automatic evaluation using the BLEU\\/NIST scoring process, we conduct an in-depth study of a similar idea for evaluating summaries. The results show that automatic evaluation using unigram co-occurrences between summary pairs correlates surprising well with human evaluations, based on various statistical metrics; while direct application of the BLEU evaluation procedure

Chin-Yew Lin; Eduard H. Hovy



Summary of modeling studies of the Krafla geothermal field, Iceland  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive modeling study of the Krafla geothermal field in Iceland has been carried out. The study consists of four tasks: the analysis of well test data, modeling of the natural state of the field, the determination of the generating capability of the field, and modeling of well performance. The results of all four tasks are consistent with field observations.

Bodvarsson, G.S.; Pruess, K.; Stefansson, V.; Eliasson, E.T.



Magnetic field of Mars: Summary of results from the aerobraking and mapping orbits  

E-print Network

Magnetic field of Mars: Summary of results from the aerobraking and mapping orbits M. H. Acun~a,1 J of the ambient magnetic field in the near-Mars environment and over a wide dynamic range. The fundamental objectives of this investigation were to (1) establish the nature of the magnetic field of Mars; (2) develop

California at Berkeley, University of



SciTech Connect

An effective risk assessment system is needed to address the threat posed by an active or passive insider who, acting alone or in collusion, could attempt diversion or theft of nuclear material. The material control and accountability (MC&A) system effectiveness tool (MSET) is a self-assessment or inspection tool utilizing probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology to calculate the system effectiveness of a nuclear facility's material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) system. The MSET process is divided into four distinct and separate parts: (1) Completion of the questionnaire that assembles information about the operations of every aspect of the MPC&A system; (2) Conversion of questionnaire data into numeric values associated with risk; (3) Analysis of the numeric data utilizing the MPC&A fault tree and the SAPHIRE computer software; and (4) Self-assessment using the MSET reports to perform the effectiveness evaluation of the facility's MPC&A system. The process should lead to confirmation that mitigating features of the system effectively minimize the threat, or it could lead to the conclusion that system improvements or upgrades are necessary to achieve acceptable protection against the threat. If the need for system improvements or upgrades is indicated when the system is analyzed, MSET provides the capability to evaluate potential or actual system improvements or upgrades. A facility's MC&A system can be evaluated at a point in time. The system can be reevaluated after upgrades are implemented or after other system changes occur. The total system or specific subareas within the system can be evaluated. Areas of potential system improvement can be assessed to determine where the most beneficial and cost-effective improvements should be made. Analyses of risk importance factors show that sustainability is essential for optimal performance and reveals where performance degradation has the greatest impact on total system risk. The risk importance factors show the amount of risk reduction achievable with potential upgrades and the amount of risk reduction achieved after upgrades are completed. Applying the risk assessment tool gives support to budget prioritization by showing where budget support levels must be sustained for MC&A functions most important to risk. Results of the risk assessment are also useful in supporting funding justifications for system improvements that significantly reduce system risk. The functional model, the system risk assessment tool, and the facility evaluation questionnaire are valuable educational tools for MPC&A personnel. These educational tools provide a framework for ongoing dialogue between organizations regarding the design, development, implementation, operation, assessment, and sustainability of MPC&A systems. An organization considering the use of MSET as an analytical tool for evaluating the effectiveness of its MPC&A system will benefit from conducting a complete MSET exercise at an existing nuclear facility.

Powell, Danny H [ORNL] [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL] [ORNL




EPA Science Inventory

This report describes the following: Characterization of the refuse derived fuel (RDF) produced; Equipment and plant performance evaluations; An analysis of plant maintenance and manpower requirements; An analysis of plant operating costs. Also included is a brief summary of the ...



E-print Network

developed then rigorously tested and evaluated based on (1) accuracy, (2) time, and (3) quality of the resultant seal. For the efficiency evaluation, thirty pavement crack images, which included longitudinalPROJECT SUMMARY REPORT 1508-1F PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THE UT AUTOMATED ROAD MAINTENANCE MACHINE

Texas at Austin, University of


Students Training for Academic Readiness (STAR): Year Three Evaluation Report. Executive Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This executive summary presents findings from the Year 3 evaluation of Texas' state-level Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs, or GEAR UP, grant. GEAR UP grant requirements include an evaluation component designed to assess program effectiveness and to measure progress toward project goals. To this end, the evaluation

Texas Center for Educational Research, 2010



The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program SUMMARY AND CLOSURE REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program promoted the development, commercialization, and implementation of innovative hazardous waste treatment technologies for 20 years. SITE offered a mechanism for conducting joint technology demonstration and evaluation ...


Thirteen year summary of field-scale herbicide volatilization  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Once lost to the atmosphere, herbicide transport can result in unintended re-deposition to inhabited areas, streams, rivers, and lakes. To better understand factors governing herbicide volatilization and to determine its impact relative to other loss pathways, field-scale turbulent volatilization fl...


Field transportable beta spectrometer. Innovative technology summary report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) Chicago Pile-5 Test Reactor (CP-5). The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that by using innovative and improved deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources, significant benefits can be achieved when compared to baseline D and D technologies. One such capability being addressed by the D and D Focus Area is rapid characterization for facility contaminants. The technology was field demonstrated during the period January 7 through January 9, 1997, and offers several potential benefits, including faster turn-around time, cost reduction, and reduction in secondary waste. This report describes a PC controlled, field-transportable beta counter-spectrometer which uses solid scintillation coincident counting and low-noise photomultiplier tubes to count element-selective filters and other solid media. The dry scintillation counter used in combination with an element-selective technology eliminates the mess and disposal costs of liquid scintillation cocktails. Software in the instrument provides real-time spectral analysis. The instrument can detect and measure Tc-99, Sr-90, and other beta emitters reaching detection limits in the 20 pCi range (with shielding). Full analysis can be achieved in 30 minutes. The potential advantages of a field-portable beta counter-spectrometer include the savings gained from field generated results. The basis for decision-making is provided with a rapid turnaround analysis in the field. This technology would be competitive with the radiometric analysis done in fixed laboratories and the associated chain of custody operations.




Image quality evaluation of light field photography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light field photography captures 4D radiance information of a scene. Digital refocusing and digital correction of aberrations could be done after the photograph is taken. However, capturing 4D light field is costly and tradeoffs between different image quality metrics should be made and evaluated. This paper explores the effects of light field photography on image quality by quantitatively evaluating some

Qiang Fu; Zhiliang Zhou; Yan Yuan; Bin Xiangli



Urban Dispersion Program Overview and MID05 Field Study Summary  

SciTech Connect

The Urban Dispersion Program (UDP) was a 4-year project (20042007) funded by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security with additional support from the Defense Threat Reduction Agency. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) also contributed to UDP through funding a human-exposure component of the New York City (NYC) field studies in addition to supporting an EPA scientist in conducting modeling studies of NYC. The primary goal of UDP was to improve the scientific understanding of the flow and diffusion of airborne contaminants through and around the deep street canyons of NYC. The overall UDP project manager and lead scientist was Dr. Jerry Allwine of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. UDP had several accomplishments that included conducting two tracer and meteorological field studies in Midtown Manhattan.

Allwine, K Jerry; Flaherty, Julia E.



Remedial site evaluation report for the waste area grouping 10 wells associated with the new hydrofracture facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Field activities and well summaries  

SciTech Connect

Four hydrofracture sites at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) were used for development, demonstration, and disposal from 1959 to 1984. More than 10 million gal of waste grout mix was disposed of via hydrofracture. Various types of wells were installed to monitor the hydrofracture operations. The primary goal of this remedial investigation was to gather information about the wells in order to recommend the type and best method of final disposition for the wells. Evaluations were performed to determine the integrity of well castings, confirm construction details for each well, evaluate the extent of contamination, assist in planning for future activities, and determine the suitability of the wells for future temporary site monitoring.




Evaluating Soil Health Summary: Soil health can be measured, monitored and managed to increase sustainability and  

E-print Network

Evaluating Soil Health Summary: Soil health can be measured, monitored and managed to increaseResourcesNonmedia, Producers, Web. From Sara Adlington, (406) 994-4602 Filename: Eval Soil Health PR2014 Web: Ag, Extension with Montana State University and MSU Extension have recommendations for growers on evaluating soil quality

Lawrence, Rick L.


The Comprehensive Longitudinal Evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program: Summary of Second Year Reports. SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation Report #6  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report discusses the progress of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP) evaluation and presents a brief summary of the main findings of the seven distinct topical reports that have been completed for 2007-08--the second year of the evaluation. Those seven specialized reports build on the five reports that were released in 2008 and are:

Wolf, Patrick J.



Summary of 2008 CUAA Chinese University Evaluation and Research Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2002, the University Evaluation Task Force of China University Alumni Association Network (CUAA), "University Weekly" and "21st Century Talent Report" have made joint efforts in the evaluation of higher education institutions in China. Compared with the ranking in 2007, China's University Ranking in the 2008 report is different mainly due to

Deguo, Zhao; Yanhou, Cai; Yongjun, Feng; Lingfeng, Wang




EPA Science Inventory

NERL's Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division and other participants in the Public Health Air Surveillance Evaluation (PHASE) project will be discussing their results with European Commission, Directorate General Environment, and French Agency for Environment an...


Summary of current research interests Field of Research: Retinal Stem Cell Biology, Development of Stem Cell  

E-print Network

Summary of current research interests Field of Research: Retinal Stem Cell Biology, Development Müller stem cells for development of cell based therapies to treat end stage glaucoma' This research aims of Stem Cell Based Therapies to treat Retinal Diseases, Endogenous Regeneration of the human Retina Stem

Saunders, Mark


Engineering and Industrial Fields. Revised Summary Report: Technical Employment in Northeast Florida.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document is one of five summary reports, all part of a Pre-Technical Curriculum Planning Project for secondary students who aspire to technical employment or post secondary technical education. This report represents the results of an assessment of the northeast Florida area's technical occupations in engineering and industrial fields. A

Baker, William E.; And Others


Geothermal well stimulation - program summary and the Beowawe field experiment  

SciTech Connect

Republic Geothermal, Inc. and its subcontractors have planned and executed laboratory studies and eight well stimulation field experiments under the Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program (GRWSP). The program, begun in February 1979, has concentrated on extending petroleum industry stimulation technology for use by the geothermal industry. The most recent experiment was in a naturally fractured Chevron well at Beowawe and involved an acid stimulation of a damaged interval which yielded a 2.3-fold increase in injectivity. Overall results to date have shown that stimulation is viable where adequate reservoirs are penetrated by wells encountering formation damage or locally tight formations. However, wells in marginal naturally fractured reservoirs have not been saved by the types of well stimulation jobs performed thus far. A recent discovery is that many wells can possibly be made outstanding producers by widening and propping compliant natural fractures. Confirmation of this constitutes unfinished business of the GRWSP, adn offers one of the greatest potential opportunities for enhancing the economics of geothermal power production.

Verity, R.V.



Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Volume 2, Participants program final summary evaluation  

SciTech Connect

This 4.5-year project consisted of routine analytical support to DOE`s direct liquefaction process development effort (the Base Program), and an extensive effort to develop, demonstate, and apply new analytical methods for the characterization of liquefaction process streams (the Participants Program). The objective of the Base Program was to support the on-going DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program. Feed, process, and product samples were used to assess process operations, product quality, and the effects of process variables, and to direct future testing. The primary objective of the Participants Program was to identify and demonstrate analytical methods for use in support of liquefaction process develpment, and in so doing, provide a bridge between process design, development, and operation and analytical chemistry. To achieve this direct coal liquefaction-derived materials. CONSOL made an evaluation of each analytical technique. During the performance of this project, we obtained analyses on samples from numerous process development and research programs and we evaluated a variety of analytical techniques for their usefulness in supporting liquefaction process development. Because of the diverse nature of this program, we provide here an annotated bibliography of the technical reports, publications, and formal presentations that resulted from this program to serve as a comprehensive summary of contract activities.

Brandes, S.D.; Robbins, G.A.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.



Medical evaluations on the KC-135 1990 flight report summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The medical investigations completed on the KC-135 during FY 1990 in support of the development of the Health Maintenance Facility and Medical Operations are discussed. The experiments are comprised of engineering evaluations of medical hardware and medical procedures. The investigating teams are made up of both medical and engineering personnel responsible for the development of medical hardware and medical operations. The hardware evaluated includes dental equipment, a coagulation analyzer, selected pharmaceutical aerosol devices, a prototype air/fluid separator, a prototype packaging and stowage system for medical supplies, a microliter metering system, and a workstation for minor surgical procedures. The results of these engineering evaluations will be used in the design of fleet hardware as well as to identify hardware specific training requirements.

Lloyd, Charles W.; Guess, Terrell M.; Whiting, Charles W.; Doarn, Charles R.



Summary of monitoring station component evaluation project 2009-2011.  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is regarded as a center for unbiased expertise in testing and evaluation of geophysical sensors and instrumentation for ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring (GNEM) systems. This project will sustain and enhance our component evaluation capabilities. In addition, new sensor technologies that could greatly improve national monitoring system performance will be sought and characterized. This work directly impacts the Ground-based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring mission by verifying that the performance of monitoring station sensors and instrumentation is characterized and suitable to the mission. It enables the operational monitoring agency to deploy instruments of known capability and to have confidence in operational success. This effort will ensure that our evaluation capabilities are maintained for future use.

Hart, Darren M.



Summary of the hydraulic evaluation of LWBR (LWBR development program)  

SciTech Connect

The principal hydraulic performance features of the Light Water Breeder Reactor are summarized in this report. The calculational models and procedures used for prediction of reactor flow and pressure distributions under steady-state and transient operating conditions are described. Likewise, the analysis models for evaluation of the static and dynamic performance characteristics of the hydraulically-balanced and hydraulically-buffered movable-fuel reactivity-control system are outlined. An extensive test program was conducted for qualification of the subject LWBR hydraulic evaluation models. The projected LWBR hydraulic performance is shown to fulfill design objectives and functional requirements.

Stout, J.W.; Lerner, S.; McWilliams, K.D.; Turner, J.R. (eds.)



Summary of the Solar Two Test and Evaluation Program  

SciTech Connect

Solar Two was a collaborative, cost-shared project between eleven US industry and utility partners and the U. S. Department of Energy to validate molten-salt power tower technology. The Solar Two plant, located east of Barstow, CA, was comprised of 1926 heliostats, a receiver, a thermal storage system and a steam generation system. Molten nitrate salt was used as the heat transfer fluid and storage media. The steam generator powered a 10 MWe, conventional Rankine cycle turbine. Solar Two operated from June 1996 to April 1999. The major objective of the test and evaluation phase of the project was to validate the technical characteristics of a molten salt power tower. This paper describes the significant results from the test and evaluation activities.




A Method for Evaluating Volt-VAR Optimization Field Demonstrations  

SciTech Connect

In a regulated business environment a utility must be able to validate that deployed technologies provide quantifiable benefits to the end-use customers. For traditional technologies there are well established procedures for determining what benefits will be derived from the deployment. But for many emerging technologies procedures for determining benefits are less clear and completely absent in some cases. Volt-VAR Optimization is a technology that is being deployed across the nation, but there are still numerous discussions about potential benefits and how they are achieved. This paper will present a method for the evaluation, and quantification of benefits, for field deployments of Volt-VAR Optimization technologies. In addition to the basic methodology, the paper will present a summary of results, and observations, from two separate Volt-VAR Optimization field evaluations using the proposed method.

Schneider, Kevin P.; Weaver, T. F.



Energy Extension Service Pilot Program: evaluation report after two years. Volume I. Evaluation summary  

SciTech Connect

The EES pilot program was initiated in August 1977, when 10 states were selected on a competitive basis for participation. The pilot states (Alabama, Connecticut, Michigan, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming) devoted the first 6 months to start-up activities. This document is a follow-up report to the three volume Evaluation Summary of the first year of the pilot EES program published in September 1979. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the impacts and costs of the two years of the pilot program, and to check the consistency of findings over the two year period. The analysis addresses the following: (1) were the impact findings of Year I and Year II consistent, or did Year I and Year II attitudes and behavior vary. If variation existed, could it be attributed to program changes as the EES progressed from a start-up phase (Year I) to more normal service delivery (Year II); and (2) did costs of service delivery change (again reflecting start-up and normal service delivery costs). Did cost changes affect conclusions about the relative cost effectiveness of delivering services to different target audiences.




SIMS analysis: Development and evaluation 1995 summary report  

SciTech Connect

Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was evaluated for characterizing Hg salts. It was found that sulfate and chloride species could be identified directly without sample preparation. Mercuric oxide could be identified by complexation with formic acid. Hg nitrates could be identified by complexation with cyclohexylamine (CHA). Laser desorption ion trap MS was evaluated for characterizing EDTA on environmental samples. No intact EDTA ions were observed, but a series of EDTA fragment ions were visible, particularly on basalt and soil. An ion trap SIMS was developed: a perrhenate ion gun was interfaced to a Teledyne ion trap spectrometer, and the entire device was mounted on a cart. The technology was demonstrated using a prototype ion trap SIMS instrument for detecting Hg{center_dot}CHA complexes formed from nitrate salts. Intensity of the ion gun was improved, and the surface damage of the particle was small, and ion gun technology transfer to Phi-Evans, Inc. is being considered. Two technology end users are at INEL`s Central Facilities Area 674 pond and acid pit of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex; target problem at both sites is the need for Hg speciation on soil samples.

Groenewold, G.S.; Appelhans, A.D.; Ingram, J.C.; Delmore, J.E.; Dahl, D.A.



SIMS analysis: Development and evaluation 1994 summary report  

SciTech Connect

Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was evaluated for applicability to the characterization of salt cake and environmental samples. Salt cake is representative of waste found in radioactive waste storage tanks located at Hanford and at other DOE sites; it consists of nitrate, nitrite, hydroxide, and ferrocyanide salts, and the samples form the tanks are extremely radioactive. SIMS is an attractive technology for characterizing these samples because it has the capability for producing speciation information with little or no sample preparation, and it generates no additional waste. Experiments demonstrated that substantial speciation information could be readily generated using SIMS: metal clusters which include nitrate, nitrite, hydroxide, carbonate, cyanide, ferrocyanide and ferricyanide were observed. In addition, the mechanism of SIMS desorption of tributyl phosphate (TBP) was clearly identified, and minimum detection limit studies involving TBP were performed. Procurements leading to the construction of an ion trap SIMS instrument were initiated. Technology transfer of SIMS components to three instrument vendors was initiated. For FY-95, the SIMS evaluation program has been redirected toward identification of metal species on environmental samples.

Groenewold, G.S.; Appelhans, A.D.; Ingram, J.C.; Delmore, J.E.; Dahl, D.A.



Summary We evaluated annual productivity and carbon fluxes over the Fontainebleau forest, a large heterogeneous for-  

E-print Network

Summary We evaluated annual productivity and carbon fluxes over the Fontainebleau forest, a large of the simulations are wood production and car- bon fluxes on a daily to yearly basis. Results showed that the forest relative growth rate (2.74%) and regional production estimated from the National Forest Inventory (IFN) (2

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Preventing Youth Violence. A Summary of Program Evaluations. Urban Health Initiative Monograph Series, Monograph 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This summary explaining the results of evaluations of programs to prevent youth violence is an attempt to fill the gap in information about what works and what does not. An effort is made to place the problem of youth violence in perspective, using information largely taken from Bureau of Justice statistics. The existing programs are divided into

Kellermann, Arthur L.; Fuqua-Whitley, Dawna S.; Rivara, Frederick P.


Summary of the thermal evaluation of LWBR (LWBR Development Program)  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the thermal evaluation of the core for the Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor. This core contains unique thermal-hydraulic features such as (1) close rod-to-rod proximity, (2) an open-lattice array of fuel rods with two different diameters and rod-to-rod spacings in the same flow region, (3) triplate orifices located at both the entrance and exit of fuel modules and (4) a hydraulically-balanced movable-fuel system coupled with (5) axial-and-radial fuel zoning for reactivity control. Performance studies used reactor thermal principles such as the hot-and-nominal channel concept and related nuclear/engineering design allowances. These were applied to models of three-dimensional rodded arrays comprising the core fuel regions.

Lerner, S.; McWilliams, K.D.; Stout, J.W.; Turner, J.R.



Summary of 2012 reconnaissance field studies related to the petroleum geology of the Nenana Basin, interior Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS) recently initiated a multi-year review of the hydrocarbon potential of frontier sedimentary basins in Alaska (Swenson and others, 2012). In collaboration with the Alaska Division of Oil & Gas and the U.S. Geological Survey we conducted reconnaissance field studies in two basins with recognized natural gas potentialthe Susitna basin and the Nenana basin (LePain and others, 2012). This paper summarizes our initial work on the Nenana basin; a brief summary of our work in the Susitna basin can be found in Gillis and others (in press). During early May 2012, we conducted ten days of helicopter-supported fieldwork and reconnaissance sampling along the northern Alaska Range foothills and YukonTanana upland near Fairbanks (fig. 1). The goal of this work was to improve our understanding of the geologic development of the Nenana basin and to collect a suite of samples to better evaluate hydrocarbon potential. Most laboratory analyses have not yet been completed, so this preliminary report serves as a summary of field data and sets the framework for future, more comprehensive analysis to be presented in later publications.

Wartes, Marwan A.; Gillis, Robert J.; Herriott, Trystan M.; Stanley, Richard G.; Helmold, Kenneth P.; Peterson, C. Shaun; Benowitz, Jeffrey A.



Static magnetic fields: A summary of biological interactions, potential health effects, and exposure guidelines  

SciTech Connect

Interest in the mechanisms of interaction and the biological effects of static magnetic fields has increased significantly during the past two decades as a result of the growing number of applications of these fields in research, industry and medicine. A major stimulus for research on the bioeffects of static magnetic fields has been the effort to develop new technologies for energy production and storage that utilize intense magnetic fields (e.g., thermonuclear fusion reactors and superconducting magnet energy storage devices). Interest in the possible biological interactions and health effects of static magnetic fields has also been increased as a result of recent developments in magnetic levitation as a mode of public transportation. In addition, the rapid emergence of magnetic resonance imaging as a new clinical diagnostic procedure has, in recent years, provided a strong rationale for defining the possible biological effects of magnetic fields with high flux densities. In this review, the principal interaction mechanisms of static magnetic fields will be described, and a summary will be given of the present state of knowledge of the biological, environmental, and human health effects of these fields.

Tenforde, T.S.



Evaluation of near-field earthquake effects  

SciTech Connect

Structures and equipment, which are qualified for the design basis earthquake (DBE) and have anchorage designed for the DBE loading, do not require an evaluation of the near-field earthquake (NFE) effects. However, safety class 1 acceleration sensitive equipment such as electrical relays must be evaluated for both NFE and DBE since they are known to malfunction when excited by high frequency seismic motions.

Shrivastava, H.P.



Automated water monitor system field demonstration test report. Volume 2: Technical summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Automatic Water Monitor System was installed in a water reclamation facility to evaluate the technical and cost feasibility of producing high quality reclaimed water. Data gathered during this field demonstration test are reported.

Brooks, R. L.; Jeffers, E. L.; Perreira, J.; Poel, J. D.; Nibley, D.; Nuss, R. H.



AACAP Official Action. Summary of the practice parameters for child custody evaluation.  


This summary is presented as a guide for clinicians evaluating the often delicate and complex issues surrounding a child custody dispute. The historical basis of child custody and the various judicial presumptions that have guided courts, as well as the differences between performing child custody evaluation and engaging in traditional clinical practice, are reviewed in the complete document. Issues that are common to all child custody disputes are presented, including continuity and quality of attachments, preference, parental alienation, special needs of children, education, gender issues, sibling relationships, parents' physical and mental health, parents' work schedules, parents' finances, styles of parenting and discipline, conflict resolution, social support systems, cultural and ethnic issues, ethics and values, and religion. In addition, special issues that complicate custody evaluations are presented, including infants in custody disputes, homosexual parents, grandparents' rights, parental kidnapping, relocation problems, allegations of sexual abuse, and advances in reproductive technology, such as frozen embryos, oocyte donation, and artificial insemination. PMID:9401340

Herman, S P; Bernet, W



Evaluation of line focus solar central power systems. Volume I. Executive summary  

SciTech Connect

An evaluation was completed to ascertain the applicability of line focus technologies to electrical power applications and to compare their performance and cost potential with point focus central receiver power systems. It was concluded that although the high temperature line focus (SRI) and fixed mirror line focus (GA) concepts duplicate the heat source characteristics and power conversion technology of the central receiver concepts these configurations do not offer a sufficient improvement in cost to warrant full scale development. The systems are, however, less complex than their point focus counterpart and should the central receiver system development falter they provide reasonable technology alternatives. This volume is an executive summary. (WHK)

Not Available



Comparisons of the green-line corona brightness with the magnetic field strength and the summary sunspot area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparisons of the Fe XIV 530.3 nm coronal emission line brightness with the summary area of sunspots and the magnetic field strength (extrapolated from the photospheric measurements to the 1.1 R&sun; distance in the corona), are discussed. Different correlations of the coronal green line brightness (CGLB) with the large-scale coronal magnetic fields and the local fields of sunspots are found

O. G. Badalyan; N. G. Bludova; J. Skora



Kingsley Field, Klamath Falls, Oregon. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts a-f. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report is a six-part statistical summary of surface weather observations for Kingsley Field, Klamath Falls, OR. It contains the following parts: (A) Weather Conditions; Atmospheric Phenomena; (B) Precipitation, Snowfall and Snow Depth (daily amounts and extreme values); (C) Surface winds; (D) Ceiling versus Visibility; Sky Cover; (E) Psychrometric Summaries (daily maximum and minimum temperatures, extreme maximum and minimum temperatures, psychrometric summary of wet-bulb temperature depression versus dry-bulb temperature, means and standard deviations of dry-bulb, wet-bulb and dew point temperatures and relative humidity); and (F) Pressure Summary (means, standard deviations, and observation counts of station pressure and sea-level pressure). Data in this report are presented in tabular form, in most cases in percentage frequency of occurrence or cumulative percentage frequency of occurrence tables.

Not Available



Field evaluation of a VOST sampling method  

SciTech Connect

The VOST (SW-846 Method 0030) specifies the use of Tenax{reg_sign} and a particular petroleum-based charcoal (SKC Lot 104, or its equivalent), that is no longer commercially available. In field evaluation studies of VOST methodology, a replacement petroleum-based charcoal has been used: candidate replacement sorbents for charcoal were studied, and Anasorb{reg_sign} 747, a carbon-based sorbent, was selected for field testing. The sampling train was modified to use only Anasorb{reg_sign} in the back tube and Tenax{reg_sign} in the two front tubes to avoid analytical difficulties associated with the analysis of the sequential bed back tube used in the standard VOST train. The standard (SW-846 Method 0030) and the modified VOST methods were evaluated at a chemical manufacturing facility using a quadruple probe system with quadruple trains. In this field test, known concentrations of the halogenated volatile organic compounds, that are listed in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, Title 3, were introduced into the VOST train and the modified VOST train, using the same certified gas cylinder as a source of test compounds. Statistical tests of the comparability of methods were performed on a compound-by-compound basis. For most compounds, the VOST and modified VOST methods were found to be statistically equivalent.

Jackson, M.D.; Johnson, L.D.; Fuerst, R.G. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Lab.; McGaughey, J.F.; Bursey, J.T.; Merrill, R.G. [Radian Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)



Summary of Field Measurement on UF6 Cylinders Using Electro-Mechanically Cooled Systems  

SciTech Connect

Measurement of the enrichment of solid state UF6 stored within large metal cylinders is a task commonly performed by plant operators and inspectors. The measurement technologies typically used range from low-resolution, high-efficiency sodium iodide detectors to high-resolution, moderate-efficiency high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. The technology used and methods deployed are dependent upon the material being measured, environmental conditions, time constraints, and measurement-precision requirements. Operators and inspectors typically use specially designed, HPGe detectors that are cooled with liquid nitrogen in situations where high-resolution measurements are required. However, the requirement for periodically refilling the system with liquid nitrogen makes remote usage cumbersome and slow. The task of cooling the detector reduces the available time for the inspector to perform other safeguards activities while on site. If the inspector has to reduce the count time for each selected cylinder to ensure that all preselected cylinders are measured during the inspection, the resulting measurement uncertainties may be increased, making it more difficult to detect and verify potential discrepancies in the operator's declarations. However, recent advances in electromechanically cooled HPGe detectors may provide the inspector with an improved verification tool by eliminating the need for liquid nitrogen. This report provides a summary of test results for field measurements performed using electromechanically cooled HPGe detectors on depleted, natural, and low-enriched uranium cylinders. The results of the study provide valuable information to inspectors and operators regarding the capabilities and limitations of electromechanically cooled systems based on true field-measurement conditions.

McGinnis, Brent R [ORNL; Smith, Steven E [ORNL; Solodov, Alexander A [ORNL; Whitaker, J Michael [ORNL; Morgan, James B [ORNL; MayerII, Richard L. [USEC, Inc.; Montgomery, J. Brent [U.S. Enrichment Corporation Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant



Summary report on reprocessing evaluation of selected inactive uranium mill tailings sites  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has been assisting the Department of Energy in the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Actions Program (UMTRAP) the purpose of which is to implement the provisions of Title I of Public Law 95-604, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.'' As part of this program, there was a need to evaluate the mineral concentration of the residual radioactive materials at some of the designated processing sites to determine whether mineral recovery would be practicable. Accordingly, Sandia contracted Mountain States Research and Development (MSRD), a division of Mountain States Mineral Enterprises, to drill, sample, and test tailings at 12 sites to evaluate the cost of and the revenue that could be derived from mineral recovery. UMTRAP related environmental and engineering sampling and support activities were performed in conjunction with the MSRD operations. This summary report presents a brief description of the various activities in the program and of the data and information obtained and summarizes the results. 8 refs., 9 tabs.

Not Available



Review of "The Comprehensive Longitudinal Evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program: Summary of Fourth Year Reports"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review is of "The Comprehensive Longitudinal Evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program: Summary of Fourth Year Reports," published by the School Choice Demonstration Project, University of Arkansas. The report makes eight claims about the effectiveness of the program, most of them positive. On the key issue of achievement of

Belfield, Clive



Effects of 60 Hz electrical fields on operant and social stress behaviors of nonhuman primates: Summary  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this program is to investigate, using the baboon as a nonhuman primate surrogate for the human, behavioral effects associated with exposure to 60-Hz electric fields. Results from this program, along with information from experiments conducted elsewhere, could be used to estimate and evaluate the likelihood of deleterious consequences resulting from exposure of humans to the electric fields associated with power transmission over high voltage lines. This program is being conducted at Southwest Research Institute as part of an international collaborative information exchange and scientific research effort involving the United State Department of Energy, Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry, and Japan's Central Research Institute of the Electric Power Industry. Since August of 1984, four major research projects were successfully completed. 48 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

Rogers, W.R.; Coelho, A.M. Jr.; Easley, S.P.; Orr, J.L.



A summary of the research program in the broad field of electronics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Summary reports of research projects covering solid state materials, semiconductors and devices, quantum electronics, plasmas, applied electromagnetics, electrical engineering systems to include control communication, computer and power systems, biomedical engineering and mathematical biosciences.



Evaluation Field Building in South Asia: Reflections, Anecdotes, and Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines evaluation field building in South Asia and the role of international collaboration in this field building. The article explores aspects of the supply and demand of development evaluation and the political, historical, and systemic factors that bridge or block evaluation use. The article calls for and suggests elements to

Hay, Katherine



The Comprehensive Longitudinal Evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program: Summary of Final Reports. SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation Report #36  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains a summary of the findings from the various topical reports that comprise the author's comprehensive longitudinal study. As a summary, it does not include extensive details regarding the study samples and scientific methodologies employed in those topical studies. The research revealed a pattern of school choice results that

Wolf, Patrick J.



Field evaluations of marine oil spill bioremediation.  

PubMed Central

Bioremediation is defined as the act of adding or improving the availability of materials (e.g., nutrients, microorganisms, or oxygen) to contaminated environments to cause an acceleration of natural biodegradative processes. The results of field experiments and trials following actual spill incidents have been reviewed to evaluate the feasibility of this approach as a treatment for oil contamination in the marine environment. The ubiquity of oil-degrading microorganisms in the marine environment is well established, and research has demonstrated the capability of the indigenous microflora to degrade many components of petroleum shortly after exposure. Studies have identified numerous factors which affect the natural biodegradation rates of oil, such as the origin and concentration of oil, the availability of oil-degrading microorganisms, nutrient concentrations, oxygen levels, climatic conditions, and sediment characteristics. Bioremediation strategies based on the application of fertilizers have been shown to stimulate the biodegradation rates of oil in aerobic intertidal sediments such as sand and cobble. The ratio of oil loading to nitrogen concentration within the interstitial water has been identified to be the principal controlling factor influencing the success of this bioremediation strategy. However, the need for the seeding of natural environments with hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria has not been clearly demonstrated under natural environmental conditions. It is suggested that bioremediation should now take its place among the many techniques available for the treatment of oil spills, although there is still a clear need to set operational limits for its use. On the basis of the available evidence, we have proposed preliminary operational guidelines for bioremediation on shoreline environments. PMID:8801437

Swannell, R P; Lee, K; McDonagh, M



Summary of evidence-based guideline update: Evaluation and management of concussion in sports  

PubMed Central

Objective: To update the 1997 American Academy of Neurology (AAN) practice parameter regarding sports concussion, focusing on 4 questions: 1) What factors increase/decrease concussion risk? 2) What diagnostic tools identify those with concussion and those at increased risk for severe/prolonged early impairments, neurologic catastrophe, or chronic neurobehavioral impairment? 3) What clinical factors identify those at increased risk for severe/prolonged early postconcussion impairments, neurologic catastrophe, recurrent concussions, or chronic neurobehavioral impairment? 4) What interventions enhance recovery, reduce recurrent concussion risk, or diminish long-term sequelae? The complete guideline on which this summary is based is available as an online data supplement to this article. Methods: We systematically reviewed the literature from 1955 to June 2012 for pertinent evidence. We assessed evidence for quality and synthesized into conclusions using a modified Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation process. We used a modified Delphi process to develop recommendations. Results: Specific risk factors can increase or decrease concussion risk. Diagnostic tools to help identify individuals with concussion include graded symptom checklists, the Standardized Assessment of Concussion, neuropsychological assessments, and the Balance Error Scoring System. Ongoing clinical symptoms, concussion history, and younger age identify those at risk for postconcussion impairments. Risk factors for recurrent concussion include history of multiple concussions, particularly within 10 days after initial concussion. Risk factors for chronic neurobehavioral impairment include concussion exposure and APOE ?4 genotype. Data are insufficient to show that any intervention enhances recovery or diminishes long-term sequelae postconcussion. Practice recommendations are presented for preparticipation counseling, management of suspected concussion, and management of diagnosed concussion. PMID:23508730

Giza, Christopher C.; Kutcher, Jeffrey S.; Ashwal, Stephen; Barth, Jeffrey; Getchius, Thomas S.D.; Gioia, Gerard A.; Gronseth, Gary S.; Guskiewicz, Kevin; Mandel, Steven; Manley, Geoffrey; McKeag, Douglas B.; Thurman, David J.; Zafonte, Ross



Development of KSC program for investigating and generating field failure rates. Volume 1: Summary and overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary of the KSC program for investigating the reliability aspects of the ground support activities is presented. An analysis of unsatisfactory condition reports (RC), and the generation of reliability assessment of components based on the URC are discussed along with the design considerations for attaining reliable real time hardware/software configurations.

Bean, E. E.; Bloomquist, C. E.



Evaluation of military field-water quality  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to develop drinking-water standards for field water for selected threat agents of concern, including radioactivity. The threat agents of concern in addition to radioactivity are the classical chemical-warfare compounds hydrogen cyanide, organophosphorus nerve agents, and lewisite, as well as a fungal metabolite identified only recently as a possible threat agent, the trichothecene mycotoxin. The recommended standards are applicable only to military personnel deployed in the field, and they are meant to protect against performance-degrading effects resulting from the ingestion of the substances in field water. 25 refs., 11 figs., 19 tabs.

Daniels, J.I. (ed.); Anspaugh, L.R.; Layton, D.W.



Evaluation of innovative arsenic treatment technologies :the arsenic water technology partnership vendors forums summary report.  

SciTech Connect

The lowering of the drinking water standard (MCL) for arsenic from 50 {micro}g/L to 10 {micro}g/L in January 2006 could lead to significant increases in the cost of water for many rural systems throughout the United States. The Arsenic Water Technology Partnership (AWTP), a collaborative effort of Sandia National Laboratories, the Awwa Research Foundation (AwwaRF) and WERC: A Consortium for Environmental Education and Technology Development, was formed to address this problem by developing and testing novel treatment technologies that could potentially reduce the costs of arsenic treatment. As a member of the AWTP, Sandia National Laboratories evaluated cutting-edge commercial products in three annual Arsenic Treatment Technology Vendors Forums held during the annual New Mexico Environmental Health Conferences (NMEHC) in 2003, 2004 and 2005. The Forums were comprised of two parts. At the first session, open to all conference attendees, commercial developers of innovative treatment technologies gave 15-minute talks that described project histories demonstrating the effectiveness of their products. During the second part, these same technologies were evaluated and ranked in closed sessions by independent technical experts for possible use in pilot-scale field demonstrations being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories. The results of the evaluations including numerical rankings of the products, links to company websites and copies of presentations made by the representatives of the companies are posted on the project website at This report summarizes the contents of the website by providing brief descriptions of the technologies represented at the Forums and the results of the evaluations.

Everett, Randy L.; Siegel, Malcolm Dean; McConnell, Paul E.; Kirby, Carolyn (Comforce Technical Services, Inc.)



Research Summaries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This column features summaries of research articles from 3 recent crisis management publications. The first, "School Shootings and Counselor Leadership: Four Lessons from the Field" summarized by Kristi Fenning, was conducted as the result of the increased demand for trained crisis personnel on school campuses. Survey participants were leaders

Brock, Stephen E., Ed.



Meeting Summary

MEETING SUMMARY PRESIDENT'S CANCER PANEL THE NATIONAL DIALOGUE ON CANCER RESPONDS TO VOICES OF A BROKEN SYSTEM D e c e m b e r 7 , 2 0 0 2 W a s h i n g t o n , D C OVERVIEW The Presidents Cancer Panel (PCP) was chartered to monitor and evaluate


Field Evaluation of a General Purpose Simulator.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of a general purpose simulator (GPS) to teach Air Force technicians diagnostic and repair procedures for specialized aircraft radar systems is described. An EC II simulator manufactured by Educational Computer Corporation was adapted to resemble the actual configuration technicians would encounter in the field. Data acquired in the

Spangenberg, Ronald W.


Web Page Evaluation: Views from the Field.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a checklist for school librarians to use in evaluating World Wide Web pages. Highlights include content; authority; ease of navigation; the "experience"; use of graphics, sound, and video; treatment, including stereotyping and age appropriateness; speed and types of access; and costs and search engines. (LRW)

Everhart, Nancy



Field Testing of Energy-Efficient Flood-Damage-Resistant Residential Envelope Systems Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of the project was to identify materials and methods that will make the envelope of a house flood damage resistant. Flood damage resistant materials and systems are intended to be used to repair houses subsequent to flooding. This project was also intended to develop methods of restoring the envelopes of houses that have been flooded but are repairable and may be subject to future flooding. Then if the house floods again, damage will not be as extensive as in previous flood events and restoration costs and efforts will be minimized. The purpose of the first pair of field tests was to establish a baseline for typical current residential construction practice. The first test modules used materials and systems that were commonly found in residential envelopes throughout the U.S. The purpose of the second pair of field tests was to begin evaluating potential residential envelope materials and systems that were projected to be more flood-damage resistant and restorable than the conventional materials and systems tested in the first pair of tests. The purpose of testing the third slab-on-grade module was to attempt to dry flood proof the module (no floodwater within the structure). If the module could be sealed well enough to prevent water from entering, then this would be an effective method of making the interior materials and systems flood damage resistant. The third crawl space module was tested in the same manner as the previous modules and provided an opportunity to do flood tests of additional residential materials and systems. Another purpose of the project was to develop the methodology to collect representative, measured, reproducible (i.e. scientific) data on how various residential materials and systems respond to flooding conditions so that future recommendations for repairing flood damaged houses could be based on scientific data. An additional benefit of collecting this data is that it will be used in the development of a standard test procedure which could lead to the certification of building materials and systems as flood damage resistant.

Aglan, H.



The Oregon Studies in Educational Research, Development, Diffusion, and Evaluation. Volume I: Summary Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume serves as an introduction to and a summary report of the project and provides a description of the context, the rationale, and the objectives of the Studies. The first five chapters describe the purposes to be served by the study, the preparations necessary to serve those purposes, the directions taken and the decisions made to

Schalock, H. Del; And Others


Evaluating 6 ricin field detection assays.  


This study presents data showing the performance of 6 commercial detection assays against ricin around concentrations specified as detection limits by the producers. A 2-fold dilution series of 20?ng/ml ricin was prepared and used for testing the lateral-flow kits: BADD, Pro Strips, ENVI, RAID DX, Ricin BioThreat Alert, and IMASS device. Three of the 6 tested field assays (IMASS device, ENVI assay, and the BioThreat Alert assay) were able to detect ricin, although differences in the measured detection limits compared to the official detection limits and false-negative results were observed. We were not able to get the BADD, Pro Strips, and RAID assays to function in our laboratory. We conclude that when purchasing a field responder assay, there is large variation in the specificity of the assays, and a number of in-house tests must be performed to ensure functionality. PMID:24978020

Slotved, Hans-Christian; Sparding, Nadja; Tanassi, Julia Tanas; Steenhard, Nina R; Heegaard, Niels H H




EPA Science Inventory

The performance of a prototype autoisokinetic stack particulate sampling system, designed to maintain automatically isokinetic sampling conditions, was evaluated in field tests at stationary sources. Tests were conducted to determine the operating limits and characteristics of th...


Supplemental summary of cutoff rigidities calculated using the international geomagnetic reference field for various epochs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tables of cosmic-ray cutoff rigidities using the trajectory-tracing technique are given for three epochs of the geomagnetic field. These values have been determined utilizing the International Geomagnetic Reference Field with time derivatives applied so that the coefficients for the field model are appropriate for the following epochs: 1965.0, 1970.0, and 1975.0. Each table includes the geographic coordinates and L value

M. A. Shea; D. F. Smart



Hydrologic evaluation of salinity control and reclamation projects in the Indus Plain, Pakistan--A summary  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report summarizes the observations and findings of a team of four specialists from the U.S. Geological Survey assigned to Pakistan under the auspices of the U.S. Agency for International Development during May to August 1972 for a hydrologic evaluation of Salinity Control and Reclamation Projects in the Indus Plain Individual members of the team undertook comprehensive studies related to climatology, surface-water hydrology, and the canal system; streamflow and sediment yields of the rivers; computer applications to hydrologic data; aquifer characteristics; hydrologic evaluation of Salinity Control and Reclamation Projects (SCARPs); tubewell performance; hydrology of shallow versus deep tubewells; well and well-screen design in the Indus Plain; evaluation of observed and anticipated trends in both private and public tubewell development; evaluation of water-quality programs, data analysis, and records, and computer coding of special water-quality data; and evaluation of water-level data, well discharge and specific-capacity tests and aquifer tests. The reclamation program, by pumping from tubewells, has been notably successful in lowering the water table, in providing supplemental water for irrigation and for leaching of salinized soils, and in improving crop production. Some changes in water quality have been observed in SCARP-I and the Mona Scheme of SCARP-II, but these have not as yet (1972) significantly affected the utility of the water for irrigation. Problems associated with reclamation include control of deterioration in performance of tubewells and their rehabilitation, local brackish or saline-water encroachment, and maintenance of a favorable salt balance in the ground-water system. Rapid and as yet (1972) unregulated growth of shallow private tubewell development in the past decade has introduced complicating factors to the reclamation planning of the early 1960's which had emphasized public tubewell development through the SCARP program. In comparing shallow (0-200 feet) with deep (200-400 feet} tubewell development, it is concluded that long-term response of the water table is the same, whether many shallow wells of small capacity or fewer deeper wells of large capacity pump the same total volume of water in the same area. Moreover, it is concluded that there is no definite advantage for either type of pumping regime with respect to water quality. Utilization of the Punjab aquifer could be greatly enhanced by recharge of high-quality water diverted from the Chenab and Jhelum Rivers to the Ravi and Sutlej Rivers by way of the link and irrigation canals during periods of surplus flow. Recharge to the aquifer could also be improved by diversion of high-quality water from the Chenab and the Jhelum to natural nalas and other surface drainageways during periods of surplus flow. Such recharge would be of much better quality than water leaching downward from irrigated fields. Continued monitoring of the hydrologic system and research on problems engendered by reclamation are essential to the viability of the SCARP program and related water-resources development in the Indus River Basin.

Mundorff, Maurice John; Carrigan, P.H., Jr.; Steele, T.D.; Randall, A.D.



A summary of modeling studies of the Krafla Geothermal Field,Iceland  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive modeling study of the Krafla geothermalfield in Iceland has been carried out. The study consists of four tasks:the analysis of well test data, modeling of the natural state of summaryof the the field, the determination of the generating capability of thefield, and modeling of well performance. The results of all four tasksare consistent with field observation.

Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Pruess, Karsten; Stefansson, Valgardur; Eliasson, Einar T.



Evaluation of Field Methods for Determining Immunoglobulins in Sucking Foals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sedlinsk M., J. Krej, M. Vyskoil: Evaluation of Field Methods for Determining Immunoglobulin in Sucking Foals. Acta Vet. Brno 2005, 74: 51-58. The aim of the study was to evaluate quick and easy semiquantitative tests for the detection of serum immunoglobulins that are commonly used for to trace the foals with the failure of passive immunity transfer. We compared the




EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes results of the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) waste disposal field evaluation project sponsored by EPA at TVA's Shawnee steam plant, Paducah, KY. This pilot-scale project, initiated in 1974 and completed in September 1980, evaluated methods and costs for dis...


Bioremediation of hazardous wastes. Research, development, and field evaluations, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Office of Research and Development (ORD) hosted the eighth annual Symposium on Bioremediation of Hazardous Wastes: Research, Development, and Field Evaluations in Rye Brook, New York, August 8-10, 1995. In this document, abstracts of paper and poster presentations from the symposium are organized within five key research and program areas: Bioremediation Field Initiative; Field research; Performance evaluation; Pilot-scale research; and Process research. The last section of the document includes abstracts of presentations on bioremediation research performed as part of the Hazardous Substance Research Center (HSRC) program.

Kremer, F.




EPA Science Inventory

Reducing risks associated with Pb in soil has typically been accomplished by soil removal, covering, or dilution by mixing with uncontaminated soil. EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) and DuPont Corporation established a collaborative effort to evaluation...


Space shuttle orbiter approach and landing test evaluation report. Captive-active flight test summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Captive-active tests consisted of three mated carrier aircraft/Orbiter flights with an active manned Orbiter. The objectives of this series of flights were to (1) verify the separation profile, (2) verify the integrated structure, aerodynamics, and flight control system, (3) verify Orbiter integrated system operations, and (4) refine and finalize carrier aircraft, Orbiter crew, and ground procedures in preparation for free flight tests. A summary description of the flights is presented with assessments of flight test requirements, and of the performance operations, and of significant flight anomalies is included.



An evaluation of recent internal field models. [of earth magnetism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper reviews the current status of internal field models and evaluates several recently published models by comparing their predictions with annual means of the magnetic field measured at 140 magnetic observatories from 1973 to 1977. Three of the four models studied, viz. AWC/75, IGS/75, and Pogo 8/71, were nearly equal in their ability to predict the magnitude and direction of the current field. The fourth model, IGRF 1975, was significantly poorer in its ability to predict the current field. All models seemed to be able to extrapolate predictions quite well several years outside the data range used to construct the models.

Mead, G. D.



Summary of field operations Tijeras Arroyo Well TJA-2. Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report is a basic data report for field operations associated with the drilling, logging, completion, and development of Tijeras Arroyo well TJA-2. This test/monitoring well was installed as part of Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Environmental Restoration Project.

Foutz, W.L. [Lamb Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); McCord, J.P. [INTERA, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)



Summary of South Fence Road phase II 1993 field operations at site SFR-3  

SciTech Connect

This report is a basic data report fro field operations associated with the drilling, logging, completion, and development of South Fence Road Wells SFR-3P and SFR-3T. These test/monitoring wells were installed as part of Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Environmental Restoration Project.

Foutz, W.L. [Lamb Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); McCord, J.P. [INTERA, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)



Summary of South Fence Road phase II 1993 field operations at Site SFR-4  

SciTech Connect

This report is a basic data report for field operations associated with the drilling, logging, completion, and development of South Fence Road Wells SFR-4P and SFR-4T. These test/monitoring wells were installed as part of Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Environmental Restoration Project.

Foutz, W.L. [Lamb Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); McCord, J.P. [INTERA, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)



Introduction to Field Water-Quality Methods for the Collection of Metals - 2007 Project Summary  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Region VI of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and the Osage Nation presented three 3-day workshops, in June-August 2007, entitled ?Introduction to Field Water-Quality Methods for the Collection of Metals.? The purpose of the workshops was to provide instruction to tribes within USEPA Region VI on various USGS surface-water measurement methods and water-quality sampling protocols for the collection of surface-water samples for metals analysis. Workshop attendees included members from over 22 tribes and pueblos. USGS instructors came from Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Georgia. Workshops were held in eastern and south-central Oklahoma and New Mexico and covered many topics including presampling preparation, water-quality monitors, and sampling for metals in surface water. Attendees spent one full classroom day learning the field methods used by the USGS Water Resources Discipline and learning about the complexity of obtaining valid water-quality and quality-assurance data. Lectures included (1) a description of metal contamination sources in surface water; (2) introduction on how to select field sites, equipment, and laboratories for sample analysis; (3) collection of sediment in surface water; and (4) utilization of proper protocol and methodology for sampling metals in surface water. Attendees also were provided USGS sampling equipment for use during the field portion of the class so they had actual ?hands-on? experience to take back to their own organizations. The final 2 days of the workshop consisted of field demonstrations of current USGS water-quality sample-collection methods. The hands-on training ensured that attendees were exposed to and experienced proper sampling procedures. Attendees learned integrated-flow techniques during sample collection, field-property documentation, and discharge measurements and calculations. They also used enclosed chambers for sample processing and collected quality-assurance samples to verify their techniques. Benefits of integrated water-quality sample-collection methods are varied. Tribal environmental programs now have the ability to collect data that are comparable across watersheds. The use of consistent sample collection, manipulation, and storage techniques will provide consistent quality data that will enhance the understanding of local water resources. The improved data quality also will help the USEPA better document the condition of the region?s water. Ultimately, these workshops equipped tribes to use uniform sampling methods and to provide consistent quality data that are comparable across the region.

Allen, Monica L.



Transportation of lignite to the North Island. Technical and economic evaluation of options. Summary report  

SciTech Connect

The report gives a summary of the findings of a study into the technical and economic aspects of transporting lignites from the South Island deposits to points of use in the north of the North Island. Economic analysis of transport options based on a 1250-MWe demand show that significant improvement in drying/processing techniques would be required before such an option could be favored. The costs are presented as a transport cost per ton and as a delivered fuel cost in terms of costs per kilowatt-hour. It is concluded that transport of lignites to the North Island is highly unlikely to present an attractive means of utilizing the South Island deposits.

Not Available



Summary and re-evaluation of the high-temperature isotope geochemistry of methane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirty years of research are brought together into one coherent summary of carbon and hydrogen isotope effects during the thermocatalytic production of methane from model compounds, petroleum, source rocks, and coals. The approach used by the authors and co-workers has been to pyrolyze model and natural compounds and to study the isotopic fractionations associated with molecular structure, temperature, and catalysis. The results from these experiments are summarized. A practical application of these pyrolysis experiments was the development of the pyrolysis-carbon isotope method (PCM) for determining kerogen maturity. This maturity indexing procedure is based on the isotopic difference between the total methane produced by exhaustive pyrolysis and the parent organic carbon and the mole ratio of methane to parent carbon. Data are also summarized for the thermal destruction of methane and carbon isotope exchange between methane and amorphous carbon and carbon dioxide. The latter results are important when determining the source of methane in hydrothermal fluids.

Sackett, William M.; Conkright, M. E.



A summary of modeling studies of the Nesjavellir Geothermal Field, Iceland  

SciTech Connect

The Nesjavellir geothermal field in Iceland is being developed to provide the capital city of Reykjavik and surrounding areas with hot water for space heating. In the last few years, many wells have been drilled at the site and various geothermal studies have been conducted. The main upflow to the system is underneath the nearby Hengill volcano, and the natural recharge rate and enthalpy are estimated to be 65 kg/s and 1850 kJ/kg, respectively. An extensive vapor zone is believed to be present in the upflow region. Permeabilities and porosities of the system range between 1 and 50 md and 1 and 10 percent, respectively. In this paper, the characteristics of the Nesjavellir field are described and a three-dimensional numerical model of the resource is discussed.

Bodvarsson, G.S.; Bjornsson, S.; Gunnarsson, A.; Gunnlaugsson, E.; Sigurdsson, O.; Stefansson, V.; Steingrimsson, B.



A summary of modeling studies of the Nesjavellir geothermal field, Iceland  

SciTech Connect

The Nesjavellir geothermal field in Iceland is being developed to provide the capital city of Reykjavik and surrounding areas with hot water for space heating. In the last few years, many wells have been drilled at the site and various geothermal studies have been conducted. The main upflow to the system is underneath the nearby Hengill volcano, and the natural recharge rate and enthalpy are estimated to be 65 kg/s and 1850 kJ/kg, respectively. An extensive vapor zone is believed to be present in the upflow region. Permeabilities and porosities of the system range between 1 and 50 md and 1 and 10 percent, respectively. In this paper, the characteristics of the Nesjavellir field are described and a three-dimensional numerical model of the resource in discussed. 15 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

Bodvarsson, G.S.; Bjornsson, S.; Gunnarsson, A.; Gunnlaugsson, E.; Sigurdsson,, O. Stefansson, V.; Steingrimsson, B.




EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of field tests conducted to determine the emission characteristics of a Babcock and Wilcox Circular burner and Dual Register burner (DRB). The field tests were performed at two utility boilers, generally comparable in design and size except for the burner...



EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of field tests conducted to determine the emission characteristics of a Babcock and Wilcox Circular burner and Dual Register burner (DRB). The field tests were performed at two utility boilers, generally comparable in design and size except for the burner...


Dielectric EM Field Probes for HPM Test & Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To meet test and evaluation needs for high power microwave (HPM), we describe developments on miniature all-dielectric optical E-field sensors with flat RF sensing response from ~ MHz to 12 GHz, with negligible field perturbation, good sensitivity (~2V\\/m), and >100dB dynamic range. Initial devices use a 20 mm long sensing region in an integrated optical (IO) waveguide Mach- Zehnder interferometer

Richard Forber; W. C. Wang; De-Yu Zang; Stephen Schultz; Richard Selfridge


Use of field experimental studies to evaluate emergency response models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three-dimensional diagnostic wind field model (MATHEW) and the particle-in-cell atmospheric transport and diffusion model (ADPIC) are used by the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability to estimate the environmental consequences of accidental releases of radioactivity into the atmosphere. These models have undergone extensive evaluations against field experiments conducted in a variety of environmental settings ranging from relatively flat to very complex

P. H. Gudiksen; R. Lange; D. J. Rodriguez; J. S. Nasstrom



Evaluation of statistical treatments of left-censored environmental data using coincident uncensored data sets: I. Summary statistics  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The main classes of statistical treatment of below-detection limit (left-censored) environmental data for the determination of basic statistics that have been used in the literature are substitution methods, maximum likelihood, regression on order statistics (ROS), and nonparametric techniques. These treatments, along with using all instrument-generated data (even those below detection), were evaluated by examining data sets in which the true values of the censored data were known. It was found that for data sets with less than 70% censored data, the best technique overall for determination of summary statistics was the nonparametric Kaplan-Meier technique. ROS and the two substitution methods of assigning one-half the detection limit value to censored data or assigning a random number between zero and the detection limit to censored data were adequate alternatives. The use of these two substitution methods, however, requires a thorough understanding of how the laboratory censored the data. The technique of employing all instrument-generated data - including numbers below the detection limit - was found to be less adequate than the above techniques. At high degrees of censoring (greater than 70% censored data), no technique provided good estimates of summary statistics. Maximum likelihood techniques were found to be far inferior to all other treatments except substituting zero or the detection limit value to censored data.

Antweiler, R.C.; Taylor, H.E.



Vibroacoustic Response of Residential Housing due to Sonic Boom Exposure: A Summary of two Field Tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two experiments have been performed to measure the vibroacoustic response of houses exposed to sonic booms. In 2006, an old home in the base housing area of Edwards Air Force Base, built around 1960 and demolished in 2007, was instrumented with 288 transducers. During a 2007 follow-on test, a newer home in the base housing area, built in 1997, was instrumented with 112 transducers. For each experiment, accelerometers were placed on walls, windows and ceilings in bedrooms of the house to measure the vibration response of the structure. Microphones were placed outside and inside the house to measure the excitation field and resulting interior sound field. The vibroacoustic response of each house was measured for sonic boom amplitudes spanning from 2.4 to 96 Pa (0.05 to 2 lbf/sq ft). The boom amplitudes were systematically varied using a unique dive maneuver of an F/A-18 airplane. In total, the database for both houses contains vibroacoustic response data for 154 sonic booms. In addition, several tests were performed with mechanical shaker excitation of the structure to characterize the forced response of the houses. The purpose of this paper is to summarize all the data from these experiments that are available to the research community, and to compare and contrast the vibroacoustic behavior of these two dissimilar houses.

Klos, Jacob; Buehrle, Ralph; Sullivan, Brenda; Gavin, Joseph; Salamone, Joseph; Haering, Edward A., jr.; Miller, Denise M.



Urban Dispersion Program MSG05 Field Study: Summary of Tracer and Meteorological Measurements  

SciTech Connect

The Urban Dispersion Program is a multi-year project, funded by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, to better understand the flow and dispersion of airborne contaminants through and around the deep street canyons of New York City. The first tracer and meteorological field study was a limited study conducted during March 2005 near the Madison Square Garden in midtown Manhattan. Six safe, inert, gaseous perfluorocarbon tracers were released simultaneously at five street-level locations during two experimental days. In addition to collecting tracer data, meteorological data were also collected. Brookhaven National Laboratory conducted the bulk of the tracer and meteorological field efforts with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Stevens Institute of Technology assisting by measuring the vertical profile of winds. The Environmental Protection Agency worked with Brookhaven National Laboratory in accomplishing the personal exposure component of the study. This report presents some results from this analysis. In general, different release locations showed vastly different plume footprints for tracer materials, and the situation was made very complex with upwind and/or crosswind transport of tracer near street-level for the different release locations. Overall wind speeds and directions upwind and over the city were generally constant throughout each of the two experimental periods.

Allwine, K Jerry; Flaherty, Julia E.



Comprehensive Evaluation of Programs for Exceptional Children: Summary and Future Directions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper presents a definition of program evaluation for behavior disordered students and summarizes the previous four papers on describing clients, natural environments, treatment processes, and outcomes. Areas for future emphasis are noted. (CL)

Reitz, Andrew L.



Summary of sensor evaluation for the Fusion ELectromagnetic Induction eXperiment (FELIX)  

SciTech Connect

As part of the First Wall/Blanket/Shield Engineering Test Program, a test bed called FELIX (Fusion ELectromagnetic Induction eXperiment) is now under construction at ANL. Its purpose will be to test, evaluate, and develop computer codes for the prediction of electromagnetically induced phenomenon in a magnetic environment modeling that of a fusion reaction. Crucial to this process is the sensing and recording of the various induced effects. Sensor evaluation for FELIX has reached the point where most sensor types have been evaluated and preliminary decisions are being made as to type and quantity for the initial FELIX experiments. These early experiments, the first, flat plate experiment in particular, will be aimed at testing the sensors as well as the pertinent theories involved. The reason for these evaluations, decisions, and proof tests is the harsh electrical and magnetic environment that FELIX presents.

Knott, M.J.




EPA Science Inventory

A demonstration of the Toronto Harbour Commissioners' (THC) Soil Recycle Treatment Train was performed under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program at a pilot plant facility in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The Soil Recycle Treatment Train, which consists of s...


Improving evaluation of anti-crime programs: Summary of a National Research Council report ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes a report of the National Research Council: Improving Evaluation of Anti-crime Programs. It is based\\u000a on a workshop, held in September 2003, in which participants presented and discussed examples of evaluation-related studies\\u000a that represent the methods and challenges associated with research at three levels: interventions directed toward individuals;\\u000a interventions in neighborhoods, schools, prisons, or communities; and interventions

Mark Lipsey; Carol Petrie; David Weisburd; Denise Gottfredson



Meta-analytic Evaluation of a Virtual Field Trip to Connect Middle School Students with University Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although virtual field trips are becoming popular, there are few empirical studies of their impacts on student outcomes. This study reports on a meta-analytic evaluation of the impact of a virtual field trip on student perceptions of scientists. Specifically, the study examined the summary effect of zipTrips broadcasts on evaluation participants' perceptions of scientists, as well as the moderating effect of program type on program impact. The results showed statistically significant effect of each broadcast, as well as statistically significant summary (combined) effect of zipTrips on evaluation participants' perceptions of scientists. Results of the moderation analysis showed that the effect was greater for the students that participated in the evaluation of the 8th grade broadcasts, providing additional insight into the role of program variation in predicting differential program impact. This study illustrates how meta-analysis, a methodology that should be of interest to STEM education researchers and evaluation practitioners, can be used to summarize the effects of multiple offerings of the same program. Other implications for STEM educators are discussed.

Adedokun, Omolola A.; Liu, Jia; Parker, Loran Carleton; Burgess, Wilella



Meta-analytic Evaluation of a Virtual Field Trip to Connect Middle School Students with University Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although virtual field trips are becoming popular, there are few empirical studies of their impacts on student outcomes. This study reports on a meta-analytic evaluation of the impact of a virtual field trip on student perceptions of scientists. Specifically, the study examined the summary effect of zipTrips broadcasts on evaluation participants' perceptions of scientists, as well as the moderating effect of program type on program impact. The results showed statistically significant effect of each broadcast, as well as statistically significant summary (combined) effect of zipTrips on evaluation participants' perceptions of scientists. Results of the moderation analysis showed that the effect was greater for the students that participated in the evaluation of the 8th grade broadcasts, providing additional insight into the role of program variation in predicting differential program impact. This study illustrates how meta-analysis, a methodology that should be of interest to STEM education researchers and evaluation practitioners, can be used to summarize the effects of multiple offerings of the same program. Other implications for STEM educators are discussed.

Adedokun, Omolola A.; Liu, Jia; Parker, Loran Carleton; Burgess, Wilella




EPA Science Inventory

The in-situ remediation of aquifers contaminated with halogenated aliphatic compounds is a promising alternative in efforts to protect ground water. The report presents the experimental methodology and the initial results of a field experiment evaluating the feasibility of in-sit...


Formation Evaluation of Oshioka Field Using Geophysical Well Logs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation evaluation of Oshioka field was performed to identify hydrocarbon bearing reservoir and study reservoir properties based on data from the two wells. This was carried out with Petrel and Hydrocarbon Data System (HDS) Log analysis Software packages. The two wells contained sufficient data to allow detailed analysis, including porosity, water saturation, permeability and net-to-gross. The consistency of the

I. Aigbedion; S. E. Iyayi



EPA Science Inventory

This study presents the field evaluation of a high-volume dichotomous sampler that collects coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5) particulate matter. The key feature of this device is the utilization of a round-nozzle virtual impactor with a 50% cutpoint at 2.5 5m to split PM10 into...


Evaluation of lightning induced magnetic fields inside reinforced concrete buildings  

E-print Network

of the structure lightning protection system (LPS) [1-4]. This paper proposes to evaluate, using numerical Author manuscript, published in "XII International Symposium on Lightning Protection (SIPDA), BELOEvaluation of lightning induced magnetic fields inside reinforced concrete buildings C. Miry, E



EPA Science Inventory

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is undertaking a long-term program to conduct field evaluations of landfill bioreactors. The near-term effort is focused on the development of appropriate monitoring strategies to ensure adequate control of the landfill bioreactors an...


40 CFR Table C-5 to Subpart C of... - Summary of Comparability Field Testing Campaign Site and Seasonal Requirements for Class II and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

Table C-5 to Subpart C of Part 53Summary of Comparability Field Testing Campaign Site and Seasonal Requirements for Class II and III FEMs for PM10?2.5 and PM2.5 Candidate method Test site A B C D PM2.5 Test site location...



Diagnosis, evaluation, and management of acute kidney injury: a KDIGO summary (Part 1)  

PubMed Central

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and serious problem affecting millions and causing death and disability for many. In 2012, Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes completed the first ever, international, multidisciplinary, clinical practice guideline for AKI. The guideline is based on evidence review and appraisal, and covers AKI definition, risk assessment, evaluation, prevention, and treatment. In this review we summarize key aspects of the guideline including definition and staging of AKI, as well as evaluation and nondialytic management. Contrast-induced AKI and management of renal replacement therapy will be addressed in a separate review. Treatment recommendations are based on systematic reviews of relevant trials. Appraisal of the quality of the evidence and the strength of recommendations followed the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Limitations of the evidence are discussed and a detailed rationale for each recommendation is provided. PMID:23394211



Field Artillery Ammunition Processing System (FAAPS) concept evaluation study  

SciTech Connect

The Field Artillery Ammunition Processing System (FAAPS) is an initiative to introduce a palletized load system (PLS) that is transportable with an automated ammunition processing and storage system for use on the battlefield. System proponents have targeted a 20% increase in the ammunition processing rate over the current operation while simultaneously reducing the total number of assigned field artillery battalion personnel by 30. The overall objective of the FAAPS Project is the development and demonstration of an improved process to accomplish these goals. The initial phase of the FAAPS Project and the subject of this study is the FAAPS concept evaluation. The concept evaluation consists of (1) identifying assumptions and requirements, (2) documenting the process flow, (3) identifying and evaluating technologies available to accomplish the necessary ammunition processing and storage operations, and (4) presenting alternative concepts with associated costs, processing rates, and manpower requirements for accomplishing the operation. This study provides insight into the achievability of the desired objectives.

Kring, C.T.; Babcock, S.M.; Watkin, D.C.; Oliver, R.P.



Statewide Evaluation of Year-Round and Extended-Day Schools. Executive Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes the statewide evaluation of Utah's year-round and extended-day schools, two scheduling models developed to expand the capacity of existing school facilities to serve the needs of a burgeoning student population in some Utah school districts. When asked about their family's experience with year-round education, a substantial

Utah State Board of Education, Salt Lake City.


Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Intergrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) Summary Manual  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) is a software application developed for performing a complete probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) using a personal computer (PC) running the Microsoft Windows operating system. SAPHIRE is primarily funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and developed by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). INL's primary role in this project is

C. L. Smith



An overview and critical evaluation of the relationships between land use and energy conservation, executive summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interrelationships between land use patterns and energy conservation are assessed. The interrelationships between land and energy uses in a new conceptual framework are ordered, those nascent policies and research programs which have linked land use with energy conservation are evaluated, and, a prioritized research and action agenda for hastening energy conservation through the land use management mechanism is developed.

W. C. Priest; K. M. Happy



The Texas Rural Technology (R-TECH) Pilot Program: Cycle 1 Final Evaluation Report. Executive Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The evaluation of the Texas Rural Technology (R-Tech) Pilot sought to understand how districts implemented R-Tech grants, the effects of implementation on student and teacher outcomes, as well as the cost effectiveness and sustainability of R-Tech. The Texas legislature (80th Texas Legislature, Regular Session, 2007) authorized the creation of

Maloney, Catherine; Sheehan, Daniel; Rainey, Katharine



Conceptual design and evaluation of selected Space Station concepts: Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a space station conceptual design and evaluation study are summarized. The study represented a temporary focusing. Three space station configurations are characterized for user and crew requirements, operation and safety accommodations, engineering considerations including assembly and growth, structural dynamics, communications, thermal control and power systems, as well as system cost.



Chapter 1 and Chapter 1 Migrant. Evaluation Findings, 1990-91. Executive Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes an evaluation of the Austin (Texas) Independent School District's (AISD) Chapter 1 and Chapter 1 Migrant programs. Chapter 1 is a federally funded compensatory educational program that provided funding in 1990-91 to 25 AISD elementary schools with high concentrations of low-income students. Chapter 1 Migrant is also a

Christner, Catherine; And Others


National Evaluation of the Comprehensive Technical Assistance Centers. Final Report. Executive Summary. NCEE 2011-4032  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This final report presents findings from a multi-year evaluation of the Comprehensive Technical Assistance Centers, a federally funded program that provides technical assistance to states in connection with the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, as reauthorized by the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001. With the redesign of the Center

Turnbull, Brenda J.; White, Richard N.; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Riley, Derek L.; Pistorino, Carol



Evaluation of New Texas Charter Schools: Second Interim Report (2007-10). Executive Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Texas Education Agency (TEA) was awarded Charter School Program (CSP) funding in 2007, and specified that the required evaluation would focus on the experiences and outcomes of new charter schools authorized to begin serving students across 4 school years: 2006-07, 2007-08, 2008-09, and 2009-10. TEA categorizes charter schools in terms of

Maloney, Catherine; Sheehan, Daniel; Rainey, Katharine



Making the Transition: Interim Results of the National Guard Youth ChalleNGe Evaluation. [Executive Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young people who drop out of high school face long odds of success in a labor market that increasingly values education and skills. This report presents interim results from a rigorous, ongoing evaluation of the National Guard Youth ChalleNGe Program, which aims to "reclaim the lives of at-risk youth" who have dropped out of high school. ChalleNGe

Millenky, Megan; Bloom, Dan; Dillon, Colleen



Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation; 1998-2002 Summary Report.  

SciTech Connect

The Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project (WWNPME) was funded by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as directed by section 4(h) of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 (P. L. 96-501). This project is in accordance with and pursuant to measures 4.2A, 4.3C.1, 7.1A.2, 7.1C.3, 7.1C.4 and 7.1D.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Work was conducted by the Fisheries Program of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) under the Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project (UBNPME). Chapter One provides an overview of the entire report and shows how the objectives of each statement of work from 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2002 contract years are organized and reported. This chapter also provides background information relevant to the aquatic resources of the Umatilla River Basin. (Figure 1-1, Tables 1-1 and 1-2). Data and reports from this and previous efforts are available on the CTUIR website This project was one of several subprojects of the Umatilla River Basin Fisheries Restoration Master Plan (CTUIR 1984, ODFW 1986) orchestrated to rehabilitate salmon and steelhead runs in the Umatilla River Basin. Subprojects in additions to this project include: Watershed Enhancement and Rehabilitation; Hatchery Construction and Operation; Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation; Satellite Facility Construction and Operations for Juvenile Acclimation and Adult Holding and Spawning; Fish Passage Construction and Operation; Juvenile and Adult Passage Facility Evaluations; Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin, and Flow Augmentation to Increase Stream Flows below Irrigation Diversions.

Contor, Craig R. (Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Department of Natural Resources, Pendleton, OR)



An Evaluation of Policy Related Research on Programs for Mid-Life Career Redirection: Vol. 1--Executive Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report is concerned with the evaluation of existing literature on alternative programs to facilitate mid-life redirection of careers, with a view to identifying how literature in relevant fields can be used by policy makers. The report is a condensed and abbreviated version of the material in Volume 2, Major Findings. Some 300 items of

Pascal, Anthony H.


Summary of Almost 20 Years of Storm Overflight Electric Field, Conductivity, Flash Rate, and Current Statistics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present total conduction (Wilson) currents for more than 1000 high-altitude aircraft overflights of electrified clouds acquired over nearly two decades. The overflights include a wide geographical sample of storms over land and ocean, with and without lightning, and with positive (i.e., upward-directed) and negative current. Peak electric field, with lightning transients removed, ranged from -1.0 kV/m to 16. kV/m, with mean (median) of 0.9 kV/m (0.29 kV/m). Total conductivity at flight altitude ranged from 0.6 pS/m to 3.6 pS/m, with mean and median of 2.2 pS/m. Peak current densities ranged from -2.0 nA m(exp -2) to 33.0 nA m(exp -2) with mean (median) of 1.9 nA m(exp -2) (0.6 nA m(exp -2)). Total upward current flow from storms in our dataset ranged from -1.3 to 9.4 A. The mean current for storms with lightning is 1.7 A over ocean and 1.0 A over land. The mean current for electrified shower clouds (i.e. electrified storms without lightning) is 0.41 A for ocean and 0.13 A for land. About 78% (43%) of the land (ocean) storms have detectable lightning. Land storms have 2.8 times the mean flash rate as ocean storms (2.2 versus 0.8 flashes min-1, respectively). Approximately 7% of the overflights had negative current. The mean and median currents for positive (negative) polarity storms are 1.0 and 0.35 A (-0.30 and -0.26 A). We found no regional or latitudinal-based patterns in our storm currents, nor support for simple scaling laws between cloud top height and lightning flash rate.

Blakeslee, Richard J.; Mach, Douglas M.; Bateman, Monte J.; Bailey, Jeffrey C.



A summary of findings from the first 25 Ballast Water Treatment Systems evaluated by GESAMP  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the preparations for entry into force of the Ballast Water Convention (2004), the International Maritime Organization\\u000a has initiated a process to evaluate the safety and efficacy of potential technologies for disinfecting ballast water on board\\u000a ships. Ballast Water Management Systems intended to remove potentially harmful aquatic organisms are subjected to a review\\u000a process, one aspect of which

Tim Bowmer; Jan Linders



Summary and evaluation of hydraulic property data available for the Hanford Site upper basalt confined aquifer system  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory, as part of the Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance Project, examines the potential for offsite migration of contamination within the upper basalt confined aquifer system. For the past 40 years, hydrologic testing of the upper basalt confined aquifer has been conducted by a number of Hanford Site programs. Hydraulic property estimates are important for evaluating aquifer flow characteristics (i.e., ground-water flow patterns, flow velocity, transport travel time). Presented are the first comprehensive Hanford Site-wide summary of hydraulic properties for the upper basalt confined aquifer system (i.e., the upper Saddle Mountains Basalt). Available hydrologic test data were reevaluated using recently developed diagnostic test analysis methods. A comparison of calculated transmissivity estimates indicates that, for most test results, a general correspondence within a factor of two between reanalysis and previously reported test values was obtained. For a majority of the tests, previously reported values are greater than reanalysis estimates. This overestimation is attributed to a number of factors, including, in many cases, a misapplication of nonleaky confined aquifer analysis methods in previous analysis reports to tests that exhibit leaky confined aquifer response behavior. Results of the test analyses indicate a similar range for transmissivity values for the various hydro-geologic units making up the upper basalt confined aquifer. Approximately 90% of the calculated transmissivity values for upper basalt confined aquifer hydrogeologic units occur within the range of 10{sup 0} to 10{sup 2} m{sup 2}/d, with 65% of the calculated estimate values occurring between 10{sup 1} to 10{sup 2} m{sup 2}d. These summary findings are consistent with the general range of values previously reported for basalt interflow contact zones and sedimentary interbeds within the Saddle Mountains Basalt.

Spane, F.A. Jr.; Vermeul, V.R.



Preliminary technical and economic evaluation of vortex extraction devices. Summary report  

SciTech Connect

The rotor subsystem represents one of the major cost drivers in conventional wind energy systems. Despite the fact that the two vortex extraction systems evaluated have the potential for substantially reducing rotor costs, these cost savings are more than offset by the additional costs required for the augmentation devices. Based on a preliminary analysis of the presently envisioned conceptual designs of the Tornado Wind Energy System and the Vortex Augmentor System, it does not appear that either system could achieve economic parity with conventional horizontal axis wind systems even if all of the technical uncertainties surrounding these innovative concepts are favorably resolved.

Kornreich, T. R.; Kottler, Jr., R. J.; Jennings, D. M.



Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation; 1998-2002 Summary Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project (WWNPME) was funded by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as directed by section 4(h) of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 (P. L. 96-501). This project is in accordance with and pursuant to measures 4.2A, 4.3C.1, 7.1A.2, 7.1C.3, 7.1C.4 and 7.1D.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's

Contor; Craig R



AVIRIS performance during the 1987 flight season: An AVIRIS project assessment and summary of the NASA-sponsored performance evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented of the assessment of AVIRIS performance during the 1987 flight season by the AVIRIS project and the earth scientists who were chartered by NASA to conduct an independent data quality and sensor performance evaluation. The AVIRIS evaluation program began in late June 1987 with the sensor meeting most of its design requirements except for signal-to-noise ratio in the fourth spectrometer, which was about half of the required level. Several events related to parts failures and design flaws further reduced sensor performance over the flight season. Substantial agreement was found between the assessments by the project and the independent investigators of the effects of these various factors. A summary of the engineering work that is being done to raise AVIRIS performance to its required level is given. In spite of degrading data quality over the flight season, several exciting scientific results were obtained from the data. These include the mapping of the spatial variation of atmospheric precipitable water, detection of environmentally-induced shifts in the spectral red edge of stressed vegetation, detection of spectral features related to pigment, leaf water and ligno-cellulose absorptions in plants, and the identification of many diagnostic mineral absorption features in a variety of geological settings.

Vane, Gregg; Porter, Wallace M.; Reimer, John H.; Chrien, Thomas G.; Green, Robert O.




E-print Network

-forming fungi and their relatives. Approximately 13,500 species of homobasidiomycetes have been described, which include mycoparasites, insect symbionts, lichens, and litter decomposers. Homobasidiomycetes have been factors in the evolution of fungal morphology and nutritional #12;PROJECT SUMMARY Page A modes (wood decay

Hibbett, David S.


Life Skills for the Developmentally Disabled: An Approach to Accountability in Deinstitutionalization. Volume I: Project Summary and Evaluation Report. July 1, 1974-July 30, 1975.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented in the first of three volumes is a summary and evaluation of the Life Skills for the Developmentally Disabled Project which was designed to prevent inappropriate institutional placement and to assist in deinstitutionalization of individuals in Forest Haven, the District of Columbia's Center for the developmentally disabled. It is

Hawkins, Donald E.; Folsom, Geneva S.


Algorithm Summary and Evaluation: Automatic Implementation of Ringdown Analysis for Electromechanical Mode Identification from Phasor Measurements  

SciTech Connect

Small signal stability problems are one of the major threats to grid stability and reliability. Prony analysis has been successfully applied on ringdown data to monitor electromechanical modes of a power system using phasor measurement unit (PMU) data. To facilitate an on-line application of mode estimation, this paper develops a recursive algorithm for implementing Prony analysis and proposed an oscillation detection method to detect ringdown data in real time. By automatically detecting ringdown data, the proposed method helps guarantee that Prony analysis is applied properly and timely on the ringdown data. Thus, the mode estimation results can be performed reliably and timely. The proposed method is tested using Monte Carlo simulations based on a 17-machine model and is shown to be able to properly identify the oscillation data for on-line application of Prony analysis. In addition, the proposed method is applied to field measurement data from WECC to show the performance of the proposed algorithm.

Zhou, Ning; Huang, Zhenyu; Tuffner, Francis K.; Jin, Shuangshuang; Lin, Jenglung; Hauer, Matthew L.



A Summary Report on the NPH Evaluation of 105-L Disassembly Basin  

SciTech Connect

The L Area Disassembly Basin (LDB) is evaluated for the natural phenomena hazards (NPH) effects due to earthquake, wind, and tornado in accordance with DOE Order 420.1 and DOE-STD-1020. The deterministic analysis is performed for a Performance Category 3 (PC3) level of loads. Savannah River Site (SRS) specific NPH loads and design criteria are obtained from Engineering Standard 01060. It is demonstrated that the demand to capacity (D/C) ratios for primary and significant structural elements are acceptable (equal to or less than 1.0). Thus, 105-L Disassembly Basin building structure is qualified for the PC3 NPH effects in accordance with DOE Order 420.1.

Joshi, J.R.



Five year field evaluation summary of the USDA stem rust model for perennial ryegrass  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study on stem rust of perennial ryegrass was to determine the effectiveness of fungicide applications applied according to information provided by the USDA Rust Model in comparison to traditional application programs. Seed yield and rust control data in this report were obtain...


Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Intergrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) Summary Manual  

SciTech Connect

The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) is a software application developed for performing a complete probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) using a personal computer (PC) running the Microsoft Windows operating system. SAPHIRE is primarily funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and developed by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). INL's primary role in this project is that of software developer and tester. However, INL also plays an important role in technology transfer by interfacing and supporting SAPHIRE users, who constitute a wide range of PRA practitioners from the NRC, national laboratories, the private sector, and foreign countries. SAPHIRE can be used to model a complex systems response to initiating events and quantify associated consequential outcome frequencies. Specifically, for nuclear power plant applications, SAPHIRE can identify important contributors to core damage (Level 1 PRA) and containment failure during a severe accident which lead to releases (Level 2 PRA). It can be used for a PRA where the reactor is at full power, low power, or at shutdown conditions. Furthermore, it can be used to analyze both internal and external initiating events and has special features for transforming an internal events model to a model for external events, such as flooding and fire analysis. It can also be used in a limited manner to quantify risk in terms of release consequences to the public and environment (Level 3 PRA). SAPHIRE also includes a separate module called the Graphical Evaluation Module (GEM). GEM is a special user interface linked to SAPHIRE that automates the SAPHIRE process steps for evaluating operational events at commercial nuclear power plants. Using GEM, an analyst can estimate the risk associated with operational events (for example, to calculate a conditional core damage probability) very efficiently and expeditiously. This report provides an overview of the functions available in SAPHIRE and presents general instructions for using the software. Section 1 presents SAPHIREs historical evolution and summarizes its capabilities. Section 2 presents instructions for installing and using the code. Section 3 explains the database structure used in SAPHIRE and discusses database concepts. Section 4 explains how PRA data (event frequencies, human error probabilities, etc.) can be generated and manipulated using change sets. Section 5 deals with fault tree operations, including constructing, editing, solving, and displaying results. Section 6 presents operations associated with event trees, including rule application for event tree linking, partitioning, and editing sequences. Section 7 presents how accident sequences are generated, solved, quantified, and analyzed. Section 8 discusses the functions available for performing end state analysis. Section 9 explains how to modify data stored in a SAPHIRE database. Section 10 illustrates how to generate and customize reports. Section 11 covers SAPHIRE utility options to perform routine functions such as defining constant values, recovering databases, and loading data from external sources. Section 12 provides an overview of GEMs features and capabilities. Finally, Section 13 summarizes SAPHIREs quality assurance process.

C. L. Smith



Swarm Intelligence Algorithm for Induction Motor Field Efficiency Evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining induction motor field efficiency is imperative in industries for energy conservation and cost savings. The induction motor efficiency is generally tested in a laboratories by certain methods defined in IEEE Standard - 112. But these methods cannot be used for motor efficiency evaluations in the field because it disrupts the production process of the industry. This paper proposes a swarm intelligence algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for efficiency evaluation of in-service induction motor based on a modified induction motor equivalent circuit model. In this model, stray load losses are considered. The proposed efficiency evaluation method combines the PSO and the equivalent circuit method. First, the equivalent circuit parameters are estimated by minimizing the difference between measured and calculated values of stator current and input power of the motor using the PSO algorithm. Based on these parameters, the efficiency of the motor at various load points are evaluated by using the equivalent circuit method. To exemplify the performance of the PSO based efficiency estimation method, a 5 HP motor has been tested, compared with genetic algorithm (GA), torque gauge method, equivalent circuit method, slip method, current method and segregated loss method and found to be superior. Accordingly, the method will be useful for engineers who implement the energy efficiency programs to the electric motor systems in industries.

Sakthivel, V. P.; Subramanian, S.


Summary and evaluation of the Strategic Defense Initiative Space Power Architecture Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Power Architecture Study (SPAS) identified and evaluated power subsystem options for multimegawatt electric (MMWE) space based weapons and surveillance platforms for the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) applications. Steady state requirements of less than 1 MMWE are adequately covered by the SP-100 nuclear space power program and hence were not addressed in the SPAS. Four steady state power systems less than 1 MMWE were investigated with little difference between them on a mass basis. The majority of the burst power systems utilized H(2) from the weapons and were either closed (no effluent), open (effluent release) or steady state with storage (no effluent). Closed systems used nuclear or combustion heat source with thermionic, Rankine, turboalternator, fuel cell and battery conversion devices. Open systems included nuclear or combustion heat sources using turboalternator, magnetohydrodynamic, fuel cell or battery power conversion devices. The steady state systems with storage used the SP-100 or Star-M reactors as energy sources and flywheels, fuel cells or batteries to store energy for burst applications. As with other studies the open systems are by far the lightest, most compact and simplist (most reliable) systems. However, unlike other studies the SPAS studied potential platform operational problems caused by effluents or vibration.

Edenburn, M. (editor); Smith, J. M. (editor)



Evaluation of the EDGE detector in small-field dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study evaluates a new diode detector design for small-field dosimetry. An accurate detector that has a small volume are necessary to compile data for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Two semiconductor diode detectors and one ionization chamber were used to measure the profiles, percent depth doses (PDDs), and relative output factors (OFs) of a Novalis 6-MV SRS beam. Profiles and PDD data were collected using 5.0-, 10.0-, 15.0-, 20.0-, 30.0-, and 50.0-mm micro multileaf collimators (mMLCs) at small fields and a 98.0 98.0-mm2 reference field. OFs were collected for each of the mMLCs. The EDGE diode detector, the diode detector, and the ion chamber (0.007 cc) were used in the study. Detector measurements were performed using the 3D water phantom with a source-to-surface distance of 100-cm at a depth of 1.5-cm. The measurements were analyzed using the IBA OmniPro Accept 7th version software. In addition, all data were compared to Monte Carlo simulations. The semiconductor diodes had similar OFs and PDDs for each of the mMLCs used. The Dmax values of the EDGE diode detector, measured from the PDD, ranged from 8.5 to 14.0-mm with an average of 12.4-mm. The field widths of the EDGE diode detector were found to have similar values. The performance of the EDGE diode detector was comparable for all small-field measurements. Additionally, no evidence of an energy response was observed for the EDGE detectors for a field of 98 98-mm2. This is particularly important when measuring the relative OF for small fields or gathering larger-sized field data for the commissioning of a treatment planning system.

Shin, Hun-Joo; Kim, Myong-Ho; Choi, Ihl-Bohng; Kang, Young-nam; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Chio, Byung Ock; Jang, Hong Seok; Jung, Ji-Young; Son, Seok Hyun; Kay, Chul Seung



A Multi-Site Evaluation of Innovative Approaches to Increase Tuberculosis Case Notification: Summary Results  

PubMed Central

Background Globally, TB notifications have stagnated since 2007, and sputum smear positive notifications have been declining despite policies to improve case detection. We evaluate results of 28 interventions focused on improving TB case detection. Methods We measured additional sputum smear positive cases treated, defined as the intervention area's increase in case notification during the project compared to the previous year. Projects were encouraged to select control areas and collect historical notification data. We used time series negative binomial regression for over-dispersed cross-sectional data accounting for fixed and random effects to test the individual projects' effects on TB notification while controlling for trend and control populations. Results Twenty-eight projects, 19 with control populations, completed at least four quarters of case finding activities, covering a population of 89.2 million. Among all projects sputum smear positive (SS+) TB notifications increased 24.9% and annualized notification rates increased from 69.1 to 86.2/100,000 (p?=?0.0209) during interventions. Among the 19 projects with control populations, SS+TB case notifications increased 36.9% increase while in the control populations a 3.6% decrease was observed. Fourteen (74%) of the 19 projects' SS+TB notification rates in intervention areas increased from the baseline to intervention period when controlling for historical trends and notifications in control areas. Conclusions Interventions were associated with large increases in TB notifications across many settings, using an array of interventions. Many people with TB are not reached using current approaches. Different methods and interventions tailored to local realities are urgently needed. PMID:24722399

Creswell, Jacob; Sahu, Suvanand; Blok, Lucie; Bakker, Mirjam I.; Stevens, Robert; Ditiu, Lucica



Field Tests for Evaluating the Aerobic Work Capacity of Firefighters  

PubMed Central

Working as a firefighter is physically strenuous, and a high level of physical fitness increases a firefighters ability to cope with the physical stress of their profession. Direct measurements of aerobic capacity, however, are often complicated, time consuming, and expensive. The first aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlations between direct (laboratory) and indirect (field) aerobic capacity tests with common and physically demanding firefighting tasks. The second aim was to give recommendations as to which field tests may be the most useful for evaluating firefighters aerobic work capacity. A total of 38 subjects (26 men and 12 women) were included. Two aerobic capacity tests, six field tests, and seven firefighting tasks were performed. Lactate threshold and onset of blood lactate accumulation were found to be correlated to the performance of one work task (rs?=??0.65 and ?0.63, p<0.01, respectively). Absolute (mLmin?1) and relative (mLkg?1min?1) maximal aerobic capacity was correlated to all but one of the work tasks (rs?=??0.79 to 0.55 and ?0.74 to 0.47, p<0.01, respectively). Aerobic capacity is important for firefighters work performance, and we have concluded that the time to row 500 m, the time to run 3000 m relative to body weight (skg?1), and the percent of maximal heart rate achieved during treadmill walking are the most valid field tests for evaluating a firefighters aerobic work capacity. PMID:23844153

Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Gavhed, Dsire; Malm, Christer



Summary and Evaluation of the Quality of Stormwater in Denver, Colorado, October 2001 to October 2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stormwater in the Denver area was sampled by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Urban Drainage and Flood Control District, in a network of five monitoring stations - three on the South Platte River and two on tributary streams, beginning in October 2001 and continuing through October 11, 2005. Composite samples of stormwater were analyzed at the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory during water years 2003-2005 and the Metro Wastewater Reclamation District Laboratory during water year 2002 for water-quality properties such as pH, specific conductance, hardness, and residue on evaporation at 105 degrees Celsius; and for constituents such as major ions (calcium, chloride, fluoride, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and sulfate) in 2005, organic carbon and nutrients, including ammonia, nitrite plus nitrate, ammonia plus organic nitrogen, phosphorus, and orthophosphate; and for metals, including total and dissolved phases of copper, lead, manganese, and zinc. Samples analyzed for bacteriological indicators such as Escherichia coli and fecal coliform collected during selected storms also were analyzed at the Metro Wastewater Reclamation Laboratory. Discrete samples collected during selected storms were analyzed at the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory for a suite of water-quality properties and constituents similar to those analyzed in the composite samples but that did not include determinations for total phases of metals. Streamflow characteristics associated with 176 composite stormwater samples indicate that most samples were collected from hydrographs classified as falling or event hydrographs and that only a few samples were collected from rising hydrographs. Results from laboratory analyses of the composite samples indicate spatial patterns in which concentrations for some constituents increase with contributing drainage area in the South Platte River and Sand Creek, but no well-defined relation with the amount of urban land cover was identified using data available from the U.S. Geological Survey National Land Cover data. Results from 22 discrete samples collected during two storms and used to obtain composited results with various weighting methods indicate that correlation coefficients between time-weighted and volume-weighted concentrations were generally at least 0.65, indicating a strong direct correlation between the two weighting methods for the stations involved in this study. In addition, the central tendency for relative percent differences between the time- and volume-weighting methods typically has an absolute value of about 10 or less, indicating good agreement for these weighting methods for data collected as part of this study. Comparison of stormwater results to numeric standards for streams developed by the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment on the basis of use classifications indicates that, for water-quality properties and constituents other than bacteriological indicators, there were very few exceptions to numeric standards. Bacteriological indicators, however, such as Escherichia coli and fecal coliform consistently exceeded numeric standards in all bacteriological samples. An evaluation of laboratory results from composite samples on the basis of annual means indicates the presence of some simple upward and downward temporal trends in concentrations. In general, for annual means of results for all stations, hardness, ammonia plus organic nitrogen, total phosphorus, most dissolved metals (lead, manganese, and zinc), and all total metals (copper, lead, manganese, and zinc) all indicate annual means that decrease each year, or downward trends. Some trends were indicated only at individual stations in the network rather than at all stations. Ammonia as nitrogen at Union, Denver, and Henderson, orthophosphate at Sand Creek, and nitrite plus nitrate at Denver and Henderson all indicate decreasing annual means, or downward tr

Bossong, Clifford R.; Fleming, Andrea C.



Laboratory or Field Tests for Evaluating Firefighters' Work Capacity?  

PubMed Central

Muscle strength is important for firefighters work capacity. Laboratory tests used for measurements of muscle strength, however, are complicated, expensive and time consuming. The aims of the present study were to investigate correlations between physical capacity within commonly occurring and physically demanding firefighting work tasks and both laboratory and field tests in full time (N?=?8) and part-time (N?=?10) male firefighters and civilian men (N?=?8) and women (N?=?12), and also to give recommendations as to which field tests might be useful for evaluating firefighters' physical work capacity. Laboratory tests of isokinetic maximal (IM) and endurance (IE) muscle power and dynamic balance, field tests including maximal and endurance muscle performance, and simulated firefighting work tasks were performed. Correlations with work capacity were analyzed with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs). The highest significant (p<0.01) correlations with laboratory and field tests were for Cutting: IE trunk extension (rs?=?0.72) and maximal hand grip strength (rs?=?0.67), for Stairs: IE shoulder flexion (rs?=??0.81) and barbell shoulder press (rs?=??0.77), for Pulling: IE shoulder extension (rs?=??0.82) and bench press (rs?=??0.85), for Demolition: IE knee extension (rs?=?0.75) and bench press (rs?=?0.83), for Rescue: IE shoulder flexion (rs?=??0.83) and bench press (rs?=??0.82), and for the Terrain work task: IE trunk flexion (rs?=??0.58) and upright barbell row (rs?=??0.70). In conclusion, field tests may be used instead of laboratory tests. Maximal hand grip strength, bench press, chin ups, dips, upright barbell row, standing broad jump, and barbell shoulder press were strongly correlated (rs?0.7) with work capacity and are therefore recommended for evaluating firefighters work capacity. PMID:24614596

Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Malm, Christer



Evaluating Age in the Field Triage of Injured Persons  

PubMed Central

Study Objective In this study, we evaluated (1) trauma under-triage by age group; (2) the association between age and serious injury after accounting for other field triage criteria and confounders; and (3) the potential impact of a mandatory age triage criterion for field triage. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of injured children and adults transported by 48 EMS agencies to 105 hospitals in 6 regions of the Western U.S. from 2006 through 2008. We used probabilistic linkage to match EMS records to hospital records, including: trauma registries, state discharge databases and emergency department databases. The primary outcome measure was serious injury, as measured by an Injury Severity Score (ISS) ? 16. We assessed under-triage (ISS ? 16 and triage-negative or transport to a non-trauma center) by age decile and used multivariable logistic regression models to estimate the association (linear and non-linear) between age and ISS ? 16, adjusted for important confounders. We also evaluated the potential impact of age on triage efficiency and trauma center volume. Results 260,027 injured patients were evaluated and transported by EMS over the 3-year study period. Under-triage increased for patients over 60 years of age, reaching approximately 60% for those older than 90 years. There was a strong non-linear association between age and ISS ? 16. For patients not meeting other triage criteria, the probability of serious injury was most notable after 60 years. A mandatory age triage criterion would have decreased under-triage at the expense of over-triage, with one ISS ? 16 patient identified for every 6065 additional patients transported to major trauma centers. Conclusion Trauma under-triage increases in patients older than 60 years. While the probability of serious injury increases among triage-negative patients with increasing age, the use of a mandatory age triage criterion appears inefficient for improving field triage. PMID:22633339

Nakamura, Yoko; Daya, Mohamud; Bulger, Eileen M.; Schreiber, Martin; Mackersie, Robert; Hsia, Renee Y.; Mann, N. Clay; Holmes, James F.; Staudenmayer, Kristan; Sturges, Zachary; Liao, Michael; Haukoos, Jason; Kuppermann, Nathan; Barton, Erik D.; Newgard, Craig D.



Evaluation of abutment scour prediction equations with field data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with FHWA, compared predicted abutment scour depths, computed with selected predictive equations, with field observations collected at 144 bridges in South Carolina and at eight bridges from the National Bridge Scour Database. Predictive equations published in the 4th edition of Evaluating Scour at Bridges (Hydraulic Engineering Circular 18) were used in this comparison, including the original Froehlich, the modified Froehlich, the Sturm, the Maryland, and the HIRE equations. The comparisons showed that most equations tended to provide conservative estimates of scour that at times were excessive (as large as 158 ft). Equations also produced underpredictions of scour, but with less frequency. Although the equations provide an important resource for evaluating abutment scour at bridges, the results of this investigation show the importance of using engineering judgment in conjunction with these equations.

Benedict, S.T.; Deshpande, N.; Aziz, N.M.



Evaluation of Alternative Field Buses for Lighting ControlApplications  

SciTech Connect

The Subcontract Statement of Work consists of two major tasks. This report is the Final Report in fulfillment of the contract deliverable for Task 1. The purpose of Task 1 was to evaluate existing and emerging protocols and standards for interfacing sensors and controllers for communicating with integrated lighting control systems in commercial buildings. The detailed task description follows: Task 1. Evaluate alternative sensor/field buses. The objective of this task is to evaluate existing and emerging standards for interfacing sensors and controllers for communicating with integrated lighting control systems in commercial buildings. The protocols to be evaluated will include at least: (1) 1-Wire Net, (2) DALI, (3) MODBUS (or appropriate substitute such as EIB) and (4) ZigBee. The evaluation will include a comparative matrix for comparing the technical performance features of the different alternative systems. The performance features to be considered include: (1) directionality and network speed, (2) error control, (3) latency times, (4) allowable cable voltage drop, (5) topology, and (6) polarization. Specifically, Subcontractor will: (1) Analyze the proposed network architecture and identify potential problems that may require further research and specification. (2) Help identify and specify additional software and hardware components that may be required for the communications network to operate properly. (3) Identify areas of the architecture that can benefit from existing standards and technology and enumerate those standards and technologies. (4) Identify existing companies that may have relevant technology that can be applied to this research. (5) Help determine if new standards or technologies need to be developed.

Koch, Ed; Rubinstein, Francis



Summary of measured radiofrequency electric and magnetic fields (10 kHz to 30 GHz) in the general and work environment.  


We have plotted data from a number of studies on the range of radiofrequency (RF) field levels associated with a variety of environmental and occupational sources. Field intensity is shown in units of volts/meter (V/m) for electric field strength and amps/meter (A/m) for magnetic field strength. Duty factors, modulation frequencies, and modulation indices are also reported for some sources. This paper is organized into seven sections, each cataloging sources into appropriate RF frequency bands from very-low frequency (VLF) to super-high frequency (SHF), and covers frequencies from 10 kHz to 30 GHz. Sources included in this summary are the following: Coast Guard navigational transmitters, a Navy VLF transmitter, computer visual display terminals (VDTs), induction stoves or range tops, industrial induction and dielectric heaters, radio and television broadcast transmitters, amateur and citizens band (CB) transmitters, medical diathermy and electrosurgical units, mobile and handheld transmitters, cordless and cellular telephones, microwave ovens, microwave terrestrial relay and satellite uplinks, and police, air traffic, and aircraft onboard radars. For the sources included in this summary, the strongest fields are found near industrial induction and dielectric heaters, and close to the radiating elements or transmitter leads of high power antenna systems. Handheld transmitters can produce near fields of about 500 V/m at the antenna. Fields in the general urban environment are principally associated with radio and TV broadcast services and measure about 0.1 V/m root-mean-square (rms). Peak fields from air traffic radars sampled in one urban environment were about 10 V/m, 300 times greater than the rms value of 0.03 V/m when the duty factor associated with antenna rotation and pulsing are factored in. PMID:9383245

Mantiply, E D; Pohl, K R; Poppell, S W; Murphy, J A



Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste. Volume 1: Executive summary  

SciTech Connect

A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation (PE) to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 1 is an executive summary both of the PE methodology and of the results obtained from the PEs. While this volume briefly reviews the scope and method of analyses, its main objective is to emphasize the important insights and conclusions derived from the conduct of the PEs. Volume 2 provides details about the site-selection process, the performance-evaluation methodology, and the overall results of the analysis. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussions of the results for each site.




Spectrally Enhanced Lighting Program Implementation for Energy Savings: Field Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

This report provides results from an evaluation PNNL conducted of a spectrally enhanced lighting demonstration project. PNNL performed field measurements and occupant surveys at three office buildings in California before and after lighting retrofits were made in August and December 2005. PNNL measured the following Overhead lighting electricity demand and consumption, Light levels in the workspace, Task lighting use, and Occupant ratings of satisfaction with the lighting. Existing lighting, which varied in each building, was replaced with lamps with correlated color temperature (CCT) of 5000 Kelvin, color rendering index (CRI) of 85, of varying wattages, and lower ballast factor electronic ballasts. The demonstrations were designed to decrease lighting power loads in the three buildings by 22-50 percent, depending on the existing installed lamps and ballasts. The project designers hypothesized that this reduction in electrical loads could be achieved by the change to higher CCT lamps without decreasing occupant satisfaction with the lighting.

Gordon, Kelly L.; Sullivan, Gregory P.; Armstrong, Peter R.; Richman, Eric E.; Matzke, Brett D.



Full-scale field evaluation of wireless MEMS monitoring system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this research is to develop and verify the wireless micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) monitoring system for the health monitoring of high rise buildings. The MEMS accelerometer has advantages of small size, low-cost and low power consumption, and thereby is suitable for wireless monitoring. Consequently, the use of MEMS and wireless communication can reduce system cost and simplify the installation for the structural health monitoring. To assess the applicability, the wireless MEMS monitoring system is applied to a full-scale building structure with hybrid mass damper (HMD) system. The building is a 5-story steel building and the HMD is mounted on the 4th floor to vibrate the building. The field evaluation results indicate that the wireless MEMS monitoring system is reliable and robust for the health monitoring of buildings.

Kim, Hongjin; Kim, Whajung; Kim, Boung-Yong; Cho, Bong-Ho



Field Evaluation of Low-E Storm Windows  

SciTech Connect

A field evaluation comparing the performance of low emittance (low-e) storm windows with both standard clear storm windows and no storm windows was performed in a cold climate. Six homes with single-pane windows were monitored over the period of one heating season. The homes were monitored with no storm windows and with new storm windows. The storm windows installed on four of the six homes included a hard coat, pyrolitic, low-e coating while the storm windows for the other two homeshad traditional clear glass. Overall heating load reduction due to the storm windows was 13percent with the clear glass and 21percent with the low-e windows. Simple paybacks for the addition of the storm windows were 10 years for the clear glass and 4.5 years forthe low-e storm windows.

Drumheller, S. Craig; Kohler, Christian; Minen, Stefanie



Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicle Field Evaluations (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation discusses field evaluations of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles performed by NREL. The project provides medium-duty (MD) and heavy-duty (HD) test results, aggregated data, and detailed analysis, including 3rd party unbiased data (data that would not normally be shared by industry in an aggregated and detailed manner). Over 5.6 million miles of advanced technology MD and HD truck data have been collected, documented, and analyzed on over 240 different vehicles since 2002. Data, analysis, and reports are shared within DOE, national laboratory partners, and industry for R&D planning and strategy. The results help guide R&D for new technology development, help define intelligent usage of newly developed technology, and help fleets/users understand all aspects of advanced technology.

Walkowicz, K.



Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects. Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor building decontamination. Summary status report. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes information relating to decontamination of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor building. The report covers activities for the period of June 1, 1979 through March 29, 1985. The data collected from activity reports, reactor containment entry records, and other sources were entered into a computerized data system which permits extraction/manipulation of specific information which can be used in planning for recovery from an accident similar to that experienced at TMI-2 on March 28, 1979. This report contains summaries of man-hours, manpower, and radiation exposures incurred during decontamination of the reactor building. Support activities conducted outside of radiation areas are excluded from the scope of this report. Computerized reports included in this document are: a chronological summary listing work performed relating to reactor building decontamination for the period specified; and summary reports for each major task during the period. Each task summary is listed in chronological order for zone entry and subtotaled for the number of personnel entries, exposures, and man-hours. Manually-assembled table summaries are included for: labor and exposures by department and labor and exposures by major activity.

Doerge, D.H.; Miller, R.L.; Scotti, K.S.



Field evaluations of hearing protection devices at surface mining environments  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of circumaural hearing protection devices and their predictability when they were being worn by mine employees performing normal work duties. The method employed relied on a physical measurement of the noise reduction of the hearing protectors by utilizing two FM-wireless transmitting and receiving systems. One system measured the outside hearing protector noise level, the second system measured the inside hearing protector noise level. The noise level data of both systems was transmitted back to the corresponding receivers and was recorded onto a two-channel tape recorder. Three methods of evaluating hearing protector performance were explored and compared to the Environmental Protection Agency, Noise Reduction Rating (EPA NRR) values. They were, (1) predicted National Institute for occupational Safety and Health`s (NIOSH) method No. 1 values, (2) field-calculated NIOSH No. 1 values, and (3) measured dBA reduction values, which was the arithmetic A-weighted differences between both microphone locations. The majority of the data was obtained on operators of mobile strip equipment, such as bulldozers, front-end-loaders, and overburden drills. A total of 107 individual tests were conducted using 11 different hearing protectors. The results indicate that the amount of protection, which can vary significantly, is related either to the spectrum shape of the noise, or the C-weighted minus the A-weighted (C-A) value. This is consistent with other researchers. The field measured noise reductions were equivalent to the EPA NRR values when the C-A values were negative or approaching zero. When the C-A values increased, the measured noise reductions significantly decreased.

Not Available



Experimental evaluation of radiosity for room sound-field prediction.  


An acoustical radiosity model was evaluated for how it performs in predicting real room sound fields. This was done by comparing radiosity predictions with experimental results for three existing rooms--a squash court, a classroom, and an office. Radiosity predictions were also compared with those by ray tracing--a "reference" prediction model--for both specular and diffuse surface reflection. Comparisons were made for detailed and discretized echograms, sound-decay curves, sound-propagation curves, and the variations with frequency of four room-acoustical parameters--EDT, RT, D50, and C80. In general, radiosity and diffuse ray tracing gave very similar predictions. Predictions by specular ray tracing were often very different. Radiosity agreed well with experiment in some cases, less well in others. Definitive conclusions regarding the accuracy with which the rooms were modeled, or the accuracy of the radiosity approach, were difficult to draw. The results suggest that radiosity predicts room sound fields with some accuracy, at least as well as diffuse ray tracing and, in general, better than specular ray tracing. The predictions of detailed echograms are less accurate, those of derived room-acoustical parameters more accurate. The results underline the need to develop experimental methods for accurately characterizing the absorptive and reflective characteristics of room surfaces, possible including phase. PMID:16938969

Hodgson, Murray; Nosal, Eva-Marie



Evaluation of virulence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae field isolates.  


The course of enzootic pneumonia, caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, is strongly influenced by management and housing conditions. Other factors, including differences in virulence between M. hyopneumoniae strains, may also be involved. The aim of this study was to evaluate the virulence of six M. hyopneumoniae field isolates and link it to genetic differences as determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Ninety, conventional M. hyopneumoniae-free piglets were inoculated intratracheally with the field isolates, a virulent reference strain or sterile culture medium. Animals were examined daily for the presence of disease signs and a respiratory disease score (RDS) was assessed per pig. Twenty-eight days post infection, pigs were euthanized, blood sampled and a lung lesion score was given. Lung samples were processed for histopathology, immunofluorescence testing for M. hyopneumoniae and isolation of M. hyopneumoniae. RAPD analysis was performed on all M. hyopneumoniae strains. Significant differences between isolates were found for the RDS, lung lesion score, histopathology, immunofluorescence and serology. Based on the results of the different parameters, isolates were divided into three "virulence" groups: low, moderately and highly virulent strains. Typically, a 5000 bp RAPD fragment was associated with the highly and moderately virulent strains whereas it was absent in low virulent strains. It was concluded that high variation in virulence exists between M. hyopneumoniae strains isolated from different swine herds. Further studies are required to determine whether the 5000 bp fragment obtained in the RAPD analysis can be used as a virulence marker. PMID:14654289

Vicca, J; Stakenborg, T; Maes, D; Butaye, P; Peeters, J; de Kruif, A; Haesebrouck, F



Field evaluation of an avian risk assessment model  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We conducted two laboratory subacute dietary toxicity tests and one outdoor subacute dietary toxicity test to determine the effectiveness of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's deterministic risk assessment model for evaluating the potential of adverse effects to birds in the field. We tested technical-grade diazinon and its D Z N- 50W (50% diazinon active ingredient wettable powder) formulation on Canada goose (Branta canadensis) goslings. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was measured, and the feathers and skin, feet. and gastrointestinal contents were analyzed for diazinon residues. The dose-response curves showed that diazinon was significantly more toxic to goslings in the outdoor test than in the laboratory tests. The deterministic risk assessment method identified the potential for risk to birds in general, but the factors associated with extrapolating from the laboratory to the field, and from the laboratory test species to other species, resulted in the underestimation of risk to the goslings. The present study indicates that laboratory-based risk quotients should be interpreted with caution.

Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hulse, C.S.; Borges, S.L.; Bennett, R.S.; Torrez, M.; Williams, B.I.; Leffel, R.



Handheld standoff mine detection system (HSTAMIDS) field evaluation in Namibia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program of the US Army RDECOM CERDEC Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD), under the direction of the Office of Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations and Low-Intensity Conflict (OASD SO/LIC) and with participation from the International Test and Evaluation Program (ITEP) for humanitarian demining, conducted an in-country field evaluation of the Handheld Standoff Mine Detection System (HSTAMIDS) in the southern African country of Namibia. Participants included the US Humanitarian Demining Team of NVESD; ITEP personnel from several member countries; deminers from two non-governmental organizations in Angola, Menschen Gegen Minen (MgM) and HALO Trust; and CyTerra Corporation. The primary objectives were to demonstrate the performance of the U.S. Army's newest handheld multisensor mine detector, the HSTAMIDS, to the performance of the metal detector being used by local demining organizations and also to assess the performance of deminers using the HSTAMIDS after limited experience and training.

Doheny, Robert C.; Burke, Sean; Cresci, Roger; Ngan, Peter; Walls, Richard; Chernoff, Jeff



Preliminary Field Evaluation of Mercury Control Using Combustion Modifications  

SciTech Connect

In this project EER conducted a preliminary field evaluation of the integrated approach for mercury (Hg) and NO{sub x} control. The approach enhanced the 'naturally occurring' Hg capture by fly ash through combustion optimization, increasing carbon in ash content, and lowering ESP temperature. The evaluation took place in Green Station Units 1 and 2 located near Henderson, Kentucky and operated by Western Kentucky Energy. Units 1 and 2 are equipped with cold-side ESPs and wet scrubbers. Green Station Units 1 and 2 typically fire two types of fuel: a bituminous coal and a blend of bituminous coals based on availability. Testing of Hg emissions in Unit 2 without reburning system in operation and at minimum OFA demonstrated that efficiencies of Hg reduction downstream of the ESP were 30-40%. Testing also demonstrated that OFA system operation at 22% air resulted in 10% incremental increase in Hg removal efficiency at the ESP outlet. About 80% of Hg in flue gas at ESP outlet was present in the oxidized form. Testing of Hg emissions under reburning conditions showed that Hg emissions decreased with LOI increase and ESP temperature decrease. Testing demonstrated that maximum Hg reduction downstream of ESP was 40-45% at ESP temperatures higher than 300 F and 60-80% at ESP temperatures lower than 300 F. The program objective to demonstrate 80% Hg removal at the ESP outlet has been met.

V. Lissianski; P. Maly; T. Marquez




SciTech Connect

In this project General Electric Energy and Environmental Research Corporation conducts a preliminary field evaluation of a novel technology, referred to as Hg/NO{sub x}, that can reduce emissions of both mercury (Hg) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) from coal-fired power plants. The evaluation takes place in Green Station Unit 2 operated by Western Kentucky Energy. Reduction of Hg and NO{sub x} emissions in Unit 2 is achieved using coal reburning. Activities during first project year (January 23, 2003--January 22, 2004) included measurements of baseline Hg emissions in Unit 2 and pilot-scale testing. Baseline testing of Hg emissions in Green Unit 2 has been completed. Two fuels were tested with OFA system operating at minimum air flow. Mercury emissions were measured at ESP inlet and outlet, and at the stack using Ontario Hydro revised method. Testing demonstrated that baseline Hg reductions at ESP outlet and stack were 30-45% and 70-80%, respectively. Pilot-scale testing demonstrated good agreement with baseline measurements in Unit 2. Testing showed that fuel composition had an effect on the efficiency of Hg absorption on fly ash. Maximum achieved Hg removal in reburning was close to 90%. Maximum achieved Hg reduction at air staging conditions was 60%. Testing also demonstrated that lowering ESP temperature improved efficiency of Hg removal.

Vitali Lissianski; Antonio Marquez



2-Page Summary for Neptunium solubility in the Near-field Environment of A Proposed Yucca Mountain Repository  

SciTech Connect

The total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, NV, includes a wide variety of processes to evaluate the potential release of radionuclides from the Engineered Barrier System into the unsaturated zone of the geosphere. The principal processes controlling radionuclide release and mobilization from the waste forms are captured in the model to assess the dissolved concentrations of radionuclides in the source-term. The TSPA model of the source-term incorporates the far-from-equilibrium dissolution of, for example, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to capture bounding rates of radionuclide availability as the SNF degrades. In addition, for individual radionuclides, the source-term model evaluates solubility constraints that are more indicative of longer-term, equilibrium processes that can limit the potential mass transport from the source term in those cases. These solubility limits represent phase saturation and precipitation processes that can occur either at the waste form as it alters, or at other locations in the near-field environment (e.g., within the invert) if chemical conditions are different. Identification and selection of applicable constraints for solubility-limited radionuclide concentrations is a primary focus in formulating the source-term model for the TSPA. Neptunium is a long-lived radionuclide that becomes a larger fraction of the potential dose as radioactive decay of other radionuclides proceeds. To delineate appropriate long-term source-term controls on dissolved neptunium concentrations, a number of alternative models have been defined. The models are based on data both collected within the Yucca Mountain Project and taken from published literature, and have been evaluated against independent data sets to assess their applicability. The alternative models encompass ones based on precipitation of neptunium within its own separate oxide phases (i.e., ''pure'' Np-phases), and those where neptunium is incorporated into the secondary (tertiary, quaternary, etc.) uranyl phases forming as alteration products of SNF (secondary phases). The constraints on dissolved neptunium concentrations from ''pure'' Np-phase models provide more elevated bounds compared to the values derived from models of trace incorporation of Np into secondary uranyl phases. Such secondary phase models depend on a larger set of processes and variables compared to more idealized solubility models for Np-oxides, and therefore, secondary phase models generally will have more complex bases to define adequately the expected behavior.

D. Sassani; A. Van Luik; J. Summerson



Phthalates TEACH Chemical Summary  

E-print Network

This TEACH Chemical Summary is a compilation of information derived primarily from U.S. EPA and ATSDR resources, and the TEACH Database. The TEACH Database contains summaries of research studies pertaining to developmental exposure and/or health effects for each chemical or chemical group. TEACH does not perform any evaluation of the validity or quality of these research studies. Research studies that are specific for adults are not included in the TEACH Database, and typically are not described in the TEACH Chemical Summary. I.

U. S. Epa; Exposure Assessment


Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects. Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor defueling and disassembly. Summary status report. Volume 3  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes information relating to the preparations for defueling the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor and disassembly activities being performed concurrently with decontamination of the facility. Data have been collected from activity reports, reactor containment entry records, and other sources and entered in a computerized data sysem which permits extraction/manipulation of specific data which can be used in planning for recovery from a loss of coolant event similar to that experienced at TMI-2 on March 28, 1979. This report contains summaries of man-hours, manpower, and radiation exposures incurred during the period of April 23, 1979 to April 16, 1985, in the completion of activities related to preparation for reactor defueling. Support activities conducted outside of radiation areas are not included within the scope of this report. Computerized reports included in this document are: A chronological summary listing work performed for the period; and summary reports for each major task undertaken in connection with the specific scope of this report. Presented in chronological order for the referenced time period. Manually-assembled table summaries are included for: Labor and exposures by department; and labor and exposures by major activity.

Doerge, D.H.; Miller, R.L.; Scotti, K.S.



Evaluation of Field-in-Field Technique for Total Body Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the clinical use of a field-in-field (FIF) technique for total body irradiation (TBI) using a treatment-planning system (TPS) and to verify TPS results with in vivo dose measurements using metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) detectors. Methods and Materials: Clinical and dosimetric data of 10 patients treated with TBI were assessed. Certain radiation parameters were measured using homogenous and regular phantoms at an extended distance of 380 cm, and the results were compared with data from a conventional standard distance of 100 cm. Additionally, dosimetric validation of TPS doses was performed with a Rando phantom using manual calculations. A three-dimensional computed tomography plan was generated involving 18-MV photon beams with a TPS for both open-field and FIF techniques. The midline doses were measured at the head, neck, lung, umbilicus, and pelvis for both open-field and FIF techniques. Results: All patients received planned TBI using the FIF technique with 18-MV photon energies and 2 Gy b.i.d. on 3 consecutive days. The difference in tissue maximum ratios between the extended and conventional distances was <2%. The mean deviation of manual calculations compared with TPS data was +1.6% (range, 0.1-2.4%). A homogenous dose distribution was obtained with 18-MV photon beams using the FIF technique. The mean lung dose for the FIF technique was 79.2% (9.2 Gy; range, 8.8-9.7 Gy) of the prescribed dose. The MOSFET readings and TPS doses in the body were similar (percentage difference range, -0.5% to 2.5%) and slightly higher in the shoulder and lung (percentage difference range, 4.0-5.5%). Conclusion: The FIF technique used for TBI provides homogenous dose distribution and is feasible, simple, and spares time compared with more-complex techniques. The TPS doses were similar to the midline doses obtained from MOSFET readings.

Onal, Cem, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Adana (Turkey)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Adana (Turkey); Sonmez, Aydan; Arslan, Gungor; Sonmez, Serhat; Efe, Esma; Oymak, Ezgi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Adana (Turkey)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Adana (Turkey)



Field evaluation of air sampling methods for TNT and RDX  

SciTech Connect

A comparative field study was conducted at an ammunition plant to evaluate the use of several sampling techniques for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). The objective was to compare the currently recommended combination Tenax-plus-filter tubes with the older, colorimetric diethylaminoethanol bubbler method which was in use in July 1950 when the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) published their first Threshold Limit Values (TLVs). These values included a TLV of 1.5 mg/m3 for TNT. Regular Tenax tubes and 37-mm glass fiber filters also were tested since they also had been used by the United States Army for a number of years. The survey results showed fair agreement between the bubbler and tube methods in those instances where sufficient TNT was present to produce a measurable color in the diethylaminoethanol (DEAE). The glass fiber filters were not satisfactory for TNT retention, but the two types of tubes both were effective. The combination tubes were superior for RDX and appeared to be the best overall sampling medium.

Bishop, R.W.; Kennedy, J.L.; Podolak, G.E.; Ryea, J.L. Jr.




EPA Science Inventory

A prototype field-portable X-ray fluorescence system developed by EPA and NASA was evaluated at a site contaminated with Pb, Zn, and Cu. The objective of the field test was to evaluate the effectiveness of the instrument as a field analytical tool for locating hot spots and as a ...


Documenting the Impact of Multisite Evaluations on the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Field  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter discusses the impact that four multisite National Science Foundation (NSF) evaluations had on the broader field of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education and evaluation. Three approaches were used to investigate the broader impact of these evaluations on the field: (a) a citation analysis, (b) an on-line survey,

Roseland, Denise; Greenseid, Lija O.; Volkov, Boris B.; Lawrenz, Frances



Research Summaries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents summaries of three articles relevant to school crisis response: (1) "Factors Contributing to Posttraumatic Growth," summarized by Steve DeBlois; (2) "Psychological Debriefing in Cross-Cultural Contexts" (Stacey Rice); and (3) "Brain Abnormalities in PTSD" (Sunny Windingstad). The first summary reports the findings of a

Brock, Stephen E., Ed.



Co-ordination of the International Network of Nuclear Structure and Decay Data Evaluators; Summary Report of an IAEA Technical Meeting  

SciTech Connect

The IAEA Nuclear Data Section convened the 18th meeting of the International Network of Nuclear Structure and Decay Data Evaluators at the IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, 23 to 27 March 2009. This meeting was attended by 22 scientists from 14 Member States, plus IAEA staff, concerned with the compilation, evaluation and dissemination of nuclear structure and decay data. A summary of the meeting, recommendations/conclusions, data centre reports, and various proposals considered, modified and agreed by the participants are contained within this document. The International Network of Nuclear Structure and Decay Data (NSDD) Evaluators holds biennial meetings under the auspices of the IAEA, and consists of evaluation groups and data service centres in several countries. This network has the objective of providing up-to-date nuclear structure and decay data for all known nuclides by evaluating all existing experimental data. Data resulting from this international evaluation collaboration is included in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) and published in the journals Nuclear Physics A and Nuclear Data Sheets (NDS).

Abriola, D.; Tuli, J.



Summary and review of Materials Special Investigation Group evaluations of hardware from the Long Duration Exposure Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Major materials findings obtained during LDEF post-flight investigations over the past three and one-half years are reported. The summary of findings to date includes results for thermal control coatings, thin polymeric films, composites, metals, adhesives, contamination, and environments definitions. Reaction rates of selected materials exposed to atomic oxygen are presented. Results useful for model verification and comparison with ground based facility data are specifically highlighted. Potential areas for future work are described. In conclusion, a rationale for a second long term flight experiment is presented.

Whitaker, Ann F.; Funk, Joan; Pippin, H. Gary; Dursch, Harry



Field evaluation of symbiotic nitrogen fixation by rhizobial strains using 15 N methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Small differences in N2 fixation by nodulated soybeans (Glycine max. (L.) Merr.), inoculated with various strains ofRhizobium japonicum, were assessed in field experiments using15N methodology, and compared with yields of plant dry matter and total N. Percentage of plant-N derived from atmospheric N2 and from fertilizer, and values of %15N atom excess had lower coefficients of variation than did

G. Hardarson; F. Zapata; S. K. A. Danso




EPA Science Inventory

Reducing risks associated with Pb in soil has typically been accomplished by soil removal, covering, or dilution by mixing with uncontaminated soil. EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) and DuPont Corporation established a collaborative effort to evaluation...


Value-Added Estimates for Phase 1 of the Pennsylvania Teacher and Principal Evaluation Pilot. Executive Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania plans to develop a new statewide evaluation system for teachers and principals in its public schools by school year 2013-2014. To inform the development of this evaluation system, the Team Pennsylvania Foundation (Team PA) undertook the first phase of the Pennsylvania Teacher and Principal Evaluation

Lipscomb, Stephen; Chiang, Hanley; Gill, Brian



Eubank Field, Kansas: a formation evaluation and secondary recovery project  

E-print Network

acreage in Haskell County (Kansas), a part of the Eubank Field. The Basal Chester sand in the Eubank Field as deposited in a paleovalley system that was incised in the Sainte Genevieve and Saint Louis limestones. Anadarko plans to develop a secondary...

Dexheimer, Dominique



Evaluating Sound Field Amplification Technology in New Brunswick Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

(Purpose) The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of classroom sound field amplification on communication in kindergarten through grade 3 classrooms. (Methodology) Sixty classrooms were involved in the study; half of the classrooms were provided with sound field amplification. The flow of communication was measured through

Rubin, Rhonda; Aquino-Russell, Catherine; Flagg-Williams, Joan



RIDER executive summaryA_071306

RIDER Database Resource: Plans for a Public-Private Partnership Executive Summary 7-13-06 1. Executive Summary: The Reference Image Database to Evaluate Response (RIDER) to therapy in lung cancer began as a highly leveraged and collaborative


Field evaluation of hazardous waste site bioassessment protocols  

SciTech Connect

The goals were: (1) determine the variability (both within and between laboratories) for the various bioassay procedures using contaminated soil samples from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA); (2) assess variability within and between plots for several assessment techniques (for sampling small mammals, plants, insects including honeybees and microarthropods) so that field studies could be designed to detect a defined biotic change; (3) establish three field plant transects which are apparently (a) contaminated, (b) appear contaminated and (c) could serve as a control; (4) assess the feasibility (in the laboratory) of using Basin F water to contaminate RMA soil artificially, and to supply information for the design of a field plot study in 1983; (5) attempt to obtain preliminary data on any promising field or laboratory bioassessment techniques not currently mentioned in the statement of work; and (6) obtain field data to assess the ecological status of RMA lakes and compare these observations to results from bioassessment testing.

Thomas, J.M.; Cline, J.F.; Cushing, C.E.; McShane, M.C.; Rogers, J.E.; Rogers, L.E.; Simpson, J.C.; Skalski, J.R.



Electromagnetic Scattered Field Evaluation and Data Compression Using Imaging Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the final report on Project #727625 between The Ohio State University and NASA, Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. Under this project, a data compression technique for scattered field data of electrically large targets is developed. The technique was applied to the scattered fields of two targets of interest. The backscattered fields of the scale models of these targets were measured in a ra compact range. For one of the targets, the backscattered fields were also calculated using XPATCH computer code. Using the technique all scattered field data sets were compressed successfully. A compression ratio of the order 40 was achieved. In this report, the technique is described briefly and some sample results are included.

Gupta, I. J.; Burnside, W. D.



A Comment on "Evaluation Field Building in South Asia: Reflections, Anecdotes, and Questions"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the author's comment on "Evaluation Field Building in South Asia: Reflections, Anecdotes, and Questions" by Katherine Hay. Hay raises a number of extremely relevant issues relating to evaluation field building in South Asia. In this paper, the author aims to underscore the importance of three priorities for initiating public

Kumar, A. K. Shiva



A Descriptive Study of Mandatory Continuing Professional Education in an Emerging Field: A Prospectus on the Counseling Profession. Executive Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study analyzed the continuing professional education (CPE) requirements, practices, policies, evaluation measures, and perception of impact on practice and participants in the counseling profession. Research was conducted in 22 states with at least 5 years experience with their counselor licensing legislation requiring CPE. Other states were

Sattem, Linda Lee


Bear Creek Valley Floodplain hot spot removal early action characterization field data summary report, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the field and laboratory efforts as a result of the Bear Creek Floodplain Hot Spot Removal Project Early Action. The purpose of this project was to collect data necessary to assess contaminant levels in the Bear Creek Valley Floodplain and evaluate the risk posed by the sites. This report provides information on the background of the site, characterization of site and field activities, results of field and laboratory data collected, extent and distribution of contamination, and an assessment of the future risk posed by the site.




1986 Fertilizer Summary Data  

SciTech Connect

''Fertilizer Summary Data'' is published every two years as part of TVA's fertilizer research, development, and education program. It brings together historical fertilizer use and crop statistics, application rates, and farm income and expense data for market planning and evaluation. This edition summarizes US consumption (including Puerto Rico) of fertilizer and plant nutrients through the year ended June 30, 1986.

Berry, J.T.; Hargett, N.L.



Evaluation of the DC Opportunity Scholarship Program: Impacts after Two Years. Executive Summary. NCEE 2008-4024  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of the "District of Columbia School Choice Incentive Act of 2003" Congress mandated evaluation of this first federally funded, private school voucher program in the United States (now called the DC Opportunity Scholarship Program (OSP). This report presents findings from the evaluation on the impacts 2 years after families who applied were

Wolf, Patrick; Gutmann, Babette; Puma, Michael; Kisida, Brian; Rizzo, Lou; Eissa, Nada



Field evaluation of hazardous waste site bioassessment protocols. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of the plan was to demonstrate that honeybees could be used in detecting likely areas of chemical pollution, to demonstrate the usefulness of microbial and plant phytoassays, and to demonstrate a relationship between laboratory derived phytotoxicity results and field observations of plant community structure and diversity. Field studies were conducted through a cooperative arrangement with the US Army arsenal in Commerce City, Colorado.

Thomas, J.M.; Cline, J.F.; Gano, K.A.; McShane, M.C.; Rogers, J.E.; Rogers, L.E.; Simpson, J.C.; Skalski, J.R.




EPA Science Inventory

Five DNAPL remediation technologies were evaluated at the Dover National Test Site, Dover AFB, Delaware. The technologies were cosolvent solubilization, cosolvent mobilization, surfactant solubilization, complex sugar flushing and air sparging/soil vapor extraction. The effectiv...



EPA Science Inventory

Sediment Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE) methods have been developed for both porewaters and whole sediments. These relatively simple laboratory methods are designed to identify specific toxicants or classes of toxicants in sediments; however, the question of whethe...


Technical and environmental long-term properties of industrial residues--summary of field and laboratory investigations.  


In Sweden, use of industrial residues is still hindered by concern for their long-term properties. A three-year research project was therefore initiated aiming to (1) identify the crucial processes of ageing related to the usefulness of residues in roads; (2) investigate the consequences of these processes for technical and environmental properties of the residues, and (3) propose a method for accelerated ageing to predict the long-term properties. This paper gives an overview of the project methodology, a summary of the test results and references to papers where further details are given. The project, running through 2006-2008, compared naturally aged samples of two residues used as sub-bases in existing asphalt paved roads with samples of fresh residues from producers' piles. Steel slag of electric arc furnace (EAF) type and municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash were chosen. The samples were thoroughly characterised in order to identify which ageing processes had been crucial. The results showed that: - Bottom ash from the pavement edge was more aged than bottom ash from the road centre. However, no difference in pH was found, instead the differences were caused by differences in water exposure. - Steel slag from the pavement edge showed traces of carbonation and leaching processes, whereas slag from the road centre was identical to fresh slag. - Water exposure to the subbase materials after ten years in an asphalt paved road was calculated to less than 0.10.5 litres per kg. - Ageing reactions in steel slag and MSWI bottom ash, ready for use, were too small to be verified by laboratory measurement of deformation properties under loaded conditions. An accelerated ageing test for steel slag was set up to achieve the carbonation (decrease in pH) and leaching that was observed in the pavement edge material. An accelerated ageing test for bottom ash was set up to achieve the pozzolan reactions that were observed in SEM analyses of in situ specimens. It is recommended to use uncrushed particles when properties of aged material are studied, in order to preserve the original particle surfaces. PMID:20932737

Arm, Maria; Suer, Pascal; Arvidsson, Hkan; Lindqvist, Jan-Erik



BWR Radiation Assessment and Control Program: assessment and control of BWR radiation fields. Volume 1. Executive summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report covers work on the BWR Radiation Assessment and Control (BRAC) Program from 1978 to 1982. The major activities during this report period were assessment of the radiation-level trends in BWRs, evaluation of the effects of forward-pumped heater drains on BWR water quality, installation and operation of a corrosion-product deposition loop in an operating BWR, and analyzation of fuel-deposit




An Internal Evaluation of a Field-Based Training Component for School Administrators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Project ROME-FOCUS (Field-Oriented Competency Utilization System), a competency-based, field-oriented, training program for school administrators was field tested at Valdosta State College, Valdosta, Georgia, January - May, 1976. An internal evaluation conducted by the instructional staff suggested that principals preferred ROME-FOCUS training to

Licata, Joseph W.


1984 Fertilizer summary data  

SciTech Connect

''Fertilizer Summary Data'' is published every two years as part of TVA's fertilizer research, development, and education program. It brings together historical fertilizer use and crop statistics, application rates, and farm income and expense data for use in production planning and market evaluation. This edition summarizes US consumption (including Puerto Rico) of fertilizer and plant nutrients through the year ended June 30, 1984. It also includes TVA distribution of fertilizer materials in the industry demonstration program for 1981 through 1984. The summaries are presented for regions of USA.

Hargett, N.L.; Berry, J.T.



Mars Pathfinder Near-Field Rock Distribution Re-Evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have completed analysis of a new near-field rock count at the Mars Pathfinder landing site and determined that the previously published rock count suggesting 16% cumulative fractional area (CFA) covered by rocks is incorrect. The earlier value is not so much wrong (our new CFA is 20%), as right for the wrong reason: both the old and the new CFA's are consistent with remote sensing data, however the earlier determination incorrectly calculated rock coverage using apparent width rather than average diameter. Here we present details of the new rock database and the new statistics, as well as the importance of using rock average diameter for rock population statistics. The changes to the near-field data do not affect the far-field rock statistics.

Haldemann, A. F. C.; Golombek, M. P.



Summary of Experimental Meson Physics  

E-print Network

A summary of the present experimental status of meson physics is presented. The presentation includes the new results presented at the MESON06 workshop, as well as other recent experimental developments in the field.

Kamal K. Seth




EPA Science Inventory

The Field Analytical Screening Program (FASP) pentachlorophenol (PCP) method uses a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a megabore capillary column and flame ionization detector (FID) and electron capture detector (ECD) to identify and quantify PCP. The FASP PCP method is design...



EPA Science Inventory

In 1990, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the Bioremediation Field Initiative as part of its overall strategy to increase the use of bioremediation to treat hazardous wastes at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liabil- ity Act (C...



EPA Science Inventory

A field study was conducted to assess the ability of landfill covers to control percolation into the waste. Performance of one conventional cover was compared to that of two evapotranspiration (ET) tree covers, using large (7 x 14 m) lined lysimeters at the Leon County Solid W...


Trace metal removal by iron coprecipitation: Field evaluation: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many trace elements found in coal-fired power plant wastewaters are designated as priority pollutants by the USEPA. These include beryllium, cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, nickel, and zinc. This report presents the results of a field demonstration of the iron adsorption\\/coprecipitation process at the Pennsylvania Power and Light (PP and L) Company's Montour Steam Electric Station in Washingtonville, Pennsylvania. The study

M. A. Manzione; D. T. Merrill



Spent-Fuel Test - Climax: An evaluation of the technical feasibility of geologic storage of spent nuclear fuel in granite: Executive summary of final results  

SciTech Connect

This summary volume outlines results that are covered in more detail in the final report of the Spent-Fuel Test - Climate project. The project was conducted between 1978 and 1983 in the granitic Climax stock at the Nevada Test Site. Results indicate that spent fuel can be safely stored for periods of years in this host medium and that nuclear waste so emplaced can be safely retrieved. We also evaluated the effects of heat and radiation (alone and in combination) on emplacement canisters and the surrounding rock mass. Storage of the spent-fuel affected the surrounding rock mass in measurable ways, but did not threaten the stability or safety of the facility at any time.

Patrick, W.C.



Technical Evaluation Summary of the In Situ Vitrification Melt Expulsion at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on April 21, 1996, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This Technical Evaluation Summary of the In Situ Vitrification Melt Expulsion at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on April 21, 1996, was prepared at the request of the Department of Energy as a supporting reference document for the Final Unusual Occurrence Report to fully explore the probable causes that lead to the subject incident. This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with the technical information on the performance of the in situ vitrification treatability study operations at ORNL pit 1 up to and including the time of the melt expulsion incident. This document also attempts to diagnose the causes of the melt expulsion event the consequent damages to equipment the radiological impacts of the event, and the equipment design modifications and procedural changes necessary for future safe ISV operations.





EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of the first independent evaluation of a full-scale utility spray-dryer/baghouse dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. The system treats flue gas from a nominal 100 MW of coal-fired power generation. The test program, conducted during July-October 19...



EPA Science Inventory

The Hach Lead-Trak(R) test kit for lead in water was tested in a laboratory evaluation. onsidered were: perator bias, precision, accuracy, linear calibration range, and potential drinking water interferences. nterferences tested were realistic levels off: a, Mg, Ni, Sb, Mn, Cd, C...



EPA Science Inventory

A method is presented for estimating the number of samples needed to evaluate pesticide leaching threats to ground water at a desired level of precision. Sample size projections are based on desired precision (exhibited as relative tolerable error), level of confidence (90 or 95%...


Image quality evaluation in the field of digital film restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital film restoration is a significant hope for cinematographic archivists. Technical progress, more powerful machines at lower cost, makes it possible nowadays to restore cinematographic archives digitally at acceptable paces. Several digital restoration techniques have emerged during the last decade and became more and more automated but restoration evaluation remains still a rarely tackled issue. After presenting the several defects

M. Chambah; C. Saint-Jean; F. Helt




EPA Science Inventory

This 23 - page Technology Transfer Summary Report summarizes one of the potential innovative technologies, Sequencing Batch Reactors (SBR) for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment. ontained in the report are process descriptions, performance evaluations, and economic com...


Research Summaries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this column, members of the NASP Crisis Management in the Schools Interest Group provide summaries of three studies relevant to school crisis response. The first study investigated the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among rescue workers. The second article explored the Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention, which is

Brock, Stephen E., Ed.



Research Summaries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This column features summaries of five research articles relevant to school crisis response. The first, "High School Teachers' Experiences With Suicidal Students," summarized by Robyn Bratica, offers the results of a study examining high school teachers' experiences with suicidal students and suggests that contact with suicidal students is very

Brock, Stephen E., Ed.




MEETING SUMMARY PRESIDENT'S CANCER PANEL A DIALOGUE BETWEEN THE PRESIDENTS CANCER PANEL AND THE YAKAMA NATION J u l y 2 9 3 0 , 2 0 0 2 T o p p e n i s h , W a s h i n g t o n OVERVIEW The Presidents Cancer Panel was chartered to


Research Summaries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents summaries of three recent crisis management publications: (1) "The Impact of School Violence on School Personnel," summarized by Kimberly de Deaux; (2) "Children Exposed to War/Terrorism," summarized by Jennifer DeFago; and (3) "Suicide Survivors Seeking Mental Health Services," summarized by Kimberly de Deaux. The first

Brock, Stephen E., Ed.



Research Summaries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents summaries of three recent crisis management publications: (1) "School Violence: Associations With Control, Security/Enforcement, Educational/Therapeutic Approaches, and Demographic Factors," reviewed by Ashlee Barton; (2) "The Relationship Between Cognitive Coping Styles and PTSD in Survivors of Traffic Accidents," summarized

Brock, Stephen E., Ed.



Research Summaries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents summaries of four recent crisis management publications: (1) "Crisis Intervention for Children/Caregivers Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence," summarized by Donna DeVaughn Kreskey; (2) "Predictors of Trauma Reactions Following the 9/11 Terrorist Attacks," summarized by Kelly O'Connor; (3) "Cognitive Coping Styles and PTSD

Brock, Stephen E., Ed.



Rice and cold stress: methods for its evaluation and summary of cold tolerance-related quantitative trait loci  

PubMed Central

Cold stress adversely affects rice (Oryza sativa L.) growth and productivity, and has so far determined its geographical distribution. Dissecting cold stress-mediated physiological changes and understanding their genetic causes will facilitate the breeding of rice for cold tolerance. Here, we review recent progress in research on cold stress-mediated physiological traits and metabolites, and indicate their roles in the cold-response network and cold-tolerance evaluation. We also discuss criteria for evaluating cold tolerance and evaluate the scope and shortcomings of each application. Moreover, we summarize research on quantitative trait loci (QTL) related to cold stress at the germination, seedling, and reproductive stages that should provide useful information to accelerate progress in breeding cold-tolerant rice. PMID:25279026



Practical method for evaluating the sound field radiated from a waveguide.  


This letter presents a simple and practical method for evaluating the sound field radiated from a waveguide. By using the proposed method, detailed information about the radiated sound field can be obtained by measuring the sound field in the mouth of the baffled waveguide. To examine this method's effectiveness, the radiated sound pressure distribution in space was first evaluated by using the proposed method, and then it was measured directly for comparison. Experiments using two different waveguides showed good agreement between the evaluated and the measured radiated sound pressure distributions. PMID:25618097

Feng, Xuelei; Shen, Yong; Chen, Simiao; Zhao, Ye



Surface selections and topological constraint evaluations for flow field analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isolated singular points (nodes, saddles) of a continuous vector field (e.g., velocity, shear stress, pressure gradient, vorticity, etc.) that are overlaid on a given surface must be compatible with the Euler characteristic of that surface, X surface. All surfaces can be fashioned from a sphere plus handles plus holes, and X surface=2??holes?2?handles=?nodes??saddles. This establishes an a priori constraint for

John F. Foss



Field evaluation of triclopyr ester toxicity to fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two field experiments were conducted to assess the predictions of laboratory time-toxicity tests regarding lethal effects of triclopyr butoxyethyl ester (TBEE) on fish in standing and flowing water bodies. Large lake enclosures were treated with TBEE by backpack sprayer at concentrations of 0.257.6 mg\\/L, expressed as acid equivalents. Median dissipation times for TBEE in lake water ranged from 48 d.Effects

D. P. Kreutzweiser; D. G. Thompson; S. S. Capell; D. R. Thomas; B. Staznik



Evaluation in context: ATC automation in the field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The process for incorporating advanced technologies into complex aviation systems is as important as the final product itself. This paper described a process that is currently being applied to the development and assessment of an advanced ATC automation system, CTAS. The key element of the process is field exposure early in the system development cycle. The process deviates from current established practices of system development -- where field testing is an implementation endpoint -- and has been deemed necessary by the FAA for streamlining development and bringing system functions to a level of stability and usefulness. Methods and approaches for field assessment are borrowed from human factors engineering, cognitive engineering, and usability engineering and are tailored for the constraints of an operational ATC environment. To date, the focus has been on the qualitative assessment of the match between TMA capabilities and the context for their use. Capturing the users' experience with the automation tool and understanding tool use in the context of the operational environment is important, not only for developing a tool that is an effective problem-solving instrument but also for defining meaningful operational requirements. Such requirements form the basis for certifying the safety and efficiency of the system. CTAS is the first U.S. advanced ATC automation system of its scope and complexity to undergo this field development and assessment process. With the rapid advances in aviation technologies and our limited understanding of their impact on system performance, it is time we opened our eyes to new possibilities for developing, validating, and ultimately certifying complex aviation systems.

Harwood, Kelly; Sanford, Beverly



Personal Radiation Detector Field Test and Evaluation Campaign  

SciTech Connect

Following the success of the Anole test of portable detection system, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Domestic Nuclear Detection Office organized a test and evaluation campaign for personal radiation detectors (PRDs), also known as 'Pagers'. This test, 'Bobcat', was conducted from July 17 to August 8, 2006, at the Nevada Test Site. The Bobcat test was designed to evaluate the performance of PRDs under various operational scenarios, such as pedestrian surveying, mobile surveying, cargo container screening, and pedestrian chokepoint monitoring. Under these testing scenarios, many operational characteristics of the PRDs, such as gamma and neutron sensitivities, positive detection and false alarm rates, response delay times, minimum detectable activities, and source localization errors, were analyzed. This paper will present the design, execution, and methodologies used to test this equipment for the DHS.

Chris A. Hodge, Ding Yuan, Raymond P. Keegan, Michael A. Krstich



BOBCAT Personal Radiation Detector Field Test and Evaluation Campaign  

SciTech Connect

Following the success of the Anole test of portable detection system, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Domestic Nuclear Detection Office organized a test and evaluation campaign for personal radiation detectors (PRDs), also known as Pagers. This test, Bobcat, was conducted from July 17 to August 8, 2006, at the Nevada Test Site. The Bobcat test was designed to evaluate the performance of PRDs under various operational scenarios, such as pedestrian surveying, mobile surveying, cargo container screening, and pedestrian chokepoint monitoring. Under these testing scenarios, many operational characteristics of the PRDs, such as gamma and neutron sensitivities, positive detection and false alarm rates, response delay times, minimum detectable activities, and source localization errors, were analyzed. This paper will present the design, execution, and methodologies used to test this equipment for the DHS.

Chris Hodge



Field testing of the discrete-trials teaching evaluation form  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the reliability and validity of the discrete-trials teaching evaluation form (DTTEF), a 21-item checklist for assessing instructors conducting discrete-trials teaching (DTT). In Phase 1, six consultants in an applied behavior analysis program for children with autism rated the 21 components of the DTTEF with a mean of 6.2 on a 7-point scale, demonstrating high face validity. In Phase

Brigitte Jeanson; Carly Thiessen; Kendra Thomson; Rhiannon Vermeulen; Garry L. Martin; C. T. Yu



Forest health monitoring: 1991 Georgia indicator evaluation and field study  

SciTech Connect

The pilot study was designed to test methods for quantifying vegetation structure, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), dendrochronology, and selected root fungi. Testing the methods included comparing different data collection procedures for individual indicators, estimating sampling efficiency (both of the sampling design and the sampling unit design), and evaluating spatial variability. In addition, the accuracy and precision of tree height instruments were determined as part of the pilot study.

Alexander, S.A.; Baldwin, M.; Bechtold, W.A.; Cassell, D.L.; Cline, S.




EPA Science Inventory

This study was conducted in two phases. n the first phase, a synthetic soil matrix was prepared as a theoretical composite of Superfund soils nationwide. n the second phase, soils from actual Superfund sites were treated. hree treatment technologies were evaluated in both phases:...


User Evaluation: Summary of the Methodologies and Results for the Alexandria Digital Library, University of California at Santa Barbara.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The collection and services of the Alexandria Digital Library (ADL) at the University of California Santa Barbara focus on geospatial information sources with links to geographic locations. Evaluation studies conducted within the ADL project are described as well as what was learned about user characteristics and reactions to ADL. (Author/AEF)

Hill, Linda L.; Dolin, Ron; Frew, James; Kemp, Randall B.; Larsgaard, Mary; Montello, Daniel R.; Rae, Mary-Anna; Simpson, Jason



Summary of the Fourth Report on the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a special report by The Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents to inform clinicians on recent scientific evidence related to blood pressure in children and to offer recommendations for evaluation and treatment of hypertension in these patients.




EPA Science Inventory

The performance of an innovative heat pump, equipped with a distillation column to shift the composition of a zeotropic refrigerant mixture, was evaluated. The results of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) rating tests and seasonal energy calcuations are reported with the main cycl...


How States Use Student Learning Objectives in Teacher Evaluation Systems: A Review of State Websites. Summary. REL 2014-013  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Motivated by the need to improve teaching and learning and by federal priorities reflected in requirements for grant programs such as Race to the Top and the Teacher Incentive Fund, many states are developing teacher evaluation systems that include measures of individual teachers' contributions to their students' learning growth. One way

Lacireno-Paquet, Natalie; Morgan, Claire; Mello, Daniel



Family Matters: Evaluation of the Parental Empowerment Program. A Summary of a Final Report to the National Institute of Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes the final evaluation of the Parental Empowerment Program: an experimental program building on family strengths and local resources which was offered for an average of 24 months to 160 families in 10 Syracuse (New York) neighborhoods. Chapter 1 provides a conceptual overview, a program description, and a methodological

Cochran, Moncrieff; Henderson, Charles R., Jr.


PILOT PRODUCTION AND EVALUATION OF TANTALUM ALLOY SHEET. Summary Phase Report, April 15, 1962 to March 15, 1963  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of the processing and properties of tantalumrich alloys in the ; Ta--W-- Hf system were carried out. Procedures for the production of pilot ; quantities of low interstitial T-111 (Ta-- 8W--2Hf) sheet from 3-in. diameter ; ingots were developed, and detailed evaluations of mechanical and physical ; properties were conducted. The effects of intentional additions of interstitial ; elements,

R. L. Ammon; R. T. Begley



Direct Loan Evaluation. Assessment of Department of Education Administration: Academic Years 1995-96 and 1996-97. Summary Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a 5-year evaluation of the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program, this study assessed the U.S. Department of Education's (ED) administration of the program. Data were obtained through interviews with ED and other federal officials, institutional surveys, reviews of documents, attendance at meetings and training events, facilitated

Macro International, Inc., Calverton, MD.


State of Wisconsin Evaluation Conference Summary; E.S.E.A. Title I Migrant Education Programs Summer of 1978.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In August of 1978 an ESEA (Elementary and Secondary Education Act) Title I education conference was held to obtain an evaluation of the migrant education programs operated in Wisconsin during the summer of 1978. Five forms were used to collect information from the 47 conference participants with specific forms directed toward instructional staff,

Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison. Div. for Management and Planning Services.


How Service Works. Summary of the W. K. Kellogg Foundation's "Service Works": A Retrospective Evaluation of Higher Education Service Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Service learning is an undergraduate education strategy found across four program areas funded by the W. K. Kellogg Foundation (WKKF). This cross-foundation, retrospective evaluation examines 35 projects of $100,000 or more funded between 1985-95. Study information was based on qualitative data and approaches, with the majority of project

Kellogg Foundation, Battle Creek, MI.


Development of a Visual Inspection Checklist for Evaluation of Fielded PV Module Condition (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

A visual inspection checklist for the evaluation of fielded photovoltaic (PV) modules has been developed to facilitate collection of data describing the field performance of PV modules. The proposed inspection checklist consists of 14 sections, each documenting the appearance or properties of a part of the module. This tool has been evaluated through the inspection of over 60 PV modules produced by more than 20 manufacturers and fielded at two different sites for varying periods of time. Aggregated data from a single data collection tool such as this checklist has the potential to enable longitudinal studies of module condition over time, technology evolution, and field location for the enhancement of module reliability models.

Packard, C. E; Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Kurtz, S. R.



Laboratory and field evaluation of broiler litter nitrogen mineralization.  


Two studies were conducted for this research. First, a laboratory incubation to quantify broiler litter N mineralization with the following treatments: two soil moisture regimes, constant at 60% water fill pore space (WFPS) and fluctuating (60-30% WFPS), three soil types, Brooksville silty clay loam, Ruston sandy loam from Mississippi, and Catlin silt loam from Illinois. Second, a field incubation study to quantify broiler litter N mineralization using similar soils and litter application rates as the laboratory incubation. Broiler litter was applied at an equivalent rate of 350 kg total N ha(-1) for both studies except for control treatments. Subsamples were taken at different timing for both experiments for NO3-N and NH4-N determinations. In the laboratory experiment, soil moisture regimes had no significant impact on litter-derived inorganic N. Total litter-derived inorganic N across all treatments increased from 23 mg kg(-1) at time 0, to 159 mg kg(-1) at 93 d after litter application. Significant differences were observed among the soil types. Net litter-derived inorganic N was greater for Brooksville followed by Ruston and Catlin soils. For both studies and all soils, NH4-N content decreased while NO3-N content increased indicating a rapid nitrification of the mineralized litter N. Litter mineralization in the field study followed the same trend as the laboratory study but resulted in much lower net inorganic N, presumably due to environmental conditions such as precipitation and temperature, which may have resulted in more denitrification and immobilization of mineralized litter N. Litter-derived inorganic N from the field study was greater for Ruston than Brooksville. Due to no impact by soil moisture regimes, additional studies are warranted in order to develop predictive relationships to quantify broiler litter N availability. PMID:17604161

Sistani, K R; Adeli, A; McGowen, S L; Tewolde, H; Brink, G E



Field evaluation of environmental sanitation measures against cholera*  

PubMed Central

Data obtained in a controlled field study over 5 years in 4 communities showed that the provision of sanitary facilities for human waste disposal can reduce the incidence of cholera by as much as 68%, while the provision of a safe water supply can decrease it by 73%. Where both toilets and water supplies are provided, the incidence can be reduced by as much as 76%. There was evidence that cholera infection gaining access to communities with these facilities tends to spread less and produce fewer secondary cases than in a community where such facilities are not provided. PMID:4549038

Azurin, J. C.; Alvero, M.



Evaluation of the intranasal flow field through computational fluid dynamics.  


A reliable and comprehensive assessment of nasal breathing is problematic and still a common issue in rhinosurgery. Impairments of nasal breathing need an objective approach. In this regard, currently rhinomanometry is the only standard diagnostic tool available but has various limitations. However, in the last decade, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has become a promising method in facing the challenge of qualifying nasal breathing. This article presents use of CFD with a symptom-free subject and a symptomatic patient. Thereby, certain flow field features and changes before and after surgery were investigated. Moreover, the study outlines suggestions for concrete rhinologic CFD applications. PMID:23564240

Hildebrandt, Thomas; Goubergrits, Leonid; Heppt, Werner Johannes; Bessler, Stephan; Zachow, Stefan



Summary of Almost 20 Years of Storm Overflight Electric Field, Conductivity, Flash Rates, and Electric Current Statistics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We determined total conduction currents and flash rates for around 900 high-altitude aircraft overflights of electrified clouds over 17 years. The overflights include a wide geographical sample of storms over land and ocean, with and without lightning, and with positive (i.e., upward-directed) and negative current. Peak electric field, with lightning transients removed, ranged from -1.0 kV m(sup -1) to 16. kV m(sup -1), with mean (median) of 0.9 kV m(sup -1) (0.29 kV m(sup -1)). Total conductivity at flight altitude ranged from 0.6 pS m(sup -1) to 3.6 pS m(sup -1), with mean and median of 2.2 pS m(sup -1). Peak current densities ranged from -2.0 nA m(sup -2) to 33.0 nA m(sup -2) with mean (median) of 1.9 nA m(sup -2) (0.6 nA m(sup -2)). Total upward current flow from storms in our dataset ranged from -1.3 to 9.4 A. The mean current for storms with lightning is 1.6 A over ocean and 1.0 A over land. The mean current for electrified shower clouds (i.e. electrified storms without lightning) is 0.39 A for ocean and 0.13 A for land. About 78% (43%) of the land (ocean) storms have detectable lightning. Land storms have 2.8 times the mean flash rate as ocean storms (2.2 versus 0.8 flashes min(sup -1), respectively). Approximately 7% of the overflights had negative current. The mean and median currents for positive (negative) polarity storms are 1.0 and 0.35 A (-0.30 and -0.26 A). We found no regional or latitudinal-based patterns in our storm currents, nor support for simple scaling laws between cloud top height and lightning flash rate.

Blakeslee, Richard J.; Mach, Douglas M.; Bateman, Monte J.; Bailey, Jeffrey C.



Generation of infant anatomical models for evaluating electromagnetic field exposures.  


Realistic anatomical modeling is essential in analyzing human exposure to electromagnetic fields. Infants have significant physical and anatomical differences compared with other age groups. However, few realistic infant models are available. In this work, we developed one 12-month-old male whole body model and one 17-month-old male head model from magnetic resonance images. The whole body and head models contained 28 and 30 tissues, respectively, at spatial resolution of 1?mm??1?mm??1?mm. Fewer identified tissues in the whole body model were a result of the low original image quality induced by the fast imaging sequence. The anatomical and physical parameters of the models were validated against findings in published literature (e.g., a maximum deviation as 18% in tissue mass was observed compared with the data from International Commission on Radiological Protection). Several typical exposure scenarios were realized for numerical simulation. Dosimetric comparison with various adult and child anatomical models was conducted. Significant differences in the physical and anatomical features between adult and child models demonstrated the importance of creating realistic infant models. Current safety guidelines for infant exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields may not be conservative. Bioelectromagnetics. 35:10-26, 2015. 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25328088

Li, Congsheng; Chen, Zhiye; Yang, Lei; Lv, Bin; Liu, Jianzhe; Varsier, Nadge; Hadjem, Abdelhamid; Wiart, Joe; Xie, Yi; Ma, Lin; Wu, Tongning



A soil vapor extraction pilot study in a deep arid vadose zone. Part 1: field study summary  

SciTech Connect

Non-radioactive liquid chemical waste was disposed at Material Disposal Area (MDA) L within Technical Area 54 (TA-54) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) from the early 1960's until 1985. Three surface impoundments, one pit, and 34 vertical shafts comprise the MDA L disposal facilities. None of the disposal areas were lined. Under LANL's Environmental Program, extensive sampling and analysis have been conducted to characterize the vadose zone beneath MDA L and to determine the nature and extent of contaminant releases from the former disposal units. The major contaminant release at the site is a subsurface organic solvent vapor-phase plume consisting primarily of several chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) including 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA), trichloroethene (TCE), Freon, tetrachloroethene (PCE). TCA was found in the greatest concentration, constituting the majority of the plume mass, and it also exhibits the greatest lateral and vertical extent in the organic vapor plume. A numerical model to characterize the subsurface plume has been developed based on the site conceptual model and refined using data from ongoing compliance monitoring. The primary goal of the pilot test was to provide information necessary to determine the effectiveness of SVE as a treatment method for the VOC vapor plume. To achieve this objective, commercially available SVE equipment meeting functional requirements established by previous vapor extraction testing and extensive vadose zone characterization activities was leased, temporarily installed, and operated at each of two test extraction wells in sequence. Granular activated carbon was used to treat the SVE emissions. Subsurface vapor monitoring captured the reduction in soil vapor concentrations and subsurface pressure changes. Active extraction was conducted from extraction wells constructed near the source term over a two-month period, resulting in the removal of more than 800 lbs of VOCs. Rebound monitoring was conducted to provide information on the nature of the source. Rebound monitoring indicated a fairly rapid source response, with preliminary data showing concentrations in monitoring boreholes closest to the source reaching steady state at concentrations lower than pre-test levels. Data from this study will be used to refine the MDAL L numerical model in order to assess the long term effectiveness of SVE as a remedy for the subsurface vapor-phase plume at MDA L in support of the corrective measure evaluation for MDA L. (authors)

Anderson, T.; Stewart, B.; Mark, P. [Apogen Technologies, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, P.; Hopkins, J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)



Evaluation of field development plans using 3-D reservoir modelling  

SciTech Connect

Three-dimensional reservoir modelling has become an accepted tool in reservoir description and is used for various purposes, such as reservoir performance prediction or integration and visualisation of data. In this case study, a small Northern North Sea turbiditic reservoir was to be developed with a line drive strategy utilising a series of horizontal producer and injector pairs, oriented north-south. This development plan was to be evaluated and the expected outcome of the wells was to be assessed and risked. Detailed analyses of core, well log and analogue data has led to the development of two geological {open_quotes}end member{close_quotes} scenarios. Both scenarios have been stochastically modelled using the Sequential Indicator Simulation method. The resulting equiprobable realisations have been subjected to detailed statistical well placement optimisation techniques. Based upon bivariate statistical evaluation of more than 1000 numerical well trajectories for each of the two scenarios, it was found that the wells inclinations and lengths had a great impact on the wells success, whereas the azimuth was found to have only a minor impact. After integration of the above results, the actual well paths were redesigned to meet external drilling constraints, resulting in substantial reductions in drilling time and costs.

Seifert, D.; Lewis, J.J.M. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Newbery, J.D.H. [Conoco, UK Ltd., Aberdeen (United Kingdom)] [and others



Demonstration and Field Evaluation of Streambank Stabilization with Submerged Vanes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effectiveness of submerged vanes for reducing bank erosion and improving aquatic habitat is being evaluated at a site on North Fish Creek, a Lake Superior tributary. Increased runoff from agricultural areas with clayey soils has increased flood magnitudes and the erosion potential/transport capacity of the stream. Most of the creek's sediment load originates from the erosion of 17 large bluffs. This creek contains important recreational fisheries that are potentially limited by the loss of aquatic habitat from deposition of sediment on spawning beds. Submerged vanes are a cost effective and environmentally less intrusive alternative to traditional structural stabilization measures. Submerged vanes protrude from a channel bed, are oriented at an angle to the local velocity, and are distributed along a portion of channel. They induce a transverse force and torque on the flow along with longitudinal vortexes that alter the cross sectional shape and alignment of the channel. Submerged vanes were installed at a bluff/bend site in summer and fall 2000. The number, size, and layout of the vanes were based upon the channel morphology under estimated bankfull conditions. The effectiveness of the vanes will be evaluated by comparing surveys of the bluff face, streamflow, and channel conditions for several years after installation of the submerged vanes with surveys before and immediately after their installation.

Whitman, H.; Hoopes, J.; Poggi, D.; Fitzpatrick, F.; Walz, K.




EPA Science Inventory

A combination of laboratory toxicity tests was conducted on the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio. est results were compared with field toxicity tests to evaluate the usefulness of laboratory testing in estimating mortality from fenvalerate exposure associated with agricultural ru...



EPA Science Inventory

This capsule report describes activities and results of the Shawnee FGD Field Disposal Evaluation Project, located near Paducah, KY. valuated in this report are FGD wastes that were either chemically treated, left untreated, or force-oxidized to gypsum....


Effects of temperature on bacterial transport and destruction in bioretention media: Field and laboratory evaluations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Microbial activities (such as metabolism, predation, and proliferation) are significantly influenced by temperature. This study investigated the effects of temperature on the capture and destruction of bacteria from urban stormwater runoff in bioretention media using 2-yr field evaluations coupled ...


Lightning electromagnetic radiation over a stratified conducting ground: Formulation and numerical evaluation of the electromagnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formulation describing the electromagnetic field radiated by a lightning return stroke over a two-layered conducting ground is presented in this paper. The derivation of the Green's functions required to solve the problem is first discussed in detail, and the expressions for the lightning electromagnetic fields are determined. Afterward, an efficient method for the numerical evaluation of the electromagnetic field is proposed. The proposed method is based on a suitable modification of a previously developed model for the evaluation of the fields in the presence of a lossy but homogeneous soil. Particular attention is devoted to the soil reflection coefficient properties, both from a physical and from a mathematical point of view. In part 2 of the paper, the developed approach and numerical algorithms will be used to evaluate the effect of the soil stratification on the radiated fields and to perform the validity assessment of simplified approaches proposed in the literature.

Delfino, Federico; Procopio, Renato; Rossi, Mansueto; Shoory, Abdolhamid; Rachidi, Farhad



Nonperturbative evaluation of a field correlator appearing in the heavy quarkonium system  

E-print Network

Recently an electric and magnetic field correlator appearing in the description of the heavy quarkonium system was evaluated on the lattice. Here, we give a nonperturbative analytical evaluation of this field correlator using a dual description of long distance Yang--Mills theory and using the stochastic vacuum model. The two predictions are both compatible with lattice data but show a different dependence on the quark separation. We discuss the analytic results in relation to the lattice data.

M. Baker; J. S. Ball; N. Brambilla; A. Vairo



A field evaluation of experimental passive railroad-highway grade crossing warning systems  

E-print Network

A FIELD EVALUATION OF EKPERIMENTAL PASSIVE RAILROAD-HIGHWAY GRADE CROSSING WARNING SYSTEMS A Thesis MICHAEL MORGAN BEITLER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1993 Major Subject: Civil Engineering )~~I ABSTRACT A Field Evaluation of Experimental Passive Railroad- Highway Grade Crossing Warning Systems. (August 1993) Michael Morgan Beitler, B. S. , University...

Beitler, Michael Morgan



Evaluations of carbon nanotube field emitters for electron microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brightness of carbon nanotube (CNT) emitters was already reported elsewhere. However, brightness of electron emitter is affected by a virtual source size of the emitter, which strongly depends on electron optical configuration around the emitter. In this work, I- V characteristics and brightness of a CNT emitter are measured under a practical field emission electron gun (e-gun) configuration to investigate availability of CNT for electron microscopy. As a result, it is obtained that an emission area of MWNT is smaller than its tip surface area, and the emission area corresponds to a five-membered-ring with 2nd nearest six-membered-rings on the MWNT cap surface. Reduced brightness of MWNT is measured as at least 2.6109 A/m 2 sr V. It is concluded that even a thick MWNT has enough brightness under a practical e-gun electrode configuration and suitable for electron microscopy.

Nakahara, Hitoshi; Kusano, Yoshikazu; Kono, Takumi; Saito, Yahachi



Trace metal removal by iron coprecipitation: Field evaluation: Final report  

SciTech Connect

Many trace elements found in coal-fired power plant wastewaters are designated as priority pollutants by the USEPA. These include beryllium, cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, nickel, and zinc. This report presents the results of a field demonstration of the iron adsorption/coprecipitation process at the Pennsylvania Power and Light (PP and L) Company's Montour Steam Electric Station in Washingtonville, Pennsylvania. The study focused on removing many of the above-mentioned trace elements from several waste streams, including ash pond effluent, air heater wash, coal pile drainage, and leachate from a dry fly ash landfill. The study's objectives were to verify previously derived laboratory results, confirm technological and economical feasibility, and develop information that could be used to design and estimate costs of full-scale systems. The treatment technology was tested at pilot scale (10 gpm) in a continuous system under field conditions. The study examined the roles of pH, iron, and polymers in trace element removal. Investigators also studied sludges produced by the treatment process. This report describes methods for predicting sludge production, gravity sludge thickening efficiency, and sludge dewatering effectiveness (by filter press). It also discusses the results of testing four different types of process sludge with five hazardous waste characterization procedures (the EP Toxicity, Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, and California Assessment Manual tests). Results are presented from experiments designed to simulate the interactions between iron sludges and clay liners when the sludges are buried in sludge-only landfills. Finally, a design and cost example is presented to illustrate the use of pilot results in implementation of iron treatment technology at full-scale. 59 refs., 37 figs., 65 tabs.

Manzione, M.A.; Merrill, D.T.



Evaluation of agricultural best-management practices in the Conestoga River headwaters, Pennsylvania; a summary report, 1982-90  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pipe-outlet terracing was effective in reducing sediment losses from a field site, but total nitrogen and phosphorus losses with runoff were not significantly different before and after terracing. Median concentrations of dissolved nitrate in several ground-water sampling locations increased after terrace installation. Dissolved nitrate concentrations in ground water decreased significantly after nutrient-management implementation. Findings indicate that agricultural-management practices to improve water quality are most effective if their overall design effects on surface- and ground-water systems are considered in their design.

Lietman, Patricia L.



[Executive summary of the recommendations on the evaluation and management of renal disease in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients].  


The aim of this article is to update the 2010 recommendations on the evaluation and management of renal disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Renal function should be monitored in all HIV-infected patients. The basic renal work-up should include measurements of serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate by CKD-EPI, urine protein-to-creatinine ratio, and urinary sediment. Tubular function tests should include determination of serum phosphate levels and urine dipstick for glycosuria. In the absence of abnormal values, renal screening should be performed annually. In patients treated with tenofovir, or with risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD), more frequent renal screening is recommended. In order to prevent disease progression, potentially nephrotoxic antiretroviral drugs are not recommended in patients with CKD or risk factors for CKD. The document provides indications for renal biopsy and advises on the optimal time for referral of a patient to the nephrologist. The indications for and evaluation and management of dialysis and renal transplantation are also addressed. PMID:25303781

Gorriz, Jos L; Gutirrez, Flix; Trulls, Joan C; Arazo, Piedad; Arribas, Jose R; Barril, Guillermina; Cervero, Miguel; Cofn, Frederic; Domingo, Pere; Estrada, Vicente; Fulladosa, Xavier; Galindo, Mara J; Grcia, Slvia; Iribarren, Jos A; Knobel, Hernando; Lpez-Aldeguer, Jos; Lozano, Fernando; Martnez-Castelao, Alberto; Martnez, Esteban; Mazuecos, Maria A; Miralles, Celia; Montas, Rosario; Negredo, Eugenia; Palacios, Rosario; Prez-Elas, Mara J; Portilla, Joaqun; Praga, Manuel; Quereda, Carlos; Rivero, Antonio; Santamara, Juan M; Sanz, Jos; Sanz, Jess; Mir, Jos M



Blind field test evaluation of Raman spectroscopy as a forensic tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical instrumentation for Raman spectroscopy has advanced rapidly in recent years to the point where commercial field-portable instruments are available. Raman analysis with portable instrumentation is a new capability that can provide emergency response teams with on-site evaluation of hazardous materials. Before Raman analysis is accepted and implemented in the field, realistic studies applied to unknown samples need to be

S. D. Harvey; M. E. Vucelick; R. N. Lee; B. W. Wright



A Field Training Model for Creative Arts Therapies: Report from a 3-Year Program Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Clinical field training is an essential component of educating future therapists. This article discusses a creative arts therapies field training model in Israel as designed and modified from 3 years of program evaluation in a changing regulatory context. A clinical seminar structure puts beginning students in the role of participant-observer in

Orkibi, Hod




EPA Science Inventory

A comprehensive, field-scale evaluation of in situ cosolvent flushing for enhanced remediation of nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL)-contaminated aquifers was performed in a hydraulically isolated test cell (about 4.3 m x 3.6 m) constructed at a field site at Hill Air Force Base, Uta...


Optical diagnostic equipment for evaluating a wide field of view phased array telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key feature of the Multipurpose Multiple Telescope Testbed (MMTT) is its relatively wide field of view -- up to 30 arcminutes total. A thorough evaluation of the telescope array necessitates some form of image analysis over this field. System designers chose the star test, here modified to simltaneously display point spread functions (PSFs) at several locations in the image

R. C. Dymale; J. P. Blea



Evaluation of One- and Two-Day Forestry Field Programs for Elementary School Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The methods and findings from a program evaluation of a forestry field visit for second grade students are detailed in this article. A pretest, posttest methodology was used to determine changes in students' (n = 133) attitudes and knowledge before and after the field experience(s). Interviews and surveys were conducted with students, teachers (n

Powers, Amy L.



Evaluation Field Building in South Asia: Insights from the Rear View Mirror  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author enjoyed reading Katharine Hay's ambitious and humbling visions for evaluation field building in South Asia. She has successfully positioned herself on a high mountain with a wonderful set of binoculars that enable her to see the entire evaluation landscape of South Asia. She magically sees and describes significant historical forces and

Grob, George F.




EPA Science Inventory

The report describes progress made during the first two years of a field evaluation of treated and untreated ponding techniques for the disposal of power plant flue gas desulfurization sludges. The evaluation used two 10 MW lime and limestone flue gas scrubbers of TVA's Shawnee P...


Field geologist's training guide: An introduction to oilfield geology, mud logging and formation evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This handbook presents a basic overview of and introduction to petroleum geology, oilfield terminolgy and formation evaluation procedures. The chapters introduce many key concepts. Petroleum geology, oilfield fluids, rig types and their components, wellsite equipment and the environment in which field geologists work are presented in detail. Drilling and completing a well and formation evaluation procedures are examined from the



A field evaluation of monitor placement effects in VDT users.  


Appropriate visual display terminal (VDT) location is a subject of ongoing debate. Generally, visual strain is associated with higher placement, and musculoskeletal strain is associated with lower placement. Seeking resolution of the debate, this paper provides a comparison of results from previous lab-based monitor placement studies to recommendations and outcomes from viewing preference and neutral posture studies. The paper then presents results from a field study that addressed two outstanding issues: Does monitor placement in a workplace elicit postures and discomfort responses similar to those seen in laboratory settings? Results showed placements in the workplace elicited postures similar to those in lab studies. Additionally, preferred VDT location generally corresponded to the location in which less neck discomfort was reported, though that trend requires further investigation. Overall, there seems to be consistent evidence to support mid-level or somewhat higher placement, as a rule-of-thumb, considering preferred gaze angle and musculoskeletal concerns. However, optimal placement may be lower for some individuals or tasks. PMID:11461033

Psihogios, J P; Sommerich, C M; Mirka, G A; Moon, S D



Radiation Isotope Identification Device (RIIDs) Field Test and Evaluation Campaign  

SciTech Connect

Handheld, backpack, and mobile sensors are elements of the Global Nuclear Detection System for the interdiction and control of illicit radiological and nuclear materials. They are used by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and other government agencies and organizations in various roles for border protection, law enforcement, and nonproliferation monitoring. In order to systematically document the operational performance of the common commercial off-the-shelf portable radiation detection systems, the DHS Domestic Nuclear Detection Office conducted a test and evaluation campaign conducted at the Nevada Test Site from January 18 to February 27, 2006. Named 'Anole', it was the first test of its kind in terms of technical design and test complexities. The Anole test results offer users information for selecting appropriate mission-specific portable radiation detection systems. The campaign also offered manufacturers the opportunity to submit their equipment for independent operationally relevant testing to subsequently improve their detector performance. This paper will present the design, execution, and methodologies of the DHS Anole portable radiation detection system test campaign.

Christopher Hodge, Raymond Keegan



Evaluation of melter technologies for vitrification of Hanford site low-level tank waste - phase 1 testing summary report  

SciTech Connect

Following negotiation of the fourth amendment to the Tri- Party Agreement for Hanford Site cleanup, commercially available melter technologies were tested during 1994 and 1995 for vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream to be derived from retrieval and pretreatment of the radioactive defense wastes stored in 177 underground tanks. Seven vendors were selected for Phase 1 testing to demonstrate vitrification of a high-sodium content liquid LLW simulant. The tested melter technologies included four Joule-heated melters, a carbon electrode melter, a combustion melter, and a plasma melter. Various dry and slurry melter feed preparation processes also were tested. The technologies and Phase 1 testing results were evaluated and a preliminary technology down-selection completed. This report describes the Phase 1 LLW melter vendor testing and the tested technologies, and summarizes the testing results and the preliminary technology recommendations.

Wilson, C.N., Westinghouse Hanford



Development of a Characterized Radiation Field for Evaluating Sensor Performance  

SciTech Connect

Numerous efforts are funded by US agencies (DOE, DoD, DHS) for development of novel radiation sensing and measurement systems. An effort has been undertaken to develop a flexible shielding system compatible with a variety of sources (beta, X-ray, gamma, and neutron) that can be highly characterized using conventional radiation detection and measurement systems. Sources available for use in this system include americium-beryllium (AmBe), plutonium-beryllium (PuBe), strontium-90 (Sr-90), californium-252 (Cf-252), krypton-85 (Kr-85), americium-241 (Am-241), and depleted uranium (DU). Shielding can be varied by utilization of materials that include lexan, water, oil, lead, and polyethylene. Arrangements and geometries of source(s) and shielding can produce symmetrical or asymmetrical radiation fields. The system has been developed to facilitate accurately repeatable configurations. Measurement positions are similarly capable of being accurately re-created. Stand-off measurement positions can be accurately re-established using differential global positioning system (GPS) navigation. Instruments used to characterize individual measurement locations include a variety of sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) (3 x 3 inch, 4 x 4 x 16 inch, Fidler) and lithium iodide (LiI(Eu)) detectors (for use with multichannel analyzer software) and detectors for use with traditional hand held survey meters such as boron trifluoride (BF{sub 3}), helium-3 ({sup 3}He), and Geiger-Mueller (GM) tubes. Also available are Global Dosimetry thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), CR39 neutron chips, and film badges. Data will be presented comparing measurement techniques with shielding/source configurations. The system is demonstrated to provide a highly functional process for comparison/characterization of various detector types relative to controllable radiation types and levels. Particular attention has been paid to use of neutron sources and measurements. (authors)

Rogers, D.M.; Coggins, T.L.; Marsh, J.; Mann, St.D.; Waggoner, Ch.A. [Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET) and Office of Regulatory Compliance, Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS (United States)



Field evaluation of an acid rain-drought stress interaction.  


Various methods have been proposed to simulate natural field conditions for growing agricultural crops while controlling conditions to study specific environmental effects. This report briefly describes the use of moveable rain exclusion shelters (10.4 x 40.9 m) to study the results of the interaction of acid rain and drought stress on corn and soybean yields. The rain exclusion shelters are constructed of galvanized pipe framing and covered with polyethylene film. Movement is automated by a rain switch to protect crops from ambient rainfall and to treat them with simulated acid rain The facility simulates a real environment with respect to variables such as solar exposure, wind movement, dew formation, and insect exposure, while allowing careful control of moisture regimes. Soybeans and corn were treated with average rainfall amounts, and with one-half and one-quarter of these rainfall amounts (drought stress) at two levels of rainfall acidity, pH 5.6 and 3.0. While drought stress resulted in considerable yield reduction for Amsoy and Williams soybeans, no additional reduction in yield was observed with rainfall of pH 3.0, as compared to rainfall of approximately pH 5.6. Similar results were observed for one corn cultivar, Pioneer 3377. For one year of the study however, yield of B73 x Mo17 (corn) was reduced 3139 kg ha(-1) by the most severe drought, and an additional 1883 kg ha(-1) by acid rain of pH 3.0, as compared to the control (pH 5.6). Yield reduction from acidic rain was considerably less at full water rates, resulting in a significant pH by drought stress interaction. However, during the second year of the experiment, no pH effect or drought by pH interaction was observed for this cultivar. The reason for the difference in the two years was not identified. PMID:15092545

Banwart, W L



Application of digital interferogram evaluation techniques to the measurement of 3-D flow fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system for digitally evaluating interferograms, based on an image processing system connected to a host computer, was implemented. The system supports one- and two-dimensional interferogram evaluations. Interferograms are digitized, enhanced, and then segmented. The fringe coordinates are extracted, and the fringes are represented as polygonal data structures. Fringe numbering and fringe interpolation modules are implemented. The system supports editing and interactive features, as well as graphic visualization. An application of the system to the evaluation of double exposure interferograms from the transonic flow field around a helicopter blade and the reconstruction of the three dimensional flow field is given.

Becker, Friedhelm; Yu, Yung H.



Economic evaluation of the Annual Cycle Energy System. Volume I. Executive summary. Final report. [In Minneapolis, Atlanta, and Philadelphia  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study is to determine the energy effectiveness and the economic viability of the ACES concept. Three different classes of building are investigated, namely: single-family residence; multi-family residence; and commercial office building. The application of ACES to each of these building types is studied in three different climatic regions: Minneapolis, Atlanta, and Philadelphia. Computer programs - ACESIM for the residences and CACESS for the office building - were used, each comprised of four modules: loads; design; simulation; and economic. For each building type in each geographic location, the economic evaluation of the ACES is based on a comparison of the present worth of the ACES to the present worth of a number of conventional systems. The results of this analysis indicate that the economic viability of the ACES is very sensitive to the assumed value of the property tax, maintenace cost, and fuel-escalation rates, while it is relatively insensitive to the assumed values of other parameters. Fortunately, any conceivable change in the fuel-escalation rates would tend to increase the viability of the ACES concept. An increase in the assumed value of the maintenance cost or property tax would tend to make the ACES concept less viable; a decrease in either would tend to make the ACES concept more viable. The detailed results of this analysis are given in Section 5.4 of Volume II. 2 figures, 21 tables.

Not Available



National Uranium Resource Evaluation. Volume 1. Summary of the geology and uranium potential of Precambrian conglomerates in southeastern Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

A series of uranium-, thorium-, and gold-bearing conglomerates in Late Archean and Early Proterozoic metasedimentary rocks have been discovered in southern Wyoming. The mineral deposits were found by applying the time and strata bound model for the origin of uranium-bearing quartz-pebble conglomerates to favorable rock types within a geologic terrane known from prior regional mapping. No mineral deposits have been discovered that are of current (1981) economic interest, but preliminary resource estimates indicate that over 3418 tons of uranium and over 1996 tons of thorium are present in the Medicine Bow Mountains and that over 440 tons of uranium and 6350 tons of thorium are present in Sierra Madre. Sampling has been inadequate to determine gold resources. High grade uranium deposits have not been detected by work to date but local beds of uranium-bearing conglomerate contain as much as 1380 ppM uranium over a thickness of 0.65 meters. This project has involved geologic mapping at scales from 1/6000 to 1/50,000 detailed sampling, and the evaluation of 48 diamond drill holes, but the area is too large to fully establish the economic potential with the present information. This first volume summarizes the geologic setting and geologic and geochemical characteristics of the uranium-bearing conglomerates. Volume 2 contains supporting geochemical data, lithologic logs from 48 drill holes in Precambrian rocks, and drill site geologic maps and cross-sections from most of the holes. Volume 3 is a geostatistical resource estimate of uranium and thorium in quartz-pebble conglomerates.

Karlstrom, K.E.; Houston, R.S.; Flurkey, A.J.; Coolidge, C.M.; Kratochvil, A.L.; Sever, C.K.



Evaluation of Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2002-2006 Project Completion Summary.  

SciTech Connect

The Columbia River Distinct Population Segment of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) was listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 1998. One of the identified major threats to the species is fragmentation resulting from dams on over-wintering habitats of migratory subpopulations. A migratory subgroup in the Tucannon River appeared to utilize the Snake River reservoirs for adult rearing on a seasonal basis. As a result, a radio telemetry study was conducted on this subgroup from 2002-2006, to help meet Reasonable and Prudent Measures, and Conservation Recommendations associated with the lower Snake River dams in the FCRPS Biological Opinion, and to increase understanding of bull trout movements within the Tucannon River drainage. We sampled 1,109 bull trout in the Tucannon River; 124 of these were surgically implanted with radio tags and PIT tagged, and 681 were only PIT tagged. The remaining 304 fish were either recaptures, or released unmarked. Bull trout seasonal movements within the Tucannon River were similar to those described for other migratory bull trout populations. Bull trout migrated upstream in spring and early summer to the spawning areas in upper portions of the Tucannon River watershed. They quickly moved off the spawning areas in the fall, and either held or continued a slower migration downstream through the winter until early the following spring. During late fall and winter, bull trout were distributed in the lower half of the Tucannon River basin, down to and including the mainstem Snake River below Little Goose Dam. We were unable to adequately radio track bull trout in the Snake River and evaluate their movements or interactions with the federal hydroelectric dams for the following reasons: (1) none of our radio-tagged fish were detected attempting to pass a Snake River dam, (2) our radio tags had poor transmission capability at depths greater than 12.2 m, and (3) the sample size of fish that actually entered the Snake River was small (n=6). In spite of this project's shortcomings, bull trout continue to be observed in low numbers at Snake River dam fish facilities. It is highly possible that bull trout observed at the Snake River dam fish facilities are originating from sources other than the Tucannon River. We suggest that these fish might come from upstream sources like the Clearwater or Salmon rivers in Idaho, and are simply following the outmigration of juvenile anadromous fish (a food supply) as they emigrate toward the Pacific Ocean. Based on our study results, we recommend abandoning radio telemetry as a tool to monitor bull trout movements in the mainstem Snake River. We do recommend continuing PIT tagging and tag interrogation activities to help determine the origin of bull trout using the Snake River hydropower facilities. As a complementary approach, we also suggest the use of genetic assignment tests to help determine the origin of these fish. Lastly, several recommendations are included in the report to help manage and recover bull trout in the Tucannon subbasin.

Faler, Michael P. [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Mendel, Glen; Fulton, Carl [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife



Smog Check II Executive Summary  

E-print Network

Smog Check II Evaluation Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . Lynn Scarlett, Chair Donald Bea June 19, 2000 #12;ES-1 1. Goals of the IMRC Smog Check Evaluation The Smog Check Program is intended. Smog Check targets three types of pollution from vehicles: hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx

Denver, University of


Neurophysiology Summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The terrestrial gravitational field serves as an important orientation reference for human perception and movement, being continually monitored by sensory receptors in the skin, muscles, joints, and vestibular otolith organs. Cues from these graviceptors are used by the brain to estimate spatial orientation and to control balance and movement. Changes in these cues associated with the tonic changes in gravity (gravito-inertial force),during the launch and entry phases of space flight missions result in altered perceptions, degraded motor control performance, and in some cases, "motion" sickness during, and for a period of time after, the g-transitions. In response to these transitions, however, physiological and behavioral response mechanisms are triggered to compensate for altered graviceptor cues and/or to adapt to the new sensory environment. Basic research in the neurophysiology discipline is focused on understanding the characteristic features of and the underlying mechanisms for the normal human response to tonic changes in the gravito-inertial force environment. These studies address fundamental questions regarding the role of graviceptors in orientation and movement in the terrestrial environment, as well as the capacity, specificity, and modes for neural plasticity in the sensory-motor and perceptual systems of the brain. At the 2001 workshop basic research studies were presented addressing: neuroanatomical responses to altered gravity environments, the neural mechanisms for resolving the ambiguity between tilting and translational stimuli in otolith organ sensory input, interactions between the vestibular system and the autonomic nervous system , the roles of haptic and visual cues in spatial orientation, mechanisms for training environment-appropriate sensorimotor responses triggered by environment-specific context cues, and studies of sensori-motor control of posture and locomotion in the terrestrial environment with and without recent exposure to space flight. Building on these basic research studies are more applied studies focused on the development of countermeasures to the untoward neurophysiological responses to space flight. At the 2001 workshop, applied research studies were presented addressing issues related to the use of rotational artificial gravity (centripetal acceleration) as a multisystem (bone, muscle, cardiovascular, and, perhaps, neurovestibular) countermeasure. Also presented was a clinical study reporting on a new rating system for clinical evaluation of postflight functional neurological status.

Paloski, William H.




Common Themes Big Data Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial National Digital Mammography Archive Lung Image Database Consortium Radiotherapy Databases Dermatology Atlas Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program BIRN R.


Development of a high-efficiency, automatic-defrosting refrigerator-freezer. Phase II. Field test. Volume III. Executive summary and task reports  

SciTech Connect

The second phase of the development of a high-efficiency, automatic-defrosting, refrigerator-freezer is described. Following the successful completion of Phase I (design, construction, and laboratory testing of a 16 ft/sup 3/ high efficiency refrigerator-freezer prototype), Phase II was initiated to evaluate sales potential and in-home performance as a necessary step in creating a product that was both manufacturable and marketable. Twenty-five pilot production 18 ft/sup 3/ units using prototype tooling were produced on the assembly line to confirm the feasibility of full-scale production. These units were then used in a market and field test program in which consumer appeal and in-home performance were assessed. The market evaluation confirmed that refrigerators incorporating high-efficiency features at added cost are saleable and that large capacity, automatic-defrosting, refrigerator-freezers will continue to capture a large portion of the market in the years ahead, The field test confirmed the in-home energy saving potential of a high efficiency, automatic-defrosting refrigerator-frezer utilizing advanced design features such as optimized, thick-wall, foam an average energy savings of 60% compared to a baseline unit of conventional design.

Topping, R.F.



Evaluation of models proposed for the 1991 revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 1991 revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) comprises a definitive main-field model for 1985.0, a main-field model for 1990.0, and a forecast secular-variation model for the period 1990-1995. The five 1985.0 main-field models and five 1990.0 main-field models that were proposed have been evaluated by comparing them with one another, with magnetic observatory data, and with Project MAGNET aerial survey data. The comparisons indicate that the main-field models proposed by IZMIRAN, and the secular-variation model proposed jointly by the British Geological Survey and the US Naval Oceanographic Office, should be assigned relatively lower weight in the derivation of the new IGRF models. -Author

Peddie, N.W.



Development of a Visual Inspection Data Collection Tool for Evaluation of Fielded PV Module Condition  

SciTech Connect

A visual inspection data collection tool for the evaluation of fielded photovoltaic (PV) modules has been developed to facilitate describing the condition of PV modules with regard to field performance. The proposed data collection tool consists of 14 sections, each documenting the appearance or properties of a part of the module. This report instructs on how to use the collection tool and defines each attribute to ensure reliable and valid data collection. This tool has been evaluated through the inspection of over 60 PV modules produced by more than 20 manufacturers and fielded at two different sites for varying periods of time. Aggregated data from such a single data collection tool has the potential to enable longitudinal studies of module condition over time, technology evolution, and field location for the enhancement of module reliability models.

Packard, C. E.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Kurtz, S. R.



Evaluation of near field atmospheric dispersion around nuclear facilities using a Lorentzian distribution methodology.  


Atmospheric dispersion modeling within the near field of a nuclear facility typically applies a building wake correction to the Gaussian plume model, whereby a point source is modeled as a plane source. The plane source results in greater near field dilution and reduces the far field effluent concentration. However, the correction does not account for the concentration profile within the near field. Receptors of interest, such as the maximally exposed individual, may exist within the near field and thus the realm of building wake effects. Furthermore, release parameters and displacement characteristics may be unknown, particularly during upset conditions. Therefore, emphasis is placed upon the need to analyze and estimate an enveloping concentration profile within the near field of a release. This investigation included the analysis of 64 air samples collected over 128 wk. Variables of importance were then derived from the measurement data, and a methodology was developed that allowed for the estimation of Lorentzian-based dispersion coefficients along the lateral axis of the near field recirculation cavity; the development of recirculation cavity boundaries; and conservative evaluation of the associated concentration profile. The results evaluated the effectiveness of the Lorentzian distribution methodology for estimating near field releases and emphasized the need to place air-monitoring stations appropriately for complete concentration characterization. Additionally, the importance of the sampling period and operational conditions were discussed to balance operational feedback and the reporting of public dose. PMID:25353236

Hawkley, Gavin



Field to thermo-field to thermionic electron emission: A practical guide to evaluation and electron emission from arc cathodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is concerned with devising a method of evaluation of electron emission in the framework of the Murphy-Good theory, which would be as simple and computationally efficient as possible while being accurate in the full range of conditions of validity of the theory. The method relies on Pad approximants. A comparative study of electron emission from cathodes of arcs in ambient gas and vacuum arcs is performed with the use of this method. Electron emission from cathodes of arcs in ambient gas is of thermionic nature even for extremely high gas pressures characteristic of projection and automotive arc lamps and is adequately described by the Richardson-Schottky formula. The electron emission from vaporizing (hot) cathodes of vacuum arcs is of thermo-field nature and is adequately described by the Hantzsche fit formula. Since no analytical formulas are uniformly valid for field to thermo-field to thermionic emission, a numerical evaluation of the Murphy-Good formalism is inevitable in cases where a unified description of the full range of conditions is needed, as is the general case of plasma-cathode interaction in vacuum arcs, and the technique proposed in this work may be the method of choice to this end.

Benilov, M. S.; Benilova, L. G.



Electromagnetic Imaging Methods for Nondestructive Evaluation Applications  

PubMed Central

Electromagnetic nondestructive tests are important and widely used within the field of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The recent advances in sensing technology, hardware and software development dedicated to imaging and image processing, and material sciences have greatly expanded the application fields, sophisticated the systems design and made the potential of electromagnetic NDE imaging seemingly unlimited. This review provides a comprehensive summary of research works on electromagnetic imaging methods for NDE applications, followed by the summary and discussions on future directions. PMID:22247693

Deng, Yiming; Liu, Xin



Executive Summary Annual Report  

E-print Network

1 Executive Summary Annual Report July 1, 2006 - June 30, 2007 Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean #12;JISAO 2006-2007 Annual Report #12;Executive Summary Contents Executive Summary .........................................................................................133 #12;JISAO 2006-2007 Annual Report #12;1 Executive Summary Executive Summary #12;2 JISAO 2006

Rigor, Ignatius G.


Executive Summary Annual Report  

E-print Network

1 Executive Summary Annual Report July 1, 2008 - June 30, 2009 Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean #12;JISAO 2008-2009 Annual Report #12;Executive Summary Contents Executive Summary .........................................................................................152 #12;JISAO 2008-2009 Annual Report #12;1 Executive Summary Executive Summary #12;2 JISAO 2008

Rigor, Ignatius G.


Executive Summary Annual Report  

E-print Network

1 Executive Summary Annual Report July 1, 2007 - June 30, 2008 Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean #12;JISAO 2007-2008 Annual Report #12;Executive Summary Contents Executive Summary ........................................................................................152 #12;JISAO 2007-2008 Annual Report #12;1 Executive Summary Executive Summary #12;2 JISAO 2007

Rigor, Ignatius G.


Executive Summary Annual Report  

E-print Network

1 Executive Summary Annual Report July 1, 2009 - June 30, 2010 Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean #12;JISAO 2009-2010 Annual Report #12;Executive Summary Contents Executive Summary ........................................................................................156 #12;JISAO 2009-2010 Annual Report #12;1 Executive Summary Executive Summary #12;2 JISAO 2009

Rigor, Ignatius G.



EPA Science Inventory

Dense nonaqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs), especially chlorinated solvents, are among the most prevalent subsurface contaminants identified in ground-water supplies and at waste disposal sites. There are several site-characterization issues specific to DNAPL sites including (a) the...


Field programmable gate arrays: Evaluation report for space-flight application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Field Programmable Gate Arrays commonly called FPGA's are the newer generation of field programmable devices and offer more flexibility in the logic modules they incorporate and in how they are interconnected. The flexibility, the number of logic building blocks available, and the high gate densities achievable are why users find FPGA's attractive. These attributes are important in reducing product development costs and shortening the development cycle. The aerospace community is interested in incorporating this new generation of field programmable technology in space applications. To this end, a consortium was formed to evaluate the quality, reliability, and radiation performance of FPGA's. This report presents the test results on FPGA parts provided by ACTEL Corporation.

Sandoe, Mike; Davarpanah, Mike; Soliman, Kamal; Suszko, Steven; Mackey, Susan



Comparison between numerical and experimental near-field evaluation of a DCS1800 mobile telephone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study was to compare the results of the two most commonly used techniques for near-field and specific absorption rate (SAR) evaluations. The comparison was performed by independently assessing the near-field of a commercially available DCS1800 cellular phone in two different laboratories. The measurements were conducted at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology with the near-field scanner DASY2 equipped with specialized near-field E and H field probes, while the numerical evaluation was performed using the finite difference time domain technique at the Institute for Mobile and Satellite Communications. The close near-fields in free space, inside a flat phantom filled with tissue simulating liquid and inside complex and homogeneous head phantoms, were compared. The quantitative results of most test configurations tallied well. Although the current distribution of the simulation was only slightly different from that of the physical phone, differences of the spatial peak absorption were greater than > 2 dB in some positions of the phone with respect to the scatterer. This demonstrates the great sensitivity of the spatial peak SAR on the current distribution on the device both in terms of magnitude and geometrical distributions. For numerical compliance tests this places high requirements on the numerical phone model with respect to the accuracy of representing the near-field RF characteristics of the phone.

Bahr, Achim; Pan, Sheng-Gen; Beck, Thomas; KStle, Ralf; Schmid, Thomas; Kuster, Niels




EPA Science Inventory

In response to expected changes to the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate matter, comprehensive field studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of sampling methods for measuring coarse mode aerosols (i.e. PMc). Five separate PMc sampling approaches w...


Field testing and survey evaluation of household biomass cookstoves in rural sub-Saharan Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of two studies conducted to evaluate the performance and usability of household biomass cookstoves under field conditions in rural sub-Saharan Africa. Cooking tests and qualitative surveys compared improved, manufactured stove models based on the rocket design with the traditional three-stone fire. All tests and interviews took place in household kitchens in two village areas in

Edwin Adkins; Erika Tyler; Jin Wang; David Siriri; Vijay Modi



Original article Field trial evaluation of two teat dips containing nisin  

E-print Network

Original article Field trial evaluation of two teat dips containing nisin or polyvinylpyrrolidone teats in a 0.25% polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) iodophor product followed by wiping with paper towels'un polyvinylpyrrolidone iodophore conçus pour une utilisation avant et après la traite. Dans un premier essai réalisé dans

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


An MLPO Algorithm for Fast Evaluation of the Focal Plane Fields of Reflector Antennas  

E-print Network

An MLPO Algorithm for Fast Evaluation of the Focal Plane Fields of Reflector Antennas Christine antennas for a range of incidence angles and frequencies is proposed. The algorithm is based and phase correction. Keywords- reflector antennas; physical optics; fast multilevel algorithms. I

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Cooperating Teacher Evaluation of Candidates in Clinical Practice and Field Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Investigators hypothesized cooperating teachers' evaluations of candidates in clinical practice and field experiences would possess higher scores than those provided by clinical and education division faculty. However, the reasons for the higher scores proved to be much more complex than originally thought. While it was assumed that teachers

Moffett, David W.; Zhou, Yunfang




EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory studies and a second field evaluation have been completed to assess the performance of the Semi-Volatile Organic Sampling Train (Semi-VOST) method for measuring concentrations of principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs) with boiling points greater than 100 deg ...


Production and Evaluation of Biodiesel from Field Pennycress (Thlaspi Arvense L.) Oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) oil is evaluated for the first time as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Biodiesel was obtained in 82 wt % yield by a standard transesterification procedure with methanol and sodium methoxide catalyst at 60 deg C and an alcohol to oil ratio of 6:1...


Field Evaluation of a Leachate Collection System Constructed with Scrap Tires  

E-print Network

of scrap tires have prompted researchers to investigate beneficial reuses. One important application is beneficially reused in construction, and another 9% is recycled Rubber Manufacturers Association 2004Field Evaluation of a Leachate Collection System Constructed with Scrap Tires Ahmet H. Aydilek1

Aydilek, Ahmet


Evaluation of transient turbulent flow fields using digital cinematographic particle image velocimetry  

E-print Network

Evaluation of transient turbulent flow fields using digital cinematographic particle image image velocimetry (PIV). The system uses a copper-vapor laser illumination synchro- nized with a high-speed camera, and continuously samples at 250 fps to measure transient and non-periodic turbulent ¯ows

Kihm, IconKenneth David



EPA Science Inventory

A field study to determine the ability of selected lignin-degrading fungi to remediate soil contaminated with pentachlorophenol and creosote was performed at a wood treating facility in south central Mississippi in the Autumn of 1991. he study was designed to evaluate 7 fungal tr...


Evaluation of the use of pulsed electrical field as a factor with antimicrobial activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the work was to evaluate the optimal conditions to produce a significant reduction in bacteria population using pulsed electrical field (PEF). Bacteria strains of Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter lwoffii, Citrobacter freundii, Serratia liquefaciens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus gallinarum, Staphylococcus xylosus and Oligella sp. were isolated from the surface of egg shells and identified using ATB System (Merck). They were

Ewelina W?sierska; Tadeusz Trziszka




E-print Network

FIELD PERFORMANCE AND LABORATORY EVALUATION OF WARM MIX ASPHALT PRODUCED WITH RUBBERIZED BITUMEN Ltda. ­ Divisão Química ABSTRACT In recent years, warm mix asphalt (WMA) is widely used for reducing energy requirements and emissions in comparison to hot mix asphalt (HMA) industry. Besides, the use

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Preliminary Technical and Legal Evaluation of Disposing of Nonhazardous Oil Field Waste into Salt Caverns  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an initial evaluation of the suitability, feasibility, and legality of using salt caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes. Given the preliminary and general nature of this report, we recognize that some of our findings and conclusions maybe speculative and subject to change upon further research on this topic.

Ayers, Robert C.; Caudle, Dan; Elcock, Deborah; Raivel, Mary; Veil, John; and Grunewald, Ben



Paradigms of Evaluation in Natural Language Processing: Field Linguistics for Glass Box Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although software testing has been well-studied in computer science, it has received little attention in natural language processing. Nonetheless, a fully developed methodology for glass box evaluation and testing of language processing applications already exists in the field methods of descriptive linguistics. This work lays out a number of

Cohen, Kevin Bretonnel



Spring 2007 MGG 541 Field Evaluation of Fossil Platforms, Margins, and Basins (2 credits)  

E-print Network

extinction event of Caribbean corals. This field course will prepare students to evaluate a complete suite) Instructor: Dr. Donald McNeill Geology and Paleoecology of Caribbean Reefs in a Mixed Siliciclastic and stratigraphic setting that promoted prolific reef development among siliciclastic-rich sediments in one

Miami, University of


Field evaluation of a dyed food marking technique for Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A method of marking adult Cx. quinquefasciatus Say by feeding the larvae commercial hog chow dyed with methylene blue, Giemsa, and crystal violet was evaluated under field conditions. Larvae were offered the dyed food in outdoor basins containg a mixture of dairy effluent and fresh water. Newly emer...



EPA Science Inventory

This field evaluation program was initiated with the overall objective of providing information on the behaviour of a full scale swirl degritter designed and constructed in accordance with the shapes and proportions developed during model studies. The swirl degritter was designed...


Field evaluation of a fast anti- Leishmania antibody detection assay in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fast agglutination screening test (FAST) for the detection of Leishmania antibodies in human serum samples was evaluated under harsh field conditions in northern Ethiopia. Test performance was compared with a standard serological test, namely the direct agglutination test (DAT), and with parasitology. In total, 103 suspected cases were recruited for the study. Based on parasitological examination, 49 patients were

A. Hailu; G. J. Schoone; E. Diro; A. Tesfaye; Y. Techane; T. Tefera; Y. Assefa; A. Genetu; Y. Kebede; T. Kebede; H. D. F. H. Schallig



Stellar Systems Inc. Series 800/5000 E-Field sensor evaluation  

SciTech Connect

This report concerns the evaluation of the Stellar Systems Inc. E-Field intrusion detection system Series 800 control unit and the 5000 Series hardware components. Included are functional descriptions, installation procedures, testing procedures, and testing/operational results. 35 figs.

Follis, R.L.



Energy Conservation Field Projects. Phase 2: External Evaluation. Document II: Appendices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provided are appendices which contain supporting documentation related to an external evaluation of the Phase 2: Energy Conservation Field Projects. Objectives of this program were to: test the generalizability of the energy conservations measures outlined in "Guidelines for Conserving Energy in Alberta Schools" and augment these guidelines as

Stanley Associates, Edmonton (Alberta).


Evaluation of pesticide toxicity at their field recommended doses to honeybees, Apis cerana and A. mellifera through laboratory, semi-field and field studies.  


A series of experiments were carried out to determine the acute toxicity of pesticides in the laboratory, toxicity through spray on flowering plants of mustard (Tier II evaluation) and field on both Apis cerana and A. mellifera bees. The overall mortality of honey bees through topical (direct contact) were found significantly higher than that of indirect filter paper contamination assays. Insecticides viz., chlorpyriphos, dichlorvos, malathion, profenofos, monocrotophos and deltamethrin when exposed directly or indirectly at their field recommended doses caused very high mortality up to 100% to both the bees at 48 HAT. The insecticides that caused less mortality through filter paper contamination viz., flubendiamide, methyl demeton, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam caused very high morality through direct exposure. Apart from all the fungicides tested, carbendazim, mancozeb, chlorothalonil and propiconazole, insecticides acetamiprid and endosulfan were found safer to both the bees either by direct or indirect exposures. Tier II evaluation by spray of pesticides at their field recommended doses on potted mustard plants showed monocrotophos as the highly toxic insecticide with 100% mortality even with 1h of exposure followed by thiamethoxam, dichlorvos, profenofos and chlorpyriphos which are not to be recommended for use in pollinator attractive flowering plants. Acetamiprid and endosulfan did not cause any repellent effect on honey bees in the field trials endorse the usage of acetamiprid against sucking pest in flowering plants. PMID:25150969

Stanley, Johnson; Sah, Khushboo; Jain, S K; Bhatt, J C; Sushil, S N



2010 Summary Annual Report Summary Annual Report  

E-print Network

2010 Summary Annual Report Summary Annual Report This is a summary of the annual report 1, 2010 through December 31, 2010. The annual report has been filed with the Department of Labor Rights to Additional Information You have the right to receive a copy of the full annual report, or any

Ford, James


Field Artillery Ammunition Processing System (FAAPS) concept evaluation study. Ammunition Logistics Program  

SciTech Connect

The Field Artillery Ammunition Processing System (FAAPS) is an initiative to introduce a palletized load system (PLS) that is transportable with an automated ammunition processing and storage system for use on the battlefield. System proponents have targeted a 20% increase in the ammunition processing rate over the current operation while simultaneously reducing the total number of assigned field artillery battalion personnel by 30. The overall objective of the FAAPS Project is the development and demonstration of an improved process to accomplish these goals. The initial phase of the FAAPS Project and the subject of this study is the FAAPS concept evaluation. The concept evaluation consists of (1) identifying assumptions and requirements, (2) documenting the process flow, (3) identifying and evaluating technologies available to accomplish the necessary ammunition processing and storage operations, and (4) presenting alternative concepts with associated costs, processing rates, and manpower requirements for accomplishing the operation. This study provides insight into the achievability of the desired objectives.

Kring, C.T.; Babcock, S.M.; Watkin, D.C.; Oliver, R.P.



Thiokol/Wasatch installation evaluation of the redesigned field joint protection system (concepts 1 and 3)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The procedures, performance, and results obtained from the Thiokol Corporation/Wasatch Redesigned Field Joint Protection System (FJPS) Installation Evaluation are documented. The purpose of the evaluation was to demonstrate and develop the procedures required to install two different concepts (referred to as Concepts 1 and 3) of the redesigned FJPS. The processing capability of each configuration was then evaluated and compared. The FJPS is installed on redesigned solid rocket motors (RSRM) to protect the field joints from rain intrusion and to maintain the joint temperature sensor measurement between 85 and 122 F while the boosters are on the launch pad. The FJPS is being redesigned to reduce installation timelines at KSC and to simplify or eliminate installation processing problems related to the present design of an EPDM moisture seal/extruded cork combination. Several installation techniques were evaluated, and a preferred method of application was developed for each concept. The installations were performed with the test article in the vertical (flight) position. Comparative timelines between the two concepts were also developed. An additional evaluation of the Concept 3 configuration was performed with the test article in the horizontal position, to simulate an overhead installation on a technical evaluation motor (TEM).

Cook, M.



Evaluation of Breast Sentinel Lymph Node Coverage by Standard Radiation Therapy Fields  

SciTech Connect

Background: Biopsy of the breast sentinel lymph node (SLN) is now a standard staging procedure for early-stage invasive breast cancer. The anatomic location of the breast SLN and its relationship to standard radiation fields has not been described. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review of radiotherapy treatment planning data sets was performed in patients with breast cancer who had undergone SLN biopsy, and those with a surgical clip at the SLN biopsy site were identified. The location of the clip was evaluated relative to vertebral body level on an anterior-posterior digitally reconstructed radiograph, treated whole-breast tangential radiation fields, and standard axillary fields in 106 data sets meeting these criteria. Results: The breast SLN varied in vertebral body level position, ranging from T2 to T7 but most commonly opposite T4. The SLN clip was located below the base of the clavicle in 90%, and hence would be excluded from standard axillary radiotherapy fields where the inferior border is placed at this level. The clip was within the irradiated whole-breast tangent fields in 78%, beneath the superior-posterior corner multileaf collimators in 12%, and outside the tangent field borders in 10%. Conclusions: Standard axillary fields do not encompass the lymph nodes at highest risk of containing tumor in breast cancer patients. Elimination of the superior-posterior corner MLCs from the tangent field design would result in inclusion of the breast SLN in 90% of patients treated with standard whole-breast irradiation.

Rabinovitch, Rachel [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Cancer Center, Aurora, CO (United States)], E-mail:; Ballonoff, Ari; Newman, Francis M.S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Cancer Center, Aurora, CO (United States); Finlayson, Christina [Department of GI, Tumor, and Endocrine Surgery, University of Colorado Cancer Center, Aurora, CO (United States)



Sedimentation and resuspendability evaluation of pharmaceutical suspensions by low-field one dimensional pulsed field gradient NMR profilometry.  


In order to study the sedimentation of pharmaceutical suspensions using low-field one dimensional pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (1D pfg NMR) profilometry, the accuracy of signal acquisition as well as the spatial resolution of a commercial spectrometer operating at 23.4 MHz was investigated. The use of a solid Teflon spacer revealed that the accuracy of signal acquisition was independent of spatial position (height). The standard deviation of distance determinations was less than 150 m, whereas the accuracy of water content determination was within 2% in the central part of the detection zone and deteriorated to 4% in the outer parts. The study of aqueous paramagnetic MnCl2 solutions indicated an exponential relationship between the relative signal intensity and the transverse relaxation decay constant. From this relationship, the relative water content of suspensions could be derived from their signal intensity relative to that of water. Using concentrated paliperidone palmitate dispersions as model suspensions, low-field 1D pfg NMR profilometry has been proven to be suitable for the evaluation of both the sedimentation and resuspendability behavior of viscous, opaque suspensions, for which visual detection of homogeneity may be difficult. PMID:21961765

Wuxin, Zhu; Martins, Jos; Saveyn, Pieter; Govoreanu, Ruxandra; Verbruggen, Katrien; Arin, Tina; Verliefde, Arne; Van der Meeren, Paul



Geology, summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trends in geologic application of remote sensing are identified. These trends are as follows: (1) increased applications of orbital imagery in fields such as engineering and environmental geology - some specific applications include recognition of active earthquake faults, site location for nuclear powerplants, and recognition of landslide hazards; (2) utilization of remote sensing by industry, especially oil and gas companies, and (3) application of digital image processing to mineral exploration.

Sabins, F. F., Jr.



Evaluating Population Receptive Field Estimation Frameworks in Terms of Robustness and Reproducibility  

PubMed Central

Within vision research retinotopic mapping and the more general receptive field estimation approach constitute not only an active field of research in itself but also underlie a plethora of interesting applications. This necessitates not only good estimation of population receptive fields (pRFs) but also that these receptive fields are consistent across time rather than dynamically changing. It is therefore of interest to maximize the accuracy with which population receptive fields can be estimated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) setting. This, in turn, requires an adequate estimation framework providing the data for population receptive field mapping. More specifically, adequate decisions with regard to stimulus choice and mode of presentation need to be made. Additionally, it needs to be evaluated whether the stimulation protocol should entail mean luminance periods and whether it is advantageous to average the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal across stimulus cycles or not. By systematically studying the effects of these decisions on pRF estimates in an empirical as well as simulation setting we come to the conclusion that a bar stimulus presented at random positions and interspersed with mean luminance periods is generally most favorable. Finally, using this optimal estimation framework we furthermore tested the assumption of temporal consistency of population receptive fields. We show that the estimation of pRFs from two temporally separated sessions leads to highly similar pRF parameters. PMID:25463652

Senden, Mario; Reithler, Joel; Gijsen, Sven; Goebel, Rainer



Evaluation of unsteady pressure fields and forces in rotating airfoils from time-resolved PIV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The instantaneous pressure fields and aerodynamic loads are obtained for rotating airfoils from time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV) measurements. These allowed evaluating the contribution from the local acceleration (unsteady acceleration) to the instantaneous forces. Traditionally, this term has been neglected for wind turbines with quasi-steady flows, but results show that it is a dominant term in the wake where high temporal variations in the flow field are present due to vortex shedding. Briefly, time-resolved particle image velocimetry TR-PIV measurements are used to calculate flow velocity fields and corresponding spatial and temporal derivatives. These derivatives are then used in the Poisson equation to solve for the pressure field and later used in the integral momentum equation to solve for the instantaneous forces. The robustness of the measurements is analyzed by calculating the PIV uncertainty and the independence of the calculated forces. The experimental mean aerodynamic forces are compared with theoretical predictions from the blade element momentum theory showing good agreement. The instantaneous pressure field showed dependence with time in the wake due to vortex shedding. The contribution to the instantaneous forces from each term in the integral momentum equation is evaluated. The analysis shows that the larger contributions to the normal force coefficient are from the unsteady and the pressure terms, and the larger contribution to the tangential force coefficient is from the convective term.

Villegas, A.; Diez, F. J.



Analytic method for evaluation of the field of a charge traversing a geometric discontinuity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analytic time-domain method is developed for the electromagnetic field generated by a charge traversing a geometric discontinuity. The essence of the method employed here is to use the linear independence of the exponential functions, that control the temporal behavior of the field. As a result, we avoid the large ("infinite") matrix inversion necessary for a frequency-domain solution. This method was utilized for the investigation of the wake generated by electrons in an optical accelerator as well as evaluation of the emittance growth and energy spread.

Banna, S.; Schchter, L.



Surface wind convergence as a short-term predictor of cloud-to-ground lightning at Kennedy Space Center: A four-year summary and evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since 1986, USAF forecasters at NASA-Kennedy have had available a surface wind convergence technique for use during periods of convective development. In Florida during the summer, most of the thunderstorm development is forced by boundary layer processes. The basic premise is that the life cycle of convection is reflected in the surface wind field beneath these storms. Therefore the monitoring of the local surface divergence and/or convergence fields can be used to determine timing, location, longevity, and the lightning hazards which accompany these thunderstorms. This study evaluates four years of monitoring thunderstorm development using surface wind convergence, particularly the average over the area. Cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning is related in time and space with surface convergence for 346 days during the summers of 1987 through 1990 over the expanded wind network at KSC. The relationships are subdivided according to low level wind flow and midlevel moisture patterns. Results show a one in three chance of CG lightning when a convergence event is identified. However, when there is no convergence, the chance of CG lightning is negligible.

Watson, Andrew I.; Holle, Ronald L.; Lopez, Raul E.; Nicholson, James R.




EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents the field evaluation results of the ultraviolet radiation (UV)/oxidation technology developed by Ultrox International, Santa Ana, California. The field evaluation of the technology was performed at the Lorentz Barrel and Drum (LB&D) site in San Jose, Californi...


Critical Development? Using a Critical Theory Lens to Examine the Current Role of Evaluation in the Youth-Development Field  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A critical theory lens is used to explore the role of evaluation in youth development, a field aimed at recognizing youth as assets. A theory of change in the field is questioned for its emphasis on individual youth outcomes as programmatic outcome measures. A review of 209 evaluations of 131 programs in the Harvard Family Research Project's

Zeller-Berkman, Sarah




Microsoft Academic Search

Eight field trials were conducted in 1989 and 1990 in Georgia (USA) and Maryland (USA) to evaluate baits and baiting strategies for delivering oral rabies vaccines to raccoons (Proc yon lotor). Bait packets consisting of corn meal and egg batter-based baits enclosed in plastic bags were placed at 1.0-m diameter, raked tracking stations and checked daily. Packets were well accepted

Samuel B. Linhart; F. Sherman; Richard M. Engeman; Harvey L. Hill; Tip Hon; Douglas I. Hall; John H. Shaddock


Field evaluation of in-situ biodegradation for aquifer restoration. Interim report, October 1985October 1987  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in-situ remediation of aquifers contaminated with halogenated aliphatic compounds is a promising alternative in efforts to protect ground water. The report presents the experimental methodology and the initial results of a field experiment evaluating the feasibility of in-situ biotransformation of TCE and related compounds. The method being tested relies on the ability of methane-oxidizing bacteria to degrade these contaminants

L. Semprini; P. V. Roberts; G. D. Hopkins; D. M. Mackay



The evaluation map in field theory, sigma-models and stringsII  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we examine specifically the rle of the evaluation map in sigma-models and strings. We discuss the difference between sigma-models and field theory, as far as anomaly cancellation is concerned. The introduction of the WessZumino terms in different sigma-models is considered. Anomalies in string theory are discussed, with special attention to the conformal anomalies and to the sigma-model

L. Bonora; P. Cotta-Ramusino; M. Rinaldi; J. Stasheff



Evaluation of low-leakage design techniques for field programmable gate arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we evaluate the trade-offs between various low-leakage design techniques for field programmable gate arrays (FGPAs) in deep sub-micron technologies. Since multiplexers are widely used in FPGAs for implementing look up tables (LUTs) and connection and routing switches, several low-leakage implementations of pass transistor based multiplexers and routing switches are proposed and their design trade-offs are presented based

Arifur Rahman; Vijay Polavarapuv



Implementation and Evaluation of the Virtual Fields Method: Determining Constitutive Model Parameters From Full-Field Deformation Data.  

SciTech Connect

The Virtual Fields Method (VFM) is an inverse method for constitutive model parameter identication that relies on full-eld experimental measurements of displacements. VFM is an alternative to standard approaches that require several experiments of simple geometries to calibrate a constitutive model. VFM is one of several techniques that use full-eld exper- imental data, including Finite Element Method Updating (FEMU) techniques, but VFM is computationally fast, not requiring iterative FEM analyses. This report describes the im- plementation and evaluation of VFM primarily for nite-deformation plasticity constitutive models. VFM was successfully implemented in MATLAB and evaluated using simulated FEM data that included representative experimental noise found in the Digital Image Cor- relation (DIC) optical technique that provides full-eld displacement measurements. VFM was able to identify constitutive model parameters for the BCJ plasticity model even in the presence of simulated DIC noise, demonstrating VFM as a viable alternative inverse method. Further research is required before VFM can be adopted as a standard method for constitu- tive model parameter identication, but this study is a foundation for ongoing research at Sandia for improving constitutive model calibration.

Kramer, Sharlotte Lorraine Bolyard; Scherzinger, William M.



Identification and Evaluation of Educational Uses and Users for the STS. Executive Summary. Educational Planning for Utilization of Space Shuttle (ED-PLUSS). Final Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reported is a study to consider the educational uses of the space shuttle/space lab. Several specific tasks were identified and accomplished during the study and the summary addresses itself to five that are considered pertinent: (1) Potential User and Identification; (2) Identification and Analysis of Space Education Programs; (3) Planning

Engle, H. A.; Christensen, D. L.


Objective evaluation of 3-D wide-field effect by human postural control analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new evaluation method of visual wide-field effects using human postural control analysis is proposed. In designing a television system for future, it is very important to understand the dynamic response of human beings in order to evaluate the visual effects of displayed images objectively. Visual effects produced by 3-D wide-field images are studied. An observer's body sway produced by postural control is discussed using rotating 2-D and 3-D images. Comparisons between stationary and rotating images are also performed. A local peak appears in power spectra of the body sway for the rotating images (3-D and 2-D). On the other hand, no distinctive component appears in the power spectra for the stationary images. By extending the visual field, the cyclic component can be proved from the audio-correlation function of the body sway for the rotating images. These results suggest that displayed images induce the postural control. The total length of the body sway locus is also analyzed to evaluate the postural control. The total length for the rotating images increases in proportion to viewing angles, and is nearly saturated after 50 (deg). Moreover, it is shown that the total length for the rotating 3-D image is greater than for the rotating 2-D image.

Shimizu, Toshihiro; Yano, Sumio; Mitsuhashi, Tetsuo



Evaluation of the electrostatic field strength at the site of exocytosis in adrenal chromaffin cells.  

PubMed Central

Exocytosis in secretory cells consists of release from intracellular storage granules directly into the extracellular space via fusion of the granule membrane with the plasma membrane of the cell. It is considered here as comprising two distinct processes. One is the close apposition of granule and plasma membranes. The other arises from interactions between the two membranes during the process of apposition, leading to the formation of a fusion pore. In the following it is shown for the case of the adrenal medullary chromaffin cell that the fusion pore can be ascribed to electroporation of the granule membrane, triggered by the strong electric field existing at the site of exocytosis. Based on an electric surface charge model of the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane, resulting from the negatively charged phosphatidylserine groups, it is found that the electrostatic field strength at the site of exocytosis reaches values on the order of 10(8) V/m at small intermembrane distances of 3 nm and lower. The field strength increases with the size of the disc-shaped plasma membrane region generating the electric field, reaching an approximate limit for a radius of 10 nm, at a surface charge density of 5.4 x 10(-2) C/m2. According to previous experimental evaluations of threshold field strength, this field is sufficiently strong to cause membrane electroporation. This step is a precondition for the subsequent membrane fusion during the ongoing process of apposition, leading to secretion. PMID:9726926

Rosenheck, K



Evaluation of measurement reproducibility using the standard-sites data, 1994 Fernald field characterization demonstration project  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy conducted the 1994 Fernald (Ohio) field characterization demonstration project to evaluate the performance of a group of both industry-standard and proposed alternative technologies in describing the nature and extent of uranium contamination in surficial soils. Detector stability and measurement reproducibility under actual operating conditions encountered in the field is critical to establishing the credibility of the proposed alternative characterization methods. Comparability of measured uranium activities to those reported by conventional, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-certified laboratory methods is also required. The eleven (11) technologies demonstrated included (1) EPA-standard soil sampling and laboratory mass-spectroscopy analyses, and currently-accepted field-screening techniques using (2) sodium-iodide scintillometers, (3) FIDLER low-energy scintillometers, and (4) a field-portable x-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Proposed advanced characterization techniques included (5) alpha-track detectors, (6) a high-energy beta scintillometer, (7) electret ionization chambers, (8) and (9) a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer in two different configurations, (10) a field-adapted laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) technique, and (11) a long-range alpha detector. Measurement reproducibility and the accuracy of each method were tested by acquiring numerous replicate measurements of total uranium activity at each of two ``standard sites`` located within the main field demonstration area. Meteorological variables including temperature, relative humidity. and 24-hour rainfall quantities were also recorded in conjunction with the standard-sites measurements.

Rautman, C.A.



Effects of temperature on bacterial transport and destruction in bioretention media: field and laboratory evaluations.  


Microbial activities are significantly influenced by temperature. This study investigated the effects of temperature on the capture and destruction of bacteria from urban stormwater runoff in bioretention media using 2-year field evaluations coupled with controlled laboratory column studies. Field data from two bioretention cells show that the concentration of indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli) was reduced during most storm events, and that the probability of meeting specific water quality criteria in the discharge was increased. Indicator bacteria concentration in the input flow typically increased with higher daily temperature. Although bacterial removal efficiency was independent of temperature in the field and laboratory, column tests showed that bacterial decay coefficients in conventional bioretention media (CBM) increase exponentially with elevated temperature. Increases in levels of protozoa and heterotrophic bacteria associated with increasing temperature appear to contribute to faster die-off of trapped E. coli in CBM via predation and competition. PMID:22866389

Zhang, Lan; Seagren, Eric A; Davis, Allen P; Karns, Jeffrey S



Evaluation of field emission parameters in a copper nano-tip based diode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copper nano-tip based diode structure with a gap of 120 nm has been fabricated by milling of a thin metallic film with a 30 kV focused gallium ion beam at a current of 100 pA. Its current-voltage characteristics measured at a pressure of 10-6 mbar is shown to follow the Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) field emission tunneling above 40 V. A simple method has been proposed to evaluate parameters like effective area (Aeff), apparent work function (?), and field enhancement factor (?) of the nano-emitter. The extremely small Aeff, substantial lowering of ?, and high ? value observed have been explained in terms of changes occurring at the emitter tip with increasing applied field. The formation of metallic nanoparticles over the substrate by local evaporation of cathode material at high currents is also demonstrated.

Kumar Singh, Abhishek; Kumar, Jitendra



Finite element modeling of electrostatic fields in process tomography capacitive electrode systems for flow response evaluation  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes various aspects and results of 2D finite element (FE) modeling of electrostatic fields in 12-electrode capacitive systems for two-phase flow imaging. The capacitive technique relies on changes in capacitances between electrodes (mounted on the outer surface of the flow pipe) due to the change in permittivities of flow components. The measured capacitances between various electrode pairs and the field computation data are used to reconstruct the cross sectional image of the flow components. FE modeling of the electric field is necessary to optimize design variables and evaluate the system response to various flow regimes, likely to be encountered in practice. Results are presented in terms of normalized capacitances for various flow regimes. The effects of key geometric parameters of the electrode system are also presented and analyzed.

Khan, S.H.; Abdullah, F. (City Univ., London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering)



Unsupervised Performance Evaluation Strategy for Bridge Superstructure Based on Fuzzy Clustering and Field Data  

PubMed Central

Performance evaluation of a bridge is critical for determining the optimal maintenance strategy. An unsupervised bridge superstructure state assessment method is proposed in this paper based on fuzzy clustering and bridge field measured data. Firstly, the evaluation index system of bridge is constructed. Secondly, a certain number of bridge health monitoring data are selected as clustering samples to obtain the fuzzy similarity matrix and fuzzy equivalent matrix. Finally, different thresholds are selected to form dynamic clustering maps and determine the best classification based on statistic analysis. The clustering result is regarded as a sample base, and the bridge state can be evaluated by calculating the fuzzy nearness between the unknown bridge state data and the sample base. Nanping Bridge in Jilin Province is selected as the engineering project to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:24288483

Jiao, Yubo; Liu, Hanbing; Wang, Xianqiang; Wei, Haibin



A new generation of electromagnetic and ultrasonic techniques for subsurface evaluation of oil field tubulars  

SciTech Connect

In the past few years, corrosion and mechanical fatigue have been becoming a more visible issue in the oil and gas industry. The issue of lost profits from lost production and the cost and liability resulting from failure has overcome the obvious concern of simple mechanical integrity. A new generation of tool designs have been developed for in-situ evaluation of well casings. These designs along with improvements to existing designs have just recently been introduced to address some of the limitations in subsurface well casing evaluation. These new hardware developments and interpretation techniques can now provide unpredecented accuracy for evaluating downhole tubular conditions. This paper reviews four recent designs while discussing the principals of measurement and offering actual field data in several comparisons. The four designs include: Electromagnetic: AC Types, DC Types, Casing Potential Profiling; Ultrasonic: Ultrasonic Thickness Types. An interpretation technique using sequential measurements to predict and manage for corrosion problems is also presented.

Lewis, R.G.



Executive Summary  

SciTech Connect

Motivation Our country faces profound challenges that must be addressed in order to ensure our continued freedom and security. As the September 11, 2001, attacks on the Pentagon and World Trade Center illustrate, threats to the United States are present within our borders. On that day, after at least 20 months of planning and preparation, nineteen terrorists hijacked four airliners at three different airports in a coordinated attack. The hijackers crashed two planes into the World Trade Centers twin towers and one plane into the Pentagon. The fourth plane, intended to attack another U.S. landmark, crashed in a field in Pennsylvania. 2973 people lost their lives as a result of this attack. As the attack unfolded, government agencies and emergency response personnel had to respond in real time to situations for which policies and procedures did not exist. They were forced to assess situations and make decisions under extreme pressure, often without having critical information that would help them save additional lives. [National Commission on Terrorist Attacks, 2004

Thomas, James J.; Cook, Kristin A.



Evaluation of Aqua-Ammonia Chiller Technologies and Field Site Installation  

SciTech Connect

The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) has sponsored Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to review, select, and evaluate advanced, gas-fired, 5-ton, aqua-ammonia, chiller technologies. The selection criteria was that units have COP values of 0.67 or better at Air-conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) 95 F outdoor rating conditions, an active refrigerant flow control, and a variable-speed condenser fan. These features are expected to allow these units to operate at higher ambient temperatures (up to the maximum operating temperature of 110 F) with minimal degradation in performance. ORNL evaluated three potential manufacturers of advanced, gas-fired, 5-ton, aqua-ammonia chillers-Robur, Ambian, and Cooling Technologies. Unfortunately, Robur did not meet the COP requirements and Cooling Technologies could not deliver a unit to be tested at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-ORNL environmental chamber testing facility for thermally activated heat pumps. This eliminated these two technologies from further consideration, leaving only the Ambian chillers for evaluation. Two Ambian chillers were evaluated at the DOE-ORNL test facility. Overall these chillers operated well over a wide range of ambient conditions with minimal degradation in performance due to several control strategies used such as a variable speed condenser fan, a modulating burner, and active refrigerant flow control. These Ambian pre-commercial units were selected for installation and field testing at three federal facilities. NFESC worked with ORNL to assist with the site selection for installation and evaluation of these chillers. Two sites (ORNL and Naval Surface Warfare Center [NSWC] Corona) had a single chiller unit installed; and at one site (Naval Amphibious Base [NAB] Little Creek), two 5-ton chillers linked together were installed to provide 10 tons of cooling. A chiller link controller developed under this project was evaluated in the field test at Little Creek.

Zaltash, Abdolreza [ORNL



A field screening method using earthworms (Eisenia foetida andrei) to evaluate contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

An on-site biological assessment for soil toxicity was performed using a lumbricid earthworm, Eisenia foetida andrei, at the Milltown Reservoir Superfund Site on the Clark Fork River near Missoula, MT. The assessment provided an opportunity to evaluate test containers and methodologies. Sixty-four field test stations, each consisting of three test containers of site soil, a control container of artificial soil, and a container to house soil moisture and temperature recording devices, were used. Laboratory tests were conducted on soil samples from selected field stations. The test containers were constructed from sections of polyvinyl chloride pipe and were found to be suitable in preventing escape of test organisms and damage by animals. The site soils had levels of arsenic, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc higher than those in surrounding watersheds. Combined mortality for exposure to the site soil was similar in both the laboratory and field tests. Combined sublethal responses to the site soil were also similar in both laboratory and field tests. Artificial soil controls in both field and laboratory tests resulted in combined mortality rates of 1% or less. The methodologies employed proved successful in maintaining an adequate soil moisture level and allowed for measurement of soil temperature.

Wilborn, D.C.; Bollman, M.A.; Gillett, C.S.; Ott, S.L.; Linder, G.L. [Takena Ecological Services, Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States)



Blind Field Test Evaluation of Raman Spectroscopy as a Forensic Tool  

SciTech Connect

Analytical instrumentation for Raman spectroscopy has advanced rapidly in recent years to the point where commercial field-portable instruments are available. Raman analysis with portable instrumentation is a new capability that can provide emergency response teams with on-site evaluation of hazardous materials. Before Raman analysis is accepted and implemented in the field, realistic studies applied to unknown samples need to be performed to define the reliability of this technique. Studies described herein provide a rigorous blind field test that utilizes 2 instruments and 2 operators to analyze a matrix that consists of 58 unknown samples. Samples were searched against a custom hazardous materials reference library[Hazardous Material Response Unit (HMRU) Spectral Library Database]. Experimental design included a number of intentionally difficult situations including binary solvent mixtures and a variety of compounds that yield medium quality spectra that were not contained in the HMRU library. Results showed that over 97% of the samples were correctly identified with no occurrences of false positive identifications (compounds that were not in the library were never identified as library constituents). Statistical analysis indicated equivalent performance for both the operators and instruments. These results indicate a high level of performance that should extrapolate to actual field situations. Implementation of Raman techniques to emergency field situations should proceed with a corresponding level of confidence.




Evaluating the impact of field-scale management strategies on sediment transport to the watershed outlet.  


Non-point source pollution from agricultural lands is a significant contributor of sediment pollution in United States lakes and streams. Therefore, quantifying the impact of individual field management strategies at the watershed-scale provides valuable information to watershed managers and conservation agencies to enhance decision-making. In this study, four methods employing some of the most cited models in field and watershed scale analysis were compared to find a practical yet accurate method for evaluating field management strategies at the watershed outlet. The models used in this study including field-scale model (the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation 2 - RUSLE2), spatially explicit overland sediment delivery models (SEDMOD), and a watershed-scale model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool - SWAT). These models were used to develop four modeling strategies (methods) for the River Raisin watershed: Method 1) predefined field-scale subbasin and reach layers were used in SWAT model; Method 2) subbasin-scale sediment delivery ratio was employed; Method 3) results obtained from the field-scale RUSLE2 model were incorporated as point source inputs to the SWAT watershed model; and Method 4) a hybrid solution combining analyses from the RUSLE2, SEDMOD, and SWAT models. Method 4 was selected as the most accurate among the studied methods. In addition, the effectiveness of six best management practices (BMPs) in terms of the water quality improvement and associated cost were assessed. Economic analysis was performed using Method 4, and producer requested prices for BMPs were compared with prices defined by the Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP). On a per unit area basis, producers requested higher prices than EQIP in four out of six BMP categories. Meanwhile, the true cost of sediment reduction at the field and watershed scales was greater than EQIP in five of six BMP categories according to producer requested prices. PMID:23851319

Sommerlot, Andrew R; Pouyan Nejadhashemi, A; Woznicki, Sean A; Prohaska, Michael D



Evaluation of a Stream Aquifer Analysis Test Using Analytical Solutions and Field Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Considerable advancements have been made in the development of analytical solutions for predicting the effects of pumping wells on adjacent streams and rivers. However, these solutions have not been sufficiently evaluated against field data. The objective of this research is to evaluate the predictive performance of recently proposed analytical solutions for unsteady stream depletion using field data collected during a stream/aquifer analysis test at the Tamarack State Wildlife Area in eastern Colorado. Two primary stream/aquifer interactions exist at the Tamarack site: (1) between the South Platte River and the alluvial aquifer and (2) between a backwater stream and the alluvial aquifer. A pumping test is performed next to the backwater stream channel. Drawdown measured in observation wells is matched to predictions by recently proposed analytical solutions to derive estimates of aquifer and streambed parameters. These estimates are compared to documented aquifer properties and field measured streambed conductivity. The analytical solutions are capable of estimating reasonable values of both aquifer and streambed parameters with one solution capable of simultaneously estimating delayed aquifer yield and stream flow recharge. However, for long term water management, it is reasonable to use simplified analytical solutions not concerned with early-time delayed yield effects. For this site, changes in the water level in the stream during the test and a varying water level profile at the beginning of the pumping test influence the application of the analytical solutions.

Fox, Garey A.



[Alfalfa quality evaluation in the field by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy].  


To explore the feasibility of using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to evaluate alfalfa quality rapidly in the field and try to find the appropriate machine and sample preparation method, the representative population of 170 fresh alfalfa samples collected from different regions with different stages and different cuts were scanned by a portable NIRS spectrometer (1 100 - 1 800 nm). This is the first time to build models of fresh alfalfa to rapidly estimate quality in the field for harvesting in time. The calibrations of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) were developed through the partial least squares regression (PLS). The determination coefficients of cross-validation (R2((CV)) were 0.831 4, 0.597 9, 0.803 6, 0.786 1 for DM, CP, NDF, ADF, respectively; the root mean standard error of cross-validation (RMSECV) were 1.241 1, 0.261 4, 0.990 3, 0.830 6; The determination coefficients of validation (R2(V)) were 0.815 0, 0.401 1, 0.784 9, 0.752 1 and the root mean standard errors of validation(RMSEP)were 1.06, 0.31, 0.95, 0.80 for DM, CP, NDF, ADF, respectively. For fresh alfalfa ,the calibration of DM, NDF, ADF can do rough quantitative analysis but the CP's calibration is failed. however, as CP in alfalfa hay is enough for animal and the DM, NDF and ADF is the crucial indicator for evaluating havest time, the model of DM, NDF and ADF can be used for evaluating the alfalfa quality rapidly in the field. PMID:24555370

Xu, Rui-Xuan; Li, Dong-Ning; Yang, Dong-Hai; Lin, Jian-Hai; Xiang, Min; Zhang, Ying-Jun




SciTech Connect

We performed in-situ cryogenic testing of four silicon diodes as possible candidates for field emission (FE) monitors of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities during qualification testing and in accelerator cryo-modules. We evaluated diodes from 2 companies - from Hamamatsu corporation model S1223-01; and from OSI Optoelectronics models OSD35-LR-A, XUV-50C, and FIL-UV20. The measurements were done by placing the diodes in superfluid liquid helium near the top of a field emitting 9-cell cavity during its vertical test. For each diode, we will discuss their viability as a 2K cryogenic detector for FE mapping of SRF cavities and the directionality of S1223-01 in such environments. We will also present calibration curves between the diodes and JLab's standard radiation detector placed above the Dewar's top plate.

Ari Palczewski, Rongli Geng



Handheld standoff mine detection system (HSTAMIDS) field evaluation in Thailand (Invited Paper)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program of Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD), under the direction of the Office of Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations and Low-Intensity Conflict (OASD/SOLIC) and with participation from the International Test and Evaluation Project (ITEP) for Humanitarian Demining, conducted an in-country field evaluation of HSTAMIDS in the region of Humanitarian Demining Unit #1 (HMAU1) in Thailand. Participants included the US Humanitarian Demining Team of NVESD, ITEP personnel, Thailand Mine Action Center (TMAC), HALO Trust organization from Cambodia, and CyTerra Corporation. The primary objectives were to demonstrate the performance of the U.S. Army's latest handheld multisensor mine detector, the AN/PSS-14, in a demining environment in comparison to the performance of the metal detector being used by the local deminers and also to assess the performance of the trained deminers after limited experience and training with the HSTAMIDS.

Doheny, Robert C.; Burke, Sean; Cresci, Roger; Ngan, Peter; Walls, Richard



Evaluation of six pesticides leaching indexes using field data of herbicide application in Casablanca Valley, Chile.  


A field study was performed to evaluate the accuracy of six pesticide screening leaching indexes for herbicide movement. Adsorption, dissipation and soil movement were studied in a vineyard in a sandy loam soil during 2005 season. Simazine, diuron, pendimethalin, oxyfluorfen and flumioxazin were applied to bare soil at rates commonly used, and their soil concentrations throughout soil profile were determined at 0, 10, 20, 40 and 90 days after application (DAA). Herbicides were subjected to two pluviometric regimens, natural field condition and modified conditions (plus natural rainfall 180 mm). Leaching indexes utilized were: Briggs's Rf, Hamaker's Rf, LEACH, LPI, GUS and LIX. Simazine reached 120 cm, diuron 90 cm, flumioxazin 30 cm soil depth respectively. Pendimethalin and oxyfluorfen were retained up to 5 cm. None of the herbicides leaching was affected by rainfall regimen. Only flumioxazin field dissipation was clearly affected by pluviometric condition. The best representation of the herbicide soil depth movement and leaching below 15 cm soil depth were: Hamaker's Rf < Briggs's Rf < GUS < LPI, < LEACH < LIX. Field results showed a good correlation between herbicides K(d) and their soil depth movement and mass leached below 15 cm soil depth. PMID:17849992

Kogan, M; Rojas, S; Gmez, P; Surez, F; Muoz, J F; Alister, C



Executive Summary Annual Report  

E-print Network

1 Executive Summary Annual Report Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean #12;2 JISAO Annual Report:April 1, 2011 ­ March 31, 2012 Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere.................................................................................................................................128 #12;4 JISAO Annual Report:April 1, 2011 ­ March 31, 2012 #12;1 Executive Summary Executive Summary

Rigor, Ignatius G.


Executive Summary Annual Report  

E-print Network

1 Executive Summary Annual Report Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean #12;2 JISAO Annual Report:April 1, 2012 ­ March 31, 2013 Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere............................................................................................................................ 142 #12;4 JISAO Annual Report:April 1, 2012 ­ March 31, 2013 #12;1 Executive Summary Executive Summary

Rigor, Ignatius G.


Requirements for the Effective Use of the Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC) -- Determined by Field Evaluation  

E-print Network

A field evaluation study of user requirements for effective use of the Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC) is described. The study included several components including an analysis of potential users classified...

Herbich, J. B.; Smith, E. B.; Benson, J. D.




EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory and field studies were performed to develop and evaluate a sampling and analytical technique for measuring hydrogen chloride (HCl) from stationary sources. Studies were conducted in three phases: (1) literature search and development of a candidate sampling and analysi...


Summary of the Georgia Agricultural Water Conservation and Metering Program and evaluation of methods used to collect and analyze irrigation data in the middle and lower Chattahoochee and Flint River basins, 2004-2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Since receiving jurisdiction from the State Legislature in June 2003 to implement the Georgia Agricultural Water Conservation and Metering Program, the Georgia Soil and Water Conservation Commission (Commission) by year-end 2010 installed more than 10,000 annually read water meters and nearly 200 daily reporting, satellite-transmitted, telemetry sites on irrigation systems located primarily in southern Georgia. More than 3,000 annually reported meters and 50 telemetry sites were installed during 2010 alone. The Commission monitored rates and volumes of agricultural irrigation supplied by groundwater, surface-water, and well-to-pond sources to inform water managers on the patterns and amounts of such water use and to determine effective and efficient resource utilization. Summary analyses of 4 complete years of irrigation data collected from annually read water meters in the middle and lower Chattahoochee and Flint River basins during 2007-2010 indicated that groundwater-supplied fields received slightly more irrigation depth per acre than surface-water-supplied fields. Year 2007 yielded the largest disparity between irrigation depth supplied by groundwater and surface-water sources as farmers responded to severe-to-exceptional drought conditions with increased irrigation. Groundwater sources (wells and well-to-pond systems) outnumbered surface-water sources by a factor of five; each groundwater source applied a third more irrigation volume than surface water; and, total irrigation volume from groundwater exceeded that of surface water by a factor of 6.7. Metered irrigation volume indicated a pattern of low-to-high water use from northwest to southeast that could point to relations between agricultural water use, water-resource potential and availability, soil type, and crop patterns. Normalizing metered irrigation-volume data by factoring out irrigated acres allowed irrigation water use to be expressed as an irrigation depth and nearly eliminated the disparity between volumes of applied irrigation derived from groundwater and surface water. Analysis of per-acre irrigation depths provided a commonality for comparing irrigation practices across the entire range of field sizes in southern Georgia and indicated underreporting of irrigated acres for some systems. Well-to-pond systems supplied irrigation at depths similar to groundwater and can be combined with groundwater irrigation data for subsequent analyses. Average irrigation depths during 2010 indicated an increase from average irrigation depths during 2008 and 2009, most likely the result of relatively dry conditions during 2010 compared to conditions in 2008 and 2009. Geostatistical models facilitated estimation of irrigation water use for unmetered systems and demonstrated usefulness in redesigning the telemetry network. Geospatial analysis evaluated the ability of the telemetry network to represent annually reported water-meter data and presented an objective, unbiased method for revising the network.

Torak, Lynn J.; Painter, Jaime A.



Laboratory and field evaluation of a biological monitoring system using Corbicula fluminea and Mulinia lateralis  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory and field experiments have been performed to evaluate a non-invasive biomonitoring system using the Asiatic clam Corbicula fluminea and Mulinia lateralis. C. fluminea was exposed to simulated episodic toxicity events in the laboratory using copper, diazinon, and regulated flow rates. Group behavior during these simulated events was compared to behavior during unstressed periods to develop a statistical model and an alarm criteria. Bayou Chico, Pensacola Bay, FL, was the site for field experiments in which M. lateralis was placed in situ to evaluate the performance of the biomonitoring system. The biomonitoring system consists of proximity sensors which detect an aluminum foil target attached to the valve of an organism. Valve movements of the clams are then digitally recorded using a personal computer. Data collected from remote sites are telemetered to the lab using short wave radio. In its final form, the authors envision an in situ biological monitoring system using bivalves deployed in aquatic systems in conjunction with automated monitoring systems like those found at USGS gauging stations. A tool such as this could be used as a warning system to increase the probability of detecting toxic events as they occur.

Waller, W.T.; Allen, H.J.; Schwalm, F.U.; Acevedo, M.F.; Ammann, L.P.; Dickson, K.L.; Kennedy, J.H. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Morgan, E.L. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States)



Evaluation of a Portable Automated Serum Chemistry Analyzer for Field Assessment of Harlequin Ducks, Histrionicus histrionicus.  


A portable analytical chemistry analyzer was used to make field assessments of wild harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) in association with telemetry studies of winter survival in Prince William Sound, Alaska. We compared serum chemistry results obtained on-site with results from a traditional laboratory. Particular attention was paid to serum glucose and potassium concentrations as potential indicators of high-risk surgical candidates based on evaluation of the field data. The median differential for glucose values (N = 82) between methods was 0.6 mmol/L (quartiles 0.3 and 0.9 mmol/L) with the median value higher when assayed on site. Analysis of potassium on site returned a median of 2.7 mmol/L (N = 88; quartiles 2.4 and 3.0 mmol/L). Serum potassium values were too low for quantitation by the traditional laboratory. Changes in several serum chemistry values following a three-day storm during the study support the value of on site evaluation of serum potassium to identify presurgical patients with increased anesthetic risk. PMID:20445783

Stoskopf, Michael K; Mulcahy, Daniel M; Esler, Daniel



Evaluation of a Portable Automated Serum Chemistry Analyzer for Field Assessment of Harlequin Ducks, Histrionicus histrionicus  

PubMed Central

A portable analytical chemistry analyzer was used to make field assessments of wild harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) in association with telemetry studies of winter survival in Prince William Sound, Alaska. We compared serum chemistry results obtained on-site with results from a traditional laboratory. Particular attention was paid to serum glucose and potassium concentrations as potential indicators of high-risk surgical candidates based on evaluation of the field data. The median differential for glucose values (N = 82) between methods was 0.6?mmol/L (quartiles 0.3 and 0.9?mmol/L) with the median value higher when assayed on site. Analysis of potassium on site returned a median of 2.7?mmol/L (N = 88; quartiles 2.4 and 3.0?mmol/L). Serum potassium values were too low for quantitation by the traditional laboratory. Changes in several serum chemistry values following a three-day storm during the study support the value of on site evaluation of serum potassium to identify presurgical patients with increased anesthetic risk. PMID:20445783

Stoskopf, Michael K.; Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Esler, Daniel



Field evaluation of urine antigen detection for diagnosis of Taenia solium cysticercosis.  


(Neuro)cysticercosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by infection with Taenia solium metacestode larvae. Existing immunodiagnostic techniques detect antibodies and circulating antigens (Ag) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Blood/CSF collection is an invasive procedure associated with blood-borne infections and is often not well accepted by communities. Detection of circulating Ag in urine has been suggested as an alternative, however this has been evaluated in clinical settings only. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance of a urine Ag-ELISA under field conditions. Paired serum and urine samples were obtained from participants in endemic areas of Ecuador (n=748) and Zambia (n=690) and were subjected to a monoclonal antibody-based Ag-ELISA. Calculation of positive and negative agreement indices (AI) showed better agreement in the negative direction both for Ecuadorian and Zambian samples (AI of 93.1 and 86.8, respectively). Using a Bayesian approach to determine the test characteristics, similar sensitivities were obtained for serum and urine Ag detection, whereas a decreased specificity was determined for the urine Ag-ELISA with a lower specificity (78.6%) for Zambian samples than for Ecuadorian samples (88.4%). This study indicates a higher specificity for the serum test under field conditions and promotes further research to improve the urine test. PMID:21862093

Mwape, K E; Praet, N; Benitez-Ortiz, W; Muma, J B; Zulu, G; Celi-Erazo, M; Phiri, I K; Rodriguez-Hidalgo, R; Dorny, P; Gabril, S



Evaluation and field-scale application of an analytical method to quantify groundwater discharge using mapped streambed temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryA method for calculating groundwater discharge through a streambed on a sub-reach to a reach scale has been developed using data from plan-view mapping of streambed temperatures at a uniform depth along a reach of a river or stream. An analytical solution of the one-dimensional steady-state heat-diffusion-advection equation was used to determine fluxes from observed temperature data. The method was applied to point measurements of streambed temperatures used to map a 60 m long reach of a river by Conant Jr. [Conant Jr. B., 2004. Delineating and quantifying ground water discharge zones using streambed temperatures. Ground Water 42(2), 243-257] and relies on the underlying assumption that streambed temperatures are in a quasi-steady-state during the period of mapping. The analytical method was able to match the values and pattern of flux previously obtained using an empirical relationship that related streambed temperatures to fluxes obtained from piezometers and using Darcy's law. A second independent test of the analytical method using temperature mapping and seepage meter fluxes along a first-order stream confirmed the validity of the approach. The USGS numerical heat transport model VS2DH was also used to evaluate the thermal response of the streambed sediments to transient variations in surface water temperatures and showed that quasi-steady-state conditions occurred for most, but not all, conditions. During mapping events in the winter, quasi-steady-state conditions were typically observed for both high and low groundwater discharge conditions, but during summer mapping events quasi-steady-state conditions were typically not achieved at low flux areas or where measurements were made at shallow depths. Major advantages of using this analytical method include: it can be implemented using a spreadsheet; it does not require the installation or testing of piezometers or seepage meters (although they would help to confirm the results); and it needs only a minimal amount of input data related to water temperatures and the thermal properties of water and the sediments. The field results showed the analytical solution tends to underestimate high fluxes. However, a sensitivity analysis of possible model inputs shows the solution is relatively robust and not particularly sensitive to small uncertainties in input data and can produce reasonable flux estimates without the need for calibration.

Schmidt, Christian; Conant, Brewster; Bayer-Raich, Mart; Schirmer, Mario



Evaluation of Specific Absorption Rate as a Dosimetric Quantity for Electromagnetic Fields Bioeffects  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate SAR as a dosimetric quantity for EMF bioeffects, and identify ways for increasing the precision in EMF dosimetry and bioactivity assessment. Methods We discuss the interaction of man-made electromagnetic waves with biological matter and calculate the energy transferred to a single free ion within a cell. We analyze the physics and biology of SAR and evaluate the methods of its estimation. We discuss the experimentally observed non-linearity between electromagnetic exposure and biological effect. Results We find that: a) The energy absorbed by living matter during exposure to environmentally accounted EMFs is normally well below the thermal level. b) All existing methods for SAR estimation, especially those based upon tissue conductivity and internal electric field, have serious deficiencies. c) The only method to estimate SAR without large error is by measuring temperature increases within biological tissue, which normally are negligible for environmental EMF intensities, and thus cannot be measured. Conclusions SAR actually refers to thermal effects, while the vast majority of the recorded biological effects from man-made non-ionizing environmental radiation are non-thermal. Even if SAR could be accurately estimated for a whole tissue, organ, or body, the biological/health effect is determined by tiny amounts of energy/power absorbed by specific biomolecules, which cannot be calculated. Moreover, it depends upon field parameters not taken into account in SAR calculation. Thus, SAR should not be used as the primary dosimetric quantity, but used only as a complementary measure, always reporting the estimating method and the corresponding error. Radiation/field intensity along with additional physical parameters (such as frequency, modulation etc) which can be directly and in any case more accurately measured on the surface of biological tissues, should constitute the primary measure for EMF exposures, in spite of similar uncertainty to predict the biological effect due to non-linearity. PMID:23750202

Panagopoulos, Dimitris J.; Johansson, Olle; Carlo, George L.



Laboratory and field measurements and evaluations of vibration at the handles of riveting hammers.  


The use of riveting hammers can expose workers to harmful levels of hand-transmitted vibration (HTV). As a part of efforts to reduce HTV exposures through tool selection, the primary objective of this study was to evaluate the applicability of a standardized laboratory-based riveting hammer assessment protocol for screening riveting hammers. The second objective was to characterize the vibration emissions of reduced vibration riveting hammers and to make approximations of the HTV exposures of workers operating these tools in actual work tasks. Eight pneumatic riveting hammers were selected for the study. They were first assessed in a laboratory using the standardized method for measuring vibration emissions at the tool handle. The tools were then further assessed under actual working conditions during three aircraft sheet metal riveting tasks. Although the average vibration magnitudes of the riveting hammers measured in the laboratory test were considerably different from those measured in the field study, the rank orders of the tools determined via these tests were fairly consistent, especially for the lower vibration tools. This study identified four tools that consistently exhibited lower frequency-weighted and unweighted accelerations in both the laboratory and workplace evaluations. These observations suggest that the standardized riveting hammer test is acceptable for identifying tools that could be expected to exhibit lower vibrations in workplace environments. However, the large differences between the accelerations measured in the laboratory and field suggest that the standardized laboratory-based tool assessment is not suitable for estimating workplace riveting hammer HTV exposures. Based on the frequency-weighted accelerations measured at the tool handles during the three work tasks, the sheet metal mechanics assigned to these tasks at the studied workplace are unlikely to exceed the daily vibration exposure action value (2.5 m s(-2)) using any of the evaluated riveting hammers. PMID:22539561

McDowell, Thomas W; Warren, Christopher; Welcome, Daniel E; Dong, Ren G



Use of a semi-field system to evaluate the efficacy of topical repellents under user conditions provides a disease exposure free technique comparable with field data  

PubMed Central

Background Before topical repellents can be employed as interventions against arthropod bites, their efficacy must be established. Currently, laboratory or field tests, using human volunteers, are the main methods used for assessing the efficacy of topical repellents. However, laboratory tests are not representative of real life conditions under which repellents are used and field-testing potentially exposes human volunteers to disease. There is, therefore, a need to develop methods to test efficacy of repellents under real life conditions while minimizing volunteer exposure to disease. Methods A lotion-based, 15%?N, N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) repellent and 15% DEET in ethanol were compared to a placebo lotion in a 200 sq m (10m??20m) semi-field system (SFS) against laboratory-reared Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes and in full field settings against wild malaria vectors and nuisance-biting mosquitoes. The average percentage protection against biting mosquitoes over four hours in the SFS and field setting was determined. A Poisson regression model was then used to determine relative risk of being bitten when wearing either of these repellents compared to the placebo. Results Average percentage protection of the lotion-based 15% DEET repellent after four hours of mosquito collection was 82.13% (95% CI 75.94-88.82) in the semi-field experiments and 85.10% (95% CI 78.97-91.70) in the field experiments. Average percentage protection of 15% DEET in ethanol after four hours was 71.29% (CI 61.77-82.28) in the semi-field system and 88.24% (84.45-92.20) in the field. Conclusions Semi-field evaluation results were comparable to full-field evaluations, indicating that such systems could be satisfactorily used in measuring efficacy of topically applied mosquito repellents, thereby avoiding risks of exposure to mosquito-borne pathogens, associated with field testing. PMID:24767458



Evaluation of the photoneutron field produced in a medical linear accelerator.  


The doses and spectra of photoneutrons produced in a medical linear accelerator with photon energies of 10 and 15 MV were evaluated. The Monte Carlo code, MCNPX, was used to simulate the transport of these photoneutrons around the head for 10 and 15 MV photons. The fully-described geometry of the accelerator head was used in this calculation. The photoneutron energy spectra and doses for various photon field sizes were calculated at each of 20 positions. The results indicate that the maximum dose equivalents are observed in 20 x 20 cm(2) case among photon fields. It was found the neutron average energy at isocenter for a 0 x 0 cm(2) field is 0.38 MeV for 10 MV and is 0.45 MeV for 15 MV. The neutron doses at 10 positions around the head in the treatment room of the operation facility at 10 and 15 MV were measured using the bubble detectors. Measurements were compared with the calculations under the same geometry in the experiment. It was found that the majority of the calculated results agreed to within the standard deviations of the measurements. These above results can be applied in the verification of maximum allowed neutron leakage percentage of treatment dose defined in the IEC. We have been employing them to derive the empirical formula for neutron dose equivalent level at the maze entrance of medical accelerator treatment rooms in a study that is still underway. PMID:17077093

Kim, H S; Park, Y H; Koo, B C; Kwon, J W; Lee, J-S; Choi, H S



Evaluation of a positron emission tomography (PET)-compatible field-cycled MRI (FCMRI) scanner.  


Field-cycled MRI (FCMRI) uses two independent, actively controlled resistive magnets to polarize a sample and to provide the magnetic field environment during data acquisition. This separation of tasks allows for novel forms of contrast, reduction of susceptibility artifacts, and a versatility in design that facilitates the integration of a second imaging modality. A 0.3T/4-MHz FCMRI scanner was constructed with a 9-cm-wide opening through the side for the inclusion of a photomultiplier-tube-based positron emission tomography (PET) system. The performance of the FCMRI scanner was evaluated prior to integrating PET detectors. Quantitative measurements of the system's signal, phase, and temperature were recorded. The polarizing and readout magnets could be operated continuously at 100 A without risk of damage to the system. Transient instabilities in the readout magnet, caused by the pulsing of the polarizing magnet, dissipated in 50 ms; this resulted in a steady-state homogeneity of 32 Hz over a 7-cm-diameter volume. The short- and long-term phase behaviors of the readout field were sufficiently stable to prevent visible readout or phase-encode artifacts during imaging. Preliminary MR images demonstrated the potential of the FCMRI scanner and the efficacy of integrating a PET system. PMID:19585601

Gilbert, Kyle M; Scholl, Timothy J; Handler, William B; Alford, Jamu K; Chronik, Blaine A



Visualizing simulated electrical fields from electroencephalography and transcranial electric brain stimulation: a comparative evaluation.  


Electrical activity of neuronal populations is a crucial aspect of brain activity. This activity is not measured directly but recorded as electrical potential changes using head surface electrodes (electroencephalogram - EEG). Head surface electrodes can also be deployed to inject electrical currents in order to modulate brain activity (transcranial electric stimulation techniques) for therapeutic and neuroscientific purposes. In electroencephalography and noninvasive electric brain stimulation, electrical fields mediate between electrical signal sources and regions of interest (ROI). These fields can be very complicated in structure, and are influenced in a complex way by the conductivity profile of the human head. Visualization techniques play a central role to grasp the nature of those fields because such techniques allow for an effective conveyance of complex data and enable quick qualitative and quantitative assessments. The examination of volume conduction effects of particular head model parameterizations (e.g., skull thickness and layering), of brain anomalies (e.g., holes in the skull, tumors), location and extent of active brain areas (e.g., high concentrations of current densities) and around current injecting electrodes can be investigated using visualization. Here, we evaluate a number of widely used visualization techniques, based on either the potential distribution or on the current-flow. In particular, we focus on the extractability of quantitative and qualitative information from the obtained images, their effective integration of anatomical context information, and their interaction. We present illustrative examples from clinically and neuroscientifically relevant cases and discuss the pros and cons of the various visualization techniques. PMID:24821532

Eichelbaum, Sebastian; Dannhauer, Moritz; Hlawitschka, Mario; Brooks, Dana; Knsche, Thomas R; Scheuermann, Gerik



Field evaluation of a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for Mycoplasma hyorhinis.  


Mycoplasma hyorhinis has emerged as an important cause of systemic disease in nursery pigs. However, this bacterium can also be found in the upper respiratory tract of healthy swine. The current study describes the development of a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of M. hyorhinis and the evaluation of the assay in both disease diagnosis and disease surveillance using a large number of field samples. The analytical sensitivity was estimated to be 12 genome equivalents/?l. The assay was highly specific, detecting all 25 M. hyorhinis isolates tested and none of the 19 nontarget species tested. Assay repeatability was evaluated by testing different matrices spiked with known amounts of M. hyorhinis. Overall, assessment of the repeatability of the assay showed suitable precision within and between runs for all matrices. The coefficient of variation ranged from 10% to 24%. Mycoplasma hyorhinis DNA was detected in 48% of samples (pericardium, pleura, joints, nasal cavity, and lungs) from pigs with systemic disease. Mycoplasma hyorhinis was detected in nasal (92%) and oropharyngeal swabs (66%), as well as in oral fluids (100%). Potential uses of this tool involve the characterization of the prevalence of this pathogen in swine herds as well as bacterial quantification to evaluate intervention efficacy. PMID:25319032

Clavijo, Maria J; Oliveira, Simone; Zimmerman, Jeffrey; Rendahl, Aaron; Rovira, Albert




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vernalization requirement, photoperiod response and earliness per se (EPS) of bread wheat cultivars are often determined using controlled environments. However, use of non-field conditions may reduce the applicability of results for predicting field performance as well as increase the cost of evalu...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The emission rate, isomeric stability, and relative attractiveness of field-aged gray halo-butyl elastomer and red rubber septa loaded with codlemone, the major sex pheromone component for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., were evaluated. Initially, field-aged red septa loaded with 10.0 mg had highe...


Field evaluation of cotton near-isogenic lines introgressed with QTLs for productivity and drought related traits  

E-print Network

Field evaluation of cotton near-isogenic lines introgressed with QTLs for productivity and drought Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008 Abstract Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for yield and drought, in order to (1) evaluate the potential to improve cotton drought resistance by MAS and (2) test the role

Chee, Peng W.


Comparison of field, greenhouse, and detached-leaf evaluations of soybean germplasm for resistance to Phakopsora pachyrhizi  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fourteen soybean accessions and breeding lines were evaluated for resistance to soybean rust caused by the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi. Evaluations were conducted in replicated experiments in growth chambers using detached leaves, and under greenhouse and field conditions. In growth chamber experim...


A summary of selected publications, project activities, and data sources related to hydrology in the Warrior and Plateau coal fields of Alabama  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The report is a reference source on hydrologic information related to coal-mining activities in the Warrior and Plateau coal fields of Alabama. It contains a bibliography of more than 200 references and selected annotations. Also included is information on maps, automated-data bases, water-monitoring programs, and data-source agencies and organizations.

Kidd, Robert E.; Hill, Thomas J.



Laboratory and field evaluations of methodology for measuring emissions of chlorinated solvents from stationary sources. Project report  

SciTech Connect

Several chlorinated solvents are being evaluated for future emission regulations by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Many state and local agencies already regulate chlorinated solvents. Therefore, measurement methodologies for these compounds should be investigated. Entropy was commissioned by the Quality Assurance Division of EPA's Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Laboratory to perform laboratory and field studies to evaluate sampling and analytical techniques for the measurement of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), chloroform (CHCl3), perchloroethylene (PERC), and trichloroethylene (TCE) emissions from stationary sources. The studies were conducted in two phases: preliminary work and field studies evaluating EPA Method 18 when applied to the emissions of PERC from degreasing facilities and laboratory and field studies evaluating modified EPA Method 18 sampling procedures for collection of all four chlorinated solvents under high temperature and high moisture conditions.

Carver, A.C.; DeWees, W.G.; Coppedge, E.A.



Configuration and Evaluation of a Dual-Doppler 3-D Wind Field System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current LSP, GSDO, and SLS space vehicle operations are halted when wind speeds from specific directions exceed defined thresholds and when lightning is a threat. Strong winds and lightning are difficult parameters for the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) to forecast, yet are important in the protection of customer vehicle operations and the personnel that conduct them. A display of the low-level horizontal wind field to reveal areas of high winds or convergence would be a valuable tool for forecasters in assessing the timing of high winds, or convection initiation and subsequent lightning occurrence. This is especially important for areas where no weather observation platforms exist. Developing a dual-Doppler radar capability would provide such a display to assist forecasters in predicting high winds and convection initiation. The wind fields can also be used to initialize a local mesoscale numerical weather prediction model to help improve the model forecast winds, convection initiation, and other phenomena. The 45 WS and NWS MLB tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to develop a dual- Doppler wind field display using data from the 45th Space Wing radar, known as the Weather Surveillance Radar (WSR), NWS MLB Weather Surveillance Radar 1988 Doppler (KMLB), and the Orlando International Airport Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (KMCO). They also stipulated that the software used should be freely available. The AMU evaluated two software packages and, with concurrence from NWS MLB and the 45 WS, chose the Warning Decision Support System-Integrated Information (WDSS-II). The AMU collected data from two significant weather cases: a tornadic event on 14 April 2013 and a severe wind and hail event on 12 February 2014. For the 14 April case, the data were from WSR and KMLB. For the 12 February case, the data were from KMCO and KMLB. The AMU installed WDSS-II on a Linux PC, then processed and quality controlled the radar data for display and analysis using WDSS-II tools. Because of issues with de-aliasing the WSR velocity field, the AMU did not use data from this radar in this study and only analyzed the 12 February case. Merging the data to create the dual-Doppler analysis involved several steps. The AMU used instructions from the WDSS-II website and discussion forum to determine the correct tools to use for the analysis, and was successful in creating a merged reflectivity field, which was critical to the success of creating a merged velocity field. However, the AMU was unable to create a merged velocity field. The AMU researched the WDSS-II forum for discussions on similar issues, asked questions on the forum, and tested different options and values in the merger tool with no success. Developing a dual-Doppler wind field was the main goal of this task, but that was not accomplished. It could be an issue of not using the correct options or the correct value for the options used, or there could be issues with the radar data. There is a follow-on AMU task to install the operational version of WDSS-II in the NWS MLB office. This will provide more opportunities to try different options and input values in order to create a merged wind field from KMCO and KMLB.

Crawford, Winifred C.



Evaluation of lightning field-to-current conversion equations using triggered-lightning data: An update  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Return-stroke peak current can be obtained from measurement of channel-base current at the strike object (which is difficult because of the random occurrence of natural lightning in space and time) or can be estimated from measurement of the corresponding electric or magnetic field at a typical distance of several kilometers or more from the lightning channel. A field-to-current conversion procedure is required for the estimation of lightning return stroke peak currents from measured fields. The following empirical formula was proposed by Rakov et al. [1992] to estimate the return-stroke peak current I from the initial (essentially radiation) electric field peak E and distance r to the lightning channel: I=1.5-0.037rE (1) where I is in kA and taken as negative, E is positive and in V/m, and r is in km. Eq. (1) was derived using data for 28 triggered-lightning strokes acquired by Willett et al. [1989] at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. Another approach is the use of the radiation-field-to-current conversion equation based on the transmission-line model [Uman and McLain, 1969]: I= (2??_0 c^2 r)/v E (2) where ?0 is the permittivity of free space, c is the speed of light, and v is the return-stroke speed (assumed to be constant). The return-stroke speed is generally unknown and its range of variation from one event to another is typically from c/3 to 2c/3. Both I and E in Eq. (2) are absolute values. Perfectly conducting ground is assumed. Electric field peaks, recorded at the Lightning Observatory in Gainesville (LOG), Florida, for 89 strokes in 22 lightning flashes triggered at Camp Blanding (CB), Florida, in 2008-2010 were used to estimate peak currents based on the two methods outlined above and were compared with peak currents directly measured at CB [Mallick et al., 2012]. The distance between CB and LOG is 45 km. The empirical formula was found to overestimate peak currents with the median absolute errors being 21%. The field-to-current conversion equation based on the transmission-line model gave the best match with directly measured peak currents for return-stroke speeds between c/2 and 2c/3. In this paper, we extend the study of Mallick et al. [2012] to evaluate the field-to-current conversion equations using a larger data set acquired at CB and LOG in 2008-2012. In 2008-2012, 66 flashes containing 227 strokes were triggered at CB. Electric fields for 45 flashes containing 211 strokes were recorded at LOG. CB peak currents used here were previously used by Mallick et al. [2013] for estimating errors in peak currents reported by the NLDN. Acknowledgments: This research was supported in part by NSF Grant ATM-0852869 and DARPA Grant HR0011-10-1-0061. Acquisition of triggered-lightning current data used in this study would not be possible without efforts of many individuals, including, in alphabetical order, W. R. Gamerota, J. D. Hill, D. M. Jordan, T. Ngin, R. C. Olsen III, J. T. Pilkey, and M. A. Uman, to name those who deserve special thanks. References: Mallick et al. (2012), Atmos. Res., Mallick et al. (2013), Proc. 8th APL, paper LDIA-433. Rakov et al. (1992), J. Geophys. Res., 97(D11), 11527-11533. Uman and McLain (1969), J. Geophys. Res., 74(D28), 6899-6910. Willett et al. (1989), J. Geophys. Res., 94(D11), 13275-13286.

Mallick, S.; Rakov, V. A.



Evaluation of pinched inlet channel for stopless flow injection in steric field-flow fractionation.  


In this article the concept of utilizing a pinched inlet channel for field-flow fractionation (FFF), in which the channel thickness is reduced over a substantial inlet segment to reduce relaxation effects and avoid stopflow, is evaluated for steric FFF using one conventional channel and two pinched inlet channels. It is shown that with the proper adjustment of flow-rate, the stopflow process in FFF can be completely avoided, thus bypassing the flow interruption associated with stopflow and reducing separation time. The maximum flow-rate that can be used for stopless flow operation without incurring zone distortion is shown to agree reasonably well with simple theory; slight departures from theory are attributed to the existence of reduced transport rates of large particles through thin channel structures. PMID:2250052

Moon, M H; Myers, M N; Giddings, J C



Evaluating miscible and immiscible gas injection in the Safah field, Oman  

SciTech Connect

The reservoir modeling approach presented in this paper illustrates how available engineering tools can be used to evaluate the technical feasibility and economics of high-pressure gas injection. The key components to such a study included: (1) equation of state (EOS) modeling of experimental PVT data, matching miscible and immiscible slim tube results, and systematically reducing the number of components used in the EOS model to minimize computational requirements, (2) studying numerical grid effects, displacement mechanisms, optimal well pattern, and injection pressure with 2D cross-section and 3D sector models, and (3) comparing compositional results with simulations based on the black-oil PVT formulation used in full-field history matching and reservoir management modeling.

Hearn, C.L.; Whitson, C.H.



Evaluation of baits for oral rabies vaccination of mongooses: pilot field trials in Antigua, West Indies.  


A field study was conducted on the island of Antigua, West Indies, to evaluate baits for delivering an oral rabies vaccine to the small Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus). Tracking tiles were used to determine that mongooses were nonselective and took both egg-flavored polyurethane baits and fish-flavored polymer baits containing several different food materials. A high proportion of baits were taken the day of placement with minimal disturbance by nontarget species. DuPont Oil Blue A dye was an effective short-term biomarker for use in baits; based on its subsequent detection in mongooses, some of the population had consumed and not cached or discarded baits. Central point baiting stations showed promise as an alternative delivery technique. PMID:8487380

Linhart, S B; Creekmore, T E; Corn, J L; Whitney, M D; Snyder, B D; Nettles, V F




EPA Science Inventory

An evaluation of Long Lake, Minnesota was initiated by Ramsey County and Environmental Research Group, Inc. in February 1978 to determine the effectiveness of a demonstration project on lake restoration. The three-year evaluation study included continuous hydrologic monitoring to...


Summary of ENDF/B-V evaluations for carbon, calcium, iron, copper, and lead and ENDF/B-V Revision 2 for calcium and iron  

SciTech Connect

This report, together with documents already published, describes the ENDF/B-V evaluations of the neutron and gamma-ray-production cross sections for carbon, calcium, iron, copper, and lead and the ENDF/B-V Revision 2 evaluations for calcium and iron.

Fu, C Y



Evaluation of the Texas Technology Immersion Pilot: An Analysis of the Baseline Conditions and First-Year Implementation of Technology Immersion in Middle Schools. Executive Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Texas Education Agency (TEA) used Title II, Part D monies to fund a wireless learning environment for high-need middle schools through the Technology Immersion Pilot (TIP). A concurrent research project funded by a federal Evaluating State Education Technology Programs grant is scientifically evaluating whether student achievement improves

Shapley, Kelly; Sheehan, Daniel; Sturges, Keith; Caranikas-Walker, Fanny; Huntsberger, Briana; Maloney, Catherine



Evaluation of GEOS-5 Sulfur Dioxide Simulations During the Frostburg, MD 2010 Field Campaign.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a major atmospheric pollutant with a strong anthropogenic component mostly produced by the combustion of fossil fuel and other industrial activities. As a precursor of sulfate aerosols that affect climate, air quality, and human health, this gas needs to be monitored on a global scale. Global climate and chemistry models including aerosol processes along with their radiative effects are important tools for climate and air quality research. Validation of these models against in-situ and satellite measurements is essential to ascertain the credibility of these models and to guide model improvements. In this study the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) module running on-line inside the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) model is used to simulate aerosol and SO2 concentrations. Data taken in November 2010 over Frostburg, Maryland during an SO2 field campaign involving ground instrumentation and aircraft are used to evaluate GEOS-5 simulated SO2 concentrations. Preliminary data analysis indicated the model overestimated surface SO2 concentration, which motivated the examination of mixing processes in the model and the specification of SO2 anthropogenic emission rates. As a result of this analysis, a revision of anthropogenic emission inventories in GEOS-5 was implemented, and the vertical placement of SO2 sources was updated. Results show that these revisions improve the model agreement with observations locally and in regions outside the area of this field campaign. In particular, we use the ground-based measurements collected by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for the year 2010 to evaluate the revised model simulations over North America.

Buchard, V.; Da Silva, A. M.; Colarco, P.; Krotkov, N.; Dickerson, R. R.; Stehr, J. W.; Mount, G.; Spenei, E.; Arkinson, H. L.; He, H.



Randomised field trial to evaluate serological response after foot-and-mouth disease vaccination in Turkey.  


Despite years of biannual mass vaccination of cattle, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) remains uncontrolled in Anatolian Turkey. To evaluate protection after mass vaccination we measured post-vaccination antibodies in a cohort of cattle (serotypes O, A and Asia-1). To obtain results reflecting typical field protection, participants were randomly sampled from across Central and Western Turkey after routine vaccination. Giving two-doses one month apart is recommended when cattle are first vaccinated against FMD. However, due to cost and logistics, this is not routinely performed in Turkey, and elsewhere. Nested within the cohort, we conducted a randomised trial comparing post-vaccination antibodies after a single-dose versus a two-dose primary vaccination course. Four to five months after vaccination, only a third of single-vaccinated cattle had antibody levels above a threshold associated with protection. A third never reached this threshold, even at peak response one month after vaccination. It was not until animals had received three vaccine doses in their lifetime, vaccinating every six months, that most (64% to 86% depending on serotype) maintained antibody levels above this threshold. By this time cattle would be >20 months old with almost half the population below this age. Consequently, many vaccinated animals will be unprotected for much of the year. Compared to a single-dose, a primary vaccination course of two-doses greatly improved the level and duration of immunity. We concluded that the FMD vaccination programme in Anatolian Turkey did not produce the high levels of immunity required. Higher potency vaccines are now used throughout Turkey, with a two-dose primary course in certain areas. Monitoring post-vaccination serology is an important component of evaluation for FMD vaccination programmes. However, consideration must be given to which antigens are present in the test, the vaccine and the field virus. Differences between these antigens affect the relationship between antibody titre and protection. PMID:25528523

Knight-Jones, T J D; Bulut, A N; Gubbins, S; Strk, K D C; Pfeiffer, D U; Sumption, K J; Paton, D J



Field measurements for evaluating the RZWQM and PESTFADE models for the tropical zone of Thailand.  


Evaluation of the field scale agricultural non-point source (NPS) simulation model against field experimental data is an important step that must be considered before a model can be used as a management tool. Therefore, the present study focuses on the testing of two NPS models known as the RZWQM (Root Zone Water Quality Model) and the PESTFADE (PESTicide Fate And Dynamics in the Environment). These models are used to predict the soil water content, metribuzin fate, and transport in a sprinkler-irrigated soybean field located at the experimental farm of the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) in the Pathumthani Province, Thailand. Field soil water content and metribuzin residue adsorbed at soil profile depths of 0-10, 10-20, and 30-40 cm at different time periods were intensively measured by the gravimetric method and Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), respectively. When comparing the field measured data, it was observed that the RZWQM performed better in simulating the soil water fcontent, whereas the performance of the PESTFADE model was better at simulating the metribuzin residue in the soil. Specifically, a reasonable agreement existed between the measured soil water content and that predicted by the RZWQM for 0-10 and 30-40 cm soil depths. The model slightly overpredicted the metribuzin residue at 0-10 cm soil depth one day after herbicide application, whereas the prediction of metribuzin residue at 10-20 and 30-40 cm soil depths was in accordance with the measured values. The PESTFADE model performed relatively well in simulating the soil water content at 10-20 cm and metribuzin residue concentration at 0-10 and 10-20 cm soil profile depths. However, the model performed relatively poorly at 30-40 cm soil profile depth. These results indicate that when properly calibrated, both the RZWQM and PESTFADE models can be used to predict the movement of water and metribuzin residue in the soil of tropical zones. PMID:25288050

Shrestha, Sangam; Datta, Avishek



A field evaluation of two vaccines against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection in pigs  

PubMed Central

Background A field trial was carried out with two Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccines in order to investigate the benefit of vaccination under field conditions in modern Danish pig production facilities with pigs being positive for M. hyopneumoniae. The M. hyopneumoniae infection of the herd was confirmed through blood samples that were positive for antibodies against M. hyopneumoniae combined with gross lesions of the lungs related to M. hyopneumoniae at slaughter and detection of M. hyopneumoniae by polymerace chain reaction in these lesions. Results A total of 2,256 pigs from two herds were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 received 2mL ThoroVAXVET, Group 2 received 1mL IngelvacMycoFLEX, and Group 3 was a non-vaccinated control group. The vaccination was performed by a person who was not involved in the rest of the trial and vaccination status thereby blinded to the evaluators. The prevalence of lung lesions related to M. hyopneumoniae were significantly lower for pigs vaccinated with ThoroVAXVET but not for pigs vaccinated with IngelvacMycoFLEX, when compared to non-vaccinated pigs. There was no significant effect of vaccination on growth rate, antibiotic consumption or mortality. Conclusion This trial demonstrated that vaccination with ThoroVAX VET was effective in reducing the prevalence of lung lesion in pig units infected with M. hyopneumoniae. PMID:24739629



A Study toward the Evaluation of ALOS Images for LAI Estimation in Rice Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For expanding and managing agricultural sources, satellite data have a key role in determining required information about different factors in plants Including Leaf Area Index (LAI).This paper has studied the potential of spectral indices in estimating rice canopy LAI in Amol city as one of the main sources of rice production in Iran. Due to its importance in provision of food and calorie of a major portion of population, rice product was chosen for study. A field campaign was conducted when rice was in the max growth stage (late of June). Also, two satellite images from ALOS-AVNIR-2 were used (simultaneous with conducted field works) to extract and determine vegetation indices. Then the Regression between measured data and vegetation indices, derived from combination of different bands, was evaluated and after that suitable vegetation indices were realized. Finally, statistics and calculations for introduction of a suitable model were presented. After examination of models, the results showed that RDVI and SAVI2, by determination coefficient and RMSE of 0.12-0.59 and 0.24-0.62, have more accuracy in LAI estimation. Results of present study demonstrated the potential of ALOS images, for LAI estimation and their significant role in monitoring and managing the rice plant.

Sharifi Hashjin, Sh.; Darvishzadeh, R.; Khandan, R.



Evaluation of two pesticide leaching models in an irrigated field cropped with corn.  


Pesticide leaching models is an easy and cost effective method used in the prediction of surface and groundwater pollution. In this paper, the ability of two pesticide leaching models, MACRO and PEARL, to describe soil water dynamics and atrazine's transport through the soil profile was examined. The data used for the comparison was obtained from an experiment in an irrigated corn field in the plain of the Ardas River, in north-eastern Greece. Both models were parameterized using pedotransfer functions, field and laboratory data. The uncalibrated simulation showed several discrepancies, therefore the retention curve and the sorption parameters were calibrated according to the trial and error method. The comparison of both models indicated that soil water flow was described similarly. The simulated results of atrazine's concentration were evaluated and compared to the measured concentrations at specific depths, using statistical criteria. Atrazine transport was simulated in a satisfactory manner as confirmed by model efficiency (EF) values, that are very close to unit. Coefficient of residual mass (CRM) values for both models are positive, indicating that both models underestimate the measured data. MACRO estimated higher accumulated actual evapotranspiration values, and less percolated water from soil profile than PEARL, and as a result, change in water content was higher in the latter. PEARL also predicted that half the amount of the applied mass was decayed two days earlier than the day estimated by MACRO. Generally, MACRO simulated the fate of atrazine in soil better than PEARL. PMID:25560660

Giannouli, Dorothea D; Antonopoulos, Vassilis Z



Joint use of laboratory bioassays and field-collected invertebrates to evaluate toxicity and contaminant bioaccumulation  

SciTech Connect

Soil toxicity tests using earthworms (Eisenia andrei) were conducted using soil samples collected as part of ecological risk assessments for several sites at two facilities in California. At some sites, earthworms or other terrestrial invertebrates were collected in the field for chemical analysis. Ecological concerns focused on exposures to soil invertebrates and their secondary consumers, such as birds and small mammals. The toxicity tests were used to assess potential exposures to a variety of site-specific contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, PAHs, petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and other inorganic substances. Site soils were combined with clean control soils to produce toxicity test soil dilutions containing 100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, and 0% site soils. Earthworm mortality and other observations were made at day 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Toxicity test results were combined with soil chemical analytical results and physical characteristics to establish NOAELs and LOAELs. Bioaccumulation in the laboratory earthworms and field-collected invertebrates was evaluated by comparing whole-body contaminant to soil contaminant concentrations. Allometric equations and sublethal toxicity data were used to predict potential effects on birds and small mammals. Earthworm toxicity tests indicated a wide range of sensitivity to on-site contaminants and showed the importance of considering potential confounding influences due to soil parameters other than contaminant concentration.

Long, S.P.; Byron, E.R.; Ohlendorf, H.M. [CH2M Hill, Sacramento, CA (United States)



Portable Infrared Reflectometer Designed and Manufactured for Evaluating Emittance in the Laboratory or in the Field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The optical properties of materials play a key role in spacecraft thermal control. In space, radiant heat transfer is the only mode of heat transfer that can reject heat from a spacecraft. One of the key properties for defining radiant heat transfer is emittance, a measure of how efficiently a surface can reject heat in comparison to a perfect black body emitter. Heat rejection occurs in the infrared region of the spectrum, nominally in the range of 2 to 25 mm. To calculate emittance, one obtains the reflectance over this spectral range, calculates spectral absorptance by difference, and then uses Kirchhoff s Law and the Stefan-Boltzmann equation to calculate emittance. A new portable infrared reflectometer, the SOC 400t, was designed and manufactured to evaluate the emittance of surfaces and coatings in the laboratory or in the field. It was developed by Surface Optics Corporation under a contract with the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field to replace the Center s aging Gier-Dunkle DB-100 infrared reflectometer. The specifications for the new instrument include a wavelength range of 2 to 25 mm; reflectance repeatability of +/-1 percent; self-calibrating, near-normal spectral reflectance measurements; a full scan measurement time of 3.5 min, a sample size of 1.27 cm (0.5 in.); a spectral resolution selectable from 4, 8, 16, or 32/cm; and optical property characterization utilizing an automatic integration to calculate total emittance in a selectable temperature range.

Jaworske, Donald A.



Model Simulations for Evaluating Water Use Efficiency at the Field Scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of model simulations were conducted to evaluate the impact of various irrigation management scenarios on water-use efficiency and pore-water leaching below the root zone of a forested field site as estimated using two different modeling approaches, a capacitance based leaching model and HYDRUS1D. A non-iterative capacitance based model and HYDRUS1D (ver. 4.0), a one-dimensional water and solute transport model based on Richards equation, were used to predict water movement within an idealized soil profile based on the textural analysis of numerous soil cores collected on an irrigated 20 acre watershed in South Carolina, with root uptake described as a sink term within the vertical flow model. Irrigation timing and application rates based on precipitation records and estimates of evapo-transpiration potential were evaluated. Precipitation data set derived from several weather stations near the study site were used in defining the atmospheric boundary conditions for a 34 year period from 1975 through 2007. Initially, the HYDRUS1D was subjected to atmospheric boundary conditions reflecting precipitation data for a 3-month period (Jan-March 1975) prior to tritium application as a means of defining initial soil profile conditions in a manner that minimizes impact on initial tritium uptake efficiencies. Management scenarios included daily irrigation at daily levels to address 40 to 90% of the potential evapo-transpiration (PET) deficit as estimated by the Penman-Montieth method. The impact of root distribution on water use efficiency was also evaluated.

Singer, J.; Seaman, J. C.



Evaluation through field trials of a computer vision based automatic incident detection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Reliable Automatic Incident Detection (AID) Systems are elements in integrated urban and inter-urban traffic control management. A new approach using image processing especially oriented to AID was developed in the frame of the CEC DRIVE Programme. The AID system is based on the analysis of video images from closed circuit television (CCT) cameras situated in strategic

S. Guillen; J. Martinez



WIPP-025, Rev. 0 Summary of Nuclear Criticality Safety  

E-print Network

WIPP-025, Rev. 0 Summary of Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation for Shielded Containers at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant #12;SUMMARY OF NUCLEAR CRITICALITY SAFETY EVALUATION FOR SHIELDED CONTAINERS) make any warranty, expressed or implied, (ii) assume any legal liability or responsibility


Guidance for evaluating mass communication health initiatives: summary of an expert panel discussion sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.  


In May 2004, 12 experts in evaluating large-scale health communication programs came to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to participate in an electronic focus group discussion. They offered advice on topics ranging from the role of logic models to the best strategies for controlling for self-selection bias in surveys regarding outcomes of exposure to mass media health messages. The experts also highlighted health communication evaluation topics that have received too little scientific attention. Finally, they made strategic policy recommendations. Use of the state-of-the-art evaluation methods that they recommended could improve the communication of factual and persuasive health messages and help to guard the public health of the nation. Their advice may also advance evaluation practice in other substantive areas, especially where it is difficult or impossible to implement randomized designs. PMID:17693617

Abbatangelo-Gray, Jodie; Cole, Galen E; Kennedy, May G



Evaluation of volcano-style field ionization source and field emitting cathodes for mass spectrometry and applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A volcano-style field ionization source was tested with eight different gases: hydrogen, helium, ammonia, methane, argon, neon, water vapor, and hydrogen sulfide. For ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and water, the ionization efficiency of the field ionization source was determined as a function of the electrical potential difference between the ionizer and its counterelectrode. The ionization efficiencies for the other gases were too low to be measured in the present apparatus. The operating characteristics of a field emission cathode, were studied, in the presence of the same eight gases at pressures up to 0.00001 torr. The presence of the gases caused little or no significant change in the electron emission from the cathodes. Results indicate that the field emission cathode has advantages over electrically heated cathodes as a source of an electron beam in spacecraft mass spectrometers.

Buttrill, S. E., Jr.; Spindt, C. A.




EPA Science Inventory

Careful site characterization and implementation of quantitative monitoring methods are prerequisites for a convincing evaluation of enhanced biostimulation for aquifer restoration. his paper describes the characterization of a site at Moffett Naval Air Station, Mountain View, Ca...



EPA Science Inventory

Careful site characterization and implementation of quantitative monitoring methods are prerequisites for a convincing evaluation of enhanced biostimulation for aquifer restoration. This paper describes the characterization of a site at Moffett Naval Air Station, Mountain View, C...


Summary of the Second International Planetary Dunes Workshop: Planetary Analogs - Integrating Models, Remote Sensing, and Field Data, Alamosa, Colorado, USA, May 18-21, 2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Second International Planetary Dunes Workshop took place in Alamosa, Colorado, USA from May 18-21, 2010. The workshop brought together researchers from diverse backgrounds to foster discussion and collaboration regarding terrestrial and extra-terrestrial dunes and dune systems. Two and a half days were spent on five oral sessions and one poster session, a full-day field trip to Great Sand Dunes National Park, with a great deal of time purposefully left open for discussion. On the last day of the workshop, participants assembled a list of thirteen priorities for future research on planetary dune systems. ?? 2010.

Fenton, L.K.; Bishop, M.A.; Bourke, M.C.; Bristow, C.S.; Hayward, R.K.; Horgan, B.H.; Lancaster, N.; Michaels, T.I.; Tirsch, D.; Titus, T.N.; Valdez, A.



Evaluation and interpretation of bubble size distributions in pulsed megasonic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The occurrence of acoustic cavitation is incorporating a multitude of interdependent effects that strongly depend on the bubble size. Therefore, bubble size control would be beneficial for biological and industrial processes that rely on acoustic cavitation. A pulsed acoustic field can result in bubble size control and the repeated dissolution and reactivation ("recycling") of potentially active bubbles. As a consequence, a pulsed field can strongly enhance cavitation activity. In this paper, we present a modified methodology for the evaluation of the active bubble size distribution by means of a combination of cavitation noise measurements and ultrasonic pulsing. The key component of this modified methodology is the definition of an upper size limit, below which bubblesin between subsequent pulseshave to dissolve, in order to be sustainably recycled. This upper limit makes it possible to explain and link the enhancement of cavitation activity to a bubble size distribution. The experimentally determined bubble size distributions for different power densities are interpreted in the frame of numerical calculations of the oscillatory responses of the bubbles to the intermittent driving sound field. The distributions are found to be shaped by the size dependent interplay between bubble pulsations, rectified diffusion, coalescence, and the development of parametrically amplified shape instabilities. Also, a phenomenological reactivation-deactivation model is proposed to explain and quantify the observed enhancement of cavitation activity under pulsed, with respect to continuous sonication. In this model, the pulse-duration determines the magnitude of the reactivation of partially dissolved bubbles and the deactivation of activated bubbles by coalescence. It is shown that the subsequent recycling of previously active bubbles leads to an accumulation of cavitation activity, which saturates after a certain number of pulses. The model is fitted to the experimental data for the cavitation activity measured by means of ultraharmonic cavitation noise as a function of the pulse duration. Measurements of the development of the cavitation noise and sonochemiluminescence over a sequence of pulses for different pulse durations and separations confirm the general validity of the proposed model. Size distributions of the larger, inactive bubbles that were extracted from High-speed images of the cavitation field, relate the deactivation of activated bubbles by coalescence to the increase in volume concentrations of larger bubbles as observed by others.

Hauptmann, M.; Struyf, H.; De Gendt, S.; Glorieux, C.; Brems, S.



Summary: Chapter 3 Summary: Chapter 3  

E-print Network

meals by a tree diagram shown in Figure 3.1. Summary: Chapter 3 #12;ice cream cake ice cream cake ice cream cake ice cream cake ice cream cake ice cream cake (start) soup meat fish vegetable juice meat fish or juice; (b) three for the main course: a meat, fish, or vegetable dish; and (c) two for dessert: ice

Myers, Amy


Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Summary of results. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

During 1989 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. Two plants, Surry and Grand Gulf, were selected as the plants to be studied by Brookhaven National Laboratory (Surry) and Sandia National Laboratories (Grand Gulf). This report documents the work performed during the analysis of the Grand Gulf plant. A phased approach was used for the overall study. In Phase 1, the objectives were to identify potential vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) the potential core damage accident scenario frequencies and risks, and to provide a foundation for a detailed Phase 2 analysis. It was in Phase 1 that the concept of plant operational states (POSs) was developed to allow the analysts to better represent the plant as it transitions from power operation to nonpower operation than was possible with the traditional technical specification divisions of modes of operation. This phase consisted of a coarse screening analysis performed for all POSs, including seismic and internal fire and flood for some POSs. In Phase 2, POS 5 (approximately cold shutdown as defined by Grand Gulf Technical Specifications) during a refueling outage was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the Phase 1 study. The scope of the Level 1 study includes plant damage state analysis and uncertainty analysis and is documented in a multi-volume NUREG/CR report (i.e., NUREG/CR-6143). The internal events analysis is documented in Volume 2. Internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Volumes 3 and 4, respectively. A separate study on seismic analysis, documented in Volume 5, was performed for the NRC by Future Resources Associates, Inc. The Level 2/3 study of the traditional internal events is documented in Volume 6, and a summary of the results for all analyses is documented in Volume 1.

Whitehead, D.W. [ed.; Staple, B.D.; Daniel, S.L. [and others



Thermal Imagery and Field Techniques to Evaluate Groundwater Nutrient Loading to an Estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal infrared imagery has the potential to be a powerful and affordable tool for coastal managers and scientists to assist in the evaluation of pollution from groundwater. Developments in thermal imagery have improved its accessibility and affordability for use in coastal resource management. An on-going study has applied these new developments in thermal imagery to evaluate groundwater discharge on a large scale. In April and August of 2000 a series of thermal infrared aerial surveys were flown over the Great Bay Estuary in coastal New Hampshire. This study delineated the large-scale groundwater flux to an estuary. This flux was then used to estimate the nutrient loading to the estuarine ecosystem. The aerial survey covered the Great Bay, including nearly 50 miles of shoreline and four of the major contributing rivers. The August survey was completed in the equivalent of an afternoon. The images were available immediately with no post-processing required, and are being mosaicked into larger contiguous images to be incorporated into GIS applications. The images were studied for thermal anomalies as an indication of upwelling groundwater. The surface areas of each individual groundwater discharge zones were computed by GIS analysis of the photo-identified discharge zones. This was accomplished by use of gray-scale images calibrated to a known temperature range. The suspected groundwater discharge zones were identified in the field, characterized for hydrologic parameters, and sampled for water quality. Preliminary results suggest that groundwater is a significant component of the freshwater influx to the Great Bay, contributing half as much as the 10-year daily average of the Lamprey River. The Lamprey River is the largest (183 sq. mi. drainage area) of the four major surface freshwater sources to the upper Great Bay. Of particular significance, the estimated groundwater contribution was as much as 150%\\ that contributed by the Lamprey River during the summer low flows, when dilution and mixing are at a minimum. . The field-measured groundwater influx had elevated nitrate levels averaging nearly 0.95 mg NO3-N/L. The elevated nitrate concentrations were found down gradient of low-density residential areas with little agriculture. Groundwater contribution is typically one of the last major variables to be adequately characterized in a comprehensive study of nutrient loading to estuarine ecosystems. Preliminary results of this study indicate that groundwater influx is a significant component of the overall nutrient loading. Information regarding the quantity and quality of groundwater discharge to coastal ecosystems is valuable from both land management and regulatory standpoints.




Field soil aggregate stability kit for soil quality and rangeland health evaluations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soil aggregate stability is widely recognized as a key indicator of soil quality and rangeland health. However, few standard methods exist for quantifying soil stability in the field. A stability kit is described which can be inexpensively and easily assembled with minimal tools. It permits up to 18 samples to be evaluated in less than 10 min and eliminates the need for transportation, minimizing damage to soil structure. The kit consists of two 21??10.5??3.5 cm plastic boxes divided into eighteen 3.5??3.5 cm sections, eighteen 2.5-cm diameter sieves with 1.5-mm distance openings and a small spatula used for soil sampling. Soil samples are rated on a scale from one to six based on a combination of ocular observations of slaking during the first 5 min following immersion in distilled water, and the percent remaining on a 1.5-mm sieve after five dipping cycles at the end of the 5-min period. A laboratory comparison yielded a correlation between the stability class and percent aggregate stability based on oven dry weight remaining after treatment using a mechanical sieve. We have applied the method in a wide variety of agricultural and natural ecosystems throughout western North America, including northern Mexico, and have found that it is highly sensitive to differences in management and plant community composition. Although the field kit cannot replace the careful laboratory-based measurements of soil aggregate stability, it can clearly provide valuable information when these more intensive procedures are not possible.

Herrick, J.E.; Whitford, W.G.; de Soyza, A. G.; Van Zee, J. W.; Havstad, K.M.; Seybold, C.A.; Walton, M.



Blood collected on filter paper for wildlife serology: evaluating storage and temperature challenges of field collections.  


Filter-paper (FP) blood sampling can facilitate wildlife research and expand disease surveillance. Previous work indicated that Nobuto FP samples from caribou and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus subspecies) had comparable sensitivity and specificity to serum samples (? 80% for both) in competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (cELISAs) for Brucella spp., Neospora caninum, and West Nile virus. The same sensitivity and specificity criteria were met in indirect ELISAs for Brucella spp., bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1), parainfluenza virus type 3 (PI-3), and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), with adjusted FP thresholds used for PI-3 and BRSV. Comparable sensitivity and specificity values to serum were also observed for FP in virus neutralization (VN) assays for bovine viral diarrhea virus types I and II; however, reduced sensitivity is a potential limitation of FP samples in protocols that require undiluted serum (i.e., VN and N. caninum cELISA). We evaluated the performance of FP samples from reindeer and caribou in these nine assays after simulating potential challenges of high-latitude field collections: 1) different durations of storage and 2) different processing/storage regimes involving freezing or drying. Sample pairs (serum and FP) were collected from reindeer and caribou populations in 2007-10 and were tested in duplicate. Comparable performance to serum was defined as sensitivity and specificity ? 80%. In the storage experiments, FP performance was determined after 2 mo of storage dry at room temperature, and after two longer periods (variable depending on assay; up to 2 yr). After 1 yr, compared to frozen serum stored for the same period, sensitivity was ? 88% for all but two assays (68% BHV-1; 75% PI-3), and specificity remained >90%. A limited trial evaluated the effect of freezing FP samples as opposed to drying them for storage. There were no observed detrimental effects of freezing on FP sample performance, but rigorous investigation is warranted. PMID:24499329

Curry, Patricia S; Ribble, Carl; Sears, William C; Orsel, Karin; Hutchins, Wendy; Godson, Dale; Lindsay, Robbin; Dibernardo, Antonia; Campbell, Mitch; Kutz, Susan J



Breakdown and critical field evaluation for porous PZT 95/5 ferroelectric ceramics under shock wave compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bounded charges of PZT 95/5 ferroelectric ceramics with polarization can be rapidly released by shock wave loadings to form a high-power electrical energy output, which motivates pulsed power applications of ferroelectric materials. In the present paper, we first investigated experimentally the depoling current and output electric field, as well as the critical electric fields of breakdown for porous PZT 95/5 ceramics in the normal shock-wave-loaded mode by means of a gas-gun facility. By combining the output electric-field profile by shock loading with the breakdown of the quasi-static electric field, we were able to theoretically evaluate the range of the breakdown field for porous ferroelectric ceramics with different porosities under shock wave compression. Although it is a rough bound-field evaluation on breakdown of shocked porous PZT 95/5 ferroelectric ceramics suggested in the present work, it sounds reasonable and the predictions of critical field-bounds on the breakdown show good agreement with the magnitude of the experimental results. The influences of load resistance, porosity and velocity of shock wave on the lower and upper bounds of critical electric field for poled porous PZT 95/5 ceramics during the discharge process were also discussed.

Jiang, Yixuan; Wang, Xingzhe; Zhang, Fuping; He, Hongliang



Experimental evaluation of longitudinal field loss in multiply-twisted superconducting cables for a.c. use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In multiply-twisted superconducting cables exposed to an external a.c. transverse magnetic field, a component of the magnetic field parallel to the strand axis brings about an additional a.c. loss (longitudinal field loss) in the strands. We have experimentally evaluated the longitudinal field loss in two types of triply-twisted superconducting cables composed of insulated strands with different diameters, by eliminating the hysteresis loss and the transverse coupling-current loss from the total loss in the strands. The evaluated longitudinal field losses were quantitatively explained by a theoretical expression obtained, to date, from consideration of the effects of the longitudinal component of the applied field on the strand. The present results suggest that the longitudinal field loss can be dominant in an a.c. magnetic field with relatively large amplitude. To minimize the total loss of the strand in the multiply-twisted cables, an optimum condition for the twist pitch of the strand was discussed.

Kanetaka, H.; Ueda, H.; Eguchi, Y.; Iwakuma, M.; Funaki, K.; Takeo, M.; Yamafuji, K.; Miyake, S.; Kumano, T.; Ichihara, M.


Summary and Evaluation of EPDA-B2 Project 70.01 at the Tennessee Appalachia Educational Cooperative July 1, 1970 through August 31, 1971.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five teacher and teacher aid training program workshops held during summer and fall 1970, and winter, spring, and summer 1971 are evaluated. The subjects covered in the workshops included simulation, microteaching, role differentiation, classroom control, audiovisual instruction, learning theory, content areas, drugs, individualized instruction,

Saffels, Francis L.; Holt, William W.


Evaluation of the MOST (Making the Most of Out-of-School Time) Initiative: Final Report. Summary of Findings. Discussion Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The University of Chicago's Chapin Hall Center for Children conducted an evaluation of the first phase (1995-1998) of the MOST (Making the Most of Out-of-School Time) Initiative of the Wallace-Reader's Digest Funds. The objectives of this initiative were to contribute to the supply, accessibility, affordability, and quality of after-school

Halpern, Robert; Spielberger, Julie; Robb, Sylvan


Evaluation of the "Learning by Doing" Faculty Development Program for the Minnesota State Colleges and Universities (MnSCU) Center for Teaching and Learning. Final Report Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Funded in 1999, the "Learning by Doing" (LBD) program of the Minnesota State Colleges and Universities system Center for Teaching and Learning was designed to increase faculty knowledge, skills, and confidence in using active learning strategies. This report marks the end of an in-depth evaluation study of active learning and the effects of LBD on

Schmitz, Connie C.; Luxenberg, Michael G.


Prediction method for night-time MF sky-wave field strength, evaluation of median field strengths  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper recapitulates the results of the work termed Phase 1 in this attempt, namely the method for predicting median field strengths as an initial standard of reference by the use of a plausible modelling of the media through and\\/or via which radio waves travel. This method has been derived from a union of electromagnetic and magneto-ionic theories and is

A. Kinase; S. Itoh



Laboratory and field evaluation of a pretreatment system for removing organics from produced water.  


Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. This "produced water" is characterized by saline water containing a variety of pollutants, including water soluble and immiscible organics and many inorganic species. To reuse produced water, removal of both the inorganic dissolved solids and organic compounds is necessary. In this research, the effectiveness of a pretreatment system consisting of surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) adsorption followed by a membrane bioreactor (MBR) was evaluated for simultaneous removal of carboxylates and hazardous substances, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) from saline-produced water. A laboratory-scale MBR, operated at a 9.6-hour hydraulic residence time, degraded 92% of the carboxylates present in synthetic produced water. When BTEX was introduced simultaneously to the MBR system with the carboxylates, the system achieved 80 to 95% removal of BTEX via biodegradation. These results suggest that simultaneous biodegradation of both BTEX and carboxylate constituents found in produced water is possible. A field test conducted at a produced water disposal facility in Farmington, New Mexico confirmed the laboratory-scale results for the MBR and demonstrated enhanced removal of BTEX using a treatment train consisting of SMZ columns followed by the MBR. While most of the BTEX constituents of the produced water adsorbed onto the SMZ adsorption system, approximately 95% of the BTEX that penetrated the SMZ and entered the MBR was biodegraded in the MBR. Removal rates of acetate (influent concentrations of 120 to 170 mg/L) ranged from 91 to 100%, and total organic carbon (influent concentrations as high as 580 mg/L) ranged from 74 to 92%, respectively. Organic removal in the MBR was accomplished at a low biomass concentration of 1 g/L throughout the field trial. While the transmembrane pressure during the laboratory-scale tests was well-controlled, it rose substantially during the field test, where no pH control was implemented. The results suggest that pretreatment with an SMZ/MBR system can provide substantial removal of organic compounds present in produced water, a necessary first step for many water-reuse applications. PMID:22073732

Kwon, Soondong; Sullivan, Enid J; Katz, Lynn E; Bowman, Robert S; Kinney, Kerry A



Evaluation of the induced electric field and compliance procedure for a wireless power transfer system in an electrical vehicle.  


In this study, an induced electric field in a human body is evaluated for the magnetic field leaked from a wireless power transfer system for charging an electrical vehicle. The magnetic field from the wireless power transfer system is modelled computationally, and its effectiveness is confirmed by comparison with the field measured in a previous study. The induced electric field in a human standing around the vehicle is smaller than the allowable limit prescribed ininternational guidelines, although the magnetic field strength in the human body is locally higher than the allowable external field strength. Correlation between the external magnetic field and the induced electric field is confirmed to be reasonable at least in the standing posture, which is the case discussed in the international standard. Based on this finding, we discussed and confirmed the applicability of a three-point magnetic field measurement at heights of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5m for safety compliance. PMID:24107570

Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa



Characterization of instrumented sites for the Onsite Fuel-Cell Field-Test project. Executive Summary. Topical report, 1983-1985  

SciTech Connect

During the site selection phase of the Onsite Fuel-Cell Field Test, nearly one hundred sites throughout the U.S. were each instrumented with a standard data-acquisition system (DAS) to collect hourly electrical and thermal data for one year. Seventy of those sites are included in the report. Each site's electrical and thermal systems were instrumented including ambient temperature, electrical demands building gas usage, and other parameters which were necessary to calculate building thermal loads. Multifamily residential, commercial and light industrial sites were instrumented. Approximately twenty market sectors were represented including restaurants, hospitals, hotels, apartments, health clubs, nursing homes, and food-processing plants. The primary use of the data was to determine site compatibility for the installation of 40 kW fuel cell power plants. However, the collected energy data and site-specific information summarized in the comprehensive report may also be useful for other applications such as market characterization, and simulation of new or improved energy utilization equipment in actual sites.

Racine, W.C.; Campillo, C.J.




E-print Network

SUMMARY REPORT THE 7TH ANNUAL IABP MEETING St. Petersburg, Russia, 3 - 6 June 1997 #12;IABP-7 Summary Report 2 Table of Contents Summary Report-ordinator's Report.......................................................... 20 5. Report of the Data Buoy Co

Rigor, Ignatius G.


Field evaluation of deltamethrin against resistant Anopheles culicifacies in Distt. Ghaziabad (U.P.) India.  


A field study to evaluate the impact of deltamethrin spraying on DDT and HCH resistant A. culicifacies population was carried out in Razapur primary health centre (PHC), Distt. Ghaziabad (U.P.) India. The PHC comprising of about 0.14 million population was divided into 3 sections of equal size and sprayed with (i) 3 rounds at 12.5 mg/sq m at 6 weeks interval, and (ii) 2 rounds each at 20 mg/sq m and 25 mg/sq m at 8 weeks interval. One section in Dadri PHC located at a distance of about 22 kms was held as control. In this area 3 rounds of HCH were sprayed by the NMEP as was done to control malaria in this district. Deltamethrin spraying was carried out for 3 years. Results revealed that spraying at 12.5, 20 and 25 mg/sq m resulted in drastic reduction of DDT and HCH resistant A. culicifacies population and in the interruption of malaria transmission. In control area high vector densities and malaria transmission was encountered throughout the period of study. Spraying of deltamethrin resulted in build-up of Culex quinquefasciatus population due to resistance. PMID:2384182

Ansari, M A; Sharma, V P; Razdan, R K; Mittal, P K



Evaluating a radiation monitor for mixed-field environments based on SRAM technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Instruments operating in particle accelerators and colliders are exposed to radiations that are composed of particles of different types and energies. Several of these instruments often embed devices that are not hardened against radiation effects. Thus, there is a strong need for monitoring the levels of radiation inside the mixed-field radiation areas, throughout different positions. Different metrics exist for measuring the radiation damage induced to electronic devices, such as the Total Ionizing Dose (TID), the Displacement Damage (DD) and of course the fluence of particles for estimating the error rates of the electronic devices among other applications. In this paper, we propose an SRAM based monitor, that is used to define the fluence of High Energy Hadrons (HEH) by detecting Single Event Upsets in the memory array. We evaluated the device by testing it inside the H4IRRAD area of CERN, a test area that reproduces the radiation conditions inside the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) tunnel and its shielded areas. By using stability estimation methods and presenting experimental data, we prove that this device is proper to be used for such a purpose.

Tsiligiannis, G.; Dilillo, L.; Bosio, A.; Girard, P.; Pravossoudovitch, S.; Todri, A.; Virazel, A.; Mekki, J.; Brugger, M.; Wrobel, F.; Saigne, F.



Field evaluation of natural gas and dry sorbent injection for MWC emissions control  

SciTech Connect

The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), in cooperation with the Olmsted Waste-to-Energy Facility (OWEF) and with subcontracted engineering services from the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), has completed the detailed engineering and preparation of construction specifications for an Emissions Reduction Testing System (ERTS). The ERTS has been designed for retrofit to one of two 100-ton/day municipal waste combustors at the OWEF, located in Rochester, Minnesota. The purpose of the retrofit is to conduct a field evaluation of a combined natural gas and sorbent injection process (IGT`s METHANE de-TOX{sup SM}, IGT Patent No. 5,105,747) for reducing the emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), hydrochloric acid (HCI), oxides of sulfur (SO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons (THC), and chlorinated hydrocarbons (dioxin/furans). In addition, the design includes modifications for the control of heavy metals (HM). Development of the process should allow the waste-to-energy industry to meet the Federal New Source Performance Standards for these pollutants at significantly lower costs when compared to existing technology of Thermal deNO{sub x} combined with spray dryer scrubber/fabric filters. Additionally, the process should reduce boiler corrosion and increase both the thermal and power production efficiency of the facility.

Wohadlo, S.; Abbasi, H.; Cygan, D. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)] Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)



Field evaluation of direct-reading continuous ethylene oxide monitors. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Wilford Hall USAF Medical Center Central Processing Section (WHMC/SGLP) uses ethylene oxide (EtO) as a primary sterilizing agent. Because of their concern about the health effects of EtO, SGLP has searched for a continuous-monitoring EtO system. In their search, they found two units (AMSCO's Envirogard III and Baseline Industries, Inc.'s Model 5500 Gas Analyzer). The objective of this evaluation was to conduct a field study to compare the performances of the two direct-reading continuous EtO monitors against the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) acceptable charcoal-tube sampling method. In addition, the 3M EtO passive monitor sampling method was compared with the charcoal-tube method and direct-reading instrumental method as well. Neither the Baseline Industries, Inc. nor the AMSCO continuous monitors corresponded to OSHA acceptable charcoal tube method of air sampling. Both instruments reported EtO concentrations much higher than those detected by the charcoal tubes. There is no way of knowing which method, the direct-reading continuous monitor or the charcoal tube/passive monitor, is more correct. However, the OSHA standard for EtO is based on measuring EtO by the charcoal tube method.

Hossain, M.A.; Carpenter, D.R.



Design and Near-Field Measurement Performance Evaluation of the Sea Winds Dual- Beam Reflector Antenna  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the design and performance evaluation of a lightweight, composite material, elliptical-aperture, parabolic-reflector antenna. The performance characterization is obtained using the cylindrical near-field measurement facility at JPL as shown. The reflector has been designed and calibrated for the SeaWinds spaceborne scatterometer instrument. The instrument operates at Ku-band and is designed to accurately measure wind speed and direction over Earth's ocean surface. The SeaWinds antenna design requires two linearly polarized independent beams pointed at 40 deg.and 46 deg. from nadir as shown. The inner beam, pointed at 40 deg. from nadir, is horizontally polarized with 1.6 in x 1.8 in required beamwidths in the elevation and azimuth planes, respectively. The outer beam, pointed at 46 deg. from nadir, is vertically polarized with 1.4 in x 1.7 in required beamwidths. Noteworthy, the reflector boresight axis is pointed at 43 deg. from nadir. Both beams are required to have the first sidelobe level below -15 dB relative to the peak of the beam.

Hussein, Z.; Rahmat-Samii, Y.; Kellogg, K.



A manipulative field experiment to evaluate an integrative methodology for assessing sediment pollution in estuarine ecosystems.  


The assessment of sediment contamination is of crucial importance for the management of estuarine ecosystems. Environmental risk assessment of oil pollution must be specific to these ecosystems because of their unique toxicant bioavailability dynamics, which is not comparable with that of other ecosystems where the environmental parameters are less variable. The goal of this work was to test in two European estuarine areas (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal; La Manga, Spain) whether the common methodology used to evaluate sediment pollution in marine sediment (amphipod toxicity tests and community structure analysis) is suited to these physico-chemically unique systems. Manipulative field experiments were conducted at three oil concentration levels, to compare resulting changes in community structure with laboratory and in situ amphipod toxicity tests carried out with native amphipod species Corophium multisetosum (Atlantic area) and Microdeutopus gryllotalpa (Mediterranean area). The impact of the toxicant was reflected in the community structure and toxicity tests, both of which were correlated with oil concentration. These results point to this methodology being a reliable tool for assessing and monitoring pollution in estuarine areas. PMID:19272633

Sanz-Lzaro, Carlos; Marn, Arnaldo



Evaluation of the MOZAIC Capacitive Hygrometer during the airborne field study CIRRUS-III  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MOZAIC Capacitive Hygrometer (MCH) is usually operated onboard of passenger aircraft in the framework of MOZAIC (Measurement of Ozone by AIRBUS In-Service Aircraft). In order to evaluate the performance of the MCH, it was operated aboard a Learjet 35A aircraft as part of the CIRRUS-III field study together with a closed-cell Lyman-? fluorescence hygrometer (FISH) and an open path tunable diode laser system (OJSTER) for water vapour measurement. After reducing the data set to MOZAIC-relevant conditions, the 1Hz relative humidity (RH) cross correlation between MCH and reference instruments FISH (clear sky) and OJSTER (in-cirrus) yielded a remarkably good agreement of R2 = 0.97 and slope m = 0.96 and provided the MCH uncertainty of 5% RH. Probability distribution functions of RH deduced from MCH and reference instruments agreed well over the entire range of observations. The main limitation for the use of MCH data is related to sensor temperatures below the calibration limit of Tsensor = -40 C (corresponds to ambient temperature of Tambient = -70 C at typical cruising speed of long-haul passenger aircraft), which causes a delay in the sensor's time response. Good performance of MCH for clear sky as well as for in-cirrus conditions demonstrated the sensor robustness also for operation inside ice clouds.

Neis, P.; Smit, H. G. J.; Krmer, M.; Spelten, N.; Petzold, A.



Evaluation of soft-core processors on a Xilinx Virtex-5 field programmable gate array.  

SciTech Connect

Node-based architecture (NBA) designs for future satellite projects hold the promise of decreasing system development time and costs, size, weight, and power and positioning the laboratory to address other emerging mission opportunities quickly. Reconfigurable field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based modules will comprise the core of several of the NBA nodes. Microprocessing capabilities will be necessary with varying degrees of mission-specific performance requirements on these nodes. To enable the flexibility of these reconfigurable nodes, it is advantageous to incorporate the microprocessor into the FPGA itself, either as a hard-core processor built into the FPGA or as a soft-core processor built out of FPGA elements. This document describes the evaluation of three reconfigurable FPGA-based soft-core processors for use in future NBA systems: the MicroBlaze (uB), the open-source Leon3, and the licensed Leon3. Two standard performance benchmark applications were developed for each processor. The first, Dhrystone, is a fixed-point operation metric. The second, Whetstone, is a floating-point operation metric. Several trials were run at varying code locations, loop counts, processor speeds, and cache configurations. FPGA resource utilization was recorded for each configuration.

Learn, Mark Walter



Evaluation of a metal shear web selectively reinforced with filamentary composites for space shuttle application. Phase 3 Summary report: Shear web component testing and analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three large scale advanced composite shear web components were tested and analyzed to evaluate application of the design concept to a space shuttle orbiter thrust structure. The shear web design concept consisted of a titanium-clad + or - 45 deg boron/epoxy web laminate stiffened with vertical boron/epoxy reinforced aluminum stiffeners. The design concept was evaluated to be efficient and practical for the application that was studied. Because of the effects of buckling deflections, a requirement is identified for shear buckling resistant design to maximize the efficiency of highly-loaded advanced composite shear webs. An approximate analysis of prebuckling deflections is presented and computer-aided design results, which consider prebuckling deformations, indicate that the design concept offers a theoretical weight saving of 31 percent relative to all metal construction. Recommendations are made for design concept options and analytical methods that are appropriate for production hardware.

Laakso, J. H.; Straayer, J. W.



Field monitoring and performance evaluation of a field-scale in-well aeration system at a gasoline-contaminated site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several in-well aeration (IWA) technologies have been used since the early 1990s, but few field studies have been performed to evaluate the extent of water circulation around IWA systems. In this study, 27 discrete monitoring points (MPs) were installed at a gasoline-contaminated site to assess the efficacy of IWA. Pressure transducers and dissolved oxygen (DO) probes were sealed into the

Barbara L. Hall; Thomas E. Lachmar; R. Ryan Dupont




EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study in which NOx emissions and general combustion performance characteristics of four burners were evaluated under experimental furnace conditions. Of primary interest was the performance of a low NOx Distributed Mixing Burner (DMB), which was test...


The Conceptualization and Measurement of Quality of Life: Implications for Program Planning and Evaluation in the Field of Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of quality of life (QOL) is increasingly being used in the field of intellectual disabilities as a conceptual and measurement framework for program planning and evaluation. This article describes the development of a QOL conceptual and measurement framework, and summarizes how this framework is currently being used both nationally and

Schalock, Robert L.; Bonham, Gordon S.; Verdugo, Miguel A.



Effects of the Erika oil spill on the common starfish Asterias rubens, evaluated by field and laboratory studies.  

E-print Network

1 1 Effects of the Erika oil spill on the common starfish Asterias rubens, evaluated by field number: + 33 2 98 49 86 34 Fax: + 32 2 98 49 86 45 Abstract Impacts of the ,,Erika oil spill by these contaminants. Keywords: Asterias rubens; Erika oil spill; Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; biomarkers; growth

Paris-Sud XI, Université de



EPA Science Inventory

The report describes an investigation of the adequacy of a modeling approach in predicting the thermal environment and flow field of pulverized-coal-fired utility boilers. Two 420 MWe coal-fired boilers were evaluated: a single-wall-fired unit and a tangentially fired unit, repre...



EPA Science Inventory

The field performance evaluation of the in-situ bioremediation system at Libby, Montana Superfund Site indicated that treatment appears to have occurred in the water phase under the influence of the treatment injection system. Reduced inorganic compounds may have exerted a deman...



EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the design and performance of two replicate field exposure systems for evaluating the ecological effects of chronic SO2 exposure on 0.5 ha plots of native Montana grassland. The SO2 was supplied at a constant rate to each plot through a network of 2.5-cm insi...



EPA Science Inventory

The report describes an evaluation of the Pollution Episodic Model Version 2 (PEM-2) using measurements obtained from 29 days of the Philadelphia Aerosol Field Study. The model performance was determined by comparing predicted 12-h and 24-h average concentrations against correspo...


Field Evaluation of the Generalized Maintenance Trainer-Simulator: I. Fleet Communications System. ; Technical Report No. 89.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the Generalized Maintenance Trainer-Simulator (GMTS), an instructional system designed to give electronics students intensive troubleshooting practice in a simulated hands-on training environment, and reports on a field evaluation of the GMTS applied to systems level troubleshooting in radio communications. The GMTS can be

Rigney, J. W.; And Others


The Design and Field Evaluation of PhotoTalk: a Digital Image Communication Application for People with Aphasia  

E-print Network

. Unlike any other augmentative and alternative communication device for people with aphasia, Photo augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices for individuals who have communication impairmentsThe Design and Field Evaluation of PhotoTalk: a Digital Image Communication Application for People

McGrenere, Joanna


Evaluation of various slip estimation techniques for an induction machine operating under field-oriented control conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six published methods of rotor slip estimation for sensorless speed control were evaluated using simulated data. Only two of these showed signs of being usable. Both are based on the steady-state machine model and produce a fair slip accuracy for a machine running under perfect field alignment conditions. It was not determined whether the other four techniques were unsuccessful because

Nicholas P. Rubin; Ronald G. Harley; Gregory Diana




EPA Science Inventory

The US EPA bas established a national network at nearly 1100 sites to monitor PM2.5 mass for testing compliance with the PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The objective of the field evaluation is to determine the performance characteristics for the collection of the...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field-cage evaluations of introduced non-indigenous parasitoids in the genera Eretmocerus were conducted during 1997 in the Imperial Valley, California, to identify effective new species or geographic populations for establishment against Bemisia tabaci strain B on cantaloupe. Cantaloupe is a key h...


Field cage evaluation of introduced Eretmocerus species (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) against Bemisia tabaci strain B (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on cantaloupe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field-cage evaluations of introduced non-indigenous parasitoids in the genus Eretmocerus were conducted on cantaloupe during 1997 in the Imperial Valley, California, to identify effective new species or geographic populations for introduction and establishment against Bemisia tabaci strain B on cantaloupe and other impacted crops. Cantaloupe is a key host crop of B. tabaci biotype B in southwestern desert valleys in

K. A. Hoelmer



Evaluation of the breeding soundness of male camels (Camelus dromedarius) via clinical examination, semen analysis, ultrasonography and testicular biopsy: a summary of 80 clinical cases.  


Male camel infertility is a heterogeneous disorder. A variety of factors may adversely affect sperm production and function and impair fertility. This study was designed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography and testicular biopsy in the evaluation of the breeding soundness of male dromedaries compared with results obtained by clinical examination and semen analysis. Eighty-four male dromedary camels (5-15years old) were used in this study during the rutting season (November-May). Four sexually mature male camels were used as controls. These animals were apparently healthy and had histories of normal fertility. Eighty infertile male camels were subjected to an algorithmic approach based on information collected during careful examinations of the camels' breeding histories, clinical examinations, testicular evaluations, testicular ultrasonographies, the results of the semen analyses and testicular biopsies to diagnose the camels' infertilities. The differences in the semen parameters between the control and infertile male camels were highly significant (p<0.01). Regarding the diagnoses of male camel infertility, the results of testicular ultrasonographies and biopsies were compared with those from the semen analyses, and the accuracies of these tests were 92.5% and 90%, respectively. Additionally, the results of the testicular ultrasonographies were matched with those of the testicular biopsies of the infertile animals, and this comparison resulted in 85% accuracy. Testicular biopsy is a promising method that, along with a carefully performed history, clinical examination, an appropriate testicular ultrasonography procedure and semen analysis, can afford veterinarians the opportunity for more precise diagnosis and treatment of many dromedary infertility disorders. PMID:25112541

Waheed, M M; Ghoneim, I M; Hassieb, M M; Alsumait, A A



Summary of WWW Characterizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date there have been a number of efforts that attempt to characterize various aspects of the World Wide Web. This paper presents a summary of these efforts, highlighting regularities and invariants that have been discovered.

James E. Pitkow



Menthol Executive Summary

The First Conference on Menthol Cigarettes: Setting the Research Agenda Executive Summary U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute Centers for Disease Control and Prevention The First


An evaluation of the influence of a magnetic field on a human subject with the use of bio-impedance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of a magnetic field on a living human organism was monitored using a bio-impedance evaluation of vasodilatation effects. A quantitative evaluation of the influence of a magnetic field on a human being was implemented by means of a quantitative evaluation of changes in the bio-impedance of the tissue. The pulse of the magnetic field was controlled by a pseudo-random impulse signal using a power switch that controlled the current of the applicator coil. The peak magnetic field flux density was approximately 60 mT. The bio-impedance was measured by a four-electrode method by means of a radiofrequency narrow band vector bioimpedance meter. Experiments were performed on the magnetic exposure of the forearm of an exposed human subject. During exposure to a magnetic field, the bio-impedance change signal level increases above the normal level, and reaches the maximum level after about 10 minutes. The maximum value is approximately 50 % higher than the normal level.

Papezova, S.; Papez, V.



Site environmental report summary  

SciTech Connect

In this summary of the Fernald 1992 Site Environmental Report the authors will describe the impact of the Fernald site on man and the environment and provide results from the ongoing Environmental Monitoring Program. Also included is a summary of the data obtained from sampling conducted to determine if the site complies with DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and Ohio EPA (OEPA) requirements. These requirements are set to protect both man and the environment.

Not Available



Chapter 1: Overview and summary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ITER Physics Basis presents and evaluates the physics rules and methodologies for plasma performance projections, which provide the basis for the design of a tokamak burning plasma device whose goal is to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy for peaceful purposes. This Chapter summarizes the physics basis for burning plasma projections, which is developed in detail by the ITER Physics Expert Groups in subsequent chapters. To set context, the design guidelines and requirements established in the report of ITER Special Working Group 1 are presented, as are the specifics of the tokamak design developed in the Final Design Report of the ITER Engineering Design Activities, which exemplifies burning tokamak plasma experiments. The behaviour of a tokamak plasma is determined by the interaction of many diverse physics processes, all of which bear on projections for both a burning plasma experiment and an eventual tokamak reactor. Key processes summarized here are energy and particle confinement and the H-mode power threshold; MHD stability, including pressure and density limits, neoclassical islands, error fields, disruptions, sawteeth, and ELMs; power and particle exhaust, involving divertor power dispersal, helium exhaust, fuelling and density control, H-mode edge transition region, erosion of plasma facing components, tritium retention; energetic particle physics; auxiliary power physics; and the physics of plasma diagnostics. Summaries of projection methodologies, together with estimates of their attendant uncertainties, are presented in each of these areas. Since each physics element has its own scaling properties, an integrated experimental demonstration of the balance between the combined processes which obtains in a reactor plasma is inaccessible to contemporary experimental facilities: it requires a reactor scale device. It is argued, moreover, that a burning plasma experiment can be sufficiently flexible to permit operation in a steady state mode, with non-inductive plasma current drive, as well as in a pulsed mode where current is inductively driven. Overall, the ITER Physics Basis can support a range of candidate designs for a tokamak burning plasma facility. For each design, there will remain a significant uncertainty in the projected performance, but the projection methodologies outlined here do suffice to specify the major parameters of such a facility and form the basis for assuring that its phased operation will return sufficient information to design a prototype commercial fusion power reactor, thus fulfilling the goal of the ITER project.

ITER Physics Basis Editors; ITER Physics Expert Group Chairs; ITER Joint Central Team; Physics Integration Unit



Integrated reservoir study of the Monument Northwest field: a waterflood performance evaluation  

E-print Network

methodology for a deterministic approach. The data history of the wells in the field beginning from spud date were gathered and analyzed into information necessary for building an upscaled reservoir model of the field. Means of increasing production...

Nduonyi, Moses Asuquo



Integrated reservoir study of the Monument Northwest field: a waterflood performance evaluation  

E-print Network

methodology for a deterministic approach. The data history of the wells in the field beginning from spud date were gathered and analyzed into information necessary for building an upscaled reservoir model of the field. Means of increasing production...

Nduonyi, Moses Asuquo



A field evaluation of an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test developed to diagnose plasmacytoid leukemia in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).  


An immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) developed for the diagnosis for plasmacytoid leukemia was evaluated against histology under field conditions. Previously published results from a laboratory evaluation indicated that the IFAT had a much higher sensitivity than did histology. One hundred seventy-seven moribund chinook salmon from 3 farms located in British Columbia were sampled. Sensitivity, specificity and their respective quality indices were estimated for the IFAT relative to histology. The IFAT was shown to be unreliable, particularly with respect to sensitivity. Cohen's kappa was also calculated and revealed that the agreement between the 2 tests was no better than random. In contrast to previously published results the IFAT did not perform better than histology in the presence of bacterial kidney disease. The results emphasize the importance of evaluating tests in the field conditions in which they are to be used. The possible reasons for the shortcomings of the IFAT are discussed. PMID:10369567

Saksida, S M; Thorburn, M A; Speare, D J; Markham, R J; Kent, M L



A field evaluation of an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test developed to diagnose plasmacytoid leukemia in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).  

PubMed Central

An immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) developed for the diagnosis for plasmacytoid leukemia was evaluated against histology under field conditions. Previously published results from a laboratory evaluation indicated that the IFAT had a much higher sensitivity than did histology. One hundred seventy-seven moribund chinook salmon from 3 farms located in British Columbia were sampled. Sensitivity, specificity and their respective quality indices were estimated for the IFAT relative to histology. The IFAT was shown to be unreliable, particularly with respect to sensitivity. Cohen's kappa was also calculated and revealed that the agreement between the 2 tests was no better than random. In contrast to previously published results the IFAT did not perform better than histology in the presence of bacterial kidney disease. The results emphasize the importance of evaluating tests in the field conditions in which they are to be used. The possible reasons for the shortcomings of the IFAT are discussed. PMID:10369567

Saksida, S M; Thorburn, M A; Speare, D J; Markham, R J; Kent, M L



Optimal Interpolation Framework for Evaluating the Skill and Error of Climate Field Reconstruction Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current-generation climate field reconstruction (CFR) methods, which are used to estimate, e.g., surface temperature values (t) at a predetermined grid from a synchronously available vector of proxy values (p), seek solutions assuming that a linear transform (B) connects deviations of these variables from their respective means tm and pm: t-tm=B(p-p_m). The transform operator B here would be a standard linear regression matrix B=Ctp}C{pp-1 (with Ctp=<(t-tm)(p-p_m)T> and Cpp=<(p-pm)(p-p_m)T> being cross-covariance and covariance matrices for t and p respectively) if only these matrices could be robustly calculated from available data. As things usually stand, however, instrumental data sets of t available for computing its cross-covariance with p can never provide more than 100-150 annual samples. On the other hand, due to a relatively low signal-to-noise ratio of individual proxy records, their assemblies used in global reconstructions normaly include on the order of 100 records or more. Hence various methods for regularizing the inversion of Cpp are used: ridge regression, truncated total least squares, canonical correlation analysis, local regression, etc. Suppose, however, that the target climate field is Gaussian with a known covariance C: t {N}(tm,C), while a proxy vector is obtained from it by a known linear transform H (``proxy forward model''), subject to a Gaussian error: p=Ht+\\varepsilon, \\varepsilon {N}(0,R). In this case, Cpp=HCHT+R and Ctp=CHT, so that under the regression solution given above becomes an optimal interpolation (OI) solution hat {t}=CHT(HCH^T+R)-1p with error covariance Q=C-CHT(HCH^T+R)-1HC. Moreover, the posterior distribution of t conditional on p is [t|p] {N}(hat {t},Q). If available climate records were very long, the distinction between the sample regression estimate and the better structured OI solution would be immaterial: the covariances estimated from the available sample would produce a result approaching the OI solution. However, under the reality of short records and the possible violation of every assumption (stationarity of t, linearity and stability of the t-p relationship) on which common CFR methods are based, the known structure of the OI solution provides a roadmap for testing individual assumptions. Pseudoproxy experiments using the millenial simulation of the NCAR CCSM 1.4 general circulation model are used in this work to evaluate of the quality of sampling covariance estimates and its dependence on the length of the calibration interval, the reliability of the proxy models and their errors, and the verisimilitude of the theoretical error covariance estimate (Q). The results of the pseudoproxy experiments are then used for the evaluation of the expected CFR skill of the real proxy reconstructions.

Kaplan, A.; Smerdon, J. E.; Evans, M. N.



Quantitative real-time PCR detection of Zika virus and evaluation with field-caught Mosquitoes  

PubMed Central

Background Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito borne flavivirus is a pathogen affecting humans in Asia and Africa. ZIKV infection diagnosis relies on serologywhich is challenging due to cross-reactions with other flaviviruses and/or absence or low titer of IgM and IgG antibodies at early phase of infection- virus isolation, which is labor intensive, time consuming and requires appropriate containment. Therefore, real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) is an appealing option as a rapid, sensitive and specific method for detection of ZIKV in the early stage of infection. So far, only one rRT-PCR assay has been described in the context of the outbreak in Micronesia in 2007. In this study, we described a one step rRT-PCR for ZIKV which can detect a wider genetic diversity of ZIKV isolates from Asia and Africa. Results The NS5 protein coding regions of African ZIKV isolates were sequenced and aligned with representative flaviviruses sequences from GenBank to design primers and probe from conserved regions. The analytical sensitivity of the assay was evaluated to be 32 genome-equivalents and 0.05 plaque forming unit (pfu). The assay was shown to detect 37 ZIKV isolates covering a wide geographic in Africa and Asia over 36years but none of the 31 other flaviviruses tested showing high analytical specificity. The rRT-PCR could be performed in less than 3hours. This method was used successfully to detect ZIKV strains from field-caught mosquitoes. Conclusion We have developed a rapid, sensitive and specific rRT PCR for detection of ZIKV. This assay is a useful tool for detection of ZIKV infection in regions where a number of other clinically indistinguishable arboviruses like dengue or chikungunya co-circulate. Further studies are needed to validate this assay in clinical positive samples collected during acute ZIKV infection. PMID:24148652



Infrared thermoimage analysis as real time technique to evaluate in-field pesticide spraying quality distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tests and calibration of sprayers have been considered a very important task for chemicals use reduction in agriculture and for improvement of plant phytosanitary protection. A reliable, affordable and easy-to-use method to observe the distribution in the field is required and the infrared thermoimage analysis can be considered as a potential method based on non-contact imaging technologies. The basic idea is that the application of colder water (10 C less) than the leaves surface makes it possible to distinguish and measure the targeted areas by means of a infrared thermoimage analysis based on significant and time persistent thermal differences. Trials were carried out on a hedge of Prunus laurocerasus, 2.1 m height with an homogenous canopy. A trailed orchard sprayer was employed with different spraying configurations. A FLIR TM (S40) thermocamera was used to acquire (@ 50 Hz) thermal videos, in a fixed position, at frame rate of 10 images/s, for nearly 3 min. Distribution quality was compared to the temperature differences obtained from the thermal images between pre-treatment and post-treatment (?T)., according two analysis: time-trend of ?T average values for different hedge heights and imaging ?T distribution and area coverage by segmentation in k means clustering after 30 s of spraying. The chosen spraying configuration presented a quite good distribution for the entire hedge height with the exclusion of the lower (0-1 m from the ground) and the upper part (>1.9 m). Through the image segmentation performed of ?T image by k-means clustering, it was possible to have a more detailed and visual appreciation of the distribution quality among the entire hedge. The thermoimage analysis revealed interesting potentiality to evaluate quality distribution from orchards sprayers.

Menesatti, P.; Biocca, M.



Evaluation of the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) erosion submodel on cropland fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study represents part of a project by the Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystem Soil Erosion Network to validate wind erosion models. Soil loss measurements from 46 storm events from eroding fields in six states were compared to predictions from the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) erosion submodel. The field data were collected from small (2.5 ha), circular, cropland fields

Lawrence J. Hagen



The Development and Field Testing of Evaluation Workshop I: An Orientation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The general purpose of an evaluation workshop is to orient school and state department of education personnel to the basic principles, procedures, and problems associated with evaluating educational programs and to the kinds of information an evaluation can provide for educational decision making. The workshop studied is based on the general

Klein, Stephen P.; Nadeau, Marc-Andre


Field- and Laboratory-Scale Evaluation of Uranium Sequestration: The Role of Sulfur and Iron Species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade, field and laboratory studies have revealed the critical role of sulfur and iron species in uranium sequestration. Pilot-scale studies of in-situ U(VI) reduction were conducted at a site adjacent to the former S3 ponds (source zone) of the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Research Center, Oak Ridge, TN. The site contains uranium concentrations up to 800 mg/kg in soil and 250 ?M (60 mg/L) in groundwater. In field tests, flushing and pH adjustment decreased aqueous U concentrations by more than 1000 fold from 30-40 to ~1 mg/L. Ethanol addition stimulated microbial reduction of U(VI) and decreased U concentrations below the U.S. EPA maximum contaminant level for drinking water (30 ppb). U(VI) reduction was concomitant with iron(III)- and sulfate respiration. Spectroscopic analyses indicated sequential changes in the solid-associated uranium: U(VI) initially bound to mineral-surface and organic-bound complexes containing phosphate and carbonate, or as hydroxide and phosphate precipitates, was reduced mainly to a U(IV)-Fe complex. The U(IV) was stable under anaerobic conditions, but partially remobilized upon exposure to oxygen. In separate experiments, nitrate was injected into a reduced region of the subsurface containing previously immobilized U(IV). The nitrate was reduced to nitrite, ammonium, and nitrogen gas; sulfide levels decreased; and Fe(II) levels increased then deceased. Re-reduction of oxidized sediments released Fe(II) and soluble U(VI), suggesting that the decrease in soluble U during reoxidation was due to U(VI) sorption to Fe(III) oxides. Follow-up laboratory studies established that both biotically-generated hydrogen sulfide and soluble ferrous iron species reduce U(VI). For a sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from the Oak Ridge site, microbially-generated sulfide could explain the observed rate of U(VI) reduction. Laboratory studies established that soluble Fe(II) was able to reduce soluble U(VI) at rapid rates when conditions were thermodynamically favorable, resulting in formation of U(IV)-Fe precipitate. Finally, U(IV) formed by sulfate- and iron-reducing enrichments was evaluated for re-oxidation. In a sulfate-reducing enrichment, oxygen oxidized and mobilized U(IV), but less mobilization occurred in the Fe(III)-reducing enrichment, and the mobilized U(VI) was ultimately removed from solution. In three-year batch microcosm experiments, uranium remained immobilized in re-oxidized sediment at pH 6.5-7 and DO 5-6 mg/L. Addition of nitrate did not mobilize uranium. The results suggest that long-term sequestration of uranium is feasible and may be achievable through sequential reduction and oxidation.

Criddle, C.; Wu, W.; Bargar, J.; Fendorf, S.; Kitanidis, P. K.; Du, X.; Boonchayaanant, B.; Luo, J.; Carley, J.; Kelly, S. D.; Kemner, K. M.; Brooks, S. C.; Watson, D. B.; Jardine, P. M.



Federal Communications Commission Annual Report Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Federal Communications Commission's activities during Fiscal Year 1972 are summarized. The actions of the agency in specific areas; i.e., broadcast, cable television, field engineering, etc., are succinctly stated. Highlights of FY 1972 are presented chronologically at the end of the summary. (MC)

Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.



E-print Network


Moore, Paul A.


Determinants of biomass production in hybrid willows and prediction of field performance from pot studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Pot experiments are often performed to assess plant physiological traits and relationships among growth traits under controlled environments. However, the reliability of pot studies for predicting the growth and performance of trees in the field has rarely been rigorously assessed. We evaluated the suitability of pot experiments for predicting field performance, measured as shoot biomass production, by investigating deter-



Summary evaluation of the video, {open_quotes}Transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials: Safety for all concerned{close_quotes}  

SciTech Connect

Outreach materials are often developed and distributed without evaluation of their effectiveness. This report provides a glimpse of the effectiveness of one of the US Department of Energy`s videos on transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials. Data from a survey developed by Modern Talking Picture Service, Inc. are summarized. This survey was sent to recipients of the video at three to six weeks after they had received and viewed the video. The response rate is unknown; hence, the results suggest the range of perspectives on the video, rather than the representativeness of those perspectives. The results are also limited by incomplete responses to the survey. Most respondents were middle school and high school teachers who resided throughout the country. Respondents used the video in nearly all school subjects. Most respondents indicated that the video was fairly good and appreciated the factual information, although some saw it as propaganda. Respondents indicated that they would like additional information on hazardous wastes, nuclear power, and transportation. The test crashes were mentioned as a highlight of the video. Recommendations for revising the video and survey are included.

Monroe, M.C.; Young, C.F.



SESSION SUMMARY Human Aspects of Process Design  

E-print Network

dominated processes and keep institutional knowledge or improve and innovate processes? Other basic be and to what extent can or should it be usable? · How do you evaluate a process design? · Is there a difference#12;SESSION SUMMARY Human Aspects of Process Design Dewayne E. Perry 1. Session Introduction Tetsuo

Perry, Dewayne E.


Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation of Avian Predation on Salmonid Smolts in the Lower and Mid-Columbia River, 2006 Final Season Summary.  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates predation by piscivorous waterbirds on juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) from throughout the Columbia River Basin. During 2006, study objectives in the Columbia River estuary, work funded by the Bonneville Power Administration, were to (1) monitor and evaluate previous management initiatives to reduce Caspian tern (Hydroprogne caspia) predation on juvenile salmonids (smolts); (2) measure the impact of double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) predation on smolt survival, and assess potential management options to reduce cormorant predation; and (3) monitor large colonies of other piscivorous waterbirds in the estuary (i.e., glaucous-winged/western gulls [Larus glaucescens/occidentalis]) to determine the potential impacts on smolt survival. Study objectives on the mid-Columbia River, work funded by the Walla Walla District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, were to (1) measure the impact of predation by Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants on smolt survival; and (2) monitor large nesting colonies of other piscivorous waterbirds (i.e., California gulls [L. californicus], ring-billed gulls [L. delawarensis], American white pelicans [Pelecanus erythrorhynchos]) on the mid-Columbia River to determine the potential for significant impacts on smolt survival. Our efforts to evaluate system-wide losses of juvenile salmonids to avian predation indicated that Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants were responsible for the vast majority of smolt losses to avian predators in the Columbia Basin, with most losses occurring in the Columbia River estuary. In 2006, East Sand Island in the Columbia River estuary supported the largest known breeding colonies of Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants in the world. The Caspian tern colony on East Sand Island consisted of about 9,200 breeding pairs in 2006, up slightly (but not significantly so) from the estimate of colony size in 2005 (8,820 pairs). There has not been a statistically significant change in the size of the Caspian tern colony on East Sand Island since 2000. Tern nesting success averaged 0.72 fledglings per breeding pair in 2006, significantly higher than in 2005 (0.37 fledglings per breeding pair), a year of poor ocean conditions. Despite the presumably higher availability of marine forage fishes in 2006, the proportion of juvenile salmonids in diets of Caspian terns (32% of prey items) averaged higher than in 2005 (23% of prey items) and 2004 (18% of prey items). Steelhead smolts were particular vulnerable to predation by East Sand Island terns in 2006, with predation rates as high as 20% on particular groups of PIT-tagged fish reaching the estuary. Consumption of juvenile salmonids by terns nesting at the East Sand Island colony in 2006 was approximately 5.3 million smolts (95% c.i. = 4.4-6.2 million), significantly higher than the estimated 3.6 million smolts consumed in 2005, but still roughly 7 million fewer smolts consumed compared to 1998 (when all terns nested on Rice Island in the upper estuary). Caspian terns nesting on East Sand Island continue to rely primarily on marine forage fishes as a food supply, even in 2005 when availability of marine forage fishes declined due to poor ocean conditions. Further management of Caspian terns to reduce losses of juvenile salmonids would be implemented under the Caspian Tern Management Plan for the Columbia River Estuary; the Records of Decision (RODs) authorizing implementation of the plan were signed in November 2006. The ROD lists as the management goal the redistribution of approximately half of the East Sand Island Caspian tern colony to alternative colony sites in interior Oregon and San Francisco Bay, California (USFWS 2006). Implementation of the management plan is stalled, however, because of the lack of appropriated funds.

Roby, Daniel D. [USGS - Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Oregon State University; Collis, Ken [Real Time Research, Inc.; Lyons, Donald E. [USGS - Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Oregon State University



Visual Field Loss Increases the Risk of Falls in Older Adults: The Salisbury Eye Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESULTS. Worse visual field scores were associated with the risk of falling (OR 1.08 for a 10-point loss of points, 95% CI 1.03-1.13). When both central ( 20 radius) and peripheral visual fields were in the same model, only the peripheral visual field was associated with falls (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.01-1.10). Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and stereoacuity were not

Ellen E. Freeman; Beatriz Munoz; Gary Rubin; Sheila K. West



Comparison of the Humphrey Field Analyser and Humphrey Matrix Perimeter for the Evaluation of Glaucoma Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To compare the Humphrey Matrix Perimeter (HMP) with the Humphrey Field Analyser (HFA) in visual-field examinations of patients with glaucoma or suspected glaucoma. Methods: One hundred and forty-nine patients with suspected glaucoma or glaucoma were recruited. All patients underwent visual-field examinations with the Swedish Interactive Threshold Algorithm standard, the central 30-2 threshold test with the HFA, and the frequency

Yi-Hao Chen; Jian-Nan Wu; Jiann-Torng Chen; Da-Wen Lu




SciTech Connect

The Blinebry (Permian) formation of eastern Lea County, NM has a long history of exploitation for petroleum and continues even today to be a strong target horizon for new drilling in the Permian Basin. Because of this long-standing interest it should be classified of strategic interest to domestic oil production; however, the formation has gained a reputation as a primary production target with limited to no flooding potential. In late May of 1999, a project to examine the feasibility of waterflooding the Blinebry formation was proposed to the U.S. Department of Energy's National Petroleum Technology Office (Tulsa, OK). A new well was proposed in one region (the South House area) to examine the reputation by acquiring core and borehole logging data for the collection of formation property data in order to conduct the waterflood evaluation. Notice of the DOE award was received on August 19, 1999 and the preparations for drilling, coring and logging were immediately made for a drilling start on 9/9/99. The Blinebry formation at 6000 feet, foot depth was reached on 9/16/99 and the coring of two 60 foot intervals of the Blinebry was completed on 9/19/99 with more than 98% core recovery. The well was drilled to a total depth of 7800 feet and the Blinebry interval was logged with spectral gamma ray, photoelectric cross section, porosity, resistivity, and borehole image logs on 8/24/99. The well was determined to be likely productive from the Blinebry interval and five & 1/2 inch casing was cemented in the hole on 9/25/99. Detailed core descriptions including environment of deposition have been accomplished. Whole core (a 4-inch diameter) and plug (1.5 inch diameter) testing for formation properties has been completed and are reported. Acquisition and analysis of the borehole logging results have been completed and are reported. Perforation of the Blinebry intervals was accomplished on November 8, 1999. The intervals were acidized and hydrofraced on 11/9 and 11/11 respectively. Production of oil and gas has been established with several months of production now available to make a reserve analysis. Production histories and reserves estimation are provided. An assessment of the flood potential for the South House project area has been completed with work concentrated on South House rock property and pay thickness characterization and analog studies. For the analogs, the North Robertson area, located twenty miles to the northeast, and the Teague Field, located 20 miles to the south, have been utilized due to their readily available database and previous waterflood studies. The South House area does appear to merit further examination as the rock quality compares favorably with both analog Fields; however, current well spacings of 40-acres will provide only marginal economics based upon $23.00/barrel oil prices. Permeability and porosity relationships are provided as a conditional demonstration that rock quality may be sufficient for successful waterflooding of the project area. Further rock property work and pay continuity studies are recommended.

L. Stephen Melzer



Evaluation of using ferrofluid as an interface material for a field-reversible thermal connector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical functionality of an avionics chassis is limited due to heat dissipation limits. The limits arise due to the fact that components in an avionic computer boxes are packed very compactly, with the components mounted onto plug-in cards, and the harsh environment experienced by the chassis limits how heat can be dissipated from the cards. Convective and radiative heat transfer to the ambient are generally not possible. Therefore it is necessary to have heat transferred from the components conducted to the edge of the plug-in cards. The heat then needs to conduct from the card edge to a cold block that not only holds the card in place, but also removes the generated heat by some heat transfer fluid that is circulated through the cold block. The interface between the plug-in card and the cold block typically has a high thermal resistance since it is necessary for the card to have the capability to be re-workable, meaning that the card can be removed and then returned to the chassis. Reducing the thermal resistance of the interface is the objective of the current study and the topic of this thesis. The current design uses a pressure interface between the card and cold block. The contact pressure is increased through the addition of a wedgelock, which is a field-reversible mechanical connector. To use a wedgelock, the cold block has channels milled on the surface with widths that are larger than the thickness of the plug-in card and the un-expanded wedgelock. The card edge is placed in the channel and placed against one of the channel walls. A wedgelock is then placed between the card and the other channel wall. The wedgelock is then expanded by using either a screw or a lever. As the wedgelock expands it fills in the remaining channel gap and bears against the other face of the plug-in card. The majority of heat generated by the components on the plug-in card is forced to conduct from the card into the wall of the cold block, effectively a single sided, dry conduction heat transfer path. Having started as a student design competition named RevCon Challenge, work was performed to evaluate the use of new field-reversible thermal connectors. The new design proposed by the University of Missouri utilized oil based iron nanoparticles, commonly known as a ferrofluid, as a thermal interface material. By using a liquid type of interface material the channel gap can be reduced to a few micrometers, within machining tolerances, and heat can be dissipated off both sides of the card. The addition of nanoparticles improves the effective thermal conductivity of base fluid. The use of iron nanoparticles allows magnets to be used to hold the fluid in place, so the electronic cards may be easily inserted and removed while keeping the ferrofluid in the cold block channel. The ferrofluid-based design which was investigated has shown lower thermal resistance than the current wedgelock design. These results open the door for further development of electronic cards by using higher heat emitting components without compromising the simplicity of attaching/detaching cards from cooling plates.

Yousif, Ahmed S.


Evaluation of flow direction methods against field observations of overland flow dispersion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the broad effort made in grid-based distributed catchment modeling to account for planar overland flow dispersion, actual dispersion experienced by overland flow along a natural slope has not been measured so far, and the ability of terrain analysis methods to reproduce this dispersion has not been evaluated. In the present study, the D8, D8-LTD, D? -LTD, D? , MD? , and MD8 flow direction methods are evaluated against field observations of overland flow dispersion obtained from novel experimental methods. Thin flows of cold (2--10oC) water were released at selected points on a warmer (15--30oC) slope and individual overland flow patterns originating from each of these points were observed using a terrestrial laser scanner and a thermal imaging camera. Prior to each experimental water release, a ScanStation C10 terrestrial laser scanner by Leica Geosystems was used to acquire a point cloud having average density of 25~points/cm2. This point cloud was used to generate alternative grid-based digital elevation models having resolution h ranging from 1~cm to 2~m. During the experiments, an Avio Advanced Thermo TVS-500EX camera by Nippon Avionics was used to monitor land surface temperature with resolution better than 0.05oC. The overland flow patterns were also found to be discernible in terrestrial laser scanner reflectance signal acquired immediately following the flow experiments. Overland flow patterns were determined by considering contrasted temperature and reflectance of the dry and wetted land surface portions. Predicted propagation patterns and observed flow patterns were compared by considering the fractions of flow released at the point source that propagates through the grid cells. Predictions of these quantities were directly provided by flow direction methods and by related flow accumulation algorithms. Suitable data for the comparison were derived from observed overland flow patterns by assuming a uniform distribution of flow along each cross section. Planar overland flow dispersion is found to play an important role in the region lying immediately downslope of the point source, but attenuates rapidly as flow propagates downslope displaying a nearly constant width of about 50~cm. In contrast, existing dispersive flow direction methods are found to provide a continued dispersion with distance downslope. Predicted propagation patterns, for all methods considered here, depend critically on h. All methods are found to be poorly sensitive in extremely fine grids (h ? 2~cm), and to be poorly specific in coarse grids (h = 2~m). Satisfactory results are, however, obtained when h approaches the average flow width, with the best performances in terms of Pearson correlation coefficient displayed by the MD8 method in the finest grids (5~cm ? h ? 20~cm), and by the MD? , D? , and D? -LTD methods in the coarsest grids (20~cm < h ? 1~m). The results obtained in this study suggest further testing of terrain analysis methods with longer flow patterns and coarser grids. Scale issues affecting the relation between land surface microtopography, dispersion, and size of grid cells involved need then to be addressed to provide a hydrologic model of flow partitioning along the slope directions identified by terrain analysis methods.

Orlandini, S.; Moretti, G.; Corticelli, M. A.; Santangelo, P. E.; Capra, A.; Rivola, R.; Albertson, J. D.



Wood Dust Sampling: Field Evaluation of Personal Samplers When Large Particles Are Present  

PubMed Central

Recent recommendations for wood dust sampling include sampling according to the inhalable convention of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 7708 (1995) Air qualityparticle size fraction definitions for health-related sampling. However, a specific sampling device is not mandated, and while several samplers have laboratory performance approaching theoretical for an inhalable sampler, the best choice of sampler for wood dust is not clear. A side-by-side field study was considered the most practical test of samplers as laboratory performance tests consider overall performance based on a wider range of particle sizes than are commonly encountered in the wood products industry. Seven companies in the wood products industry of the Southeast USA (MS, KY, AL, and WV) participated in this study. The products included hardwood flooring, engineered hardwood flooring, door skins, shutter blinds, kitchen cabinets, plywood, and veneer. The samplers selected were 37-mm closed-face cassette with ACCU-CAP, Button, CIP10-I, GSP, and Institute of Occupational Medicine. Approximately 30 of each possible pairwise combination of samplers were collected as personal sample sets. Paired samplers of the same type were used to calculate environmental variance that was then used to determine the number of pairs of samples necessary to detect any difference at a specified level of confidence. Total valid sample number was 888 (444 valid pairs). The mass concentration of wood dust ranged from 0.02 to 195 mg m?3. Geometric mean (geometric standard deviation) and arithmetic mean (standard deviation) of wood dust were 0.98 mg m?3 (3.06) and 2.12 mg m?3 (7.74), respectively. One percent of the samples exceeded 15 mg m?3, 6% exceeded 5 mg m?3, and 48% exceeded 1 mg m?3. The number of collected pairs is generally appropriate to detect a 35% difference when outliers (negative mass loadings) are removed. Statistical evaluation of the nonsimilar sampler pair results produced a finding of no significant difference between any pairing of sampler type. A practical consideration for sampling in the USA is that the ACCU-CAP is similar to the sampler currently used by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration for purposes of demonstrating compliance with its permissible exposure limit for wood dust, which is the same as for Particles Not Otherwise Regulated, also known as inert dust or nuisance dust (Method PV2121). PMID:21036895

Lee, Taekhee; Harper, Martin; Slaven, James E.; Lee, Kiyoung; Rando, Roy J.; Maples, Elizabeth H.



Evaluating long-term gully dynamics by data fusion from field measurements, photogrammetry and modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gully erosion is now widely recognized as a key process contributing to land degradation, especially in Mediterranean landscapes. However, in spite of numerous studies detailing gully volumes and growth rates, the underlying physical controls are still poorly understood, especially on longer time scales. This study focuses on analysing gully dynamics over decadal time scales. The aim is to determine the contribution of gully erosion to the overall sediment budget from 1956-2013 and to analyse the relation between gully retreat rates and changes in rainfall, land use or management. Gully evolution was measured between 1956 and 2013 by photointerpretation and digitization of a series of historical aerial photographs in a 2000ha area in SW Spain. These measurements were completed by a field survey of important morphological variables, such as top width, flow width, depth or headcut morphology. Finally, repeated ground-based LiDAR surveys were done between 2011-2014 to generate a fine-resolution map of gully evolution of a representative section. The analysis of gully length indicated that in a period of about 50 years, the gully network expanded rapidly at first, with an increase in gully density from 2.7 to 3.7 km km-2, but has remained stable over the last two decades. However, gully erosion is still very active in the study area, mainly because of a continued increase in gully width. Average increase of gully width was 0.05 m yr-1. Repeated LiDAR surveys allowed to determine that the main process responsible for gully evolution was undercutting followed by wall failures. In terms of controlling processes, the analysis of critical area-slope threshold relation showed that land use, resulted in significantly different gully initiation thresholds with a higher threshold for olive orchards compared to cereal crops. This low to high-resolution input data was then used to run two gully erosion models (REGEM and an own model) and evaluate their performance. This work shows the power of combining data from different sources in order to elucidate complex geomorphic processes, such as long-term gully erosion dynamics, where information from individual sources limits our understanding.

Vanwalleghem, Tom; Hayas, Antonio; Romn, Andrea; Hervas, Csar; Laguna, Ana; Pea, Adolfo; Girldez, Juan Vicente



Field evaluation of a sampling and analytical method for environmental levels of airborne hexavalent chromium.  


Hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), has been classified as a human respiratory carcinogen. Airborne Cr(VI) emissions are associated with a number of industrial sources including metal plating, tanning, chromite ore processing, and spray painting operations; combustion sources such as automobiles and incinerators; and fugitive dusts from contaminated soil. There has been considerable interest within industry and the regulatory community to assess the potential cancer risks of workers exposed to Cr(VI) at levels substantially below the threshold limit value (TLV) of 50 micrograms/m3. To date, only the workplace sampling and analytical method (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health [NIOSH] Method 7600) has been validated for measuring airborne Cr(VI), and it can accurately measure concentrations only as low as 500 ng/m3. This paper describes the field evaluation of a sampling and analytical method for the quantitation of airborne Cr(VI) at concentrations 5000 times lower than the current standard method (as low as 0.1 ng/m3). The collection method uses three 500-mL Greenberg-Smith impingers in series, operated at 15 Lpm for 24 hr. All three impingers are filled with 200 mL of a slightly alkaline (pH approximately 8) sodium bicarbonate buffer solution. The results of validation tests showed that both Cr(VI) and trivalent chromium, Cr(III), were stable in the collection medium and that samples may be stored for up to 100 days without appreciable loss of Cr(VI). Method precision based on the pooled coefficient of variation for replicate samples was 10.4%, and method accuracy based on the mean percent recovery of spiked samples was 94%. Both the precision and accuracy of the impinger method were within NIOSH criteria. This method could be used to measure ambient concentrations of Cr(VI) in the workplace caused by fugitive emissions from manufacturing processes or chromium-contaminated soils at workplace concentrations well below the current TLV (50 micrograms/m3) or permissible exposure limit (100 micrograms/m3). PMID:1590220

Sheehan, P; Ricks, R; Ripple, S; Paustenbach, D



A multiarm randomized field trial evaluating strategies for udder health improvement in Swiss dairy herds.  


The aims of this study were to quantify the effectiveness of specialist advice about udder health in Swiss dairy herds and to compare 3 different udder health improvement strategies against a negative control group. In 2010, 100 Swiss dairy herds with a high (between 200,000 and 300,000 cells/mL) yield-corrected bulk milk somatic cell count (YCBMSCC) were recruited for a 1-yr multiarm randomized field trial. The herds were visited between September and December 2011 to evaluate udder health-management practices and then randomly allocated into 1 of 4 study arms containing 25 herds each. The negative control study arm received neither recommendations for improving udder health nor any active support. The remaining 75 farmers received a herd-specific report with recommendations to improve udder health management. The positive control study arm received no further active support during 2012. The veterinarian study arm received additional support in the form of monthly visits by their herd veterinarian. Finally, the study group study arm received support in the form of bimonthly study group meetings where different topics concerning udder health were discussed. One year later, implementation of recommendations and changes in udder health were assessed. Of the recommendations given, 44.3% were completely implemented, 23.1% partially, and 32.6% were not implemented. No differences in implementation of recommendations were noted between the 3 study arms. At study enrollment, farmers were asked for the study arm of their preference but were subsequently randomly assigned to 1 of the 4 study arms. Farmers that were assigned to the study arm of their preference implemented more recommendations than farmers assigned to a study arm not of their preference. No decrease in the within-herd prevalence of cows that had a high (?200,000 cells/mL) composite somatic cell count was observed in herds that had a YCBMSCC ?200,000 cells/mL at the start of intervention. However, the 3 study arms with intervention (positive control, the veterinarian, and the study groups) prevented an increase in the within-herd prevalence of cows that had a high somatic cell count in herds with a low YCBMSCC at the start of the intervention compared with the negative control study arm. In the year after sending the report, herds assigned to the study group study arm had a reduced incidence rate of treated mastitis cases in comparison with the year before sending the report. PMID:25434343

Tschopp, A; Reist, M; Kaufmann, T; Bodmer, M; Kretzschmar, L; Heiniger, D; Berchtold, B; Wohlfender, F; Harisberger, M; Boss, R; Strabel, D; Cousin, M-E; Graber, H U; Steiner, A; van den Borne, B H P



Field Evaluation of a Novel Differential Diagnostic Reagent for Detection of Mycobacterium bovis in Cattle?  

PubMed Central

In the search for improved tools with which to control bovine tuberculosis, the development of enhanced immunodiagnostic reagents is a high priority. Such reagents are required to improve the performance of tuberculin-based reagents and allow the discrimination of vaccinated cattle from those infected with Mycobacterium bovis. In this study, we identified the immunodominant, frequently recognized peptides from Rv3873, Rv3879c, Rv0288, and Rv3019c, which, together with peptides comprising the current lead diagnostic antigens, ESAT-6 and CFP-10, were formulated into a peptide cocktail. In a test of naturally infected cattle, this cocktail was significantly better than tuberculin was for identifying skin test-negative animals with confirmed bovine tuberculosis. In addition, the specificity of this cocktail was not compromised by Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination. In summary, our results prioritize this peptide-based, fully synthetic reagent for assessment in larger trials. PMID:16943346

Cockle, P. J.; Gordon, S. V.; Hewinson, R. G.; Vordermeier, H. M.



Evaluation of the Compressive Response of Notched Composite Panels using a Full-Field Displacement Measurement System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental and analytical evaluation of the compressive response of two composite, notched stiffened panels representative of primary composite wing structure is presented. A three-dimensional full-field image correlation technique is used to measure all three displacement components over global and local areas of the test panels. Point-wise and full-field results obtained using the image correlation technique are presented and compared to experimental results and analytical results obtained using nonlinear finite element analysis. Both global and global-local image correlation results are presented and discussed. Results of a simple calibration test of this image correlation technique are also presented.

McGowan, David M.; Ambur, Damodar R.; Hanna, T. Glen; McNeill, Stephen R.



Summary of November 2010 meeting to evaluate turbidite data for constraining the recurrence parameters of great Cascadia earthquakes for the update of national seismic hazard maps  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report summarizes a meeting of geologists, marine sedimentologists, geophysicists, and seismologists that was held on November 1819, 2010 at Oregon State University in Corvallis, Oregon. The overall goal of the meeting was to evaluate observations of turbidite deposits to provide constraints on the recurrence time and rupture extent of great Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) earthquakes for the next update of the U.S. national seismic hazard maps (NSHM). The meeting was convened at Oregon State University because this is the major center for collecting and evaluating turbidite evidence of great Cascadia earthquakes by Chris Goldfinger and his colleagues. We especially wanted the participants to see some of the numerous deep sea cores this group has collected that contain the turbidite deposits. Great earthquakes on the CSZ pose a major tsunami, ground-shaking, and ground-failure hazard to the Pacific Northwest. Figure 1 shows a map of the Pacific Northwest with a model for the rupture zone of a moment magnitude Mw 9.0 earthquake on the CSZ and the ground shaking intensity (in ShakeMap format) expected from such an earthquake, based on empirical ground-motion prediction equations. The damaging effects of such an earthquake would occur over a wide swath of the Pacific Northwest and an accompanying tsunami would likely cause devastation along the Pacifc Northwest coast and possibly cause damage and loss of life in other areas of the Pacific. A magnitude 8 earthquake on the CSZ would cause damaging ground shaking and ground failure over a substantial area and could also generate a destructive tsunami. The recent tragic occurrence of the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-Oki, Japan, earthquake highlights the importance of having accurate estimates of the recurrence times and magnitudes of great earthquakes on subduction zones. For the U.S. national seismic hazard maps, estimating the hazard from the Cascadia subduction zone has been based on coastal paleoseismic evidence of great earthquakes over the past 5,000 years. The instrumental catalog of earthquakes is of little use for constraining the hazard of the CSZ, because there are virtually no recorded earthquakes on most of the plate interface of the CSZ. There are no historical accounts in the past 150 years of large earthquakes on most of the CSZ. Until about 20 years ago, some interpreted this lack of recent and historical earthquakes as an indicator that the subduction zone was slipping aseismically and could not produce a great earthquake. The work of Brian Atwater and others, in the late 1980s and the 1990s (Atwater, 1987, 1992; Atwater and others, 1995; Nelson and others, 1996; Clague, 1997; Atwater and Hemphill-Haley, 1997; Atwater and others, 2004) demonstrated that submerged forests, buried soils, tsunami deposits, and liquefaction along and near the coast were compelling evidence of repeated great Cascadia earthquakes over at least the past 5,000 years. Atwater and Hemphill-Haley (1997) concluded from paleoseismic evidence at Willapa Bay, Washington, that great earthquakes ruptured the CSZ with an average recurrence time of about 500 years. The date of the last great CSZ earthquake, January 26, 1700, was established from historical records of the so-called orphan tsunami in Japan that is inferred to have been produced by this earthquake (Satake and others, 1996, 2003; Atwater and others, 2005) and is consistent with tree-ring data from drowned forests in Washington and Oregon. From modeling the observations of the tsunami, Satake and others (2003) estimated a moment magnitude of about 9.0 for this earthquake. Many other paleoseismic sites have been investigated along the Pacific Northwest coast from Vancouver Island to northern California and show evidence of great CSZ earthquakes. Nelson and others (2006) summarized the dates found from these studies and proposed correlations between sites indicating the extent of rupture for individual events. Dating of inferred tsunami deposits in Bradley Lake, Oregon by Kelsey and others (2005), as well as tsunami and subsidence evi

Frankel, Arthur D.



Entrepreneurship: An Integrating Typology and Evaluation of the Empirical Research in the Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entrepreneurship is one of the newest research fields in management. Most of the empirical research has been completed in the last decade. Other disciplines have made significant contributions to the field. An integrating framework and typology were formulated by Wortman (1986b). Against that framework and typology, this review has examined most of the empirical research in the past decade. Significant

Max S. Wortman



Evaluation of waterflood operations at Iatan East Howard field, Mitchell County, Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobil Exploration and Producing U.S. Inc. completed a reservoir description study on Iatan East Howard field in Mitchell County, Texas, in 1984. The application of study results has improved subsequent development drilling and waterflood operations. Lease production has doubled within two years with the drilling of 40 producers and 13 injection wells. The field produces from thin (2 to 40

D. P. Smith; S. M. Mitchell