Science.gov

Sample records for field evaluations summaries

  1. Field evaluation of sampling and analysis for organic pollutants in indoor air. Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, J.C.; Mack, G.A.; Stockrahm, J.W.; Hannan, S.W.; Bridges, C.

    1988-09-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine the feasibility of the use of newly developed indoor air samplers in residential indoor air sampling and to evaluate methodology for characterization of the concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), PAH derivatives, and nicotine in residential air.

  2. Evaluation of the Field Test of Project Information Packages: Volume 1--Summary Report. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stearns, Marian S.; And Others

    Project Information Packages (PIPs), kits distributed by the U.S. Office of Education to facilitate the replication of programs, were developed for 6 exemplary supplemental educational programs and tried out in 17 different schools. The PIP field tests determined whether the PIP model in general, and each of the six original PIPs in particular,…

  3. Summary report Evaluation of In the Zone

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Summary report Evaluation of In the Zone Executive summary September 2013 #12;Executive summary ICF, was commissioned in November 2011 to conduct the evaluation of the In the Zone initiative. This is the executive of the initiative: the In the Zone experiment kits and the touring exhibition. The Wellcome Trust's education

  4. SIGI: Field Test and Evaluation of a Computer-Based System of Interactive Guidance and Information. Summary of Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Warren; And Others

    The computer-based System of Interactive Guidance and Information (SIGI) was field tested and evaluated at five community colleges and one university. Developed by Educational Testing Service, SIGI assists students in the process of informed and rational career decision making. Interacting at a cathode-ray tube terminal with a computer, students…

  5. Summary and evaluation of pesticides in field blanks collected for the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, 1992-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Jeffrey D.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Schertz, Terry L.

    1999-01-01

    Field blanks are quality-control samples used to assess contamination in environmental water samples. Contamination is the unintentional introduction of a chemical (pesticides in this instance) into an environmental water sample from sources such as inadequately cleaned equipment, dirty hands, dust, rain, or fumes. Contamination causes a positive bias in analytical measurements that may need to be considered in the analysis and interpretation of the environmental data. Estimates of pesticide contamination in environmental water samples collected for the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program are used to qualify, where needed, interpretations of the occurrence and distribution of pesticides in the surface and ground waters of the United States. Field blanks collected from 1992 to 1995 as part of the NAWAQA Program were analyzed for 88 pesticides and pesticide metabolites. Of 47 pesticides determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, 23 were detected at least once in 175 surfacewater field blanks and 15 were detected at least once in 145 ground-water field blanks. The most frequently detected pesticides in surface-water field blanks were atrazine (in 10.9 percent of blanks), simazine (9.1 percent), and metolachlor (4.6 percent). The most frequently detected pesticides in ground-water field blanks were p,p?-DDE (4.1 percent) and atrazine (2.8 percent). The maximum pesticide concentration detected by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry in a surfacewater field blank was 0.120 microgram per liter (mg/L) for pronamide; the maximum concentration detected in a ground-water field blank was 0.013 mg/L for chlorpyrifos and prometon. Of 41 pesticides determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, diuron and 2,4-D were detected once in 109 surface-water field blanks and bromacil, diuron, and fenuron were detected once in 104 ground-water field blanks. Except for a detection of 2,4-D at 0.230 mg/L, the detectable concentrations of these pesticides were less than or equal to 0.020 mg/L. Field blanks showed no evidence of contamination by most pesticides. Of the 88 pesticides for which the field blanks were analyzed, 63 were not detected in field blanks from surface-water sites and 70 were not detected in field blanks from ground-water sites. Therefore, environmental data for the pesticides not detected in field blanks can be interpreted without qualification for contamination. Field blanks did show evidence of contamination by some pesticides. Most of the pesticides detected in field blanks, however, were detected more frequently and at higher concentrations in environmental water samples. Two criteria were used to evaluate the need to consider contamination in water-quality assessments: (1) a ratio of the frequency of pesticide detection in environmental water samples to the frequency of detection in field blanks of 5.0 or less and (2) a ratio of the median concentration detected in environmental water samples to the maximum concentration detected in field blanks of 2.0 or less. These criteria indicate that contamination, for the majority of the pesticide data collected for the NAWQA Program, probably does not need to be considered in the analysis and interpretation of (1) the frequency of pesticide detection or (2) the median concentration of pesticides detected. Contamination must be considered, however, in detection frequency for cispermethrin, pronamide, p,p?-DDE, pebulate, propargite, ethalfluralin, and triallate in surface water and fenuron, benfluralin, pronamide, cis-permethrin, triallate, chlorpyrifos, trifluralin, propanil, p,p?-DDE, bromacil, dacthal, diazinon, and diuron in ground water. Contamination also must be considered in median concentrations detected for pronamide, p,p?-DDE, propargite, napropamide, and triallate in surface water and benfluralin, cis-permethrin, triallate, chlorpyrifos, trifluralin, p,p?-DDE

  6. Evaluating Automatic Summaries of Meeting Recordings 

    E-print Network

    Murray, Gabriel; Renals, Steve; Carletta, Jean; Moore, Johanna

    2005-01-01

    The research below explores schemes for evaluating automatic summaries of business meetings, using the ICSI Meeting Corpus. Both automatic and subjective evaluations were carried out, with a central interest being whether ...

  7. Evaluation Report Summary Darwin Education Initiative

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    celebratory activities marking the 200th anniversary of the birth of Charles Darwin. It aimed to stimulateEvaluation Report Summary Darwin Education Initiative January 2011 #12;1 Evaluation of the Darwin to conduct an independent evaluation of the Darwin Education Initiative. The initiative featured

  8. DWPF MATERIALS EVALUATION SUMMARY REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, T.; Chandler, G.; Daugherty, W.; Imrich, K.; Jankins, C.

    1996-09-12

    To better ensure the reliability of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) remote canyon process equipment, a materials evaluation program was performed as part of the overall startup test program. Specific test programs included FA-04 ('Process Vessels Erosion/Corrosion Studies') and FA-05 (melter inspection). At the conclusion of field testing, Test Results Reports were issued to cover the various test phases. While these reports completed the startup test requirements, DWPF-Engineering agreed to compile a more detailed report which would include essentially all of the materials testing programs performed at DWPF. The scope of the materials evaouation programs included selected equipment from the Salt Process Cell (SPC), Chemical Process Cell (CPC), Melt Cell, Canister Decon Cell (CDC), and supporting facilities. The program consisted of performing pre-service baseline inspections (work completed in 1992) and follow-up inspections after completion of the DWPF cold chemical runs. Process equipment inspected included: process vessels, pumps, agitators, coils, jumpers, and melter top head components. Various NDE (non-destructive examination) techniques were used during the inspection program, including: ultrasonic testing (UT), visual (direct or video probe), radiography, penetrant testing (PT), and dimensional analyses. Finally, coupon racks were placed in selected tanks in 1992 for subsequent removal and corrosion evaluation after chemical runs.

  9. Field Test Evaluation of Conservation Retrofits of Low-Income Single Family Buildings in Wisconsin: Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ternes, M.P.

    2001-05-21

    During the winter of 1985-86, a retrofit field test was performed in 66 occupied, low-income, single-family homes in Madison, Wisconsin. The primary objectives of the field test were to (1) determine the measured energy savings and the relative benefits of a combination of envelope and mechanical equipment retrofits that were selected following a new audit-directed retrofit procedure, (2) determine the energy savings and benefits due to performing infiltration reduction work following a recently developed infiltration reduction procedure, and (3) study general occupant behavior and house thermal characteristics and their possible change following retrofit installation. This report provides an overview of the project and summarizes the findings which will be presented in detail in separate reports. Major findings from the field test include: (1) The audit-directed retrofit procedure produced an average savings of 207 therms/year/house. The procedure also more than doubled the overall cost-effectiveness of the low-income weatherization assistance program as compared with the priority system formerly used in Wisconsin. Wall insulation and condensing furnaces were the major retrofits (predicted annual energy savings greater than 100 therms/year) most often selected under the procedure. The respective average energy savings of the houses receiving wall insulation and condensing furnace. s was 14.6 and 14.3 therms/year for each $100 spent on them under the program. (2) The blower-door-guided infiltration reduction procedure reduced expenditures for infiltration reduction to about one-fourth of previous program costs (from $570/house to $106/house). The procedure also reduced the average air leakage rate in the treated houses by 16%, whereas, in a previous study, no significant reduction was found following the installation of typical infiltration reduction measures. (3) Twenty to 60% of the deviation between predicted and measured savings can be attributed to incorrect assumptions regarding the indoor temperature before and after retrofit used in making the predictions. Incorrect assumptions regarding the value of the indoor temperature before retrofit may be more prevalent than incorrect assumptions regarding a constant indoor temperature following retrofit, as the occupants did not generally increase their indoor temperature after retrofit installation (the occupants did not generally display ''take back'' behavior).

  10. Model Selection in Summary Evaluation

    E-print Network

    Perez-Breva, Luis

    2002-12-01

    A difficulty in the design of automated text summarization algorithms is in the objective evaluation. Viewing summarization as a tradeoff between length and information content, we introduce a technique based on ...

  11. ESEA Title I Evaluation: Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Louis Board of Education, MO.

    Presented here are summaries of the evaluations of major Title I, ESEA instructional programs conducted during 1970-71 in the St. Louis city schools. In the "Rooms of 20" program, elementary school students attend school in ungraded classrooms of no more than 20 students. One teacher works with each class, and students and teachers concentrate on…

  12. Energy-efficient buildings program evaluations. Volume 2: Evaluation summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.D.; Mayi, D.; Edgemon, S.D.

    1997-04-01

    This document presents summaries of code and utility building program evaluations reviewed as the basis for the information presented in Energy-Efficient Buildings Program Evaluations, Volume 1: Findings and Recommendations, DOE/EE/OBT-11569, Vol. 1. The main purpose of this volume is to summarize information from prior evaluations of similar programs that may be useful background for designing and conducting an evaluation of the BSGP. Another purpose is to summarize an extensive set of relevant evaluations and provide a resource for program designers, mangers, and evaluators.

  13. Production Risk Evaluation Program (PREP) - summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kjeldgaard, E.A.; Saloio, J.H.; Vannoni, M.G.

    1997-03-01

    Nuclear weapons have been produced in the US since the early 1950s by a network of contractor-operated Department of Energy (DOE) facilities collectively known as the Nuclear Weapon Complex (NWC). Recognizing that the failure of an essential process might stop weapon production for a substantial period of time, the DOE Albuquerque Operations office initiated the Production Risk Evaluation Program (PREP) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to assess quantitatively the potential for serious disruptions in the NWC weapon production process. PREP was conducted from 1984-89. This document is an unclassified summary of the effort.

  14. FIELD EVALUATION (FIRST) OF VOST AND SEMIVOST METHODS FOR SELECTED CAAA ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AT A COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT--PROJECT SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory and field studies for volatile organic sampling trains (VOST) and semivolatile organic sampling trains (SemiVOST) have been performed to evaluate the performance of halogenated volatile and semivolatile organic analytes from Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments (C...

  15. SIMS analysis: Development and evaluation program summary

    SciTech Connect

    Groenewold, G.S.; Appelhans, A.D.; Ingram, J.C.; Delmore, J.E.; Dahl, D.A.

    1996-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the ``SIMS Analysis: Development and Evaluation Program``, which was executed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory from mid-FY-92 to the end of FY-96. It should be noted that prior to FY-1994 the name of the program was ``In-Situ SIMS Analysis``. This report will not go into exhaustive detail regarding program accomplishments, because this information is contained in annual reports which are referenced herein. In summary, the program resulted in the design and construction of an ion trap secondary ion mass spectrometer (IT-SIMS), which is capable of the rapid analysis of environmental samples for adsorbed surface contaminants. This instrument achieves efficient secondary ion desorption by use of a molecular, massive ReO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} primary ion particle. The instrument manages surface charge buildup using a self-discharging principle, which is compatible with the pulsed nature of the ion trap. The instrument can achieve high selectivity and sensitivity using its selective ion storage and MS/MS capability. The instrument was used for detection of tri-n-butyl phosphate, salt cake (tank cake) characterization, and toxic metal speciation studies (specifically mercury). Technology transfer was also an important component of this program. The approach that was taken toward technology transfer was that of component transfer. This resulted in transfer of data acquisition and instrument control software in FY-94, and ongoing efforts to transfer primary ion gun and detector technology to other manufacturers.

  16. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Andy L.; Conrad, Mark E.; Daily, William D.; Fink, James B.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Hoversten, Gary M.; Keller, Jason M.; Majer, Ernest L.; Murray, Christopher J.; White, Mark D.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2006-07-31

    From FY 2000 through FY 2003, a series of vadose zone transport field experiments were conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project Science and Technology Project, now known as the Remediation and Closure Science Project, and managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The series of experiments included two major field campaigns, one at a 299-E24-11 injection test site near PUREX and a second at a clastic dike site off Army Loop Road. The goals of these experiments were to improve our understanding of vadose zone transport processes; to develop data sets to validate and calibrate vadose zone flow and transport models; and to identify advanced monitoring techniques useful for evaluating flow-and-transport mechanisms and delineating contaminant plumes in the vadose zone at the Hanford Site. This report summarizes the key findings from the field studies and demonstrates how data collected from these studies are being used to improve conceptual models and develop numerical models of flow and transport in Hanford’s vadose zone. Results of these tests have led to a better understanding of the vadose zone. Fine-scale geologic heterogeneities, including grain fabric and lamination, were observed to have a strong effect on the large-scale behavior of contaminant plumes, primarily through increased lateral spreading resulting from anisotropy. Conceptual models have been updated to include lateral spreading and numerical models of unsaturated flow and transport have revised accordingly. A new robust model based on the concept of a connectivity tensor was developed to describe saturation-dependent anisotropy in strongly heterogeneous soils and has been incorporated into PNNL’s Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator. Application to field-scale transport problems have led to a better understanding plume behavior at a number of sites where lateral spreading may have dominated waste migration (e.g. BC Cribs and Trenches). The improved models have been also coupled with inverse models and newly-developed parameter scaling techniques to allow estimation of field-scale and effective transport parameters for the vadose zone. The development and utility of pedotransfer functions for describing fine-scale hydrogeochemical heterogeneity and for incorporating this heterogeneity into reactive transport models was explored. An approach based on grain-size statistics appears feasible and has been used to describe heterogeneity in hydraulic properties and sorption properties, such as the cation exchange capacity and the specific surface area of Hanford sediments. This work has also led to the development of inverse modeling capabilities for time-dependent, subsurface, reactive transport with transient flow fields using an automated optimization algorithm. In addition, a number of geophysical techniques investigated for their potential to provide detailed information on the subtle changes in lithology and bedding surfaces; plume delineation, leak detection. High-resolution resistivity is now being used for detecting saline plumes at several waste sites at Hanford, including tank farms. Results from the field studies and associated analysis have appeared in more than 46 publications generated over the past 4 years. These publications include test plans and status reports, in addition to numerous technical notes and peer reviewed papers.

  17. Appropriate Technology Small Grants Program evaluation. Volume I. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    Volume One contains the Executive Summary which provides a concise overview of the study, including a brief description of the Appropriate Technology Small Grants Program and of the study methodology, highlighted key findings and the Evaluation Team's policy recommendations.

  18. ASCOT 91 field experiment : PNL airsonde data summary.

    SciTech Connect

    JM Hubbe and KJ Allwine

    1991-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) participated in the Winter 1991 Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) field experiment conducted in the vicinity of the Rocky Flats Plant between Boulder and Denver, Colorado. This report contains a summary of operations and data associated with free-release-ball oon-borne atmospheric soundings made by PNL between January 29 and February 8, 1991. Given here are descriptions of the site and instrumentation, a brief summary of the soundings, and a description of the data post processing. The appendices contain a detailed summary of all soundings and ASCOT plots of completed soundings.

  19. Aleph Field Solver Challenge Problem Results Summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, Russell; Moore, Stan Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Aleph models continuum electrostatic and steady and transient thermal fields using a finite-element method. Much work has gone into expanding the core solver capability to support enriched mod- eling consisting of multiple interacting fields, special boundary conditions and two-way interfacial coupling with particles modeled using Aleph's complementary particle-in-cell capability. This report provides quantitative evidence for correct implementation of Aleph's field solver via order- of-convergence assessments on a collection of problems of increasing complexity. It is intended to provide Aleph with a pedigree and to establish a basis for confidence in results for more challeng- ing problems important to Sandia's mission that Aleph was specifically designed to address.

  20. REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY: LAMBERT FIELD GRAPHICAL WEATHER SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A graphical summary of National Weather Service (NWS) 3-hour weather observations from Lambert Field Airport, St. Louis, Missouri has been prepared for use by individuals involved in the analysis and application of Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS) data. It is intended as a ref...

  1. Summary of field operations, well TRN-1

    SciTech Connect

    Fritts, J.E.; Thomas, E.; McCord, J.P.

    1996-03-01

    TRN-1 was drilled near the SE corner of Kirtland Air Force Base to a depth of 510 feet. This well is in the Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization task field program, which is part of Sandia`s Environmental Restoration Project. After drilling, the borehole was logged, plugged to a depth of 352 ft, and completed as a monitoring well. Sand pack interval is from 305 to 352 ft and the screen interval is from 320 to 340 ft. During field operations, important subsurface geologic and hydrologic data were obtained (drill cuttings, geophysical logs of alluvial cover). Identification of the Abo formation in the subsurface will be useful. The subsurface hydrologic data will help define the local hydrostratigraphic framework within the bedrock. Future aquifer testing will be conducted for transmissivity, etc.

  2. Columbia River Component Data Evaluation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    C.S. Cearlock

    2006-08-02

    The purpose of the Columbia River Component Data Compilation and Evaluation task was to compile, review, and evaluate existing information for constituents that may have been released to the Columbia River due to Hanford Site operations. Through this effort an extensive compilation of information pertaining to Hanford Site-related contaminants released to the Columbia River has been completed for almost 965 km of the river.

  3. National Evaluation of Diversion Projects. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunford, Franklyn W.; And Others

    In 1976 the Special Emphasis branch of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention made $10 million available for the development of 11 diversion programs. A national evaluation of these programs was promoted in the hope of better understanding the viability of diversion as an alternative to traditional practices. The impact of…

  4. Residential Energy Evaluation Program : Evaluation and Summary, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Anne Malean; Parker, Jerome F.

    1984-03-01

    The two components of the Residential Energy Evaluation Program (REEP); the rating method and the process to implement the rating method, are described. WSEO's role as coordinator of the REEP evaluation is described. The evaluation objectives and the various evaluation perspectives, i.e., what is being evaluated and why, are described. Each of the major evaluation activities is reviewed as it relates to the WSEO evaluation plan. Presentation of findings from evaluation activities are included. Conclusions and recommendations of WSEO regarding both the rating method and its implementation are presented. Recommendations of WSEO for future research and texts of evaluation studies are included.

  5. Planning for an Evaluation of Teaching Performance. Volume IV. Summaries of Instruments for Use in Evaluating Teacher Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuzdepski, I., Comp.; Elliott, L., Comp.

    This document presents information, in the form of summary sheets, on 54 teacher evaluation instruments. Each summary contains pertinent information about the instrument regarding publishing company, author, criteria evaluated, subject of observation, category dimension, and coding units. The 19 criteria used in the evaluation tests, which were…

  6. BIOREMEDIATION FIELD EVALUATION: EIELSON AIR FORCE BASE, ALASKA (EPA/540/R-95/533)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication, one of a series presenting the findings of the Bioremediation Field Initiatives bioremediation field evaluations, provides a detailed summary of the evaluation conducted at the Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) Superfund site in Fairbanks, Alaska. At this site, the ...

  7. 11/13/11 Course Evaluations: Course Page 1/3https://webapps.fas.harvard.edu/course_evaluation_reports/fas/new_course_summary.html?course_i...

    E-print Network

    Stange, Katherine E.

    11/13/11 Course Evaluations: Course Page 1/3https://webapps.fas.harvard.edu/course_evaluation_reports/fas/new_course_summary.html. Summary #12;11/13/11 Course Evaluations: Course Page 2/3https://webapps.fas.harvard.edu/course_evaluation_reports/fas/new_course_summary.html Evaluations: Course Page 3/3https://webapps.fas.harvard.edu/course_evaluation_reports/fas/new_course_summary.html

  8. Appropriate Technology Small Grants Program evaluation. Executive summary. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    The study was to provide the Department with data to be used in preparing a report to Congress and the President containing the following: (1) an assessment of how well the Program achieved its objectives; an assessment of how well the Program stimulated the overall use of appropriate technologies in various markets; (3) an assessment of the overall energy savings impact of the Appropriate Technology Small Grants Program, as well as other direct and indirect program impacts including new technologies, products, devices, businesses, jobs, etc., developed as a result of the Program; (4) case studies of 20 successful grants and their actual or potential individual energy savings and other direct and indirect impacts; and (5) an identification and analysis of the factors that contributed to successful and unsuccessful grants, with recommendations for improvement of other similar governmental and non-governmental programs. To provide the proper context, the specific findings of the study are highlighted in this Executive Summary, following a brief overview of the Appropriate Technology Small Grants Program and of the evaluation methodology.

  9. Qualitative evaluation of fuelwood in Florida - a summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.C.; Huffman, J.B.; Rockwood, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    A summary of published and unpublished information on fuel quality of 5 species of potential use as fuel in Florida: Pinus elliottii, P. clausa, Melaleuca quinquenervia, Eucalyptus grandis and Casuarina equisetifolia. (Refs. 30).

  10. Summary of modeling studies of the Krafla geothermal field, Iceland

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Pruess, K.; Stefansson, V.; Eliasson, E.T.

    1983-08-01

    A comprehensive modeling study of the Krafla geothermal field in Iceland has been carried out. The study consists of four tasks: the analysis of well test data, modeling of the natural state of the field, the determination of the generating capability of the field, and modeling of well performance. The results of all four tasks are consistent with field observations.

  11. Students Training for Academic Readiness (STAR): Year Three Evaluation Report. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Center for Educational Research, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This executive summary presents findings from the Year 3 evaluation of Texas' state-level Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs, or GEAR UP, grant. GEAR UP grant requirements include an evaluation component designed to assess program effectiveness and to measure progress toward project goals. To this end, the evaluation

  12. A Method for Evaluating Volt-VAR Optimization Field Demonstrations

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Weaver, T. F.

    2014-08-31

    In a regulated business environment a utility must be able to validate that deployed technologies provide quantifiable benefits to the end-use customers. For traditional technologies there are well established procedures for determining what benefits will be derived from the deployment. But for many emerging technologies procedures for determining benefits are less clear and completely absent in some cases. Volt-VAR Optimization is a technology that is being deployed across the nation, but there are still numerous discussions about potential benefits and how they are achieved. This paper will present a method for the evaluation, and quantification of benefits, for field deployments of Volt-VAR Optimization technologies. In addition to the basic methodology, the paper will present a summary of results, and observations, from two separate Volt-VAR Optimization field evaluations using the proposed method.

  13. SITE EVALUATION OF FIELD PORTABLE PENTACHLOROPHENOL IMMUNOASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four pentachlorophenol (PCP) enzyme immunoassays for environmental analysis have been evaluated through the U.S. EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. Three assays were formatted for on-site field use and one assay could be used in a field laboratory sett...

  14. Electric fields in nonhomogeneously doped silicon. Summary of simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotov, I. V.; Humanic, T. J.; Nouais, D.; Randel, J.; Rashevsky, A.; Alice-Its Collaboration

    2006-11-01

    Variations of the doping concentration inside a silicon device result in electric field distortions. These distortions, "parasitic" fields, have been observed in Silicon Drift Detectors [D. Nouais, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 501 (2003) 119; E. Crescio, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 539 (2005) 250]. Electric fields inside a silicon device can be calculated for a given doping profile. In this study, the ATLAS device simulator. [ Silvaco International, 4701 Patrick Henry Drive, Bldg.2, Santa Clara, CA 95054, USA and ] was used to calculate the electric field inside an inhomogeneously doped device. Simulations were performed for 1D periodic doping profiles. Results show strong dependence of the parasitic field strength on the 'smoothness' of the doping profile.

  15. Youth Employment Strategy (YES) 1997-2002: Summary of Recent Summative Evaluation Results. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This report provides a summary of six summative evaluation studies that were implemented and completed between 1999 and 2002. The evaluations were conducted on three different streams of Canada's Youth Employment Strategy (YES). The Youth Employment Strategy was introduced by the federal government in 1997 to address employment related challenges…

  16. Research Summary The `Faith Woodland' project in Maulden Woods: an evaluation

    E-print Network

    Research Summary The `Faith Woodland' project in Maulden Woods: an evaluation A pioneering `Faith Woodland' project at Maulden Wood in Bedfordshire was evaluated in 2007, nearly two years after not normally access woodland. There was strong positive feedback from participants, who in some cases had

  17. A Summary of Four Major Evaluation Reports on Follow Through in Philadelphia, 1975-1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Judith

    This paper presents summaries of four evaluation reports on Follow Through programs in Philadelphia, grades K-3. Section I compares the reading and mathematics achievement of children from 1971-1976 in the various Follow Through models. Included in the evaluation are the Behavior Analysis, Bank Street, Parent Implemented, Philadelphia Process,…

  18. Family Finding Evaluations: A Summary of Recent Findings--Appendix. Publication #2015-01A

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandivere, Sharon; Malm, Karin

    2015-01-01

    This document was produced by the authors based on their research for the report, "Family Finding Evaluations: A Summary of Recent Findings. Publication #2015-01," and is an added resource for further information. The report reviews the results from 13 evaluations of Family Finding. The Family Finding model provides child welfare…

  19. Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, Kimitaka

    2009-02-19

    In this presentation, lectures in the school are revisited and a brief summary is given. An emphasis is made to illustrate how the lectures are interconnected so as to constitute the unified basis of knowledge in realizing thermonuclear fusion in ITER.The first message here is the integration of the knowledge. All of conditions (which is imposed by individual characteristic dynamics) must be simultaneously fulfilled. Plasma conditions (density, pressure, current, shape, etc.) set parameter boundaries. Achievement of Q = 10 is expected to be realized near the ridge of boundary, so that exact knowledge of mutual relations between constraints is inevitable. The other message is that, the constraints of plasma, material and design must be subject to a special care. In this regard, the use of tritium in ITER introduces new issue in research. For instance, the containment of tritium in the device leads to a new demand for the system. This issue influences the choice of the wall material. The difference of the wall material (either light element or heavy metal), on the other hand, can have a large impact on confinement. These new features in integration will be explained.The other issue is the need of integration of knowledge to form a law of understanding. The mission of ITER must be realized as fast as possible, considering the fact the necessity for fusion energy will be more keen as time goes on. The operation of ITER has been predicted by extending the empirical scaling relations. More precise prediction and the resolution of possible problems in advance are required. For this urgency, our knowledge must be distilled as a scientific law in which elementary processes are validated.

  20. Remedial site evaluation report for the waste area grouping 10 wells associated with the new hydrofracture facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Field activities and well summaries

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    Four hydrofracture sites at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) were used for development, demonstration, and disposal from 1959 to 1984. More than 10 million gal of waste grout mix was disposed of via hydrofracture. Various types of wells were installed to monitor the hydrofracture operations. The primary goal of this remedial investigation was to gather information about the wells in order to recommend the type and best method of final disposition for the wells. Evaluations were performed to determine the integrity of well castings, confirm construction details for each well, evaluate the extent of contamination, assist in planning for future activities, and determine the suitability of the wells for future temporary site monitoring.

  1. Meta-Analytic Evaluation of a Virtual Field Trip to Connect Middle School Students with University Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adedokun, Omolola A.; Liu, Jia; Parker, Loran Carleton; Burgess, Wilella

    2015-01-01

    Although virtual field trips are becoming popular, there are few empirical studies of their impacts on student outcomes. This study reports on a meta-analytic evaluation of the impact of a virtual field trip on student perceptions of scientists. Specifically, the study examined the summary effect of zipTrips broadcasts on evaluation

  2. Manpower and Education Needs in Selected Professional Fields. Summaries of Commissioned Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mary Howard

    Commissioned by the Southern Regional Education Board, this document contains summaries of a series of papers on manpower and education in various professional fields. Each paper addresses the following factors: present and future needs for manpower; trends which will affect manpower needs and demands; present capability of higher education to…

  3. Summary We examined interrelated xylem water tensions and embolism dynamics under field conditions by simulta-

    E-print Network

    Mencuccini, Maurizio

    Summary We examined interrelated xylem water tensions and embolism dynamics under field conditions by simulta- neously monitoring ultra-acoustic emissions and changes in stem xylem diameter. Variation in stem xylem diameter was measured with linear displacement transducers to estimate var- iation in sap tension

  4. Engineering and Industrial Fields. Revised Summary Report: Technical Employment in Northeast Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William E.; And Others

    The document is one of five summary reports, all part of a Pre-Technical Curriculum Planning Project for secondary students who aspire to technical employment or post secondary technical education. This report represents the results of an assessment of the northeast Florida area's technical occupations in engineering and industrial fields. A…

  5. Field transportable beta spectrometer. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    The objective of the Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) Chicago Pile-5 Test Reactor (CP-5). The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that by using innovative and improved deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources, significant benefits can be achieved when compared to baseline D and D technologies. One such capability being addressed by the D and D Focus Area is rapid characterization for facility contaminants. The technology was field demonstrated during the period January 7 through January 9, 1997, and offers several potential benefits, including faster turn-around time, cost reduction, and reduction in secondary waste. This report describes a PC controlled, field-transportable beta counter-spectrometer which uses solid scintillation coincident counting and low-noise photomultiplier tubes to count element-selective filters and other solid media. The dry scintillation counter used in combination with an element-selective technology eliminates the mess and disposal costs of liquid scintillation cocktails. Software in the instrument provides real-time spectral analysis. The instrument can detect and measure Tc-99, Sr-90, and other beta emitters reaching detection limits in the 20 pCi range (with shielding). Full analysis can be achieved in 30 minutes. The potential advantages of a field-portable beta counter-spectrometer include the savings gained from field generated results. The basis for decision-making is provided with a rapid turnaround analysis in the field. This technology would be competitive with the radiometric analysis done in fixed laboratories and the associated chain of custody operations.

  6. Field Evaluation of Programmable Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, O.; Tiefenbeck, V.; Duvier, C.; Qin, A.; Cheney, K.; Akers, C.; Roth, K.

    2012-12-01

    Prior research suggests that poor programmable thermostats usability may prevent their effective use to save energy. We hypothesized that home occupants with a high-usability thermostats would be more likely to use them to save energy than people with a basic thermostat. We randomly installed a high-usability thermostat in half the 77 apartments of an affordable housing complex, installing a basic thermostat in the other half. During the heating season, we collected space temperature and furnace on-off data to evaluate occupant interaction with the thermostats, foremost nighttime setbacks. We found that thermostat usability did not influence energy-saving behaviors, finding no significant difference in temperature maintained among apartments with high- and low-usability thermostats.

  7. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Volume 2, Participants program final summary evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Brandes, S.D.; Robbins, G.A.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1994-05-01

    This 4.5-year project consisted of routine analytical support to DOE`s direct liquefaction process development effort (the Base Program), and an extensive effort to develop, demonstate, and apply new analytical methods for the characterization of liquefaction process streams (the Participants Program). The objective of the Base Program was to support the on-going DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program. Feed, process, and product samples were used to assess process operations, product quality, and the effects of process variables, and to direct future testing. The primary objective of the Participants Program was to identify and demonstrate analytical methods for use in support of liquefaction process develpment, and in so doing, provide a bridge between process design, development, and operation and analytical chemistry. To achieve this direct coal liquefaction-derived materials. CONSOL made an evaluation of each analytical technique. During the performance of this project, we obtained analyses on samples from numerous process development and research programs and we evaluated a variety of analytical techniques for their usefulness in supporting liquefaction process development. Because of the diverse nature of this program, we provide here an annotated bibliography of the technical reports, publications, and formal presentations that resulted from this program to serve as a comprehensive summary of contract activities.

  8. Urban Dispersion Program Overview and MID05 Field Study Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Allwine, K Jerry; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2007-07-31

    The Urban Dispersion Program (UDP) was a 4-year project (2004–2007) funded by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security with additional support from the Defense Threat Reduction Agency. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) also contributed to UDP through funding a human-exposure component of the New York City (NYC) field studies in addition to supporting an EPA scientist in conducting modeling studies of NYC. The primary goal of UDP was to improve the scientific understanding of the flow and diffusion of airborne contaminants through and around the deep street canyons of NYC. The overall UDP project manager and lead scientist was Dr. Jerry Allwine of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. UDP had several accomplishments that included conducting two tracer and meteorological field studies in Midtown Manhattan.

  9. Vegetation and soils field research data base: Experiment summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biehl, L. L.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Bauer, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    Understanding of the relationships between the optical, spectral characteristics and important biological-physical parameters of earth-surface features can best be obtained by carefully controlled studies over fields and plots where complete data describing the condition of targets are attainable and where frequent, timely spectral measurement can be obtained. Development of a vegetation and soils field research data base was initiated in 1972 at Purdue University's Laboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing and expanded in the fall of 1974 by NASA as part of LACIE. Since then, over 250,000 truck-mounted and helicopter-borne spectrometer/multiband radiometer observations have been obtained of more than 50 soil series and 20 species of crops, grasses, and trees. These data are supplemented by an extensive set of biophysical and meteorological data acquired during each mission. The field research data form one of the most complete and best-documented data sets acquired for agricultural remote sensing research. Thus, they are well-suited to serve as a data base for research to: (1) quantiatively determine the relationships of spectral and biophysical characteristics of vegetation, (2) define future sensor systems, and (3) develop advanced data analysis techniques.

  10. Summary of 2008 CUAA Chinese University Evaluation and Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deguo, Zhao; Yanhou, Cai; Yongjun, Feng; Lingfeng, Wang

    2009-01-01

    Since 2002, the University Evaluation Task Force of China University Alumni Association Network (CUAA), "University Weekly" and "21st Century Talent Report" have made joint efforts in the evaluation of higher education institutions in China. Compared with the ranking in 2007, China's University Ranking in the 2008 report is different mainly due to…

  11. Summary of Global Ozone Measurements Collected from Field Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, J.; Salazar, V.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of the NCAR Earth Observing Laboratory data services is to advance science through delivering high-quality project data and meta data in ways that are as transparent, secure, and easily accessible as possible. By using EOL's existing infrastructure and applying data mining techniques, we explored global ozone measurements collected during EOL supported airborne field campaigns. This study highlights ozone concentrations addressing a diverse set of science objectives, and how these timed measurements contribute to the understanding of the state of the atmosphere and evolution of the different measuring techniques.

  12. Weatherization Works--Summary of Findings from the Retrospective Evaluation of the U.S. DOE's Weatherization Assistance Program

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, Bruce Edward; Carroll, David; Pigg, Scott; Blasnik, Michael; Dalhoff, Greg; Berger, Jacqueline; Rose, Erin M; Hawkins, Beth A.; Eisenberg, Joel Fred; Ucar, Ferit; Bensch, Ingo; Cowan, Claire

    2015-10-01

    This report presents a summary of the studies and analyses that compose the retrospective evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy s low-income Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP). WAP provides grants to Grantees (i.e., states) that then provide grants to Subgrantees (i.e., local weatherization agencies) to weatherize low-income homes. This evaluation focused on the WAP Program Year 2008. The retrospective evaluation produced twenty separate reports, including this summary. Four separate reports address the energy savings, energy cost savings, and cost effectiveness of WAP across four housing types: single family, mobile home, small multifamily, and large multifamily. Other reports address the environmental emissions, macroeconomic, and health and household-related benefits attributable to WAP, and characterize the program, its recipients, and those eligible for the program. Major field studies are also summarized, including a major indoor air quality study and a follow-up ventilation study, an in-depth in-field assessment of weatherization work and quality, and a study that assesses reasons for variations in energy savings across homes. Results of surveys of weatherization staff, occupants, occupants satisfaction with weatherization services provided, and weatherization trainees are summarized. Lastly, this report summarizes a set of fifteen case studies of high-performing and unique local weatherization agencies.

  13. Japanese Refrigerators : A Field Performance Analysis : Summary Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Short, John A.

    1990-02-01

    Society generally expects Japanese refrigerators to be more energy efficient than their American-made counterparts. With increasing attention being focused on appliance energy efficiency, research into operating characteristics of Japanese refrigerators has gained importance. Other projects report the monitored energy use of certain models of Japanese refrigerators. In addition, laboratory tests determined energy consumption of certain refrigerators under controlled conditions. In 1987, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) undertook a project to measure and analyze the energy consumption of 12 Japanese-made refrigerators in the Portland-Vancouver metropolitan area. This project's purpose was to collect field data on certain models and compare with that collected in other projects and laboratory tests. Japanese energy consumption figures fall 30--40% below those of DOE. This energy savings, if real, could substantially cut baseload power for utilities. Determining typical refrigerator energy use patterns and which environmental factors effect them helps utilities to forecast demand. 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. PUBLIC HEALTH AIR SURVEILLANCE EVALUATION (PHASE) - A SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    NERL's Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division and other participants in the Public Health Air Surveillance Evaluation (PHASE) project will be discussing their results with European Commission, Directorate General Environment, and

    French Agency for Environment an...

  15. Medical evaluations on the KC-135 1991 flight report summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, Charles W.

    1993-01-01

    The medical investigations completed on the KC-135 during FY 1991 in support of the development of the Health Maintenance Facility and Medical Operations are presented. The experiments consisted of medical and engineering evaluations of medical hardware and procedures and were conducted by medical and engineering personnel. The hardware evaluated included prototypes of a crew medical restraint system and advanced life support pack, a shuttle orbiter medical system, an airway medical accessory kit, a supplementary extended duration orbiter medical kit, and a surgical overhead canopy. The evaluations will be used to design flight hardware and identify hardware-specific training requirements. The following procedures were evaluated: transport of an ill or injured crewmember at man-tended capability, surgical technique in microgravity, transfer of liquids in microgravity, advanced cardiac life support using man-tended capability Health Maintenance Facility hardware, medical transport using a model of the assured crew return vehicle, and evaluation of delivery mechanisms for aerosolized medications in microgravity. The results of these evaluation flights allow for a better understanding of the types of procedures that can be performed in a microgravity environment.

  16. An Evaluation of Title I of the Library Services and Construction Act. Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Joseph; And Others

    The comprehensive evaluation of the effects and results of the federal program implementing Title I of the Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA) described in this summary report found that, in general, the program has contributed significantly to the development and provision of public library services. However, public libraries are…

  17. Preventing Youth Violence. A Summary of Program Evaluations. Urban Health Initiative Monograph Series, Monograph 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellermann, Arthur L.; Fuqua-Whitley, Dawna S.; Rivara, Frederick P.

    This summary explaining the results of evaluations of programs to prevent youth violence is an attempt to fill the gap in information about what works and what does not. An effort is made to place the problem of youth violence in perspective, using information largely taken from Bureau of Justice statistics. The existing programs are divided into…

  18. The Schools Attuned[R] Program Practicum: 2005-2006 Participant Evaluation Summary Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    All Kinds of Minds, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This summary report presents program evaluation outcomes for the Practicum component of the Schools Attuned Program. Practicum Sessions build upon the knowledge and skills gained from the Core Course. The three key elements of Practicum include: (1) Building Community; (2) Skill Development; and (3) Extended Learning. The analyses included in this…

  19. The Schools Attuned Program Core Course: 2004 Participant Evaluation. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    All Kinds of Minds, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This executive summary presents program evaluation outcomes for the Core Course component of the Schools Attuned Program. Core Courses occurred in sites across the United States, Canada and in Zurich, Switzerland throughout 2004. Analyses are based on information from the Schools Attuned Participant Core Course Survey and Schools Attuned…

  20. 1991 at a Glance. Executive Summaries of Reports from the Office of Research and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.

    This document presents effectiveness charts that demonstrate the impact of various programs of the Austin (Texas) Independent School District (AISD) on strategic objectives of the district and executive summaries of all reports produced by the AISD's Office of Research and Evaluation in 1990-91. The programs described in the effectiveness charts…

  1. South Fence Road -- Phase 1 field operations summary

    SciTech Connect

    McCord, J.P.; Neel, D.

    1996-03-01

    The South Fence Road (SFR) project is part of the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization (SWHC) task. The SWHC task has as its objective the reduction of uncertainty about the rate and direction of groundwater flow in the SNL/NM/Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) area. The SFR project area is located along the southern boundary of SNL/KAFB. This project area was selected to provide site-specific information related to geology and groundwater hydrology within the Hubbell Spring/Tijeras/Sandia fault complex. Specific objectives included determining the depth to the Santa Fe Group/bedrock contact, the depth to the water table, and the hydrogeologic complexities related to faulting. This report is a basic data report from the first phase of field operations associated with the drilling, logging, completion, and development of South Fence Road Wells SFR-1D and SFR-1S, SFR-2, SFR-3D and SFR-3S, and SFR-4. These test/monitoring wells were installed as part of Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Environmental Restoration Project.

  2. Geothermal well stimulation - program summary and the Beowawe field experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Verity, R.V.

    1983-12-01

    Republic Geothermal, Inc. and its subcontractors have planned and executed laboratory studies and eight well stimulation field experiments under the Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program (GRWSP). The program, begun in February 1979, has concentrated on extending petroleum industry stimulation technology for use by the geothermal industry. The most recent experiment was in a naturally fractured Chevron well at Beowawe and involved an acid stimulation of a damaged interval which yielded a 2.3-fold increase in injectivity. Overall results to date have shown that stimulation is viable where adequate reservoirs are penetrated by wells encountering formation damage or locally tight formations. However, wells in marginal naturally fractured reservoirs have not been saved by the types of well stimulation jobs performed thus far. A recent discovery is that many wells can possibly be made outstanding producers by widening and propping compliant natural fractures. Confirmation of this constitutes unfinished business of the GRWSP, adn offers one of the greatest potential opportunities for enhancing the economics of geothermal power production.

  3. Energy Extension Service Pilot Program: evaluation report after two years. Volume I. Evaluation summary

    SciTech Connect

    1980-04-01

    The EES pilot program was initiated in August 1977, when 10 states were selected on a competitive basis for participation. The pilot states (Alabama, Connecticut, Michigan, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming) devoted the first 6 months to start-up activities. This document is a follow-up report to the three volume Evaluation Summary of the first year of the pilot EES program published in September 1979. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the impacts and costs of the two years of the pilot program, and to check the consistency of findings over the two year period. The analysis addresses the following: (1) were the impact findings of Year I and Year II consistent, or did Year I and Year II attitudes and behavior vary. If variation existed, could it be attributed to program changes as the EES progressed from a start-up phase (Year I) to more normal service delivery (Year II); and (2) did costs of service delivery change (again reflecting start-up and normal service delivery costs). Did cost changes affect conclusions about the relative cost effectiveness of delivering services to different target audiences.

  4. Medical evaluations on the KC-135 1990 flight report summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, Charles W.; Guess, Terrell M.; Whiting, Charles W.; Doarn, Charles R.

    1991-01-01

    The medical investigations completed on the KC-135 during FY 1990 in support of the development of the Health Maintenance Facility and Medical Operations are discussed. The experiments are comprised of engineering evaluations of medical hardware and medical procedures. The investigating teams are made up of both medical and engineering personnel responsible for the development of medical hardware and medical operations. The hardware evaluated includes dental equipment, a coagulation analyzer, selected pharmaceutical aerosol devices, a prototype air/fluid separator, a prototype packaging and stowage system for medical supplies, a microliter metering system, and a workstation for minor surgical procedures. The results of these engineering evaluations will be used in the design of fleet hardware as well as to identify hardware specific training requirements.

  5. Summary of the hydraulic evaluation of LWBR (LWBR development program)

    SciTech Connect

    Stout, J.W.; Lerner, S.; McWilliams, K.D.; Turner, J.R.

    1981-04-01

    The principal hydraulic performance features of the Light Water Breeder Reactor are summarized in this report. The calculational models and procedures used for prediction of reactor flow and pressure distributions under steady-state and transient operating conditions are described. Likewise, the analysis models for evaluation of the static and dynamic performance characteristics of the hydraulically-balanced and hydraulically-buffered movable-fuel reactivity-control system are outlined. An extensive test program was conducted for qualification of the subject LWBR hydraulic evaluation models. The projected LWBR hydraulic performance is shown to fulfill design objectives and functional requirements.

  6. Crockett's Project Success: 1990-91 Evaluation Report. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyer, Roxane; Bliss, Kris

    This report describes an evaluation of Project Success, a dropout prevention program at Crockett High School in Austin (Texas). The class centered program provided incentives for improved educational performance and attendance of at-risk ninth-grade students in the 1990-91 school year. The project served 103 students over the fall 1990 and spring…

  7. Talk for Literacy: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styles, Ben; Bradshaw, Sally

    2015-01-01

    This NFER report has been produced for the Education Endowment Foundation and its evaluation of a speaking and listening intervention combining two programmes: the Vocabulary Enrichment Intervention Programme (VEIP) and the narrative Intervention Programme (NIP). The intervention was used with pupils who needed extra support to improve their…

  8. Evaluating Principals: Balancing Accountability with Professional Growth. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Leaders for New Schools (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Effective principals are those who boost academic achievement for all students, increase the effectiveness of their teaching staffs, and consistently take leadership actions shown to improve outcomes for students. Therefore principal evaluation systems should place 70% of their weight on the ability of principals to increase student achievement…

  9. Field evaluation of a humic product in Iowa corn fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The benefit to corn production of a humic product derived from lignite was evaluated for three years under otherwise conventional crop management in Iowa farmers’ fields. Humic material was applied as a liquid extract at a rate of 3 pints acre-1 (0.57 L ha-1), generally as a foliar spray along with ...

  10. Evaluation of near-field earthquake effects

    SciTech Connect

    Shrivastava, H.P.

    1994-11-01

    Structures and equipment, which are qualified for the design basis earthquake (DBE) and have anchorage designed for the DBE loading, do not require an evaluation of the near-field earthquake (NFE) effects. However, safety class 1 acceleration sensitive equipment such as electrical relays must be evaluated for both NFE and DBE since they are known to malfunction when excited by high frequency seismic motions.

  11. SIMS analysis: Development and evaluation 1994 summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Groenewold, G.S.; Appelhans, A.D.; Ingram, J.C.; Delmore, J.E.; Dahl, D.A.

    1994-12-01

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was evaluated for applicability to the characterization of salt cake and environmental samples. Salt cake is representative of waste found in radioactive waste storage tanks located at Hanford and at other DOE sites; it consists of nitrate, nitrite, hydroxide, and ferrocyanide salts, and the samples form the tanks are extremely radioactive. SIMS is an attractive technology for characterizing these samples because it has the capability for producing speciation information with little or no sample preparation, and it generates no additional waste. Experiments demonstrated that substantial speciation information could be readily generated using SIMS: metal clusters which include nitrate, nitrite, hydroxide, carbonate, cyanide, ferrocyanide and ferricyanide were observed. In addition, the mechanism of SIMS desorption of tributyl phosphate (TBP) was clearly identified, and minimum detection limit studies involving TBP were performed. Procurements leading to the construction of an ion trap SIMS instrument were initiated. Technology transfer of SIMS components to three instrument vendors was initiated. For FY-95, the SIMS evaluation program has been redirected toward identification of metal species on environmental samples.

  12. Field test to evaluate telepathology in telemedicine.

    PubMed

    Schwarzmann, P; Schmid, J; Binder, B; Burkart, J

    1996-01-01

    Telepathology is currently performed only on prototype systems. The application of telepathology consultations differs from the conventional procedure because of the technical and cost restrictions. This paper outlines technical concepts and the principal hardware and software modules necessary for telemicroscopy equipment. A field test to gather information concerning the user needs and to evaluate parameters of telepathology consultation sessions is reported. PMID:9375080

  13. Field evaluation of Bemisia parasitoids in Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two methods were employed to assess the potential of candidate parasitoid species/strains to parasitize B. tabaci under field conditions in Texas. Sleeve cage evaluations were conducted in kale, cantaloupe melons, and cotton in 1994–1995. In kale, the highest parasitism rates were observed for two s...

  14. Summary of 2012 reconnaissance field studies related to the petroleum geology of the Nenana Basin, interior Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wartes, Marwan A.; Gillis, Robert J.; Herriott, Trystan M.; Stanley, Richard G.; Helmold, Kenneth P.; Peterson, C. Shaun; Benowitz, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    The Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS) recently initiated a multi-year review of the hydrocarbon potential of frontier sedimentary basins in Alaska (Swenson and others, 2012). In collaboration with the Alaska Division of Oil & Gas and the U.S. Geological Survey we conducted reconnaissance field studies in two basins with recognized natural gas potential—the Susitna basin and the Nenana basin (LePain and others, 2012). This paper summarizes our initial work on the Nenana basin; a brief summary of our work in the Susitna basin can be found in Gillis and others (in press). During early May 2012, we conducted ten days of helicopter-supported fieldwork and reconnaissance sampling along the northern Alaska Range foothills and Yukon–Tanana upland near Fairbanks (fig. 1). The goal of this work was to improve our understanding of the geologic development of the Nenana basin and to collect a suite of samples to better evaluate hydrocarbon potential. Most laboratory analyses have not yet been completed, so this preliminary report serves as a summary of field data and sets the framework for future, more comprehensive analysis to be presented in later publications.

  15. Evaluation of dual-energy-use systems. Volume 1. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Limaye, D.R.

    1982-10-01

    The potential applications of industrial cogeneration and district heating are addressed. The following are described, briefly: purpose and objectives, project overview, major tasks, project schedule, industrial cogeneration case studies, list of cogeneration systems studied, cogeneration data base, summary of cogeneration inventory, evaluation methodology, computer programs for screening and evaluation of DEUS, conceptual design of cogeneration systems in a pulp mill, West Coast mill results, conceptual design of cogeneration system for enhanced oil recovery, cogeneration systems Tosco site, preliminary evaluation of cogeneration potential in distillation columns, district heating survey, US vs European district heating technology, and utility participation in DEUS regulatory and financial aspects. (MHR)

  16. Evaluation of dual-energy-use systems. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limaye, D. R.

    1982-10-01

    The potential applications of industrial cogeneration and district heating are addressed. The following are described: purpose and objectives, project overview, major tasks, project schedule, industrial cogeneration case studies, list of cogeneration systems studied, cogeneration data base, summary of cogeneration inventory, evaluation methodology, computer programs for screening and evaluation of DEUS, conceptual design of cogeneration systems in a pulp mill, West Coast mill results, conceptual design of cogeneration system for enhanced oil recovery, cogeneration systems Tosco site, preliminary evaluation of cogeneration potential in distillation columns, district heating survey, US vs European district heating technology, and utility participation in DEUS regulatory and financial aspects.

  17. Summary of the planning, management, and evaluation process for the Geothermal Program Review VI conference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to present an overview of the planning, facilitation, and evaluation process used to conduct the Geothermal Program Review VI (PR VI) conference. This document was also prepared to highlight lessons learned from PR VI and, by utilizing the evaluation summaries and recommendations, be used as a planning tool for PR VII. The conference, entitled Beyond Goals and Objectives,'' was sponsored by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Technology Division (GTD), PR VI was held in San Francisco, California on April 19--21, 1988 and was attended by 127 participants. PR VI was held in conjunction with the National Geothermal Association's (NGA) Industry Round Table. This document presents a brief summary of the activities, responsibilities, and resources for implementing the PR VI meeting and provides recommendations, checklists, and a proposed schedule for assisting in planning PR VII.

  18. Entry control technology biometric field evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.R.; Ahrens, J.S.; Lowe, D.L.

    1995-07-01

    Throughout the years, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has performed various laboratory evaluations of entry control devices, including biometric identity verifiers. The reports which resulted from this testing have been very well received by the physical security community. This same community now requires equally informative field study data. To meet this need we have conducted a field study in an effort to develop the tools and methods which our customers can use to translate laboratory data into operational field performance. The field testing described in this report was based on the Recognition Systems Inc.`s (RSI) model ID3D HandKey biometric verifier. This device was selected because it is referenced in DOE documents such as the Guide for Implementation of the DOE Standard Badge and is the de facto biometric standard for the DOE. The ID3D HandKey is currently being used at several DOE sites such as Hanford, Rocky Flats, Pantex, Savannah River, and Idaho Nuclear Engineering Laboratory. The ID3D HandKey was laboratory tested at SNL. It performed very well during this test, exhibiting an equal error point of 0.2 percent. The goals of the field test were to identify operational characteristics and design guidelines to help system engineers translate laboratory data into field performance. A secondary goal was to develop tools which could be used by others to evaluate system effectiveness or improve the performance of their systems. Operational characteristics were determined by installing a working system and studying its operation over a five month period. Throughout this test we developed tools which could be used by others to similarly gauge system effectiveness.

  19. Static magnetic fields: A summary of biological interactions, potential health effects, and exposure guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1992-05-01

    Interest in the mechanisms of interaction and the biological effects of static magnetic fields has increased significantly during the past two decades as a result of the growing number of applications of these fields in research, industry and medicine. A major stimulus for research on the bioeffects of static magnetic fields has been the effort to develop new technologies for energy production and storage that utilize intense magnetic fields (e.g., thermonuclear fusion reactors and superconducting magnet energy storage devices). Interest in the possible biological interactions and health effects of static magnetic fields has also been increased as a result of recent developments in magnetic levitation as a mode of public transportation. In addition, the rapid emergence of magnetic resonance imaging as a new clinical diagnostic procedure has, in recent years, provided a strong rationale for defining the possible biological effects of magnetic fields with high flux densities. In this review, the principal interaction mechanisms of static magnetic fields will be described, and a summary will be given of the present state of knowledge of the biological, environmental, and human health effects of these fields.

  20. Recognizing noun phrases in medical discharge summaries: an evaluation of two natural language parsers.

    PubMed Central

    Spackman, K. A.; Hersh, W. R.

    1996-01-01

    We evaluated the ability of two natural language parsers, CLARIT and the Xerox Tagger, to identify simple, noun phrases in medical discharge summaries. In twenty randomly selected discharge summaries, there were 1909 unique simple noun phrases. CLARIT and the Xerox Tagger exactly identified 77.0% and 68.7% of the phrases, respectively, and partially identified 85.7% and 80.8% of the phrases. Neither system had been specially modified or tuned to the medical domain. These results suggest that it is possible to apply existing natural language processing (NLP) techniques to large bodies of medical text, in order to empirically identify the terminology used in medicine. Virtually all the noun phrases could be regarded as having special medical connotation and would be candidates for entry into a controlled medical vocabulary. PMID:8947647

  1. Field evaluation of a VOST sampling method

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.D.; Johnson, L.D.; Fuerst, R.G.; McGaughey, J.F.; Bursey, J.T.; Merrill, R.G.

    1994-12-31

    The VOST (SW-846 Method 0030) specifies the use of Tenax{reg_sign} and a particular petroleum-based charcoal (SKC Lot 104, or its equivalent), that is no longer commercially available. In field evaluation studies of VOST methodology, a replacement petroleum-based charcoal has been used: candidate replacement sorbents for charcoal were studied, and Anasorb{reg_sign} 747, a carbon-based sorbent, was selected for field testing. The sampling train was modified to use only Anasorb{reg_sign} in the back tube and Tenax{reg_sign} in the two front tubes to avoid analytical difficulties associated with the analysis of the sequential bed back tube used in the standard VOST train. The standard (SW-846 Method 0030) and the modified VOST methods were evaluated at a chemical manufacturing facility using a quadruple probe system with quadruple trains. In this field test, known concentrations of the halogenated volatile organic compounds, that are listed in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, Title 3, were introduced into the VOST train and the modified VOST train, using the same certified gas cylinder as a source of test compounds. Statistical tests of the comparability of methods were performed on a compound-by-compound basis. For most compounds, the VOST and modified VOST methods were found to be statistically equivalent.

  2. Automated water monitor system field demonstration test report. Volume 2: Technical summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, R. L.; Jeffers, E. L.; Perreira, J.; Poel, J. D.; Nibley, D.; Nuss, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    The NASA Automatic Water Monitor System was installed in a water reclamation facility to evaluate the technical and cost feasibility of producing high quality reclaimed water. Data gathered during this field demonstration test are reported.

  3. Platform evaluation of an offshore field

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, K.L.; Saleri, N.G.; Al-Khowaiter, A.O.

    1995-10-01

    A numerical study of an offshore field was performed to evaluate the relative performance of horizontal versus conventional wells, and various well completion/placement/production scenarios for a six-well platform. The results presented in this paper are found to be counterintuitive. While horizontal/high slant wells showed delayed gas and/or water breakthroughs, the overall platform performance remained largely insensitive to well configuration (horizontal versus conventional). Well placement, completion interval, and production strategy after breakthrough were identified to be the critical parameters in determining the performance of the platform. The study results favor conventional completions for this particular six-well platform.

  4. Field evaluation of prototype electrofibrous filters

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, W.D.; Bergman, W.; Biermann, A.H.; Lum, B.Y.

    1982-09-30

    New prototype electrofibrous filters were designed, built and evaluated in laboratory tests and in field installations. Two prototypes were designed for use in nuclear ventilation ducts as prefilters to HEPA filters. One prototype is designed to be a permanent component of the ventilation system while the other is a disposable unit. The disposable electrofibrous prefilter was installed in the exhaust stream of a glove box in which barrels of uranium turnings are burned. Preliminary tests show the disposal prefilter is effectively prolonging the HEPA filter life. An earlier prototype of the rolling prefilter was upgraded to meet the increased requirements for installation in a nuclear facility. This upgraded prototype was evaluated in the fire test facility at LLNL and shown to be effective in protecting HEPA filters from plugging under the most severe smoke conditions. The last prototype described in this report is a recirculating air filter. After demonstrating a high performance in laboratory tests the unit was shipped to Savannah River where it is awaiting installation in a Pu fuel fabrication facility. An analysis of the particulate problem in Savannah River indicates that four recirculating air filter will save $172,000 per year in maintenance costs.

  5. Regional transport and dilution during high-pollution episodes in southern France: Summary of findings from the Field

    E-print Network

    of local and mesoscale winds that transport and redistribute pollutants across the air basins, generatingRegional transport and dilution during high-pollution episodes in southern France: Summary of findings from the Field Experiment to Constraint Models of Atmospheric Pollution and Emissions Transport

  6. Hazardous gas model evaluation with field observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, S. R.; Chang, J. C.; Strimaitis, D. G.

    Fifteen hazardous gas models were evaluated using data from eight field experiments. The models include seven publicly available models (AFTOX, DEGADIS, HEGADAS, HGSYSTEM, INPUFF, OB/DG and SLAB), six proprietary models (AIRTOX, CHARM, FOCUS, GASTAR, PHAST and TRACE), and two "benchmark" analytical models (the Gaussian Plume Model and the analytical approximations to the Britter and McQuaid Workbook nomograms). The field data were divided into three groups—continuous dense gas releases (Burro LNG, Coyote LNG, Desert Tortoise NH 3-gas and aerosols, Goldfish HF-gas and aerosols, and Maplin Sands LNG), continuous passive gas releases (Prairie Grass and Hanford), and instantaneous dense gas releases (Thorney Island freon). The dense gas models that produced the most consistent predictions of plume centerline concentrations across the dense gas data sets are the Britter and McQuaid, CHARM, GASTAR, HEGADAS, HGSYSTEM, PHAST, SLAB and TRACE models, with relative mean biases of about ±30% or less and magnitudes of relative scatter that are about equal to the mean. The dense gas models tended to overpredict the plume widths and underpredict the plume depths by about a factor of two. All models except GASTAR, TRACE, and the area source version of DEGADIS perform fairly well with the continuous passive gas data sets. Some sensitivity studies were also carried out. It was found that three of the more widely used publicly-available dense gas models (DEGADIS, HGSYSTEM and SLAB) predicted increases in concentration of about 70% as roughness length decreased by an order of magnitude for the Desert Tortoise and Goldfish field studies. It was also found that none of the dense gas models that were considered came close to simulating the observed factor of two increase in peak concentrations as averaging time decreased from several minutes to 1 s. Because of their assumption that a concentrated dense gas core existed that was unaffected by variations in averaging time, the dense gas models predicted, at most, a 20% increase in concentrations for this variation in averaging time.

  7. Satellite power system: Concept development and evaluation program. Volume 3: Power transmission and reception. Technical summary and assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, R. H.; Arndt, G. D.; Seyl, J. W.; Leopold, L.; Kelley, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    Efforts in the DOE/NASA concept development and evaluation program are discussed for the solar power satellite power transmission and reception system. A technical summary is provided together with a summary of system assessment activities. System options and system definition drivers are described. Major system assessment activities were in support of the reference system definition, solid state system studies, critical technology supporting investigations, and various system and subsystem tradeoffs. These activities are described together with reference system updates and alternative concepts for each of the subsystem areas. Conclusions reached as a result of the numerous analytical and experimental evaluations are presented. Remaining issues for a possible follow-on program are identified.

  8. Satellite power system: concept development and evaluation program. Volume 3: Power transmission and reception. Technical summary and assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, R.H.; Arndt, G.D.; Seyl, J.W.; Leopold, L.; Kelley, J.S.

    1981-07-01

    Efforts in the DOE/NASA concept development and evaluation program are discussed for the solar power satellite power transmission and reception system. A technical summary is provided together with a summary of system assessment activities. System options and system definition drivers are described. Major system assessment activities were in support of the reference system definition, solid state system studies, critical technology supporting investigations, and various system and subsystem tradeoffs. These activities are described together with reference system updates and alternative concepts for each of the subsystem areas. Conclusions reached as a result of the numerous analytical and experimental evaluations are presented. Remaining issues for a possible follow-on program are identified.

  9. Evaluation Field Building in South Asia: Reflections, Anecdotes, and Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    This article examines evaluation field building in South Asia and the role of international collaboration in this field building. The article explores aspects of the supply and demand of development evaluation and the political, historical, and systemic factors that bridge or block evaluation use. The article calls for and suggests elements to…

  10. Field Evaluation of the Pedostructure-Based Model (Kamel®)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study involves a field evaluation of the pedostructure-based model Kamel and comparisons between Kamel and the Hydrus-1D model for predicting profile soil moisture. This paper also presents a sensitivity analysis of Kamel with an evaluation field site used as the base scenario. The field site u...

  11. Field evaluations of marine oil spill bioremediation.

    PubMed Central

    Swannell, R P; Lee, K; McDonagh, M

    1996-01-01

    Bioremediation is defined as the act of adding or improving the availability of materials (e.g., nutrients, microorganisms, or oxygen) to contaminated environments to cause an acceleration of natural biodegradative processes. The results of field experiments and trials following actual spill incidents have been reviewed to evaluate the feasibility of this approach as a treatment for oil contamination in the marine environment. The ubiquity of oil-degrading microorganisms in the marine environment is well established, and research has demonstrated the capability of the indigenous microflora to degrade many components of petroleum shortly after exposure. Studies have identified numerous factors which affect the natural biodegradation rates of oil, such as the origin and concentration of oil, the availability of oil-degrading microorganisms, nutrient concentrations, oxygen levels, climatic conditions, and sediment characteristics. Bioremediation strategies based on the application of fertilizers have been shown to stimulate the biodegradation rates of oil in aerobic intertidal sediments such as sand and cobble. The ratio of oil loading to nitrogen concentration within the interstitial water has been identified to be the principal controlling factor influencing the success of this bioremediation strategy. However, the need for the seeding of natural environments with hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria has not been clearly demonstrated under natural environmental conditions. It is suggested that bioremediation should now take its place among the many techniques available for the treatment of oil spills, although there is still a clear need to set operational limits for its use. On the basis of the available evidence, we have proposed preliminary operational guidelines for bioremediation on shoreline environments. PMID:8801437

  12. Staying on Course: Three-Year Results of the National Guard Youth ChalleNGe Evaluation. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millenky, Megan; Bloom, Dan; Muller-Ravett, Sara; Broadus, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    High school dropouts face an uphill battle in a labor market that increasingly rewards skills and postsecondary credentials: they are more likely than their peers to need public assistance, be arrested or incarcerated, and less likely to marry. This executive summary summarizes results from a rigorous evaluation of the National Guard Youth…

  13. Summary of Field Measurement on UF6 Cylinders Using Electro-Mechanically Cooled Systems

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, Brent R; Smith, Steven E; Solodov, Alexander A; Whitaker, J Michael; Morgan, James B; MayerII, Richard L.; Montgomery, J. Brent

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of the enrichment of solid state UF6 stored within large metal cylinders is a task commonly performed by plant operators and inspectors. The measurement technologies typically used range from low-resolution, high-efficiency sodium iodide detectors to high-resolution, moderate-efficiency high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. The technology used and methods deployed are dependent upon the material being measured, environmental conditions, time constraints, and measurement-precision requirements. Operators and inspectors typically use specially designed, HPGe detectors that are cooled with liquid nitrogen in situations where high-resolution measurements are required. However, the requirement for periodically refilling the system with liquid nitrogen makes remote usage cumbersome and slow. The task of cooling the detector reduces the available time for the inspector to perform other safeguards activities while on site. If the inspector has to reduce the count time for each selected cylinder to ensure that all preselected cylinders are measured during the inspection, the resulting measurement uncertainties may be increased, making it more difficult to detect and verify potential discrepancies in the operator's declarations. However, recent advances in electromechanically cooled HPGe detectors may provide the inspector with an improved verification tool by eliminating the need for liquid nitrogen. This report provides a summary of test results for field measurements performed using electromechanically cooled HPGe detectors on depleted, natural, and low-enriched uranium cylinders. The results of the study provide valuable information to inspectors and operators regarding the capabilities and limitations of electromechanically cooled systems based on true field-measurement conditions.

  14. Summary report on reprocessing evaluation of selected inactive uranium mill tailings sites

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has been assisting the Department of Energy in the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Actions Program (UMTRAP) the purpose of which is to implement the provisions of Title I of Public Law 95-604, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.'' As part of this program, there was a need to evaluate the mineral concentration of the residual radioactive materials at some of the designated processing sites to determine whether mineral recovery would be practicable. Accordingly, Sandia contracted Mountain States Research and Development (MSRD), a division of Mountain States Mineral Enterprises, to drill, sample, and test tailings at 12 sites to evaluate the cost of and the revenue that could be derived from mineral recovery. UMTRAP related environmental and engineering sampling and support activities were performed in conjunction with the MSRD operations. This summary report presents a brief description of the various activities in the program and of the data and information obtained and summarizes the results. 8 refs., 9 tabs.

  15. A summary of the research program in the broad field of electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Summary reports of research projects covering solid state materials, semiconductors and devices, quantum electronics, plasmas, applied electromagnetics, electrical engineering systems to include control communication, computer and power systems, biomedical engineering and mathematical biosciences.

  16. The Comprehensive Longitudinal Evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program: Summary of Final Reports. SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation Report #36

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    This report contains a summary of the findings from the various topical reports that comprise the author's comprehensive longitudinal study. As a summary, it does not include extensive details regarding the study samples and scientific methodologies employed in those topical studies. The research revealed a pattern of school choice results that…

  17. Effects of 60 Hz electrical fields on operant and social stress behaviors of nonhuman primates: Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.; Coelho, A.M. Jr.; Easley, S.P.; Orr, J.L.

    1988-04-06

    The objective of this program is to investigate, using the baboon as a nonhuman primate surrogate for the human, behavioral effects associated with exposure to 60-Hz electric fields. Results from this program, along with information from experiments conducted elsewhere, could be used to estimate and evaluate the likelihood of deleterious consequences resulting from exposure of humans to the electric fields associated with power transmission over high voltage lines. This program is being conducted at Southwest Research Institute as part of an international collaborative information exchange and scientific research effort involving the United State Department of Energy, Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry, and Japan's Central Research Institute of the Electric Power Industry. Since August of 1984, four major research projects were successfully completed. 48 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Hanford 100-D Area Biostimulation Soluble Substrate Field Test: Interim Data Summary for the Substrate Injection and Process Monitoring Phases of the Field Test

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Mackley, Rob D.; Fritz, Brad G.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Johnson, Christian D.; Elmore, Rebecca P.; Brockman, Fred J.; Bilskis, Christina L.

    2008-06-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is conducting a treatability test designed to demonstrate that in situ biostimulation can be applied to help meet cleanup goals in the Hanford Site 100-D Area. The in situ biostimulation technology is intended to provide supplemental treatment upgradient of the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) barrier by reducing the concentration of the primary oxidizing species in groundwater (i.e., nitrate and dissolved oxygen) and chromate, and thereby increasing the longevity of the ISRM barrier. This report summarizes the initial results from field testing of an in situ biological treatment zone implemented through injection of a soluble substrate. The field test is divided into operational phases that include substrate injection, process monitoring, and performance monitoring. The results summarized herein are for the substrate injection and process monitoring phase encompassing the first approximately three months of field testing. Performance monitoring is ongoing at the time this report was prepared and is planned to extend over approximately 18 months. As such, this report is an interim data summary report for the field test. The treatability testing has multiple objectives focused on evaluating the performance of biostimulation as a reducing barrier for nitrate, oxygen, and chromate. The following conclusions related to these objectives are supported by the data provided in this report. Substrate was successfully distributed to a radius of about 15 m (50 ft) from the injection well. Monitoring data indicate that microbial growth initiated rapidly, and this rapid growth would limit the ability to inject substrate to significantly larger zones from a single injection well. As would be expected, the uniformity of substrate distribution was impacted by subsurface heterogeneity. However, subsequent microbial activity and ability to reduce the targeted species was observed throughout the monitored zone during the process monitoring period, and low nitrate and oxygen concentrations were maintained. Chromate concentrations in the treatment zone began to increase about two months after substrate injection, up to about 30 percent of the background concentration upgradient of the test site. The performance monitoring phase will provide additional data to interpret the performance of the biostimulation process and information for scale-up as a reducing barrier.

  19. Evaluating 6 ricin field detection assays.

    PubMed

    Slotved, Hans-Christian; Sparding, Nadja; Tanassi, Julia Tanas; Steenhard, Nina R; Heegaard, Niels H H

    2014-01-01

    This study presents data showing the performance of 6 commercial detection assays against ricin around concentrations specified as detection limits by the producers. A 2-fold dilution series of 20?ng/ml ricin was prepared and used for testing the lateral-flow kits: BADD, Pro Strips™, ENVI, RAID DX, Ricin BioThreat Alert, and IMASS™ device. Three of the 6 tested field assays (IMASS™ device, ENVI assay, and the BioThreat Alert assay) were able to detect ricin, although differences in the measured detection limits compared to the official detection limits and false-negative results were observed. We were not able to get the BADD, Pro Strips™, and RAID assays to function in our laboratory. We conclude that when purchasing a field responder assay, there is large variation in the specificity of the assays, and a number of in-house tests must be performed to ensure functionality. PMID:24978020

  20. Condensing Hybrid Water Heater Monitoring Field Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, J.; Earle, L.; Booten, C.; Hancock, C. E.

    2011-10-01

    This paper summarizes the Mascot home, an abandoned property that was extensively renovated. Several efficiency upgrades were integrated into this home, of particular interest, a unique water heater (a Navien CR240-A). Field monitoring was performed to determine the in-use efficiency of the hybrid condensing water heater. The results were compared to the unit's rated efficiency. This unit is Energy Star qualified and one of the most efficient gas water heaters currently available on the market.

  1. A summary of 22 Years of Fish Screen Evaluation in the Yakima River Basin, Summary Report 1985-2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Chamness, Mickie A.

    2007-12-03

    Sixty fish screen facilities were constructed in the Yakima River basin between 1985 and 2006 as part of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council plan to mitigate the effects of federal hydroelectric projects on fish and wildlife populations. This report summarizes evaluations of some of those and other fish screen facilities conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) from 1985 through 2006. The objective of these studies was to determine if the newly designed and constructed fish screens were effective at providing juvenile salmonids safe passage past irrigation diversions. To answer that question, PNNL conducted release-and-catch studies at eight Phase I sites in the Yakima River basin. Increasing concerns about the impacts of hatchery fish releases on the wild fish population, as well as the cost and time necessary to perform these kinds of biological studies at more than 60 planned Phase II sites, required development of techniques to evaluate the effectiveness of the sites without releasing fish. The new techniques involved collecting information on screen design, operation, and effectiveness at guiding fish safely through the fish screen facility. Performance measures including water velocities and passage conditions provide a good alternative to biological studies at significantly lower cost and time. Physical techniques were used at all 10 Phase I and 28 Phase II sites evaluated by PNNL over the following 19 years. Results of these studies indicate the Phase I and II fish screen facilities are designed and capable of providing safe passage for juvenile salmonids so long as construction, maintenance, and operations meet the criteria used in the design of each site and the National Marine Fisheries Service criteria for juvenile fish screen design.

  2. FIELD EVALUATION OF AN AUTOISOKINETIC STACK PARTICULATE SAMPLING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The performance of a prototype autoisokinetic stack particulate sampling system, designed to maintain automatically isokinetic sampling conditions, was evaluated in field tests at stationary sources. Tests were conducted to determine the operating limits and characteristics of th...

  3. FIELD ANALYTICAL SCREENING PROGRAM PCB METHOD: INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This innovative technology evaluation report (ITER) presents information on the demonstration of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 7 Superfund Field Analytical Screening Program (FASP) method for determining polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in soil...

  4. Field evaluation of two commonly used slipmeters.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Ruey; Cotnam, John P; Matz, Simon

    2003-01-01

    A variety of slipmeters have been used to assess the slipperiness of floor surfaces. International standards for the operation of slipmeters describe the protocol for a single measurement. These standards usually do not cover some of the critical elements in safety assessment such as methods for the selection of measurement locations and the necessary number of repeated measurements at each location. Furthermore, most of the slipmeters were evaluated in laboratory settings with new floor surfaces and artificial contaminants. Two commonly used slipmeters, the Brungraber Mark II and the English XL, were evaluated at actual worksites in this experiment. Four floor tiles in each of four different work areas in the kitchens of 18 fast food restaurants were selected for repeated measurements with these two slipmeters. The results indicated that sanding of footwear materials has a significant effect on the outcomes of friction measurements, and the tile-to-tile variations in friction in the same areas of restaurants were also mostly statistically significant. Significant local variation in friction among tiles in the same area could potentially increase the chances of slip and fall incidents. Both slipmeters used in this experiment could potentially have problems in the areas with grease, such as grill and fryer areas, since the build-up of grease during repeated strikes could alter the outcome of friction measured. PMID:12523805

  5. Summary of evidence-based guideline update: Evaluation and management of concussion in sports

    PubMed Central

    Giza, Christopher C.; Kutcher, Jeffrey S.; Ashwal, Stephen; Barth, Jeffrey; Getchius, Thomas S.D.; Gioia, Gerard A.; Gronseth, Gary S.; Guskiewicz, Kevin; Mandel, Steven; Manley, Geoffrey; McKeag, Douglas B.; Thurman, David J.; Zafonte, Ross

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To update the 1997 American Academy of Neurology (AAN) practice parameter regarding sports concussion, focusing on 4 questions: 1) What factors increase/decrease concussion risk? 2) What diagnostic tools identify those with concussion and those at increased risk for severe/prolonged early impairments, neurologic catastrophe, or chronic neurobehavioral impairment? 3) What clinical factors identify those at increased risk for severe/prolonged early postconcussion impairments, neurologic catastrophe, recurrent concussions, or chronic neurobehavioral impairment? 4) What interventions enhance recovery, reduce recurrent concussion risk, or diminish long-term sequelae? The complete guideline on which this summary is based is available as an online data supplement to this article. Methods: We systematically reviewed the literature from 1955 to June 2012 for pertinent evidence. We assessed evidence for quality and synthesized into conclusions using a modified Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation process. We used a modified Delphi process to develop recommendations. Results: Specific risk factors can increase or decrease concussion risk. Diagnostic tools to help identify individuals with concussion include graded symptom checklists, the Standardized Assessment of Concussion, neuropsychological assessments, and the Balance Error Scoring System. Ongoing clinical symptoms, concussion history, and younger age identify those at risk for postconcussion impairments. Risk factors for recurrent concussion include history of multiple concussions, particularly within 10 days after initial concussion. Risk factors for chronic neurobehavioral impairment include concussion exposure and APOE ?4 genotype. Data are insufficient to show that any intervention enhances recovery or diminishes long-term sequelae postconcussion. Practice recommendations are presented for preparticipation counseling, management of suspected concussion, and management of diagnosed concussion. PMID:23508730

  6. DISPOSAL OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION WASTES: EPA SHAWNEE FIELD EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes results of the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) waste disposal field evaluation project sponsored by EPA at TVA's Shawnee steam plant, Paducah, KY. This pilot-scale project, initiated in 1974 and completed in September 1980, evaluated methods and costs for dis...

  7. Development of KSC program for investigating and generating field failure rates. Volume 1: Summary and overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bean, E. E.; Bloomquist, C. E.

    1972-01-01

    A summary of the KSC program for investigating the reliability aspects of the ground support activities is presented. An analysis of unsatisfactory condition reports (RC), and the generation of reliability assessment of components based on the URC are discussed along with the design considerations for attaining reliable real time hardware/software configurations.

  8. Evaluation of military field-water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Selleck, R.E.; Ungun, Z.; Chesler, G.; Diyamandoglu, V.; Marinas, B. . Sanitary Engineering and Environmental Health Research Lab.); Daniels, J.I. )

    1990-05-01

    A comparison is made between the performances of the 600-gph Reverse Osmosis Water Purification Unit (ROWPU) operated in the bypass mode and the Mobile Water Purification Unit (MWPU, frequently referred to as an ERDLATOR because the equipment was developed at the Engineer Research and Development Laboratory at Fort Belvoir, VA.) Generally, the performance of the MWPU is significantly better than the pretreatment units of the ROWPU in terms of removing both turbidity and pathogenic organisms. It is recommended that the practice of bypassing the reverse osmosis (RO) components of the ROWPU be avoided unless it can be demonstrated clearly that the cartridge filters will remove the cysts of infectious organisms effectively and reliably. If the ROWPU must be operated in the bypass mode, it is recommended that the dose of disinfectant used be made equal to that currently employed in the field for untreated raw water. The analytical methods used to determine total dissolved solids (TDS) and residual free chlorine with the new Water-Quality Monitor (WQM) are also reviewed briefly. The limitations of the methods used to calibrate the TDS and free-chlorine probes of the new WQM are discussed. 98 refs., 19 figs., 16 tabs.

  9. An evaluation of recent internal field models. [of earth magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mead, G. D.

    1979-01-01

    The paper reviews the current status of internal field models and evaluates several recently published models by comparing their predictions with annual means of the magnetic field measured at 140 magnetic observatories from 1973 to 1977. Three of the four models studied, viz. AWC/75, IGS/75, and Pogo 8/71, were nearly equal in their ability to predict the magnitude and direction of the current field. The fourth model, IGRF 1975, was significantly poorer in its ability to predict the current field. All models seemed to be able to extrapolate predictions quite well several years outside the data range used to construct the models.

  10. Numerical evaluation of uniform magnetic field within superconducting Swiss roll

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchimoto, M.; Demachi, K.; Itoh, I.

    2004-10-01

    Uniform and high magnetic field is required for medical apparatus such as magnetic resonance imaging. The homogeneous magnetic field in a solenoid magnet can be enhanced with superconducting Swiss roll, where NbTi/Nb/Cu multilayer sheet is rolled inside the magnet. Experimental magnetic field measurement is evaluated with a numerical simulation code based on the finite element circuit method. Shielding current distribution in the superconductor is obtained by using the critical state model. Numerical results agree well with experimental results. Uniformity of the field is discussed from the shielding current distribution of the superconducting Swiss roll.

  11. Evaluation of innovative arsenic treatment technologies :the arsenic water technology partnership vendors forums summary report.

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, Randy L.; Siegel, Malcolm Dean; McConnell, Paul E.; Kirby, Carolyn

    2006-09-01

    The lowering of the drinking water standard (MCL) for arsenic from 50 {micro}g/L to 10 {micro}g/L in January 2006 could lead to significant increases in the cost of water for many rural systems throughout the United States. The Arsenic Water Technology Partnership (AWTP), a collaborative effort of Sandia National Laboratories, the Awwa Research Foundation (AwwaRF) and WERC: A Consortium for Environmental Education and Technology Development, was formed to address this problem by developing and testing novel treatment technologies that could potentially reduce the costs of arsenic treatment. As a member of the AWTP, Sandia National Laboratories evaluated cutting-edge commercial products in three annual Arsenic Treatment Technology Vendors Forums held during the annual New Mexico Environmental Health Conferences (NMEHC) in 2003, 2004 and 2005. The Forums were comprised of two parts. At the first session, open to all conference attendees, commercial developers of innovative treatment technologies gave 15-minute talks that described project histories demonstrating the effectiveness of their products. During the second part, these same technologies were evaluated and ranked in closed sessions by independent technical experts for possible use in pilot-scale field demonstrations being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories. The results of the evaluations including numerical rankings of the products, links to company websites and copies of presentations made by the representatives of the companies are posted on the project website at http://www.sandia.gov/water/arsenic.htm. This report summarizes the contents of the website by providing brief descriptions of the technologies represented at the Forums and the results of the evaluations.

  12. Meta-analytic Evaluation of a Virtual Field Trip to Connect Middle School Students with University Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adedokun, Omolola A.; Liu, Jia; Parker, Loran Carleton; Burgess, Wilella

    2015-02-01

    Although virtual field trips are becoming popular, there are few empirical studies of their impacts on student outcomes. This study reports on a meta-analytic evaluation of the impact of a virtual field trip on student perceptions of scientists. Specifically, the study examined the summary effect of zipTrips broadcasts on evaluation participants' perceptions of scientists, as well as the moderating effect of program type on program impact. The results showed statistically significant effect of each broadcast, as well as statistically significant summary (combined) effect of zipTrips on evaluation participants' perceptions of scientists. Results of the moderation analysis showed that the effect was greater for the students that participated in the evaluation of the 8th grade broadcasts, providing additional insight into the role of program variation in predicting differential program impact. This study illustrates how meta-analysis, a methodology that should be of interest to STEM education researchers and evaluation practitioners, can be used to summarize the effects of multiple offerings of the same program. Other implications for STEM educators are discussed.

  13. Organizational Evaluation Systems and Student Disengagement in Secondary Schools. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natriello, Gary

    A summary is presented of a study to determine the impact of school authority systems on student disengagement from high school. Student disengagement is defined as the extent to which students refrain from participating in activities offered as part of the school program, tasks of scholarship and citizenship, and extracurricular activities. The…

  14. Meeting Summary

    Cancer.gov

    MEETING SUMMARY PRESIDENT'S CANCER PANEL THE NATIONAL DIALOGUE ON CANCER RESPONDS TO VOICES OF A BROKEN SYSTEM D e c e m b e r 7 , 2 0 0 2 W a s h i n g t o n , D C OVERVIEW The President’s Cancer Panel (PCP) was chartered to monitor and evaluate

  15. Field Evaluation of Personal Sampling Methods for Multiple Bioaerosols

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chi-Hsun; Chen, Bean T.; Han, Bor-Cheng; Liu, Andrew Chi-Yeu; Hung, Po-Chen; Chen, Chih-Yong; Chao, Hsing Jasmine

    2015-01-01

    Ambient bioaerosols are ubiquitous in the daily environment and can affect health in various ways. However, few studies have been conducted to comprehensively evaluate personal bioaerosol exposure in occupational and indoor environments because of the complex composition of bioaerosols and the lack of standardized sampling/analysis methods. We conducted a study to determine the most efficient collection/analysis method for the personal exposure assessment of multiple bioaerosols. The sampling efficiencies of three filters and four samplers were compared. According to our results, polycarbonate (PC) filters had the highest relative efficiency, particularly for bacteria. Side-by-side sampling was conducted to evaluate the three filter samplers (with PC filters) and the NIOSH Personal Bioaerosol Cyclone Sampler. According to the results, the Button Aerosol Sampler and the IOM Inhalable Dust Sampler had the highest relative efficiencies for fungi and bacteria, followed by the NIOSH sampler. Personal sampling was performed in a pig farm to assess occupational bioaerosol exposure and to evaluate the sampling/analysis methods. The Button and IOM samplers yielded a similar performance for personal bioaerosol sampling at the pig farm. However, the Button sampler is more likely to be clogged at high airborne dust concentrations because of its higher flow rate (4 L/min). Therefore, the IOM sampler is a more appropriate choice for performing personal sampling in environments with high dust levels. In summary, the Button and IOM samplers with PC filters are efficient sampling/analysis methods for the personal exposure assessment of multiple bioaerosols. PMID:25799419

  16. FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS VOLUME III. FIELD EVALUATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of field tests conducted to determine the emission characteristics of a Babcock and Wilcox Circular burner and Dual Register burner (DRB). The field tests were performed at two utility boilers, generally comparable in design and size except for the burner...

  17. FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS; VOLUME III. FIELD EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of field tests conducted to determine the emission characteristics of a Babcock and Wilcox Circular burner and Dual Register burner (DRB). The field tests were performed at two utility boilers, generally comparable in design and size except for the burner...

  18. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This column features summaries of research articles from 3 recent crisis management publications. The first, "School Shootings and Counselor Leadership: Four Lessons from the Field" summarized by Kristi Fenning, was conducted as the result of the increased demand for trained crisis personnel on school campuses. Survey participants were leaders…

  19. Field Testing of Energy-Efficient Flood-Damage-Resistant Residential Envelope Systems Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Aglan, H.

    2005-08-04

    The primary purpose of the project was to identify materials and methods that will make the envelope of a house flood damage resistant. Flood damage resistant materials and systems are intended to be used to repair houses subsequent to flooding. This project was also intended to develop methods of restoring the envelopes of houses that have been flooded but are repairable and may be subject to future flooding. Then if the house floods again, damage will not be as extensive as in previous flood events and restoration costs and efforts will be minimized. The purpose of the first pair of field tests was to establish a baseline for typical current residential construction practice. The first test modules used materials and systems that were commonly found in residential envelopes throughout the U.S. The purpose of the second pair of field tests was to begin evaluating potential residential envelope materials and systems that were projected to be more flood-damage resistant and restorable than the conventional materials and systems tested in the first pair of tests. The purpose of testing the third slab-on-grade module was to attempt to dry flood proof the module (no floodwater within the structure). If the module could be sealed well enough to prevent water from entering, then this would be an effective method of making the interior materials and systems flood damage resistant. The third crawl space module was tested in the same manner as the previous modules and provided an opportunity to do flood tests of additional residential materials and systems. Another purpose of the project was to develop the methodology to collect representative, measured, reproducible (i.e. scientific) data on how various residential materials and systems respond to flooding conditions so that future recommendations for repairing flood damaged houses could be based on scientific data. An additional benefit of collecting this data is that it will be used in the development of a standard test procedure which could lead to the certification of building materials and systems as flood damage resistant.

  20. Compilation and summary of technical and economic assessments in the field of energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    DeVries, J.

    1981-10-01

    Information is presented which was extracted from various assessments of energy storage technologies conducted during the past four years, primarily under the auspices of the Office of Energy Systems Research and Development (formerly the Division of Energy Storage Systems). A thorough search of the relevant literature was conducted using the DOE/RECON computerized data base and other sources. Only tabular or graphic material was abstracted from the documents. The material has been organized in two ways: by the intended end use, i.e., vehicles, utility load leveling, residential load leveling, industrial, and solar, and within each end use, by technology. The summary tables attempt to compare the results of different studies of the same technology or end use. No attempt is made to summarize the conclusions of each individual study, but rather to point out areas of agreement or disagreement between them. The reader should be aware of the risks in making comparisons between studies conducted by researchers with possibly differing purposes and assumptions. Any conclusions based on the summary sections are more indicative than definitive.

  1. ADVANCING THE FIELD EVALUATIONS AND APPLICATIONS OF LANDFILL BIOREACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is undertaking a long-term program to conduct field evaluations of landfill bioreactors. The near-term effort is focused on the development of appropriate monitoring strategies to ensure adequate control of the landfill bioreactors an...

  2. FIELD TEST EVALUATIONS and OPTIMIZATION of SPEAKER INDEPENDENT

    E-print Network

    independent speech recognition system in a context of 2 voice-activatedservers accessible by the generalFIELD TEST EVALUATIONS and OPTIMIZATION of SPEAKER INDEPENDENT SPEECH RECOGNITION for TELEPHONE that the rejection of incorrect input is a major problem and that the gap between the recognition rates observed

  3. FIELD EVALUATION OF A HIGH-VOLUME DICHOTOMOUS SAMPLER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study presents the field evaluation of a high-volume dichotomous sampler that collects coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5) particulate matter. The key feature of this device is the utilization of a round-nozzle virtual impactor with a 50% cutpoint at 2.5 5m to split PM10 into...

  4. FIELD EVALUATION OF RESOURCE RECOVERY OF HAZARDOUS WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Incineration of mixed waste solvents in two process kilns was investigated during two 1-week field testing programs. The overall objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the two process kilns in destroying hazardous wastes and quantify stack gas emissions. Duri...

  5. Performance evaluation of infrared imaging system in field test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chensheng; Guo, Xiaodong; Ren, Tingting; Zhang, Zhi-jie

    2014-11-01

    Infrared imaging system has been applied widely in both military and civilian fields. Since the infrared imager has various types and different parameters, for system manufacturers and customers, there is great demand for evaluating the performance of IR imaging systems with a standard tool or platform. Since the first generation IR imager was developed, the standard method to assess the performance has been the MRTD or related improved methods which are not perfect adaptable for current linear scanning imager or 2D staring imager based on FPA detector. For this problem, this paper describes an evaluation method based on the triangular orientation discrimination metric which is considered as the effective and emerging method to evaluate the synthesis performance of EO system. To realize the evaluation in field test, an experiment instrument is developed. And considering the importance of operational environment, the field test is carried in practical atmospheric environment. The test imagers include panoramic imaging system and staring imaging systems with different optics and detectors parameters (both cooled and uncooled). After showing the instrument and experiment setup, the experiment results are shown. The target range performance is analyzed and discussed. In data analysis part, the article gives the range prediction values obtained from TOD method, MRTD method and practical experiment, and shows the analysis and results discussion. The experimental results prove the effectiveness of this evaluation tool, and it can be taken as a platform to give the uniform performance prediction reference.

  6. Field Artillery Ammunition Processing System (FAAPS) concept evaluation study

    SciTech Connect

    Kring, C.T.; Babcock, S.M.; Watkin, D.C.; Oliver, R.P.

    1992-06-01

    The Field Artillery Ammunition Processing System (FAAPS) is an initiative to introduce a palletized load system (PLS) that is transportable with an automated ammunition processing and storage system for use on the battlefield. System proponents have targeted a 20% increase in the ammunition processing rate over the current operation while simultaneously reducing the total number of assigned field artillery battalion personnel by 30. The overall objective of the FAAPS Project is the development and demonstration of an improved process to accomplish these goals. The initial phase of the FAAPS Project and the subject of this study is the FAAPS concept evaluation. The concept evaluation consists of (1) identifying assumptions and requirements, (2) documenting the process flow, (3) identifying and evaluating technologies available to accomplish the necessary ammunition processing and storage operations, and (4) presenting alternative concepts with associated costs, processing rates, and manpower requirements for accomplishing the operation. This study provides insight into the achievability of the desired objectives.

  7. Hydrologic evaluation of salinity control and reclamation projects in the Indus Plain, Pakistan--A summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mundorff, Maurice John; Carrigan, P.H., Jr.; Steele, T.D.; Randall, A.D.

    1976-01-01

    This report summarizes the observations and findings of a team of four specialists from the U.S. Geological Survey assigned to Pakistan under the auspices of the U.S. Agency for International Development during May to August 1972 for a hydrologic evaluation of Salinity Control and Reclamation Projects in the Indus Plain Individual members of the team undertook comprehensive studies related to climatology, surface-water hydrology, and the canal system; streamflow and sediment yields of the rivers; computer applications to hydrologic data; aquifer characteristics; hydrologic evaluation of Salinity Control and Reclamation Projects (SCARPs); tubewell performance; hydrology of shallow versus deep tubewells; well and well-screen design in the Indus Plain; evaluation of observed and anticipated trends in both private and public tubewell development; evaluation of water-quality programs, data analysis, and records, and computer coding of special water-quality data; and evaluation of water-level data, well discharge and specific-capacity tests and aquifer tests. The reclamation program, by pumping from tubewells, has been notably successful in lowering the water table, in providing supplemental water for irrigation and for leaching of salinized soils, and in improving crop production. Some changes in water quality have been observed in SCARP-I and the Mona Scheme of SCARP-II, but these have not as yet (1972) significantly affected the utility of the water for irrigation. Problems associated with reclamation include control of deterioration in performance of tubewells and their rehabilitation, local brackish or saline-water encroachment, and maintenance of a favorable salt balance in the ground-water system. Rapid and as yet (1972) unregulated growth of shallow private tubewell development in the past decade has introduced complicating factors to the reclamation planning of the early 1960's which had emphasized public tubewell development through the SCARP program. In comparing shallow (0-200 feet) with deep (200-400 feet} tubewell development, it is concluded that long-term response of the water table is the same, whether many shallow wells of small capacity or fewer deeper wells of large capacity pump the same total volume of water in the same area. Moreover, it is concluded that there is no definite advantage for either type of pumping regime with respect to water quality. Utilization of the Punjab aquifer could be greatly enhanced by recharge of high-quality water diverted from the Chenab and Jhelum Rivers to the Ravi and Sutlej Rivers by way of the link and irrigation canals during periods of surplus flow. Recharge to the aquifer could also be improved by diversion of high-quality water from the Chenab and the Jhelum to natural nalas and other surface drainageways during periods of surplus flow. Such recharge would be of much better quality than water leaching downward from irrigated fields. Continued monitoring of the hydrologic system and research on problems engendered by reclamation are essential to the viability of the SCARP program and related water-resources development in the Indus River Basin.

  8. A summary of modeling studies of the Krafla Geothermal Field,Iceland

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Pruess, Karsten; Stefansson, Valgardur; Eliasson, Einar T.

    1983-08-01

    A comprehensive modeling study of the Krafla geothermalfield in Iceland has been carried out. The study consists of four tasks:the analysis of well test data, modeling of the natural state of summaryof the the field, the determination of the generating capability of thefield, and modeling of well performance. The results of all four tasksare consistent with field observation.

  9. Integration and Evaluation of Nanophotonic Devices Using Optical Near Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsui, Takashi; Nomura, Wataru; Yi, Gyu-Chul; Ohtsu, Motoichi

    In this chapter, we review the optical near-field phenomena and their applications to realize the nanophotonic device. To realize the nanometer-scale controllability in size and position, we demonstrate the feasibility of nanometer-scale chemical vapor deposition using optical near-field techniques (see Sect. 15.2). In which, the probe-less fabrication method for mass production is also demonstrated. To confirm the promising optical properties of individual ZnO for realizing nanophotonic devices, we performed the near-field evaluation of the ZnO quantum structure (see Sect. 15.3). To drive the nanophotonic device with external conventional diffraction-limited photonic device, the far-/near-field conversion device is required. Section 15.4 reviews nanometer-scale waveguide to be used as such a conversion device of the nanophotonic ICs.

  10. Space shuttle orbiter approach and landing test evaluation report. Captive-active flight test summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Captive-active tests consisted of three mated carrier aircraft/Orbiter flights with an active manned Orbiter. The objectives of this series of flights were to (1) verify the separation profile, (2) verify the integrated structure, aerodynamics, and flight control system, (3) verify Orbiter integrated system operations, and (4) refine and finalize carrier aircraft, Orbiter crew, and ground procedures in preparation for free flight tests. A summary description of the flights is presented with assessments of flight test requirements, and of the performance operations, and of significant flight anomalies is included.

  11. REDUCING CHILDREN'S RISK TO SOIL LEAD: SUMMARY OF A FIELD EXPERIMENT TO REDUCE SOIL LEAD BIOAVAILABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reducing risks associated with Pb in soil has typically been accomplished by soil removal, covering, or dilution by mixing with uncontaminated soil. EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) and DuPont Corporation established a collaborative effort to evaluation...

  12. Evaluation of the Michigan Public School Academy Initiative: Final Report [and] Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Jerry; Miron, Gary

    This is the final report of a one-year evaluation of the Michigan Public School Academy (PSA) initiative. The evaluation involved both formative and summative evaluations and used both qualitative and quantitative methods. The study was conducted between October 1997 and December 1998. Data-collection methods included a charter-school survey and a…

  13. Evaluation of asphalt-rubber membrane field performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuler, S.; Gallaway, B. M.; Epps, J. A.

    1982-05-01

    This report presents a record of asphalt-rubber membrane field performance in Texas. An evaluation of performance is presented for forty-five separate projects in thirteen state highway districts. Approximately 850 lane miles of highways are represented by materials constructed as stress absorbing membranes (asphalt-rubber seal coats beneath asphalt concrete overlay). All projects reviewed were constructed between June, 1976 and September, 1981.

  14. An evaluation of RAMS radiation schemes by field measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, S; Doran, J C

    1994-02-01

    At present, two radiation schemes are used in RAMS: the Mahrer and Pielke (M-P) scheme and the Chen and Cotton (C-C) scheme. The M-P scheme requires little computational expense, but does not include the radiative effects of liquid water or ice; the C-C scheme accounts for the radiative effects of liquid water and ice but is fairly expensive computationally. For simulations with clouds, the C-C scheme is obviously a better choice, but for clear sky conditions, RAMS users face a decision regarding which radiation scheme to use. It has been noted that the choice of radiation scheme may result in significantly different results for the same case. To examine the differences in the radiative fluxes and the boundary-layer structure corresponding to the two radiation schemes in RAMS we have carried out a study where Rams was used to simulate the same case with two different radiation schemes. The modeled radiative fluxes by the two schemes were then compared with the field measurements. A description of the observations and the case study, a comparison and discussion of the results, and a summary and conclusions follow.

  15. Evaluation of statistical treatments of left-censored environmental data using coincident uncensored data sets: I. Summary statistics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Antweiler, R.C.; Taylor, H.E.

    2008-01-01

    The main classes of statistical treatment of below-detection limit (left-censored) environmental data for the determination of basic statistics that have been used in the literature are substitution methods, maximum likelihood, regression on order statistics (ROS), and nonparametric techniques. These treatments, along with using all instrument-generated data (even those below detection), were evaluated by examining data sets in which the true values of the censored data were known. It was found that for data sets with less than 70% censored data, the best technique overall for determination of summary statistics was the nonparametric Kaplan-Meier technique. ROS and the two substitution methods of assigning one-half the detection limit value to censored data or assigning a random number between zero and the detection limit to censored data were adequate alternatives. The use of these two substitution methods, however, requires a thorough understanding of how the laboratory censored the data. The technique of employing all instrument-generated data - including numbers below the detection limit - was found to be less adequate than the above techniques. At high degrees of censoring (greater than 70% censored data), no technique provided good estimates of summary statistics. Maximum likelihood techniques were found to be far inferior to all other treatments except substituting zero or the detection limit value to censored data.

  16. Table 1. Summary of weed seedbank distribution, diversity (number of species per field) and density across all farms Unit Total Weeds Average Highest Lowest

    E-print Network

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    Table 1. Summary of weed seedbank distribution, diversity (number of species per field) and density across all farms Unit Total Weeds Average Highest Lowest Total Identified Weed Species number 67 13 21 5 Total Identified Weed Species Densityb no./ft 2 274 1081 30 Total Identified Broadleaf Weed Species

  17. R&D Industrial internship in their area of recycling industrial chemical wastes Summary: Fielding Chemical Technologies Inc. (FCT, Mississauga, ON), Environment Canada (EC,

    E-print Network

    Prodiæ, Aleksandar

    R&D Industrial internship in their area of recycling industrial chemical wastes Summary: Fielding industrially relevant chemical production/separation methods and report on findings Education Requirement procedures in industrial chemical environment and best practices in working with hazardous materials; basic

  18. A Summary of Properties Used to Evaluate INEEL Calcine Disposal in the Yucca Mountain Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, C.A.

    2003-07-14

    To support evaluations of the direct disposal of Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory calcines to the repository at Yucca Mountain, an evaluation of the performance of the calcine in the repository environment must be performed. This type of evaluation demonstrates, through computer modeling and analysis, the impact the calcine would have on the ability of the repository to perform its function of containment of materials during the repository lifetime. This report discusses parameters that were used in the scoping evaluation conducted in FY 2003. It provides nominal values for the parameters, with explanation of the source of the values, and how the values were modified for use in repository analysis activities.

  19. Field Tests for Evaluating the Aerobic Work Capacity of Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Gavhed, Désirée; Malm, Christer

    2013-01-01

    Working as a firefighter is physically strenuous, and a high level of physical fitness increases a firefighter’s ability to cope with the physical stress of their profession. Direct measurements of aerobic capacity, however, are often complicated, time consuming, and expensive. The first aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlations between direct (laboratory) and indirect (field) aerobic capacity tests with common and physically demanding firefighting tasks. The second aim was to give recommendations as to which field tests may be the most useful for evaluating firefighters’ aerobic work capacity. A total of 38 subjects (26 men and 12 women) were included. Two aerobic capacity tests, six field tests, and seven firefighting tasks were performed. Lactate threshold and onset of blood lactate accumulation were found to be correlated to the performance of one work task (rs?=??0.65 and ?0.63, p<0.01, respectively). Absolute (mL·min?1) and relative (mL·kg?1·min?1) maximal aerobic capacity was correlated to all but one of the work tasks (rs?=??0.79 to 0.55 and ?0.74 to 0.47, p<0.01, respectively). Aerobic capacity is important for firefighters’ work performance, and we have concluded that the time to row 500 m, the time to run 3000 m relative to body weight (s·kg?1), and the percent of maximal heart rate achieved during treadmill walking are the most valid field tests for evaluating a firefighter’s aerobic work capacity. PMID:23844153

  20. Introduction to Field Water-Quality Methods for the Collection of Metals - 2007 Project Summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Monica L.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Region VI of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and the Osage Nation presented three 3-day workshops, in June-August 2007, entitled ?Introduction to Field Water-Quality Methods for the Collection of Metals.? The purpose of the workshops was to provide instruction to tribes within USEPA Region VI on various USGS surface-water measurement methods and water-quality sampling protocols for the collection of surface-water samples for metals analysis. Workshop attendees included members from over 22 tribes and pueblos. USGS instructors came from Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Georgia. Workshops were held in eastern and south-central Oklahoma and New Mexico and covered many topics including presampling preparation, water-quality monitors, and sampling for metals in surface water. Attendees spent one full classroom day learning the field methods used by the USGS Water Resources Discipline and learning about the complexity of obtaining valid water-quality and quality-assurance data. Lectures included (1) a description of metal contamination sources in surface water; (2) introduction on how to select field sites, equipment, and laboratories for sample analysis; (3) collection of sediment in surface water; and (4) utilization of proper protocol and methodology for sampling metals in surface water. Attendees also were provided USGS sampling equipment for use during the field portion of the class so they had actual ?hands-on? experience to take back to their own organizations. The final 2 days of the workshop consisted of field demonstrations of current USGS water-quality sample-collection methods. The hands-on training ensured that attendees were exposed to and experienced proper sampling procedures. Attendees learned integrated-flow techniques during sample collection, field-property documentation, and discharge measurements and calculations. They also used enclosed chambers for sample processing and collected quality-assurance samples to verify their techniques. Benefits of integrated water-quality sample-collection methods are varied. Tribal environmental programs now have the ability to collect data that are comparable across watersheds. The use of consistent sample collection, manipulation, and storage techniques will provide consistent quality data that will enhance the understanding of local water resources. The improved data quality also will help the USEPA better document the condition of the region?s water. Ultimately, these workshops equipped tribes to use uniform sampling methods and to provide consistent quality data that are comparable across the region.

  1. The Child and Family Mental Health Evaluation Project. Summary of Fall 1980 Data Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, William A.; And Others

    This document contains the report of the preliminary analysis of data collected during site visits to Head Start centers conducted in the fall of 1980 as part of the Child And Family Mental Health (CFMH) Evaluation Project. The report is limited to data from two of the three components of the evaluation project -- the process component and the…

  2. A Summary of Evaluations for Learning and Attention Problems at a University Training Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wierzbicki, Michael; Tyson, Clare M.

    2007-01-01

    Over a five year period, a university clinic performed psychological evaluations of 102 adults (including 85 college students) who reported that they were experiencing learning or attention problems. Of 92 persons who completed the evaluation, 40 (43.5%) received no diagnosis, 7 (7.6%) received the diagnosis of ADHD, 29 (31.5%) received the…

  3. State of Wisconsin Evaluation Conference Summary: ESEA Title I Migrant Education Programs, Summer of 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison. Div. for Management and Planning Services.

    The Elementary Secondary Education Act Title I Wisconsin Migrant Education Conference was held on August 6, 1979 to evaluate programs and to gather program planning data. Data for this evaluation were collected by means of both structured interaction of the 53 conference participants and questionnaires completed by participants. The teachers felt…

  4. Evaluation of National Geographic School Publishing Nonfiction Literacy Materials. Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Kim K.; Smith, Carl B.; Legan, Natalie A.

    During the 2001-02 academic year, a purposive, national evaluation was undertaken of "Windows on Literacy" and "Reading Expeditions," two new school-based programs produced by the School Publishing Division of the National Geographic Society (NGS). The evaluation sought to determine the efficacy of the new materials for teachers and students.…

  5. Laboratory or field tests for evaluating firefighters' work capacity?

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Malm, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Muscle strength is important for firefighters work capacity. Laboratory tests used for measurements of muscle strength, however, are complicated, expensive and time consuming. The aims of the present study were to investigate correlations between physical capacity within commonly occurring and physically demanding firefighting work tasks and both laboratory and field tests in full time (N?=?8) and part-time (N?=?10) male firefighters and civilian men (N?=?8) and women (N?=?12), and also to give recommendations as to which field tests might be useful for evaluating firefighters' physical work capacity. Laboratory tests of isokinetic maximal (IM) and endurance (IE) muscle power and dynamic balance, field tests including maximal and endurance muscle performance, and simulated firefighting work tasks were performed. Correlations with work capacity were analyzed with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs). The highest significant (p<0.01) correlations with laboratory and field tests were for Cutting: IE trunk extension (rs?=?0.72) and maximal hand grip strength (rs?=?0.67), for Stairs: IE shoulder flexion (rs?=?-0.81) and barbell shoulder press (rs?=?-0.77), for Pulling: IE shoulder extension (rs?=?-0.82) and bench press (rs?=?-0.85), for Demolition: IE knee extension (rs?=?0.75) and bench press (rs?=?0.83), for Rescue: IE shoulder flexion (rs?=?-0.83) and bench press (rs?=?-0.82), and for the Terrain work task: IE trunk flexion (rs?=?-0.58) and upright barbell row (rs?=?-0.70). In conclusion, field tests may be used instead of laboratory tests. Maximal hand grip strength, bench press, chin ups, dips, upright barbell row, standing broad jump, and barbell shoulder press were strongly correlated (rs?0.7) with work capacity and are therefore recommended for evaluating firefighters work capacity. PMID:24614596

  6. Laboratory or Field Tests for Evaluating Firefighters' Work Capacity?

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Malm, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Muscle strength is important for firefighters work capacity. Laboratory tests used for measurements of muscle strength, however, are complicated, expensive and time consuming. The aims of the present study were to investigate correlations between physical capacity within commonly occurring and physically demanding firefighting work tasks and both laboratory and field tests in full time (N?=?8) and part-time (N?=?10) male firefighters and civilian men (N?=?8) and women (N?=?12), and also to give recommendations as to which field tests might be useful for evaluating firefighters' physical work capacity. Laboratory tests of isokinetic maximal (IM) and endurance (IE) muscle power and dynamic balance, field tests including maximal and endurance muscle performance, and simulated firefighting work tasks were performed. Correlations with work capacity were analyzed with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs). The highest significant (p<0.01) correlations with laboratory and field tests were for Cutting: IE trunk extension (rs?=?0.72) and maximal hand grip strength (rs?=?0.67), for Stairs: IE shoulder flexion (rs?=??0.81) and barbell shoulder press (rs?=??0.77), for Pulling: IE shoulder extension (rs?=??0.82) and bench press (rs?=??0.85), for Demolition: IE knee extension (rs?=?0.75) and bench press (rs?=?0.83), for Rescue: IE shoulder flexion (rs?=??0.83) and bench press (rs?=??0.82), and for the Terrain work task: IE trunk flexion (rs?=??0.58) and upright barbell row (rs?=??0.70). In conclusion, field tests may be used instead of laboratory tests. Maximal hand grip strength, bench press, chin ups, dips, upright barbell row, standing broad jump, and barbell shoulder press were strongly correlated (rs?0.7) with work capacity and are therefore recommended for evaluating firefighters work capacity. PMID:24614596

  7. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: TORONTO HARBOUR COMMISSIONERS (THC) SOIL RECYCLE TREATMENT TRAIN. Project Summary

    EPA Science Inventory

    A demonstration of the Toronto Harbour Commissioners' (THC) Soil Recycle Treatment Train was performed under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program at a pilot plant facility in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The Soil Recycle Treatment Train, which consists of s...

  8. INNOVATIVE METHODS FOR EMISSION-INVENTORY DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION: WORKSHOP SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emission inventories are an essential tool for evaluating, managing, and regulating air pollution. Refinements and innovations in instruments that measure air pollutants, models that calculate emissions as well as techniques for data management and uncertainty assessment are nee...

  9. Approaches for synthesizing DSM program evaluations: The Wisconsin DSM program evaluation database and a review of meta-analysis. Volume 2, Detailed summaries of Wisconsin DSM program evaluations: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, P.; Violette, D.

    1992-06-01

    Increased utility reliance on demand-side management (DSM) has created a need to understand and evaluate actual DSM program performance. This report explores statistical techniques used to quantitatively synthesize, accumulate, and compare research findings. In addition, the report provides a database of Wisconsin DSM program evaluations and marketing studies. APPROACH: The project team reviewed approximately 100 evaluation studies, including both process and impact evaluations of DSM programs in Wisconsin. Using PARADOX database software, with annotations appended to database elements, they classified reports into 10 evaluation-type categories. These included program and evaluation descriptions, methods and data employed, and results and recommendations. The team also assessed the applicability of statistical techniques, specifically meta-analytic methods for pooling and leveraging results of DSM evaluations. RESULTS: Recorded database information includes a report abstract; basic program information; study design and method; sample and data collection; and a list of the issues addressed and report findings, with the location of findings by report page number. Analysis of statistical methods produced several promising approaches for combining and leveraging information across studies. The methods, generally termed meta-analytic methods, have the potential to address a number of important DSM research questions. The report includes an example application of these methods. Volume 1 presents the database design, summaries of reports reviewed for database inclusion, and discussion of the statistical techniques analyzed along with their applications to DSM. Volume 2 offers more-detailed summaries of the reports reviewed. Volume 3 provides a printout of the final database, as constructed.

  10. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program 1992--1993 report and summary of BSEP data since 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Belski, D.S.

    1995-04-01

    This report is the last one that is currently scheduled in the sequence of reports of new data, and therefore, also includes summary comments referencing important data obtained by BSEP since 1983. These BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the (WIPP) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. A project concern is that enough brine might be present after sealing and closure to generate large quantities of hydrogen gas by corroding the metal in the waste drums and waste inventory. This report describes progress made during the calendar years 1992 and 1993 and focuses on four major areas: (1) monitoring of brine inflow, e.g., measuring brines recovered from holes drilled downward from the underground drifts (downholes), upward from the underground drifts (upholes), and from subhorizontal holes from the underground drifts; (2) observations of weeps in the Air Intake Shaft (AIS); (3) further characterization of brine geochemistry; and (4) additional characterization of the hydrologic conditions in the fractured zone beneath the excavations.

  11. Vibroacoustic Response of Residential Housing due to Sonic Boom Exposure: A Summary of two Field Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klos, Jacob; Buehrle, Ralph; Sullivan, Brenda; Gavin, Joseph; Salamone, Joseph; Haering, Edward A., jr.; Miller, Denise M.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments have been performed to measure the vibroacoustic response of houses exposed to sonic booms. In 2006, an old home in the base housing area of Edwards Air Force Base, built around 1960 and demolished in 2007, was instrumented with 288 transducers. During a 2007 follow-on test, a newer home in the base housing area, built in 1997, was instrumented with 112 transducers. For each experiment, accelerometers were placed on walls, windows and ceilings in bedrooms of the house to measure the vibration response of the structure. Microphones were placed outside and inside the house to measure the excitation field and resulting interior sound field. The vibroacoustic response of each house was measured for sonic boom amplitudes spanning from 2.4 to 96 Pa (0.05 to 2 lbf/sq ft). The boom amplitudes were systematically varied using a unique dive maneuver of an F/A-18 airplane. In total, the database for both houses contains vibroacoustic response data for 154 sonic booms. In addition, several tests were performed with mechanical shaker excitation of the structure to characterize the forced response of the houses. The purpose of this paper is to summarize all the data from these experiments that are available to the research community, and to compare and contrast the vibroacoustic behavior of these two dissimilar houses.

  12. Urban Dispersion Program MSG05 Field Study: Summary of Tracer and Meteorological Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Allwine, K Jerry; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2006-08-09

    The Urban Dispersion Program is a multi-year project, funded by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, to better understand the flow and dispersion of airborne contaminants through and around the deep street canyons of New York City. The first tracer and meteorological field study was a limited study conducted during March 2005 near the Madison Square Garden in midtown Manhattan. Six safe, inert, gaseous perfluorocarbon tracers were released simultaneously at five street-level locations during two experimental days. In addition to collecting tracer data, meteorological data were also collected. Brookhaven National Laboratory conducted the bulk of the tracer and meteorological field efforts with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Stevens Institute of Technology assisting by measuring the vertical profile of winds. The Environmental Protection Agency worked with Brookhaven National Laboratory in accomplishing the personal exposure component of the study. This report presents some results from this analysis. In general, different release locations showed vastly different plume footprints for tracer materials, and the situation was made very complex with upwind and/or crosswind transport of tracer near street-level for the different release locations. Overall wind speeds and directions upwind and over the city were generally constant throughout each of the two experimental periods.

  13. Evaluating Age in the Field Triage of Injured Persons

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Yoko; Daya, Mohamud; Bulger, Eileen M.; Schreiber, Martin; Mackersie, Robert; Hsia, Renee Y.; Mann, N. Clay; Holmes, James F.; Staudenmayer, Kristan; Sturges, Zachary; Liao, Michael; Haukoos, Jason; Kuppermann, Nathan; Barton, Erik D.; Newgard, Craig D.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objective In this study, we evaluated (1) trauma under-triage by age group; (2) the association between age and serious injury after accounting for other field triage criteria and confounders; and (3) the potential impact of a mandatory age triage criterion for field triage. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of injured children and adults transported by 48 EMS agencies to 105 hospitals in 6 regions of the Western U.S. from 2006 through 2008. We used probabilistic linkage to match EMS records to hospital records, including: trauma registries, state discharge databases and emergency department databases. The primary outcome measure was serious injury, as measured by an Injury Severity Score (ISS) ? 16. We assessed under-triage (ISS ? 16 and triage-negative or transport to a non-trauma center) by age decile and used multivariable logistic regression models to estimate the association (linear and non-linear) between age and ISS ? 16, adjusted for important confounders. We also evaluated the potential impact of age on triage efficiency and trauma center volume. Results 260,027 injured patients were evaluated and transported by EMS over the 3-year study period. Under-triage increased for patients over 60 years of age, reaching approximately 60% for those older than 90 years. There was a strong non-linear association between age and ISS ? 16. For patients not meeting other triage criteria, the probability of serious injury was most notable after 60 years. A mandatory age triage criterion would have decreased under-triage at the expense of over-triage, with one ISS ? 16 patient identified for every 60–65 additional patients transported to major trauma centers. Conclusion Trauma under-triage increases in patients older than 60 years. While the probability of serious injury increases among triage-negative patients with increasing age, the use of a mandatory age triage criterion appears inefficient for improving field triage. PMID:22633339

  14. Evaluation of abutment scour prediction equations with field data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benedict, S.T.; Deshpande, N.; Aziz, N.M.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with FHWA, compared predicted abutment scour depths, computed with selected predictive equations, with field observations collected at 144 bridges in South Carolina and at eight bridges from the National Bridge Scour Database. Predictive equations published in the 4th edition of Evaluating Scour at Bridges (Hydraulic Engineering Circular 18) were used in this comparison, including the original Froehlich, the modified Froehlich, the Sturm, the Maryland, and the HIRE equations. The comparisons showed that most equations tended to provide conservative estimates of scour that at times were excessive (as large as 158 ft). Equations also produced underpredictions of scour, but with less frequency. Although the equations provide an important resource for evaluating abutment scour at bridges, the results of this investigation show the importance of using engineering judgment in conjunction with these equations.

  15. Photovoltaic performance models: an evaluation with actual field data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    TamizhMani, Govindasamy; Ishioye, John-Paul; Voropayev, Arseniy; Kang, Yi

    2008-08-01

    Prediction of energy production is crucial to the design and installation of the building integrated photovoltaic systems. This prediction should be attainable based on the commonly available parameters such as system size, orientation and tilt angle. Several commercially available as well as free downloadable software tools exist to predict energy production. Six software models have been evaluated in this study and they are: PV Watts, PVsyst, MAUI, Clean Power Estimator, Solar Advisor Model (SAM) and RETScreen. This evaluation has been done by comparing the monthly, seasonaly and annually predicted data with the actual, field data obtained over a year period on a large number of residential PV systems ranging between 2 and 3 kWdc. All the systems are located in Arizona, within the Phoenix metropolitan area which lies at latitude 33° North, and longitude 112 West, and are all connected to the electrical grid.

  16. Improved field experimental designs and quantitative evaluation of aquatic ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, D.H.; Thomas, J.M.

    1984-05-01

    The paired-station concept and a log transformed analysis of variance were used as methods to evaluate zooplankton density data collected during five years at an electrical generation station on Lake Michigan. To discuss the example and the field design necessary for a valid statistical analysis, considerable background is provided on the questions of selecting (1) sampling station pairs, (2) experimentwise error rates for multi-species analyses, (3) levels of Type I and II error rates, (4) procedures for conducting the field monitoring program, and (5) a discussion of the consequences of violating statistical assumptions. Details for estimating sample sizes necessary to detect changes of a specified magnitude are included. Both statistical and biological problems with monitoring programs (as now conducted) are addressed; serial correlation of successive observations in the time series obtained was identified as one principal statistical difficulty. The procedure reduces this problem to a level where statistical methods can be used confidently. 27 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  17. Summaries of Conference Papers, Theme 2, Methodology. International Conference on Evaluation and Research in Educational Television and Radio (Milton Keynes, England, April 9-13, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Open Univ., Walton, Bletchley, Bucks (England).

    Fifteen papers on evaluation methodology in communications programs are summarized in this document. A discussion of the development of instructional media is followed by a description of a study of patterns of use and effectiveness in a British Broadcasting Corporation multi-media German course. The document includes summaries of five papers on…

  18. Evaluations Backgrounder: A Summary of Formal Evaluations of Afterschool Programs' Impact on Academics, Behavior, Safety and Family Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Afterschool programs have been operating for decades in communities across the country, and federal investment in afterschool has increased dramatically since the mid-1990s. However, even more investment in the field of afterschool, which includes before school, afterschool and summer learning programs, is needed to keep up with the growing…

  19. Evaluations Backgrounder: A Summary of Formal Evaluations of Afterschool Programs' Impact on Academics, Behavior, Safety and Family Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Afterschool programs have been operating for decades in communities across the country, and federal investment in afterschool has increased dramatically since the mid-1990s. However, even more investment in the field of afterschool, which includes before-school, afterschool and summer learning programs, is needed to keep up with the growing…

  20. Evaluations Backgrounder: "A Summary of Formal Evaluations of Afterschool Programs' Impact on Academics, Behavior, Safety and Family Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Afterschool programs have been operating for decades in communities across the country, and federal investment in afterschool has increased dramatically since the mid-1990s. However, even more investment in the field of afterschool, which includes before-school, afterschool and summer learning programs, is needed to keep up with the growing…

  1. Evaluations Backgrounder: A Summary of Formal Evaluations of Afterschool Programs' Impact on Academics, Behavior, Safety and Family Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Afterschool programs have been operating for decades in communities across the country, and federal investment in afterschool has increased dramatically since the mid-1990s. However, even more investment in the field of afterschool, which includes before school, afterschool and summer learning programs, is needed to keep up with the growing…

  2. Diagnosis, evaluation, and management of acute kidney injury: a KDIGO summary (Part 1)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and serious problem affecting millions and causing death and disability for many. In 2012, Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes completed the first ever, international, multidisciplinary, clinical practice guideline for AKI. The guideline is based on evidence review and appraisal, and covers AKI definition, risk assessment, evaluation, prevention, and treatment. In this review we summarize key aspects of the guideline including definition and staging of AKI, as well as evaluation and nondialytic management. Contrast-induced AKI and management of renal replacement therapy will be addressed in a separate review. Treatment recommendations are based on systematic reviews of relevant trials. Appraisal of the quality of the evidence and the strength of recommendations followed the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Limitations of the evidence are discussed and a detailed rationale for each recommendation is provided. PMID:23394211

  3. Energy technologies evaluation for the EDD Los Angeles Building. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of potential energy efficiency measures (EEM`s) for the proposed EDD office building located at 5401 Crenshaw in Los Angeles, CA. The 26,748 ft{sup 2} single-story building is currently in the final design phase. Key building energy features include uninsulated exterior concrete block walls, R19 insulated roof, glazing on north and east orientations only, multiple air source rooftop packaged heat pumps, and electric resistance water heaters. For this project, DEG evaluated seven potential EEM`s from both performance and 30 year life cycle cost (LCC) perspectives.

  4. The GH-IGF-I response to typical field sports practices in adolescent athletes: a summary.

    PubMed

    Eliakim, Alon; Cooper, Dan M; Nemet, Dan

    2014-11-01

    The present study compares previous reports on the effect of "real-life" typical field individual (i.e., cross-country running and wrestling--representing combat versus noncombat sports) and team sports (i.e., volleyball and water polo-representing water and land team sports) training on GH and IGF-1, the main growth factors of the GH?IGF axis, in male and female late pubertal athletes. Cross-country running practice and volleyball practice in both males and females were associated with significant increases of circulating GH levels, while none of the practices led to a significant increase in IGF-I levels. The magnitude (percent change) of the GH response to the different practices was determined mainly by preexercise GH levels. There was no difference in the training-associated GH response between individual and team sports practices. The GH response to the different typical practices was not influenced by the practice-associated lactate change. Further studies are needed to better understand the effect of real-life typical training in prepubertal and adolescent athletes and their role in exercise adaptations. PMID:25372377

  5. Session 18: Geothermal Well Stimulation - Program Summary and the Beowawe Field Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Verity, R.V.

    1983-12-01

    Republic Geothermal, Inc. and its subcontractors have planned and executed laboratory studies and eight well stimulation field experiments under the Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program (GRWSP). The program, begun in February 1979, has concentrated on extending petroleum industry stimulation technology for use by the geothermal industry. The most recent experiment was in a naturally fractured Chevron well at Beowawe and involved an acid stimulation of a damaged interval which yielded a 2.3-fold increase in injectivity. Overall results to date have shown that stimulation is viable where adequate reservoirs are penetrated by wells encountering formation damage or locally tight formations. However, wells in marginal naturally fractured reservoirs have not been saved by the types of well stimulation jobs performed thus far. A recent discovery is that many wells can possibly be made outstanding producers by widening and propping compliant natural fractures. Confirmation of this constitutes unfinished business of the GRWSP, and offers one of the greatest potential opportunities for enhancing the economics of geothermal power production.

  6. Evaluation of Alternative Field Buses for Lighting ControlApplications

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Ed; Rubinstein, Francis

    2005-03-21

    The Subcontract Statement of Work consists of two major tasks. This report is the Final Report in fulfillment of the contract deliverable for Task 1. The purpose of Task 1 was to evaluate existing and emerging protocols and standards for interfacing sensors and controllers for communicating with integrated lighting control systems in commercial buildings. The detailed task description follows: Task 1. Evaluate alternative sensor/field buses. The objective of this task is to evaluate existing and emerging standards for interfacing sensors and controllers for communicating with integrated lighting control systems in commercial buildings. The protocols to be evaluated will include at least: (1) 1-Wire Net, (2) DALI, (3) MODBUS (or appropriate substitute such as EIB) and (4) ZigBee. The evaluation will include a comparative matrix for comparing the technical performance features of the different alternative systems. The performance features to be considered include: (1) directionality and network speed, (2) error control, (3) latency times, (4) allowable cable voltage drop, (5) topology, and (6) polarization. Specifically, Subcontractor will: (1) Analyze the proposed network architecture and identify potential problems that may require further research and specification. (2) Help identify and specify additional software and hardware components that may be required for the communications network to operate properly. (3) Identify areas of the architecture that can benefit from existing standards and technology and enumerate those standards and technologies. (4) Identify existing companies that may have relevant technology that can be applied to this research. (5) Help determine if new standards or technologies need to be developed.

  7. Formative Evaluation of the Intel Seeing Reason Seminars (U.S.). Summary Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Dara; Culp, Katie McMillan

    2004-01-01

    During the summer and fall of 2003, Education Development Center's Center for Children and Technology (CCT) undertook a formative evaluation of Seeing Reason: Mindful Mapping of Cause & Effect, an Intel Teach to the Future professional development seminar. Intel's seminars are designed to introduce teachers to software tools that they can use to…

  8. Formative Evaluation of the Intel[R] Innovation in Education Institutes. Summary Report. CCT Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keane, Julie Thompson; Keisch, Deborah; Culp, Katie McMillan

    2004-01-01

    During the summer and fall of 2003, Education Development Center's Center for Children and Technology (CCT) undertook a formative evaluation of the Intel Innovation in Education institutes. The institutes are one- to two-and-a-half day district-level trainings intended to introduce professional development providers to the online resources and…

  9. Evaluation of the New York City Beacons. Summary of Phase I Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Constancia

    This report presents findings from Phase 1 of an evaluation of the New York City Beacons initiative, a model of school-community-family partnerships initiated in 1991. Beacons are community centers located in public schools, offering a range of activities and services to participants of all ages, before and after school, in the evenings, and on…

  10. Chapter 1 and Chapter 1 Migrant. Evaluation Findings, 1990-91. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christner, Catherine; And Others

    This report describes an evaluation of the Austin (Texas) Independent School District's (AISD) Chapter 1 and Chapter 1 Migrant programs. Chapter 1 is a federally funded compensatory educational program that provided funding in 1990-91 to 25 AISD elementary schools with high concentrations of low-income students. Chapter 1 Migrant is also a…

  11. Family Planning Evaluation. Abortion Surveillance Report--Legal Abortions, United States, Annual Summary, 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Disease Control (DHEW/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This report summarizes abortion information received by the Center for Disease Control from collaborators in state health departments, hospitals, and other pertinent sources. While it is intended primarily for use by the above sources, it may also interest those responsible for family planning evaluation and hospital abortion planning. Information…

  12. Evaluation of Child Care Subsidy Strategies: Massachusetts Family Child Care Study. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Ann; Goodson, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This report presents findings from the Massachusetts Family Child Care study, a two-year evaluation designed to examine the impacts on providers and children of an early childhood education program aimed at improving the development and learning opportunities in the care settings and, as a consequence, the outcomes for children in care. The early…

  13. Making the Transition: Interim Results of the National Guard Youth ChalleNGe Evaluation. [Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millenky, Megan; Bloom, Dan; Dillon, Colleen

    2010-01-01

    Young people who drop out of high school face long odds of success in a labor market that increasingly values education and skills. This report presents interim results from a rigorous, ongoing evaluation of the National Guard Youth ChalleNGe Program, which aims to "reclaim the lives of at-risk youth" who have dropped out of high school. ChalleNGe…

  14. Child Services Demonstration Center Evaluation. Summary Report. (ESEA VI-G).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    Presented is the final report of Colorado's Child Services Demonstration Project, designed to develop, implement, and evaluate a team staffing program to aid children with specific learning disabilities. The program is described in terms of rationale, replication, children served, staff activities (educational diagnosis, prescriptive programing,…

  15. EVALUATION OF A PROCESS TO CONVERT BIOMASS TO METHANOL FUEL - PROJECT SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a review of the design of a reactor capable of gasifying approximately 50 lb/hr of biomass for a pilot-scale facility to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate the Hynol Process, a high-temperature, high-pressure method for converting biomass into methanol...

  16. Methods for the evaluation of alternative disaster warning systems. Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnew, C. E.; Anderson, R. J., Jr.; Lanen, W. N.

    1977-01-01

    Methods for estimating the economic costs and benefits of the transmission-reception and reception-action segments of a disaster warning system (DWS) are described. Methods were identified for the evaluation of the transmission and reception portions of alternative disaster warning systems. Example analyses using the methods identified were performed.

  17. Evaluation of the Cleveland Scholarship and Tutoring Program, 1998-2001. Summary Report [and] Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Kim K.; West, Stephen D.; Legan, Natalie; Paul, Kelli; Boone, William J.

    This is the second annual report of a study examining the operation and impact of the Cleveland Scholarship and Tutoring Program (CSTP). The longitudinal project is investigating a wide range of issues associated with the operation and impact of the publicly funded voucher program. For the current project year, the evaluation focused on the…

  18. Evaluation of New Texas Charter Schools: Second Interim Report (2007-10). Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Catherine; Sheehan, Daniel; Rainey, Katharine

    2011-01-01

    The Texas Education Agency (TEA) was awarded Charter School Program (CSP) funding in 2007, and specified that the required evaluation would focus on the experiences and outcomes of new charter schools authorized to begin serving students across 4 school years: 2006-07, 2007-08, 2008-09, and 2009-10. TEA categorizes charter schools in terms of…

  19. AVIRIS performance during the 1987 flight season: An AVIRIS project assessment and summary of the NASA-sponsored performance evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, Gregg; Porter, Wallace M.; Reimer, John H.; Chrien, Thomas G.; Green, Robert O.

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented of the assessment of AVIRIS performance during the 1987 flight season by the AVIRIS project and the earth scientists who were chartered by NASA to conduct an independent data quality and sensor performance evaluation. The AVIRIS evaluation program began in late June 1987 with the sensor meeting most of its design requirements except for signal-to-noise ratio in the fourth spectrometer, which was about half of the required level. Several events related to parts failures and design flaws further reduced sensor performance over the flight season. Substantial agreement was found between the assessments by the project and the independent investigators of the effects of these various factors. A summary of the engineering work that is being done to raise AVIRIS performance to its required level is given. In spite of degrading data quality over the flight season, several exciting scientific results were obtained from the data. These include the mapping of the spatial variation of atmospheric precipitable water, detection of environmentally-induced shifts in the spectral red edge of stressed vegetation, detection of spectral features related to pigment, leaf water and ligno-cellulose absorptions in plants, and the identification of many diagnostic mineral absorption features in a variety of geological settings.

  20. Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation; 1998-2002 Summary Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Contor, Craig R.

    2004-07-01

    The Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project (WWNPME) was funded by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as directed by section 4(h) of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 (P. L. 96-501). This project is in accordance with and pursuant to measures 4.2A, 4.3C.1, 7.1A.2, 7.1C.3, 7.1C.4 and 7.1D.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Work was conducted by the Fisheries Program of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) under the Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project (UBNPME). Chapter One provides an overview of the entire report and shows how the objectives of each statement of work from 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2002 contract years are organized and reported. This chapter also provides background information relevant to the aquatic resources of the Umatilla River Basin. (Figure 1-1, Tables 1-1 and 1-2). Data and reports from this and previous efforts are available on the CTUIR website http://www.umatilla.nsn.us. This project was one of several subprojects of the Umatilla River Basin Fisheries Restoration Master Plan (CTUIR 1984, ODFW 1986) orchestrated to rehabilitate salmon and steelhead runs in the Umatilla River Basin. Subprojects in additions to this project include: Watershed Enhancement and Rehabilitation; Hatchery Construction and Operation; Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation; Satellite Facility Construction and Operations for Juvenile Acclimation and Adult Holding and Spawning; Fish Passage Construction and Operation; Juvenile and Adult Passage Facility Evaluations; Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin, and Flow Augmentation to Increase Stream Flows below Irrigation Diversions.

  1. Constant Head Evaluation of Full Scale Soil Absorption Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dix, S. P.

    2001-05-01

    Design loading rates for septic tank effluent in trenches of various designs with different geometry and media has been debated for decades. The role of bottom and sidewall is a hot topic with many opinion by experts in the field of agricultural and environmental engineering. Research institutions have conducted numerous studies and developed procedures for measuring both test systems and fundamental of soil hydraulics. Falling head tests have been used more recently to evaluate mature test cells and evaluate both sidewall and basal absorption, (Keys et al). The proposed paper will discuss the design and testing of a constant head permeameter. Testing this equipment and developing the test protocol followed the application of the procedure to on a number of residential systems in both sandy and clay loam soil. Results from this testing showed the relability step that must be taken to successfully use this equipment. Result of the testing show the variability and consistency of absorption, the changes in absorption when systems are flooded above their equilibrium condition and the longer-term changes that occur when trenches are rested in a warm climate. More recent application of the test procedure evaluated affects of head and increased depth sidewall on absorption rates when the effluent level in the trenches was raised. Future modification of the test equipment and procedure by integrating a data logger will permits more exact recording of dose cycles and improved estimate of soil absorption efficiency over time.

  2. Summary of Almost 20 Years of Storm Overflight Electric Field, Conductivity, Flash Rate, and Current Statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, Richard J.; Mach, Douglas M.; Bateman, Monte J.; Bailey, Jeffrey C.

    2011-01-01

    We present total conduction (Wilson) currents for more than 1000 high-altitude aircraft overflights of electrified clouds acquired over nearly two decades. The overflights include a wide geographical sample of storms over land and ocean, with and without lightning, and with positive (i.e., upward-directed) and negative current. Peak electric field, with lightning transients removed, ranged from -1.0 kV/m to 16. kV/m, with mean (median) of 0.9 kV/m (0.29 kV/m). Total conductivity at flight altitude ranged from 0.6 pS/m to 3.6 pS/m, with mean and median of 2.2 pS/m. Peak current densities ranged from -2.0 nA m(exp -2) to 33.0 nA m(exp -2) with mean (median) of 1.9 nA m(exp -2) (0.6 nA m(exp -2)). Total upward current flow from storms in our dataset ranged from -1.3 to 9.4 A. The mean current for storms with lightning is 1.7 A over ocean and 1.0 A over land. The mean current for electrified shower clouds (i.e. electrified storms without lightning) is 0.41 A for ocean and 0.13 A for land. About 78% (43%) of the land (ocean) storms have detectable lightning. Land storms have 2.8 times the mean flash rate as ocean storms (2.2 versus 0.8 flashes min-1, respectively). Approximately 7% of the overflights had negative current. The mean and median currents for positive (negative) polarity storms are 1.0 and 0.35 A (-0.30 and -0.26 A). We found no regional or latitudinal-based patterns in our storm currents, nor support for simple scaling laws between cloud top height and lightning flash rate.

  3. Evaluation of the Compressed Air Challenge(R) Training Program (Executive Summary)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-03-01

    The final report of the evaluation of the Compressed Air Challenge (CAC) Training Program. The training program is designed to provide plant personnel and compressed air system vendors with knowledge and tools required to effect improvements to the energy efficiency and overall performance of plant compressed air systems. As of May 2001, 3,029 individuals had attended the CAC Fundamentals of Compressed Air Training Systems and 925 individuals had attended ''Advanced Management of Compressed Air Systems''. These individuals represented 1,400-1,500 separate business establishments. The evaluation is based on three main research tasks: analysis of the CAC registration database, interviews with 100 end-user personnel who attended the CAC training, and interviews with 100 compressed air system vendors and consulting engineers who attended the training sessions.

  4. Preliminary technical and economic evaluation of vortex extraction devices. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Kornreich, T. R.; Kottler, Jr., R. J.; Jennings, D. M.

    1980-04-01

    The rotor subsystem represents one of the major cost drivers in conventional wind energy systems. Despite the fact that the two vortex extraction systems evaluated have the potential for substantially reducing rotor costs, these cost savings are more than offset by the additional costs required for the augmentation devices. Based on a preliminary analysis of the presently envisioned conceptual designs of the Tornado Wind Energy System and the Vortex Augmentor System, it does not appear that either system could achieve economic parity with conventional horizontal axis wind systems even if all of the technical uncertainties surrounding these innovative concepts are favorably resolved.

  5. Summary and evaluation of hydraulic property data available for Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Spane, F.A. Jr.; Thorne, P.D.

    1994-07-01

    Most of the contaminant source areas at Eielson Air Force Base are located above an unconfined alluvial aquifer with relatively high hydraulic conductivity. Hydraulic tests that have been conducted on wells at the base were evaluated, and in some cases reanalyzed, to determine hydraulic conductivity and specific yield for the aquifer. The reviewed tests included 2 multiple-well pumping tests and 30 slug tests. One slug test was conducted on a well in the bedrock aquifer at Site 38. All the other tests were conducted on the alluvial aquifer.

  6. Career Tracker Summary Report

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Career Tracker 2010 Wave 2 Summary Report #12;2 | Summary Report: Career Tracker Wellcome Trust Career Tracker: Results of wave 2 (2010) Introduction and background In 2010 the Evaluation Team at the Wellcome Trust launched the second wave of the Wellcome Trust Career Tracker, which tracks the career

  7. Spectrally Enhanced Lighting Program Implementation for Energy Savings: Field Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Kelly L.; Sullivan, Gregory P.; Armstrong, Peter R.; Richman, Eric E.; Matzke, Brett D.

    2006-08-22

    This report provides results from an evaluation PNNL conducted of a spectrally enhanced lighting demonstration project. PNNL performed field measurements and occupant surveys at three office buildings in California before and after lighting retrofits were made in August and December 2005. PNNL measured the following Overhead lighting electricity demand and consumption, Light levels in the workspace, Task lighting use, and Occupant ratings of satisfaction with the lighting. Existing lighting, which varied in each building, was replaced with lamps with correlated color temperature (CCT) of 5000 Kelvin, color rendering index (CRI) of 85, of varying wattages, and lower ballast factor electronic ballasts. The demonstrations were designed to decrease lighting power loads in the three buildings by 22-50 percent, depending on the existing installed lamps and ballasts. The project designers hypothesized that this reduction in electrical loads could be achieved by the change to higher CCT lamps without decreasing occupant satisfaction with the lighting.

  8. Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicle Field Evaluations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Walkowicz, K.

    2014-06-01

    This presentation discusses field evaluations of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles performed by NREL. The project provides medium-duty (MD) and heavy-duty (HD) test results, aggregated data, and detailed analysis, including 3rd party unbiased data (data that would not normally be shared by industry in an aggregated and detailed manner). Over 5.6 million miles of advanced technology MD and HD truck data have been collected, documented, and analyzed on over 240 different vehicles since 2002. Data, analysis, and reports are shared within DOE, national laboratory partners, and industry for R&D planning and strategy. The results help guide R&D for new technology development, help define intelligent usage of newly developed technology, and help fleets/users understand all aspects of advanced technology.

  9. Field Evaluation of Low-E Storm Windows

    SciTech Connect

    Drumheller, S. Craig; Kohler, Christian; Minen, Stefanie

    2007-07-11

    A field evaluation comparing the performance of low emittance (low-e) storm windows with both standard clear storm windows and no storm windows was performed in a cold climate. Six homes with single-pane windows were monitored over the period of one heating season. The homes were monitored with no storm windows and with new storm windows. The storm windows installed on four of the six homes included a hard coat, pyrolitic, low-e coating while the storm windows for the other two homeshad traditional clear glass. Overall heating load reduction due to the storm windows was 13percent with the clear glass and 21percent with the low-e windows. Simple paybacks for the addition of the storm windows were 10 years for the clear glass and 4.5 years forthe low-e storm windows.

  10. Field evaluations of hearing protection devices at surface mining environments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of circumaural hearing protection devices and their predictability when they were being worn by mine employees performing normal work duties. The method employed relied on a physical measurement of the noise reduction of the hearing protectors by utilizing two FM-wireless transmitting and receiving systems. One system measured the outside hearing protector noise level, the second system measured the inside hearing protector noise level. The noise level data of both systems was transmitted back to the corresponding receivers and was recorded onto a two-channel tape recorder. Three methods of evaluating hearing protector performance were explored and compared to the Environmental Protection Agency, Noise Reduction Rating (EPA NRR) values. They were, (1) predicted National Institute for occupational Safety and Health`s (NIOSH) method No. 1 values, (2) field-calculated NIOSH No. 1 values, and (3) measured dBA reduction values, which was the arithmetic A-weighted differences between both microphone locations. The majority of the data was obtained on operators of mobile strip equipment, such as bulldozers, front-end-loaders, and overburden drills. A total of 107 individual tests were conducted using 11 different hearing protectors. The results indicate that the amount of protection, which can vary significantly, is related either to the spectrum shape of the noise, or the C-weighted minus the A-weighted (C-A) value. This is consistent with other researchers. The field measured noise reductions were equivalent to the EPA NRR values when the C-A values were negative or approaching zero. When the C-A values increased, the measured noise reductions significantly decreased.

  11. Satellite power system concept development and evaluation program. Volume 1: Technical assessment summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Candidate satellite power system (SPS) concepts were identified and evaluated in terms of technical and cost factors. A number of alternative technically feasible approaches and system concepts were investigated. A reference system was defined to facilitate economic, environmental, and societal assessments by the Department of Energy. All elements of the reference system were defined including the satellite and all its subsystems, the orbital construction and maintenance bases, all elements of the space transportation system, the ground receiving station, and the associated industrial facilities for manufacturing the required hardware. The reference conclusions and remaining issues are stated for the following topical areas: system definition; energy conversion and power management; power transmission and reception; structures, controls, and materials; construction and operations; and space transportation.

  12. A Summary Report on the NPH Evaluation of 105-L Disassembly Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, J.R.

    2002-04-30

    The L Area Disassembly Basin (LDB) is evaluated for the natural phenomena hazards (NPH) effects due to earthquake, wind, and tornado in accordance with DOE Order 420.1 and DOE-STD-1020. The deterministic analysis is performed for a Performance Category 3 (PC3) level of loads. Savannah River Site (SRS) specific NPH loads and design criteria are obtained from Engineering Standard 01060. It is demonstrated that the demand to capacity (D/C) ratios for primary and significant structural elements are acceptable (equal to or less than 1.0). Thus, 105-L Disassembly Basin building structure is qualified for the PC3 NPH effects in accordance with DOE Order 420.1.

  13. Algorithm Summary and Evaluation: Automatic Implementation of Ringdown Analysis for Electromechanical Mode Identification from Phasor Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ning; Huang, Zhenyu; Tuffner, Francis K.; Jin, Shuangshuang; Lin, Jenglung; Hauer, Matthew L.

    2010-02-28

    Small signal stability problems are one of the major threats to grid stability and reliability. Prony analysis has been successfully applied on ringdown data to monitor electromechanical modes of a power system using phasor measurement unit (PMU) data. To facilitate an on-line application of mode estimation, this paper develops a recursive algorithm for implementing Prony analysis and proposed an oscillation detection method to detect ringdown data in real time. By automatically detecting ringdown data, the proposed method helps guarantee that Prony analysis is applied properly and timely on the ringdown data. Thus, the mode estimation results can be performed reliably and timely. The proposed method is tested using Monte Carlo simulations based on a 17-machine model and is shown to be able to properly identify the oscillation data for on-line application of Prony analysis. In addition, the proposed method is applied to field measurement data from WECC to show the performance of the proposed algorithm.

  14. Assessment of risk evaluation and mitigation strategies in oncology: summary of the oncology risk evaluation and mitigation strategies workshop.

    PubMed

    Frame, James N; Jacobson, Joseph O; Vogel, Wendy H; Griffith, Niesha; Wariabharaj, Darshan; Garg, Rekha; Zon, Robin; Stephens, Cyntha L; Bialecki, Alison M; Bruinooge, Suanna S; Allen, Steven L

    2013-03-01

    To address oncology community stakeholder concerns regarding implementation of the Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS) program, ASCO sponsored a workshop to gather REMS experiences from representatives of professional societies, patient organizations, pharmaceutical companies, and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Stakeholder presentations and topical panel discussions addressed REMS program development, implementation processes, and practice experiences, as well as oncology drug safety processes. A draft REMS decision tool prepared by the ASCO REMS Steering Committee was presented for group discussion with facilitated, goal-oriented feedback. THE WORKSHOP IDENTIFIED SEVERAL UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES RESULTING FROM CURRENT ONCOLOGY REMS: (1) the release of personal health information to drug sponsors as a condition for gaining access to a needed drug; (2) risk information that is not tailored-and therefore not accessible-to all literacy levels; (3) exclusive focus on drug risk, thereby affecting patient-provider treatment discussion; (4) REMS elements that do not consider existing, widely practiced oncology safety standards, professional training, and experience; and (5) administrative burdens that divert the health care team from direct patient care activities and, in some cases, could limit patient access to important therapies. Increased provider and professional society participation should form the basis of ongoing and future REMS standardization discussions with the FDA to work toward overall improvement of risk communication. PMID:23814522

  15. Preliminary Field Evaluation of Mercury Control Using Combustion Modifications

    SciTech Connect

    V. Lissianski; P. Maly; T. Marquez

    2005-01-22

    In this project EER conducted a preliminary field evaluation of the integrated approach for mercury (Hg) and NO{sub x} control. The approach enhanced the 'naturally occurring' Hg capture by fly ash through combustion optimization, increasing carbon in ash content, and lowering ESP temperature. The evaluation took place in Green Station Units 1 and 2 located near Henderson, Kentucky and operated by Western Kentucky Energy. Units 1 and 2 are equipped with cold-side ESPs and wet scrubbers. Green Station Units 1 and 2 typically fire two types of fuel: a bituminous coal and a blend of bituminous coals based on availability. Testing of Hg emissions in Unit 2 without reburning system in operation and at minimum OFA demonstrated that efficiencies of Hg reduction downstream of the ESP were 30-40%. Testing also demonstrated that OFA system operation at 22% air resulted in 10% incremental increase in Hg removal efficiency at the ESP outlet. About 80% of Hg in flue gas at ESP outlet was present in the oxidized form. Testing of Hg emissions under reburning conditions showed that Hg emissions decreased with LOI increase and ESP temperature decrease. Testing demonstrated that maximum Hg reduction downstream of ESP was 40-45% at ESP temperatures higher than 300 F and 60-80% at ESP temperatures lower than 300 F. The program objective to demonstrate 80% Hg removal at the ESP outlet has been met.

  16. PRELIMINARY FIELD EVALUATION OF MERCURY CONTROL USING COMBUSTION MODIFICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Vitali Lissianski; Antonio Marquez

    2004-02-19

    In this project General Electric Energy and Environmental Research Corporation conducts a preliminary field evaluation of a novel technology, referred to as Hg/NO{sub x}, that can reduce emissions of both mercury (Hg) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) from coal-fired power plants. The evaluation takes place in Green Station Unit 2 operated by Western Kentucky Energy. Reduction of Hg and NO{sub x} emissions in Unit 2 is achieved using coal reburning. Activities during first project year (January 23, 2003--January 22, 2004) included measurements of baseline Hg emissions in Unit 2 and pilot-scale testing. Baseline testing of Hg emissions in Green Unit 2 has been completed. Two fuels were tested with OFA system operating at minimum air flow. Mercury emissions were measured at ESP inlet and outlet, and at the stack using Ontario Hydro revised method. Testing demonstrated that baseline Hg reductions at ESP outlet and stack were 30-45% and 70-80%, respectively. Pilot-scale testing demonstrated good agreement with baseline measurements in Unit 2. Testing showed that fuel composition had an effect on the efficiency of Hg absorption on fly ash. Maximum achieved Hg removal in reburning was close to 90%. Maximum achieved Hg reduction at air staging conditions was 60%. Testing also demonstrated that lowering ESP temperature improved efficiency of Hg removal.

  17. Field evaluation of an avian risk assessment model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hulse, C.S.; Borges, S.L.; Bennett, R.S.; Torrez, M.; Williams, B.I.; Leffel, R.

    2006-01-01

    We conducted two laboratory subacute dietary toxicity tests and one outdoor subacute dietary toxicity test to determine the effectiveness of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's deterministic risk assessment model for evaluating the potential of adverse effects to birds in the field. We tested technical-grade diazinon and its D Z N- 50W (50% diazinon active ingredient wettable powder) formulation on Canada goose (Branta canadensis) goslings. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was measured, and the feathers and skin, feet. and gastrointestinal contents were analyzed for diazinon residues. The dose-response curves showed that diazinon was significantly more toxic to goslings in the outdoor test than in the laboratory tests. The deterministic risk assessment method identified the potential for risk to birds in general, but the factors associated with extrapolating from the laboratory to the field, and from the laboratory test species to other species, resulted in the underestimation of risk to the goslings. The present study indicates that laboratory-based risk quotients should be interpreted with caution.

  18. Field Evaluation of Broadband Electrical Impedance Tomography Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelter, M.; Huisman, J. A.; Zimmermann, E.; Treichel, A.; Kemna, A.; Vereecken, H.

    2014-12-01

    Laboratory measurements of the complex electrical conductivity in a broad frequency range (i.e. mHz to kHz) using spectral induced polarization (SIP) measurements have shown great promise to characterize important hydrological properties (e.g. hydraulic conductivity) and biogeochemical processes. However, translating these findings to field applications remains challenging, and significant improvements in spectral electrical impedance tomography (EIT) are still required to obtain images of the complex electrical conductivity with sufficient accuracy in the field. The aim of this study is to present recent improvements in the inversion and processing of broadband field EIT measurements, and to evaluate the accuracy and spectral consistency of the obtained images of the real and imaginary part of the electrical conductivity. In a first case study, time-lapse surface EIT measurements were performed during an infiltration experiment to investigate the spectral complex electrical conductivity as a function of water content. State-of-the-art data processing and inversion approaches were used to obtain images of the complex electrical conductivity in a frequency range of 100 mHz to 1 kHz, and integral parameters were obtained using Debye decomposition. Results showed consistent spectral and spatial variation of the phase of the complex electrical conductivity in a broad frequency range, and a complex dependence on water saturation that was reasonably consistent with laboratory EIT measurements. In a second case study, borehole EIT measurements were made in a well-characterized aquifer. These measurements were inverted to obtain broadband images of the complex conductivity after correction for inductive and capacitive coupling using recently developed procedures. The results showed good correspondence with reference laboratory SIP measurements in a broad frequency bandwidth up to 1 kHz only after application of the correction procedures.

  19. Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Intergrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) Summary Manual

    SciTech Connect

    C. L. Smith

    2008-08-01

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) is a software application developed for performing a complete probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) using a personal computer (PC) running the Microsoft Windows operating system. SAPHIRE is primarily funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and developed by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). INL's primary role in this project is that of software developer and tester. However, INL also plays an important role in technology transfer by interfacing and supporting SAPHIRE users, who constitute a wide range of PRA practitioners from the NRC, national laboratories, the private sector, and foreign countries. SAPHIRE can be used to model a complex system’s response to initiating events and quantify associated consequential outcome frequencies. Specifically, for nuclear power plant applications, SAPHIRE can identify important contributors to core damage (Level 1 PRA) and containment failure during a severe accident which lead to releases (Level 2 PRA). It can be used for a PRA where the reactor is at full power, low power, or at shutdown conditions. Furthermore, it can be used to analyze both internal and external initiating events and has special features for transforming an internal events model to a model for external events, such as flooding and fire analysis. It can also be used in a limited manner to quantify risk in terms of release consequences to the public and environment (Level 3 PRA). SAPHIRE also includes a separate module called the Graphical Evaluation Module (GEM). GEM is a special user interface linked to SAPHIRE that automates the SAPHIRE process steps for evaluating operational events at commercial nuclear power plants. Using GEM, an analyst can estimate the risk associated with operational events (for example, to calculate a conditional core damage probability) very efficiently and expeditiously. This report provides an overview of the functions available in SAPHIRE and presents general instructions for using the software. Section 1 presents SAPHIRE’s historical evolution and summarizes its capabilities. Section 2 presents instructions for installing and using the code. Section 3 explains the database structure used in SAPHIRE and discusses database concepts. Section 4 explains how PRA data (event frequencies, human error probabilities, etc.) can be generated and manipulated using “change sets.” Section 5 deals with fault tree operations, including constructing, editing, solving, and displaying results. Section 6 presents operations associated with event trees, including rule application for event tree linking, partitioning, and editing sequences. Section 7 presents how accident sequences are generated, solved, quantified, and analyzed. Section 8 discusses the functions available for performing end state analysis. Section 9 explains how to modify data stored in a SAPHIRE database. Section 10 illustrates how to generate and customize reports. Section 11 covers SAPHIRE utility options to perform routine functions such as defining constant values, recovering databases, and loading data from external sources. Section 12 provides an overview of GEM’s features and capabilities. Finally, Section 13 summarizes SAPHIRE’s quality assurance process.

  20. Summary and evaluation of the Strategic Defense Initiative Space Power Architecture Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edenburn, M. (editor); Smith, J. M. (editor)

    1989-01-01

    The Space Power Architecture Study (SPAS) identified and evaluated power subsystem options for multimegawatt electric (MMWE) space based weapons and surveillance platforms for the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) applications. Steady state requirements of less than 1 MMWE are adequately covered by the SP-100 nuclear space power program and hence were not addressed in the SPAS. Four steady state power systems less than 1 MMWE were investigated with little difference between them on a mass basis. The majority of the burst power systems utilized H(2) from the weapons and were either closed (no effluent), open (effluent release) or steady state with storage (no effluent). Closed systems used nuclear or combustion heat source with thermionic, Rankine, turboalternator, fuel cell and battery conversion devices. Open systems included nuclear or combustion heat sources using turboalternator, magnetohydrodynamic, fuel cell or battery power conversion devices. The steady state systems with storage used the SP-100 or Star-M reactors as energy sources and flywheels, fuel cells or batteries to store energy for burst applications. As with other studies the open systems are by far the lightest, most compact and simplist (most reliable) systems. However, unlike other studies the SPAS studied potential platform operational problems caused by effluents or vibration.

  1. A Multi-Site Evaluation of Innovative Approaches to Increase Tuberculosis Case Notification: Summary Results

    PubMed Central

    Creswell, Jacob; Sahu, Suvanand; Blok, Lucie; Bakker, Mirjam I.; Stevens, Robert; Ditiu, Lucica

    2014-01-01

    Background Globally, TB notifications have stagnated since 2007, and sputum smear positive notifications have been declining despite policies to improve case detection. We evaluate results of 28 interventions focused on improving TB case detection. Methods We measured additional sputum smear positive cases treated, defined as the intervention area's increase in case notification during the project compared to the previous year. Projects were encouraged to select control areas and collect historical notification data. We used time series negative binomial regression for over-dispersed cross-sectional data accounting for fixed and random effects to test the individual projects' effects on TB notification while controlling for trend and control populations. Results Twenty-eight projects, 19 with control populations, completed at least four quarters of case finding activities, covering a population of 89.2 million. Among all projects sputum smear positive (SS+) TB notifications increased 24.9% and annualized notification rates increased from 69.1 to 86.2/100,000 (p?=?0.0209) during interventions. Among the 19 projects with control populations, SS+TB case notifications increased 36.9% increase while in the control populations a 3.6% decrease was observed. Fourteen (74%) of the 19 projects' SS+TB notification rates in intervention areas increased from the baseline to intervention period when controlling for historical trends and notifications in control areas. Conclusions Interventions were associated with large increases in TB notifications across many settings, using an array of interventions. Many people with TB are not reached using current approaches. Different methods and interventions tailored to local realities are urgently needed. PMID:24722399

  2. Evaluation of Field-in-Field Technique for Total Body Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Onal, Cem; Sonmez, Aydan; Arslan, Gungor; Sonmez, Serhat; Efe, Esma; Oymak, Ezgi

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical use of a field-in-field (FIF) technique for total body irradiation (TBI) using a treatment-planning system (TPS) and to verify TPS results with in vivo dose measurements using metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) detectors. Methods and Materials: Clinical and dosimetric data of 10 patients treated with TBI were assessed. Certain radiation parameters were measured using homogenous and regular phantoms at an extended distance of 380 cm, and the results were compared with data from a conventional standard distance of 100 cm. Additionally, dosimetric validation of TPS doses was performed with a Rando phantom using manual calculations. A three-dimensional computed tomography plan was generated involving 18-MV photon beams with a TPS for both open-field and FIF techniques. The midline doses were measured at the head, neck, lung, umbilicus, and pelvis for both open-field and FIF techniques. Results: All patients received planned TBI using the FIF technique with 18-MV photon energies and 2 Gy b.i.d. on 3 consecutive days. The difference in tissue maximum ratios between the extended and conventional distances was <2%. The mean deviation of manual calculations compared with TPS data was +1.6% (range, 0.1-2.4%). A homogenous dose distribution was obtained with 18-MV photon beams using the FIF technique. The mean lung dose for the FIF technique was 79.2% (9.2 Gy; range, 8.8-9.7 Gy) of the prescribed dose. The MOSFET readings and TPS doses in the body were similar (percentage difference range, -0.5% to 2.5%) and slightly higher in the shoulder and lung (percentage difference range, 4.0-5.5%). Conclusion: The FIF technique used for TBI provides homogenous dose distribution and is feasible, simple, and spares time compared with more-complex techniques. The TPS doses were similar to the midline doses obtained from MOSFET readings.

  3. Performance evaluation of field-in-field technique for tangential breast irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Woo; Hong, Semie; Choi, Kyoung-Sik; Kim, Yon-Lae; Park, Byung-Moon; Chung, Jin-Beom; Lee, Doo-Hyun; Suh, Tae-Suk

    2008-02-01

    Conventional hard or dynamic wedge systems are commonly applied to reduce the dose inhomogeneity associated with whole breast irradiation. We evaluated the dosimetric benefits of the field-in-field (FIF) technique by comparing it with the electronic compensator (EC), Varian enhanced dynamic wedge (EW) and conventional hard wedge (HW) techniques. Data were obtained from 12 patients who had undergone breast-conserving surgery (six left-sided and six right-sided). For these patients, the average breast planning target volume (PTV) was 447.4 cm(3) (range, 211.6-711.8 cm(3)). For the experiments, a 6 MV photon beam from a Varian 21 EX was used, the HW and EW angles were applied from 15 to 45 degrees, while 40-50% isodose values were chosen to achieve the best dose distribution for electronic compensation. In applying the FIF technique, we used two or three subfields for each portal. To evaluate the performance for each planning technique, we analysed a dose-volume histogram (DVH) for the PTV and organs-at-risk (OARs). To evaluate the effects of these techniques on dose inhomogeneity, we defined the PTV Dose Improvement (PDI) index, which was derived from a PTV volume between 97-103% of the differential DVHs. In addition, we compared the average monitor units (MUs) for each technique. The average PDI index with FIF is 76.4%, while the PDI indices for other treatments were 65.8, 41.8 and 50.9% for EC, EW and HW, respectively. This study demonstrated an improved performance using the FIF technique compared with the conventional HW/EW system, as well as a new modality for EC. We demonstrated that FIF is a very useful technique for improving PTV conformity, while protecting the OARs from breast tangential irradiation. PMID:18216025

  4. On Ambition, Learning, and Co-Evolution: Building Evaluation as a Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sridharan, Sanjeev; De Silva, Soma

    2010-01-01

    The papers in this dialogue help develop evaluation as a field (both in South Asia and other regions). What comes through in all of the papers is both humility of where evaluation is as a field and imagination and ambition of where evaluators could be in the near future. Reading the papers in this forum makes them enthusiastic about being…

  5. Documenting the Impact of Multisite Evaluations on the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseland, Denise; Greenseid, Lija O.; Volkov, Boris B.; Lawrenz, Frances

    2011-01-01

    This chapter discusses the impact that four multisite National Science Foundation (NSF) evaluations had on the broader field of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education and evaluation. Three approaches were used to investigate the broader impact of these evaluations on the field: (a) a citation analysis, (b) an on-line survey,…

  6. EVALUATION OF A PROTOTYPE FIELD-PORTABLE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SYSTEM FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE SCREENING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A prototype field-portable X-ray fluorescence system developed by EPA and NASA was evaluated at a site contaminated with Pb, Zn, and Cu. The objective of the field test was to evaluate the effectiveness of the instrument as a field analytical tool for locating hot spots and as a ...

  7. A bench-scale biotreatability methodology to evaluate field bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Saberiyan, A.G.; MacPherson, J.R. Jr.; Moore, R.; Pruess, A.J.; Andrilenas, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    A bench-scale biotreatability methodology was designed to assess field bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil samples. This methodology was performed successfully on soil samples from more than 40 sites. The methodology is composed of two phases, characterization and experimentation. The first phase is physical, chemical, and biological characterization of the contaminated soil sample. This phase determines soil parameters, contaminant type, presence of indigenous contaminant-degrading bacteria, and bacterial population size. The second phase, experimentation, consists of a respirometry test to measure the growth of microbes indirectly (via generation of CO{sub 2}) and the consumption of their food source directly (via contaminant loss). Based on a Monod kinetic analysis, the half-life of a contaminant can be calculated. Abiotic losses are accounted for based on a control test. The contaminant molecular structure is used to generate a stoichiometric equation. The stoichiometric equation yields a theoretical ratio for mg of contaminant degraded per mg of CO{sub 2} produced. Data collected from the respirometry test are compared to theoretical values to evaluate bioremediation feasibility.

  8. Evaluation of different field methods for measuring soil water infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso; Fonseca, Francisco

    2010-05-01

    Soil infiltrability, together with rainfall characteristics, is the most important hydrological parameter for the evaluation and diagnosis of the soil water balance and soil moisture regime. Those balances and regimes are the main regulating factors of the on site water supply to plants and other soil organisms and of other important processes like runoff, surface and mass erosion, drainage, etc, affecting sedimentation, flooding, soil and water pollution, water supply for different purposes (population, agriculture, industries, hydroelectricity), etc. Therefore the direct measurement of water infiltration rates or its indirect deduction from other soil characteristics or properties has become indispensable for the evaluation and modelling of the previously mentioned processes. Indirect deductions from other soil characteristics measured under laboratory conditions in the same soils, or in other soils, through the so called "pedo-transfer" functions, have demonstrated to be of limited value in most of the cases. Direct "in situ" field evaluations have to be preferred in any case. In this contribution we present the results of past experiences in the measurement of soil water infiltration rates in many different soils and land conditions, and their use for deducing soil water balances under variable climates. There are also presented and discussed recent results obtained in comparing different methods, using double and single ring infiltrometers, rainfall simulators, and disc permeameters, of different sizes, in soils with very contrasting surface and profile characteristics and conditions, including stony soils and very sloping lands. It is concluded that there are not methods universally applicable to any soil and land condition, and that in many cases the results are significantly influenced by the way we use a particular method or instrument, and by the alterations in the soil conditions by the land management, but also due to the manipulation of the surface soil before and during the measurement. Due to the commonly found high variability, natural or induced by land management, of the soil surface and subsurface hydrological properties, and to the limitations imposed by the requirements of water for the measurements, there is proposed a simple and handy method, which do not use high volumes of water, adaptable to very different soil and land conditions, and that allow many repeated measurements with acceptable accuracy for most of the purposes. References Pla, I., 1997. A soil water balance model for monitoring soil erosion processes and effects on steep lands in the tropics. Soil Technology. 11(1):17-30. Elsevier Pla, I., 2006. Hydrological approach for assessing desertification processes in the Mediterranean region. In W.G. Kepner et al. (Editors), Desertification in the Mediterranean Region. A Security Issue. 579-600 Springer. Heidelberg (Germany) Reynolds W.D., B.T. Bowman, R.R. Brunke, C.F. Drury and C.S. Tan. 2000. Comparison of Tension Infiltrometer, Pressure Infiltrometer, and Soil Core Estimates of Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity . Soil Science Society of America Journal 64:478-484 Segal, E., S.A.Bradford, P. Shouse; N. Lazarovich, and D. Corwin. 2008. Integration of Hard and Soft Data to Characterize Field-Scale Hydraulic Properties for Flow and Transport Studies. Vadose Zone J 7:878-889 Young, E. 1991. Infiltration measurements, a review. Hydrological processes 5: 309-320.

  9. Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste. Volume 1: Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation (PE) to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 1 is an executive summary both of the PE methodology and of the results obtained from the PEs. While this volume briefly reviews the scope and method of analyses, its main objective is to emphasize the important insights and conclusions derived from the conduct of the PEs. Volume 2 provides details about the site-selection process, the performance-evaluation methodology, and the overall results of the analysis. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussions of the results for each site.

  10. Summary of lightning activities by NASA for the Apollo Soyuz test project: Supplement no. 1 to Apollo Soyuz mission evaluation report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    To avoid the possibility of an unnecessary launch delay, a special program was initiated to provide aircraft measurement of electric fields at various altitudes over the Apollo vehicle launch pad. Eight aircraft, each equipped with electric field meters, were used in the program. This program and some of the more important findings are discussed. Also included is a summary of the history of manned space vehicle involvement with lightning, a brief description of the lightning instrumentation in use at KSC (Kennedy Space Center) at the time of the Apollo Soyuz mission and a discussion of the airborne instrumentation and related data.

  11. EVALUATION OF SAMPLING AND FIELD FILTRATION METHODS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF TRACE METALS IN GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Selected groundwater sampling and filtering methods were evaluated to determine their effects on field parameters and trace metal concentrations in samples collected under several types of field conditions. he study focused on sampling in conventional standpipe monitoring wells u...

  12. Supporting Information Evaluation of Flow field design in an Ammonium Bicarbonate

    E-print Network

    Supporting Information Evaluation of Flow field design in an Ammonium Bicarbonate Reverse Electrodialysis Stack Marta C. Hatzella , and Bruce E. Loganb* a Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering

  13. Evaluating Differences in Landscape Interpretation between Webcam and Field-Based Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolivras, Korine N.; Luebbering, Candice R.; Resler, Lynn M.

    2012-01-01

    Field trips have become less common due to issues including budget constraints and large class sizes. Research suggests that virtual field trips can substitute for field visits, but the role of webcams has not been evaluated. To investigate the potential for webcams to substitute for field trips, participants viewed urban and physical landscapes…

  14. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects. Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor building decontamination. Summary status report. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Doerge, D.H.; Miller, R.L.; Scotti, K.S.

    1986-05-01

    This document summarizes information relating to decontamination of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor building. The report covers activities for the period of June 1, 1979 through March 29, 1985. The data collected from activity reports, reactor containment entry records, and other sources were entered into a computerized data system which permits extraction/manipulation of specific information which can be used in planning for recovery from an accident similar to that experienced at TMI-2 on March 28, 1979. This report contains summaries of man-hours, manpower, and radiation exposures incurred during decontamination of the reactor building. Support activities conducted outside of radiation areas are excluded from the scope of this report. Computerized reports included in this document are: a chronological summary listing work performed relating to reactor building decontamination for the period specified; and summary reports for each major task during the period. Each task summary is listed in chronological order for zone entry and subtotaled for the number of personnel entries, exposures, and man-hours. Manually-assembled table summaries are included for: labor and exposures by department and labor and exposures by major activity.

  15. Summary of the ECLOUD'04 Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Macek, R.; Furman, M.

    2004-11-30

    The 31st ICFA Advanced Beam Dynamics Workshop on Electron-Cloud Effects ''ECLOUD'04'' was held April 19-23, 2004 at Napa, CA, USA. A broad range of current topics in this field were illuminated by 53 talks in 7 sessions plus 6 session summaries at the final summary session. These covered a variety of experimental methods and results, along with progress on understanding of the topic obtained from simulations and analytic theory, and evaluations of the effectiveness of various methods/mechanisms for mitigation of the adverse impact on accelerator performance. In addition, a panel discussion was held on ''Future Needs and Future Directions''. A summary of progress on the major themes covered at ECLOUD'04 is presented.

  16. Interview Evaluation Form Note: A summary of all of the Interview Evaluations for each candidate should be used to enter one evaluation into the

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    should be used to enter one evaluation into the CUBS system. A complete 0 0 1 2 3 Comments: Communication 0 0 1 2 3 Comments: Enter an Overall Rate (sum of above) Overall Rating: Enter a final recommendation: 020-Make Offer 110- Not Chosen* 120

  17. An Evaluation of the Mulligan Stew 4-H Television Series for Extension Service, USDA. Volume I: Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Sydelle Stone; And Others

    Conducted on over 3,000 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade children in six states, this study documents changes in nutrition-related knowledge and behaviors which can be related to participating in the Mulligan Stew televsion series. This volume contains a summary of the findings of the study and recommendations. After participating in the series,…

  18. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects. Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor defueling and disassembly. Summary status report. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Doerge, D.H.; Miller, R.L.; Scotti, K.S.

    1986-05-01

    This document summarizes information relating to the preparations for defueling the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor and disassembly activities being performed concurrently with decontamination of the facility. Data have been collected from activity reports, reactor containment entry records, and other sources and entered in a computerized data sysem which permits extraction/manipulation of specific data which can be used in planning for recovery from a loss of coolant event similar to that experienced at TMI-2 on March 28, 1979. This report contains summaries of man-hours, manpower, and radiation exposures incurred during the period of April 23, 1979 to April 16, 1985, in the completion of activities related to preparation for reactor defueling. Support activities conducted outside of radiation areas are not included within the scope of this report. Computerized reports included in this document are: A chronological summary listing work performed for the period; and summary reports for each major task undertaken in connection with the specific scope of this report. Presented in chronological order for the referenced time period. Manually-assembled table summaries are included for: Labor and exposures by department; and labor and exposures by major activity.

  19. Field evaluation of hazardous waste site bioassessment protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.M.; Cline, J.F.; Cushing, C.E.; McShane, M.C.; Rogers, J.E.; Rogers, L.E.; Simpson, J.C.; Skalski, J.R.

    1983-04-01

    The goals were: (1) determine the variability (both within and between laboratories) for the various bioassay procedures using contaminated soil samples from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA); (2) assess variability within and between plots for several assessment techniques (for sampling small mammals, plants, insects including honeybees and microarthropods) so that field studies could be designed to detect a defined biotic change; (3) establish three field plant transects which are apparently (a) contaminated, (b) appear contaminated and (c) could serve as a control; (4) assess the feasibility (in the laboratory) of using Basin F water to contaminate RMA soil artificially, and to supply information for the design of a field plot study in 1983; (5) attempt to obtain preliminary data on any promising field or laboratory bioassessment techniques not currently mentioned in the statement of work; and (6) obtain field data to assess the ecological status of RMA lakes and compare these observations to results from bioassessment testing.

  20. Field scale evaluation of spray drift reduction technologies from ground and aerial application systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this work is to evaluate a proposed Test Plan for the validation testing of pesticide spray drift reduction technologies for row and field crops, focusing on the testing of ground and aerial application systems under full-scale field evaluations. The measure of performance for a gi...

  1. Weatherization Works II - Summary of Findings from the ARRA Period Evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Weatherization Assistance Program

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, Bruce Edward; Carroll, David; Rose, Erin M.; Hawkins, Beth A.; Pigg, Scott; Dalhoff, Greg; Blasnik, Michael; Eisenberg, Joel Fred; Cowan, Claire; Conlon, Brian

    2015-10-01

    This report presents a summary of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy s low-income Weatherization Program. This evaluation focused on the WAP Program Year 2010. The ARRA evaluation produced fourteen separate reports, including this summary. Three separate reports address the energy savings, energy cost savings, and cost effectiveness of WAP across four housing types: single family, mobile home, and large multifamily. Other reports address the environmental emissions benefits attributable to WAP, and characterize the program. Special studies were conducted to: estimate the impacts of weatherization and healthy homes interventions on asthma-related Medicaid claims in a small cohort in Washington State; assess how weatherization recipients communicate their weatherization experiences to those in their social network, and assess processes implemented to defer homes for weatherization. Small studies addressed energy use in refrigerators, WAP as implemented in the U.S. territories for the first time, and weatherization s impacts on air conditioning energy savings. The national occupant survey was mined for additional insights on the impacts of weatherization on household budgets and energy behaviors post-weatherization. Lastly, the results of a survey of weatherization training centers are summarized.

  2. FIELD EVALUATION OF DNAPL EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGIES: PROJECT OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five DNAPL remediation technologies were evaluated at the Dover National Test Site, Dover AFB, Delaware. The technologies were cosolvent solubilization, cosolvent mobilization, surfactant solubilization, complex sugar flushing and air sparging/soil vapor extraction. The effectiv...

  3. FIELD VALIDATION OF SEDIMENT TOXCITY IDENTIFCATION AND EVALUATION METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE) methods have been developed for both porewaters and whole sediments. These relatively simple laboratory methods are designed to identify specific toxicants or classes of toxicants in sediments; however, the question of whethe...

  4. FIELD EVALUATION OF THE USDA RUST MODEL – YEAR II

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A randomized complete block field experiment with three replications was conducted to assess stem rust development and seed yield in perennial ryegrass receiving different fungicide treatments. The check treatment received no fungicide, standard treatments received fungicide applications that varied...

  5. Eubank Field, Kansas: a formation evaluation and secondary recovery project 

    E-print Network

    Dexheimer, Dominique

    1999-01-01

    The Basal Chester sand, an oil reservoir pertaining to the last stage of the Mississippian, is located some 3,000 ft below the Permian reservoir of the Hugoton Gas Field (Kansas). Anadarko Petroleum Corporation (Anadarko) has acquired significant...

  6. Field evaluation of hazardous waste site bioassessment protocols. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.M.; Cline, J.F.; Gano, K.A.; McShane, M.C.; Rogers, J.E.; Rogers, L.E.; Simpson, J.C.; Skalski, J.R.

    1984-04-01

    The overall goal of the plan was to demonstrate that honeybees could be used in detecting likely areas of chemical pollution, to demonstrate the usefulness of microbial and plant phytoassays, and to demonstrate a relationship between laboratory derived phytotoxicity results and field observations of plant community structure and diversity. Field studies were conducted through a cooperative arrangement with the US Army arsenal in Commerce City, Colorado.

  7. Field Cage Studies and Progressive Evaluation of Genetically-Engineered Mosquitoes

    E-print Network

    Lloyd, Alun

    Field Cage Studies and Progressive Evaluation of Genetically-Engineered Mosquitoes Luca Facchinelli mosquito vector Aedes aegypti, designated OX3604C, was evaluated in large outdoor cage trials for its an important part of the progressive, stepwise evaluation of genetically-engineered mosquitoes. Citation

  8. "Become a leader in the field of program evaluation." carleton.ca/sppa

    E-print Network

    Dawson, Jeff W.

    "Become a leader in the field of program evaluation." carleton.ca/sppa GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN PUBLIC POLICY AND PROGRAM EVALUATION SHAPE YOUR FUTURE Do you know whether your organization is attaining professional. Our provincially-accredited Graduate Diploma in Public Policy and Program Evaluation (DPE

  9. An Alternative Approach to Specifying Test Electric Field Magnitude for Evaluation of Broadband LMR Antennas

    E-print Network

    Ellingson, Steven W.

    An Alternative Approach to Specifying Test Electric Field Magnitude for Evaluation of Broadband LMR the disadvantage that the magnitude of the applied electric field is determined by the performance at the nominal field magnitude that is not associated with an arbitrarily-determined frequency. In this report, we

  10. An Internal Evaluation of a Field-Based Training Component for School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Licata, Joseph W.

    Project ROME-FOCUS (Field-Oriented Competency Utilization System), a competency-based, field-oriented, training program for school administrators was field tested at Valdosta State College, Valdosta, Georgia, January - May, 1976. An internal evaluation conducted by the instructional staff suggested that principals preferred ROME-FOCUS training to…

  11. Co-ordination of the International Network of Nuclear Structure and Decay Data Evaluators; Summary Report of an IAEA Technical Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Abriola, D.; Tuli, J.

    2009-03-23

    The IAEA Nuclear Data Section convened the 18th meeting of the International Network of Nuclear Structure and Decay Data Evaluators at the IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, 23 to 27 March 2009. This meeting was attended by 22 scientists from 14 Member States, plus IAEA staff, concerned with the compilation, evaluation and dissemination of nuclear structure and decay data. A summary of the meeting, recommendations/conclusions, data centre reports, and various proposals considered, modified and agreed by the participants are contained within this document. The International Network of Nuclear Structure and Decay Data (NSDD) Evaluators holds biennial meetings under the auspices of the IAEA, and consists of evaluation groups and data service centres in several countries. This network has the objective of providing up-to-date nuclear structure and decay data for all known nuclides by evaluating all existing experimental data. Data resulting from this international evaluation collaboration is included in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) and published in the journals Nuclear Physics A and Nuclear Data Sheets (NDS).

  12. Preliminary Evaluation of a Field and Non-Field Based Social Studies Preservice Teacher Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, John D.; Vansickle, Ronald L.

    1978-01-01

    Comparison of pre-service social studies teachers in field and non-field based methods courses indicated no significant differences with regard to teaching skills, attitudes, or behaviors teachers should exhibit in the classroom. (Author/DB)

  13. RIDER executive summaryA_071306

    Cancer.gov

    RIDER Database Resource: Plans for a Public-Private Partnership Executive Summary 7-13-06 1. Executive Summary: The Reference Image Database to Evaluate Response (RIDER) to therapy in lung cancer began as a highly leveraged and collaborative

  14. FIELD EVALUATION OF A UTILITY DRY SCRUBBING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of the first independent evaluation of a full-scale utility spray-dryer/baghouse dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. The system treats flue gas from a nominal 100 MW of coal-fired power generation. The test program, conducted during July-October 19...

  15. Comparison and Evaluation of Laboratory and Field Measured Bioaccumulation Endpoints

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of bioaccumulation endpoints on a fugacity basis allows provides a framework to assess the biomagnification potential of a chemical and assess data deficiencies, i.e., uncertainties and lack of data. In addition, it is suggested that additional guidance is needed in o...

  16. COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION OF A FIELD TEST KIT FOR LEAD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Hach Lead-Trak(R) test kit for lead in water was tested in a laboratory evaluation. onsidered were: perator bias, precision, accuracy, linear calibration range, and potential drinking water interferences. nterferences tested were realistic levels off: a, Mg, Ni, Sb, Mn, Cd, C...

  17. Botulinum toxin field assays evaluated using cosmetic botox preparations.

    PubMed

    Slotved, Hans-Christian; Tanassi, Julia Tanas; Sparding, Nadja; Lindqvist, Anja; Steenhard, Nina R; Heegaard, Niels H H

    2013-12-01

    Several quick tests for identifying botulinum toxins (BoNTs) are commercially available, but generally these tests have not been evaluated by independent laboratories. This study presents data on the evaluation of a number of commercial tests and demonstrates the use of cosmetic preparations of BoNT A and B as positive controls. For reference we used an in-house ELISA procedure. The cosmetic toxins, Botox(®) and Neurobloc(®), were found to be useful-that is, they had a sufficiently high toxin content to be used in test evaluation studies. Some commercial kits based on columns (ABICAP(®)) or lateral flow technology were tested for their detection limits. The ABICAP column system was found to be a useful alternative to an in-house ELISA method. In general, the lateral flow-based test systems evaluated here were not able to detect BoNT, and a large proportion of the tests showed construction failures. In conclusion, this study showed that cosmetic BoNT products have enough toxin content to be used as convenient and accessible means of testing commercially available quick tests. The lateral flow tests used in this study were not satisfactory, while the ABICAP system was found to be a good alternative to an ELISA. PMID:24219493

  18. Field Evaluation of an Avian Risk Assessment Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted two laboratory subacute dietary toxicity tests and one outdoor subacute dietary toxicity test to determine the effectiveness of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's deterministic risk assessment model for evaluating the potential of adverse effects to birds in ...

  19. BIOREMEDIATION FIELD EVALUATION - HILL AIR FORCE BASE, UTAH

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1990, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the Bioremediation Field Initiative as part of its overall strategy to increase the use of bioremediation to treat hazardous wastes at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liabil- ity Act (C...

  20. Evaluation Report: Early Childhood Education Program, 1969 Field Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachia Educational Lab., Charleston, WV.

    Reported are findings from the first year's field test of the home-oriented Appalachia Educational Laboratory (AEL) Early Childhood Education Program for 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds. The program consists of a 30-minute daily television lesson, a weekly home visit by a paraprofessional, and group instruction once a week in a mobile classroom. The…

  1. FIELD ANALYTICAL SCREENING PROGRAM: PCP METHOD - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Field Analytical Screening Program (FASP) pentachlorophenol (PCP) method uses a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a megabore capillary column and flame ionization detector (FID) and electron capture detector (ECD) to identify and quantify PCP. The FASP PCP method is design...

  2. Hydrological Evaluation of Septic Disposal Field Design in Sloping Terrains

    E-print Network

    to the impermeable layer, and slope of the drain field are critical parameters to assess in the design and siting, perforated drainage pipes are used to distribute the septic tank effluent in the trenches either by way. "Hydraulic failure" happens when the water table inundates the disposal pipes or reaches the ground surface

  3. FIELD EVALUATION OF EVAPO-TRANSPIRATION (ET) CAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field study was conducted to assess the ability of landfill covers to control percolation into the waste. Performance of one conventional cover was compared to that of two evapotranspiration (ET) tree covers, using large (7 x 14 m) lined lysimeters at the Leon County Solid W...

  4. Statistical summary of the chemical quality of surface water in the Powder River coal basin, the Hanna coal field, and the Green River coal region, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    A summary of the chemical quality of surface water in the three principal coal-producing areas of Wyoming was intensified by the U.S. Geologic Survey during 1975-81, in response to interest spurred by a dramatic increase in surface mining of the areas. This statistical summary consists of descriptive statistics and regression analyses of data from 72 stations on streams in the Powder River coal basin, the Hanna coal field, and the Green River coal region of Wyoming. The mean dissolved-solids concentrations in streams ranged from 15 to 4,800 mg/L. Samples collected near mountainous areas or in the upstream reaches of perennial streams in the plains had the smallest concentrations of dissolved solids, and the predominant ions were calcium and bicarbonate. Samples from ephemeral, intermittent, and the downstream reaches of perennial streams in the plains contained relatively large dissolved-solids concentrations, and the predominant ions usually were sodium and sulfate. Regression models showed that the concentrations of dissolved solids, calcium, magnesium, sodium, alkalinity, sulfate, and chloride correlated well with specific-conductance values in many of the streams. (USGS)

  5. BOBCAT Personal Radiation Detector Field Test and Evaluation Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Hodge

    2008-03-01

    Following the success of the Anole test of portable detection system, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Domestic Nuclear Detection Office organized a test and evaluation campaign for personal radiation detectors (PRDs), also known as “Pagers.” This test, “Bobcat,” was conducted from July 17 to August 8, 2006, at the Nevada Test Site. The Bobcat test was designed to evaluate the performance of PRDs under various operational scenarios, such as pedestrian surveying, mobile surveying, cargo container screening, and pedestrian chokepoint monitoring. Under these testing scenarios, many operational characteristics of the PRDs, such as gamma and neutron sensitivities, positive detection and false alarm rates, response delay times, minimum detectable activities, and source localization errors, were analyzed. This paper will present the design, execution, and methodologies used to test this equipment for the DHS.

  6. Personal Radiation Detector Field Test and Evaluation Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Chris A. Hodge, Ding Yuan, Raymond P. Keegan, Michael A. Krstich

    2007-07-09

    Following the success of the Anole test of portable detection system, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Domestic Nuclear Detection Office organized a test and evaluation campaign for personal radiation detectors (PRDs), also known as 'Pagers'. This test, 'Bobcat', was conducted from July 17 to August 8, 2006, at the Nevada Test Site. The Bobcat test was designed to evaluate the performance of PRDs under various operational scenarios, such as pedestrian surveying, mobile surveying, cargo container screening, and pedestrian chokepoint monitoring. Under these testing scenarios, many operational characteristics of the PRDs, such as gamma and neutron sensitivities, positive detection and false alarm rates, response delay times, minimum detectable activities, and source localization errors, were analyzed. This paper will present the design, execution, and methodologies used to test this equipment for the DHS.

  7. Forest health monitoring: 1991 Georgia indicator evaluation and field study

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, S.A.; Baldwin, M.; Bechtold, W.A.; Cassell, D.L.; Cline, S.

    1994-03-01

    The pilot study was designed to test methods for quantifying vegetation structure, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), dendrochronology, and selected root fungi. Testing the methods included comparing different data collection procedures for individual indicators, estimating sampling efficiency (both of the sampling design and the sampling unit design), and evaluating spatial variability. In addition, the accuracy and precision of tree height instruments were determined as part of the pilot study.

  8. Evaluation in context: ATC automation in the field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harwood, Kelly; Sanford, Beverly

    1994-01-01

    The process for incorporating advanced technologies into complex aviation systems is as important as the final product itself. This paper described a process that is currently being applied to the development and assessment of an advanced ATC automation system, CTAS. The key element of the process is field exposure early in the system development cycle. The process deviates from current established practices of system development -- where field testing is an implementation endpoint -- and has been deemed necessary by the FAA for streamlining development and bringing system functions to a level of stability and usefulness. Methods and approaches for field assessment are borrowed from human factors engineering, cognitive engineering, and usability engineering and are tailored for the constraints of an operational ATC environment. To date, the focus has been on the qualitative assessment of the match between TMA capabilities and the context for their use. Capturing the users' experience with the automation tool and understanding tool use in the context of the operational environment is important, not only for developing a tool that is an effective problem-solving instrument but also for defining meaningful operational requirements. Such requirements form the basis for certifying the safety and efficiency of the system. CTAS is the first U.S. advanced ATC automation system of its scope and complexity to undergo this field development and assessment process. With the rapid advances in aviation technologies and our limited understanding of their impact on system performance, it is time we opened our eyes to new possibilities for developing, validating, and ultimately certifying complex aviation systems.

  9. Development of a Visual Inspection Checklist for Evaluation of Fielded PV Module Condition (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Packard, C. E; Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-03-01

    A visual inspection checklist for the evaluation of fielded photovoltaic (PV) modules has been developed to facilitate collection of data describing the field performance of PV modules. The proposed inspection checklist consists of 14 sections, each documenting the appearance or properties of a part of the module. This tool has been evaluated through the inspection of over 60 PV modules produced by more than 20 manufacturers and fielded at two different sites for varying periods of time. Aggregated data from a single data collection tool such as this checklist has the potential to enable longitudinal studies of module condition over time, technology evolution, and field location for the enhancement of module reliability models.

  10. Summary and review of Materials Special Investigation Group evaluations of hardware from the Long Duration Exposure Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Ann F.; Funk, Joan; Pippin, H. Gary; Dursch, Harry

    1995-01-01

    Major materials findings obtained during LDEF post-flight investigations over the past three and one-half years are reported. The summary of findings to date includes results for thermal control coatings, thin polymeric films, composites, metals, adhesives, contamination, and environments definitions. Reaction rates of selected materials exposed to atomic oxygen are presented. Results useful for model verification and comparison with ground based facility data are specifically highlighted. Potential areas for future work are described. In conclusion, a rationale for a second long term flight experiment is presented.

  11. summary99

    Cancer.gov

    Summary - 1999 NCI-Industry Meeting Comments MEETING SUMMARY NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE-INDUSTRY FORUM AND WORKSHOP ON BIOMEDICAL IMAGING IN ONCOLOGY September 1-2, 1999 Washington, D.C. The first National Cancer Institute (NCI)-Industry Forum and

  12. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents summaries of three articles relevant to school crisis response: (1) "Factors Contributing to Posttraumatic Growth," summarized by Steve DeBlois; (2) "Psychological Debriefing in Cross-Cultural Contexts" (Stacey Rice); and (3) "Brain Abnormalities in PTSD" (Sunny Windingstad). The first summary reports the findings of a…

  13. Field evaluation of a multicomponent solute transport model in soils irrigated with saline waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, T. B.; Šim?nek, J.; Gonçalves, M. C.; Martins, J. C.; Prazeres, A.; Castanheira, N. L.; Pereira, L. S.

    2011-09-01

    SummarySoil salinization, sodification, and non-point source pollution are among the most important and widespread environmental problems in agricultural regions with scarce water resources. Models evaluating these environmental problems should therefore consider an integrated approach to avoid favoring one problem over the other. The HYDRUS-1D software package was used to simulate water movement and solute transport in two complex experiments carried out under field conditions in Alvalade and Mitra, Portugal. The experiments involved irrigating maize with synthetic saline irrigation waters blended with fresh irrigation waters and waters with different nitrogen concentrations. The major ion chemistry module of HYDRUS-1D was used to model water contents (RMSE ? 0.04 cm 3 cm -3), the overall salinity given by the electrical conductivity of the soil solution ( EC sw) (RMSE ? 2.35 dS m -1), the concentration of soluble cations Na + (RMSE ? 13.86 mmol (c) L -1), Ca 2+ (RMSE ? 5.66 mmol (c) L -1), Mg 2+ (RMSE ? 4.16 mmol (c) L -1), and SAR (RMSE ? 6.27 (mmol (c) L -1) 0.5) in different experimental plots. RMSE were always lower for the soil with coarse texture of Mitra. The standard HYDRUS solute transport module was used to model N- NH4+ (RMSE ? 0.07 mmol (c) L -1) and N- NO3- (RMSE ? 2.60 mmol (c) L -1) concentrations in the soil solution while either including or neglecting the effects of the osmotic stress on nutrient uptake. The model was able to successfully simulate root water and nutrient uptake reductions due to osmotic stress. Consequently, modeled fluxes of N- NH4+ and N- NO3- leached from the soil profiles increased due to the effects of the salinity stress on water and nutrient uptake. Possible causes of disagreements between the modeling and experimental data are discussed. HYDRUS-1D proved to be a powerful tool for analyzing solute concentrations related to overall soil salinity and nitrogen species.

  14. Preliminary field evaluation of high efficiency steel filters

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, W.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R.; Wilson, K.; Simon, K.; Frye, L.

    1994-11-01

    The authors have conducted an evaluation of two high efficiency steel filters in the exhaust of an uranium oxide grit blaster at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge Tennessee. The filters were installed in a specially designed filter housing with a reverse air-pulse cleaning system for automatically cleaning the filters in-place. Previous tests conducted on the same filters and housing at LLNL under controlled conditions using Arizona road dust showed good cleanability with reverse air pulses. Two high efficiency steel filters, containing 64 pleated cartridge elements housed in the standard 2{prime} x 2{prime} {times} l{prime} HEPA frame, were evaluated in the filter test housing using a 1,000 cfm slip stream containing a high concentration of depleted uranium oxide dust. One filter had the pleated cartridges manufactured to the authors specifications by the Pall Corporation and the other by Memtec Corporation. Test results showed both filters had a rapid increase in pressure drop with time, and reverse air pulses could not decrease the pressure drop. The authors suspected moisture accumulation in the filters was the problem since there were heavy rains during the evaluations, and the pressure drop of the Memtec filter decreased dramatically after passing clean, dry air through the filter and after the filter sat idle for one week. Subsequent laboratory tests on a single filter cartridge confirmed that water accumulation in the filter was responsible for the increase in filter pressure drop and the inability to lower the pressure drop by reverse air pulses. No effort was made to identify the source of the water accumulation and correct the problem because the available funds were exhausted.

  15. Laboratory and field evaluation of broiler litter nitrogen mineralization.

    PubMed

    Sistani, K R; Adeli, A; McGowen, S L; Tewolde, H; Brink, G E

    2008-05-01

    Two studies were conducted for this research. First, a laboratory incubation to quantify broiler litter N mineralization with the following treatments: two soil moisture regimes, constant at 60% water fill pore space (WFPS) and fluctuating (60-30% WFPS), three soil types, Brooksville silty clay loam, Ruston sandy loam from Mississippi, and Catlin silt loam from Illinois. Second, a field incubation study to quantify broiler litter N mineralization using similar soils and litter application rates as the laboratory incubation. Broiler litter was applied at an equivalent rate of 350 kg total N ha(-1) for both studies except for control treatments. Subsamples were taken at different timing for both experiments for NO3-N and NH4-N determinations. In the laboratory experiment, soil moisture regimes had no significant impact on litter-derived inorganic N. Total litter-derived inorganic N across all treatments increased from 23 mg kg(-1) at time 0, to 159 mg kg(-1) at 93 d after litter application. Significant differences were observed among the soil types. Net litter-derived inorganic N was greater for Brooksville followed by Ruston and Catlin soils. For both studies and all soils, NH4-N content decreased while NO3-N content increased indicating a rapid nitrification of the mineralized litter N. Litter mineralization in the field study followed the same trend as the laboratory study but resulted in much lower net inorganic N, presumably due to environmental conditions such as precipitation and temperature, which may have resulted in more denitrification and immobilization of mineralized litter N. Litter-derived inorganic N from the field study was greater for Ruston than Brooksville. Due to no impact by soil moisture regimes, additional studies are warranted in order to develop predictive relationships to quantify broiler litter N availability. PMID:17604161

  16. Evaluation of Spray Drift from Tea Field during Pesticides Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumikawa, Osamu; Miyama, Daisuke; Araki, Takuya

    Spray drift from tea field was measured by using water-sensitive papers(WSP). 1)Automated thresholding by "ImageJ", which is an open architecture image analysis program, was able to apply for extracting deposits on WSP. In order to analyze spot size of deposits and percent area coverage on WSP, the command of analyze particle was used. However, the stain area obtained by automated thresholding was larger than one by optimal threshold. The correction factor was 0.7411. 2)Although the spraying method and the nozzle type were different, 99% of the number of droplets was less than 200?m in the diameter and 80% was less than 125?m. 3)Among all nozzle treatments by manual spraying and by a riding type boom sprayer,bigger droplet size nozzles decreased drift, but there was no difference in droplet density on tea leaves. 4)Hydraulic application by a riding type boom sprayer was less spray drift than manual spraying, because a riding type boom sprayer can keep the distance from tea hedge canopy to a boom nozzle shorter than manual spraying. 5)Although the anti-drift cover for a riding type boom sprayer reduced drift when smallerdroplet size nozzle was used, bigger droplet size nozzle was recommended to use for avoiding drift risk. 6)Since the distance from tea hedge canopy to a boom nozzle can be short, the drift value (total droplet volume par unit area / sprayed volume par unit area) obtained in tea field was only 1/10 of the data reported by drift assessment in vegetable field.

  17. COMPARISON AND EVALUATION OF FIELD AND LABORATORY TOXICITY TESTS WITH FENVALERATE ON AN ESTUARINE CRUSTACEAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A combination of laboratory toxicity tests was conducted on the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio. est results were compared with field toxicity tests to evaluate the usefulness of laboratory testing in estimating mortality from fenvalerate exposure associated with agricultural ru...

  18. Evaluation of WRF mesoscale simulations and particle trajectory analysis for the MILAGRO field campaign

    E-print Network

    de Foy, B.

    Accurate numerical simulations of the complex wind flows in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) can be an invaluable tool for interpreting the MILAGRO field campaign results. This paper uses three methods to evaluate ...

  19. CAPSULE REPORT: DISPOSAL OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION WASTES: SHAWNEE FIELD EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This capsule report describes activities and results of the Shawnee FGD Field Disposal Evaluation Project, located near Paducah, KY. valuated in this report are FGD wastes that were either chemically treated, left untreated, or force-oxidized to gypsum.

  20. Evaluation of field development plans using 3-D reservoir modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Seifert, D.; Lewis, J.J.M.; Newbery, J.D.H.

    1997-08-01

    Three-dimensional reservoir modelling has become an accepted tool in reservoir description and is used for various purposes, such as reservoir performance prediction or integration and visualisation of data. In this case study, a small Northern North Sea turbiditic reservoir was to be developed with a line drive strategy utilising a series of horizontal producer and injector pairs, oriented north-south. This development plan was to be evaluated and the expected outcome of the wells was to be assessed and risked. Detailed analyses of core, well log and analogue data has led to the development of two geological {open_quotes}end member{close_quotes} scenarios. Both scenarios have been stochastically modelled using the Sequential Indicator Simulation method. The resulting equiprobable realisations have been subjected to detailed statistical well placement optimisation techniques. Based upon bivariate statistical evaluation of more than 1000 numerical well trajectories for each of the two scenarios, it was found that the wells inclinations and lengths had a great impact on the wells success, whereas the azimuth was found to have only a minor impact. After integration of the above results, the actual well paths were redesigned to meet external drilling constraints, resulting in substantial reductions in drilling time and costs.

  1. Demonstration and Field Evaluation of Streambank Stabilization with Submerged Vanes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, H.; Hoopes, J.; Poggi, D.; Fitzpatrick, F.; Walz, K.

    2001-01-01

    The effectiveness of submerged vanes for reducing bank erosion and improving aquatic habitat is being evaluated at a site on North Fish Creek, a Lake Superior tributary. Increased runoff from agricultural areas with clayey soils has increased flood magnitudes and the erosion potential/transport capacity of the stream. Most of the creek's sediment load originates from the erosion of 17 large bluffs. This creek contains important recreational fisheries that are potentially limited by the loss of aquatic habitat from deposition of sediment on spawning beds. Submerged vanes are a cost effective and environmentally less intrusive alternative to traditional structural stabilization measures. Submerged vanes protrude from a channel bed, are oriented at an angle to the local velocity, and are distributed along a portion of channel. They induce a transverse force and torque on the flow along with longitudinal vortexes that alter the cross sectional shape and alignment of the channel. Submerged vanes were installed at a bluff/bend site in summer and fall 2000. The number, size, and layout of the vanes were based upon the channel morphology under estimated bankfull conditions. The effectiveness of the vanes will be evaluated by comparing surveys of the bluff face, streamflow, and channel conditions for several years after installation of the submerged vanes with surveys before and immediately after their installation.

  2. Evaluation of nonuniform field exposures with coupling factors.

    PubMed

    Sunohara, Tetsu; Hirata, Akimasa; Laakso, Ilkka; De Santis, Valerio; Onishi, Teruo

    2015-10-21

    In this study, the safety compliance for nonuniform field exposures is discussed using coupling factor concepts. The coupling factor, which is defined in the International Electrotechnical Commission 62311 standard, is extended to consider the effects of harmonics and also to apply to the specific absorption rate (for frequencies up to 30 MHz). The proposed compliance procedure is applied to and demonstrated for a prototype wireless power transfer (WPT) system with induction coupling operating at the fundamental frequency in 140?kHz band. First, measurements confirm that the perturbation of the external magnetic field strength and S11 parameter of a one-loop antenna by a human-equivalent phantom are sufficiently small, suggesting the applicability of the magneto-quasi-static approximation to frequencies up to 30 MHz. Then, the frequency characteristics of the coupling factor are derived for the WPT system. For the prototype system that is not optimized for commercial usage, the maximum allowable transmitting power is relaxed by a factor of 23 with the proposed procedure. The contribution of the harmonics decreased the allowable transmitting power by 39%, indicating their importance for safety compliance. PMID:26439390

  3. Evaluation of nonuniform field exposures with coupling factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunohara, Tetsu; Hirata, Akimasa; Laakso, Ilkka; De Santis, Valerio; Onishi, Teruo

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the safety compliance for nonuniform field exposures is discussed using coupling factor concepts. The coupling factor, which is defined in the International Electrotechnical Commission 62311 standard, is extended to consider the effects of harmonics and also to apply to the specific absorption rate (for frequencies up to 30 MHz). The proposed compliance procedure is applied to and demonstrated for a prototype wireless power transfer (WPT) system with induction coupling operating at the fundamental frequency in 140?kHz band. First, measurements confirm that the perturbation of the external magnetic field strength and S11 parameter of a one-loop antenna by a human-equivalent phantom are sufficiently small, suggesting the applicability of the magneto-quasi-static approximation to frequencies up to 30 MHz. Then, the frequency characteristics of the coupling factor are derived for the WPT system. For the prototype system that is not optimized for commercial usage, the maximum allowable transmitting power is relaxed by a factor of 23 with the proposed procedure. The contribution of the harmonics decreased the allowable transmitting power by 39%, indicating their importance for safety compliance.

  4. Evaluation of Occupational Cold Environments: Field Measurements and Subjective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    OLIVEIRA, A. Virgílio M.; GASPAR, Adélio R.; RAIMUNDO, António M.; QUINTELA, Divo A.

    2014-01-01

    The present work is dedicated to the study of occupational cold environments in food distribution industrial units. Field measurements and a subjective assessment based on an individual questionnaire were considered. The survey was carried out in 5 Portuguese companies. The field measurements include 26 workplaces, while a sample of 160 responses was considered for the subjective assessment. In order to characterize the level of cold exposure, the Required Clothing Insulation Index (IREQ) was adopted. The IREQ index highlights that in the majority of the workplaces the clothing ensembles worn are inadequate, namely in the freezing chambers where the protection provided by clothing is always insufficient. The questionnaires results show that the food distribution sector is characterized by a female population (70.6%), by a young work force (60.7% are less than 35?yr old) and by a population with a medium-length professional career (80.1% in this occupation for less than 10?yr). The incidence of health effects which is higher among women, the distribution of protective clothing (50.0% of the workers indicate one garment) and the significant percentage of workers (>75%) that has more difficulties in performing the activity during the winter represent other important results of the present study. PMID:24583510

  5. Value-Added Estimates for Phase 1 of the Pennsylvania Teacher and Principal Evaluation Pilot. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipscomb, Stephen; Chiang, Hanley; Gill, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania plans to develop a new statewide evaluation system for teachers and principals in its public schools by school year 2013-2014. To inform the development of this evaluation system, the Team Pennsylvania Foundation (Team PA) undertook the first phase of the Pennsylvania Teacher and Principal Evaluation

  6. REDUCING CHILDREN'S RISK TO SOIL LEAD: SUMMARY OF A FIELD EXPERIMENT TO REDUCE SOIL LEAD BIOAVAILABILITY (ABSTRACT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reducing risks associated with Pb in soil has typically been accomplished by soil removal, covering, or dilution by mixing with uncontaminated soil. EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) and DuPont Corporation established a collaborative effort to evaluation...

  7. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY: THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MODELING OF MULTI-SPECIES TRANSPORT IN SOILS UNDER ELECTRIC FIELDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project investigated an innovative approach for transport of inorganic species under the influence of electric fields. This process, commonly known as electrokinetics uses low-level direct current (dc) electrical potential difference across a soil mass applied through inert...

  8. Evaluations of carbon nanotube field emitters for electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakahara, Hitoshi; Kusano, Yoshikazu; Kono, Takumi; Saito, Yahachi

    2009-11-01

    Brightness of carbon nanotube (CNT) emitters was already reported elsewhere. However, brightness of electron emitter is affected by a virtual source size of the emitter, which strongly depends on electron optical configuration around the emitter. In this work, I- V characteristics and brightness of a CNT emitter are measured under a practical field emission electron gun (e-gun) configuration to investigate availability of CNT for electron microscopy. As a result, it is obtained that an emission area of MWNT is smaller than its tip surface area, and the emission area corresponds to a five-membered-ring with 2nd nearest six-membered-rings on the MWNT cap surface. Reduced brightness of MWNT is measured as at least 2.6×109 A/m 2 sr V. It is concluded that even a thick MWNT has enough brightness under a practical e-gun electrode configuration and suitable for electron microscopy.

  9. Evaluation of membrane filter field monitors for microbiological air sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, N. D.; Oxborrow, G. S.; Puleo, J. R.; Herring, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    Due to area constraints encountered in assembly and testing areas of spacecraft, the membrane filter field monitor (MF) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration-accepted Reyniers slit air sampler were compared for recovery of airborne microbial contamination. The intramural air in a microbiological laboratory area and a clean room environment used for the assembly and testing of the Apollo spacecraft was studied. A significantly higher number of microorganisms was recovered by the Reyniers sampler. A high degree of consistency between the two sampling methods was shown by a regression analysis, with a correlation coefficient of 0.93. The MF samplers detected 79% of the concentration measured by the Reyniers slit samplers. The types of microorganisms identified from both sampling methods were similar.

  10. Subjective preference evaluation of sound fields by performing singers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noson, Dennis

    2003-08-01

    A model of the auditory process is proposed for performing singers, which incorporates the added signal from bone conduction, as well as the psychological distance for subjective preference of the performer from the acoustic sound field of the stage. The explanatory power of previous scientific studies of vocal stage acoustics has been limited by a lack of an underlying theory of performer preference. Ando's theory, using the autocorrelation function (ACF) for parametrizing temporal factors, was applied to interpretation of singer sound field preference determined by the pair comparison method. Melisma style singing (no lyrics) was shown to increase the preferred delay time of reflections from a mean of 14 ms with lyrics to 23 ms without (p<0.05). The extent of the shift in preferred time delay was shown to be directly related to minima of the effective duration of the running ACF, (?e)min, calculated from each singer's voice. Voice matching experiments for singers demonstrated a strong overestimate of the voice outside the head compared with the singer's own voice (22.4 dB overestimate, p<0.01). Individual singer melisma singing delay preferences were compared for ``ah'' versus ``hum'' syllables, and the increased delay preference (41 ms) was shown to be correlated with (?e)min (r2<0.68, p<0.01). When the proposed bone conduction model was applied, using the measured overestimate of sound level of the singer's own voice for each singer (9.9 dB mean overestimate difference between ``ah'' and ``hum,'' p<0.01), the relationship of singer preference to (?e)min was improved (r2=0.97, p<0.01). Thesis advisor: Yoichi Ando Copies of this thesis are available from the author by inquiry at BRC Acoustics, 1741 First Avenue South, Seattle, WA 98134 USA. E-mail address: dnoson@brcacoustics.com

  11. Conditionally funded field evaluations--a solution to the economic barriers limiting evidence generation in dialysis?

    PubMed

    Mendelssohn, David C; McFarlane, Phil

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of new therapies after licensing is usually a binary decision by payers; to fund or not to fund. In the real world, many therapies fall into a gray zone of incomplete evaluation. Many clinical and economic issues in nephrology have combined to create a long list of such promising but incompletely evaluated therapies. This article focuses on the economic challenges that limit evidence generation in nephrology. Conditionally funded field evaluations such as coverage with evidence development can allow both earlier access to new treatments and rigorous evaluation. The authors propose that field evaluations will stimulate an environment that promotes pivotal renal care advances. Certainly, the evidence challenge faced by nephrology requires urgent discussions on creating conditions that catalyze and accelerate innovation, and improve patient outcomes. PMID:21906167

  12. DISPOSAL OF FLUE GAS CLEANING WASTES: EPA SHAWNEE FIELD EVALUATION - THIRD ANNUAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes progress made on a field evaluation project being conducted by the EPA to assess techniques for disposing of power plant flue gas cleaning (FGC) wastes. The evaluation site is at TVA's Shawnee steam plant in Paducah, KY. Two prototype scrubbers, using lime an...

  13. Field evaluation of fungicides for control of Ascochyta blight of chickpea, 2006.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate foliar fungicides against Ascochyta bligt of chickpea caused by Ascochyta rabiei, field plots were set up at Pullman, WA and Genesee, ID. The fungicides evaluated were Bravo, Headline, Proline, Quadris opti, and Tanos. Disease pressure was higher at the Pullman location than the Genese...

  14. Design and Field Testing of a Systematic Procedure for Evaluating Vocational Programs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Public Schools, OR.

    The purpose of a project was to design and field-test a system for evaluating the adequacy of the vocational curriculum utilized by the Vocational Village, an alternative school for the training of individuals who have experienced failure in other educational settings. Focus was on the development of an evaluation model which will assess the…

  15. DISPOSAL OF FLUE GAS CLEANING WASTES: EPA SHAWNEE FIELD EVALUATION. SECOND ANNUAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes progress made during the first two years of a field evaluation of treated and untreated ponding techniques for the disposal of power plant flue gas desulfurization sludges. The evaluation used two 10 MW lime and limestone flue gas scrubbers of TVA's Shawnee P...

  16. FIELD-SCALE EVALUATION OF IN SITU COSOLVENT FLUSHING FOR ENCHANCED AQUIFER REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comprehensive, field-scale evaluation of in situ cosolvent flushing for enhanced remediation of nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL)-contaminated aquifers was performed in a hydraulically isolated test cell (about 4.3 m x 3.6 m) constructed at a field site at Hill Air Force Base, Uta...

  17. The Floating Lab Research Project: An Approach to Evaluating Field Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Michael J.

    This report explains an evaluative study of the conceptual and affective development of students associated with the Floating Lab Program, an experiential field project sponsored by the University of New Hampshire and the Maine Sea Grant Program. The field program involved an opportunity for students to have hands-on experiences aboard a 65-foot…

  18. Evaluation of One- and Two-Day Forestry Field Programs for Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Amy L.

    2004-01-01

    The methods and findings from a program evaluation of a forestry field visit for second grade students are detailed in this article. A pretest, posttest methodology was used to determine changes in students' (n = 133) attitudes and knowledge before and after the field experience(s). Interviews and surveys were conducted with students, teachers (n…

  19. A Field Training Model for Creative Arts Therapies: Report from a 3-Year Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orkibi, Hod

    2012-01-01

    Clinical field training is an essential component of educating future therapists. This article discusses a creative arts therapies field training model in Israel as designed and modified from 3 years of program evaluation in a changing regulatory context. A clinical seminar structure puts beginning students in the role of participant-observer in…

  20. Development and evaluation of a field-based high-throughput phenotyping platform

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physiological and developmental traits that vary over time are difficult to phenotype under relevant growing conditions. In response to this challenge, we developed a novel system for phenotyping dynamic traits in the field. System performance was evaluated on a field experiment of 25 Pima cotton cu...

  1. Effect of prior performance on subsequent performance evaluation by field independent-dependent raters.

    PubMed

    Sisco, Howard; Leventhal, Gloria

    2007-12-01

    The importance of accurate performance appraisals is central to many aspects of personnel activities in organizations. This study examined threats due to past performance to accuracy of evaluation of subsequent performance by raters differing in scores on field dependence. 162 college students were classified as Field-dependent (n = 81) or Field-independent (n = 81), using a median split on the Group Embedded Figures Test. Past performance (a lecture) was good or poor, presented directly via a videotape or indirectly via a written evaluation to the Field-independent or Field-dependent groups. Analysis indicated the hypothesized contrast effect (ratings in the opposite direction from that of prior ratings) in the Direct condition and an unexpected, albeit smaller, contrast effect in the Indirect condition. There were also differential effects of performance, presentation, and field dependency on rating of lecturer's style and ability. PMID:18229539

  2. Bear Creek Valley Floodplain hot spot removal early action characterization field data summary report, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This report summarizes the field and laboratory efforts as a result of the Bear Creek Floodplain Hot Spot Removal Project Early Action. The purpose of this project was to collect data necessary to assess contaminant levels in the Bear Creek Valley Floodplain and evaluate the risk posed by the sites. This report provides information on the background of the site, characterization of site and field activities, results of field and laboratory data collected, extent and distribution of contamination, and an assessment of the future risk posed by the site.

  3. 1986 Fertilizer Summary Data

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.T.; Hargett, N.L.

    1987-05-01

    ''Fertilizer Summary Data'' is published every two years as part of TVA's fertilizer research, development, and education program. It brings together historical fertilizer use and crop statistics, application rates, and farm income and expense data for market planning and evaluation. This edition summarizes US consumption (including Puerto Rico) of fertilizer and plant nutrients through the year ended June 30, 1986.

  4. Radiation Isotope Identification Device (RIIDs) Field Test and Evaluation Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Hodge, Raymond Keegan

    2007-08-01

    Handheld, backpack, and mobile sensors are elements of the Global Nuclear Detection System for the interdiction and control of illicit radiological and nuclear materials. They are used by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and other government agencies and organizations in various roles for border protection, law enforcement, and nonproliferation monitoring. In order to systematically document the operational performance of the common commercial off-the-shelf portable radiation detection systems, the DHS Domestic Nuclear Detection Office conducted a test and evaluation campaign conducted at the Nevada Test Site from January 18 to February 27, 2006. Named 'Anole', it was the first test of its kind in terms of technical design and test complexities. The Anole test results offer users information for selecting appropriate mission-specific portable radiation detection systems. The campaign also offered manufacturers the opportunity to submit their equipment for independent operationally relevant testing to subsequently improve their detector performance. This paper will present the design, execution, and methodologies of the DHS Anole portable radiation detection system test campaign.

  5. Difficulties in applying numerical simulations to an evaluation of occupational hazards caused by electromagnetic fields

    PubMed Central

    Zradzi?ski, Patryk

    2015-01-01

    Due to the various physical mechanisms of interaction between a worker's body and the electromagnetic field at various frequencies, the principles of numerical simulations have been discussed for three areas of worker exposure: to low frequency magnetic field, to low and intermediate frequency electric field and to radiofrequency electromagnetic field. This paper presents the identified difficulties in applying numerical simulations to evaluate physical estimators of direct and indirect effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields at various frequencies. Exposure of workers operating a plastic sealer have been taken as an example scenario of electromagnetic field exposure at the workplace for discussion of those difficulties in applying numerical simulations. The following difficulties in reliable numerical simulations of workers’ exposure to the electromagnetic field have been considered: workers’ body models (posture, dimensions, shape and grounding conditions), working environment models (objects most influencing electromagnetic field distribution) and an analysis of parameters for which exposure limitations are specified in international guidelines and standards. PMID:26323781

  6. Application of digital interferogram evaluation techniques to the measurement of 3-D flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Friedhelm; Yu, Yung H.

    1987-01-01

    A system for digitally evaluating interferograms, based on an image processing system connected to a host computer, was implemented. The system supports one- and two-dimensional interferogram evaluations. Interferograms are digitized, enhanced, and then segmented. The fringe coordinates are extracted, and the fringes are represented as polygonal data structures. Fringe numbering and fringe interpolation modules are implemented. The system supports editing and interactive features, as well as graphic visualization. An application of the system to the evaluation of double exposure interferograms from the transonic flow field around a helicopter blade and the reconstruction of the three dimensional flow field is given.

  7. A Summary of INEEL Calcine Properties Used to Evaluate Direct Calcine Disposal in the Yucca Mountain Repository

    SciTech Connect

    C. A. Dahl

    2003-07-01

    To support evaluations of the direct disposal of Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory calcines to the repository at Yucca Mountain, an evaluation of the performance of the calcine in the repository environment must be performed. This type of evaluation demonstrates, through computer modeling and analysis, the impact the calcine would have on the ability of the repository to perform its function of containment of materials during the repository lifetime. This report discusses parameters that were used in the scoping evaluation conducted in FY 2003. It provides nominal values for the parameters, with explanation of the source of the values, and how the values were modified for use in repository analysis activities.

  8. Development of a Characterized Radiation Field for Evaluating Sensor Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, D.M.; Coggins, T.L.; Marsh, J.; Mann, St.D.; Waggoner, Ch.A.

    2008-07-01

    Numerous efforts are funded by US agencies (DOE, DoD, DHS) for development of novel radiation sensing and measurement systems. An effort has been undertaken to develop a flexible shielding system compatible with a variety of sources (beta, X-ray, gamma, and neutron) that can be highly characterized using conventional radiation detection and measurement systems. Sources available for use in this system include americium-beryllium (AmBe), plutonium-beryllium (PuBe), strontium-90 (Sr-90), californium-252 (Cf-252), krypton-85 (Kr-85), americium-241 (Am-241), and depleted uranium (DU). Shielding can be varied by utilization of materials that include lexan, water, oil, lead, and polyethylene. Arrangements and geometries of source(s) and shielding can produce symmetrical or asymmetrical radiation fields. The system has been developed to facilitate accurately repeatable configurations. Measurement positions are similarly capable of being accurately re-created. Stand-off measurement positions can be accurately re-established using differential global positioning system (GPS) navigation. Instruments used to characterize individual measurement locations include a variety of sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) (3 x 3 inch, 4 x 4 x 16 inch, Fidler) and lithium iodide (LiI(Eu)) detectors (for use with multichannel analyzer software) and detectors for use with traditional hand held survey meters such as boron trifluoride (BF{sub 3}), helium-3 ({sup 3}He), and Geiger-Mueller (GM) tubes. Also available are Global Dosimetry thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), CR39 neutron chips, and film badges. Data will be presented comparing measurement techniques with shielding/source configurations. The system is demonstrated to provide a highly functional process for comparison/characterization of various detector types relative to controllable radiation types and levels. Particular attention has been paid to use of neutron sources and measurements. (authors)

  9. Evaluation of Cottonwood Creek field complex, Bighorn basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Inden, R.; Anderson, R.

    1986-08-01

    Most of the 83 million bbl of oil produced from Cottonwood Creek and associated fields (Worland, Rattlesnake, South Frisby) is from a suite of peritidal dolomite facies that were deposited in and on the flanks of an ancient estuarine system. Isopach and facies maps suggest that the Tensleep fault and related northwest-southeast-oriented basement fault blocks, controlled the formation of this estuary during Late Pennsylvanian/Early Permian time and the pattern of late Ervay deposition within the estuary. Upper Ervay pisolitic and algal-laminated units, along with intraclast grainstones, map as thick (40 to 90 ft), 1 to 2-mi wide and 2 to 5-mi long pods that represent a northwest-southeast peninsular system of islands. The thickest (i.e., central and highest) portions of these islands are made up of extensively altered pisolitic, brecciated units whose porosity systems were destroyed by aragonite and calcite cementation during periodically low sea level stands. The thinner margins of these island pods are made up of reservoir-quality peritidal fenestral fabric, algal-laminated units, and intraclast grainstones that were subjected to significantly less cementation because of less-frequent exposure. Permeability in these units may be enhanced by preferential fracturing because they were deposited along paleostructural zones of weakness. As a result of these depositional, diagenetic, and fracture patterns, cumulative production is commonly much higher (> 200,000 bbl/well) from the flank positions of these pods. Lagoonal dolomite mudstones and red-bed/evaporite sequences were deposited between and behind these islands, respectively, and form the major updip hydrocarbon seals.

  10. An evaluation of near-field host rock temperatures for a spent fuel repository

    SciTech Connect

    Altenhofen, M.K.; Lowery, P.S.

    1988-11-01

    A repository heat transfer analysis has been performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy's Performance Assessment Scientific Support Program. The objective of this study was to evaluate the near-field thermal environmental conditions for a spent fuel repository system. A spent fuel logistics analysis was performed using a waste management system simulation model, WASTES-II, to evaluate the thermal characteristics of spent fuel received at the repository. A repository-scale thermal analysis was performed using a finite difference heat transfer code, TEMPEST, to evaluate the near-field host rock temperature. The calculated temporal and spatial distributions of near-field host rock temperatures provide input to the repository source term model in evaluations of engineered barrier system performance. 9 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Field Summary Report for Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    L.C. Hulstrom

    2010-09-28

    This report documents field activity associated with the collection, preparation, and shipment of fish samples. The purpose of the report is to describe the sampling locations, identify samples collected, and describe any modifications and additions made to the sampling and analysis plan.

  12. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: SUMMARY REPORT ON THE FIELD INVESTIGATION OF THE SAPP BATTERY SITE JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This treatability study presents the results of field investigations at the Sapp Battery site in Florida, an abandoned battery recycling operation. The site is estimated to contain 14,300 cubic yards of soils with lead levels in excess of 1,000 ppm. The soils in the immediate v...

  13. Field Summary Report for Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Coumbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    L.C. Hulstrom

    2010-11-10

    This report summarizes field sampling activities conducted in support of WCH’s Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River. This work was conducted form 2008 through 2010. The work included preliminary mapping and measurement of Hanford Site contaminants in sediment, pore water, and surface water located in areas where groundwater upwelling were found.

  14. Field Summary Report for Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    L.C. Hulstrom

    2010-08-11

    This report summarizes field sampling activities conducted in support of WCH’s Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River. This work was conducted form 2008 through 2010. The work included preliminary mapping and measurement of Hanford Site contaminants in sediment, pore water, and surface water located in areas where groundwater upwelling were found.

  15. The Major Project in the Field of Education in the Latin American and Caribbean Region: Summary. Bulletin 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and Caribbean.

    This UNESCO bulletin includes reports that focus on diagnoses and strategies that ratify the validity of the goals set by the Major Project in the Field of Education in the Latin American and Caribbean Region. Four articles are featured: "Literacy, Human Rights and Democracy" (Jose Rivero H.); "Primary Schooling and Illiteracy in Latin America and…

  16. Electromagnetic Imaging Methods for Nondestructive Evaluation Applications

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yiming; Liu, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic nondestructive tests are important and widely used within the field of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The recent advances in sensing technology, hardware and software development dedicated to imaging and image processing, and material sciences have greatly expanded the application fields, sophisticated the systems design and made the potential of electromagnetic NDE imaging seemingly unlimited. This review provides a comprehensive summary of research works on electromagnetic imaging methods for NDE applications, followed by the summary and discussions on future directions. PMID:22247693

  17. Evaluation of the DC Opportunity Scholarship Program: Impacts after Two Years. Executive Summary. NCEE 2008-4024

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Patrick; Gutmann, Babette; Puma, Michael; Kisida, Brian; Rizzo, Lou; Eissa, Nada

    2008-01-01

    As part of the "District of Columbia School Choice Incentive Act of 2003" Congress mandated evaluation of this first federally funded, private school voucher program in the United States (now called the DC Opportunity Scholarship Program (OSP). This report presents findings from the evaluation on the impacts 2 years after families who applied were…

  18. Accountability Study of the Program for Trainable Mentally Retarded Children and Youth. Summary Evaluation Report 1971-72.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duval County School Board, Jacksonville, FL.

    Summarized are evaluation activities and results for the first year of an accountability study for trainable mentally retarded (TMR) children and youth carried out by the Duval County School Board of Jacksonville, Florida. It is explained that the evaluation design included the construction and implementation of criterion measures, statistical…

  19. Evaluation of the Texas Technology Immersion Pilot: An Analysis of Second-Year (2005-06) Implementation. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Center for Educational Research, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Technology Immersion Pilot (TIP), a project sponsored by the Texas Education Agency (TEA), leverages federal Title II, Part D funds to support a wireless learning environment for high-need middle schools. A concurrent research project funded by a federal Evaluating State Educational Technology Programs grant is evaluating whether student…

  20. Report of a European Society of Cardiology-European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions task force on the evaluation of coronary stents in Europe: executive summary.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Robert A; Serruys, Patrick W; Baumbach, Andreas; Escaned, Javier; Fajadet, Jean; James, Stefan; Joner, Michael; Oktay, Semih; Jüni, Peter; Kastrati, Adnan; Sianos, George; Stefanini, Giulio G; Wijns, William; Windecker, Stephan

    2015-10-01

    The evaluation for European Union market approval of coronary stents falls under the Medical Device Directive that was adopted in 1993. Specific requirements for the assessment of coronary stents are laid out in supplementary advisory documents. In response to a call by the European Commission to make recommendations for a revision of the advisory document on the evaluation of coronary stents (Appendix?1 of MEDDEV 2.7.1), the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI) established a Task Force to develop an expert advisory report. As basis for its report, the ESC-EAPCI Task Force reviewed existing processes, established a comprehensive list of all coronary drug-eluting stents that have received a CE mark to date, and undertook a systematic review of the literature of all published randomized clinical trials evaluating clinical and angiographic outcomes of coronary artery stents between 2002 and 2013. Based on these data, the TF provided recommendations to inform a new regulatory process for coronary stents. The main recommendations of the task force include implementation of a standardized non-clinical assessment of stents and a novel clinical evaluation pathway for market approval. The two-stage clinical evaluation plan includes recommendation for an initial pre-market trial with objective performance criteria (OPC) benchmarking using invasive imaging follow-up leading to conditional CE-mark approval and a subsequent mandatory, large-scale randomized trial with clinical endpoint evaluation leading to unconditional CE-mark. The data analysis from the systematic review of the Task Force may provide a basis for determination of OPC for use in future studies. This paper represents an executive summary of the Task Force's report. PMID:26071600

  1. 1984 Fertilizer summary data

    SciTech Connect

    Hargett, N.L.; Berry, J.T.

    1985-06-01

    ''Fertilizer Summary Data'' is published every two years as part of TVA's fertilizer research, development, and education program. It brings together historical fertilizer use and crop statistics, application rates, and farm income and expense data for use in production planning and market evaluation. This edition summarizes US consumption (including Puerto Rico) of fertilizer and plant nutrients through the year ended June 30, 1984. It also includes TVA distribution of fertilizer materials in the industry demonstration program for 1981 through 1984. The summaries are presented for regions of USA.

  2. Reservoir analysis study, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills Field, Kern County, California: Phase 2 report, Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    The Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills) is located in Kern County, California, and is jointly owned by the US Department of Energy and Chevron USA Inc. The Elk Hills Field is presently producing oil and gas from five geologic zones. These zones contain a number of separate and geologically complex reservoirs. Considerable field development and production of oil and gas have occurred since initial estimates of reserves were made. Total cumulative field production through December 1987 is 850 MMBbls of oil, 1.2 Tcf of gas and 648.2 MMBbls of water. In December 1987, field producing rates expressed on a calendar day basis amounted to 110,364 BOPD, 350,946 Mcfd and 230,179 BWPD from 1157 producers. In addition, a total of two reservoirs have gas injection in progress and four reservoirs have water injection in progress and four reservoirs have water injection in progress. Cumulative gas and water injection amounted to 586 Bcf of gas and 330 MMB of water. December 1987 gas and water injection rates amounted to 174 MMcfd and 234 MBWPD, into 129 injectors. In addition, a steamflood pilot program is currently active in the Eastern Shallow Oil Zone. Jerry R. Bergeson and Associates, Inc. (Bergeson) has completed Phase II of the Reservoir Analysis, Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 1, Elk Hills Oilfield, California. The objectives for this phase of the study included the establishment of revised estimates of the original oil and gas-in-place for each of the zones/reservoirs, estimation of the remaining proved developed, proved undeveloped, probable and possible reserves, and assessment of the effects of historical development and production operations and practices on recoverable reserves. 28 figs., 37 tabs.

  3. Field evaluation of fog dispersal tests at Elmira, NY: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, C.W.; Wattle, B.J.; Mack, E.J.

    1987-06-01

    Calspan Corp., under contract to Energy Innovations, Inc., assisted in tests of the EGD Fog Precipiation System at Elmira/Corning Regional Airport in New York during the summer/fall fog season of 1986 by conducting an independent, objective evaluation of the EGD System during these tests. Specifically, Calspan's role was to: Establish and maintain a network of ground-based visibility monitors and supporting meteorological instrumentation for measuring fog characteristics during EGD System tests at Elmira; provide weather forecasts of the potential for fog at Elmira during the summer-fall fog season; analyze visibility and surface wind velocity measurements to determine the efficacy of the EGD system in producing visibility improvement during dispersal tests; and provide a final independent summary report documenting experiment protocol and the results of Calspan's analyses. 2 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Evaluation of the Magnetic Fields and Mutual Inductance between Circular Coils Arbitrarily Positioned in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anele, A. O.; Hamam, Y.; Chassagne, L.; Linares, J.; Alayli, Y.; Djouani, K.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the evaluation of the magnetic fields and mutual inductance between circular coils arbitrarily positioned in space. Firstly, based on an advanced and relevant model available in the literature, MATLAB code is implemented to evaluate the mutual inductance between circular coils arbitrarily positioned with respect to each other. The computed results are compared with the numerical results previously published in the literature and a detailed clarification regarding the huge computational errors made are presented. In the second part, a complex and relevant model available in the literature for evaluating the magnetic fields due to a circular coil is presented. Based on the useful information, the model for computing the magnetic fields between two circular coils is formulated. The computed results are validated with experimental measurements. The comparison of the results shows that the developed model and the experimental measurements conducted are accurate and effective.

  5. Evaluation of models proposed for the 1991 revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peddie, N.W.

    1992-01-01

    The 1991 revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) comprises a definitive main-field model for 1985.0, a main-field model for 1990.0, and a forecast secular-variation model for the period 1990-1995. The five 1985.0 main-field models and five 1990.0 main-field models that were proposed have been evaluated by comparing them with one another, with magnetic observatory data, and with Project MAGNET aerial survey data. The comparisons indicate that the main-field models proposed by IZMIRAN, and the secular-variation model proposed jointly by the British Geological Survey and the US Naval Oceanographic Office, should be assigned relatively lower weight in the derivation of the new IGRF models. -Author

  6. Rice and cold stress: methods for its evaluation and summary of cold tolerance-related quantitative trait loci

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cold stress adversely affects rice (Oryza sativa L.) growth and productivity, and has so far determined its geographical distribution. Dissecting cold stress-mediated physiological changes and understanding their genetic causes will facilitate the breeding of rice for cold tolerance. Here, we review recent progress in research on cold stress-mediated physiological traits and metabolites, and indicate their roles in the cold-response network and cold-tolerance evaluation. We also discuss criteria for evaluating cold tolerance and evaluate the scope and shortcomings of each application. Moreover, we summarize research on quantitative trait loci (QTL) related to cold stress at the germination, seedling, and reproductive stages that should provide useful information to accelerate progress in breeding cold-tolerant rice. PMID:25279026

  7. The Nanomaterial Data Curation Initiative: A collaborative approach to assessing, evaluating, and advancing the state of the field

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Christina M; Hoover, Mark D; Harper, Stacey L

    2015-01-01

    Summary The Nanomaterial Data Curation Initiative (NDCI), a project of the National Cancer Informatics Program Nanotechnology Working Group (NCIP NanoWG), explores the critical aspect of data curation within the development of informatics approaches to understanding nanomaterial behavior. Data repositories and tools for integrating and interrogating complex nanomaterial datasets are gaining widespread interest, with multiple projects now appearing in the US and the EU. Even in these early stages of development, a single common aspect shared across all nanoinformatics resources is that data must be curated into them. Through exploration of sub-topics related to all activities necessary to enable, execute, and improve the curation process, the NDCI will provide a substantive analysis of nanomaterial data curation itself, as well as a platform for multiple other important discussions to advance the field of nanoinformatics. This article outlines the NDCI project and lays the foundation for a series of papers on nanomaterial data curation. The NDCI purpose is to: 1) present and evaluate the current state of nanomaterial data curation across the field on multiple specific data curation topics, 2) propose ways to leverage and advance progress for both individual efforts and the nanomaterial data community as a whole, and 3) provide opportunities for similar publication series on the details of the interactive needs and workflows of data customers, data creators, and data analysts. Initial responses from stakeholder liaisons throughout the nanoinformatics community reveal a shared view that it will be critical to focus on integration of datasets with specific orientation toward the purposes for which the individual resources were created, as well as the purpose for integrating multiple resources. Early acknowledgement and undertaking of complex topics such as uncertainty, reproducibility, and interoperability is proposed as an important path to addressing key challenges within the nanomaterial community, such as reducing collateral negative impacts and decreasing the time from development to market for this new class of technologies. PMID:26425427

  8. Sudbury project (University of Muenster-Ontario Geological Survey): Field studies 1984-1989 - summary of results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bischoff, L.; Dressler, B. O.; Avermann, M. E.; Brockmeyer, P.; Lakomy, R.; Mueller-Mohr, V.

    1992-01-01

    In cooperation between the Ontario Geological Survey and the Institute of Geology and Institute of Planetology, geological, petrological, and geochemical studies were carried out on impact-related phenomena of the Sudbury structure during the last decade. The main results of the field studies are briefly reviewed. Footwall rocks, sublayer, and lower sections of the Sudbury Igneous Complex (SIC) were mainly mapped and sampled in the northern (Levack Township) and western (Trillabelle and Sultana Properties) parts of the north range. Within these mapping areas Sudbury Breccias (SB) and Footwall Breccias (FB) were studied; SB were also investigated along extended profiles beyond the north and south ranges up to 55 km from the SIC. The Onaping Formation (OF) and the upper section of the SIC were studied both in the north range (Morgan and Dowling Townships) and in the southern east range (Capreol and McLennan Townships).

  9. Protein release from yeast cells as an evaluation method of physical effects in ultrasonic field.

    PubMed

    Iida, Yasuo; Tuziuti, Toru; Yasui, Kyuichi; Kozuka, Teruyuki; Towata, Atsuya

    2008-09-01

    The release rate of intercellular protein from yeast cells by the ultrasonic action is proposed as a method for evaluating the physical (mechanical) effects of the ultrasonic field. The protein concentration was quantitatively determined using UV absorbance of proteins by spectrophotometry. The detail of the procedures, such as the effects of the origin of yeast cells, pretreatment of the cells, and the wavelengths for spectrophotometric determination of protein content, are examined. The effectiveness of the proposed evaluation method was experimentally demonstrated by changing the irradiation conditions of ultrasound, such as the concentration of yeast cells, temperature, ultrasound power, types of sonicator, and the superposition with the mechanical mixing. The results validate the usefulness of the proposed evaluation method for the quantification of the physical effects of ultrasound fields. Also, the range of cavitational effects of ultrasound sensed by the evaluation procedures were discussed. PMID:18424218

  10. Development of a Visual Inspection Data Collection Tool for Evaluation of Fielded PV Module Condition

    SciTech Connect

    Packard, C. E.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-08-01

    A visual inspection data collection tool for the evaluation of fielded photovoltaic (PV) modules has been developed to facilitate describing the condition of PV modules with regard to field performance. The proposed data collection tool consists of 14 sections, each documenting the appearance or properties of a part of the module. This report instructs on how to use the collection tool and defines each attribute to ensure reliable and valid data collection. This tool has been evaluated through the inspection of over 60 PV modules produced by more than 20 manufacturers and fielded at two different sites for varying periods of time. Aggregated data from such a single data collection tool has the potential to enable longitudinal studies of module condition over time, technology evolution, and field location for the enhancement of module reliability models.

  11. Field technology evaluations in EPA`s Environmental Technology Verification (ETC) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dindal, A.; Bayne, C.; Jenkins, R.; Carden, D.; Bottrell, D.; Billets, S.

    1998-01-01

    The performance evaluation of innovative environmental technologies is an integral part of the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) mission. The Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program was created by the Agency to facilitate the deployment of innovative technologies through performance verification and information dissemination. The goal of the ETV Program is to further environmental protection by substantially accelerating the acceptance and use of improved and cost-effective technologies by providing independent and credible assessments of environmental technologies. This report will overview ORNL`s verification activities, including evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyl field analytical techniques, decision support software, and field extraction technologies.

  12. Evaluation of Near Field Atmospheric Dispersion Around Nuclear Facilities Using a Lorentzian Distribution Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkley, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric dispersion modeling within the near field of a nuclear facility typically applies a building wake correction to the Gaussian plume model, whereby a point source is modeled as a plane source. The plane source results in greater near field dilution and reduces the far field effluent concentration. However, the correction does not account for the concentration profile within the near field. Receptors of interest, such as the maximally exposed individual, may exist within the near field and thus the realm of building wake effects. Furthermore, release parameters and displacement characteristics may be unknown, particularly during upset conditions. Therefore, emphasis is placed upon the need to analyze and estimate an enveloping concentration profile within the near field of a release. This investigation included the analysis of 64 air samples collected over 128 wk. Variables of importance were then derived from the measurement data, and a methodology was developed that allowed for the estimation of Lorentzian-based dispersion coefficients along the lateral axis of the near field recirculation cavity; the development of recirculation cavity boundaries; and conservative evaluation of the associated concentration profile. The results evaluated the effectiveness of the Lorentzian distribution methodology for estimating near field releases and emphasized the need to place air-monitoring stations appropriately for complete concentration characterization. Additionally, the importance of the sampling period and operational conditions were discussed to balance operational feedback and the reporting of public dose.

  13. Evaluation of near field atmospheric dispersion around nuclear facilities using a Lorentzian distribution methodology.

    PubMed

    Hawkley, Gavin

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric dispersion modeling within the near field of a nuclear facility typically applies a building wake correction to the Gaussian plume model, whereby a point source is modeled as a plane source. The plane source results in greater near field dilution and reduces the far field effluent concentration. However, the correction does not account for the concentration profile within the near field. Receptors of interest, such as the maximally exposed individual, may exist within the near field and thus the realm of building wake effects. Furthermore, release parameters and displacement characteristics may be unknown, particularly during upset conditions. Therefore, emphasis is placed upon the need to analyze and estimate an enveloping concentration profile within the near field of a release. This investigation included the analysis of 64 air samples collected over 128 wk. Variables of importance were then derived from the measurement data, and a methodology was developed that allowed for the estimation of Lorentzian-based dispersion coefficients along the lateral axis of the near field recirculation cavity; the development of recirculation cavity boundaries; and conservative evaluation of the associated concentration profile. The results evaluated the effectiveness of the Lorentzian distribution methodology for estimating near field releases and emphasized the need to place air-monitoring stations appropriately for complete concentration characterization. Additionally, the importance of the sampling period and operational conditions were discussed to balance operational feedback and the reporting of public dose. PMID:25353236

  14. Clinical evaluation of the effective use of magnetic fields in podology.

    PubMed

    Simoncini, L; Giuriati, L; Giannini, S

    2001-01-01

    The use of magnetic fields in medicine has obtained encouraging results and it has stimulated the research conducted so that the use of this method of treatment may be better and more widespread. A double blind study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the generation of magnetic fields on edema and on pain in patients submitted to surgery for bilateral hallux valgus. PMID:12025189

  15. A SUMMARY REPORT AND EVALUATION OF TITLE I, P.L. 89-10, PROJECTS, SCHOOL YEAR 1965-66.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IGE, PHILIP K.

    THIS EVALUATION REPORT OF HAWAII'S ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION ACT, TITLE I, ACTIVITIES PRESENTS INFORMATION ABOUT THE NUMBER OF PROJECTS, THE NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OF STUDENTS AND SCHOOLS COVERED BY TITLE I, AND THE ALLOCATIONS OF TITLE I FUNDS IN THE SEVEN SCHOOL DISTRICTS. IT ALSO DISCUSSES PERSONNEL, SERVICES, PROJECTS, EQUIPMENT, AND…

  16. Bilingual Education Talented Academy: Gifted and Talented, Project BETA, 1988-89. Evaluation Section Report [and] Executive Summary. OREA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berney, Tomi D.; Cantalupo, Denise

    This evaluation report describes the Bilingual Education Talented Academy--Gifted and Talented Project (Project BETA) in its first year of a 3-year Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title VII funding cycle. The project served 307 students of limited English proficiency in two Bronx (New York) high schools. The predominant native languages…

  17. How States Use Student Learning Objectives in Teacher Evaluation Systems: A Review of State Websites. Summary. REL 2014-013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacireno-Paquet, Natalie; Morgan, Claire; Mello, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the need to improve teaching and learning and by federal priorities reflected in requirements for grant programs such as Race to the Top and the Teacher Incentive Fund, many states are developing teacher evaluation systems that include measures of individual teachers' contributions to their students' learning growth. One way…

  18. Summary of the land-use inventory for the nonpoint-source evaluation monitoring watersheds in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wierl, J.A.; Rappold, K.F.; Amerson, F.U.

    1996-01-01

    In 1992, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a land-use inventory to identify sources of pollutants and track the land-management changes for eight evaluation monitoring watersheds established as part of the WDNR's Nonpoint Source Program. Each evaluation monitoring watershed is within a WDNR priority watershed. The U.S. Geological Survey is responsible for collection of water-quality data in the evaluation monitoring watersheds. An initial inventory was completed for each of the WDNR priority watersheds before nonpoint-source plans were developed for the control of nonpoint pollution. The land-use inventory described in this report expands upon the initial inventory by including nonpoint pollution sources that were not identified and also by updating changes in landuse and land-management practices. New sources of nonpoint pollution, not identified in the initial inventory, could prove to be important when monitored and modeled data are analyzed. This effort to inventory the evaluation monitoring watersheds will help with the interpretation of future land-use and water-quality data. This report describes landuse inventory methods, presents results of the inventory, and lists proposed future activities.

  19. A PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A VARIABLE SPEED, MIXED REFRIGERANT HEAT PUMP. SUMMARY. EPA/600/SR-92/053

    EPA Science Inventory

    The performance of an innovative heat pump, equipped with a distillation column to shift the composition of a zeotropic refrigerant mixture, was evaluated. The results of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) rating tests and seasonal energy calcuations are reported with the main cycl...

  20. User Evaluation: Summary of the Methodologies and Results for the Alexandria Digital Library, University of California at Santa Barbara.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Linda L.; Dolin, Ron; Frew, James; Kemp, Randall B.; Larsgaard, Mary; Montello, Daniel R.; Rae, Mary-Anna; Simpson, Jason

    1997-01-01

    The collection and services of the Alexandria Digital Library (ADL) at the University of California Santa Barbara focus on geospatial information sources with links to geographic locations. Evaluation studies conducted within the ADL project are described as well as what was learned about user characteristics and reactions to ADL. (Author/AEF)

  1. Field programmable gate arrays: Evaluation report for space-flight application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandoe, Mike; Davarpanah, Mike; Soliman, Kamal; Suszko, Steven; Mackey, Susan

    1992-01-01

    Field Programmable Gate Arrays commonly called FPGA's are the newer generation of field programmable devices and offer more flexibility in the logic modules they incorporate and in how they are interconnected. The flexibility, the number of logic building blocks available, and the high gate densities achievable are why users find FPGA's attractive. These attributes are important in reducing product development costs and shortening the development cycle. The aerospace community is interested in incorporating this new generation of field programmable technology in space applications. To this end, a consortium was formed to evaluate the quality, reliability, and radiation performance of FPGA's. This report presents the test results on FPGA parts provided by ACTEL Corporation.

  2. Summary of Almost 20 Years of Storm Overflight Electric Field, Conductivity, Flash Rates, and Electric Current Statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, Richard J.; Mach, Douglas M.; Bateman, Monte J.; Bailey, Jeffrey C.

    2011-01-01

    We determined total conduction currents and flash rates for around 900 high-altitude aircraft overflights of electrified clouds over 17 years. The overflights include a wide geographical sample of storms over land and ocean, with and without lightning, and with positive (i.e., upward-directed) and negative current. Peak electric field, with lightning transients removed, ranged from -1.0 kV m(sup -1) to 16. kV m(sup -1), with mean (median) of 0.9 kV m(sup -1) (0.29 kV m(sup -1)). Total conductivity at flight altitude ranged from 0.6 pS m(sup -1) to 3.6 pS m(sup -1), with mean and median of 2.2 pS m(sup -1). Peak current densities ranged from -2.0 nA m(sup -2) to 33.0 nA m(sup -2) with mean (median) of 1.9 nA m(sup -2) (0.6 nA m(sup -2)). Total upward current flow from storms in our dataset ranged from -1.3 to 9.4 A. The mean current for storms with lightning is 1.6 A over ocean and 1.0 A over land. The mean current for electrified shower clouds (i.e. electrified storms without lightning) is 0.39 A for ocean and 0.13 A for land. About 78% (43%) of the land (ocean) storms have detectable lightning. Land storms have 2.8 times the mean flash rate as ocean storms (2.2 versus 0.8 flashes min(sup -1), respectively). Approximately 7% of the overflights had negative current. The mean and median currents for positive (negative) polarity storms are 1.0 and 0.35 A (-0.30 and -0.26 A). We found no regional or latitudinal-based patterns in our storm currents, nor support for simple scaling laws between cloud top height and lightning flash rate.

  3. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    In this column, members of the NASP Crisis Management in the Schools Interest Group provide summaries of three studies relevant to school crisis response. The first study investigated the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among rescue workers. The second article explored the Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention, which is…

  4. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This column features summaries of five research articles relevant to school crisis response. The first, "High School Teachers' Experiences With Suicidal Students," summarized by Robyn Bratica, offers the results of a study examining high school teachers' experiences with suicidal students and suggests that contact with suicidal students is very…

  5. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents summaries of three recent crisis management publications: (1) "School Violence: Associations With Control, Security/Enforcement, Educational/Therapeutic Approaches, and Demographic Factors," reviewed by Ashlee Barton; (2) "The Relationship Between Cognitive Coping Styles and PTSD in Survivors of Traffic Accidents," summarized…

  6. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents summaries of four recent crisis management publications: (1) "Crisis Intervention for Children/Caregivers Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence," summarized by Donna DeVaughn Kreskey; (2) "Predictors of Trauma Reactions Following the 9/11 Terrorist Attacks," summarized by Kelly O'Connor; (3) "Cognitive Coping Styles and PTSD…

  7. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.; Bratica, Robyn; Dempsey, Jack R.; Karle, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    This article presents summaries of recent crisis management publications. The first article summarized provides a review of research documenting that even when children are not physically proximal to a national disaster (9/11), they may still have negative reactions. The second article summarized is an examination of the PTSD diagnostic criterion…

  8. MEETING SUMMARY

    Cancer.gov

    MEETING SUMMARY PRESIDENT'S CANCER PANEL A DIALOGUE BETWEEN THE PRESIDENT’S CANCER PANEL AND THE YAKAMA NATION J u l y 2 9 – 3 0 , 2 0 0 2 T o p p e n i s h , W a s h i n g t o n OVERVIEW The President’s Cancer Panel was chartered to

  9. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents summaries of two recent crisis management publications: (1) "Social Validity of the CISM Model for School Crisis Intervention," summarized by Jack R. Dempsey; and (2) "School Violence: Associations With Control, Security/Enforcement, Educational/Therapeutic Approaches, and Demographic Factors," summarized by Ashlee Barton.…

  10. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents summaries of three recent crisis management publications: (1) "The Impact of School Violence on School Personnel," summarized by Kimberly de Deaux; (2) "Children Exposed to War/Terrorism," summarized by Jennifer DeFago; and (3) "Suicide Survivors Seeking Mental Health Services," summarized by Kimberly de Deaux. The first…

  11. Stellar Systems Inc. Series 800/5000 E-Field sensor evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Follis, R.L.

    1990-08-01

    This report concerns the evaluation of the Stellar Systems Inc. E-Field intrusion detection system Series 800 control unit and the 5000 Series hardware components. Included are functional descriptions, installation procedures, testing procedures, and testing/operational results. 35 figs.

  12. Paradigms of Evaluation in Natural Language Processing: Field Linguistics for Glass Box Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Kevin Bretonnel

    2010-01-01

    Although software testing has been well-studied in computer science, it has received little attention in natural language processing. Nonetheless, a fully developed methodology for glass box evaluation and testing of language processing applications already exists in the field methods of descriptive linguistics. This work lays out a number of…

  13. MULTI-SITE FIELD EVALUATION OF CANDIDATE SAMPLERS FOR MEASURING COARSE-MODE PM

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to expected changes to the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate matter, comprehensive field studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of sampling methods for measuring coarse mode aerosols (i.e. PMc). Five separate PMc sampling approaches w...

  14. Cooperating Teacher Evaluation of Candidates in Clinical Practice and Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffett, David W.; Zhou, Yunfang

    2009-01-01

    The Investigators hypothesized cooperating teachers' evaluations of candidates in clinical practice and field experiences would possess higher scores than those provided by clinical and education division faculty. However, the reasons for the higher scores proved to be much more complex than originally thought. While it was assumed that teachers…

  15. Preliminary Technical and Legal Evaluation of Disposing of Nonhazardous Oil Field Waste into Salt Caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, Robert C.; Caudle, Dan; Elcock, Deborah; Raivel, Mary; Veil, John; and Grunewald, Ben

    1999-01-21

    This report presents an initial evaluation of the suitability, feasibility, and legality of using salt caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes. Given the preliminary and general nature of this report, we recognize that some of our findings and conclusions maybe speculative and subject to change upon further research on this topic.

  16. VERIFICATION OF THE HYDROLOGIC EVALUATION OF LANDFILL PERFORMANCE (HELP) MODEL USING FIELD DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a study conducted to verify the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) computer model using existing field data from a total of 20 landfill cells at 7 sites in the United States. Simulations using the HELP model were run to compare the predicted...

  17. Evaluation of GSt 250/350, Project-Oriented Field Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunneborg, Patricia W.; Mitchell, Sandra K.

    This report evaluates the effectiveness of an experiential field study course at the University of Washington. The course, titled GST 250/350, has different goals from a traditional volunteer program in that the student's education and experience are paramount; the services he provides are secondary. The student's motivation also differs somewhat…

  18. Field evaluation of a dyed food marking technique for Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method of marking adult Cx. quinquefasciatus Say by feeding the larvae commercial hog chow dyed with methylene blue, Giemsa, and crystal violet was evaluated under field conditions. Larvae were offered the dyed food in outdoor basins containg a mixture of dairy effluent and fresh water. Newly emer...

  19. Field Evaluation of Apple Rootstocks for Orchard Performance and Fire Blight Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2002, apple rootstock trials using three scion cultivars were established at Geneva, NY to evaluate 64 apple (Malus X domestica) rootstocks for horticultural performance and fire blight resistance. Field trials compared several elite Geneva® apple rootstocks, which were bred for tolerance to fir...

  20. Production and Evaluation of Biodiesel from Field Pennycress (Thlaspi Arvense L.) Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) oil is evaluated for the first time as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Biodiesel was obtained in 82 wt % yield by a standard transesterification procedure with methanol and sodium methoxide catalyst at 60 deg C and an alcohol to oil ratio of 6:1...

  1. Evaluation of transient turbulent flow fields using digital cinematographic particle image velocimetry

    E-print Network

    Kihm, IconKenneth David

    frequencies thereafter. 1 Introduction The particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique has be- come a fastEvaluation of transient turbulent flow fields using digital cinematographic particle image image velocimetry (PIV). The system uses a copper-vapor laser illumination synchro- nized with a high

  2. FIELD EVALUATION OF A SWIRL DEGRITTER AT TAMWORTH, NEW SOUTH WALES, AUSTRALIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This field evaluation program was initiated with the overall objective of providing information on the behaviour of a full scale swirl degritter designed and constructed in accordance with the shapes and proportions developed during model studies. The swirl degritter was designed...

  3. LABORATORY AND FIELD EVALUATION OF THE SEMI-VOST (SEMI-VOLATILE ORGANIC SAMPLING TRAIN) METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory studies and a second field evaluation have been completed to assess the performance of the Semi-Volatile Organic Sampling Train (Semi-VOST) method for measuring concentrations of principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs) with boiling points greater than 100 deg ...

  4. Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT): A Planning and Control Tool for Occupational Field Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, John M., Jr.; And Others

    Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) is used in the U.S. Marine Corps task analysis program for occupational field studies. Scheduling sequential tasks, estimating time requirements, determining staffing needs, and locating checkpoints for control all can be accomplished using PERT. Examples of operational aspects of PERT, PERT…

  5. BIOLOGICAL AND MICROBIAL CONTROL Field Evaluation of Soybean Engineered with a Synthetic cry1Ac

    E-print Network

    Parrott, Wayne

    BIOLOGICAL AND MICROBIAL CONTROL Field Evaluation of Soybean Engineered with a Synthetic cry1Ac Transgene for Resistance to Corn Earworm, Soybean Looper, Velvetbean Caterpillar (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hu¨bner), in 1996, 1997, and 1998, and also with soybean

  6. Evaluations of Transgenic Potatoes for Resistance to Potato Tuberworm in the Laboratory and Field

    E-print Network

    Douches, David S.

    Evaluations of Transgenic Potatoes for Resistance to Potato Tuberworm in the Laboratory and Field online: 7 October 2010 # Potato Association of America 2010 Abstract The potato variety `Spunta to potato tuberworm (Phthorimaea operculella Zeller). Because potato tuberworm is becoming a serious pest

  7. Greenhouse and Field Nursery Evaluation for Potato Common Scab Tolerance in a Tetraploid Population

    E-print Network

    Douches, David S.

    Greenhouse and Field Nursery Evaluation for Potato Common Scab Tolerance in a Tetraploid Population J. Driscoll & J. Coombs & R. Hammerschmidt & W. Kirk & L. Wanner & D. Douches # Potato Association of America 2009 Abstract Potato common scab (Streptomyces scabies (Thaxt.) Waksman & Henrici) is a major

  8. Greenhouse and Field Nursery Evaluation for Potato Common Scab Tolerance in a Tetraploid Population

    E-print Network

    Douches, David S.

    Greenhouse and Field Nursery Evaluation for Potato Common Scab Tolerance in a Tetraploid Population January 2009 # Potato Association of America 2009 Abstract Potato common scab (Streptomyces scabies (Thaxt.) Waksman & Henrici) is a major disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), due to the unmarketability

  9. Evaluation of pesticide toxicity at their field recommended doses to honeybees, Apis cerana and A. mellifera through laboratory, semi-field and field studies.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Johnson; Sah, Khushboo; Jain, S K; Bhatt, J C; Sushil, S N

    2015-01-01

    A series of experiments were carried out to determine the acute toxicity of pesticides in the laboratory, toxicity through spray on flowering plants of mustard (Tier II evaluation) and field on both Apis cerana and A. mellifera bees. The overall mortality of honey bees through topical (direct contact) were found significantly higher than that of indirect filter paper contamination assays. Insecticides viz., chlorpyriphos, dichlorvos, malathion, profenofos, monocrotophos and deltamethrin when exposed directly or indirectly at their field recommended doses caused very high mortality up to 100% to both the bees at 48 HAT. The insecticides that caused less mortality through filter paper contamination viz., flubendiamide, methyl demeton, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam caused very high morality through direct exposure. Apart from all the fungicides tested, carbendazim, mancozeb, chlorothalonil and propiconazole, insecticides acetamiprid and endosulfan were found safer to both the bees either by direct or indirect exposures. Tier II evaluation by spray of pesticides at their field recommended doses on potted mustard plants showed monocrotophos as the highly toxic insecticide with 100% mortality even with 1h of exposure followed by thiamethoxam, dichlorvos, profenofos and chlorpyriphos which are not to be recommended for use in pollinator attractive flowering plants. Acetamiprid and endosulfan did not cause any repellent effect on honey bees in the field trials endorse the usage of acetamiprid against sucking pest in flowering plants. PMID:25150969

  10. Evaluation of agricultural best-management practices in the Conestoga River headwaters, Pennsylvania; a summary report, 1982-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lietman, Patricia L.

    1997-01-01

    Pipe-outlet terracing was effective in reducing sediment losses from a field site, but total nitrogen and phosphorus losses with runoff were not significantly different before and after terracing. Median concentrations of dissolved nitrate in several ground-water sampling locations increased after terrace installation. Dissolved nitrate concentrations in ground water decreased significantly after nutrient-management implementation. Findings indicate that agricultural-management practices to improve water quality are most effective if their overall design effects on surface- and ground-water systems are considered in their design.

  11. Field Artillery Ammunition Processing System (FAAPS) concept evaluation study. Ammunition Logistics Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kring, C.T.; Babcock, S.M.; Watkin, D.C.; Oliver, R.P.

    1992-06-01

    The Field Artillery Ammunition Processing System (FAAPS) is an initiative to introduce a palletized load system (PLS) that is transportable with an automated ammunition processing and storage system for use on the battlefield. System proponents have targeted a 20% increase in the ammunition processing rate over the current operation while simultaneously reducing the total number of assigned field artillery battalion personnel by 30. The overall objective of the FAAPS Project is the development and demonstration of an improved process to accomplish these goals. The initial phase of the FAAPS Project and the subject of this study is the FAAPS concept evaluation. The concept evaluation consists of (1) identifying assumptions and requirements, (2) documenting the process flow, (3) identifying and evaluating technologies available to accomplish the necessary ammunition processing and storage operations, and (4) presenting alternative concepts with associated costs, processing rates, and manpower requirements for accomplishing the operation. This study provides insight into the achievability of the desired objectives.

  12. Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF) RAPID Program Engineering Project 8: FINAL REPORT, Evaluation of Field Reduction Technologies, Volume 1 (Report) and Volume 2 (Appendices)

    SciTech Connect

    Commonwealth Associates, Inc.; IIT Research Institute

    1997-08-01

    This draft report consists of two volumes. Volume 1, the main body, contains an introducto~ sectionj an overview of magnetic fields sectio~ and field reduction technology evaluation section. Magnetic field reduction methods are evalpated for transmission lines, distribution Iines,sulxtations, building wiring applkmd machinery, and transportation systems. The evaluation considers effectiveness, co% and other ftiors. Volume 2 contains five appendices, Append~ A presents magnetic field shielding information. Appendices B and C present design assumptions and magnetic field plots for transmission and distribution lines, respectively. Appendices D and E present cost estimate details for transmission and distribution limes, respectively.

  13. [Executive summary of the recommendations on the evaluation and management of renal disease in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients].

    PubMed

    Gorriz, José L; Gutiérrez, Félix; Trullàs, Joan C; Arazo, Piedad; Arribas, Jose R; Barril, Guillermina; Cervero, Miguel; Cofán, Frederic; Domingo, Pere; Estrada, Vicente; Fulladosa, Xavier; Galindo, María J; Gràcia, Sílvia; Iribarren, José A; Knobel, Hernando; López-Aldeguer, José; Lozano, Fernando; Martínez-Castelao, Alberto; Martínez, Esteban; Mazuecos, Maria A; Miralles, Celia; Montañés, Rosario; Negredo, Eugenia; Palacios, Rosario; Pérez-Elías, María J; Portilla, Joaquín; Praga, Manuel; Quereda, Carlos; Rivero, Antonio; Santamaría, Juan M; Sanz, José; Sanz, Jesús; Miró, José M

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this article is to update the 2010 recommendations on the evaluation and management of renal disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Renal function should be monitored in all HIV-infected patients. The basic renal work-up should include measurements of serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate by CKD-EPI, urine protein-to-creatinine ratio, and urinary sediment. Tubular function tests should include determination of serum phosphate levels and urine dipstick for glycosuria. In the absence of abnormal values, renal screening should be performed annually. In patients treated with tenofovir, or with risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD), more frequent renal screening is recommended. In order to prevent disease progression, potentially nephrotoxic antiretroviral drugs are not recommended in patients with CKD or risk factors for CKD. The document provides indications for renal biopsy and advises on the optimal time for referral of a patient to the nephrologist. The indications for and evaluation and management of dialysis and renal transplantation are also addressed. PMID:25303781

  14. Evaluation of wind fields used in Grand Canyon Visibility Transport Commission analyses.

    PubMed

    Green, M C; Pai, P; Ashbaugh, L; Farber, R J

    2000-05-01

    The Grand Canyon Visibility Transport Commission (GCVTC) was established by the U.S. Congress to assess the potential impacts of projected growth on atmospheric visibility at Grand Canyon National Park and to make recommendations to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency on what measures could be taken to avoid such adverse impacts. A critical input to the assessment tool used by the commission was three-dimensional model-derived wind fields used to transport the emissions. This paper describes the evaluation of the wind fields used at various stages in the assessment. Wind fields evaluated included those obtained from the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), the National Meteorological Center's Nested Grid Model (NGM), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Atmospheric Transport and Dispersion (ATAD) trajectory model. The model-derived wind fields were evaluated at multiple vertical levels at several locations in the southwestern United States by determining differences between model predicted winds and winds that were measured using radiosonde and radar wind profiler data. Model-derived winds were also evaluated by determining the percent of time that they were within acceptable differences from measured winds. All models had difficulties, generally meeting the acceptable criteria for less than 50% of the predictions. The RAMS model had a persistent bias toward southwesterly winds at the expense of other directions, especially failing to represent channeling by north-south mountain ranges in the lower levels. The NGM model exhibited a substantial bias in the summer months by extending northwesterly winds in the eastern Pacific Ocean well inland, in contrast to the observed southwesterlies at inland locations. The simpler ATAD trajectory model performed somewhat better than the other models, probably because of its use of more upper air sites. The results of the evaluation indicated that these wind fields could not be used to reliably predict source-receptor impacts on a particular day; thus, seasonally averaged impacts were used in the GCVTC assessment. PMID:10842944

  15. Thiokol/Wasatch installation evaluation of the redesigned field joint protection system (concepts 1 and 3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M.

    1989-01-01

    The procedures, performance, and results obtained from the Thiokol Corporation/Wasatch Redesigned Field Joint Protection System (FJPS) Installation Evaluation are documented. The purpose of the evaluation was to demonstrate and develop the procedures required to install two different concepts (referred to as Concepts 1 and 3) of the redesigned FJPS. The processing capability of each configuration was then evaluated and compared. The FJPS is installed on redesigned solid rocket motors (RSRM) to protect the field joints from rain intrusion and to maintain the joint temperature sensor measurement between 85 and 122 F while the boosters are on the launch pad. The FJPS is being redesigned to reduce installation timelines at KSC and to simplify or eliminate installation processing problems related to the present design of an EPDM moisture seal/extruded cork combination. Several installation techniques were evaluated, and a preferred method of application was developed for each concept. The installations were performed with the test article in the vertical (flight) position. Comparative timelines between the two concepts were also developed. An additional evaluation of the Concept 3 configuration was performed with the test article in the horizontal position, to simulate an overhead installation on a technical evaluation motor (TEM).

  16. Evaluation of melter technologies for vitrification of Hanford site low-level tank waste - phase 1 testing summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.N., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-27

    Following negotiation of the fourth amendment to the Tri- Party Agreement for Hanford Site cleanup, commercially available melter technologies were tested during 1994 and 1995 for vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream to be derived from retrieval and pretreatment of the radioactive defense wastes stored in 177 underground tanks. Seven vendors were selected for Phase 1 testing to demonstrate vitrification of a high-sodium content liquid LLW simulant. The tested melter technologies included four Joule-heated melters, a carbon electrode melter, a combustion melter, and a plasma melter. Various dry and slurry melter feed preparation processes also were tested. The technologies and Phase 1 testing results were evaluated and a preliminary technology down-selection completed. This report describes the Phase 1 LLW melter vendor testing and the tested technologies, and summarizes the testing results and the preliminary technology recommendations.

  17. Summary of Liquid Oxygen/Hydrogen, Direct Metal Laser Sintering Injector Testing and Evaluation Effort at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Gregory; Bullard, David B.

    2015-01-01

    The last several years have witnessed a significant advancement in the area of additive manufacturing technology. One area that has seen substantial expansion in application has been laser sintering (or melting) in a powder bed. This technology is often termed 3D printing or various acronyms that may be industry, process, or company specific. Components manufactured via 3D printing have the potential to significantly reduce development and fabrication time and cost. The usefulness of 3D printed components is influenced by several factors such as material properties and surface roughness. This paper details three injectors that were designed, fabricated, and tested in order to evaluate the utility of 3D printed components for rocket engine applications. The three injectors were tested in a hot-fire environment with chamber pressures of approximately 1400 psia. One injector was a 28 element design printed by Directed Manufacturing. The other two injectors were identical 40 element designs printed by Directed Manufacturing and Solid Concepts. All the injectors were swirl-coaxial designs and were subscale versions of a full-scale injector currently in fabrication. The test and evaluation programs for the 28 element and 40 element injectors provided a substantial amount of data that confirms the feasibility of 3D printed parts for future applications. The operating conditions of previously tested, conventionally manufactured injectors were reproduced in the 28 and 40 element programs in order to contrast the performance of each. Overall, the 3D printed injectors demonstrated comparable performance to the conventionally manufactured units. The design features of the aforementioned injectors can readily be implemented in future applications with a high degree of confidence.

  18. Office of Technology Development FY 1993 program summary: Office of Research and Development, Office of Demonstration, Testing and Evaluation. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This report summarizes significant FY93 programmatic information and accomplishments relevant to the individual activities within the Office of Technology Development Program for Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT&E). A brief discussion of the mission of the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) and the Office of Technology Development is presented. An overview is presented of the major problem areas confronting DOE. These problem areas include: groundwater and soils cleanup; waste retrieval and processing; and pollution prevention. The organizational elements within EM are highlighted. An EM-50 Funding Summary for FY92 and FY93 is also provided. RDDT&E programs are discussed and their key problem areas are summarized. Three salient program-formulating concepts are explained. They are: Integrated Demonstrations, Integrated Programs, and the technology window of opportunity. Detailed information for each of the programs within RDDT&E is presented and includes a fact sheet, a list of technical task plans and an accomplishments and objectives section.

  19. Sedimentation and resuspendability evaluation of pharmaceutical suspensions by low-field one dimensional pulsed field gradient NMR profilometry.

    PubMed

    Wuxin, Zhu; Martins, José; Saveyn, Pieter; Govoreanu, Ruxandra; Verbruggen, Katrien; Ariën, Tina; Verliefde, Arne; Van der Meeren, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the sedimentation of pharmaceutical suspensions using low-field one dimensional pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (1D pfg NMR) profilometry, the accuracy of signal acquisition as well as the spatial resolution of a commercial spectrometer operating at 23.4 MHz was investigated. The use of a solid Teflon spacer revealed that the accuracy of signal acquisition was independent of spatial position (height). The standard deviation of distance determinations was less than 150 µm, whereas the accuracy of water content determination was within 2% in the central part of the detection zone and deteriorated to 4% in the outer parts. The study of aqueous paramagnetic MnCl2 solutions indicated an exponential relationship between the relative signal intensity and the transverse relaxation decay constant. From this relationship, the relative water content of suspensions could be derived from their signal intensity relative to that of water. Using concentrated paliperidone palmitate dispersions as model suspensions, low-field 1D pfg NMR profilometry has been proven to be suitable for the evaluation of both the sedimentation and resuspendability behavior of viscous, opaque suspensions, for which visual detection of homogeneity may be difficult. PMID:21961765

  20. Regional field-study design for evaluation of Eulerian acidic deposition models

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, D.A.; Lusis, M.; Barnes, H.M.

    1987-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Electric Power Research Institute, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment, and the Atmospheric Environmental Services have funded the development of two complex regional-scale Eulerian acid-deposition models, RADM and ADOM. There is a consensus among the scientific community that the models should be evaluated as to their skill in predicting output parameters and to establish their credibility. This paper describes the measurements planned in a large field study to provide data for this evaluation. The plan is divided into two parts: operational and diagnostic. The operational evaluation assesses the models' ability to predict air concentrations and deposition patterns. The diagnostic evaluation is an assessment of the behavior of the model and its individual components, transport, dry deposition, gas-phase chemistry, emission inventory, etc. Plans for an extensive network of ground-sampling stations and intensive aircraft measurements over a two-year period are discussed.

  1. Applicability of slug interference tests under Hanford Site test conditions: Analytical assessment and field test evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Spane, F.A. Jr.

    1992-04-01

    Slug interference testing may be a useful technique for characterizing the hydraulic properties of high conductivity formations where problems associated with disposal of contaminated ground water make pumping tests undesirable. The suitability of the slug interference method for characterizing the unconfined aquifer at the Hanford Site was evaluated in a two-phase investigation. The first phase consisted of an analytical assessment. Slug interference responses were predicted over the range of conditions expected for the aquifer. The effects of partial penetration, delayed-yield and aquifer anisotropy on expected test results were also evaluated and possible analytical corrections are presented. The field test evaluation was conducted at a site with two observation wells and a stress well. Results verified the analytical evaluation and gave reasonable values of hydraulic conductivity and storativity. Test design considerations that optimize the observed response are discussed.

  2. Smog Check II Executive Summary

    E-print Network

    Denver, University of

    Smog Check II Evaluation Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . Lynn Scarlett, Chair Donald Bea June 19, 2000 #12;ES-1 1. Goals of the IMRC Smog Check Evaluation The Smog Check Program is intended. Smog Check targets three types of pollution from vehicles: hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx

  3. Evaluation of magnetic refocusing in linear-beam microwave tubes. [using optimal magnetic field configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stankiewicz, N.

    1974-01-01

    Magnetic field configurations in which the axial component of the field decays linearly to a constant plateau field are evaluated for use in refocusing the output beam of linear beam microwave tubes. The slope of the decay and the value of the plateau field are parameters in this study. A uniform beam with a space charge force only in the radial direction is assumed, and the electron trajectories are computed for various classes. For a given magnetic configuration (slope and plateau value) the plateau length is calculated for a specified class and the rms deviation of the output angles for all classes is computed at the end of this plateau length. A minimum condition for a refocused beam is defined to be one in which the rms value of the output angles is less than the rms input. Many of the configurations satisfied this criteria and successfully reduced the rms value by half.

  4. Economic evaluation of the Annual Cycle Energy System. Volume I. Executive summary. Final report. [In Minneapolis, Atlanta, and Philadelphia

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the energy effectiveness and the economic viability of the ACES concept. Three different classes of building are investigated, namely: single-family residence; multi-family residence; and commercial office building. The application of ACES to each of these building types is studied in three different climatic regions: Minneapolis, Atlanta, and Philadelphia. Computer programs - ACESIM for the residences and CACESS for the office building - were used, each comprised of four modules: loads; design; simulation; and economic. For each building type in each geographic location, the economic evaluation of the ACES is based on a comparison of the present worth of the ACES to the present worth of a number of conventional systems. The results of this analysis indicate that the economic viability of the ACES is very sensitive to the assumed value of the property tax, maintenace cost, and fuel-escalation rates, while it is relatively insensitive to the assumed values of other parameters. Fortunately, any conceivable change in the fuel-escalation rates would tend to increase the viability of the ACES concept. An increase in the assumed value of the maintenance cost or property tax would tend to make the ACES concept less viable; a decrease in either would tend to make the ACES concept more viable. The detailed results of this analysis are given in Section 5.4 of Volume II. 2 figures, 21 tables.

  5. FY 1994 program summary: Office of Technology Development, Office of Research and Development, Office of Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management, formerly the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), was established in November 1989 as the first step toward correcting contamination problems resulting from nearly 50 years of nuclear weapons production and fuel processing activities. EM consolidates several DOE organizations previously responsible for the handling, treatment, and disposition of radioactive and hazardous waste. Within EM, the Office of Technology Development (OTD/EM-50) is responsible for developing technologies to meet DOE`s goal for environmental restoration. OTD manages an aggressive national program of applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation (RDDT and E) for environmental cleanup, waste management, and related technologies. The program is designed to resolve major technical issues, to rapidly advanced beyond current technologies for environmental restoration and waste management operations, and to expedite compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations. This report summarizes Fiscal Year 1994 (FY94) programmatic information, accomplishments, and planned activities relevant to the individual activities within OTD`s RDDT and E.

  6. Evaluation of unsteady pressure fields and forces in rotating airfoils from time-resolved PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villegas, A.; Diez, F. J.

    2014-04-01

    The instantaneous pressure fields and aerodynamic loads are obtained for rotating airfoils from time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV) measurements. These allowed evaluating the contribution from the local acceleration (unsteady acceleration) to the instantaneous forces. Traditionally, this term has been neglected for wind turbines with quasi-steady flows, but results show that it is a dominant term in the wake where high temporal variations in the flow field are present due to vortex shedding. Briefly, time-resolved particle image velocimetry TR-PIV measurements are used to calculate flow velocity fields and corresponding spatial and temporal derivatives. These derivatives are then used in the Poisson equation to solve for the pressure field and later used in the integral momentum equation to solve for the instantaneous forces. The robustness of the measurements is analyzed by calculating the PIV uncertainty and the independence of the calculated forces. The experimental mean aerodynamic forces are compared with theoretical predictions from the blade element momentum theory showing good agreement. The instantaneous pressure field showed dependence with time in the wake due to vortex shedding. The contribution to the instantaneous forces from each term in the integral momentum equation is evaluated. The analysis shows that the larger contributions to the normal force coefficient are from the unsteady and the pressure terms, and the larger contribution to the tangential force coefficient is from the convective term.

  7. National Uranium Resource Evaluation. Volume 1. Summary of the geology and uranium potential of Precambrian conglomerates in southeastern Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Karlstrom, K.E.; Houston, R.S.; Flurkey, A.J.; Coolidge, C.M.; Kratochvil, A.L.; Sever, C.K.

    1981-02-01

    A series of uranium-, thorium-, and gold-bearing conglomerates in Late Archean and Early Proterozoic metasedimentary rocks have been discovered in southern Wyoming. The mineral deposits were found by applying the time and strata bound model for the origin of uranium-bearing quartz-pebble conglomerates to favorable rock types within a geologic terrane known from prior regional mapping. No mineral deposits have been discovered that are of current (1981) economic interest, but preliminary resource estimates indicate that over 3418 tons of uranium and over 1996 tons of thorium are present in the Medicine Bow Mountains and that over 440 tons of uranium and 6350 tons of thorium are present in Sierra Madre. Sampling has been inadequate to determine gold resources. High grade uranium deposits have not been detected by work to date but local beds of uranium-bearing conglomerate contain as much as 1380 ppM uranium over a thickness of 0.65 meters. This project has involved geologic mapping at scales from 1/6000 to 1/50,000 detailed sampling, and the evaluation of 48 diamond drill holes, but the area is too large to fully establish the economic potential with the present information. This first volume summarizes the geologic setting and geologic and geochemical characteristics of the uranium-bearing conglomerates. Volume 2 contains supporting geochemical data, lithologic logs from 48 drill holes in Precambrian rocks, and drill site geologic maps and cross-sections from most of the holes. Volume 3 is a geostatistical resource estimate of uranium and thorium in quartz-pebble conglomerates.

  8. Evaluating Population Receptive Field Estimation Frameworks in Terms of Robustness and Reproducibility

    PubMed Central

    Senden, Mario; Reithler, Joel; Gijsen, Sven; Goebel, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Within vision research retinotopic mapping and the more general receptive field estimation approach constitute not only an active field of research in itself but also underlie a plethora of interesting applications. This necessitates not only good estimation of population receptive fields (pRFs) but also that these receptive fields are consistent across time rather than dynamically changing. It is therefore of interest to maximize the accuracy with which population receptive fields can be estimated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) setting. This, in turn, requires an adequate estimation framework providing the data for population receptive field mapping. More specifically, adequate decisions with regard to stimulus choice and mode of presentation need to be made. Additionally, it needs to be evaluated whether the stimulation protocol should entail mean luminance periods and whether it is advantageous to average the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal across stimulus cycles or not. By systematically studying the effects of these decisions on pRF estimates in an empirical as well as simulation setting we come to the conclusion that a bar stimulus presented at random positions and interspersed with mean luminance periods is generally most favorable. Finally, using this optimal estimation framework we furthermore tested the assumption of temporal consistency of population receptive fields. We show that the estimation of pRFs from two temporally separated sessions leads to highly similar pRF parameters. PMID:25463652

  9. Using perceivable light fields to evaluate the amount of information that autostereoscopic displays need to cast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Adrian; Javidi, Bahram

    2015-05-01

    Recently we introduced the notion of "perceivable light field" (PLF) as an efficient tool for the analysis and design of three dimensional (3D) displays. The PLF is used with a 3D display analysis approach that puts the viewer in the center of the model; that is, first the human visual system requirements are defined through the PLF and then they are back-propagated to the display devices to evaluate its specifications. Here we use such an analysis to evaluate the information requirements that autostereoscopic 3D display devices need to provide for ideal visual conditions.

  10. Beam profile measurement and evaluation of far field high energy laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Pengling; Feng, Guobin; Wang, Zhenbao; Wang, Ping; Wu, Yong; Zhang, Jianmin; Cheng, Shaowu; Feng, Gang; Wang, Fei; Shao, Bibo

    2015-05-01

    The far field beam profile is of significant importance to the analysis of the atmospheric propagation effect and evaluation of the beam control capability, tracking and aiming precision of laser system. In the paper, technology of laser beam measurement such as mid-infrared laser detection at wide temperature range, power density attenuation, photoelectric and calorimetric compound method for laser measurement, synchronous detecting of multi-channel pulsed signal are introduced. A series of instrumented target with detector array are developed for laser beam power density distribution measurement at far field. The power in the bucket, strehl ratio, centroid and jitter of beam can be calculated from the measured results.

  11. Evaluations of Firms and Professionals Who Provide Consumer Services. An Annotated Bibliography of Consumer Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Gregg B.; Meyer, Francine H.

    This annotated bibliography contains summaries of studies of consumer services in 39 fields, plus summaries of publications of interest to consumer advocates, published during the past 10 years. Since most service providers do business in a single locale, the evaluations are usually local in scope (for example, a comparison of major appliance…

  12. Evaluating GIS for establishing and monitoring environmental conditions of oil fields

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeil, R.W.; Ellis, J.W.

    1995-04-01

    Good management of an oil field and compliance with ever-increasing environmental regulations is enhanced by technologies that improve a company`s understanding of field/production facilities and environmental conditions that have occurred to both through time. In Nigeria, Kazakhstan, Indonesia, and offshore Cabinda, remote sensing, computer-aided drafting (CAD) and Global Positioning System (GPF) technologies have effectively been used by Chevron to provide accurate maps of facilities and to better understand environmental conditions. Together these proven technologies have provided a solid and cost-effective base for planning field operation, verifying well and seismic locations, and locating sampling sites. The end product of these technologies is often locations, and locating sampling sites. The end product of these technologies is often cartographic-quality hardcopy images and maps for use in the office and field. Chevron has been evaluating the capability of Geographical Information System (GIS) technology to integrate images, maps, and tabular data into a useful database that can help managers and workers better evaluate conditions in an oil field, plan new facilities, and monitor/predict trends (for example, of air emissions, groundwater, soil chemistry, subsidence, etc.). Remote sensing, CAD (if formatted properly), and GPS data can be integrated to establish the spatial or cartographic base of the GIS. A major obstacle to establishing a sophisticated GIS for an overseas operation is the initial cost of data collection and conversion from legacy data base management systems and hardcopy to appropriate digital format. However, Chevron routinely uses GIS for oil spill modeling and is now using GIS in the field for integrating GPS data with field observations and programs.

  13. Evaluation of the in vitro activity of flumequine against field isolates of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae.

    PubMed

    Aller-Morán, Luis Miguel; Martínez-Lobo, Francisco Javier; Rubio, Pedro; Carvajal, Ana

    2015-12-01

    Flumequine is a quinolone derivative used in veterinary medicine to treat enteric infections, mainly those caused by Gram negative bacteria and also some Gram positive. Some recent reports by field practitioners have suggested that its use in swine dysentery outbreaks can minimize the impact of this disease. This study aims to evaluate the in vitro anti-Brachyspira hyodysenteriae activity of flumequine. Forty eight field isolates of the bacterium were evaluated using a microdilution test. The lack of colon bioavailability studies of flumequine in pigs makes it difficult to establish the true efficacy of this antibiotic for swine dysentery control. Nonetheless, the relatively high values of MIC50 (50?g/mL) and MBC50 (50?g/mL) obtained suggest poor activity against B. hyodysenteriae. Flumequine activity in swine dysentery outbreaks could be related to its activity against other bacteria, different from B. hyodysenteriae, engaged in swine dysentery pathogenesis. PMID:26679795

  14. FIELD EVALUATION OF THE UV/OXIDATION TECHNOLOGY TO TREAT CONTAMINATED GROUND WATER AT A HAZARDOUS WASTE SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents the field evaluation results of the ultraviolet radiation (UV)/oxidation technology developed by Ultrox International, Santa Ana, California. The field evaluation of the technology was performed at the Lorentz Barrel and Drum (LB&D) site in San Jose, Californi...

  15. Critical Development? Using a Critical Theory Lens to Examine the Current Role of Evaluation in the Youth-Development Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeller-Berkman, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    A critical theory lens is used to explore the role of evaluation in youth development, a field aimed at recognizing youth as assets. A theory of change in the field is questioned for its emphasis on individual youth outcomes as programmatic outcome measures. A review of 209 evaluations of 131 programs in the Harvard Family Research Project's…

  16. Evaluation of Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2002-2006 Project Completion Summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Faler, Michael P.; Mendel, Glen; Fulton, Carl

    2008-11-20

    The Columbia River Distinct Population Segment of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) was listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 1998. One of the identified major threats to the species is fragmentation resulting from dams on over-wintering habitats of migratory subpopulations. A migratory subgroup in the Tucannon River appeared to utilize the Snake River reservoirs for adult rearing on a seasonal basis. As a result, a radio telemetry study was conducted on this subgroup from 2002-2006, to help meet Reasonable and Prudent Measures, and Conservation Recommendations associated with the lower Snake River dams in the FCRPS Biological Opinion, and to increase understanding of bull trout movements within the Tucannon River drainage. We sampled 1,109 bull trout in the Tucannon River; 124 of these were surgically implanted with radio tags and PIT tagged, and 681 were only PIT tagged. The remaining 304 fish were either recaptures, or released unmarked. Bull trout seasonal movements within the Tucannon River were similar to those described for other migratory bull trout populations. Bull trout migrated upstream in spring and early summer to the spawning areas in upper portions of the Tucannon River watershed. They quickly moved off the spawning areas in the fall, and either held or continued a slower migration downstream through the winter until early the following spring. During late fall and winter, bull trout were distributed in the lower half of the Tucannon River basin, down to and including the mainstem Snake River below Little Goose Dam. We were unable to adequately radio track bull trout in the Snake River and evaluate their movements or interactions with the federal hydroelectric dams for the following reasons: (1) none of our radio-tagged fish were detected attempting to pass a Snake River dam, (2) our radio tags had poor transmission capability at depths greater than 12.2 m, and (3) the sample size of fish that actually entered the Snake River was small (n=6). In spite of this project's shortcomings, bull trout continue to be observed in low numbers at Snake River dam fish facilities. It is highly possible that bull trout observed at the Snake River dam fish facilities are originating from sources other than the Tucannon River. We suggest that these fish might come from upstream sources like the Clearwater or Salmon rivers in Idaho, and are simply following the outmigration of juvenile anadromous fish (a food supply) as they emigrate toward the Pacific Ocean. Based on our study results, we recommend abandoning radio telemetry as a tool to monitor bull trout movements in the mainstem Snake River. We do recommend continuing PIT tagging and tag interrogation activities to help determine the origin of bull trout using the Snake River hydropower facilities. As a complementary approach, we also suggest the use of genetic assignment tests to help determine the origin of these fish. Lastly, several recommendations are included in the report to help manage and recover bull trout in the Tucannon subbasin.

  17. Field tests and evaluations of the IAEA Active-Well Coincidence Counter

    SciTech Connect

    Krick, M.S.; Rinard, P.M.

    1982-12-01

    This report summarizes and evaluates field tests of the Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC) at Winfrith and Dounreay, United Kingdom. The applicability of the AWCC for assaying the uranium content of a wide variety of materials was demonstrated and calibration curves were generated. The AWCC was used in three modes (fast, thermal, and passive) while assaying powders, pellets, cartridges, plates, assorted residues, and materials-testing-reactor fuel assemblies.

  18. Implementation and Evaluation of the Virtual Fields Method: Determining Constitutive Model Parameters From Full-Field Deformation Data.

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Sharlotte Lorraine Bolyard; Scherzinger, William M.

    2014-09-01

    The Virtual Fields Method (VFM) is an inverse method for constitutive model parameter identication that relies on full-eld experimental measurements of displacements. VFM is an alternative to standard approaches that require several experiments of simple geometries to calibrate a constitutive model. VFM is one of several techniques that use full-eld exper- imental data, including Finite Element Method Updating (FEMU) techniques, but VFM is computationally fast, not requiring iterative FEM analyses. This report describes the im- plementation and evaluation of VFM primarily for nite-deformation plasticity constitutive models. VFM was successfully implemented in MATLAB and evaluated using simulated FEM data that included representative experimental noise found in the Digital Image Cor- relation (DIC) optical technique that provides full-eld displacement measurements. VFM was able to identify constitutive model parameters for the BCJ plasticity model even in the presence of simulated DIC noise, demonstrating VFM as a viable alternative inverse method. Further research is required before VFM can be adopted as a standard method for constitu- tive model parameter identication, but this study is a foundation for ongoing research at Sandia for improving constitutive model calibration.

  19. Preparing international relief workers for health care in the field: an evaluation of organizational practices.

    PubMed

    Moresky, R T; Eliades, M J; Bhimani, M A; Bunney, E B; VanRooyen, M J

    2001-01-01

    The growth of the humanitarian aid industry has led to the proliferation of relief programs and the rapid rise in the number of relief personnel working in the field. One major necessity in developing successful international programs is appropriately trained field personnel. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the educational practice and training methods for field workers by non-government organizations (NGO). Of the 53 organizations surveyed, 64% responded that they sent health care workers to acute human emergencies. A majority of organizations, 31/53 (59%), used manuals as the primary method of training for workers before going into the field. Eighty-five percent of organizations (45/53) supplied their workers with trip briefings from prior personnel before going into the field, and 91% (48/53) had an on-site coordinator. Only 34% (18/53) provided classroom teaching or orientation prior to departure. The average number of months spent by workers abroad was < or = 1 for nearly half (49%) of the NGOs. Only 34% (18/53) of the NGOs required that personnel had previous international experience. Training of humanitarian workers varies significantly between non-governmental organizations. Lack of standardization in training programs and wide variation of provider preparedness indicates the need by NGOs for enhanced training for field personnel. PMID:12090207

  20. Evaluation of measurement reproducibility using the standard-sites data, 1994 Fernald field characterization demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Rautman, C.A.

    1996-02-01

    The US Department of Energy conducted the 1994 Fernald (Ohio) field characterization demonstration project to evaluate the performance of a group of both industry-standard and proposed alternative technologies in describing the nature and extent of uranium contamination in surficial soils. Detector stability and measurement reproducibility under actual operating conditions encountered in the field is critical to establishing the credibility of the proposed alternative characterization methods. Comparability of measured uranium activities to those reported by conventional, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-certified laboratory methods is also required. The eleven (11) technologies demonstrated included (1) EPA-standard soil sampling and laboratory mass-spectroscopy analyses, and currently-accepted field-screening techniques using (2) sodium-iodide scintillometers, (3) FIDLER low-energy scintillometers, and (4) a field-portable x-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Proposed advanced characterization techniques included (5) alpha-track detectors, (6) a high-energy beta scintillometer, (7) electret ionization chambers, (8) and (9) a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer in two different configurations, (10) a field-adapted laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) technique, and (11) a long-range alpha detector. Measurement reproducibility and the accuracy of each method were tested by acquiring numerous replicate measurements of total uranium activity at each of two ``standard sites`` located within the main field demonstration area. Meteorological variables including temperature, relative humidity. and 24-hour rainfall quantities were also recorded in conjunction with the standard-sites measurements.

  1. Maine Peat-Resource Evaluation Program: 1980 field season. Open File No. 82-8

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, C.C.; Lepage, C.A.; Anderson, W.A.; Davis, J.

    1982-01-01

    The second year of the Maine Peat Resource Evaluation Program, which is funded by the US Department of Energy to assess the fuel potential of Maine's peat deposits, was completed in 1980. During the 1980 field season, 56 peat deposits in Piscataquis, Somerset, Aroostook, Kennebec, and Waldo Counties were investigated. These deposits range in size from 44 to 1344 acres and contain from 50,000 to 3,200,000 short tons of air-dried peat. A total of 14,262 acres containing an estimated 23,908,000 short tons of air-dried peat were evaluated. To date, a total of 44,340 acres in 163 deposits containing 83,757,000 short tons of air-dried peat have been surveyed under the Maine Peat Resource Evaluation Program.

  2. Field evaluation of Fourier transform infrared continuous emissions monitoring (FTIR CEM) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunder, Thomas A.; Geyer, Thomas J.; Kinner, Laura L.; Plummer, Grant M.

    1995-02-01

    Recent environmental regulations, including the Clean Air Act and the Enhanced Monitoring Regulations, may require continuous emissions monitoring (CEM) of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). A promising technique for this application is Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). FTIR spectroscopy can, in principle, be used to monitor virtually any gas phase species. Two evaluations of FTIR CEM systems are discussed. The first study, performed in 1993 - 94, compared two FTIR CEM systems on a side-by-side basis in an extended field test at two coal-fired electric power plants. The FTIR CEM systems monitored the legally mandated criteria pollutants and diluents (CO, CO2, NO, NO2, and SO2) as well as H2O. In addition, one system monitored two HAPs (HCl and HF) and NH3. The FTIR CEM measurements were compared with those from the compliance CEM systems at the facilities. Several relative accuracy test audits were also performed to verify the FTIR CEM accuracy. The second evaluation was recently commenced on behalf of the Environmental Protection Agency. In this study, FTIR CEM systems are evaluated specifically for the monitoring of HAP species by conducting laboratory and field tests. The evaluation culminates in the development of proposed performance specifications and protocols for FTIR CEM systems.

  3. Joint use of laboratory bioassays and field-collected plants to evaluate toxicity and contaminant bioaccumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Long, S.P.; Byron, E.R.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

    1995-12-31

    Soil toxicity tests using lettuce (Latuca saliva) were conducted using soil samples collected as part of ecological risk assessments at two facilities in California. At some sites, terrestrial plants were collected in the field for chemical analysis. Ecological concerns focused on exposures to plants, phytophagous insects, and their secondary consumers, such as birds and small mammals. The toxicity tests were used to assess potential exposures to a variety of site-specific contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, PAHs, petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and other inorganic substances. Site soils were combined with clean control soils to produce toxicity test soil dilutions containing 100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, and 0% site soils. Observations of seed germination and growth were made at day 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Toxicity test results were combined with soil chemical analytical results and physical characteristics to establish NOAELs and LOAELs. Bioaccumulation in the lettuce and field-collected plants was evaluated by comparing plant contaminant to soil contaminant concentrations. Allometric equations and sublethal toxicity data were used to predict potential effects on birds and small mammals. Whole-body contaminant concentrations in insects collected on some of the plants in the field were also considered in evaluating the potential for toxicity to insectivorous birds. The study indicated that contaminant uptake was occurring in the field-collected and bioassay plants but not the insects. Site factors in addition to soil contaminant concentration influenced the potential for plant toxicity and bioaccumulation.

  4. Evaluation of the snow regime in dynamic vegetation land surface models using field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantzas, E.; Quegan, S.; Lomas, M.; Zakharova, E.

    2014-03-01

    An increasing number of studies have demonstrated significant climatic and ecological changes occurring in the northern latitudes over the past decades. As coupled Earth-system models attempt to describe and simulate the dynamics and complex feedbacks of the Arctic environment, it is important to reduce their uncertainties in short-term predictions by improving the description of both system processes and its initial state. This study focuses on snow-related variables and makes extensive use of a historical data set (1966-1996) of field snow measurements acquired across the extent of the former Soviet Union to evaluate a range of simulated snow metrics produced by several land surface models, most of them embedded in IPCC-standard climate models. We reveal model-specific failings in simulating snowpack properties such as magnitude, inter-annual variability, timings of snow water equivalent and evolution of snow density. We develop novel and model-independent methodologies that use the field snow measurements to extract the values of fresh snow density and snowpack sublimation, and exploit them to assess model outputs. By directly forcing the surface heat exchange formulation of a land surface model with field data on snow depth and snow density, we evaluate how inaccuracies in simulating snow metrics affect soil temperature, thaw depth and soil carbon decomposition. We also show how field data can be assimilated into models using optimization techniques in order to identify model defects and improve model performance.

  5. Effects of temperature on bacterial transport and destruction in bioretention media: field and laboratory evaluations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lan; Seagren, Eric A; Davis, Allen P; Karns, Jeffrey S

    2012-06-01

    Microbial activities are significantly influenced by temperature. This study investigated the effects of temperature on the capture and destruction of bacteria from urban stormwater runoff in bioretention media using 2-year field evaluations coupled with controlled laboratory column studies. Field data from two bioretention cells show that the concentration of indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli) was reduced during most storm events, and that the probability of meeting specific water quality criteria in the discharge was increased. Indicator bacteria concentration in the input flow typically increased with higher daily temperature. Although bacterial removal efficiency was independent of temperature in the field and laboratory, column tests showed that bacterial decay coefficients in conventional bioretention media (CBM) increase exponentially with elevated temperature. Increases in levels of protozoa and heterotrophic bacteria associated with increasing temperature appear to contribute to faster die-off of trapped E. coli in CBM via predation and competition. PMID:22866389

  6. Evaluation of field emission parameters in a copper nano-tip based diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar Singh, Abhishek; Kumar, Jitendra

    2013-02-01

    Copper nano-tip based diode structure with a gap of ˜120 nm has been fabricated by milling of a thin metallic film with a 30 kV focused gallium ion beam at a current of 100 pA. Its current-voltage characteristics measured at a pressure of ˜10-6 mbar is shown to follow the Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) field emission tunneling above ˜40 V. A simple method has been proposed to evaluate parameters like effective area (Aeff), apparent work function (?), and field enhancement factor (?) of the nano-emitter. The extremely small Aeff, substantial lowering of ?, and high ? value observed have been explained in terms of changes occurring at the emitter tip with increasing applied field. The formation of metallic nanoparticles over the substrate by local evaporation of cathode material at high currents is also demonstrated.

  7. Evaluation of Cyantraniliprole and Other Commercial Fly Baits under Laboratory and Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Parker, Casey; Baldwin, Rebecca; Pereira, Roberto; Koehler, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory and field trials were performed to evaluate the attractiveness and efficacy of commercial baits (cyantraniliprole; methomyl + (Z)-9-tricosene; dinotefuran + (Z)-9-tricosene; imidacloprid granular + (Z)-9-tricosene; and imidacloprid liquid + (Z)-9-tricosene). In choice tests; flies were most attracted to cyantraniliprole bait > dinotefuran + (Z)-9 > methomyl + (Z)-9 bait > imidacloprid granular + (Z)-9 bait > imidacloprid liquid + (Z)-9 bait. Significant degradation in bait efficacy was observed after two weeks of aging excluding imidacloprid granular; which began to degrade in field conditions after one week. Cyantraniliprole; the new fly bait active ingredient in Zyrox(®); had the longest time to knockdown in the laboratory tests; but on susceptible flies; achieved 95%-100% knockdown within an hour of exposure. Zyrox(®) was resistant to weathering for a week; and was more attractive to flies in the field when compared to methomyl + (Z)-9 bait. PMID:26610575

  8. Evaluation of Cyantraniliprole and Other Commercial Fly Baits under Laboratory and Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Casey; Baldwin, Rebecca; Pereira, Roberto; Koehler, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory and field trials were performed to evaluate the attractiveness and efficacy of commercial baits (cyantraniliprole; methomyl + (Z)-9-tricosene; dinotefuran + (Z)-9-tricosene; imidacloprid granular + (Z)-9-tricosene; and imidacloprid liquid + (Z)-9-tricosene). In choice tests; flies were most attracted to cyantraniliprole bait > dinotefuran + (Z)-9 > methomyl + (Z)-9 bait > imidacloprid granular + (Z)-9 bait > imidacloprid liquid + (Z)-9 bait. Significant degradation in bait efficacy was observed after two weeks of aging excluding imidacloprid granular; which began to degrade in field conditions after one week. Cyantraniliprole; the new fly bait active ingredient in Zyrox®; had the longest time to knockdown in the laboratory tests; but on susceptible flies; achieved 95%–100% knockdown within an hour of exposure. Zyrox® was resistant to weathering for a week; and was more attractive to flies in the field when compared to methomyl + (Z)-9 bait. PMID:26610575

  9. Investigation and evaluation of geopressured-geothermal wells. Summary of Gruy Federal's Well-of-Opportunity Program to January 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    Scouting and monitoring techniques peculiar to geopressured-geothermal wells and legal problems are presented. The following are tabulated: priority wells actively monitored, industry contacts, and the summary of industry responses to well-or-opportunity solicitation. (MHR)

  10. Motivation Literature Trans. Network Models Relative Total Cost Indices Numerical Examples Summary A Relative Total Cost Index for the Evaluation of

    E-print Network

    Nagurney, Anna

    Motivation Literature Trans. Network Models Relative Total Cost Indices Numerical Examples Summary Index #12;Motivation Literature Trans. Network Models Relative Total Cost Indices Numerical Examples, Qiang Qiang Relative Total Cost Index #12;Motivation Literature Trans. Network Models Relative Total

  11. Field production and functional evaluation of chloroplast-derived interferon-?2b

    PubMed Central

    Arlen, Philip A.; Falconer, Regina; Cherukumilli, Sri; Cole, Amy; Cole, Alexander M.; Oishi, Karen K.; Daniell, Henry

    2008-01-01

    Summary Type I interferons (IFNs) inhibit viral replication and cell growth and enhance the immune response, and therefore have many clinical applications. IFN-?2b ranks third in world market use for a biopharmaceutical, behind only insulin and erythropoietin. The average annual cost of IFN-?2b for the treatment of hepatitis C infection is $26 000, and is therefore unavailable to the majority of patients in developing countries. Therefore, we expressed IFN-?2b in tobacco chloroplasts, and transgenic lines were grown in the field after obtaining United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA-APHIS) approval. Stable, site-specific integration of transgenes into chloroplast genomes and homoplasmy through several generations were confirmed. IFN-?2b levels reached up to 20% of total soluble protein, or 3 mg per gram of leaf (fresh weight). Transgenic IFN-?2b had similar in vitro biological activity to commercially produced PEG-Intron™ when tested for its ability to protect cells against cytopathic viral replication in the vesicular stomatitis virus cytopathic effect (VSV CPE) assay and to inhibit early-stage human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The antitumour and immunomodulating properties of IFN-?2b were also seen in vivo . Chloroplast-derived IFN-?2b increased the expression of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) on splenocytes and the total number of natural killer (NK) cells. Finally, IFN-?2b purified from chloroplast transgenic lines (cpIFN-?2b) protected mice from a highly metastatic tumour line. This demonstration of high levels of expression of IFN-?2b, transgene containment and biological activity akin to that of commercial preparations of IFN-?2b facilitated the first field production of a plant-derived human blood protein, a critical step towards human clinical trials and commercialization. PMID:17490449

  12. Evaluation of Aqua-Ammonia Chiller Technologies and Field Site Installation

    SciTech Connect

    Zaltash, Abdolreza

    2007-09-01

    The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) has sponsored Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to review, select, and evaluate advanced, gas-fired, 5-ton, aqua-ammonia, chiller technologies. The selection criteria was that units have COP values of 0.67 or better at Air-conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) 95 F outdoor rating conditions, an active refrigerant flow control, and a variable-speed condenser fan. These features are expected to allow these units to operate at higher ambient temperatures (up to the maximum operating temperature of 110 F) with minimal degradation in performance. ORNL evaluated three potential manufacturers of advanced, gas-fired, 5-ton, aqua-ammonia chillers-Robur, Ambian, and Cooling Technologies. Unfortunately, Robur did not meet the COP requirements and Cooling Technologies could not deliver a unit to be tested at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-ORNL environmental chamber testing facility for thermally activated heat pumps. This eliminated these two technologies from further consideration, leaving only the Ambian chillers for evaluation. Two Ambian chillers were evaluated at the DOE-ORNL test facility. Overall these chillers operated well over a wide range of ambient conditions with minimal degradation in performance due to several control strategies used such as a variable speed condenser fan, a modulating burner, and active refrigerant flow control. These Ambian pre-commercial units were selected for installation and field testing at three federal facilities. NFESC worked with ORNL to assist with the site selection for installation and evaluation of these chillers. Two sites (ORNL and Naval Surface Warfare Center [NSWC] Corona) had a single chiller unit installed; and at one site (Naval Amphibious Base [NAB] Little Creek), two 5-ton chillers linked together were installed to provide 10 tons of cooling. A chiller link controller developed under this project was evaluated in the field test at Little Creek.

  13. Economic evaluation on CO?-EOR of onshore oil fields in China

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.; Liu, Shengnan; Zha, Yongjin

    2015-06-01

    Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO?-EOR) and sequestration in depleted oil reservoirs is a plausible option for utilizing anthropogenic CO? to increase oil production while storing CO? underground. Evaluation of the storage resources and cost of potential CO?-EOR projects is an essential step before the commencement of large-scale deployment of such activities. In this paper, a hybrid techno-economic evaluation method, including a performance model and cost model for onshore CO?-EOR projects, has been developed based on previous studies. Total 296 onshore oil fields, accounting for about 70% of total mature onshore oil fields in China, were evaluated by the techno-economic method. The key findings of this study are summarized as follows: (1) deterministic analysis shows there are approximately 1.1 billion tons (7.7 billion barrels) of incremental crude oil and 2.2 billion tons CO? storage resource for onshore CO?-EOR at net positive revenue within the Chinese oil fields reviewed under the given operating strategy and economic assumptions. (2) Sensitivity study highlights that the cumulative oil production and cumulative CO? storage resource are very sensitive to crude oil price, CO? cost, project lifetime, discount rate and tax policy. High oil price, short project lifetime, low discount rate, low CO? cost, and low tax policy can greatly increase the net income of the oil enterprise, incremental oil recovery and CO? storage resource. (3) From this techno-economic evaluation, the major barriers to large-scale deployment of CO?-EOR include complex geological conditions, low API of crude oil, high tax policy, and lack of incentives for the CO?-EOR project.

  14. Economic evaluation on CO?-EOR of onshore oil fields in China

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.; Liu, Shengnan; Zha, Yongjin

    2015-06-01

    Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO?-EOR) and sequestration in depleted oil reservoirs is a plausible option for utilizing anthropogenic CO? to increase oil production while storing CO? underground. Evaluation of the storage resources and cost of potential CO?-EOR projects is an essential step before the commencement of large-scale deployment of such activities. In this paper, a hybrid techno-economic evaluation method, including a performance model and cost model for onshore CO?-EOR projects, has been developed based on previous studies. Total 296 onshore oil fields, accounting for about 70% of total mature onshore oil fields in China, were evaluated by the techno-economicmore »method. The key findings of this study are summarized as follows: (1) deterministic analysis shows there are approximately 1.1 billion tons (7.7 billion barrels) of incremental crude oil and 2.2 billion tons CO? storage resource for onshore CO?-EOR at net positive revenue within the Chinese oil fields reviewed under the given operating strategy and economic assumptions. (2) Sensitivity study highlights that the cumulative oil production and cumulative CO? storage resource are very sensitive to crude oil price, CO? cost, project lifetime, discount rate and tax policy. High oil price, short project lifetime, low discount rate, low CO? cost, and low tax policy can greatly increase the net income of the oil enterprise, incremental oil recovery and CO? storage resource. (3) From this techno-economic evaluation, the major barriers to large-scale deployment of CO?-EOR include complex geological conditions, low API of crude oil, high tax policy, and lack of incentives for the CO?-EOR project.« less

  15. Field Cage Studies and Progressive Evaluation of Genetically-Engineered Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Facchinelli, Luca; Valerio, Laura; Ramsey, Janine M.; Gould, Fred; Walsh, Rachael K.; Bond, Guillermo; Robert, Michael A.; Lloyd, Alun L.; James, Anthony A.; Alphey, Luke; Scott, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    Background A genetically-engineered strain of the dengue mosquito vector Aedes aegypti, designated OX3604C, was evaluated in large outdoor cage trials for its potential to improve dengue prevention efforts by inducing population suppression. OX3604C is engineered with a repressible genetic construct that causes a female-specific flightless phenotype. Wild-type females that mate with homozygous OX3604C males will not produce reproductive female offspring. Weekly introductions of OX3604C males eliminated all three targeted Ae. aegypti populations after 10–20 weeks in a previous laboratory cage experiment. As part of the phased, progressive evaluation of this technology, we carried out an assessment in large outdoor field enclosures in dengue endemic southern Mexico. Methodology/Principal Findings OX3604C males were introduced weekly into field cages containing stable target populations, initially at 10?1 ratios. Statistically significant target population decreases were detected in 4 of 5 treatment cages after 17 weeks, but none of the treatment populations were eliminated. Mating competitiveness experiments, carried out to explore the discrepancy between lab and field cage results revealed a maximum mating disadvantage of up 59.1% for OX3604C males, which accounted for a significant part of the 97% fitness cost predicted by a mathematical model to be necessary to produce the field cage results. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that OX3604C may not be effective in large-scale releases. A strain with the same transgene that is not encumbered by a large mating disadvantage, however, could have improved prospects for dengue prevention. Insights from large outdoor cage experiments may provide an important part of the progressive, stepwise evaluation of genetically-engineered mosquitoes. PMID:23350003

  16. Laboratory and field evaluation of hot mix asphalt with high contents of reclaimed asphalt pavement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Winkle, Clinton Isaac

    Currently in Iowa, the amount of RAP materials allowed for the surface layer is limited to 15% by weight. The objective of this project was to develop quality standards for inclusion of RAP content higher than 15% in asphalt mixtures. To meet Superpave mix design requirements, it was necessary to fractionate the RAP materials. Based on the extensive sieve-by-sieve analysis of RAP materials, the optimum sieve size to fractionate RAP materials was identified. To determine if the higher percentage of RAP materials than 15% can be used in Iowa's state highway, three test sections with 30.0%, 35.5% and 39.2% of RAP materials were constructed on Highway 6 in Iowa City. The construction of the field test sections was monitored and the cores were obtained to measure field densities of test sections. Field mixtures collected from test sections were compacted in the laboratory in order to test the moisture sensitivity using a Hamburg Wheel Tracking Device. The binder was extracted from the field mixtures with varying amounts of RAP materials and tested to determine the effects of RAP materials on the PG grade of a virgin binder. Field cores were taken from the various mix designs to determine the percent density of each test section. A condition survey of the test sections was then performed to evaluate the short-term performance.

  17. Blind Field Test Evaluation of Raman Spectroscopy as a Forensic Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, Scott D. ); Vucelick, Mark E.; Lee, Richard N. ); Wright, Bob W. )

    2001-12-01

    Analytical instrumentation for Raman spectroscopy has advanced rapidly in recent years to the point where commercial field-portable instruments are available. Raman analysis with portable instrumentation is a new capability that can provide emergency response teams with on-site evaluation of hazardous materials. Before Raman analysis is accepted and implemented in the field, realistic studies applied to unknown samples need to be performed to define the reliability of this technique. Studies described herein provide a rigorous blind field test that utilizes 2 instruments and 2 operators to analyze a matrix that consists of 58 unknown samples. Samples were searched against a custom hazardous materials reference library[Hazardous Material Response Unit (HMRU) Spectral Library Database]. Experimental design included a number of intentionally difficult situations including binary solvent mixtures and a variety of compounds that yield medium quality spectra that were not contained in the HMRU library. Results showed that over 97% of the samples were correctly identified with no occurrences of false positive identifications (compounds that were not in the library were never identified as library constituents). Statistical analysis indicated equivalent performance for both the operators and instruments. These results indicate a high level of performance that should extrapolate to actual field situations. Implementation of Raman techniques to emergency field situations should proceed with a corresponding level of confidence.

  18. A field screening method using earthworms (Eisenia foetida andrei) to evaluate contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Wilborn, D.C.; Bollman, M.A.; Gillett, C.S.; Ott, S.L.; Linder, G.L.

    1997-09-01

    An on-site biological assessment for soil toxicity was performed using a lumbricid earthworm, Eisenia foetida andrei, at the Milltown Reservoir Superfund Site on the Clark Fork River near Missoula, MT. The assessment provided an opportunity to evaluate test containers and methodologies. Sixty-four field test stations, each consisting of three test containers of site soil, a control container of artificial soil, and a container to house soil moisture and temperature recording devices, were used. Laboratory tests were conducted on soil samples from selected field stations. The test containers were constructed from sections of polyvinyl chloride pipe and were found to be suitable in preventing escape of test organisms and damage by animals. The site soils had levels of arsenic, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc higher than those in surrounding watersheds. Combined mortality for exposure to the site soil was similar in both the laboratory and field tests. Combined sublethal responses to the site soil were also similar in both laboratory and field tests. Artificial soil controls in both field and laboratory tests resulted in combined mortality rates of 1% or less. The methodologies employed proved successful in maintaining an adequate soil moisture level and allowed for measurement of soil temperature.

  19. DNAPL SITE EVALUATION - Project Summary

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dense nonaqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs), especially chlorinated solvents, are among the most prevalent subsurface contaminants identified in ground-water supplies and at waste disposal sites. There are several site-characterization issues specific to DNAPL sites including (a) the...

  20. Self-contained self-rescuer long term field evaluation: combined eighth and ninth phase results

    SciTech Connect

    2006-10-15

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory (NPPTL) and the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) conduct a Long Term Field Evaluation (LTFE) program to evaluate deployed self-contained self rescuers (SCSRs). The objective of the program is to evaluate how well SCSRs endure the underground coal mining environment with regard to both physical damage and aging when they are deployed in accordance with Federal regulations (30 CFR 75.1714). This report presents findings of the combined eighth and ninth phases of the LTFE. For these phases, over four hundred SCSRs were evaluated. The units tested include the CSE SR-100, Draeger Oxy K-Plus, MSA Life-saver 60, and the OCENCO EBA 6.5. The OCENCO 20 was evaluated only in Phase 9. Testing was performed between December 2000 and April 2004. Results of the evaluation indicate that all SCSRs experience some performance degradation due to the mining environment. Observed degradation varies from elevated levels of carbon dioxide, high breathing resistance, and reduced capacity. Mechanical degradation to the SCSR components included breathing hoses, chemical beds, outer cases and seals. The LTFE tests discussed in this report are different from tests performed for SCSR certification to the requirements of 42 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 84 (42 CFR, Part 84). LTFE tests reported here are conducted to an end point, oxygen depletion, to enable comparison of the duration of new and deployed SCSRs. The method for obtaining deployed SCSRs for this evaluation was not a random selection from the deployed population of SCSRs. Although the results of these tests are useful for observing performance of the tested SCSRs, they are not representative of all deployed SCSRs. 9 refs., 10 figs., 9 tabs., 3 apps.

  1. Evaluating the impact of field-scale management strategies on sediment transport to the watershed outlet.

    PubMed

    Sommerlot, Andrew R; Pouyan Nejadhashemi, A; Woznicki, Sean A; Prohaska, Michael D

    2013-10-15

    Non-point source pollution from agricultural lands is a significant contributor of sediment pollution in United States lakes and streams. Therefore, quantifying the impact of individual field management strategies at the watershed-scale provides valuable information to watershed managers and conservation agencies to enhance decision-making. In this study, four methods employing some of the most cited models in field and watershed scale analysis were compared to find a practical yet accurate method for evaluating field management strategies at the watershed outlet. The models used in this study including field-scale model (the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation 2 - RUSLE2), spatially explicit overland sediment delivery models (SEDMOD), and a watershed-scale model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool - SWAT). These models were used to develop four modeling strategies (methods) for the River Raisin watershed: Method 1) predefined field-scale subbasin and reach layers were used in SWAT model; Method 2) subbasin-scale sediment delivery ratio was employed; Method 3) results obtained from the field-scale RUSLE2 model were incorporated as point source inputs to the SWAT watershed model; and Method 4) a hybrid solution combining analyses from the RUSLE2, SEDMOD, and SWAT models. Method 4 was selected as the most accurate among the studied methods. In addition, the effectiveness of six best management practices (BMPs) in terms of the water quality improvement and associated cost were assessed. Economic analysis was performed using Method 4, and producer requested prices for BMPs were compared with prices defined by the Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP). On a per unit area basis, producers requested higher prices than EQIP in four out of six BMP categories. Meanwhile, the true cost of sediment reduction at the field and watershed scales was greater than EQIP in five of six BMP categories according to producer requested prices. PMID:23851319

  2. Laboratory development and field evaluation of a generic method for sampling and analysis of isocyanates. Revised final report

    SciTech Connect

    McGaughey, J.F.; Foster, S.C.; Merrill, R.G.

    1995-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), under the authority of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990, requires the identification and validation of sampling and analytical methods for the isocyanate compounds which are listed among the 189 hazardous air pollutants identified in Title III. In all, three field tests were performed to accomplish the isocyanate field evaluation. The objective of this work was to develop and evaluate the isocyanate sampling and analytical test method through field testing at operating stationary sources. The method was evaluated by collecting flue gas samples for the analysis of the individual isocyanate and evaluating the data for bias and precision. EPA Method 301, Field Validation of Pollutant Measurement Methods from Various Waste Media, was used as the model for the experimental design of this method evaluation project.

  3. Merit function for the evaluation of color uniformity in the far field of LED spot lights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teupner, Anne; Bergenek, Krister; Wirth, Ralph; Miñano, Juan C.; Benítez, Pablo

    2014-02-01

    The scope of the present paper is the derivation of a merit function which predicts the visual perception of LED spot lights. The color uniformity level Usl is described by a linear regression function of the spatial color distribution in the far field. Hereby, the function is derived from four basic functions. They describe the color uniformity of spot lights through different features. The result is a reliable prediction for the perceived color uniformity in spot lights. A human factor experiment was performed to evaluate the visual preferences for colors and patterns. A perceived rank order was derived from the subjects' answers and compared with the four basic functions. The correlation between the perceived rank order and the basic functions was calculated resulting in the definition of the merit function Usl. The application of this function is shown by a comparison of visual evaluations and measurements of LED retrofit spot lamps. The results enable a prediction of color uniformity levels of simulations and measurements concerning the visual perception. The function provides a possibility to evaluate the far field of spot lights without individual subjective judgment.

  4. Evaluation of Scattered Wave and Stress Concentration Field in a Damaged Solder Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dineva, P.; Gross, D.; Rangelov, T.

    1999-06-01

    Two different, but equally important problems for solder joint reliability are solved. The evaluation of the dynamic stress concentration field in the thin base layer of a damaged solder joint is the first one. It is considered as a rectangular plate with a central macro-crack surrounded with randomly distributed micro-cracks, subjected to uniform time-harmonic tension. The damaged solder joint state is described by the model of Gross and Zhang [1] (International Journal of Solids and Structures29, 1763-1779). The information of the stress concentration field in a damaged solder joint is important to understand the mechanisms in the base components of all electronic packages.The second problem is ultrasonic wave scattering in a solder joint damaged by micro-cracks, considered as a two-dimensional finite multi-layered system. The solution of this problem may aid the creation of the modern non-destructive evaluation method (NDEM) for a high quality control of products in electronic industry.The method of the solution of both boundary-value problems is a direct BIEM (boundary integral equation method). The numerical results obtained for a solder joint with real geometry and physical properties show how the acoustic and stress concentration fields depend on the solder joint damage state. The character of this dependence is discussed.

  5. Field-scale evaluation of enhanced aquifer remediation using in-situ alcohol flushing

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, P.S.C.; Annable, M.D.; Hatfield, K.H.; Graham, W.D.; Wood, A.L.; Enfield, C.

    1995-09-01

    In-situ flushing of soils and aquifers contaminated with a variety of fuels and oils (e.g., gasoline, diesel, jet fuels, solvents, degreasers, coal tar, creosote, etc.) is based on enhanced mobilization and/or solubilization of the entrapped residual oils. The former technique involves immiscible displacement of oil macroemulsions, ganglia, blobs, and banks, whereas the latter technique is based on enhanced solubilization of the oil constituents and their miscible displacement. Results from lab-scale and field-scale evaluations of in-situ flushing with water-alcohol mixtures for enhanced solubilization of residual oils will be discussed. Emphasis of the presentation will be on the data collected during a recently completed field test of the in-situ cosolvent flushing technology, which was conducted at the Hill Air Force Base, utah, to remediate a shallow, unconfined aquifer contaminated with jet fuel and chlorinated solvents. As a part of this field test, studies were also conducted to evaluate the use of partitioning tracers (methyl alcohols) for quantifying the residual oils present at the site prior to and after cosolvent flushing. Criteria for performance assessment as well as the technological, regulatory, and economic factors governing full-scale applications for aquifer remediation will be discussed.

  6. Evaluating the Field Emission Characteristics of Aluminum for DC High Voltage Photo-Electron Guns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taus, Rhys; Poelker, Matthew; Forman, Eric; Mamun, Abdullah

    2013-10-01

    High current photoguns require high power laser light, but only a small portion of the laser light illuminating the photocathode produces electron beam. Most of the laser light (~ 65%) simply serves to heat the photocathode, which leads to evaporation of the chemicals required to create the negative electron affinity condition necessary for photoemission. Photocathode cooling techniques have been employed to address this problem, but active cooling of the photocathode is complicated because the cooling apparatus must float at high voltage. This work evaluates the field emission characteristics of cathode electrodes manufactured from materials with high thermal conductivity: aluminum and copper. These electrodes could serve as effective heat sinks, to passively cool the photocathode that resides within such a structure. However, literature suggests ``soft'' materials like aluminum and copper are ill suited for photogun applications, due to excessive field emission when biased at high voltage. This work provides an evaluation of aluminum and copper electrodes inside a high voltage field emission test stand, before and after coating with titanium nitride (TiN), a coating that enhances surface hardness. National Science Foundation Award Number: 1062320 and the Department of Defence ASSURE program.

  7. Evaluating the Field Emission Characteristics of Aluminum for DC High Voltage Photo-Electron Guns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taus, Rhys; Poelker, Matthew; Forman, Eric; Mamun, Abdullah

    2014-03-01

    High current photoguns require high power laser light, but only a small portion of the laser light illuminating the photocathode produces electron beam. Most of the laser light (~ 65%) simply serves to heat the photocathode, which leads to evaporation of the chemicals required to create the negative electron affinity condition necessary for photoemission. Photocathode cooling techniques have been employed to address this problem, but active cooling of the photocathode is complicated because the cooling apparatus must float at high voltage. This work evaluates the field emission characteristics of cathode electrodes manufactured from materials with high thermal conductivity: aluminum and copper. These electrodes could serve as effective heat sinks, to passively cool the photocathode that resides within such a structure. However, literature suggests ``soft'' materials like aluminum and copper are ill suited for photogun applications, due to excessive field emission when biased at high voltage. This work provides an evaluation of aluminum and copper electrodes inside a high voltage field emission test stand, before and after coating with titanium nitride (TiN), a coating that enhances surface hardness. National Science Foundation Award Number: 1062320 and the Department of Defence ASSURE program.

  8. BRIDGE Summary Minutes BRIDGE Group Meeting

    E-print Network

    BRIDGE Summary Minutes 05.25.10 1 BRIDGE Group Meeting Date: 05.18.10 Agenda 1. CPPM FY 11 Rates and he is sure that they will be making adjustments. He asked BRIDGE members to remain patient. The rate will reduce 16 positions initially and evaluate an additional 8 positions during FY11. #12;BRIDGE Summary

  9. Summary28

    Cancer.gov

    Common Themes Big Data Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial National Digital Mammography Archive Lung Image Database Consortium Radiotherapy Databases Dermatology Atlas Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program BIRN R.

  10. Neurophysiology Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.

    2001-01-01

    The terrestrial gravitational field serves as an important orientation reference for human perception and movement, being continually monitored by sensory receptors in the skin, muscles, joints, and vestibular otolith organs. Cues from these graviceptors are used by the brain to estimate spatial orientation and to control balance and movement. Changes in these cues associated with the tonic changes in gravity (gravito-inertial force),during the launch and entry phases of space flight missions result in altered perceptions, degraded motor control performance, and in some cases, "motion" sickness during, and for a period of time after, the g-transitions. In response to these transitions, however, physiological and behavioral response mechanisms are triggered to compensate for altered graviceptor cues and/or to adapt to the new sensory environment. Basic research in the neurophysiology discipline is focused on understanding the characteristic features of and the underlying mechanisms for the normal human response to tonic changes in the gravito-inertial force environment. These studies address fundamental questions regarding the role of graviceptors in orientation and movement in the terrestrial environment, as well as the capacity, specificity, and modes for neural plasticity in the sensory-motor and perceptual systems of the brain. At the 2001 workshop basic research studies were presented addressing: neuroanatomical responses to altered gravity environments, the neural mechanisms for resolving the ambiguity between tilting and translational stimuli in otolith organ sensory input, interactions between the vestibular system and the autonomic nervous system , the roles of haptic and visual cues in spatial orientation, mechanisms for training environment-appropriate sensorimotor responses triggered by environment-specific context cues, and studies of sensori-motor control of posture and locomotion in the terrestrial environment with and without recent exposure to space flight. Building on these basic research studies are more applied studies focused on the development of countermeasures to the untoward neurophysiological responses to space flight. At the 2001 workshop, applied research studies were presented addressing issues related to the use of rotational artificial gravity (centripetal acceleration) as a multisystem (bone, muscle, cardiovascular, and, perhaps, neurovestibular) countermeasure. Also presented was a clinical study reporting on a new rating system for clinical evaluation of postflight functional neurological status.

  11. FY 1996 activity summary

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear and Facility Safety provides nuclear safety policy, independent technical evaluation, and technical support. A summary of these activities is provided in this report. These include: (1) changing the mission of the former production facilities to storage and waste management; (2) stabilizing nuclear materials not recycled due to production cessation or interruptions; (3) reformulating the authorization basis for existing facilities to convert to a standards based approach for operations consistent with modern expectations; and (4) implementing a modern regulatory framework for nuclear facilities. Enforcement of the Price-Anderson Amendments Act is also reported.

  12. Designing, implementing and evaluating e-prescription: a field study and comparison with PSIP results.

    PubMed

    Riccioli, Costanza; Cacciabue, P Carlo; Campanini, Mauro; Jung, Martin

    2011-01-01

    E-prescription is amongst the most widespread medical electronic support functions. However, several studies reported acceptance and utilisation rates not as high as expected. This paper performs firstly an analysis of the literature on e-prescription characteristics and functionalities especially with respect to their actual usage. Then a specific field study was conducted in an Internal Medicine ward, to investigate human factor issues associated to the introduction of an e-prescription system. Finally, the findings of the field study are framed within the actual implementation of various electronic support outputs resulting from the European Project "Patient safety through intelligent procedures in medication" (PSIP). The results show the importance of a systemic view when designing, implementing and evaluating medical support systems, as the pre-existing structures and tools largely influence the impact of those systems and their effects. PMID:21685616

  13. Comprehensive Evaluation of Attitude and Orbit Estimation Using Actual Earth Magnetic Field Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschmann, Julie K.; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.

    2000-01-01

    A single, augmented Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), which simultaneously and autonomously estimates spacecraft attitude and orbit has been developed and successfully tested with real magnetometer and gyro data only. Because the earth magnetic field is a function of time and position, and because time is known quite precisely, the differences between the computed and measured magnetic field components, as measured by the magnetometers throughout the entire spacecraft orbit, are a function of both orbit and attitude errors. Thus, conceivably these differences could be used to estimate both orbit and attitude; an observability study validated this assumption. The results of testing the EKF with actual magnetometer and gyro data, from four satellites supported by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Guidance, Navigation, and Control Center, are presented and evaluated. They confirm the assumption that a single EKF can estimate both attitude and orbit when using gyros and magnetometers only.

  14. EVALUATION OF SILICON DIODES AS IN-SITU CRYOGENIC FIELD EMISSION DETECTORS FOR SRF CAVITY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Ari Palczewski, Rongli Geng

    2012-07-01

    We performed in-situ cryogenic testing of four silicon diodes as possible candidates for field emission (FE) monitors of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities during qualification testing and in accelerator cryo-modules. We evaluated diodes from 2 companies - from Hamamatsu corporation model S1223-01; and from OSI Optoelectronics models OSD35-LR-A, XUV-50C, and FIL-UV20. The measurements were done by placing the diodes in superfluid liquid helium near the top of a field emitting 9-cell cavity during its vertical test. For each diode, we will discuss their viability as a 2K cryogenic detector for FE mapping of SRF cavities and the directionality of S1223-01 in such environments. We will also present calibration curves between the diodes and JLab's standard radiation detector placed above the Dewar's top plate.

  15. An evaluation of the impact of community health field stations in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    The UERD (Unite d'Enseignement et de Recherche en Demographie) carries out an ongoing research project that aims to evaluate community-based strategies in the provision of reproductive health services in the Bazega community health field station in Burkina Faso. UERD evaluates the effectiveness of two different strategies: 1) the improvement of Health Center based FP services and 2) the recruitment and training of agents selected from the local community (community-based service agents, or CBS agents). 18 months after the interventions began UERD made an evaluation of its impact on the general population based on a quasi-experimental research design and a detailed protocol. The results indicate a significant increase in contraceptive prevalence (from 3.6% to 8%) in the zone of CBS intervention over the course of the period. However, the prevalence levels remain weak. The growth in contraceptive prevalence was not determined to be the result of an increased demand brought about by the CBS agents, but instead by improving accessibility due to the proximity of the supply. The research sample comprised 1600 randomly selected compounds (2000 women and 1500 men), which allows for another evaluation in the year 2000. It was designed to permit research in other areas of reproductive health such as HIV/AIDS and STDs, FGM, abortion, etc. PMID:12349454

  16. Full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) for evaluation of endometrial cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruhat, Alexis; Combrinck, Marais; Dalimier, Eugénie; Harms, Fabrice; Fine, Jeffrey L.

    2015-02-01

    Full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) quickly produces images that resemble conventional pathology images. We examined endometrium in an intra-operative like fashion (more than forty samples). FFOCT-imaged endometrium was recognizable to pathologists and compared favorably with microscopy of the same samples. Additional image enhancements and acquisition techniques were explored and may improve interpretation accuracy. Wider evaluation of images is ongoing, using more pathologist subjects. FFOCT may revolutionize pathology practice in the future by permitting rapid diagnosis and in vivo diagnosis; this is potentially a disruptive new diagnostic technique in pathology.

  17. Field analytical techniques for mercury in soils technology evaluation. Topical report, November 1994--March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Solc, J.; Harju, J.A.; Grisanti, A.A.

    1998-02-01

    This report presents the evaluation of the four field analytical techniques for mercury detection in soils, namely (1) an anodic stripping voltametry technique (ASV) developed and tested by General Electric Corporation; (2) a static headspace analysis (SHSA) technique developed and tested by Dr. Ralph Turner of Oak Ridge National Laboratory; (3) the BiMelyze{reg_sign} Mercury Immunoassay (Bio) developed and tested by BioNebraska, Inc.; and (4) a transportable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) instrument/technique developed and tested by Spectrace, Inc.

  18. Parameter Evaluation of a Simple Mean-Field Model of Social Interaction

    E-print Network

    Ignacio Gallo; Adriano Barra; Pierluigi Contucci

    2008-11-20

    The aim of this work is to implement a statistical mechanics theory of social interaction, generalizing econometric discrete choice models. A class of simple mean field discrete models is introduced and discussed both from the theoretical and phenomenological point of view. We propose a parameter evaluation procedure and test it by fitting our model against three families of data coming from different cases: the estimated interaction parameters are found to have similar positive values establishing a quantitative confirmation of the peer imitation behavior found in social psychology. Moreover all the values of the interaction parameters belong to the phase transition regime suggesting its possible role in the study of social systems.

  19. Field evaluation of three botanical repellents against Psorophora ferox, Aedes atlanticus, and Aedes mitchellae.

    PubMed

    Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rui-De

    2009-09-01

    Three botanical natural repellents, Swamp Buddy Bug Chaser (AI 12% plant-based essential oils), All Sport (AI plant-based essential oils, benzophenone-3, octinoxate, and octisalate), and Geraniol (AI 25% geraniol oil and lemongrass extract) were evaluated at a field site in Elkton, Florida, to determine the protection time provided against Psorophora ferox, Aedes atlanticus, and Ae. mitchellae. These three products provided different protection times against biting mosquitoes. Geraniol provided the longest protection time from mosquito bites (4 h), followed by All Sport (1.5 h) and Swamp Buddy Bug Chaser (1 h). This study provides the first information about botanical insect repellents against these floodwater mosquito species. PMID:19852232

  20. Parameter Evaluation of a Simple Mean-Field Model of Social Interaction

    E-print Network

    Gallo, Ignacio; Contucci, Pierluigi

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to implement a statistical mechanics theory of social interaction, generalizing econometric discrete choice models. A class of simple mean field discrete models is introduced and discussed both from the theoretical and phenomenological point of view. We propose a parameter evaluation procedure and test it by fitting our model against three families of data coming from different cases: the estimated interaction parameters are found to have similar positive values establishing a quantitative confirmation of the peer imitation behavior found in social psychology. Moreover all the values of the interaction parameters belong to the phase transition regime suggesting its possible role in the study of social systems.

  1. Evaluation of the angular spectrum approach for simulations of near-field pressures

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xiaozheng; McGough, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of the angular spectrum approach based on the two-dimensional fast Fourier transform is evaluated for near-field pressure simulations of square ultrasound transducers, where the three-dimensional pressure field is calculated from the normal velocity distribution on the transducer surface. The pressure field is propagated in the spatial frequency domain with the spatial propagator or the spectral propagator. The spatial propagator yields accurate results in the central portion of the computational grid, while, significant errors are produced near the edge due to the finite extent of the window applied to the spatial propagator. Likewise, the spectral propagator is inherently undersampled in the spatial frequency domain, and this causes high frequency errors in the computed pressure field. This aliasing problem is alleviated with angular restriction. The results show that, in nonattenuating media, the spatial propagator achieves smaller errors than the spectral propagator after the region of interest is truncated to exclude the windowing error. For pressure calculations in attenuating media or with apodized pistons as sources, the spatial and spectral propagators achieve similar accuracies. In all simulations, angular spectrum calculations with the spatial propagator take more time than calculations with the spectral propagator. PMID:18177139

  2. Evaluation of six pesticides leaching indexes using field data of herbicide application in Casablanca Valley, Chile.

    PubMed

    Kogan, M; Rojas, S; Gómez, P; Suárez, F; Muñoz, J F; Alister, C

    2007-01-01

    A field study was performed to evaluate the accuracy of six pesticide screening leaching indexes for herbicide movement. Adsorption, dissipation and soil movement were studied in a vineyard in a sandy loam soil during 2005 season. Simazine, diuron, pendimethalin, oxyfluorfen and flumioxazin were applied to bare soil at rates commonly used, and their soil concentrations throughout soil profile were determined at 0, 10, 20, 40 and 90 days after application (DAA). Herbicides were subjected to two pluviometric regimens, natural field condition and modified conditions (plus natural rainfall 180 mm). Leaching indexes utilized were: Briggs's Rf, Hamaker's Rf, LEACH, LPI, GUS and LIX. Simazine reached 120 cm, diuron 90 cm, flumioxazin 30 cm soil depth respectively. Pendimethalin and oxyfluorfen were retained up to 5 cm. None of the herbicides leaching was affected by rainfall regimen. Only flumioxazin field dissipation was clearly affected by pluviometric condition. The best representation of the herbicide soil depth movement and leaching below 15 cm soil depth were: Hamaker's Rf < Briggs's Rf < GUS < LPI, < LEACH < LIX. Field results showed a good correlation between herbicides K(d) and their soil depth movement and mass leached below 15 cm soil depth. PMID:17849992

  3. Field evaluation of ground water sampling devices for volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Muska, C F; Colven, W P; Jones, V D; Scogin, J T; Looney, B B; Price, V Jr

    1986-01-01

    Previous studies conducted under laboratory conditions demonstrated that the type of device used to sample ground water contaminated with volatile organic compounds can significantly influence and analytical results. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, under field conditions, both commercial and developmental ground water sampling devices as part of an ongoing ground water contamination investigation and remediation program at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Ground water samples were collected using six types of sampling devices in monitoring wells of different depths and concentrations of volatile organic contaminants (primarily trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene). The study matrix was designed to statistically compare the reuslts of each sampling device under the test conditions. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation criteria were used to determine the relative performance of each device. Two categories of sampling devices were evaluated in this field study, positive displacement pumps and grab samplers. The positive displacement pumps consisted of a centrifugal (mechanical) pump and a bladder pump. The grab samples tested were a syringe sampler, a dual-check valve bailer, a surface bomb sampler, and a pressurized bailer. Preliminary studies were conducted to establish the analytical and sampling variability associated with each device. All six devices were then used to collect ground water samples in water table (unconfined), semi-confined aquifer, and confined aquifer monitoring wells. Results were evaluated against a set of criteria that included intrasampling device variability (precision), volatile organic concentration (accuracy), sampling and analytical logistics, and cost. The study showed that, by using careful and reproducible procedures, overall sampling variability is low regardless of sampling device.

  4. The SQUIRE Guidelines: an evaluation from the field, 5?years post release

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Louise; Batalden, Paul; Davidoff, Frank; Stevens, David; Ogrinc, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Background The Standards for Quality Improvement Reporting Excellence (SQUIRE) Guidelines were published in 2008 to increase the completeness, precision and accuracy of published reports of systematic efforts to improve the quality, value and safety of healthcare. Since that time, the field has expanded. We asked people from the field to evaluate the Guidelines, a novel approach to a first step in revision. Methods Evaluative design using focus groups and semi-structured interviews with 29 end users and an advisory group of 18 thinkers in the field. Sampling of end users was purposive to achieve variation in work setting, geographic location, area of expertise, manuscript writing experience, healthcare improvement and research experience. Results Study participants reported that SQUIRE was useful in planning a healthcare improvement project, but not as helpful during writing because of redundancies, uncertainty about what was important to include and lack of clarity in items. The concept "planning the study of the intervention" (item 10) was hard for many participants to understand. Participants varied in their interpretation of the meaning of item 10b "the concept of the mechanism by which changes were expected to occur". Participants disagreed about whether iterations of an intervention should be reported. Level of experience in writing, knowledge of the science of improvement and the evolving meaning of some terms in the field are hypothesised as the reasons for these findings. Conclusions The original SQUIRE Guidelines help with planning healthcare improvement work, but are perceived as complicated and unclear during writing. Key goals of the revision will be to clarify items where conflict was identified and outline the key components necessary for complete reporting of improvement work. PMID:26089206

  5. A field study evaluation of short-term refined Gaussian dispersion models

    SciTech Connect

    Piper, A.

    1996-12-31

    A tracer study was conducted at the Duke Forest Site in Chapel Hill, North Carolina in January, 1995 to evaluate the ability of three short-term refined Gaussian dispersion models to predict the fate of volume source emissions under field study conditions. Study participants included the American Petroleum Institute (API), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the US Department of Energy (DOE), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and private consulting firms. The models evaluated were Industrial Source Complex--Short Term versions 2 and 3 (ISC2, ISC3) and the American Meteorological Society (AMS) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Regulatory Model Improvement Committee (AERMIC) model, AERMOD. All three models are based on the steady-state Gaussian plume dispersion equation, which predicts concentrations at downwind receptor locations when integrated over the distance between the source and receptor. Chemicals were released at known rates and measurements were taken at various points in the study field using Tedlar bag point sampling and open-path Fourier Transform infrared (OP-FTIR) monitoring. The study found that ISC and AERMOD underpredicted the measured concentrations for each dataset collected in the field study. ISC and AERMOD each underpredicted the OPFTIR dataset by a factor of approximately 1.6. ISC underpredicted the Tedlar{reg_sign} dataset by approximately 2.1, while AERMOD underpredicted by a factor of approximately 2.6. Regardless of source configuration or measurement technique used, under-prediction with respect to the measured concentration was consistently observed. This indicates that safety factors or other corrections may be necessary in predicting contaminant concentrations over the distances examined in this study, i.e., in the near field of less than 200 meters.

  6. Evaluation and field-scale application of an analytical method to quantify groundwater discharge using mapped streambed temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Christian; Conant, Brewster; Bayer-Raich, Martí; Schirmer, Mario

    2007-12-01

    SummaryA method for calculating groundwater discharge through a streambed on a sub-reach to a reach scale has been developed using data from plan-view mapping of streambed temperatures at a uniform depth along a reach of a river or stream. An analytical solution of the one-dimensional steady-state heat-diffusion-advection equation was used to determine fluxes from observed temperature data. The method was applied to point measurements of streambed temperatures used to map a 60 m long reach of a river by Conant Jr. [Conant Jr. B., 2004. Delineating and quantifying ground water discharge zones using streambed temperatures. Ground Water 42(2), 243-257] and relies on the underlying assumption that streambed temperatures are in a quasi-steady-state during the period of mapping. The analytical method was able to match the values and pattern of flux previously obtained using an empirical relationship that related streambed temperatures to fluxes obtained from piezometers and using Darcy's law. A second independent test of the analytical method using temperature mapping and seepage meter fluxes along a first-order stream confirmed the validity of the approach. The USGS numerical heat transport model VS2DH was also used to evaluate the thermal response of the streambed sediments to transient variations in surface water temperatures and showed that quasi-steady-state conditions occurred for most, but not all, conditions. During mapping events in the winter, quasi-steady-state conditions were typically observed for both high and low groundwater discharge conditions, but during summer mapping events quasi-steady-state conditions were typically not achieved at low flux areas or where measurements were made at shallow depths. Major advantages of using this analytical method include: it can be implemented using a spreadsheet; it does not require the installation or testing of piezometers or seepage meters (although they would help to confirm the results); and it needs only a minimal amount of input data related to water temperatures and the thermal properties of water and the sediments. The field results showed the analytical solution tends to underestimate high fluxes. However, a sensitivity analysis of possible model inputs shows the solution is relatively robust and not particularly sensitive to small uncertainties in input data and can produce reasonable flux estimates without the need for calibration.

  7. Evaluation of single-field macro element for predicting 3D material properties of plain weave composites 

    E-print Network

    Noh, Jae Huek

    1997-01-01

    The performance of single field macro elements based on subdomain integration was evaluated. A macro element is defined to be an element which can account for microstructure within a single element. The effective engineering properties have been...

  8. A quantitative health assessment index for rapid evaluation of fish condition in the field

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.M. ); Brown, A.M. ); Goede, R.W. )

    1993-01-01

    The health assessment index (HAI) is an extension and refinement of a previously published field necropsy system. The HAI is a quantitative index that allows statistical comparisons of fish health among data sets. Index variables are assigned numerical values based on the degree of severity or damage incurred by an organ or tissue from environmental stressors. This approach has been used to evaluate the general health status of fish populations in a wide range of reservoir types in the Tennessee River basin (North Carolina, Tennessee, Alabama, Kentucky), in Hartwell Reservoir (Georgia, South Carolina) that is contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls, and in the Pigeon River (Tennessee, North Carolina) that receives effluents from a bleaches kraft mill. The ability of the HAI to accurately characterize the health of fish in these systems was evaluated by comparing this index to other types of fish health measures (contaminant, bioindicator, and reproductive analysis) made at the same time as the HAI. In all cases, the HAI demonstrated the same pattern of fish health status between sites as did each of the other more sophisticated health assessment methods. The HAI has proven to be a simple and inexpensive means of rapidly assessing general fish health in field situations. 29 refs., 5 tabs.

  9. Laboratory and field evaluation of a biological monitoring system using Corbicula fluminea and Mulinia lateralis

    SciTech Connect

    Waller, W.T.; Allen, H.J.; Schwalm, F.U.; Acevedo, M.F.; Ammann, L.P.; Dickson, K.L.; Kennedy, J.H.; Morgan, E.L.

    1995-12-31

    Laboratory and field experiments have been performed to evaluate a non-invasive biomonitoring system using the Asiatic clam Corbicula fluminea and Mulinia lateralis. C. fluminea was exposed to simulated episodic toxicity events in the laboratory using copper, diazinon, and regulated flow rates. Group behavior during these simulated events was compared to behavior during unstressed periods to develop a statistical model and an alarm criteria. Bayou Chico, Pensacola Bay, FL, was the site for field experiments in which M. lateralis was placed in situ to evaluate the performance of the biomonitoring system. The biomonitoring system consists of proximity sensors which detect an aluminum foil target attached to the valve of an organism. Valve movements of the clams are then digitally recorded using a personal computer. Data collected from remote sites are telemetered to the lab using short wave radio. In its final form, the authors envision an in situ biological monitoring system using bivalves deployed in aquatic systems in conjunction with automated monitoring systems like those found at USGS gauging stations. A tool such as this could be used as a warning system to increase the probability of detecting toxic events as they occur.

  10. National-scale, field-based evaluation of the biota - Sediment accumulation factor model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, C.S.; Capel, P.D.; Nowell, L.H.

    2001-01-01

    The biota - sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) model has been suggested as a simple tool to predict bioaccumulation of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs)in fish and other aquatic biota from measured concentrations in sediment based on equilibrium partitioning between the sediment organic carbon and biotic lipid pools. Currently, evaluation of this model as a predictive tool has been limited to laboratory studies and small-scale field studies, using a limited number of biotic species. This study evaluates the model, from field data, for a suite of organochlorine HOCs from paired fluvial sediment and biota (fish and bivalves) samples throughout the United States and over a large range of biotic species. These data represent a real-world, worst-case scenario of the model because environmental variables are not controlled. Median BSAF values for fish (3.3) and bivalves (2.8) were not statistically different but are higher than theoretically predicted values (1-2). BSAF values varied significantly in a few species. Differences in chemical-specific BSAF values were not observed in bivalves but were statistically significant in fish. The HOCs with differing BSAF values were those known to be biotransformed. Sediment organic carbon content and biota lipid content had no effect on BSAF values in fish and only a weak effect in bivalves. This study suggests that the BSAF model could be useful under in situ riverine conditions as a first-level screening tool for predicting bioaccumulation; however, variability in BSAF values may impose limits on its utility.

  11. Evaluation of the Ott Hydromet Qliner for measuring discharge in laboratory and field conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McVay, Jason C.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the University of Iowa IIHR – Hydroscience and Engineering, evaluated the use of the Ott Hydromet Qliner using laboratory flume tests along with field validation tests. Analysis of the flume testing indicates the velocities measured by the Qliner at a 40-second exposure time results in higher dispersion of velocities from the mean velocity of data collected with a 5-minute exposure time. The percent data spread from the mean of a 100-minute mean of Qliner velocities for a 40-second exposure time averaged 16.6 percent for the entire vertical, and a 5-minute mean produced a 6.2 percent data spread from the 100-minute mean. This 16.6 percent variation in measured velocity would result in a 3.32 percent variation in computed discharge assuming 25 verticals while averaging 4 bins in each vertical. The flume testing also provided results that indicate the blanking distance of 0.20 meters is acceptable when using beams 1 and 2, however beam 3 is negatively biased near the transducer and the 0.20-meter blanking distance is not sufficient. Field testing included comparing the measured discharge by the Qliner to the discharge measured by a Price AA mechanical current meter and a Teledyne RDI Rio Grande 1200 kilohertz acoustic Doppler current profiler. The field tests indicated a difference between the discharges measured with the Qliner and the field reference discharge between -14.0 and 8.0 percent; however the average percent difference for all 22 field comparisons was 0.22, which was not statistically significant.

  12. Identification and Evaluation of Educational Uses and Users for the STS. Executive Summary. Educational Planning for Utilization of Space Shuttle (ED-PLUSS). Final Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, H. A.; Christensen, D. L.

    Reported is a study to consider the educational uses of the space shuttle/space lab. Several specific tasks were identified and accomplished during the study and the summary addresses itself to five that are considered pertinent: (1) Potential User and Identification; (2) Identification and Analysis of Space Education Programs; (3) Planning…

  13. Summary of the Report of Final Evaluation, ESEA Title I Projects, Fiscal Year 1973; Phoenix Area, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Interior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Phoenix, AZ.

    A composite summary of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title I projects operated in the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), Phoenix Area, during fiscal year 1973 is given on an area-wide basis. Data, presented by charts and graphs, cover: the BIA's organization; enrollment in the Phoenix Area Schools by agency and school; expenditures;…

  14. Summary of the Report of Final Evaluation, ESEA Title I Projects, Fiscal Year 1974. Phoenix Area, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Interior. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Phoenix, AZ.

    A composite summary of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title I projects operated in the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), Phoenix Area, during fiscal year 1974 is given on an area-wide basis. Data, presented by charts and graphs, cover: the BIA's organization; enrollment in the Phoenix Area schools by agency and school; expenditures;…

  15. Summary of the Final Evaluation Report, ESEA Title I Projects, Fiscal Year 1975, Phoenix Area, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Interior. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Phoenix, AZ.

    A composite summary of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title I projects operated in the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), Phoenix Area, during fiscal year 1975 is given on an area-wide basis. Data, presented by charts and graphs, cover: the BIA's organization; student enrollment in the Phoenix Area schools by agency and school;…

  16. Laboratory and field measurements and evaluations of vibration at the handles of riveting hammers

    PubMed Central

    McDOWELL, THOMAS W.; WARREN, CHRISTOPHER; WELCOME, DANIEL E.; DONG, REN G.

    2015-01-01

    The use of riveting hammers can expose workers to harmful levels of hand-transmitted vibration (HTV). As a part of efforts to reduce HTV exposures through tool selection, the primary objective of this study was to evaluate the applicability of a standardized laboratory-based riveting hammer assessment protocol for screening riveting hammers. The second objective was to characterize the vibration emissions of reduced vibration riveting hammers and to make approximations of the HTV exposures of workers operating these tools in actual work tasks. Eight pneumatic riveting hammers were selected for the study. They were first assessed in a laboratory using the standardized method for measuring vibration emissions at the tool handle. The tools were then further assessed under actual working conditions during three aircraft sheet metal riveting tasks. Although the average vibration magnitudes of the riveting hammers measured in the laboratory test were considerably different from those measured in the field study, the rank orders of the tools determined via these tests were fairly consistent, especially for the lower vibration tools. This study identified four tools that consistently exhibited lower frequency-weighted and unweighted accelerations in both the laboratory and workplace evaluations. These observations suggest that the standardized riveting hammer test is acceptable for identifying tools that could be expected to exhibit lower vibrations in workplace environments. However, the large differences between the accelerations measured in the laboratory and field suggest that the standardized laboratory-based tool assessment is not suitable for estimating workplace riveting hammer HTV exposures. Based on the frequency-weighted accelerations measured at the tool handles during the three work tasks, the sheet metal mechanics assigned to these tasks at the studied workplace are unlikely to exceed the daily vibration exposure action value (2.5 m s?2) using any of the evaluated riveting hammers. PMID:22539561

  17. Field and laboratory evaluation of a diffusive emitter for semipassive release of PCE to an aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    Arildskov, N.P.; Devlin, J.F.

    2000-02-01

    In controlled field experiments or model aquifers, it is sometimes desirable to introduce solutes below the water table without perturbing the flow system. Diffusive emitters offer a means of achieving that goal. In this study, two laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate nylon tubing as a diffusive emitter for tetrachloroethene (PCE). The initial approach was to pump a saturated aqueous PCE solution through a piece of nylon tubing immersed in a flow-through contractor vessel. Millipore water was pumped through the contractor vessel at a constant rate. Due to PCE diffusion through the nylon, a steady-state concentration in the contractor vessel eventually developed. The process was well described by a computer model that accounted for retarded diffusion through the nylon. In a second experiment, pieces of nylon tubing were exposed to a relatively low concentration of PCE in water for 10 days in gently rotated hypovials. With the aid of a second diffusion model, the bulk diffusion coefficient was obtained from the concentration history of the solution. With the different experimental conditions taken into account, there was reasonably good agreement between the bulk diffusion coefficients in the two experiments. The results were used in the field design of a semipassive release system. Evaluation of this system showed a lower than expected steady-state concentration of PCE inside the releasing wells. The difference is likely due to lower temperature, variable PCE concentrations in the nylon tubing, and nonideal mixing in the wells. The work has shown that laboratory derived diffusion coefficients for polymeric materials are likely to be larger than, but within an order of magnitude of, the effective diffusion coefficients exhibited by emitters in the field. Nevertheless, with temperature corrections taken into account and proper well development, these values could be used to design emitters that would suit most practical applications.

  18. Efficient models for the evaluation and estimation of the gravity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Brandon A.

    2010-11-01

    Current astrodynamics applications require a rapid evaluation of the gravity field and an efficient approach to gravity estimation. The commonly used spherical harmonic model does not meet either of these needs. To address these issues, this research considers two new gravity representations: the cubed-sphere and the MRQSphere models. Offering a means for rapid evaluation, the cubed-sphere model yields an effectively constant computation time for any degree of the modeled gravity field. Analyzing the model's performance in a series of Monte-Carlo-like tests characterizes its effects on both orbit propagation and determination. When compared to the spherical harmonic gravity model, the cubed-sphere model improves computational efficiency without causing any significant deviation in resulting trajectories. Using this new model in sequential orbit determination improves the computational efficiency of the time update. As a result, the measurement update now dominates the filter execution time for near real-time applications. Since cubed-sphere models of higher degree require only a slight change in computation time, orbit propagation and determination systems may now use this model to improve fidelity without any significant change in cost. To address the gravity estimation problem, combining a new multiresolution technique with nearly optimal quadratures (for the sphere) invariant under the icosahedral group defines the MRQSphere model. This new multiresolution representation allows for gravity estimation via a naturally staged approach to a celestial body with an unknown gravity field, which aids in the design of missions to small bodies. To test the new model's capabilities, this research simulates a mission to an asteroid. Tests include the characterization of a MRQSphere model derived from the asteroid's spherical harmonic model, and the estimation of a model via observations of the gravity potential. For such a simplified scenario, the results indicate that the MRQSphere model meets the estimation accuracy requirements; future work is recommended to fully explore its capabilities.

  19. Evaluation of Specific Absorption Rate as a Dosimetric Quantity for Electromagnetic Fields Bioeffects

    PubMed Central

    Panagopoulos, Dimitris J.; Johansson, Olle; Carlo, George L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate SAR as a dosimetric quantity for EMF bioeffects, and identify ways for increasing the precision in EMF dosimetry and bioactivity assessment. Methods We discuss the interaction of man-made electromagnetic waves with biological matter and calculate the energy transferred to a single free ion within a cell. We analyze the physics and biology of SAR and evaluate the methods of its estimation. We discuss the experimentally observed non-linearity between electromagnetic exposure and biological effect. Results We find that: a) The energy absorbed by living matter during exposure to environmentally accounted EMFs is normally well below the thermal level. b) All existing methods for SAR estimation, especially those based upon tissue conductivity and internal electric field, have serious deficiencies. c) The only method to estimate SAR without large error is by measuring temperature increases within biological tissue, which normally are negligible for environmental EMF intensities, and thus cannot be measured. Conclusions SAR actually refers to thermal effects, while the vast majority of the recorded biological effects from man-made non-ionizing environmental radiation are non-thermal. Even if SAR could be accurately estimated for a whole tissue, organ, or body, the biological/health effect is determined by tiny amounts of energy/power absorbed by specific biomolecules, which cannot be calculated. Moreover, it depends upon field parameters not taken into account in SAR calculation. Thus, SAR should not be used as the primary dosimetric quantity, but used only as a complementary measure, always reporting the estimating method and the corresponding error. Radiation/field intensity along with additional physical parameters (such as frequency, modulation etc) which can be directly and in any case more accurately measured on the surface of biological tissues, should constitute the primary measure for EMF exposures, in spite of similar uncertainty to predict the biological effect due to non-linearity. PMID:23750202

  20. Field evaluation of a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for Mycoplasma hyorhinis.

    PubMed

    Clavijo, Maria J; Oliveira, Simone; Zimmerman, Jeffrey; Rendahl, Aaron; Rovira, Albert

    2014-11-01

    Mycoplasma hyorhinis has emerged as an important cause of systemic disease in nursery pigs. However, this bacterium can also be found in the upper respiratory tract of healthy swine. The current study describes the development of a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of M. hyorhinis and the evaluation of the assay in both disease diagnosis and disease surveillance using a large number of field samples. The analytical sensitivity was estimated to be 12 genome equivalents/?l. The assay was highly specific, detecting all 25 M. hyorhinis isolates tested and none of the 19 nontarget species tested. Assay repeatability was evaluated by testing different matrices spiked with known amounts of M. hyorhinis. Overall, assessment of the repeatability of the assay showed suitable precision within and between runs for all matrices. The coefficient of variation ranged from 10% to 24%. Mycoplasma hyorhinis DNA was detected in 48% of samples (pericardium, pleura, joints, nasal cavity, and lungs) from pigs with systemic disease. Mycoplasma hyorhinis was detected in nasal (92%) and oropharyngeal swabs (66%), as well as in oral fluids (100%). Potential uses of this tool involve the characterization of the prevalence of this pathogen in swine herds as well as bacterial quantification to evaluate intervention efficacy. PMID:25319032

  1. Evaluation of the new French operational weather radar product for the field of urban hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmanuel, I.; Andrieu, H.; Tabary, P.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate, at the urban scale, the accuracy of the new French operational radar processing chain deployed within the French operational weather radar network. Such an evaluation is conducted by comparing radar data resulting from this processing chain (with a 1-km 2 resolution) to rain gauge data at four different time scales, i.e. 5, 15, 30 and 60 min. These data are supplied by the Trappes Radar Station, located 30 km southwest of Paris. A total of 69 rain gauges installed within a radius of 80 km from the weather radar have provided the ground reference data. The dataset comprises 50 varied rainy days. The influence of distance, quality code of the radar data and type of rainfall, as well as the adjustment factor, is analyzed. The present analysis moreover seeks to evaluate the error specific to reference data by considering instrumental and representativeness errors, for the purpose of taking reference data accuracy into account in the radar/rain gauge comparison. This study shows that radar data obtained by means of this new operational radar processing chain are not yet reliable enough for direct use in quantitative applications within the field of urban hydrology.

  2. Evaluation of three microbial formulations against Culex pipiens pipiens larvae in irrigation fields in Wroclaw, Poland.

    PubMed

    Rydzanicz, Katarzyna; Lonc, Elzbieta; Kiewra, Dorota; Dechant, Peter; Krause, Steven; Becker, Norbert

    2009-06-01

    Two evaluations of microbial mosquito larvicides were conducted in irrigation fields located along the Odra River near the city of Wroclaw, Poland. In the first evaluation, 3 dosages each of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti)--VectoBac water dispersible granule (WDG) and VectoBac aqueous suspension formulation (12AS)--and Bacillus sphaericus (Bs)--VectoLex WDG--were tested against larvae of Culex pipiens pipiens. There was little difference between formulations and rates of application between day 2 and 7 following the treatment. VectoBac WDG at 300 g/ha resulted in 100% mortality of Cx. p. pipiens. Between 0.5 and 1 liter of VectoBac 12AS caused sufficient mortality for up to 7 days. The effective shortterm application rate of VectoLex WDG was found to be 400 g/ha. The above doses can be recommended for up to 7-day control in this habitat. In the second evaluation, using VectoBac WDG at 800 g/ha, the residual efficacies of 2 ground application methods, a knapsack sprayer configured for large droplet application and a motorized backpack blower configured for small droplet application, were compared. The results indicated no significant difference between the 2 application methods, but a significant long-term effect of VectoBac WDG was observed at the rate of 800 g/ha. PMID:19653495

  3. Field evaluations of dual-band fusion for color night vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Mario; Fay, David A.; Ireland, David B.; Racamato, Joseph P.; Ross, W. D.; Waxman, Allen M.

    1999-07-01

    As part of an advanced night vision program sponsored by DARPA, a method for real-time color night vision based on the fusion of visible and infrared sensors has been developed and demonstrated. The work, based on principles of color vision in humans and primates, achieves an effective strategy for combining the complementary information present in the two sensors. Our sensor platform consists of a 640 X 480 low- light CCD camera developed at MIT Lincoln Laboratory and a 320 X 240 uncooled microbolometer thermal infrared camera from Lockheed Martin Infrared. Image capture, data processing, and display are implemented in real-time (30 fps) on commercial hardware. Recent results from field tests at Lincoln Laboratory and in collaboration with U.S. Army Special Forces at Fort Campbell will be presented. During the tests, we evaluated the performance of the system for ground surveillance and as a driving aid. Here, we report on the results using both a wide-field of view (42 deg.) and a narrow field of view (7 deg.) platforms.

  4. Visualizing Simulated Electrical Fields from Electroencephalography and Transcranial Electric Brain Stimulation: A Comparative Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Eichelbaum, Sebastian; Dannhauer, Moritz; Hlawitschka, Mario; Brooks, Dana; Knösche, Thomas R.; Scheuermann, Gerik

    2014-01-01

    Electrical activity of neuronal populations is a crucial aspect of brain activity. This activity is not measured directly but recorded as electrical potential changes using head surface electrodes (electroencephalogram - EEG). Head surface electrodes can also be deployed to inject electrical currents in order to modulate brain activity (transcranial electric stimulation techniques) for therapeutic and neuroscientific purposes. In electroencephalography and noninvasive electric brain stimulation, electrical fields mediate between electrical signal sources and regions of interest (ROI). These fields can be very complicated in structure, and are influenced in a complex way by the conductivity profile of the human head. Visualization techniques play a central role to grasp the nature of those fields because such techniques allow for an effective conveyance of complex data and enable quick qualitative and quantitative assessments. The examination of volume conduction effects of particular head model parameterizations (e.g., skull thickness and layering), of brain anomalies (e.g., holes in the skull, tumors), location and extent of active brain areas (e.g., high concentrations of current densities) and around current injecting electrodes can be investigated using visualization. Here, we evaluate a number of widely used visualization techniques, based on either the potential distribution or on the current-flow. In particular, we focus on the extractability of quantitative and qualitative information from the obtained images, their effective integration of anatomical context information, and their interaction. We present illustrative examples from clinically and neuroscientifically relevant cases and discuss the pros and cons of the various visualization techniques. PMID:24821532

  5. Visualizing simulated electrical fields from electroencephalography and transcranial electric brain stimulation: a comparative evaluation.

    PubMed

    Eichelbaum, Sebastian; Dannhauer, Moritz; Hlawitschka, Mario; Brooks, Dana; Knösche, Thomas R; Scheuermann, Gerik

    2014-11-01

    Electrical activity of neuronal populations is a crucial aspect of brain activity. This activity is not measured directly but recorded as electrical potential changes using head surface electrodes (electroencephalogram - EEG). Head surface electrodes can also be deployed to inject electrical currents in order to modulate brain activity (transcranial electric stimulation techniques) for therapeutic and neuroscientific purposes. In electroencephalography and noninvasive electric brain stimulation, electrical fields mediate between electrical signal sources and regions of interest (ROI). These fields can be very complicated in structure, and are influenced in a complex way by the conductivity profile of the human head. Visualization techniques play a central role to grasp the nature of those fields because such techniques allow for an effective conveyance of complex data and enable quick qualitative and quantitative assessments. The examination of volume conduction effects of particular head model parameterizations (e.g., skull thickness and layering), of brain anomalies (e.g., holes in the skull, tumors), location and extent of active brain areas (e.g., high concentrations of current densities) and around current injecting electrodes can be investigated using visualization. Here, we evaluate a number of widely used visualization techniques, based on either the potential distribution or on the current-flow. In particular, we focus on the extractability of quantitative and qualitative information from the obtained images, their effective integration of anatomical context information, and their interaction. We present illustrative examples from clinically and neuroscientifically relevant cases and discuss the pros and cons of the various visualization techniques. PMID:24821532

  6. Summary report, California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection evaluation of full-face air-purifying respirators for wildland fire fighting use

    SciTech Connect

    Beason, D.G.; Johnson, J.S.; Foote, K.L.; Weaver, W.A.

    1996-02-01

    Wildland fire suppression personnel employed by the CDF do not currently have the equipment to protect themselves from the short-term acute affects of smoke from wildland fires. In addition, no regulations exist that specify appropriate respiratory protection and the current air-purifying respirator technology and carbon monoxide monitoring has not been adapted to fit wildland fire suppression requirements. This three-year limited study evaluated the ability of wildland fire fighters to perform their normal job function while wearing full-face air-purifying respirators. In the first two years of this study we designed, developed and field tested a prototype ``smart`` air-purifying respirator which incorporated a real-time carbon monoxide monitor into a commercial full-face respirator.` Data on carbon monoxide exposure while fighting wildland fires was collected. During the third year of this study we evaluated eight different commercially available full-face air-purifying respirators equipped with a variety of cartridges. Apparatus to aid the fire fighter in carrying the respirator and carbon monoxide personal monitor was designed and fabricated. A smoke exposure test method was developed and a laboratory study on the penetration of smoke through respirator cartridges was conducted.

  7. Use of a semi-field system to evaluate the efficacy of topical repellents under user conditions provides a disease exposure free technique comparable with field data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Before topical repellents can be employed as interventions against arthropod bites, their efficacy must be established. Currently, laboratory or field tests, using human volunteers, are the main methods used for assessing the efficacy of topical repellents. However, laboratory tests are not representative of real life conditions under which repellents are used and field-testing potentially exposes human volunteers to disease. There is, therefore, a need to develop methods to test efficacy of repellents under real life conditions while minimizing volunteer exposure to disease. Methods A lotion-based, 15%?N, N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) repellent and 15% DEET in ethanol were compared to a placebo lotion in a 200 sq m (10 m?×?20 m) semi-field system (SFS) against laboratory-reared Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes and in full field settings against wild malaria vectors and nuisance-biting mosquitoes. The average percentage protection against biting mosquitoes over four hours in the SFS and field setting was determined. A Poisson regression model was then used to determine relative risk of being bitten when wearing either of these repellents compared to the placebo. Results Average percentage protection of the lotion-based 15% DEET repellent after four hours of mosquito collection was 82.13% (95% CI 75.94-88.82) in the semi-field experiments and 85.10% (95% CI 78.97-91.70) in the field experiments. Average percentage protection of 15% DEET in ethanol after four hours was 71.29% (CI 61.77-82.28) in the semi-field system and 88.24% (84.45-92.20) in the field. Conclusions Semi-field evaluation results were comparable to full-field evaluations, indicating that such systems could be satisfactorily used in measuring efficacy of topically applied mosquito repellents, thereby avoiding risks of exposure to mosquito-borne pathogens, associated with field testing. PMID:24767458

  8. Surface wind convergence as a short-term predictor of cloud-to-ground lightning at Kennedy Space Center: A four-year summary and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew I.; Holle, Ronald L.; Lopez, Raul E.; Nicholson, James R.

    1991-01-01

    Since 1986, USAF forecasters at NASA-Kennedy have had available a surface wind convergence technique for use during periods of convective development. In Florida during the summer, most of the thunderstorm development is forced by boundary layer processes. The basic premise is that the life cycle of convection is reflected in the surface wind field beneath these storms. Therefore the monitoring of the local surface divergence and/or convergence fields can be used to determine timing, location, longevity, and the lightning hazards which accompany these thunderstorms. This study evaluates four years of monitoring thunderstorm development using surface wind convergence, particularly the average over the area. Cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning is related in time and space with surface convergence for 346 days during the summers of 1987 through 1990 over the expanded wind network at KSC. The relationships are subdivided according to low level wind flow and midlevel moisture patterns. Results show a one in three chance of CG lightning when a convergence event is identified. However, when there is no convergence, the chance of CG lightning is negligible.

  9. The Mobile Field Study Unit in South-West Queensland. Priority Country Area Program Evaluation Series: Report No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Clifford F.

    Effectiveness of the Mobile Field Study Unit's work in environmental education in south-west Queensland during 1979-1980 was evaluated through records kept by the Unit and the Priority Country Area Program (PCAP) office, evaluations by teachers, interviews with teachers and educational administrators, and participant observation of the Unit. The…

  10. Evaluation of the RPi-ber late blight resistance gene for tuber resistance in the field and laboratory.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the efficacy in tubers of a late blight resistance gene, RPi-ber, originating from Solanum berthaultii. Experiments were conducted in the field and laboratory. Inoculation of tubers in field trials occurred via sporangia produced on infections in the foli...

  11. FLIGHT TUNNEL AND FIELD EVALUATIONS OF STICKY TRAPS FOR MONITORING CODLING MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE) IN SEX PHEROMONE-TREATED ORCHARDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emission rate, isomeric stability, and relative attractiveness of field-aged gray halo-butyl elastomer and red rubber septa loaded with codlemone, the major sex pheromone component for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., were evaluated. Initially, field-aged red septa loaded with 10.0 mg had highe...

  12. Field Manual of Techniques in Invertebrate Pathology: Application and Evaluation of Pathogens for Control of Insects and Other Invertebrate Pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Field Manual of Techniques in Invertebrate Pathology is designed to provide background and instruction on a broad spectrum of techniques and their use in the evaluation of entomopathogens in the field. The intended audience includes researchers, graduate students, practitioners of integrated pes...

  13. Saturated flow in a single fracture: Evaluation of the Reynolds equation in measured aperture fields

    SciTech Connect

    NICHOLL,M.J.; RAJARAM,H.; GLASS JR.,ROBERT J.; DETWILER,R.

    2000-01-28

    Fracture transmissivity and detailed aperture fields are measured in analog fractures specially designed to evaluate the utility of the Reynolds equation. The authors employ a light transmission technique with well-defined accuracy ({approximately}1% error) to measure aperture fields at high spatial resolution ({approximately}0.015 cm). A Hele-Shaw cell is used to confirm the approach by demonstrating agreement between experimental transmissivity, simulated transmissivity on the measured aperture field, and the parallel plate law. In the two rough-walled analog fractures considered, the discrepancy between the experimental and numerical estimates of fracture transmissivity was sufficiently large ({approximately} 22--47%) to exclude numerical and experimental errors (< 2%)as a source. They conclude that the three-dimensional character of the flow field is important for fully describing fluid flow in the two rough-walled fractures considered, and that the approach of depth averaging inherent in the formulation of the Reynolds equation is inadequate. They also explore the effects of spatial resolution, aperture measurement technique, and alternative definitions for link transmissivities in the finite-difference formulation, including some that contain corrections for tortuosity perpendicular to the mean fracture plane and Stokes flow. Various formulations for link transmissivity are shown to converge at high resolution ({approximately} 1/5 the spatial correlation length) in the smoothly varying fracture. At coarser resolutions, the solution becomes increasingly sensitive to definition of link transmissivity and measurement technique. Aperture measurements that integrate over individual grid blocks were less sensitive to measurement scale and definition of link transmissivity than point sampling techniques.

  14. Partnership in Practice: Evaluating Quality in Workplace Education with Planning and Evaluation Teams. Executive Summary of the Report of the Cycle 5 Evaluation of the Massachusetts Workplace Education Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evaluation Research, Newton Highlands, MA.

    An evaluation of the fifth cycle of operation of the Massachusetts Workplace Education Initiative had several purposes: (1) to identify the indicators of quality in workplace education; (2) to begin to design an evaluation system for each program; and (3) to assess the indicators of quality for workplace education programs against the national…

  15. Symposium Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitherer, Claus

    2008-06-01

    I summarize the highlights of the conference. First I provide a brief history of the beach symposia series our massive star community has been organizing. Then I use most of my allocated space discussing what I believe are the main answered and open questions in the field. Finally I conclude with a perspective of the future of massive star research.

  16. A workstation-based evaluation of a far-field route planner for helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, David N., Jr.; Moran, Francis J.

    1991-01-01

    Helicopter flight missions at very low, nap of the Earth, altitudes place a heavy workload on the pilot. To aid in reducing this workload, Ames Research Center has been investigating various types of automated route planners. As part of an automated preflight mission planner, a route planner algorithm aids in selecting the overall (far-field) route to be flown. During the mission, the route planner can be used to replan a new route in case of unexpected threats or change in mission requirements. An evaluation of a candidate route planning algorithm, based on dynamic programming techniques is described. This algorithm meets most of the requirements for route planning, both preflight and during the mission. In general, the requirements are to minimize the distance and/or fuel and the deviation from a flight time schedule, and must be flyable within the constraints of available fuel and time.

  17. Perception of risks from electromagnetic fields: A psychometric evaluation of a risk-communication approach

    SciTech Connect

    MacGregor, D.G.; Slovic, P. ); Morgan, M.G. )

    1994-10-01

    Potential health risks from exposure to power-frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) have become an issue of significant public concern. This study evaluates a brochure designed to communicate EMF health risks from a scientific perspective. The study utilized a pretest-posttest design in which respondents judged various sources of EMF (and other) health and safety risks, both before reaching the brochure and after. Respondents assessed risks on dimensions similar to those utilized in previous studies of risk perception. In addition, detailed ratings were made that probed respondents' beliefs about the possible causal effects of EMF exposure. The findings suggest that naive beliefs about the potential of EMF exposure to cause harm were highly influenced by specific content elements of the brochure. The implications for using risk-communication approaches based on communicating scientific uncertainty are discussed. 19 refs., 1 fig., 11 tabs.

  18. Evaluation of mean glandular dose in a full-field digital mammography unit in Tabriz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh Riabi, Hamed; Mehnati, Parinaz; Mesbahi, Asghar

    2010-12-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the mean glandular dose (MGD) and affecting factors during mammography examinations by a full-field digital mammography unit. An extensive quality control program was performed to assure that the unit is properly working. Required information including compressed breast thickness (CBT), breast parenchymal pattern and technical factors used for imaging were recorded. An entrance skin exposure measurement was also performed using slabs of polymethylmethacrylate with 2-8 cm thickness. On the basis of recorded information and measured data, the MGD was estimated for 1145 mammography examinations obtained from 298 patients. Mean CBTs of 4.9 and 5.8 cm and MGDs of 2 and 2.4 mGy were observed for craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique views, respectively. Significant correlation was seen between MGD and CBT, breast parenchymal pattern and applied kVp and mAs. PMID:20823039

  19. Design and numerical evaluation of a volume coil array for parallel MR imaging at ultrahigh fields

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Yong; Wong, Ernest W.H.; Yu, Baiying

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we propose and investigate a volume coil array design method using different types of birdcage coils for MR imaging. Unlike the conventional radiofrequency (RF) coil arrays of which the array elements are surface coils, the proposed volume coil array consists of a set of independent volume coils including a conventional birdcage coil, a transverse birdcage coil, and a helix birdcage coil. The magnetic fluxes of these three birdcage coils are intrinsically cancelled, yielding a highly decoupled volume coil array. In contrast to conventional non-array type volume coils, the volume coil array would be beneficial in improving MR signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and also gain the capability of implementing parallel imaging. The volume coil array is evaluated at the ultrahigh field of 7T using FDTD numerical simulations, and the g-factor map at different acceleration rates was also calculated to investigate its parallel imaging performance. PMID:24649435

  20. Configuration and Evaluation of a Dual-Doppler 3-D Wind Field System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Winifred C.

    2014-01-01

    Current LSP, GSDO, and SLS space vehicle operations are halted when wind speeds from specific directions exceed defined thresholds and when lightning is a threat. Strong winds and lightning are difficult parameters for the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) to forecast, yet are important in the protection of customer vehicle operations and the personnel that conduct them. A display of the low-level horizontal wind field to reveal areas of high winds or convergence would be a valuable tool for forecasters in assessing the timing of high winds, or convection initiation and subsequent lightning occurrence. This is especially important for areas where no weather observation platforms exist. Developing a dual-Doppler radar capability would provide such a display to assist forecasters in predicting high winds and convection initiation. The wind fields can also be used to initialize a local mesoscale numerical weather prediction model to help improve the model forecast winds, convection initiation, and other phenomena. The 45 WS and NWS MLB tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to develop a dual- Doppler wind field display using data from the 45th Space Wing radar, known as the Weather Surveillance Radar (WSR), NWS MLB Weather Surveillance Radar 1988 Doppler (KMLB), and the Orlando International Airport Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (KMCO). They also stipulated that the software used should be freely available. The AMU evaluated two software packages and, with concurrence from NWS MLB and the 45 WS, chose the Warning Decision Support System-Integrated Information (WDSS-II). The AMU collected data from two significant weather cases: a tornadic event on 14 April 2013 and a severe wind and hail event on 12 February 2014. For the 14 April case, the data were from WSR and KMLB. For the 12 February case, the data were from KMCO and KMLB. The AMU installed WDSS-II on a Linux PC, then processed and quality controlled the radar data for display and analysis using WDSS-II tools. Because of issues with de-aliasing the WSR velocity field, the AMU did not use data from this radar in this study and only analyzed the 12 February case. Merging the data to create the dual-Doppler analysis involved several steps. The AMU used instructions from the WDSS-II website and discussion forum to determine the correct tools to use for the analysis, and was successful in creating a merged reflectivity field, which was critical to the success of creating a merged velocity field. However, the AMU was unable to create a merged velocity field. The AMU researched the WDSS-II forum for discussions on similar issues, asked questions on the forum, and tested different options and values in the merger tool with no success. Developing a dual-Doppler wind field was the main goal of this task, but that was not accomplished. It could be an issue of not using the correct options or the correct value for the options used, or there could be issues with the radar data. There is a follow-on AMU task to install the operational version of WDSS-II in the NWS MLB office. This will provide more opportunities to try different options and input values in order to create a merged wind field from KMCO and KMLB.

  1. Evaluation of lightning field-to-current conversion equations using triggered-lightning data: An update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallick, S.; Rakov, V. A.

    2013-12-01

    Return-stroke peak current can be obtained from measurement of channel-base current at the strike object (which is difficult because of the random occurrence of natural lightning in space and time) or can be estimated from measurement of the corresponding electric or magnetic field at a typical distance of several kilometers or more from the lightning channel. A field-to-current conversion procedure is required for the estimation of lightning return stroke peak currents from measured fields. The following empirical formula was proposed by Rakov et al. [1992] to estimate the return-stroke peak current I from the initial (essentially radiation) electric field peak E and distance r to the lightning channel: I=1.5-0.037rE (1) where I is in kA and taken as negative, E is positive and in V/m, and r is in km. Eq. (1) was derived using data for 28 triggered-lightning strokes acquired by Willett et al. [1989] at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. Another approach is the use of the radiation-field-to-current conversion equation based on the transmission-line model [Uman and McLain, 1969]: I= (2??_0 c^2 r)/v E (2) where ?0 is the permittivity of free space, c is the speed of light, and v is the return-stroke speed (assumed to be constant). The return-stroke speed is generally unknown and its range of variation from one event to another is typically from c/3 to 2c/3. Both I and E in Eq. (2) are absolute values. Perfectly conducting ground is assumed. Electric field peaks, recorded at the Lightning Observatory in Gainesville (LOG), Florida, for 89 strokes in 22 lightning flashes triggered at Camp Blanding (CB), Florida, in 2008-2010 were used to estimate peak currents based on the two methods outlined above and were compared with peak currents directly measured at CB [Mallick et al., 2012]. The distance between CB and LOG is 45 km. The empirical formula was found to overestimate peak currents with the median absolute errors being 21%. The field-to-current conversion equation based on the transmission-line model gave the best match with directly measured peak currents for return-stroke speeds between c/2 and 2c/3. In this paper, we extend the study of Mallick et al. [2012] to evaluate the field-to-current conversion equations using a larger data set acquired at CB and LOG in 2008-2012. In 2008-2012, 66 flashes containing 227 strokes were triggered at CB. Electric fields for 45 flashes containing 211 strokes were recorded at LOG. CB peak currents used here were previously used by Mallick et al. [2013] for estimating errors in peak currents reported by the NLDN. Acknowledgments: This research was supported in part by NSF Grant ATM-0852869 and DARPA Grant HR0011-10-1-0061. Acquisition of triggered-lightning current data used in this study would not be possible without efforts of many individuals, including, in alphabetical order, W. R. Gamerota, J. D. Hill, D. M. Jordan, T. Ngin, R. C. Olsen III, J. T. Pilkey, and M. A. Uman, to name those who deserve special thanks. References: Mallick et al. (2012), Atmos. Res., http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2012.08.008. Mallick et al. (2013), Proc. 8th APL, paper LDIA-433. Rakov et al. (1992), J. Geophys. Res., 97(D11), 11527-11533. Uman and McLain (1969), J. Geophys. Res., 74(D28), 6899-6910. Willett et al. (1989), J. Geophys. Res., 94(D11), 13275-13286.

  2. Evaluating biological variation in non-transgenic crops: executive summary from the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute workshop, November 16-17, 2009, Paris, France.

    PubMed

    Doerrer, Nancy; Ladics, Gregory; McClain, Scott; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Poulsen, Lars K; Privalle, Laura; Stagg, Nicola

    2010-12-01

    The International Life Sciences Institute Health and Environmental Sciences Institute Protein Allergenicity Technical Committee hosted an international workshop November 16-17, 2009, in Paris, France, with over 60 participants from academia, government, and industry to review and discuss the potential utility of "-omics" technologies for assessing the variability in plant gene, protein, and metabolite expression. The goal of the workshop was to illustrate how a plant's constituent makeup and phenotypic processes can be surveyed analytically. Presentations on the "-omics" techniques (i.e., genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) highlighted the workshop, and summaries of these presentations are published separately in this supplemental issue. This paper summarizes key messages, as well as the consensus points reached, in a roundtable discussion on eight specific questions posed during the final session of the workshop. The workshop established some common, though not unique, challenges for all "-omics" techniques, and include (a) standardization of separation/extraction and analytical techniques; (b) difficulty in associating environmental impacts (e.g., planting, soil texture, location, climate, stress) with potential alterations in plants at genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic levels; (c) many independent analytical measurements, but few replicates/subjects--poorly defined accuracy and precision; and (d) bias--a lack of hypothesis-driven science. Information on natural plant variation is critical in establishing the utility of new technologies due to the variability in specific analytes that may result from genetic differences (crop genotype), different crop management practices (conventional high input, low input, organic), interaction between genotype and environment, and the use of different breeding methods. For example, variations of several classes of proteins were reported among different soybean, rice, or wheat varieties or varieties grown at different locations. Data on the variability of allergenic proteins are important in defining the risk of potential allergenicity. Once established as a standardized assay, survey approaches such as the "-omics" techniques can be considered in a hypothesis-driven analysis of plants, such as determining unintended effects in genetically modified (GM) crops. However, the analysis should include both the GM and control varieties that have the same breeding history and exposure to the same environmental conditions. Importantly, the biological relevance and safety significance of changes in "-omic" data are still unknown. Furthermore, the current compositional assessment for evaluating the substantial equivalence of GM crops is robust, comprehensive, and a good tool for food safety assessments. The overall consensus of the workshop participants was that many "-omics" techniques are extremely useful in the discovery and research phases of biotechnology, and are valuable for hypothesis generation. However, there are many methodological shortcomings identified with "-omics" approaches, a paucity of reference materials, and a lack of focused strategy for their use that currently make them not conducive for the safety assessment of GM crops. PMID:20615445

  3. Evaluation of GEOS-5 Sulfur Dioxide Simulations During the Frostburg, MD 2010 Field Campaign.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchard, V.; Da Silva, A. M.; Colarco, P.; Krotkov, N.; Dickerson, R. R.; Stehr, J. W.; Mount, G.; Spenei, E.; Arkinson, H. L.; He, H.

    2013-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a major atmospheric pollutant with a strong anthropogenic component mostly produced by the combustion of fossil fuel and other industrial activities. As a precursor of sulfate aerosols that affect climate, air quality, and human health, this gas needs to be monitored on a global scale. Global climate and chemistry models including aerosol processes along with their radiative effects are important tools for climate and air quality research. Validation of these models against in-situ and satellite measurements is essential to ascertain the credibility of these models and to guide model improvements. In this study the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) module running on-line inside the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) model is used to simulate aerosol and SO2 concentrations. Data taken in November 2010 over Frostburg, Maryland during an SO2 field campaign involving ground instrumentation and aircraft are used to evaluate GEOS-5 simulated SO2 concentrations. Preliminary data analysis indicated the model overestimated surface SO2 concentration, which motivated the examination of mixing processes in the model and the specification of SO2 anthropogenic emission rates. As a result of this analysis, a revision of anthropogenic emission inventories in GEOS-5 was implemented, and the vertical placement of SO2 sources was updated. Results show that these revisions improve the model agreement with observations locally and in regions outside the area of this field campaign. In particular, we use the ground-based measurements collected by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for the year 2010 to evaluate the revised model simulations over North America.

  4. Field evaluation of a direct push deployed sensor probe for vertical soil water content profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vienken, Thomas; Reboulet, Ed; Leven, Carsten; Kreck, Manuel; Zschornack, Ludwig; Dietrich, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Reliable high-resolution information about vertical variations in soil water content, i.e. total porosity in the saturated zone, is essential for flow and transport predictions within the subsurface. However, porosity measurements are often associated with high efforts and high uncertainties, e.g. caused by soil disturbance during sampling or sensor installation procedures. In hydrogeological practice, commonly applied tools for the investigation of vertical soil water content distribution include gravimetric laboratory analyses of soil samples and neutron probe measurements. A yet less well established technique is the use of direct push-deployed sensor probes. Each of these methods is associated with inherent advantages and limitations due to their underlying measurement principles and operation modes. The presented study describes results of a joint field evaluation of the individual methods under different depositional and hydrogeological conditions with special focus on the performance on the direct push-deployed water content profiler. Therefore, direct push-profiling results from three different test sites are compared with results obtained from gravimetric analysis of soil cores and neutron probe measurements. In direct comparison, the applied direct push-based sensor probe proved to be a suitable alternative for vertical soil water content profiling to neutron probe technology, and, in addition, proved to be advantageous over gravimetric analysis in terms vertical resolution and time efficiency. Results of this study identify application-specific limitations of the methods and thereby highlight the need for careful data evaluation, even though neutron probe measurements and gravimetric analyses of soil samples are well established techniques (see Vienken et al. 2013). Reference: Vienken, T., Reboulet, E., Leven, C., Kreck, M., Zschornack, L., Dietrich, P., 2013. Field comparison of selected methods for vertical soil water content profiling. Journal of Hydrology, 501: 205-212.

  5. Randomised field trial to evaluate serological response after foot-and-mouth disease vaccination in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Knight-Jones, T.J.D.; Bulut, A.N.; Gubbins, S.; Stärk, K.D.C.; Pfeiffer, D.U.; Sumption, K.J.; Paton, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite years of biannual mass vaccination of cattle, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) remains uncontrolled in Anatolian Turkey. To evaluate protection after mass vaccination we measured post-vaccination antibodies in a cohort of cattle (serotypes O, A and Asia-1). To obtain results reflecting typical field protection, participants were randomly sampled from across Central and Western Turkey after routine vaccination. Giving two-doses one month apart is recommended when cattle are first vaccinated against FMD. However, due to cost and logistics, this is not routinely performed in Turkey, and elsewhere. Nested within the cohort, we conducted a randomised trial comparing post-vaccination antibodies after a single-dose versus a two-dose primary vaccination course. Four to five months after vaccination, only a third of single-vaccinated cattle had antibody levels above a threshold associated with protection. A third never reached this threshold, even at peak response one month after vaccination. It was not until animals had received three vaccine doses in their lifetime, vaccinating every six months, that most (64% to 86% depending on serotype) maintained antibody levels above this threshold. By this time cattle would be >20 months old with almost half the population below this age. Consequently, many vaccinated animals will be unprotected for much of the year. Compared to a single-dose, a primary vaccination course of two-doses greatly improved the level and duration of immunity. We concluded that the FMD vaccination programme in Anatolian Turkey did not produce the high levels of immunity required. Higher potency vaccines are now used throughout Turkey, with a two-dose primary course in certain areas. Monitoring post-vaccination serology is an important component of evaluation for FMD vaccination programmes. However, consideration must be given to which antigens are present in the test, the vaccine and the field virus. Differences between these antigens affect the relationship between antibody titre and protection. PMID:25528523

  6. Field test of Six-Phase Soil Heating and evaluation of engineering design code

    SciTech Connect

    Bergsman, T.M.; Roberts, J.S.; Lessor, D.L.; Heath, W.O.

    1993-02-01

    A field test was conducted to evaluate the performance of Six-Phase Soil Heating to enhance the removal of contaminants. The purpose of the test was to determine the scale-up characteristics of the Six-Phase Soil Heating technology and to evaluate a computer process simulator developed for the technology. The test heated a 20-ft diameter cylinder of uncontaminated soil to a 10-ft depth. Six-phase ac power was applied at a rate of 30--35 kW using a power system built from surplus electrical components. The test ran unattended, using a computer-based system to record data, alert staff of any excursions in operating conditions via telephone, and provide automatic shut-off of power depending on the type of excursion. The test data included in situ soil temperatures, voltage profiles, and moisture profiles (using a neutron-probetechnique). After 50 days of heating, soil in the center of the array at the 6-ft depth reached 80{degrees}C. Soil temperatures between the two electrodes at this depth reached approximately 75{degrees}C. Data from this test were compared with those predicted by a computer process simulator. The computer process simulator is a modified version of the TOUGH2 code, a thermal porous media code that can be used to determine the movement of air and moisture in soils. The code was modified to include electrical resistive heating and configured such that an application could be run quickly on a workstation (approximately 5 min for 1 day of field operation). Temperature and soil resistance data predicted from the process simulations matched actual data fairly closely. A series of parametric studies was performed to assess the affect of simulation assumptions on predicted parameters.

  7. Field test of Six-Phase Soil Heating and evaluation of engineering design code

    SciTech Connect

    Bergsman, T.M.; Roberts, J.S.; Lessor, D.L.; Heath, W.O.

    1993-02-01

    A field test was conducted to evaluate the performance of Six-Phase Soil Heating to enhance the removal of contaminants. The purpose of the test was to determine the scale-up characteristics of the Six-Phase Soil Heating technology and to evaluate a computer process simulator developed for the technology. The test heated a 20-ft diameter cylinder of uncontaminated soil to a 10-ft depth. Six-phase ac power was applied at a rate of 30--35 kW using a power system built from surplus electrical components. The test ran unattended, using a computer-based system to record data, alert staff of any excursions in operating conditions via telephone, and provide automatic shut-off of power depending on the type of excursion. The test data included in situ soil temperatures, voltage profiles, and moisture profiles (using a neutron-probetechnique). After 50 days of heating, soil in the center of the array at the 6-ft depth reached 80[degrees]C. Soil temperatures between the two electrodes at this depth reached approximately 75[degrees]C. Data from this test were compared with those predicted by a computer process simulator. The computer process simulator is a modified version of the TOUGH2 code, a thermal porous media code that can be used to determine the movement of air and moisture in soils. The code was modified to include electrical resistive heating and configured such that an application could be run quickly on a workstation (approximately 5 min for 1 day of field operation). Temperature and soil resistance data predicted from the process simulations matched actual data fairly closely. A series of parametric studies was performed to assess the affect of simulation assumptions on predicted parameters.

  8. Field performance evaluation of a newly developed PM?.? sampler at IIT Kanpur.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Tarun; Jaiprakash; Dubey, Shefali

    2011-08-15

    In order to meet the challenges of growing air pollution for a developing nation and to measure the ambient fine particles (PM?.?, particles having aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 ?m) on routine basis an air sampler was designed, developed and evaluated in the field. The impactor removes particles greater than 2.5 ?m from the air stream via impacting them onto a vacuum grease substrate and finer particles get eventually collected on a backup filter. Various impactor nozzles with conical geometry were designed based on the published theoretical design equations. A detail parametric investigation was carried out which resulted in the optimum impactor nozzle design. For this exercise, a novel dry aerosol generator was employed in addition to the well known time-of-flight instrument, APS (Aerodynamic Particle Sizer, Model 3021, TSI Inc.). The average particle losses for the impactor nozzle as well as the sampler body were below 10% and the overall pressure drop (including a backup 47 mm filter) through the PM?.? sampler was only 2 in. of H?O. This developed PM?.? sampler operates at a flow rate of 15 LPM. Field performance of this sampler was evaluated through co-located sampling with a high volume PM?.? reference sampler (HVS, GEM-BLI Model 2360, Tisch Environment Instrument) within the IIT Kanpur campus. The sampling period was 10 h long and it was carried out on six different days. The entire sets of filters were analyzed gravimetrically followed by their chemical analysis for elemental and anionic analyses. The particle mass, elemental, and anionic concentrations obtained with this newly developed PM?.? sampler as well as those from the reference HVS sampler showed moderate to good correlation. PMID:21641629

  9. Evaluation of GEOS-5 sulfur dioxide simulations during the Frostburg, MD 2010 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchard, V.; da Silva, A. M.; Colarco, P.; Krotkov, N.; Dickerson, R. R.; Stehr, J. W.; Mount, G.; Spinei, E.; Arkinson, H. L.; He, H.

    2014-02-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a major atmospheric pollutant with a strong anthropogenic component mostly produced by the combustion of fossil fuel and other industrial activities. As a precursor of sulfate aerosols that affect climate, air quality, and human health, this gas needs to be monitored on a global scale. Global climate and chemistry models including aerosol processes along with their radiative effects are important tools for climate and air quality research. Validation of these models against in-situ and satellite measurements is essential to ascertain the credibility of these models and to guide model improvements. In this study, the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) module running on-line inside the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) model is used to simulate aerosol and SO2 concentrations. Data taken in November 2010 over Frostburg, Maryland during an SO2 field campaign involving ground instrumentation and aircraft are used to evaluate GEOS-5 simulated SO2 concentrations. Preliminary data analysis indicated the model overestimated surface SO2 concentration, which motivated the examination of the specification of SO2 anthropogenic emission rates. As a result of this analysis, a revision of anthropogenic emission inventories in GEOS-5 was implemented, and the vertical placement of SO2 sources was updated. Results show that these revisions improve the model agreement with observations locally and in regions outside the area of this field campaign. In particular, we use the ground-based measurements collected by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for the year 2010 to evaluate the revised model simulations over North America.

  10. Evaluation of GEOS-5 sulfur dioxide simulations during the Frostburg, MD 2010 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchard, V.; da Silva, A. M.; Colarco, P.; Krotkov, N.; Dickerson, R. R.; Stehr, J. W.; Mount, G.; Spinei, E.; Arkinson, H. L.; He, H.

    2013-08-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a major atmospheric pollutant with a strong anthropogenic component mostly produced by the combustion of fossil fuel and other industrial activities. As a precursor of sulfate aerosols that affect climate, air quality, and human health, this gas needs to be monitored on a global scale. Global climate and chemistry models including aerosol processes along with their radiative effects are important tools for climate and air quality research. Validation of these models against in-situ and satellite measurements is essential to ascertain the credibility of these models and to guide model improvements. In this study the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) module running on-line inside the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) model is used to simulate aerosol and SO2 concentrations. Data taken in November 2010 over Frostburg, Maryland during an SO2 field campaign involving ground instrumentation and aircraft are used to evaluate GEOS-5 simulated SO2 concentrations. Preliminary data analysis indicated the model overestimated surface SO2 concentration, which motivated the examination of mixing processes in the model and the specification of SO2 anthropogenic emission rates. As a result of this analysis, a revision of anthropogenic emission inventories in GEOS-5 was implemented, and the vertical placement of SO2 sources was updated. Results show that these revisions improve the model agreement with observations locally and in regions outside the area of this field campaign. In particular, we use the ground-based measurements collected by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for the year 2010 to evaluate the revised model simulations over North America.

  11. Evaluation of Three Models for Simulating Pesticide Runoff from Irrigated Agricultural Fields.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuyang; Goh, Kean S

    2015-11-01

    Three models were evaluated for their accuracy in simulating pesticide runoff at the edge of agricultural fields: Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM), Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM), and OpusCZ. Modeling results on runoff volume, sediment erosion, and pesticide loss were compared with measurements taken from field studies. Models were also compared on their theoretical foundations and ease of use. For runoff events generated by sprinkler irrigation and rainfall, all models performed equally well with small errors in simulating water, sediment, and pesticide runoff. The mean absolute percentage errors (MAPEs) were between 3 and 161%. For flood irrigation, OpusCZ simulated runoff and pesticide mass with the highest accuracy, followed by RZWQM and PRZM, likely owning to its unique hydrological algorithm for runoff simulations during flood irrigation. Simulation results from cold model runs by OpusCZ and RZWQM using measured values for model inputs matched closely to the observed values. The MAPE ranged from 28 to 384 and 42 to 168% for OpusCZ and RZWQM, respectively. These satisfactory model outputs showed the models' abilities in mimicking reality. Theoretical evaluations indicated that OpusCZ and RZWQM use mechanistic approaches for hydrology simulation, output data on a subdaily time-step, and were able to simulate management practices and subsurface flow via tile drainage. In contrast, PRZM operates at daily time-step and simulates surface runoff using the USDA Soil Conservation Service's curve number method. Among the three models, OpusCZ and RZWQM were suitable for simulating pesticide runoff in semiarid areas where agriculture is heavily dependent on irrigation. PMID:26641333

  12. Project summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    California Polytechnic State University's design project for the 1990-91 school year was the design of a close air support aircraft. There were eight design groups that participated and were given requests for proposals. These proposals contained mission specifications, particular performance and payload requirements, as well as the main design drivers. The mission specifications called for a single pilot weighing 225 lb with equipment. The design mission profile consisted of the following: (1) warm-up, taxi, take off, and accelerate to cruise speed; (2) dash at sea level at 500 knots to a point 250 nmi from take off; (3) combat phase, requiring two combat passes at 450 knots that each consist of a 360 deg turn and an energy increase of 4000 ft. - at each pass, half of air-to-surface ordnance is released; (4) dash at sea level at 500 knots 250 nmi back to base; and (5) land with 20 min of reserve fuel. The request for proposal also specified the following performance requirements with 50 percent internal fuel and standard stores: (1) the aircraft must be able to accelerate from Mach 0.3 to 0.5 at sea level in less than 20 sec; (2) required turn rates are 4.5 sustained g at 450 knots at sea level; (3) the aircraft must have a reattack time of 25 sec or less (reattack time was defined as the time between the first and second weapon drops); (4) the aircraft is allowed a maximum take off and landing ground roll of 2000 ft. The payload requirements were 20 Mk 82 general-purpose free-fall bombs and racks; 1 GAU-8A 30-mm cannon with 1350 rounds; and 2 AIM-9L Sidewinder missiles and racks. The main design drivers expressed in the request for proposal were that the aircraft should be survivable and maintainable. It must be able to operate in remote areas with little or no maintenance. Simplicity was considered the most important factor in achieving the former goal. In addition, the aircraft must be low cost both in acquisition and operation. The summaries of the aircraft configurations developed by the eight groups are presented.

  13. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects. Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor coolant system and systems decontamination. Summary status report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Doerge, D.H.; Miller, R.L.; Scotti, K.S.

    1986-05-01

    This document summarizes information relating to the decontamination and restoration of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor coolant system and other plant systems. Data have been collected from activity reports, reactor containment entry records, and other sources and entered in a computerized data system which permits extraction/manipulation of specific data which can be used in planning for recovery from a loss of coolant event similar to that experienced by the Three Mile Island Unit 2 on March 28, 1979. This report contains a summary of radiation exposures, manpower, and time spent in radiation areas during the referenced period. Support activities conducted outside of radiation areas are not included. Computer reports included are: A chronological listing of all activities related to decomtamination and restoration of the reactor coolant system and other plant systems for the period of April 5, 1979, through December 19, 1984; a summary of labor and exposures by department for the same time period; and summary reports for each major task undertaken in connection with this specific work scope during the referenced time period.

  14. Field measurements for evaluating the RZWQM and PESTFADE models for the tropical zone of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Sangam; Datta, Avishek

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of the field scale agricultural non-point source (NPS) simulation model against field experimental data is an important step that must be considered before a model can be used as a management tool. Therefore, the present study focuses on the testing of two NPS models known as the RZWQM (Root Zone Water Quality Model) and the PESTFADE (PESTicide Fate And Dynamics in the Environment). These models are used to predict the soil water content, metribuzin fate, and transport in a sprinkler-irrigated soybean field located at the experimental farm of the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) in the Pathumthani Province, Thailand. Field soil water content and metribuzin residue adsorbed at soil profile depths of 0-10, 10-20, and 30-40 cm at different time periods were intensively measured by the gravimetric method and Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), respectively. When comparing the field measured data, it was observed that the RZWQM performed better in simulating the soil water fcontent, whereas the performance of the PESTFADE model was better at simulating the metribuzin residue in the soil. Specifically, a reasonable agreement existed between the measured soil water content and that predicted by the RZWQM for 0-10 and 30-40 cm soil depths. The model slightly overpredicted the metribuzin residue at 0-10 cm soil depth one day after herbicide application, whereas the prediction of metribuzin residue at 10-20 and 30-40 cm soil depths was in accordance with the measured values. The PESTFADE model performed relatively well in simulating the soil water content at 10-20 cm and metribuzin residue concentration at 0-10 and 10-20 cm soil profile depths. However, the model performed relatively poorly at 30-40 cm soil profile depth. These results indicate that when properly calibrated, both the RZWQM and PESTFADE models can be used to predict the movement of water and metribuzin residue in the soil of tropical zones. PMID:25288050

  15. The application of strain field intensity method in the steel bridge fatigue life evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xuefeng; Wang, Yanhong; Cui, Yanjun; Cao, Kaisheng

    2012-04-01

    Asce's survey shows that 80%--90% bridge damage were associated with fatigue and fracture problems. With the operation of vehicle weight and traffic volume increases constantly, the fatigue of welded steel bridge is becoming more and more serious in recent years. A large number of studies show that most prone to fatigue damage of steel bridge is part of the welding position. Thus, it's important to find a more precise method to assess the fatigue life of steel bridge. Three kinds of fatigue analysis method is commonly used in engineering practice, such as nominal stress method, the local stress strain method and field intensity method. The first two methods frequently used for fatigue life assessment of steel bridge, but field intensity method uses less ,and it widely used in fatigue life assessment of aerospace and mechanical. Nominal stress method and the local stress strain method in engineering has been widely applied, but not considering stress gradient and multiaxial stress effects, the accuracy of calculation stability is relatively poor, so it's difficult to fully explain the fatigue damage mechanism. Therefore, it used strain field intensity method to evaluate the fatigue life of steel bridge. The fatigue life research of the steel bridge based on the strain field method and the fatigue life of the I-section plate girder was analyzed. Using Ansys on the elastoplastic finite element analysis determined the dangerous part of the structure and got the stress-strain history of the dangerous point. At the same time, in order to divide the unit more elaborate introduced the sub-structure technology. Finally, it applies K.N. Smith damage equation to calculate the fatigue life of the dangerous point. In order to better simulating the actual welding defects, it dug a small hole in the welding parts. It dug different holds from different view in the welding parts and plused the same load to calculate its fatigue life. Comparing the results found that the welding defect in different parts had different influence on the fatigue life. Simultaneously, it based on S-N curve the I-shaped beam and combined with Palmgren - Miner linear cumulative damage theory to calculate the fatigue life of the dangerous part. The corresponding calculation results proved the superiority of the strain field intensity method.

  16. Operational field evaluation of the PAC-MAG man-portable magnetometer array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keranen, Joe; Topolosky, Zeke; Schultz, Gregory; Miller, Jonathan

    2013-06-01

    Detection and discrimination of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in areas of prior conflict is of high importance to the international community and the United States government. For humanitarian applications, sensors and processing methods need to be robust, reliable, and easy to train and implement using indigenous UXO removal personnel. This paper describes system characterization, system testing, and a continental United States (CONUS) Operational Field Evaluations (OFE) of the PAC-MAG man-portable UXO detection system. System testing occurred at a government test facility in June, 2010 and December, 2011 and the OFE occurred at the same location in June, 2012. NVESD and White River Technologies personnel were present for all testing and evaluation. The PAC-MAG system is a manportable magnetometer array for the detection and characterization of ferrous UXO. System hardware includes four Cesium vapor magnetometers for detection, a Real-time Kinematic Global Position System (RTK-GPS) for sensor positioning, an electronics module for merging array data and WiFi communications and a tablet computer for transmitting and logging data. An odometer, or "hipchain" encoder, provides position information in GPS-denied areas. System software elements include data logging software and post-processing software for detection and characterization of ferrous anomalies. The output of the post-processing software is a dig list containing locations of potential UXO(s), formatted for import into the system GPS equipment for reacquisition of anomalies. Results from system characterization and the OFE will be described.

  17. Evaluation and selection of soil amendments for field testing to reduce P losses

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, G.A.; Brinton, S.; Silveira, M.L.

    2005-07-01

    The effectiveness of chemical amendments in reducing P losses from manure impacted Florida soil was evaluated using a variety of protocols, including total elemental analysis, short-term laboratory equilibrations, column leaching experiments, and simulated rainfall studies. Amendments used included: two Fe-humates (a Fe-water treatment residual (WTR) and a titanium-mine waste), two Al-WTRs, one Ca-WTR, a coal combustion slag, a Si-rich material (Pro-Sil), a Leonardite material (dinoSoil), and two agricultural materials (lime and gypsum). In equilibration studies, Al-WTRs were the most effective at sorbing P, while Fe-humate sorbed the least P of all treatments. Other amendments effectively reduced soluble P, but increased suspension pH and electrical conductivity (EC) to an extent expected to adversely affect plant growth. Gypsum was the most effective amendment in reducing P leaching in small column studies. DinoSoil treatment significantly altered the soil hydraulic properties, yielding the greatest runoff volumes in a simulated rainfall study. Total P loss (runoff + leachate) was largely determined by the leaching component, and was essentially all soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) for both bare and grassed soil surfaces. AD treatments reduced runoff SRP compared to the control. Amendment effects in the grassed rainfall study (dominated by leaching) were inconsistent with results from the small column leaching study, possibly due to the different hydraulic conditions and kinetic factors involved in the two studies. The Al-WTRs amendments were recommended for field evaluation.

  18. Geology, summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabins, F. F., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Trends in geologic application of remote sensing are identified. These trends are as follows: (1) increased applications of orbital imagery in fields such as engineering and environmental geology - some specific applications include recognition of active earthquake faults, site location for nuclear powerplants, and recognition of landslide hazards; (2) utilization of remote sensing by industry, especially oil and gas companies, and (3) application of digital image processing to mineral exploration.

  19. A Study toward the Evaluation of ALOS Images for LAI Estimation in Rice Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi Hashjin, Sh.; Darvishzadeh, R.; Khandan, R.

    2013-10-01

    For expanding and managing agricultural sources, satellite data have a key role in determining required information about different factors in plants Including Leaf Area Index (LAI).This paper has studied the potential of spectral indices in estimating rice canopy LAI in Amol city as one of the main sources of rice production in Iran. Due to its importance in provision of food and calorie of a major portion of population, rice product was chosen for study. A field campaign was conducted when rice was in the max growth stage (late of June). Also, two satellite images from ALOS-AVNIR-2 were used (simultaneous with conducted field works) to extract and determine vegetation indices. Then the Regression between measured data and vegetation indices, derived from combination of different bands, was evaluated and after that suitable vegetation indices were realized. Finally, statistics and calculations for introduction of a suitable model were presented. After examination of models, the results showed that RDVI and SAVI2, by determination coefficient and RMSE of 0.12-0.59 and 0.24-0.62, have more accuracy in LAI estimation. Results of present study demonstrated the potential of ALOS images, for LAI estimation and their significant role in monitoring and managing the rice plant.

  20. Joint use of laboratory bioassays and field-collected invertebrates to evaluate toxicity and contaminant bioaccumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Long, S.P.; Byron, E.R.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

    1995-12-31

    Soil toxicity tests using earthworms (Eisenia andrei) were conducted using soil samples collected as part of ecological risk assessments for several sites at two facilities in California. At some sites, earthworms or other terrestrial invertebrates were collected in the field for chemical analysis. Ecological concerns focused on exposures to soil invertebrates and their secondary consumers, such as birds and small mammals. The toxicity tests were used to assess potential exposures to a variety of site-specific contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, PAHs, petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and other inorganic substances. Site soils were combined with clean control soils to produce toxicity test soil dilutions containing 100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, and 0% site soils. Earthworm mortality and other observations were made at day 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Toxicity test results were combined with soil chemical analytical results and physical characteristics to establish NOAELs and LOAELs. Bioaccumulation in the laboratory earthworms and field-collected invertebrates was evaluated by comparing whole-body contaminant to soil contaminant concentrations. Allometric equations and sublethal toxicity data were used to predict potential effects on birds and small mammals. Earthworm toxicity tests indicated a wide range of sensitivity to on-site contaminants and showed the importance of considering potential confounding influences due to soil parameters other than contaminant concentration.

  1. Evaluating field measured soil hydraulic properties in water transport simulations using the RZWQM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameira, M. R.; Ahuja, L.; Fernando, R. M.; Pereira, L. S.

    2000-09-01

    Better understanding and quantification of infiltration and water movement in macroporous soils is extremely important, both for optimising the use of water in agriculture and for minimising preferential transport of nitrogen and pesticides to groundwater. The methods of measuring soil hydraulic properties by conventional methods do not distinguish between the soil matrix and macropores that may be present in the sampled soil. The objective of this work is to evaluate a two-domain model of infiltration using the conventionally measured soil hydraulic properties considered as soil matrix properties, supplemented by macropore flow capacity measured with a tension infiltrometer. To determine the soil hydraulic characteristics a two step method was used, using field data from an infiltration redistribution experiment and running the Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM) in the inverse mode. The results indicate that there is the need to develop a new technique to determine appropriate soil matrix and macropore properties in macroporous field soils. The hydraulic properties determined by conventional methods are apparently the properties of soil matrix, but seem to miss the effect of larger pores that are below the 1.0 mm diameter assumed to be the lower limit for macropores. The macropore properties determined with a tension infiltrometer apparently do not distinguish between continuous and dead-end macropores, and do not give any indication about the continuity of macropores with depth.

  2. FIELD TEST PROGRAM FOR EVALUATION OF SORBENT INJECTION FOR MERCURY CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Sharon Sjostrom

    2004-02-12

    The power industry in the U.S. is faced with meeting new regulations to reduce the emissions of mercury compounds from coal-fired plants. These regulations are directed at the existing fleet of nearly 1,100 boilers. These plants are relatively old with an average age of over 40 years. Although most of these units are capable of operating for many additional years, there is a desire to minimize large capital expenditures because of the reduced (and unknown) remaining life of the plant to amortize the project. Injecting a sorbent such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. The overall objective of this test program described in this quarterly report is to evaluate the capabilities of activated carbon injection at four plants with configurations that together represent 78% of the existing coal-fired generation plants. This technology was successfully evaluated in NETL's Phase I tests at scales up to 150 MW, on plants burning subbituminous and bituminous coals and with ESPs and fabric filters. The tests also identified issues that still need to be addressed, such as evaluating performance on other configurations, optimizing sorbent usage (costs), and gathering longer term operating data to address concerns about the impact of activated carbon on plant equipment and operations. The four sites identified for testing are Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station, AmerenUE's Meramec Station, AEP's Conesville Station, and Ontario Power Generation's Nanticoke Station. This is the first quarterly report for this project. This report includes an overview of the plans for the project. Field testing is scheduled to begin next quarter. In general, quarterly reports will be used to provide project overviews, project status, and technology transfer information. Topical reports will be prepared to present detailed technical information.

  3. Intern Summary Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Topics covered include: Probe Station Antenna Range; LERCIP 2004 Summary; L.E.R.C.I.P. Internship Summary; Hubble Space Telescope Bi-Stem Thermal Shield Analyses; GRABER - the Duct Tape of Space and JIMO Heat Conducting Foam; CDF and PDF Comparison Between Humacao, Puerto Rico and Florida; Development of the On-board Aircraft Network; Development of the Planar Inlet Design and Analysis Process (PINDAP); An Overview of My 2004 Summer Internship [Non-destructive Evaluation]; My Summer Experience as an Administrative Officer Assistant [in the Safety and Assurance Directorate Office]; Programming an Experiment Control System; Reducing the Cation Exchange Capacity of Lithium Clay to Form Better Dispersed; Polymer-Clay Nanocomposites; Feasibility of EB Welded Hastelloy X and Combination of Refractory Metals; My Work in the NASA Glenn History Office and Records Management Office; Education, Technology, and Media: A Peak into My Summer Internship at NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio; [The Engineering and Technical Services Directorate at the Glenn Research Center]; Drinking Water Database; Design of an EXB Probe; and Texturing Carbon-carbon Composite Radiator Surfaces Utilizing Atomic Oxygen.

  4. A FIELD EVALUATION OF IN-SITU BIODEGRADATION OF CHLORINATED ETHENES: PART I, METHODOLOGY AND FIELD SITE CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Careful site characterization and implementation of quantitative monitoring methods are prerequisites for a convincing evaluation of enhanced biostimulation for aquifer restoration. This paper describes the characterization of a site at Moffett Naval Air Station, Mountain View, C...

  5. FIELD EVALUATION OF IN-SITU BIODEGRADATION OF CHLORINATED ETHENES: PART I, METHODOLOGY AND FIELD SITE CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Careful site characterization and implementation of quantitative monitoring methods are prerequisites for a convincing evaluation of enhanced biostimulation for aquifer restoration. his paper describes the characterization of a site at Moffett Naval Air Station, Mountain View, Ca...

  6. Feasibility study for a numerical aerodynamic simulation facility: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lincoln, N. R.

    1979-01-01

    The Ames Research Center of NASA is engaged in the development and investigation of numerical methods and computer technologies to be employed in conjunction with physical experiments, particularly utilizing wind tunnels in the furtherance of the field of aircraft and aerodynamic body design. Several studies, aimed primarily at the areas of development and production of extremely high-speed computing facilities, were conducted. The studies focused on evaluating the aspects of feasibility, reliability, costs, and practicability of designing, constructing, and bringing into effect production of a special-purpose system. An executive summary of the activities for this project is presented in this volume.

  7. Summary of the Georgia Agricultural Water Conservation and Metering Program and evaluation of methods used to collect and analyze irrigation data in the middle and lower Chattahoochee and Flint River basins, 2004-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torak, Lynn J.; Painter, Jaime A.

    2011-01-01

    Since receiving jurisdiction from the State Legislature in June 2003 to implement the Georgia Agricultural Water Conservation and Metering Program, the Georgia Soil and Water Conservation Commission (Commission) by year-end 2010 installed more than 10,000 annually read water meters and nearly 200 daily reporting, satellite-transmitted, telemetry sites on irrigation systems located primarily in southern Georgia. More than 3,000 annually reported meters and 50 telemetry sites were installed during 2010 alone. The Commission monitored rates and volumes of agricultural irrigation supplied by groundwater, surface-water, and well-to-pond sources to inform water managers on the patterns and amounts of such water use and to determine effective and efficient resource utilization. Summary analyses of 4 complete years of irrigation data collected from annually read water meters in the middle and lower Chattahoochee and Flint River basins during 2007-2010 indicated that groundwater-supplied fields received slightly more irrigation depth per acre than surface-water-supplied fields. Year 2007 yielded the largest disparity between irrigation depth supplied by groundwater and surface-water sources as farmers responded to severe-to-exceptional drought conditions with increased irrigation. Groundwater sources (wells and well-to-pond systems) outnumbered surface-water sources by a factor of five; each groundwater source applied a third more irrigation volume than surface water; and, total irrigation volume from groundwater exceeded that of surface water by a factor of 6.7. Metered irrigation volume indicated a pattern of low-to-high water use from northwest to southeast that could point to relations between agricultural water use, water-resource potential and availability, soil type, and crop patterns. Normalizing metered irrigation-volume data by factoring out irrigated acres allowed irrigation water use to be expressed as an irrigation depth and nearly eliminated the disparity between volumes of applied irrigation derived from groundwater and surface water. Analysis of per-acre irrigation depths provided a commonality for comparing irrigation practices across the entire range of field sizes in southern Georgia and indicated underreporting of irrigated acres for some systems. Well-to-pond systems supplied irrigation at depths similar to groundwater and can be combined with groundwater irrigation data for subsequent analyses. Average irrigation depths during 2010 indicated an increase from average irrigation depths during 2008 and 2009, most likely the result of relatively dry conditions during 2010 compared to conditions in 2008 and 2009. Geostatistical models facilitated estimation of irrigation water use for unmetered systems and demonstrated usefulness in redesigning the telemetry network. Geospatial analysis evaluated the ability of the telemetry network to represent annually reported water-meter data and presented an objective, unbiased method for revising the network.

  8. Summary of "Using Student Growth to Evaluate Educators of Students with Disabilities: Issues, Challenges, and Next Steps": A Forum of State Special Education and Teacher Effectiveness Experts and Researchers. Forum Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdheide, Lynn; Browder, Diane; Warren, Sandra; Buzick, Heather; Jones, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    With the current emphasis in educational policy on improving teacher effectiveness, states and school districts are quickly developing and implementing new models of teacher evaluation. However, few models address the unique challenges in accurately measuring achievement growth of students with disabilities (including those participating in…

  9. Evaluation and interpretation of bubble size distributions in pulsed megasonic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauptmann, M.; Struyf, H.; De Gendt, S.; Glorieux, C.; Brems, S.

    2013-05-01

    The occurrence of acoustic cavitation is incorporating a multitude of interdependent effects that strongly depend on the bubble size. Therefore, bubble size control would be beneficial for biological and industrial processes that rely on acoustic cavitation. A pulsed acoustic field can result in bubble size control and the repeated dissolution and reactivation ("recycling") of potentially active bubbles. As a consequence, a pulsed field can strongly enhance cavitation activity. In this paper, we present a modified methodology for the evaluation of the active bubble size distribution by means of a combination of cavitation noise measurements and ultrasonic pulsing. The key component of this modified methodology is the definition of an upper size limit, below which bubbles—in between subsequent pulses—have to dissolve, in order to be sustainably recycled. This upper limit makes it possible to explain and link the enhancement of cavitation activity to a bubble size distribution. The experimentally determined bubble size distributions for different power densities are interpreted in the frame of numerical calculations of the oscillatory responses of the bubbles to the intermittent driving sound field. The distributions are found to be shaped by the size dependent interplay between bubble pulsations, rectified diffusion, coalescence, and the development of parametrically amplified shape instabilities. Also, a phenomenological reactivation-deactivation model is proposed to explain and quantify the observed enhancement of cavitation activity under pulsed, with respect to continuous sonication. In this model, the pulse-duration determines the magnitude of the reactivation of partially dissolved bubbles and the deactivation of activated bubbles by coalescence. It is shown that the subsequent recycling of previously active bubbles leads to an accumulation of cavitation activity, which saturates after a certain number of pulses. The model is fitted to the experimental data for the cavitation activity measured by means of ultraharmonic cavitation noise as a function of the pulse duration. Measurements of the development of the cavitation noise and sonochemiluminescence over a sequence of pulses for different pulse durations and separations confirm the general validity of the proposed model. Size distributions of the larger, inactive bubbles that were extracted from High-speed images of the cavitation field, relate the deactivation of activated bubbles by coalescence to the increase in volume concentrations of larger bubbles as observed by others.

  10. Summary of Activities Summary of Activities 2013

    E-print Network

    ICTP 2013 Summary of Activities #12;Summary of Activities 2013 The Abdus Salam International Centre & Stampa Public Information Office The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP/publications/technical-report.aspx For nearly 50 years, the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) has provided

  11. The Acetylene-Ethylene Assay for N2 Fixation: Laboratory and Field Evaluation 1

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, R. W. F.; Holsten, R. D.; Jackson, E. K.; Burns, R. C.

    1968-01-01

    The methodology, characteristics and application of the sensitive C2H2-C2H4 assay for N2 fixation by nitrogenase preparations and bacterial cultures in the laboratory and by legumes and free-living bacteria in situ is presented in this comprehensive report. This assay is based on the N2ase-catalyzed reduction of C2H2 to C2H4, gas chromatographic isolation of C2H2 and C2H4, and quantitative measurement with a H2-flame analyzer. As little as 1 ??mole C2H4 can be detected, providing a sensitivity 103-fold greater than is possible with 15N analysis. A simple, rapid and effective procedure utilizing syringe-type assay chambers is described for the analysis of C2H2-reducing activity in the field. Applications to field samples included an evaluation of N2 fixation by commercially grown soybeans based on over 2000 analyses made during the course of the growing season. Assay values reflected the degree of nodulation of soybean plants and indicated a calculated seasonal N2 fixation rate of 30 to 33 kg N2 fixed per acre, in good agreement with literature estimates based on Kjeldahl analyses. The assay was successfully applied to measurements of N2 fixation by other symbionts and by free living soil microorganisms, and was also used to assess the effects of light and temperature on the N2 fixing activity of soybeans. The validity of measuring N2 fixation in terms of C2H2 reduction was established through extensive comparisons of these activities using defined systems, including purified N2ase preparations and pure cultures of N2-fixing bacteria. With this assay it now becomes possible and practicable to conduct comprehensive surveys of N2 fixation, to make detailed comparisons among different N2-fixing symbionts, and to rapidly evaluate the effects of cultural practices and environmental factors on N2 fixation. The knowledge obtained through extensive application of this assay should provide the basis for efforts leading to the maximum agricultural exploitation of the N2 fixation reaction. PMID:16656902

  12. Thermal Imagery and Field Techniques to Evaluate Groundwater Nutrient Loading to an Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ROSEEN, R. M.; BRANNAKA, L. K.; BALLESTERO, T. P.

    2001-05-01

    Thermal infrared imagery has the potential to be a powerful and affordable tool for coastal managers and scientists to assist in the evaluation of pollution from groundwater. Developments in thermal imagery have improved its accessibility and affordability for use in coastal resource management. An on-going study has applied these new developments in thermal imagery to evaluate groundwater discharge on a large scale. In April and August of 2000 a series of thermal infrared aerial surveys were flown over the Great Bay Estuary in coastal New Hampshire. This study delineated the large-scale groundwater flux to an estuary. This flux was then used to estimate the nutrient loading to the estuarine ecosystem. The aerial survey covered the Great Bay, including nearly 50 miles of shoreline and four of the major contributing rivers. The August survey was completed in the equivalent of an afternoon. The images were available immediately with no post-processing required, and are being mosaicked into larger contiguous images to be incorporated into GIS applications. The images were studied for thermal anomalies as an indication of upwelling groundwater. The surface areas of each individual groundwater discharge zones were computed by GIS analysis of the photo-identified discharge zones. This was accomplished by use of gray-scale images calibrated to a known temperature range. The suspected groundwater discharge zones were identified in the field, characterized for hydrologic parameters, and sampled for water quality. Preliminary results suggest that groundwater is a significant component of the freshwater influx to the Great Bay, contributing half as much as the 10-year daily average of the Lamprey River. The Lamprey River is the largest (183 sq. mi. drainage area) of the four major surface freshwater sources to the upper Great Bay. Of particular significance, the estimated groundwater contribution was as much as 150%\\ that contributed by the Lamprey River during the summer low flows, when dilution and mixing are at a minimum. . The field-measured groundwater influx had elevated nitrate levels averaging nearly 0.95 mg NO3-N/L. The elevated nitrate concentrations were found down gradient of low-density residential areas with little agriculture. Groundwater contribution is typically one of the last major variables to be adequately characterized in a comprehensive study of nutrient loading to estuarine ecosystems. Preliminary results of this study indicate that groundwater influx is a significant component of the overall nutrient loading. Information regarding the quantity and quality of groundwater discharge to coastal ecosystems is valuable from both land management and regulatory standpoints.

  13. Evaluating climate field reconstruction techniques using improved emulations of real-world conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Emile-Geay, J.; Guillot, D.; Smerdon, J. E.; Rajaratnam, B.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudoproxy experiments (PPEs) have become an important framework for evaluating paleoclimate reconstruction methods. Most existing PPE studies assume constant proxy availability through time and uniform proxy quality across the pseudoproxy network. Real multiproxy networks are, however, marked by pronounced disparities in proxy quality, and a steep decline in proxy availability back in time, either of which may have large effects on reconstruction skill. A suite of PPEs constructed from a millennium-length general circulation model (GCM) simulation is thus designed to mimic these various real-world characteristics. The new pseudoproxy network is used to evaluate four climate field reconstruction (CFR) techniques: truncated total least squares embedded within the regularized EM (expectation-maximization) algorithm (RegEM-TTLS), the Mann et al. (2009) implementation of RegEM-TTLS (M09), canonical correlation analysis (CCA), and Gaussian graphical models embedded within RegEM (GraphEM). Each method's risk properties are also assessed via a 100-member noise ensemble. Contrary to expectation, it is found that reconstruction skill does not vary monotonically with proxy availability, but also is a function of the type and amplitude of climate variability (forced events vs. internal variability). The use of realistic spatiotemporal pseudoproxy characteristics also exposes large inter-method differences. Despite the comparable fidelity in reconstructing the global mean temperature, spatial skill varies considerably between CFR techniques. Both GraphEM and CCA efficiently exploit teleconnections, and produce consistent reconstructions across the ensemble. RegEM-TTLS and M09 appear advantageous for reconstructions on highly noisy data, but are subject to larger stochastic variations across different realizations of pseudoproxy noise. Results collectively highlight the importance of designing realistic pseudoproxy networks and implementing multiple noise realizations of PPEs. The results also underscore the difficulty in finding the proper bias-variance tradeoff for jointly optimizing the spatial skill of CFRs and the fidelity of the global mean reconstructions.

  14. Blood collected on filter paper for wildlife serology: evaluating storage and temperature challenges of field collections.

    PubMed

    Curry, Patricia S; Ribble, Carl; Sears, William C; Orsel, Karin; Hutchins, Wendy; Godson, Dale; Lindsay, Robbin; Dibernardo, Antonia; Campbell, Mitch; Kutz, Susan J

    2014-04-01

    Filter-paper (FP) blood sampling can facilitate wildlife research and expand disease surveillance. Previous work indicated that Nobuto FP samples from caribou and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus subspecies) had comparable sensitivity and specificity to serum samples (? 80% for both) in competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (cELISAs) for Brucella spp., Neospora caninum, and West Nile virus. The same sensitivity and specificity criteria were met in indirect ELISAs for Brucella spp., bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1), parainfluenza virus type 3 (PI-3), and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), with adjusted FP thresholds used for PI-3 and BRSV. Comparable sensitivity and specificity values to serum were also observed for FP in virus neutralization (VN) assays for bovine viral diarrhea virus types I and II; however, reduced sensitivity is a potential limitation of FP samples in protocols that require undiluted serum (i.e., VN and N. caninum cELISA). We evaluated the performance of FP samples from reindeer and caribou in these nine assays after simulating potential challenges of high-latitude field collections: 1) different durations of storage and 2) different processing/storage regimes involving freezing or drying. Sample pairs (serum and FP) were collected from reindeer and caribou populations in 2007-10 and were tested in duplicate. Comparable performance to serum was defined as sensitivity and specificity ? 80%. In the storage experiments, FP performance was determined after 2 mo of storage dry at room temperature, and after two longer periods (variable depending on assay; up to 2 yr). After 1 yr, compared to frozen serum stored for the same period, sensitivity was ? 88% for all but two assays (68% BHV-1; 75% PI-3), and specificity remained >90%. A limited trial evaluated the effect of freezing FP samples as opposed to drying them for storage. There were no observed detrimental effects of freezing on FP sample performance, but rigorous investigation is warranted. PMID:24499329

  15. Evaluation of multidimensional transport through a field-scale compacted soil liner

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willingham, T.W.; Werth, C.J.; Valocchi, A.J.; Krapac, I.G.; Toupiol, C.; Stark, T.D.; Daniel, D.E.

    2004-01-01

    A field-scale compacted soil liner was constructed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and Illinois State Geological Survey in 1988 to investigate chemical transport rates through low permeability compacted clay liners (CCLs). Four tracers (bromide and three benzoic acid tracers) were each added to one of four large ring infiltrometers (LRIs) while tritium was added to the pond water (excluding the infiltrometers). Results from the long-term transport of Br- from the localized source zone of LRI are presented in this paper. Core samples were taken radially outward from the center of the Br- LRI and concentration depth profiles were obtained. Transport properties were evaluated using an axially symmetric transport model. Results indicate that (1) transport was diffusion controlled; (2) transport due to advection was negligible and well within the regulatory limits of ksat???1 ?? 10-7 cm/s; (3) diffusion rates in the horizontal and vertical directions were the same; and (4) small positioning errors due to compression during soil sampling did not affect the best fit advection and diffusion values. The best-fit diffusion coefficient for bromide was equal to the molecular diffusion coefficient multiplied by a tortuosity factor of 0.27, which is within 8% of the tortuosity factor (0.25) found in a related study where tritium transport through the same liner was evaluated. This suggests that the governing mechanisms for the transport of tritium and bromide through the CCL were similar. These results are significant because they address transport through a composite liner from a localized source zone which occurs when defects or punctures in the geomembrane of a composite system are present. ?? ASCE.

  16. Rapid evaluation of fresh ex vivo kidney tissue with full-field optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Manu; Robinson, Brian D.; Salamoon, Bekheit; Thouvenin, Olivier; Boccara, Claude; Mukherjee, Sushmita

    2015-01-01

    Background: Full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) is a real-time imaging technique that rapidly generates images reminiscent of histology without any tissue processing, warranting its exploration for evaluation of ex vivo kidney tissue. Methods: Fresh tissue sections from tumor and adjacent nonneoplastic kidney (n = 25 nephrectomy specimens; clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) = 12, papillary RCC (PRCC) = 4, chromophobe RCC (ChRCC) = 4, papillary urothelial carcinoma (PUC) = 1, angiomyolipoma (AML) = 2 and cystic nephroma = 2) were imaged with a commercial FFOCT device. Sections were submitted for routine histopathological diagnosis. Results: Glomeruli, tubules, interstitium, and blood vessels were identified in nonneoplastic tissue. In tumor sections, the normal architecture was completely replaced by either sheets of cells/trabeculae or papillary structures. The former pattern was seen predominantly in CCRCC/ChRCC and the latter in PRCC/PUC (as confirmed on H&E). Although the cellular details were not very prominent at this resolution, we could identify unique cytoplasmic signatures in some kidney tumors. For example, the hyper-intense punctate signal in the cytoplasm of CRCC represents glycogen/lipid, large cells with abundant hyper-intense cytoplasm representing histiocytes in PRCC, and signal-void large polygonal cell representing adipocytes in AML. According to a blinded analysis was performed by an uropathologist, all nonneoplastic tissues were differentiated from neoplastic tissues. Further, all benign tumors were called benign and malignant were called malignant. A diagnostic accuracy of 80% was obtained in subtyping the tumors. Conclusion: The ability of FFOCT to reliably differentiate nonneoplastic from neoplastic tissue and identify some tumor types makes it a valuable tool for rapid evaluation of ex vivo kidney tissue e.g. for intraoperative margin assessment and kidney biopsy adequacy. Recently, higher resolution images were achieved using an experimental FFOCT setup. This setup has the potential to further increase the diagnostic accuracy of FFOCT. PMID:26605118

  17. Laboratory and field evaluations of the LISST-100 instrument for suspended particle size determinations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gartner, J.W.; Cheng, R.T.; Wang, P.-F.; Richter, K.

    2001-01-01

    Advances in technology have resulted in a new instrument that is designed for in-situ determination of particle size spectra. Such an instrument that can measure undisturbed particle size distributions is much needed for sediment transport studies. The LISST-100 (Laser In-Situ Scattering and Transmissometry) uses the principle of laser diffraction to obtain the size distribution and volume concentration of suspended material in 32 size classes logarithmically spaced between 1.25 and 250 ??m. This paper describes a laboratory evaluation of the ability of LISST-100 to determine particle sizes using suspensions of single size, artificial particles. Findings show the instrument is able to determine particle size to within about 10% with increasing error as particle size increases. The instrument determines volume (or mass) concentration using a volume conversion factor Cv. This volume conversion factor is theoretically a constant. In the laboratory evaluation Cv is found to vary by a factor of about three over the particle size range between 5 and 200 ??m. Results from field studies in South San Francisco Bay show that values of mass concentration of suspended marine sediments estimated by LISST-100 agree favorably with estimates from optical backscatterance sensors if an appropriate value of Cv, according to mean size, is used and the assumed average particle (aggregate) density is carefully chosen. Analyses of size distribution of suspended materials in South San Francisco Bay over multiple tide cycles suggest the likelihood of different sources of sediment because of different size characteristics during flood and ebb cycles. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

  18. Field soil aggregate stability kit for soil quality and rangeland health evaluations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herrick, J.E.; Whitford, W.G.; de Soyza, A. G.; Van Zee, J. W.; Havstad, K.M.; Seybold, C.A.; Walton, M.

    2001-01-01

    Soil aggregate stability is widely recognized as a key indicator of soil quality and rangeland health. However, few standard methods exist for quantifying soil stability in the field. A stability kit is described which can be inexpensively and easily assembled with minimal tools. It permits up to 18 samples to be evaluated in less than 10 min and eliminates the need for transportation, minimizing damage to soil structure. The kit consists of two 21??10.5??3.5 cm plastic boxes divided into eighteen 3.5??3.5 cm sections, eighteen 2.5-cm diameter sieves with 1.5-mm distance openings and a small spatula used for soil sampling. Soil samples are rated on a scale from one to six based on a combination of ocular observations of slaking during the first 5 min following immersion in distilled water, and the percent remaining on a 1.5-mm sieve after five dipping cycles at the end of the 5-min period. A laboratory comparison yielded a correlation between the stability class and percent aggregate stability based on oven dry weight remaining after treatment using a mechanical sieve. We have applied the method in a wide variety of agricultural and natural ecosystems throughout western North America, including northern Mexico, and have found that it is highly sensitive to differences in management and plant community composition. Although the field kit cannot replace the careful laboratory-based measurements of soil aggregate stability, it can clearly provide valuable information when these more intensive procedures are not possible.

  19. Evaluation of lid speculum with a drape (LiDrape®) for preventing surgical-field contamination

    PubMed Central

    Urano, Toru; Kasaoka, Masataka; Sagawa, Kimitaka; Yamakawa, Ryoji

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the degree of surgical-field contamination in cataract surgeries between a new draping method using a lid speculum with a drape (LiDrape®) and a conventional draping method. Methods Cataract surgery was performed on 21 eyes using LiDrape® (LiDrape® group) and on 22 eyes using a conventional draping method (conventional group). Contamination was evaluated by bacterial culture of conjunctival sac scrapings and ocular surface irrigation fluid. Conjunctival sac scrapings were collected before and after application of preoperative antibiotics. Ocular surface irrigation fluid was collected before incision placement and during surgery. Bacterial detection rate and types of organisms isolated at these four time points were examined. Results Bacterial detection rates were significantly decreased in the LiDrape® group at all time points after the application of antibiotics compared with preapplication. Regarding between-group comparisons, the bacterial detection rate in the LiDrape® group was only significantly lower than that in the conventional group in the intraoperative sample. Propionibacterium acnes was the most common organism isolated from ocular surface irrigation fluid. The number of P. acnes in the intraoperative sample was significantly lower in the LiDrape® group compared with the conventional group. There were no significant differences in detection rates for other bacteria between the groups. Conclusion LiDrape® was as effective as conventional draping for preventing surgical-field contamination. The number of P. acnes during surgery was significantly lower in the LiDrape® group compared with the conventional group, suggesting that LiDrape® may contribute to the prevention of postoperative infection. PMID:26185413

  20. Evaluation of Measurement Uncertainty of Radiated EMC Tests in Arbitrary Field Generators using Surface Currents on DUT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, T.; Münter, K.; Spitzer, M.; Eulig, N.; Enders, A.

    2005-05-01

    We present a method for the evaluation of measurement uncertainty in radiated EMC tests. It is based on the measurement of surface current densities on a sphere, the results are compared to the surface current distribution on a sphere in a free-space environment obtained by numerical calculations. The free-space is considered to be a reference field generator. By this method we avoid burdening any systematic deviations of one particular (historic) method to any of the others. We evaluate the ratio J/E of the measured surface current density J and the measured empty electrical field strength E for both the reverberation chamber and the semi-anechoic chamber.