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Sample records for field michoacan mexico

  1. Pilot fruit drier for Los Azufres geothermal field, Michoacan, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1993-02-01

    Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) has a Division in charge of the exploration of a geothermal reservoir located in Los Azufres, State of Michoacan. At present, CFE is only using the steam of the wells and rejecting the hot water that comes off associated with the steam. Based on a trip to the Los Azufres geothermal field in December of 1992, a design for a pilot geothermal fruit drier was undertaken for CFE. The details of the geothermal field and the local fruit production are detailed.

  2. Differentiation of cinder cone magmas from the Michoacan-Guanajuato Volcanic Field, central Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Hasenaka, T.

    1985-01-01

    The Michoacan-Guanajuato Volcanic Field (area:40,000 km/sup 2/) contains various small volcanic centers of 3 Ma to Recent age, including 900 cinder and lava cones, and contrast to other portions of the Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB) with large composite volcanoes. Among 224 scoria and lava samples studied for chemistry and mineralogy, 165 samples are calc-alkaline (basalt, andesite, and dacite), 21 are alkaline (mainly basalt), and 38 are transitional between the two (mainly basalt). The majority of rocks are 01 basalt and 01 andesite with pyroxene and hornblende andesites being subordinate. Their MgO content is relatively high compared with lavas from composite volcanoes in the MVB, and indicate an earlier stage of differentiation. Four samples have Mg-number >70 and Ni content >235 ppm, a criteria of magmas equilibrated with mantle olivine. They include all the rock groups but phenocryst assemblage is always 01+Cpx+Pl. Other samples are plotted between this and 1-atmosphere Ol-Cpx-Pl cotectic. Ol-liquid, two pyroxenes, and magnetite-ilmenite temperatures decrease from 1200/sup 0/C to 900/sup 0/C with increasing FeO*/MgO ratio which also corresponds to the changing mineral assemblages. Calculated oxygen fugacities are on or slightly above Ni-NiO buffer line. Calc-alkaline and alkaline basalts are not related; both are parental. Less differentiated character of cinder cone magmas may result from their transportation under local extensional stress and absence of long-lived shallow magma reservoirs is common in composite volcanoes.

  3. The ignimbritic sequences of the Michoacan and Jalisco blocks, western Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosas-Elguera, J.; Gogichaishvili, A.; Alva-Valdivia, L.

    2011-12-01

    The Southern-central Mexico is related to the relative motions between the Pacific and Northamerica plates involving subduction, terranes accretion, and retreat of the trench; as consequence this region has a complex geologic evolution forming the so called tectono-stratigraphic terranes. The Guerrero Terrain was define by Campa and Coney (1983) as formed by island-arcs sequences accreted in Tertiary-Late Cretaceous times. The Michoacan and Jalisco blocks belong to the Guerrero terrain. The Cretaceous-Tertiary rocks of the Jalisco block are intrusive, volcano-sedimentary, metamorphic and volcanic rocks. The youngest succession is a widespread ignimbrite sequence. As in the Jalisco block, at the Michoacan block the Cretaceous sedimentary and volcano-sedimentary rocks are mantled by an ignimbrite sequence. In the Jalisco block 11 radiometric ages have been reported for ignimbrite sequence but in the Michoacan block (between the Infiernillo dam and the Colima graben) none isotopic age has been published for the ignimbrite succession but the Servicio Geológico Mexicano gives an Eocene-Miocene age. We report our preliminary structural and geochronologic work in the Michoacan and Jalisco blocks. Radiometric results do not support an Eocene-Miocene age. We sampled a rhyolitic ignimbrite unit (called ignimbrita Laureles) south of the Tepalcatepec city for 40Ar/39Ar radiometric studies which gives an age of 70 Ma. At the same time we sampled a rhyolitic ignimbrite unit (called ignimbrita Union) isotopic age gives 66 Ma. During our field work we did not find significant deformation in the ignimbrite cover but the underlying sedimentary and volcano-sedimentary sequences are highly deformed. Campa, U. M.F., and P. Coney, 1983 Tectonostratigraphic terranes and mineral resource distribution in Mexico, Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v.20, p.1040-1051.

  4. Integral description of the geological heritage of Michoacan, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    jose teodoro, S. G.; Gonzalez, C.; Estrada, F.; Moncayo, R.; Cruz, G.

    2013-12-01

    Geological heritage studies are among the most recent research areas incorporated into the geological sciences. These represent a new understanding of man's relationship with earth. Particularly, the Geosites Global Project was structured as an international initiative aimed to establish the geological heritage. Similarly, UNESCO in 1996 launched the Geoparks Program, in order to register in confined areas peculiar aspects for scientific research, uniqueness and beauty that could perpetuate the geological history and the processes that formed them. This initiative includes the global geological record, which selects the most representative and illustrative places. The analysis of the geological heritage can be approached in different ways, either through cataloging, valuation, preservation or disclosure, all of these activities, together, provide an integrated management model. In a first step, we addressed the first two approaches for the north-central portion of the state of Michoacan Mexico. The Paricutin and Jorullo volcanoes, the overlapping tectonic sequences Tzitzio-Huetamo, and the Michoacán-Guanajuato Volcanic Belt, are just some examples. We pretend to focus the inventory and valuation activities, to formulate protection schemes and management strategies as cultural resources.

  5. Low-latitude paleosecular variation and the time-averaged field during the late Pliocene and Quaternary—Paleomagnetic study of the Michoacan-Guanajuato volcanic field, Central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte-Fasano, G.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Goguitchaichvili, A.; Morales-Contreras, J.

    2006-10-01

    We report paleomagnetic, rock magnetic, and paleointensity studies for 24 volcanic lava flows from the Michoacan-Guanajuato volcanic field (MGVF), erupted between 2.27 Ma to present according to available radiometric ages and historic records. The MGVF located in the central-western sector of the Plio-Quaternary Trans-Mexican volcanic belt is mainly composed by cinder cones and shield volcanoes. Rock magnetic experiments show remanence is carried in most cases by Ti-poor titanomagnetites, resulting from oxy-exsolution of original titanomagnetites during flow cooling. Unblocking temperature spectra and high coercivities point to "small" pseudo-single domain grains for the titanomagnetites. Single component, linear vector plots are obtained after alternating field and thermal demagnetization. Seven flows yield reverse polarity magnetization while sixteen flows are normally magnetized. The overall mean paleodirection obtained (with 14 flows normal and 6 flows reverse) is I=28.4°, D=357.9°, k=21, α95=7.3°, with a paleomagnetic pole position of P lat=85.7°, P long= 104.5°, K=27, A95=6.4°. The paleodirection is undistinguishable from expected Plio-Quaternary paleodirections derived from reference poles for the North American polar wander curve, and previously reported paleodirections for central Mexico. Paleointensity experiments give high quality results for only twelve samples from two flows with mean values of 7.3 and 8.1 × 1022 Am2, which are close to present geomagnetic field intensity. The combination of new MGVF directional results with currently available paleomagnetic data from central Mexico yield angular dispersion estimates of S F = 15.4 with S U = 19.6 and S L = 12.7, which are in agreement with the latitude-dependent PSV model of McFadden et al. (1988, 1991) for the last 5 Ma, and show no significant inclination anomaly.

  6. Receiver Function Imaging of Crustal and Lithospheric Structure Beneath the Jalisco Block and Western Michoacan, Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes Alfaro, G.; Cruz-Atienza, V. M.; Perez-Campos, X.; Reyes Dávila, G. A.

    2014-12-01

    We used a receiver function technique for imaging western Mexico, a unique area with several active seismic and volcanic zones like the triple junction of Rivera, Cocos and North American plates and the Colima volcano complex (CVC), the most active in Mexico. Clear images of the distribution of the crust and the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary are obtained using P-to-S receiver functions (RF) from around ~80 broadband stations recorded by the Mapping the Rivera Subduction Zone (MARS), the Colima Volcano Deep Seismic Experiment (CODEX) and a local network (RESCO) that allowed us to considerably increase the teleseismic database used in the project. For imaging, we constructed several 2-D profiles of depth transformed RFs to delineate the seismic discontinuities of the region. Low seismic velocities associated with the Michoacan-Guanajuato and the Mascota-Ayutla-Tapalpa volcanic fields are also observed. Most impressive, a large and well delineated magma body 100 km underneath CVC is recognized along a surely related depression of the moho discontinuity just above it. We bring more tools for a better understanding of the deep processes that ultimately control eruptive behavior in the region.

  7. Holocene Record Of The Cuitzeo Lake, Michoacan, Central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israde-Alcantar, I.; Bischoff, J.; Cram, S.; Ruiz-Fernandez, C.; Barron, J.; Lozano-Garcia, S.; Ortega-Guerrero, B.; Garduño-Monroy, V. H.

    2007-05-01

    A 205 cm-long core spanning the last ca.10,000 years was taken in the western basin of Lake Cuitzeo, located in the tectonic depressions of central Mexico. Age control for the core is provided by four AMS dates on organic sediment. The uppermost 30 cm of the core appears to be highly bioturbated according to Pb210 chronologies. A time plot of mass-accumulation rates of sediment (g/cm2/kyr) shows high rates from 10,000 to 6000 yrs BP, strikingly reduced mid-Holocene rates, and increasing rates post 1000 yrs (which could be due to introduction of European ranching and agriculture). Organic and inorganic carbon (TOC. TIC), diatoms, iron and titanium concentrations were analyzed and used to infer variations in the hydrological cycle and climatic conditions. The lower part of the core (ca.8000 C14 yr B.P.) is characterized by high percents of CaCO3 (more than 35 percent) which rapidly declines to values less than 20 percent after ca. 6000 C14 yr B.P., likely reflecting reduced summer precipitation due to decline summer insolation. Coincident with this decline in percents CaCO3 there is a decline greater that two-fold sediment accumulation rates and an increase in percents TOC. Two peaks TOC are recorded at 909 and 6744 C14 yr B.P. suggesting increased precipitation. The TOC peak at 909 C14 yr B.P. may be associated with increased precipitation during the Medieval Warm Period. The middle Holocene TOC peak at 6744 C14 yr B.P. coincides with a period of increased precipitation in the Cariaco Basin of Venezuela. These changes in precipitation are similar to those recorded in lake records from Guatemala and the marine record of the Cariaco Basin and can be explained by shifts in the mean latitude of the Atlantic Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The upper 100 cm of the core was studied at 1 cm intervals for metals (Al, Fe, Ti, Pb, etc.) using ICPMS geochemistry. These metals show strong cycles throughout the studied interval which may reflect wet-dry cycles. A two fold

  8. The 27 May 1937 catastrophic flow failure of gold tailings at Tlalpujahua, Michoacan, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macias, J. L.; Corona-Chavez, P.; Sanchez-Nunez, J. M.; Martinez-Medina, M.; Garduno-Monroy, V. H.; Capra, L.; Garcia-Tenorio, F.; Cisneros-Maximo, G.

    2015-05-01

    On 27 May 1937, after one week of sustained heavy rainfall, a voluminous flood caused the death of at least 300 people and the destruction of the historic El Carmen church and several neighborhoods in the mining region of Tlalpujahua, Michoacan, central Mexico. This destructive flood was triggered by the breaching of the impoundment of the Los Cedros tailings and the sudden release of circa 16 Mt of water-saturated waste materials. The muddy silty flood, moving at estimated speeds of 20-25 m s-1, was channelized along the Dos Estrellas and Tlalpujahua drainages and devastated everything along its flow path. After advancing 2.5 km downstream, the flood slammed into El Carmen church and surrounding houses at estimated speeds of ~ 7 m s-1, destroying many construction walls and covering the church floor with ~ 2 m of mud and debris. Revision of eyewitness accounts and newspaper articles, together with analysis of archived photographic materials, indicated that the flood consisted of three muddy pulses. Stratigraphic relations and granulometric data for selected proximal and distal samples show that the flood behaved as a hyperconcentrated flow along most of its trajectory. A total volume of the Lamas flood deposit was estimated as 1.5 x 106 m3. The physically based bidimensional (2-D) hydraulic model FLO-2D was implemented to reproduce the breached flow (0.5 sediment concentration) with a maximum flow discharge of 8000 m3 s-1 for a total outflow volume (sediment + water) of 2.5 x 106 m3, similar to the calculations obtained using field measurements. Even though premonitory signs of possible impoundment failure were reported days before the flood, and people living downstream were alerted, authorities ordered no evacuations or other mitigative actions. The catastrophic flood at Tlalpujahua provides a well-documented, though tragic, example of impoundment breaching of a tailings dam caused by the combined effects of intense rainfall, dam weakness, and inadequate

  9. Sintacs Aquifer Vulnerability in the Definition of the Natural Protected Area Los Chorros Del Varal, Los Reyes, Michoacan, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, J.; Ramiro, R.; Estrada, F.; Ochoa, S.

    2006-12-01

    In Michoacan State, Mexico, the use of aquifer vulnerability assessment is been incorporated in the regional policies of aquifer protection. A hydrogeological evaluation and aquifer vulnerability assessment using the SINTACS method was done in the natural protected area, NPA, Los Chorros del Varal in Michoacan State, Central Mexico. This place is a discharge area. An spectacular spring is feeding a stream. The predominant rocks are volcanic. By means of the SINTACS method a contamination risk zoning was obtained. The research permitted the expansion of the protection area of Los Chorros del Varal: a surrounding area to avoid anthropogenic impacts. This NPA is the preferential recharge area of the regional aquifer. This aquifer is the main water supply source for more than 200,000 inhabitants. A high to medium vulnerability was calculated. These vulnerable parts must be protected impeding risky projects such as dumps or industries producing wastewaters. Low values were obtained in clayey environments and also in volcanic rocks with scarce fracturing.

  10. Geomorpho-edaphic mapping of Atécuaro catchment (Michoacan, Mexico) and indigenous soil classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alanís González, N.; Alcalá de Jesús, M.; Arellano Reyes, A.; Jordán, A.; Zavala, L. M.

    2012-04-01

    The needs of management and conservation of land involve the study of natural resources and their internal relationships. Over time, these resources, including soil, have been used in an uncontrolled manner, resulting in species extinction and environmental degradation processes. The main reason for this in developing areas is the lack of soil and geomorphological information for an adequate land use planning. Often, ethnopedological knowledge and the inclusion of indigenous communities as beneficiaries of the agricultural technology are indispensable premises to make a better use of soil. A geomorphology and soil survey was conducted in the Atécuaro catchment (4591 ha), in the municipality of Morelia (Michoacan, Mexico). The Atécuaro catchment is located in the Mil Cumbres area, and is characterized by an irregular relief and a diversity of landforms and substrates (andesite, rhyolite, basalt, tuff and Quaternary sediments). The main land uses are oak and pine forest, shrubland, grassland and dryland farming. Results of the soil survey and the analysis of geoforms were studied and incorporated in a geographycal information system. Preliminary geoform and soil units maps were overlapped in order to get a map of geomorpho-edaphic units. Up to 30 different geomorpho-edaphic units were classified. Finally, map units were correlated with local indigenous soil classification.

  11. Gonopodial system review and a new fish record of Poeciliopsis infans (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae) for Lake Patzcuaro, Michoacan, central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Galindo-Villegas, Jorge; Sosa-Lima, F

    2002-01-01

    Since 1997, Poeciliopsis infans Woolman 1894 has been recognized as a new inhabitant of Lake Patzcuaro, Michoacan in Central Mexico. Between February 1997 and October 1998, nine fish samples were collected at Lake Patzcuaro. Morphometric and meristic counts were conducted on a random selection of 40 organisms of both sexes of Poeciliopsis infans. Males of these viviparous fish posses a modified anal fin called gonopodium. The characteristic hemal spine on the 18th caudal vertebra for this species is described herein and the bony components of the gonopodial structure and suspensoria that together comprise the gonopodial system, which is important for taxonomic studies at various levels of classification were reviewed. Poeciliopsis infans displays a high degree of sexual dimorphism in body shape and anal fin anatomy with the most conspicuous difference observed in anal fin height, which averages 40% of SI in males and 17% in females. Comparisons between male and female anal fins are described herein as well as the possible impacts of this species on Lake Patzcuaro fish fauna. PMID:12947598

  12. Laramide thrusting and Tertiary deformation Tierra Caliente, Michoacan and Guerrero States, southwestern Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.A.; Harrison, C.G.A. ); Lang, H. ); Barros, J.A.; Cabral-Cano, E.

    1990-05-01

    Field investigations and detailed interpretations of Landsat Thematic Mapper images are in progress to improve understanding of regional structure and tectonics of the southernmost extension of the North American cordillera. Two areas have been selected within the Ciudad Altamirano 1:250,000 topographical sheet for geologic mapping and structural interpretation at 1:50,000 scale. The authors results to date require modification of previous ideas concerning the style and timing of deformations, the role and timing of terrane accretion in the overall tectonic history of the region, and the importance of southern Mexico to investigations of the tectonic evolution of the plates in the region. The relative sequence of deformation in the area correlates well with variations in relative motion between North America and plates in the Pacific. Post-Campanian thrusts and generally eastward-verging folds deformed the Mesozoic sequence during the (Laramide equivalent) Hidalgoan orogeny, associated with high-velocity east-west convergence with the Farallon plate that began about 70 Ma. The resulting unconformity was covered by the Tertiary Balsas Formation, a thick sequence of mostly continental clastics. The Tertiary stratigraphy is regionally and sometimes locally variable, but it can be divided into two members. The lower member is relatively volcanic poor and more deformed, and it lies below a regionally significant mid-Tertiary unconformity, which may mark a change to northeast-directed convergence with the Farallon plate sometime prior to 40 Ma. Continued mid-Tertiary deformation in southern Mexico may be related to eastward movement of the Chortis block and the resulting truncation of the Pacific margin of Mexico. The authors also suggest a tentative correlation between the volcaniclastic member of the Lower Cretaceous San Lucas Formation and the protolith of the Roca Verde metamorphics to the east.

  13. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dairy goats in Michoacan, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats in Michoacán, Mexico is largely unknown. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 341 dairy goats in Michoacán, Mexico using the modified agglutination test. Goats were raised in 9 farms in 6 municipalities. Overall, antibodies to Toxoplasma w...

  14. Contamination in marine turtle (Dermochelys coriaca) egg shells of Playon de Mexiquillo, Michoacan, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Vazquez, G.F.; Reyes, M.C.; Fenandez, G.

    1997-02-01

    Concern for the decreasing population sizes of marine turtles around the world is growing. Potential contamination within habitats of marine turtles, and human activities, such as poaching, modification of nesting sites, and capture of adult turtles, may be responsible for their decreasing populations. Little is known about the baseline levels and physiological effects of environmental contaminants on marine turtle populations. Responding to this concern, the Mexican government has designated areas along the Mexican coastline to preserve marine turtle nesting habitats. {open_quotes}Playon de Mexiquillo{close_quotes}, Michocan, Mexico is one of the coastal preservation areas located near the mouth of Rio la Manzanilla which flows between Sierra Madre del Sur and the Pacific Ocean. Samples of seawater, sand, and marine turtle egg (Dermochelys Coriaca) shells were collected monthly from October, 1992-March, 1993. Contaminants investigated were oil and grease, and metals (cadmium, copper, zinc, nickel, and lead). Seawater samples were collected where the turtles lay eggs in the preservation area and sand samples were taken from the area surrounding the eggs. 12 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  15. Induction of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities by cyclophosphamide and colchicine in Xenotoca melanosoma (Pisces, Goodeidae) from Lake La Alberca in Michoacan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Zavala-Aguirre, Jose Luis; Torres-Bugarin, Olivia; Buelna-Osben, Hector Rene; Flores-Kehn, Lola Paulina; Ramos-Ibarra, Maria Luisa; Zuniga-Gonzalez, Guillermo; Ogura, Tetsuya

    2010-01-01

    This study is a follow-up of previous research in which we described the frequency of spontaneous micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) in the Goodeid Xenotocoa melanosoma collected from Lake La Alberca, located in the state of Michoacan, Mexico. In the present work, we measured micronuclei (MN) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) in erythrocytes of peripheral blood. Bioassays taken at 24 or 96 hours in either the cyclophosfamide (CP) or colchicine (COL) showed a significant increase in MN and BC (P values ranging from 0.0499 to 0.0036) compared with information from wild organisms collected over 3 years. Concentrationdependent and time-dependent responses support the proposal of using endemic Xenotoca melanosoma as a bioindicator of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity with a high transcendence for the health of the entire ecosystem and evaluation of the Lerma-Chapala watershed. PMID:20390845

  16. The Northern Boundary of the Michoacan Block: As Inferred From Aeromagnetic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosas-Elguera, J.; Lopez Loera, H.; Fregoso, E.; Maciel Flores, R.; Peña, L.; Alatorre-Zamora, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    The western part of the Guerrero terrane is comprised of the Jalisco and Michoacan Blocks (Rosas-Elguera et al., 1996 and references therein), a fault-bounded crustal blocks at western of Mexico. The Michoacan block is bounded by the N-NE segment of the Rio Balsas in the east, and the Colima graben in the west, the Chapala-Oaxaca fault to the north, and the Middle America Trench to the south. Northern boundary is formed with the Chapala-Oaxaca fault zone (Harrison y Johnson, 1985). The Cotija half-graben is the end-tip of this fault zone. A combined radiometric and paleomagnetic analyses in the Cotija half-graben were carried out (Rosas-Elguera, et al, 2003). Radiometric dates between 31.60 and 8.39 Ma confirm both the southern extension of the Sierra Madre Occidental and the early mafic Tans-Mexican Volcanic Belt succession at the northern part of the Michoacan block. Paleomagnetic data indicate a counterclockwise rotation of ~ 24° about a vertical axis for the Michoacan block. The Michoacan-Guanajuato Volcanic Field forms an area of extensive monogenetic volcanism. This volcanic field contains more than 1000 eruptive centers distributed over an area of 40,000 Km2. The Chapala-Oaxaca fault zone separates the northern MGVF and the southern MGVF. Hasenaka and Carmichael (1987) recognized three different petrologic associations in the MGVF: calc-alkaline rocks typical arc characteristic, K2O-rich alkaline rocks with relatively high MgO contents and TiO2-rich alkaline rocks with relatively low MgO contents. We present the aeromagnetic results (after Consejo de Recursos Minerales, 1999) which suggest a clear relationship between the geologic features and the magnetic response.

  17. Photogeologic and thermal infrared reconnaissance surveys of the Los Negritos-Ixtlan de los Hervores geothermal area, Michoacan, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomez, Valle R.; Friedman, J.D.; Gawarecki, S.J.; Banwell, C.J.

    1970-01-01

    New techniques, involving interpretation of panchromatic, ektachrome and ektachrome infrared aerographic photogaphs and thermographic infrared imagery recording emission from the earth's surface in middle and far infrared wavelengths (3-5??m and 8-14??m), are being introduced in geothermal investigations in Mexico to identify outstanding structural and geologic features in a rapid and economical manner. The object of this work is to evaluate the new airborne infrared techniques and equipment as a complement to the data obtained from panchromatic aerial photography. This project is part of the Mexican remote sensing program of natural resources carried out under the auspices of the Comision Nacional del Espacio Exterior and in which the Research Institute (Instituto de Investigaciones de la Industria Electrica) is actively participating. The present study was made cooperatively with the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the U.S. Geological Survey. The Los Negritos-Ixtlan de los Hervores geothermal fields are located east of Lake Chapala at the intersection of the Sierra Madre occidental and the west-central segment of the neovolcanic axis of Mexico. The two principal zones of hydrothermal activity occur in a tectonic trench filled with lake sediments of the Quaternary intercalated with Quaternary and Holocene volcanic rocks and characterized by an intricate system of block-fault tectonics, part of the Chapala-Acambay tectonic system, along which there has been volcanic activity in modern time. Surface manifestations of geothermal activity consist of relatively high heat flow and hot springs, small geysers and small steam vents aligned along an E-W axis at Ixtlan, possibly at the intersection of major fault trends and mud volcanoes and hot pools aligned NE-SW at Los Negritos. More than 20 exit points of thermal waters are shown on infrared imagery to be aligned along an extension of the Ixtlan fault between Ixtlan and El Salitre. A narrow zone of

  18. Diversity, local knowledge and use of stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini) in the municipality of Nocupétaro, Michoacan, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Stingless bees were significant resources managed by Mesoamerican peoples during pre-Columbian times and remain important in particular areas. Our study aimed at inventorying stingless bees’ species, traditional knowledge and forms of use and management of them at the municipality of Nocupetaro, Michoacán, Mexico, a region of the Balsas River Basin. Methods We inventoried the stingless bees of the municipality of Nocupétaro, Michoacán, México, through extensive collecting of bee specimens in different vegetation types. We then conducted semi-structured interviews to local experts in order to document their knowledge and management techniques of stingless bees’ species. Results We identified a total of eight stingless bees’ species in the study area as well as three additional unidentified taxa recognized by people through the local names. Our inventory included one new record of species for the region (Lestrimelitta chamelensis Ayala, 1999). The taxa identified are all used by local people. Scaptotrigona hellwegeri Friese, 1900; Melipona fasciata Latreille, 1811; Frieseomelitta nigra Cresson, 1878 and Geotrigona acapulconis Strand, 1919 are particularly valued as food (honey), medicinal (honey and pollen), and material for handcrafts (wax). All species recorded are wild and their products are obtained through gathering. On average, local experts were able to collect 4 nests of stingless bees per year obtaining on average 6 L of honey and 4 Kg of wax but some came to collect up 10–12 hives per year (18 L of honey and 24 Kg of wax). Conclusions Local knowledge about use, management and ecological issues on stingless bees is persistent and deep in the study area. Information about this group of bees is progressively scarcer in Mexico and significant effort should be done from ethnobiological and ecological perspectives in order to complement the national inventory of bee resources and traditional knowledge and management of them. PMID:24903644

  19. Michoacan People, Customs, and the Day of the Dead.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maulhardt, Mary

    This curriculum guide is intended: (1) to expose students to the people and customs of Michoacan, Mexico; (2) to explore the meaning of traditional Day of the Dead customs through hands-on experiences; and (3) to build the self-esteem of second language learners of Mexican descent. During the study, students whose primary language is Spanish read…

  20. Geothermal Field Development in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Espinosa, Hector Alonso

    1983-12-15

    Mexico is a Country characterized by its diversified means of Power Gerneration. Actual installed capacity is almost 19000 MW, of which 205 MW corresponds to Geothermal Plants, that is, 180 MW in Cerro Prieto and 25 MW of Portable Plants in Los Azufres. To date, 346 area with exploitation possibilites, are known. They are mainly distributed along the Volcanic Belt where the most prominent are, Los Azufres, La Primavera, Los Humeros, Ixtlan De Los Hervores and Los Negritos, among others. Proved reserves are 920 MW, and the accessible resource base are 4600 MW identified and 6000 MW undiscovered. The long range construction studies intends to achieve a total installed capacity of 100000 MW, by the end of this century, including 2000 MW Geothermal, through conventional and Portable Plants. It is not a definite program but a development strategy. The carrying out of a definite program, will depend upon the confirmation of Hypothesis made in previous studies, and the economic decisions related to the financial sources availability, and techologies to be used in the future as well.

  1. Inversion for slip distribution using teleseismic P waveforms: North Palm Springs, Borah Peak, and Michoacan earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendoza, C.; Hartzell, S.H.

    1988-01-01

    We have inverted the teleseismic P waveforms recorded by stations of the Global Digital Seismograph Network for the 8 July 1986 North Palm Springs, California, the 28 October 1983 Borah Peak, Idaho, and the 19 September 1985 Michoacan, Mexico, earthquakes to recover the distribution of slip on each of the faults using a point-by-point inversion method with smoothing and positivity constraints. Results of the inversion indicate that the Global digital Seismograph Network data are useful for deriving fault dislocation models for moderate to large events. However, a wide range of frequencies is necessary to infer the distribution of slip on the earthquake fault. Although the long-period waveforms define the size (dimensions and seismic moment) of the earthquake, data at shorter period provide additional constraints on the variation of slip on the fault. Dislocation models obtained for all three earthquakes are consistent with a heterogeneous rupture process where failure is controlled largely by the size and location of high-strength asperity regions. -from Authors

  2. First report of leaf rust of blueberry caused by Thekopsora minima in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) is becoming an important crop in the states of Jalisco and Michoacan in Mexico. As the area under blueberry cultivation increases, new diseases causing severe losses are appearing. Leaf rust is one of the most destructive diseases of blueberry in Mexico. Sori on t...

  3. Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    The text explores Mexico's history, geography, art, religion, and lifestyles in the context of its complex economy. The text focuses on Mexico's economy and reasons for its current situation. Part I of this teaching unit includes: Teacher Overview, Why Study Mexico, Mexico Fact Sheet, Map of Mexico, the Land and Climate, History, Government,…

  4. Geothermal Fields on the Volcanic Axis of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Mercado, S.; Gonzalez, A.

    1980-12-16

    At present in Mexico, geothermal energy is receiving a great impulse due to the excellent results obtained in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, in which a geothermoelectric plant is operated. This plant has four units of 37.5 MW each, with a total capacity of 150 MW, and under program 470 MW more by 1984. The Government Institution, Comisi6n Federal de Electricidad, is in charge of the exploration and exploitation of geothermal fields as well as construction and operation of power plants in Mexico. By this time CFE has an extensive program of exploration in the central part of Mexico, in the Eje Neovolcdnico. In this area, several fields with hydrothermal alteration are under exploration, like the Michoac6n geothermal area, where Los Azufres geothermal field is being developed. Seventeen wells have been drilled and twelve of them presented excellent results, including two dry steam wells. In other areas, such as Arar6, Cuitzeo, San Agustln del Maiz,Ixtldn de Los Hervores and Los Negritos, geological, geophysical and geochemical explorations have been accomplished, including shallow well drilling with good results. Another main geothermal area is in the State of Jalisco with an extension of 5,000 m2, where La Primavera geothermal field shows a lot of volcanic domes and has an intensive hydrothermal activity. Deep wells have been drilled, one of them with a bottom temperature of 29OOC. Other fields in this area, like San Narcos, Hervores de La Vega, La Soledad, Villa Corona, etc., have a good geothermal potential. A new geothermal area has been explored recently in the eastern part of the country named Los Humeros, Puebla. In this area studies are being made and there are plans for well drilling exploration by the beginning of 1981. Like this one, there are many other areas in the country in which 300 hydrothermal alteration zones are been classified and 100 of them are considered economically exploitable.

  5. Stress Field and Seismicity in the Basin of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huesca-Perez, E.; Quintanar, L.; Garcia-Palomo, A.

    2007-12-01

    Mexico City is located in the basin of Mexico, inside the so called Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. The region in general and the basin in particular, is characterized by local low magnitude seismicity (Mc < 4.0) that may represent a risk to the city due of the nearness from epicenters. We can distinguish three main areas of local activity: 1).- surrounding the old basin of Texcoco lake, 2)- Chalco and 3)- Juchitepec - Milpa Alta outside Mexico City; the rest of the basin presents lower seismic activity. We recorded and located 336 earthquakes with digital seismograms between 1996 and 2007. From them, just 23 focal mechanisms could be evaluated because of low magnitude that creates recording problems in the seismological networks and high frequency background noise. The focal mechanisms are mainly strike-slip and dip-slip (normal) faulting. We used three different techniques (when possible) to calculate the focal mechanisms: simple and composite first motion focal mechanism, Hash's S/P amplitude rate focal mechanism and time domain moment tensor inversion using broadband three components seismograms. The final goal is to find the local and regional stress field for the whole basin.

  6. Coordinated Field Campaigns in Chesapeake Bay and Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mannino, Antonio; Novak, Michael; Tzortziou, Maria A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's GEOstationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission concept recommended by the U.S. National Research Council (2007) focuses on measurements of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols and aquatic coastal ecology and biogeochemistry from geostationary orbit (35,786 km altitude). Two GEO-CAPE-sponsored multi-investigator ship-based field campaigns were conducted to coincide with the NASA Earth Venture Suborbital project DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) field campaigns: (1) Chesapeake Bay in July 2011 and (2) northwestern Gulf of Mexico in September 2013. Goal: to evaluate whether GEO-CAPE coastal mission measurement and instrument requirements are optimized to address science objectives while minimizing ocean color satellite sensor complexity, size and cost - critical mission risk reduction activities. NASA continues to support science studies related to the analysis of data collected as part of these coordinated field campaigns and smaller efforts.

  7. Magmatic Evolution in the Los Tuxtlas Volcanic Field, Veracruz, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koster, A.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    Magma evolution within the Los Tuxtlas Volcanic Field (LTVF) is poorly understood. The LTVF is a basaltic, monogenetic field in Veracruz, Mexico, that contains approximately 400 vents and has been active for the last 7 Ma, including a sub-Plinian eruption in 1793. The field is structurally controlled, with cones forming NW-SE lines consistent with local extension. By understanding magmatic evolution through ascent, storage, and mixing, it is possible to more accurately predict future trends in the system. Samples from two alignments of cinder cones located between San Martin Tuxtlas volcano and Laguna Catemaco were analyzed petrographically and geochemically. Geochemical data were plotted in Fenner and Harker diagrams to identify trends, including fractional crystallization and magma recharge. Mineral modes were calculated via point counting in thin sections, and micro-textural variations were noted. Cone morphometry was used as a rough proxy for age along with field relationships to develop an approximate order of events along the alignments. Preliminary data suggest that the aligned vents are part of a linked magmatic plumbing system undergoing periodic recharge.

  8. Preliminary Analysis of AVIRIS Data for Tectonostratigraphic Assessment of Northern Guerrero State, Southern Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Harold R.; Cabral-Cano, Enrique

    1996-01-01

    The tectonostratigraphic evolution of the southern margin of the North America Plate in Mexico is still in debate. Recent explanations assert Laramide age (Campanian-Eocene) accretion of far-travelled oceanic terranes. In 1989, we began an effort to bring new data to this debate through field mapping, incorporating Landsat Thematic Mapper and digital elevation data, along a 30 km by 250 km, east-west geologic transect of northern Guerrero State. Covering the region from Huetamo, Michoacan, to Papalutla, Guerrero (between latitude 18-19 deg N and longitude 101-99 deg W), our mapping results show that no stratigraphic incompatibilities suggesting terrane accretion exist in the region. In November 1994, AVIRIS data were acquired along the geologic transect in order to refine our stratigraphic assessment. One objective of this hyperspectral survey was to improve mapping of limestone, dolostone and gypsum-bearing facies of the Morelos Formation which record rudist carbonate platform environments during mid-Cretaceous time.

  9. Four new species of Cymatodera Gray from central and southern Mexico (Coleoptera, Cleridae, Tillinae)

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Alan F.; Rifkind, Jacques; Zolnerowich, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Four new species of Cymatodera are described from Mexico: Cymatodera tortuosa Burke & Rifkind, sp. n. from Hidalgo and Tamaulipas; Cymatodera ortegae Burke, sp. n. from Colima, Jalisco and Michoacan; Cymatodera gerstmeieri Burke & Rifkind, sp. n. from Chiapas; and Cymatodera mixteca Burke & Rifkind, sp. n. from Puebla and Guerrero. Male genitalia and other characters of taxonomic value are illustrated. PMID:26257571

  10. Paleomagnetic Study of El Pinacate Volcanic Field, Sonora, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Trejo, A.; Alva-Valdivia, L. M.; Paleomagnetism Laboratory, Geophysics Institute, UNAM

    2011-12-01

    This Paleomagnetic study reports the results of 235 cores from 19 sites of different lava flows, reporting results of the magnetic properties such as Susceptibility vs.Temperature, hysteresis, FORC analysis, etc. Results of the desmagnetization process by alternating fields and temperature and the Paleointensity experiments. El Pinacate Volcanic Field (PVF) is located on the NNW region of Sonora, Mexico, and it consists on older lava flows, covered and surrounded by some cinder cones and younger lava flows, result of two different volcanic events, the older one, the event Pre Pinacate (Miocene) and the younger one Pinacate (Quaternary). Cinder cones are the most common volcanic structures on the area, there are more than 400 of them, and with all the lava flows, covering a 1,500 km2 area. There are 8 maars, volcanic structures result of phreatomagmatic activity (El Elegante) and a tuff cone (Cerro Colorado). El Pinacate is a monogenetic volcanic field that includes more than 400 volcanic structures and lava flows, dominated principally by basalts. The principal volcanic event Pinacate started its activity from the early Quaternary, untilt 1.1 Ma; and the last volcanic series started at 780 Ka to 32 Ka , the principal volcanic shield, including the principal volcanic structures as cinder cones, maars and lava flows. However, the principal objetive of this work is to calculate tha Paleosecular Variation and the Geomagnetic Paleointensity, based on previous geochronological studies.

  11. Ancient Mudflows in the Tuxtla Volcanic Field, Veracruz, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espindola, J.; Zamora-Camacho, A.; Godinez, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Tuxtla Volcanic Field (TVF) is a basaltic volcanic enclave in eastern Mexico at the margin of the Gulf of Mexico. Due to the high rates of precipitation floods and mudflows are common. Resulting from a systematic study of geologic hazard in the TVF we found several mudflow deposits that impacted pre-Columbian settlements. Sections of the deposits were observed in detail and sampled for granulometric studies. The deposits contained materials suitable for dating: ceramic shards and some of them charcoal fragments. Shards from the interior of the deposit were collected and placed in black bags to prevent the action of light and to be analyzed by thermoluminiscense (TL), the charcoal samples were dated using standard radiocarbon methods (C-14). The sites were dubbed La Mojarra (18°37.711', 95°18.860'), Revolución (18° 35.848', 95°11.412'), Pisatal (18°36.618', 95°10.634'), and Toro Prieto (18°38.229, 95°12.037'). These places were named after the nearby villages the first two, lake Pisatal the third and Toro Prieto creek the fourth. All the deposits occur close to the margins of riverbeds or lakes. Samples of these sites yielded ages of 1176±100 (TL), 1385±70 (C-14), 1157±105 (TL), 2050+245-235 (C-14), respectively. These locations have undergone recurrent floods in the last decades, showing that these phenomena impact the same areas over centuries. The dates mentioned are important because, no vestiges of human settlements had been reported in the area, which in the past was covered by a dense forest. The settlements must have been very small and depended of such cities as nearby Matacapan an important city with strong ties to Teotihuacán in central Mexico. The ages agree with the findings of archeologic studies in Matacapan, which indicate that the population became increasingly ruralized since the late classic period (≈ 600-800 AD).

  12. Space Radar Image of Pinacate Volcanic Field, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image shows the Pinacate Volcanic Field in the state of Sonora, Mexico, about 150 kilometers (93 miles) southeast of Yuma, Arizona. The United States/Mexico border runs across the upper right corner of the image. More than 300 volcanic vents occur in the Pinacate field, including cinder cones that experienced small eruptions as recently as 1934. The larger circular craters seen in the image are a type of volcano known as a 'maar', which erupts violently when rising magma encounters groundwater, producing highly pressurized steam that powers explosive eruptions. The highest elevations in the volcanic field, about 1200 meters (4000 feet), occur in the 'shield volcano' structure shown in bright white, occupying most of the left half of the image. Numerous cinder cones dot the flanks of the shield. The yellow patches to the right of center are newer, rough-textured lava flows that strongly reflect the long wavelength radar signals. Along the left edge of the image are sand dunes of the Gran Desierto. The dark areas are smooth sand and the brighter brown and purple areas have vegetation on the surface. Radar data provide a unique means to study the different types of lava flows and wind-blown sands. This image was acquired by Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 18, 1994. The image is 57 kilometers by 48 kilometers (35 miles by 30 miles) and is centered at 31.7 degrees north latitude, 113.4 degrees West longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  13. Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of Mexico was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. In areal extent, Mexico is the third largest country on the continent of North America (not counting Greenland, which is a province of Denmark), comprised of almost 2 million square kilometers (756,000 square miles) of land. Home to roughly 100 million people, Mexico is second only to the United States in population, making it the world's largest Spanish-speaking nation. To the north, Mexico shares its border with the United States-a line that runs some 3,100 kilometers (1,900 miles) east to west. About half of this border is defined by the Rio Grande River, which runs southeast to the Gulf of Mexico (partially obscured by clouds in this image) and marks the dividing line between Texas and Mexico. Toward the upper left (northwest) corner of this image is the Baja California peninsula, which provides the western land boundary for the Gulf of California. Toward the northwestern side of the Mexican mainland, you can see the Sierra Madre Occidental Mountains (brownish pixels) running southeast toward Lake Chapala and the city of Guadalajara. About 400 km (250 miles) east and slightly south of Lake Chapala is the capital, Mexico City. Extending northward from Mexico City is the Sierra Madre Oriental Mountains, the irregular line of brownish pixels that seem to frame the western edges of the bright white cumulus clouds in this image. Between these two large mountain ranges is a large, relatively dry highland region. To the south, Mexico shares borders with Guatemala and Belize, both of which are located south of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula. Image courtesy Reto Stockli, Brian Montgomery, and Robert Simmon, based on data from the MODIS Science Team

  14. Mexico.

    PubMed

    1988-02-01

    Focus in this discussion of Mexico is on the following: geography; the people; history; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations; and relations between the US and Mexico. As of July 1987, the population of Mexico numbered 81.9 million with an estimated annual growth rate of 2.09%. 60% of the population is Indian-Spanish (mestizo), 30% American Indian, 9% white, and 1% other. Mexico is the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world and the 2nd most populous country in Latin America. Education is decentralized and expanded. Mexico's topography ranges from low desert plains and jungle-like coastal strips to high plateaus and rugged mountains. Hernan Cortes conquered Mexico in 1919-21 and founded a Spanish colony that lasted for almost 300 years. Independence from Spain was proclaimed by Father Miguel Hidalgo on September 16, 1810; the republic was established on December 6, 1822. Mexico's constitution of 1917 provides for a federal republic with a separation of powers into independent executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. Significant political themes of the administration of President Miguel de la Madrid Hurtado, who began his 6-year term in 1982, have been restructuring the economy, liberalizing trade practices, decentralizing government services, and eliminating corruption among public servants. In 1987, estimates put the real growth of the Mexican economy at 1.5%; the gross domestic product (GDP) had shrunk by 3.5% in 1986. Yet, on the positive side, Mexico's international reserves increased to record levels in 1987 (to about $15 billion), and its current account surplus reached more than $3 billion. Mexico has made considerable progress in moving to restructure its economy. It has substantially reduced impediments to international trade and has moved to reduce the number of parastatal firms. 1987 was the 2nd consecutive year in which Mexico recorded triple-digit inflation; inflation reached 158.8%. Other problems include

  15. Neogene rhyolites of the northern Jemez volcanic field, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Loeffler, B.M.; Vaniman, D.T.; Baldridge, W.S.; Shafiqullah, M.

    1988-06-10

    Volcanic centers previously mapped as the 20 Ma El Rechuelos Rhyolite in the northern Jemez volcanic field, New Mexico, include three distinct episodes of rhyolitic volcanism. An early (7.5 Ma) extrusive dome of flow-banded biotite rhyolite and an intermediate (5.8 Ma) rhyolite, possibly a volcanic neck, correspond in age to rhyolites of the Keres Group in the southern Jemez volcanic field. Three other extrusive domes of aphyric, pumiceous rhyolite and obsidian comprise a late volcanic episode, dated at 2.0 Ma. We retain the name El Rechuelos Rhyolite only for these late centers. Another center, farther north than the others but previously mapped with the El Rechuelos Rhyolite, is a dacite pumice ring whose age (5.2 Ma), petrography, major- and trace-element chemistry, and Sr initial ratio all suggest it should be included with rocks of the Tschicoma Formation. Nd and Sr isotopic ratios of the Neogene rhyolites of the northern Jemez volcanic field suggest that these rhyolites were not produced by partial melting of either upper or lower crust. Rather, they may have been generated from a mantle-derived mafic magma, such as the nearby Lobato Basalt, by fractional crystallization with concomitant assimilation of small amounts (<6%) of lower crust. If the El Rechuelos is derived from a lower crust magma chamber, as seems likely, then it is not related to the bandelier magma system, even though it is part of a continuum of rhyolite volcanism ranging from 3.6 Ma to 130,000 years ago that includes the Bandelier and precursor rhyolitic units. copyright American Geophysical Union 1988

  16. Microseismic monitoring of the Chaveroo oil field, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Rutledge, J.T.; Albright, J.N.; Fairbanks, T.D.; Murphy, M.B.; Roberts, P.M.

    1990-01-01

    Induced microseismicity was monitored in the Chaveroo oil field in southeastern New Mexico during a pressurized stimulation of a well being prepared as an injector for a waterflood operation. In addition, the microseismicity was monitored for 5 weeks following the stimulation while the area was under normal waterflood production. Little seismicity was detected during the 5.5 hour stimulation in which three thousand barrels of water were injected into the reservoir at pressures ranging from 96 to 257 bars in excess of hydrostatic pressure. Intermittent monitoring over the 5-week period indicated detectable seismicity occurred during waterflood production. Monitoring during the 5 weeks, however, was not complete enough to draw general conclusions on temporal variations of observed microseismicity. Seventy-three good quality events recorded over a cumulative 24 hours of intermittent monitoring were located using the hodogram technique. Events were detected at distances up to 1700 m from the monitor well but most occurred within 900 m. The map of microearthquake locations indicated that events occurred in the vicinity of producing wells and away from injection wells. The first half of the sequence of mappable events occurred along linear trends, but the pattern became more scattered during the later half of the sequence. The lack of seismicity during the pressurized injection and the increased seismicity levels occurring away from injection wells during waterflood production, suggest seismicity is not induced by Mohr-Coulomb failure. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Magnetotelluric data, Taos Plateau Volcanic Field, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ailes, Chad E.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2010-01-01

    The population of the San Luis Basin region of northern New Mexico is growing. Water shortfalls could have serious consequences. Future growth and land management in the region depend on accurate assessment and protection of the region's groundwater resources. An important issue in managing the groundwater resources is a better understanding of the hydrogeology of the Santa Fe Group and the nature of the sedimentary deposits that fill the Rio Grande rift, which contain the principal groundwater aquifers. The shallow unconfined aquifer and the deeper confined Santa Fe Group aquifer in the San Luis Basin are the main sources of municipal water for the region. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies of the San Luis Basin. Detailed geologic mapping, high-resolution airborne magnetic surveys, gravity surveys, an electromagnetic survey called magnetotellurics (MT), and hydrologic and lithologic data are being used to better understand the aquifers. This report describes a regional east-west MT sounding profile acquired in late July 2009 across the Taos Plateau Volcanic Field where drillhole data are sparse. Resistivity modeling of the MT data can be used to help map changes in electrical resistivity with depths that are related to differences in rock types. These various rock types help control the properties of aquifers. The purpose of this report is to release the MT sounding data collected along the east-west profile. No interpretation of the data is included.

  18. Effect of Harvest date and ripening degree on quality and shelf life of 'Hass' avocado in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canada is an important avocado importer from Mexico. ‘Hass’ avocado is harvested year round in Michoacan. For most part of the season, fruit reach adequate dry matter content (DM), ripen properly and consequently, quality and shelf life are excellent. However, after middle January fruit DM content i...

  19. Mexico.

    PubMed

    1984-09-01

    Although Mexico has serious economic and population growth problems, the country is making progress toward solving both of these problems. Mexico has a population of 77.7 million and a population density of 102 persons/square mile. The country has a birth rate of 32/1000, a death rate of 6/1000, and an annual growth rate of 2.6%. The estimated infant mortality rate is 55/1000. The median age of the population is 17.4. Mexico City, with a population of 15 million, is the 3rd largest city in the world, and by 1995, it is expected to be the largest city in the world, with a projected population of 25.2 million. The government vigorously promotes family planning, and the annual population growth rate slowed down from a high of 3.2% in 1970-75 to the current rate of 2.6%. Mexico hopes to achieve replacement level fertility by the year 2000. Other government policies promote income equality, agricultural development, and regional equalization of population growth. In 1982 Mexico's per capita income was US$2270, exports totaled US$21 billion, and imports totaled US$15 billion. By 1976, Mexico's international debt was US$30.2 billion, and inflation was rampant. Recently, the newly elected president, Miguel de la Madrid of the Partido Revolucionario Institutional, obtained a grant of US$39 million from the International Monetary Fund and removed price controls. These efforts should help stabilize Mexico's economy. The country will also need to expand its exports and increase its cultivatable acreage. PMID:12339665

  20. Kinematics and age of Early Tertiary trench parallel volcano-tectonic lineaments in southern Mexico: Tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, M.; Ferrari, L.; Lopez Martinez, M.; Cerca Martinez, M.; Serrano Duran, L.

    2007-05-01

    We present new geological, structural, and geochronological data that constrain the timing and geometry of Early Tertiary strike slip deformation in southwestern Mexico and its relation with the concurrent magmatic activity. Geologic mapping in Guerrero and Michoacan States documented two regional WNW trending volcano-tectonic lineaments sub parallel to the present trench. The southernmost lineament runs for ~140 km from San Miguel Totolapan area (NW Guerrero) to Sanchiqueo (SE Michoacan), and passes through Ciudad Altamirano. Its southeastern part is marked by the alignment of at least eleven silicic to intermediate major domes as well as by the course of the Balsas River. The northwestern part of the lineament is characterized by ductile left lateral shear zones in Early Tertiary plutonic rocks observed in the Rio Chiquito valley. Domes near Ciudad Altamirano are unaffected by ductile shearing and yielded a ~42 Ma 40Ar/39Ar age, setting a minimum age for this deformation. The northern volcano-tectonic lineament runs for ~190 km between the areas of Huitzuco in northern Guerrero and the southern part of the Tzitzio fold in eastern Michoacan. The Huautla, Tilzapotla, Taxco, La Goleta and Nanchititla silicic centers (all in the range 37-34 Ma) are emplaced along this lineament, which continues to the WNW trough a mafic dike swarm exposed north of Tiquicheo (37-35 Ma) and the Purungueo subvolcanic body (~42 Ma). These rocks, unaffected by ductile shearing, give a minimum age of deformation similar to the southern Totolapan-Sanquicheo lineament. Post ~42 Ma deformation is essentially brittle and is characterized by several left lateral and right lateral transcurrent faults with typical Riedel patterns. Other trench-parallel left lateral shear zones active in pre-Oligocene times were recently reported in western Oaxaca. The recognizing of Early Tertiary trench-parallel and left-lateral ductile shearing in internal areas of southern Mexico suggest a field of widely

  1. The Seismic Alert System of Mexico (SASMEX): Performance and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa Aranda, J.

    2013-05-01

    Originally the Seismic Alert System of Mexico (SASMEX) was proposed to integrate the Seismic Alert System of Mexico City (SAS), operating since 1991, with the Seismic Alert System of Oaxaca City (SASO), in services since 2003. And today, after the intense big earthquake activity observed in our world during 2010 and 2011, local governments of Mexico City, Oaxaca Estate, and the Mexican Ministry of the Interior have been promoting the expansion of this technological EEW development. Until 2012 SASMEX better coverage includes 48 new field seismic sensors (FS) deployed over the seismic region of Jalisco, Colima, Michoacan and Puebla, with someone enhancements over Guerrero and Oaxaca, to reach 97 FS. During 2013, 35 new FS has been proposed to SASMEX enhancements covering the Chiapas and Veracruz seismic regions. The SASMEX, with the support of the Mexico Valley Broadcasters Association (ARVM) since 1993, automatically issue Public and Preventive earthquake early warning signals in the Cities of Mexico, Toluca, Acapulco, Chilpancingo, and Oaxaca. The seismic warning range in each case is seated in accordance with local Civil Protection Authorities: Public Alert, if they expect strong earthquake effects, and Preventive Alert one, the effect could be moderated. Now the SASMEX warning time opportunity could be different to the 60 sec. average typically generated when SAS warned earthquake effects coming from Guerrero to Mexico City valley. Mexican EEW issued today reach: 16 Public and 62 Preventive Alert in Mexico City; 25 Public and 19 Preventive Alerts in Oaxaca City; also 14 Public and 4 Preventive Alerts in Acapulco; 14 Public and 5 Preventive Alerts in Chilpancingo. The earthquakes events registered by SASMEX FS until now reach 3448. With the support of private and Federal telecommunications infrastructure like, TELMEX, Federal Electric Commission, and the Mexican Security Ministry, it was developed a redundant communication system with pads to link the different

  2. Observations of Ozone and Aerosols Over Mexico and Gulf of Mexico During INTEX- B/MILAGRO Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, C. F.; Browell, E. V.; Hair, J. W.; Fenn, M. A.; Notari, A.; Kooi, S. A.; Ismail, S.; Avery, M. A.; Pierce, R. B.

    2007-12-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center's Differential Absorption Lidar (LaRC/DIAL) system has been used to measure ozone and aerosol distributions in many airborne global tropospheric and stratospheric campaigns since 1980. The tropospheric configuration of this system was flown on the NASA DC-8 during the INTEX-B (Phase-I)/MILAGRO (I/M) field experiment, which was conducted from 24 February to 22 March 2006 over Mexico and the Gulf of Mexico. DIAL remote profile measurements were made from near the surface to above the tropopause along the flight track of the DC-8 with a small data void region of 750 m above and below the aircraft. Aerosol scattering ratios were determined at two wavelengths for a gross estimation of the relative size of the observed particles and measurements of aerosol depolarization were made to distinguish nonspherical aerosols, such as dust and some aerosols in aged fire plumes. In situ measurements of ozone from the FASTOZ instrument on the DC-8 were used to constrain the interpolation of the nadir and zenith ozone lidar measurements, which then provided an estimate of the entire tropospheric ozone profile along the flight track. A first order correction for aerosol attenuation was made to the aerosol profiles by using an assumed extinction-to- backscatter ratio to better characterize the attenuation by thick aerosol layers. The DIAL system was used to determine the large-scale variability and context of air masses being sampled in situ on the DC-8 and to direct the in situ sampling strategy in real time. Plumes from biomass burning in southern Mexico were often observed in the free troposphere over the Gulf of Mexico and over eastern Mexico. The Mexico City (MC) pollution plume was readily apparent with high ozone (>100 ppbv), high aerosol scattering (S>20), and enhanced aerosol depolarization (D>10%). The top of the MC pollution extended to a depth of about 2.5 km AGL. Some observations showed the MC plume spilling out over the mountains to

  3. Mexico.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    The background notes on Mexico provide text and recent statistical information on the geography, population, government, economy, and foreign relations, specifically the North American Free Trade Agreement with US. The 1992 population is estimated at 89 million of which 60% are mestizo (Indian-Spanish), 30% are American Indian, 9% are Caucasian, and 1% are other. 90% are Roman Catholic. There are 8 years of compulsory education. Infant mortality is 30/1000 live births. Life expectancy for males is 68 years and 76 years for females. The labor force is comprised of 30% in services, 24% in agriculture and fishing, 19% in manufacturing, 13% in commerce, 7% in construction, 4% in transportation and communication, and .4% in mining. There are 31 states and a federal district. Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was $3200 in 1991. Military expenditures were .5% of GDP in 1991. The average inflation rate is 19%. Mexico City with 20 million is the largest urban center in the world. In recent years, the economy has been restructured with market oriented reforms; the result has been a growth of GDP of 3.6% in 1991 from 2% in 1987. Dependence on oil exports has decreased. There has been privatization and deregulation of state-owned companies. Subsidies to inefficient companies have been stopped. Tariff rates were reduced. The financial debt has been reduced and turned into a surplus of .8% in 1992. Mexico's foreign debt has been reduced from its high in 1987 of $107 billion. Agricultural reforms have been ongoing for 50 years. Land was redistributed, but standards of living and productivity have improved only slightly. Rural land tenure regulations have been changed, and other economic reforms are expected. Mexico engages in ad hoc international groups and is selective about membership in international organizations. PMID:12178052

  4. Ethnological Field Training in the Mezquital Valley, Mexico. Papers from the Ixmiquilpan Field Schools in Cultural Anthropology and Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Michael, Ed.; Bernard, H. Russell, Ed.

    Thirteen papers by graduate students who participated in a 1971 summer field program in Hidalgo, Mexico, are presented. Twelve of the papers are presented in the English language and one is presented in Spanish. Research for seven of the papers was undertaken in established Otomi Indian villages or hamlets. Research for the remaining six papers…

  5. Mushroom growing project at the Los Humeros, Mexico geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Rangel, M.E.R.

    1998-12-01

    There are several projects of direct (non-electrical) use of geothermal energy in Mexico. Personnel of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) have experience in various of these projects, like drying of timber and fruits, space heating, food processing, etc. Taking this in consideration, CFE built the Los Humeros mushroom plant using for heat source the geothermal steam from Well H-1. The main purpose of the project was to take advantage of residual geothermal energy in a food production operation and to develop the appropriate technology. In 1992, existing installations were renovated, preparing appropriate areas for pasteurization, inoculation and production. The mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus var. florida and columbinus was used. A year later, CFE proposed the construction of improved facilities for growing edible mushrooms. New materials and equipment, as well as different operation conditions, were proposed on the basis of the experience gained in the initial project. The construction and renovation activities were completed in 1994.

  6. 7 CFR 319.56-30 - Hass avocados from Michoacan, Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the orchard to the packinghouse within 3 hours of harvest or they must be protected from fruit fly infestation until moved. (v) The avocados must be protected from fruit fly infestation during their movement... protect the avocados from fruit-fly infestation prior to leaving the packinghouse. Those safeguards...

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-30 - Hass avocados from Michoacan, Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the orchard to the packinghouse within 3 hours of harvest or they must be protected from fruit fly infestation until moved. (v) The avocados must be protected from fruit fly infestation during their movement... protect the avocados from fruit-fly infestation prior to leaving the packinghouse. Those safeguards...

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-30 - Hass avocados from Michoacan, Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... conducted in the municipality for Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) (Ceratitis capitata) at the rate of 1... the orchard to the packinghouse within 3 hours of harvest or they must be protected from fruit fly infestation until moved. (v) The avocados must be protected from fruit fly infestation during their...

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-30 - Hass avocados from Michoacan, Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... fruit fly (Medfly) (Ceratitis capitata) at the rate of 1 trap per 1 to 4 square miles. Any findings of... harvest or they must be protected from fruit fly infestation until moved. (v) The avocados must be protected from fruit fly infestation during their movement from the orchard to the packinghouse and must...

  10. 7 CFR 319.56-30 - Hass avocados from Michoacan, Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the orchard to the packinghouse within 3 hours of harvest or they must be protected from fruit fly infestation until moved. (v) The avocados must be protected from fruit fly infestation during their movement... protect the avocados from fruit-fly infestation prior to leaving the packinghouse. Those safeguards...

  11. Fern Biology in Mexico - (A Class Field Program)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tryon, Rolla; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Organized field trips in the tropics proved to be an effective way to gather new information about ferns. The areas of study covered were: systematics and ecology, cytology and gametophyte structure, and morphogenesis and physiology. (PS)

  12. Audiomagnetotelluric data, Taos Plateau Volcanic Field, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ailes, Chad E.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies of the San Luis Basin as part of the Geologic framework of the Rio Grande Basins project. Detailed geologic mapping, high-resolution airborne magnetic surveys, gravity surveys, audiomagnetotelluric surveys, and hydrologic and lithologic data are being used to better understand the aquifers. This report describes a regional east-west audiomagnetotelluric sounding profile acquired in late July 2009 across the Taos Plateau Volcanic Field. No interpretation of the data is included.

  13. Field Studies of Geothermal Reservoirs Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    James C Witcher

    2002-07-30

    The Rio Grande rift provides an excellent field laboratory to study the nature of geothermal systems in an extensional environment. Much of the geologic complexity that is found in the Basin and Range is absent because the rift is located on cratonic crust with a thin and well-characterized Phanerozoic stratigraphy and tectonic history. On the other hand, the Neogene thermo-tectonic history of the rift has many parallels with the Basin and Range to the west. The geology of the southern Rio Grande rift is among the best characterized of any rift system in the world. Also, most geologic maps for the region are rather unique in that detailed analyses of Quaternary stratigraphic and surficial unit are added in concert with the details of bedrock geology. Pleistocene to Holocene entrenchment of the Rio Grande and tributaries unroofs the alteration signatures and permeability attributes of paleo outflow plumes and upflow zones, associated with present-day, but hidden or ''blind,'' hydrothermal systems at Rincon and San Diego Mountain.

  14. New Mexico Geochronology Research Laboratory: Zuni-Bandera volcanic field road log

    SciTech Connect

    Laughlin, A.W.; Charles, R.; Reid, K.; White, C.

    1993-01-01

    This field conference was designed to assemble a group of Quaternary researchers to examine the possibility of using the Zuni-Bandera volcanic field in western New Mexico as a test area for evaluating and calibrating various Quaternary dating techniques. The Zuni-Bandera volcanic-field is comprised of a large number of basaltic lava flows ranging in age from about 700 to 3 ka. Older basalts are present in the Mount Taylor volcanic field to the north. Geologic mapping has been completed for a large portion of the Zuni-Bandera volcanic field and a number of geochronological investigations have been initiated in the area. While amending this conference, please consider how you might bring your expertise and capabilities to bear on solving the many problem in Quaternary geochronology.

  15. New Mexico Geochronology Research Laboratory: Zuni-Bandera volcanic field road log

    SciTech Connect

    Laughlin, A.W.; Charles, R.; Reid, K.; White, C.

    1993-04-01

    This field conference was designed to assemble a group of Quaternary researchers to examine the possibility of using the Zuni-Bandera volcanic field in western New Mexico as a test area for evaluating and calibrating various Quaternary dating techniques. The Zuni-Bandera volcanic-field is comprised of a large number of basaltic lava flows ranging in age from about 700 to 3 ka. Older basalts are present in the Mount Taylor volcanic field to the north. Geologic mapping has been completed for a large portion of the Zuni-Bandera volcanic field and a number of geochronological investigations have been initiated in the area. While amending this conference, please consider how you might bring your expertise and capabilities to bear on solving the many problem in Quaternary geochronology.

  16. Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis with localized current field (radio frequency) in Tabasco, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Velasco-Castrejon, O; Walton, B C; Rivas-Sanchez, B; Garcia, M F; Lazaro, G J; Hobart, O; Roldan, S; Floriani-Verdugo, J; Munguia-Saldana, A; Berzaluce, R

    1997-09-01

    In Mexico cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) occurs in 17 of 32 States, and is a serious public health problem. This is a report of treatment of CL patients in the State of Tabasco, Mexico with a localized current field-radio frequency (LCF-RF) device to generate precisely controlled heat as an alternative to prohibitively expensive drug treatment. It was not a controlled clinical trial, but rather an evaluation of the feasibility of this form of treatment for all CL patients encountered in the endemic area. A total of 201 previously diagnosed patients with CL caused by Leishmania mexicana were treated with a portable Thermosurgery LCF-RF generator powered by rechargeable batteries. The ages of the patients ranged from two to 75 years; the sex distribution was 63% males and 37% females. A single device was used in five different municipalities. Lesions were first anesthetized with 1% lidocaine HCl and moistened with normal saline solution. Treatment consisted of a single application that produced 50 degrees C for 30 sec. After four weeks, 122 patients were available for evaluation, of which 95% were totally cured; (even those involving ear cartilage, which respond poorly to antimonials). At eight weeks post-treatment, 191 patients were evaluated, with a total cure rate of 90%. This form of treatment proved to be effective and convenient for use in primary health care facilities in Mexico and has many advantages over traditional forms of therapy. PMID:9311641

  17. The Mexico City Outflow and Its Regional Influence: A Regional Model Study in INTEX- B/MIRAGE Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Y.; Carmichael, G. R.; Mena, M.; D'Allura, A.; Chai, T.; Pierce, R. B.; Al-Saadi, J. A.

    2006-12-01

    During the NASA INTEX-B and NSF MIRAGE field experiments in Spring of 2006, we applied a regional chemical transport model, STEM-2K3, to make nested forecasts coupled with a global model RAQMS by using its output as lateral and top boundary conditions. WRF mesoscale meteorological model was used to drive the regional model. The model predicted reasonable results compared with NASA DC-8 and NCAR C- 130 aircraft measurements over Mexico and Southern USA. Sulfate is the major ion in the Mexico City plume. Biomass/biofuel burning contributed to black carbon, though it became aged quickly during the transport process. Since aerosols and their precursors were usually co-emitted with gaseous pollutants from Mexico City, their interactions via direct reaction and radiative impacts became evident. The aerosol influence on photolysis rates depend not only on the aerosol optical depth, but also on the absorption portion or single scatter albedo (SSA). Sensitivity studies were performed to reveal the influence of aerosol SSA on photochemical processes over Mexico City and its downwind region. Due to the relatively high altitude of Mexico City, its outflow usually existed in middle troposphere over downwind regions. The radiative impact became a important portion of the influence of Mexico City plumes on downwind surface. The model study over Mexico City surface sites was also evaluated.

  18. Crustal structure of the northern Gulf of Mexico from potential fields and seismic refraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, I. O.; Van Avendonk, H. J.; Christeson, G. L.; Eddy, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    A recent seismic refraction program in the northern offshore Gulf of Mexico (US waters) has greatly enhanced understanding of the crustal structure of this previously poorly-known region. These data are the first to show how crustal thickness varies across this area. Interpretations of crustal types derived from the refraction data have helped to delineate regions of oceanic and extended continental crust, as well as regions of crustal thickening probably associated with synrift volcanism. Onshore, however, there is still a lack of refraction data so understanding of crustal structure and therefore extension history is poorly constrained. Potential field modeling can help address this issue. It is well know that gravity modeling by itself can yield many different interpretations of density distributions and hence crustal structure. Combined with refraction data these interpretations can be much better constrained. In this study crustal structure for the onshore northern Gulf of Mexico is derived from the offshore refraction data combined with regional gravity and magnetic data, along with EarthScope interpretations of crust thickness. The lack of observed rift faulting in deep seismic reflection data in the region has long been a puzzle, as the several hundreds of kilometers of extension implied by plate reconstructions should have resulted in extensive faulting. The potential field data does suggest the existence of deep grabens parallel to the coast, associated with large magnetic anomalies that may indicate a partly magmatic margin in agreement with some published interpretations. These new interpretations are used to build a model of crustal evolution of the Gulf of Mexico.

  19. Preliminary estimation of the reservoir capacity and the longevity of the Baca Geothermal Field, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Vonder Haar, S.; Wilt, M.; Tsang, C.F.

    1980-07-01

    A 50 MW geothermal power plant is currently under development at the Baca site in the Valles Caldera, New Mexico, as a joint venture of the Department of Energy (DOE), Union Oil Company of California, and the Public Service Company of New Mexico (PNM). To date, over 20 wells have been drilled on the prospect, and the data from these wells indicate the presence of a high-temperature liquid dominated reservoir. Data from open literature on the field are used to estimate the amount of hot water in place (reservoir capacity) and the length of time the reservoir can supply steam for a 50 MW power plant (reservoir longevity). The reservoir capacity is estimated by volumetric calculations using existing geological, geophysical, and well data. The criteria used are described and the sensitivity of the results discussed. The longevity of the field is studied using a two-phase numerical simulator (SHAFT79). A number of cases are studied based upon different boundary conditions, and injection and production criteria. Constant or variable mass production is employed in the simulations with closed, semi-infinite or infinite reservoir boundaries. In one of the cases, a fault zone feeding the production region is modeled. The injection strategy depends on the available waste water. The results of these simulations are discussed and the sensitivity of the results, with respect to mesh size and the relative permeability curves used, are briefly studied.

  20. The origin of bajaites from the San Borja Volcanic Field in Baja California Norte, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibbins, M.; Castillo, P.; Negrete-Aranda, R.; Canon-Tapia, E.; Alva-Valdivia, L. M.; Garcia-Amador, B. I.

    2014-12-01

    Baja California is a peninsula in western Mexico that was formed through a dynamic tectonic history of convergence, rifting and strike slip motion. At approximately 13 Ma, subduction along the northwestern coast of Mexico stopped, subsequently the Gulf of California opened and strike slip faults formed parallel to the ancient trench. After subduction ended, arc-related magmatism continued as the Baja peninsula was forming until about 2 Ma. The lavas erupting in the peninsula have variable compositions including calc-alkalic and tholeiitic arc basalts and bajaites. The term bajaite is a collective term for the high magnesian andesites and basaltic andesites in Baja California that have adakitic characteristics. Adakites, on the other hand, are arc lavas characterized by high silica content and Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios; these are generally believed to have formed through melting of subducted basaltic crust. The origin of bajaite is controversial. It has been proposed as product of melting of either subducted basaltic crust primarily because of its adakitic characteristics (Saunders et al, 1987) or metasomatized mantle wedge because of its arc lava-like geochemical features (Castillo, 2008); it has also been proposed as a mixture of differentiated and mafic arc lavas (Streck et al, 2007). The composition of bajaite is similar to that of the bulk continental crust and, thus, its true origin can shed light on the mechanism for continental growth. In this study, we use geochemical techniques to resolve some of the controversies surrounding the origin of bajaite. We analyze the petrographic, major element, trace element, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions of bajaites from the San Borja Volcanic Field in Baja California Norte, Mexico to better constrain their petrogenetic history and origin.

  1. Development of spatially diverse and complex dune-field patterns: Gran Desierto Dune Field, Sonora, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beveridge, C.; Kocurek, G.; Ewing, R.C.; Lancaster, N.; Morthekai, P.; Singhvi, A.K.; Mahan, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    The pattern of dunes within the Gran Desierto of Sonora, Mexico, is both spatially diverse and complex. Identification of the pattern components from remote-sensing images, combined with statistical analysis of their measured parameters demonstrate that the composite pattern consists of separate populations of simple dune patterns. Age-bracketing by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) indicates that the simple patterns represent relatively short-lived aeolian constructional events since ???25 ka. The simple dune patterns consist of: (i) late Pleistocene relict linear dunes; (ii) degraded crescentic dunes formed at ???12 ka; (iii) early Holocene western crescentic dunes; (iv) eastern crescentic dunes emplaced at ???7 ka; and (v) star dunes formed during the last 3 ka. Recognition of the simple patterns and their ages allows for the geomorphic backstripping of the composite pattern. Palaeowind reconstructions, based upon the rule of gross bedform-normal transport, are largely in agreement with regional proxy data. The sediment state over time for the Gran Desierto is one in which the sediment supply for aeolian constructional events is derived from previously stored sediment (Ancestral Colorado River sediment), and contemporaneous influx from the lower Colorado River valley and coastal influx from the Bahia del Adair inlet. Aeolian constructional events are triggered by climatic shifts to greater aridity, changes in the wind regime, and the development of a sediment supply. The rate of geomorphic change within the Gran Desierto is significantly greater than the rate of subsidence and burial of the accumulation surface upon which it rests. ?? 2006 The Authors. Journal compilation 2006 International Association of Sedimentologists.

  2. An evaluation of the CO/sub 2/ pilot, Maljamar Field, Lea County, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Plumb, L.B.; Ferrell, H.H.

    1989-02-01

    This report reviews the performance of the miscible CO/sub 2/ pilot in the Maljamar Field, Lea County, New Mexico. The project was conducted by Conoco under the Tertiary Incentive Crude Oil Program. The project was initiated in 1981 and completed January 1, 1986. The project involved CO/sub 2/ floods in two separate reservoirs conducted simultaneously using dually completed wells in a 5-acre inverted 5-spot pattern. Control of fluid movement in the pilot was achieved by utilizing four confining injection wells outside the pattern, as well as two observation wells inside the pattern. The purpose of the pilot was to provide data for computer modelling of the reservoir and for facilities design and economic analysis of a full scale project. Conoco accomplished this purpose and has begun fieldwide expansion of CO/sub 2/ flooding in both Maljamar reservoirs based on the results of this pilot. 14 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Mercury in freshwater fish and clams from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field of Baja California, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez-Galindo, E.A.; Munoz, G.F.; Flores, A.A.

    1988-08-01

    Several reports have expressed concern about the potential toxicity hazards and environmental contamination of mercury emissions from geothermal fields in Hawaii, New Zealand, Iceland, California and Mexico. Inorganic mercury discharged from the sources may accumulate in the sediments of rivers or lakes and, after microbiological methylation may become concentrated in the edible tissue of fish. This study involves assessment of geothermal mercury pollution arising from Cerro Prieto. For this purpose the fish Tilapia mossambica and the clam Corbicula fluminea were collected from the freshwater courses of the Mexicali Valley. Reports indicated that in 1982, 13 t of T. mossambica were destinated for human consumption. A further aim was to provide base line data and information relevant to the level of mercury contamination for the Mexicali Valley.

  4. Field application of smart SHM using field programmable gate array technology to monitor an RC bridge in New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azarbayejani, M.; Jalalpour, M.; El-Osery, A. I.; Reda Taha, M. M.

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, an innovative field application of a structural health monitoring (SHM) system using field programmable gate array (FPGA) technology and wireless communication is presented. The new SHM system was installed to monitor a reinforced concrete (RC) bridge on Interstate 40 (I-40) in Tucumcari, New Mexico. This newly installed system allows continuous remote monitoring of this bridge using solar power. Details of the SHM component design and installation are discussed. The integration of FPGA and solar power technologies make it possible to remotely monitor infrastructure with limited access to power. Furthermore, the use of FPGA technology enables smart monitoring where data communication takes place on-need (when damage warning signs are met) and on-demand for periodic monitoring of the bridge. Such a system enables a significant cut in communication cost and power demands which are two challenges during SHM operation. Finally, a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model of the bridge was developed and calibrated using a static loading field test. This model is then used for simulating damage occurrence on the bridge. Using the proposed automation process for SHM will reduce human intervention significantly and can save millions of dollars currently spent on prescheduled inspection of critical infrastructure worldwide.

  5. The School for Field Studies Centre for Coastal Studies: A Case Study of Sustainable Development Education in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, T. A.; Ollervides, F.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To present the School for Field Studies-Centre for Coastal Studies (SFS-CCS) study abroad Mexico program, and consider its relative success as a sustainable development education program. Design/methodology/approach: The SFS-CCS academic model and results of its implementation are presented. Program success is discussed by applying…

  6. Assessment of remaining recoverable oil in selected major oil fields of the Permian Basin, Texas and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Klett, Timothy R.; Verma, Mahendra K.; Ryder, Robert T.; Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.; Le, Phoung A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an estimate of technically recoverable, conventional oil in selected oil fields in the Permian Basin in west Texas and southeastern New Mexico. The mean total volume of potential additional oil resources that might be added using improved oil-recovery technologies was estimated to be about 2.7 billion barrels of oil.

  7. Definition and origin of the dune-field pattern at White Sands, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baitis, Elke; Kocurek, Gary; Smith, Virginia; Mohrig, David; Ewing, Ryan C.; Peyret, A.-P. B.

    2014-12-01

    A LiDAR-derived digital elevation model (DEM) of a representative portion of the White Sands Dune Field, New Mexico, allows for characterization of an unprecedented range of dune-field parameters and serves as a basis for pattern analysis. Dune-field parameters were measured and statistically analyzed for populations of dunes selected at random and occurring along transects. Populations sampled by these two different methods are comparable, but highlight the sensitivity of transect placement in a dune field that has pattern heterogeneity. Based upon coefficients of variation, pattern emerges at White Sands primarily because of a strong fabric of crestline orientation, and secondarily because of the regularity of spacing between dunes of similar shape as defined by sinuosity, height and length. Linear regression of dune parameters shows that dune geometric relationships vary primarily with crestline length, but there is little correlation between other parameters, including dune spacing and height. This result highlights the sensitivity of identifying topographic heterogeneity in a LiDAR-derived DEM, given that mean ratios conform to global averages. Stripping off the dunes in Matlab shows a terraced surface, which is interpreted to represent paleo-shorelines formed during relative still stands in the overall retreat of Lake Otero. Elevated bands of higher, more closely spaced dunes occur just leeward of the paleo-shorelines. A revised model for the White Sands Dune Field consists of the basinward progradation of successive dune-field segments. Each segment is associated with a paleo-shoreline, and consists of an upwind dune ridge, represented by the elevated bands, and a leeward dune field.

  8. Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerle, William; Hall, Stephen

    2005-12-30

    In 2002, Gnomon, Inc., entered into a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) for a project entitled, Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming (DE-FC26-02NT15445). This project, funded through DOE’s Preferred Upstream Management Practices grant program, examined cultural resource management practices in two major oil- and gas-producing areas, southeastern New Mexico and the Powder River Basin of Wyoming (Figure 1). The purpose of this project was to examine how cultural resources have been investigated and managed and to identify more effective management practices. The project also was designed to build information technology and modeling tools to meet both current and future management needs. The goals of the project were described in the original proposal as follows: Goal 1. Create seamless information systems for the project areas. Goal 2. Examine what we have learned from archaeological work in the southeastern New Mexico oil fields and whether there are better ways to gain additional knowledge more rapidly or at a lower cost. Goal 3. Provide useful sensitivity models for planning, management, and as guidelines for field investigations. Goal 4. Integrate management, investigation, and decision- making in a real-time electronic system. Gnomon, Inc., in partnership with the Wyoming State Historic Preservation Office (WYSHPO) and Western GeoArch Research, carried out the Wyoming portion of the project. SRI Foundation, in partnership with the New Mexico Historic Preservation Division (NMHPD), Statistical Research, Inc., and Red Rock Geological Enterprises, completed the New Mexico component of the project. Both the New Mexico and Wyoming summaries concluded with recommendations how cultural resource management (CRM) processes might be modified based on the findings of this research.

  9. Modeling the organic aerosol fraction within the Mexico City basin during the MILAGRO field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodzic, A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Madronich, S.; Aiken, A. C.; Bessagnet, B.; Fast, J.; Lamarque, J. F.; Onasch, T. B.; Roux, G.; Ulbrich, I. M.

    2009-04-01

    The meso-scale chemistry-transport model CHIMERE is used to asses our understanding of major sources and formation processes leading to a fairly abundant fraction of organic aerosols (OA, including primary OA (POA) and secondary OA (SOA)) observed in Mexico City during the MILAGRO field project (March 2006). Chemical analysis of submicron aerosols from aerosol mass spectrometers (AMS) indicate that carbonaceous particles found in the Mexico City basin have a large fraction of oxygenated organic species (OOA) which show strong correspondence with SOA, and that their production actively continues downwind of the city. The SOA formation is modeled according to the first-generation oxidation of anthropogenic (i.e. aromatics, alkanes) and biogenic (i.e. monoterpenes and isoprene) precursors and their partitioning into both organic and aqueous phases. The near-surface model evaluation shows that predicted OA correlates reasonably well with measurements during the campaign, however it remains a factor of 2-3 lower than the measured TOA. One of the reasons for this large gap is the inability of the model to simulate TOA peaks associated with the biomass burning events suggesting that near-city fires are not correctly represented in the emissions inventory (most likely too small to be detected by satellites). Fairly good agreement is found between observed and predicted POA within the city indicating that primary emissions are reasonable. Consistent with previous studies in Mexico City, large discrepancies are found for SOA species characterized by a factor of 5-10 model underestimate. When only anthropogenic SOA precursors were considered, the model was able to reproduce the sharp increase in SOA concentrations during the late morning at both urban and near-urban locations. However, predicted SOA concentrations were unrealistically low when photochemistry was not active, especially overnight. These discrepancies were not significantly reduced when greatly enhanced

  10. Fracture hydraulic conductivity in the Mexico City clayey aquitard: Field piezometer rising-head tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, Carlos; Ortega-Guerrero, Adrián

    A regional lacustrine aquitard covers the main aquifer of the metropolitan area of Mexico City. The aquitard's hydraulic conductivity (K') is fundamental for evaluating the natural protection of the aquifer against a variety of contaminants present on the surface and its hydraulic response. This study analyzes the distribution and variation of K' in the plains of Chalco, Texcoco and Mexico City (three of the six former lakes that existed in the Basin of Mexico), on the basis of 225 field-permeability tests, in nests of existing piezometers located at depths of 2-85 m. Tests were interpreted using the Hvorslev method and some by the Bouwer-Rice method. Results indicate that the distribution of K' fits log-Gaussian regression models. Dominant frequencies for K' in the Chalco and Texcoco plains range between 1E-09 and 1E-08 m/s, with similar population means of 1.19E-09 and 1.7E-09 m/s, respectively, which are one to two orders of magnitude higher than the matrix conductivity. In the Mexico City Plain the population mean is near by one order of magnitude lower; K'=2.6E-10 m/s. The contrast between the measured K' and that of the matrix is attributed to the presence of fractures in the upper 25-40 m, which is consistent with the findings of previous studies on solute migration in the aquitard. Un imperméable régional d'origine lacustre recouvre le principal aquifère de la zone urbaine de la ville de Mexico. La conductivité hydraulique K' de cet imperméable est fondamentale pour évaluer la protection naturelle de l'aquifère, contre les différents contaminants présents en surface, et sa réponse hydraulique. Cette étude analyse et les variations de K' dans les plaines de Chalco, Texcoco et Mexico (trois des six anciens lacs qui existaient dans le Bassin de Mexico), sur la base de 225 essais de perméabilité sur le terrain, réalisés en grappes dans des piézomètres existants entre 2 et 85 m de profondeur. Les essais ont été interprétés avec la m

  11. Measurements and Slope Analyses of Quaternary Cinder Cones, Camargo Volcanic Field, Chihuahua, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallegos, M. I.; Espejel-Garcia, V. V.

    2012-12-01

    The Camargo volcanic field (CVF) covers ~3000 km2 and is located in the southeast part of the state of Chihuahua, within the Basin and Range province. The CVF represents the largest mafic alkali volcanic field in northern Mexico. Over a 300 cinder cones have been recognized in the Camargo volcanic field. Volcanic activity ranges from 4.7 to 0.09 Ma revealed by 40Ar/39Ar dating methods. Previous studies say that there is a close relationship between the cinder cone slope angle, due to mechanical weathering, and age. This technique is considered a reliable age indicator, especially in arid climates, such as occur in the CVF. Data were acquired with digital topographic maps (DRG) and digital elevation models (DEM) overlapped in the Global Mapper software. For each cone, the average radius (r) was calculated from six measurements, the height (h) is the difference between peak elevation and the altitude of the contour used to close the radius, and the slope angle was calculated using the equation Θ = tan-1(h/r). The slope angles of 30 cinder cones were calculated showing angles ranging from 4 to 15 degrees. A diffusion model, displayed by an exponential relationship between slope angle and age, places the ages of these 30 cones from 215 to 82 ka, within the range marked by radiometric methods. Future work include the analysis of more cinder cones to cover the whole CVF, and contribute to the validation of this technique.

  12. ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING MODELS FOR CULTURAL RESOURCES IN OIL & GAS FIELDS IN NEW MEXICO AND WYOMING

    SciTech Connect

    Peggy Robinson

    2004-07-01

    This report contains a summary of activities of Gnomon, Inc. and five subcontractors that have taken place during the first six months of 2004 (January 1, 2004-June 30, 2004) under the DOE-NETL cooperative agreement: ''Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil & Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming'', DE-FC26-02NT15445. Although Gnomon and all five subcontractors completed tasks during these six months, most of the technical experimental work was conducted by the subcontractor, SRI Foundation (SRIF). SRIF created a sensitivity model for the Azotea Mesa area of southeastern New Mexico that rates areas as having a very good chance, a good chance, or a very poor chance of containing cultural resource sites. SRIF suggested that the results of the sensitivity model might influence possible changes in cultural resource management (CRM) practices in the Azote Mesa area of southeastern New Mexico.

  13. ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING MODELS FOR CULTURAL RESOURCES IN OIL & GAS FIELDS IN NEW MEXICO AND WYOMING

    SciTech Connect

    Peggy Robinson

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes activities that have taken place in the last 6 months (July 2004-December 2004) under the DOE-NETL cooperative agreement ''Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields, New Mexico and Wyoming'' DE-FC26-02NT15445. This project examines the practices and results of cultural resource investigation and management in two different oil and gas producing areas of the US: southeastern New Mexico and the Powder River Basin of Wyoming. The project evaluates how cultural resource investigations have been conducted in the past and considers how investigation and management could be pursued differently in the future. The study relies upon full database population for cultural resource inventories and resources and geomorphological studies. These are the basis for analysis of cultural resource occurrence, strategies for finding and evaluating cultural resources, and recommendations for future management practices. Activities can be summarized as occurring in either Wyoming or New Mexico.

  14. ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING MODELS FOR CULTURAL RESOURCES IN OIL & GAS FIELDS IN NEW MEXICO AND WYOMING

    SciTech Connect

    Peggy Robinson

    2004-01-01

    This report contains a summary of activities of Gnomon, Inc. and five subcontractors that have taken place during the second six months (July 1, 2003-December 31, 2003) under the DOE-NETL cooperative agreement: ''Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil & Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming'', DE-FC26-02NT15445. Although Gnomon and all five subcontractors completed tasks during these six months, most of the technical experimental work was conducted by the subcontractor, SRI Foundation (SRIF). SRIF created a sensitivity model for the Loco Hills area of southeastern New Mexico that rates areas as having a very good chance, a good chance, or a very poor chance of containing cultural resource sites. SRIF suggested that the results of the sensitivity model might influence possible changes in cultural resource management (CRM) practices in the Loco Hills area of southeastern New Mexico.

  15. Quantification of deep percolation from two flood-irrigated alfalfa field, Roswell Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roark, D. Michael; Healy, D.F.

    1998-01-01

    For many years water management in the Roswell ground-water basin (Roswell Basin) and other declared basins in New Mexico has been the responsibility of the State of New Mexico. One of the water management issues requiring better quantification is the amount of deep percolation from applied irrigation water. Two adjacent fields, planted in alfalfa, were studied to determine deep percolation by the water-budget, volumetric-moisture, and chloride mass-balance methods. Components of the water-budget method were measured, in study plots called borders, for both fields during the 1996 irrigation season. The amount of irrigation water applied in the west border was 95.8 centimeters and in the east border was 169.8 centimeters. The total amount of precipitation that fell during the irrigation season was 21.9 centimeters. The increase in soil-moisture storage from the beginning to the end of the irrigation season was 3.2 centimeters in the west border and 8.8 centimeters in the east border. Evapotranspiration, as estimated by the Bowen ratio energy balance technique, in the west border was 97.8 centimeters and in the east border was 101.0 centimeters. Deep percolation determined using the water-budget method was 16.4 centimeters in the west border and 81.6 centimeters in the east border. An average deep percolation of 22.3 centimeters in the west border and 31.6 centimeters in the east border was determined using the volumetric-moisture method. The chloride mass-balance method determined the multiyear deep percolation to be 15.0 centimeters in the west border and 38.0 centimeters in the east border. Large differences in the amount of deep percolation between the two borders calculated by the water-budget method are due to differences in the amount of water that was applied to each border. More water was required to flood the east border because of the greater permeability of the soils in that field and the smaller rate at which water could be applied.

  16. Description of piezometers installed in the Duranes well field area, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, C.R.

    1998-01-01

    Since 1993, the aquifer system in the Middle Rio Grande Basin, and particularly in the Albuquerque area, has been the focus of studies to further define the extent of the most productive parts of the aquifer and to gain a better understanding of ground-water/surface-water interactions. Twenty-one piezometers were installed during January and February 1997 at five sites in the Duranes well field area in Albuquerque, New Mexico, to allow for concentrated collection of hydraulic-head data. This concentrated collection of shallow hydraulic-head data may lead to a better understanding of the effects of ground-water production on the Rio Grande near a City of Albuquerque well field. Each piezometer was installed in a hole augered by a rig using hollow-stem auger flights. All piezometers are constructed of flush-joint polyvinyl chloride casing with 5-foot polyvinyl chloride screens. The uppermost 2 feet of the piezometer casing is covered by a steel casing with a locking lid. Driller's logs and geophysical logs were collected from the deepest hole and piezometer, respectively, at each site. This report describes the piezometers installed and presents initial water- level data for all piezometers.

  17. Paleomagnetic evidence bearing on the structural development of the Latir volcanic field near Questa, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Hagstrum, J.T.; Lipman, P.W.; Elston, D.P.

    1982-09-10

    The mid-Tertiary Latir volcanic field in northern New Mexico comprises intermediate-composition volcanics overlain by a regional ash flow sheet and associated lavas of rhyolitic composition that are all cut by silicic-alkalic grantic intrusives. Deeply exposed along the eastern flank of the Rio Grande rift, the silicic extrusive and intrusive rocks all yield radiometric ages of about 23 m.y., within analytical uncertainties. Flow banding and eutaxitic structures within the extrusive units indicate intense structural deformation, which for the most part increases toward the Questa caldera. Paleomagnetic study was undertaken to obtain information on the orientation of the eruptive and intrusive units and to employ the magnetic directions for an evaluation of the tectonic and igneous history of the caldera and enclosing volcanic field. Radiometric ages and the paleomagnetic data indicate that an episode of pronounced extension coincided with a major pulse of igneous activity in the region 23 m.y. ago. Eastward tilting of the volcanic units appears to have been closely followed by caldera collapse and then by resurgent doming of the caldera. Welded tuff units within the caldera were turned on end and together with older volcanic units were incorporated in a collapse megabreccia. The megabreccia and other nearby units were partially or entirely overprinted by a thermochemical aureole associated with the resurgent doming and attendant hydrothermal circulation. The stocks of the resurgent dome appear to have undergone no significant later tilting.

  18. Field guide to Cretaceous-tertiary boundary sections in northeastern Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Gerta; Stinnesbeck, Wolfgang; Adatte, Thierry; Macleod, Norman; Lowe, Donald R.

    1994-01-01

    This guide was prepared for the field trip to the KT elastic sequence of northeastern Mexico, 5-8 February 1994, in conjunction with the Conference on New Developments Regarding the KT Event and Other Catastrophes in Earth History, held in Houston, Texas. The four-day excursion offers an invaluable opportunity to visit three key outcrops: Arroyo El Mimbral, La Lajilla, and El Pinon. These and other outcrops of this sequence have recently been interpreted as tsunami deposits produced by the meteorite impact event that produced the 200 to 300-km Chicxulub basin in Yucatan, and distributed ejecta around the world approximately 65 m.y. ago that today is recorded as a thin clay layer found at the K/T boundary. The impact tsunami interpretation for these rocks has not gone unchallenged, and others examining the outcrops arrive at quite different conclusions: not tsunami deposits but turbidites; not KT at all but 'upper Cretaceous.' Indeed, it is in hopes of resolving this debate through field discussion, outcrop evaluation, and sampling that led the organizers of the conference to sanction this field trip. This field guide provides participants with background information on the KT clastic sequence outcrops and is divided into two sections. The first section provides regional and logistical context for the outcrops and a description of the clastic sequence. The second section presents three representative interpretations of the outcrops by their advocates. There is clearly no way that these models can be reconciled and so two, if not all three, must be fundamentally wrong. Readers of this guide should keep in mind that many basic outcrop observations that these models are based upon remain unresolved. While great measures were taken to ensure that the information in the description section was as objective as possible, many observations are rooted in interpretations and the emphasis placed on certain observations depends to some degree upon the perspective of the author.

  19. A 3D model of crustal magnetization at the Pinacate Volcanic Field, NW Sonora, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Abdeslem, Juan; Calmus, Thierry

    2015-08-01

    The Pinacate Volcanic Field (PVF) is located near the western border of the southern Basin and Range province, in the State of Sonora NW Mexico, and within the Gulf of California Extensional Province. This volcanic field contains the shield volcano Santa Clara, which mainly consists of basaltic to trachytic volcanic rocks, and reaches an altitude of ~ 1200 m. The PVF disrupts a series of discontinuous ranges of low topographic relief aligned in a NW direction, which consist mainly of Proterozoic metamorphic rocks and Proterozoic through Paleogene granitoids. The PVF covers an area of approximately 60 by 55 km, and includes more than 400 well-preserved cinder cones and vents and eight maar craters. It was active from about 1.7 Ma until about 13 ka. We have used the ages and magnetic polarities of the volcanic rocks, along with mapped magnetic anomalies and their inverse modeling to determine that the Pinacate Volcanic Field was formed during two volcanic episodes. The oldest one built the Santa Clara shield volcano of basaltic and trachytic composition, and occurred during the geomagnetic Matuyama Chron of reverse polarity, which also includes the normal polarity Jaramillo and Olduvai Subchrons, thus imprinting both normal and reverse magnetization in the volcanic products. The younger Pinacate series of basaltic composition represents monogenetic volcanic activity that extends all around the PVF and occurred during the subsequent geomagnetic Brunhes Chron of normal polarity. Magnetic anomalies toward the north of the Santa Clara volcano are the most intense in the PVF, and their inverse modeling indicates the presence of a large subsurface body magnetized in the present direction of the geomagnetic field. This suggests that the magma chambers at depth cooled below the Curie temperature during the Brunhes Chron.

  20. Internal architecture of the Tuxtla volcanic field, Veracruz, Mexico, inferred from gravity and magnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espindola, Juan Manuel; Lopez-Loera, Hector; Mena, Manuel; Zamora-Camacho, Araceli

    2016-09-01

    The Tuxtla Volcanic Field (TVF) is a basaltic volcanic field emerging from the plains of the western margin of the Gulf of Mexico in the Mexican State of Veracruz. Separated by hundreds of kilometers from the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt to the NW and the Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc to the SE, it stands detached not only in location but also in the composition of its rocks, which are predominantly alkaline. These characteristics make its origin somewhat puzzling. Furthermore, one of the large volcanoes of the field, San Martin Tuxtla, underwent an eruptive period in historical times (CE 1793). Such volcanic activity conveys particular importance to the study of the TVF from the perspective of volcanology and hazard assessment. Despite the above circumstances, few investigations about its internal structure have been reported. In this work, we present analyses of gravity and aeromagnetic data obtained from different sources. We present the complete Bouguer anomaly of the area and its separation into regional and residual components. The aeromagnetic data were processed to yield the reduction to the pole, the analytic signal, and the upward continuation to complete the interpretation of the gravity analyses. Three-dimensional density models of the regional and residual anomalies were obtained by inversion of the gravity signal adding the response of rectangular prisms at the nodes of a regular grid. We obtained a body with a somewhat flattened top at 16 km below sea level from the inversion of the regional. Three separate slender bodies with tops 6 km deep were obtained from the inversion of the residual. The gravity and magnetic anomalies, as well as the inferred source bodies that produce those geophysical anomalies, lie between the Sontecomapan and Catemaco faults, which are proposed as flower structures associated with an inferred deep-seated fault termed the Veracruz Fault. These fault systems along with magma intrusion at the lower crust are necessary features to

  1. Geologic and geophysical investigations of the Zuni-Bandera volcanic field, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ander, M.E.; Heiken, G.; Eichelberger, J.; Laughlin, A.W.; Huestis, S.

    1981-05-01

    A positive, northeast-trending gravity anomaly, 90 km long and 30 km wide, extends southwest from the Zuni uplift, New Mexico. The Zuni-Bandera volcanic field, an alignment of 74 basaltic vents, is parallel to the eastern edge of the anomaly. Lavas display a bimodal distribution of tholeiitic and alkalic compositions, and were erupted over a period from 4 Myr to present. A residual gravity profile taken perpendicular to the major axis of the anomaly was analyzed using linear programming and ideal body theory to obtain bounds on the density contrast, depth, and minimum thickness of the gravity body. Two-dimensionality was assumed. The limiting case where the anomalous body reaches the surface gives 0.1 g/cm/sup 3/ as the greatest lower bound on the maximum density contrast. If 0.4 g/cm/sup 3/ is taken as the geologically reasonable upper limit on the maximum density contrast, the least upper bound on the depth of burial is 3.5 km and minimum thickness is 2 km. A shallow mafic intrusion, emplaced sometime before Laramide deformation, is proposed to account for the positive gravity anomaly. Analysis of a magnetotelluric survey suggests that the intrusion is not due to recent basaltic magma associated with the Zuni-Bandera volcanic field. This large basement structure has controlled the development of the volcanic field; vent orientations have changed somewhat through time, but the trend of the volcanic chain followed the edge of the basement structure. It has also exhibited some control on deformation of the sedimentary section.

  2. A GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL STUDY OF THE BACA GEOTHERMAL FIELD, VALLES CALDERA, NEW MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.; Haar, S.V.

    1982-03-01

    The Baca location {number_sign}1 geothermal field is located in north-central New Mexico within the western half of the Plio-Pleistocene valles Caldera. Steam and hot water are produced primarily from the northeast-trending Redondo Creek graben, where downhole temperatures exceed 500 F. Stratigraphically the reservoir region can be described as a five-layer sequence that includes (1) caldera fill and the upper units of the Bandelier ash flow tuff, (2) the lower members of this tuff, which comprise the main reservoir rock at Baca, (3) the Pliocene Paliza Canyon volcanics, (4) Tertiary sands and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, and (5) Precambrian granitic basement. Production is controlled by fractures and faults that are ultimately related to activity in the Rio Grande Rift system. Geophysically, the caldera is characterized by a gravity minimum and a resistivity low. A 40-mgal gravity minimum over the caldera is due mostly to the relatively low-density volcanics and sediments that fill the caldera and probably bears no relation to deep-seated magmatic sources. Two-dimensional gravity modeling indicates that the depth to Precambrian basement in Redondo Canyon is probably at least 3 km and may exceed 5 km in eastern parts of the caldera. Telluric and magnetotelluric surveys have shown that the reservoir region is associated with low resistivity and that a deep low-resistivity zone correlates well with the depth of the primary reservoir inferred from well data.

  3. New Mexico Tech landmine, UXO, IED detection sensor test facility: measurements in real field soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrickx, Jan M. H.; Alkov, Nicole; Hong, Sung-ho; Van Dam, Remke L.; Kleissl, Jan; Shannon, Heather; Meason, John; Borchers, Brian; Harmon, Russell S.

    2006-05-01

    Modeling studies and experimental work have demonstrated that the dynamic behavior of soil physical properties has a significant effect on most sensors for the detection of buried land mines. An outdoor test site has been constructed allowing full control over soil water content and continuous monitoring of important soil properties and environmental conditions. Time domain reflectometry sensors and thermistors measure soil water1 content and temperature, respectively, at different depths above and below the land mines as well as in homogeneous soil away from the land mines. During the two-year operation of the test-site, the soils have evolved to reflect real field soil conditions. This paper compares visual observations as well as ground-penetrating radar and thermal infrared measurements at this site taken immediately after construction in early 2004 with measurements from early 2006. The visual observations reveal that the 2006 soil surfaces exhibit a much higher spatial variability due to the development of mini-reliefs, "loose" and "connected" soil crusts, cracks in clay soils, and vegetation. Evidence is presented that the increased variability of soil surface characteristics leads to a higher natural spatial variability of soil surface temperatures and, thus, to a lower probability to detect landmines using thermal imagery. No evidence was found that the soil surface changes affect the GPR signatures of landmines under the soil conditions encountered in this study. The New Mexico Tech outdoor Landmine Detection Sensor Test Facility is easily accessible and anyone interested is welcome to use it for sensor testing.

  4. Air Quality in Megacities: Lessons Learned from Mexico City Field Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, L. T.

    2014-12-01

    More than half of the world's population now lives in urban areas because of the opportunities for better jobs, access to city services, cultural and educational activities, and a desire for more stimulating human interaction. At the same time, many of these urban centers are expanding rapidly, giving rise to the phenomenon of megacities. In recent decades air pollution has become not only one of the most important environmental problems of megacities, but also presents serious consequences to human health and ecosystems and economic costs to society. Although the progress to date in combating air pollution problems in developed and some developing world megacities has been impressive, many challenges remain including the need to improve air quality while simultaneously mitigating climate change. This talk will present the results and the lessons learned from field measurements conducted in Mexico City Metropolitan Area - one of the world's largest megacities - over the past decade. While each city has its own unique circumstances, the need for an integrated assessment approach in addressing complex environmental problems is the same. There is no single strategy in solving air pollution problems in megacities; a mix of policy measures based on sound scientific findings will be necessary to improve air quality, protect public health, and mitigate climate change.

  5. A geostatistical method applied to the geochemical study of the Chichinautzin Volcanic Field in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robidoux, P.; Roberge, J.; Urbina Oviedo, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    The origin of magmatism and the role of the subducted Coco's Plate in the Chichinautzin volcanic field (CVF), Mexico is still a subject of debate. It has been established that mafic magmas of alkali type (subduction) and calc-alkali type (OIB) are produced in the CVF and both groups cannot be related by simple fractional crystallization. Therefore, many geochemical studies have been done, and many models have been proposed. The main goal of the work present here is to provide a new tool for the visualization and interpretation of geochemical data using geostatistics and geospatial analysis techniques. It contains a complete geodatabase built from referred samples over the 2500 km2 area of CVF and its neighbour stratovolcanoes (Popocatepetl, Iztaccihuatl and Nevado de Toluca). From this database, map of different geochemical markers were done to visualise geochemical signature in a geographical manner, to test the statistic distribution with a cartographic technique and highlight any spatial correlations. The distribution and regionalization of the geochemical signatures can be viewed in a two-dimensional space using a specific spatial analysis tools from a Geographic Information System (GIS). The model of spatial distribution is tested with Linear Decrease (LD) and Inverse Distance Weight (IDW) interpolation technique because they best represent the geostatistical characteristics of the geodatabase. We found that ratio of Ba/Nb, Nb/Ta, Th/Nb show first order tendency, which means visible spatial variation over a large scale area. Monogenetic volcanoes in the center of the CVF have distinct values compare to those of the Popocatepetl-Iztaccihuatl polygenetic complex which are spatially well defined. Inside the Valley of Mexico, a large quantity of monogenetic cone in the eastern portion of CVF has ratios similar to the Iztaccihuatl and Popocatepetl complex. Other ratios like alkalis vs SiO2, V/Ti, La/Yb, Zr/Y show different spatial tendencies. In that case, second

  6. Using Acceleration Records as Diffuse Fields for Tomography of the Valley of Mexico City: Synthetic Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baena, M.; Perton, M.; Molina-Villegas, J. C.; Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.

    2013-12-01

    In order to improve the understanding of the seismic response of Mexico City Valley, we have proposed to perform a tomography study of the seismic wave velocities. For that purpose, we used a collection of acceleration seismograms (corresponding to earthquakes with magnitudes ranging from 4.5 to 8.1 and various epicentral distances to the City) recorded since 1985 in 83 stations distributed across the Valley. The H/V spectral ratios (obtained from average autocorrelations) strongly suggest these movements belong to a 3D generalized diffuse field. Thus, we interpret that cross-correlations between the signals of station pairs are proportional to the imaginary part of the corresponding Green function. Finally, the dispersion curves are constructed from the Green function which lead to the tomography. Other tomographies have already been made around the world using either the seismic coda or seismic noise. We used instead the ensemble of many earthquakes from distant sources that have undergone multiple scattering by the heterogeneities of the Earth and assume the wave fields are equipartitioned. The purpose of the present study is to describe the different steps of the data processing by using synthetic models. The wave propagation within an alluvial basin is simulated using the Indirect Boundary Element Method (IBEM) in 2D configuration for the propagation of P and SV waves. The theoretical Green function for a station pair is obtained by placing a unit force at one station and a receiver at the other. The valley illumination is composed by incoming waves which are simulated using distant independent sources and several diffractors. Data process is validated by the correct retrieval the theoretical Green function. We present here the in-plane Green function for the P-SV case and show the dispersion curves constructed from the cross-correlations compared with analytic results for a layer over a half-space. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. This study is partially supported by AXA

  7. The Use of Geographic Information Technologies in Environmental Decision-Making in the State of Michoacan, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodoro, Silva García José; Gustavo, Cruz Cárdenas; Salvador, Ochoa Estrada; Franciso, Estrada Godoy; Fabian, Villalpando Barragán

    2008-05-01

    One of the most urgent issues facing the human environment, a result of current human evolution is the increase in the production of Urban Solid Waste (USW). The State of Michoacán is no exception; the presence of waste facilities in the area is a very big problem and one with a strong geographical content (Mena et al., 2006). SIGs are one tool for addressing this kind of need. A model which has been commonly used for selecting areas for the final deposit of USW, and which has obtained good results, is so-called multicriterion decision-making. It has been applied in the context of integral USW management, and has generated both a methodology for the determination of safe places for final waste deposit and an Environmental Risk Index (ERI), which fulfills the requirements indicated by the Official Mexican Norm (NOM-083-SEMARNAT-2003). The methodology consists of a quadrant analysis of 25 ha of five factors. A rank was assigned to each of the factors, and this rank was standardized according to a scale from 0 to 10 and subsequently multiplied by a weight (W) which numerically represents the degree of importance and influence of each factor in the environment. Five represented the largest impact, and two represented the smallest impact. The ERI is the sum of the five factors considered and it is represented by means of the following equation: ERI = VVw+UsUsw+FrFrw+ln lnw+Zi Ziw, where ERI is the Environmental Risk Index, V Vw is the aquifer vulnerability, Us Usw represents the use of the soil, Fr Frw refers to the fracturing density, ln lnw represents the domain of the urban and industrial infrastructure, and Zi Ziw refers to flood zones. This was shown to be successful in different regions of Michoacán State, such as the Bajío area, the Paísde la Mariposa Monarca and Tierra Caliente. Another example is its application in the hydrogeologic context, which generated the Aquifer Veda index (a restriction diagram for the opening of new exploitations), and which is intended to regulate and give advice about the design of wells, their depth and optimum slot interval, their appropriate location and caudal, in those cases in which well-drilling is permitted. The above-mentioned approach is fundamental to the sustainable operating schemes for the handling of the underground water in the Ciénega de Chapala. This approach is intended to influence the scientific handling of the hydro resource, promoting sustainable politics and rules of operation.

  8. Lightning Mapping and Electric Field Change Observations of a Stationary New Mexico Storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krehbiel, P. R.; Rison, W.; Hunyady, S. J.; Edens, H. E.; Sonnenfeld, R. G.; Aulich, G. D.

    2010-12-01

    On August 23, 2010 a classic airmass thunderstorm occurred over high plains immediately east of the Langmuir Laboratory mountaintop observatory in central New Mexico. The energetic storm developed around 2:30 pm MDT (2030 UTC) and remained essentially stationary over its complete lifetime of about 2 hours. The complete sequence of lightning was recorded both by the 16-station Langmuir Laboratory Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) and by several electrostatic field change stations around and beneath the storm. The LMA and Delta-E data are both of very high quality and sensitivity. In this initial study we report on the lightning-inferred electrical structure of the storm and on estimated charging currents determined from a simple electrodynamic model of the storm. The electric field change measurements, in combination with the detailed 3-D mapping results, can be used to determine the amounts of charge involved in individual strokes and parts of flashes for comparison and improvement of the modeling. The LMA data regularly detected isolated attempted breakdown events at repeated locations at mid- to high altitudes in the storm that were clearly indicative of localized high-field regions. The attempted breakdown events were often exact pre-cursors of the initial breakdown of full-fledged IC flashes typically several seconds up to several tens of seconds later, but also often did not precurse a subsequent discharge. During both IC and CG flashes, numerous recoil-type, fast negative breakdown events were detected along otherwise undetected positive leader channels in the main, mid-level negative charge region. The localized fast events during IC flashes often repeatedly intensified in strength and number prior to upward negative leader K-events, and then temporarily ceased before starting up again prior to the next K-event. Many of the negative CG flashes in the storm produced strokes with long continuing currents (CCs). The overall electric field changes and hence total

  9. Megacrystic pyroxene basalts sample deep crustal gabbroic cumulates beneath the Mount Taylor volcanic field, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Mariek E.; Schrader, Christian M.; Crumpler, Larry S.; Rowe, Michael C.; Wolff, John A.; Boroughs, Scott P.

    2016-04-01

    Distributed over the ~ 2.3 m.y. history of the alkaline and compositionally diverse Mount Taylor Volcanic Field (MTVF), New Mexico is a widespread texturally distinct family of differentiated basalts that contain resorbed megacrysts (up to 3 cm) of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, and olivine ± Ti-magnetite ± ilmenite ± orthopyroxene. These lavas have gabbroic cumulate inclusions with mineral compositions similar to the megacrysts, suggesting a common origin. Gabbroic and megacrystic clinopyroxenes form positive linear arrays in TiO2 (0.2-2.3 wt.%) with respect to Al2O3 (0.7-9.3 wt.%). Plagioclase (An41-80) from representative thin sections analyzed for 87Sr/86Sr by laser ablation ICP-MS range from 0.7036 to 0.7048. The low 87Sr/86Sr plagioclases (0.7036 to 0.7037) are associated with high Ti-Al clinopyroxenes. Likewise, the higher 87Sr/86Sr plagioclases (0.7043 to 0.7047) are associated with the low-Al clinopyroxenes. Taken together, the pyroxene and plagioclase megacrysts appear to track the differentiation of a gabbroic pluton (or related plutons) from alkaline to Si-saturated conditions by fractional crystallization and crustal assimilation. Clinopyroxene-liquid geobarometry calculations suggest that crystallization occurred near the crust-mantle transition at an average of ~ 1200 °C and 12-13 kbar. The distribution of the megacrystic pyroxene basalts suggests that a gabbroic intrusive body underlies subregions of the MTVF that have generated silicic magmas. The gabbro is interpreted to be a significant heat and mass input into the lower crust that is capable of driving the petrogenesis of diverse silicic compositions (through fractionation and crustal assimilation), including mugearites, trachytes, trachy-andesites and dacites, high-Si rhyolites, and topaz rhyolites of the MTVF.

  10. The Taylor Creek Rhyolite of New Mexico: a rapidly emplaced field of lava domes and flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffield, W.A.; Dalrymple, G.B.

    1990-01-01

    The Tertiary Taylor Creek Rhyolite of southwest New Mexico comprises at least 20 lava domes and flows. Each of the lavas was erupted from its own vent, and the vents are distributed throughout a 20 km by 50 km area. The volume of the rhyolite and genetically associated pyroclastic deposits is at least 100 km3 (denserock equivalent). The rhyolite contains 15%-35% quartz, sanidine, plagioclase, ??biotite, ??hornblende phenocrysts. Quartz and sanidine account for about 98% of the phenocrysts and are present in roughly equal amounts. With rare exceptions, the groundmass consists of intergrowths of fine-grained silica and alkali feldspar. Whole-rock major-element composition varies little, and the rhyolite is metaluminous to weakly peraluminous; mean SiO2 content is about 77.5??0.3%. Similarly, major-element compositions of the two feldsparphenocryst species also are nearly constant. However, whole-rock concentrations of some trace-elements vary as much as several hundred percent. Initial radiometric age determinations, all K-Ar and fission track, suggest that the rhyolite lava field grew during a period of at least 2 m.y. Subsequent 40Ar/39Ar ages indicate that the period of growth was no more than 100 000 years. The time-space-composition relations thus suggest that the Taylor Creek Rhyolite was erupted from a single magma reservoir whose average width was at least 30 km, comparable in size to several penecontemporaneous nearby calderas. However, this rhyolite apparently is not related to a caldera structure. Possibly, the Taylor Creek Phyolite magma body never became sufficiently volatile rich to produce a large-volume pyroclastic eruption and associated caldera collapse, but instead leaked repeatedly to feed many relatively small domes and flows. The new 40Ar/39Ar ages do not resolve preexisting unknown relative-age relations among the domes and flows of the lava field. Nonetheless, the indicated geologically brief period during which Taylor Creek Rhyolite magma was

  11. Lahar simulation with SPH and field calibration at the Colima Volcano (Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, Leticia; Haddad, Bouchra; Capra, Lucia; Palacios, David

    2015-04-01

    As a result of the frequent effusive activity of Volcán de Colima (10° 30'44''N, 103° 37'02'' W), the most active volcano in Mexico, plenty of rain triggered lahars are produced, especially during the rainy season. Along the recent period of activity, particularly from 2010, many of these lahars channelled through the main ravines of the volcano and reach large distances, representing high risk for more than 10,000 people at the surroundings. Modeling of lahars has become an important tool in the assessment of the related hazards, in order to undertake appropriate mitigation actions and reduce the associated risks. Recent lahars at the Colima Volcano are well documented, so they can be used to prove the accuracy of modelling. In this work, we used the SPH (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics) method, a depth integrated coupled model created by Pastor in 2005, to replicate the propagation stage of 3 recent Colima lahars occurred on Montegrande ravine in 1992, 2011 and 2012. The studied events include hyperconcentrated, debris and a mixture of the previous flow natures. The inputs used for the SPH simulations were the initial point, volume of each lahar and an adapted morphology of its mass. Field data used to verify the SPH results include the stopping point of the lahar, its path, velocity and height values, as the floodplain area. All this information was a result of fieldwork recognition (cross section profiles of the inner part of the ravine) and free satellite imagery analysis. The best results were obtained using Bingham rheology. The proposed parameters to simulate Colima lahars were 20 Pa of yield strength and 30 Pa.s of viscosity for the 1992 lahar (hyperconcentrated flow), 200 Pa and 50 Pa.s in case of the 2011 debris flow, and finally 20 Pa and 24 Pa.s for the 2012 event, whose nature evolved from debris to an hyperconcentrated flow. In all cases a 1900 kg/m3 density was used. Highly accurate results showed the relevant role played by rheological

  12. Megacrystic Clinopyroxene Basalts Sample A Deep Crustal Underplate To The Mount Taylor Volcanic Field, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, M. E.; Schrader, C. M.; Crumpler, L. S.; Wolff, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    The alkaline and compositionally diverse (basanite to high-Si rhyolite) Mount Taylor Volcanic Field (MTVF), New Mexico comprises 4 regions that cover ~75 x 40 km2: (1) Mount Taylor, a large composite volcano and a surrounding field of basaltic vents; (2) Grants Ridge, constructed of topaz rhyolitic ignimbrite and coulees; (3) Mesa Chivato, a plateau of alkali basalts and mugearitic to trachytic domes; and (4) the Rio Puero basaltic necks. Distributed throughout its history (~3.6 to 1.26 Ma; Crumpler and Goff, 2012) and area (excepting Rio Puerco Necks) is a texturally distinct family of differentiated basalts (Mg# 43.2-53.4). These basalts contain resorbed and moth-eaten megacrysts (up to 2 cm) of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, and olivine ±Ti-magnetite ±ilmenite ±rare orthopyroxene. Some megacrystic lava flows have gabbroic cumulate inclusions with mineral compositions similar to the megacrysts, suggesting a common origin. For instance, gabbroic and megacrystic clinopyroxenes form linear positive arrays in TiO2 (0.2-2.3 wt%) with respect to Al2O3 (0.7-9.3 wt%). The lowest Al clinopyroxenes are found in a gabbroic inclusion and are associated with partially melted intercumulus orthopyroxene. Megacrystic and gabbroic plagioclase (An 41-80) in 4 representative thin sections were analyzed for 87Sr/86Sr by Laser Ablation ICP-MS. 87Sr/86Sr values for the suite range from 0.7036 to 0.7047. The low 87Sr/86Sr plagioclases (0.7036 to 0.7037) are associated with high Ti-Al clinopyroxenes. Likewise, the higher 87Sr/86Sr plagioclases (0.7043 to 0.7047) are associated with the low-Al clinopyroxenes. Taken together, these megacrysts track the differentiation of an intrusive body (or related bodies) from alkaline to Si-saturated conditions by fractional crystallization and crustal assimilation. The intrusive body likely underplates portions of the MTVF that have generated silicic magmas (Mount Taylor, Grants Ridge, Mesa Chivato). Although disequilibrium is implied by resorbed

  13. The Taylor Creek Rhyolite of New Mexico: a rapidly emplaced field of lava domes and flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffield, Wendell A.; Dalrymple, G. Brent

    1990-08-01

    The Tertiary Taylor Creek Rhyolite of southwest New Mexico comprises at least 20 lava domes and flows. Each of the lavas was erupted from its own vent, and the vents are distributed throughout a 20 km by 50 km area. The volume of the rhyolite and genetically associated pyroclastic deposits is at least 100 km3 (denserock equivalent). The rhyolite contains 15% 35% quartz, sanidine, plagioclase, ±biotite, ±hornblende phenocrysts. Quartz and sanidine account for about 98% of the phenocrysts and are present in roughly equal amounts. With rare exceptions, the groundmass consists of intergrowths of fine-grained silica and alkali feldspar. Whole-rock major-element composition varies little, and the rhyolite is metaluminous to weakly peraluminous; mean SiO2 content is about 77.5±0.3%. Similarly, major-element compositions of the two feldsparphenocryst species also are nearly constant. However, whole-rock concentrations of some trace-elements vary as much as several hundred percent. Initial radiometric age determinations, all K-Ar and fission track, suggest that the rhyolite lava field grew during a period of at least 2 m.y. Subsequent 40Ar/39Ar ages indicate that the period of growth was no more than 100 000 years. The time-space-composition relations thus suggest that the Taylor Creek Rhyolite was erupted from a single magma reservoir whose average width was at least 30 km, comparable in size to several penecontemporaneous nearby calderas. However, this rhyolite apparently is not related to a caldera structure. Possibly, the Taylor Creek Phyolite magma body never became sufficiently volatile rich to produce a large-volume pyroclastic eruption and associated caldera collapse, but instead leaked repeatedly to feed many relatively small domes and flows. The new 40Ar/39Ar ages do not resolve preexisting unknown relative-age relations among the domes and flows of the lava field. Nonetheless, the indicated geologically brief period during which Taylor Creek Rhyolite magma was

  14. Real Time View of the Functions and Services of the Seismic Alert System of Mexico (SASMEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa Aranda, J.; Ibarrola Alvarez, G.; Cuellar Martinez, A.; Inostroza Puk, M.

    2013-05-01

    The Seismic Alert System of Mexico (SASMEX) is integrated since March 2012 by the Seismic Alert System of Mexico City (SAS), in continuous operation since 1991, and the Seismic Alert System of Oaxaca City (SASO) that started its services in 2003. SASMEX consists of 97 field seismic sensor station (FS) type triaxial accelerometer, mostly sponsored by the government of Mexico City and secondly by Oaxaca. The SASMEX covers the Pacific seismic hazard among the coast of Jalisco, Colima, Michoacan, Guerrero and Oaxaca; and the seismic region of Puebla and northern Oaxaca and Guerrero states. This integration lets to warn with better opportunity to the population of Mexico City, Oaxaca Oax., Acapulco Gro., Chilpancingo Gro. and recently Morelia Mich.; cities with a system called EASAS where receives seismic data from FS and emits earthquake early warning signals to the population. The recent sponsorship of Federal Government through the General Coordination of Civil Protection and the National Center for Disaster Prevention, reinforced integration SAS and SASO, and auspiced the development of a Real-Time Monitoring System of functions and services of SASMEX. This work show how is displayed the functions of services of SASMEX through this monitoring system and its possible application by Civil Protection authorities. This monitoring system can indicate the status of FS, the communications system and cities with EASAS. Additionally, when an earthquake occurs and is detected by the SASMEX, the monitoring system shows the messages of FS, whose consist in the characteristics of detection and seismic danger forecasted; in the case of a strong earthquake estimated by more than one FS, the EASAS of each city could automatically issue an Alert Public to its population. The monitoring system allows observing cities with EASAS that activate their alerts, displays a basic earthquake propagation model and how it reaches to other FS. Additionally, the monitoring system shows the

  15. ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING MODELS FOR CULTURAL RESOURCES IN OIL & GAS FIELDS IN NEW MEXICO AND WYOMING

    SciTech Connect

    Peggy Robinson

    2005-07-01

    This report summarizes activities that have taken place in the last six (6) months (January 2005-June 2005) under the DOE-NETL cooperative agreement ''Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields, New Mexico and Wyoming'' DE-FC26-02NT15445. This project examines the practices and results of cultural resource investigation and management in two different oil and gas producing areas of the United States: southeastern New Mexico and the Powder River Basin of Wyoming. The project evaluates how cultural resource investigations have been conducted in the past and considers how investigation and management could be pursued differently in the future. The study relies upon full database population for cultural resource inventories and resources and geomorphological studies. These are the basis for analysis of cultural resource occurrence, strategies for finding and evaluating cultural resources, and recommendations for future management practices. Activities can be summarized as occurring in either Wyoming or New Mexico. Gnomon as project lead, worked in both areas.

  16. Mexican Seismic Alert System's SAS-I algorithm review considering strong earthquakes felt in Mexico City since 1985

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuellar Martinez, A.; Espinosa Aranda, J.; Suarez, G.; Ibarrola Alvarez, G.; Ramos Perez, S.; Camarillo Barranco, L.

    2013-05-01

    The Seismic Alert System of Mexico (SASMEX) uses three algorithms for alert activation that involve the distance between the seismic sensing field station (FS) and the city to be alerted; and the forecast for earthquake early warning activation in the cities integrated to the system, for example in Mexico City, the earthquakes occurred with the highest accelerations, were originated in the Pacific Ocean coast, whose distance this seismic region and the city, favors the use of algorithm called Algorithm SAS-I. This algorithm, without significant changes since its beginning in 1991, employs the data that generate one or more FS during P wave detection until S wave detection plus a period equal to the time employed to detect these phases; that is the double S-P time, called 2*(S-P). In this interval, the algorithm performs an integration process of quadratic samples from FS which uses a triaxial accelerometer to get two parameters: amplitude and growth rate measured until 2*(S-P) time. The parameters in SAS-I are used in a Magnitude classifier model, which was made from Guerrero Coast earthquakes time series, with reference to Mb magnitude mainly. This algorithm activates a Public or Preventive Alert if the model predicts whether Strong or Moderate earthquake. The SAS-I algorithm has been operating for over 23 years in the subduction zone of the Pacific Coast of Mexico, initially in Guerrero and followed by Oaxaca; and since March 2012 in the seismic region of Pacific covering the coasts among Jalisco, Colima, Michoacan, Guerrero and Oaxaca, where this algorithm has issued 16 Public Alert and 62 Preventive Alerts to the Mexico City where its soil conditions increase damages by earthquake such as the occurred in September 1985. This work shows the review of the SAS-I algorithm and possible alerts that it could generate from major earthquakes recordings detected by FS or seismometers near the earthquakes, coming from Pacific Ocean Coast whose have been felt in Mexico

  17. Field Characterization of Potential Reference Sediments in the Gulf of Mexico: Chemical and Biological Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lewis, Michael A., Jed G. Campbell, Peggy S. Harris, Darrin D. Dantin, Steve S. Foss, Robert L. Quarles, James C. Moore and Cynthia A. Chancy. Submitted. Characterization of Potential Reference Areas in the Gulf of Mexico: Near-Coastal Sediment Chemical and Biological Quality. En...

  18. Mexico's New Braceros: How NAFTA Promotes Child Labor and Truancy in the Onion Fields of Mexicali.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, David

    1997-01-01

    Although NAFTA has proven profitable for U.S. growers who have relocated agricultural production to Mexico, it has helped create an economic crisis that has forced thousands of Mexican children to leave school in order to work and supplement their parents' shrinking income. In Mexicali Valley (Baja California), approximately a fourth of the…

  19. Understanding High Temperature Gradients in the Buckman Well Field, Santa Fe County, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folsom, M.; Gulvin, C. J.; Tamakloe, F. M.; Yauk, K.; Kelley, S.; Frost, J.; Jiracek, G. R.

    2014-12-01

    We propose a conceptual model to explain elevated thermal gradients, localized laterally over a few 100 m, discovered during the SAGE program in 2013 and confirmed in 2014 at the Buckman water well field in the Española Basin of north central New Mexico. The anomalous gradients of temperature with depth, dT/dz, exceed 70 ºC/km and are found in three shallow (< 100 m-deep) USGS monitoring wells close to the Rio Grande. A temperature increase of only 3 - 4 ºC at ~100 m depth would elevate the regional temperature value enough to yield the anomalous dT/dz values in the upper ~100 m. The coincidence of a 25 km2 region of InSAR-confirmed subsidence with the locally anomalous dT/dz region suggests a way to achieve a higher temperature at ~ 100 m depth. The mechanism is an isothermal release of warmer water from ~ 200 m depth along a fissure or reactivated fault. A fourth well, 290 m away, has a temperature gradient of only 33ºC/km in the upper 100 m and a distinctly different geochemical profile, suggesting aquifer compartmentalization and possible faulting close to the anomaly. In 2001 a 800 m-long surface scarp with up to 0.2 m offset appeared 2 km to the east in response to over-pumping that depressed the groundwater table by over 100 m. Such drawdown is expected to have 2 - 5 m of compaction with attendant movement along faults or fissures. This could allow groundwater to be released upward isothermally until encountering an unbreached aquitard where it would establish an elevated thermal boundary. Besides the local thermal anomaly, we have temperature-logged deeper water wells in the area. These and other measurements have been used to construct cross-sections of isotherms across the Española Basin along the groundwater flow units (GFUs). This allows comparison of the local thermal anomaly with classic, regional, basin hydrological models. For example, the fully-screened Skillet well, 2.3 km from the anomaly, shows a classic concave down dT/dz form indicating

  20. Field Courses for Volcanic Hazards Mapping at Parícutinand Jorullo Volcanoes (Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Victoria Morales, A.; Delgado Granados, H.; Roberge, J.; Farraz Montes, I. A.; Linares López, C.

    2007-05-01

    During the last decades, Mexico has suffered several geologic phenomena-related disasters. The eruption of El Chichón volcano in 1982 killed >2000 people and left a large number of homeless populations and severe economic damages. The best way to avoid and mitigate disasters and their effects is by making geologic hazards maps. In volcanic areas these maps should show in a simplified fashion, but based on the largest geologic background possible, the probable (or likely) distribution in time and space of the products related to a variety of volcanic processes and events, according to likely magnitude scenarios documented on actual events at a particular volcano or a different one with similar features to the volcano used for calibration and weighing geologic background. Construction of hazards maps requires compilation and acquisition of a large amount of geological data in order to obtain the physical parameters needed to calibrate and perform controlled simulation of volcanic events under different magnitude-scenarios in order to establish forecasts. These forecasts are needed by the authorities to plan human settlements, infrastructure, and economic development. The problem is that needs are overwhelmingly faster than the adjustments of university programs to include courses. At the Earth Science División of the Faculty of Engineering at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, the students have a good background that permits to learn the methodologies for hazards map construction but no courses on hazards evaluations. Therefore, under the support of the university's Program to Support Innovation and Improvement of Teaching (PAPIME, Programa de Apoyo para la Innovación y Mejoramiento de la Enseñanza) a series of field-based intensive courses allow the Earth science students to learn what kind of data to acquire, how to record, and process in order to carry out hazards evaluations. This training ends with hazards maps that can be used immediately by the

  1. A geological and geophysical appraisal of the Baca geothermal field, Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilt, Michael; Vonder Haar, Stephen

    1986-03-01

    The Baca location #1 geothermal field is located in north-central New Mexico within the western half of the Plio-Pleistocene Valles Caldera. Steam and hot water are produced primarily from the northeast-trending Redondo Creek graben, where downhole temperatures exceed 260°C at depths of less than 2 km. Stratigraphically the reservoir region can be described as a five-layer sequence that includes Tertiary and Quaternary volcanic rocks, and Mesozoic and Tertiary sediments overlying Precambrian granitic basement. Production is mainly controlled by fractures and faults that are ultimately related to activity in the Rio Grande Rift system. Geophysically, the caldera is characterized by a gravity minimum and a resistivity low in its western half. A 40-mgal gravity minimum over the caldera is due mostly to the relatively low-density volcanics and sediments that fill the caldera and probably bears no relation to deep-seated magmatic sources. Two-dimensional gravity modeling indicates that the depth to Precambrian basement in Redondo Canyon is probably at least 3 km and may exceed 5 km in eastern parts of the caldera. Telluric and magnetotelluric surveys have shown that the reservoir region is associated with low resistivity and that a deep low-resistivity zone correlates well with the depth of the primary reservoir inferred from well data. Telluric and magnetotelluric data have also identified possible fault zones in the eastern and western sections of the production region that may form boundaries to the Redondo Creek reservoir. These data also suggest that the reservoir region is located at the intersection of lineaments that trend north-south and northeast-southwest. Magnetotelluric results indicate deep low resistivity at the western edge of the caldera which may be associated with deep hot fluids. On the basis of geophysical and well data, we make three estimates of reservoir dimensions. The estimates of the areal extent of the reservoir range from 10 to 30 km 2

  2. The ~ 2000 yr BP Jumento volcano, one of the youngest edifices of the Chichinautzin Volcanic Field, Central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arce, J. L.; Muñoz-Salinas, E.; Castillo, M.; Salinas, I.

    2015-12-01

    The Chichinautzin Volcanic Field is situated at the southern limit of the Basin of Mexico and the Metropolitan area of Mexico City, the third most populated city around the world. The Chichinautzin Volcanic field holds more than 220 monogenetic volcanoes. Xitle is the youngest of these with an estimated age of 1.6 ky BP. Xitle's eruptive activity took place during the Mesoamerican Mexican Pre-classic period and is related to the destruction of Cuicuilco Archaeological Site, the oldest civilization known in Central Mexico. However, there are still several regional cones that have not been dated. Based on 14C ages, stratigraphic and geomorphologic criteria, we conclude that the Jumento volcano, located to the west of Xitle, is one of the youngest cones of the Chichinautzin Volcanic Field. The Jumento volcano has a basaltic andesite composition, and its eruptive activity was initially hydromagmatic, followed by Strombolian and finally effusive events occurred recorded through: (1) a sequence of hydromagmatic pyroclastic surges and ashfall layers emplaced at a radius of > 5 km from the crater with charcoal fragments at its base; this activity built the Jumento's cone with slopes of 32°; and (2) lava flows that breached the southern part of the cone and flowed for up to 2.5 km from the vent. The resulting 14C ages for this volcano yielded a maximum age of ~ 2 ky BP. Morphometric analysis indicates that the state of degradation of Jumento cone is similar to the Xitle, suggesting that the Jumento could be in the state of degradation of a volcanic structure of similar age or younger adding credence to the probable radiocarbon age of ~ 2 ky BP for the Jumento edifice.

  3. Anomalously High Geothermal Gradients in the Buckman Well Field, Santa Fe County, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollack, A.; Munda, R.; Farrell, T. F.; Kelley, S. A.; Frost, J.; Jiracek, G. R.

    2013-12-01

    Temperature as a function of depth was measured in ten wells in the Santa Fe, NM area as part of the Summer of Applied Geophysics Experience (SAGE) program. Eight of the wells are within 5.5 km of the city's Buckman municipal well field and two wells are at La Tierra, 16.5 km to the SE. Geothermal gradients increase from east to west towards the Buckman area, from 20°C/km at La Tierra to 76°C/km at Buckman. Within the Buckman well field, two wells on its eastern side were determined to have temperature gradients of 32°C/km and 42°C/km. Only 300 m west, the geothermal gradient sharply increases, and measured gradients reach 76 °C/km (well number SF4A), 62°C/km (SF4B), and 68°C/km (SF3A) in three shallow (<100 m) monitoring drill holes. Both local and regional causes may explain the geothermal anomaly. The short spatial wavelength of the horizontal gradient increase argues for a localized source. The unusually high gradients in three of the wells may be associated with fault-controlled, effective shallow-source, warm water upflow or with lateral flow in a shallow aquifer. On the regional level, the east to west increase in temperature gradients can be explained by deep circulating groundwater flow in the Espanola Basin and upwelling near the Rio Grande. Another possible explanation comes from gravity data gathered by SAGE over several years that shows a local NW-striking structural high in the area that could force localized convective upflow. Regional aeromag maps indicate magnetic lows exactly underneath the anomalous wells. These may be interpreted as buried volcanic plugs beneath the Buckman well field, acting as conduits for upwelling warmer waters. They may also indicate hydrothermally altered rock beneath the surface. A more nontraditional cause of the sharp thermal anomaly is also possible. The geothermal gradient anomaly coincides with the dramatic discovery by InSAR in 1993-2000 of localized ground subsidence due to excessive water well pumping

  4. Crustal structure beneath Southwestern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhardja, S.; Grand, S.; Wilson, D.; Guzman Speziale, M.; Gomez Gonzalez, J.; Ni, J.; Dominguez Reyes, T.

    2007-12-01

    The MARS ( Mapping the Rivera Subduction zone ) project started in January 2006 deploying 50 broadband seismometers across southwestern Mexico for one and a half year duration. The stations were deployed in Jalisco, Michoacan and Colima states. The goal of the project is to understand the geometry of the Rivera and Cocos subducting plates and the effect of the subduction on the overriding plate. In this study, we employ the teleseismic receiver function technique to map out the lateral variation in Moho depth as well as the Vp/Vs ratio of the crust in this tectonically and magmatically active area. The ambiguity between the delay time of Ps and crustal Vp/Vs ratio is reduced by stacking later phases, the PpPs and PpSs + PsPs, for different values of Moho depth and Vp/Vs ratio (Zhu et al. ). An average crustal depth and crustal Vp/Vs ratio is obtained by finding the highest combination of parameters that give the largest amplitude stack. We find that the average Moho depth is 39 km but varies significantly from 25 to 45 km thick. The average crustal Vp/Vs ratio is 1.82 but is also variable ranging from 1.7 to 1.9. We will discuss correlations of crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio with crustal composition and magmatic activity.

  5. The September 19, 1985 Michoacan Earthquake: Aftershock acceleration data recorded by a temporary installation of strong motion instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munguía, Luis; Simila, Gerry W.; McNally, Karen C.; Thompson, Howard

    1986-06-01

    We describe acceleration signals recorded for nine aftershocks of the September 19, 1985 Michoacan earthquake. To obtain this data set, three A-700 Teledyne-Geotech digital strong-motion instruments were operated temporarily at two sites on the José María Morelos (La Villita) Dam, and at a site located at about 12 km to the west of the town of Zihuatanejo. Peak horizontal accelerations of 0.005 g to 0.031 g were recorded at epicentral distances between 10 and 75 km, for earthquakes with magnitude (mb) between 4.5 and 5.3. It was observed that the peak accelerations recorded at a site on the embankment of the dam (near the crest ) are approximately three times those recorded on the abutment bedrock portion of the dam. Although these sites were spatially separated by no more than 300 m, differences among their records are also significant. Waveforms recorded at the embankment site look more complex than those from the abutment site. This fact, as well as the higher peak accelerations on the embankment, provides evidence of a strong influence of the structure of the dam on the ground motion at the embankment site.

  6. Small scale field trials of Bacillus sphaericus (strain 2362) against anopheline and culicine mosquito larvae in southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Arredondo-Jiménez, J I; López, T; Rodríguez, M H; Bown, D N

    1990-06-01

    Experimental breeding sites simulating natural conditions were used to evaluate the efficacy of 2 formulations of Bacillus sphaericus (strain 2362) against Anopheles albimanus and culicine (mostly Culex coronator and Cx. quinquefasciatus) mosquito larvae of southern Mexico. Three doses of each formulation were used in a first field trial: 2, 3 and 4 g/m2 (granular) or 2, 3 and 4 ml/m2 (liquid); and in a second field trial: 0.125, 0.24 and 0.5 g/m2 (granular) or 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 ml/m2 (liquid). The optimum concentrations of each formulation for effective control of larval populations over periods of 3-4 months were 0.125 ml/m2 of liquid product for Culex spp. and 2 g/m2 of granular product for An. albimanus (ca. 70% mean reduction). PMID:2370538

  7. Recent SO2 camera and OP-FTIR field measurements in Mexico and Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Spina, Alessandro; Salerno, Giuseppe; Burton, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Between 22 and 30 November 2012 a field campaign was carried out at Mexico and Guatemala with the objectives of state the volcanic gas composition and flux fingerprints of Popocatepetl, Santiaguito, Fuego and Pacaya by exploiting simultaneously UV-camera and FTIR measurements. Gases were measured remotely using instruments sensitive to ultraviolet and infrared radiation (UV spectrometer, SO2-camera and OP-FTIR). Data collection depended on the requirements of the methodology, weather condition and eruptive stage of the volcanoes. OP-FTIR measurements were carried out using the MIDAC interferometer with 0.5 cm-1 resolution. Spectra were collected in solar occultation mode in which the Sun acts as an infrared source and the volcanic plume is interposed between the Sun and the spectrometer. At Santiaguito spectra were also collected in passive mode using the lava flow as a radiation source. The SO2-camera used for this study was a dual camera system consisting of two QS Imaging 640s cameras. Each of the two cameras was outfitted with two quartz 25mm lens, coupled with two band-pass filters centred at 310nm and at 330nm. The imaging system was managed by a custom-made software developed in LabView. The UV-camera system was coupled with a USB2000+ spectrometer connected to a QP1000-2-SR 1000 micron optical fiber with a 74-UV collimating lens. For calibration of plume imagery, images of five quartz cells containing known concentration path-lengths of SO2 were taken at the end of each sampling. Between 22 and 23 November 2012 UV-camera and FTIR observations were carried out at Popocatepetl. During the time of our observation, the volcano was characterised by pulsing degassing from the summit crater forming a whitish plume that dispersed rapidly in the atmosphere according to wind direction and speed. Data were collected from the Observatorio Atmosférico Altzomoni (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México) at 4000 metre a.s.l. and at a distance of ~12 km from the volcano

  8. NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer 2012 Field Season in the Northern Gulf of Mexico and U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skarke, A. D.; Lobecker, E.; Malik, M.; VerPlanck, N.

    2012-12-01

    The NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer, jointly operated by the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research and the NOAA Office of Marine and Aviation Operations, is America's only federally managed ship dedicated solely to ocean exploration. The 2012 field season was spent exploring the northern Gulf of Mexico and the U.S. Atlantic continental shelf break and slope. In the Gulf of Mexico, mapping and remotely operated vehicle operations focused on the salt domes and canyons offshore Mississippi and Louisiana, and characterized several of the hundreds of seeps that were detected in the water column backscatter data collected with the ship's Kongsberg EM 302 multibeam sonar (30 kHz) during the 2011 field season. A team of NOAA and non-NOAA partners identified priority frontier areas along the continental shelf and slope between North Carolina and Cape Cod, mapping numerous canyons selected for focused mapping exploration in partnership with the North East Fisheries Science Center, the Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (a state level partnership between various states including NY, NJ, DE, MD, and VA), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) and Virginia Sea Grant. The 2012 mapping efforts built on data collected during the 2011 field season. Okeanos Explorer data were leveraged by NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow to conduct towed camera operations to ground truth multibeam backscatter data for deepwater coral habitat assessment. The Blake Ridge and Cape Fear Diapirs offshore North Carolina were a third focus of exploration operations. Seven 900 meter high cold seeps were discovered in the diapir province. Exploration incorporated WHOI's Sentry autonomous underwater vehicle and its full suite of mapping and oceanographic sensors were used to characterize six seep sites. All data collected by Okeanos Explorer are available via the NOAA public archives with metadata records within 60 to 90 days of the end of each cruise.

  9. Field studies of engineered barriers for closure of low level radioactive waste landfills at Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Nyhan, J.W.; Langhorst, G.J.; Martin, C.E.; Martinez, J.L.; Schofield, T.G.

    1993-05-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory examined water balance relationships for four different landfill cover designs containing engineered barriers. These field experiments were performed at Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA, in 1.0- by 10.0-m plots with downhill slopes of 5, 10, 15, and 25%. Field measurements of seepage, precipitation, interflow, runoff, and soil water content were collected in each of the 16 plots representing four slopes each with four cover designs: Conventional, EPA, Loam Capillary Barrier and Clay Loam Capillary Barrier. A seepage collection system was installed beneath each cover design to evaluate the influence of slope length on seepage using a series of four metal pans filled with medium gravel that were placed end-to-end in the bottom of each field plot. An automated water flow data logging system was used to collect hourly seepage, interflow and runoff data and consisted of 100 100-liter tanks, each of which was equipped with an ultrasonic liquid-level sensor and a motor-operated ball valve used to drain the tank. Soil water content was routinely monitored every six hours at each of 212 locations throughout the 16 plots with time domain reflectrometry (TDR) techniques using an automated and multiplexed measurement system. Field data is presented to show the effects of slope and slope length on the performance of each landfill cover design for the first 15 months of this field experiment.

  10. Recent SO2 camera and OP-FTIR field measurements in Mexico and Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Spina, Alessandro; Salerno, Giuseppe; Burton, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Between 22 and 30 November 2012 a field campaign was carried out at Mexico and Guatemala with the objectives of state the volcanic gas composition and flux fingerprints of Popocatepetl, Santiaguito, Fuego and Pacaya by exploiting simultaneously UV-camera and FTIR measurements. Gases were measured remotely using instruments sensitive to ultraviolet and infrared radiation (UV spectrometer, SO2-camera and OP-FTIR). Data collection depended on the requirements of the methodology, weather condition and eruptive stage of the volcanoes. OP-FTIR measurements were carried out using the MIDAC interferometer with 0.5 cm-1 resolution. Spectra were collected in solar occultation mode in which the Sun acts as an infrared source and the volcanic plume is interposed between the Sun and the spectrometer. At Santiaguito spectra were also collected in passive mode using the lava flow as a radiation source. The SO2-camera used for this study was a dual camera system consisting of two QS Imaging 640s cameras. Each of the two cameras was outfitted with two quartz 25mm lens, coupled with two band-pass filters centred at 310nm and at 330nm. The imaging system was managed by a custom-made software developed in LabView. The UV-camera system was coupled with a USB2000+ spectrometer connected to a QP1000-2-SR 1000 micron optical fiber with a 74-UV collimating lens. For calibration of plume imagery, images of five quartz cells containing known concentration path-lengths of SO2 were taken at the end of each sampling. Between 22 and 23 November 2012 UV-camera and FTIR observations were carried out at Popocatepetl. During the time of our observation, the volcano was characterised by pulsing degassing from the summit crater forming a whitish plume that dispersed rapidly in the atmosphere according to wind direction and speed. Data were collected from the Observatorio Atmosférico Altzomoni (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México) at 4000 metre a.s.l. and at a distance of ~12 km from the volcano

  11. Characterization of a 21-Story Reinforced Building in the Valley of Mexico Using MEMS Accelerometers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husker, A. L.; Dominguez, L. A.; Becerril, A.; Espejo, L.; Cochran, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    Low cost MEMS accelerometers are becoming increasingly higher resolution making them useful in strong motion studies. Here we present a building response analysis in the lakebed zone of the Valley of Mexico. The Valley of Mexico represents one of the highest seismic risk locations in the world and incorporates Mexico City and part of Mexico State. More than 20 million people live there and it is the political and economic center of Mexico. In addition the valley has very high site effects with amplifications 100 - 500 times that of sites outside of the basin (Singh et al., 1988; Singh et al., 1995). We instrumented a 21-story building with MEMS accelerometers as part of the Quake Catcher Network or Red Atrapa Sismos as it is called in Mexico. The building known as the Centro Cultural de Tlateloco is located in an important historical and political area as well as a zone with some of the highest amplifications in the Valley of Mexico that had some of the worst destruction after the 1985 M8.1 Michoacan earthquake. During the earthquake most of the buildings that failed were between 7 - 18 stories tall. The peak accelerations near Tlateloco were at periods of 2 seconds. Since the earthquake the building has been retrofitted with N-S crossing supports to help withstand another earthquake. We present the measurements of frequencies and amplifications between floors for the length of the building.

  12. The groundwater regime of the Valley of Mexico from historic evidence and field observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durazo, Jaime; Farvolden, R. N.

    1989-12-01

    Groundwater is a matter of major importance in the Valley of Mexico because some 20 million people depend on it for most of their water supply. In Mexico, historical accounts, documents and native legends provide additional information of past conditions which relates to hydrogeological conditions. In any analysis of groundwater resources it is important to know the original conditions. The Valley of Mexico is a graben structure, closed hydrologically and covered by a series of lakes at the time of the Conquest. Groundwater recharge occurs in the mountains of volcanic rocks that surround the Valley to form the Basin of Mexico. Where the rocks are visibly permeable, the water-table is deep, for the most part, and runoff is low. Thick lacustrine clays cover the Valley floor and artesian conditions once prevailed. Large springs of potable water were numerous at the edge of the Valley, and where permeable aquifers pinch-out. Thermal mineral springs occur along lineaments thought to be fractures in the rocks below the alluvial fill. The entire Valley floor and the lowest slopes of the mountains were zones of groundwater discharge. All water discharge from the Valley was by evaporation and transpiration, and salts accumulated in the lake-water and in the clays. The main lakes were nonpotable and the Aztecs and later the Spanish colonials depended on groundwater from the springs. Salt production from brines was an important industry in the Aztec society as it is today. The ahuehuete tree, ( taxodium mucronatum), which commonly lives to be many hundreds of years old, is a phreatophyte and an indicator of fresh groundwater discharge in the Valley. It used to be much more abundant. Its occurence where earthquake damage is worst suggests upward migration of fresh groundwater through fractures in the clay tht have been opened by seismic response. The water table and the capillary fringe are near ground surface over a wide zone of lowlands around the edge of the ancient lakes

  13. Development history of deep water Plio-Pleistocene sands in the East Breaks 165 field, Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Bernaski, G.; Guderjahn, C.G. )

    1991-03-01

    The stratigraphic complexity of the Plio-Pleistocene reservoir sands in the East Breaks 165 field (offshore Texas) is readily demonstrated after the completion of exploration and development involved: (1) prediction of turbidite sand facies distributions and thickness, and (2) identification of fault offsets in the high variable reservoir sands. The well control and a 3D seismic data set provide the basis for reservoir description and a deepwater sand depositional model in the East Breaks 165 area. Four main productive sand intervals are present in the Plio-Pleistocene section. All are characterized by rapid lateral thickness and facies and fining-upward channel levee/overbank facies. The channel systems developed within an intraslope basin. The main reservoir structure is a highly faulted anticline located downthrown to northeast-trending extensional faults with up to 2,500 feet of displacement. The faulting is result of structural collapse owing to salt withdrawal from a salt-cored anticlinal ridge. Numerous small-scale faults that juxtapose permeable and impermeable units have added further complexity to the field development. The refined turbidite channel and channel levee/overbank model has been important in delineating future recompletion and development targets in the East Breaks 165 field. This model should also prove to be a useful analog for future Gulf of Mexico deepwater exploration and development programs.

  14. Assessing the local wind field at Sierra Grande Mountain in New Mexico with instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, K.M.; Reynolds, R.D.

    1981-05-01

    Six systems were installed on top of Sierra Grande, a nearly symmetrical mountain in New Mexico about halfway between Raton and Clayton, with a peak of 2659 m (8720 ft msl) standing over a wide mesa of approximately 1829 m (6000 ft msl). Two systems were on the peak, one at 10 m (33 ft) above the surface and the other at 20 m (66 ft) because the peak is often the most probable spot for the greatest wind energy. The two levels were needed to measure variations of speed with height. Four other systems with instruments at 10-m (33 ft) were located roughly north, east, south, and west from the center on secondary ridge lines to measure certain horizontal variations of the wind. The wind direction and speed were measured every 6 minutes, a time interval considerably shorter than the traditional 1 hour but long enough so that all WECS power outputs are expected to respond to these wind speed variations. All six systems were operated for a period of six months between 6 June 1979-5 December 1979.

  15. Successional trends in Sonoran Desert abandoned agricultural fields in northern Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castellanos, A.E.; Martinez, M.J.; Llano, J.M.; Halvorson, W.L.; Espiricueta, M.; Espejel, I.

    2005-01-01

    Excessive ground-water use and saline intrusion to the aquifer led, in less than three decades, to an increase in abandoned agricultural fields at La Costa de Hermosillo, within the Sonoran Desert. Using a chronosequence from years since abandonment, patterns of field succession were developed. Contrary to most desert literature, species replacement was found, both in fields with and without saline intrusion. Seasonal photosynthetic capacity as well as water and nitrogen use efficiencies were different in dominant early and late successional plant species. These ecological findings provided a framework for a general explanation of species dominance and replacement within abandoned agricultural fields in the Sonoran Desert. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. PETROPHYSICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE SECONDARY RECOVERY POTENTIAL IN THE CHERRY CANYON FORMATION NE LEA FIELD LEA COUNTY, NEW MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    T. Scott Hickman

    2002-06-01

    Read and Stevens has proposed the evaluation of the waterflood potential from the Cherry Canyon formation in the NE Lea Field in lea County, New Mexico. Much of the development in this area is approaching primary recovery limitations; additional recovery of remaining oil reserves by waterflood needs to be evaluated. The Cherry Canyon formation is composed of fine grained sandstone, containing clay material which results in high water saturation, and also has the tendency to swell and reduce reservoir permeability--the ability of fluid to flow through the rock pores and fractures. There are also abundant organic materials that interfere with obtaining reliable well logs. These complications have limited oil in place calculations and identification of net pay zones, presenting a challenge to the planned waterflood. Core analysis of the Cherry Canyon should improve the understanding of existing well logs and possibly indicate secondary recovery measures, such as waterflood, to enhance field recovery. Lacking truly representative core to provide accurate analyses, Read and Stevens will obtain and preserve fresh core. The consulting firm of T. Scott Hickman and Associates will then collaborate on special core analyses and obtain additional well logs for a more detailed analysis of reservoir properties. The log interpretation will be compared to the core analysis results, and the entire collected data set will be used to assess the potential and economic viability of successfully waterflooding the identified oil zones. Successful results from the project will improve accuracy of log interpretation and establish a methodology for evaluating secondary recovery by waterflood.

  17. Mexico Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    article title:  Smoke from Fires in Southern Mexico     View Larger Image ... southern Mexico sent smoke drifting northward over the Gulf of Mexico. These views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) ...

  18. Subsurface geological and geophysical study of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Baja California, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, D.J.; van de Kamp, P.C.

    1980-01-01

    The subsurface investigation of the Cerro Prieto field and surrounding area is described including the stratigraphy, structure, hydrothermal alteration, and reservoir properties for use in designing reservoir simulation models and planning development of the field. Insights into the depositional, tectonic, and thermal history of the area are presented. The following types of data were used: well sample descriptions and analyses, well logs, geophysical surveys; physiography, and regional geology. (MHR)

  19. Perspectives on Safety and Health among Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers in the United States and Mexico: A Qualitative Field Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallones, Lorann; Acosta, Martha S. Vela; Sample, Pat; Bigelow, Philip; Rosales, Monica

    2009-01-01

    Context: A large number of hired farmworkers in the United States come from Mexico. Understanding safety and health concerns among the workers is essential to improving prevention programs. Purpose: The purpose of this pilot study was to obtain detailed information about safety and health concerns of hired farmworkers in Colorado and in Mexico.…

  20. Evolution of a magmatic system during continental extension: The Mount Taylor volcanic field, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, F.V. ); Baldridge, W.S. ); DePaolo, D.J. Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Berkeley, CA ); Shafiqullah, M. )

    1990-11-10

    In this paper the authors present geologic mapping, K-Ar chronology, major and trace element data, mineral chemistry, and Nd, Sr, and O isotopic data for volcanic rocks of the Mount Taylor volcanic field (MTVF). The MTVF lies on the tectonic boundary between the Basin and Range province and the southeastern Colorado Plateau and is dominated by Mount Taylor, a composite volcano active from {approx}3 to 1.5 m.y. ago. Growth of the volcano began with eruption of rhyolite, followed by quartz latite and finally latite. Basalts erupted throughout the lifetime of the volcano. Rare mixing of evolved hy-hawaiite and rhyolite produced a few intermediate magmas, primarily in the early history of the field. Mixing may have occurred when rhyolite magmas in the lower crust ascended to upper crustal levels and were injected into the bases of mafic magma chambers. Small amounts of crustal assimilation accompanied fractional crystallization and affected all the evolved MTVF rocks. Assimilation/fractional crystallization occurred primarily in the lower crust as hy-hawaiite differentiated to mugearite or latite. Early in the history of the field, evolved lower crustal magmas ascended into the upper crust, where density filtering and a reduced tensional stress field inhibited further ascent until magmas evolved to rhyolite or quartz latite. Later in the history of the field, latite magmas ascended directly from the lower crust and erupted without further significant differentiation because of increased crustal extension.

  1. Morphological Study of Jaraguay and San Borja Volcanic Fields, Baja California, Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrete-Aranda, R.; Canon-Tapia, E.

    2005-12-01

    Volcanism younger than 12.5 Ma has occurred mainly as monogenetic volcanic fields along the Baja California Peninsula, but until now very little attention has been given to the morphological description of this type of volcanism. In this study we present the preliminary results of the first stage of elaboration of a Geographical Information System (GIS) of the northernmost volcanic fields of the Peninsula; Jaraguay and San Borja, which are among the less studied fields in the region. The present status of the GIS includes the main morphological characteristics and localization of over 350 eruptive centers identified in both volcanic fields. Our data show that over 90% of the eruptive centers are cinder cones, whereas the rest of volcanic structures include some stratovolcanos, shield volcanoes and calderas. Detailed analysis of digital elevation models and 14 m resolution Landsat TM images show a remarkable diversity of the size of reported eruptive centers: the average height lies around 720 m with peaks that reaches 1,412 m asl. Preliminary graphic analyses show local concentrations of the biggest volcanic structures in some areas in both fields. This spatial distribution is more evident at the San Borja volcanic field where the biggest volcanic centers are systematically located in its south and north-western boundaries. A similar concentration of bigger volcanic structures is found at the western edge of Jaraguay volcanic field where cinder cones are largely confined to its eastern most edge. The observed morphological changes of volcanic structures occur in both cases within a distance of less than 100 km. We interpret such variations as the result of heterogeneities of the low velocity zone below this particular area of the Baja California Peninsula, although the final evaluation of the distribution of the regional stress field and its relationship with the actual spatial distribution of eruptive centers must wait until more information becomes available. In

  2. Impact of integrated 3D reservoir modeling/flow simulation on development of deepwater sands, Mars Field, Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lerch, C.S.; Johnston, J.R.; Juedeman, M.E.

    1996-12-31

    Prospect Mars is a major Gulf of Mexico deep water oil discovery made under joint partnership between operator Shell Offshore Inc. and partner British Petroleum Inc. The discovery lies in 3000 feet of water, located 130 miles southeast of New Orleans, Louisiana. The field was discovered in 1989 and to date 14 significant reservoir intervals from 10,000 to 19000 feet below sea level have been penetrated. Estimated recoverable reserves for the first phase of field development are in excess of 500 MMBE and development plans include installation of a 24 slot tension leg platform and two subsea wells, with first production in mid-1996. Over a two year period a comprehensive effort was directed at creating a new set of reservoir models utilizing an integrated software package developed at Shell E&P Technology Co. This package is able to incorporate pertinent geological, geophysical, and petrophysical data into 3-D reservoir models which can be used to: (1) estimate reservoir quantity, quality, and continuity, (2) predict reservoir production performance, (3) select development well locations, and (4) facilitate reserve estimation. This software allows interpretations from 3-D seismic, well control, and analog outcrops to be effectively integrated and passed to the reservoir model for flow simulation. This integrated effort at modeling ensured a more realistic reservoir picture upon which to base field development. Almost all the development wells pre-drilled prior to platform installation have been affected or designed based on these reservoir models and well results have been used to keep the models updated and evergreen.

  3. Impact of integrated 3D reservoir modeling/flow simulation on development of deepwater sands, Mars Field, Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lerch, C.S.; Johnston, J.R.; Juedeman, M.E. )

    1996-01-01

    Prospect Mars is a major Gulf of Mexico deep water oil discovery made under joint partnership between operator Shell Offshore Inc. and partner British Petroleum Inc. The discovery lies in 3000 feet of water, located 130 miles southeast of New Orleans, Louisiana. The field was discovered in 1989 and to date 14 significant reservoir intervals from 10,000 to 19000 feet below sea level have been penetrated. Estimated recoverable reserves for the first phase of field development are in excess of 500 MMBE and development plans include installation of a 24 slot tension leg platform and two subsea wells, with first production in mid-1996. Over a two year period a comprehensive effort was directed at creating a new set of reservoir models utilizing an integrated software package developed at Shell E P Technology Co. This package is able to incorporate pertinent geological, geophysical, and petrophysical data into 3-D reservoir models which can be used to: (1) estimate reservoir quantity, quality, and continuity, (2) predict reservoir production performance, (3) select development well locations, and (4) facilitate reserve estimation. This software allows interpretations from 3-D seismic, well control, and analog outcrops to be effectively integrated and passed to the reservoir model for flow simulation. This integrated effort at modeling ensured a more realistic reservoir picture upon which to base field development. Almost all the development wells pre-drilled prior to platform installation have been affected or designed based on these reservoir models and well results have been used to keep the models updated and evergreen.

  4. A seismic search for the paleoshorelines of Lake Otero beneath White Sands Dune Field, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, P. F.; Reece, R.; Ewing, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Tularosa Basin, which now houses White Sands Dune Field, was once occupied by Pleistocene Lake Otero. Several paleoshorelines of Lake Otero have been identified throughout the basin by field surveys and remote sensing using digital elevation models. Up to four shorelines may be buried beneath White Sands Dune Field and it has been posited that the current upwind margin of White Sands coincides with a one of these shorelines. Here we employ a novel geophysical instrument and method to image the subsurface: the seismic land streamer. The land streamer utilizes weighted base plates and one-component vertical geophones in a towed array. With a seisgun acoustic source, we imaged in the Alkali Flats area near the upwind margin, one potential location of paleoshorelines, as well as the Film Lot closer to the center of the dune field. Surfaces in both locations are indurated gypsum playa, which made seismic imaging possible and successful. We collected one SW-NE trending seismic line at each location, which matches the dominant wind and dune migration directions. Based on initial data analysis we find some subsurface structure that may coincide with the paleo lake bed of Lake Otero. The successful demonstration of this new method provides the foundation for an expanded regional subsurface study to image the strata and structure of the Tularosa Basin.

  5. Financial administration of work for nonfederal sponsors, DOE Field Office (AL), Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Field Office, Albuquerque (AL) is responsible for managing and controlling nonfederally sponsored work done by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The audit objective was to determine whether the funding of, and accounting for, work done under a 1984 funds-in agreement and work for others in Fiscal Year (FY) 1989 complied with laws, regulations, and policies.

  6. Anthropogenic effects on soil quality in ancient terraced agricultural fields of Chihuahua, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural soil quality was investigated in ancient field systems near Casas Grandes (also known as Paquimé), one of the largest and most complex prehistoric settlements in the North American Southwest. This research was completed as part of an interdisciplinary study of the anthropogenic ecology...

  7. An Early Researcher in the Field of Education: Bernardino de Sahagun in Sixteenth-Century Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spieker, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    Bernardino de Sahagun (1499/1500-1590), a Franciscan missionary in the colony of New Spain, can be seen as an early researcher in the field of education. Through his ethnographic work "General History of the Things of New Spain" he has been most influential in the historiography of Meso-American pre-Hispanic cultures. This paper focuses on the…

  8. Lahars simulation and field calibration in Popocatépetl Volcano (Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddad, B.; Zamorano, J. J.; Pastor, M.; Andrés, N.; Tanarro, L. M.; Palacios, D.

    2012-04-01

    The term "lahar" refers to the process generated in volcanoes by high sediment concentration flows that range from hyperconcentrated to Debris flows. This complex dynamic system represents a threat to people living near volcanoes. In order to delimitate hazardous area, mathematical models should be applied and tested. These models depend strongly on data collected in the field and, an additionally, good DEM is required to produce satisfactory results. Recent Popocatépetl lahars are well documented and as a result, they can be used to assess the accuracy of numerical models. In this work, SPH (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics) depth integrated model created by Pastor in 2005 is applied to reproduce Popocatépetl lahars. The mathematical model is derived from the velocity-pressure version of the Biot-Zienkiewicz model and the assumed rheology corresponds to the Bingham model. On the other hand, a systematic collection of field data it's carried out by GFAM group in Popocatépetl volcano and it's included updating channel topography; as well as the factors: i) run out area boundary; ii) estimation of the velocity of the flow and iii) depth distribution of lahar's deposit. All this field data it's used for back analyses and calibration of the rheological parameters. Besides the calibration of rheological parameters, it is also investigated the effect of the topographic mesh resolution. Moreover, flow depth obtained by SPH model is systematically compared with field evidences along the lahar's path. Research funded by CGL2009-7343 project, Government of Spain.

  9. Characterization and prediction of spatial variability of unsaturated hydraulic properties in a field soil: Las Cruces, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, T.C.J.; Greenholtz, D.E.; Nash, M.S.; Wierenga, P.J.

    1991-12-31

    A 91-m transect was set up in an irrigated field near Las Cruces, New Mexico to investigate the spatial variability of unsaturated soil properties. A total of 455 sampling points were monitored along a grid consisting of 91 stations placed 1 m apart by 5 depths per station. Post-irrigation soil water tension and water content measurements were recorded over 45 days at 11 time periods. The instantaneous profile was used to estimate the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity at the 455 sampling points. Fifty soil samples were also taken for analyzing sand, silt, and clay content distributions. The spatial and temporal variability of soil water tension and water content were investigated along with the spatial variability of parameters of an unsaturated hydraulic conductivity model. Results of the analysis show that spatial variation in soil water tension and water content is consistent with the soil texture spatial variability. In addition, the spatial distribution of the estimated parameter value of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity reflects the soil texture distribution. Using the statistics of the estimated hydraulic parameter values, a stochastic soil water tension model was employed to reproduce the variability of observed soil water tension. Although many assumptions were made, the results of the simulation appear promising.

  10. Characterization and prediction of spatial variability of unsaturated hydraulic properties in a field soil: Las Cruces, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, T.C.J.; Greenholtz, D.E. . Dept. of Hydrology and Water Resources); Nash, M.S. . Dept. of Crop and Soil Sciences); Wierenga, P.J. . Dept. of Soil and Water Science)

    1991-01-01

    A 91-m transect was set up in an irrigated field near Las Cruces, New Mexico to investigate the spatial variability of unsaturated soil properties. A total of 455 sampling points were monitored along a grid consisting of 91 stations placed 1 m apart by 5 depths per station. Post-irrigation soil water tension and water content measurements were recorded over 45 days at 11 time periods. The instantaneous profile was used to estimate the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity at the 455 sampling points. Fifty soil samples were also taken for analyzing sand, silt, and clay content distributions. The spatial and temporal variability of soil water tension and water content were investigated along with the spatial variability of parameters of an unsaturated hydraulic conductivity model. Results of the analysis show that spatial variation in soil water tension and water content is consistent with the soil texture spatial variability. In addition, the spatial distribution of the estimated parameter value of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity reflects the soil texture distribution. Using the statistics of the estimated hydraulic parameter values, a stochastic soil water tension model was employed to reproduce the variability of observed soil water tension. Although many assumptions were made, the results of the simulation appear promising.

  11. Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the MCMA-2003 Field Measurement Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala, M.; Dunlea, E. J.; Marr, L.; Slott, R. S.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.; Herndon, S. C.; Jayne, J. T.; Shorter, J. H.; Worsnop, D.; Zahniser, M.; Onasch, T.; Kolb, C. E.; Rogers, T.; Knighton, B.

    2004-12-01

    On-road vehicle emissions were measured in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) as part of an intensive, five-week, field campaign held in the spring of 2003 (April 1 - May 5). Vehicle emissions measurements were made during vehicle chase experiments using the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory. The mobile lab was equipped with a large suite of state-of-the-art analytical instruments for measuring both gas and particle phase chemical components from vehicle emissions in real time. The experiment represents a real-world sample of more than 200 in-use vehicles. The results presented here focus on heavy-duty gasoline (HDGT) and heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDT), although measurements included pick up trucks, colectivos (microbuses), and private automobiles as well. The use of covariance and fitting methods for individual species vs. CO2 allows the estimation of individual emission ratios in a real time plume-based analysis. The variability of emission ratios within a vehicle class and during different driving modes (acceleration, idling, etc.) are explored. Results are reported as molar emission ratios of emission gases with carbon dioxide. These and other vehicle-related emissions measured during the campaign will be presented and discussed. These types of studies are important for the development of emission inventories and their use in air quality modeling studies in urban areas.

  12. Space treatments of insecticide for control of dengue virus vector Aedes aegypti in southern Mexico. I. Baseline penetration trials in open field and houses.

    PubMed

    Arrendondo-Jimenez, Juan I; Rivero, Norma E

    2006-06-01

    We studied the efficacy of space ultra-low volume treatments of 3 insecticides for the control of the dengue virus vector Aedes aegypti in southern Mexico. Insecticides tested were permethrin (Aqua-Reslin Super), d-phenothrin (Anvil), and cyfluthrin (Solfac), applied at rates of 10.87, 7.68, and 2 g/ha, respectively, by using London Fog, HP910-PHXL, or Micro-Gen pumps mounted on vehicles. Studies included 1) open field penetration tests and 2) house penetration tests. Open field tests indicated that Anvil and Solfac were more effective than Aqua-Reslin Super. In house tests, Anvil yielded the highest mosquito mortalities (>/=88%) of the three insecticides in the front porch, living room, bedroom, and backyard. Therefore, Anvil proved to be better than other insecticides evaluated to control Ae. aegypti in Chiapas, Mexico. PMID:17019777

  13. Further constraints for the Plio-Pleistocene geomagnetic field strength: New results from the Los Tuxtlas volcanic field (Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alva-Valdivia, L. M.; Goguitchaichvili, A.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    2001-09-01

    A rock-magnetic, paleomagnetic and paleointensity study was carried out on 13 Plio-Pleistocene volcanic flows from the Los Tuxtlas volcanic field (Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt) in order to obtain some decisive constraints for the geomagnetic field strength during the Plio-Pleistocene time. The age of the volcanic units, which yielded reliable paleointensity estimates, lies between 2.2 and 0.8 Ma according to the available K/Ar radiometric data. Thermomagnetic investigations reveal that remanence is carried in most cases by Ti-poor titanomagnetite, resulting from oxy-exsolution that probably occurred during the initial flow cooling. Unblocking temperature spectra and relatively high coercivity point to 'small' pseudo-single domain magnetic grains for these (titano)magnetites. Single-component, linear demagnetization plots were observed in most cases. Six flows yield reverse polarity magnetization, five flows are normally magnetized, and one flow shows intermediate polarity magnetization. Evidence of a strong lightning-produced magnetization overprint was detected for one site. The mean pole position obtained in this study is Plat = 83.7°, Plong = 178.1°, K = 36, A95 = 8.1°, N =10 and the corresponding mean paleodirection is I = 31.3°, D = 352°, k = 37, a95 = 8.2°, which is not significantly different from the expected direction estimated from the North American apparent polar wander path. Thirty-nine samples were pre-selected for Thellier palaeointensity experiments because of their stable remanent magnetization and relatively weak-within-site dispersion. Only 21 samples, coming from four individual basaltic lava flows, yielded reliable paleointensity estimates with the flow-mean virtual dipole moments (VDM) ranging from 6.4 to 9.1 × 1022 Am2. Combining the coeval Mexican data with the available comparable quality Pliocene paleointensity results yield a mean VDM of 6.4 × 1022 Am2, which is almost 80% of the present geomagnetic axial dipole. Reliable

  14. Microanalysis of the aerosol collected over south-central New Mexico during the alive field experiment, May-December 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, Patrick J.; Schnell, Russel C.; Kahl, Jonathan D.; Boatman, Joe F.; Garvey, Dennis M.

    Thirty-eight size-segregated aerosol samples were collected in the lower troposphere over the high desert of south-central New Mexico, using cascade impactors mounted onboard two research aircraft. Four of these samples were collected in early May, sixteen in mid-July, and the remaining ones in December 1989, during three segments of the ALIVE field initiative. Analytical electron microscope analyses of aerosol deposits and individual particles from these samples were performed to physically and chemically characterize the major particulate species present in the aerosol. Air-mass trajectories arriving at the sampling area in the May program were quite different from those calculated for the July period. In general, the May trajectories showed strong westerly winds, while the July winds were weaker and southerly, consistently passing over or very near the border cities of El Paso, Texas, and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Aerosol samples collected during the May period were predominantly fine (0.1-0.5 μm dia.), liquid H 2SO 4 droplets. Samples from the July experiment were comprised mostly of fine, solid (NH 4) 2SO 4 or mostly neutralized sulfate particles. In both sampling periods, numerous other particle classes were observed, including many types with probable terrestrial or anthropogenic sources. The numbers of these particles, however, were small when compared with the sulfates. Composite particle types, including sulfate/crustal and sulfate/carbonaceous, were also found to be present. The major differences in aerosol composition between the May and July samples (i.e. the extensive neutralization of sulfates in the July samples) can be explained by considering the different aerosol transport pathways and the proximity of the July aerosol to the El Paso/Juarez urban plume. Winds during the December experiment were quite variable, and may have contributed to the widely varying aerosol compositions observed in these samples. When the aircraft sampled the El Paso

  15. Initial Measurements of Petrophysical Properties on Rocks from the Los Azufres, Mexico, Geothermal Field

    SciTech Connect

    Contreras, E.; Iglesias, E.; Razo, E.

    1986-01-21

    Petrophysical properties of geothermal reservoir rocks are valuable information for many activities, including reservoir characterization, modeling, field test analysis and planning of exploitation techniques. Petrophysical data of rocks from geothermal reservoirs located in volcanic areas is in general very scarce. In particular, no petrophysical data of rocks from the Los Azufres geothermal field area has ever been published. This work presents the results of initial petrophysical studies on outcrop rocks and drill core samples from the Los Azufres geothermal field. These studies are the first part of an ongoing experimental program intended to establish a data-base about physical properties of the Los Azufres rocks, in support of the many reservoir engineering activities which require of such information. The experimental work carried out consisted of laboratory measurements of density, porosity, permeability, compressibility, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, electrical resistivity and sonic wave velocities. Some of the experiments were aimed at investigation of the effects of temperature, pressure, saturation and other parameters on the physical properties of rocks.

  16. Structural and sedimentological study of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Baja California, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Vonder Haar, S.

    1981-06-01

    Geophysical and lithologic well logs from over fifty wells have been qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed using both manual and computer interpretation techniques. These logs were studied to make stratigraphic correlations throughout the Cerro Prieto field and to interpret the deltaic depositional environment of the field's lithologic units. Dipmeter and seismic data were of great value in making stratigraphic interpretations and extrapolations. Cross sections were constructed to illustrate lithofacies variations throughout the geothermal field. In turn, these sections were used to construct a three-dimensional model of the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir. Petrographic microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction analyses of well-bore cuttings and cores were utilized to determine the degree and distribution of hydrothermal alteration by fluids at temperatures up to 350{sup 0}C, the origins of dissolution porosity, and the relative degree of fracture versus dissolution porosity. The results of these analyses were confirmed by log-derived determinations of formation fluid properties, porosity, and petrophysical properties and by studies of Cerro Prieto cores conducted under in-situ conditions. The results of this research were integrated into the Cerro Prieto reservoir model.

  17. Paleomagnetism and Tectonic Interpretations of the Taos Plateau Volcanic Field, Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Laurie L.; Caffall, Nancy M.; Golombek, Matthew P.

    1993-01-01

    The tectonic response of the Taos Plateau volcanic field in the southern San Luis basin to the late stage extensional environment of the Rio Grande rift was investigated using paleomagnetic techniques. Sixty-two sites (533 samples) of Pliocene volcanic units were collected covering four major rock types with ages of 4.7 to 1.8 Ma. Twenty-two of these sites were from stratigraphic sections of the lower, middle and upper Servilleta Basalt collected in the Rio Grande gorge at two locations 19 km apart. Flows from the lower and middle members in the southern gorge record reversed polarities, while those in Garapata Canyon are normal with an excursion event in the middle of the sequence. The uppermost flows of the upper member at both sites display normal directions. Although these sections correlate chemically, they seem to represent different magnetic time periods during the Gilbert Reversed-Polarity Chiron. Alternating field demagnetization, aided by principal component analysis, yields 55 sites with stable directions representing both normal and reversed polarities, and five sites indicating transitional fields. Mean direction of the normal and inverted reversed sites is I=49.3 deg. and D=356.7 deg. (alpha(sub 95)=3.6 deg). Angular dispersion of the virtual geomagnetic poles is 16.3 deg, which is consistent with paleosecular variation model G, fit to data from the past 5 m.y. Comparison with the expected direction indicates no azimuthal rotation of the Taos Plateau volcanic field; inclination flattening for the southern part of the plateau is 8.3 deg +/- 5.3 deg. Previous paleomagnelic data indicate 10 deg- 15 deg counterclockwise rotation of die Espanola block to the south over the past 5 m.y. The data suggest the Taos Plateau volcanic field, showing no rotation and some flattening in the south and east, has acted as a stable buttress and has been downwarped by overriding of the southeastern end of the plateau by the Picuris Mountains, which make up the northern

  18. Session 10: The Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, Mexico: The Experiences Gained from Its Exploration and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Lippman, M.J.; Goldstein, N.E.; Halfman, S.E.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1983-12-01

    The Cerro Prieto case study demonstrated the value of a multidisciplinary effort for exploring and developing a geothermal field. There was no problem in recognizing the geothermal potential of the Cerro Prieto area because of the many obvious surface manifestations. However, the delineation of the geothermal reservoir at depth was not so straightforward. Wells drilled near the abundant surface manifestations only produced fluids of relatively low enthalpy. Later it was determined that these zones of high heat loss corresponded to discharge areas where faults and fractures allowed thermal fluids to leak to the surface, and not to the main geothermal reservoir. The early gravity and seismic refraction surveys provided important information on the general structure of the area. Unaware of the existence of a higher density zone of hydrothermally altered sediments capping the geothermal reservoir, CFE interpreted a basement horst in the western part of the field and hypothesized that the bounding faults were controlling the upward flow of thermal fluids. Attempting to penetrate the sedimentary column to reach the ''basement horst'', CFE discovered the {alpha} geothermal reservoir (in well M-5). The continuation of the geothermal aquifer (actually the {beta} reservoir) east of the original well field was later confirmed by a deep exploration well (M-53). The experience of Cerro Prieto showed the importance of chemical ratios, and geothermometers in general, in establishing the subsurface temperatures and fluid flow patterns. Fluid chemical and isotopic compositions have also been helpful to determine the origin of the fluids, fluid-production mechanisms and production induced effects on the reservoir.

  19. Origin of rainwater acidity near the Los Azufres geothermal field, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, M.P.; Quijano, J.L.; Johnson, Chad; Gerardo, J.Y.; Arellano, V.

    2000-01-01

    The chemical and isotopic compositions of rainwater were monitored at Los Azufres geothermal field (88 MWe) and its surroundings during May - September 1995, which is the rainy season. Samples were collected from eight sites: three within the field, three in its surroundings and two sufficiently far from the field such that they have no geothermal input. The concentrations of Cl-, SO42- and NO3- were measured in about 350 samples and found to be generally <5 ppm. Chloride concentrations remained constant with time, but sulfate and nitrate concentrations decreased, which suggests a nearby industrial source for the sulfate and nitrate. A mixing model for Cl-, SO42- and ??34S also suggests an industrial source for the rainwater sulfur. The determination of pH was found to be necessary, but is not sufficient to characterize rainwater acidity. The Gran titration method was used to determine alkalinity with respect to equivalence point of H2CO3(*). Values of alkalinity were found to range from 10-4 to 10-6 eq/L, and were negative only for some samples from Vivero and Guadalajara. Thus, SO42- and NO3- are in general not in acidic form (i.e. balanced by Na+, Ca2+, etc. rather than H+). Sulfate ??34S values were about -1.5??? in Los Azufres and its surroundings, and in Morelia, but differed from the value of -0.2??? for Guadalajara. The ??34S values for H2S from the Los Azufres geothermal wells are in the range -3.4 to 0.0???. The ??34S ranges for the natural and anthropogenic sources for environmental sulfur overlap, making it difficult to differentiate between the contribution of different sources. However, a similarity of values of ??34S at Los Azufres and Morelia (85 km distant) suggest a regional source of sulfate that is not associated with geothermal emissions from Los Azufres. (C) 2000 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of CNR.The chemical compositions of rainwater were analyzed at Los Azufres geothermal field in Spain from May-September 1995. The

  20. A Nimbus G pre-launch field experiment in the Gulf of Mexico, October 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderpiepen, H.

    1977-01-01

    A large scale field experiment, which was arranged in support of the Nimbus G - Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) project was studied. The experiment was to provide three air and two shipborne platforms simultaneously to members of the Nimbus G Experiment Team (NET) and to other scientists in order to collect data from common test sites. Besides establishing fundamental relations between the light in the sea and the biochemical properties of water, the data will be used mainly for the development of algorithms during the prelaunch phase of Nimbus G.

  1. Carbon isotope geochemistry of hydrocarbons in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Baja California Norte, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Des Marais, D. J.; Stallard, M. L.; Nehring, N. L.; Truesdell, A. H.

    1988-01-01

    Hydrocarbon abundances and stable-isotopic compositions were measured in wells M5, M26, M35 and M102, which represent a range of depths (1270-2000 m) and temperatures (275-330 degrees C) in the field. In order to simulate the production of the geothermal hydrocarbons, gases were collected from the pyrolysis of lignite in the laboratory. This lignite was obtained from a well which sampled rock strata which are identical to those occurring in the field, but which have experienced much lower subsurface temperatures. In both the well and the laboratory observations, high-temperature environments favored higher relative concentrations of methane, ethane and benzene and generally higher delta 13C-values in the individual hydrocarbons. The best correlation between the laboratory and well data is obtained when laboratory-produced gases from experiments conducted at lower (400 degrees C) and higher (600 degrees C) temperatures are mixed. This improved correlation suggests that the wells are sampling hydrocarbons produced from a spectrum of depths and temperatures in the sediments.

  2. Isotopic evidence for the origin of Cenozoic volcanic rocks in the Pinacate volcanic field, northwestern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, D. J.; Musselman, T. E.; Gutmann, J. T.; Patchett, P. J.

    1993-02-01

    Six volcanic rocks, reconnaissance samples representing most of the temporal and compositional variation in the Pinacate volcanic field of Sonora and Arizona, are characterized for major element and NdSr isotopic compositions. The samples consist of basanite through trachyte of an early shield volcano, and alkali basalts and a tholeiite from later craters and cinder cones. With the exception of the trachyte sample, which has increased 87Sr/ 86Sr due to crustal effects, all 87Sr/ 86Sr values fall between 0.70312 and 0.70342, while ɛNd values are all between + 5.0 and + 5.7. Clinopyroxene in a rare spinel-lherzolite nodule derived from the uppermost mantle beneath the field has 87Sr/ 86Sr of 0.70320 but ɛNd of + 8.8, three ɛNd units higher than the volcanic rocks. Both the volcanic rocks and the nodule record the presence of asthenospheric, rather than enriched lithospheric mantle beneath Pinacate. This is consistent with one or both of (a) proximity of Pinacate to the Gulf of California spreading center and (b) presence of similar asthenospheric mantle signatures in volcanic rocks over a wide contiguous area of the southwestern USA. We consider the comparison to other southwestern USA magma sources as the more relevant alternative, although a definite conclusion is not possible at this stage.

  3. Paleomagnetism and tectonic interpretations of the Taos Plateau volcanic field, Rio Grande rift, New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Laurie L.; Caffall, Nancy M.; Golombek, Matthew P.

    1993-01-01

    The tectonic response of the Taos Plateau volcanic field in the southern San Luis basin to late stage extensional environment of the Rio Grande rift was investigate using paleomagnetic techniques. Sixty-two sites (533 samples) of Pliocene volcanic units were collected covering four major rock types with ages of 4.7 to 1.8 Ma. Twenty-two of these sites were from stratigraphic sections of the lower, middle and upper Servilleta Basalt collected in the Rio Grande gorge at two locations 19 km apart. Flows from the lower and middle members in the southern gorge record reversed polarities, while those in Garapata Canyon are normal with an excursion event in the middle of the sequence. The uppermost flows of the upper member at both sites display normal directions. Although these sections correlate chemically, they seem to represent different magnetic time periods during the Gilbert Reversed-Polarity Chron. The data suggest the Taos Plateau volcanic field, showing no rotation and some flattening in the south and east, has acted as a stable buttress and has been downwarped by overriding of the southeastern end of the plateau by the Picuris Mountains, which make up the northern corner of the counter-clockwise rotating Espanola block.

  4. Carbon isotope geochemistry of hydrocarbons in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Baja California Norte, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Des Marais, D.J.; Stallard, M.L.; Nehring, N.L.; Truesdell, A.H.

    1988-01-01

    Hydrocarbon abundances and stable-isotopic compositions were measured in wells M5, M26, M35 and M102, which represent a range of depths (1270-2000 m) and temperatures (275-330??C) in the field. In order to simulate the production of the geothermal hydrocarbons, gases were collected from the pyrolysis of lignite in the laboratory. This lignite was obtained from a well which sampled rock strata which are identical to those occurring in the field, but which have experienced much lower subsurface temperatures. In both the well and the laboratory observations, high-temperature environments favored higher relative concentrations of methane, ethane and benzene and generally higher ??13C-values in the individual hydrocarbons. The best correlation between the laboratory and well data is obtained when laboratory-produced gases from experiments conducted at lower (400??C) and higher (600??C) temperatures are mixed. This improved correlation suggests that the wells are sampling hydrocarbons produced from a spectrum of depths and temperatures in the sediments. ?? 1988.

  5. Gas chemistry and thermometry of the Cerro Prieto, Mexico, geothermal field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nehring, N.L.; D'Amore, F.

    1984-01-01

    Gas compositions of Cerro Prieto wells in 1977 reflected strong boiling in the reservoir around wells M-20 and M-25. This boiling zone appeared to be collapsing in 1982 when a number of wells in this area of the field were shut-in. In 1977 and 1982, gas compositions also showed boiling zones corresponding to faults H and L postulated by Halfman et al. (1982). Four gas geothermometers were applied, based on reservoir equilibria and calculated fugacities. The Fisher - Tropsch reaction predicted high temperatures and appeared to re-equilibrate slowly, whereas the H2S reaction predicted low temperatures and appeared to re-equilibrate rapidly. Hydrogen and NH3 reactions were intermediate. Like gas compositions, the geothermometers reflected reservoir processes, such as boiling. Surface gas compositions are related to well compositions, but contain large concentrations of N2 originating from air dissolved in groundwater. The groundwater appears to originate in the east and flow over the production field before mixing with reservoir gases near the surface. ?? 1984.

  6. Pressure Buildup Testing of Well 18 in Los Azufres Field, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Upton, Pedro Sanchez; Gudmundsson, Jon-Steinar

    1987-01-20

    Well 18 is a production well in the southern zone of Los Azufres geothermal field in México (see Figure 1). The well is located on the eastern flank of the drilled area, and produces a steam/water mixture from a depth of 1200-1250 m. A 19 hour pressure buildup test that was carried out in March 1986, is the subject of this paper. It is part of work reported by Sánchez-U. (1986) at the Geothermal Training Programme in Iceland. The permeability-thickness product of well 18 in Los Azufres field was determined 5.4 dm from a Horner plot. The well was found to be intersected by a fracture, as evident from the slope on a log-log plot at early time, and a skin value of -5.3. The overall pressure buildup of the well was found to be typical for double-porosity reservoir behavior, having a storativity ratio of 0.1. An outer boundary behavior was observed in the pressure buildup data. 1 tab., 6 figs., 14 refs.

  7. Eruptive conditions and depositional processes of Narbona Pass Maar volcano, Navajo volcanic field, Navajo Nation, New Mexico (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Brittany D.; Clarke, Amanda B.; Semken, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Phreatomagmatic deposits at Narbona Pass, a mid-Tertiary maar in the Navajo volcanic field (NVF), New Mexico (USA), were characterized in order to reconstruct the evolution and dynamic conditions of the eruption. Our findings shed light on the temporal evolution of the eruption, dominant depositional mechanisms, influence of liquid water on deposit characteristics, geometry and evolution of the vent, efficiency of fragmentation, and the relative importance of magmatic and external volatiles. The basal deposits form a thick (5-20 m), massive lapilli tuff to tuff-breccia deposit. This is overlain by alternating bedded sequences of symmetrical to antidune cross-stratified tuff and lapilli tuff; and diffusely-stratified, clast-supported, reversely-graded lapilli tuffs that pinch and swell laterally. This sequence is interpreted to reflect an initial vent-clearing phase that produced concentrated pyroclastic density currents, followed by a pulsating eruption that produced multiple density currents with varying particle concentrations and flow conditions to yield the well-stratified deposits. Only minor localized soft-sediment deformation was observed, no accretionary lapilli were found, and grain accretion occurs on the lee side of dunes. This suggests that little to no liquid water existed in the density currents during deposition. Juvenile material is dominantly present as blocky fine ash and finely vesiculated fine to coarse lapilli pumice. This indicates that phreatomagmatic fragmentation was predominant, but also that the magma was volatile-rich and vesiculating at the time of eruption. This is the first study to document a significant magmatic volatile component in an NVF maar-diatreme eruption. The top of the phreatomagmatic sequence abruptly contacts the overlying minette lava flows, indicating no gradual drying-out period between the explosive and effusive phases. The lithology of the accidental clasts is consistent throughout the vertical pyroclastic

  8. Increasing Interaction of Alkaline Magmas with Lower Crustal Gabbroic Cumulates over the Evolution of Mt. Taylor Volcanic Field, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, M. E.; Crumpler, L. S.; Schrader, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Mount Taylor Volcanic Field at the southeastern edge of the Colorado Plateau, New Mexico erupted diverse alkaline magmas from ~3.8 to 1.5 Ma (Crumpler, 1980; Perry et al., 1990). The earliest eruptions include high silica topaz rhyolites of Grants Ridge (plagioclase, quartz, biotite) and Si-under saturated basanites and trachytes at Mt Taylor stratovolcano. Mt. Taylor was later constructed of stacks of thick, trachyandesitic to rhyolitic lava flows that were subsequently eroded into a ~4-km across amphitheatre opening toward the southeast. Early Mt. Taylor rhyolitic lavas exposed within the amphitheatre contain quartz, plagioclase, hornblende, and biotite (± sanidine) phenocrysts. Later cone-building trachydacite to trachyandesite lavas are crystal-rich with plagioclase and augite megacrysts (± hornblende, ± quartz) and record an overall trend of decreasing SiO2 with time. The last eruptions ~1.5 Ma from the stratovolcano (Perry et al. 1990) produced thick (>70 m), viscous lava flows that contain up to 50% zoned plagioclase phenocrysts. While SiO2 decreased among the silicic magmas, the degree of silica saturation increased among peripheral basaltic magmas from basanite to ne-normative hawaiite to hy-normative basalts. Evidence of increasing crustal contamination within the basalts includes zoned plagioclase megacrysts, augite and plagioclase cumulate texture xenoliths with accompanying xenocrysts. These textures within the basalts combined with abundant, complex plagioclase among the cone-building silicic magmas imply interaction and mixing with gabbroic cumulate mush in the lower crust beneath Mt. Taylor Volcano. Contemporaneous basanitic to trachytitc volcanism in the northern part of the volcanic field at Mesa Chivato (Crumpler, 1980) was more widely distributed, smaller volume, and produced mainly aphyric magmas. The lower crustal gabbroic cumulates either do not extend northward beneath Mesa Chivato, or they were not accessed by lower magma flux rate

  9. The mantle and basalt-crust interaction below the Mount Taylor Volcanic Field, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, C. M.; Crumpler, L. S.; Schmidt, M. E.

    2010-12-01

    The Mount Taylor Volcanic Field (MTVF) lies on the Jemez Lineament on the southeastern margin of the Colorado Plateau. The field is centered on the Mt. Taylor composite volcano and includes Mesa Chivato to the NE and Grants Ridge to the WSW. MTVF magmatism spans ~3.8-1.5 Ma (K-Ar, Perry et al., 1990). Magmas are dominantly alkaline with mafic compositions ranging from basanite to hy-basalt and felsic compositions ranging from ne-trachyte to rhyolite. We are investigating the state of the mantle and the spatial and temporal variation in basalt-crustal interaction below the MTVF by examining mantle xenoliths and basalts in the context of new mapping and future Ar-Ar dating. The earliest dated magmatism in the field is a basanite flow south of Mt. Taylor (Perry et al., 1990). Mantle xenolith-bearing alkali basalts and basanites occur on Mesa Chivato (Crumpler, 1980) and in the region of Mt. Taylor, though most basalts are peripheral to the main cone. Xenolith-bearing magmatism persists at least into the early stages of cone-building. Preliminary examination of the mantle xenolith suite suggests it is dominantly lherzolitic but contains likely examples of both melt-depleted (harzburgitic) and melt-enriched (clinopyroxenitic) mantle. There are aphyric and crystal-poor hawaiites, some of which are hy-normative (Perry et al., 1990), on and near Mt. Taylor, but many of the more evolved MTVF basalts show evidence of complex histories. Mt. Taylor basalts higher in the cone-building sequence contain >40% zoned plagioclase pheno- and megacrysts. Other basalts peripheral to Mt. Taylor and at Grants Ridge contain clinopyroxene and plagioclase megacrysts and cumulate-textured xenoliths, suggesting they interacted with lower crustal cumulates. Among the questions we are addressing: What was the chemical and thermal state of the mantle recorded by the basaltic suites and xenoliths and how did it change with time? Are multiple parental basalts (Si-saturated vs. undersaturated

  10. The Mantle and Basalt-Crust Interaction Below the Mount Taylor Volcanic Field, New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, Christian M.; Crumpler, Larry S.; Schmidt, Marick E.

    2010-01-01

    The Mount Taylor Volcanic Field (MTVF) lies on the Jemez Lineament on the southeastern margin of the Colorado Plateau. The field is centered on the Mt. Taylor composite volcano and includes Mesa Chivato to the NE and Grants Ridge to the WSW. MTVF magmatism spans approximately 3.8-1.5 Ma (K-Ar). Magmas are dominantly alkaline with mafic compositions ranging from basanite to hy-basalt and felsic compositions ranging from ne-trachyte to rhyolite. We are investigating the state of the mantle and the spatial and temporal variation in basalt-crustal interaction below the MTVF by examining mantle xenoliths and basalts in the context of new mapping and future Ar-Ar dating. The earliest dated magmatism in the field is a basanite flow south of Mt. Taylor. Mantle xenolith-bearing alkali basalts and basanites occur on Mesa Chivato and in the region of Mt. Taylor, though most basalts are peripheral to the main cone. Xenolith-bearing magmatism persists at least into the early stages of conebuilding. Preliminary examination of the mantle xenolith suite suggests it is dominantly lherzolitic but contains likely examples of both melt-depleted (harzburgitic) and melt-enriched (clinopyroxenitic) mantle. There are aphyric and crystal-poor hawaiites, some of which are hy-normative, on and near Mt. Taylor, but many of the more evolved MTVF basalts show evidence of complex histories. Mt. Taylor basalts higher in the cone-building sequence contain >40% zoned plagioclase pheno- and megacrysts. Other basalts peripheral to Mt. Taylor and at Grants Ridge contain clinopyroxene and plagioclase megacrysts and cumulate-textured xenoliths, suggesting they interacted with lower crustal cumulates. Among the questions we are addressing: What was the chemical and thermal state of the mantle recorded by the basaltic suites and xenoliths and how did it change with time? Are multiple parental basalts (Si-saturated vs. undersaturated) represented and, if so, what changes in the mantle or in the tectonic

  11. Lateral Variations of Lg Coda Q in Southern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, J.; Quintanar, L.; Herrmann, R. B.; Fuentes, C.

    Broad band digital three-component data recorded at UNM, a GEOSCOPE station, were used to estimate Lg coda Q for 34 medium size (3.9 <=mb<= 6.3) earthquakes with travel paths laying in different geological provinces of southern Mexico in an effort to establish the possible existence of geological structures acting as wave guides and/or travel paths of low attenuation between the Pacific coast and the Valley of Mexico. The stacked spectral ratio method proposed by XIE and NUTTLI (1988) was chosen for computing the coda Q. The variation range of Q0 (Q at 1Hz) and the frequency dependence parameter η estimates averaged on the frequency interval of 0.5 to 2Hz for the regions and the three components considered are: i) Guerrero region 173 <=Q0<= 182 and 0.6 <=Q0<= 0.7, ii) Oaxaca region 183 <=Q0<= 198 and 0.6 <=Q0<= 0.8, iii) Michoacan-Jalisco region 187 <=Q0<= 204 and 0.7 <=Q0<= 0.8 and iv) eastern portion of the Transmexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) 313 <=Q0<= 335 and η = 0.9. The results show a very high coda Q for the TMVB as compared to other regions of southern Mexico. This unexpected result is difficult to reconcile with the geophysical characteristics of the TMVB, e.g., low seismicity, high volcanic activity and high heat flow typical of a highly attenuating (low Q) region. Visual inspection of seismograms indicates that for earthquakes with seismic waves traveling along the TMVB, the amplitude decay of Lg coda is anomalously slow as compared to other earthquakes in southern Mexico. Thus, it seems that the high Q value found does not entirely reflect the attenuation characteristics of the TMVB but it is probably contaminated by a wave-guide effect. This phenomenon produces an enhancement in the time duration of the Lg wave trains travelling along this geological structure. This result is important to establish the role played by the transmission medium in the extremely long duration of ground motion observed during the September 19, 1985 Michoacan earthquake. The

  12. Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Community Structure in Field and Cultured Microbialites from the Alkaline Lake Alchichica (Mexico)

    PubMed Central

    Couradeau, Estelle; Benzerara, Karim; Moreira, David; Gérard, Emmanuelle; Kaźmierczak, Józef; Tavera, Rosaluz; López-García, Purificación

    2011-01-01

    The geomicrobiology of crater lake microbialites remains largely unknown despite their evolutionary interest due to their resemblance to some Archaean analogs in the dominance of in situ carbonate precipitation over accretion. Here, we studied the diversity of archaea, bacteria and protists in microbialites of the alkaline Lake Alchichica from both field samples collected along a depth gradient (0–14 m depth) and long-term-maintained laboratory aquaria. Using small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene libraries and fingerprinting methods, we detected a wide diversity of bacteria and protists contrasting with a minor fraction of archaea. Oxygenic photosynthesizers were dominated by cyanobacteria, green algae and diatoms. Cyanobacterial diversity varied with depth, Oscillatoriales dominating shallow and intermediate microbialites and Pleurocapsales the deepest samples. The early-branching Gloeobacterales represented significant proportions in aquaria microbialites. Anoxygenic photosynthesizers were also diverse, comprising members of Alphaproteobacteria and Chloroflexi. Although photosynthetic microorganisms dominated in biomass, heterotrophic lineages were more diverse. We detected members of up to 21 bacterial phyla or candidate divisions, including lineages possibly involved in microbialite formation, such as sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacteria but also Firmicutes and very diverse taxa likely able to degrade complex polymeric substances, such as Planctomycetales, Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia. Heterotrophic eukaryotes were dominated by Fungi (including members of the basal Rozellida or Cryptomycota), Choanoflagellida, Nucleariida, Amoebozoa, Alveolata and Stramenopiles. The diversity and relative abundance of many eukaryotic lineages suggest an unforeseen role for protists in microbialite ecology. Many lineages from lake microbialites were successfully maintained in aquaria. Interestingly, the diversity detected in aquarium microbialites was higher than in field samples

  13. Petrophysical Properties of Twenty Drill Cores from the Los Azufres, Mexico, Geothermal Field

    SciTech Connect

    Iglesias, E.R.; Contreras L., E.; Garcia G., A.; Dominquez A., Bernardo

    1987-01-20

    For this study we selected 20 drill cores covering a wide range of depths (400-3000 m), from 15 wells, that provide a reasonable coverage of the field. Only andesite, the largely predominant rock type in the field, was included in this sample. We measured bulk density, grain (solids) density, effective porosity and (matrix) permeability on a considerable number of specimens taken from the cores; and inferred the corresponding total porosity and fraction of interconnected total porosity. We characterized the statistical distributions of the measured and inferred variables. The distributions of bulk density and grain density resulted approximately normal; the distributions of effective porosity, total porosity and fraction of total porosity turned out to be bimodal; the permeability distribution resulted highly skewed towards very small (1 mdarcy) values, though values as high as 400 mdarcies were measured. We also characterized the internal inhomogeneity of the cores by means of the ratio (standard deviation/mean) corresponding to the bulk density in each core (in average there are 9 specimens per core). The cores were found to present clearly discernible inhomogeneity; this quantitative characterization will help design new experimental work and interpret currently available and forthcoming results. We also found statistically significant linear correlations between total density and density of solids, effective porosity and total density, total porosity and total density, fraction of interconnected total porosity and the inverse of the effective porosity, total porosity and effective porosity; bulk density and total porosity also correlate with elevation. These results provide the first sizable and statistically detailed database available on petrophysical properties of the Los Azufres andesites. 1 tab., 16 figs., 4 refs.

  14. Shatter Complex Formation in the Twin Craters Lava Flow, Zuni-Bandera Field, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Meerscheidt, H. C.; Bleacher, J. E.; Brand, B. D.; deWet, A.; Samuels, R.; Hamilton, C.; Garry, W. B.; Bandfield, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    Lava channels, tubes and sheets are transport structures that deliver flowing lava to a flow front. The type of structure can vary within a flow field and evolve throughout an eruption. The 18.0 × 1.0 ka Twin Craters lava flow in the Zuni-Bandera lava field provides a unique opportunity to study morphological changes of a lava flow partly attributable to interaction with a topographic obstacle. Facies mapping and airborne image analysis were performed on an area of the Twin Craters flow that includes a network of channels, lava tubes, shatter features, and disrupted pahoehoe flows surrounding a 45 m tall limestone bluff. The bluff is 1000 m long (oriented perpendicular to flow.) The general flow characteristics upstream from the bluff include smooth, lobate pahoehoe flows and a >2.5 km long lava tube (see Samuels et al., this meeting.) Emplacement characteristics change abruptly where the flow encountered the bluff, to include many localized areas of disrupted pahoehoe and several pahoehoe-floored depressions. Each depression is fully or partly surrounded by a raised rim of blocky material up to 4 m higher than the surrounding terrain. The rim is composed of 0.05 - 4 m diameter blocks, some of which form a breccia that is welded by lava, and some of which exhibit original flow textures. The rim-depression features are interpreted as shatter rings based on morphological similarity to those described by Orr (2011.Bul Volcanol.73.335-346) in Hawai';i. Orr suggests that shatter rings develop when fluctuations in the lava supply rate over-pressurize the tube, causing the tube roof to repeatedly uplift and subside. A rim of shattered blocks and breccias remains surrounding the sunken tube roof after the final lava withdraws from the system. One of these depressions in the Twin Craters flow is 240 m wide and includes six mounds of shattered material equal in height to the surrounding undisturbed terrain. Several mounds have depressed centers floored with rubbly pahoehoe

  15. Stratigraphic relations and lithologic variations in the Jemez volcanic field, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, J.N.; Goff, F.; Garcia, S.; Hagan, R.C.

    1986-02-10

    Over 100 radiometric dates and recent detailed geologic mapping allow some refinements of the stratigraphic relations of major units and generalization of temporal lithologic variations in the Jemez volcanic field. Volcanism had begun in the area by about 16.5 Ma with episodic eruptions of alkaline basalts. By 13 Ma, alkaline volcanism had been replaced with eruptions of more voluminous olivine tholeiite. High-silica rhyolite, derived from melts of lower crust, also was erupting by about 13 Ma. Basalt and high-silica rhyolite continued to be erupted until about 7 and 6 Ma, respectively, but effusions of dominantly andesitic differentiates of basalt that began as early as about 12 Ma volumetrically overshadowed all other eruptive products between 10 and 7 Ma. From 7 to 13 the dominant erupted lithology was dacite, which appears to have been generated by mixing of magmas whose compositions are approximated by earlier andesites and high-silica rhyolites. Less than 4--3 Ma volcanism was dominated by eruption of rhyolitic tuffs.

  16. Phytophthora capsici epidemic dispersion on commercial pepper fields in Aguascalientes, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Zapata-Vázquez, Adrián; Sánchez-Sánchez, Mario; del-Río-Robledo, Alicia; Silos-Espino, Héctor; Perales-Segovia, Catarino; Flores-Benítez, Silvia; González-Chavira, Mario Martín; Valera-Montero, Luis Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    Chili pepper blight observed on pepper farms from north Aguascalientes was monitored for the presence of Phytophthora capsici during 2008-2010. Initially, ELISA tests were directed to plant samples from greenhouses and rustic nurseries, showing an 86% of positive samples. Later, samples of wilted plants from the farms during the first survey were tested with ELISA. The subsequent survey on soil samples included mycelia isolation and PCR amplification of a 560 bp fragment of ITS-specific DNA sequence of P. capsici. Data was analyzed according to four geographical areas defined by coordinates to ease the dispersal assessment. In general, one-third of the samples from surveyed fields contained P. capsici, inferring that this may be the pathogen responsible of the observed wilt. Nevertheless, only five sites from a total of 92 were consistently negative to P. capsici. The presence of this pathogen was detected through ELISA and confirmed through PCR. The other two-thirds of the negative samples may be attributable to Fusarium and Rhizoctonia, both isolated instead of Phytophthora in these areas. Due to these striking results, this information would be of interest for local plant protection committees and farmers to avoid further dispersal of pathogens to new lands. PMID:22629131

  17. EVALUATION OF THE FLOOD POTENTIAL OF THE SOUTH HOUSE (BLINEBRY) FIELD, LEA COUNTY, NEW MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    L. Stephen Melzer

    2000-12-01

    /11 respectively. Production of oil and gas has been established with several months of production now available to make a reserve analysis. Production histories and reserves estimation are provided. An assessment of the flood potential for the South House project area has been completed with work concentrated on South House rock property and pay thickness characterization and analog studies. For the analogs, the North Robertson area, located twenty miles to the northeast, and the Teague Field, located 20 miles to the south, have been utilized due to their readily available database and previous waterflood studies. The South House area does appear to merit further examination as the rock quality compares favorably with both analog Fields; however, current well spacings of 40-acres will provide only marginal economics based upon $23.00/barrel oil prices. Permeability and porosity relationships are provided as a conditional demonstration that rock quality may be sufficient for successful waterflooding of the project area. Further rock property work and pay continuity studies are recommended.

  18. Predicting thermal conductivity of rocks from the Los Azufres geothermal field, Mexico, from easily measurable properties

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Alfonso; Contreras, Enrique; Dominquez, Bernardo A.

    1988-01-01

    A correlation is developed to predict thermal conductivity of drill cores from the Los Azufres geothermal field. Only andesites are included as they are predominant. Thermal conductivity of geothermal rocks is in general scarce and its determination is not simple. Almost all published correlations were developed for sedimentary rocks. Typically, for igneous rocks, chemical or mineral analyses are used for estimating conductivity by using some type of additive rule. This requires specialized analytical techniques and the procedure may not be sufficiently accurate if, for instance, a chemical analysis is to be changed into a mineral analysis. Thus a simple and accurate estimation method would be useful for engineering purposes. The present correlation predicts thermal conductivity from a knowledge of bulk density and total porosity, properties which provide basic rock characterization and are easy to measure. They may be determined from drill cores or cuttings, and the procedures represent a real advantage given the cost and low availability of cores. The multivariate correlation proposed is a quadratic polynomial and represents a useful tool to estimate thermal conductivity of igneous rocks since data on this property is very limited. For porosities between 0% and 25%, thermal conductivity is estimated with a maximum deviation of 22% and a residual mean square deviation of 4.62E-3 n terms of the log{sub 10}(k{rho}{sub b}) variable. The data were determined as part of a project which includes physical, thermal and mechanical properties of drill cores from Los Azufres. For the correlation, sixteen determinations of thermal conductivity, bulk density and total porosity are included. The conductivity data represent the first determinations ever made on these rocks.

  19. Partial melting and fractionation in the Mesa Chivato alkali basalt-trachyte series, Mount Taylor Volcanic Field, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, C. M.; Schmidt, M. E.; Crumpler, L. S.; Wolff, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Mesa Chivato comprises a series of alkaline cones, flows, and domes within the Mount Taylor Volcanic Field (MTVF) in northwest New Mexico. Compositions range from alkali basalt to trachyte. Intermediate magmas are less well represented than mafic and felsic rocks, but benmoreites and transitional benmoreite-trachytes provide a window into the differentiation processes. Major element, trace element, and isotopic data suggest that petrogenesis of benmoreite proceeded by fractional crystallization of mafic liquids and magma mixing with partially melted mafic rocks. Major element mass balance models permit the derivation of transitional benmoreite/trachyte from the benmoreite by 20-25% crystallization of microphenocryst phases (olivine, plagioclase, Ti-magnetite, and apatite) and further fractionation to trachyte by 10-15% crystallization of olivine, plagioclase and alkali feldspar, Fe-Ti oxide, and apatite. These models are supported by SiO2-Sr and -Ba systematics. However, the hawaiite to benmoreite gap cannot be crossed by fractional crystallization alone. While major element models permit the mafic lavas to yield the benmoreite, they require extensive fractionation of clinopyroxene and plagioclase - this is unsupported by petrography (clinopyroxene phenocrysts are rare in the mafic rocks and lacking in the intermediate rocks) and cannot explain the benmoreite's very high Sr contents (>1800 ppm), which would have been depleted by plagioclase fractionation. From LA-ICPMS analysis of plagioclase: 87Sr/86Sr of early alkali basalt (0.70285-0.70300) and late hawaiite (0.70406-0.70421) bracket the 87Sr/86Sr of the benmoreite (0.70361-0.70406). Thus, either could represent the fractionated liquid parental to the benmoreite and the other the partially melted source.

  20. Eruptive History of the Rhyolitic Guangoche Volcano, Los Azufres Volcanic Field, Central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangel Granados, E.; Arce, J. L.; Macias, J. L.; Layer, P. W.

    2014-12-01

    Guangoche is a rhyolitic and polygenetic volcano with a maximum elevation of 2,760 meters above sea level. It is situated to the southwest of the Los Azufres Volcanic Field (LAVF), in the central sector of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Guangoche volcano is the youngest volcano described within the LAVF. It shows a horseshoe shaped crater open to the south, with a central lava dome. Its eruptive history during late Pleistocene has been intense with six explosive eruptions that consists of: 1) A southwards sector collapse of the volcano that generated a debris avalanche deposit with megablocks of heterogenous composition; 2) A plinian-type eruption that generated a pumice fall deposit and pyroclastic density currents by column collapse at 30.6 ka; 3) A plinian-type eruption "White Pumice Sequence" (29 ka) that developed a 22-km-high eruptive column, with a MDR of 7.0 x 107 kg/s (vol. = 0.53 km3); 4) A dome-destruction event, "Agua Blanca Pyroclastic Sequence" at 26.7 ka, that deposited a block-and-ash flow deposit; 5) A subplinian-plinian type eruption "Ochre Pyroclastic Sequence" (<26 ka) with an important initial phreatomagmatic phase, that generated pyroclastic density currents and pumice fallouts. The subplinian-plinian event generated a 16-km-high eruptive column, with a MDR of 1.9 x 107 kg/s, and magma volume of 0.38 km3; 6) The eruptive history ended with a subplinian eruption (<<26 ka), that generated a multilayered fall deposit, that developed a 11-km-high eruptive column, with a MDR of 2.9 x 106 kg/s and a magma volume of 0.26 km3. Volcanic activity at Guangoche volcano has been intense and future activity should not be discarded. Unfortunately, the last two events have not been dated yet. Guangoche rhyolitic magma is characterized by low-Ba contents suggesting crystal mush extraction for their genesis.

  1. The Significance of Acid Alteration in the Los Humeros High-Temperature Geothermal Field, Puebla, Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, W. A.; Izquierdo, G.

    2014-12-01

    The Los Humeros geothermal field is a high-enthalpy hydrothermal system with more than 40 drilled deep wells, mostly producing high steam fractions at > 300oC. However, although it has a large resource potential, low permeability and corrosive acid fluids have hampered development so that it currently has an installed electrical generating capacity of only 40 MWe. The widespread production of low pH fluids from the reservoir is inconsistent with the marked absence in the reservoir rocks of hydrothermal minerals typical of acid alteration. Instead the hydrothermal alteration observed is typical of that due to neutral to alkaline pH waters reacting with the volcanic rocks of the production zones. Thus it appears that since the reservoir has recently suffered a marked drop in fluid pressure and is in process of transitioning from being water-dominated to being vapor-dominated. However sparse examples of acid leaching are observed locally at depths of about 2 km in the form of bleached, intensely silicified zones, in low permeability and very hot (>350oC) parts of reservoir. Although these leached rocks retain their primary volcanic and pyroclastic textures, they are altered almost entirely to microcrystalline quartz, with some relict pseudomorphs of plagioclase phenocrysts and traces of earlier-formed hydrothermal chlorite and pyrite. These acid-altered zones are usually only some tens of meters thick and deeper rocks lack such silicification. The acid fluids responsible for their formation could either be magmatic volatiles, or could be formed during production (e.g. reaction of water and salts forming hydrogen chloride by hydrolysis at high temperatures). The very high boron content of the fluids produced by the Los Humeros wells suggests that their ultimate source is most likely magmatic gases. However, these acid gases did not react widely with the rocks. We suggest that the silicified zones are forming locally where colder descending waters are encountering

  2. Enhancing Diversity In The Geosciences; Intensive Field Experience In USA And Mexico For Middle And High School Teachers Serving Large Hispanic Populations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal-Bautista, R. M.; Kitts, K. B.; Velazquez Oliman, G.; Perry, E. C.

    2008-12-01

    To encourage Hispanic participation and enrolment in the geosciences and ultimately enhance diversity within the discipline, we recruited ten middle and high school science teachers serving large Hispanic populations (60-97%) for a paid three-week field experience supported by an NSF Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences grant. In 2006, the field experiences focused on volcanic events and the water problems of the Central part of Mexico. In 2008, the field experiences focused on karstic and hydrogeological conditions of the Yucatan Peninsula. In addition to the geological aspects of the fieldwork experience, the trip to Mexico exposed the teachers to a social environment outside of their community where they interacted with a diverse group of scientists from the Universidad National Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Centro de Investigacion Cientifica de Yucatan (CICY) and Centro Nacional de Desastres (CENAPRED). A key part of this project was the encounter between American and Mexican teachers that included a day of presentations, panel discussion and some class-room activities. Direct interaction between the cooperating teachers and the American and Mexican geoscientists provided actual scientific research experiences to educate and to help dispel misconceptions the teachers themselves may have had about who geoscientists really are and what they do. Teachers of the 2006 group produced educational materials from their field experiences and presented these materials at professional conferences. We measured the efficacy of these activities quantitatively via pre- and post-tests assessing confidence levels, preconceptions and biases, NIU staff observations of participants in their home institutions, and evaluations of participants' field books and pedagogical materials. We present these data here and identify specific activities that are both effective and efficient in changing teacher behaviours and attitudes enabling them to better connect with their

  3. Measurements of submicron aerosols at the California-Mexico border during the Cal-Mex 2010 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Misti E.; Zhang, Renyi; Zheng, Jun; Tan, Haobo; Wang, Yuan; Molina, Luisa T.; Takahama, S.; Russell, L. M.; Li, Guohui

    2014-05-01

    We present measurements of submicron aerosols in Tijuana, Mexico during the Cal-Mex 2010 field campaign. A suite of aerosol instrumentations were deployed, including a hygroscopic-volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer (HV-TDMA), aerosol particle mass analyzer (APM), condensation particle counter (CPC), cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS), and nephelometer to measure the aerosol size distributions, effective density, hygroscopic growth factors (HGF), volatility growth factors (VGF), and optical properties. The average mass concentration of PM0.6 is 10.39 ± 7.61 μg m-3, and the derived average black carbon (BC) mass concentration is 2.87 ± 2.65 μg m-3. There is little new particle formation or particle growth during the day, and the mass loading is dominated by organic aerosols and BC, which on average are 37% and 27% of PM1.0, respectively. For four particle sizes of 46, 81, 151, and 240 nm, the measured particle effective density, HGFs, and VGFs exhibit distinct diurnal trends and size-dependence. For smaller particles (46 and 81 nm), the effective density distribution is unimodal during the day and night, signifying an internally mixed aerosol composition. In contrast, larger particles (151 and 240 nm) exhibit a bi-modal effective density distribution during the daytime, indicating an external mixture of fresh BC and organic aerosols, but a unimodal distribution during the night, corresponding to an internal mixture of BC and organic aerosols. The smaller particles show a noticeable diurnal trend in the effective density distribution, with the highest effective density (1.70 g cm-3) occurring shortly after midnight and the lowest value (0.90 g cm-3) occurring during the afternoon, corresponding most likely to primary organic aerosols and BC, respectively. Both HGFs and VGFs measured are strongly size-dependent. HGFs increase with increasing particle size, indicating that the largest particles are more hygroscopic. VGFs decrease with increasing

  4. The structural architecture of the Los Humeros volcanic complex and geothermal field, Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, Central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norini, Gianluca; Groppelli, Gianluca; Sulpizio, Roberto; Carrasco Núñez, Gerardo; Davila Harris, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    The development of geothermal energy in Mexico is a very important goal, given the presence of a large heat anomaly, associated with the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, the renewability of the resource and the low environmental impact. The Quaternary Los Humeros volcanic complex is an important geothermal target, whose evolution involved at least two caldera events, that alternated with other explosive and effusive activity. The first caldera forming event was the 460 ka eruption that produced the Xaltipan ignimbrite and formed a 15-20 km wide caldera. The second collapse event occurred 100 ka with the formation of the Zaragoza ignimbrite and a nested 8-10 km wide caldera. The whole volcano structure, the style of the collapses and the exact location of the calderas scarps and ring faults are still a matter of debate. The Los Humeros volcano hosts the productive Los Humeros Geothermal Field, with an installed capacity of 40 MW and additional 75 MW power plants under construction. Recent models of the geothermal reservoir predict the existence of at least two reservoirs in the geothermal system, separated by impermeable rock units. Hydraulic connectivity and hydrothermal fluids circulation occurs through faults and fractures, allowing deep steam to ascend while condensate flows descend. As a consequence, the plans for the exploration and exploitation of the geothermal reservoir have been based on the identification of the main channels for the circulation of hydrothermal fluids, constituted by faults, so that the full comprehension of the structural architecture of the caldera is crucial to improve the efficiency and minimize the costs of the geothermal field operation. In this study, we present an analysis of the Los Humeros volcanic complex focused on the Quaternary tectonic and volcanotectonics features, like fault scarps and aligned/elongated monogenetic volcanic centres. Morphostructural analysis and field mapping reveal the geometry, kinematics and dynamics of

  5. Oceanic gamefish/Skylab project field operating plan for operations 4, 5 August. [in Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The operation plans are presented for the oceanic Gamefish/Skylab Experiment 240, which was conducted to obtain fish catch data for the northeast area of the Gulf of Mexico. The plans for surface measurements, aerial observations, and communications are included.

  6. Aflatoxin-producing fungi in maize fields of Sonora Mexico at varying elevations: a three year study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination of maize, a critical staple of billions, by Aspergillus flavus is a recurrent problem in the tropics and subtropics. Maize is produced across a broad range of elevations in the state of Sonora, Mexico. The current study evaluated the influence of elevation on the composition ...

  7. Use of a Nitrogen Index for evaluation of nitrogen management under commercial dairy forage fields in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy farm operations in Mexico are contributing to large, negative environmental impacts across some regions. These regions are traditionally dominated by large concentrations of dairy animals and intensive operations. Some of these dairy forage systems receive extremely large manure inputs and add...

  8. Ancient seismic record of the Tarascan (Purhepecha) Empire. Preclasic Period (3000 Yr B.P.). Jaracuaro Island, Patzcuaro Lake. Michoacan, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Pascua, Miguel Angel; Garduño-Monroy, Victor Hugo; Perez-Lopez, Raul; Israde-Alcantara, Isabel

    2010-05-01

    The Pátzcuaro lake is located in the Mexican State of Michoacán in the Transmexican Volcanic Belt. The Jarácuaro island is formed by Holocene lake sediments highly deformed by active faults (Morelia-Acambay Fault System, MAFS, more than 200 km long). MAFS is an E-W strike-slip fault with a transtensive component in the Pázcuaro Lake zone. Several paleoseismic studies were carried out in the island. Four trenches were made in the active faults that cross the island and it is possible observe that there are two andesitic blocks (>4 m3) over two different faults with surface rupture. The archaeological evidences (pottery, idols, etc), founded in the soils affected by the fault, implies that the age of the events concern to the Pre - Classic period (3.000 years B.P.).The Tarascan (or Purhépecha) Empire supported this earthquakes and put the blocks close both faults on the hanging wall block. The andesitic blocks are carved and polished and the quarry where this blocks were extracted is 1.5 km long out the lake. This cultural behaviour was profusely used by the Tarascan related to natural disasters but not documented before related to earthquakes. Maybe this is ones of the oldest human seismic manifestation, and is the first time that is connected a fault with a seismic movement.

  9. 76 FR 15278 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Hass...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Hass Avocados From Michoacan, Mexico AGENCY: Animal... information collection associated with regulations for the importation of Hass avocados from Michoacan, Mexico... information on regulations for the importation of Hass avocados from Michoacan, Mexico, contact Mr. David...

  10. Extension-related origin of magmas from a garnet-bearing source in the Los Tuxtlas volcanic field, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Surendra P.

    2006-09-01

    The Los Tuxtlas volcanic field (LTVF) of late Miocene to Recent age is a key area to understand the consequences of the current subduction of the Cocos plate beneath the North American plate, as well as the competing effects of the ongoing extension along the Gulf of Mexico coast. Geochemical and radiogenic (Sr, Nd, and Pb) isotope data are used to constrain the origin of these 7 Ma to Recent magmas in this area. The basanitic and alkaline basaltic rocks show highly steep light rare-earth element-enriched patterns implying residual garnet in their mantle source, whereas the evolved alkaline and sub-alkaline rocks have less steep rare-earth element patterns consistent with a contribution from the continental crust. Geochemical and isotope data from the LTVF are compared with those from continental rifts, extension-related areas, continental break-up regions, and island and continental arcs, including the Central American volcanic arc related to the subduction of the same oceanic plate (Cocos plate), as well as with those from the two nearby Mexican provinces [the Eastern Alkaline Province (EAP) and the eastern part of the Mexican Volcanic Belt (E-MVB)]. These data for the LTVF primitive rocks are similar to rifts, extension-related areas and continental break-up regions, including the two Mexican provinces, but different from island and continental arcs, including the northern part of the Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA). The LTVF rocks show an unusual Th and U enrichment with respect to Ba and Rb, which also renders a distinct negative Nb anomaly (with respect to Th and K) in them. These rocks also show a negative Nb anomaly (with respect to Ba and La) that is similar to numerous rift, extension-related areas, and continental break-up regions, but distinct from all arcs around the world, indicating that the magma genesis processes in the LTVF are similar to those in rifts. The “Sr-shift”, shown to be a typical feature of most, if not all, island and

  11. Orgin and significance of geochemical variability among oils and gas-condensates in the Tiger Shoal Field, northern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, P.A.; Imbus, S.W.; McKeever, S.R.

    1995-12-31

    Geochemical data placed in geological context is key to understanding the processes controlling the variability of oils and gas-condensates in the Tiger Shoal Field, northern Gulf of Mexico. Thermal maturity at generation and phase partitioning are the principal processes accounting for variability in the bulk and molecular properties of the oils and gas-condensates. Quantification of the extent that these processes altered the oils and gas-condensates between fault blocks and among individual sands permits: (1) documentation of the most effective migration conduits, (2) inference of deeper or shallower pay zones, (3) and assessment of vertical and lateral fluid connectivity. Calibration of bulk to molecular properties will permit rapid assessment of the type and extent of alteration using basic parameters such as API gravity and gas oil ratio (GOR). Upon mass balancing with initial reserves data, a detailed risking scheme for remaining prospects within the field can be formulated.

  12. Distribution, magnitudes, reactivities, ratios and diurnal patterns of volatile organic compounds in the Valley of Mexico during the MCMA 2002 & 2003 field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, E.; Lamb, B.; Westberg, H.; Allwine, E.; Sosa, G.; Arriaga-Colina, J. L.; Jobson, B. T.; Alexander, M. L.; Prazeller, P.; Knighton, W. B.; Rogers, T. M.; Grutter, M.; Herndon, S. C.; Kolb, C. E.; Zavala, M.; de Foy, B.; Volkamer, R.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    A wide array of volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements was conducted in the Valley of Mexico during the MCMA-2002 and 2003 field campaigns. Study sites included locations in the urban core, in a heavily industrial area and at boundary sites in rural landscapes. In addition, a novel mobile-laboratory-based conditional sampling method was used to collect samples dominated by fresh on-road vehicle exhaust to identify those VOCs whose ambient concentrations were primarily due to vehicle emissions. Four distinct analytical techniques were used: whole air canister samples with Gas Chromatography/Flame Ionization Detection (GC-FID), on-line chemical ionization using a Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS), continuous real-time detection of olefins using a Fast Olefin Sensor (FOS), and long path measurements using UV Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometers (DOAS). The simultaneous use of these techniques provided a wide range of individual VOC measurements with different spatial and temporal scales. The VOC data were analyzed to understand concentration and spatial distributions, diurnal patterns, origin and reactivity in the atmosphere of Mexico City. The VOC burden (in ppbC) was dominated by alkanes (60%), followed by aromatics (15%) and olefins (5%). The remaining 20% was a mix of alkynes, halogenated hydrocarbons, oxygenated species (esters, ethers, etc.) and other unidentified VOCs. However, in terms of ozone production, olefins were the most relevant hydrocarbons. Elevated levels of toxic hydrocarbons, such as 1,3-butadiene, benzene, toluene and xylenes, were also observed. Results from these various analytical techniques showed that vehicle exhaust is the main source of VOCs in Mexico City and that diurnal patterns depend on vehicular traffic in addition to meteorological processes. Finally, examination of the VOC data in terms of lumped modeling VOC classes and its comparison to the VOC lumped emissions reported in other photochemical air

  13. Distribution, magnitudes, reactivities, ratios and diurnal patterns of volatile organic compounds in the Valley of Mexico during the MCMA 2002 and 2003 field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, E.; Lamb, B.; Westberg, H.; Allwine, E.; Sosa, G.; Arriaga-Colina, J. L.; Jobson, B. T.; Alexander, M.; Prazeller, P.; Knighton, W. B.; Rogers, T. M.; Grutter, M.; Herndon, S. C.; Kolb, C. E.; Zavala, M.; de Foy, B.; Volkamer, R.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.

    2006-08-01

    A wide array of volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements was conducted in the Valley of Mexico during the MCMA-2002 and 2003 field campaigns. Study sites included locations in the urban core, in a heavily industrial area and at boundary sites in rural landscapes. In addition, a novel mobile-laboratory-based conditional sampling method was used to collect samples dominated by fresh on-road vehicle exhaust to identify those VOCs whose ambient concentrations were primarily due to vehicle emissions. Five distinct analytical techniques were used: whole air canister samples with Gas Chromatography/Flame Ionization Detection (GC-FID), on-line chemical ionization using a Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS), continuous real-time detection of olefins using a Fast Olefin Sensor (FOS), and long path measurements using UV Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometers (DOAS). The simultaneous use of these techniques provided a wide range of individual VOC measurements with different spatial and temporal scales. The VOC data were analyzed to understand concentration and spatial distributions, diurnal patterns, origin and reactivity in the atmosphere of Mexico City. The VOC burden (in ppbC) was dominated by alkanes (60%), followed by aromatics (15%) and olefins (5%). The remaining 20% was a mix of alkynes, halogenated hydrocarbons, oxygenated species (esters, ethers, etc.) and other unidentified VOCs. However, in terms of ozone production, olefins were the most relevant hydrocarbons. Elevated levels of toxic hydrocarbons, such as 1,3-butadiene, benzene, toluene and xylenes were also observed. Results from these various analytical techniques showed that vehicle exhaust is the main source of VOCs in Mexico City and that diurnal patterns depend on vehicular traffic. Finally, examination of the VOC data in terms of lumped modeling VOC classes and its comparison to the VOC lumped emissions reported in other photochemical air quality modeling studies suggests that

  14. [Nesting habitat characterization for Amazona oratrix (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) in the Central Pacific, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Monterrubio-Rico, Tiberio C; Álvarez-Jara, Margarito; Tellez-Garcia, Loreno; Tena-Morelos, Carlos

    2014-09-01

    The nesting requirements of the Yellow-headed Parrot (Amazona oratrix) are poorly understood, despite their broad historical distribution, high demand for pet trade and current endangered status. Information concerning their nesting requirements is required in order to design specific restoration and conser- vation actions. To assess this, we studied their nesting ecology in the Central Pacific, Michoacan, Mexico during a ten year period. The analyzed variables ranged from local scale nest site characteristics such as nesting tree species, dimensions, geographic positions, diet and nesting forest patches structure, to large scale features such as vegetation use and climatic variables associated to the nesting tree distributions by an ecological niche model using Maxent. We also evaluated the parrot tolerance to land management regimes, and compared the Pacific nest trees with 18 nest trees recorded in an intensively managed private ranch in Tamaulipas, Gulf of Mexico. Parrots nested in tall trees with canopy level cavities in 92 nest-trees recorded from 11 tree species. The 72.8% of nesting occurred in trees of Astronium graveolens, and Enterolobium cyclocarpum which qualified as key- stone trees. The forests where the parrots nested, presented a maximum of 54 tree species, 50% of which were identified as food source; besides, these areas also had a high abundance of trees used as food supply. The lowest number of tree species and trees to forage occurred in an active cattle ranch, whereas the highest species rich- ness was observed in areas with natural recovery. The nesting cavity entrance height from above ground of the Pacific nesting trees resulted higher than those found in the Gulf of Mexico. We hypothesize that the differences may be attributed to Parrot behavioral differences adapting to differential poaching pressure and cavity avail- ability. Nesting trees were found in six vegetation types; however the parrots preferred conserved and riparian semi

  15. Another Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Carlin

    2009-01-01

    A Mexican saying holds that "Como Mexico no hay dos"--There is only one Mexico. American media these days interpret that notion with a vengeance. Story after story depicts a country overrun by out-of-control drug wars and murder, where corrupt police officers trip over beheaded victims more often than they nab perpetrators. South of the border, a…

  16. A 13 ± 3 ka age determination of a tholeiite, Pinacate volcanic field, Mexico, and improved methods for 40Ar/ 39Ar dating of young basaltic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turrin, Brent D.; Gutmann, James T.; Swisher, Carl C., III

    2008-11-01

    Among the youngest lava flows of the Pinacate volcanic field, Sonora, Mexico, is a large outpouring of tholeiite, the Ives flow. This tube-fed pahoehoe flow contrasts sharply with other Pinacate lavas in its great volume, alkali-poor composition and morphologic features, which include novel small structures named "spatter tubes." Despite its K-poor character, young age, and the presence of excess 40Ar, we determined a 40Ar/ 39Ar age on samples of this flow at 13 ± 3 ka. Such an age determination is made possible via careful monitoring of the mass discrimination of the mass spectrometer and by stacking results from multiple incremental-heating experiments into a single, composite isochron. This age is among the youngest ever to be determined with such precision by the 40Ar/ 39Ar method on a K-poor tholeiite.

  17. Egade, Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubany, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Presents a business school design in Mexico, whose spiral building sits atop a parking structure creating a compact, symbolic form for an arid urban landscape. Includes seven photographs, a floor plan, and sectional drawing. (GR)

  18. Fluid transport by solitary waves along growing faults. A field example from the South Eugene Island Basin, Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revil, A.; Cathles, L. M.

    2002-09-01

    The Red Fault system is one of the main growth faults found in the South Eugene Island Basin, a salt withdrawal minibasin located offshore Louisiana, in the Gulf of Mexico. This fault system corresponds to a lateral boundary between fluid overpressured compartments. In addition, there is a set of observations indicating that the Red Fault system exhibits rapid episodic migration of fluids. This fault represents an example of preferential pathway for the upward episodic migration of overpressured hydrocarbons from deep, heavily pressured, compartments on time scales of years. The migrations of fluids into active growing faults could take the form of propagating surges (solitary waves) that propagate upward along the fault planes in a wave-like manner at km/yr. Solitary waves represent a very efficient mechanism for the upward transport of fluids along growth faults in sedimentary basins generating its own permeability. In addition, this mechanism is compatible with the fact that the fault plane is observed to sustain a static pore fluid pressure difference between its two sides. The propagation of solitary waves in active growth faults appears as a fundamental mechanism to understand the nature of upward fast migration of fluids along active growth faults in compartimentalized sedimentary basins.

  19. Field and Experimental Evidence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus as the Causative Agent of Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease of Cultured Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in Northwestern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Lozano-Olvera, Rodolfo; Betancourt-Lozano, Miguel; Morales-Covarrubias, Maria Soledad

    2014-01-01

    Moribund shrimp affected by acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) from farms in northwestern Mexico were sampled for bacteriological and histological analysis. Bacterial isolates were molecularly identified as Vibrio parahaemolyticus by the presence of the tlh gene. The tdh-negative, trh-negative, and tlh-positive V. parahaemolyticus strains were further characterized by repetitive extragenic palindromic element-PCR (rep-PCR), and primers AP1, AP2, AP3, and AP and an ems2 IQ2000 detection kit (GeneReach, Taiwan) were used in the diagnostic tests for AHPND. The V. parahaemolyticus strains were used in immersion challenges with shrimp, and farmed and challenged shrimp presented the same clinical and pathological symptoms: lethargy, empty gut, pale and aqueous hepatopancreas, and expanded chromatophores. Using histological analysis and bacterial density count, three stages of AHNPD (initial, acute, and terminal) were identified in the affected shrimp. The pathognomonic lesions indicating severe desquamation of tubular epithelial cells of the hepatopancreas were observed in both challenged and pond-infected shrimp. The results showed that different V. parahaemolyticus strains have different virulences; some of the less virulent strains do not induce 100% mortality, and mortality rates also rise more slowly than they do for the more virulent strains. The virulence of V. parahaemolyticus strains was dose dependent, where the threshold infective density was 104 CFU ml−1; below that density, no mortality was observed. The AP3 primer set had the best sensitivity and specificity. Field and experimental results showed that the V. parahaemolyticus strain that causes AHPND acts as a primary pathogen for shrimp in Mexico compared with the V. parahaemolyticus strains reported to date. PMID:25548045

  20. Field and experimental evidence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus as the causative agent of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease of cultured shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in Northwestern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Soto-Rodriguez, Sonia A; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Lozano-Olvera, Rodolfo; Betancourt-Lozano, Miguel; Morales-Covarrubias, Maria Soledad

    2015-03-01

    Moribund shrimp affected by acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) from farms in northwestern Mexico were sampled for bacteriological and histological analysis. Bacterial isolates were molecularly identified as Vibrio parahaemolyticus by the presence of the tlh gene. The tdh-negative, trh-negative, and tlh-positive V. parahaemolyticus strains were further characterized by repetitive extragenic palindromic element-PCR (rep-PCR), and primers AP1, AP2, AP3, and AP and an ems2 IQ2000 detection kit (GeneReach, Taiwan) were used in the diagnostic tests for AHPND. The V. parahaemolyticus strains were used in immersion challenges with shrimp, and farmed and challenged shrimp presented the same clinical and pathological symptoms: lethargy, empty gut, pale and aqueous hepatopancreas, and expanded chromatophores. Using histological analysis and bacterial density count, three stages of AHNPD (initial, acute, and terminal) were identified in the affected shrimp. The pathognomonic lesions indicating severe desquamation of tubular epithelial cells of the hepatopancreas were observed in both challenged and pond-infected shrimp. The results showed that different V. parahaemolyticus strains have different virulences; some of the less virulent strains do not induce 100% mortality, and mortality rates also rise more slowly than they do for the more virulent strains. The virulence of V. parahaemolyticus strains was dose dependent, where the threshold infective density was 10(4) CFU ml(-1); below that density, no mortality was observed. The AP3 primer set had the best sensitivity and specificity. Field and experimental results showed that the V. parahaemolyticus strain that causes AHPND acts as a primary pathogen for shrimp in Mexico compared with the V. parahaemolyticus strains reported to date. PMID:25548045

  1. Microtremors Studies Using SPAC Method: Experiences and Applications in Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez-Rosas, R.; Aguirre, J.; Mijares-Arellano, H.

    2008-12-01

    The study of Microtremors (environmental vibration) has become one of the key parts for the evaluation of seismic risk. That is because they can be used to estimate the site effects. The first approach is by obtaining the dominant period of the site through the H/V spectral ratio (Nakamura method). However there are parts of the body and surface waves that are not entirely known. The spectral H/V ratio is mainly influenced by SH resonance in the superficial layers. But if we are working with surface waves, like Rayleigh waves, they should be represented by the ellipticity coefficient of theoretical Rayleigh waves, whereas the absolute magnitude of the H/V spectral ratio can not be directly compared with the transfer function. The shear wave velocity of the shallow structure is a basic element in the studies of the ground amplification and for the site response of sedimentary basins. The SPAC method (Spatial Auto Correlations Method) was proposed by Aki in 1957, based on microtremors recorded in instrumental arrays. This method allows us to obtain the dispersion curve of the Rayleigh waves, from which we can estimate the velocity structure. In Mexico we have used this method in geotechnical applications, engineering and seismic hazard studies, to characterize the site effect. Since in some places we do not have enough information to validate our results, we use ellipticity curves to interpret the H/V spectral ratios and compare with our SPAC results. This was implemented in cities with substantial urban density as the city of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon and in areas where the site effect has had great impact as Mexico City and in areas with important seismicity as some parts of the state of Michoacan, There, it has been possible to estimate the shear wave velocity of the soil through this type of study.

  2. Noble gases preserve history of retentive continental crust in the Bravo Dome natural CO2 field, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathaye, Kiran J.; Smye, Andrew J.; Jordan, Jacob S.; Hesse, Marc A.

    2016-06-01

    Budgets of 4He and 40Ar provide constraints on the chemical evolution of the solid Earth and atmosphere. Although continental crust accounts for the majority of 4He and 40Ar degassed from the Earth, degassing mechanisms are subject to scholarly debate. Here we provide a constraint on crustal degassing by comparing the noble gases accumulated in the Bravo Dome natural CO2 reservoir, New Mexico USA, with the radiogenic production in the underlying crust. A detailed geological model of the reservoir is used to provide absolute abundances and geostatistical uncertainty of 4He, 40Ar, 21Ne, 20Ne, 36Ar, and 84Kr. The present-day production rate of crustal radiogenic 4He and 40Ar, henceforth referred to as 4He* and 40Ar*, is estimated using the basement composition, surface and mantle heat flow, and seismic estimates of crustal density. After subtracting mantle and atmospheric contributions, the reservoir contains less than 0.02% of the radiogenic production in the underlying crust. This shows unequivocally that radiogenic noble gases are effectively retained in cratonic continental crust over millennial timescales. This also requires that approximately 1.5 Gt of mantle derived CO2 migrated through the crust without mobilizing the crustally accumulated gases. This observation suggests transport along a localized fracture network. Therefore, the retention of noble gases in stable crystalline continental crust allows shallow accumulations of radiogenic gases to record tectonic history. At Bravo Dome, the crustal 4He*/40Ar* ratio is one fifth of the expected crustal production ratio, recording the preferential release of 4He during the Ancestral Rocky Mountain orogeny, 300 Ma.

  3. Field Observations and Geochemical Modeling of CO2 Impacts on Shallow Groundwater Chemistry in Chimayo, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, E. H.; Fessenden, J.; Pawar, R.

    2008-12-01

    One possible environmental consequence of geologic sequestration of CO2 is slow upward leakage through drinking water aquifers. Although CO2 itself is not toxic, elevated CO2 could change the geochemical environment in the aquifer and cause aqueous and/or mineral precipitation/ dissolution reactions that might negatively impact drinking water quality. Here we examine a natural analog site in the Rio Grande Rift, Northern New Mexico, USA, where CO2 is naturally rising along faults and where shallow aquifer chemistry is thought to be affected. Many of the wells have very elevated pCO2 ( > - 1.0); some of the wells also contain a brackish water component. Other than trace elements associated with the brackish water component, we do not see empirical evidence of increased trace element concentrations caused by CO2 influx. We developed a conceptual model of fluid flow and rock/water interactions at the site and numerical models of geochemical reactions and mixing that are consistent with measured variations in major ion concentrations at the site. In particular, our models explain the buffering mechanisms that prevent CO2 dissolution in water from significantly suppressing groundwater pH in this hydrogeochemical setting. This buffering may also partly explain the absence of elevated trace element concentrations, relative to background. Other possible factors include limited or heterogeneous availability of trace elements in aquifer rocks locally, large variability in background concentrations of trace elements, and redox variations unrelated to CO2. We emphasize the potential role that brackish waters, which could leak along with the CO2, could play at CO2 sequestration sites, and discuss the implications for designing effective monitoring strategies.

  4. Field and seismic evaluation of the block-and-ash flows emplaced from eruption columns of the 2005 Vulcanian explosions at Volcán de Colima, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zobin, Vyacheslav M.; Carrasco-Núñez, Gerardo; Vargas-Gutiérrez, Víctor R.

    2016-04-01

    The May-September 2005 Vulcanian explosion sequence was the most intense of all the activity during the recent 1998-2015 unrest at Volcán de Colima, Mexico. This study presents field measurements of volume and runout distances of block-and-ash flows emplaced from eruption columns that punctuated the six largest explosions of this sequence. The energy of these explosions and the emplacement duration of the pyroclastic flows were obtained from broadband seismic signals associated with these events. The field and seismic characteristics of the 2005 explosions at Volcán de Colima and associated block-and-ash flows showed that six explosions with energy ranging between 3.0 × 1011 and 1.5 × 1013 J emplaced the block-and-ash flows with volumes ranging between 1.8 × 105 and 3.1 × 105 m3 DRE (dense rock equivalent). Analysis of durations of seismic signals associated with the movement of the 2005 block-and-ash flows emplaced from the eruption columns allowed us to quantify them as M3-magnitude events using the techniques proposed by Zobin et al. (Bull Volcanol 67: 679-688, 2005) to quantify the block-and-ash flows emplaced from the partial collapse of the lava dome at Volcán de Colima.

  5. Hydrochemical-isotopic tendencies to define hydraulic mobility of formation water at the Samaria-Sitio Grande oil field, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkle, Peter; Angulo, Marisela; Lima, Santos

    2006-02-01

    The chemical (major elements) and isotopic ( 2H, 3H, 13C, 18O) composition of formation water is presented for the Sitio Grande oilfield, SE-Mexico, extracted from 28 production wells from the carbonate reservoir at a depth between 3585 and 4545 m.b.s.l. The linear δ 18O/δD-trend explains the formation of reservoir water as part of three subsequent stages: a) the evaporation of marine water at the surface, causing enrichment of both, δ 18O and δD-values, b) a reversal trend with decreasing δ 18O-and δD-ratios by the extreme evaporation of brines and, c) the subsequent mixing with isotopically depleted meteoric water. A SW-NE directed flow direction of deep groundwater systems is indicated by parallel-oriented isoline trends of stable isotope ratios and conservative elements, supported by the dominance of parallel directed microfractures and extensional faults, and by tracer test results. The arrival of artificial tritium, three years after tracer injection in the well SG-85, reflects a) the importance of long-term monitoring of tracer tests, and b) an estimated flow velocity of 2.2×10 -5 m/s. As the arrival of the tracer was detected exclusively in three production wells towards the SW of the injection site, lateral migration of groundwater occurs mainly along defined, channel-like conducts with a narrow dispersion angle of 39 °. Surface water, injected as part of an enhanced oil recovery program, was not detected in the production zone by chemical and isotopic methods. This fact is not a proof for lacking hydraulic conductivity, as the large reservoir size and the termination of the injection program in 1996 could have caused a complete dilution of the injected fluids. Restricted vertical flow movement between reservoir layers and insignificant temperature-dependent reaction processes is indicated by the heterogeneous distribution of δ 18O-and Cl-values throughout the groundwater column of most reservoir zones. Little influence of water-rock interaction

  6. A Conceptual Model to Link Anomalously High Temperature Gradients in the Cerros del Rio Volcanic Field to Regional Flow in the Espanola Basin, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillingham, E. J.; Keller, S. N.; McCullough, K. R.; Watters, J.; Weitering, B.; Wilce, A. M.; Folsom, M.; Kelley, S.; Pellerin, L.

    2015-12-01

    Temperature-depth well data along with electromagnetic (EM) data were collected by students of the Summer of Applied Geophysics Experience (SAGE) 2015 field season in the Espanola Basin, New Mexico. The data from this year, in addition to data acquired since 2013, were used to construct a conceptual east-west cross-section of the Espanola Basin and the adjacent highlands in order to evaluate the regional flow system. Vertical geothermal gradients from several monitoring wells were measured using a thermistor. Anomalously warm geothermal gradients were mapped in the Cerros del Rio volcanic field in the basin just east of the Rio Grande. Temperature gradients are up to 70℃/km, while the background geothermal gradients in the Rio Grande rift zone generally show 28℃-35℃/km. This anomaly extends to the Buckman well field, which supplies water to the city of Santa Fe. Overpumping of this well field has led to subsidence in the past. However, discharge temperature plots indicate that the temperature gradients of the Buckman field may be rebounding as pumping is reduced. Audiomagnetotelluric (AMT) and transient electromagnetic (TEM) data were acquired in the vicinity of three monitoring wells. TEM and AMT methods complement each other with the former having depths of investigation of less than ten to hundreds of meters and AMT having depths of investigation comparable to the wells deeper than 500m. These datasets were used collectively to image the subsurface stratigraphy and, more specifically, the hydrogeology related to shallow aquifers. The EM data collected at these wells showed a trend indicating a shallow aquifer with a shallower resistive layer of approximately 100 ohm-m at 70-100 meters depth. Beneath this resistive layer we resolved a more conductive, clay-rich layer of 10 ohm-m. These resistivity profiles compliment the electrical logs provided by Jet West, which indicate shallower sandstone interbedded with silt on top of more silt-dominant layers. Our

  7. Sequence stratigraphic setting of turbidite-related petroleum fields, Green Canyon and Ewing Bank lease areas, northern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Weimer, P.; Pulham, A.J.

    1996-08-01

    The Green Canyon (GC) and Ewing Bank (EW) OCS lease areas have 17 discoveries/fields, primarily from bathyal turbidite systems. Salt has played a significant role in the formation of the intraslope basins that the turbidite systems were deposited in, by influencing the flows of turbidities throughout the basin, in the subsequent trap formation, and, in some cases, as a seal. Nearly every field/discovery is associated with a seismic amplitude anomaly. Fields generally have multiple pay zones, with up to 22 in GC 184 (Jolliet). To date, eight of the fields are producing: EB 826, EB 873 (Lobster), GC 6 (Kodiak), GC 18, GC 53/54 (Marquette), GC 65/110 (Bullwinkle), GC 184 (Jolliet), and GC 205 (Vancouver). Other fields expected to be developed are GC 72/116 (Popeye), GC 254 (Allegheny), GC 200/244 (Olivella), GC and GC 166 (Bison). Other discoveries that were produced and then abandoned include GC 19, and GC29. Producing reservoir facies are highly variable across the area. Turbidite reservoir geometries in Pliocene sands (>1.6 Ma) consist of sheets and amalgamated sheet sands. Pleistocene sands are characterized primarily from channel-levee systems and related deposits. These sands tend to more compartmentalized with separate oil/water or gas/water contacts. Most reservoir sands occur within 100 ft overlying a sequence boundary, indicating the eustatic control on the timing of reservoir sand deposition.

  8. Integrating field, microstructures, magnetic fabrics, metamorphic studies to establish Yavapai-Mazatazal-aged syntectonic pluton emplacement and strain localization in the Tusas Mountains, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, P.; Kruckenberg, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    Paleoproterozoic metamorphic rocks in the northern Tusas Mountains of New Mexico record the conditions of deposition, deformation and tectonic processes during assembly and stabilization of these rocks to the southern margin of the Laurentian craton. Metasedimentary and metavolcanic supracrustal rocks of the Vadito and Hondo groups comprise the majority of exposures, detrital zircon from within these units constrain the age of deposition ca. 1.70 Ga. - the Yavapai-Mazatazal temporal orogenic boundary. P-T conditions are ~425-600 C and 4-6 kbars. Two pervasive fold and fabric events are regionally displayed that have been locally modified by a third deformation event. Regional constraints on tectonism timing are mixed, with recent work showing that tectonism occurred ca. 1.4 Ga. Two orthogneiss bodies, the Tres Piedras (TP) and Tusas Mountain (TM) granites, were emplaced into supracrustal host rocks at ca. 1.69 Ga. Several datasets that include mapping and characterization of metamorphic assemblages, EBSD microstructural analysis, and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility analyses suggest that emplacement was syntectonic. Metamorphic assemblages show a field-gradient that is roughly concentric to the TP and TM plutons from greenschist facies (ca. 400-425 C) in the distant country rock, to upper amphibolite facies (ca. 650 C) near the pluton contacts. This is a new discovery for the region, as most of northern New Mexico displays a regional amphibolite facies signature. Quartz and feldspar microstructures suggest that the body of both plutons record non-coaxial deformation from near solidus to high-T conditions (>600 C). Muscovite inclusions in cm-scale euhedral microcline grains are aligned with S1, and isoclinal folds in the TP lack an axial planar fabric. Measurement of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) suggest that the orientation of magmatic fabrics within these plutons are consistent with principal regional fabrics (D1) recorded in the

  9. Acoustics lecturing in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beristain, Sergio

    2002-11-01

    Some thirty years ago acoustics lecturing started in Mexico at the National Polytechnic Institute in Mexico City, as part of the Bachelor of Science degree in Communications and Electronics Engineering curricula, including the widest program on this field in the whole country. This program has been producing acoustics specialists ever since. Nowadays many universities and superior education institutions around the country are teaching students at the B.Sc. level and postgraduate level many topics related to acoustics, such as Architectural Acoustics, Seismology, Mechanical Vibrations, Noise Control, Audio, Audiology, Music, etc. Also many institutions have started research programs in related fields, with participation of medical doctors, psychologists, musicians, engineers, etc. Details will be given on particular topics and development.

  10. Genetic diversity demonstrated by pulsed field gel electrophoresis of Salmonella enterica isolates obtained from diverse sources in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to determine the genetic diversity of Salmonella isolates recovered from a variety of sources using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to assess their possible relatedness. Salmonella was isolated from ca. 52% of samples from a pepper var. Bell production system. A to...

  11. Mexico City

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    ... Mexico City has one of the world's most serious air pollution problems. The city is located atop a high plain at an altitude of ... as the orange and red areas, and mountainous areas appear light blue and green. The position of the clouds within the 70-degree image are ...

  12. Mexico's Oxbridge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haussman, Fay

    1979-01-01

    For 400 years the National Autonomous University of Mexico has remained at the hub of the country's intellectual and political life. The history of the University from the Mayas and the Aztecs, University expansion, upward mobility of students, and student pressure groups and politics are described. (MLW)

  13. Scaling laws of the size-distribution of monogenetic volcanoes within the Michoacán-Guanajuato Volcanic Field (Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-López, R.; Legrand, D.; Garduño-Monroy, V. H.; Rodríguez-Pascua, M. A.; Giner-Robles, J. L.

    2011-04-01

    The Michoacán-Guanajuato Volcanic Field displays about 1040 monogenetic volcanoes mainly composed of basaltic cinder cones. This monogenetic volcanic field is the consequence of a dextral transtensive tectonic regime within the Transmexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB), the largest intra continental volcanic arc around the world, related to the subduction of the Rivera and Cocos plates underneath the North American Plate. We performed a statistical analysis for the size-distribution of the basal diameter (Wco) for cinder cones. Dataset used here was compiled by Hasenaka and Carmichael (1985). Monogenetic volcanoes obey a power-law very similar to the Gutenberg-Richter law for earthquakes, with respect to their size-distribution: log 10 ( N >= Wco ) = α - β log10( Wco), with β = 5.01 and α = 2.98. Therefore, the monogenetic volcanoes exhibit a (Wco) size-distribution empirical power-law, suggesting a self-organized criticality phenomenon.

  14. Modeling the marine magnetic field of Bahía de Banderas, Mexico, confirms the half-graben structure of the bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Román; López-Loera, Héctor; Arzate, Jorge

    2010-06-01

    An existing aeromagnetic survey flown on the central, western portion of Mexico did not include an important tectonic structure: Bahía de Banderas. The bay has an extension of approximately 1400 km 2 and is located within the Puerto Vallarta batholith, a granitic structure of Cretaceous origin. We report here the additional gathering of 5523 magnetic values on the bay, in order to complement the existing land aeromagnetic information; this allowed modeling the structure of the bay from the magnetic viewpoint. A late Miocene age has been proposed for the bay making it roughly contemporaneous with the first stages of separation of Baja California from mainland Mexico. Initially proposed as a graben, it was subsequently shown that its structure actually corresponds to a half-graben of the fault growth type, with reverse drag geometry; it appears to have been developed in response to an extensional process in the ˜ N-S direction. Valle de Banderas neighbors the bay constituting its eastern land continuation; it has also been proposed as a graben and it is also likely the result of an extensional process. However, it seems to be a structure more recently formed, probably around 5 Ma. The different time origin of the bay and of the valley is strengthened by the different alignment of the valley axis, where Ameca River flows and discharges into the bay, of around 30° from the trace of Banderas fault. The magnetic responses of the valley, aeromagnetic and terrestrial, support the existence of an extensional process. Upward and downward continuations of the magnetic fields show that Sierra de Vallejo and Sierra de Zapotán, to the NW of the valley, are deeply rooted structures and their magnetic responses are similar to those obtained in the Puerto Vallarta batholith; these characteristics support a common origin for them. Three magnetic profiles trending NNW are modeled across Bahía de Banderas. The models identify the structure as a half-graben with a listric main

  15. Comparative Field Evaluation of Different Traps for Collecting Adult Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an Endemic Area of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Quintana Roo, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rojas, Jorge J; Arque-Chunga, Wilfredo; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A

    2016-06-01

    Phlebotominae are the vectors of Leishmania parasites. It is important to have available surveillance and collection methods for the sand fly vectors. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate and compare traps for the collection of sand fly species and to analyze trap catches along months and transects. Field evaluations over a year were conducted in an endemic area of leishmaniasis in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. A randomized-block design was implemented in study area with tropical rainforest vegetation. The study design utilized 4 transects with 11 trap types: 1) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light trap with incandescent bulb (CDC-I), 2) CDC light trap with blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) (CDC-B), 3) CDC light trap with white LEDs (CDC-W), 4) CDC light trap with red LEDs (CDC-R), 5) CDC light trap with green LEDs (CDC-G), 6) Disney trap, 7) Disney trap with white LEDs, 8) sticky panels, 9) sticky panels with white LEDs, 10) delta-like trap, and 11) delta-like trap with white LEDs. A total of 1,014 specimens of 13 species and 2 genera (Lutzomyia and Brumptomyia) were collected. There were significant differences in the mean number of sand flies caught with the 11 traps; CDC-I was (P  =  0.0000) more effective than the other traps. Other traps exhibited the following results: CDC-W (17.46%), CDC-B (15.68%), CDC-G (14.89%), and CDC-R (14.30%). The relative abundance of different species varied according to trap types used, and the CDC-I trap attracted more specimens of the known vectors of Leishmania spp., such as like Lutzomyia cruciata, Lu. shannoni, and Lu. ovallesi. Disney trap captured more specimens of Lu. olmeca olmeca. Based on abundance and number of species, CDC light traps and Disney traps appeared to be good candidates for use in vector surveillance programs in this endemic area of Mexico. PMID:27280348

  16. The eruptive history of the Tequila volcanic field, western Mexico: ages, volumes, and relative proportions of lava types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis-Kenedi, Catherine B.; Lange, Rebecca A.; Hall, Chris M.; Delgado-Granados, Hugo

    2005-06-01

    The eruptive history of the Tequila volcanic field (1600 km2) in the western Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt is based on 40Ar/39Ar chronology and volume estimates for eruptive units younger than 1 Ma. Ages are reported for 49 volcanic units, including Volcán Tequila (an andesitic stratovolcano) and peripheral domes, flows, and scoria cones. Volumes of volcanic units ≤1 Ma were obtained with the aid of field mapping, ortho aerial photographs, digital elevation models (DEMs), and ArcGIS software. Between 1120 and 200 kyrs ago, a bimodal distribution of rhyolite (~35 km3) and high-Ti basalt (~39 km3) dominated the volcanic field. Between 685 and 225 kyrs ago, less than 3 km3 of andesite and dacite erupted from more than 15 isolated vents; these lavas are crystal-poor and show little evidence of storage in an upper crustal chamber. Approximately 200 kyr ago, ~31 km3 of andesite erupted to form the stratocone of Volcán Tequila. The phenocryst assemblage of these lavas suggests storage within a chamber at ~2 3 km depth. After a hiatus of ~110 kyrs, ~15 km3 of andesite erupted along the W and SE flanks of Volcán Tequila at ~90 ka, most likely from a second, discrete magma chamber located at ~5 6 km depth. The youngest volcanic feature (~60 ka) is the small andesitic volcano Cerro Tomasillo (~2 km3). Over the last 1 Myr, a total of 128±22 km3 of lava erupted in the Tequila volcanic field, leading to an average eruption rate of ~0.13 km3/kyr. This volume erupted over ~1600 km2, leading to an average lava accumulation rate of ~8 cm/kyr. The relative proportions of lava types are ~22 43% basalt, ~0.4 1% basaltic andesite, ~29 54% andesite, ~2 3% dacite, and ~18 40% rhyolite. On the basis of eruptive sequence, proportions of lava types, phenocryst assemblages, textures, and chemical composition, the lavas do not reflect the differentiation of a single (or only a few) parental liquids in a long-lived magma chamber. The rhyolites are geochemically diverse and were likely

  17. The anatomy of a cinder cone: preliminary paleomagnetic, rock magnetic, structural, and petrologic data from the La Cienega volcano, Cerros del Rio volcanic field, northern New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petronis, M. S.; Foucher, M.; Lineline, J.; Van Wyk de Vries, B.

    2011-12-01

    The Cerros del Rio volcanic field is one of several middle Pliocene to Pleistocene basaltic volcanic fields of the axial Rio Grande Rift in central and northern New Mexico. It is a monogenetic volcanic field that comprises about 60 cinder-spatter cones, occupies ~ 700 km2, and ranges in age from 2.7 Ma to 1.1 Ma. Eruptive centers are typically central vent volcanoes, ranging from low-relief shields to steep-sided, breached cinder and spatter cone remnants. They represent short eruptive events that likely were derived from rapidly evolving reservoir-conduit systems. Mining activity has exposed the volcanic plumbing system of the Cienega Mine cinder cone, just west of Santa Fe, NM. Here, geologists from France and USA have been investigating the exposed roots of this eviscerated Pliocene volcano to investigate magma conduit geometry, magma flow structures, and eruption patterns. We are testing models for magma transport and volcano construction using a variety of field and laboratory tools. Common models of volcanic construction envision the magma feeder as a dike or pipe-like conduit transporting molten rock from a deep reservoir to the eruptive vent. We posit that small volcanic pluming systems are inherently more complex and actually involve numerous feeder geometries throughout the volcano lifespan. Our preliminary work suggests that the simple exteriors of some cinder cones hide a long life and complex history, both of which would change the appreciation of the related volcanic hazards in active systems. The Cienega Mine cinder cone consists of several meter- to decimeter-wide intrusions that connect to eruptive centers. These intrusions show a continuity of brittle to ductile structures from their margins to interiors. We have collected samples across each intrusion as well as along strike for anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and petrographic analysis in order to establish magma flow patterns. AMS results yield a remarkably consistent dataset that

  18. 2007 Rocky Mountain Section Friends of the Pleistocene Field Trip - Quaternary Geology of the San Luis Basin of Colorado and New Mexico, September 7-9, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Machette, Michael N.; Coates, Mary-Margaret; Johnson, Margo L.

    2007-01-01

    Prologue Welcome to the 2007 Rocky Mountain Cell Friends of the Pleistocene Field Trip, which will concentrate on the Quaternary geology of the San Luis Basin of Colorado and New Mexico. To our best knowledge, Friends of the Pleistocene (FOP) has never run a trip through the San Luis Basin, although former trips in the region reviewed the 'Northern Rio Grande rift' in 1987 and the 'Landscape History and Processes on the Pajarito Plateau' in 1996. After nearly a decade, the FOP has returned to the Rio Grande rift, but to an area that has rarely hosted a trip with a Quaternary focus. The objective of FOP trips is to review - in the field - new and exciting research on Quaternary geoscience, typically research being conducted by graduate students. In our case, the research is more topically oriented around three areas of the San Luis Basin, and it is being conducted by a wide range of Federal, State, academic, and consulting geologists. This year's trip is ambitious?we will spend our first day mainly on the Holocene record around Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, the second day on the Quaternary stratigraphy around the San Luis Hills, including evidence for Lake Alamosa and the 1.0 Ma Mesita volcano, and wrap up the trip's third day in the Costilla Plain and Sunshine Valley reviewing alluvial stratigraphy, the history of the Rio Grande, and evidence for young movement on the Sangre de Cristo fault zone. In the tradition of FOP trips, we will be camping along the field trip route for this meeting. On the night before our trip, we will be at the Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve's Pinyon Flats Campground, a group facility located about 2 miles north of the Visitors Center. After the first day's trip, we will dine and camp in the Bachus pit, about 3 miles southwest of Alamosa. For the final night (after day 2), we will bed down at La Junta Campground at the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Wild and Scenic Rivers State Recreation Area, west of Questa

  19. High-precision 40Ar/39Ar sanidine geochronology of ignimbrites in the Mogollon-Datil volcanic field, southwestern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McIntosh, W.C.; Sutter, J.F.; Chapin, C.E.; Kedzie, L.L.

    1990-01-01

    40Ar/39Ar age spectra have been obtained from 85 sanidine separates from 36 ignimbrites and one rhyolitic lava in the latest Eocene-Oligocene Mogollon-Datil volcanic field of southwestern New Mexico. Of the 97 measured age spectra, 94 yield weighted-mean plateau ages each giving single-spectrum 1?? precision of??0.25%-0.4% (??0.07-0.14 Ma). Replicate plateau age determinations for eight different samples show within-sample 1?? precisions averaging ??0.25%. Plateau ages from multiple (n=3-8) samples of individual ignimbrites show 1?? within-unit precision of ??0.1%-0.4% (??0.04-0.13 Ma). This within-unit precision represents a several-fold improvement over published K-Ar data for the same ignimbrites, and is similar to the range of precisions reported from single-crystal laser fusion studies. A further indication of the high precision of unit-mean 40Ar/30Ar ages is their close agreement with independently established stratigraphic order. Two samples failed to meet plateau criteria, apparently due to geologic contamination by older feldspars. Effects of minor contamination are shown by six other samples, which yielded slightly anomalous plateau ages. 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages permit resolution of units differing in age by 0.5% (0.15 Ma) or less. This high resolution, combined with paleomagnetic studies, has helped to correlate ignimbrites among isolated ranges and has allowed development of an integrated timestratigraphic framework for the volcanic field. Mogollon-Datil ignimbrites range in age from 36.2 to 24.3 Ma. Ignimbrite activity was strongly episodic, being confined to four brief (<2.6 m.y.) eruptive episodes separated by 1-3 m.y. gaps. Ignimbrite activity generally tended to migrate from the southeast toward the north and west. ?? 1990 Springer-Verlag.

  20. Transport and mixing of eolian sand from local sources resulting in variations in grain size in a gypsum dune field, White Sands, New Mexico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langford, Richard P.; Gill, Thomas E.; Jones, Slade B.

    2016-03-01

    The White Sands Dune Field, New Mexico (USA), provides a unique opportunity to study sources and eolian transport of sand. End member mixing analysis provides unbiased correlation of the grain size distributions of populations that mix sands from four different local source surface types. Textural differences between sources allow local transport paths to be deduced. In total, 1214 surface samples from 10 dunes and 2 downwind-oriented transects were collected. Neither elevation on the dune, lee or stoss location nor distance downwind correlated with mean grain size, coarsest 10% (D90), or sorting. Instead, grain size distributions are controlled by mixing of locally sourced sand populations. Adjacent dunes can have different mean grain sizes, resulting from different local source populations. Local within-dune and between-dune variability resulting from different sand sources dominates any larger-scale trends across and within dunes. Four sand populations are identified, based on microscopically observable differences in grain size, shape and angularity. Each correlates with high loading of a different statistical factor, derived from End Member Mixing Analysis. End Member 1 (EM1) correlates with well-sorted populations of finer-grained, equant, rounded sands. EM2 correlates with samples that contain moderately sorted populations containing angular blades and crystal aggregates associated with erosional interdunes. EM3 is associated with samples of moderately to poorly sorted fine-grained sand containing fine sand-sized gypsum needles collected from areas of vegetated interdunes, and EM4 is associated with moderately well sorted coarse- and very coarse-grained sands collected from granule ripples. These results suggest that downwind mixing of different populations and segregation by different depositional processes influence grain size distributions in the dune field, rather than by dune-scale or erg-scale transport and sorting.

  1. Best Practices for Mudweight Window Generation and Accuracy Assessment between Seismic Based Pore Pressure Prediction Methodologies for a Near-Salt Field in Mississippi Canyon, Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannon, Timothy Patrick, Jr.

    Improving well design has and always will be the primary goal in drilling operations in the oil and gas industry. Oil and gas plays are continuing to move into increasingly hostile drilling environments, including near and/or sub-salt proximities. The ability to reduce the risk and uncertainly involved in drilling operations in unconventional geologic settings starts with improving the techniques for mudweight window modeling. To address this issue, an analysis of wellbore stability and well design improvement has been conducted. This study will show a systematic approach to well design by focusing on best practices for mudweight window projection for a field in Mississippi Canyon, Gulf of Mexico. The field includes depleted reservoirs and is in close proximity of salt intrusions. Analysis of offset wells has been conducted in the interest of developing an accurate picture of the subsurface environment by making connections between depth, non-productive time (NPT) events, and mudweights used. Commonly practiced petrophysical methods of pore pressure, fracture pressure, and shear failure gradient prediction have been applied to key offset wells in order to enhance the well design for two proposed wells. For the first time in the literature, the accuracy of the commonly accepted, seismic interval velocity based and the relatively new, seismic frequency based methodologies for pore pressure prediction are qualitatively and quantitatively compared for accuracy. Accuracy standards will be based on the agreement of the seismic outputs to pressure data obtained while drilling and petrophysically based pore pressure outputs for each well. The results will show significantly higher accuracy for the seismic frequency based approach in wells that were in near/sub-salt environments and higher overall accuracy for all of the wells in the study as a whole.

  2. High-precision 40Ar/39Ar sanidine geochronology of ignimbrites in the Mogollon-Datil volcanic field, southwestern New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, William C.; Sutter, John F.; Chapin, Charles E.; Kedzie, Laura L.

    1990-11-01

    40Ar/39Ar age spectra have been obtained from 85 sanidine separates from 36 ignimbrites and one rhyolitic lava in the latest Eocene-Oligocene Mogollon-Datil volcanic field of southwestern New Mexico. Of the 97 measured age spectra, 94 yield weighted-mean plateau ages each giving single-spectrum 1σ precision of±0.25% 0.4% (±0.07 0.14 Ma). Replicate plateau age determinations for eight different samples show within-sample 1σ precisions averaging ±0.25%. Plateau ages from multiple ( n=3 8) samples of individual ignimbrites show 1σ within-unit precision of ±0.1% 0.4% (±0.04 0.13 Ma). This within-unit precision represents a several-fold improvement over published K-Ar data for the same ignimbrites, and is similar to the range of precisions reported from single-crystal laser fusion studies. A further indication of the high precision of unit-mean 40Ar/30Ar ages is their close agreement with independently established stratigraphic order. Two samples failed to meet plateau criteria, apparently due to geologic contamination by older feldspars. Effects of minor contamination are shown by six other samples, which yielded slightly anomalous plateau ages. 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages permit resolution of units differing in age by 0.5% (0.15 Ma) or less. This high resolution, combined with paleomagnetic studies, has helped to correlate ignimbrites among isolated ranges and has allowed development of an integrated timestratigraphic framework for the volcanic field. Mogollon-Datil ignimbrites range in age from 36.2 to 24.3 Ma. Ignimbrite activity was strongly episodic, being confined to four brief (<2.6 m.y.) eruptive episodes separated by 1 3 m.y. gaps. Ignimbrite activity generally tended to migrate from the southeast toward the north and west.

  3. Petrogenesis of Late Cenozoic volcanic rocks from the Raton-Clayton volcanic field, northeastern New Mexico and southeastern Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, J.; Stormer, J.C.; Wright, J.E. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics); Middlefeldt, D.D. )

    1993-04-01

    The Raton-Clayton volcanic field, located in the eastern flank of the Rio Grande rift on the Great Plains, is at the northeastern end of the Jemez lineament. A broad variety of late Cenozoic volcanic rocks ranging from rhyodacites through basalts to basanites and nephelinites, with well established ages, provides a good probe of magma sources at different depths down to the mantle. New Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic data on late Cenozoic volcanic rocks from the Raton-Clayton volcanic field yield significant variations. [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr ratios vary from 0.70397--0.70499, [var epsilon][sub Nd] values range from [minus]3.7--2.4, [sup 206]Pb/[sup 204]Pb ratios are in the range of 17.43--18.48, [sup 207]Pb/[sup 204]Pb from 15.45--15.54 and [sup 208]Pb/[sup 204]Pb from 37.27--38.05. The mafic feldspathoidal rocks, believed to be derived from the enriched mantle reservoir with little crustal contamination, show relatively homogeneous [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr (ca. 0.7041) and [var epsilon][sub Nd] (ca. 2). A positive trend of Pb isotopic ratios, however, suggests possible mantle heterogeneity in Pb isotopic composition beneath the continent. Isotopic data from basaltic lavas display well defined variation trends, bringing to light the role of crustal components in the magmatic process. A strong signature of upper crustal involvement is indicated in the formation of tholeiitic basalts with dicktytaxitic texture, while isotope data from alkali olivine basalts and Capulin trachybasalts suggest lower crust contaminations of these rocks. An apparent isotopic variation trend of the dicktytaxitic basalts is well correlated with geographic location from south to north. Significant discrepancies in isotopic compositions of more silicic rocks compared with those of similar rocks from the Taos Plateau volcanic field to the west, may indicate either large differences in lower crustal composition or different mechanisms in generating these magmas.

  4. Hydrothermal alteration of sediments associated with surface emissions from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Baja, California, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Valette-Silver, J.N.; Esquer-Patino, I.; Elders, W.A.; Collier, P.C.; Hoagland, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Surface emissions from the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir are restricted to a 100 km/sup 2/ area on the western side of the field, near the volcano Cerro Prieto and the lake Laguna Vulcano. Some 57 surface emissions, explored in 1979, were classified into hot springs, mud pots, pools, fumaroles and geysers (Valette and Esquer-Patino, 1979). A study of the mineralogical changes associated with these hydrothermal vents was initiated with the aim of developing possible exploration tools for geothermal resources. The Cerro Prieto reservoir has already been explored by extensive deep drilling so that relationships between surface manifestations and deeper hydrothermal processes could be established directly. Approximately 120 samples of surface sediments were collected both inside and outside of the vents. The mineralogy of the altered sediments studied appears to be controlled by the type of emission. A comparison between the changes in mineralogy due to low temperature hydrothermal activity in the reservoir, seen in samples from boreholes, and mineralogical changes in the surface emission samples shows similar general trends below 180/sup 0/C: increase of quartz, feldspar and illite, with subsequent disappearance of kaolinite, montmorillonite, calcite and dolomite. These mineral assemblages seem to be characteristics of the discharge from high intensity geothermal fields.

  5. Mapping the edge of the Cerros del Rio volcanic field, New Mexico: a piece of the puzzle to understanding a potential geothermal resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellerin, L.; Gallegos, M.; Goebel, M.; Murphy, B. S.; Smith, J.; Soto, D.; Swiatlowski, J.; Volk, C.; Welch, M.; Feucht, D. W.; Hollingshaus, B.; Bedrosian, P. A.; McPhee, D. K.

    2012-12-01

    The Cerros del Rio volcanic field located west of Santa Fe, New Mexico spans the southwestern part of the Espanola Basin with the Rio Grande to the west. Underlying the volcanics are the Santa Fe Group sediments, which contain the Ancha Formation, an important aquifer in the region. High temperature gradients in water wells reveal a potential geothermal prospect. In 2012 the Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE) program acquired transient electromagnetic (TEM), audiomagnetotelluric (AMT), gravity and ground magnetic data to determine the buried eastern margin of the volcanic field and the connectivity related to the underlying sediments. The roughly EW 5-km long transect was sited from USGS aeromagnetic data to cross the boundary of the Cerros del Rio volcanic field. TEM data collected at ten stations, at 200-400 m spacing, along the transect employed an in-loop configuration with a square 100 m x 100 m transmitter loop and both a Zonge receiver coil and a 5 m square receiver loop. The 5 m loop allowed for the recovery of early-time data that was saturated when using the Zonge coil. AMT data were acquired at eight stations, at 400-500 m spacing, using the Geometric Stratagem system recording from 92 kHz to 10 Hz; a horizontal magnetic dipole transmitter was used to augment low signal strength at around 1 kHz. Gravity data along the profile were acquired using CG-3 and CG-5 Scintrex gravimeters with a station interval >250 m. Magnetic data were acquired with a Geometrics Cesium vapor G-858 magnetometer for about 3500 m along the profile at a 0.5 second sampling rate. Two volcanic flows interbedded with Ancha Formation and overlying Santa Fe Group sediments were identified in both the TEM and AMT modeling. High surface resistivity zones (>300 ohm-m) with depths ranging from ~100 to 300 m define the volcanic flows and correspond to high densities (2.3 to 2.55 g/cm3), while low resistivity zones (<30 ohm-m) correspond to lower densities (~2.1 g/cm3). High

  6. Probabilistic Fault Displacement Hazard Assessment For Pipelines, Mad Dog and Atlantis Field Developments, Deepwater Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angell, M.; Hanson, K.; Swan, F.; Youngs, R.; Abramson, H.

    2004-12-01

    Seafloor faults having strong geomorphic expression and evidence for late Quaternary activity (i.e. < ~150,000 years) are common geologic features associated with the Sigsbee Escarpment. Waterbottom maps derived from exploration 3D multichannel seismic data provided an early indication that several zones of seafloor faults are in the vicinity of the Mad Dog and Atlantis prospect areas. As part of the site investigation activities for field development BP initiated a study to characterize the potential hazard due to fault displacement. The fault displacement hazard study consists of five components: 1) a site-wide structural geologic characterization of the style and origin of active faulting and fault-related deformation; 2) development of a late Quaternary stratigraphic model to evaluate the history, recency, and rate of fault activity at the site; 3) detailed characterization of faulting within limited study areas designated to capture fault behavior in areas of potential facilities development; 4) a general description of the relationship between Quaternary active faulting and slope failure processes within the field area; and 5) a probabilistic fault displacement hazard analysis (PFDHA) of the potential for fault rupture within the designated study areas that relates annual frequency of recurrence of faulting events to the size of the event. Changes in the style and origin of faulting and deformation of shallow (suprasalt) sediment across the individual field areas primarily is due to differences in the depth, geometry, and movement history of the underlying Sigsbee Salt Nappe. These relationships and the resulting geologic model for structural evolution of the suprasalt section has been used effectively to assess the site-wide geohazards not only for faulting, but also indirectly for slope failure and mass-gravity flows. Hazard from potential seafloor offset at fault crossings is judged to be moderate to low. Fault offsets of the shallowest horizons (less than

  7. Permeability enhancement due to cold water injection: A Case Study at the Los Azufres Geothermal Field, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.M.; Daggett, J.; Ortiz, J.; Iglesias, E.; Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia; Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca )

    1989-04-01

    Pressure transient buildup and falloff data from 3 wells at the Los Azufres geothermal field have been evaluated to determine the extent to which cold water infection increases the permeability of the near-bore reservoir formation. Simultaneous analysis of the buildup and falloff data provides estimates of the permeability-thickness of the reservoir, the skin factor of the well, and the degree of permeability enhancement in the region behind the thermal front. Estimates of permeability enhancement range from a factor of 4 to 9, for a temperature change of about 150{degree}C. The permeability enhancement is attributed to thermally induced contraction and stress-cracking of the formation. 9 refs., 18 figs.

  8. Determining soil moisture and sediment availability at White Sands Dune Field, New Mexico, from apparent thermal inertia data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheidt, Stephen; Ramsey, Michael; Lancaster, Nicholas

    2010-06-01

    Determinations of soil moisture and sediment availability in arid regions are important indicators of local climate variability and the potential for future dust storm events. Data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) radiometer were used to derive the relationships among potential soil erosion, soil moisture, and thermal inertia (TI) at the spatial scale of aeolian landforms for the White Sands Dune Field between May 2000 and March 2008. Land surface apparent thermal inertia (ATI) data were used to derive an approximation of actual TI in order to estimate the wind threshold velocity ratio (WTR). The WTR is a ratio of the wind velocity thresholds at which soil erosion occurs for wet soil versus dry soil. The ASTER-derived soil moisture retrievals and the changes through time at White Sands were interpreted to be driven primarily by precipitation, but the presence of a perched groundwater table may also influence certain areas. The sediment availability of dunes, active playa surfaces and the margin of the alluvial fans to the west were determined to be consistently higher than the surrounding area. The sediment availability can be primarily explained by precipitation events and the number of dry days prior to the data acquisition. Other factors such as vegetation and the amount of surface crusting may also influence soil mobility, but these were not measured in the field. This approach showed the highest modeled sediment availability values just days prior to the largest dust emission event at White Sands in decades. Such an approach could be extended to a global monitoring technique for arid land systems that are prone to dust storms and for other regional land surface studies in the Sahara.

  9. Controls on the large-scale spatial variations of dune field properties in the barchanoid portion of White Sands dune field, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, Jon D.

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that sediment fluxes and dune sizes are a maximum near the upwind margin of the White Sands dune field and decrease, to first order, with increasing distance downwind. These patterns have alternatively been attributed to a shear-stress overshoot associated with a roughness transition localized at the upwind margin and to the influence of long-wavelength topography on the hydrology and hence erodibility of dune field sediments. I point out an issue that compromises the shear-stress overshoot model and further test the hypothesis that long-wavelength topographic variations, acting in concert with feedbacks among aerodynamic, granulometric, and geomorphic variables, control dune field properties at White Sands. Building upon the existing literature, I document that the mean and variability of grain sizes, sand dryness, aerodynamic roughness lengths, bed shear stresses, sediment fluxes, and ripple and dune heights all achieve local maxima at the crests of the two most prominent scarps in the dune field, one coincident with the upwind margin and the other located 6-7 km downwind. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling predicts that bed shear stresses, erosion rates, and the supply of relatively coarse, poorly sorted sediments are localized at the two scarps due to flow line convergence, hydrology, and the spatially distributed adjustment of the boundary layer to variations in dune size. As a result, the crests of the scarps have larger ripples due to the granulometric control of ripple size. Larger grain sizes and/or larger ripples lead to larger dunes and hence larger values of bed shear stress in a positive feedback.

  10. A History of Distance Education in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castaneda, Manuel Moreno

    2005-01-01

    Research on distance education in Mexico is still in the embryonic stage, in spite of its long history. One indication is that among the lines of research defined by the Mexican Council on Educational Research, the leading organization in the field in Mexico, distance education does not even appear. Only recently, in the last few years, has an…

  11. Detailed 40Ar/39Ar chronology of the Tancítaro Volcanic Field, Michoacán, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ownby, S.; Delgado-Granados, H.; Lange, R.; Hall, C. M.

    2005-12-01

    The Tancítaro volcanic field (TVF) is characterized by over 300 cinder cones and fissure fed lava flows, in addition to the ~10 shield volcanoes and 1 large andesite stratovolcano, ~60 km3 Volcán Tancítaro. The TVF is part of the larger Michoacán Guanajuato volcanic field (MGVF) in the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt, related to subduction of the Cocos plate. We report new 40Ar/39Ar age constraints on the most recent activity from Volcán Tancítaro. Previously, there was only one K-Ar date 530±60 ka for this volcano; Ban et al. (1992). It has been the site of at least two debris avalanche deposits (Capra et al., 2002; Garduno-Monroy, 1999; Ownby et al., 2004), and continues to threaten the cities of Uruapan and Apatzingán in the state of Michoacán, which have a combined population of >300,000. The most recent activity produced a thin blanket of ash (~1-5 m thick along the flanks of the volcano); this ash is tightly bracketed by dates on two nearby shield volcanoes, one underneath (268±14 ka) and the other on top (267±12 ka) of this ash layer. It appears to have triggered a large debris avalanche deposit off the steep slopes of V. Tancítaro (the distinctive ash is mixed in with this avalanche deposit), which itself is bracketed by two cinder cones, one underneath (425±45 ka) and the other on top (179±77 ka). The timing of this ash eruption is close to that for four different andesite lavas from near the summit of V. Tancítaro, which yielded ages of 251±25 ka, 241±25 ka, 228±16 ka, 223±23 ka, respectively. Other dates from the main edifice of V. Tancítaro reveal two earlier episode of activity at ~450 and ~700 ka. We also report an additional set of ~50 40Ar/39Ar ages on various cinder cones, shields, and fissure-fed flows that are peripheral to V. Tancítaro. The samples range in age from ~980 ka to the present, with no obvious breaks in time. They range continuously from 51-62 wt% SiO2, with no breaks in composition. It appears that neither dacite

  12. Evolution of silicic magma in the upper crust: the mid-Tertiary Latir volcanic field and its cogenetic granitic batholith, northern New Mexico, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipman, P.W.

    1988-01-01

    Structural and topographic relief along the eastern margin of the Rio Grande rift, northern New Mexico, provides a remarkable cross-section through the 26-Ma Questa caldera and cogenetic volcanic and plutonic rocks of the Latir field. Exposed levels increase in depth from mid-Tertiary depositional surfaces in northern parts of the igneous complex to plutonic rocks originally at 3-5 km depths in the S. Erosional remnants of an ash-flow sheet of weakly peralkaline rhyolite (Amalia Tuff) and andesitic to dactitic precursor lavas, disrupted by rift-related faults, are preserved as far as 45 km beyond their sources at the Questa caldera. Broadly comagmatic 26 Ma batholithic granitic rocks, exposed over an area of 20 by 35 km, range from mesozonal granodiorite to epizonal porphyritic granite and aplite; shallower and more silicic phases are mostly within the caldera. Compositionally and texturally distinct granites defined resurgent intrusions within the caldera and discontinuous ring dikes along its margins: a batholithic mass of granodiorite extends 20 km S of the caldera and locally grades vertically to granite below its flat-lying roof. A negative Bouguer gravity anomaly (15-20 mgal), which encloses exposed granitic rocks and coincides with boundaries of the Questa caldera, defined boundaries of the shallow batholith, emplaced low in the volcanic sequence and in underlying Precambrian rocks. Paleomagnetic pole positions indicate that successively crystallised granitic plutons cooled through Curie temperatures during the time of caldera formation, initial regional extension, and rotational tilting of the volcanic rocks. Isotopic ages for most intrusions are indistinguishable from the volcanic rocks. These relations indicate that the batholithic complex broadly represents the source magma for the volcanic rocks, into which the Questa caldera collapsed, and that the magma was largely liquid during regional tectonic disruption. -from Author

  13. Cerro Toledo Rhyolite, Jemez Volcanic Field, New Mexico: {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar geochronology of eruptions between two caldera-forming events

    SciTech Connect

    Spell, T.L. |; McDougall, I.; Doulgeris, A.P.

    1996-12-01

    The Cerro Toledo Rhyolite comprises a group of domes and tephra which were erupted during the interval between two caldera-forming ignimbrites, the Tshirege Member and Otowi Member of the Bandelier Tuff, in the Jemez Volcanic Field, New Mexico. To provide a chronologic framework for geochemical and isotopic studies on these rhyolites, which record the evolution of the Bandelier magma system during this interval, a {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar geochronology study was undertaken. Pumice from major pyroclastic fall deposits within the rhyolite tephra and samples from the rhyolite domes were dated as well as the stratigraphically bracketing Bandelier Tuff. The {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar ages for the two members of the Bandelier Tuff Yield and interval of 380{+-}20 k.y. between these caldera forming eruptions. During this interval nine major pyroclastic pumice units were deposited in the sections studies, for which six yield isochron ages, one a weighted mean age, one a maximum age, and one no reliable age due to lack of sanidine. {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar dates on pumice fall units within the Cerro Toledo Rhyolite tephra indicate that eruptive activity occurred at > 1.59, 1.54, 1.48, 1.37 and 1.22 Ma. {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar dating of Cerro Toledo Rhyolite domes indicates these were erupted within the caldera at 1.54, 1.45, 1.38-1.34, and 1.27 Ma. The dates obtained indicate that eruptive activity occurred throughout the 380 k.y. interval between the two members of the Bandelier Tuff, but suggest that eruptions producing both tephra and domes occurred during discrete intervals at ca. 1.54, 1.48 and 1.38-1.34 Ma. 43 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Using laboratory flow experiments and reactive chemical transport modeling for designing waterflooding of the Agua Fria Reservoir, Poza Rica-Altamira Field, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Birkle, P.; Pruess, K.; Xu, T.; Figueroa, R.A. Hernandez; Lopez, M. Diaz; Lopez, E. Contreras

    2008-10-01

    Waterflooding for enhanced oil recovery requires that injected waters must be chemically compatible with connate reservoir waters, in order to avoid mineral dissolution-and-precipitation cycles that could seriously degrade formation permeability and injectivity. Formation plugging is a concern especially in reservoirs with a large content of carbonates, such as calcite and dolomite, as such minerals typically react rapidly with an aqueous phase, and have strongly temperature-dependent solubility. Clay swelling can also pose problems. During a preliminary waterflooding pilot project, the Poza Rica-Altamira oil field, bordering the Gulf coast in the eastern part of Mexico, experienced injectivity loss after five months of reinjection of formation waters into well AF-847 in 1999. Acidizing with HCl restored injectivity. We report on laboratory experiments and reactive chemistry modeling studies that were undertaken in preparation for long-term waterflooding at Agua Frma. Using analogous core plugs obtained from the same reservoir interval, laboratory coreflood experiments were conducted to examine sensitivity of mineral dissolution and precipitation effects to water composition. Native reservoir water, chemically altered waters, and distilled water were used, and temporal changes in core permeability, mineral abundances and aqueous concentrations of solutes were monitored. The experiments were simulated with the multi-phase, nonisothermal reactive transport code TOUGHREACT, and reasonable to good agreement was obtained for changes in solute concentrations. Clay swelling caused an additional impact on permeability behavior during coreflood experiments, whereas the modeled permeability depends exclusively on chemical processes. TOUGHREACT was then used for reservoir-scale simulation of injecting ambient-temperature water (30 C, 86 F) into a reservoir with initial temperature of 80 C (176 F). Untreated native reservoir water was found to cause serious porosity and

  15. Resistance management strategies in malaria vector mosquito control. Baseline data for a large-scale field trial against Anopheles albimanus in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Penilla, R P; Rodríguez, A D; Hemingway, J; Torres, J L; Arredondo-Jiménez, J I; Rodríguez, M H

    1998-07-01

    A high level of DDT resistance and low levels of resistance to organophosphorus, carbamate and pyrethroid insecticides were detected by discriminating dose assays in field populations of Anopheles albimanus in Chiapas, southern Mexico, prior to a large-scale resistance management project described by Hemingway et al. (1997). Biochemical assays showed that the DDT resistance was caused by elevated levels of glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity leading to increased rates of metabolism of DDT to DDE. The numbers of individuals with elevated GST and DDT resistance were well correlated, suggesting that this is the only major DDT resistance mechanism in this population. The carbamate resistance in this population is conferred by an altered acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-based resistance mechanism. The level of resistance observed in the bioassays correlates with the frequency of individuals homozygous for the altered AChE allele. This suggests that the level of resistance conferred by this mechanism in its heterozygous state is below the level of detection by the WHO carbamate discriminating dosage bioassay. The low levels of organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid resistance could be conferred by either the elevated esterase or monooxygenase enzymes. The esterases were elevated only with the substrate pNPA, and are unlikely to be causing broad spectrum OP resistance. The altered AChE mechanism may also be contributing to the OP but not the pyrethroid resistance. Significant differences in resistance gene frequencies were obtained from the F1 mosquitoes resulting from adults obtained by different collection methods. This may be caused by different insecticide selection pressures on the insects immediately prior to collection, or may be an indication that the indoor- and outdoor-resting A. albimanus collections are not from a randomly mating single population. The underlying genetic variability of the populations is currently being investigated by molecular methods. PMID

  16. Paleomagnetic results from the Mogollon-Datil Volcanic Field, southwestern New Mexico, and a refined Mid-Tertiary Reference Pole for North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehl, J. F.; McClannahan, K. M.; Bornhorst, T. J.

    1988-05-01

    Miocene-Oligocene rocks of the Mogollon-Datil volcanic field in southwestern New Mexico have yielded paleomagnetic data giving 61 site-mean/unit VGPs and a paleomagnetic pole located at 81.9°N, 143.6°E (A95 = 4.5°; k = 17.6). This pole is indistinguishable from other mid-Tertiary reference poles for North America. Combining the Mogollon-Datil data with VGP data from other studies of mid-Tertiary (20-40 Ma) rocks yields a paleomagnetic pole at 81.5°N, 147.3°E (N = 239; A95 = 2.4°; k = 15.4). When divided into normal and reversed polarity subsets the data yield paleomagnetic poles that are statistically different at the 95% confidence level [McFadden and Lowes, 1981]. The paleopole determined from reversely magnetized units, located at 78.6°N, 138.5°E (N = 125; A95 = 3.4°; k = 14.5), is 6.8° on the far side of the paleopole determined from normally magnetized units, positioned at 84.2°N, 166.4°E (N = 114; A95 = 3.3°; k = 17.0), when viewed from a common site location (i.e., the western United States). Similar pole positions an differences are also seen in 10-Ma subsets of this data set. Incomplete removal of a normal overprint on the reversely magnetized units appears unlikely to explain these results. Rather, we suggest that the differences are consistent with the concept that differing harmonics may be associated with the two polarity states over the long term [Merrill and McElhinny, 1977; Merrill et al., 1979].

  17. Origin of metaluminous and alkaline volcanic rocks of the Latir volcanic field, northern Rio Grande rift, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Clark M.; Lipman, Peter W.

    1988-09-01

    Volcanic rocks of the Latir volcanic field evolved in an open system by crystal fractionation, magma mixing, and crustal assimilation. Early high-SiO2 rhyolites (28.5 Ma) fractionated from intermediate compositionmagmas that did not reach the surface. Most precaldera lavas have intermediate-compositions, from olivine basaltic-andesite (53% SiO2) to quartz latite (67% SiO2). The precaldera intermediate-composition lavas have anomalously high Ni and MgO contents and reversely zoned hornblende and augite phenocrysts, indicating mixing between primitive basalts and fractionated magmas. Isotopic data indicate that all of the intermediate-composition rocks studied contain large crustal components, although xenocrysts are found only in one unit. Inception of alkaline magmatism (alkalic dacite to high-SiO2 peralkaline rhyolite) correlates with, initiation of regional extension approximately 26 Ma ago. The Questa caldera formed 26.5 Ma ago upon eruption of the >500 km3 high-SiO2 peralkaline Amalia Tuff. Phenocryst compositions preserved in the cogenetic peralkaline granite suggest that the Amalia Tuff magma initially formed from a trace element-enriched, high-alkali metaluminous magma; isotopic data suggest that the parental magmas contain a large crustal component. Degassing of water- and halogen-rich alkali basalts may have provided sufficient volatile transport of alkalis and other elements into the overlying silicic magma chamber to drive the Amalia Tuff magma to peralkaline compositions. Trace element variations within the Amalia Tuff itself may be explained solely by 75% crystal fractionation of the observed phenocrysts. Crystal settling, however, is inconsistent with mineralogical variations in the tuff, and crystallization is thought to have occurred at a level below that tapped by the eruption. Spatially associated Miocene (15-11 Ma) lavas did not assimilate large amounts of crust or mix with primitive basaltic magmas. Both mixing and crustal assimilation processes

  18. Size, distribution, and magma output rate for shield volcanoes of the Michoacán-Guanajuato volcanic field, Central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasenaka, T.

    1994-10-01

    The Michoacán-Guanajuato Volcanic Field (MGVF), in the west-central Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB), contains nearly 400 medium-sized volcanoes in addition to 1000 small monogenetic cones. The area is distinct from other parts of the MVB, where large composite volcanoes predominate. Shield volcanoes are dominant among medium-sized volcanoes, which also include minor lava domes and composite volcanoes. The location, height, basal diameter, and crater diameter (when applicable) of 378 medium-sized volcanoes were catalogued, and the slope angles and volumes were calculated from these data. The median shield volcano has a height of 340 m, a basal diameter of 4100 m, an average slope angle of 9.4°, and a volume of 1.7 km 3. The shield volcanoes in the MGVF are similar in size to Icelandic-type shield volcanoes, but the former have much higher slope angles and smaller basal diameters than the latter. Within the MGVF, these medium-sized volcanoes are located between 190 km and 430 km from the Middle America Trench; the distribution area is similar to that of small cones, but clusters and alignments are not as obvious for the medium-sized cones. The shield density is highest between 270 and 280 km from the Middle America Trench, 20 km farther than the density maximum for small cones. Ten medium-sized volcanoes were considered younger than 40,000 yr B.P. from lava flow morphology. The slope angle and a ratio of height to basal diameter are not useful age indicators, because they seem to reflect difference in original shield shape. K-Ar ages of shield volcanoes reveal that the volcanoes located north of latitude 19°55'N were active between 1 Ma and 3 Ma, whereas those south of latitude 19°55'N were active since 1 Ma. The average volcanic output rate estimated for the last 1 Ma is 0.7 km 3/1000 yr., whereas that for the period of 1-3 Ma is 0.2 km 3/1000 yr. An increase in magma production occurred around 1 Ma in response to migration of volcanism and probably to a change in

  19. Origin of metaluminous and alkaline volcanic rocks of the Latir volcanic field, northern Rio Grande rift, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.M.; Lipman, P.W.

    1988-01-01

    Volcanic rocks of the Latir volcanic field evolved in an open system by crystal fractionation, magma mixing, and crustal assimilation. Early high-SiO2 rhyolites (28.5 Ma) fractionated from intermediate compositionmagmas that did not reach the surface. Most precaldera lavas have intermediate-compositions, from olivine basaltic-andesite (53% SiO2) to quartz latite (67% SiO2). The precaldera intermediate-composition lavas have anomalously high Ni and MgO contents and reversely zoned hornblende and augite phenocrysts, indicating mixing between primitive basalts and fractionated magmas. Isotopic data indicate that all of the intermediate-composition rocks studied contain large crustal components, although xenocrysts are found only in one unit. Inception of alkaline magmatism (alkalic dacite to high-SiO2 peralkaline rhyolite) correlates with, initiation of regional extension approximately 26 Ma ago. The Questa caldera formed 26.5 Ma ago upon eruption of the >500 km3 high-SiO2 peralkaline Amalia Tuff. Phenocryst compositions preserved in the cogenetic peralkaline granite suggest that the Amalia Tuff magma initially formed from a trace element-enriched, high-alkali metaluminous magma; isotopic data suggest that the parental magmas contain a large crustal component. Degassing of water- and halogen-rich alkali basalts may have provided sufficient volatile transport of alkalis and other elements into the overlying silicic magma chamber to drive the Amalia Tuff magma to peralkaline compositions. Trace element variations within the Amalia Tuff itself may be explained solely by 75% crystal fractionation of the observed phenocrysts. Crystal settling, however, is inconsistent with mineralogical variations in the tuff, and crystallization is thought to have occurred at a level below that tapped by the eruption. Spatially associated Miocene (15-11 Ma) lavas did not assimilate large amounts of crust or mix with primitive basaltic magmas. Both mixing and crustal assimilation processes

  20. Mechanized and natural soil-to-air transfer of trifluralin and prometryn from a cotton field in Las Cruces, New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Holmén, Britt A; Kasumba, John; Hiscox, April; Wang, Junming; Miller, David

    2013-10-16

    Two pre-emergence herbicides (trifluralin and prometryn) were applied on a cotton field in Las Cruces, New Mexico, and their atmospheric particle and gas-phase concentrations were measured during mechanized soil preparation and natural wind erosion sampling events before and after herbicide application. Air sampling was conducted using samplers mounted at various heights from the ground and at various locations on the field. During mechanized soil management with a disk harrow, sampling occurred at two distances from the tractor ("near-source", 4 m downwind and "far-source", 20-100 m from the disking tractor). Natural background (no disking) sampling events occurred during daytime and at night. Both herbicides were quantifiable for all postapplication sampling events, including background sampling that occurred 8, 38, and 40 days after herbicide application. Average concentrations in both the gas and particle phases ranged from about 10 to 350 ng/m(3). Averaging by event type, mean total prometryn concentrations were 2 (night background) to 8 (near-source) times higher than the corresponding trifluralin concentrations. Prometryn/trifluralin ratios were higher in airborne samples than in soil, indicative of trifluralin losses during daytime sampling, possibly via atmospheric reactions. Prometryn particle phase mass fractions were generally higher than those for trifluralin for all sampling events, consistent with Kair/soil-oc partition coefficients, and particle-phase mass fractions were higher for near-source disking and daytime background sampling compared to far-source and nighttime. Daytime natural background prometryn concentrations could be as high as those measured during disking, and background samples showed significant relationships to meteorological parameters (air temperature, relative humidity, and dewpoint). Mechanical disturbance by tilling operations reduced the ability to predict airborne herbicide concentrations on the basis of meteorological

  1. Aflatoxin-producing fungi in maize field soils from sea level to over 2000 masl: a three year study in Sonora, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Beltran, Alejandro; Jaime, Ramon; Cotty, Peter J

    2015-04-01

    Aflatoxins, highly toxic carcinogens produced by several members of Aspergillus section Flavi, contaminate crops in temperate zones. In the state of Sonora, Mexico, maize is cultivated from 0 to 2100 masl with diverse cultivation practices. This is typical of the nation. In order to design better sampling strategies across Mexico, aflatoxin-producing fungal communities associated with maize production during 2006, 2007, and 2008 in Sonora were investigated in four agro-ecological zones (AEZ) at varying elevation. Fungal communities were dominated by the Aspergillus flavus L strain morphotype (46%), but variation occurred between years and among AEZ. Several atoxigenic isolates with potential to be used as biocontrol agents for aflatoxin mitigation were detected in all AEZ. The characteristics of each AEZ had minimal influences on fungal community structure and should not be a major consideration for future sampling designs for Mexico. Insights into the dynamics and stability of aflatoxin-producing fungal communities across AEZ are discussed. PMID:25813508

  2. New Insights on the Evolution of Magmas at Paricutin Volcano, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, M. C.; Peate, D. W.; Ukstins Peate, I.

    2011-12-01

    Paricutin volcano, located within the Michoacan-Guanajuato volcanic field (MGVF), Mexico, erupted over a 9 year period (1943-1952). Often cited as the classic example of assimilation-fractional crystallization (AFC) processes, bulk compositions of the erupted lavas at Paricutin range from basaltic andesite to andesite and previous studies have correlated this change in bulk composition to increases in 87Sr/86Sr and δ18 O. In this study, we have focused on melt inclusions and new whole rock data to better understand the processes leading to the evolution of magmatic compositions at Paricutin. Olivine- and orthopyroxene hosted melt inclusions are utilized to examine the relative timing of fractionation and contamination during the different eruptive periods of Paricutin. New whole rock trace element compositions, both from this study and the literature, are also incorporated to better determine the initial diversity of magmas and the temporal evolution of bulk compositions. Melt inclusions and whole rock compositions record a complex magmatic history. Initial erupted magmas (Phase 1) are compositionally variable (Ba/Nb from 45-60). Relative to Phase 1, Phase 2 magmas and inclusions have lower Ba/Nb (~38-52) and higher K2O/TiO2 (~1-1.5), inconsistent with models for crustal contamination and fractionation. In addition, Phase 2 lavas have comparable 87Sr/86Sr but distinctive Zr/Y (~6 vs. 7-8) and LREE/HREE ratios (La/YbN: 5.3-5.7 vs. 6.6-7.2) compared to Phase 1 magmas, features that can be explained by small differences in melting. Melt inclusions also record little evidence for magma mixing between Phases 1 and 2, again reflecting the distinctive melt compositions. Phase 3 magmas, in contrast to Phases 1 and 2, record a wide compositional range (SiO2 from ~57-60.5 wt%, Ba/Nb ~53-73) that is consistent with an AFC model. Co-variations in Cl/K and K2O/TiO2 suggest that Phase 3 is assimilating dominantly mid to upper crustal material, similar to xenoliths and basement

  3. PREFACE: XIV Mexican School on Particles and Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, Adnan; Contreras, Guillermo; Raya, Alfredo; Tejeda-Yeomans, Maria Elena

    2011-03-01

    The XIV Mexican School on Particles and Fields took place from 8-12 November, 2010, in the colonial city of Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico. The format of the school was such that the morning sessions were devoted to theoretical and experimental reviews, whereas parallel thematic sessions were held in the afternoons. All the reviews and seminars were delivered by experts of international prestige on subjects which are of current interest to the global scientific community and are also actively pursued within Mexico. In order to equip the attending graduate students and post docs with the necessary introductory tools to allow them to benefit substantially from the specialized seminars, a series of mini-courses were offered prior to the event from 4-7 November 2010, in the Auditorium of the Faculty of Science of the University of Michoacan (UMSNH). The length of each course was about 5 hours, English being the language of instruction. An informal and friendly atmosphere was encouraged during the courses so that the students could overcome their inhibitions and actively participate in the discussions. A novel feature of this event was a colloquium aimed at the general public and younger students of pre-undergraduate level, which allowed the expert scientists to reach out to a wider community and raise their awareness and interest in one of the most fascinating and vital fields of knowledge. The XIV-MSPF was organized by the Division of Particles and Fields of the Mexican Physical Society. It was generously sponsored by several institutions: Consejo Estatal de Ciencia y Tecnológico (COECyT) del Estado de Michoacán, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Universidad de Sonora, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad de Guanajuato, Universidad de Sinaloa, Centro de Investigaciones de Estudios Avanzados del IPN (CINVESTAV), Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACyT), la Academia Mexicana de Ciencias and, most importantly, the Red Nacional

  4. PREFACE: XIV Mexican School on Particles and Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, Adnan; Contreras, Guillermo; Raya, Alfredo; Tejeda-Yeomans, Maria Elena

    2011-03-01

    The XIV Mexican School on Particles and Fields took place from 8-12 November, 2010, in the colonial city of Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico. The format of the school was such that the morning sessions were devoted to theoretical and experimental reviews, whereas parallel thematic sessions were held in the afternoons. All the reviews and seminars were delivered by experts of international prestige on subjects which are of current interest to the global scientific community and are also actively pursued within Mexico. In order to equip the attending graduate students and post docs with the necessary introductory tools to allow them to benefit substantially from the specialized seminars, a series of mini-courses were offered prior to the event from 4-7 November 2010, in the Auditorium of the Faculty of Science of the University of Michoacan (UMSNH). The length of each course was about 5 hours, English being the language of instruction. An informal and friendly atmosphere was encouraged during the courses so that the students could overcome their inhibitions and actively participate in the discussions. A novel feature of this event was a colloquium aimed at the general public and younger students of pre-undergraduate level, which allowed the expert scientists to reach out to a wider community and raise their awareness and interest in one of the most fascinating and vital fields of knowledge. The XIV-MSPF was organized by the Division of Particles and Fields of the Mexican Physical Society. It was generously sponsored by several institutions: Consejo Estatal de Ciencia y Tecnológico (COECyT) del Estado de Michoacán, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Universidad de Sonora, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad de Guanajuato, Universidad de Sinaloa, Centro de Investigaciones de Estudios Avanzados del IPN (CINVESTAV), Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACyT), la Academia Mexicana de Ciencias and, most importantly, the Red Nacional

  5. Evaluation of solitary waves as a mechanism for oil transport in poroelastic media: A case study of the South Eugene Island field, Gulf of Mexico basin

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Ajit; Appold, Martin S.; Nunn, Jeffrey A.

    2012-11-01

    Hydrocarbons in shallow reservoirs of the Eugene Island 330 field in the Gulf of Mexico basin are thought to have migrated rapidly along low permeability sediments of the Red fault zone as discrete pressure pulses from source rocks at depths of about 4.5 km. The aim of this research was to evaluate the hypothesis that these pressure pulses represent solitary waves by investigating the mechanics of solitary wave formation and motion and wave oil transport capability. A two-dimensional numerical model of Eugene Island minibasin formation predicted overpressures at the hydrocarbon source depth to increase at an average rate of 30 Pa/yr, reaching 52 MPa by the present day and oil velocities of 1E-12 m/yr, far too low for kilometer scale oil transport to fill shallow Plio-Pleistocene reservoirs within the 3.6 million year minibasin history. Calculations from a separate one-dimensional model that used the pressure generation rate from the two-dimensional model showed that solitary waves could only form and migrate within sediments that have very low permeabilities between 1-25 to 1-24 m2 and that are highly overpressured to 91-93% of lithostatic pressure. Solitary waves were found to have a maximum pore volume of 105 m3, to travel a maximum distance of 1-2 km, and to have a maximum velocity of 1-3 m/yr. Based on these results, solitary waves are unlikely to have transported oil to the shallowest reservoirs in the Eugene Island field in a poroelastic fault gouge rheology at the pressure generation rates likely to have been caused by disequilibrium compaction and hydrocarbon generation. However, solitary waves could perhaps be important agents for oil transport in other locations where reservoirs are closer to the source rocks, where the pore space is occupied by more than one fluid, or where sudden fracturing of overpressured hydrocarbon source sediments would allow the solitary waves to propagate as shock waves. Hydrocarbons in shallow reservoirs of the Eugene Island 330

  6. Extreme Subduction Earthquake Scenarios and their Economical Consequences for Mexico City and Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, M.; Cabrera, E.; Perea, N.

    2007-05-01

    The destructive effects of large magnitude, thrust subduction superficial (TSS) earthquakes on Mexico City (MC) and Guadalajara (G) has been shown in the recent centuries. For example, the 7/04/1845 a TSS earthquake with Ms 7+ and epicentral distance of about 250 km from MC occurred on the coast of the state of Guerrero, a Maximum Mercalli Modified Intensity (MMI) of IX-X was reported in MC. Furthermore, the 19/09/1985 a Ms 8.1, Mw 8.01, TSS earthquake with epicentral distance of about 340 km from MC occurred on the coast of the state of Michoacan, a maximum MMI of IX-X was reported in MC. Also, the largest, Ms 8.2, instrumentally observed TSS earthquake in Mexico, occurred in the Colima-Jalisco region the 3/06/1932, with epicentral distance of the order of 200 km from G in northwestern Mexico. The 9/10/1995 another similar event, Ms 7.4, Mw 8, with an epicentral distance of about 240 km from G, occurred in the same region and produced MMI IX in the epicentral zone and MMI up to VI in G. The frequency of occurrence of large TSS earthquakes in Mexico is poorly known, but it might vary from decades to centuries [1]. On the other hand, the first recordings of strong ground motions in MC dates from the early 1960´s and most of them were recorded after the 19/09/1985 earthquake. In G there is only one recording of the later event, and 13 for the one occurred the 9/10/1995 [2]. In order to fulfill the lack of strong ground motions records for large damaging TSS earthquakes, which could have an important economical impact on MC [3] and G, in this work we have modeled broadband synthetics (obtained with a hybrid model that has already been satisfactorily compared with observations of the 9/10/1995 Colima-Jalisco Mw 8 earthquake, [4]) expected in MC and G, associated to extreme magnitude Mw 8.5, TSS scenario earthquakes with epicenters in the so-called Guerrero gap and in the Colima-Jalisco zone, respectively. The proposed scenarios are based on the seismic history and up

  7. Aflatoxin-producing fungi in maize field soils from sea level to over 2000 masl: A three year study in Sonora, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins, highly toxic carcinogens produced by several members of Aspergillus section Flavi, contaminate crops in temperate zones. Maize is cultivated from 0 to 2,100 masl under diverse growing regimes in the state of Sonora, Mexico. This is typical of the nation. In order to design sampling strat...

  8. Evaluation of the solute geothermometry of thermal springs and drilled wells of La Primavera (Cerritos Colorados) geothermal field, Mexico: A geochemometrics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandarinath, Kailasa; Domínguez-Domínguez, Humberto

    2015-10-01

    A detailed study on the solute geothermometry of thermal water (18 springs and 8 drilled wells) of La Primavera geothermal field (LPGF) in Mexico has been carried out by employing a geochemical database compiled from the literature and by applying all the available solute geothermometers. The performance of these geothermometers in predicting the reservoir temperatures has been evaluated by applying a geochemometrics (geochemical and statistical) method. The springs of the LPGF are of bicarbonate type and the majority have attained partial-equilibrium chemical conditions and the remaining have shown non-equilibrium conditions. In the case of geothermal wells, water is dominantly of chloride-type and, among the studied eight geothermal wells, four have shown full-equilibrium chemical conditions and another four have indicated partial-equilibrium conditions. All springs of HCO3-​ type water have provided unreliable reservoir temperatures, whereas the only one available spring of SO42- type water has provided the reservoir temperature nearer to the average BHT of the wells. Contrary to the general expected behavior, spring water of non-equilibrium and geothermal well water of partial-equilibrium chemical conditions have indicated more reliable reservoir temperatures than those of partially-equilibrated and fully-equilibrated water, respectively. Among the chemical concentration data, Li and SiO2 of two springs, SO42- and Mg of four springs, and HCO3 and Na concentrations of two geothermal wells were identified as outliers and this has been reflected in very low reservoir temperatures predicted by the geothermometers associated with them (Li-Mg, Na-Li, Na-K-Mg, SiO2 etc.). Identification of the outlier data points may be useful in differentiating the chemical characteristics, lithology and the physico-chemical and geological processes at the sample locations of the study area. In general, the solute geothermometry of the spring waters of LPGF indicated a dominantly

  9. The Andesites of the Tancítaro Volcanic Field, Michoacán Mexico: Evidence for their Formation in the Lower Crust.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ownby, S. E.; Lange, R. A.

    2006-12-01

    The Tancítaro Volcanic field (~4000 km2) is located in the state of Michoacán, Mexico and is part of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt related to subduction of the Cocos plate beneath North America. Erupted magmas show a continuum in composition from basalt (~51 wt% SiO2) through andesite (63 wt% SiO2); there is no dacite or rhyolite. This study focuses on the andesites (58-63 wt %), which show a considerable variation in eruptive style (cinder cones, shields, fissure-fed flows, and one stratovolcano, Volcán Tancítaro), degree of crystallinity (~3 to 40 vol%), and phenocryst assemblage (two- pyroxene + plagioclase; hornblende + plagioclase; hornblende only, etc.). There is no correlation between crystallinity and/or phenocryst assemblage and composition, although there is with style of eruption. All andesites erupted from the large (~100 km3) stratovolcano are crystal-rich (34-45 vol%), whereas peripheral erupted units in the form of cinder cones, shields, and fissure-fed flows show a lower range of crystallinities from ~3-20 vol%. Electron microprobe analyses have been conducted on 15-25 plagioclase grains in each of several andesite samples. For the crystal-poor varieties, the plagioclase hygrometer of Lange and Frey (2006) was used to calculate their pre-eruptive water concentrations. In one example, there is a variation of > 25 mol% in An content (~An85-60), which corresponds to a variation in water concentration of ~6-3 wt% H2O. Thus the variation in plagioclase composition in this crystal-poor andesite could be a result of degassing upon ascent rather than magma mingling. This is consistent with the textures of these plagioclase grains, which include abundant melt inclusions and evidence of rapid growth. In another crystal-poor example, there is a relatively narrow range (< 10 mol%) in An content (An70-60) among numerous plagioclase grains, corresponding to a water content that clusters near 3 wt% H2O. A combination of several lines of evidence suggests

  10. Long-Term Continuous Monitoring of Fluid Chemistry and Flux at the Bush Hill Gas Hydrate Field, Gulf of Mexico Using a New Flow Meter, The MOSQUITO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, E.; Kastner, M.; Jannasch, H.; Weinstein, Y.; Robertson, G.; Aubrey, A.

    2004-12-01

    Long-term monitoring of fluid, solute, and methane fluxes that influence marine gas hydrate formation and dissociation has important implications for the seafloor biochemical environment, ocean chemistry, and potentially the atmosphere. Four newly designed flux meters called the MOSQUITO (Multiple Orifice Sampler and Quantitative Injection Tracer Observer) and two temperature loggers were deployed adjacent to the Bush Hill hydrate mound in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GC185) in order to understand how chemistry, physics, biology, and subsurface hydrology dynamically influence the growth and dissociation of the hydrate mound. The MOSQUITO contains a network of osmotic samplers and a tracer injection device, each connected to a titanium capillary tube that penetrates the sediment. The tracer is injected as a point source, and fluid chemistry and tracer concentrations are continuously sampled simultaneously at multiple depths below the seafloor in a three dimensional array with respect to the tracer injection point. Bottom water chemistry is also sampled continuously. Vertical and horizontal flow rates as low as 1 cm/yr are determined by modeling the variability in tracer concentration at each depth over time. MOSQUITOs can be deployed at passive margins, ridge crests, ridge flanks, subduction zones, and lakes. MOSQUITOs were deployed over a period of 430 days from June 2002 to August 2003 and were sampled at weekly resolution. The temperature loggers were attached to the MOSQUITOs and recorded seafloor temperature every 40 minutes. Three MOSQUITOs were deployed within 3 m of the hydrate mound and ˜ 5 m apart, adjacent to transient methane seeps; in a mussel field, in a bacterial mat, and in a tubeworm field. The fourth MOSQUITO was placed ˜150 m southwest of the hydrate mound to monitor background fluid flow, geochemistry, and temperature. The average bottom water temperature over the 430-day deployment period was 7.94° C, with minimum temperatures occurring every

  11. Paleomagnetic, Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility, and 40AR/39AR Data from the Cienega Volcano, Cerros del Rio Volcanic Field, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foucher, M. S.; Petronis, M. S.; Lindline, J.; Van Wyk de Vries, B.

    2012-12-01

    Cinder cone eruptions are typically interpreted to have formed by the ascension of magma through a simple conduit. Recent field work and laboratory studies on different excavated volcanoes around the world suggest that magma transport within cinder cones can involve a complex system of feeder geometries. We studied the Cienega volcano, a cinder cone in the Cerros del Rio volcanic field, northern New Mexico, in order to better understand the complexity and the evolution of volcanic plumbing systems in the development of cinder cone volcanoes. We hypothesized that cinder cone plumbing systems are inherently complex and involve numerous feeder geometries (e.g. dikes, sills) and flow patterns both towards and away from the central vent complex. The Cienega volcano comprises tephra fall deposits as well as several vents, multiple intrusions, and numerous lava flow sequences. We inspected the magmatic plumbing system using different laboratory methods including paleomagnetic, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), rock magnetic and thin section studies. We collected samples across each outcrop of the feeder system. The dikes are olivine porphyritic basalts with major clinopyroxene, calcic plagioclase feldspar, magnetite, and xenocrystic quartz. Most samples display a trachytic texture with plagioclase crystals showing a preferred orientation parallel to the dike margins. The magnetic information is held predominantly by a cubic phase magnetite with a low- to moderate-Ti composition of Single or Pseudo-Single Domain grains. The AMS results show various flow directions. Three of six dikes yielded magma flow directions away from the vent. The other dikes showed both a subvertical flow, which corresponds to the typical movement of magma in a dike originating from a deeper crustal level, and a downward flow direction. We concluded that magma initially flowed upward from the magma chamber until it encountered flow resistance. At this structural level (the current

  12. Potential field studies of the central San Luis Basin and San Juan Mountains, Colorado and New Mexico, and southern and western Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drenth, Benjamin John

    This dissertation includes three separate chapters, each demonstrating the interpretive utility of potential field (gravity and magnetic) geophysical datasets at various scales and in various geologic environments. The locations of these studies are the central San Luis Basin of Colorado and New Mexico, the San Juan Mountains of southwestern Colorado, and southern and western Afghanistan. The San Luis Basin is the northernmost of the major basins that make up the Rio Grande rift, and interpretation of gravity and aeromagnetic data reveals patterns of rifting, rift-sediment thicknesses, distribution of pre-rift volcanic and sedimentary rocks, and distribution of syn-rift volcanic rocks. Syn-rift Santa Fe Group sediments have a maximum thickness of ˜2 km in the Sanchez graben near the eastern margin of the basin along the central Sangre de Cristo fault zone. Under the Costilla Plains, thickness of these sediments is estimated to reach ˜1.3 km. The Santa Fe Group sediments also reach a thickness of nearly 1 km within the Monte Vista graben near the western basin margin along the San Juan Mountains. A narrow, north-south-trending structural high beneath San Pedro Mesa separates the graben from the structural depression beneath the Costilla Plains. Aeromagnetic anomalies are interpreted to mainly reflect variations of remanent magnetic polarity and burial depth of the 5.3-3.7 Ma Servilleta basalt of the Taos Plateau volcanic field. Magnetic-source depth estimates indicate patterns of subsidence following eruption of the basalt and show that the Sanchez graben has been the site of maximum subsidence. One of the largest and most pronounced gravity lows in North America lies over the rugged San Juan Mountains in southwestern Colorado. A buried, low-density silicic batholith related to an Oligocene volcanic field coincident with the San Juan Mountains has been the accepted interpretation of the source of the gravity low since the 1970s. However, this interpretation was

  13. The evolution of the Eagle Peak volcano — a distinctive phase of middle miocene volcanism in the western Mogollon-Datil volcanic field, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bove, Dana J.; Ratté, James C.; McIntosh, William C.; Snee, Lawrence W.; Futa, Kiyoto

    1995-12-01

    The andesitic to dacitic Eagle Peak volcano represents a distinctive phase of Middle Miocene, post-caldera volcanism in the western part of the Mogollon-Datil volcanic field in southwestern New Mexico. Erupted during Basin and Range extensional tectonism, rocks of the Eagle Peak volcano are chemically and isotopically distinct from the bimodal suite, extension-related basalt and rhyolite that also erupted in this area from the Early Miocene to the Pleistocene. Instead, they have close petrogenetic affinities to the early post-caldera ( 27-23 Ma) calc-alkaline, Bearwallow Mountain Andesite erupted from shield volcanos aligned along prominent Basin and Range fault structures. Geologic mapping and detailed petrographic and chemical studies of the Eagle Peak volcano has enabled the distinction of five different flow units, a central plug and a feeder dike. The flows were erupted from a central vent and two subsidiary "satellitic" centers on the western and southwestern flanks of the volcano. {40Ar }/{39Ar } age-spectrum and paleomagnetic studies indicate that the Eagle Peak volcano was active between 12.1 and 11.4 Ma; its activity spanned at least one magnetic polarity reversal. With exception of late satellitic eruptions on the northwestern margin of the volcano, central vent and satellitic flows were erupted in rapid succession and have an average age of 11.7 Ma. The central plug yielded a plateau age of 11.4 Ma, which is a minimum of 90,000 years (2σ) younger than the 11.7 Ma average age of the central vent and satellitic flows. Major-oxide, trace-element and isotope geochemistry define two distinct magmatic series: a central vent and a satellitic series. Rocks of the satellitic series, although similar in modal mineralogy and rare earth element patterns, are slightly more alkaline and relatively enriched in the high field strength elements Nb, Ta, P and Ti compared to the central vent eruptives. Sr and Nd isotopes further demonstrate these differences; a sample of

  14. Psychology in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio

    2011-01-01

    The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…

  15. United States Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Sandia Field Office NESHAP Annual Report CY2014 for Sandia National Laboratories New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    evelo, stacie; Miller, Mark L.

    2015-05-01

    This report provides a summary of the radionuclide releases from the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration facilities at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) during Calendar Year (CY) 2014, including the data, calculations, and supporting documentation for demonstrating compliance with 40 Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) 61, Subpart H--NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR EMISSIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES OTHER THAN RADON FROM DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY FACILITIES. A description is given of the sources and their contributions to the overall dose assessment. In addition, the maximally exposed individual (MEI) radiological dose calculation and the population dose to local and regional residents are discussed.

  16. Measurements of aerosol absorption and scattering in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the MILAGRO field campaign: a comparison of results from the T0 and T1 sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marley, N. A.; Gaffney, J. S.; Castro, T.; Salcido, A.; Frederick, J.

    2008-07-01

    Measurements of aerosol absorption and scattering were obtained in Mexico City during the MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations) field campaign in March 2006. A comparison of aerosol absorption and scattering was obtained in Mexico City at site T0 located in the northern part of Mexico City at the Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo Laboratories and at site T1 located at the Universidad Tecnológica de Tecamac, 18 miles northwest of T0. Hourly averages of aerosol absorption were similar at both sites, ranging from 6 93 Mm-1 with an average of 31 Mm-1 at T0; and from 2 104 Mm-1 with an average of 19 Mm-1 at T1. Aerosol scattering at T0 ranged from 16 344 Mm-1 with an average of 105 Mm-1; while the scattering values at T1 were lower than T0 ranging from 2 136 with an average of 53 Mm-1. Aerosol single scattering albedos (SSAs) were determined at both sites using these data. SSAs at T1 ranged from 0.44 0.90 with an average 0.75 as compared to hose at T0, range 0.51 0.93 with an average of 0.77. Broadband UV-B intensity was found to be higher at site T0, with an average of 64 μW/cm2 at solar noon, than at site T1, which had an average of 54 μW/cm2 at solar noon. Comparisons of clear-sky modeled UV-B intensities with the simultaneous UV-B measurements obtained at site T0 and at site T1 for cloudless days indicate a larger diffuse radiation field at site T0 than at site T1. The determination of aerosol scattering Ångstrom coefficient at T0 suggests the larger diffuse radiation is due to the predominance of submicron aerosols at T0 with aerosol scattering of UV-B radiation peaked in the forward direction, leading to the enhancement observed at ground level.

  17. Dental education in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Masuoka, David; Komabayashi, Takashi; Reyes-Vela, Enrique

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this article is to provide information about dental education in Mexico, including its history, the dental school system, curriculum and dental licensure. In 1977, there were only 59 Mexican dental schools; however, there were 83 schools registered in the last official national count in 2007. Forty-one dental schools are public, and the other 42 are private. Every year the number of private dental schools increases. Admission to dental schools in Mexico requires a high school diploma. All classes are conducted in Spanish. To obtain licensure in Mexico, dental students must complete a 3 to 5-year program plus a year of community service. No formal nationwide standard clinical/didactic curriculum exists in Mexico. There are approximately 153,000 dentists in Mexico, a number that increases each year. The dentist-patient ratio is approximately 1:700. However, the high percentage of inactive licensed dentists in Mexico points to a serious problem. PMID:24984634

  18. Assessment of MODIS-EVI, MODIS-NDVI and VEGETATION-NDVI composite data using agricultural measurements: an example at corn fields in western Mexico.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Yu; Fedosejevs, Gunar; Tiscareño-López, Mario; Arnold, Jeffrey G

    2006-08-01

    Although several types of satellite data provide temporal information of the land use at no cost, digital satellite data applications for agricultural studies are limited compared to applications for forest management. This study assessed the suitability of vegetation indices derived from the TERRA-Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor and SPOT-VEGETATION (VGT) sensor for identifying corn growth in western Mexico. Overall, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) composites from the VGT sensor based on bi-directional compositing method produced vegetation information most closely resembling actual crop conditions. The NDVI composites from the MODIS sensor exhibited saturated signals starting 30 days after planting, but corresponded to green leaf senescence in April. The temporal NDVI composites from the VGT sensor based on the maximum value method had a maximum plateau for 80 days, which masked the important crop transformation from vegetative stage to reproductive stage. The Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) composites from the MODIS sensor reached a maximum plateau 40 days earlier than the occurrence of maximum leaf area index (LAI) and maximum intercepted fraction of photosynthetic active radiation (fPAR) derived from in-situ measurements. The results of this study showed that the 250-m resolution MODIS data did not provide more accurate vegetation information for corn growth description than the 500-m and 1000-m resolution MODIS data. PMID:16362566

  19. Mexico`s basins could provide niches for various sized firms

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, G.; Wilson, J.L.

    1996-11-18

    The recent Shell Oil Co.-led exploratory well in 7,000 ft of water in the Gulf of Mexico off Brownsville, Texas, and close to Mexican territory, initially provoked a controversy in Mexico. The announcement of the Baha well reminded Mexicans that the US Senate has not yet ratified the draft treaty to define territorial and resource boundaries. News of the well was portrayed in mexico as poaching and old-fashioned American imperialism. Although subsequent reports confirmed that the well is unequivocally in US waters, the initial confusion added to a growing dilemma in professional geological circles and with a few federal, state, and local officials. In this discussion, which is part of a larger study, the authors wish to clarify some of the issues in the upstream policy debate in Mexico. They do this by visualizing a counter-factual condition: that worldwide E and P patterns and norms exist in Mexico. The discussion will not treat the implementation of such patterns or norms (e.g., by reference to the Venezuelan or Argentine models). For this discussion they assume simply that worldwide production practices and agreements exist in Mexico. Just as important, they assume that industrial efficiencies, by producer type, are the principal drivers of the allocation of E and P resources in Mexico. The authors discuss the illustrative areas and fields of hydrocarbon production, actual and potential, from the perspective of the advantages and limitations associated with the various categories of explorationists and producers.

  20. Two new species of Phyllodistomum Braun, 1899 (Digenea: Gorgoderidae), from freshwater fishes (Cyprinodontiformes: Goodeidae: Goodeinae) in central Mexico: An integrative taxonomy approach using morphology, ultrastructure and molecular phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo; Martínez-Aquino, Andrés; Mendoza-Garfias, Berenit

    2015-01-01

    An integrative taxonomy approach is used to characterise the diversity of gorgoderid trematodes that parasitize freshwater fishes of the subfamily Goodeinae in central Mexico. Records of Phyllodistomum sp. and Dendrorchis sp. from the urinary bladder of goodeines have been previously published, although the identification at species level was not achieved. A few specimens were collected and fixed to conduct a scanning electron microscopy study, and to obtain sequences of a mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (28S rRNA) gene, to be analysed in the context of the molecular phylogeny of gorgoderid trematodes. Based on the new findings, two new species of Phyllodistomum Braun, 1899 are described. Phyllodistomum cribbi n. sp. was found in Zoogoneticus quitzeoensis (Bean), Allotoca zacapuensis Meyer, Radda & Domínguez-Domínguez, Hubbsina turneri de Buen and Z. purhepechus Domínguez-Domínguez, Pérez-Rodríguez & Doadrio from Zacapu Lake, and La Luz Spring, in Michoacan, central Mexico. Phyllodistomum wallacei n. sp. parasitized Xenotaenia resolanae Turner, Ilyodon furcidens (Jordan & Gilbert), and Allodontichthys tamazulae Turner from the Cuzalapa, Ayuquila and Tamazula Rivers in Jalisco, western Mexico. These species are compared with several freshwater Phyllodistomum species from different areas of the world, especially a group of eight species that comprise a monophyletic clade in recent phylogenetic hypotheses of the Gorgoderidae Looss, 1899. The two new species are distinguished from other close relatives by the combination of morphological traits such as the body shape, sucker ratio, shape of the gonads, and extension of intestinal ceca. The new species are distinct in some ultrastructural characters of the body surface when compared with those species where scanning electron micrographs (SEM) and/or microphotographs are available. Data of two molecular markers (28S rRNA and COI genes) demonstrate that the two new species are distinct from each other and from those

  1. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR FLOW AND CUSTODY OF FIELD DATA FORMS (UA-C-5.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to describe the flow of field data forms through the data processing system and to define who is responsible for the data at any time. It applies to field data forms collected and processed by Arizona NHEXAS. This procedure was followed to ensure cons...

  2. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR CLEANING: FIELD FORMS (UA-D-38.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to define the steps involved in cleaning the electronic data generated from data entry of the field forms. It applies to electronic data corresponding to the field forms that were scanned and verified by data staff during the Arizona NHEXAS project and...

  3. Gulf of Mexico

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... article title:  Continued Spread of Gulf of Mexico Oil Slick       View Larger ... on NASA's Terra spacecraft passed over the Deepwater Horizon oil slick in the Gulf of Mexico on May 8, 2010, at approximately 16:50 UTC ...

  4. Sierra Madre Oriental, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This view of the Sierra Madre Oriental, Mexico (26.5N, 102.0W) west of Monclova, shows a mining region of northern Mexico. Mine tailings can be seen on the mountain slopes and in the valley floor. In addition to mining activity, several irrigated agricultural areas supporting the local communities can be seen in the area.

  5. A water-budget approach to estimating potential groundwater recharge from two domestic sewage disposal fields in eastern Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2011-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crilley, Dianna M.; Collison, Jake W.

    2015-01-01

    During this study, the disposal fields at sites A and B received a measured volume of effluent from two-person domestic residences equipped with an onsite low-pressure dosing system. A combined evapotranspiration measurement and modeling technique was used to estimate the amount of evapotranspirative loss from the disposal field and from the surrounding terrain. A portable hemispherical flux chamber was used to measure evapotranspiration at fixed locations on the disposal fields and on the surrounding terrain at sites A and B. Data from hemispherical flux chamber measurements were used to calibrate a Penman-Monteith modeled evapotranspiration rate on the disposal field and on the surrounding terrain at site A from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2011, and from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2012, and at site B from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2011. Micrometeorological and soil data from instrumentation on the disposal fields and on the surrounding terrain at sites A and B were used as input data into the Penman-Monteith equation. The mean potential recharge from disposal field effluent during 2011–12 at sites A and B was 63 percent of the volume of effluent dosed to the disposal field.

  6. Petroleum and Mexico's future

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, P.S.

    1987-01-01

    Addressing the effects of the 1982 crisis, through the late 1980s, on Mexico's economic and political systems and assessing the country's potential for entering a period of strong economic growth, contributors to this volume focus on oil, the primary source of Mexico's foreign exchange earnings, and on trade with the U.S., the primary means for earning foreign exchange. The authors argue that the problems Mexico faced during the crisis period are not over; indeed, the most difficult challenges lie ahead. For the remainder of the century Mexico must earn adequate revenue to service a substantial debt and to permit the economy to grow at a rate that provides opportunity for a labor force already enduring a high rate of unemployment and rising inflation. Contributors agree that the key to Mexico's economic and political stability will be control of inflation, unemployment, and large public sector deficits.

  7. Environmental assessment of Buccaneer gas and oil field in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, 1978-1979. Volume IV. Bacterial communities. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Sizemore, R.K.; Olsen, K.

    1980-12-01

    Bacterial numbers and taxonomic types were found to be the same in the oil field as in the control area. No difference in bacterial diversity or biomass was noted between stations but a change did occur between seasonal samples. Members of the genera Vibrio, Pseudomonas, Aeromonas and Acinetobacter were found to predominate in the sediment and fish samples. The bacterial population of the oil field sites contained more oil degrading and sulfur oxidizing bacteria than the control site.

  8. Paleomagnetism of the Eastern Alkaline Province (Mexico): contribution to the time-averaged field global database and geomagnetic instability time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Petronille, Marie; Henry, Bernard; Valdivia, Luis Alva; Morales, Juan; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime

    2007-07-01

    We report a detailed paleomagnetic and rock-magnetic study of 19 independent lava flows belonging to the Eastern Alkaline Province (EAP) in Mexico. In total, 162 oriented samples were collected in four areas (Sierra de Tantima-Alamo, Tlanchinol, Chiconquiaco-Palma Sola and Poza Rica). All sites analyzed in this study were previously dated by means of the unspiked K-Ar geochronological method (Ferrari et al., J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 146, 284-306, 2005) and span from 14.6 to 1.5 Ma. Rock-magnetic experiments point to simple magnetic mineralogy. In most cases, the remanence is carried by Ti-poor titanomagnetite of pseudosingle-domain grain size. In a few cases, Ti-rich titanomagnetites are responsible for the magnetization. The characteristic paleodirections are successfully isolated for all of the studied units. The mean paleodirection, discarding two intermediate polarity sites, is D=359.5°, I=32.9°, n=17, k=30, α95=6.7°. This direction is practically undistinguishable from the expected Mio-Pliocene paleodirections, as derived from reference poles for the North American polar wander curve, and is in agreement with the previously reported directions from the western Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. This suggests that no major tectonic rotation occurred in studied area since the middle Miocene to Present. The paleosecular variation is estimated through the study of the scatter of virtual geomagnetic poles, giving S F=12.7 with S U=16.5 and S L=10.3 (upper and lower limits, respectively). These values are consistent with those predicted by the latitude-dependent variation model of McFadden et al. ( Geophys. Res., 93, 11583-11588, 1991) for the last 5 Myr. Eleven sites yielded reverse magnetic polarity, six are normally magnetized and two lava flows provided apparently intermediate paleodirections. An interesting feature of the paleomagnetic record obtained from EAP volcanics is that two independent lava flows, dated as 2.04±0.04 and 1.97±0.04 Ma, respectively

  9. Eruptive activity of enigmatic medium-sized volcanoes in the Michoacán-Guanajuato Volcanic Field (MGVF), Central Mexico: The case of El Metate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevrel, M.; Siebe, C.; Guilbaud, M. N.

    2014-12-01

    The MGVF has a total area of ca. 40,000 km2 and is well known for being the host of the only two monogenetic volcanoes in Mexico that were born in historical times: Jorullo (1759-1774) and Paricutin (1943-1952). Another particularity of the MGVF is its high number of eruptive vents with over 1000 small monogenetic cones and associated lava flows (average vol. of 0.021 km3) and ca. 400 medium-sized volcanoes (average vol. from 0.5 to 50 km3). Most of these medium-sized volcanoes may be characterized as shields that were produced dominantly by effusive activity as opposed to the small cones formed also by explosive phases of activity. The products of the small cones range from olivine basalts to andesites whereas the medium-sized volcanoes are restricted to a smaller compositional range in the andesitic domain. Although the medium-sized volcanoes are more sparsely distributed in time and space and less abundant than the small cones, the risks associated with renewal of this type of activity should not be neglected. This study focuses on El Metate which is probably the youngest shield of the MGVF (< 3,700 y. BP). Unlike a typical shield volcano composed of a succession of thin fluid basaltic flows, El Metate consists of well-preserved >60 m thick andesite flows distributed radially around a summit dome. Detailed mapping and sampling allowed us to reconstruct its eruptive activity and the time sequence of lava flow emplacement. We have identified 13 individual lava flows with lengths ranging between 3 and 15 km covering 103 km2 and average thicknesses between 60 and 150 m. Individual volumes range between 0.5 and 3.5 km3 for a total of 11 to 15 km3. Estimates of flow emplacement parameters indicate maximum average effusion rates ranging between 15 and 100 m3.s-1 and a cumulative duration from 15 to 30 years. Such a short emplacement time is comparable to the historical monogenetic eruption of nearby Paricutin volcano (9 years) but the erupted volume of lava is

  10. Constructing an Identity: Environmental Educators in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaya, Silvia Fuentes

    2004-01-01

    The environmental education field in Mexico is a relatively new social space characterized by wide discursive proliferation and organized by regional hegemonies. In this context, a plurality of identification processes has taken place. There is not a singular environmental educator identity but a multiplicity of local definitions. In this paper, I…

  11. Education in Mexico. Bulletin, 1956, No. 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Marjorie C.

    1956-01-01

    "Education in Mexico," one of the series of basic studies on education in the American Republics undertaken by the Office of Education, has been prepared with the interests of the following groups in mind: (1) Persons working in the field of Inter-American educational relations; (2) Those specializing in Latin American area and language studies;…

  12. Land subsidence in the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, 1 Baja California, Mexico, from 1994 to 2005. An integrated analysis of DInSAR, levelingand geological data.

    SciTech Connect

    Sarychikhina, O; Glowacka, E; Mellors, R; Vidal, F S

    2011-03-03

    Cerro Prieto is the oldest and largest Mexican geothermal field in operation and has been producing electricity since 1973. The large amount of geothermal fluids extracted to supply steam to the power plants has resulted in considerable deformation in and around the field. The deformation includes land subsidence and related ground fissuring and faulting. These phenomena have produced severe damages to infrastructure such as roads, irrigation canals and other facilities. In this paper, the technique of Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) is applied using C-band ENVISAR ASAR data acquired between 2003 and 2006 to determine the extent and amount of land subsidence in the Mexicali Valley near Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field. The DInSAR results were compared with published data from precise leveling surveys (1994- 1997 and 1997-2006) and detailed geological information in order to improve the understanding of temporal and spatial distributions of anthropogenic subsidence in the Mexicali Valley. The leveling and DInSAR data were modeled to characterize the observed deformation in terms of fluid extraction. The results confirm that the tectonic faults control the spatial extent of the observed subsidence. These faults likely act as groundwater flow barriers for aquifers and reservoirs. The shape of the subsiding area coincides with the Cerro Prieto pull-apart basin. In addition, the spatial pattern of the subsidence as well as changes in rate are highly correlated with the development of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field.

  13. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTERING FIELD QUESTIONNAIRES--GENERAL (UA-T-2.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to outline the objectives of and instructions for questionnaire administration in order to ensure consistency among the instructions given to respondents in the field. This procedure was followed to ensure consistent data retrieval during the Arizona N...

  14. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR FIELD PERSONNEL TRAINING PLAN (UA-T-4.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to describe the training sequence of incoming field team members. The training procedure is designed to provide new team members with an overview of the goals, structure, and design of this research project and their role within it. This procedure was...

  15. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR CODING: FIELD FORMS (UA-D-37.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to define the coding strategy for selected field forms. Forms addressed here will be scanned into databases. Databases are created because the forms contain critical values needed to calculate pollutant concentrations. Other forms not addressed by th...

  16. Characterization of on-road vehicle emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area using a mobile laboratory in chase and fleet average measurement modes during the MCMA-2003 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala, M.; Herndon, S. C.; Slott, R. S.; Dunlea, E. J.; Marr, L. C.; Shorter, J. H.; Zahniser, M.; Knighton, W. B.; Rogers, T. M.; Kolb, C. E.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.

    2006-06-01

    A mobile laboratory was used to measure on-road vehicle emission ratios during the MCMA-2003 field campaign held during the spring of 2003 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The measured emission ratios represent a sample of emissions of in-use vehicles under real world driving conditions for the MCMA. From the relative amounts of NOx and selected VOC's sampled, the results indicate that the technique is capable of differentiating among vehicle categories and fuel type in real world driving conditions. Emission ratios for NOx, NOy, NH3, H2CO, CH3CHO, and other selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are presented for chase sampled vehicles and fleet averaged emissions. Results indicate that colectivos, particularly CNG-powered colectivos, are potentially significant contributors of NOx and aldehydes in the MCMA. Similarly, ratios of selected VOCs and NOy showed a strong dependence on traffic mode. These results are compared with the vehicle emissions inventory for the MCMA, other vehicle emissions measurements in the MCMA, and measurements of on-road emissions in US cities. Our estimates for motor vehicle emissions of benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde in the MCMA indicate these species are present in concentrations higher than previously reported. The high motor vehicle aldehyde emissions may have an impact on the photochemistry of urban areas.

  17. Unsaturated hydrologic flow parameters based on laboratory and field data for soils near the mixed waste landfill, technical area III, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Roepke, C.S.; Strong, W.R.; Nguyen, H.A.

    1996-08-01

    This report presents the results of laboratory tests conducted on soil core samples obtained prior to an instantaneous profile test conducted west of the Mixed Waste Landfill in Technical Area III. The instantaneous profile test was conducted to measure in situ hydrologic parameters controlling unsaturated flow and contaminant transport in the near - surface vadose zone. Soil core samples from the instantaneous profile test plot were tested in the Sandia National Laboratory`s Environmental Restoration Project Hydrology Laboratory to measure saturated hydraulic conductivity and the relationships between moisture content and soil water tension. Data from laboratory tests and the instantaneous profile field test were then modeled using the computer code RETC to quantify moisture content, soil water tension, and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity relationships. Results content, soil verified that a combination of laboratory and field data yielded a more complete definition of hydrologic properties than either laboratory or field data alone. Results also indicated that at native moisture contents, the potential for significant unsaturated aqueous flow is limited, while at saturated or near - saturated conditions, preferential flow may occur.

  18. 3-D Deformation Field Of The 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah (Mexico) Earthquake From Matching Before To After Aerial Lidar Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinojosa-Corona, A.; Nissen, E.; Arrowsmith, R.; Krishnan, A. K.; Saripalli, S.; Oskin, M. E.; Arregui, S. M.; Limon, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    The Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake (EMCE) of 4 April 2010 generated a ~110 km long, NW-SE trending rupture, with normal and right-lateral slip in the order of 2-3m in the Sierra Cucapah, the northern half, where the surface rupture has the most outstanding expression. Vertical and horizontal surface displacements produced by the EMCE have been addressed separately by other authors with a variety of aerial and satellite remote sensing techniques. Slip variation along fault and post-seismic scarp erosion and diffusion have been estimated in other studies using terrestrial LiDAR (TLS) on segments of the rupture. To complement these other studies, we computed the 3D deformation field by comparing pre- to post-event point clouds from aerial LiDAR surveys. The pre-event LiDAR with lower point density (0.013-0.033 pts m-2) required filtering and post-processing before comparing with the denser (9-18 pts m-2) more accurate post event dataset. The 3-dimensional surface displacement field was determined using an adaptation of the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm, implemented in the open source Point Cloud Library (PCL). The LiDAR datasets are first split into a grid of windows, and for each one, ICP iteratively converges on the rigid body transformation (comprising a translation and a rotation) that best aligns the pre- to post-event points. Testing on synthetic datasets perturbed with displacements of known magnitude showed that windows with dimensions of 100-200m gave the best results for datasets with these densities. Here we present the deformation field with detailed displacements in segments of the surface rupture where its expression was recognized by ICP from the point cloud matching, mainly the scarcely vegetated Sierra Cucapah with the Borrego and Paso Superior fault segments the most outstanding, where we are able to compare our results with values measured in the field and results from TLS reported in other works. EMC simulated displacement field for a

  19. Occupational health in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Carreón, Tania; Santos-Burgoa, Carlos; Baron, Sherry; Hernández, Sendy

    2002-01-01

    The authors discuss the maquiladoras and child labor, and offer an overview of the history of occupational safety and health in Mexico that covers laws and regulations, social security, unions, and enforcement of legislation. The organization and structure of the various institutions responsible for occupational safety and health (OSH), as well as administrative procedures, are described. This article concludes with a list of the new challenges for OSH in Mexico. PMID:12028953

  20. Forests of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, M.A.; Dirzo, R.; Zadroga, F.

    1995-07-01

    Forest of Mexico as elsewhere provide essential goods and services for both local citizens and the international community. Benefits include climate regulation, biodiversity, and wood and nonwood products for local consumption and economic activity. Deforestation is a matter of great environmental and economic concern. This article assesses rates of deforestation, the present status of forest in Mexico, and the major factors responsible for deforestation in the tropical southeastern region.

  1. Mineralogical and geochemical consequences of the long-term presence of CO2 in natural reservoirs: An example from the Springerville-St. Johns Field, Arizona, and New Mexico, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, J.; Adams, M.; Allis, R.; Lutz, S.; Rauzi, S.

    2005-01-01

    The Springerville-St. Johns CO2 field in eastern Arizona and western New Mexico is one of more than a dozen gas fields developed within the Colorado Plateau and Southern Rocky Mountain region. Extensive travertine (CaCO3) deposits record a long history of CO2 migration and leakage to the atmosphere. The oldest travertine deposits may have formed during the initial filling of the CO2 reservoir when groundwaters exsolved CO2 upon reaching the surface. The youngest travertine deposits are associated with springs on the floor of the Little Colorado River valley, but travertine deposition appears to be insignificant today. Older deposits occur up to 325 m above the valley floor. Geologic relationships suggest travertine deposition began in the late Pleistocene after volcanic activity ended at ???0.3 Ma. Most of the CaCO3 could have been derived from dissolution of the underlying limestones and dolomites. Interactions between the reservoir fluids and rocks were observed in core samples from one of the intervals that produced dry gas. These reactions resulted in the dissolution of carbonate cements and detrital feldspars and the formation of dawsonite and kaolinite. Geochemical simulations suggest that the dawsonite could have been deposited when the CO2 fugacity reached 20 bars and that the kaolinite formed as the CO2 fugacity decreased. Corrosion of drill pipe by acidic waters and a pronounced HCO3 anomaly above the CO2 reservoir provide evidence of a continuing flux of CO2 from depth. CO2 storage occurs primarily as dissolved carbonate species and as gas accumulations. Only a small percentage of the CO2 was sequestered in secondary minerals. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Field evaluation of two shallow land burial trench cap designs for long-term stabilization and closure of waste repositories at Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Nyhan, J.; Drennon, B.; Hakonson, T.

    1989-02-01

    The results from several field experiments on methods to control soil erosion, biointrusion, and water infiltration were used to design and test a burial site cover which improves the ability of the disposal site to isolate the wastes. The performance of the improved cover design in managing water and biota at the disposal site was compared with a more conventional design widely used in the industry. The conventional trench cover design consists of 15 cm of sandy loam topsoil over 75 cm of sandy silt backfill, whereas the improved trench cover design consists of 75 cm of topsoil over a minimum of 25 cm of gravel and 90 cm of river cobble. Each plot was lined with an impermeable liner to allow for mass balance calculation of water dynamics and contains hydrologic tracer ions (iodide and bromide) to demonstrate movement of water through the various zones of the trench cap. Cesium was emplaced beneath the trench cap to indicate root penetration through the trench cap, observed by sampling plant samples collected on the plots and assaying them for cesium. The field data are summarized and discussed in terms of its usefulness for waste management decisions. 67 refs., 44 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Geochemistry of intrusive rocks associated with the Latir volcanic field, New Mexico, and contrasts between evolution of plutonic and volcanic rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.M.; Czamanske, G.K.; Lipman, P.W.

    1989-01-01

    Plutonic rocks associated with the Latir volcanic field comprise three groups: 1) ???25 Ma high-level resurgent plutons composed of monzogranite and silicic metaluminous and peralkaline granite, 2) 23-25 Ma syenogranite, and alkali-feldspar granite intrusions emplaced along the southern caldera margin, and 3) 19-23 Ma granodiorite and granite plutons emplaced south of the caldera. Major-element compositions of both extrusive and intrusive suites in the Latir field are broadly similar; both suites include high-SiO2 rocks with low Ba and Sr, and high Rb, Nb, Th, and U contents. Moreover, both intermediateto siliciccomposition volcanic and plutonic rocks contain abundant accessory sphene and apatite, rich in rare-earth elements (REE), as well as phases in which REE's are essential components. Strong depletion in Y and REE contents, with increasing SiO2 content, in the plutonic rocks indicate a major role for accessory mineral fractionation that is not observed in volcanic rocks of equivalent composition. Considerations of the rheology of granitic magma suggest that accessory-mineral fractionation may occur primarily by filter-pressing evolved magmas from crystal-rich melts. More limited accessory-mineral crystallization and fractionation during evolution of the volcanic magmas may have resulted from markedly lower diffusivities of essential trace elements than major elements. Accessory-mineral fractionation probably becomes most significant at high crystallinities. The contrast in crystallization environments postulated for the extrusive and intrusive rocks may be common to other magmatic systems; the effects are particularly pronounced in highly evolved rocks of the Latir field. High-SiO2 peralkaline porphyry emplaced during resurgence of the Questa caldera represents non-erupted portions of the magma that produced the Amalia Tuff during caldera-forming eruption. The peralkaline porphyry continues compositional and mineralogical trends found in the tuff. Amphibole

  4. MISR Field Campaign Imagery

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-07-23

      MISR Support of Field Campaigns Aerosol Arctic Research of the Composition of the ... Daily ARCTAS Aerosol Polar Imagery ​Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study ( GoMACCS ) ​July - ...

  5. Mexico's Luna discoveries are more than moonshine

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart-Gordon, T.J.; Baker, G.T.

    1987-05-01

    Just when it seemed that Mexico's petroleum reserves may have been overstated, the state oil company opened a new province. Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex) geologists think the Luna area of Tabasco State and the Gulf of Mexico could add the condensate and gas equivalent of 20 billion bbl of light oil to Mexico's proven reserves. If true, this would be the largest discovery in Mexico since the Campeche Sound fields in 1976. To date, the new province stretches about 50 miles between the Caribbean coastal towns of Frontera and Puerto Ceiba in Tabasco State, and extends some 31 miles offshore (see map). Since the early 1970s, Pemex geologists have postulated that the entire Yucatan platform will prove productive. Luna finds reduce the distance between Campeche fields and onshore production to 93 miles. The Luna area is ideally suited for rapid development - it is about 40 miles northeast of Villahermosa, Tabasco, and within 60 miles of the export terminal at Dos Bocas near the border between Tabasco and Vera Cruz states. It is also less than 50 miles from the Cactus gas-processing and petrochemical plants in Chiapas State, which means that gas can be put into the country's trunk line that extends to the U.S. grid at Reynosa.

  6. [9 reflexions on health and medical education in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Narro, J

    1994-01-01

    In Mexico's case, the fields of healthcare and medical education are closely vinculated. On the other hand, contemporary society lives in a deep transformation process. In the present article, some paradoxes and contrasts in relation to health and medical education characterize the reality in Mexico. Particular emphasis is made on the analysis of the profound differences which exist between the two federative entities which present the extreme figures on life expectancy at birth. The thesis which supports the document, recognizes the need for integral analysis of the organizational and administrative processes of healthcare and medical education in Mexico. PMID:8964327

  7. The questa magmatic system: Petrologic, chemical and isotopic variations in cogenetic volcanic and plutonic rocks of the latir volcanic field and associated intrusives, northern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    Field, chemical and isotopic data demonstrate that nearly all igneous rocks at Questa resulted from interactions between mantle-derived parental magmas and the crust. Strontium, neodymium and lead isotope ratios of early andesites to rhyolites (28 to 26 Ma) indicate that these magmas assimilated > 25% lower crust. Injection of basaltic magmas extensively modified the strontium and neodymium but not the lead isotope compositions of the lower crust. Eruption of comendite magmas and the peralkaline Amalia Tuff 26 Ma is correlated with inception of regional extension. Lead isotope ratios identify different sources for the metaluminous granites and the peralkaline rocks. 26 Ma metaluminous granite to granodiorite intrusions have chemical and isotopic compositions to those of the precaldera intermediate-composition rocks, and are interpreted as representing the solidified equivalents of the precaldera magmatic episode. However, both conventional and ion-microprobe isotopic data prohibit significant assimilation of crustal rocks at the level of exposure, suggesting that the plutons were emplaced a relatively crystal-rich mushes which did not have sufficient heat to assimilate country rocks. This suggest that in some cases plutonic rocks are better than volcanic rocks in representing the isotopic compositions of their source regions, because the assimilation potential of crystal-rich magmas is significantly less than that of largely liquid magmas.

  8. Can pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages address smoking-related health disparities?: Field experiments in Mexico to assess warning label content

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F.; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Villalobos, Victor; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Hammond, David; Carter, Jarvis; Sebrié, Ernesto; Sansores, Raul; Regalado-Piñeda, Justino

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to determine the most effective content of pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) and whether educational attainment moderates these effects. Methods Field experiments were conducted with 529 adult smokers and 530 young adults (258 nonsmokers; 271 smokers), wherein participants reported responses to different HWLs printed on cigarette packages. One experiment involved manipulating textual form (testimonial narrative vs didactic) and the other involved manipulating imagery type (diseased organs vs human suffering). Results Tests of mean ratings and rankings indicated that HWLs with didactic textual forms had equivalent or significantly higher credibility, relevance, and impact than HWLs with testimonial forms. Results from mixed-effects models confirmed these results. However, responses differed by participant educational attainment: didactic forms were consistently rated higher than testimonials among participants with higher education, whereas the difference between didactic and testimonial narrative forms was weaker or not statistically significant among participants with lower education. In the second experiment, with textual content held constant, greater credibility, relevance and impact was found for graphic imagery of diseased organs than imagery of human suffering. Conclusions Pictorial HWLs with didactic textual forms appear to work better than with testimonial narratives. Future research should determine which pictorial HWL content has the greatest real-world impact among consumers from disadvantaged groups, including assessment of how HWL content should change to maintain its impact as tobacco control environments strengthen and consumer awareness of smoking-related risks increases. PMID:22350859

  9. Preliminary Geochemical and Petrologic Assessment of the Fanney Rhyolite and the Bloodgood Canyon and Apache Springs tuffs, Mogollon-Datil Volcanic Field, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salings, E. E.; Rentz, S. P.; Michelfelder, G.; Sikes, E. R.

    2015-12-01

    Continental arc volcanoes represent a dramatic expression of a significant and fundamental phenomena in global tectonics: the subduction of an oceanic plate beneath a more buoyant continental plate. The subduction of an oceanic plate results in recycling of crustal material into the convecting mantle, partial melting, and primary basalt production. Moreover, during passage through thick continental crust, subduction zone magmas may substantially differentiate and melt crustal rocks giving rise to the great diversity of igneous lithologies characteristic of earth. These are important processes that must be understood in detail in order to interpret the long-term evolution of the earth and continental crust. Here we present variations in the isotopic and trace element composition of volcanic rocks from Bloodgood Canyon and Apache Springs tuffs, and the Fanney Rhyolite located in the western Mogollon-Datil Volcanic Field (MDVF). The project will address several questions. First, are the Bloodgood and Apache Springs tuffs and Fanney Rhyolite petrogenically related, and are these rhyolites expressions of a continental arc ignimbrite flare-up? Second, what petrogenic processes affected differentiation and where is the magma sourced? Finally, to what extent do these units represent a manifestation of the MDVF and the transition from arc magmatism to rifting? The Bloodgood Canyon is a crystal-rich rhyolite tuff containing quartz>k-feldspar>plagioclase>biotite, and pumice and lithic fragments. Rb ranges from 230-330ppm, Sr from 14-83ppm, and 87Sr/86Srm from 0.71619-0.72477.The Apache Springs Tuff is a rhyolite tuff containing quartz>k-feldspar>plagioclase>biotite, and lithics. Rb (228-233ppm) and 87Sr/86Srm (0.71025-0.71056) are restricted, while Sr (105-399ppm) is more variable in composition. The Fanney Creek is a massive rhyolite lava with flow banding and contains quartz phenocryst clusters and k-feldspars. Currently, no data exists for the Apache Springs Tuff.

  10. Characterization of on-road vehicle emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area using a mobile laboratory in chase and fleet average measurement modes during the MCMA-2003 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala, M.; Herndon, S. C.; Slott, R. S.; Dunlea, E. J.; Marr, L. C.; Shorter, J. H.; Zahniser, M.; Knighton, W. B.; Rogers, T. M.; Kolb, C. E.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.

    2006-11-01

    A mobile laboratory was used to measure on-road vehicle emission ratios during the MCMA-2003 field campaign held during the spring of 2003 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The measured emission ratios represent a sample of emissions of in-use vehicles under real world driving conditions for the MCMA. From the relative amounts of NOx and selected VOC's sampled, the results indicate that the technique is capable of differentiating among vehicle categories and fuel type in real world driving conditions. Emission ratios for NOx, NOy, NH3, H2CO, CH3CHO, and other selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are presented for chase sampled vehicles in the form of frequency distributions as well as estimates for the fleet averaged emissions. Our measurements of emission ratios for both CNG and gasoline powered "colectivos" (public transportation buses that are intensively used in the MCMA) indicate that - in a mole per mole basis - have significantly larger NOx and aldehydes emissions ratios as compared to other sampled vehicles in the MCMA. Similarly, ratios of selected VOCs and NOy showed a strong dependence on traffic mode. These results are compared with the vehicle emissions inventory for the MCMA, other vehicle emissions measurements in the MCMA, and measurements of on-road emissions in U.S. cities. We estimate NOx emissions as 100 600±29 200 metric tons per year for light duty gasoline vehicles in the MCMA for 2003. According to these results, annual NOx emissions estimated in the emissions inventory for this category are within the range of our estimated NOx annual emissions. Our estimates for motor vehicle emissions of benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde in the MCMA indicate these species are present in concentrations higher than previously reported. The high motor vehicle aldehyde emissions may have an impact on the photochemistry of urban areas.

  11. 12 CFR 4.5 - District and field offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and western Iowa, Kansas, western Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, Wyoming, and Guam. (b) Field offices and duty stations. Field offices and...

  12. An evaluation of aquifer and well characteristics of municipal well fields in Los Alamos and Guaje Canyons, near Los Alamos, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cushman, Robert L.

    1965-01-01

    The Jenkins-Whitesburg area includes approximately 250 square miles In Letcher and Pike Counties in the southeastern part of the Eastern Coal Field. In this area ground water is the principal source of water for nearly all rural families, most public supplies, several coal mines and coal processing plants, and one bottling plant. The major aquifers in the Jenkins-Whitesburg area are the Breathitt and Lee Formations of Pennsylvanian age. Other aquifers range in age from Devonian to Quaternary but are not important in this area because they occur at great depth or yield little or no water. The Breathitt Formation occurs throughout the area except along the crest and slopes of Pine Mountain and where it is covered by unconsolidated material of Quaternary age. The Breathitt Formation consists of shale, sandstone, and lesser amounts of coal and associated underclay. The yield of wells penetrating the Breathitt Formation ranges from less than 1 to 330 gallons per minute. Well yield is controlled by the type and depth of well, character of the aquifer, and topography of the well site. Generally, deep wells drilled in valleys of perennial streams offer the best potential for high yields. Although enough water for a minimum domestic supply (more than 100 gallons per day) may be obtained from shale, all high-yielding wells probably obtain water from vertical joints and from bedding planes which are best developed in sandstone. About 13 percent of the wells inventoried in the Breathitt Formation failed to supply enough water for a minimum domestic supply. Most of these are shallow dug wells or drilled wells on hillsides or hilltops. Abandoned coal dunes are utilized as large infiltration galleries and furnish part of the water for several public supplies. The chemical quality of water from the Breathitt Formation varies considerably from place to place, but the water generally is acceptable for most domestic and industrial uses. Most water is a calcium magnesium bicarbonate

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, A. O.; Rojas, R.; Barrios, F. A.

    2001-10-01

    MR imaging has experienced an important growth worldwide and in particular in the USA and Japan. This imaging technique has also shown an important rise in the number of MR imagers in Mexico. However, the development of MRI has followed a typical way of Latin American countries, which is very different from the path shown in the industrialised countries. Despite the fact that Mexico was one the very first countries to install and operate MR imagers in the world, it still lacks of qualified clinical and technical personnel. Since the first MR scanner started to operate, the number of units has grown at a moderate space that now sums up approximately 60 system installed nationwide. Nevertheless, there are no official records of the number of MR units operating, physicians and technicians involved in this imaging modality. The MRI market is dominated by two important companies: General Electric (approximately 51%) and Siemens (approximately 17.5%), the rest is shared by other five companies. According to the field intensity, medium-field systems (0.5 Tesla) represent 60% while a further 35% are 1.0 T or higher. Almost all of these units are in private hospitals and clinics: there is no high-field MR imagers in any public hospital. Because the political changes in the country, a new public plan for health care is still in the process and will be published soon this year. This plan will be determined by the new Congress. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and president Fox. Experience acquired in the past shows that the demand for qualified professionals will grow in the new future. Therefore, systematic training of clinical and technical professionals will be in high demand to meet the needs of this technique. The National University (UNAM) and the Metropolitan University (UAM-Iztapalapa) are collaborating with diverse clinical groups in private facilities to create a systematic training program and carry out research and development in MRI

  14. Mexico's first domestic satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Ruiz, M. E.; Elbert, B. R.

    The principal features of the Morelos communications satellite program, providing Mexico with C-band and Ku-band TV and telephone services beginning in 1985, are reviewed. Two satellites, modified versions of the Hughes HS-376 dual-spin bus, will be launched by STS and controlled from a tracking, telemetery, and command station near Mexico City; the 184-station ground network currently operating with Intelsat-IV will be expanded to about 1000 C-band stations (plus numerous small Ku-band receivers) by 1990. The spacecraft design, communications-subsystem performance, repeater equipment, antennas, and coverage pattern are presented in tables, drawings, diagrams, photographs and maps and discussed.

  15. Avian influenza in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, C

    2009-04-01

    The outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N2 in Mexico in 1994 led to a clear increase in biosecurity measures and improvement of intensive poultry production systems. The control and eradication measures implemented were based on active surveillance, disease detection, depopulation of infected farms and prevention of possible contacts (identified by epidemiological investigations), improvement of biosecurity measures, and restriction of the movement of live birds, poultry products, by-products and infected material. In addition, Mexico introduced a massive vaccination programme, which resulted in the eradication of HPAI in a relatively short time in two affected areas that had a high density of commercial poultry. PMID:19618630

  16. 77 FR 31034 - Notice of Public Meeting, Farmington District Resource Advisory Council Meeting, New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... Taos Field Office, 226 Cruz Alta Road, Taos, NM. A field trip is planned for June 13 at 8:30 a.m. The... Mexico. Planned agenda items include discussion of a proposed transportation plan for the Taos...

  17. Renewable energy systems in Mexico: Installation of a hybrid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pate, Ronald C.

    1993-05-01

    Sandia has been providing technical leadership on behalf of DOE and CORECT on a working level cooperative program with Mexico on renewable energy (PROCER). As part of this effort, the Sandia Design Assistance Center (DAC) and the solar energy program staff at Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) in Cuernavaca, Mexico, recently reached agreement on a framework for mutually beneficial technical collaboration on the monitoring and field evaluation of renewable energy systems in Mexico, particularly village-scale hybrid systems. This trip was made for the purpose of planning the details for the joint installation of a data acquisition system (DAS) on a recently completed PV/Wind/Diesel hybrid system in the village of Xcalac on the Southeast coast of the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. The DAS installation will be made during the week of March 15, 1993. While in Mexico, discussions were also held with personnel from.the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) Solar Energy Laboratory and several private sector companies with regard to renewable energy project activities and technical and educational support needs in Mexico.

  18. H, O, Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope geochemistry of the Latir volcanic field and cogenetic intrusions, New Mexico, and relations between evolution of a continental magmatic center and modifications of the lithosphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.M.; Lipman, P.W.; Czamanske, G.K.

    1990-01-01

    Over 200 H, O, Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope analyses, in addition to geologic and petrologic constraints, document the magmatic evolution of the 28.5-19 Ma Latir volcanic field and associated intrusive rocks, which includes multiple stages of crustal assimilation, magma mixing, protracted crystallization, and open- and closed-system evolution in the upper crust. In contrast to data from younger volcanic centers in northern New Mexico, relatively low and restricted primary ??18O values (+6.4 to +7.4) rule out assimilation of supracrustal rocks enriched in 18O. Initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.705 to 0.708), ??18O values (-2 to-7), and 206Pb/204Pb ratios (17.5 to 18.4) of metaluminous precaldera volcanic rocks and postcaldera plutonic rocks suggest that most Latir rocks were generated by fractional crystallization of substantial volumes of mantle-derived basaltic magma that had near-chondritic Nd isotope ratios, accompanied by assimilation of crustal material in two main stages: 1) assimilation of non-radiogenic lower crust, followed by 2) assimilation of middle and upper crust by inter-mediate-composition magmas that had been contaminated during the first stage. Magmatic evolution in the upper crust peaked with eruption of the peralkaline Amalia Tuff (???26 Ma), which evolved from metaluminous parental magmas. A third stage of late, roofward assimilation of Proterozoic rocks in the Amalia Tuff magma is indicated by trends in initial 87Sr/86Sr and 206Pb/204Pb ratios from 0.7057 to 0.7098 and 19.5 to 18.8, respectively, toward the top of the pre-eruptive magma chamber. Highly evolved postcaldera plutons are generally fine grained and are zoned in initial 87Sr/86Sr and 206Pb/204Pb ratios, varying from 0.705 to 0.709 and 17.8 to 18.6, respectively. In contrast, the coarser-grained Cabresto Lake (???25 Ma) and Rio Hondo (???21 Ma) plutons have relatively homogeneous initial 87Sr/86Sr and 206Pb/204Pb ratios of approximately 0.7053 and 17.94 and 17.55, respectively. ??18O values for

  19. Chiapas Forest, Mexico and Guatemala border

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This color infrared view of the Chiapas Forest, Mexico and Guatemala border (17.0N, 92.0W) illustrates the usefulness of this type of film in determining vegetated vs non vegetated areas. As can be seen, most of this part of Guatemala remains in closed canopy woodland (dark red), while most of the Mexican land to the north has been cleared for pasture and farmland (pink). The pale green areas north of the river are bare soil or fallow fields.

  20. NASA Gulf of Mexico Initiative Hypoxia Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Curtis D.

    2012-01-01

    The Applied Science & Technology Project Office at Stennis Space Center (SSC) manages NASA's Gulf of Mexico Initiative (GOMI). Addressing short-term crises and long-term issues, GOMI participants seek to understand the environment using remote sensing, in-situ observations, laboratory analyses, field observations and computational models. New capabilities are transferred to end-users to help them make informed decisions. Some GOMI activities of interest to the hypoxia research community are highlighted.

  1. Artifacts of Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frausto, Tomas Ybarra

    Artifacts from Mexico are described and illustrated (1) to assist the Mexican American child in retaining pride in his social, historical, and cultural past and (2) to promote understanding by teachers and students of the cultural background of the Mexican American. The descriptions relate both the purposes for which the objects were created and…

  2. Educational Reform in Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuentes, Bertha Orozco; Elizando Y Carr, Sandra

    1993-01-01

    Since the 1970s, each presidential regime has presented an educational modernization reform program for Mexico. Although the various reforms have widened educational opportunities, the quality of education has continued to deteriorate because of student and teacher desertion, a low scholastic progress index, accessibility problems, lack of an…

  3. New Mexico's Challenge 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Robert M.; And Others

    This report presents a comprehensive strategy developed by the New Mexico Education Technology Planning Committee to maximize resources in educational technology to achieve the long-range goals adopted for education in the state. Four basic strategies are recommended: (1) to forge relationships between schools and businesses, and partnerships…

  4. Indians of New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The booklet gives a general introduction to American Indians in New Mexico. Covering historical background and present status, reports are given for these tribes: the 19 Pueblos (i.e., Acoma, Cochiti, Isleta, Jemez, Laguna, and Zuni), the Jicarilla and Mescalero Apaches, and the Navajos. Also included are 26 places of interest such as Acoma…

  5. [Food security in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Urquía-Fernández, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    An overview of food security and nutrition in Mexico is presented, based on the analysis of the four pillars of food security: availability, access, utilization of food, and stability of the food supply. In addition, the two faces of malnutrition in Mexico were analyzed: obesity and undernourishment. Data were gathered from the food security indicators of the United Nations's Food and Agriculture Organization, from the Mexican Scale of Food Security, and from the National Health and Nutrition Survey. Mexico presents an index of availability of 3 145 kilocalories per person per day, one of the highest indexes in the world, including both food production and imports. In contrast, Mexico is affected by a double burden of malnutrition: whereas children under five present 14% of stunt, 30% of the adult population is obese. Also, more than 18% of the population cannot afford the basic food basket (food poverty). Using perception surveys, people reports important levels of food insecurity, which concentrates in seven states of the Mexican Federation. The production structure underlying these indicators shows a very heterogeneous landscape, which translates in to a low productivity growth across the last years. Food security being a multidimensional concept, to ensure food security for the Mexican population requires a revision and redesign of public productive and social policies, placing a particular focus on strengthening the mechanisms of institutional governance. PMID:25649459

  6. The Art of Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saccardi, Marianne

    1997-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of books for grades K and up which explores the folklore, poetry, fiction, and art of Mexico, and focuses on the Mayans and Aztecs and Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo. Also suggests various research, reading, drama, music, social studies, physical education, and art activities and lists related videos and Internet…

  7. Christmas in Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern County Superintendent of Schools, Bakersfield, CA.

    The Christmas season in Mexico starts on December 16 with "las posadas," a series of religious processions in which families or neighbors reenact Joseph's search for shelter for Mary en route to Bethlehem. Those representing pilgrims travel from home to home until they are finally accepted by those representing innkeepers at a home with a…

  8. Workforce: New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In New Mexico, the demand for well-educated employees will only increase over the next several years. In the decade leading up to 2012, healthcare occupations will see growth of 32 percent. Teachers will be in high demand: nearly 12,380 educators (including librarians) will need to be hired. Managers will see their ranks swell by 21 percent; when…

  9. Mexico: Country Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFerren, Margaret

    A survey of the status of language usage in Mexico begins with an overview of language distribution among the population, mono- and multilingualism, changes in patterns of usage between the 1970 and 1980 censuses, and linguistic issues related to assimilation of the Indian population and the role and philosophy of the Instituto Nacional…

  10. Fast Identification of Near-Trench Earthquakes Along the Mexican Subduction Zone Based on Characteristics of Ground Motion in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Campos, X.; Singh, S. K.; Arroyo, D.; Rodríguez, Q.; Iglesias, A.

    2015-12-01

    The disastrous 1985 Michoacan earthquake gave rise to a seismic alert system for Mexico City which became operational in 1991. Initially limited to earthquakes along the Guerrero coast, the system now has a much wider coverage. Also, the 2004 Sumatra earthquake exposed the need for a tsunami early warning along the Mexican subduction zone. A fast identification of near-trench earthquakes along this zone may be useful in issuing a reliable early tsunami alert. The confusion caused by low PGA for the magnitude of an earthquake, leading to "missed" seismic alert, would be averted if its near-trench origin can be quickly established. It may also help reveal the spatial extent and degree of seismic coupling on the near-trench portion of the plate interface. This would lead to a better understanding of tsunami potential and seismic hazard along the Mexican subduction zone. We explore three methods for quick detection of near-trench earthquakes, testing them on recordings of 65 earthquakes at station CU in Mexico City (4.8 ≤Mw≤8.0; 270≤R≤615 km). The first method is based on the ratio of total to high-frequency energy, ER (Shapiro et al., 1998). The second method is based on parameter Sa*(6) which is the pseudo-acceleration response spectrum with 5% damping, Sa, at 6 s normalized by the PGA. The third parameter is the PGA residual, RESN, at CU, with respect to a newly-derived ground motion prediction equation at CU for coastal shallow-dipping thrust earthquakes following a bayesian approach. Since the near-trench earthquakes are relatively deficient in high-frequency radiation, we expect ER and Sa*(6) to be relatively large and RESN to be negative for such events. Tests on CU recordings show that if ER ≥ 100 and/or Sa*(6) ≥ 0.70, then the earthquake is near trench; for these events RESN ≤ 0. Such an event has greater tsunami potential. Few misidentifications and missed events are most probably a consequence of poor location, although unusual depth and source

  11. Spatio-temporal evolution of anthropogenic deformation around Cerro Prieto geothermal field in the Mexicali Valley, B.C., Mexico, between 1993 and 2009 from DInSAR and leveling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarychikhina, Olga; Glowacka, Ewa; Robles, Braulio; Mojarro, Jose

    2014-05-01

    Land subsidence is an environmental hazard which could be caused by withdrawal of large amounts of fluid from beneath the earth's surface. Land subsidence is an issue in several geothermal fields worldwide (e.g., Geysers, USA (Mossop and Segall, 1997), Wairakei-Tauhara, New Zealand (Allis et al., 2009)). Cerro Prieto geothermal field (CPGF), located in the Mexicali Valley, northwest Mexico, is the oldest and largest Mexican geothermal field in operation and has been producing electricity since 1973. The large amount of geothermal fluids extracted to supply steam to the power plants has resulted in considerable deformation in and around the field (e.g. Glowacka et al., 1996, 1999; Carnec and Fabriol, 1999; Sarychikhina et al., 2011). The deformation includes land subsidence and related ground fissuring and faulting. These phenomena have produced severe damages to the local infrastructure such as roads, irrigation canals and other facilities. Detection of land subsidence and monitoring of the spatial and temporal changes of its pattern and magnitude can provide important information about the dynamics of this process and controlling geological structures. The technique of Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) has been demonstrated to be a very effective technique for measuring ground deformation. This study presents an application of DInSAR interferogram stacking technique to investigate the land subsidence in the Mexicali Valley near CPGF. C-band ENVISAR ASAR images acquired between 2003 and 2009 from the ascending (track 306, frame 639) and descending track (track 84, frame 2961), obtained from the European Space Agency (ESA), as part of ESA CAT-1 project (ID - C1P3508), were used. Gamma ISP and DIFF/GEO software packages were used to calculate differential interferograms from SLC data and for differential interferograms stacking (Wegmüller and Werner, 1997). Eight average annual deformation rate maps were generated for 2005 (descending

  12. Biological studies and field observations in Europe of Lasioptera donacis potential biological control agent of giant reed, Arundo donax, an invasive weed of the Rio Grande Basin of Texas and Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Giant reed, Arundo donax L. (Poaceae; Arundinoideae), is a clonal reed grass that is native from the western Mediterranean to India and invasive in North America and other arid temperate/subtropical parts of the world, including the Rio Grande Basin of Texas and Mexico. A biological control of gian...

  13. Semi-automatic delimitation of volcanic edifice boundaries: Validation and application to the cinder cones of the Tancitaro-Nueva Italia region (Michoacán-Guanajuato Volcanic Field, Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Traglia, Federico; Morelli, Stefano; Casagli, Nicola; Garduño Monroy, Victor Hugo

    2014-08-01

    The shape and size of monogenetic volcanoes are the result of complex evolutions involving the interaction of eruptive activity, structural setting and degradational processes. Morphological studies of cinder cones aim to evaluate volcanic hazard on the Earth and to decipher the origins of various structures on extraterrestrial planets. Efforts have been dedicated so far to the characterization of the cinder cone morphology in a systematic and comparable manner. However, manual delimitation is time-consuming and influenced by the user subjectivity but, on the other hand, automatic boundary delimitation of volcanic terrains can be affected by irregular topography. In this work, the semi-automatic delimitation of volcanic edifice boundaries proposed by Grosse et al. (2009) for stratovolcanoes was tested for the first time over monogenetic cinder cones. The method, based on the integration of the DEM-derived slope and curvature maps, is applied here to the Tancitaro-Nueva Italia region of the Michoacán-Guanajuato Volcanic Field (Mexico), where 309 Plio-Quaternary cinder cones are located. The semiautomatic extraction allowed identification of 137 of the 309 cinder cones of the Tancitaro-Nueva Italia region, recognized by means of the manual extraction. This value corresponds to the 44.3% of the total number of cinder cones. Analysis on vent alignments allowed us to identify NE-SW vent alignments and cone elongations, consistent with a NE-SW σmax and a NW-SE σmin. Constructing a vent intensity map, based on computing the number of vents within a radius r centred on each vent of the data set and choosing r = 5 km, four vent intensity maxima were derived: one is positioned in the NW with respect to the Volcano Tancitaro, one in the NE, one to the S and another vent cluster located at the SE boundary of the studied area. The spacing of centroid of each cluster (24 km) can be related to the thickness of the crust (9-10 km) overlying the magma reservoir.

  14. Field project to obtain pressure core, wireline log, and production test data for evaluation of CO/sub 2/ flooding potential. Conoco MCA unit well No. 358, Maljamar Field, Lea County, New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, T.E.; Kumar, R.M.; Marlow, R.E.; Wilhelm, M.H.

    1982-08-01

    Field operations, which were conducted as a cooperative effort between Conoco and Gruy Federal, began on January 16, 1980 when the well was spudded. The well was drilled to 3692 feet, and 18 cores recovered in 18 core-barrel runs (144 feet). Upon completion of the coring phase, the hole was drilled to a total depth of 4150 feet and a complete suite of geophysical logs was run. Logging was then followed by completion and testing by Concoco. Core porosities agreed well with computed log porosities. Core water saturation and computed log porosities agree fairly well from 3692 to 3712 feet, poorly from 3712 to 3820 feet and in a general way from 4035 to 4107 feet. Computer log analysis techniques did not improve the agreement of log versus core derived water saturations. However, both core and log analysis indicated the ninth zone had the highest residual hydrocarbon saturations. Residual oil saturation were 259 STB/acre-ft for the 4035 - 4055 feet interval, and 150 STB/acre-ft for the 3692 - 3718 feet interval. Nine BOPD was produced from the 4035 - 4055 feet interval and no oil was produced from 3692 to 3718 feet interval, qualitatively confirming the relative oil saturations. The low oil production in the zone from 4022 to 4055 and the lack of production from 3692 to 3718 feet indicated the zone to be at or near residual waterflood conditions as determined by log analysis. 68 figures, 11 tables.

  15. Model assessing the impact of biomass burning on air quality and photochemistry in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, W.; Li, G.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Yokelson, R. J.; Molina, L. T.

    2010-12-01

    Biomass burning is a major global emission source for trace gases and particulates. Various multi-platform measurements during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA)-2003 and Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO)-2006 campaigns suggest significant influences of biomass burning (BB) on air quality in Mexico City during the dry season, and the observations show emissions from BB impose viable yet highly variable impacts on organic aerosols (OA) in and around Mexico City. We have developed emission inventories for forest fires surrounding Mexico City based on measurement-estimated emission factors and MODIS fire counts, and for garbage fires in Mexico City based on in situ-measured emission factors and the population distribution and socioeconomic data. In this study, we will comprehensively assess the impact of biomass burning on the aerosol loading, chemical composition, OA formation and photochemistry in Mexico City using WRF-Chem. Analysis of the model results, in conjunction with concurrent field measurements, will be presented.

  16. A perspective from Mexico.

    PubMed

    López, Mario Henry Rodríguez-

    2008-04-01

    As Binder et al. describe in their article in this issue of the Journal, most of the work of National Public Health Institutes (NPHIs) falls into the category of public goods. This is certainly true for the National Institute of Public Health (Instituto Nacional de Salud Publica (INSP)) of Mexico. Our mission is to contribute to social equity by improving public health in Mexico and Latin America, through the generation of knowledge, innovation in health systems, and public health training. At INSP, we believe that public health is a collective responsibility and that the state has a primary role in promoting and protecting the population's health. Binder et al. have performed a service by drawing attention to the importance of NPHIs and the challenges associated with funding public goods functions. PMID:18368016

  17. Field project to obtain pressure core, wireline log, and production test data for evaluation of CO/sub 2/ flooding potential, Conoco MCA unit well No. 358, Maljamar Field, Lea County, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, T.E.; Marlow, R.E.; Wilhelm, M.H.; Goodrich, J.H.; Kumar, R.M.

    1981-11-01

    This report describes part of the work done to fulfill a contract awarded to Gruy Federal, Inc., by the Department of Energy (DOE) on Feburary 12, 1979. The work includes pressure-coring and associated logging and testing programs to provide data on in-situ oil saturation, porosity and permeability distribution, and other data needed for resource characterization of fields and reservoirs in which CO/sub 2/ injection might have a high probability of success. This report details the second such project. Core porosities agreed well with computed log porosities. Core water saturation and computed log porosities agree fairly well from 3692 to 3712 feet, poorly from 3712 to 3820 feet and in a general way from 4035 to 4107 feet. Computer log analysis techniques incorporating the a, m, and n values obtained from Core Laboratories analysis did not improve the agreement of log versus core derived water saturations. However, both core and log analysis indicated the ninth zone had the highest residual hydrocarbon saturations and production data confirmed the validity of oil saturation determinations. Residual oil saturation, for the perforated and tested intervals were 259 STB/acre-ft for the interval from 4035 to 4055 feet, and 150 STB/acre-ft for the interval from 3692 to 3718 feet. Nine BOPD was produced from the interval 4035 to 4055 feet and no oil was produced from interval 3692 to 3718 feet, qualitatively confirming the relative oil saturations as calculated. The low oil production in the zone from 4022 to 4055 and the lack of production from 3692 to 3718 feet indicated the zone to be at or near residual waterflood conditions as determined by log analysis. This project demonstrates the usefulness of integrating pressure core, log, and production data to realistically evaluate a reservoir for carbon dioxide flood.

  18. WIPP site and vicinity geological field trip. A report of a field trip to the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant project in Southeastern New Mexico, June 16 to 18, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Chaturvedi, L

    1980-10-01

    The Environmental Evaluation Group is conducting an assessment of the radiological health risks to people from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. As a part of this work, EEG is making an effort to improve the understanding of those geological issues concerning the WIPP site which may affect the radiological consequences of the proposed repository. One of the important geological issues to be resolved is the timing and the nature of the dissolution processes which may have affected the WIPP site. EEG organized a two-day conference of geological scientists, on January 17-18, 1980. On the basis of the January conference and the June field trip, EEG has formed the following conclusions: (1) it has not been clearly established that the site or the surrounding area has been attacked by deep dissolution to render it unsuitable for the nuclear waste pilot repository; (2) the existence of an isolated breccia pipe at the site unaccompanied by a deep dissolution wedge, is a very remote possibility; (3) more specific information about the origin and the nature of the brine reservoirs is needed. An important question that should be resolved is whether each encounter with artesian brine represents a separate pocket or whether these occurrences are interconnected; (4) Anderson has postulated a major tectonic fault or a fracture system at the Basin margin along the San Simon Swale; (5) the area in the northern part of the WIPP site, identified from geophysical and bore hole data as the disturbed zone, should be further investigated to cleary understand the nature and significance of this structural anomaly; and (6) a major drawback encountered during the discussions of geological issues related to the WIPP site is the absence of published material that brings together all the known information related to a particular issue.

  19. Mexico, maquiladoras, and occupational medicine training.

    PubMed

    Cordes, D H; Rea, D F; Schwartz, I; Rea, J

    1989-01-01

    Industrialization and its concomitant social and environmental effects in developing countries are considered in this paper. Mexico offers one example of economic progress achieved through the promotion of industrial growth. Recognising the need for trained experts with global experience in occupational health, the University of Arizona (UA) has begun a programme to train occupational and preventive medicine residents in international aspects of occupational health in the nearby industrialized border regions of Mexico. By using the maquiladora (assembly plant) industries and the resources of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social with the State of Sonora, residents observe existing problems in occupational safety and health in addition to adding to their understanding of the need for worldwide cooperation for research and reform in this field. PMID:2719874

  20. Dust storm, northern Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This large dust storm along the left side of the photo, covers a large portion of the state of Coahuila, Mexico (27.5N, 102.0E). The look angle of this oblique photo is from the south to the north. In the foreground is the Sierra Madre Oriental in the states Coahuila and Nuevo Leon with the Rio Grande River, Amistad Reservoir and Texas in the background.

  1. Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Sunglint on the surface of the Sea of Cortez near the island of Tiburon (28.5 N, 112.5W) reveals intricate patterns of internal waves under the placid surface. Mexico's state of Sonora and the Sonora Desert is on the mainland and the state of Baja California consists of the entire peninsula. The large bay on the Pacific side of Baja is Laguna Ojo de Libre (Bay of Whales) which is a breeding area for the Pacific Grey Whales.

  2. Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    An interesting view down the axis of Baja California, Mexico (26.5N, 113.0W). At the center of the Scene is Laguna Ojo de Liebre (Bay of Whales) which is a breeding area for the Pacific Grey Whale. The Sea of Cortez, also known as the Gulf of California, is to the left and the Pacific Ocean is to the right.

  3. Seismology in Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lomnitz, C.

    1982-01-01

    Mexico is situated at the intersection of four major crustal Plates: the Americas Plate, the Pacific Plate, the Caribbean Plate, and the Cocos Plate. The interaction of these four plates is very complex. The pattern of earthquake risk is, therefore, among the most complicated in the world. The average release of seismic energy each is 55x1021 ergs-more than twice the figure for California. 

  4. Firearms in New Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    Wiktor, S Z; Gallaher, M M; Baron, R C; Watson, M E; Sewell, C M

    1994-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of firearm ownership and storage practices in New Mexico, we did a random-digit-dialing survey of New Mexico residents in October 1991. Of 200 households surveyed, 79 (40%) had 1 or more firearms in the home. Rural households were more likely than urban households to have firearms (44% versus 30%), and households with annual incomes of greater than $25,000 were more likely to have a firearm than households with incomes of $25,000 or less (41% versus 33%). Household firearm ownership did not vary with the presence of young (< 15 years old) children (38% with children versus 41% without). Handguns were generally owned for self-protection, and rifles were owned for hunting. Of households with firearms, 24% stored them unsafely (unlocked and loaded or unloaded but with ammunition nearby), including 21% of households with young children. Of the households with handguns only, 40% stored these firearms unsafely compared with 13% of those with rifles only. The prevalence of gun ownership in New Mexico is similar to that reported in national surveys; handguns are stored less safely than rifles; and the presence of young children in the home does not appear to improve firearm storage safety. Images PMID:7941530

  5. Crustal Deformation Analysis at CGPS Sites Spanning Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, G. E.; Bennett, R. A.; Spinler, J. C.; Grejner-Brzezinska, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    We conducted a study using data from continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) stations throughout Mexico to understand a variety of factors that may have an impact on crustal deformation of Mexico—a research topic investigated for many years. This arises from the fact that Mexico is directly influenced by the interactions between the North American, Pacific, Cocos, Caribbean and Rivera tectonic plates. We analyzed CGPS data originating from several networks covering Mexico. These stations have been installed to serve diverse purposes and applications, and are administered by diverse organizations that include government agencies and public universities. We evaluated a total of 80 CGPS stations operating in Mexico; where dual-frequency geodetic-grade GPS receivers collected data continuously during periods between 1994 and 2014.5, in order to provide a synoptic view of the crustal velocity field of Mexico. The CGPS sites located in the Mexican territory were processed with respect to 133 sites outside of Mexico (i.e., Caribbean, Pacific, South and North American plates) in order to evaluate crustal deformation in Mexico in the context of the relative motions among these tectonic plates. Given the heterogeneous nature of the available GPS networks, we performed an analysis of time-series in terms of their duration and precision, finding generally high precision. From the estimated crustal velocities, we observe that these are very comparable (± 1 mm) with respect to previously derived values for stations located at the Baja Peninsula and the Oaxaca—Guerrero region. In general, the behavior of the northern CGPS spanning Mexico are very consistent with North American plate motion.

  6. Mexico: Rasgos de Su Historia. (Mexico: Highlights of Its History).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orozco, Cecilio

    Intended for both teachers and students, this publication, written in Spanish, briefly traces Mexico's history from its Conquest in 1519 to the overthrow of Porfirio Diaz in 1910. The following are briefly discussed: Mexico's Conquest in 1519; events immediately after the fall of Tenochtitlan; the War for Independence; Texas' separation from…

  7. Mexico 1996. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1996 (Mexico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Salvador

    This paper shares the impressions of a participant from the 1996 Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program in Mexico. These impressions address several current interest topics about international relations with Mexico including: (1) immigration; (2) politics; (3) education; (4) the economy; (5) the environment; (6) the media; (7) religion; and…

  8. Mexico's National Educational Videoconferencing Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisanty, Alejandro

    This paper begins with background on the National University of Mexico (UNAM) and its networks. Other distance education projects in Mexico are described, including projects of the Instituto Politecnico Nacional (IPN), the National Distance Education Program operated by the Secretary of Education, and the Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios…

  9. "Mexico in Transition." Curriculum Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. Foreign Language Resource Center.

    These curriculum units were developed in a National Endowment for the Humanities 1994 summer seminar "Mexico in Transition." The 23 lessons are written in Spanish. Lessons are entitled: (1) "La Migracion Mexicana Vista a Traves del Cuento 'Paso del Norte' de Juan Rulfo" (Jose Jorge Armendariz); (2) "Los Grupos Indigenas de Mexico: Condiciones…

  10. The Struggle of Rural Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esteva, Gustavo; And Others

    Diverse aspects of rural problems and the social organization of Mexican labor are explored in this summary of Mexican rural history. Achnowledging Mexico's rich, unexhausted, and unexplored natural resources, Mexico is described as a poverty-stricken, hungry nation, with high degrees of malnutrition, deprivation, and illiteracy heavily…

  11. New Mexico Educational Perspective 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Dept. of Education, Santa Fe. Assessment, Evaluation, and Information Services Unit.

    This fold-out chart provides information about educational achievement in New Mexico for 1988-89. Demographic and educational indicators are summarized for the 88 school districts with over 292,450 students in 633 public schools in the state. The New Mexico Assessment System measures student achievement in language arts, social studies, science,…

  12. Mosses new to New Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A bryophyte inventory was conducted in the Valles Caldera National Preserve (VCNP), New Mexico, from 2009 to 2011. Specimens representing 113 species of bryophytes were collected. Of those bryophytes, seven of the mosses were new to New Mexico: Atrichum tenellum (Rohling) Bruch & Schimper, Dicranum ...

  13. Mexico: Democracy and the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruhn, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    During most of the twentieth century, Mexico was governed by one of the longest-ruling authoritarian parties in the contemporary world. Even as most Latin American countries democratized in the 1980s, Mexico remained under the control of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). It was not until the 2000 presidential election that a two-party…

  14. Ferric Tourmaline from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mason, B; Donnay, G; Hardie, L A

    1964-04-01

    Dark brown crystals, up to 10 mm long, occur in rhyolite at Mexquitic, San Luis Potosi, Mexico. They are short prismatic, showing {1120}, {3030}, {1011}, {0221}, with c/a 0.4521, measured with a goniometer, and distinct {1120} cleavage. With an unusual combination of cell dimensions, high density, high refractive indices, and extreme birefringence, this tourmaline falls outside the known elbaite-schorl and schorl-dravite series. A chemical analysis, recalculated on the basis of cell volume and density, gives close to the theoretical 150 atoms per cell, whether the iron is ferrous or ferric, but the physical properties indicate a ferric tourmaline. PMID:17729799

  15. [Psychiatry in ancient Mexico].

    PubMed

    Calderón Narváez, G

    1992-12-01

    Using studies on prehispanic and early post-conquest documents of Ancient Mexico--such as the Badianus Manuscript, also known as Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis, and Brother Bernardino de Sahagún's famous work History of the Things of the New Spain, a description of some existing medical and psychiatric problems, and treatments Ancient Aztecs resorted to, is presented. The structure of the Aztec family, their problems with the excessive ingestion of alcoholic beverages, and the punishments native authorities had implemented in order to check alcoholism up are also described. PMID:1341125

  16. [Health technology in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Cruz, C; Faba, G; Martuscelli, J

    1992-01-01

    The features of the health technology cycle are presented, and the effects of the demographic, epidemiologic and economic transition on the health technology demand in Mexico are discussed. The main problems of science and technology in the context of a decreasing scientific and technological activity due to the economic crisis and the adjustment policies are also analyzed: administrative and planning problems, low impact of scientific production, limitations of the Mexican private sector, and the obstacles for technology assessment. Finally, this paper also discusses the main support strategies for science and technology implemented by the Mexican government during the 1980s and the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead. PMID:1411774

  17. 21 CFR 808.81 - New Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false New Mexico. 808.81 Section 808.81 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.81 New Mexico. The following New Mexico medical device requirement is... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: New Mexico Statutes Annotated, section 67-36-16(F)....

  18. 21 CFR 808.81 - New Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false New Mexico. 808.81 Section 808.81 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.81 New Mexico. The following New Mexico medical device requirement is... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: New Mexico Statutes Annotated, section 67-36-16(F)....

  19. 21 CFR 808.81 - New Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false New Mexico. 808.81 Section 808.81 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.81 New Mexico. The following New Mexico medical device requirement is... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: New Mexico Statutes Annotated, section 67-36-16(F)....

  20. 21 CFR 808.81 - New Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false New Mexico. 808.81 Section 808.81 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.81 New Mexico. The following New Mexico medical device requirement is... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: New Mexico Statutes Annotated, section 67-36-16(F)....

  1. 21 CFR 808.81 - New Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false New Mexico. 808.81 Section 808.81 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.81 New Mexico. The following New Mexico medical device requirement is... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: New Mexico Statutes Annotated, section 67-36-16(F)....

  2. Community education. Mexico.

    PubMed

    1990-04-01

    In Mexico, Mexicanos contra el SIDA, a confederation of 15 nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), was formed in July 1989 in order to present a stronger political presence, strengthen activities, and increase access to international funding. The group works with homosexuals, women, persons who are seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), laborers, students, and professionals. From July 27 to December 15, 1989, in collaboration with the Mexican Radio Institution (IMER), 90 radio spots, which were primarily aimed at youngsters, were broadcast. 16 full-length programs were also produced. The result was a huge demand for condoms and information, especially in Mexico City, among young people who attended rock concerts organized in collaboration with IMER. The national acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) program, CONASIDA, began public education campaigns again in response to the radio programs, in spite of the anti-abortionists, Provida, who had put a stop to public education on condoms and AIDS prevention in 1988. Mexicanos contra el SIDA threatened legal action when Provida and the National Union of Parents in Families tried to take legal action against the director of CONASIDA, Dr. Jaime Sepulveda Amor. The confederation has now signed a working agreement with CONASIDA, although there is concern regarding CONASIDA's political control of funds and fear the bureaucracy will slow down work. The confederation is seeking more direct contact with international funding agencies. PMID:12342837

  3. Magnetometry and archaeological prospection in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barba Pingarron, L.; Laboratorio de Prospeccion Arqueologica

    2013-05-01

    Luis Barba Laboratorio de Prospección Arqueológica Instituto de Investigaciones Antropológicas Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México The first magnetic survey in archaeological prospection was published in 1958 in the first number of Archaeometry, in Oxford. That article marked the beginning of this applications to archaeology. After that, magnetic field measurements have become one of the most important and popular prospection tools. Its most outstanding characteristic is the speed of survey that allows to cover large areas in short time. As a consequence, it is usually the first approach to study a buried archaeological site. The first attempts in Mexico were carried out in 196. Castillo and Urrutia, among other geophysical techniques, used a magnetometer to study the northern part of the main plaza, zocalo, in Mexico City to locate some stone Aztec sculptures. About the same time Morrison et al. in La Venta pyramid used a magnetometer to measure total magnetic field trying to find a substructure. Some years later Brainer and Coe made a magnetic survey to locate large stone Olmec heads in San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan, Veracruz. Technology development has provided everyday more portable and accurate instruments to measure the magnetic field. The first total magnetic field proton magnetometers were followed by differential magnetometers and more recently gradiometers. Presently, multiple sensor magnetometers are widely used in European archaeology. The trend has been to remove the environmental and modern interference and to make more sensitive the instruments to the superficial anomalies related to most of the archaeological sites. There is a close relationship between the geology of the region and the way magnetometry works in archaeological sites. Archaeological prospection in Europe usually needs very sensitive instruments to detect slight magnetic contrast of ditches in old sediments. In contrast, volcanic conditions in Mexico produce large magnetic contrast

  4. SAN PEDRO PARKS WILDERNESS, NEW MEXICO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Santos, Elmer S.; Weisner, Robert C.

    1984-01-01

    The San Pedro Parks Wilderness occupies 62. 7 sq mi of the Santa Fe National Forest in north-central New Mexico. Several copper mines, many copper prospects, and a few uranium prospects occur in sedimentary units in the vicinity of the wilderness. These units, where they extend into the wilderness, constitute only a small volume of rock and, judging from analyses of samples and from field observations, are devoid of copper and uranium concentration. Prospects on several of about 65 mining claims within the wilderness revealed concentrations of manganese or barite but only in volumes too small to be considered a demonstrated resource.

  5. Mexico Wind Resource Assessment Project

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, M.N.; Elliott, D.L.

    1995-05-01

    A preliminary wind energy resource assessment of Mexico that produced wind resource maps for both utility-scale and rural applications was undertaken as part of the Mexico-U.S. Renewable Energy Cooperation Program. This activity has provided valuable information needed to facilitate the commercialization of small wind turbines and windfarms in Mexico and to lay the groundwork for subsequent wind resource activities. A surface meteorological data set of hourly data in digital form was utilized to prepare a more detailed and accurate wind resource assessment of Mexico than otherwise would have been possible. Software was developed to perform the first ever detailed analysis of the wind characteristics data for over 150 stations in Mexico. The hourly data set was augmented with information from weather balloons (upper-air data), ship wind data from coastal areas, and summarized wind data from sources in Mexico. The various data were carefully evaluated for their usefulness in preparing the wind resource assessment. The preliminary assessment has identified many areas of good-to-excellent wind resource potential and shows that the wind resource in Mexico is considerably greater than shown in previous surveys.

  6. Solar Two technology for Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    KOLB,GREGORY J.; STRACHAN,JOHN W.; GASCO,CLAUDIO ESTRADA

    2000-03-02

    Solar power towers, based on molten salt technology, have been the subject of extensive research and development since the late 1970s. In the mid 1980s, small experimental plants were successfully fielded in the USA and France that demonstrated the feasibility of the concept at a 1 to 2 MW{sub e} scale. Systems analyses indicate this technology will be cost competitive with coal-fired power plants after scaling-up plant size to the 100 to 200 MW{sub e} range. To help bridge the scale-up gap, a 10 MW{sub e} demonstration project known as Solar Two, was successfully operated in California, USA from 1996 to 1999. The next logical step could be to scale-up further and develop a 30 MW{sub e} project within the country of Mexico. The plant could be built by an IPP industrial consortium consisting of USA's Boeing and Bechtel Corporations, combined with Mexican industrial and financial partners. Plausible technical and financial characteristics of such a ``Solar-Two-type'' Mexican project are discussed in this paper.

  7. On the behavior of site effects in Central Mexico (the Mexican Volcanic Belt - MVB), based on records of shallow earthquakes that occurred in the zone between 1998 and 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemente-Chavez, A.; Zúñiga, F. R.; Lermo, J.; Figueroa-Soto, A.; Valdés, C.; Montiel, M.; Chavez, O.; Arroyo, M.

    2013-11-01

    The Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB) is a seismogenic zone that transects the central part of Mexico with an east-west orientation. The risk and hazard seismic of this seismogenic zone has not been studied at detail due to the scarcity of instrumental data as well as because seismicity in the continental regimen of Central Mexico is not too frequent, however, it is known that there are precedents of large earthquakes (Mw > 6.0) that have taken place in this zone. The Valley of Mexico City (VM) is the sole zone, within the MVB, which has been studied in detail; mainly focusing on the ground amplification during large events such as the 1985 subduction earthquake that occurred in Michoacan. The purpose of this article is to analyze the behavior of site effects in the MVB zone based on records of shallow earthquakes (data not reported before) that occurred in the zone between 1998 and 2011. We present a general overview of site effects on the MVB, a classification of the stations in order to reduce the uncertainty in the data to obtain attenuation parameters in future works, and some comparisons between the information presented here and that presented in previous studies. A regional evaluation of site effects and Fourier Acceleration Spectrum (FAS) shape was estimated based on 80 records of 22 shallow earthquakes within the MVB zone. Data of 25 stations were analyzed. Site effects were estimated by using the Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) methodology. The results show that seismic waves are less amplified in the northeast sites of the MVB with respect to the rest of the zone and that it is possible to classify two groups of stations: (1) stations with Negligible Site Amplification (NSA) and (2) stations with Significant Site Amplification (SSA). Most of the sites in the first group showed small (< 3) amplifications while the second group showed amplifications ranging from 4 to 6.5 at frequencies of about 0.35, 0.75, 15 and 23 Hz. With these groups of

  8. 75 FR 28555 - Executive Green ICT & Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Mexico City, Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... International Trade Administration Executive Green ICT & Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Mexico City, Mexico... Commercial Service are organizing an Executive Green ICT & Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Mexico City... ``Green Information & Communication Technology (ICT)'' solutions, as well as energy...

  9. Mexico City, Mexico as seen from STS-62

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This image is the clearest photo of Mexico City, Mexico taken from U.S. Manned Spacecraft. North is to the upper right. Mexico City sits in a basin surrounded by large volcanoes. The restricted atmospheric circulation in the basin, coupled with the inevitable air emissions produced by a city of 20 million people has created a critical air pollution problem for the city. In most photographs of the region, Mexico City is obscured by haze. The clarity of the photograph allows many key cultural features to be identified, including all of the major boulevards, the horse track (western part of the city), the university (south of the city), and the museum areas. Large, man-made ponds east of the city also stand out.

  10. Demonstrated reserve base for coal in New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, G.K.

    1995-02-01

    The new demonstrated reserve base estimate of coal for the San Juan Basin, New Mexico, is 11.28 billion short tons. This compares with 4.429 billion short tons in the Energy Information Administration`s demonstrated reserve base of coal as of January 1, 1992 for all of New Mexico and 2.806 billion short tons for the San Juan Basin. The new estimate includes revised resource calculations in the San Juan Basin, in San Juan, McKinley, Sandoval, Rio Arriba, Bernalillo and Cibola counties, but does not include the Raton Basin and smaller fields in New Mexico. These estimated {open_quotes}remaining{close_quotes} coal resource quantities, however, include significant adjustments for depletion due to past mining, and adjustments for accessibility and recoverability.

  11. Gene flow scenarios with transgenic maize in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Serratos-Hernández, José-Antonio; Islas-Gutiérrez, Fabián; Buendía-Rodríguez, Enrique; Berthaud, Julien

    2004-01-01

    Maize diversity is widespread in Mexico and it has been stewarded by campesinos in small communities until the present. With the arrival of transgenic maize, the objective of this study is to analyze possible scenarios that could result if genetically modified maize were not regulated and openly available in Mexico. By applying a simple logistic model based on the conditions of maize production in Mexico, the dispersion of transgenic maize in different situations within fields of farmers is described. In traditional open systems of freely exchanged seed within communities it is concluded that the most likely outcome of GM maize release is the incorporation of transgenes in the genome of Mexican germplasm and possibly in that of teosinte. PMID:15901097

  12. Mexico City Aerosol Transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, P. A.; Eichinger, W. E.; Prueger, J.; Holder, H. L.

    2007-12-01

    A radiative impact study was conducted in Mexico City during MILAGRO/MIRAGE campaign in March of 2006. On a day when the predominant wind was from the north to the south, authors measured radiative properties of the atmosphere in six locations across the city ranging from the city center, through the city south limits and the pass leading out of the city (causing pollutants to funnel through the area). A large change in aerosol optical properties has been noticed. The aerosol optical depth has generally increased outside of the city and angstrom coefficient has changed significantly towards smaller values. Aerosol size distribution was calculated using SkyRadPack. The total optical depths allowed coincidental lidar data to calculate total extinction profiles for all the locations for 1064nm.

  13. Borrego Fire, New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For the past week, the Borrego Fire in northern New Mexico has consumed over 12,000 acres of land in and around the Sante Fe National Forest. This true-color image of the fire was acquired on May 24, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The fire, which has been fueled by unseasonably dry mixed conifer and aspen forests, is reported to have spread very little in the past twenty-four hours. Eight hundred firefighters, four air tankers, and 12 helicopters have been employed to control the blaze. As of now, the cause of the fire is still under investigation, and no one has been seriously injured or killed. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  14. Noise in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beristain, Sergio

    2001-05-01

    Mexico City is known to be the largest city in the world, inhabited by some 20 percent of the national population, so noise pollution is not strange to it, particularly in view of the fact that industry is not concentrated, but rather spread throughout the city. The international airport also lies within the city limits, in the midst of residential areas. The heavy traffic during rush hours in the morning and in the evening and the activities of the populace, together with special events, produce a noise problem that is difficult to assess and to solve. Nevertheless, with educational programs begun several years ago and noise campaigns planned for the near future, in addition to existing regulations, the problem is not completely out of control. This paper presents a discussion of the general noise problem and describes how authorities and institutions are dealing with it.

  15. Bilingual Education: Research in Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modiano, Nancy

    1978-01-01

    This report concerns public bilingual elementary schools for rural Indian (non-Spanish-speaking) children in Mexico. Materials production efforts as well as completed and projected research projects are described. (SJL)

  16. Transportation energy use in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Sheinbaum, C.; Meyers, S.; Sathaye, J.

    1994-07-01

    This report presents data on passenger travel and freight transport and analysis of the consequent energy use in Mexico during the 1970--1971 period. We describe changes in modal shares for passenger travel and freight transport, and analyze trends in the energy intensity of different modes. We look in more detail at transportation patterns, energy use, and the related environmental problems in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, and also discuss policies that have been implemented there to reduce emissions from vehicles.

  17. 9 CFR 93.427 - Cattle from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.427 Cattle from Mexico. (a) Cattle and other ruminants imported from Mexico, except animals being transported in bond for immediate return to Mexico...

  18. 9 CFR 93.427 - Cattle from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.427 Cattle from Mexico. (a) Cattle and other ruminants imported from Mexico, except animals being transported in bond for immediate return to Mexico...

  19. 9 CFR 93.427 - Cattle from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.427 Cattle from Mexico. (a) Cattle and other ruminants imported from Mexico, except animals being transported in bond for immediate return to Mexico...

  20. 9 CFR 93.427 - Cattle from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.427 Cattle from Mexico. (a) Cattle and other ruminants imported from Mexico, except animals being transported in bond for immediate return to Mexico...

  1. View of northeastern Mexico and the Rio Grande Valley of Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An oblique view of northeastern Mexico and the Rio Grande Valley of Texas (26.0N,100.0W), as photographed from the Skylab space station by one of the Skylab 4 crewmen. Mexico's Sierra Madre Oriental Mountains are in the center of the picture. The Gulf of Mexico is in the background. Note the lakes on the Rio Grande River. Monterrey is near the center of the picture. Field patterns in the lower Rio Grande Valley can easily be identified. The stark, linear roughness of the Sierra Madre Oriental Mountains is the most prominent feature.

  2. Prospects for an Accelerator Program in Mexico Focused on Photon Science

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos Hernandez-Garcia, Mauro Napsuciale

    2011-05-01

    Recent interest in developing an accelerator-based light source in Mexico has driven several actions by the Division of Particles and Fields in Mexico, and by the electron accelerator community in the United States. We report on activities over the past two years that are very encouraging and offer a variety of possibilities to start the development of an accelerator program in Mexico. A suggested path towards this goal that would eventually lead to building, commissioning and operating a third or fourth generation light source will also be presented

  3. [Influenza pandemic: Mexico's response].

    PubMed

    Kuri-Morales, Pablo; Betancourt-Cravioto, Miguel; Velázquez-Monroy, Oscar; Alvarez-Lucas, Carlos; Tapia-Conyer, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    In 1992, a new type of influenza virus appeared in Southeast Asia. This new strain has caused to date, more than 120 cases and over 60 deaths in Cambodia,Vietnam, Indonesia and Thailand. This situation is seen by the experts as the possible genesis of a new influenza pandemic with the corresponding negative effects on the health of the population, international commerce and world economy. In order to face the coming challenge, the World Health Organization (WHO) has asked member countries to develop national preparedness and response plans for an influenza pandemic. Within the framework of the National Committee for Health Security, Mexico has developed a National Preparedness and Response Plan for an Influenza Pandemic with the aim of protecting the health of the population with timely and effective measures. The Plan is based on a risk scale and five lines of action: Coordination, Epidemiological Surveillance, Medical Care, Risk Communication and Strategic Stockpile. It is currently impossible to predict when the next pandemic will start or what will be its impact. Nevertheless, it is fundamental that national and regional health authorities establish measures for protecting the health of the population in case this emergency occurs. PMID:16555537

  4. Country watch. Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pick De Weiss, S

    1994-01-01

    Latin American pharmacies are low-cost, easy access centers for medical diagnosis, counseling, and treatment. The Mexican Institute for Research on the Family and Population therefore assessed the feasibility of training pharmacists to provide AIDS/STD education in Mexico City. Initial studies found pharmacy employees lacking accurate information on transmission, prevention, and symptoms, but clients nevertheless asking them about the topics. Training materials were developed with the help of feedback from focus groups and pharmacy workers city-wide were invited to participate in a program comparing between four interventions. One group attended a pharmaceutical plant tour, one received informational materials, one participated in the training course, and one attended the course and received informational materials. The training course was eight hours long on HIV/AIDS symptoms, evolution and effects; HIV transmission; prevention measures; attitudes and myths related to HIV/AIDS; and counseling clients. The study found that short, intense training reinforced with instructional and curricular materials can significantly increase the level of pharmacy employees' knowledge. Exposure to printed materials alone failed to have a substantial impact upon knowledge or condom sales. Few participants from any group transferred knowledge to clients, with lack of time cited as a contributory factor. It is concluded that more training and reinforcement are needed to encourage pharmacy workers to volunteer information to clients. PMID:12318837

  5. [Health manpower in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Martuscelli, J

    1986-01-01

    Population increase, rural-to-urban migration, excessive population concentration side by side with scattered rural populations, and the economic crisis provide the primary framework for this analysis of health manpower in Mexico. The secondary frame of reference is the primary causes of mortality (in 1981): the leading cause, accidents and violence; the second, heart disease; the third, influenza and pneumonia; and the fourth, enteric diseases and diarrheas. Data are supplied on the number of new physicians graduating (this number rose from 2,493 in 1976 to 14,099 in 1983), and on the number of nurses (about 98,000, of which 40% are professionals). The growth pattern of the contingent of dentists is the same as that of physicians, namely, disproportionate and inefficient. The Federal Government is now trying to set up a National Health System that will fulfill the constitutional right of all Mexican citizens to health protection. On the basis of the disequilibrium apparent in every part of the health sector, the author recommends that educational and health institutions plan and coordinate the training of physicians so that the number of graduates may meet the country's needs, and the quality of their education may be improved. PMID:3780502

  6. An investigation of flow regimes affecting the Mexico City region

    SciTech Connect

    Bossert, J.E.

    1995-05-01

    The Mexico City region is well-known to the meteorological community for its overwhelming air pollution problem. Several factors contribute to this predicament, namely, the 20 million people and vast amount of industry within the city. The unique geographical setting of the basin encompassing Mexico City also plays an important role. This basin covers approximately 5000 km{sup 2} of the Mexican Plateau at an average elevation of 2250 m above sea level (asl) and is surrounded on three sides by mountains averaging over 3500 m asl, with peaks over 5000 m asl. Only to the north is their a significant opening in the mountainous terrain. Mexico City sprawls over 1000 km{sup 2} in the southwestern portion of the basin. In recent years, several major research programs have been undertaken to investigate the air quality problem within Mexico City. One of these, the Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative (MARI), conducted in 1990--1993, was a cooperative study between researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Mexican Petroleum Institute. As part of this study, a field campaign was initiated in February 1991 during which numerous surface, upper air, aircraft, and LIDAR measurements were taken. Much of the work to date has focused upon defining and simulating the local meteorological conditions that are important for understanding the complex photochemistry occurring within the confines of the city. It seems reasonable to postulate, however, that flow systems originating outside of the Mexico City basin will influence conditions within the city much of the time.

  7. New Mexico Campaigns Against Hunger and Malnutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubin, Shami

    1972-01-01

    Describes the nutritional needs of individuals in New Mexico, and the efforts of the Nutrition Improvement Program (NIP) of the University of New Mexico School of Medicine at Albuquerque to remove hunger and malnutrition. (DM)

  8. Libraries in New Mexico: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/newmexico.html Libraries in New Mexico To use the sharing features on this ... Health Sciences Library and Informatics Center University of New Mexico ILL MSC09 5100 1 University of New ...

  9. Mexico's immunization programme gets results.

    PubMed

    1994-04-01

    With a decline of almost 60% over the past decade in the mortality of children under age 5 years old to the current rate of 33 child deaths/1000 live births, Mexico has joined the 20 countries listed by UNICEF as making the most progress in reducing child mortality since 1980. Much of this progress can be attributed to Mexico's immunization program, which has brought the proportion of fully immunized children under age 5 years to 94% over the past 5 years. Mexico's president has been instrumental in the program's success, having a personal interest in childhood vaccination and supervising the twice-yearly immunization coverage surveys. Even though presidential elections are being held this year, the immunization program should remain strong regardless of who wins because all of Mexico's political parties have pledged to remain committed to immunization. Awareness in the population about the need for vaccination is maintained with the help of the mass media, especially radio and television. The country's enthusiasm for vaccination seems to be paying off in terms of declining child mortality and the eradication of wild poliovirus. The immunization program reaches all but 2-3% of Mexico's children, despite some logistical difficulties and resistance to vaccines among certain religious groups such as the Mennonites and Jehovah's witnesses. PMID:12321777

  10. Geophysical Exploration of Faults, Fissures, and Fractures at Four Sites in Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lázaro-Mancilla, O.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, A.; Contreras-Corvera, A.; Stock, J. M.; Moreno-Ayala, D.; Ramirez-Hernandez, J.; Carreon-Diazconti, C.; Lopez, D. A. L.; Lopez, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    We conducted field geophysical measurements in areas in the City of Mexicali that are associated with geological faults, fissures, and fractures. The study sites are: 1) Instituto Tecnologico de Mexicali 2) The buried trace of the Michoacan de Ocampo fault in the urban zone 3) Rio Nuevo 4) A site reported by Frez (2013) with ground rupture SW of Cerro Prieto At Site 1, seismic reflection profiling used a cable with 24 geophones at 1 m spacing. The source was a 3.6 kg sledge hammer, with 3 impacts per shot point. 347 shot points at 2 m spacing provided 6 fold coverage along a straight line with minimal elevation changes. Sample rate was 2000/s, and record length 1 s; reflections were seen down to 0.3 s TWTT. Processing included: frequency filter, fk filter, predictive deconvolution, geometry, velocity analysis, NMO and stacking. Lateral changes in the seismic section are due to surface modification and/or the presence of faults.At site 2, we measured 222Radon in 36 locations along 17 profiles across the fault, using inherent alpha spectrometry with a Durridge RAD7 detector. Each site was measured at a depth of 60 cm, with 31 five-minute readings in a 3 hour period, interspersed with 10 minute of background purge and 3 five-minute background measurements. In a profile parallel to the fault, 78% of the readings were > 100 pCi/L, confirming the presence of the fault along the swath surveyed. At Site 3 we compiled observations of post-earthquake cracks, conducted reconnaissance, and measured some profiles using 100 MHz GPR. These observations showed that the cracks are associated with ground failure due to earthquake shaking. At Site 4 our new 222Radon gas measurements complemented a pre-existing profile that had high 222Radon values lacking a structural explanation. Related to this we found that this region has two NW-SE trending features: a magnetic anomaly low of 360 nT (Evans, Summer and Castillo, 1972) and a graben reported by the Mexican Geological Survey in 2003

  11. 75 FR 9645 - Additional Designations of Individuals and Entities Pursuant to Section 804(b) of the Foreign...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... de Mexico City, D.F., Mexico; DOB 28 Feb 1974; alt. DOB 18 Sep 1989; alt. DOB 6 Aug 1973; POB El..., Caborca, Sonora 83610, Mexico; DOB 8 Mar 1970; alt. DOB 6 Mar 1970; alt. DOB 12 Jun 1967; alt. DOB 12 Jun 1979; alt. DOB 2 Feb 1982; POB Ario de Rosales, Michoacan, Mexico; alt. POB Guanajuatillo,...

  12. Public communication of science in Mexico: past, present and future of a profession.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Mora, Carmen; Reynoso-Haynes, Elaine; Sánchez Mora, Ana María; Tagüeña Parga, Julia

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we offer an analysis of the evolution of the professional field of public communication of science in Mexico, particularly at the National Autonomous University of Mexico, the influences it has received from other countries, the impact it has on Mexican society and some of its relationships with other Latin American countries. We present examples of successful programmes in different mass media and an analysis of the evolution and diversification of science communicators over the last four decades. PMID:24789844

  13. Aztec Mexico: Discovery of Templo Mayor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslav, Marc

    1982-01-01

    Describes the Aztec archaeological artifacts shown in the American Museum of Natural History exhibit: "Aztec Mexico: Discovery of Templo Mayor." More than 100 objects, ranging from human skulls to jewelry, found in the excavation of the Great Temple of Mexico located under the center of Mexico City, were displayed. (AM)

  14. Gender Differences in Education in Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Susan Wendy; Pederzini, Carla

    This paper concentrates on the determinants of education in Mexico. Mexico is an interesting case study for education as it represents a country which has experienced growth in educational attainments over the last decades. Nevertheless, given its level of gross domestic product (GDP), Mexico actually does very poorly in terms of education, with…

  15. New Mexico Charter Schools Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Public Education Department, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, the New Mexico legislature passed changes to the Charter School Act that provided more accountability for both charters and authorizers in New Mexico. As part of that law, the Public Education Department (PED) is asked to submit an annual report on the status of charter schools in New Mexico. This is the first report submitted under that…

  16. Working without a Union in New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adele, Niame; Rack, Christine

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide a description of the academic climate in New Mexico. Like many other places in the world today, New Mexico is trying to find an identity in an environment that the authors label "increasingly privatized, corporatized, and militarized." New Mexico's higher education salaries are lower than those in other states.…

  17. A Hazy Day in Mexico City

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Mexico City has one of the world's most serious air pollution problems. The city is located atop a high plain at an altitude of 2200 meters, and is surrounded on three sides by mountains and snow-capped volcanoes. Since incident solar radiation does not vary significantly with season at tropical latitudes, photochemical smog is produced much of the year. In winter, air quality can worsen significantly when thermal inversions keep polluted air masses close to the surface.

    Atmospheric particulates (aerosols) are readily visible at oblique view angles, and differences in aerosol amount on two days are indicated by these images of central Mexico from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). The images at left and center are natural color views acquired by MISR's 70-degree forward-viewing camera on April 9 and December 5, 2001, respectively. Mexico City can be identified in the center panel by the large area of haze accumulation above image center. Two small brighter patches within the hazy area indicate low fog. In the left-hand panel, the city basin appears significantly clearer, but some haze remains apparent across the Sierra Madre mountains in the lower portion of the images. On the right is an elevation field corresponding to the December 5 view. Automated MISR stereoscopic retrievals reveal the clouds at lower right to be at very high altitudes, in contrast to the low-lying haze and fog near Mexico City. When the stereo retrieval determines that a location is not covered by clouds, digital terrain elevation data are displayed instead. High clouds appear as the orange and red areas, and mountainous areas appear light blue and green. The position of the clouds within the 70-degree image are slightly southward of their location in the elevation map as a consequence of geometric parallax.

    Major sources of air pollutants within the basin enclosing the Mexico City urban area include exhaust from 3.5 million vehicles, thousands of industries, and

  18. Carbon and Aerosol Emissions from Biomass Fires in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, W. M.; Flores Garnica, G.; Baker, S. P.; Urbanski, S. P.

    2009-12-01

    system contains 4 electro-polished stainless steel canisters to sample trace gas emissions, with a corresponding set of Teflon filters in the sampling ports to collect PM2.5 particulates. In addition, biomass burning was sampled by aircraft with canisters and real-time instruments as part of the MILAGRO field campaign. We present the emission factors of CO2, CO, CH4, C2-C4 compounds, and PM2.5 for prescribed fires of the major vegetation types in Mexico, as well as for regional wildfires in southern and central Mexico. We will also present a high-resolution vegetation map in Mexico based on the Landsat satellites and the fuel consumption models for various components and sizes of fuels.

  19. New Mexico GPW Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2002-04-01

    N e w M e x i c o New Mexico holds considerable reserves of this clean, reliable form of energy that to date have barely been tapped. New Mexico has more acres of geothermally heated greenhouses than any other state, and aquaculture, or fish farming, is a burgeoning enterprise for state residents. Several electric power generation opportunities also have been identified. G e o t h e r m a l ? W h y Homegrown Energy It's here, right beneath our feet! No need to import! Current Development New Mex

  20. Operating private hospitals in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Barcie, Joseph S

    2015-01-01

    Mexico is one of the richest countries in Latin America and over the last several decades there have been many changes in the healthcare delivery systems, from universal healthcare coverage for all Mexicans to the fast paced expansion of private healthcare. Like many countries, Mexico has both private and public health systems and hospital administrators are facing challenges on multiple fronts in addition to facing exciting new opportunities. In this article you will get a bird's eye view of this ever changing panorama. How the new growing middle class consumerism has impacted physicians, health insurance and private healthcare industry. PMID:26521381

  1. Opportunity for America: Mexico`s coal future

    SciTech Connect

    Loose, V.W.

    1993-09-01

    This study examines the history, current status and future prospects for increased coal use in Mexico. Environmental implications of the power-generation capacity expansion plans are examined in general terms. Mexican environmental law and regulations are briefly reviewed along with the new sense of urgency in the cleanup of existing environmental problems and avoidance of new problems as clearly mandated in recent Mexican government policy initiatives. It is expected that new capital facilities will need to incorporate the latest in process and technology to comply with existing environmental regulation. Technology developments which address these issues are identified. What opportunities have new initiatives caused by the recent diversification of Mexico`s energy economy offered US firms? This report looks at the potential future use of coal in the Mexican energy economy, examining this issue with an eye toward identifying markets that might be available to US coal producers and the best way to approach them. Market opportunities are identified by examining new developments in the Mexican economy generally and the energy economy particularly. These developments are examined in light of the current situation and the history which brought Mexico to its present status.

  2. Las Tierras de Nuevo Mexico. [The Lands of New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swadesh, Frances Leon; And Others

    New Mexico was inhabited thousands of years ago. Each group of settlers saw the land in distinct ways. For some, its beauty consisted of its quality, the abundance of water, and the hope of a good harvest. For others, its beautiful sites were of more importance. Thus, each group established its own manner of living on the land and of using it.…

  3. Geochemical Relationships between Volcanic and Plutonic Upper to Mid Crustal Exposures of the Rosario Segment, Alisitos Arc (Baja California, Mexico): An Outstanding Field Analog to the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, R.; DeBari, S. M.; Busby, C. J.; Medynski, S.

    2015-12-01

    Exposed paleo-arcs, such as the Rosario segment of the Cretaceous Alisitos Arc in Baja California, Mexico, provide an opportunity to explore the evolution of arc crust through time. Remarkable 3-D exposures of the Rosario segment record crustal generation processes in the volcanic rocks and underlying plutonic rocks. In this study, we explore the physical and geochemical connection between the plutonic and volcanic sections of the extensional Alisitos Arc, and elucidate differentiation processes responsible for generating them. These results provide an outstanding analog for extensional active arc systems, such as the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) Arc. Upper crustal volcanic rocks have a coherent stratigraphy that is 3-5 km thick and ranges in composition from basalt to dacite. The most felsic compositions (70.9% SiO2) are from a welded ignimbrite unit. The most mafic compositions (51.5% SiO2, 3.2% MgO) are found in basaltic sill-like units. Phenocrysts in the volcanic units include plagioclase +/- amphibole and clinopyroxene. The transition to deeper plutonic rocks is clearly an intrusive boundary, where plutonic units intrude the volcanic units. Plutonic rocks are dominantly a quartz diorite main phase with a more mafic, gabbroic margin. A transitional zone is observed along the contact between the plutonic and volcanic rocks, where volcanics have coarsely recrystallized textures. Mineral assemblages in the plutonic units include plagioclase +/- quartz, biotite, amphibole, clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene. Most, but not all, samples are low K. REE patterns are relatively flat with limited enrichment. Normalization diagrams show LILE enrichment and HFSE depletion, where trends are similar to average IBM values. We interpret plutonic and volcanic units to have similar geochemical relationships, where liquid lines of descent show the evolution of least to most evolved magma types. We provide a model for the formation and magmatic evolution of the Alisitos Arc.

  4. Selectivity of Undocumented Mexico-U.S. Migrants and Implications for U.S. Immigration Reform. Impacts of Immigration in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, J. Edward

    Proposed United States immigration reforms are founded on the assumption that illegal immigration can be significantly curbed by reducing economic incentives to migrate. Effects of these reforms, however, are not the same for all undocumented workers. Data from 61 rural Mexican households in Michoacan were used to explore which undocumented…

  5. Mexico hopes its economy will soon be cooking with gas

    SciTech Connect

    Reyser, J.

    1996-05-01

    For the last 60 years, the logo of Mexico`s energy sector could easily have been a `No trespassing` sign. Everything from finding, storing, and transporting oil and gas to siting, financing, and operating powerplants has been handled by only two state-owned entities and controlled out of a handful of offices in Mexico City. Decentralization is changing the ground rules and playing field for all of corporate Mexico. But it`s hard to imagine any Mexican company being affected more than Pemex - and not just because of its size. Analysts believe that the company wants to spend more money looking for new oil and gas reserves, both on- and off-shore. But to justify a larger investment in exploration, the company needs a larger domestic market, and that will require an expanded gas pipeline system. Gas is the focus because Pemex already knows that industrial demand for it will soon skyrocket: Last year, CFE issued new regulations that call for all of its oil-burning powerplants to switch to natural gas by 1998 to help reduce emissions of SO{sub 2}.

  6. BLACK RANGE PRIMITIVE AREA, NEW MEXICO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ericksen, George E.; Leland, George R.

    1984-01-01

    A study of the Black Range Primitive Area, New Mexico indicated that the area had little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. A few miles north of the area, a unit of rhyolite in the otherwise barren volcanic rocks of the Mogollon-Datil volcanic field contains local concentrations of the tin mineral cassiterite, and streams draining outcrop areas of this rhyolite within the primitive area may contain very small cassiterite placer deposits. None were observed in this study and no resource potential was identified. Paleozoic sedimentary rocks and Precambrian granitic and metamorphic rocks exposed just east and south of the primitive area contain small polymetallic deposits with varying amounts of silver, lead, zinc, copper, and gold. These same rocks lie beneath the volcanic cover within the primitive area and are likely to contain similar deposits, but no resource potential was identified.

  7. Sports Facilities, Zapopan, Jalisco, Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amelar, Sarah

    2001-01-01

    Highlights a new K-12 school gymnasium in Mexico that changes and reacts to weather conditions, requires no air conditioning, and, on typical days, uses sunlight filtering through its ample clerestory as the sole source of illumination. Includes numerous photographs, a section drawing, and a site plan. (GR)

  8. The Language Situation in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terborg, Roland; Landa, Laura Garcia; Moore, Pauline

    2006-01-01

    This monograph will cover the language situation in Mexico; a linguistically very complex country with 62 recognised indigenous languages, the "de facto" official language, Spanish, and some immigrant languages of lesser importance. Throughout the monograph, we will concentrate on three distinct challenges which we consider relevant for Mexican…

  9. The People of New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansen, Sigurd

    The bulletin provides data on New Mexico's population. Information is given on population size, distribution, and composition; topography and climate; urban and rural population changes; racial and ethnic characteristics; age and sex composition; fertility and mortality; population mobility; nativity; income; marital status; and education. A brief…

  10. Eastern New Mexico University. Exemplars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannozzi, Maria

    This report describes efforts by Eastern New Mexico University (ENMU) to recast its mission more narrowly while at the same time reducing the sense of remoteness and disconnection, as well as geographic isolation, between the main campus and its branch campuses. In the early 1980s, ENMU suffered from mission drift, in part as a result of its…

  11. The Geography Olympiad in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Garcia, Fernando

    2007-01-01

    The formal organisation of science Olympiads in Mexico dates from 1987, when a national contest on Mathematics was held in order to identify a team to represent the country in the International Mathematics Olympiad. In 1991, the Mexican Academy of Sciences ("Academia Mexicana de Ciencias"-AMC) created the National Science Olympiads Program with…

  12. The Educational System of Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Clark C.

    Education in Mexico has been controlled by the Federal government since the 1930s, and has focused on increasing vocational/technical education to meet the growing demands of the nation's economy. Finances and guidelines regarding curriculums and standards come from the Federal government. The official language of instruction is Spanish, although…

  13. Practical Law in New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Melinda, Ed.

    This book was written for teachers and students as a New Mexico supplement to "Street Law: A Course in Practical Law" (West Publishing Company, 1980), a text used in many high school law classes. The book may also be used as a teacher and student resource for civics, government, and other courses in the high school curriculum, or lay people might…

  14. Alternative Education Spaces in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Chloe

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the architecture of the Red de Innovacion y Aprendizaje (RIA), or Learning and Innovation Network, which is a group of education centres that provide access to computers, the Internet and quality education to low-income communities in Mexico. The RIA began in May 2009 when ten pilot centres were opened in four municipalities…

  15. Implementing Competence Frameworks in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Anda, Maria Luisa

    2011-01-01

    This article is based on the Mexican case study undertaken as part of the comparative study of the implementation and impact of National Qualifications Frameworks (NQF). Even though Mexico does not have a comprehensive NQF, the country has considerable experience in the development of labour competence technical standards; these share some aims…

  16. Revitalizing Communities in New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitzl, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    The New Mexico Rural Revitalization Initiative (NMRRI), an innovative program to enhance the growth and development of rural communities, involves schools and students as part of a holistic approach. The program requires community members to take responsibility for revitalizing their economy and fosters an entrepreneurial spirit among students.

  17. Anaglyph, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This anaglyph (stereoscopic view) of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula was generated entirely from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data, and shows a subtle but distinctive indication of the Chicxulub impact crater. Most scientists now agree that this impact was the cause of the Cretatious-Tertiary extinction, the event 65 million years ago that marked the demise of the dinosaurs as well as the majority of life then on Earth. The crater's rim is marked by a shallow semicircular depression arcing about an offshore center point in the upper left of the picture. (The arcing depression is just above the blue line, when viewed with the naked eye.) This depression, or trough, only about 3 to 5 meters (10 - 15 feet) deep and about 5 kilometers (3 miles) wide, was likely caused by collapse of limestone caverns preferentially above the crater rim, resulting in an arcing chain of sinkholes. The limestone that covers most of the Yucatan Peninsula post-dates the impact crater. However, the crater pattern apparently controls the subsidence pattern just enough to show through.

    This anaglyph was created by deriving a shaded relief image from the SRTM data, draping it back over the SRTM elevation model, and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. Illumination is from the north (top). When viewed through special glasses, the anaglyph is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter. The total relief (range of elevations) across this entire image is less than 300 meters (1000 feet).

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM

  18. 7 CFR 319.8-13 - From Northwest Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false From Northwest Mexico. 319.8-13 Section 319.8-13... for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-13 From Northwest Mexico. Contingent upon continued freedom of Northwest Mexico and of the West Coast of Mexico from infestations of the pink...

  19. 7 CFR 319.8-13 - From Northwest Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false From Northwest Mexico. 319.8-13 Section 319.8-13... for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-13 From Northwest Mexico. Contingent upon continued freedom of Northwest Mexico and of the West Coast of Mexico from infestations of the pink...

  20. 7 CFR 319.8-13 - From Northwest Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false From Northwest Mexico. 319.8-13 Section 319.8-13... for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-13 From Northwest Mexico. Contingent upon continued freedom of Northwest Mexico and of the West Coast of Mexico from infestations of the pink...

  1. 7 CFR 319.8-13 - From Northwest Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false From Northwest Mexico. 319.8-13 Section 319.8-13... for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-13 From Northwest Mexico. Contingent upon continued freedom of Northwest Mexico and of the West Coast of Mexico from infestations of the pink...

  2. 7 CFR 319.8-13 - From Northwest Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false From Northwest Mexico. 319.8-13 Section 319.8-13... for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-13 From Northwest Mexico. Contingent upon continued freedom of Northwest Mexico and of the West Coast of Mexico from infestations of the pink...

  3. UV-B Measurements in Mexico City: Comparison with Modeled UVB and Black Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marley, N. A.; Gaffney, J. S.; Frederick, J. E.

    2004-12-01

    Ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) represents a chemically important region of the sun's spectrum. At the earth's surface, UV-B can initiate a number of important photochemical reactions (e.g., ozone photolysis) that lead to the formation of OH radicals. Where levels of nitrogen oxides are high and reactive hydrocarbons are found, as in Mexico City and other megacities, UV-B can initiate photochemical smog formation. We used a broadband instrument to obtain UV-B measurements in Mexico City during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area 2003/Mexico City Megacity 2003 field study. We then used a simple radiation model for the Mexico City latitude, altitude, and time of year to construct UV-B contours for comparison with our results. Early morning discrepancies involve reductions in UV-B that are consistent with the presence of significant levels of BC in the Mexico City environment. During most afternoons, UV-B reductions were dominated by clouds. The results are discussed in terms of the potential impacts of BC on UV-B and downwind photochemical processes. The authors wish to thank the researchers at Centro Nacional de Investigación en Calidad Ambiental (CENICA), Mexico City. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Atmospheric Science Program (Marley and Gaffney), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Frederick). We also wish to acknowledge Drs. Mario and Luisa Molina for their help in organizing and directing the Mexico City Metropolitan Area 2003 field study, during which these data were collected.

  4. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR OPERATION, CALIBRATION, AND ROUTINE USE OF THE SPECTRACE 9000 FIELD PORTABLE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYZER (UA-L-10.1)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to describe the procedures for operating and calibrating the Spectrace 9000 field portable X-ray fluorescence analyzer. This procedure applies to the determination of metal concentrations in samples during the Arizona NHEXAS project and the Border stud...

  5. Paleomagnetism of Miocenic Rocks Around Chalcatzingo, Morelos, Mexico: A Revaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez-Duarte, A.; Bohnel, H.; Yutsis, V.

    2009-05-01

    The Chalcatzingo domes southeast of Mexico City have been recently 40Ar/39Ar dated to be around 20.7 Ma old. These rocks and the surrounding Tepexco Volcanic Group are defined in a previous study as showing strongly discordant paleomagnetic directions, about 50 west from the expected Miocene geomagnetic field direction; which prompted the hypothesis of a counter clockwise crustal block rotation, related to a regional left lateral fault system along the Transmexican Volcanic Belt. This rotation is the largest proposed so far for central Mexico, and it is in contrast to data from the nearby Basin of Mexico, which are concordant with the expected field directions. In view of the limited previous sampling and relatively complex remanence record, we have re-sampled the Chalcatzingo and Tepexco rocks to verify the validity of the proposed block rotation. For that purpose samples were collected from 26 sites. Reflected light and scanning electron microscopy were used to determine composition and texture of magnetic minerals, and IRM acquisition and thermomagnetic experiments to determine the rock magnetic properties. Detailed demagnetization was carried out using mainly the AF method to determine the characteristic remanence directions, to calculate site mean directions and VGPs. These are compared to the Miocene reference direction and pole for stable North America, and interpreted in terms of potential tectonic movements of the study area.

  6. Application of a one-dimensional model to explore the drivers and lability of carbon in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    EPA Science Inventory

    A one-dimensional water quality model, Gulf of Mexico Dissolved Oxygen Model (GoMDOM-1D), was developed to simulate phytoplankton, carbon, nutrients, and dissolved oxygen in Gulf of Mexico. The model was calibrated and corroborated against a comprehensive set of field observation...

  7. 77 FR 20690 - Environmental Impact Statement: Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Albuquerque, New Mexico AGENCY... the Interstate 25 and Paseo del Norte Interchange in Albuquerque, New Mexico. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Greg Heitmann, Environmental Specialist, Federal Highway Administration, New Mexico...

  8. Elimination of Onchocerciasis from Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A.; Fernández-Santos, Nadia A.; Orozco-Algarra, María E.; Rodríguez-Atanacio, José A.; Domínguez-Vázquez, Alfredo; Rodríguez-Morales, Kristel B.; Real-Najarro, Olga; Prado-Velasco, Francisco G.; Cupp, Eddie W.; Richards, Frank O.; Hassan, Hassan K.; González-Roldán, Jesús F.; Kuri-Morales, Pablo A.; Unnasch, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mexico is one of the six countries formerly endemic for onchocerciasis in Latin America. Transmission has been interrupted in the three endemic foci of that country and mass drug distribution has ceased. Three years after mass drug distribution ended, post-treatment surveillance (PTS) surveys were undertaken which employed entomological indicators to check for transmission recrudescence. Methodology/Principal findings In-depth entomologic assessments were performed in 18 communities in the three endemic foci of Mexico. None of the 108,212 Simulium ochraceum s.l. collected from the three foci were found to contain parasite DNA when tested by polymerase chain reaction-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA), resulting in a maximum upper bound of the 95% confidence interval (95%-ULCI) of the infective rate in the vectors of 0.035/2,000 flies examined. This is an order of magnitude below the threshold of a 95%-ULCI of less than one infective fly per 2,000 flies tested, the current entomological criterion for interruption of transmission developed by the international community. The point estimate of seasonal transmission potential (STP) was zero, and the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval for the STP ranged from 1.2 to 1.7 L3/person/season in the different foci. This value is below all previous estimates for the minimum transmission potential required to maintain the parasite population. Conclusions/Significance The results from the in-depth entomological post treatment surveillance surveys strongly suggest that transmission has not resumed in the three foci of Mexico during the three years since the last distribution of ivermectin occurred; it was concluded that transmission remains undetectable without intervention, and Onchocerca volvulus has been eliminated from Mexico. PMID:26161558

  9. The Lands of New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swadesh, Frances Leon; And Others

    New Mexico, the fifth largest state, measures 390 miles from north to south and 350 miles from east to west. Six of the 7 life zones found in the U.S. are represented within the State's 77,866,240 acres. Its population has tended to congregate at altitudes of 7,000 feet and below, especially in areas where water is available. This booklet,…

  10. Coralline reefs classification in Banco Chinchorro, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras-Silva, Ameris I.; López-Caloca, Alejandra A.

    2009-09-01

    The coralline reefs in Banco Chinchorro, Mexico, are part of the great reef belt of the western Atlantic. This reef complex is formed by an extensive coralline structure with great biological richness and diversity of species. These colonies are considered highly valuable ecologically, economically, socially and culturally, and they also inherently provide biological services. Fishing and scuba diving have been the main economic activities in this area for decades. However, in recent years, there has been a bleaching process and a decrease of the coral colonies in Quintana Roo, Mexico. This drop is caused mainly by the production activities performed in the oil platforms and the presence of hurricanes among other climatic events. The deterioration of the reef system can be analyzed synoptically using remote sensing. Thanks to this type of analysis, it is possible to have updated information of the reef conditions. In this paper, satellite imagery in Landsat TM and SPOT 5 is applied in the coralline reefs classification in the 1980- 2006 time period. Thus, an integral analysis of the optical components of the water surrounding the coralline reefs, such as on phytoplankton, sediments, yellow substance and even on the same water adjacent to the coral colonies, is performed. The use of a texture algorithm (Markov Random Field) was a key tool for their identification. This algorithm, does not limit itself to image segmentation, but also works on edge detection. In future work the multitemporal analysis of the results will determine the deterioration degree of these habitats and the conservation status of the coralline areas.

  11. Otomi de San Andres Cuexcontitlan, Estado de Mexico (Otomi of San Andres Cuexcontitlan, State of Mexico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lastra, Yolanda

    This document is one of 17 volumes on indigenous Mexican languages and is the result of a project undertaken by the Archivo de Lenguas Indigenas de Mexico. This volume contains information on Otomi, an indigenous language of Mexico spoken in San Andres Cuexcontitlan, in the state of Mexico. The objective of collecting such a representative…

  12. Activities toward Understanding Mexico's Transition to Democracy. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1996 (Mexico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dombrowski, Teresa Turnbow

    This unit for high school social studies and Spanish language students deals with Mexico's transition toward democracy. Lesson activities include: (1) "What Is An Early Democratic Family Incident That You Remember?"; (2) "What is Democracy?"; (3) "Locating the Five Nations of Mexico"; (4) "Scenes from the Five Nations of Mexico"; (5) "Profiling…

  13. GIS application on modern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Bharath

    This is a GIS based tool for showcasing the history of modern Mexico starting from the post-colonial era to the elections of 2012. The tool is developed using simple language and is flexible so as to allow for future enhancements. The application consists of numerous images and textual information, and also some links which can be used by primary and high school students to understand the history of modern Mexico, and also by tourists to look for all the international airports and United States of America consulates. This software depicts the aftermaths of the Colonial Era or the Spanish rule of Mexico. It covers various topics like the wars, politics, important personalities, drug cartels and violence. All these events are shown on GIS (Geographic information Science) maps. The software can be customized according to the user requirements and is developed using JAVA and GIS technology. The user interface is created using JAVA and MOJO which contributes to effective learning and understanding of the concepts with ease. Some of the user interface features provided in this tool includes zoom-in, zoom-out, legend editing, location identifier, print command, adding a layer and numerous menu items.

  14. Regional orientation of tectonic stress and the stress expressed by post-subduction high-magnesium volcanism in northern Baja California, Mexico: Tectonics and volcanism of San Borja volcanic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrete-Aranda, Raquel; Cañón-Tapia, Edgardo; Brandle, Jose Luis; Ortega-Rivera, M. Amabel; Lee, James K. W.; Spelz, Ronald M.; Hinojosa-Corona, Alejandro

    2010-04-01

    Because of its long-lived (Late Miocene to Pleistocene) post-subduction volcanic activity and location, the San Borja volcanic field (SBVF) is a key area for understanding the physical mechanisms controlling the spatial distribution of post-subduction volcanism on the Peninsula of Baja California. In this paper, we study the distribution and general characteristics of individual eruptive centers in the SBVF, aiming to provide insight into the changing physical nature of post-subduction magmatism and the control on vent location in a very unique tectonic setting. Volcanic activity has built more than 227 high-magnesium andesites (HMA) monogenetic scoria cones and thick lava flows capping large mesas during the last 12.5 Ma. The average (mean) eruptive center in the SBVF has a height of 85 m, a basal diameter of 452 m and a slope angle of 30°. Our volcanic alignment analysis of this field is based on field data, satellite images, and a quantitative method for detecting volcanic center alignments. The morphologic data, together with new 40Ar/ 39Ar geochronology data have been used to refine our alignment analysis and to better delineate the temporal evolution of post-subduction volcanic activity in this field. The available ages vary from 3.53 ± 0.18 to 10 ± 0.23 Ma suggesting that the long-lived HMA volcanism occurred almost continuously (with some concentration of pulses) throughout Late Miocene and extending to the Pleistocene and even into the Quaternary, replacing the arc-related activity of the Comondú arc which vanished in this area around 12.5 Ma. Alignment analysis confirms a NW-SE direction as the preferred orientation of volcanic alignments and shows that vent elongations do not display a strong parallelism in any particular direction, marking the absence of matches between lineaments defined by multiple vents and orientations of vent elongation. The results of the volcanic alignment analysis allowed us to infer the direction of the maximum

  15. The Diffusion of Health Information: Medicine Hucksters Can Teach Us Something.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoni, Joseph J.; Ball, Richard A.

    During 1974, the role and effectiveness of the Mexican medicine huckster were examined within the context of a specified information diffusion process. Seventy-five hucksters were observed at work in three states of Mexico (Oaxaca, Michoacan, and Mexico) and in the Federal District (Mexico City area). Twenty-five sales pitches were recorded and…

  16. Phase Field Fracture Mechanics.

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Brett Anthony

    2015-11-01

    For this assignment, a newer technique of fracture mechanics using a phase field approach, will be examined and compared with experimental data for a bend test and a tension test. The software being used is Sierra Solid Mechanics, an implicit/explicit finite element code developed at Sandia National Labs in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The bend test experimental data was also obtained at Sandia Labs while the tension test data was found in a report online from Purdue University.

  17. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Tappmeyer, D.M.

    1984-10-01

    Petroleum exploration in the region was generally less in 1983 than in 1982. Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Barbados increased crude production, whereas Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, and Trinidad-Tobago reported increases in gas production. Although drilling activities remained low compared to past years, significant oil discoveries were reported in Colombia, Mexico, and Brazil. In Colombia, Cano Limon field is reported to be the largest field found in the Llanos region. In Brazil, important oil discoveries were made offshore in the Para, Potiquas, and Ampos basins. In Mexico, discoveries were reported in the Cerro Azul, Poza Rica (Chicontepec, Villahermosa, and Tabasco) areas onshore and in the Bay of Campeche offshore. In Argentina, discoveries were made in the San Jorge basin and the Noreste Tarija basin. 10 figures, 11 tables.

  18. Comparison of PAN and Black Carbon Levels in Mexico City: 1997 and 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.

    2004-12-01

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) is a secondary oxidant formed by the oxidation of hydrocarbons in the presence of nitrogen dioxide. PAN is a good indicator compound for hydrocarbon reactivity that leads to ozone formation. Black carbon (BC) is formed by incomplete combustion processes such as diesel soot formation and is a good indicator of primary carbonaceous aerosols in urban areas. We used a fast-response luminol method to measure PAN and BC during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area 2003/Mexico City Megacity 2003 field study in April 2003. We compare these results with our previous PAN measurements in Mexico City during February 1997, made with a gas chromatograph-electron capture detector system. The decreased PAN levels observed in 2003 are consistent with the application of emissions controls on spark ignition gasoline-fueled vehicles, leading to lower levels of the nitrogen oxides and reactive volatile hydrocarbons needed to form PAN. Black carbon data for Mexico City in 2003, taken with a seven-channel aethalometer, are compared with data from 1997, estimated from thermal analyses as elemental carbon (EC). The comparison indicates little change in the levels of BC/EC over the six-year period. This observation is consistent with the application of minimal controls to diesel engines, the likely major source of BC in the Mexico City megacity complex during this period. The authors wish to thank the researchers at Centro Nacional de Investigación en Calidad Ambiental (CENICA), Mexico City. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Atmospheric Science Program. We also wish to acknowledge Drs. Mario and Luisa Molina for their help in organizing and directing the Mexico City Metropolitan Area 2003 field study, during which these data were collected.

  19. Ar-Ar Phlogopite Geochronology of the Navajo Volcanic Field and the Ship Rock Diatreme of Northwest New Mexico Define a 1.4 Ma Pulse of Potassic Magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nybo, J. P.; McIntosh, W. C.; Semken, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    Newly acquired Ar-Ar phlogopite ages indicate a brief but widespread pulse of magmatism at 25.9 to 24.5 Ma in Navajo Volcanic Field (NVF). Covering approximately 30,000 km2 of the Four Corners region in the southwestern US and including the Ship Rock diatreme, the NVF forms approximately 100 diatremes, plugs, dikes, and occasional sills and maars. Petrographically the field is dominated by minette and serpentinized ultramafic microbreccia though katungite dikes occur in localized areas. Published K-Ar ages from the NVF range from 33.9 to 19.4 Ma1,2. Published Ar-Ar ages are sparse but a 25.05 Ma3 age in the Chuska Mountains and a 6.7 Ma4 age in SW Colorado have been reported. Phlogopite separates of six dikes from the Shiprock diatreme along with two dikes and two plugs from other locations throughout the NVF were analyzed in this study by the Ar-Ar method using CO2 laser and resistance furnace incremental heating. The resulting age spectra were generally flat and a selection of the most precise ages range from 25.9 ± 0.1 Ma at Todilto Park, AZ to 24.4 ± 0.1 Ma at Ship Rock, NM. The selected samples spatially represent the full breadth of the NVF with four pulses of magmatism interpreted at 25.9 Ma, 25.4 Ma, 24.9 Ma, and 24.5 Ma, altogether spanning a range 1.4 Ma. The narrow range of ages found in this study contrasts with the much wider range of published ages implying the bulk of the NVF was emplaced by a short pulse of widespread magmatism rather than series of temporally spaced eruptions. Additional geochronology will assess whether additional eruptive pulses occurred in the NVF. 1Laughlin, AW, et al, EPSL 76, 1986. 2Roden, MF, et al, EPSL 43, 1979. 3Cather, SM, et al, NMGS Guidebook 54, 2003. 4Gonzalez, DA, et al, NMGS Guidbook 61, 2010.

  20. New Mexico Adolescent Health Risks Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antle, David

    To inform students of health risks (posed by behavior, environment, and genetics) and provide schools with collective risk appraisal information as a basis for planning/evaluating health and wellness initiatives, New Mexico administered the Teen Wellness Check in 1985 to 1,573 ninth-grade students from 7 New Mexico public schools. Subjects were…

  1. Assessing American Indian Needs in New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Laurence; And Others

    This paper focuses on New Mexico's high-risk Indian children and programs. Specifically, Western New Mexico University has been involved with the Gallup/McKinley public school district, the largest school district (5,000 square miles) in the United States (larger than New Jersey) with a school population that is 73% Indian. This paper examines…

  2. 40 CFR 81.421 - New Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false New Mexico. 81.421 Section 81.421 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.421 New Mexico. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  3. 40 CFR 81.421 - New Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false New Mexico. 81.421 Section 81.421 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.421 New Mexico. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  4. 40 CFR 81.421 - New Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false New Mexico. 81.421 Section 81.421 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.421 New Mexico. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  5. FUEL CELL BUS DEMONSTRATION IN MEXICO CITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the performance of a cull-size, zero-emission, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel-cell-powered transit bus in the atmospheric environment of Mexico City. To address the air quality problems caused by vehicle emissions in Mexico City, a seminar on clean vehic...

  6. 40 CFR 81.421 - New Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false New Mexico. 81.421 Section 81.421 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.421 New Mexico. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  7. Facing NAFTA: Literacy and Work in Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Gloria Hernandez; Lankshear, Colin

    2000-01-01

    Outlines the deep and complex challenge faced by Mexico in its quest for closer economic integration with so-called advanced economies. Discusses extensive poverty and illiteracy, and the systematic exclusion of many people from access to the very kinds of learning required by Mexico's economic project. Argues that extraordinary efforts and…

  8. Area Handbook for Mexico. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, John Morris; And Others

    This volume on Mexico is one of a series of handbooks prepared by the Foreign Area Studies (FAS) of the American University. It is designed to be useful to military and other personnel who need a convenient compilation of basic facts about the social, economic, political, and military institutions and practices of Mexico. The emphasis is on…

  9. New Mexico Indian Education Directory, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Dept. of Education, Santa Fe. Div. of Indian Education.

    This directory provides addresses, phone numbers, and contact persons for state and federal agencies, tribal agencies, organizations, and schools concerned with American Indian education in New Mexico. Sections include the following: a map of New Mexico showing state board of education districts, both elected and appointed; state board of…

  10. 50 CFR 32.50 - New Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false New Mexico. 32.50 Section 32.50 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE... § 32.50 New Mexico. The following refuge units have been opened for hunting and/or fishing, and...

  11. 40 CFR 81.421 - New Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New Mexico. 81.421 Section 81.421 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.421 New Mexico. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  12. Regional geothermal exploration in north central New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Icerman, L.

    1984-02-01

    A broad-based geothermal resource reconnaissance study covering Bernalillo, Los Alamos, Rio Arriba, San Miguel, Sandoval, Santa Fe, Taos, Torrance, and Valencia counties in north central New Mexico was conducted from June 15, 1981, through September 30, 1983. Specific activities included the compilation of actual temperature, bottom-hole temperature gradient, and geotemperature data; tabulation of water chemistry data; field collection of temperature-depth data from existing wells; and drilling of temperature gradient holes in the Ojo Caliente, San Ysidro, Rio Puerco, and Polvadera areas. The data collected were used to perform: (1) a regional analysis of the geothermal energy potential of north central New Mexico; (2) two site-specific studies of the potential relationship between groundwater constrictions and geothermal resources; (3) an evaluation of the geothermal energy potential at Santa Ana Pueblo; (4) a general analysis of the geothermal energy resources of the Rio Grande Rift, including specific data on the Valles Caldera; and (5) an evaluation of the use of geothermometers on New Mexico groundwaters. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual chapters.

  13. Prototype security system for Mexico City's light train crossings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Juarez, Mauricio; Lopez-Meyer, Paulo; Gonzalez-Serrano, Edson; Acosta-Mendoza, Luis; Silva-Lopez, Mario; Serrania, Florencia; Hernandez-Cordero, Juan

    2004-03-01

    Mexico City"s Light Train, one of the electrical transportation systems belonging to the government of Mexico City, services 40,000 passengers daily in the southern sector of the city. Along its trajectory, the Train has to go through several crossings in which safety for vehicles and pedestrians is of paramount importance. We have developed a prototype security system for these crossings based on infrared (IR) detection systems and laser barriers. All the subsystems used in the prototype are controlled by a PC/104 CPU board via the serial communications port and an A/D card. An IR transmitter installed in the train constantly sends information to several receivers deployed at different locations within the crossing. Once the train is detected, the computer activates a set of alarms and barriers in a logical sequence in order to clear the crossing for the train. The laser barrier, formed by a set of eight transmitters and receivers located at different heights within the crossing, is activated as well and is used as a means to detect other emergency situations such as vehicles or pedestrians stranded in the crossing. Discrimination between real and false alarm situations is achieved by encoding both the IR transmitters and the laser beams. In this paper we will discuss experimental and field trials of the prototype system which will be installed in one crossing this year. Once in place, the Light Train of Mexico City will have its first automated crossing.

  14. White Mountain Wilderness, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Segerstrom, K.; Stotelmeyer, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey made during 1971-1973, the White Mountain Wilderness, which constitutes much of the western and northern White Mountains, New Mexico, is appraised to have six areas of probable mineral potential for base and precious metals. In mineral deposits exist in the wilderness, the potential is for small deposits of base and precious metals in veins and breccia pipes or, more significantly, the possibility for large low-grade disseminated porphyry-type molybdenum deposits. There is little promise for the occurrence of geothermal energy resources in the area.

  15. SANDIA MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, NEW MEXICO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedlund, D.C.; Kness, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic and mineral-resource investigations in the Sandia Mountains in New Mexico indicate that a small part of the area has a probable mineral-resource potential. Most of the mineral occurrences are small barite-fluorite veins that occur along faults on the eastern slope of the range. The barite veins in the Landsend area and in the Tunnel Spring area are classed as having a probable mineral-resource potential. Fluorite veins which occur at the La Luz mine contain silver-bearing galeana and the area near this mine is regarded as having a probable resource potential for silver. No energy resources were identified in this study.

  16. ECAIM : Air Quality Studies and its Impact in Central Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Suárez, L. G.; Torres, R.; Garcia-Reynoso, J. A.; Zavala-Hidalgo, J.; Grutter, M.; Delgado-Campos, J.; Molina, L. T.

    2014-12-01

    Mexico City Metropolitan Area has been the object of several well know intensive campaigns. Since MARI (1991) , IMADA (1997), MCMA 2003 and MILAGRO (2006). The spatial scope of these studies have gone from urban to regional to continental, with the focus on MCMA as an emissions source. During MILAGRO, the influence on MCMA of wildfires and agricultural biomass burning around the megacity was considered. However, around Mexico City a crown of metropolis and middle size cities make a region known as the Central Mexico Regional Crow (CRCM for its acronym in Spanish language) or Central Mexico City Belt. It contains 32 million inhabitants and produces 40% of national gross product. The region undergoes an uncontrolled urban sprawl. Evidence is building-up on complex air pollution transport processes between the air basins within CRCM. However, only MCMA counts with reliable long-term records of criteria pollutants monitoring. Only few intensive campaigns have been done in the air basins surrounding MCMA. ECAIM project has several goals: a) To use ground and satellite observations to assess emissions inventories; b) To use ground and satellite observations to assess the performance of air quality models for the whole region; c) to produce critical levels exceedence maps; d) To produce a preliminary diagnostic of air quality for the CRCM; e) to produce a preliminary estimate of the cost of air pollution within the CRCM. In this work we show the method approach to use the best available information from local AQM networks, field campaigns, satellite observations and modeling to achieve those goals. We show some preliminary results.

  17. The Heritage of Mexico. Volume 1: The Indian Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Paul C.

    The first in a series of three books designed to aid teachers of grades 4-12 in the presentation of key aspects of the culture and history of Mexico addresses Mexico's Indian period, from the beginning of human life in Mexico to the final conquest of Mexico by the Spanish in 1521. The bilingual English and Spanish book, which lends itself to the…

  18. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry... § 93.324: Provided, That horses offered for importation from tick-infected areas of Mexico shall...

  19. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry... § 93.324: Provided, That horses offered for importation from tick-infected areas of Mexico shall...

  20. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry... § 93.324: Provided, That horses offered for importation from tick-infected areas of Mexico shall...

  1. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry... § 93.324: Provided, That horses offered for importation from tick-infected areas of Mexico shall...

  2. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry... § 93.324: Provided, That horses offered for importation from tick-infected areas of Mexico shall...

  3. 77 FR 47907 - New Mexico Disaster #NM-00025

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION New Mexico Disaster NM-00025 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of NEW MEXICO...'s declaration for the State of New Mexico, dated 07/09/2012 is hereby amended to establish...

  4. CHANGES IN THE STRUCTURE AND ROLES OF SPANISH-AMERICAN FAMILIES OF NORTHERN NEW MEXICO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KNOWLTON, CLARK S.

    DATA FOR THIS PAPER WERE OBTAINED FROM EXAMINATION OF AVAILABLE LITERATURE AND FROM FIELD WORK IN SAN MIGUEL AND MORA COUNTIES OF NORTHERN NEW MEXICO. THE EXTENDED PATRIARCHAL FAMILY WAS THE PRIMARY SOCIAL SYSTEM AMONG THE SPANISH AMERICANS, OFTEN CONSISTING OF MEMBERS OF THREE OR FOUR GENERATIONS HEADED BY THE GRANDFATHER. THIS FAMILY COOPERATED…

  5. Least-cost control of agricultural nutrient contributions to the Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2007, the hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico, measuring 20,720 km**2, was one of the two largest reported since measurement of the zone began in 1985. The extent of the hypoxic zone is related to nitrogen and phosphorous loadings originating on agricultural fields in the upper Midwest. This stud...

  6. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Roswell quadrangle, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-31

    Field and laboratory data are presented for 842 water samples and 1270 sediment samples from the Roswell Quadrangle, New Mexico. The samples were collected by Los Alamos National Laboratory; laboratory analysis and data reporting were performed by the Uranium Resource Evaluation Project at Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  7. First report of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus resistant to ivermectin in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three cattle farms with ticks, Rhipicephalus microplus, thought to be resistant to ivermectin in Yucatan, Mexico, were studied (SFDO, SPN, LUADY). Each field population was collected and tested twice, several months apart. The larval immersion test was used on the progeny of collected adult females ...

  8. YIELD POTENTIAL OF SELECTED MEDICINAL HERBS AT THREE PLANT SPACINGS IN NEW MEXICO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies were conducted to determine the production potential of echinacea (Echinacea purpurea), valerian (Valeriana officinalis), mullein (Verbascum thapsus) and yerba mansa (Anemopsis californica) medicinal herbs at two sites in New Mexico. Las Cruces, N.M. is at an elevation of 1,186 m and h...

  9. Characterization of Salmonella spp. from nopal leaves and associated soil and water samples in Morelos, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Nopal is a native cactus specie [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) MILL (Cactaceae)] of great economic importance in Mexico. It is grown in open fields and subsequently ingested fresh as a salad or processed as a juice or yogurt, but it may also be used as a dietary supplement and/or for cosme...

  10. USEFULNESS OF CURRENT SEDIMENT TOXICITY TESTS TO INDICATE CONTAMINATION IN GULF OF MEXICO ESTUARIES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment toxicity evaluations were conducted during a three-year period in several Gulf of Mexico near-coastal areas using a variety of laboratory and field methods. The sediments were collected adjacent to Superfund sites, urban runoff discharges, treated municipal and industria...

  11. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--LIST OF STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document lists available protocols and SOPs for the U.S.-Mexico Border Program study. It identifies protocols and SOPs for the following study components: (1) Sample collection and field operations, (2) Sample analysis, (3) General laboratory procedures, (4) Quality Assuranc...

  12. Practicing the Four Seasons of Ethnography Methodology while Searching for Identity in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitts, Margaret Jane

    2012-01-01

    This narrative is an account of my field experiences and challenges practicing Gonzalez's (2000) Four Seasons of Ethnography methodology in Mexico City. I describe the complexities and tensions inherent in managing two scientific paradigms: Western scientific logic vs. a more organic ontology. The experiential knowledge produced in this text is…

  13. Rabies in skunks from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Aranda, M; López-de Buen, L

    1999-07-01

    An enzootic focus of rabies in skunks in Mexico is described. Fifty three wild animals including two badgers (Taxidea taxus), 32 bats (various species), one bobcat (Lynx rufus), two coatis (Nasua narica) three foxes (Urocyon cineroargenteus), one raccoon (Procyon lotor) and 12 skunks (see below) were tested for rabies by direct immunofluorescence assay from 1991 to 1997 in the central part of San Luis Potosi State, Mexico. Rabies occurrence was 21% of all tested mammals, with 19% in skunks and only 2% in other wild species (one bobcat). Skunks represented 23% of all mammals tested and had a rabies prevalence of 83%. Only 10 individuals were identified: three hog-nosed skunks (Conepatus leuconotus) and seven spotted skunks (Spilogale putorius). All were involved in human attacks; the spotted skunk attacks were inside bedrooms while people were sleeping, and the hog-nosed skunk attacks occurred outdoors. Skunk cases of rabies represented 40% of all rabies cases in 1997, and 100% of cases registered for wild animals in San Luis Potosi state. This situation constitutes an important public health problem and requires further epidemiological research to make the human population aware of the problem and to establish measures to limit further human attacks by rabid skunks. PMID:10479094

  14. Residual pyrethroids in fresh horticultural products in Sonora, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Aldana-Madrid, Maria L; Valenzuela-Quintanar, Ana I; Silveira-Gramont, Maria I; Rodríguez-Olibarría, Guillermo; Grajeda-Cota, Patricia; Zuno-Floriano, Fabiola G; Miller, Marion G

    2011-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the presence of cyhialothrin, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, and deltamethrin in vegetables produced and consumed in Sonora, Mexico. A total of 345 samples were collected from cluster sampling of markets and fields. Approximately 9% of the samples tested positive for pyrethroids (residue range 0.004-0.573 mg kg(-1)). Based on the results, the potential toxicological risk of human exposure to the pyrethroid insecticides measured in vegetables appears to be minimal, with the estimated exposure being 1,000 times lower than admissible levels. PMID:21877238

  15. Sexual competitiveness and compatibility between mass-reared sterile flies and wild populations of Anastrepha Ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from different regions in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Orozco-Davila, D.; Hernandez, R.; Meza, S.; Dominguez, J.

    2007-03-15

    The mass-reared colony of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) currently used in Mexico for suppression of the Mexican fruit fly has been in use for over 10 years. Sterile flies are released into a wide range of environmental conditions as part of an integrated area-wide approach to suppress diverse populations of this pest in the Mexican Republic. This paper assesses the performance of the sterile flies interacting with wild populations from the different environments. We investigated the sexual compatibility and competitiveness of the sterile flies when competing with wild populations from 6 representatives Mexican states: Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Michoacan, and Chiapas. Results show that the males of the wild populations differed in the time to the onset and peak of sexual activity. Nevertheless, the index of sexual isolation (ISI) reflected sexual compatibility between the populations and the mass-reared strain, indicating that the sterile individuals mate satisfactorily with the wild populations from the 6 states. The male relative performance index (MRPI) showed that the sterile male is as effective in copulating as the wild males. The female relative performance index (FRPI) reflected a general tendency for wild females to copulate in greater proportion than the sterile females, except for the strains from Tamaulipas and Chiapas. In general, the lower participation of the sterile females in copulation increases the possibilities of sterile males to mate with wild females. The relative sterility index (RSI) showed that the acceptance by wild females of the sterile males (25-55%) was similar to that of wild males. Females of the Chiapas strain showed the lowest acceptance of sterile males. Finally, the results obtained in the Fried test (which measures induced sterility in eggs) showed a competitiveness coefficient ranging from 0.2 to 0.5. This suggests that sterile males successfully compete and are compatible with flies from different geographic origins

  16. 76 FR 30705 - Gulf of Mexico Citizen Advisory Committee; Request for Nominations to the Gulf of Mexico Citizen...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... AGENCY Gulf of Mexico Citizen Advisory Committee; Request for Nominations to the Gulf of Mexico Citizen... considered for appointment to the Gulf of Mexico Citizen Advisory Committee (GMCAC). Vacancies are... Mexico Citizen Advisory Committee (GMCAC) to provide independent citizen advice to the EPA...

  17. 75 FR 27372 - University of New Mexico; University of New Mexico AGN-201M Reactor; Environmental Assessment and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... COMMISSION University of New Mexico; University of New Mexico AGN-201M Reactor; Environmental Assessment and... considering issuance of a renewed Facility Operating License No. R-102, to the University of New Mexico (the licensee), which would authorize continued operation of the University of New Mexico AGN-201M...

  18. [Health, environment and sustainable development in Mexico].

    PubMed

    1998-09-01

    This article is based on "Salud, ambiente y desarrollo humano sostenible: el caso de México," a document prepared in June 1997 by the Comité Técnico Nacional para el Desarrollo Sostenible. It opens with information regarding the epidemiologic and demographic changes that have taken place in Mexico, such as the decrease in communicable diseases, the rise in noncommunicable diseases, and the less conspicuous increase in lesions resulting from accidents or acts of violence. This is followed by a discussion of priority problems and problems of lesser magnitude in environmental health, specifically those relating to water and air quality, as well as disposal of household and dangerous wastes. Finally, it proposes three areas of intervention in light of the structural problems detected: the absence of an integrated information system covering the area of health, environment, and development; the absence of channels of communication within and between institutions and sectors, and the lack of coordination in planning and implementing programs and actions in this field. PMID:9796392

  19. [Twenty years of bioethics in Mexico: development and perspectives of the National Bioethics Commission].

    PubMed

    Ruiz de Chávez-Guerrero, Manuel Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Bioethics in Mexico has a history that reveals the vision and ethical commitment of iconic characters in the fields of health sciences and humanities, leading to the creation of the National Bioethics Commission responsible for promoting a bioethics culture in Mexico. Its development and consolidation from the higher perspective of humanism had the aim to preserve health, life and its environment, while at the same time the bases of ethics and professional practice from different perspectives have been the building blocks of medical practice. PMID:25393871

  20. Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic leukemia in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Argüelles, Guillermo José

    2016-04-01

    In the last 60 years, there have been substantial advances regarding the diagnosis and treatment of patients with acute and chronic leukemia in Mexico. Immunologic and molecular classifications of these diseases have improved both diagnosis and therapeutic capabilities. Although the pace of diagnostic and therapeutic advances has been slower compared with developed countries, Mexico is at the forefront among developing countries. Supporting research in these fields is expected to enhance the generation of new knowledge and improve the care of patients suffering from these diseases. PMID:27557388

  1. Deepwater, subsalt prospects open new era for Gulf of Mexico action

    SciTech Connect

    Wheatley, R.

    1997-01-20

    If 1996 trends continue, exploration and development will flourish in the Gulf of Mexico this year and for many years to come. Able to drill and complete wells in steadily deeper water, and propelled by rising prices for oil and gas, operators are advancing projects throughout the Gulf. The activity is expected to nearly double oil production from the Gulf of Mexico in the next 10 years. The paper discusses targets, technology, activity indicators, operator alliances, specific fields, subsalt production and plans, transportation, Gulf role and outlook.

  2. [Research in Mexico on the health impact of environmental chemical pollutants].

    PubMed

    Ortega-Ceseña, J; Carreón-Valencia, T; López-Carrillo, L; Chávez-Ayala, R; Hernández-Avila, M

    1993-01-01

    This paper is intended to offer a qualitative and quantitative diagnosis on publications concerned with human health impact of exposure to environmental chemical pollutants in Mexico. The review of these subjects included scientific papers on studies carried out in Mexico, published both in Mexican and international journals. The articles were analyzed according to the following criteria: chemical pollutants, type of study and institution that conducted it, study population, design, and analysis of data. The article concludes that publications in this field are scarce. Moreover, this review showed that there is little diversity, limited methodology and an unequal distribution of the human and material resources for research. All this indicates a rudimentary level of scientific knowledge in Mexico regarding public health implications of chemical pollutants. PMID:8128296

  3. Mexico City Air quality: Progress of an international collaborative project to define air quality management options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streit, Gerald E.; Guzmán, Francisco

    The Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative was a 3-yr international collaborative project to develop or adapt a set of air quality management decision analysis tools for Mexico City and make them available to Mexican policy makers. The project comprised three tasks: modeling and simulation, characterization and measurement, and strategic evaluation. A prognostic, mesoscale meteorological model was adapted to the region of Mexico City and linked to a 3-D airshed model. These were extensively tested against data from the air quality monitoring network and from three intensive field campaigns. The interaction between policy and science was promoted through the development of a formal multiattribute decision analysis model to evaluate alternative control strategies. The project benefited by having researchers from both nations working side by side as peers, by having both nations investing resources and having an interest in the success of the project, and by having an objective, not of advocacy, but of the application of science to problem solving.

  4. An Energy Overview of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2003-10-20

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Mexico. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit.

  5. Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Velasco, O; Savarino, S J; Walton, B C; Gam, A A; Neva, F A

    1989-09-01

    In Mexico, 6 cases of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL) were found in widely separated geographic regions. Information was also available on 2 other cases. In addition to the typical clinical features, half of the patients had evidence of nasopharyngeal mucosal involvement. All isolates from the DCL patients were identified as Leishmania mexicana mexicana by isoenzyme analysis and monoclonal antibody typing. In 1 region of Tabasco state where DCL was found, uncomplicated cutaneous leishmaniasis appeared to be highly endemic, and isolates from a few such patients were identified as L. mexicana mexicana. An incidental finding was the recovery of an isolate of L. braziliensis braziliensis from a patient with chiclero ulcer in Oaxaca state. The clinical and epidemiological significance of the reported cases are discussed. PMID:2802018

  6. [Health policy polarization in Mexico].

    PubMed

    López-Arellano, O; Blanco-Gil, J

    2001-01-01

    In the last 17 years, health policy in Mexico has been shifted from a conception of integrated health care and a gradually extended coverage as a major responsibility of the State and health care public institutions, to in the one hand, a very active promotion of market and private profit in health services and in the other, poverty relief programs. In this paper we identify different periods corresponding to the last three presidential terms. Each clearly represent different stages of health sector reform: transitional (1982-1988), mercantilisation and poverty relief (1988-1994) and, strengthening of the so called health markets (1994-2000). The analyzed transformation is part of the set of secondary reforms subordinated to the structural adjustment and the economic and social megaprojects imposed by the international financial institutions. PMID:11241926

  7. Characterization of emissions sources in the California-Mexico Border Region during Cal-Mex 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala, M. A.; Lei, W.; Li, G.; Bei, N.; Barrera, H.; Tejeda, D.; Molina, L. T.; Cal-Mex 2010 Emissions Team

    2010-12-01

    The California-Mexico border region provides an opportunity to evaluate the characteristics of the emission processes in rapidly expanding urban areas where intensive international trade and commerce activities occur. Intense anthropogenic activities, biomass burning, as well as biological and geological sources significantly contribute to high concentration levels of particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), air toxics, and ozone observed in the California-US Baja California-Mexico border region. The continued efforts by Mexico and US for improving and updating the emissions inventories in the sister cities of San Diego-Tijuana and Calexico-Mexicali has helped to understand the emission processes in the border region. In addition, the recent Cal-Mex 2010 field campaign included a series of measurements aimed at characterizing the emissions from major sources in the California-Mexico border region. In this work we will present our analyzes of the data obtained during Cal-Mex 2010 for the characterization of the emission sources and their use for the evaluation of the recent emissions inventories for the Mexican cities of Tijuana and Mexicali. The developed emissions inventories will be implemented in concurrent air quality modeling efforts for understanding the physical and chemical transformations of air pollutants in the California-Mexico border region and their impacts.

  8. Screening for autism in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Fombonne, Eric; Marcin, Carlos; Bruno, Ruth; Tinoco, Cecilia Manero; Marquez, Christian Diaz

    2012-06-01

    In order to conduct the screening phase of the first epidemiological survey of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in Mexico, we needed a screening tool to detect autistic symptomatology in a large sample of school-age children. We used the Spanish version of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). We recruited a clinical sample of 200 children (81% males; mean age: 7.4 years) with a confirmed diagnosis of ASDs and a sample of 363 control children (59.5% males; mean age: 8.5 years) without ASDs. Three-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs) identified a main effect of clinical status (ASDs vs. controls) for both parent and teacher scales, but no gender or age effect. The mean total and subscale raw scores were significantly different between the clinical and control groups for the parent and for the teacher SRS (P < 0.001). The internal consistency of the SRS was excellent. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses showed excellent discriminant validity of the SRS in the Mexican sample (area under the curve: 0.962 for the parent, 0.960 for the teacher). ROC curves were also used to determine which cutoff would provide the best trade-off between sensitivity and specificity. Mexican SRS scores were significantly higher than in the U.S. and German population for typically developing children but comparable for clinically referred subjects. The SRS is an acceptable screening instrument for epidemiological studies of ASDs in Mexico. Its psychometric properties are excellent and comparable to those derived from North American and other samples. PMID:22581514

  9. Burnt Area Mapping in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz Lopez, M.; López Saldaña, G.

    2013-05-01

    The Fire Early Warning System was implemented in 2012 as a follow up of the wildfire identification started in 1999. The system has three components: the early warning, monitoring and assessment. The latter stage has as a main objective to provide as soon as possible, sensible information to the Mexican Forestry National Commission, additionally this data is the base of a long term vegetation monitoring. The burnt area identification is based on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data that is received in the Direct Readout station, the algorithm uses daily surface reflectance produced operationally. The core of the algorithm is the pre- and post-fire surface reflectance inter-comparison, in order to flag a pixel as burnt, several conditions have to be true; fuel must be available before the fire, a significant change in the Normalized Burt Ratio (NBR) must exists and a temporal persistency of the change is finally assess. There are different thresholds for the aforementioned conditions based on the land cover in Mexico. The algorithm is applied only in selected pixels that fulfill strict criteria, e.g., 100% cloud free, not contaminated by aerosols and with a view zenith angle lower that 45o. Furthermore, a downscaling was applied to enhance the spatial resolution, 500m to 250m, of the 2.1μm shortwave infrared band using the spectral information of the red band at 250m, the SWIR is useful to identified burnt areas as was used to compute the NBR. This paper presents the foundation and first results of the burnt area algorithm towards an operational implementation as part of the Fire Early Warning System in Mexico.

  10. Mexico: a model for success.

    PubMed

    Potter, J E

    1986-03-01

    In Mexico, a 40 year period of political stability and economic advancement, hailed for its high rates of growth in income per capita, rapid urbanization, and impressive gains in indicators of health and education, seemed to come to a halt in the early 1980s. Since the early 1970s, fertility has declined sharply in chronological association with a new population policy and the implementation of a national family planning program. If in 1940 there was no apparent reason for the Mexican state to have much interest in limiting fertility, such was no longer the case by 1970. The General Law of Population that had been passed in 1947 was laced with the expansionist ideology that dominated demographic issues for more that a century; its pro-natalism had been reinforced by health regulations prohibiting the sale and use of contraceptives and by a penal code that made abortion a crime. Between 1970 and 1981 the total fertility rate fell by about 39%. Since 1975, change in contraceptive practice accounts for the bulk of the measured fertility decline. Between 1976 and 1982 there was a 66% increase in contraceptive prevalence. The government's involvement in family planning activities helped to: 1) develop an effective contraceptive distribution system; 2) circulate extensive information, education, and communication publicizing fertility and images of the small family; and 3) mobilize health practitioners in public institutions to counsel and persuade their clients to accept and practice contraception. The emerging debate over population policy in Brazil may well prefigure debates in other Latin American countries; the recent democratization in Brazil is the vocalization of a demand from women's groups and the left for government provided family planning services. Overall, Mexico's willingness to take the long view tackle the birth rate issue head on is likely to remain an exception in Latin America. PMID:12340888

  11. Records of wells drilled for oil and gas in New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, G.H.; Baltz, D.H.; Stipp, T.F.; Bieberman, R.A.

    1954-01-01

    Data concerning nearly 3,000 of the more than 13,000 wells drilled in New Mexico, before September 1, 1953, including unsuccessful wildcat and field extension wells and most of the discovery wells, have been compiled and are published in this circular. Although the search for oil and gas has extended to all parts of the State, most of the wells and all the oil and natural gas fields are located in the northwest and southeast quadrants of the State.

  12. West Nile Virus Infection of Birds, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero-Sánchez, Sergio; Cuevas-Romero, Sandra; Nemeth, Nicole M.; Trujillo-Olivera, María Teresa Jesús; Worwa, Gabriella; Dupuis, Alan; Brault, Aaron C.; Kramer, Laura D.; Komar, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has caused disease in humans, equids, and birds at lower frequency in Mexico than in the United States. We hypothesized that the seemingly reduced virulence in Mexico was caused by attenuation of the Tabasco strain from southeastern Mexico, resulting in lower viremia than that caused by the Tecate strain from the more northern location of Baja California. During 2006–2008, we tested this hypothesis in candidate avian amplifying hosts: domestic chickens, rock pigeons, house sparrows, great-tailed grackles, and clay-colored thrushes. Only great-tailed grackles and house sparrows were competent amplifying hosts for both strains, and deaths occurred in each species. Tecate strain viremia levels were higher for thrushes. Both strains produced low-level viremia in pigeons and chickens. Our results suggest that certain avian hosts within Mexico are competent for efficient amplification of both northern and southern WNV strains and that both strains likely contribute to bird deaths. PMID:22172633

  13. SW New Mexico Oil Well Formation Tops

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shari Kelley

    2015-10-21

    Rock formation top picks from oil wells from southwestern New Mexico from scout cards and other sources. There are differing formation tops interpretations for some wells, so for those wells duplicate formation top data are presented in this file.

  14. Dataset of aggregate producers in New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orris, Greta J.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents data, including latitude and longitude, for aggregate sites in New Mexico that were believed to be active in the period 1997-1999. The data are presented in paper form in Part A of this report and as Microsoft Excel 97 and Data Interchange Format (DIF) files in Part B. The work was undertaken as part of the effort to update information for the National Atlas. This compilation includes data from: the files of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS); company contacts; the New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, New Mexico Bureau of Mine Inspection, and the Mining and Minerals Division of the New Mexico Energy, Minerals and Natural Resources Department (Hatton and others, 1998); the Bureau of Land Management Information; and direct communications with some of the aggregate operators. Additional information on most of the sites is available in Hatton and others (1998).

  15. 2009 Swine Flu Originated in Mexico

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159679.html 2009 Swine Flu Originated in Mexico Genetic analysis pinpoints source ... FRIDAY, July 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The 2009 swine flu pandemic originated in pigs in a small ...

  16. SW New Mexico BHT geothermal gradient calculations

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shari Kelley

    2015-07-24

    This file contains a compilation of BHT data from oil wells in southwestern New Mexico. Surface temperature is calculated using the collar elevation. An estimate of geothermal gradient is calculated using the estimated surface temperature and the uncorrected BHT data.

  17. FORESTS OF MEXICO: A DIMINISHING RESOURCE?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Forests of Mexico as elsewhere provide essential goods and services for both local citizens and the international community. uch benefits include climate regulation, biodiversity, and wood and nonwood products for local consumption and economic activity. eforestation, therefore, ...

  18. Historical account of venereal diseases in Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    Conde-Glez, C J; Calderón, E; Juárez-Figueroa, L; Hernández-Avila, M

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews the history of sexually acquired diseases in Mexico. It is divided into four major chronological sections which discuss social attitudes and values, the development of services and of official policy, and historical epidemiology. Images PMID:8282302

  19. Paleomagnetism of the Pleistocene Tequila Volcanic Field (Western Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Ceja, M.; Goguitchaichvili, A.; Calvo-Rathert, M.; Morales-Contreras, J.; Alva-Valdivia, L.; Rosas Elguera, J.; Urrutia Fucugauchi, J.; Delgado Granados, H.

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents new paleomagnetic results from 24 independent cooling units in Tequila area (western Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt). These units were recently dated by means of state-of-the-art 40Ar-39Ar method (Lewis-Kenedy et al., 2005) and span from 1130 to 150 ka. The characteristic paleodirections are successfully isolated for 20 cooling units. The mean paleodirection, discarding intermediate polarity sites, is I = 29.6°, D = 359.2°, k = 26, α95 = 7.1°, n = 17, which corresponds to the mean paleomagnetic pole position Plat = 85.8°, Plong = 84.3°, K = 27.5, A95 = 6.9°. These directions are practically undistinguishable from the expected Plestocene paleodirections, as derived from reference poles for the North American polar wander curve and in agreement with previously reported directions from western Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. This suggests that no major tectonic deformation occurred in studied area since early-middle Plestocene to present. The paleosecular variation is estimated trough the study of the scatter of virtual geomagnetic poles giving SF = 15.4 with SU = 19.9 and SL = 12.5 (upper and lower limits respectively). These values are consistent with those predicted by the latitude-dependent variation model of McFadden et al. (1991) for the last 5 Myr. The interesting feature of the paleomagnetic record obtained here is the occurrence of an intermediate polarity at 671± 13 ka which may correspond the worldwide observed Delta excursion at about 680-690 ka. This gives the volcanic evidence of this event. Two independent lava flows dated as 362± 13 and 354± 5 ka respectively, yield transitional paleodirections as well, probably corresponding to the Levantine excursion.

  20. [Testate amoebas of pine forests in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Bobrov, A A; Krasil'nikov, P A

    2011-01-01

    The population of testate amoebas in the soils of pine forests in Mexico has been studied. In total, 68 species, varieties, and types of testate amoebas with cosmopolite distribution were found. The species diversity of the testate population includes hygrophilous species that differ from hygrophilous species with luvisols in higher andosols. Comparative analysis using the results of one available study of soil testate amoebas from Mexico has been carried out [Bonnet, 1977]. PMID:21870497

  1. Comparative Mycobacterium tuberculosis spoligotype distribution in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Ramos-Alvarez, Jessica; Molina-Torres, Carmen A; Rivera-Morales, Lydia Guadalupe; Rendón, Adrian; Quiñones-Falconi, Francisco; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge

    2014-08-01

    In the present work, we studied the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from patients according to their gender, age, and geographic location in Mexico. We did not observe any statistically significant differences in regard to age or gender. We found that spoligo international type 53 (SIT53) is more frequent in the northern states and that SIT119 predominates in central Mexico. PMID:24850349

  2. Comparative Mycobacterium tuberculosis Spoligotype Distribution in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Alvarez, Jessica; Molina-Torres, Carmen A.; Rivera-Morales, Lydia Guadalupe; Rendón, Adrian; Quiñones-Falconi, Francisco; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, we studied the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from patients according to their gender, age, and geographic location in Mexico. We did not observe any statistically significant differences in regard to age or gender. We found that spoligo international type 53 (SIT53) is more frequent in the northern states and that SIT119 predominates in central Mexico. PMID:24850349

  3. Eureka Quartzite in Mexico? - tectonic implications.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ketner, K.B.

    1986-01-01

    Two hypotheses are suggested: 1) The Cerro Cobachi terrane is indigenous to N Mexico, and 2) the Cerro Cobachi terrane is indigenous to California and was displaced tectonically to N Mexico. The second hypothesis is favored by the apparently abrupt termination of the Eureka Quartzite near Owens Lake, the nearly identical thickness of the two quartzites, and their nearly identical lithic composition and texture. -from Author

  4. Big Bend National Park, TX, USA, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Sierra del Carmen of Mexico, across the Rio Grande River from Big Bend National Park, TX, (28.5N, 104.0W) is centered in this photo. The Rio Grande River bisects the scene; Mexico to the east, USA to the west. The thousand ft. Boquillas limestone cliff on the Mexican side of the river changes colors from white to pink to lavender at sunset. This severely eroded sedimentary landscape was once an ancient seabed later overlaid with volcanic activity.

  5. Mapping of Basement Faults with Gravity and Magnetic Data at NE Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yutsis, V.; Krivosheya, K.; Tamez Ponce, A.

    2012-04-01

    Northeast Mexico is essentially the juncture of two distinctly different tectono-stratigraphic provinces, the eastern Gulf of Mexico (Coastal Plane, Sierra Madre Oriental) province and the western Pacific Mexico (Rivera plate, Meso-American trench, Sierra Madre Occidental) province (Goldhammer & Johnson, 2001). Tectonic evolution in northeast Mexico is dominated by divergent-margin development associated with the opening of the Gulf of Mexico and overprinted by non-igneous Laramide orogenic effects (Pindell et al., 1988). The structural grain of northeast Mexico consists of Triassic to Liassic fault-controlled basement blocks, the development of which reflects in part late Paleozoic orogenic patterns of metamorphism and igneous intrusion (Wilson, 1990). There are different tectonic provinces which are recognized interpreting the basement and sediment cover of this area: Coahuila block, La Popa sub-basin, Sabinas basin, Burgos basin, Sierra Madre Oriental (Monterrey trough), and Parras basin. Mojave-Sonora megashear and San Marcos fault (Chavez-Cabello et al., 2007) are two principal fault zones crossing the northeast Mexico in NW-SE direction. This paper is presented the integral analysis of the gravity and magnetic data in the northeast Mexico. Complementing with a Digital Model of Elevations (DME) that combined with the review of previous geological studies it serves to compare the surface structures and blocks of basement in this area. Also the separation of the most important tectonic blocks was done, and 2.5D geological-geophysical model was finally developed. This model represents in a general way the principal structural characteristics of northeast Mexico. Gravity and magnetic data analysis was used with purpose to study the structure of the substrata in order to allow modeling of the basement structure and its relation with the sedimentary cover features. The Bouguer gravity and the total field aeromagnetic data were supplied by Geological Survey of Mexico

  6. The History of Soil Science in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, J. M.; Ventura, E., Jr.; Castellanos, J. Z.; Brevik, E. C.

    2012-04-01

    There is a lack of information concerning the history of soil science in developing countries such as Mexico. Soil knowledge in the pre-Colombian era was a notable attribute of indigenous people in Mexico. Mayas and Aztecs classified soils based on properties and land use and developed a terminology still used by locals. International organizations and institutions advocating modern agricultural practices have played an important role in the development of soil science in Mexico, in conjunction with the Green Revolution in which the use of fertilizers for crop production was implemented. Soil fertility, as an area of study, has developed significantly in the country. One of the most significant impacts of the Green Revolution on the development of soil science in Mexico was through academic exchange, in which Mexican soil scientists obtained graduate-level degrees in the United States and later returned to Mexico to conduct research programs. Although Mexico has a long history of soil knowledge, soil scientists are facing several challenges today, including a lack of communication between farmers and scientists, soil erosion, soil contamination, and water usage. Some researchers have suggested that ethnopedological knowledge should be incorporated into modern Mexican soil science.

  7. Overview Of Cal-Mex 2010: US-Mexico Collaborative Project On Air Quality And Climate Change In The California-Mexico Border Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, L. T.; Cal-Mex Science Team

    2010-12-01

    The composition of the atmosphere over the US-Mexico border region is affected by cross-border transport of emissions in both directions. Air quality issues in the California-Mexico (Cal-Mex) border are associated with air masses originating in the portion of the border region adjacent to California, which includes two of the sister city pairs (Tijuana-San Diego and Mexicali-Calexico) that have the most severe air pollution problems, posing a serious health threat to their inhabitants as well as affecting ecosystem viability and regional climate for large downwind distances. During May-June 2010, an intensive field study was undertaken by US-Mexico collaborative teams to characterize the major sources of primary and secondary particulate matter and precursor gases in the California-Mexico (Cal-Mex) border region, their transport and transformation, and the impact of these emissions on regional air quality and climate. The ground-based measurements included a central fixed site located in Tijuana that housed state-of-the-science instruments to measure gases, aerosols, radiation and meteorological parameters; a mobile eddy covariance laboratory that measured surface-atmosphere exchange fluxes of carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particle number; several mobile units for criteria pollutants and meteorological parameters; and measurements of fine particles and trace gases at the border crossing areas. Preliminary results from the field study will be presented. Cal-Mex Science Team includes: Molina Center for Energy and the Environment, Texas A & M University, Scripps Institution of Oceanography/University of California at San Diego, Virginia Tech, San Diego State University, National University of Mexico, National Institute of Ecology/Mexican Ministry of the Environment, University of the State of Morelos, LT Consulting Group, University of Baja California (Mexicali, Tijuana, Ensenada, Valle de Las Palmas campuses), Secretary of the Environment of Baja California

  8. Mexico, New Mexico and Texas as seen from the Apollo 6 unmanned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Mexico, New Mexico and Texas are photographed from the Apollo 6 (Spacecraft 020/Saturn 502) unmanned space mission during its 2nd orbit of the Earth. Seen in this photograph are Deming, Palomas, Las Cruces, El Paso, Florida Mountains, East and West Portrillo Mountains, San Andres Mountains, Franklin Mountains, and Juarez Mountains and the Rio Grande River.

  9. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in captive mammals in three zoos in Mexico City, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were determined in 167 mammals in 3 zoos in Mexico City, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Overall, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 89 (53.3%) of the 167 animals tested. Antibodies were found in 35 of 43 wild Felidae: 2 of 2 bobcats (Lynx rufus...

  10. 76 FR 73595 - Healthcare Technology, Policy & Trade Mission: Mexico City, Mexico, May 13-16, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... healthcare information technologies (IT), medical devices, and other medical technology. The mission will... International Trade Administration Healthcare Technology, Policy & Trade Mission: Mexico City, Mexico, May 13-16... Commercial Service (CS) is organizing an executive-led healthcare technology policy and trade mission...

  11. Where Do Mexico and Chile Stand on Inclusive Education? Short Title: Inclusion in Mexico and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García-Cedillo, Ismael; Romero-Contreras, Silvia; Ramos-Abadie, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the background, current situation and challenges of educational integration and inclusive education in Mexico and Chile. These countries obtained similar low results on the academic achievement of their students (Mexico last and Chile second last) among OECD countries; and above average scores, among Latin-American countries.…

  12. Global politics in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Wulf, D; Willson, P D

    1984-01-01

    At the 1984 United Nations International Conference on Population held in August, delegates from 149 countries affirmed that population dynamics are an intrinsic part of development and that all people, including adolescents, have a right to family planning information and services. Despite concern for continued US support for population activities, the US delegation in Mexico City clearly emphasized its government's commitment to increased funding. The conference also accepted by acclamation the Mexico City Declaration on Population and Development drafted by 29 countries which stresses the importance of increased funding for population policy, the urgent need to improve women's status and the concern for the effects of the deepening economic crisis, Legal abortion and voluntary sterilization as fertility determinants were ignored. The meeting put to rest any notion that population and development activities are competing spheres of action. In contrast to its 1974 position, the US emphasized entrepreneurial initiative within a free-market system as a stimulus to economic development. The status of women was a major issue brought up by the delegations of Zimbabwe and Australia. The crucial but uncertain issue of funding was addressed by most country represehntatives and most developed countries pledged at least continued if not increased funding for development programs. Most discussion on the abortion issue was almost universally based on repudiation of the procedure as a family planning method. The role of the US in the abortion issue is discussed. The US criticized 2 international agencies that provide most of family planning services to which the US provides funding but which are promoting abortion through affiliates. The US affirmed it would not participate in or assist abortion promotion as a birth control method. The nature and scope of the current economic world crisis caused profound differences between the US and most developing countries' delegations

  13. Mexican Education: An Analysis. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slayton, Tamara

    This study addresses the basic question: What are the factors that influence the academic experience of Mexican children, and, to what extent do these factors result in deficits in student learning and achievement? The study was conducted over the course of 5 weeks throughout Mexico in the regions of Juarez, Chihuahua, Michoacan, Mexico, D.F.,…

  14. Vegetation cover change detection in Chamela-Cuixamala, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De la Barreda Bautista, Betsabé; López-Caloca, Alejandra A.

    2009-09-01

    In Mexico, and everywhere else, the ecosystems are constantly changing either by natural factors or anthropogenic activity. Remote sensing has been a key tool to monitoring these changes throughout history and also to understanding the ecological dynamics. Hence, sustainable development plans have been created in order to improve the decisionmaking process; thus, this paper analyses deforestation impact in a very important natural resourcing area in Mexico, considering land cover changes. The study area is located in the coast of Jalisco, Mexico, where deforestation and fragmentation as well as high speed touristic development have been the causes of enormous biodiversity losses; the Chamela-Cuixamala Biosphere Reserve is located within this area. It has great species richness and vast endemism. The exploitation of this biome is widespread all over the country and it has already had an impact in the reserve. The change detection multi-temporal study uses Landsat satellite imagery during the 1970-2003 time period. Thus, the objective of change detection analysis is to detect and localize environmental changes through time. The change detection method consists in producing an image of change likelihood (by post-classification, multivariate alteration detection) and thresholding it in order to produce the change map. Experimental results confirmed that the patterns of land use and land cover changes have increased significantly over the last decade. This study also analyzes the deforestation impact on biodiversity. The analysis validation was carried out using field and statistic data. Spatial-temporal changing range enables the analysis of the structural and dynamic effects on the ecosystem and it enhances better decision-making and public environmental policies to decrease or eliminate deforestation, the creation of natural protected areas as a biodiversity conservation method, and counteracting the global warming phenomena.

  15. Ediacaran biota from Sonora, Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    McMenamin, M A

    1996-01-01

    The Ediacaran biota is the earliest diverse community of macroscopic animals and protoctists. Body and trace fossils in the Clemente Formation of northwestern Sonora extend downward the geologic range of Ediacaran forms. Taxa present in the Clemente Formation include cf. Cyclomedusa plana, Sekwia sp., an erniettid (bearing an air mattress-like "pneu" body construction), and the trace fossils Lockeia ichnosp. and Palaeophycus tubularis. The trace fossils confirm the presence of sediment-dwelling animals in this shallow marine community. The body fossils are headless, tailless, and appendageless. Some may be body fossils of animals but others may be fossils of large protoctists. These body and trace fossils, recovered from thinly bedded sandstones and siltstones, occur 75 meters lower in the Sonoran stratigraphic section than a distinctive Clemente Formation oolite. The stratigraphic position of the fossils below this oolite permits long-distance correlation between fossiliferous Proterozoic strata of Mexico and the United States. Correlations utilizing both the Clemente Formation oolite and a trace fossil (Vermiforma antiqua) confirm the antiquity (600 million years or more) of this body fossil-rich community of macroscopic eukaryotes. The recently discovered body fossils are the oldest known remains of the Ediacaran biota. Images Fig. 2 PMID:11607679

  16. Work and health in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Laurell, A C

    1979-01-01

    It is suggested that the relationship between work and health and disease traditionally has been analyzed in a limited way in that work has been considered only as a situational factor which puts workers in contact with environmental risks. It is proposed that work is an essential category for the understanding of disease, if one tries to study disease not as an individual biological phenomenon but as a social (and biological) phenomenon that occurs to the collectivity. Furthermore, it is suggested that the relation between disease and work should be analyzed in terms of the elements of the work process, understood as a technical and social process, and the capacity of different social groups to realize their interests. Reviewing the general trends of development of the work process in Mexico, it is shown that a transformation in the causes of death among men of working age has occurred during the last 20 years and there has been an increase in the number and the rate of work accidents and occupational diseases, despite a significant under-registration factor. Finally, the labor legislation on health and safety is contrasted with its actual implementation. This problem is interpreted in the context of traditional Mexican trade unionism. It is shown that trade unions which have become democratic and have gained their independence have struggled more vigorously on occupational health and safety issues. PMID:489182

  17. New Mexico renewable development study

    SciTech Connect

    Toole, Gasper; Bent, Russell; Ewers, Mary

    2010-09-17

    Since the early 1990s, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has applied electric grid models and simulation software to problems of national significance. This effort continues with a variety of other projects funded by the Department of Energy (DOE), other federal and state agencies and private companies. Critical to the success of these programs is the ability to integrate regional-scale models of the electric grid, to assess the propagation of grid impacts, and to present interactively the effect of potential mitigating actions required to stabilize the grid. All of these capabilities are applied in this study, to accomplish the following goals and objectives: (1) Develop an AC power flow model representing future conditions within New Mexico's electric grid, using commercial tools accepted by the utility industry; (2) Conduct a 'screening' analysis of options for accelerating potential renewable energy development through the addition of a statewide transmission collector system; (3) Estimate total revenue needed, jobs created (temporary and permanent) plus indirect and direct impacts to the state's economy; (4) Evaluate potential cost allocation methodology; and (5) Issue a project report that will provide information for policy direction by state regulators, project developers, and legislators.

  18. The New Mexico EPSCoR Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program: Climate Change and Water in New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullin, M. J.; Majkowski, L.

    2012-12-01

    The statewide NSF New Mexico EPSCoR Program sponsors a summer undergraduate research program. This program is open only to undergraduates attending the state's many Primarily Undergraduate Institutions (PUIs). Participants who are chosen for the program attend a week of workshops on climate change, hydrology, and water quality. Then, they spend the following eight weeks working with an EPSCoR-funded scientist at a research intensive university or related field site. The program culminates with a research conference and many of the participants later present their work at national and regional conferences. The program has shown to be effective at introducing students from non-research institutions to authentic research in the Earth and Environmental Sciences. The program is also successful at recruiting underrepresented minority students, mainly from Hispanic and Native American populations. Finally, many of the two-year college students in the program have transferred to four-year degree programs in a variety of fields.

  19. Quaternary Geochronology, Paleontology, and Archaeology of the Upper San Pedro River Valley, Sonora, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaines, E. P.

    2013-12-01

    This poster presents the results of multi-disciplinary investigations of the preservation and extent of Quaternary fossil-bearing strata in the San Pedro River Valley in Sonora, Mexico. Geologic deposits in the portions of the San Pedro Valley in southern Arizona contain one of the best late Cenozoic fossil records known in North America and the best record of early humans and extinct mammals on the continent. The basin in the U.S. is one of the type locations for the Blancan Land Mammal Age. Hemiphilian and Irvingtonian fossils are common. Rancholabrean remains are widespread. Strata in the valley adjacent to the international border with Mexico have yielded the densest concentration of archaeological mammoth-kill sites known in the western hemisphere. Despite more than 60 years of research in the U.S., however, and the fact that over one third of the San Pedro River lies south of the international boundary, little has been known about the late Cenozoic geology of the valley in Mexico. The study reported here utilized extensive field survey, archaeological documentation, paleontological excavations, stratigraphic mapping and alluvial geochronology to determine the nature and extent of Quaternary fossil-bearing deposits in the portions of the San Pedro Valley in Sonora, Mexico. The results demonstrate that the Plio-Pleistocene fossil -bearing formations known from the valley in Arizona extend into the uppermost reaches of the valley in Mexico. Several new fossil sites were discovered that yielded the remains of Camelids, Equus, Mammuthus, and other Proboscidean species. Late Pleistocene archaeological remains were found on the surface of the surrounding uplands. AMS radiocarbon dating demonstrates the widespread preservation of middle- to late- Holocene deposits. However, the late Pleistocene deposits that contain the archaeological mammoth-kill sites in Arizona are absent in the valley in Mexico, and are now known to be restricted to relatively small portions of

  20. Produced water treating equipment: Recent field tests

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, R.R.; Choi, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    For several decades, flotation cells have been workhorses for treatment of oilfield produced water for disposal or reinjection. In the last few years several alternative devices which have come on the market for the removal of oil from water have been tested in the oil field. Some of these have distinct advantages over flotation cells in terms of space and weight, better oil-recovery efficiency, and lower operating costs. This paper summarizes the results of field trials of a passive hydrocyclone, in the Arabian Gulf and in the North Sea, a coalescer which uses a specially treated ion-exchange resin as a medium in the Gulf of Mexico, two somewhat similar filter-coalescers which use crushed nut shells as media, onshore in New Mexico, West Texas, and California, and an upflow sand coalescer system in New Mexico and West Texas.

  1. Gulf of Mexico dead zone - the last 150 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterman, Lisa; Swarzenski, P.W.; Poore, R.Z.

    2006-01-01

    'Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone-The Last 150 Years' discusses the dead zone that forms seasonally in the northern Gulf of Mexico when subsurface waters become depleted in dissolved oxygen and cannot support most life.

  2. The 'Anglo' Revolution in New Mexico Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Thomas K.

    1978-01-01

    First in a three-part series of case studies tracing the impact of the "Anglo Revolution" on New Mexico, this article deals with copper mining in New Mexico, particularly the Santa Rita del Cobre copper mine. (NQ)

  3. Una Crisis para la Educacion Bilingue en Nuevo Mexico. (A Crisis for Bilingual Education in New Mexico)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavides, Ezequiel

    1976-01-01

    Written in Spanish and English, this article briefly reviews the bilingual picture in New Mexico. If New Mexico is to succeed in attracting Federal monies for bilingual education, it must strive for unity in its efforts and objectives. (NQ)

  4. Permeability and compressibility of resedimented Gulf of Mexico mudrock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, W. S.; Flemings, P. B.; Schneider, J.

    2011-12-01

    We use a constant-rate-of strain consolidation test on resedimented Gulf of Mexico mudrock to determine the compression index (Cc) to be 0.618 and the expansion index (Ce) to be 0.083. We used crushed, homogenized Pliocene and Pleistocene mudrock extracted from cored wells in the Eugene Island block 330 oil field. This powdered material has a liquid limit (LL) of 87, a plastic limit (PL) of 24, and a plasticity index (PI) of 63. The particle size distribution from hydrometer analyses is approximately 65% clay-sized particles (<2 μm) with the remainder being less than 70 microns in diameter. Resedimented specimens have been used to characterize the geotechnical and geophysical behavior of soils and mudstones independent of the variability of natural samples and without the effects of sampling disturbance. Previous investigations of resedimented offshore Gulf of Mexico sediments (e.g. Mazzei, 2008) have been limited in scope. This is the first test of the homogenized Eugene Island core material. These results will be compared to in situ measurements to determine the controls on consolidation over large stress ranges.

  5. Current status and future trends of medical physics in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azorin Nieto, J.

    2015-01-01

    Medical Physics is an area that applies the principles of physics to medicine, particularly in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases using ionizing and nonionizing radiation. The main attractive of medical physics is that it has a direct impact on the quality and safety of medical care in humans; this social component with direct implications for the population is of high value for Mexico. This paper describes the concepts of medical physics, trends and the current status of this discipline as a profession, which is directly related to the efforts of clinical research. It is also described what is, in my opinion, the future of medical physics in Mexico, emphasizing the fact that this field requires a substantial boost from universities and hospitals to recruit highly qualified young medical physicists and the support from government agencies such as Secretaria de Salud, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social and Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para los Trabajadores del Estado through clinical research projects that allow the necessary evolution of medical physics into the hospital setting.

  6. Estimating natural background groundwater chemistry, Questa molybdenum mine, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verplanck, Phillip L.; Nordstrom, D Kirk; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Walker, Bruce M.

    2010-01-01

    This 2 1/2 day field trip will present an overview of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) project whose objective was to estimate pre-mining groundwater chemistry at the Questa molybdenum mine, New Mexico. Because of intense debate among stakeholders regarding pre-mining groundwater chemistry standards, the New Mexico Environment Department and Chevron Mining Inc. (formerly Molycorp) agreed that the USGS should determine pre-mining groundwater quality at the site. In 2001, the USGS began a 5-year, multidisciplinary investigation to estimate pre-mining groundwater chemistry utilizing a detailed assessment of a proximal natural analog site and applied an interdisciplinary approach to infer pre-mining conditions. The trip will include a surface tour of the Questa mine and key locations in the erosion scar areas and along the Red River. The trip will provide participants with a detailed understanding of geochemical processes that influence pre-mining environmental baselines in mineralized areas and estimation techniques for determining pre-mining baseline conditions.

  7. Mapping the Intricacies of the Gulf of Mexico's Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugo-Fernández, Alexis; Green, Rebecca E.

    2011-01-01

    From hosting key shipping lines, drilling platforms, and commercial fisheries, to sustaining mangrove swamps that shelter the coastline from the hurricanes that churn its waters, the Gulf of Mexico is important to the nations surrounding it for socio-economic, ecological, military, political, and scientific reasons. Critical to all of these sectors is the Gulf's circulation—it controls hurricane tracks and intensity, biological productivity, and larvae dispersal. Since 1982, the Environmental Studies Program (ESP) of the U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE) has invested more than $67 million in field and numerical modeling studies to improve our understanding of the Gulf's circulation (see Figure 1). ESP-funded research has covered a broad array of topics, some applied and some basic. Studies carried out on behalf of the bureau reflect the bureau's information needs, stakeholder input, and offshore energy exploration and development trends. All ESP studies culminate in a technical report—127 technical reports on physical oceanography are publicly available (see http://www.gomr.boemre.gov/homepg/regulate/environ/techsumm/rec_pubs.html). Additionally, more than 100 peer-reviewed publications have been issued on the Gulf's physical oceanography and circulation. The AGU Geophysical Monograph Circulation in the Gulf of Mexico: Observations and Models, the very first circulation overview since 1972, was funded by ESP. Additionally, data collected during fieldwork are deposited in national archives for public dissemination.

  8. 7 CFR 352.29 - Administrative instructions: Avocados from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administrative instructions: Avocados from Mexico. 352....29 Administrative instructions: Avocados from Mexico. Avocados from Mexico may be moved through the.... Before moving the avocados through the United States, the owner must obtain a formal permit in...

  9. 7 CFR 352.29 - Administrative instructions: Avocados from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Administrative instructions: Avocados from Mexico. 352....29 Administrative instructions: Avocados from Mexico. Avocados from Mexico may be moved through the.... Before moving the avocados through the United States, the owner must obtain a formal permit in...

  10. 7 CFR 352.29 - Administrative instructions: Avocados from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Administrative instructions: Avocados from Mexico. 352....29 Administrative instructions: Avocados from Mexico. Avocados from Mexico may be moved through the.... Before moving the avocados through the United States, the owner must obtain a formal permit in...

  11. 7 CFR 352.29 - Administrative instructions: Avocados from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Administrative instructions: Avocados from Mexico. 352....29 Administrative instructions: Avocados from Mexico. Avocados from Mexico may be moved through the.... Before moving the avocados through the United States, the owner must obtain a formal permit in...

  12. 40 CFR 62.7855 - New Mexico Environmental Improvement Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... as described in 40 CFR part 60, subpart Cc, under the jurisdiction of the New Mexico State... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false New Mexico Environmental Improvement... Mexico Landfill Gas Emissions from Existing Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 62.7855 New...

  13. ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF ESTUARIES IN THE GULF OF MEXICO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Gulf of Mexico is a vast natural resource that encompasses the coastal areas of western Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas, as well as a portion of Mexico. Many estuaries flow into the Gulf of Mexico and serve as nursery grounds for fish, habitat for a wide va...

  14. Mexico Higher Education. Reviews of National Policies for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This review focuses on higher education in Mexico and also covers the upper secondary level including the broader range of education and training courses and institutions for students who complete basic education. Part 1 provides background data on Mexico and its system of higher education. Chapter 1 includes a general description of Mexico today…

  15. [The metropolitan character of urbanization in Mexico, 1900-1988].

    PubMed

    Garza, G

    1990-01-01

    The author analyzes trends in urbanization in Mexico during the twentieth century, with a focus on the impact of rapid industrialization since 1982. Sections are included on the interrelations among economic development, industrialization, and urbanization; stages, levels, and measures of urbanization; the development of the city system in Mexico; and stages in the growth of Mexico City. (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12283213

  16. 77 FR 48949 - Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... Forest Service Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee (NNM RAC) will meet in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The committee is authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and Community...

  17. 75 FR 80788 - Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... Forest Service Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee (NNMRAC) will meet in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The committee is meeting as authorized under the Secure Rural...

  18. 75 FR 29717 - Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... Forest Service Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The committee is meeting as authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and...

  19. 75 FR 30772 - Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... Forest Service Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Socorro, New Mexico. The committee is meeting as authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and Community...

  20. 76 FR 55345 - Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... Forest Service Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee (NNM RAC) will meet in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The committee is authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and Community...