Science.gov

Sample records for field south identifications

  1. Galaxy Merger Identification in the CANDELS GOODS-South Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Leary, Erin M.; Kartaltepe, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed a catalog of 7,628 galaxies at 0South field in order to identify a sample of galaxy mergers and interactions. Mergers are believed to play a fundamental role in galaxy evolution. Developing methods to robustly and efficiently identify mergers becomes vital as we look to higher redshifts. We explored merger identification based on visual morphology classification and preliminary attempts with automated methods. Using multiple detailed visual morphology classifications for each galaxy conducted by the CANDELS structure and morphology team, we created selection criteria to identify mergers from this visual classification catalog. We chose galaxies with high interaction classification and evidence of merger signatures (i.e. tidal features, double nuclei) to generate a catalog of 1051 galaxies we are confident are mergers. This represents a conservative sample of possible mergers. For comparison, we also tested automated merger identification techniques previously used for lower redshift (z<1) galaxies. This is one of the first large investigations of galaxy mergers at z>1. O’Leary was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program and the Department of Defense ASSURE program through Scientific Program Order No. 13 (AST-0754223) of the Cooperative Agreement No. AST-0132798 between the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) and the NSF.

  2. Weed Identification Field Training Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdock, Edward C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reviews efforts undertaken in weed identification field training sessions for agriprofessionals in South Carolina. Data over a four year period (1980-1983) revealed that participants showed significant improvement in their ability to identify weeds. Reaffirms the value of the field demonstration technique. (ML)

  3. Field Problems in the South Bronx.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madrigal, Stasia, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Articles in this issue of the bulletin of the Hispanic Research Center focus on the problems of collecting demographic and social data in the South Bronx. The introductory article summarizes the contents of this issue. The second (by Lloyd H. Rogler, Osvaldo Barreras, and Rosemary Santana Cooney) is based on the experiences of field workers…

  4. INTERIOR PERSPECTIVE, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHWEST WITH FIELD SET UP IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR PERSPECTIVE, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHWEST WITH FIELD SET UP IN FOOTBALL CONFIGURATION. FIELD SEATING ROTATES TO ACCOMMODATE BASEBALL GAMES. - Houston Astrodome, 8400 Kirby Drive, Houston, Harris County, TX

  5. Self-image and ethnic identification in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bornman, E

    1999-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between self-image and ethnic identification among 3 South African groups. Participants included random samples of 347 Afrikaans-speaking Whites, 113 English-speaking Whites, and 466 Blacks in urban Gauteng. Positive and negative self-image were extracted using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (M. Rosenberg, 1965). Afrikaans-speaking Whites had the most positive self-image and Blacks the most negative self-image. A positive self-image was correlated with stronger ethnic identification among Afrikaans-speaking Whites. The opposite was true for Blacks. This relationship was insignificant among English-speaking Whites. Ambivalence toward ingroup identity was persistently correlated with self-image for all groups. PMID:10457758

  6. The South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study: Nearshore Hydrodynamics Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, K. A.; Voulgaris, G.; Demir, H.; Work, P. A.; Hanes, D. M.

    2004-12-01

    As part of the South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study (SCCES) a nearshore field experiment was carried out for five days in December 2003 just north of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, providing measurements of the waves, currents and morphological evolution. This experiment occurred concurrently with an extensive field campaign several kilometers offshore which included measurements of the waves and currents on and near a significant sand shoal. The purpose of the nearshore experiment was to aid in the identification of the effect of the offshore shoal on the nearshore processes. The resulting dataset will be used for verification of numerical models being used to investigate the hydrodynamics of the region. The experiment was carried out from December 10 to December 15 and consisted of measurements of the waves and currents, extensive surveys of the bathymetry every day, grab samples of the sediments, and video imagery. The hydrodynamics were measured using two Sontek Triton downward-looking Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters and two Nortek AquaDopp profilers arranged in a cross-shore line from inside the swash to several surf zone widths past the breakers. The bathymetric surveying was accomplished using both a differential GPS system and a total station. Surveying was performed each day in order to capture the morphological changes. On the last day, seven sediment samples were taken along a single cross-section to determine the sediment characteristics across the beach. Additionally, a video camera was located on a balcony of the top floor of a nearby hotel providing an excellent field of view of the entire experimental area. Digital video was captured directly onto a computer during all daylight hours and many control points were surveyed in each day to facilitate rectification of the imagery. A variety of conditions were encountered during the experiment, including two storm fronts which passed through, generating wind speeds up to 15 m/s. The first storm generated

  7. Parade field, looking from corner of south Hutton St. And ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Parade field, looking from corner of south Hutton St. And Charlie Kelly Blvd. To the northeast towards the 400 series quarters. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Bounded by East Colfax to south, Peoria Street to west, Denver City/County & Adams County Line to north, & U.S. Route 255 to east, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  8. VIEW SOUTH TOWARD MOVEABLE FIELD LEVEL SEATS. NOTE RETRACTABLE PENTAGONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTH TOWARD MOVEABLE FIELD LEVEL SEATS. NOTE RETRACTABLE PENTAGONAL LIGHT RING GONDOLA SUSPENDED FROM ROOF CUPOLA. SKY LIGHTS PAINTED OVER TO REDUCE GLARE FOR BASEBALL OUTFIELDERS. - Houston Astrodome, 8400 Kirby Drive, Houston, Harris County, TX

  9. Soil Identification using Field Electrical Resistivity Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Rosli, S.; Chitral, W. D.; Fauziah, A.; Azhar, A. T. S.; Aziman, M.; Ismail, B.

    2015-06-01

    Geotechnical site investigation with particular reference to soil identification was important in civil engineering works since it reports the soil condition in order to relate the design and construction of the proposed works. In the past, electrical resistivity method (ERM) has widely being used in soil characterization but experienced several black boxes which related to its results and interpretations. Hence, this study performed a field electrical resistivity method (ERM) using ABEM SAS (4000) at two different types of soils (Gravelly SAND and Silty SAND) in order to discover the behavior of electrical resistivity values (ERV) with type of soils studied. Soil basic physical properties was determine thru density (p), moisture content (w) and particle size distribution (d) in order to verify the ERV obtained from each type of soil investigated. It was found that the ERV of Gravelly SAND (278 Ωm & 285 Ωm) was slightly higher than SiltySAND (223 Ωm & 199 Ωm) due to the uncertainties nature of soils. This finding has showed that the results obtained from ERM need to be interpreted based on strong supported findings such as using direct test from soil laboratory data. Furthermore, this study was able to prove that the ERM can be established as an alternative tool in soil identification provided it was being verified thru other relevance information such as using geotechnical properties.

  10. Strategies for reservoir characterization and identification of incremental recovery opportunities in mature reservoirs in Frio Fluvial-Deltaic sandstones, south Texas: An example from Rincon Field, Starr County. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    McRae, L.; Holtz, M.; Hentz, T.

    1995-11-01

    Fluvial-deltaic sandstone reservoirs in the United States are being abandoned at high rates, yet they still contain more than 34 billion barrels of unrecovered oil. The mature Oligocene-age fluvial-deltaic reservoirs of the Frio Formation along the Vicksburg Fault Zone in South Texas are typical of this class in that, after more than three decades of production, they still contain 61 percent of the original mobile oil in place, or 1.6 billion barrels. This resource represents a tremendous target for advanced reservoir characterization studies that integrate geological and engineering analysis to locate untapped and incompletely drained reservoir compartments isolated by stratigraphic heterogeneities. The D and E reservoir intervals of Rincon field, Starr County, South Texas, were selected for detailed study to demonstrate the ability of advanced characterization techniques to identify reservoir compartmentalization and locate specific infield reserve-growth opportunities. Reservoir architecture, determined through high-frequency genetic stratigraphy and facies analysis, was integrated with production history and facies-based petrophysical analysis of individual flow units to identify recompletion and geologically targeted infill drilling opportunities. Estimates of original oil in place versus cumulative production in D and E reservoirs suggest that potential reserve growth exceeds 4.5 million barrels. Comparison of reservoir architecture and the distribution of completions in each flow unit indicates a large number of reserve-growth opportunities. Potential reserves can be assigned to each opportunity by constructing an Sooh map of remaining mobile oil, which is the difference between original oil in place and the volumes drained by past completions.

  11. The genus Anthia Weber in the Republic of South Africa, Identification, distribution, biogeography, and behavior (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mawdsley, Jonathan R.; Erwin, Terry L.; Sithole, Hendrik; Mawdsley, James L.; Mawdsley, Alice S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A key is presented for the identification of the four species of Anthia Weber (Coleoptera: Carabidae) recorded from the Republic of South Africa: Anthia cinctipennis Lequien, Anthia circumscripta Klug, Anthia maxillosa (Fabricius), and Anthia thoracica (Thunberg). For each of these species, illustrations are provided of adult beetles of both sexes as well as illustrations of male reproductive structures, morphological redescriptions, discussions of morphological variation, annual activity histograms, and maps of occurrence localities in the Republic of South Africa. Maps of occurrence localities for these species are compared against ecoregional and vegetation maps of southern Africa; each species of Anthia shows a different pattern of occupancy across the suite of ecoregions and vegetation types in the Republic of South Africa. Information about predatory and foraging behaviors, Müllerian mimicry, and small-scale vegetation community associations is presented for Anthia thoracica based on field and laboratory studies in Kruger National Park, South Africa. PMID:22144866

  12. Identification and characterisation of vaginal lactobacilli from South African women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV), which is highly prevalent in the African population, is one of the most common vaginal syndromes affecting women in their reproductive age placing them at increased risk for sexually transmitted diseases including infection by human immunodeficiency virus-1. The vaginal microbiota of a healthy woman is often dominated by the species belonging to the genus Lactobacillus namely L. crispatus, L. gasseri, L. jensenii and L. iners, which have been extensively studied in European populations, albeit less so in South African women. In this study, we have therefore identified the vaginal Lactobacillus species in a group of 40 African women from Soweto, a township on the outskirts of Johannesburg, South Africa. Methods Identification was done by cultivating the lactobacilli on Rogosa agar, de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS) and Blood agar plates with 5% horse blood followed by sequencing of the 16S ribosomal DNA. BV was diagnosed on the basis of Nugent scores. Since some of the previous studies have shown that the lack of vaginal hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) producing lactobacilli is associated with bacterial vaginosis, the Lactobacillus isolates were also characterised for their production of H2O2. Results Cultivable Lactobacillus species were identified in 19 out of 21 women without BV, in three out of five women with intermediate microbiota and in eight out of 14 women with BV. We observed that L. crispatus, L. iners, L. jensenii, L. gasseri and L. vaginalis were the predominant species. The presence of L. crispatus was associated with normal vaginal microbiota (P = 0.024). High level of H2O2 producing lactobacilli were more often isolated from women with normal microbiota than from the women with BV, although not to a statistically significant degree (P = 0.064). Conclusion The vaginal Lactobacillus species isolated from the cohort of South African women are similar to those identified in European populations. In accordance with the other

  13. Evaluation Field Building in South Asia: Reflections, Anecdotes, and Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    This article examines evaluation field building in South Asia and the role of international collaboration in this field building. The article explores aspects of the supply and demand of development evaluation and the political, historical, and systemic factors that bridge or block evaluation use. The article calls for and suggests elements to…

  14. Rapid identification of female Culexmosquito species using Expert System in the South East Asian region

    PubMed Central

    Murty, Upadhyayula Suryanarayana; Kumar, Duvvuri Venkata Rama Satya; Rao, Mutheneni Srinivasa; Reuben, Rachel; Tewari, Satish Chandra; Hiriyan, J; Akiyama, J; Akavaram, Deepa

    2005-01-01

    Rapid identification of mosquito (vector) species is critical for vector control and disease management. Pictorial keys of mosquito species are currently used for the identification of new mosquito species. However, this approach is not very effective. Here, we describe the use of an ID3 algorithm (part of artificial intelligence) for the rapid identification of the South East Asian female Culex mosquito species. Availability http://www.envisiict.org/ PMID:17597850

  15. Immigrant Students' Shifting Identifications in South African Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandeyar, Saloshna

    2012-01-01

    The easing of legal and unauthorized entry to South Africa has made the country a new destination for Black immigrants. As this population continues to grow, its children have begun to experience South African schools in an array of uniquely challenging ways. For these immigrant youth, forging a sense of identity may be their single greatest…

  16. PROBABILISTIC SITE IDENTIFICATION ANALYSIS USING NUPEC RECORDED FREE FIELD MOTIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    XU,J.; COSTANTINO,C.; HOFMAYER,C.; MURPHY,A.; KITADA,Y.

    2002-08-04

    THIS PAPER DESCRIBES A PROBABILISTIC SITE IDENTIFICATION ANALYSIS PERFORMED BY BNL, USING THE FREE FIELD EARTHQUAKE MOTIONS RECORDED AT THE NUPEC TEST SITE. THE BNL ANALYSIS WAS INTENDED TO PROVIDE ADEQUATE CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SOIL PROPERTIES FOR THE TEST SITE TO BE USED FOR SSI ANALYSES. THE FREE FIELD DATA WERE PROVIDED BY NUPEC. THE METHODOLOGY EMPLOYED IN THE BNL PROBABILISTIC ANALYSIS OF SITE IDENTIFICATION INCLUDES THE MONTE CARLO PR...

  17. DISTANT GALAXY IDENTIFICATION TECHNIQUE IN HUBBLE FIELD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Series of four panels that illustrate the distant-galaxy identification technique. Four panels that show (top to bottom, or right to left when rotated correctly) F814W filter, F606W filter, F450W filter, and F300W filter images, or near-infrared through near-ultraviolet images. The identified galaxy is prominent in the near-infrared image but totally absent in any of the other images. It is this spectroscopic signature that identifies this galaxy as a very distant object. Credit: Ken Lanzetta and Amos Yahil (State University of New York at Stony Brook), and NASA

  18. Identification of Groundnut ringspot virus in tomato in south Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato plants with symptoms of a tospovirus infection were observed in south Florida from November 2009 through February 2010. Serological testing confirmed the presence of a tospovirus and molecular tests including PCR and sequencing were used to confirm the presence of Groundnut ringspot virus (G...

  19. Autonomous star field identification for robotic solar system exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholl, Marija S.

    A six-feature all-sky star field identification algorithm has been developed. The minimum identifiable star pattern element consists of an oriented star triplet defined by three stars, their celestial coordinates and visual magnitudes. This algorithm has been integrated with a CCD-based imaging camera. The autonomous intelligent camera identifies in real time any star field without a priori knowledge. Observatory tests on star fields with this intelligent camera are described.

  20. View of South TwentySixth Street. Stairs to sports field on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of South Twenty-Sixth Street. Stairs to sports field on right which are seen in photo no. HABS CA-2783-3. Buildings No. 25, 26, 27, seen left to right at rear, looking south - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  1. North south asymmetry in the coronal and photospheric magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, I.; Mursula, K.

    2013-12-01

    Several recent studies have shown that the Heliospheric current sheet (HCS) is southward shifted during about three years in the solar declining phase (the so-called bashful ballerina phenomenon). We study the hemispherical asymmetry in the photospheric and coronal magnetic fields using Wilcox Solar Observatory (WSO) measurements of the photospheric magnetic field since 1976 and the potential field source surface (PFSS) model. Multipole analysis of the photospheric magnetic field shows that during the late declining phase of solar cycles since 1970s, bashful ballerina phenomenon is a consequence of g02 quadrupole term, signed oppositely to the dipole moment. Surges of new flux transport magnetic field from low latitudes to the poles, thus leading to a systematically varying contribution to the g02-term from different latitudes. In the case of a north-south asymmetric flux production this is seen as a quadrupole contribution traveling towards higher latitudes. When the quadrupole term is largest the main contribution comes from the polar latitudes. At least during the four recent solar cycles the g02-term arises because the magnitude of the southern polar field is larger than in the north in the declining phase of the cycle. Magnetic flux is transported polewards by the meridional flow and it is most likely that besides the north-south asymmetric production of the magnetic flux, also the asymmetric transportation may significantly contribute to the observed asymmetry of polar field intensities. The overall activity during solar cycle is not significantly different in the northern and southern hemispheres, but hemispheres tend to develop in a different phase.

  2. Identification of naturally occurring hybrids between two overexploited sciaenid species along the South African coast.

    PubMed

    Mirimin, L; Kerwath, S E; Macey, B M; Bester-van der Merwe, A E; Lamberth, S J; Bloomer, P; Roodt-Wilding, R

    2014-07-01

    Hybridisation between fish species can play a significant role in evolutionary processes and can influence management and conservation planning, however, this phenomenon has been widely understudied, especially in marine organisms. The distribution limits of two sciaenid species (silver kob, Argyrosomus inodorus, and dusky kob, A. japonicus) partly overlap along the South African coast, where both species have undergone severe depletion due to overfishing. Following the identification of a number of possible cases of species misidentification or hybridisation (21 out of 422 individuals), nuclear and mitochondrial DNA data (12microsatellite loci and 562bp of the COI gene) were analysed to investigate the genetic composition of these individuals. Results indicated a field-based species misidentification rate of approximately 2.8% and a rate of natural hybridisation of 0.7%. Interestingly, all hybrid fish resulted from first-generation (F1) hybridisation events, which occurred exclusively between silver kob females and dusky kob males. Whether hybridisation is the result of natural events (such as secondary contact following a shift in distribution range), or anthropogenic activities (size-selective pressure due to overfishing), these findings have important implications for critical recovery and future management of these species in the wild. PMID:24582737

  3. South Belridge fields, Borderland basin, U. S. , San Joaquin Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.D. ); McPherson, J.G. )

    1991-03-01

    South Belridge is a giant field in the west San Joaquin Valley, Kern County. Cumulative field production is approximately 700 MMBO and 220 BCFG, with remaining recoverable reserves of approximately 500 MMBO. The daily production is nearly 180 MBO from over 6100 active wells. The focus of current field development and production is the shallow Tulare reservoir. Additional probable diatomite reserves have been conservatively estimated at 550 MMBO and 550 BCFG. South Belridge field has two principal reservoir horizons; the Mio-Pliocene Belridge diatomite of the upper Monterey Formation, and the overlying Plio-Pleistocene Tulare Formation. The field lies on the crest of a large southeast-plunging anticline, sub-parallel to the nearby San Andreas fault system. The reservoir trap in both the Tulare and diatomite reservoir horizons is a combination of structure, stratigraphic factors, and tar seals; the presumed source for the oil is the deeper Monterey Formation. The diatomite reservoir produces light oil (20-32{degree} API gravity) form deep-marine diatomite and diatomaceous shales with extremely high porosity (average 60%) and low permeability (average 1 md). In contrast, the shallow ({lt}1000 ft (305 m) deep) overlying Tulare reservoir produces heavy oil (13-14{degree} API gravity) from unconsolidated, arkosic, fluviodeltaic sands of high porosity (average 35%) and permeability (average 3000 md). The depositional model is that of a generally prograding fluviodeltaic system sourced in the nearby basin-margin highlands. More than 6000 closely spaced, shallow wells are the key to steamflood production from hundreds of layered and laterally discontinuous reservoir sands which create laterally and vertically discontinuous reservoir flow units.

  4. Identification of performance indicators for emergency centres in South Africa: results of a Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    Hodkinson, Peter; Wallis, Lee

    2010-01-01

    Background Emergency medicine is a rapidly developing field in South Africa (SA) and other developing nations. There is a need to develop performance indicators that are relevant and easy to measure. This will allow identification of areas for improvement, create standards of care and allow inter-institutional comparisons to be made. There is evidence from the international literature that performance measures do lead to performance improvements. Aims To develop a broad-based consensus document detailing quality measures for use in SA Emergency Centres (ECs). Methods A three-round modified Delphi study was conducted over e-mail. A panel of experts representing the emergency medicine field in SA was formed. Participants were asked to provide potential performance indicators for use in SA, under subheaders of the various disciplines that are seen in emergency patients. These statements were collated and sent out to the panel for scoring on a 9-point Lickert scale. Statements that did not reach a predefined consensus were sent back to the panellist for reconsideration. Results Consensus was reached on 99 out of 153 (65%) of the performance indicators proposed. These were further refined, and a synopsis of the statements is presented, classified as to whether the statements were thought to be feasible or not in the current circumstances. Conclusions A synopsis of the useful and feasible performance indicators is presented. The majority are structural and performance-based indicators appropriate to the development of the field in SA. Further refinement and research is needed to implement these indicators. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12245-010-0240-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:21373303

  5. Multicolor Observations of the Hubble Deep Field South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanzella, Eros; Cristiani, Stefano; Saracco, Paolo; Arnouts, Stephane; Bianchi, Simone; D'Odorico, Sandro; Fontana, Adriano; Giallongo, Emanuele; Grazian, Andrea

    2001-11-01

    We present a deep multicolor (U, B, V, I, Js, H, Ks) catalog of galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field South, based on observations obtained with the HST WFPC2 in 1998 and VLT-ISAAC in 1999. The photometric procedures were tuned to derive a catalog optimized for the estimation of photometric redshifts. In particular we adopted a ``conservative'' detection threshold, which resulted in a list of 1611 objects. The behavior of the observed source counts is in general agreement with the previous results of Casertano et al. in the Hubble Deep Field South and Williams et al. in the Hubble Deep Field North, while the corresponding counts in the Hubble Deep Field North provided by Fernández-Soto, Lanzetta, & Yahil are systematically lower by a factor 1.5 beyond IAB=26. After correcting for the incompleteness of the source counts, the object surface density at IAB<=27.5 is estimated to be 220 arcmin-2, in agreement with the corresponding measure of Volonteri et al. and providing an estimate of the extragalactic background light in the I band consistent with the work of Madau & Pozzetti. The comparison between the median V-I color in the Hubble Deep Field North and South shows a significant difference around IAB~26, possibly due to the presence of large-scale structure at z~1 in the HDF-N. High-redshift galaxy candidates (90 U dropouts and 17 B dropouts) were selected by means of color diagrams, down to a magnitude IAB=27, with a surface density of (21+/-1) and (3.9+/-0.9) arcmin-2, respectively. Eleven extremely red objects [with (I-K)AB>2.7] were selected down to KAB=24, plus three objects whose upper limit to the Ks flux is still compatible with the selection criterion. The corresponding surface density of EROs is (2.5+/-0.8) arcmin-2 [(3.2+/-0.9) arcmin-2 if we include the three Ks upper limits]. They show a remarkably nonuniform spatial distribution and are classified with roughly equal fractions in the categories of elliptical and starburst galaxies.

  6. A New South America Electric Field Monitor Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin, J.; Tacza, J.; Macotela, E. L.; Norabuena, E. O.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we present the installation and operation of a new network of sensors located in South America in order to monitor the atmospheric electric field.The network is composed of five sensors installed at different locations spread over in Argentina and Perú.The main goals of such new instrumental facility is to provide continuous measurements of the diurnal variations of the atmospheric electric field during undisturbed (fair weather) conditions. Our aim is to study the variations of the daily Carnegie curve in different timescales: (i) monthly and seasonal changes; (ii) short and long-term related to transient explosive solar phenomena, geomagnetic disturbances, and the solar activity cycle, respectively; (iii) time and space variations and their relation with seismic activity occurrence in the region. Here we present the calibration of the different sensors as well as the resulting daily and monthly curves. We also discuss the ability of such data base to investigate the above scientific problems.

  7. South Fence Road -- Phase 1 field operations summary

    SciTech Connect

    McCord, J.P.; Neel, D.

    1996-03-01

    The South Fence Road (SFR) project is part of the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization (SWHC) task. The SWHC task has as its objective the reduction of uncertainty about the rate and direction of groundwater flow in the SNL/NM/Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) area. The SFR project area is located along the southern boundary of SNL/KAFB. This project area was selected to provide site-specific information related to geology and groundwater hydrology within the Hubbell Spring/Tijeras/Sandia fault complex. Specific objectives included determining the depth to the Santa Fe Group/bedrock contact, the depth to the water table, and the hydrogeologic complexities related to faulting. This report is a basic data report from the first phase of field operations associated with the drilling, logging, completion, and development of South Fence Road Wells SFR-1D and SFR-1S, SFR-2, SFR-3D and SFR-3S, and SFR-4. These test/monitoring wells were installed as part of Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Environmental Restoration Project.

  8. Group identification and outgroup attitudes in four South African ethnic groups: a multidimensional approach.

    PubMed

    Duckitt, John; Callaghan, Jane; Wagner, Claire

    2005-05-01

    Although Sumner's ethnocentrism hypothesis, which expects stronger group identification to be associated with more negative outgroup attitudes, has been widely accepted, empirical findings have been inconsistent. This research investigates the relationship of four dimensions of ethnocultural group identification previously proposed by Phinney, that is, salience, evaluation, attachment, and involvement, with attitudes to ethnic outgroups in four South African ethnocultural groups (Africans, Afrikaans Whites, English Whites, Indians). The findings supported the factorial independence of the four identification dimensions and indicated that only one, ethnocultural evaluation (ingroup attitudes), was systematically related to outgroup attitudes, but the association could be positive, negative, or zero. Both functionalist and similarity-dissimilarity approaches to intergroup relations seemed to provide plausible explanations for the pattern of relationships obtained between ingroup and outgroup attitudes. PMID:15802658

  9. EIS Data on the Chandra Deep Field South Released

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this note is to announce that the ESO Imaging Survey programme has released a full set of optical/infrared data covering the socalled Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S) rapidly becoming a favoured target for cosmological studies in the southern hemisphere. The field was originally selected for deep X-ray observations with Chandra and XMM. The former have already been completed producing the deepest high-resolution X-ray image ever taken with a total integration time of one million seconds. The data obtained by EIS include J and Ks infrared observations of an area of 0.1 square degree nearly matching the Chandra image down to JAB ~ 23.4 and KAB ~ 22.6 and UU'BVRI optical observations over 0.25 square degree, matching the XMM field of view, reaching 5 s limiting magnitudes of U'AB = 26.0, UAB = 25.7, BAB = 26.4, VAB = 25.4, RA B = 25.5 and IA B = 24.7 mag, as measured within a 2 ´ FWHM aperture.

  10. Bob West field: Extending upper Wilcox production in south Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, S.L.

    1997-05-01

    Discovered in 1990 near the southern limit of the upper Wilcox gas-producing trend in south Texas, Bob West field is the largest pool to date in this trend, with probable reserves of up to 1 Tcf. The field produces from seven major sandstone {open_quotes}packages,{close_quotes} comprising 27 individual reservoirs and distributed over 3500 productive acres. The sandstones represent either fluvial/deltaic deposits or delta-margin barrier bar and strand-plain sediments. Porosities range up to 20%, but permeabilities are low, commonly less than 1.5 md. Artificial stimulation is therefore required to establish commercial rates of production. Bob West lies on a faulted anticline between two major growth-fault structures, with several stages of structural development evident. Such development has directly affected sandstone thickness. Rates of production are higher at Bob West than at other upper Wilcox fields due to commingling of zones, large-scale fracture treatments, and directional drilling. Discovery at Bob West has significant implications for renewed exploration in this part of the upper Wilcox gas trend.

  11. Incidense of spider mites in South Texas cotton fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of spider mites was evaluated· in four locations of south Texas between Progreso (Hidalgo Co.) to Bishop (Nueces Co.). This is an area with a south to north transect of 125 miles from south Progreso to north Bishop (respectively).The other two intermediate sampled locations were Harlin...

  12. Spiculitic chert reservoir in Glick Field, South-Central Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.P.; Longman, M.W.; Lloyd, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Glick Field, located in Kiowa and Comanche counties of southern Kansas, was discovered in 1957 and has produced more than 362 BCF from Mississippian Osage chert, commonly referred to as the {open_quotes}Chat.{close_quotes} Other {open_quotes}CHAT{close_quotes} reservoirs in Kansas and Oklahoma produce mainly from mixed chert and dolomite beneath the pre-Pennsylvanian unconformity, but Glick Field`s reservoir is dominated by chert containing abundant sponge spicules. Glick Field is a stratigraphic trap with production ending where the spiculitic facies pinches out into tight limestones to the south and west which provide a lateral seal. Additionally, updip, to the northeast, the productive facies is truncated by the unconformity. Reworked chert conglomerates overlying the spiculitic reservoir at the unconformity also produce some gas. The spiculitic chert forming the reservoir was desposited below storm wavebase and grades laterally in all directions into echinoderm and brachiopod-rich skeletal wackestones and lime mudstones. Even where completely silicified, these associated limestone are tight. Thus, the reservoir is an in situ oval-shaped complex of internally brecciated sponge mats and bioherms capped in part by the chert conglomerate. The spiculitic chert contains up to 50% porosity in molds after sponge spicules, matrix micropores and vugs are connected in part by fracture and breccia porosity. Distribution of the sponge bioherms which form the reservoir facies was partly controlled by a subtle change on the shallow Mississippian carbonate shelf from clean skeletal limestones southward into shaly (and probably more anoxic) carbonates known locally as the {open_quotes}Cowley Facies.{close_quotes} The sponge bioherms formed most commonly just updip from this boundary, which can be mapped across southern Kansas. Thus, lithologic mapping provides a potential exploration tool with which to find other stratigraphically trapped spiculitic reservoirs in the area.

  13. Subsidence and well failure in the South Belridge Diatomite field

    SciTech Connect

    Rouffignac, E.P. de; Bondor, P.L.; Karanikas, J.M. Hara, S.K.

    1995-12-31

    Withdrawal of fluids from shallow, thick and low strength rock can cause substantial reservoir compaction leading to surface subsidence and well failure. This is the case for the Diatomite reservoir, where over 10 ft of subsidence have occurred in some areas. Well failure rates have averaged over 3% per year, resulting in several million dollars per year in well replacement and repair costs in the South Belridge Diatomite alone. A program has been underway to address this issue, including experimental, modeling and field monitoring work. An updated elastoplastic rock law based on laboratory data has been generated which includes not only standard shear failure mechanisms but also irreversible pore collapse occurring at low effective stresses (<150 psi). This law was incorporated into a commercial finite element geomechanics simulator. Since the late 1980s, a network of level survey monuments has been used to monitor subsidence at Belridge. Model predictions of subsidence in Section 33 compare very well with field measured data, which show that water injection reduces subsidence from 7--8 inches per year to 1--2 inches per year, but does not abate well failure.

  14. Trace contraband detection field-test by the south Texas specialized crimes and narcotics task force.

    SciTech Connect

    Hannum, David W.; Shannon, Gary W.

    2006-04-01

    This report describes the collaboration between the South Texas Specialized Crimes and Narcotics Task Force (STSCNTF) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in a field test that provided prototype hand-held trace detection technology for use in counter-drug operations. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ)/National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC)/Border Research and Technology Center (BRTC) was contacted by STSCNTF for assistance in obtaining cutting-edge technology. The BRTC created a pilot project for Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the STSCNTF for the use of SNLs Hound, a hand-held sample collection and preconcentration system that, when combined with a commercial chemical detector, can be used for the trace detection of illicit drugs and explosives. The STSCNTF operates in an area of high narcotics trafficking where methods of concealment make the detection of narcotics challenging. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Contraband Detection Department personnel provided the Hound system hardware and operational training. The Hound system combines the GE VaporTracer2, a hand-held commercial chemical detector, with an SNL-developed sample collection and preconcentration system. The South Texas Task force reported a variety of successes, including identification of a major shipment of methamphetamines, the discovery of hidden compartments in vehicles that contained illegal drugs and currency used in drug deals, and the identification of a suspect in a nightclub shooting. The main advantage of the hand-held trace detection unit is its ability to quickly identify the type of chemical (drugs or explosives) without a long lag time for laboratory analysis, which is the most common analysis method for current law enforcement procedures.

  15. A Comment on "Evaluation Field Building in South Asia: Reflections, Anecdotes, and Questions"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, A. K. Shiva

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the author's comment on "Evaluation Field Building in South Asia: Reflections, Anecdotes, and Questions" by Katherine Hay. Hay raises a number of extremely relevant issues relating to evaluation field building in South Asia. In this paper, the author aims to underscore the importance of three priorities for initiating public…

  16. Identification of corn fields using multidate radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shanmugan, K. S.; Ulaby, F. T.; Narayanan, V.; Dobson, C.

    1983-01-01

    Airborne C- and L-band radar data acquired over a test site in western kansas were analyzed to determine corn-field identification accuracies obtainable using single-channel, multichannel, and multidate radar data. An automated pattern-recognition procedure was used to classify 144 fields into three categories: corn, pasture land, and bare soil (including wheat stubble and fallow). Corn fields were identified with accuracies ranging from 85 percent for single channel, single-date data to 100 percent for single-channel, multidate data. The effects of radar parameters such as frequency, polarization, and look angle as well as the effects of soil moisture on the classification accuracy are also presented.

  17. The MUSE 3D view of the Hubble Deep Field South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, R.; Brinchmann, J.; Richard, J.; Contini, T.; Drake, A.; Franx, M.; Tacchella, S.; Vernet, J.; Wisotzki, L.; Blaizot, J.; Bouché, N.; Bouwens, R.; Cantalupo, S.; Carollo, C. M.; Carton, D.; Caruana, J.; Clément, B.; Dreizler, S.; Epinat, B.; Guiderdoni, B.; Herenz, C.; Husser, T.-O.; Kamann, S.; Kerutt, J.; Kollatschny, W.; Krajnovic, D.; Lilly, S.; Martinsson, T.; Michel-Dansac, L.; Patricio, V.; Schaye, J.; Shirazi, M.; Soto, K.; Soucail, G.; Steinmetz, M.; Urrutia, T.; Weilbacher, P.; de Zeeuw, T.

    2015-03-01

    We observed Hubble Deep Field South with the new panoramic integral-field spectrograph MUSE that we built and have just commissioned at the VLT. The data cube resulting from 27 h of integration covers one arcmin2 field of view at an unprecedented depth with a 1σ emission-line surface brightness limit of 1 × 10-19 erg s-1 cm-2 arcsec-2, and contains ~90 000 spectra. We present the combined and calibrated data cube, and we performed a first-pass analysis of the sources detected in the Hubble Deep Field South imaging. We measured the redshifts of 189 sources up to a magnitude I814 = 29.5, increasing the number of known spectroscopic redshifts in this field by more than an order of magnitude. We also discovered 26 Lyα emitting galaxies that are not detected in the HST WFPC2 deep broad-band images. The intermediate spectral resolution of 2.3 Å allows us to separate resolved asymmetric Lyα emitters, [O ii]3727 emitters, and C iii]1908 emitters, and the broad instantaneous wavelength range of 4500 Å helps to identify single emission lines, such as [O iii]5007, Hβ, and Hα, over a very wide redshift range. We also show how the three-dimensional information of MUSE helps to resolve sources that are confused at ground-based image quality. Overall, secure identifications are provided for 83% of the 227 emission line sources detected in the MUSE data cube and for 32% of the 586 sources identified in the HST catalogue. The overall redshift distribution is fairly flat to z = 6.3, with a reduction between z = 1.5 to 2.9, in the well-known redshift desert. The field of view of MUSE also allowed us to detect 17 groups within the field. We checked that the number counts of [O ii]3727 and Lyα emitters are roughly consistent with predictions from the literature. Using two examples, we demonstrate that MUSE is able to provide exquisite spatially resolved spectroscopic information on the intermediate-redshift galaxies present in the field. Thisunique data set can be used for a

  18. Opium Field Detection in South Oxfordshire Using SAR Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Nick; Marino, Armando

    2011-03-01

    To-date the use of satellite imagery to monitor the growth of illicit crops such as marijuana, opium and coca has mostly been conducted using optical frequencies. However, it is well known that while optical imagery can be hampered by localised aerosols such as thin clouds, cirrus, haze and smoke, these do not present a problem for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). In recent years a new generation of satellite borne sensors have also been equipped with enhanced polarimetric capabilities, which can potentially help with detecting and classifying different terrain types. For these reasons we believe it is useful to consider whether high resolution polarimetric SAR data can be applied to illicit crop detection.In this paper we present the results of an experiment whereby opium poppy fields were successfully detected in the south Oxfordshire region in the UK using RadarSat-2 quad-polarisation imagery. It should be noted that these crops are not being grown illicitly but instead are being cultivated for medicinal reasons in parts of the UK. It is interesting to note that the poppies cultivated for opium in the UK have white flowers rather than the more familiar red as can be seen from the photograph in Figure 1, which was taken 11 days earlier in the season compared to Figure 4 and Figure 5.

  19. Fracturing results in diatomaceous earth formations, South Belridge Field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Strubhar, M.K.; Medin, W.L.

    1982-09-01

    Fracturing significantly increases light oil production rates at South Belridge making this an economically successful technique for exploitation of the Reef Ridge reservoir. No fracturing mechanics problems were encountered in any of the treatments. The loosely consolidated formations behaved mechanically much like brittle, elastic rocks. Net oil and gross production is typified by initial high rates and an early rapid decline. The major cause of this early rapid decline is the transient flow effect. This behavior is typical of low permeability oil and gas production. Fractures are vertical, as shown by gamma ray and temperature logs run following several treatments. The fractures grow slightly out of the perforated intervals (10 to 15 feet). Loss of fracture conductivity due to fines migration, scale deposition, and/or fracture healing (imbedment) is not a serious problem. Oil viscosity can vary as much as ten-fold. Some wells produce significant amounts of gas--100 to 200 MCFPD initially. The formation is primarily diatomaceous earth which is very fine particle size siliceous material composed of whole or fragmented diatom tests (skeletons). There is no evidence that clay swelling or dispersion is a problem. Field and laboratory data support this conclusion. Aqueous fracturing fluids were successfully used which confirmed laboratory tests on cores.

  20. PROBABILISTIC SITE IDENTIFICATION ANALYSIS USING NUPEC RECORDED FREE FIELD MOTIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    XU,J.; COSTANTINO,C.; HOFMAYER,C.; MURPHY,A.; KITADA,Y.

    2002-08-04

    THIS PAPER DESCRIBES A PROBABILISTIC SITE IDENTIFICATION ANALYSIS PERFORMED BY BNL, USING THE FREE FIELD EARTHQUAKE MOTIONS RECORDED AT THE NUPEC TEST SITE. THE BNL ANALYSIS WAS INTENDED TO PROVIDE ADEQUATE CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SOIL PROPERTIES FOR THE TEST SITE TO BE USED FOR SSI ANALYSES. THE FREE FIELD DATA WERE PROVIDED BY NUPEC. THE METHODOLOGY EMPLOYED IN THE BNL PROBABILISTIC ANALYSIS OF SITE IDENTIFICATION INCLUDES THE MONTE CARLO PROCESS IN CONJUNCTION WITH EQUIVALENT LINEARCONVOLUTION ANALYSES FOR GENERATING A LARGE NUMBER OF SITE PROFILES FOR USE IN CONVOLUTION STUDIES FROM WHICH MEAN ESTIMATES OF RESPONSE CAN BE GENERATED. THE RANDOM VARIABLE SELECTED TO CHARACTERIZE THE SITE PROFILE IS THE SHEAR WAVE VELOCITY IN EACH SOIL LAYER OF THE SITE PROFILE. A LOGNORMAL DISTRIBUTION WAS ASSUMED WITH THE STANDARD DEVIATION DETERMINED FROM AVAILABLE SITE DATA AND APPLICABLE REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS. THE CONVOLUTION ANALYSES WERE PERFORMED USING AN APPROPRIATE SOILDEGRADATION MODEL AN D THE OUTCROP INPUT MOTIONS GENERATED FROM THE RECORDED IN ROCK MOTIONS. THE BNL ANALYSIS PRODUCED RESULTS IN TERMS OF THE MEAN, MEDIAN AND VARIOUS FRACTILES OF FREE FIELD SOIL PROPERTIES AT THE TEST SITE, AND THE CORRESPONDING SURFACE RESPONSE SPECTRA, WHICH ARE PRESENTED IN THIS PAPER.

  1. ITS-2 sequences-based identification of Trichogramma species in South America.

    PubMed

    Almeida, R P; Stouthamer, R

    2015-11-01

    ITS2 (Internal transcribed spacer 2) sequences have been used in systematic studies and proved to be useful in providing a reliable identification of Trichogramma species. DNAr sequences ranged in size from 379 to 632 bp. In eleven T. pretiosum lines Wolbachia-induced parthenogenesis was found for the first time. These thelytokous lines were collected in Peru (9), Colombia (1) and USA (1). A dichotomous key for species identification was built based on the size of the ITS2 PCR product and restriction analysis using three endonucleases (EcoRI, MseI and MaeI). This molecular technique was successfully used to distinguish among seventeen native/introduced Trichogramma species collected in South America. PMID:26602337

  2. Photo identification: facial metrical and morphological features in South African males.

    PubMed

    Roelofse, M M; Steyn, M; Becker, P J

    2008-05-20

    Personal identification of individuals is very important in forensic sciences. Facial identification is becoming even more relevant with increasing crime rates, problems with access control and terrorist attacks. To make facial identification more accurate, an in depth knowledge of the common and rare facial characteristics seen in various populations is needed. This will be advantageous when comparing facial photographs. Currently very little data is available on the facial variation of South Africans. Therefore the aim of this study was to analyse the facial features of a group of South African Bantu-speaking men, to determine the common and rare facial features seen in the group. Facial photographs were taken for 200 volunteers from the Pretoria Police College, in the norma frontalis position. The subjects were between 20 and 40 years of age, with no facial deformities. Thirteen measurements were taken directly from the photographs and used in 12 indices. Eight morphological features were also analysed on each face. Each feature was divided into different categories, which described variants of that feature. The metrical and morphological data were then used to create various combinations of facial characteristics that described different regions of the face. The frequency of occurrence of these combinations was calculated for the study population. The most common features were oval or inverted trapezoid facial shapes, intermediate size noses with a down-turned septum tilt and intermediate size mouths with a flat V-shaped upper lip notch (cupid's bow). The eyes were mostly situated closely together. Some of the rare or absent features included round or square facial shapes and narrow noses with an upturned septum tilt. Matching these rare features on facial photographs will be useful during cases of disputed identification. PMID:18243614

  3. Michael Young and the Curriculum Field in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoadley, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    The paper addresses the question of what we should make of Michael Young's recent work with respect to curriculum theory by considering the particular case of South African curriculum reform. The paper thus traces two trajectories: the evolution of Michael Young's ideas over time and South African curriculum reform in the post-apartheid period.…

  4. Identification of the Female-Produced Sex Pheromone of the Leafminer Holocacista capensis Infesting Grapevine in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Lei; Geertsema, Henk; van Nieukerken, Erik J; Löfstedt, Christer

    2015-08-01

    We report the first identification of a sex pheromone in a heliozelid moth, Holocacista capensis van Nieukerken & Geertsema. This leafminer recently infested grapevine in South Africa. Compared to solvent extraction of pheromone glands, solid phase microextraction (SPME) proved to be highly effective for collection of the pheromone from calling females. The volatiles collected by SPME were analyzed by gas chromatography with electroantennographic detection (GC/EAD). Three compounds eliciting electrophysiological activity from the male antenna were identified as (Z)-5-tetradecenal, (Z)-7-tetradecenal, and (Z)-9-hexadecenal by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). GC/MS analysis of dimethyldisulphide (DMDS) derivatives of fatty acyl moieties in pheromone gland extracts confirmed the presence of the corresponding putative pheromone precursors with double bonds in the same position and with Z geometry. Field trapping experiments in a South African vineyard confirmed that both (Z)-5-tetradecenal and (Z)-7-tetradecenal are essential for the attraction of male H. capensis, whereas addition of (Z)-9-hexadecenal to the blend did not affect the attractiveness. The composition of the pheromone is discussed in relation to the phylogeny of this family of moths. PMID:26271672

  5. Wide Field Imaging of the Hubble Deep Field-South Region III: Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palunas, Povilas; Collins, Nicholas R.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Hill, Robert S.; Malumuth, Eliot M.; Rhodes, Jason; Teplitz, Harry I.; Woodgate, Bruce E.

    2002-01-01

    We present 1/2 square degree uBVRI imaging around the Hubble Deep Field - South. These data have been used in earlier papers to examine the QSO population and the evolution of the correlation function in the region around the HDF-S. The images were obtained with the Big Throughput Camera at CTIO in September 1998. The images reach 5 sigma limits of u approx. 24.4, B approx. 25.6, V approx. 25.3, R approx. 24.9 and I approx. 23.9. We present a catalog of approx. 22,000 galaxies. We also present number-magnitude counts and a comparison with other observations of the same field. The data presented here are available over the world wide web.

  6. Identification and lineage genotyping of South American trypanosomes using fluorescent fragment length barcoding.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, P B; Lewis, M D; Cruickshank, C; Gaunt, M W; Yeo, M; Llewellyn, M S; Valente, S A; Maia da Silva, F; Stevens, J R; Miles, M A; Teixeira, M M G

    2011-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli are human-infective blood parasites, largely restricted to Central and South America. They also infect a wide range of wild and domestic mammals and are transmitted by a numerous species of triatomine bugs. There are significant overlaps in the host and geographical ranges of both species. The two species consist of a number of distinct phylogenetic lineages. A range of PCR-based techniques have been developed to differentiate between these species and to assign their isolates into lineages. However, the existence of at least six and five lineages within T. cruzi and T. rangeli, respectively, makes identification of the full range of isolates difficult and time consuming. Here we have applied fluorescent fragment length barcoding (FFLB) to the problem of identifying and genotyping T. cruzi, T. rangeli and other South American trypanosomes. This technique discriminates species on the basis of length polymorphism of regions of the rDNA locus. FFLB was able to differentiate many trypanosome species known from South American mammals: T. cruzi cruzi, T. cruzi marinkellei, T. dionisii-like, T. evansi, T. lewisi, T. rangeli, T. theileri and T. vivax. Furthermore, all five T. rangeli lineages and many T. cruzi lineages could be identified, except the hybrid lineages TcV and TcVI that could not be distinguished from lineages III and II respectively. This method also allowed identification of mixed infections of T. cruzi and T. rangeli lineages in naturally infected triatomine bugs. The ability of FFLB to genotype multiple lineages of T. cruzi and T. rangeli together with other trypanosome species, using the same primer sets is an advantage over other currently available techniques. Overall, these results demonstrate that FFLB is a useful method for species diagnosis, genotyping and understanding the epidemiology of American trypanosomes. PMID:21029792

  7. Molecular Approach to the Identification of Fish in the South China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junbin; Hanner, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Background DNA barcoding is one means of establishing a rapid, accurate, and cost-effective system for the identification of species. It involves the use of short, standard gene targets to create sequence profiles of known species against sequences of unknowns that can be matched and subsequently identified. The Fish Barcode of Life (FISH-BOL) campaign has the primary goal of gathering DNA barcode records for all the world's fish species. As a contribution to FISH-BOL, we examined the degree to which DNA barcoding can discriminate marine fishes from the South China Sea. Methodology/Principal Findings DNA barcodes of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) were characterized using 1336 specimens that belong to 242 species fishes from the South China Sea. All specimen provenance data (including digital specimen images and geospatial coordinates of collection localities) and collateral sequence information were assembled using Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD; www.barcodinglife.org). Small intraspecific and large interspecific differences create distinct genetic boundaries among most species. In addition, the efficiency of two mitochondrial genes, 16S rRNA (16S) and cytochrome b (cytb), and one nuclear ribosomal gene, 18S rRNA (18S), was also evaluated for a few select groups of species. Conclusions/Significance The present study provides evidence for the effectiveness of DNA barcoding as a tool for monitoring marine biodiversity. Open access data of fishes from the South China Sea can benefit relative applications in ecology and taxonomy. PMID:22363454

  8. Evaluation Field Building in South Asia: Insights from the Rear View Mirror

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grob, George F.

    2010-01-01

    The author enjoyed reading Katharine Hay's ambitious and humbling visions for evaluation field building in South Asia. She has successfully positioned herself on a high mountain with a wonderful set of binoculars that enable her to see the entire evaluation landscape of South Asia. She magically sees and describes significant historical forces and…

  9. South Carolina Field Recordings in the Archive of Folk Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Stephanie A., Comp.

    This document describes recordings of the Library of Congress's unique collections of folklife and ethnomusicology from South Carolina. Information given includes length of recording, name of recorder, dates of recording, and content of recording. Recordings include songs, spirituals, hymns, sermons, prayers, dialect tales, and street songs.…

  10. RESULTS OF APPLYING TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION PROCEDURES TO FIELD COLLECTED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identification of specific causes of sediment toxicity can allow for much more focused risk assessment and management decision making. We have been developing toxicity identification evaluation TIE) methods for contaminated sediments and are focusing on three toxicant groups (amm...

  11. APPLYING TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION PROCEDURES TO FIELD COLLECTED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identification of specific causes of sediment toxicity can allow for much more focused risk assessment and management decision making. We have been developing toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) methods for contaminated sediments and focusing on three toxicant groups (ammoni...

  12. Identification of wind fields for wave modeling near Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Sashikant; Balan Sobhana, Sandeepan; Panchang, Vijay

    2016-04-01

    Due to the development of coastal and offshore infrastructure in and around the Arabian Gulf, a large semi-enclosed sea, knowledge of met-ocean factors like prevailing wind systems, wind generated waves, and currents etc. are of great importance. Primarily it is important to identify the wind fields that are used as forcing functions for wave and circulation models for hindcasting and forecasting purposes. The present study investigates the effects of using two sources of wind-fields on the modeling of wind-waves in the Arabian Gulf, in particular near the coastal regions of Qatar. Two wind sources are considered here, those obtained from ECMWF and those generated by us using the WRF model. The wave model SWAN was first forced with the 6 hourly ERA Interim daily winds (from ECMWF) having spatial resolution of 0.125°. For the second option, wind fields were generated by us using the mesoscale wind model (WRF) with a high spatial resolution (0.1°) at every 30 minute intervals. The simulations were carried out for a period of two months (7th October-7th December, 2015) during which measurements were available from two moored buoys (deployed and operated by the Qatar Meteorological Department), one in the north of Qatar ("Qatar North", in water depth of 58.7 m) and other in the south ("Shiraouh Island", in water depth of 16.64 m). This period included a high-sea event on 11-12th of October, recorded by the two buoys where the significant wave heights (Hs) reached as high as 2.9 m (i.e. max wave height H ~ 5.22 m) and 1.9 (max wave height H ~ 3.4 m) respectively. Model results were compared with the data for this period. The scatter index (SI) of the Hs simulated using the WRF wind fields and the observed Hs was found to be about 30% and 32% for the two buoys (total period). The observed Hs were generally reproduced but there was consistent underestimation. (Maximum 27% for the high-sea event). For the Hs obtained with ERA interim wind fields, the underestimation was

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Chandra Deep Field South: multi-colour data (Wolf+, 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, C.; Meisenheimer, K.; Kleinheinrich, M.; Borch, A.; Dye, S.; Gray, M.; Wisotzki, L.; Bell, E. F.; Rix, H.-W.; Cimatti, A.; Hasinger, G.; Szokoly, G.

    2004-04-01

    Table 3 contains the object catalogue of the COMBO-17 CDFS field. The observations were carried out with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) at the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope on La Silla, Chile, between October 1999 and January 2001 in four independent observing runs. The field measures 31.5'x30', is centered on RA=03:32:25, DE=-27:48:50 and contains the Chandra Deep Field South. The table contains 63501 objects found on the deep R-band image cdfs_r.fit by SExtractor with S/N>3. The 5-{sigma} magnitude limit for point sources is Rmag=26.0. Morphological information from the SExtractor measurement is included. Multiple observations in different observing runs of six different filters allow the identification of variable objects. The table contains positions, flags and flux measurements in UBVRI and 12 optical medium-band filters. In addition, we include multi-colour classification, photometric redshifts, luminosity distances and a number of absolute restframe magnitudes in different filters (Johnson, Sloan, Bessell). cdfsu.fit, cdfsb.fit, cdfsv.fit, cdfsr.fit and cdfs_i.fit are coadded sumframes in UBVRI of the CDFS field. These sumframes are stacked from flat-fielded and cosmic-corrected individual images by applying only full pixel shifts. Therefore, the coordinate frames differ slightly between the images. The coordinates in Table 3 refer to image cdfs_r.fit. The images in BVRI are obtained from observations carried out in observing run D (Oct 1999, see also Note (11) in the byte-by-byte description of table3.dat) while the U-band image is obtained from observing run G (Jan 2001). The exposure times are 14400s (U), 5000s (B), 8400s (V), 15000s (R) and 7550s (I). The intensity levels are given in units of photons hitting the detector (already corrected for the gain of the CCD). The data included here supersede the table2.dat of the COMBO-17 published in 2001 (J/A+A/377/442) (6 data files).

  14. Identification of anomalous motion of thunderstorms using daily rainfall fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Moral, Anna; Llasat, Maria Carmen; Rigo, Tomeu

    2016-04-01

    Adverse weather phenomena in Catalonia (NE of the Iberian Peninsula) is commonly associated to heavy rains, large hail, strong winds, and/or tornados, all of them caused by thunderstorms. In most of the cases with adverse weather, thunderstorms vary sharply their trajectories in a concrete moment, changing completely the motion directions that have previously followed. Furthermore, it is possible that a breaking into several cells may be produced, or, in the opposite, it can be observed a joining of different thunderstorms into a bigger system. In order to identify the main features of the developing process of thunderstorms and the anomalous motions that these may follow in some cases, this contribution presents a classification of the events using daily rainfall fields, with the purpose of distinguishing quickly anomalous motion of thunderstorms. The methodology implemented allows classifying the daily rainfall fields in three categories by applying some thresholds related with the daily precipitation accumulated values and their extension: days with "no rain", days with "potentially convective" rain and days with "non-potentially convective" rain. Finally, for those "potentially convective" daily rainfall charts, it also allows a geometrical identification and classification of all the convective structures into "ellipse" and "non-ellipse", obtaining then the structures with "normal" or "anomalous" motion pattern, respectively. The work is focused on the period 2008-2015, and presents some characteristics of the rainfall behaviour in terms of the seasonal distribution of convective rainfall or the geographic variability. It shows that convective structures are mainly found during late spring and summer, even though they can be recorded in any time of the year. Consequently, the maximum number of convective structures with anomalous motion is recorded between July and November. Furthermore, the contribution shows the role of the orography of Catalonia in the

  15. High Latitude Meridional Flow on the Sun May Explain North-South Polar Field Asymmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosak, Katie; Upton, Lisa; Hathaway, David

    2012-01-01

    We measured the flows of magnetic elements on the Sun at very high latitudes by analyzing magnetic images from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Mission. Magnetic maps constructed using a fixed, and north-south symmetric, meridional flow profile give weaker than observed polar fields in the North and stronger than observed polar fields in the South during the decline of Cycle 23 and rise of Cycle 24. Our measurements of the meridional flow at high latitudes indicate systematic north-south differences. In the fall of 2010 (when the North Pole was most visible), there was a strong flow in the North while in the spring of 2011 (when the South Pole was most visible) the flow there was weaker. With these results, we have a possible solution to this polar field asymmetry. The weaker flow in the South should keep the polar fields from becoming too strong while the stronger flow in the North should strengthen the field there. In order to gain a better understanding of the Solar Cycle and magnetic flux transport on the Sun, we need further observations and analyses of the Sun s polar regions in general and the polar meridional flow in particular.

  16. High Latitude Meridional Flow on the Sun May Explain North-South Polar Field Asymmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosak, Katie; Upton, Lisa; Hathaway, David

    2012-01-01

    We measured the flows of magnetic elements on the Sun at very high latitudes by analyzing magnetic images from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Mission. Magnetic maps constructed using a fixed, and north-south symmetric, meridional flow profile give weaker than observed polar fields in the North and stronger than observed polar fields in the South during the decline of Cycle 23 and rise of Cycle 24. Our measurements of the meridional flow at high latitudes indicate systematic north-south differences. There was a strong flow in the North while the flow in the South was weaker. With these results, we have a possible solution to the polar field asymmetry. The weaker flow in the South should keep the polar fields from becoming too strong while the stronger flow in the North should strengthen the field there. In order to gain a better understanding of the Solar Cycle and magnetic flux transport on the Sun, we need further observations and analyses of the Sun's polar regions in general and the polar meridonal flow in particular.

  17. High Latitude Meridional Flow on the Sun May Explain North-South Polar Field Asymmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosak, Katie; Upton, Lisa; Hathaway, David

    2012-01-01

    We measured the flows of magnetic elements on the Sun at very high latitudes by analyzing magnetic images from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Mission. Magnetic maps constructed using a fixed, and north ]south symmetric, meridional flow profile give weaker than observed polar fields in the North and stronger than observed polar fields in the South during the decline of Cycle 23 and rise of Cycle 24. Our measurements of the meridional flow at high latitudes indicate systematic north ]south differences. There was a strong flow in the North while the flow in the South was weaker. With these results, we have a possible solution to the polar field asymmetry. The weaker flow in the South should keep the polar fields from becoming too strong while the stronger flow in the North should strengthen the field there. In order to gain a better understanding of the Solar Cycle and magnetic flux transport on the Sun, we need further observations and analyses of the Sun fs polar regions in general and the polar meridional flow in particular

  18. Mixing of biogenic siliceous and terrigenous clastic sediments: South Belridge field and Beta field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, D.E. )

    1990-05-01

    The intermixing and interbedding of biogenically derived siliceous sediment with terrigenous clastic sediment in reservoirs of upper Miocene age provides both reservoir rock and seal and influences productivity by affecting porosity and permeability. Miocene reservoirs commonly contain either biogenic-dominated cyclic diatomite, porcelanite, or chert (classic Monterey Formation) or clastic-dominated submarine fan sequences with interbedded or intermixed siliceous members of biogenic origin. Biogenic-clastic cycles, 30-180 ft thick, at South Belridge field were formed by episodic influx of clastic sediment from distant submarine fans mixing with slowly accumulating diatomaceous ooze. The cycles consist of basal silt and pelletized massive diatomaceous mudstone, overlain by burrowed, faintly bedded clayey diatomite and topped by laminated diatomite. Cycle tops have higher porosity and permeability, lower grain density, and higher oil saturation than clay and silt-rich portions of the cycles. Submarine fan sediments forming reservoirs at the Beta field are comprised of interbedded sands and silts deposited in a channelized middle fan to outer fan setting. Individual turbidites display fining-upward sequences, with oil-bearing sands capped by wet micaceous silts. Average sands are moderately to poorly sorted, fine- to medium-grained arkosic arenites. Sands contain pore-filling carbonate and porcelaneous cements. Porcelaneous cement consists of a mixture of opal-A, opal-CT, and chert with montmorillonite and minor zeolite. This cement is an authigenic material precipitated in intergranular pore space. The origin of the opal is biogenic, with recrystallization of diatom frustules (opal-A) into opal-CT lepispheres and quartz crystals. Porcelaneous cement comprises 4-21% of the bulk volume of the rock. Seventy percent of the bulk volume of the cement is micropore space.

  19. Glacier surface velocity fields in South Shetland Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmanoglu, B.; Giseke, H.; Navarro, F. J.; Rueckamp, M.; Falk, U.; Corcuera, M. I.; Braun, M.

    2011-12-01

    In this study surface velocity of glaciers in South Shetland Islands (Antarctic Peninsula) are calculated based on synthetic aperture radar data from ALOS PALSAR and TerraSAR-X as well as differential GPS measurements. The obtained glacier velocities will be used to calculate the total glacier mass budget and to better understand the contribution of the study areas to the sea level rise. Only recent studies have examined the region for mass balance and sea level rise estimates. However, larger scale mass budget computations are not yet available. Ice dynamics obtained from satellite data have only been derived in a few occasions, often due to lacking spatial resolution or temporal decorrelation. Hence, any spacebased information on ice dynamics can significantly improve estimates of calving fluxes and mass loss. In this study we analysed over 30 PALSAR and 30 TSX scenes acquired over the King George Island and Livingston Island, the two largest islands in the South Shetland Island group. In the study areas the glacier velocities are calculated using two independent data sets; namely satellite radar imagery and GPS. Feature-tracking methods are applied to the radar imagery to obtain glacier velocities using Gamma Interferometric SAR Processor and TU-Delft DORIS. Results from Gamma and Doris software packages are compared to each other as well as GPS measurements where available. For a subset of the study area tracking results from different acquisitions modes (stripmap and spotlight) and orbits are compared. Comparison of glacier velocities obtained by radar and GPS provide an estimate for the uncertainties in the measured rates. The results obtained from all data sets are then compiled to construct a map of glacier velocities for the entire island group.

  20. SENSITIVE SEARCH FOR RADIO VARIABLES AND TRANSIENTS IN THE EXTENDED CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH

    SciTech Connect

    Mooley, K. P.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Horesh, A.; Frail, D. A.; Ofek, E. O.; Miller, N. A.

    2013-05-10

    We report on an analysis of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (E-CDFS) region using archival data from the Very Large Array, with the goal of studying radio variability and transients at the sub-milliJansky level. The 49 epochs of E-CDFS observations at 1.4 GHz sample timescales from 1 day to 3 months. We find that only a fraction (1%) of unresolved radio sources above 40 {mu}Jy are variable at the 4{sigma} level. There is no evidence that the fractional variability changes along with the known transition of radio-source populations below 1 mJy. Optical identifications of the sources show that the variable radio emission is associated with the central regions of an active galactic nucleus or a star-forming galaxy. After a detailed comparison of the efficacy of various source-finding algorithms, we use the best to carry out a transient search. No transients were found. This implies that the areal density of transients with peak flux density greater than 0.21 mJy is less than 0.37 deg{sup -2} (at a confidence level of 95%). This result is approximately an order of magnitude below the transient rate measured at 5 GHz by Bower et al. but it is consistent with more recent upper limits from Frail et al. Our findings suggest that the radio sky at 1.4 GHz is relatively quiet. For multi-wavelength transient searches, such as the electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational waves, this frequency may be optimal for reducing the high background of false positives.

  1. Ultra-deep catalog of X-ray groups in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finoguenov, A.; Tanaka, M.; Cooper, M.; Allevato, V.; Cappelluti, N.; Choi, A.; Heymans, C.; Bauer, F. E.; Ziparo, F.; Ranalli, P.; Silverman, J.; Brandt, W. N.; Xue, Y. Q.; Mulchaey, J.; Howes, L.; Schmid, C.; Wilman, D.; Comastri, A.; Hasinger, G.; Mainieri, V.; Luo, B.; Tozzi, P.; Rosati, P.; Capak, P.; Popesso, P.

    2015-04-01

    Aims: We present the detection, identification and calibration of extended sources in the deepest X-ray dataset to date, the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDF-S). Methods: Ultra-deep observations of ECDF-S with Chandra and XMM-Newton enable a search for extended X-ray emission down to an unprecedented flux of 2 × 10-16 ergs s-1 cm-2. By using simulations and comparing them with the Chandra and XMM data, we show that it is feasible to probe extended sources of this flux level, which is 10 000 times fainter than the first X-ray group catalogs of the ROSAT all sky survey. Extensive spectroscopic surveys at the VLT and Magellan have been completed, providing spectroscopic identification of galaxy groups to high redshifts. Furthermore, available HST imaging enables a weak-lensing calibration of the group masses. Results: We present the search for the extended emission on spatial scales of 32'' in both Chandra and XMM data, covering 0.3 square degrees and model the extended emission on scales of arcminutes. We present a catalog of 46 spectroscopically identified groups, reaching a redshift of 1.6. We show that the statistical properties of ECDF-S, such as log N - log S and X-ray luminosity function are broadly consistent with LCDM, with the exception that dn/dz/dΩ test reveals that a redshift range of 0.2 < z < 0.5 in ECDF-S is sparsely populated. The lack of nearby structure, however, makes studies of high-redshift groups particularly easier both in X-rays and lensing, due to a lower level of clustered foreground. We present one and two point statistics of the galaxy groups as well as weak-lensing analysis to show that the detected low-luminosity systems are indeed low-mass systems. We verify the applicability of the scaling relations between the X-ray luminosity and the total mass of the group, derived for the COSMOS survey to lower masses and higher redshifts probed by ECDF-S by means of stacked weak lensing and clustering analysis, constraining any possible

  2. Optimizations for the EcoPod field identification tool

    PubMed Central

    Manoharan, Aswath; Stamberger, Jeannie; Yu, YuanYuan; Paepcke, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Background We sketch our species identification tool for palm sized computers that helps knowledgeable observers with census activities. An algorithm turns an identification matrix into a minimal length series of questions that guide the operator towards identification. Historic observation data from the census geographic area helps minimize question volume. We explore how much historic data is required to boost performance, and whether the use of history negatively impacts identification of rare species. We also explore how characteristics of the matrix interact with the algorithm, and how best to predict the probability of observing a previously unseen species. Results Point counts of birds taken at Stanford University's Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve between 2000 and 2005 were used to examine the algorithm. A computer identified species by correctly answering, and counting the algorithm's questions. We also explored how the character density of the key matrix and the theoretical minimum number of questions for each bird in the matrix influenced the algorithm. Our investigation of the required probability smoothing determined whether Laplace smoothing of observation probabilities was sufficient, or whether the more complex Good-Turing technique is required. Conclusion Historic data improved identification speed, but only impacted the top 25% most frequently observed birds. For rare birds the history based algorithms did not impose a noticeable penalty in the number of questions required for identification. For our dataset neither age of the historic data, nor the number of observation years impacted the algorithm. Density of characters for different taxa in the identification matrix did not impact the algorithms. Intrinsic differences in identifying different birds did affect the algorithm, but the differences affected the baseline method of not using historic data to exactly the same degree. We found that Laplace smoothing performed better for rare species

  3. Bacterial diversity of rice fields in the South of Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigated rice fields are aquatic agroecosystems directly influenced by agricultural practices, which include agrochemical application and the input of nutrients related to resource of irrigation. In addition, root exudation and the levels of soil mineral nutrients are important modifiers of the rhi...

  4. A Wide-Field Survey in the Chandra Deep Field-South Region: A Combined GTO + GO Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garmire, Gordon

    2013-09-01

    We propose to perform a wide-field (2.2 square degree) survey around the Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) and Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (E-CDF-S). This survey will complement the large observational investments made in multi-square-degree surveys in the CDF-S region by Spitzer, Herschel, the Australia Telescope Compact Array, PRIMUS, Pan-STARRS, DES, LSST, and other facilities. It will allow us to identify the most-luminous active galaxies to z = 1.5-2 and to investigate large-scale structures in the CDF-S region. This is the GTO component of a GTO + GO project; the associated GO observations will be proposed as a Cycle 15 Large Project.

  5. Biophysical regions identification using an artificial neuronal network: A case study in the South Western Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraceno, Martin; Provost, Christine; Lebbah, Mustapha

    A classification method based on an artificial neuronal network is used to identify biophysical regions in the South Western Atlantic (SWA). The method comprises a probabilistic version of the Kohonen’s self-organizing map and a Hierarchical Ascending Clustering algorithm. It objectively defines the optimal number of classes and the class boundaries. The method is applied to ocean surface data provided by satellite: chlorophyll-a, sea surface temperature and sea surface temperature gradient, first to means and then, in an attempt to examine seasonal variations, to monthly climatologies. Both results reflect the presence of the major circulation patterns and frontal positions in the SWA. The provinces retrieved using mean fields are compared to previous results and show a more accurate description of the SWA. The classification obtained with monthly climatologies offers the flexibility to include the time dimension; the boundaries of biophysical regions established are not fixed, but vary in time. Perspectives and limitations of the methodology are discussed.

  6. A brief overview of the history of veterinary field services in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Brückner, Gideon K

    2014-01-01

    The historical evolution of veterinary services in South Africa is closely linked to the colonial history of the past and the eventual political formation of the Union of South Africa in 1910, as well as the establishment of a fully democratic South Africa in 1994. The majority of the early pioneering veterinarians had close links to military activities and were originally mostly of British origin. The appointment of the first colonial chief veterinary officers occurred in the late 1800s. These appointments were dictated by the need to combat devastating animal diseases, such as rinderpest and African horse sickness, mainly because they affected draught oxen (used for travel) and horses (used in combat). Veterinary field services was established in 1962 as a separate functional entity within government services when M.C. Lambrechts became Director of Veterinary Services of South Africa. In the context of this article, veterinary field services refers to that sphere of veterinary service delivery conducted by government-appointed or seconded veterinarians applying disease control and prevention, as required by animal health legislation. Paging through the history of veterinary field services in South Africa confirms that the problems faced by the veterinary services of today were just as real during the times of our pioneers. The pioneers of veterinary services transformed unknown animal diseases into textbook descriptions still used today and also demonstrated the important link to, and use of, the observations made by farmers, as well as the need for continued basic and applied research on animal diseases. This article provided a brief overview of the evolution of veterinary field services and the important role played by pioneers over the last two centuries to make South Africa relatively free and safe from the most important trade-sensitive and economically important animal diseases. PMID:25685939

  7. South Lake Arthur field and occurrence of buried structures along Oligocene trend of southwestern Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Prescott, M.P.

    1988-09-01

    Significant gas reserves have recently been discovered in the Miogypsinoides sands along the Oligocene trend at the South Lake Arthur field. Detailed subsurface maps and seismic data are presented to exhibit the extent and nature of this local structure and to demonstrate future opportunities along the Oligocene trend.

  8. Soccer field at West 101st102nd streets, Riverside Park, looking south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Soccer field at West 101st-102nd streets, Riverside Park, looking south with railroad retaining wall in background. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY

  9. G-2 and G-3 reservoirs, Delta South field, Nigeria - 2. Simulation of water injection

    SciTech Connect

    Thakur, G.C.; Stanat, P.L.; Aruna, M.; Ajayi, S.A.; Poston, S.

    1982-01-01

    A description is given of a two-dimensional, three-phase, black-oil simulation of the G-2 and G-3 reservoirs in the Delta South field offshore Nigeria. The purpose of these studies was to investigate, from an engineering standpoint, various operating schemes for optimizing the oil recovery from each of these highly gravity-segregated reservoirs. 4 refs.

  10. Summary of South Fence Road phase II 1993 field operations at Site SFR-4

    SciTech Connect

    Foutz, W.L.; McCord, J.P.

    1996-05-01

    This report is a basic data report for field operations associated with the drilling, logging, completion, and development of South Fence Road Wells SFR-4P and SFR-4T. These test/monitoring wells were installed as part of Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Environmental Restoration Project.

  11. Summary of South Fence Road phase II 1993 field operations at site SFR-3

    SciTech Connect

    Foutz, W.L.; McCord, J.P.

    1996-05-01

    This report is a basic data report fro field operations associated with the drilling, logging, completion, and development of South Fence Road Wells SFR-3P and SFR-3T. These test/monitoring wells were installed as part of Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Environmental Restoration Project.

  12. High-Resolution Local Crustal Magnetic Field Modeling of the Martian South Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plattner, A.; Simons, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) satellite mission has brought us a wealth of information about the Martian magnetic field. Besides determining that Mars currently does not possess an active core field, MGS revealed that Mars contains an unexpectedly wide crustal magnetic field intensity range. In its orbit insertion, MGS performed a series of low altitude passes down to around 100 km above surface. During this mission phase the magnetic field measurements were active. In particular the nighttime low-altitude data are of high interest because they contain minimal noise from solar wind. Since these data only cover a small portion of the planet's surface, to date all Martian crustal magnetic field models blend the highest-quality data with lower quality measurements collected either at higher satellite altitudes or during daytime. In this contribution we present a locally inverted crustal magnetic field model for the Martian South Polar region calculated from only the highest-quality MGS data using locally constructed altitude vector Slepian functions. The South Polar region of Mars contains the southern part of the strongly magnetized Terra Sirenum and the area south of the Tharsis volcanic highland. Besides parts of planetary scale features our area of data coverage also contains local features such as the presumably volcanic Australe Montes and the Prometheus impact crater. These ingredients compose a highly heterogeneous crustal magnetic field. We show that even for our dense low-altitude low-noise data set the inversion for the crustal magnetic field of a weakly magnetized region adjacent to a region containing a strong magnetic field leads to artifacts in the weak region. With our local method we can avoid these artifacts by selecting subregions of roughly homogeneous field intensity and individually invert for crustal magnetic fields from data within only these subregions. This regional and subregional modeling allows us to reveal previously obscured crustal

  13. Estimated north-south conponent of the electric field in the geomagnetotail plasma sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Lui, A.T.Y.; Akasofu, S.

    1980-11-01

    It is shown that the north-south component of electric fields in the plasma sheet can be estimated uniquely from simultaneous measurements of plasma flow components (v/sub x/, v/sub y/) and the magnetic field components (B/sub x/, B/sub y/) in the equatorial plane. The estimated field strength ranges from 0.3 to 7.8 mv/m during substorms at geocentric distances beyond approx.15 R/sub e/. During the magnetospheric substorm expansion phase, the north-south component of the electric fields is almost oppositely directed from what one would expect on the basis of projection of the general pattern of the ionospheric electric field to the plasma sheet along geomagnetic field lines (assumed to be equipotential). It is only during the recovery phase when both electric field patterns become similar. The result also suggests that strong fields occur preferentially near the plasma sheet boundary rather than near the neutral sheet region.

  14. Palaeomagnetic evidence for the persistence or recurrence of geomagnetic main field anomalies in the South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Jay; Koppers, Anthony A. P.; Leitner, Marko; Leonhardt, Roman; Muxworthy, Adrian R.; Heunemann, Christoph; Bachtadse, Valerian; Ashley, Jack A. D.; Matzka, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    We present a dataset of a full-vector palaeomagnetic study of Late Pleistocene lavas from the island Tristan da Cunha in the South Atlantic Ocean. The current day geomagnetic field intensity in this region is approximately 25 μT, compared to an expected value of ∼43 μT; this phenomenon is known as the South Atlantic geomagnetic Anomaly (SAA). Geomagnetic field models extending back to the last 10 ka find no evidence for this being a persistent feature of the geomagnetic field, albeit, all models are constructed from data which is particularly sparse in the southern hemisphere. New 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating dating indicates the studied lavas from Tristan da Cunha extruded between 90 and 46 ka. Palaeointensity estimations of eight lava flows made using the Thellier method yield an average palaeointensity of 18 ± 6 μT and virtual axial dipole moment (VADM) of 3.1 ± 1.2 ×1022 Am2. The lava flows demonstrate four time intervals comparable to the present day SAA, where the average VADM of the Tristan da Cunha lavas is weaker than the global VADM average. This suggests a persistent or recurring low intensity anomaly to the main geomagnetic field similar to the SAA existed in the South Atlantic between 46 and 90 ka.

  15. Measuring the economic impact of climate change on major South African field crops: a Ricardian approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gbetibouo, G. A.; Hassan, R. M.

    2005-07-01

    This study employed a Ricardian model to measure the impact of climate change on South Africa's field crops and analysed potential future impacts of further changes in the climate. A regression of farm net revenue on climate, soil and other socio-economic variables was conducted to capture farmer-adapted responses to climate variations. The analysis was based on agricultural data for seven field crops (maize, wheat, sorghum, sugarcane, groundnut, sunflower and soybean), climate and edaphic data across 300 districts in South Africa. Results indicate that production of field crops was sensitive to marginal changes in temperature as compared to changes in precipitation. Temperature rise positively affects net revenue whereas the effect of reduction in rainfall is negative. The study also highlights the importance of season and location in dealing with climate change showing that the spatial distribution of climate change impact and consequently needed adaptations will not be uniform across the different agro-ecological regions of South Africa. Results of simulations of climate change scenarios indicate many impacts that would induce (or require) very distinct shifts in farming practices and patterns in different regions. Those include major shifts in crop calendars and growing seasons, switching between crops to the possibility of complete disappearance of some field crops from some region.

  16. Identification of vulnerable sites in salts affected agricultural soils from South-Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Jose A.; Faz, Angel; Kalbitz, Karsten; Jansen, Boris; Silvia, Martinez-Martinez

    2010-05-01

    Soil salinization is one of the main problems in many soils under intensive agricultural practices, especially in arid and semiarid zones. Two important reasons for the occurrence of salinization are i) the use of low quality irrigation water and ii) climatic conditions reducing soil quality. The results of salinization can be quite serious. It limits the growing of crops, constrains agricultural productivity, and in severe cases, leads to the abandonment of agricultural soils. There are mainly two kinds of soil salinity: naturally occurring dry-land salinity and human-induced salinity caused by the low quality of irrigation water, excessive water and fertilizer applications. In both cases the development of plants and soil organisms is limited. Natural occurrence of salts in soils is very difficult to handle and requires higher investments than the reduction of human-induced salinity. For these reasons, identification of vulnerable sites is essential for sustainable agricultural management, especially in these semiarid and arid environments. The main aim of this study was to examine spatial and vertical distribution pattern of salts in a semi-arid study site in South-Eastern Spain in order to identify vulnerable sites. In order to achieve this objective, surface soil samples were collected in January and July 2009 at 48 sites located in a representative lemon production area close to City of Murcia, covering a surface area of 44 km2. The area was divided using a square grid of 1000 m and the samples were taken from these squares. The ionic concentrations were used as the input data for distribution maps. The software used for the spatial analysis was Arcview 3.1. An interpolation method called the Inverse Distanced Weighted (IDW) method was adopted for the interpolation of the data. The results indicated that the concentrations of most anions are higher in summer. The difference was particularly large for chloride, most likely because of its high mobility and

  17. Detection of Rhynchophorus palmarum (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and identification of associated nematodes in south Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study reports a survey conducted to find the South American palm weevil Rhynchophorus palmarum (L.) and the red palm weevil R. ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), two invasive species of palm trees. The study was performed in the Rio Grande Valley of south Texas and near the bor...

  18. Generation of a North/South Magnetic Field Component from Variations in the Photospheric Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, Roger K.; Tran, Tham

    2016-04-01

    We address the problem of calculating the transverse magnetic field in the solar wind outside of the hypothetical sphere that is called the source surface where the solar wind originates. This calculation must overcome a widely used fundamental assumption about the source surface - the field is normally required to be purely radial at the source surface. Our model rests on the fact that a change in the radial field strength at the source surface is a change in the field line density. Surrounding field lines must move laterally to accommodate this field line density change. As the outward wind velocity drags field lines past the source surface, this lateral component of motion produces a tilt, implying there is a transverse component to the field. An analytic method of calculating the lateral translation speed of the field lines is developed. We apply the technique to an interval of approximately two Carrington rotations at the beginning of 2011 using 2-h averages of data from the Helioseismic Magnetic Imager instrument onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory spacecraft. We find that the value of the transverse magnetic field is dominated on a global scale by the effects of high-latitude concentrations of field lines that are buffeted by supergranular motions.

  19. Identification of heterogeneous elastic material characteristics by virtual fields method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Yuya; Arikawa, Shuichi; Yoneyama, Satoru

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a method for identifying the elastic material characteristics of a heterogeneous material from measured displacements is proposed. The virtual fields method is employed for determining the elastic material characteristics. The solid propellant is considered as heterogeneous materials for the test subject. An equation representing the distribution of the material properties of the solid propellant is obtained by Fick's law, and the distribution is applied to the virtual fields method. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by applying to displacement fields obtained using finite element analysis. Results show that the heterogeneous material properties can be obtained by the proposed method.

  20. Disparities in Beef Tapeworm Identification Rates in the Abattoirs of Gauteng Province, South Africa: A Descriptive Epidemiologic Study

    PubMed Central

    Odoi, Agricola

    2016-01-01

    Background Bovine Taenia saginata cysticercus infections (also called bovine cysticercosis or beef measles) is usually diagnosed in cattle only during post-mortem meat inspection. The aim of this study was to investigate the identification rates of these infections in and to identify predictors/determinants of variations in the identification rates in abattoirs in Gauteng province, South Africa. Methods Retrospective data for over 1.4 million cattle carcasses inspected in 26 abattoirs between January 2010 and December 2013 were used for the study. The identification rates (proportion of bovine Taenia saginata cysticercus positive carcasses) were computed and generalized estimating equations used to identify predictors/determinants of identification rates. Results The overall identification rate was 0.70% (95% CI: 0.45, 0.95). Significantly (p< 0.05) lower rates were reported during summer (0.55%) than other seasons. Some geographic areas reported significantly (p<0.05) higher rates than others. The identification rates in high throughput abattoirs was significantly (p<0.05) higher (RR: 9.4; 95% CI: 4.7–19.1) than in low throughput abattoirs. Similarly, the identification rates among animals from feedlots were significantly (p<0.05) higher (RR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.7–3.5) than those from non-feedlot sources. No significant (p>0.05) association was identified between identification rates and either the number of meat inspectors per abattoir or the provider of inspection services. Conclusion Although no significant association was found between identification rates and provider of inspection services, follow-up studies will need to be done to specifically investigate the potential conflict of interest arising from the fact that abattoir owners hire meat inspection services directly. Capture of abattoir surveillance data needs to include farm address and for each case to be reported separately. Finally, information on the type of identified cysts (alive or calcified

  1. Restricted Freedom: Negotiating Same-Sex Identifications in the Residential Spaces of a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Msibi, Thabo; Jagessar, Valenshia

    2015-01-01

    International higher education research focused on students who claim same-sex identifications in university residential spaces has tended to prioritise the "gay as victim" discourse, often leading to the pathologising of same-sex identification. While there is emerging research seeking to challenge this dimension of scholarship by…

  2. Estimates of the North--South electric field component in the magnetotail low latitude boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Candidi, M.; Orsini, S.

    1981-06-01

    The measurements of 0/sup +/ ions drift velocity in the magnetotail boundary layer are used to infer the North--South E/sub z/ component of the local electric field. It is shown that E/sub z/ is generally a substantial component of the field and that it reverses its sign from the dawn to the dusk side of the northern magnetotail between X/sub SM/ = -15 R/sub E/ and X/sub SM/ = -23 R/sub E/.

  3. Identification of remaining oil resource potential in the Frio Fluvial/Deltaic Sandstone play, South Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Holtz, M.H.; McRae, L.E.; Tyler, N.

    1994-05-01

    The Frio Fluvial/Deltaic Sandstone (Vicksburg Fault Zone) oil play of South Texas has produced nearly 1 billion stock tank barrels (BSTB) of oil, yet still contains about 1.2 BSTB of unrecovered mobile oil and an even greater amount of residual oil resources (1.5 BSTB). More than half of the reservoirs in this depositionally complex play have been abandoned, and large volumes of oil may remain unproduced. Interwell-scale geological facies models of Frio fluvial/deltaic reservoirs will be combined with engineering assessments and geophysical evaluations in order to characterize Frio fluvial/deltaic reservoir architecture, flow unit boundaries, and the controls that these characteristics exert on the location and volume of unrecovered mobile and residual oil. Reservoir attribute data were statistically analyzed from oil and gas fields throughout the geographic area covered by the Frio Fluvial/Deltaic Sandstone oil play. General reservoir attributes analyzed in detail included porosity, initial water saturation, residual oil saturation, net pay, reservoir area, and fluid characteristics. Statistical analysis of variance demonstrated no difference between oil reservoir attributes and gas reservoir attributes. Probability functions that describe attribute frequency distributions were determined for use in risk adjusting resource calculations. The oil play was found to contain significant volumes of remaining oil. The volumetric probability distribution between 5- and 95-percent probability for original oil in place ranges from 3.8 to 5.6 BSTB, original mobile oil in place ranges from 2.5 to 3.6 BSTB, and residual oil ranges from 1.5 to 2.3 BSTB. The untapped oil resource may be 10 percent of the original oil in place, or 380 million stock tank barrels.

  4. Identification guide to some Diaptomid species (Crustacea, Copepoda, Calanoida, Diaptomidae) of "de la Plata" River Basin (South America).

    PubMed

    Perbiche-Neves, Gilmar; Boxshall, Geoffrey Allan; Previattelli, Daniel; Nogueira, Marcos Gomes; da Rocha, Carlos Eduardo Falavigna

    2015-01-01

    An identification guide is presented for species of calanoid copepod family Diaptomidae from "de la Plata" River Basin (Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay). It was based on material collected during the summer and winter of 2010 from 43 sites across the eastern part and the lower stretches of this basin, the second largest in South America and the fourth in the world. The guide contains identification keys and species diagnoses for males and females, richly supported by scanning electronic micrographs and/or line drawings of 19 species. It also includes some general remarks on the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of these species. The key was adjusted to be useful for these species only, with separate keys for each sex, and is the first for females of South America. One species classified herein as incertae sedis was not included in the analysis. At least ten other species have previously been recorded in the basin but were not present in our samples. This is the first attempt to compile comprehensive taxonomic information on this group of copepods in this region, and it is expected to become a useful tool for biologists and young taxonomists interested in the crustacean biota of the Neotropical region. PMID:25931959

  5. Identification guide to some Diaptomid species (Crustacea, Copepoda, Calanoida, Diaptomidae) of “de la Plata” River Basin (South America)

    PubMed Central

    Perbiche-Neves, Gilmar; Boxshall, Geoffrey Allan; Previattelli, Daniel; Nogueira, Marcos Gomes; da Rocha, Carlos Eduardo Falavigna

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An identification guide is presented for species of calanoid copepod family Diaptomidae from “de la Plata” River Basin (Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay). It was based on material collected during the summer and winter of 2010 from 43 sites across the eastern part and the lower stretches of this basin, the second largest in South America and the fourth in the world. The guide contains identification keys and species diagnoses for males and females, richly supported by scanning electronic micrographs and/or line drawings of 19 species. It also includes some general remarks on the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of these species. The key was adjusted to be useful for these species only, with separate keys for each sex, and is the first for females of South America. One species classified herein as incertae sedis was not included in the analysis. At least ten other species have previously been recorded in the basin but were not present in our samples. This is the first attempt to compile comprehensive taxonomic information on this group of copepods in this region, and it is expected to become a useful tool for biologists and young taxonomists interested in the crustacean biota of the Neotropical region. PMID:25931959

  6. Subcutaneous electronic identification in cattle: a field study.

    PubMed

    Løken, T; Vatn, G; Kummen, E

    2011-09-01

    The use of injectable transponders in cattle for identification purposes, for up to 30 months, was investigated. Passive electronic transponders, encapsulated in either polymer or glass, were injected subcutaneously into either the ear base or the earlobe of 652 calves in three populations. The animals were clinically examined weekly, and transponder signalling was checked immediately before and after injection, after two weeks and after about eight months. About 10 per cent of animals in one population were also checked after 20 and 30 months. No severe clinical or visible pathological changes were observed, and the calves' welfare was not apparently affected by the procedure. None of the transponders migrated from their injection sites. Eight months after injection, a signal was detected from 98.2 per cent of transponders injected in the ear base and from 90.5 per cent of those in the earlobe. At 20 and 30 months after injection, 10.4 per cent and 2.6 per cent of transponders, respectively, had ceased to signal. Thus, most transponders in the calves' ear base demonstrated functionality for up to 30 months. PMID:21813580

  7. Identification and Tracking of Polluted Air Masses in the South-Central Coast Air Basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, G. E.; Douglas, S. G.; Kessler, R. C.; Killus, J. P.

    1991-05-01

    Canister samples of air taken during the South-Central Coast Cooperative Air Monitoring Program (SCCCAMP) 1985 field study program were analyzed for concentrations of over 50 hydrocarbons as well as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and methane. Additional evidence of location and timing of airmass origin was obtained by utilizing long-lived halocarbons such as F-12 as `tracers of opportunity' in conjunction with known source profiles. Wind trajectories were developed from hourly gridded wind fields produced by a diagnostic wind model utilizing observed wind data. These wind trajectories were used to determine how pollutants from major source areas might be transported to sampling sites. Particulate lidar height-distance traverses were made from aircraft that provided a view of pollutant layering. Mixing height and vertical pollutant concentration distributions were obtained in order to determine if observed pollutant concentrations were consistent with the degree of stagnation present and hypothesized transport pathway.Analyses to track specific polluted air masses were conducted for the 13 September, 21 September, 23-24 September, and 2-3 October 1985 intensive study periods. The analyses find that elevated ozone concentrations during these periods are primarily attributed to transport and storage of ozone-enriched air from Los Angeles. During one type of episode (2-3 October) ozone and ozone precursors are stored near the surface over the Santa Barbara Channel overnight and transported into coastal areas on the following day. In another type of episode (23-24 September) ozone is transported into the study domain from the San Fernando Valley and Los Angeles via flow around the Santa Monica Hills. Transport of pollutant-enriched air takes place in a layer 200-500 m aloft, in many places overlaying cleaner marine-layer air. This advected ozone is mixed down to contribute to ground-level ozone concentrations over terrain where the marine layer

  8. Gauging the Threat: The First Population Estimate for White Sharks in South Africa Using Photo Identification and Automated Software

    PubMed Central

    Towner, Alison V.; Wcisel, Michelle A.; Reisinger, Ryan R.; Edwards, David; Jewell, Oliver J. D.

    2013-01-01

    South Africa is reputed to host the world’s largest remaining population of white sharks, yet no studies have accurately determined a population estimate based on mark-recapture of live individuals. We used dorsal fin photographs (fin IDs) to identify white sharks in Gansbaai, South Africa, from January 2007 – December 2011. We used the computer programme DARWIN to catalogue and match fin IDs of individuals; this is the first study to successfully use the software for white shark identification. The programme performed well despite a number of individual fins showing drastic changes in dorsal fin shape over time. Of 1682 fin IDs used, 532 unique individuals were identified. We estimated population size using the open-population POPAN parameterisation in Program MARK, which estimated the superpopulation size at 908 (95% confidence interval 808–1008). This estimated population size is considerably larger than those described at other aggregation areas of the species and is comparable to a previous South African population estimate conducted 16 years prior. Our assessment suggests the species has not made a marked recovery since being nationally protected in 1991. As such, additional international protection may prove vital for the long-term conservation of this threatened species. PMID:23776600

  9. Gauging the threat: the first population estimate for white sharks in South Africa using photo identification and automated software.

    PubMed

    Towner, Alison V; Wcisel, Michelle A; Reisinger, Ryan R; Edwards, David; Jewell, Oliver J D

    2013-01-01

    South Africa is reputed to host the world's largest remaining population of white sharks, yet no studies have accurately determined a population estimate based on mark-recapture of live individuals. We used dorsal fin photographs (fin IDs) to identify white sharks in Gansbaai, South Africa, from January 2007-December 2011. We used the computer programme DARWIN to catalogue and match fin IDs of individuals; this is the first study to successfully use the software for white shark identification. The programme performed well despite a number of individual fins showing drastic changes in dorsal fin shape over time. Of 1682 fin IDs used, 532 unique individuals were identified. We estimated population size using the open-population POPAN parameterisation in Program MARK, which estimated the superpopulation size at 908 (95% confidence interval 808-1008). This estimated population size is considerably larger than those described at other aggregation areas of the species and is comparable to a previous South African population estimate conducted 16 years prior. Our assessment suggests the species has not made a marked recovery since being nationally protected in 1991. As such, additional international protection may prove vital for the long-term conservation of this threatened species. PMID:23776600

  10. Study on the time difference of solar polar field reversal between the north and south hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukuya, D.; Kusano, K.

    2013-12-01

    Dynamo is a mechanism whereby the kinetic energy of plasma is converted to the magnetic energy. This mechanism works to generate and maintain the solar and stellar magnetic field. Since the sun is only a star whose magnetic field can be directly observed, the understanding of solar dynamo can provide clues to clarify dynamo mechanisms. On the other hand, because solar activities, which are caused by solar dynamo, can influence the Earth's climate, solar variability is an important issue also to understand long-term evolution of the Earth's climate. It is widely known that the polarity of the solar magnetic fields on the north and south poles periodically reverses at every sunspot maxima. It is also known that the reversal at one pole is followed by that on the other pole. The time difference of magnetic field reversal between the poles was first noted by Babcock (1959) from the very first observation of polar field. Recently, it was confirmed by detailed observations with the HINODE satellite (Shiota et al. 2012). Svalgaard and Kamide (2013) indicated that there is a relationship between the time difference of the polarity reversal and the hemispheric asymmetry of the sunspot activity. However, the mechanisms for the hemispheric asymmetry are still open to be revealed. In this paper, we study the asymmetric feature of the solar dynamo based on the flux transport dynamo model (Chatterjee et al. 2004) to explain the time difference of magnetic polarity reversal between the north and south poles. In order to calculate long-term variations of solar activities, we use the mean field kinematic dynamo model, which is derived from magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equation through the mean field and other approximations. We carried out the mean field dynamo simulations using the updated SURYA code which was developed originally by Choudhuri and his collaborators (2004). We decomposed the symmetric and asymmetric components of magnetic field, which correspond respectively to the

  11. Rotation of the photospheric magnetic fields: A north-south asymmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antonucci, E.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Scherrer, P. H.

    1989-01-01

    During most of solar cycle 21 the large-scale photospheric field rotated more rapidly in the Northern Hemisphere than in the southern. The large-scale northern field rotated with a 26.9 day period (synodic), was centered at 15 degress N, and covered a latitude zone about 24 degrees wide. The large-scale southern field rotated with a periodicity of 28.1 days, was centered at 26 degrees S, and covered a latitude zone about 32 degrees wide. Our analysis showed rotational power at only a few discrete latitudes and frequencies in each hemisphere. The center of each peak lies near the sunspot differential rotation curve. The largest scale field contributes to the configuration of the coronal and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The strength of the first harmonic of the northern field suggests that this structure may be related to the 4-sector pattern observed in the IMF polarity. The southern field had much lower power at the first harmonic of the solar rotation rate and so would contribute only to a 2-sector structure in the IMF. These results were discovered in Fourier analysis of photospheric synoptic charts obtained at the Wilcox Solar Observatory from 1976 to 1986 and confirmed in higher resolution maps from the National Solar Observatory. Mt. Wilson magnetic field measurements from solar cycle 20 show a similar north-south asymmetry.

  12. Full-Field Strain Measurement On Titanium Welds And Local Elasto-Plastic Identification With The Virtual Fields Method

    SciTech Connect

    Tattoli, F.; Casavola, C.; Pierron, F.; Rotinat, R.; Pappalettere, C.

    2011-01-17

    One of the main problems in welding is the microstructural transformation within the area affected by the thermal history. The resulting heterogeneous microstructure within the weld nugget and the heat affected zones is often associated with changes in local material properties. The present work deals with the identification of material parameters governing the elasto--plastic behaviour of the fused and heat affected zones as well as the base material for titanium hybrid welded joints (Ti6Al4V alloy). The material parameters are identified from heterogeneous strain fields with the Virtual Fields Method. This method is based on a relevant use of the principle of virtual work and it has been shown to be useful and much less time consuming than classical finite element model updating approaches applied to similar problems. The paper will present results and discuss the problem of selection of the weld zones for the identification.

  13. THE VERY LARGE ARRAY 1.4 GHz SURVEY OF THE EXTENDED CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH: SECOND DATA RELEASE

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Neal A.; Bonzini, Margherita; Mainieri, Vincenzo; Padovani, Paolo; Rosati, Piero; Fomalont, Edward B.; Kellermann, Kenneth I.; Tozzi, Paolo; Vattakunnel, Shaji

    2013-04-01

    Deep radio observations at 1.4 GHz for the Extended Chandra Deep Field South were performed in 2007 June through September and presented in a first data release. The survey was made using six separate pointings of the Very Large Array with over 40 hr of observation per pointing. In the current paper, we improve on the data reduction to produce a second data release (DR2) mosaic image. This DR2 image covers an area of about a third of a square degree, reaches a best rms sensitivity of 6 {mu}Jy, and has a typical sensitivity of 7.4 {mu}Jy per 2.''8 by 1.''6 beam. We also present a more comprehensive catalog, including sources down to peak flux densities of five or more times the local rms noise along with information on source sizes and relevant pointing data. We discuss in some detail the consideration of whether sources are resolved under the complication of a radio image created as a mosaic of separate pointings each suffering some degree of bandwidth smearing, and the accurate evaluation of the flux densities of such sources. Finally, the radio morphologies and optical/near-IR counterpart identifications are used to identify 17 likely multiple-component sources and arrive at a catalog of 883 radio sources, which is roughly double the number of sources contained in the first data release.

  14. Children with Developmental Disabilities: The Effect of Sound Field Amplification on Word Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flexer, Carol; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Using sound field amplification which increased the intensity of the teacher's voice by 10 decibels, 9 primary-level children with developmental disabilities made fewer errors on a word identification task, were more relaxed, and responded more quickly than without amplification. (Author/JDD)

  15. Identification of Disciplines and Fields. Edis Task I Report, Work Unit 1.4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard Research Co., Arlington, VA.

    This report presents the identification and definitions of subject oriented engineering and scientific disciplines and fields which are included in the EDIS Subject Categories. The discussion is extended to include the mix of subjects with other orientations, such as Item, Mission-Project, Expertise and Data Bank Categories. Sample queries are…

  16. DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS USING FIELD PORTABLE AND AIRBORNE REMOTE IMAGING SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remote sensing technologies are a class of instrument and sensor systems that include laser imageries, imaging spectrometers, and visible to thermal infrared cameras. These systems have been successfully used for gas phase chemical compound identification in a variety of field e...

  17. Identification of large masses of citrus fruit and rice fields in eastern Spain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desagredo, F. L.; Salinas, F. G.

    1973-01-01

    ERTS-1 imagery has been successfully used for the identification of large areas of citrus groves and rice fields in the Valencia region of Eastern Spain. Results are encouraging and will facilitate the elaboration of a land use map with a fair degree of definition once methods prove to be fully operational.

  18. Lacunarity Measures of Potential Fields in Covered Lithology Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gettings, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    Measure distributions, both multifractal and other kinds, are not unique, so spatial patterns with the same measure may have different appearances. Lacunarity analysis is a method of description of dispersion in spatial patterns across a range of scales, and is one way of descriminating clustering of similar values. Lacunarity of an image was calculated using a moving window across a range of scales as the ratio of the second moment divided by the square of the first moment for values within the window. This gives a curve of lacunarity versus resolution (scale); the curve is concave for highly clustered data, pseudolinear or convex for data with clusters at many scales such as multifractal simulations, and constant for uniformly spaced data. Breaks in slope of the curve indicate scales that are important in the structure of the spatial pattern. Gravity and magnetic field anomaly data are well known to be multifractal and thus calculated lacunarities of gridded datasets have been investigated to determine if the resulting curves are a useful measure of texture of the potential field data and helpful in identifying likely lithologies at depth beneath cover. Lacunarity is often calculated on binary data, but it can also be calculated using quantitative data. The quantitative data case lacunarity measure was computed for grids using a 25 by 25 km window moving over the grid, each window overlapping the previous one by 12.5 km. The data were the aeromagnetic and isostatic gravity anomaly grids for the state of Arizona at 0.5 km grid-interval, resulting in a lacunarity curves for gravity and aeromagnetic anomaly for each of approximately 2500 windows. The open-source software R was used for plotting a map of window center locations and lacunarity curves, and the map was loaded into Google Earth, together with maps of the gravity and magnetic field anomaly, porphyry copper deposit locations, and the geological map of Arizona. Windows were selected to compare lacunarity

  19. Integrated approach to gas accumulation identification in Field M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyshevskaya, K.; Rukavishnikov, V.; Belozerov, B.; Podnebesnikh, A.

    2015-02-01

    The given paper describes how the integration of different methods, such as core data, well logs, production logging, seismic data and well test analysis, was used to solve the problem of determining gas accumulation boundaries in sediment complex PK1-3 of Field M. This paper is devoted to the block with wells 2, 36, 49, 85, 127, 148 of the field, since it is characterized by high uncertainty, sc. recently drilled wells 1V, 2V and 120 have produced oil, although according to the present-day geological concept they were considered to be gas saturated in the intervals investigated with production logging. Besides, well 127 that was presumably oil saturated has produced gas. By accounting mismatching production data and the geological concept, the authors have supposed that PK1-3 gas accumulation is characterized by a more complex structure than it was supposed by the predecessors and it is represented by reservoir compartmentalization and high heterogeneity. Therefore, the main goal of the work was to revise the distribution of gas saturated reservoir within the PK1-3 sediment complex. To achieve this goal, the authors have set the following tasks: to revise the geological correlation and gas oil contact; to carry out fault interpretation by means of seismic and well test data; to determine areal facies distribution on the basis of integrated core, perform a log motifs and seismic facies analysis. Thus, the estimation of the gas saturated reservoir portion was implemented in two stages: defining the boundary of gas accumulation in depth on the basis of well logs, production data and fault interpretation; reservoir distribution determination on the basis of the seismic facies analysis within the derived gas accumulation boundary.

  20. The Chandra Deep Field-South Survey: 4 Ms Source Catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Y. Q.; Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Bauer, F. E.; Lehmer, B. D.; Broos, P. S.; Schneider, D. P.; Alexander, D. M.; Brusa, M.; Comastri, A.; Fabian, A. C.; Gilli, R.; Hasinger, G.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Koekemoer, A.; Liu, T.; Mainieri, V.; Paolillo, M.; Rafferty, D. A.; Rosati, P.; Shemmer, O.; Silverman, J. D.; Smail, I.; Tozzi, P.; Vignali, C.

    2011-07-01

    We present source catalogs for the 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S), which is the deepest Chandra survey to date and covers an area of 464.5 arcmin2. We provide a main Chandra source catalog, which contains 740 X-ray sources that are detected with WAVDETECT at a false-positive probability threshold of 10-5 in at least one of three X-ray bands (0.5-8 keV, full band; 0.5-2 keV, soft band; and 2-8 keV, hard band) and also satisfy a binomial-probability source-selection criterion of P < 0.004 (i.e., the probability of sources not being real is less than 0.004); this approach is designed to maximize the number of reliable sources detected. A total of 300 main-catalog sources are new compared to the previous 2 Ms CDF-S main-catalog sources. We determine X-ray source positions using centroid and matched-filter techniques and obtain a median positional uncertainty of ≈0farcs42. We also provide a supplementary catalog, which consists of 36 sources that are detected with WAVDETECT at a false-positive probability threshold of 10-5, satisfy the condition of 0.004 < P < 0.1, and have an optical counterpart with R < 24. Multiwavelength identifications, basic optical/infrared/radio photometry, and spectroscopic/photometric redshifts are provided for the X-ray sources in the main and supplementary catalogs. Seven hundred sixteen (≈97%) of the 740 main-catalog sources have multiwavelength counterparts, with 673 (≈94% of 716) having either spectroscopic or photometric redshifts. The 740 main-catalog sources span broad ranges of full-band flux and 0.5-8 keV luminosity; the 300 new main-catalog sources span similar ranges although they tend to be systematically lower. Basic analyses of the X-ray and multiwavelength properties of the sources indicate that >75% of the main-catalog sources are active galactic nuclei (AGNs); of the 300 new main-catalog sources, about 35% are likely normal and starburst galaxies, reflecting the rise of normal and starburst galaxies at the very

  1. THE CHANDRA DEEP FIELD-SOUTH SURVEY: 4 Ms SOURCE CATALOGS

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Y. Q.; Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Broos, P. S.; Schneider, D. P.; Bauer, F. E.; Lehmer, B. D.; Alexander, D. M.; Brusa, M.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Fabian, A. C.; Hasinger, G.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Koekemoer, A.; Liu, T.; Mainieri, V.; Rosati, P.; Paolillo, M.; Rafferty, D. A.

    2011-07-01

    We present source catalogs for the 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S), which is the deepest Chandra survey to date and covers an area of 464.5 arcmin{sup 2}. We provide a main Chandra source catalog, which contains 740 X-ray sources that are detected with WAVDETECT at a false-positive probability threshold of 10{sup -5} in at least one of three X-ray bands (0.5-8 keV, full band; 0.5-2 keV, soft band; and 2-8 keV, hard band) and also satisfy a binomial-probability source-selection criterion of P < 0.004 (i.e., the probability of sources not being real is less than 0.004); this approach is designed to maximize the number of reliable sources detected. A total of 300 main-catalog sources are new compared to the previous 2 Ms CDF-S main-catalog sources. We determine X-ray source positions using centroid and matched-filter techniques and obtain a median positional uncertainty of {approx}0.''42. We also provide a supplementary catalog, which consists of 36 sources that are detected with WAVDETECT at a false-positive probability threshold of 10{sup -5}, satisfy the condition of 0.004 < P < 0.1, and have an optical counterpart with R < 24. Multiwavelength identifications, basic optical/infrared/radio photometry, and spectroscopic/photometric redshifts are provided for the X-ray sources in the main and supplementary catalogs. Seven hundred sixteen ({approx}97%) of the 740 main-catalog sources have multiwavelength counterparts, with 673 ({approx}94% of 716) having either spectroscopic or photometric redshifts. The 740 main-catalog sources span broad ranges of full-band flux and 0.5-8 keV luminosity; the 300 new main-catalog sources span similar ranges although they tend to be systematically lower. Basic analyses of the X-ray and multiwavelength properties of the sources indicate that >75% of the main-catalog sources are active galactic nuclei (AGNs); of the 300 new main-catalog sources, about 35% are likely normal and starburst galaxies, reflecting the rise of normal and

  2. Genetic type of natural gas in Ya13-1 gas field, South China Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Gang

    1995-08-01

    Ya13-1 is one of the largest gas field ever found in China in recent years. Studying on the genetic type of natural gas in the field is one of the key factors to determine the regional hydrocarbon potential--Qiongdongnan Basin and Yinggerhaii Basin, northwest part of South China Sea. Series of geochemical methods have been undertook including the analysis of the chemical composition of the natural gas and their isotopic ratio discussed in this paper. Other related studied including geological settings, gas-source correlations, geochemistry of the condensates and extractable compounds of source rocks, and thermal simulation and evaluation of the marine shales provides further informations. It is noticeable that the higher content of mercury (44000 ng/cubic meter) and aromatics such as benzene and toluene may be related to the joint of condensates, which derived from coal-bearing Oligocene shales in the adjacent Qingdingnan Basin. Studies show that the natural gas in Ya13-1 gas field belong to high to post mature non-associated gas derived in marine source rocks, and mainly come from Oligocene to Pliocene marine shales in Yinggerhai Basin. This is quite different with the former studies, which believe the gas derived from Oligocene coal-bearing strata of Yacheng formation, Qiongdongnan Basin. The new results of the studies make sure further a pretty good potential of gas resources in the northwest part ofSouth China Sea.

  3. Long period pulsation events in electron precipitation and magnetic fields at the South Pole

    SciTech Connect

    Paquette, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Geomagnetic pulsation events with long (100-1000 second) periods that are accompanied by electron precipitation pulsations at the same frequency were reported at various latitudes. A search of the data from South Pole station for the period from 1982 to 1989 revealed over 200 such events. A comparison of these events with the predictions of Coroniti and Kennel was undertaken, including examination of VLF data, interplanetary magnetic field data, DMSP satellite data, and data from South Pole's conjugate station at Iqaluit, as well as the riometer and magnetometer data from South Pole used in the original search. Data from the IRIS Imaging Radiometer were also used when available. A consideration of the respective wave and particle transit times from the magnetic equator to the ground leads to an expectation that the onset of pulsations in the magnetometer data will lag the onset of pulsations in the riometer data by several minutes. This disparity in onset times, together with VLF modulation in the proper frequency range, serve as important indicators of whether or not an event can be explained by the above-cited theory. While about a third of the events fit the prediction of Coroniti and Kennel, another third cannot be explained by this theory, and possible alternative mechanisms are explored. The remaining third of the events appear at first to be inexplicable in terms of any transit time argument, but analysis of the IRIS data shows that this third class of events arises from differences in the spatial coverage of the instruments.

  4. Infrared Faint Radio Sources in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, Minh T.

    2009-01-01

    Infrared-Faint Radio Sources (IFRSs) are a class of radio objects found in the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS) which have no observable counterpart in the Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic Survey (SWIRE). The extended Chandra Deep Field South now has even deeper Spitzer imaging (3.6 to 70 micron) from a number of Legacy surveys. We report the detections of two IFRS sources in IRAC images. The non-detection of two other IFRSs allows us to constrain the source type. Detailed modeling of the SED of these objects shows that they are consistent with high redshift AGN (z > 2).

  5. Range-gated imaging for near-field target identification

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, G.J.; Gallegos, R.A.; McDonald, T.E.

    1996-12-01

    The combination of two complementary technologies developed independently at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) has demonstrated feasibility of target detection and image capture in a highly light-scattering, medium. The technique uses a compact SNL developed Photoconductive Semiconductor Switch/Laser Diode Array (PCSS/LDA) for short-range (distances of 8 to 10 m) large Field-Of-View (FOV) target illumination. Generation of a time-correlated echo signal is accomplished using a photodiode. The return image signal is recorded with a high-speed shuttered Micro-Channel-Plate Image Intensifier (MCPII), declined by LANL and manufactured by Philips Photonics. The MCPII is rated using a high-frequency impedance-matching microstrip design to produce 150 to 200 ps duration optical exposures. The ultra first shuttering producer depth resolution of a few inches along the optic axis between the MCPII and the target, producing enhanced target images effectively deconvolved from noise components from the scattering medium in the FOV. The images from the MCPII are recorded with an RS-170 Charge-Coupled-Device camera and a Big Sky, Beam Code, PC-based digitizer frame grabber and analysis package. Laser pulse data were obtained by the but jitter problems and spectral mismatches between diode spectral emission wavelength and MCPII photocathode spectral sensitivity prevented the capture of fast gating imaging with this demonstration system. Continued development of the system is underway.

  6. Identification of the Temperature Field in Pulsatile Impinging Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vít, Tomáš; Lédl, Vít

    2010-09-01

    The presented paper shows the possibility of using holographic interferometry and hot-wire anemometry in the research of heat transfer from impingement pulsatile flow. The intensity of heat transfer in the case of impingement flow is often measured with glue-on heat flux sensors, or by indirect methods such as naphthalene sublimation. All these methods have a response time too long for measuring instant values of the heat transfer coefficient on a surface cooled/heated by impingement pulsatile flow. This shortcoming should be overcome by using CTA glue-on probes or, preferably, by using optical methods such as holographic interferometry. It is necessary to employ a special holographic setup with double sensitivity instead of the commonly used Mach-Zehnder type of holographic interferometer in order to attain the parameters sufficient for the studied case. This setup is not light efficient like the Mach-Zehnder type but has double sensitivity. The results from the holographic interferometry experiments will be compared with the temperature field achieved by methods of hot-wire anemometry.

  7. Identification of Whole Mitochondrial Genomes from Venezuela and Implications on Regional Phylogenies in South America.

    PubMed

    Lee, Esther J; Merriwether, D Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have expanded and refined the founding haplogroups of the Americas using whole mitochondrial (mtDNA) genome analysis. In addition to pan-American lineages, specific variants have been identified in a number of studies that show higher frequencies in restricted geographical areas. To further characterize Native American maternal lineages and specifically examine local patterns within South America, we analyzed 12 maternally unrelated Yekuana whole mtDNA genomes from one village (Sharamaña) that include the four major Native American haplogroups A2, B2, C1, and D1. Based on our results, we propose a reconfiguration of one subhaplogroup A2 (A2aa) that is specific to South America and identify other singleton branches across the four haplogroups. Furthermore, we show nucleotide diversity values that increase from north to south for haplogroups C1 and D1. The results from our work add to the growing mitogenomic data that highlight local phylogenies and support the rapid genetic differentiation of South American populations, which has been correlated with the linguistic diversity in the region by previous studies. PMID:26416320

  8. Raman microscopy: The identification of lapis lazuli on medieval pottery fragments from the south of Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Robin J. H.; Curri, M. Lucia; Laganara, Caterina

    1997-04-01

    The technique of Raman microscopy has been used to investigate the pigments used in the glazes of fragments of medieval items of pottery dating back to the second half of the 13th century, which were found buried beneath a church in the abandoned village of Castel Fiorentino, near Foggia, in Southern Italy. The research has led to the first identification of lapis lazuli in a blue pigment pottery glaze; the identification was confirmed for six other shards from the same site. The brown—black pigment in these shards could not be identified.

  9. Balloon observations of ultra-low-frequency waves in the electric field above the South Pole

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, B.; Benbrrook, J.R.; Bering E.A. III; Byrne, G.J.; Theall, J.R. )

    1988-01-01

    The physics of ultra-low-frequency waves in the magnetosphere, near the cusp and in the polar cap, is important because this region is one where ultra-low-frequency wave energy from the magnetopause can most easily enter the magnetosphere. During the 1985-1986 South Pole balloon campaign, eight stratospheric balloon payloads were launched from Amundsen-Scott Station, South Geographic Pole, Antarctica, to record data on ultra-low-frequency waves. The payloads were instrumented with three-axis double-probe electric field detectors and X-ray scintillation counters. This paper concentrates on the third flight of this series, which was launched at 2205 universal time on 21 December 1985. Good data were received from the payload until the transmitter failed at 0342 universal time on 22 December. During most of the four hours that the balloon was afloat, an intense ultra-low-frequency wave event was in progress. The electric-field data from this period have been examined in detail and compared with magnetic field data, obtained with ground-based fluxgate and induction magnetometers to determine the characteristics of the waves. After float was reached, the electric-field data in figure 1 show large-amplitude, quasi-periodic fluctuations suggesting the presence of intense ultra-low-frequency wave activity. In conclusion, the electric-field signature observed from flight 3 appears to have been essentially an electrostatic event or possibly a short-wavelength hydromagnetic wave with a varying and interesting polarization character. The authors are continuing the analysis of the data to determine the source of the observed ultra-low-frequency waves.

  10. North-South Asymmetries in Earth's Magnetic Field - Effects on High-Latitude Geospace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laundal, K. M.; Cnossen, I.; Milan, S. E.; Haaland, S. E.; Coxon, J.; Pedatella, N. M.; Förster, M.; Reistad, J. P.

    2016-07-01

    The solar-wind magnetosphere interaction primarily occurs at altitudes where the dipole component of Earth's magnetic field is dominating. The disturbances that are created in this interaction propagate along magnetic field lines and interact with the ionosphere-thermosphere system. At ionospheric altitudes, the Earth's field deviates significantly from a dipole. North-South asymmetries in the magnetic field imply that the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere (M-I-T) coupling is different in the two hemispheres. In this paper we review the primary differences in the magnetic field at polar latitudes, and the consequences that these have for the M-I-T coupling. We focus on two interhemispheric differences which are thought to have the strongest effects: 1) A difference in the offset between magnetic and geographic poles in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, and 2) differences in the magnetic field strength at magnetically conjugate regions. These asymmetries lead to differences in plasma convection, neutral winds, total electron content, ion outflow, ionospheric currents and auroral precipitation.

  11. NEAR-INFRARED-IMAGING POLARIMETRY TOWARD SERPENS SOUTH: REVEALING THE IMPORTANCE OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Sugitani, K.; Nakamura, F.; Tamura, M.; Kandori, R.; Watanabe, M.; Nishiyama, S.; Nagata, T.; Nagayama, T.; Sato, S.; Gutermuth, R. A.; Wilson, G. W.; Kawabe, R.

    2011-06-10

    The Serpens South embedded cluster, which is located in the constricted part of a long, filamentary, infrared dark cloud, is believed to be in a very early stage of cluster formation. We present results of near-infrared (JHKs) polarization observations of the filamentary cloud. Our polarization measurements of near-infrared point sources indicate a well-ordered global magnetic field that is perpendicular to the main filament, implying that the magnetic field is likely to have controlled the formation of the main filament. On the other hand, the sub-filaments, which converge on the central part of the cluster, tend to run along the magnetic field. The global magnetic field appears to be curved in the southern part of the main filament. Such morphology is consistent with the idea that the global magnetic field is distorted by gravitational contraction along the main filament toward the northern part, which contains larger mass. Applying the Chandrasekhar-Fermi method, the magnetic field strength is roughly estimated to be a few x100 {mu}G, suggesting that the filamentary cloud is close to magnetically critical.

  12. Time lapse seismic observations and effects of reservoir compressibility at Teal South oil field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Nayyer

    One of the original ocean-bottom time-lapse seismic studies was performed at the Teal South oil field in the Gulf of Mexico during the late 1990's. This work reexamines some aspects of previous work using modern analysis techniques to provide improved quantitative interpretations. Using three-dimensional volume visualization of legacy data and the two phases of post-production time-lapse data, I provide additional insight into the fluid migration pathways and the pressure communication between different reservoirs, separated by faults. This work supports a conclusion from previous studies that production from one reservoir caused regional pressure decline that in turn resulted in liberation of gas from multiple surrounding unproduced reservoirs. I also provide an explanation for unusual time-lapse changes in amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) data related to the compaction of the producing reservoir which, in turn, changed an isotropic medium to an anisotropic medium. In the first part of this work, I examine regional changes in seismic response due to the production of oil and gas from one reservoir. The previous studies primarily used two post-production ocean-bottom surveys (Phase I and Phase II), and not the legacy streamer data, due to the unavailability of legacy prestack data and very different acquisition parameters. In order to incorporate the legacy data in the present study, all three post-stack data sets were cross-equalized and examined using instantaneous amplitude and energy volumes. This approach appears quite effective and helps to suppress changes unrelated to production while emphasizing those large-amplitude changes that are related to production in this noisy (by current standards) suite of data. I examine the multiple data sets first by using the instantaneous amplitude and energy attributes, and then also examine specific apparent time-lapse changes through direct comparisons of seismic traces. In so doing, I identify time-delays that, when

  13. Traditional Geology Field Camp: A capstone course at South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (BHNSFS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzunlar, N.; Lisenbee, A. L.

    2012-12-01

    The Black Hills Natural Sciences Field Station (BHNSFS) has provided field training in geology and geological engineering for more than 40 years, and since the 1980's as a consortium serving five schools with South Dakota School of Mines and Technology as the coordinator. The traditional summer geology field camp is a five week long, intense program aimed to prepare students for subsequent professional geologic experiences. It is delivered from two separate facilities, one in the Black Hills (South Dakota) from a beautiful log lodge along Sand Creek, in eastern Wyoming, and a second from the town of Taskesti along the North Anatolian fault approximately 200 km east of Istanbul, Turkey. At both locations, the courses maintain a strong emphasis on basic field applications, including the use of GPS as a mapping tool in most exercises. The preparation of well-written reports, based on field descriptions supplemented by research on the web or through published documents, is strongly emphasized. Projects at the Black Hills field camp includes mapping of Precambrian basement, Paleozoic stratigraphy, and Laramide Tertiary plutons and structural features as welll as post-Laramide,, faulted continental strata. The popular Taskesti field camp utilizes the diverse geology of the Tethyan realm, as well as the culture and history, of central Turkey (Anatolia). The course is based at a Turkish Government Earthquake Research Center facility along the North Anatolian fault. Students examine and map selected locations across the Izmir-Ankara suture including: 1) Deformed Cretaceous and Tertiary carbonate and clastic strata of the Sakarya micro-continent in a fore-arc basin; 2) Marble and skarn surrounding Eocene, subduction-related granite intruded into a passive margin sequence in the Sivrihisar region of central Anatolia; 3) Faulted and folded Neogene strata in the northern flank of the post-Tethyan, Haymana Basin and the contrasting terrains across the North Anatolian fault (J

  14. EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES FROM THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE PROBING EVOLUTION AND REIONIZATION SPECTROSCOPICALLY (PEARS) GRISM SURVEY. I. THE SOUTH FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Straughn, Amber N.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Pirzkal, Norbert; Grogin, Norman; Panagia, Nino; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Cohen, Seth H.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; Jansen, Rolf A.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Di Serego Alighieri, Sperello; Gronwall, Caryl; Walsh, Jeremy; Pasquali, Anna; Xu, Chun

    2009-10-15

    We present results of a search for emission-line galaxies (ELGs) in the southern fields of the Hubble Space Telescope Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) grism survey. The PEARS South Fields consist of five Advanced Camera for Surveys pointings (including the Hubble Ultra Deep Field) with the G800L grism for a total of 120 orbits, revealing thousands of faint object spectra in the GOODS-South region of the sky. ELGs are one subset of objects that are prevalent among the grism spectra. Using a two-dimensional detection and extraction procedure, we find 320 emission lines originating from 226 galaxy 'knots' within 192 individual galaxies. Line identification results in 118 new grism-spectroscopic redshifts for galaxies in the GOODS-South Field. We measure emission-line fluxes using standard Gaussian fitting techniques. At the resolution of the grism data, the H{beta} and [O III] doublet are blended. However, by fitting two Gaussian components to the H{beta} and [O III] features, we find that many of the PEARS ELGs have high [O III]/H{beta} ratios compared to other galaxy samples of comparable luminosities. The star formation rates of the ELGs are presented, as well as a sample of distinct giant star-forming regions at z {approx} 0.1-0.5 across individual galaxies. We find that the radial distances of these H II regions in general reside near the galaxies' optical continuum half-light radii, similar to those of giant H II regions in local galaxies.

  15. Numerical simulation of wave field in the South China Sea using WAVEWATCH III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Liangming; Li, Zhanbin; Mou, Lin; Wang, Aifang

    2014-05-01

    Wave fields of the South China Sea (SCS) from 1976 to 2005 were simulated using WAVEWATCH III by inputting high-resolution reanalysis wind field datasets assimilated from several meteorological data sources. Comparisons of wave heights between WAVEWATCH III and TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter and buoy data show a good agreement. Our results show seasonal variation of wave direction as follows: 1. During the summer monsoon (April-September), waves from south occur from April through September in the southern SCS region, which prevail taking about 40% of the time; 2. During the winter monsoon (December-March), waves from northeast prevail throughout the SCS for 56% of the period; 3. The dominant wave direction in SCS is NE. The seasonal variation of wave height H s in SCS shows that in spring, H s ≥1 m in the central SCS region and is less than 1 m in other areas. In summer, H s is higher than in spring. During September-November, influenced by tropical cyclones, H s is mostly higher than 1 m. East of Hainan Island, H s>2 m. In winter, H s reaches its maximum value influenced by the north-east monsoon, and heights over 2 m are found over a large part of SCS. Finally, we calculated the extreme wave parameters in SCS and found that the extreme wind speed and wave height for the 100-year return period for SCS peaked at 45 m/s and 19 m, respectively, SE of Hainan Island and decreased from north to south.

  16. Fast and reliable identification of axons, axon initial segments and dendrites with local field potential recording

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Anders V.; Johansen, Emil Ø.; Perrier, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    The axon initial segment (AIS) is an essential neuronal compartment. It is usually where action potentials are initiated. Recent studies demonstrated that the AIS is a plastic structure that can be regulated by neuronal activity and by the activation of metabotropic receptors. Studying the AIS in live tissue can be difficult because its identification is not always reliable. Here we provide a new technique allowing a fast and reliable identification of the AIS in live brain slice preparations. By simultaneous recording of extracellular local field potentials and whole-cell patch-clamp recording of neurons, we can detect sinks caused by inward currents flowing across the membrane. We determine the location of the AIS by comparing the timing of these events with the action potential. We demonstrate that this method allows the unequivocal identification of the AIS of different types of neurons from the brain. PMID:26578887

  17. Crop identification and acreage estimation over large geographic areas using LANDSAT MSS data. [south central Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The comparison between the acreage estimates for the April LANDSAT data and the USDA Statistical Reporting Service estimates show no significant difference for the south central crop reporting district in Kansas. A paired-t test with an alpha = .05 was run comparing the percentages of wheat in each county. The results of their test showed no significant difference between the two estimates for wheat.

  18. North south asymmetry in the photospheric and coronal magnetic fields observed by different instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, Ilpo; Mursula, Kalevi

    2015-04-01

    Several recent studies have shown that the solar and heliospheric magnetic fields are north-south asymmetric. The southward shift of the Heliospheric current sheet (HCS) (the so-called bashful ballerina phenomenon) is a persistent pattern, which occurs typically for about three years during the late declining phase of solar cycle. We study here the hemispherical asymmetry in the photospheric and coronal magnetic fields using Wilcox Solar Observatory (WSO), Mount Wilson, Kitt Peak, Solis, SOHO/MDI and SDO/HMI measurements of the photospheric magnetic field since the 1970s and the potential field source surface (PFSS) model.Multipole analysis of the photospheric magnetic field has shown that the bashful ballerina phenomenon is a consequence of g20 quadrupole term, which is oppositely signed to the dipole moment. We find that, at least during the four recent solar cycles, the g20 reflects the larger magnitude of the southern polar field during a few years in the declining phase of the cycle. Although the overall magnetic activity during the full solar cycle is not very different in the two hemispheres, the temporal distribution of activity is different, contributing to the asymmetry. The used data sets are in general in a good agreement with each other, but there are some significant deviations, especially in WSO data. Also, the data from Kitt Peak 512 channel magnetograph is known to suffer from zero level errors.We also note that the lowest harmonic coefficients do not scale with the overall magnitude in photospheric synoptic magnetic maps. Scaling factors based on histogram techniques can be as large as 10 (from Wilcox to HMI), but the corresponding difference in dipole strength is typically less than two. This is because the polar field has a dominant contribution to the dipole and quadrupole components. This should be noted, e.g., when using synoptic maps as input for coronal models.

  19. Secondary natural gas recovery in mature fluvial sandstone reservoirs, Frio Formation, Agua Dulce Field, South Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose, W.A.; Levey, R.A. ); Vidal, J.M. ); Sippel, M.A. ); Ballard, J.R. ); Coover, D.M. Jr. ); Bloxsom, W.E. )

    1993-09-01

    An approach that integrates detailed geologic, engineering, and petrophysical analyses combined with improved well-log analytical techniques can be used by independent oil and gas companies of successful infield exploration in mature Gulf Coast fields that larger companies may consider uneconomic. In a secondary gas recovery project conducted by the Bureau of Economic Geology and funded by the Gas Research Institute and the U.S. Department of Energy, a potential incremental natural gas resource of 7.7 bcf, of which 4.0 bcf may be technically recoverable, was identified in a 490-ac lease in Agua Dulce field. Five wells in this lease had previously produced 13.7 bcf from Frio reservoirs at depths of 4600-6200 ft. The pay zones occur in heterogeneous fluvial sandstones offset by faults associated with the Vicksburg fault zone. The compartments may each contain up to 1.0 bcf of gas resources with estimates based on previous completions and the recent infield drilling experience of Pintas Creek Oil Company. Uncontacted gas resources occur in thin (typically less than 10 ft) bypassed zones that can be identified through a computed log evaluation that integrates open-hole logs, wireline pressure tests, fluid samples, and cores. At Agua Dulce field, such analysis identified at 4-ft bypassed zone uphole from previously produced reservoirs. This reservoir contained original reservoir pressure and flowed at rates exceeding 1 mmcf/d. The expected ultimate recovery is 0.4 bcf. Methodologies developed in the evaluation of Agua Dulce field can be successfully applied to other mature gas fields in the south Texas Gulf Coast. For example, Stratton and McFaddin are two fields in which the secondary gas recovery project has demonstrated the existence of thin, potentially bypassed zones that can yield significant incremental gas resources, extending the economic life of these fields.

  20. Field identification of birdseye in sugar maple (acer saccharum marsh. ). Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Bragg, D.C.; Stokke, D.D.

    1994-01-01

    Birdseye grain distortions in sugar maple must be identified to capture the full value of a timber sale throughout the economic range of birdseye's occurrence. Even when relatively common, birdseye veneer typically makes up less than 1 percent of the harvested volume, but may account for one-half of the value of the sale. Field identification of birdseye sugar maple is critical for two principal reasons: (1) it allows for the enumeration of a valuable resource that may influence management decisions, and (2) it may prevent improper manufacturing of logs at the job site. Both factors should help increase overall timber sale return. The objective of the paper is to provide a background on birdseye sugar maples and a detailed sequential methodology for field identification of birdseye in standing trees.

  1. Magnetic fields on the sun and the north-south component of transient variations of the interplanetary magnetic field at 1 AU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, F.; Akasofu, S.-I.; Smith, E.; Tsurutani, B.

    1985-01-01

    In order to study the relationship between solar magnetic fields and the transient variations of the north-south component B(Z) of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) at 1 AU, flares from unusual north-south oriented active regions, large IMF B(Z) events, and large flares with comprehensive flare index higher than 12 were collected. The associated IMF B(Z) changes or the magnetic field of the initiating flares are investigated. For those cases where an association between a transient B(Z) variation and an initiating flare is plausible, it is found that, for a given flare field, the orientation of the corresponding transient variation of B(Z) may be in agreement with the flare field, opposite to it, or more often, fluctuating in both magnitude and direction. Conversely, an IMF B(Z) event may originate in a flare field in the same magnetic orientation, opposite to it, or in the east-west orientation.

  2. Well kill (quenching) study of thermal producers in the South Belridge field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Fram, J.W.

    1994-08-01

    This paper presents a field study confirming that damage occurs during kill (quenching) operations of thermal producers in the South Belridge field, Kern County, CA. Implementation of the recommendations from this study are expected to decrease damage that occurs during quenching by an average of 0.5 BOPD/kill. Results indicate that producers completed with openhole, gravel-packed, slotted liners in high-permeability sandstones can sustain substantial, irreversible damage when subjected to unfiltered produced-water kills. The damage results when previously produced sand and fines, which have settled in the flowline, are reinjected into the wellbore. Most of the damage is in the slots and gravel pack. Previous studies, field tests, and laboratory work quantifying the amount and site of the damage are detailed. Methods of determining water-quality specifications needed to minimize damage that occurs during well kills are outlined. The approach presented can be used to identify and quantify damage in any field where producers require kills before workover operations. The current recommended kill procedure is also included.

  3. Isolation and identification of species of Alicyclobacillus from orchard soil in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Groenewald, Willem H; Gouws, Pieter A; Witthuhn, R Corli

    2008-01-01

    Alicyclobacilli were isolated from orchard soil collected from an apple and pear farm in Elgin, Western Cape, South Africa. Morphological, biochemical and physiological characteristics of the isolates were used to presumptively classify them as belonging to the genus Alicyclobacillus. Strains were identified to species level by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with genus-specific primers, and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing. To our knowledge this is the first report on the isolation of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris and Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius from orchard soil. The presence of these organisms in the soil suggests a possible source of contamination for the final fruit juice, concentrate or pulp. PMID:17938854

  4. Star-field identification algorithm. [for implementation on CCD-based imaging camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholl, M. S.

    1993-01-01

    A description of a new star-field identification algorithm that is suitable for implementation on CCD-based imaging cameras is presented. The minimum identifiable star pattern element consists of an oriented star triplet defined by three stars, their celestial coordinates, and their visual magnitudes. The algorithm incorporates tolerance to faulty input data, errors in the reference catalog, and instrument-induced systematic errors.

  5. A simplified protocol for molecular identification of Eimeria species in field samples.

    PubMed

    Haug, Anita; Thebo, Per; Mattsson, Jens G

    2007-05-15

    This study aimed to find a fast, sensitive and efficient protocol for molecular identification of chicken Eimeria spp. in field samples. Various methods for each of the three steps of the protocol were evaluated: oocyst wall rupturing methods, DNA extraction methods, and identification of species-specific DNA sequences by PCR. We then compared and evaluated five complete protocols. Three series of oocyst suspensions of known number of oocysts from Eimeria mitis, Eimeria praecox, Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella were prepared and ground using glass beads or mini-pestle. DNA was extracted from ruptured oocysts using commercial systems (GeneReleaser, Qiagen Stoolkit and Prepman) or phenol-chloroform DNA extraction, followed by identification of species-specific ITS-1 sequences by optimised single species PCR assays. The Stoolkit and Prepman protocols showed insufficient repeatability, and the former was also expensive and relatively time-consuming. In contrast, both the GeneReleaser protocol and phenol-chloroform protocols were robust and sensitive, detecting less than 0.4 oocysts of each species per PCR. Finally, we evaluated our new protocol on 68 coccidia positive field samples. Our data suggests that rupturing the oocysts by mini-pestle grinding, preparing the DNA with GeneReleaser, followed by optimised single species PCR assays, makes a robust and sensitive procedure for identifying chicken Eimeria species in field samples. Importantly, it also provides minimal hands-on-time in the pre-PCR process, lower contamination risk and no handling of toxic chemicals. PMID:17386979

  6. Identification of new SNPs in native South American populations by resequencing the Y chromosome.

    PubMed

    Geppert, M; Ayub, Q; Xue, Y; Santos, S; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Â; Baeta, M; Núñez, C; Martínez-Jarreta, B; Tyler-Smith, C; Roewer, L

    2015-03-01

    The Y-chromosomal genetic landscape of South America is relatively homogenous. The majority of native Amerindian people are assigned to haplogroup Q and only a small percentage belongs to haplogroup C. With the aim of further differentiating the major Q lineages and thus obtaining new insights into the population history of South America, two individuals, both belonging to the sub-haplogroup Q-M3, were analyzed with next-generation sequencing. Several new candidate SNPs were evaluated and four were confirmed to be new, haplogroup Q-specific, and variable. One of the new SNPs, named MG2, identifies a new sub-haplogroup downstream of Q-M3; the other three (MG11, MG13, MG15) are upstream of Q-M3 but downstream of M242, and describe branches at the same phylogenetic positions as previously known SNPs in the samples tested. These four SNPs were typed in 100 individuals belonging to haplogroup Q. PMID:25303787

  7. The Spitzer South Pole Telescope Deep Field: Survey Design and Infrared Array Camera Catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashby, M. L. N.; Stanford, S. A.; Brodwin, M.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Martinez-Manso, J.; Bartlett, J. G.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Crawford, T. M.; Dey, A.; Dressler, A.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Galametz, A.; Jannuzi, B. T.; Marrone, D. P.; Mei, S.; Muzzin, A.; Pacaud, F.; Pierre, M.; Stern, D.; Vieira, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    The Spitzer South Pole Telescope Deep Field (SSDF) is a wide-area survey using Spitzer's Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) to cover 94 deg2 of extragalactic sky, making it the largest IRAC survey completed to date outside the Milky Way midplane. The SSDF is centered at (α, δ) = (23:30, -55:00), in a region that combines observations spanning a broad wavelength range from numerous facilities. These include millimeter imaging from the South Pole Telescope, far-infrared observations from Herschel/SPIRE, X-ray observations from the XMM XXL survey, near-infrared observations from the VISTA Hemisphere Survey, and radio-wavelength imaging from the Australia Telescope Compact Array, in a panchromatic project designed to address major outstanding questions surrounding galaxy clusters and the baryon budget. Here we describe the Spitzer/IRAC observations of the SSDF, including the survey design, observations, processing, source extraction, and publicly available data products. In particular, we present two band-merged catalogs, one for each of the two warm IRAC selection bands. They contain roughly 5.5 and 3.7 million distinct sources, the vast majority of which are galaxies, down to the SSDF 5σ sensitivity limits of 19.0 and 18.2 Vega mag (7.0 and 9.4 μJy) at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, respectively.

  8. Overview of ASIAEX field experiments in the South and East China Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, James F.; Dahl, Peter H.

    2002-11-01

    In the spring of 2001 the Asian Seas International Acoustics Experiment (ASIAEX) was performed in the South and East China Seas. The ASIAEX program originated from the Office of Naval Research's initiative to develop a Sino-American cooperation in the field of ocean acoustics, and expanded to involve Taiwan, Korea, Singapore, and Japan. In the South China Sea, the emphasis was on lower frequency (50-600 Hz) acoustic propagation through complex oceanography along and across the shelfbreak. The oceanographic variability was driven at the mesoscale by the monsoonal wind stress, buoyancy fluxes from the Chinese coast, and by occasional Kuroshio intrusions through the Luzon Strait. Large, nonlinear internal waves also significantly affected the acoustics. In the East China Sea the emphasis was on low- to- midfrequency acoustic interaction with, and reverberation from, the sea floor and sea surface. The experimental site was chosen for flatness, to minimize the influence of bathymetric trends, and emphasize bottom roughness and subbottom structures, in the measurements. This talk will describe the scope of the ASIAEX experimental program, including the ocean acoustic and environmental characterization of the seafloor, sea surface, and water column. Results from various measurement programs will be described in separate papers.

  9. Isolation and identification of psittacid herpesvirus 1 from imported psittacines in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Horner, R F; Parker, M E; Abrey, A N; Kaleta, E F; Prozesky, L

    1992-06-01

    Acute deaths occurred in 47 out of a total of 131 imported psittacine birds whilst in quarantine. Few and non-specific clinical signs were seen during the course of the disease outbreak, but gross pathology revealed severe hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. A herpes virus was isolated from liver and spleen material taken from 2 birds, an Amazon (Amazona aestiva aestiva) and a Yellow-collared macaw (Ara auricollis). Identification procedures included virus neutralisation tests carried out in chicken embryo fibroblast cultures. Neutralisation of the virus was obtained by antisera to Psittacid herpesvirus type 1 (HV1) but not against HV2 or HV3. PMID:1323676

  10. GIS-based technology for marine geohazards in LW3-1 Gas Field of the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Tianyun; Liu, Lejun; Li, Xishuang; Hu, Guanghai; Liu, Haixing; Zhou, Lin

    2013-04-01

    The exploration and exploitation of deep-water oil-gas are apt to be suffered from high-risk geo-hazards such as submarine landslide, soft clay creep, shallow gas, excess pore-water pressure, mud volcano or mud diaper, salt dome and so on. Therefore, it is necessary to survey the seafloor topography, identify the unfavourable geological risks and investigate their environment and mechanism before exploiting the deep-water oil-gas. Because of complex environment, the submarine phenomenon and features, like marine geohazards, can not be recognized directly. Multi-disciplinary data are acquired and analysed comprehensively in order to get more clear understanding about the submarine processes. The data include multi-beam bathymetry data, sidescan sonar images, seismic data, shallow-bottom profiling images, boring data, etc.. Such data sets nowadays increase rapidly to large amounts, but may be heterogeneous and have different resolutions. It is difficult to make good management and utilization of such submarine data with traditional means. GIS technology can provide efficient and powerful tools or services in such aspects as spatial data management, processing, analysis and visualization. They further promote the submarine scientific research and engineering development. The Liwan 3-1 Gas Field, the first deep-water gas field in China, is located in the Zhu II Depression in the Zhujiang Basin along the continental slope of the northern South China Sea. The exploitation of this field is designed to establish subsea wellhead and to use submarine pipeline for the transportation of oil. The deep-water section of the pipeline route in the gas field is to be selected to pass through the northern continental slope of the South China Sea. To avoid huge economic loss and ecological environmental damage, it is necessary to evaluate the geo-hazards for the establishment and safe operation of the pipeline. Based on previous scientific research results, several survey cruises have

  11. Star Formation in Distant Red Galaxies: Spitzer Observations in the Hubble Deep Field-South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Tracy M. A.; van Dokkum, Pieter; Egami, Eiichi; Fazio, Giovanni; Franx, Marijn; Gawiser, Eric; Herrera, David; Huang, Jiasheng; Labbé, Ivo; Lira, Paulina; Marchesini, Danilo; Maza, José; Quadri, Ryan; Rudnick, Gregory; van der Werf, Paul

    2006-01-01

    We present Spitzer 24 μm imaging of 1.5Field-South of the Multiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile. We detect 65% of the DRGs with KAB<23.2 mag at S24μm>~40 μJy and conclude that the bulk of the DRG population is dusty active galaxies. A mid-infrared (MIR) color analysis with IRAC data suggests that the MIR fluxes are not dominated by buried AGNs, and we interpret the high detection rate as evidence for a high average star formation rate of =130+/-30 Msolar yr-1. From this, we infer that DRGs are important contributors to the cosmic star formation rate density at z~2, at a level of ~0.02 Msolar yr-1 Mpc-3 to our completeness limit of KAB=22.9 mag.

  12. The 2 Ms Chandra Deep Field-North Survey and the 250 ks Extended Chandra Deep Field-South Survey: Improved Point-source Catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Y. Q.; Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, F. E.; Lehmer, B. D.; Yang, G.

    2016-06-01

    We present improved point-source catalogs for the 2 Ms Chandra Deep Field-North (CDF-N) and the 250 ks Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (E-CDF-S) Surveys, implementing a number of recent improvements in Chandra source-cataloging methodology. For CDF-N/E-CDF-S, we provide a main catalog that contains 683/1003 X-ray sources detected with wavdetect at a false-positive probability threshold of 10‑5 that also satisfy a binomial-probability source-selection criterion of P\\lt 0.004/P < 0.002. Such an approach maximizes the number of reliable sources detected: a total of 196/275 main-catalog sources are new compared to the Alexander et al. CDF-N/Lehmer et al. E-CDF-S main catalogs. We also provide CDF-N/E-CDF-S supplementary catalogs that consist of 72/56 sources detected at the same wavdetect threshold and having P of 0.004–0.1/0.002–0.1 and {K}s≤slant 22.9/{K}s≤slant 22.3 mag counterparts. For all ≈ 1800 CDF-N and E-CDF-S sources, including the ≈ 500 newly detected ones (these being generally fainter and more obscured), we determine X-ray source positions utilizing centroid and matched-filter techniques; we also provide multiwavelength identifications, apparent magnitudes of counterparts, spectroscopic and/or photometric redshifts, basic source classifications, and estimates of observed active galactic nucleus and galaxy source densities around respective field centers. Simulations show that both the CDF-N and E-CDF-S main catalogs are highly reliable and reasonably complete. Background and sensitivity analyses indicate that the on-axis mean flux limits reached represent a factor of ≈ 1.5–2.0 improvement over the previous CDF-N and E-CDF-S limits. We make our data products publicly available.

  13. Identification of Algerian Field-Caught Phlebotomine Sand Fly Vectors by MALDI-TOF MS

    PubMed Central

    Lafri, Ismail; Almeras, Lionel; Bitam, Idir; Caputo, Aurelia; Yssouf, Amina; Forestier, Claire-Lise; Izri, Arezki; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Background Phlebotomine sand flies are known to transmit Leishmania parasites, bacteria and viruses that affect humans and animals in many countries worldwide. Precise sand fly identification is essential to prevent phlebotomine-borne diseases. Over the past two decades, progress in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has emerged as an accurate tool for arthropod identification. The objective of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS as a tool for identifying field-caught phlebotomine. Methodology/Principal Findings Sand flies were captured in four sites in north Algeria. A subset was morphologically and genetically identified. Six species were found in these areas and a total of 28 stored frozen specimens were used for the creation of the reference spectrum database. The relevance of this original method for sand fly identification was validated by two successive blind tests including the morphological identification of 80 new specimens which were stored at -80°C, and 292 unknown specimens, including engorged specimens, which were preserved under different conditions. Intra-species reproducibility and inter-species specificity of the protein profiles were obtained, allowing us to distinguish specimens at the gender level. Querying of the sand fly database using the MS spectra from the blind test groups revealed concordant results between morphological and MALDI-TOF MS identification. However, MS identification results were less efficient for specimens which were engorged or stored in alcohol. Identification of 362 phlebotomine sand flies, captured at four Algerian sites, by MALDI-TOF MS, revealed that the subgenus Larroussius was predominant at all the study sites, except for in M’sila where P. (Phlebotomus) papatasi was the only sand fly species detected. Conclusion The present study highlights the application of MALDI-TOF MS for monitoring sand fly fauna captured in the field

  14. EVALUATION OF THE FLOOD POTENTIAL OF THE SOUTH HOUSE (BLINEBRY) FIELD, LEA COUNTY, NEW MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    L. Stephen Melzer

    2000-12-01

    /11 respectively. Production of oil and gas has been established with several months of production now available to make a reserve analysis. Production histories and reserves estimation are provided. An assessment of the flood potential for the South House project area has been completed with work concentrated on South House rock property and pay thickness characterization and analog studies. For the analogs, the North Robertson area, located twenty miles to the northeast, and the Teague Field, located 20 miles to the south, have been utilized due to their readily available database and previous waterflood studies. The South House area does appear to merit further examination as the rock quality compares favorably with both analog Fields; however, current well spacings of 40-acres will provide only marginal economics based upon $23.00/barrel oil prices. Permeability and porosity relationships are provided as a conditional demonstration that rock quality may be sufficient for successful waterflooding of the project area. Further rock property work and pay continuity studies are recommended.

  15. Turtle Bayou 1936-1983: case history of a major gas field in south Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Cronquist, C.

    1984-11-01

    Turtle Bayou field, located in the middle Miocene trend in south Louisiana, is nearing the end of a productive life spanning more than 30 years. Discovered by Shell Oil Co. in 1949 after unsuccessful attempts by two other companies, the field is a typical, low-relief, moderately faulted U.S. Gulf Coast structure, probably associated with deep salt movement. The productive interval includes 22 separate gas-bearing sands in a regressive sequence of sands and shales from approximately 6,500 to 12,000 ft (1980 to 3660 m). Now estimated to have contained about 1.2 trillion scf (34 X 10/sup 9/ std m/sup 3/) of gas in place, cumulative production through 1982 was 702 billion scf (20 X 10/sup 9/ std m/sup 3/). Cumulative condensate/gas ration (CGR) has been 20 bbl/MMcf (110 X 10/sup -6/ m/sup 3//m/sup 3/. Recovery mechanisms in individual reservoirs include strong bottomwater drive, partial edgewater drive, and pressure depletion. Recovery efficiencies in major reservoirs range form 40 to 83% of original gas in place (OGIP). On decline since 1973, it is anticipated the field will be essentially depleted in the next 5 years.

  16. Turtle Bayou--1936 to 1983--case history of a major gas field in South Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Cronquist, C.

    1983-10-01

    Turtle Bayou Field, located in the middle Miocene trend in South Louisiana, is nearing the end of a productive life which spans over 30 years. Discovered by Shell Oil Company in 1949 after unsuccessful attempts by two other majors, the field is a typical, low relief, moderately faulted Gulf Coast structure, probably associated with deep salt movement. The productive interval includes 22 separate gas-bearing sands in a regressive sequence of sands and shales from approximately 6500 to 12,000 feet. Now estimated to have contained about 1.2 trillion standard cubic feet of gas in place, cumulative production through 1982 was 702 billion standard cubic feet. Cumulative condensate-gas ratio has been 20 barrels per million. Recovery mechanisms in individual reservoirs include strong bottom water drive, partial edgewater drive, and pressure depletion. Recovery efficiencies in major reservoirs range from 40 to 75 percent of original gas in place. On decline since 1973, it is anticipated the field will be essentially depleted in the next five years.

  17. The Spitzer-IRAC/MIPS Extragalactic Survey (SIMES) in the South Ecliptic Pole Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baronchelli, I.; Scarlata, C.; Rodighiero, G.; Franceschini, A.; Capak, P. L.; Mei, S.; Vaccari, M.; Marchetti, L.; Hibon, P.; Sedgwick, C.; Pearson, C.; Serjeant, S.; Menéndez-Delmestre, K.; Salvato, M.; Malkan, M.; Teplitz, H. I.; Hayes, M.; Colbert, J.; Papovich, C.; Devlin, M.; Kovacs, A.; Scott, K. S.; Surace, J.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Atek, H.; Urrutia, T.; Scoville, N. Z.; Takeuchi, T. T.

    2016-03-01

    We present the Spitzer-IRAC/MIPS Extragalactic survey (SIMES) in the South Ecliptic Pole field. The large area covered (7.7 deg2), together with one of the lowest Galactic cirrus emissions in the entire sky and a very extensive coverage by Spitzer, Herschel, Akari, and GALEX, make the SIMES field ideal for extragalactic studies. The elongated geometry of the SIMES area (≈4:1), allowing for significant cosmic variance reduction, further improves the quality of statistical studies in this field. Here we present the reduction and photometric measurements of the Spitzer/IRAC data. The survey reaches depths of 1.93 and 1.75 μJy (1σ) at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, respectively. We discuss the multiwavelength IRAC-based catalog, completed with optical, mid-, and far-IR observations. We detect 341,000 sources with {F}3.6μ {{m}}≥slant 3σ . Of these, 10% have an associated 24 μm counterpart, while 2.7% have an associated SPIRE source. We release the catalog through the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive. Two scientific applications of these IRAC data are presented in this paper. First, we compute integral number counts at 3.6 μm. Second, we use the [3.6]-[4.5] color index to identify galaxy clusters at z > 1.3. We select 27 clusters in the full area, a result consistent with previous studies at similar depth.

  18. STAR FORMATION IN THE CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH: OBSERVATIONS CONFRONT SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Damen, Maaike; Franx, Marijn; Foerster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Labbe, Ivo; Toft, Sune; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Wuyts, Stijn

    2009-11-01

    We investigate the star formation history of the universe using FIREWORKS, a multiwavelength survey of the Chandra Deep Field South. We study the evolution of the specific star formation rate (sSFR) with redshift in different mass bins from z = 0 to z approx 3. We find that the sSFR increases with redshift for all masses. The logarithmic increase of the sSFR with redshift is nearly independent of mass, but this cannot yet be verified at the lowest-mass bins at z>0.8, due to incompleteness. We convert the sSFRs to a dimensionless growth rate to facilitate a comparison with a semianalytic galaxy formation model that was implemented on the Millennium Simulation. The model predicts that the growth rates and sSFRs increase similarly with redshift for all masses, consistent with the observations. However, we find that for all masses, the inferred observed growth rates increase more rapidly with redshift than the model predictions. We discuss several possible causes for this discrepancy, ranging from field-to-field variance, conversions to SFR, and shape of the initial mass function. We find that none of these can solve the discrepancy completely. We conclude that the models need to be adapted to produce the steep increase in growth rate between redshift z = 0 and z = 1.

  19. Identification of soil associations in western South Dakota on ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westin, F. C.; Myers, V. I.

    1973-01-01

    Soil association maps show the spatial relationships of land units having characteristic soil depths and textures, available water capacities, permeabilities, pH characteristics, plasticity indices, liquid limits, and the like, from which broad interpretations can be made such as how the soil is suited as a source for top soil, and as a source for sand and gravel, and how corrosive the soil is for steel and concrete, and what crop and grass yields can be expected. Film color composites of bands 4, 5 and 7 viewed over a light table with magnification show the soil associations of western South Dakota that are now recognized, and, in addition, several new soil association areas have been brought to light.

  20. Identification of Surface Water Quality along the Coast of Sanya, South China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhen-Zhen; Che, Zhi-Wei; Wang, You-Shao; Dong, Jun-De; Wu, Mei-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) are utilized to identify the effects caused by human activities on water quality along the coast of Sanya, South China Sea. PCA and CA identify the seasonality of water quality (dry and wet seasons) and polluted status (polluted area). The seasonality of water quality is related to climate change and Southeast monsoons. Spatial pattern is mainly related to anthropogenic activities (especially land input of pollutions). PCA reveals the characteristics underlying the generation of coastal water quality. The temporal and spatial variation of the trophic status along the coast of Sanya is governed by hydrodynamics and human activities. The results provide a novel typological understanding of seasonal trophic status in a shallow, tropical, open marine bay. PMID:25894980

  1. Identification of airborne microbiota in selected areas in a health-care setting in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of bio-aerosols in the spread of disease and spoilage of food has been described in numerous studies; nevertheless this information at South African hospitals is limited. Attributable to their size, bio-aerosols may be suspended in the air for long periods placing patients at risk of infection and possibly settling on surfaces resulting in food contamination. The aim of the study is to assess the microbial composition of the air in the kitchen and selected wards at a typical district hospital in South Africa. Air samples were collected using the settle plates and an SAS Super 90 air sampler by impaction on agar. These microbial samples were quantified and identified using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and Analytic Profile Index (API). Results Microbial counts were found to be higher in the fourth (≤6.0 × 101 cfu/m-3) sampling rounds when compared to the first (≥2 cfu/m-3), second (≤3.0 × 101 cfu/m-3) and third (≤1.5 × 101 cfu/m-3) sampling rounds. Genera identified included Bacillus, Kocuria, Staphylococcus, Arthrobacter, Candida, Aureobasidium, Penicillium and Phoma amongst others. The presence of these pathogens is of concern, attributable to their ability to cause diseases in humans especially in those with suppressed host immunity defenses. Furthermore, fungal genera identified (e.g. Candida) in this study are also known to cause food spoilage and fungal infections in patients. Conclusion Results from this study indicate the importance of air quality monitoring in health-care settings to prevent possible hospital-acquired infections and contamination of hospital surfaces including food contact surfaces by airborne contaminants. PMID:24750818

  2. Identification of Potential Sites for Astronomical Observations in Northern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinzón, G.; González, D.; Hernández, J.

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we describe an innovative method to determine potential sites for optical and infrared astronomical observations in the Andes region of northern South America. The method computes the clear-sky fraction (CSF) from Geostationary Observational Environmental Satellite (GOES) data for the years 2008-2012 through a comparison with temperatures obtained from long-term records of weather stations and atmospheric temperature profiles from radiosonde. Criteria for sky clearance were established for two infrared GOES channels in order to determine potential sites in the Andes region of northern South America. The method was validated using the reported observed hours at the Observatorio Nacional de Llano del Hato in Venezuela. Separate CSF percentages were computed for dry and rainy seasons for both photometric and spectroscopic night qualities. Twelve sites with 5-year averages of CSF for spectroscopic nights larger than 30% during the dry seasons were found to be suitable for astronomical observations. The best site with (220 ± 42) spectroscopic clear nights per year is located in the Andes of Venezuela (70°28'48''W, 9°5'60''N) at an altitude of 3480 m. Lower quality regions were found in Sierra Nevada de Santamarta and Serranía del Perijá with (126 ± 34) and (111 ± 27) clear nights per year, respectively. Sites over the Andes are identified in Norte de Santander with (107 ± 23) and in the north-east part of Boyacá with a mean of (94 ± 13) clear nights per year. Two sites at low latitude located in Ecuador with more than 100 clear nights per year and with similar seasonal CSF percentages were also identified. Five-year evolution suggests a possible correlation between the lowest percentages observed during the rainy seasons of 2010 and 2011 with positive values of the Southern Oscillation Index.

  3. Efficient Identification of HIV Serodiscordant Couples by Existing HIV Testing Programs in South Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pilcher, Christopher D.; Bisol, Claudia Alquati; Paganella, Machline Paim; Vallabhaneni, Snigdha; da Motta, Leonardo Rapone; Kato, Sergio Kakuta; Sperhacke, Rosa Dea; Kallas, Esper G.; Hecht, Frederick M.; Diaz, Ricardo Sobhie

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the feasibility of identifying HIV negative at risk individuals in HIV serodiscordant couples, during voluntary HIV testing in South Brazil. Methods We surveyed HIV testers at 4 public testing sites in Rio Grande do Sul. We obtained information on risk behaviors and sexual partnerships. HIV testing and testing for recent infection were performed; HIV prevalence and risk behaviors were assessed among subjects who reported having a steady partner who was HIV positive (serodiscordant group) and compared with the general testing population. Results Among 3100 patients, 490 (15.8%) reported being in a steady relationship with an HIV positive partner. New HIV infections were diagnosed in 23% of the serodiscordant group (vs. 13% in the general population, p = 0.01); among newly positive subjects, recent HIV infections were more frequent (23/86, 26.7%) among testers with positive partners than among the general testing group (52/334; 15.6%; p = 0.016). Less than half of the serodiscordant testers reported having used a condom during the last sexual intercourse with their HIV-positive partner. Participants with inconsistent condom use with steady partner were four times more likely to test positive for HIV compared to those who reported always using condoms with the steady partner (OR: 4.2; 95% CI: 2.3 to 7.5). Conclusion It is highly feasible to identify large numbers of HIV susceptible individuals who are in HIV serodiscordant relationships in South Brazil testing sites. Condom use within HIV serodiscordant couples is low in this setting, suggesting urgent need for biomedical prevention strategies to reduce HIV transmission. PMID:26562436

  4. Candidate high-redshift and primeval galaxies in Hubble Deep Field South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, D. L.; Eales, S. A.; Baker, A. C.

    1999-09-01

    We present the results of colour selection of candidate high-redshift galaxies in Hubble Deep Field South (HDF-S) using the Lyman dropout scheme. The HDF-S data we discuss were taken in a number of different filters extending from the near-UV (F300W) to the infrared (F222M) in two different fields. This allows us to select candidates with redshifts from z~3 to z~12. We find 15 candidate z~3 objects (F300W dropouts), one candidate z~4 object (F450W dropout) and 16 candidate z~5 objects (F606W dropouts) in the ~4.7-arcmin^2 WFPC-2 field, and four candidate z~6 objects (optical dropouts) and one candidate z~8 object (F110W dropout) in the 0.84-arcmin^2 NICMOS-3 field. No F160W dropouts are found (z~12). We compare our selection technique with existing data for Hubble Deep Field North (HDF-N) and discuss alternative interpretations of the objects. We conclude that there are a number of lower redshift interlopers in the selections, including one previously identified object, and reject those objects most likely to be foreground contaminants. Even after this we conclude that the F606W dropout list is likely to still contain substantial foreground contamination. The lack of candidate very-high-redshift UV-luminous galaxies supports earlier conclusions by Lanzetta et al. We discuss the morphologies and luminosity functions of the high-redshift objects, and their cosmological implications.

  5. Identification of soil associations in South Dakota on ERTS 1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westin, F. C.

    1973-01-01

    Soil association maps show the spatial relationships of land units developed in unique climatic, geologic, and topographic environments, and having characteristic slopes, soil depths, textures, available water capacities, permeabilities, and the like. From these characteristics of the soil, broad interpretations can be made such as how the soil is suited for various agronomic and engineering uses. ERTS-1 imagery was found to be a useful tool in the identification of soil associations since it provides a synoptic view of an 8 million acre scene, which is large enough so that the effect can be seen on soils of climate, topography, and geology. A regional view also allows soil associations to be observed over most, if not all, of their extent. This aids in selecting typical sampling sites and provides a check on the homogeneity of the associations.

  6. A Determination of the North-South Heliospheric Magnetic Field Component from Inner Corona Closed-loop Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, B. V.; Hick, P. P.; Buffington, A.; Yu, H.-S.; Bisi, M. M.; Tokumaru, M.; Zhao, X.

    2015-04-01

    A component of the magnetic field measured in situ near the Earth in the solar wind is present from north-south fields from the low solar corona. Using the Current-sheet Source Surface model, these fields can be extrapolated upward from near the solar surface to 1 AU. Global velocities inferred from a combination of interplanetary scintillation observations matched to in situ velocities and densities provide the extrapolation to 1 AU assuming mass and mass flux conservation. The north-south field component is compared with the same ACE in situ magnetic field component—the Normal (Radial Tangential Normal) Bn coordinate—for three years throughout the solar minimum of the current solar cycle. We find a significant positive correlation throughout this period between this method of determining the Bn field compared with in situ measurements. Given this result from a study during the latest solar minimum, this indicates that a small fraction of the low-coronal Bn component flux regularly escapes from closed field regions. The prospects for Space Weather, where the knowledge of a Bz field at Earth is important for its geomagnetic field effects, is also now enhanced. This is because the Bn field provides the major portion of the Geocentric Solar Magnetospheric Bz field coordinate that couples most closely to the Earth’s geomagnetic field.

  7. Field verification of the direct view optics model for human facial identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghera, Sameer; Krapels, Keith; Hixson, Jonathan; Reynolds, Joseph P.; Driggers, Ronald G.

    2009-04-01

    Previous work by the Army's Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate extended the Army's target acquisition performance models to include the task of facial identification in the visible band. In this work, additional field data for facial identification is used to validate the direct view optic (DVO) performance model. The target acquisition model for direct view optics is based on the contrast threshold function of the eye with a modification for the optics modulation transfer function (MTF) and the optics magnification. We also show that the current Targeting Task Performance (TTP) metric can approximate the measured data, without using the full accuracy provided by the two-dimensional specific object method described in previous work.

  8. The systematic search for z ≳ 5 active galactic nuclei in the Chandra Deep Field South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigel, Anna K.; Schawinski, Kevin; Treister, Ezequiel; Urry, C. Megan; Koss, Michael; Trakhtenbrot, Benny

    2015-04-01

    We investigate early black hole (BH) growth through the methodical search for z ≳ 5 active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the Chandra Deep Field South. We base our search on the Chandra 4-Ms data with flux limits of 9.1 × 10-18 (soft, 0.5-2 keV) and 5.5 × 10-17 erg s-1 cm-2 (hard, 2-8 keV). At z ˜ 5, this corresponds to luminosities as low as ˜1042 (˜1043) erg s-1 in the soft (hard) band and should allow us to detect Compton-thin AGN with MBH > 107 M⊙ and Eddington ratios >0.1. Our field (0.03 deg2) contains over 600z ˜ 5 Lyman Break Galaxies. Based on lower redshift relations, we would expect ˜20 of them to host AGN. After combining the Chandra data with Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS)/Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), CANDELS/Wide Field Camera 3 and Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera data, the sample consists of 58 high-redshift candidates. We run a photometric redshift code, stack the GOODS/ACS data, apply colour criteria and the Lyman Break Technique and use the X-ray Hardness Ratio. We combine our tests and using additional data find that all sources are most likely at low redshift. We also find five X-ray sources without a counterpart in the optical or infrared which might be spurious detections. We conclude that our field does not contain any convincing z ≳ 5 AGN. Explanations for this result include a low BH occupation fraction, a low AGN fraction, short, super-Eddington growth modes, BH growth through BH-BH mergers or in optically faint galaxies. By searching for z ≳ 5 AGN, we are setting the foundation for constraining early BH growth and seed formation scenarios.

  9. Identification of polyamine-responsive bacterioplankton taxa in South Atlantic Bight.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinxin; Sun, Shulei; Hollibaugh, James T; Mou, Xiaozhen

    2015-12-01

    Putrescine and spermidine are short-chained aliphatic polyamines (PAs) that are ubiquitously distributed in seawater. These compounds may be important sources of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen for marine bacterioplankton. Here, we used pyrotag sequencing to quantify the response of bacterioplankton to putrescine and spermidine amendments in microcosms established using surface waters collected at various stations in the South Atlantic Bight in October 2011. Our analysis showed that PA-responsive bacterioplankton consisted of bacterial taxa that are typically dominant in marine systems. Rhodobacteraceae (Alphaproteobacteria) was the taxon most responsive to PA additions at the nearshore site. Gammaproteobacteria of the families Piscirickettsiaceae; Vibrionaceae; and Vibrionaceae and Pseudoalteromonadaceae, were the dominant PA-responsive taxa in samples from the river-influenced coastal station, offshore station and open ocean station, respectively. The spatial variability of PA-responsive taxa may be attributed to differences in composition of the initial bacterial community and variations of in situ physiochemical conditions among sites. Our results also provided the first empirical evidence that Gammaproteobacteria might play an important role in PA transformation in marine systems. PMID:26109269

  10. Isolation and identification of feline herpesvirus type 1 from a South China tiger in China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Heting; Li, Yuanguo; Jiao, Weiyi; Liu, Cunfa; Liu, Xiujuan; Wang, Haijun; Hua, Fuyou; Dong, Jianxiu; Fan, Shengtao; Yu, Zhijun; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, an FHV-1-like virus was isolated from a tiger that presented with clinical signs of sialorrhea, sneezing and purulent rhinorrhea. Isolation was performed with the FK81 cell line, and the virus was identified by PCR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the phylogenetic analysis of the partial thymidine kinase (TK) and glycoprotein B (gB) genes. A total of 253 bp of the TK gene and 566 bp of the gB gene were amplified from the trachea of the tiger by PCR/RT-PCR method. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolate belonged to the same cluster with other FHV-1 strains obtained from GenBank. Herpes-like viruses with an envelope and diameters of approximately 200 nm were observed in the culture supernatants of FK81 cells inoculated with samples from the tiger. The FHV-1 infection was confirmed by an animal challenge experiment in a cat model. Our finding extends the host range of FHV-1 and has implications for FHV-1 infection and South China tiger conservation. PMID:24590411

  11. Isolation and Identification of Feline Herpesvirus Type 1 from a South China Tiger in China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Heting; Li, Yuanguo; Jiao, Weiyi; Liu, Cunfa; Liu, Xiujuan; Wang, Haijun; Hua, Fuyou; Dong, Jianxiu; Fan, Shengtao; Yu, Zhijun; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, an FHV-1-like virus was isolated from a tiger that presented with clinical signs of sialorrhea, sneezing and purulent rhinorrhea. Isolation was performed with the FK81 cell line, and the virus was identified by PCR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the phylogenetic analysis of the partial thymidine kinase (TK) and glycoprotein B (gB) genes. A total of 253 bp of the TK gene and 566 bp of the gB gene were amplified from the trachea of the tiger by PCR/RT-PCR method. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolate belonged to the same cluster with other FHV-1 strains obtained from GenBank. Herpes-like viruses with an envelope and diameters of approximately 200 nm were observed in the culture supernatants of FK81 cells inoculated with samples from the tiger. The FHV-1 infection was confirmed by an animal challenge experiment in a cat model. Our finding extends the host range of FHV-1 and has implications for FHV-1 infection and South China tiger conservation. PMID:24590411

  12. Identification of Novel Cetacean Poxviruses in Cetaceans Stranded in South West England

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, James; Dastjerdi, Akbar; Davison, Nick; Deaville, Rob; Everest, David; Peake, Julie; Finnegan, Christopher; Jepson, Paul; Steinbach, Falko

    2015-01-01

    Poxvirus infections in marine mammals have been mainly reported through their clinical lesions and electron microscopy (EM). Poxvirus particles in association with such lesions have been demonstrated by EM and were previously classified as two new viruses, cetacean poxvirus 1 (CePV-1) and cetacean poxvirus 2 (CePV-2). In this study, epidermal pox lesions in cetaceans stranded in South West England (Cornwall) between 2008 and 2012 were investigated by electron microscopy and molecular analysis. PCR and sequencing of a highly conserved region within the viral DNA polymerase gene ruled out both parapox- and orthopoxviruses. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis of the PCR product clustered the sequences with those previously described as cetacean poxviruses. However, taking the close genetic distance of this gene fragment across the family of poxviridae into account, it is reasonable to postulate further, novel cetacean poxvirus species. The nucleotide similarity within each cluster (tentative species) detected ranged from 98.6% to 100%, whilst the similarity between the clusters was no more than 95%. The detection of several species of poxvirus in different cetacean species confirms the likelihood of a heterogeneous cetacean poxvirus genus, comparable to the heterogeneity observed in other poxvirus genera. PMID:26046847

  13. Crop identification and acreage measurement utilizing ERTS imagery. [Missouri, Kansa, Idaho, and South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wigton, W. H.; Vonsteen, D. H.

    1974-01-01

    The Statistical Reporting Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture is evaluating ERTS-1 imagery as a potential tool for estimating crop acreage. A main data source for the estimates is obtained by enumerating small land parcels that have been randomly selected from the total U.S. land area. These small parcels are being used as ground observations in this investigation. The test sites are located in Missouri, Kansas, Idaho, and South Dakota. The major crops of interest are wheat, cotton, corn, soybeans, sugar beets, potatoes, oats, alfalfa, and grain sorghum. Some of the crops are unique to a given site while others are common in two or three states. This provides an opportunity to observe crops grown under different conditions. Results for the Missouri test site are presented. Results of temporal overlays, unequal prior probabilities, and sample classifiers are discussed. The amount of improvement that each technique contributes is shown in terms of overall performance. The results show that useful information for making crop acreage estimates can be obtained from ERTS-1 data.

  14. Identification of tectonic deformations on the south polar surface of the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Saumitra; Singh, Priyadarshini

    2015-07-01

    Recent extensional and contractional tectonic features present globally over the lunar surface have been studied to infer lunar crustal tectonism. Investigation of indicators of recent crustal tectonics, such as fault lines, thrust fault scarps, and dislocation of debris along the identified fault planes, primarily using data from the miniature-synthetic aperture radar (mini-SAR) aboard CHANDRAYAAN-1 mission and Narrow angle camera (NAC) images, are the focus of this study. Spatial orientation of these tectonic features helps to elucidate the change in the interior geological dynamics of any planetary body with time. The ability of microwave sensors to penetrate the lunar regolith, along with application of m-χ decomposition method on Mini-SAR data has been used to reveal unique features indicative of hidden tectonics. The m-χ decomposition derived radar images expose hidden lineaments and lobate scarps present within shadowed crater floors as well as over the illuminated regions of the lunar surface. The area around and within Cabeus B crater in the South Polar Region contains lobate scarps, hidden lineaments and debris avalanches (associated with the identified lineaments) indicative of relatively recent crustal tectonism.

  15. Estimation of constitutive parameters for the Belridge Diatomite, South Belridge Diatomite Field

    SciTech Connect

    Fossum, A.F.; Fredrich, J.T.

    1998-06-01

    A cooperative national laboratory/industry research program was initiated in 1994 that improved understanding of the geomechanical processes causing well casing damage during oil production from weak, compactible formations. The program focused on the shallow diatomaceous oil reservoirs located in California`s San Joaquin Valley, and combined analyses of historical field data, experimental determination of rock mechanical behavior, and geomechanical simulation of the reservoir and overburden response to production and injection. Sandia National Laboratories` quasi-static, large-deformation structural mechanics finite element code JAS3D was used to perform the three-dimensional geomechanical simulations. One of the material models implemented in JAS3D to simulate the time-independent inelastic (non-linear) deformation of geomaterials is a generalized version of the Sandler and Rubin cap plasticity model (Sandler and Rubin, 1979). This report documents the experimental rock mechanics data and material cap plasticity models that were derived to describe the Belridge Diatomite reservoir rock at the South Belridge Diatomite Field, Section 33.

  16. Spatial and Alignment Analyses for a field of Small Volcanic Vents South of Pavonis Mons Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleacher, J. E.; Glaze, L. S.; Greeley, R.; Hauber, E.; Baloga, S. M.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Williams, D. A.; Glotch, T. D.

    2008-01-01

    The Tharsis province of Mars displays a variety of small volcanic vent (10s krn in diameter) morphologies. These features were identified in Mariner and Viking images [1-4], and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data show them to be more abundant than originally observed [5,6]. Recent studies are classifying their diverse morphologies [7-9]. Building on this work, we are mapping the location of small volcanic vents (small-vents) in the Tharsis province using MOLA, Thermal Emission Imaging System, and High Resolution Stereo Camera data [10]. Here we report on a preliminary study of the spatial and alignment relationships between small-vents south of Pavonis Mons, as determined by nearest neighbor and two-point azimuth statistical analyses. Terrestrial monogenetic volcanic fields display four fundamental characteristics: 1) recurrence rates of eruptions,2 ) vent abundance, 3) vent distribution, and 4) tectonic relationships [11]. While understanding recurrence rates typically requires field measurements, insight into vent abundance, distribution, and tectonic relationships can be established by mapping of remotely sensed data, and subsequent application of spatial statistical studies [11,12], the goal of which is to link the distribution of vents to causal processes.

  17. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow at the South Well Field, Columbus, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, W.L.; Bair, E.S.; Yost, W.P.

    1996-01-01

    The City of Columbus, Ohio, operates four radial collector wells in southern Franklin County. The 'South Well Field' is completed in permeable outwash and ice-contact deposits, upon which flow the Scioto River and Big Walnut Creek. The wells are designed to yield approximately 42 million gallons per day; part of that yield results from induced infiltration of surface water from the Scioto River and Big Walnut Creek. The well field supplied up to 30 percent of the water supply of southern Columbus and its suburbs in 1991. This report describes the hydrogeology of southern Franklin County and a tran sient three-dimensional, numerical ground-water- flow model of the South Well Field. The primary source of ground water in the study area is the glacial drift aquifer. The glacial drift is composed of sand, gravel, and clay depos ited during the Illinoian and Wisconsinan glaciations. In general, thick deposits of till containing lenses of sand and gravel dominate the drift in the area west of the Scioto River. The thickest and most productive parts of the glacial drift aquifer are in the buried valleys in the central and eastern parts of the study area underlying the Scioto River and Big Walnut Creek. Horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the glacial drift aquifer differs spa tially and ranges from 30 to 375 feet per day. The specific yield ranges from 0.12 to 0.30. The secondary source of ground water within the study area is the underlying carbonate bedrock aquifer, which consists of Silurian and Devonian limestones, dolomites, and shales. The horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the carbonate bedrock aquifer ranges from 10 to 15 feet per day. The storage coefficient is about 0.0002. The ground-water-flow system in the South Well Field area is recharged by precipitation, regional ground-water flow, and induced stream infiltration. Yearly recharge rates varied spatially and ranged from 4.0 to 12.0 inches. The three-dimensional, ground-water-flow model was constructed by

  18. Diagenesis and reservoir quality of Paleocoene sandstones in the Kupe South field, Taranaki Basin, New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, K.R. ); Baker, J.C. ); Hamilton, P.J. ); Thrasher, G.P. )

    1994-04-01

    The Kupe South field, Taranaki basin, New Zealand is a gas condensate and oil field offshore in the southern Taranaki basin. Its Paleocene reservoir sandstones contain a diagenetic mineral assemblage that records major shifts in pore-water composition during the burial history of the basin. Early calcite formed a shallow burial largely from meteoric depositional pore waters, whereas later chlorite/smectic records the downward passage of marine pore waters into the sandstones from overlying, marine mudrocks prior to significant sandstone compaction during the late Miocene. Late calcite and ferroan carbonates may record the presence of connate meteoric water expelled upward from nonmarine sedimentary rocks of the underyling Cretaceous sequence, whereas later kaolinite and secondary porosity formation are related to localized meteoric influx resulting from late Miocene to early Pliocene uplift and erosion of the reservoir section. Hydrocarbon entrapment occurred during further Pliocene to Holocene sediment accumulation. Labile-grain alteration has been less severe in the lower part of the hydrocarbon-bearing section than in the upper sands with the result that the lower sands contain mainly chlorite/smectite and the upper sands contain mainly ferroan carbonates and kaolinite formed by extensive alteration of labile grains and earlier formed chlorite/smectite. Reservoir quality in the lower sands is controlled mostly by grain size and the presence of chlorite/smectite, but in the upper sands, the presence of kaolinite is the single most important cause of poor reservoir quality. 36 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Definition of reservoir configuration in ancient glacial environment: case history from Rima field, south Oman

    SciTech Connect

    Penneycard, A.J.

    1986-05-01

    The Al Khlata Formation (Permian-Carboniferous) is an important reservoir unit of the Eastern Flank province of South Oman. The formation consists of an unusual series of glacial sand, silt, shale, and diamictite exhibiting such gross heterogeneity that conventional correlation techniques are ineffective. A threefold palynologic subdivision has been developed, which has allowed the recognition of a number of genetically distinct units. Major periods of erosion separate the units, erosive processes dominating the 20-40 million year period during which the Al Khlata accumulated. Deposition occurred in a sequence of deep valleys cut into the early Al Khlata and underlying Haima (Cambrian-Ordovician) reservoirs. The extent of these deposits is controlled by the morphology of these incisive valleys. A case history of the large Rima field illustrates the use of palynology in unraveling the temporal and spatial relationships of the individual Al Khlata and Haima units. The resultant reservoir-geologic model of this internally complex fields has enabled more confident assessment of variations in well performance with reservoir type, and has guided plans for future offtake levels and overall development planning.

  20. BLAST OBSERVATIONS OF THE SOUTH ECLIPTIC POLE FIELD: NUMBER COUNTS AND SOURCE CATALOGS

    SciTech Connect

    Valiante, Elisabetta; Braglia, Filiberto G.; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; Scott, Douglas; Ade, Peter A. R.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip; Pascale, Enzo; Bock, James J.; Devlin, Mark J.; Klein, Jeff; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hughes, David H.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Olmi, Luca; Patanchon, Guillaume; Rex, Marie

    2010-12-15

    We present results from a survey carried out by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) on a 9 deg{sup 2} field near the South Ecliptic Pole at 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m. The median 1{sigma} depths of the maps are 36.0, 26.4, and 18.4 mJy, respectively. We apply a statistical method to estimate submillimeter galaxy number counts and find that they are in agreement with other measurements made with the same instrument and with the more recent results from Herschel/SPIRE. Thanks to the large field observed, the new measurements give additional constraints on the bright end of the counts. We identify 132, 89, and 61 sources with S/N {>=}4 at 250, 350, 500 {mu}m, respectively and provide a multi-wavelength combined catalog of 232 sources with a significance {>=}4{sigma} in at least one BLAST band. The new BLAST maps and catalogs are available publicly at http://blastexperiment.info.

  1. Morphological and molecular identification of filamentous Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus isolated from compound feeds in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Iheanacho, Henry E; Njobeh, Patrick B; Dutton, Francis M; Steenkamp, Paul A; Steenkamp, Lucia; Mthombeni, Julian Q; Daru, Barnabas H; Makun, Anthony H

    2014-12-01

    Isolation of filamentous species of two Aspergillum genera from compound feeds produced in South Africa, and subsequent extraction of their individual DNA in this study, presents a simple but rapid molecular procedure for high through-put analysis of the individual morphological forms. DNA was successfully isolated from the Aspergillus spp. from agar cultures by use of a commercial kit. Agarose gel electrophoresis fractionation of the fungi DNA, showed distinct bands. The DNA extracted by this procedure appears to be relatively pure with a ratio absorbance at 260 and 280 nm. However, the overall morphological and molecular data indicated that 67.5 and 51.1% of feed samples were found to be contaminated with Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, respectively, with poultry feed having the highest contamination mean level of 5.7 × 105 CFU/g when compared to cattle (mean: 4.0 × 106 CFU/g), pig (mean: 2.7 × 104 CFU/g) and horse (1.0 × 102 CFU) feed. This technique presents a readily achievable, easy to use method in the extraction of filamentous fungal DNA and it's identification. Hence serves as an important tool towards molecular study of these organisms for routine analysis check in monitoring and improving compound feed quality against fungal contamination. PMID:25084661

  2. The South American Meridional B-field Array (SAMBA) and Pc4-5 Wave Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterner, Lt. Nathan; Zesta, Eftyhia; Boudouridis, Athanasios; Moldwin, Mark; Yizengaw, Endawoke; Chi, Peter

    The Antarctic continent, the only landmass in the southern polar region, offers the unique opportunity for observations that geomagnetically range from polar latitudes to well into the inner magnetosphere, thus enabling conjugate observations in a wide range of geomagnetic lat-itudes. The SAMBA (South American Meridional B-field Array) chain is a meridional chain of 12 magnetometers, 11 of them at L=1.1 to L=2.5 along the coast of Chile and in the Antarc-tica peninsula, and one auroral station along the same meridian. SAMBA is conjugate to the northern hemisphere MEASURE and McMAC chains, offering unique opportunities for inter-hemispheric studies. In particular, we study asymmetries in the power of ULF waves and the role of the ionosphere in such observed asymmetries. Utilizing conjugate magnetometer stations at L=1.7 and L=2.3, we previously demonstrated that the northern hemisphere consistently shows higher ULF wave power. One possible reason for the asymmetry is solar zenith angles differences with the northern hemisphere station being closer to the ecliptic plain and having a higher power ratio. These hemispheric differences were also observed with TEC measurements indicating that the north and south conjugate ionospheres are similarly asymmetric. The initial study was done with Pc3 waves, which include the resonance frequencies for the flux tubes of our conjugate stations. We now extend the study to Pc4 and Pc5 waves that reach the lower latitudes via different mechanisms and compare these waves to the resonant Pc3 waves.

  3. First occurrence of Beroe forskalii (Ctenophora) in South American Atlantic coastal waters, with notes on the use of macrociliary patterns for beroid identification.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Otto M P; Migotto, Alvaro E

    2014-01-01

    Beroe forskalii Milne Edwards, 1841 is an oceanic ctenophore with a global distribution. The present study provides the first record of Beroe forskalii for the South American Atlantic coast, including a redescription of the species and a discussion on the utility of macrociliary patterns for the correct identification of at least some beroid species, exemplified by a comparison of the macrociliary patterns of Beroe forskalii and Beroe ovata (Chamisso & Eysenhardt, 1821). PMID:24871741

  4. Application of toxicity identification evaluation procedure to toxic industrial effluent in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Ra, Jin-Sung; Jeong, Tae-Yong; Lee, Sun-Hong; Kim, Sang Don

    2016-01-01

    Toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) was applied to the effluent from a pharmaceutical industrial complex, following the US EPA TIE guidelines. The whole effluent toxicity (WET) test found toxicity greater than 16toxic units (TU) in the effluent. Dissolved non-polar organic compounds were identified as the major contributor to the observed toxicity in the TIE manipulations in phases I and II. Among the 48 organic compounds identified, three compounds (i.e., acetophenone, benzoimide, and benzothiazole) were related to the pharmaceutical production procedure; however, no contribution to toxicity was predicted in the compounds. The results of the ECOSAR model, which predicts toxicity, indicated that the alkane compounds caused significant toxicity in the effluent. The toxicity test and heavy metal analysis, which used IC and ICP/MS, identified that particulate and heavy metals, such as Cu and Zn, contributed to the remaining toxicity, except dissolved organics. The results showed the applicability of the TIE method for predicting regional effluents produced by the industrial pharmaceutical complex in this study. Although the location was assumed to be affected by discharge of pharmaceutical related compounds in the river, no correlations were observed in the study. Based on the results, advanced treatment processes, such as activated carbon adsorption, are recommended for the wastewater treatment process in this location. PMID:25997865

  5. A COMPREHENSIVE NONPOINT SOURCE FIELD STUDY FOR SEDIMENT, NUTRIENTS AND PATHOGENS IN THE SOUTH FORK BROAD RIVER WATERSHED, GEORGIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an urgent need for EPA to develop protocols for establishing Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) in streams, lakes and estuaries. A cooperative TMDL field data collection project between ORD and Region 4 is ongoing in the South Fork Broad River Watershed (SFBR), a 245.18 ...

  6. 76 FR 12132 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Wright Area South Hilight Field Coal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Final EIS was publicly available on July 30, 2010 (75 FR 44951). This decision is subject to appeal to... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Wright Area South Hilight Field Coal Lease-by-Application and Environmental Impact Statement, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of...

  7. Hydraulic Fracturing of 403 Shallow Diatomite Wells in South Belridge Oil Field, Kern County, California, in 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynne, D. B.; Agusiegbe, V.

    2015-12-01

    We examine all 403 Hydraulic Fracture (HF) jobs performed by Aera Energy, LLC, in the South Belridge oil field, Kern County, CA in 2014. HFs in the South Belridge oil field are atypical amongst North American plays because the reservoir is shallow and produced via vertical wells. Our data set constitutes 88% of all HF jobs performed in CA oil fields in calendar-2014. The South Belridge field produces 11% of California's oil and the shallow HFs performed here differ from most HFs performed elsewhere. We discuss fracture modeling and methods and summary statistics, and modelled dimensions of fractures and their relationships to depth and reservoir properties. The 403 HFs were made in the diatomite-dominated Reef Ridge member of the Monterey Formation. The HFs began at an average depth of 1047 feet below ground (ft TVD) and extended an average of 626 ft vertically downward. The deepest initiation of HF was at 2380 ft and the shallowest cessation was at 639 ft TVD. The average HF was performed using 1488 BBL (62,496 gallons) of water. The HFs were performed in no more than 6 stages and nearly all were completed within one day. We (1) compare metrics of the South Belridge sample group with recent, larger "all-CA" and nationwide samples; and (2) conclude that if relationships of reservoir properties, well completion and HF are well understood, shallow diatomite HF may be optimized to enhance production while minimizing environmental impact.

  8. An Approach to Near Field Data Selection in Radio Frequency Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkworth, Robert D.

    Personal identification is needed in many civil activities, and the common identification cards, such as a driver's license, have become the standard document de facto. Radio frequency identification has complicated this matter. Unlike their printed predecessors, contemporary RFID cards lack a practical way for users to control access to their individual fields of data. This leaves them more available to unauthorized parties, and more prone to abuse. Here, then was undertaken a means to test a novel RFID card technology that allows overlays to be used for reliable, reversible data access settings. Similar to other proposed switching mechanisms, it offers advantages that may greatly improve outcomes. RFID use is increasing in identity documents such as drivers' licenses and passports, and with it concern over the theft of personal information, which can enable unauthorized tracking or fraud. Effort put into designing a strong foundation technology now may allow for widespread development on them later. In this dissertation, such a technology was designed and constructed, to drive the central thesis that selective detuning could serve as a feasible, reliable mechanism. The concept had been illustrated effective in limiting access to all fields simultaneously before, and was here effective in limiting access to specific fields selectively. A novel card was produced in familiar dimensions, with an intuitive interface by which users may conceal the visible print of the card to conceal the wireless emissions it allows. A discussion was included of similar technologies, involving capacitive switching, that could further improve the outcomes if such a product were put to large-scale commercial fabrication. The card prototype was put to a battery of laboratory tests to measure the degree of independence between data fields and the reliability of the switching mechanism when used under realistically variable coverage, demonstrating statistically consistent performance in

  9. Major Paleostress Field Differences on Complementary Margins of the South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomon, E.; Koehn, D.; Passchier, C. W.; Hackspacher, P. C.; Glasmacher, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    We present a detailed study of paleostress fields of the Namibian and Brazilian passive continental margins of the South Atlantic to address a general debate on whether or not these complementary margins experienced similar tectonic histories (e.g. Cobbold et al., 2001; Al-Hajri et al., 2009; Japsen et al., 2012). In our study, we compare the NW of Namibia and the SE of Brazil with each other. These areas are largely covered by the flood basalts of the Paraná-Etendeka-Large Igneous Province overlying Neo-Proterozoic basement of the Pan-African orogeny. With an age of ~133 Ma the basalts were emplaced just before or during the onset of the South Atlantic opening and thus serve as a good time marker for rift- and post-rift-related tectonics. We studied mainly fault planes and associated striations within the flood basalts and compared the resulting stress patterns of both margins. Results reveal remarkable differences in the stress patterns for SE Brazil and NW Namibia. In NW Namibia, a WSW-ENE directed extensional stress field dominates and fits well with extension of the original continental rift and the passive margin. A second extensional stress field (σ3 SSW oriented) and a strike-slip system (σ1 NW oriented) appear only subdued. In contrast, the SE of Brazil is mainly characterized by two strike-slip systems (σ1 oriented SW and E, respectively) whereas an extensional stress field is almost non-existent. The strike-slip faulting of the Brazilian study area occur widespread across SE Brazil as they are also evident in other paleostress studies of the region and might thus be the result of far-field stresses. Margin-parallel faults are scarce, so it appears that rift-related extension was restricted to a narrower strip along the continent-ocean boundary, now lying offshore. In NW Namibia, the faults of the extensional stress regime run parallel to the sub-margin-parallel basement structure (i.e. shear zones and foliation) and hence indicate a reactivation of

  10. 3D airflow dynamics over transverse ridges Mpekweni, South Africa: implications for dune field migration behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Derek; Cooper, Andrew; Green, Andrew; Beyers, Meiring; Wiles, Errol; Benallack, Keegan

    2016-04-01

    Un-vegetated dune fields provide excellent opportunities to examine airflow dynamics over various types and scales of dune landforms. The three dimensional surface over which lower boundary layers travel, help adjust surface airflow and consequently the aeolian response of the dunes themselves. The use of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modelling in recent studies now enables investigation of the 3D behaviour of airflow over complex terrain, providing new insights into heterogeneous surface flow and aeolian response of dune surfaces on a large (dunefield) scale. Using a largely un-vegetated coastal dune field site at Mpekweni, Eastern Cape, South Africa, a detailed (0.1m gridded) terrestrial laser scanning survey was conducted to create a high resolution topographical surface. Using local wind flow measurements and local met station records as input, CFD modelling was performed for a number of scenarios involving variable direction and magnitude to examine surface flow patterns across multiple dune forms. Near surface acceleration, expansion and separation of airflow inducing convergence and divergence (steering) of flow velocity streamlines are investigated. Flow acceleration over dune crests/brink lines is a key parameter in driving dune migration and slip face dynamics. Dune aspect ratio (height to length) is also important in determining the degree of crestal flow acceleration, with an increase in flow associated with increasing aspect ratios. Variations in dune height appear to be the most important parameter in driving general flow acceleration. The results from the study provide new insights into dune migration behaviour at this site as well as surface flow behaviour across multiple dune configurations and length scales within un-vegetated dune fields.

  11. Determination of the North-South Heliospheric Magnetic-Field Component from Inner-Corona Closed-Loop Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, B. V.; Yu, H. S.; Hick, P. P.; Buffington, A.; Bisi, M. M.; Tokumaru, M.; Kim, J.; Hong, S.; Lee, B.; Yi, J.; Yun, J.

    2015-12-01

    We find that a portion of the north-south interplanetary magnetic field measured in situ near Earth is present from a direct outward mapping of closed fields from the low solar corona. Using the Current-Sheet Source Surface (CSSS) model (Zhao & Hoeksema, 1995 JGR 100, 19), these lower coronal fields are extrapolated upward from near the solar surface. Global velocities inferred from a combination of observations of interplanetary scintillation (IPS) matched to in-situ velocities and densities measured by spacecraft instrumentation provide an accurate outward timing to 1 AU from a model assuming conservation of mass and mass flux. The north-south field component at 1 AU is compared with the appropriate ACE magnetometer in-situ Normal (RTN) or Bn field coordinate (Jackson et al., 2015, ApJL, 803:L1). From a significant positive correlation between this method of determining the Bn field compared with in-situ measurements over a three-year period during the last solar minimum, we find that a small fraction of the low-coronal Bn component flux (~1%) regularly escapes from closed-field regions. Since the Bn field provides the major portion of the Geocentric Solar Magnetospheric (GSM) Bz field component that couples most closely to the Earth's geomagnetic field, the prospects for its determination using this technique for space weather use are being actively developed by our many colleague groups.

  12. Disorder Identification in Hysteresis Data: Recognition Analysis of the Random-Bond-Random-Field Ising Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ovchinnikov, O. S.; Jesse, S.; Kalinin, S. V.; Bintacchit, P.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.

    2009-10-09

    An approach for the direct identification of disorder type and strength in physical systems based on recognition analysis of hysteresis loop shape is developed. A large number of theoretical examples uniformly distributed in the parameter space of the system is generated and is decorrelated using principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA components are used to train a feed-forward neural network using the model parameters as targets. The trained network is used to analyze hysteresis loops for the investigated system. The approach is demonstrated using a 2D random-bond-random-field Ising model, and polarization switching in polycrystalline ferroelectric capacitors.

  13. Reservoir compaction of the Belridge Diatomite and surface subsidence, south Belridge field, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Bowersox, J.R.; Shore, R.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Surface subsidence due to reservoir compaction during production has been observed in many large oil fields. Subsidence is most obvious in coastal and offshore fields where inundation by the sea occurs. Well-known examples are Wilmington field in California and Ekofisk field in the North Sea. In South Belridge field, the Belridge Diatomite member of the late Miocene Reef Ridge Shale has proven prone to compaction during production. The reservoir, a high-porosity, low-permeability, highly compressive rock composed largely of diatomite and mudstone, is about 1,000 ft thick and lies at an average depth of 1,600 ft. Within the Belridge Diatomite, reservoir compaction due to withdrawal of oil and water in Sec. 12, T28S, R20E, MDB and M, was noticed after casing failures in producing wells began occurring and tension cracks, enlarged by hydrocompaction after a heavy rainstorm were observed. Surface subsidence in Sec. 12 has been monitored since April 1987, through the surveying of benchmark monuments. The average annualized subsidence rate during 1987 was {minus}1.86 ft/yr, {minus}0.92 ft/yr during 1988, and {minus}0.65 ft/yr during 1989; the estimated peak subsidence rate reached {minus}7.50 ft/yr in July 1985, after 1.5 yrs of production from the Belridge Diatomite reservoir. Since production from the Belridge Diatomite reservoir commenced in February 1984, the surface of the 160-ac producing area has subsided about 12.5 ft. This equates to an estimated reservoir compaction of 30 ft in the Belridge Diatomite and an average loss of reservoir porosity of 2.4% from 55.2 to 52.8%. Injection of water for reservoir pressure maintenance in the Belridge diatomite began in June 1987, and has been effective in mitigating subsidence to current rates and repressurizing the reservoir to near-initial pressure. An added benefit of water injection has been improved recovery of oil from the Belridge Diatomite by waterflood.

  14. Ground-based instrumentation for measurements of atmospheric conduction current and electric field at the South Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrne, G. J.; Benbrook, J. R.; Bering, E. A.; Few, A. A.; Morris, G. A.; Trabucco, W. J.; Paschal, E. W.

    1993-01-01

    Attention is given to instruments constructed to measure the atmospheric conduction current and the atmospheric electric field - two fundamental parameters of the global-electric circuit. The instruments were deployed at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station in January 1991 and are designed to operate continuously for up to one year without operator intervention. The atmospheric current flows into one hemisphere, through the electronics where it is measured, and out the other hemisphere. The electric field is measured by a field mill of the rotating dipole type. Sample data from the first days of operation at the South Pole indicate variations in the global circuit over time scales from minutes to hours to days.

  15. Clay minerals as indicators for depositional environment in the south Hallettsville Field, Lavaca County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Freed, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    The South Hallettsville Field, Lavaca County, Texas, produces gas and condensate from Lower Wilcox sandstones and shales which have been interpreted as either channel turbidite deposits in outer-shelf to slope locations or as delta to pro-delta sands and muds. Thirteen core samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction methods to determine whether a semiquantitative estimate of clay mineral content would aid in determining the depositional environment. Discrete illite, kaolinite, and chlorite are of particular interest because the presence of these minerals is interpreted as being due to original deposition. If a turbidity-type event occurred, the weight percents of nondiagenetic clays in this sequence should: (1) decrease significantly as the boundary is crossed between the shale and the overlying sandstone; and (2) gradually increase in progressively shallower samples within the sandstone. However, the weight percents for kaolinite and chlorite do not vary significantly; the illite content gradually decreases with shallower depths. This sequence is more compatible with a deltaic environment of deposition. 10 references.

  16. South Harmony Church field, Southwest Louisiana - Further insights on uppermost Wilcox shelf-margin trend

    SciTech Connect

    Belvedere, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    The uppermost Wilcox Group (Eocene) in the South Harmony Church field is a 2,000-ft thick sequence of single and multistory sandstones and shales. Cores of three separate intervals from four different wells display sedimentologic and lithologic features characteristic of inner shelf and shoreface deposition, representing an offshore bar complex. Typical lithofacies assemblages within an interval include, from top to bottom, (1) bioturbated, muddy sandstone--inner shelf, (2) less bioturbated, arenaceous sandstone--mostly inner shelf, (3) structureless to faintly horizontally laminated sandstone--mostly lower shoreface, and (4) horizontal to cross-laminated, and commonly deformed sandstone with shale and siltstone interbeds--lower surface. Sandstones are fine to very fine-grained, poorly to moderately well-sorted sublitharenites. Optimum reservoir quality is observed in the bioturbated, clean sandstones of the self-shoreface transition zone, where porosity ranges from 5 to 23% and permeability from less than 0.01 to 31 md. Porosity is mostly secondary and attributed to the leaching of labile constituents.

  17. A SEARCH FOR FIELD HORIZONTAL-BRANCH STARS NEAR THE SOUTH GALACTIC POLE

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, R.; Wilhelm, R.; Costa, R. D. D.; Rossi, S.

    2010-03-15

    Searches for field horizontal-branch (FHB) stars in the halo of the Galaxy in the past have been carried out by several techniques, such as objective-prism surveys and visual or infrared photometric surveys. By choosing adequate color criteria, it is possible to improve the efficiency of identifying bona fide FHB stars among the other objects that exhibit similar characteristics, such as main-sequence A-stars, blue stragglers, subdwarfs, etc. In this work, we report the results of a spectroscopic survey carried out near the south Galactic pole intended to validate FHB stars originally selected from the HK objective-prism survey of Beers and colleagues, based on near-infrared color indices. A comparison between the stellar spectra obtained in this survey with theoretical stellar atmosphere models allows us to determine T {sub eff}, log g, and [Fe/H] for 13 stars in the sample. Stellar temperatures were calculated from measured (B - V) {sub o}, when this measurement was available (16 stars). The color index criteria adopted in this work are shown to correctly classify 30% of the sample as FHB, 25% as non-FHB (main-sequence stars and subdwarfes), whereas 40% could not be distinguished between FHB and main-sequence stars. We compare the efficacy of different color criteria in the literature intended to select FHB stars, and discuss the use of the Mg II 4481 line to estimate the metallicity.

  18. X-ray Evolution of Normal Galaxies in the 6 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmer, Bret; Basu-Zych, Antara; Mineo, Stefano; Brandt, W. Niel; Eufrasio, Rafael T.; Fragos, Tassos; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Luo, Bin; Xue, Yongquan; Bauer, Franz E.; Gilfanov, Marat; Kalogera, Vassiliki; Ranalli, Piero; Schneider, Donald P.; Shemmer, Ohad; Tozzi, Paolo; Trump, Jonathan R.; Vignali, Cristian; Wang, JunXian; Yukita, Mihoko; Zezas, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    I will discuss recent efforts to quantify the evolution of X-ray binary (XRB) populations through cosmic time using the 6 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) survey. The formation of XRBs is sensitive to galaxy properties like stellar age and metallicity---properties that have evolved significantly in the broader galaxy population throughout cosmic history. I will show that scaling relations between X-ray emission from low-mass XRBs (LMXBs) with stellar mass (LX/M) and high-mass XRBs (HMXBs) with star-formation rate (LX/SFR) change significantly with redshift, such that LX(LMXB)/M ~ (1+z)^2-3 and LX(HMXB)/SFR ~ (1+z). These findings are consistent with population synthesis models, which attribute the increase in LMXB and HMXB scaling relations with redshift as being due to declining host galaxy stellar ages and metallicities, respectively. These findings have important implications for the X-ray emission from young, low-metallicity galaxies at high redshift, which are likely to be more X-ray luminous per SFR and play a significant role in the heating of the intergalactic medium.

  19. Overview of the South American biomass burning analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, W. T.; Allan, J. D.; Flynn, M.; Darbyshire, E.; Hodgson, A.; Johnson, B. T.; Haywood, J. M.; Freitas, S.; Longo, K.; Artaxo, P.; Coe, H.

    2013-05-01

    Biomass burning represents one of the largest sources of particulate matter to the atmosphere, which results in a significant perturbation to the Earth's radiative balance coupled with serious negative impacts on public health. Globally, biomass burning aerosols are thought to exert a small warming effect of 0.03 Wm-2, however the uncertainty is 4 times greater than the central estimate. On regional scales, the impact is substantially greater, particularly in areas such as the Amazon Basin where large, intense and frequent burning occurs on an annual basis for several months (usually from August-October). Furthermore, a growing number of people live within the Amazon region, which means that they are subject to the deleterious effects on their health from exposure to substantial volumes of polluted air. Initial results from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment, which took place during September and October 2012 over Brazil, are presented here. A suite of instrumentation was flown on-board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft and was supported by ground based measurements, with extensive measurements made in Porto Velho, Rondonia. The aircraft sampled a range of conditions with sampling of fresh biomass burning plumes, regional haze and elevated biomass burning layers within the free troposphere. The physical, chemical and optical properties of the aerosols across the region will be characterized in order to establish the impact of biomass burning on regional air quality, weather and climate.

  20. X-ray observations of dust obscured galaxies in the Chandra deep field south

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corral, A.; Georgantopoulos, I.; Comastri, A.; Ranalli, P.; Akylas, A.; Salvato, M.; Lanzuisi, G.; Vignali, C.; Koutoulidis, L.

    2016-08-01

    We present the properties of X-ray detected dust obscured galaxies (DOGs) in the Chandra deep field south. In recent years, it has been proposed that a significant percentage of the elusive Compton-thick (CT) active galactic nuclei (AGN) could be hidden among DOGs. This type of galaxy is characterized by a very high infrared (IR) to optical flux ratio (f24 μm/fR > 1000), which in the case of CT AGN could be due to the suppression of AGN emission by absorption and its subsequent re-emission in the IR. The most reliable way of confirming the CT nature of an AGN is by X-ray spectroscopy. In a previous work, we presented the properties of X-ray detected DOGs by making use of the deepest X-ray observations available at that time, the 2Ms observations of the Chandra deep fields, the Chandra deep field north (CDF-N), and the Chandra deep field south (CDF-S). In that work, we only found a moderate percentage (<50%) of CT AGN among the DOGs sample. However, we pointed out that the limited photon statistics for most of the sources in the sample did not allow us to strongly constrain this number. In this paper, we further explore the properties of the sample of DOGs in the CDF-S presented in that work by using not only a deeper 6Ms Chandra survey of the CDF-S, but also by combining these data with the 3Ms XMM-Newton survey of the CDF-S. We also take advantage of the great coverage of the CDF-S region from the UV to the far-IR to fit the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of our sources. Out of the 14 AGN composing our sample, 9 are highly absorbed (NH > 1023 cm-2), whereas 2 look unabsorbed, and the other 3 are only moderately absorbed. Among the highly absorbed AGN, we find that only three could be considered CT AGN. In only one of these three cases, we detect a strong Fe Kα emission line; the source is already classified as a CT AGN with Chandra data in a previous work. Here we confirm its CT nature by combining Chandra and XMM-Newton data. For the other two CT

  1. Identification of spatially correlated excitations on a bending plate using the Virtual Fields Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, Alain; Robin, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    This paper aims at identifying the autospectral density and spatial correlation functions of random excitations acting on the surface of a thin plate, from its measured vibration response. The general framework is the Virtual Fields Method (VFM), which was previously applied by the authors to the identification of deterministic excitations on plates. In the present paper, the VFM framework is extended to the case of spatially correlated excitations. It is shown that extraction of the loading power spectral density requires measuring power spectral density functions of transverse displacements and bending curvatures, which can be typically derived from contactless Laser Doppler Vibrometry measurements. The paper details the implementation of the VFM for random excitations, presents numerical simulations and experimental results for diffuse acoustic field excitation of a plate.

  2. trnL-F is a powerful marker for DNA identification of field vittarioid gametophytes (Pteridaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cheng Wei; Huang, Yao Moan; Kuo, Li Yaung; Nguyen, Quoc Dat; Luu, Hong Truong; Callado, John Rey; Farrar, Donald R.; Chiou, Wen Liang

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The gametophyte phase of ferns plays an important role in habitat selection, dispersal, adaptation and evolution. However, ecological studies on fern gametophytes have been impeded due to the difficulty of species identification of free-living gametophytes. DNA barcoding provides an alternative approach to identifying fern gametophytes but is rarely applied to field studies. In this study, an example of field vittarioid gametophyte identification using DNA barcoding, which has not been done before, is given. Methods A combination of distance-based and tree-based approaches was performed to evaluate the discriminating power of three candidate barcodes (matK, rbcL and trnL-F) on 16 vittarioid sporophytes. Sequences of the trnL-F region were generated from 15 fern gametophyte populations by tissue-direct PCR and were compared against the sporophyte dataset, using BLAST. Key Results trnL-F earns highest primer universality and discriminatory ability scores, whereas PCR success rates were very low for matK and rbcL regions (10·8 % and 41·3 %, respectively). BLAST analyses showed that all the sampled field gametophytes could be successfully identified to species level. Three gametophyte populations were also discovered to be living beyond the known occurrence of their sporophyte counterparts. Conclusions This study demonstrates that DNA barcoding (i.e. reference databasing, tissue-direct PCR and molecular analysis), especially the trnL-F region, is an efficient tool to identify field gametophytes, and has considerable potential in exploring the ecology of fern gametophytes. PMID:23380240

  3. Identification and Analysis of Storm Tracks Associated with Extreme Flood Events in Southeast and South Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Carlos; Lopes, Camila

    2015-04-01

    observed flows. The storm track data built on the integrated moisture flux in the atmosphere are then classified and clustered in order to categorize the flood events and identify the common patterns and preferential modes of the storms. A composite analysis of synoptic fields of sea surface temperature (SST), surface pressure and geopotential height in the days that preceded the events is also carried out in the analysis. Preliminary results show that, for some regions, like the Parana river basin, the clusters obtained for the storm tracks are associated with distinct signatures of flood events as well as with specific anomalies in the fields of the meteorological variables analyzed, which represents a fundamental step in the development and improvement of non-stationary forecast and simulation models of flood recurrence conditional on climate states.

  4. Impacts of Humic Injection Experiments on the South Oyster Field Research Site

    SciTech Connect

    John F. McCarthy

    2004-04-27

    A closure plan for the South Oyster Focus Area (SOFA) is being implemented to assess the impacts of a series of experimental injections of microorganisms, tracers and chemical amendments on the chemical and physical properties of the aquifer. The proposed research addresses environmental monitoring of humic substances injected into the aquifer, as described in the Site Closure Plan for the South Oyster Field Research Site. The goal of the research is to demonstrate that the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the groundwater at and downgradient from the injection site has returned to a pre-injection �baseline� conditions with respect to either the concentration or chemical composition of the DOM. For clarity, the humic solution injected during the experiment will be referred to as �humic injectate.� The term �DOM� will refer to the organic material recovered in the groundwater, which includes the autochthonous groundwater DOM as well as any of the humic injectate remaining in the groundwater. Specific objectives include: � Estimate the amount of humic material remaining in the aquifer at the completion of the push-pull experiment and the potential for environmental impacts due to release of humics retained on the sediments. � Monitor the DOM concentrations in groundwater over time at the injection well and at sampling locations within the potential downgradient plume of the injected tracers. � Evaluate the chemical composition of the DOM to determine whether the injection experiment had an impact of the chemical properties of the aquifer. The product of this research will be a contribution to the Site Closure Report documenting the impact of the humic experiments on the aquifer. Return of the aquifer to a �baseline� conditions will be achieved if the DOM concentrations in the groundwater are determined over the course of the research to have decreased to the pre-injection level, or if the chemical properties of

  5. The 17 July 2006 Tsunami Along the South Coast of Java, Indonesia: Field Survey and Near Field Tsunami Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavigne, F.; Gomez, C.; Hebert, H.; Sladen, A.; Schindele, F.; Mardiatno, D.; Priyono, J.; Giffo, M.; Wassmer, P.

    2006-12-01

    The 17th July 2006, a tsunami struck the southern coast of Java, Indonesia. The triggering earthquake at 15:19 WIB was located about 200 km south from Pangandaran (9°24S-117°36E), with a magnitude reaching M_w = 7.7. In order to calibrate numerical models, field surveys were conducted by a team divided into threee groups - from the French CNRS and the Indonesian Research Center for Disasters - from Pangandaran district in West Java to Gunungkidul district in Central Java. The surveys began the day after the tsunami and lasted more than one month. Data collection involved measurements of the wave height and runup, inundation depth, flow direction, and chronology of the tsunami event. Two main waves were reported by eyewitnesses' accounts. The second wave reached locally 8 to 11 m high before its breaking at several sites. Depending on the nearshore topography, this wave broke either nearshore, on the beaches or up to 100 meters inland. Local runups up to 15 m asl were measured on cliffs at Nusa Kambangan Island. Inundation depth usually ranged 2 to 3 m from ground. The tsunami arrival time has been recorded precisely at several locations owing to good recorders: a clock which stopped working when struck by the tsunami, pictures taken by testimonies, or a video movie at the Cilacap power plant construction. The first wave reached the whole coast between Pangandaran and pantai Ayah between 16:15 and 16:20 WIB, one hour after the earthquake. Further East, Baron Beach in Central Java was struck around 16:30 WIB, and the tide gauge at Benoa (Bali) recorded the tsunami at 17:00 WIB. We discuss the source of the tsunami in trying several seismological models used to trigger the waves and compute their impact onland. We particularly stress on the tsunami effect in the Cilacap area where detailed bathymetric and topographic data have been used to refine the modeling. When compared to the high amplitudes measured, the results provide indications on the most realistic source

  6. Clusters, groups, and filaments in the Chandra deep field-south up to redshift 1

    SciTech Connect

    Dehghan, S.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.

    2014-03-01

    We present a comprehensive structure detection analysis of the 0.3 deg{sup 2} area of the MUSYC-ACES field, which covers the Chandra Deep Field-South (CDFS). Using a density-based clustering algorithm on the MUSYC and ACES photometric and spectroscopic catalogs, we find 62 overdense regions up to redshifts of 1, including clusters, groups, and filaments. We also present the detection of a relatively small void of ∼10 Mpc{sup 2} at z ∼ 0.53. All structures are confirmed using the DBSCAN method, including the detection of nine structures previously reported in the literature. We present a catalog of all structures present, including their central position, mean redshift, velocity dispersions, and classification based on their morphological and spectroscopic distributions. In particular, we find 13 galaxy clusters and 6 large groups/small clusters. Comparison of these massive structures with published XMM-Newton imaging (where available) shows that 80% of these structures are associated with diffuse, soft-band (0.4-1 keV) X-ray emission, including 90% of all objects classified as clusters. The presence of soft-band X-ray emission in these massive structures (M {sub 200} ≥ 4.9 × 10{sup 13} M {sub ☉}) provides a strong independent confirmation of our methodology and classification scheme. In the closest two clusters identified (z < 0.13) high-quality optical imaging from the Deep2c field of the Garching-Bonn Deep Survey reveals the cD galaxies and demonstrates that they sit at the center of the detected X-ray emission. Nearly 60% of the clusters, groups, and filaments are detected in the known enhanced density regions of the CDFS at z ≅ 0.13, 0.52, 0.68, and 0.73. Additionally, all of the clusters, bar the most distant, are found in these overdense redshift regions. Many of the clusters and groups exhibit signs of ongoing formation seen in their velocity distributions, position within the detected cosmic web, and in one case through the presence of tidally

  7. An Integrated Study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas, Class II

    SciTech Connect

    Trentham, Robert C.; Weinbrandt, Richard; Robinson, William C.; Widner, Kevin

    2001-05-03

    The objectives of the project were to: (1) Thoroughly understand the 60-year history of the field. (2) Develop a reservoir description using geology and 3D seismic. (3) Isolate the upper Grayburg in wells producing from multiple intervals to stop cross flow. (4) Re-align and optimize the upper Grayburg waterflood. (5) Determine well condition, identify re-frac candidates, evaluate the effectiveness of well work and obtain bottom hole pressure data for simulation utilizing pressure transient testing field wide. (6) Quantitatively integrate all the data to guide the field operations, including identification of new well locations utilizing reservoir simulation.

  8. Sensitivity of Lagrangian coherent structure identification to flow field resolution and random errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olcay, Ali B.; Pottebaum, Tait S.; Krueger, Paul S.

    2010-03-01

    The effect of spatial and temporal resolutions and random errors on identification of Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs) from Eulerian velocity fields is evaluated using two canonical flows: a two-dimensional vortex pair and a vortex ring formed by transient ejection of a jet from a tube. The flow field for the vortex pair case was steady and obtained analytically while the transient vortex ring flow was simulated using computational fluid dynamics. To evaluate resolution and random error effects, the flow fields were degraded by locally smoothing the flow and sampling it on a sparser grid to reduce spatial resolution, adding Gaussian distributed random noise to provide random errors, and/or subsampling the time series of vector fields to reduce the temporal resolution (the latter applying only for the vortex ring case). The degradation methods were meant to emulate distortions and errors introduced in common flow measurement methods such as digital particle image velocimetry. Comparing the LCS corresponding to the vortex boundary (separatrix) obtained from the degraded velocity fields with the true separatrix (obtained analytically for the vortex pair case or from high resolution, noise-free velocity fields for the vortex ring case) showed that noise levels as low as 5%-10% of the vortex velocity can cause the separatrix to significantly deviate from its true location in a random fashion, but the "mean" location still remained close to the true location. Temporal and spatial resolution degradations were found to primarily affect transient portions of the flow with strong spatial gradients. Significant deviations in the location of the separatrix were observed even for spatial resolutions as high as 2% of the jet diameter for the vortex ring case.

  9. Electric field control of E region coherent echoes: Evidence from radar observations at the South Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarevich, Roman A.; Forsythe, V. V.; Kellerman, A. C.

    2015-03-01

    Characteristics and formation mechanisms of E region plasma irregularities at high latitudes are investigated using observations with the newly deployed Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) radar at the South Pole Antarctic station (SPS) near a magnetic latitude (MLAT) of 75°S. It is shown that E region echo occurrence at SPS exhibits a diurnal variation that is significantly different from those at auroral and polar cap latitudes. Moreover, analysis of major spectral populations also showed a distinct and previously unreported diurnal pattern. The plasma drift velocity estimates are derived at E region ranges of SPS, leveraging the SPS radar's position well within the MLAT region where SuperDARN convection estimates are well constrained by the data. It is shown that E region irregularity occurrence increases when the convection direction is within the SPS field of view and/or when the plasma drift component is comparable with the nominal ion-acoustic speed Cs of 350 m/s. This is the expected behavior for irregularities generated directly by the modified two-stream plasma instability (MTSI). On the other hand, irregularity velocity dependence on convection velocity showed an unexpected saturation at velocity values smaller than nominal Cs. It is demonstrated that the convection velocity at which irregularity velocity starts to differ from the convection component and to approach a maximum value is dependent on the magnetic aspect angle. Moreover, the maximum velocity value itself also depends on the aspect angle. The observed behavior is discussed in context of recent models that involve evolving aspect angles as a key characteristic of MTSI saturation.

  10. A Search for Field Horizontal-Branch Stars Near the South Galactic Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, R.; Wilhelm, R.; Costa, R. D. D.; Rossi, S.; Beers, T. C.

    2010-03-01

    Searches for field horizontal-branch (FHB) stars in the halo of the Galaxy in the past have been carried out by several techniques, such as objective-prism surveys and visual or infrared photometric surveys. By choosing adequate color criteria, it is possible to improve the efficiency of identifying bona fide FHB stars among the other objects that exhibit similar characteristics, such as main-sequence A-stars, blue stragglers, subdwarfs, etc. In this work, we report the results of a spectroscopic survey carried out near the south Galactic pole intended to validate FHB stars originally selected from the HK objective-prism survey of Beers and colleagues, based on near-infrared color indices. A comparison between the stellar spectra obtained in this survey with theoretical stellar atmosphere models allows us to determine T eff, log g, and [Fe/H] for 13 stars in the sample. Stellar temperatures were calculated from measured (B - V) o , when this measurement was available (16 stars). The color index criteria adopted in this work are shown to correctly classify 30% of the sample as FHB, 25% as non-FHB (main-sequence stars and subdwarfes), whereas 40% could not be distinguished between FHB and main-sequence stars. We compare the efficacy of different color criteria in the literature intended to select FHB stars, and discuss the use of the Mg II 4481 line to estimate the metallicity. Based on observations obtained at the Pico dos Dias Observatory, operated by the National Laboratory for Astrophysics, Brazil.

  11. Schmallenberg virus infection in South American camelids: Field and experimental investigations.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Claudia; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2015-11-18

    During the first epizootic wave of the novel, teratogenic Schmallenberg virus (SBV, Orthobunyavirus) in ruminants in Northern Europe, serological evidence of a previous SBV-infection demonstrated that South American camelids (SAC) are also susceptible to SBV. However, their potential role in SBV spread remains unknown. To investigate the prevalence and course of SBV-infection in SAC, a German field study and an animal trial with three llamas and three alpacas were conducted. From September 2012 to December 2013, 313 of 502 SAC (62.35%) were found SBV seropositive, but negative for SBV-RNA. The estimated between-district (94.23% of 52) and median within-district (71.43%) and herd (73.13%) SBV seroprevalence in German SAC was similar to the seroprevalence reported in cattle herds and sheep flocks at the time. An age of >1 year was found a statistically significant risk factor for SBV-infection, which could be explained by the spatio-temporal spread of SBV in Germany during the study period. No clinical signs or an increase of abortion and congenital malformation associated with SBV-infection in SAC were reported by the study participants. Similar to SBV-infected ruminants, SBV-RNAemia in experimentally SBV-infected SAC was detected for a short time between days 3 and 7 after infection (dpi), and seroconversion occurred between 9 and 21 dpi. Despite the similar virological and serological results, the lack of clinical signs and congenital malformation associated with SBV-infection suggests that SBV causes subclinical infection in SAC. However, their role as reservoirs in the spread of SBV has to be further investigated. PMID:26361966

  12. Near-Field Deformation Associated with the M6.0 South Napa Earthquake Surface Rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, B. A.; Hudnut, K. W.; Glennie, C. L.; Ericksen, T.

    2014-12-01

    We characterize near-field deformation associated with the surface rupture of the M6.0 South Napa earthquake from repeat mobile laser scanning (MLS) surveys. Starting the day after the main shock, we operated, sometime simultaneously, short (~75 m range) and medium (~400m range) range laser scanners on a truck or backpack. We scanned most of the length of the principal and secondary surface ruptures at speeds less than 10 km/hr. Scanning occurred primarily in either suburban subdivisions or cultivated vineyards of varying varietals with differing leaf patterns and stages of maturity. Spot-spacing is dense enough (100s of points/m^2) to permit creation of 10-25cm digital elevation models of much of the surface rupture. Scanned features of the right-lateral rupture include classic mole tracks through a variety of soil types, en echelon cracks, offset vine rows, and myriad types of pavement-related deformation. We estimate coseismic surface displacements ranging from 5 to 45 cm by examining offset cultural features and vine rows and by comparing the MLS data with preexisting airborne laser scans from 2003 using point-cloud and solid-modeling methodologies. Additionally, we conducted repeat MLS scans to measure the magnitude and spatial variation of fault afterslip, exceeding 20 cm in some places, particularly in the southern portion of the rupture zone. We anticipate these data sets, in conjunction with independently collected ground-based alinement arrays and space-based geodetic data will contribute significant insight into topics of current debate including assessing the most appropriate material models for shallow fault zones and how shallow and deeper fault slip relate to one another.

  13. Applying a Bayesian Approach to Identification of Orthotropic Elastic Constants from Full Field Displacement Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogu, C.; Yin, W.; Haftka, R.; Ifju, P.; Molimard, J.; Le Riche, R.; Vautrin, A.

    2010-06-01

    A major challenge in the identification of material properties is handling different sources of uncertainty in the experiment and the modelling of the experiment for estimating the resulting uncertainty in the identified properties. Numerous improvements in identification methods have provided increasingly accurate estimates of various material properties. However, characterizing the uncertainty in the identified properties is still relatively crude. Different material properties obtained from a single test are not obtained with the same confidence. Typically the highest uncertainty is associated with respect to properties to which the experiment is the most insensitive. In addition, the uncertainty in different properties can be strongly correlated, so that obtaining only variance estimates may be misleading. A possible approach for handling the different sources of uncertainty and estimating the uncertainty in the identified properties is the Bayesian method. This method was introduced in the late 1970s in the context of identification [1] and has been applied since to different problems, notably identification of elastic constants from plate vibration experiments [2]-[4]. The applications of the method to these classical pointwise tests involved only a small number of measurements (typically ten natural frequencies in the previously cited vibration test) which facilitated the application of the Bayesian approach. For identifying elastic constants, full field strain or displacement measurements provide a high number of measured quantities (one measurement per image pixel) and hence a promise of smaller uncertainties in the properties. However, the high number of measurements represents also a major computational challenge in applying the Bayesian approach to full field measurements. To address this challenge we propose an approach based on the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) of the full fields in order to drastically reduce their dimensionality. POD is

  14. Quantum field theory and the antipodal identification of black-holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, N.; Whiting, B. F.

    The antipodal points (U, V, θ, ϕ) and (-U, -V, π - θ, ϕ + π) of the Schwarzchild-Kruskal manifold, usually interpreted as two different events (in two different worlds) are considered here as physically identified (to give one single world). This has fundamental consequences for the QFT formulated on this manifold. The antipodal symmetric fields have (globally) zero norm. The usual particle-antiparticle Fock space definition breaks down. There is no quantum operator (unitary, antiunitary or projection) giving antipodal symmetric states from the usual Kruskal ones. The antipodal symmetric Green functions have the same periodicity β = 8 π M in imaginary (Schwarzschild) time as the usual (non-symmetric) ones. (Identification with ``conical singularity'' would give a period 1/2β). In any case, no usual thermal interpretation is possible for T = β-1 (nor for T0 = 2/β or any other value) in the theory. In the light of these results we discuss ``old'' ideas and more recent ones on identification. Present address: Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, NC 27514, USA.

  15. A WFC3 Grism Emission Line Redshift Catalog in the GOODS-South Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Aaron M.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Barro, Guillermo; Dahlen, Tomas; Faber, Sandra M.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Fontana, Adriano; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Grützbauch, Ruth; Guo, Yicheng; Hsu, Li-Ting; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Koo, David C.; Mobasher, Bahram; Pforr, Janine; Salvato, Mara; Wiklind, Tommy; Wuyts, Stijn

    2015-06-01

    We combine Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Wide Field Camera3 (WFC3) imaging and G141 grism observations from the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) and 3D-HST surveys to produce a catalog of grism spectroscopic redshifts for galaxies in the CANDELS/GOODS-South field. The WFC3/G141 grism spectra cover a wavelength range of 1.1≤slant λ ≤slant 1.7 μm with a resolving power of R∼ 130 for point sources, thus providing rest-frame optical spectra for galaxies out to z∼ 3.5. The catalog is selected in the H-band (F160W) and includes both galaxies with and without previously published spectroscopic redshifts. Grism spectra are extracted for all H-band detected galaxies with H ≤slant 24 and a CANDELS photometric redshift {{z}phot}≥slant 0.6. The resulting spectra are visually inspected to identify emission lines, and redshifts are determined using cross-correlation with empirical spectral templates. To establish the accuracy of our redshifts, we compare our results against high-quality spectroscopic redshifts from the literature. Using a sample of 411 control galaxies, this analysis yields a precision of {{σ }NMAD}=0.0028 for the grism-derived redshifts, which is consistent with the accuracy reported by the 3D-HST team. Our final catalog covers an area of 153 arcmin2 and contains 1019 redshifts for galaxies in GOODS-S. Roughly 60% (608/1019) of these redshifts are for galaxies with no previously published spectroscopic redshift. These new redshifts span a range of 0.677≤slant z≤slant 3.456 and have a median redshift of z = 1.282. The catalog contains a total of 234 new redshifts for galaxies at z\\gt 1.5. In addition, we present 20 galaxy pair candidates identified for the first time using the grism redshifts in our catalog, including four new galaxy pairs at z∼ 2, nearly doubling the number of such pairs previously identified.

  16. Interlaboratory Agreement of Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Identification of Leptospira Serovars

    PubMed Central

    Mende, Katrin; Galloway, Renee L.; Becker, Sara J.; Beckius, Miriam L.; Murray, Clinton K.; Hospenthal, Duane R.

    2013-01-01

    Leptospirosis may be caused by > 250 Leptospira serovars. Serovar classification is a complex task that most laboratories cannot perform. We assessed the interlaboratory reproducibility of a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) identification technique developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Blinded exchange of 93 Leptospiraceae strains occurred between San Antonio Military Medical Center (SAMMC) and the CDC. PFGE was performed and gel images were analyzed and compared with patterns present in each laboratory's database (CDC database: > 800 strain patterns; SAMMC database: > 300 strain patterns). Overall, 93.7% (74 of 79) of strains present in each receiving laboratory's database were correctly identified. Five isolates were misidentified, and two isolates did not match serovar PFGE patterns in the receiving laboratory's database. Patterns for these seven isolates were identical between laboratories; four serovars represented misidentified reference strains. The PFGE methodology studied showed excellent interlaboratory reproducibility, enabling standardization and data sharing between laboratories. PMID:23817329

  17. Isolation and identification of gold nanoparticles synthesizing fungi from Indian Kolar Gold Field mine soil.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, V Jhansi; Kannan, K P

    2016-07-01

    An indigenous fungal strain was isolated from Indian Kolar Gold Field mine soil. The isolate was heterothallic, branched septate, deeply floccose, fast-growing, dull green with white background conidial columnar mycelium from Aspergillus section Fumigati. Diverse metabolic patterns of the isolate exhibit high metal, thermal resistance which grews well from 28 ± 1 degrees C to 37 degrees C and pH concentration was significant on the growth of isolate. Phylogenetic analysis of 16srRNA β-Tubulin gene sequence established relationship among isolate and other taxa. Molecular identification and morphological features of fungal isolate were consistent with those of Neosartorya udagawae. Heterothallic N. udagawae FJ830683 strain was closely related to homothallic N. aureola EF661890. Fungal isolate extract synthesized narrow sized stable Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). PMID:27498502

  18. Identification of in-field defect development in digital image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudas, Jozsef; Wu, Linda M.; Jung, Cory; Chapman, Glenn H.; Koren, Zahava; Koren, Israel

    2007-02-01

    Although solid-state image sensors are known to develop defects in the field, little information is available about the nature, quantity or development rate of these defects. We report on and algorithm and calibration tests, which confirmed the existence of significant quantities of in-field defects in 4 out of 5 high-end digital cameras. Standard hot pixels were identified in all 4 cameras. Stuck hot pixels, which have not been described previously, were identified in 2 cameras. Previously, hot-pixels were thought to have no impact at short exposure durations, but the large offset of stuck hot pixels will degrade almost any image and cannot be ignored. Fully-stuck and abnormal sensitivity defects were not found. Spatial investigation found no clustering. We tracked hot pixel growth over the lifetime of one camera, using only normal photographs. We show that defects develop continually over the lifetime of the sensor, starting within several months of first use, and do not heal over time. Our success in tracing the history of each defect confirms the feasibility of using automatic defect identification to analyze defect response and growth characteristics in a multitude of cameras already in the field, without performing additional experiments or requiring physical access to the cameras.

  19. Ground-based aerosol characterization during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, J.; Rizzo, L. V.; Morgan, W. T.; Coe, H.; Johnson, B.; Haywood, J.; Longo, K.; Freitas, S.; Andreae, M. O.; Artaxo, P.

    2014-11-01

    This paper investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols at ground level at a site heavily impacted by biomass burning. The site is located near Porto Velho, Rondônia, in the southwestern part of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest, and was selected for the deployment of a large suite of instruments, among them an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor. Our measurements were made during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment, which consisted of a combination of aircraft and ground-based measurements over Brazil, aimed to investigate the impacts of biomass burning emissions on climate, air quality, and numerical weather prediction over South America. The campaign took place during the dry season and the transition to the wet season in September/October 2012. During most of the campaign, the site was impacted by regional biomass burning pollution (average CO mixing ratio of 0.6 ppm), occasionally superimposed by intense (up to 2 ppm of CO), freshly emitted biomass burning plumes. Aerosol number concentrations ranged from ~1000 cm-3 to peaks of up to 35 000 cm-3 (during biomass burning (BB) events, corresponding to an average submicron mass mean concentrations of 13.7 μg m-3 and peak concentrations close to 100 μg m-3. Organic aerosol strongly dominated the submicron non-refractory composition, with an average concentration of 11.4 μg m-3. The inorganic species, NH4, SO4, NO3, and Cl, were observed, on average, at concentrations of 0.44, 0.34, 0.19, and 0.01 μg m-3, respectively. Equivalent black carbon (BCe) ranged from 0.2 to 5.5 μg m-3, with an average concentration of 1.3 μg m-3. During BB peaks, organics accounted for over 90% of total mass (submicron non-refractory plus BCe), among the highest values described in the literature. We examined the ageing of biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) using the changes in the H : C and O : C ratios, and found that throughout most of the aerosol processing (O : C &cong

  20. Ground based aerosol characterization during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, J.; Rizzo, L. V.; Morgan, W. T.; Coe, H.; Johnson, B.; Haywood, J.; Longo, K.; Freitas, S.; Andreae, M. O.; Artaxo, P.

    2014-05-01

    This paper investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols at ground level at a site heavily impacted by biomass burning. The site is located near Porto Velho, Rondônia, in the Southwestern part of the Brazilian Amazon forest, and was selected for the deployment of a large suite of instruments, among them an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor. Our measurements were made during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment, which consisted of a combination of aircraft and ground based measurements over Brazil, aiming to investigate the impacts of biomass burning emissions on climate, air quality, and numerical weather prediction over South America. The campaign took place during the dry season and the transition to the wet season in September/October 2012. During most of the campaign, the site was impacted by regional biomass burning pollution (average CO mixing ratio of 0.6 ppm), occasionally superimposed by intense (up to 2 ppm of CO), freshly emitted biomass burning plumes. Aerosol number concentrations ranged from ∼1000 cm-3 to peaks of up to 35 000 cm-3 during biomass burning (BB) events, corresponding to an average submicron mass mean concentrations of 13.7 μg m-3 and peak concentrations close to 100 μg m-3. Organic aerosol strongly dominated the submicron non-refractory composition, with an average concentration of 11.4 μg m-3. The inorganic species, NH4, SO4, NO3, and Cl, were observed on average at concentrations of 0.44, 0.34, 0.19, and 0.01 μg m-3, respectively. Equivalent Black Carbon (BCe) ranged from 0.2 to 5.5 μg m-3, with an average concentration of 1.3 μg m-3. During BB peaks, organics accounted for over 90% of total mass (submicron non-refractory plus BCe), among the highest values described in the literature. We examined the ageing of Biomass Burning Organic Aerosol (BBOA) using the changes in the H : C and O : C ratios, and found that throughout most of the aerosol processing (O : C ≅ 0

  1. The great observatories origins deep survey. VLT/VIMOS spectroscopy in the GOODS-south field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popesso, P.; Dickinson, M.; Nonino, M.; Vanzella, E.; Daddi, E.; Fosbury, R. A. E.; Kuntschner, H.; Mainieri, V.; Cristiani, S.; Cesarsky, C.; Giavalisco, M.; Renzini, A.; GOODS Team

    2009-02-01

    Aims: We present the first results from the VIsible Multiobject Spectrograph (VIMOS) ESO/GOODS program of spectroscopy for faint galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S). This program complements the FORS2 ESO/GOODS campaign. Methods: All 3312 spectra were obtained in service mode with VIMOS at the ESO/VLT UT3. The VIMOS LR-Blue and MR grisms were used to cover different redshift ranges. Galaxies at 1.8 < z < 3.5 were observed in the GOODS VIMOS-LR-Blue campaign. Galaxies at z < 1 and Lyman Break Galaxies at z > 3.5 were observed in the VIMOS MR survey. Results: Here we report results for the first 12 masks (out of 20 total). We extracted 2344 from 6 LR-Blue masks and 968 from 6 MR masks. A large percentage, 33% of the LR-Blue and 18% of the MR spectra, are serendipitous observations. We obtained 1481 and 656 redshifts in the LR-Blue and MR campaign, respectively, for a total success rate of 70% and 75%, respectively, which decrease to 63% and 68% when also the serendipitous targets are considered. The typical redshift accuracy is σz = 0.001. The reliability of the redshift estimate varies with the quality flag. The LR-Blue quality flag A redshifts are reliable at ~95% confidence level, flag B redshifs at ~70% and quality C et ~40%. The MR redshift reliability is somewhat higher: 100% for quality flag A, ~90% for quality flag B and ~70% for flag C. By complementing our VIMOS spectroscopic catalog with all existing spectroscopic redshifts publicly available in the CDF-S, we created a redshift master catalog. By comparing this redshift compilation with different photometric redshift catalogs we estimate the completeness level of the CDF-S spectroscopic coverage in several redshift bins. Conclusions: The completeness level is very high, >60%, at z < 3.5, and it is very uncertain at higher redshift. The master catalog was used also to estimate completeness and contamination levels of different galaxy photometric selection techniques. The BzK selection method

  2. Discovery of a z ˜ 6 Galaxy in the Chandra Deep Field South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunker, A. J.; Stanway, E. R.; Ellis, R. S.; McMahon, R. G.; McCarthy, P. J.

    2003-05-01

    We report the discovery of a luminous z=5.78 star-forming galaxy in the Chandra Deep Field South. This galaxy was selected as an ``i-drop'' from the GOODS public survey imaging with HST/ACS (object 3 in Stanway, Bunker & McMahon 2003, astro-ph/0302212). The large colour of (i'-z')AB=1.6 indicated a spectral break consistent with the Lyman-α forest absorption short-ward of Lyman-α at z≈ 6. The galaxy is very compact (marginally resolved with ACS with a half-light radius of 0.08 arcsec, so rhl<0.5 h-170 kpc). We have obtained a deep (5.5-hour) spectrum of this z'AB=24.7 galaxy with the DEIMOS optical spectrograph on Keck, and here we report the discovery of a single emission line centered on (8245+/- 1) Å detected at 20 σ with a flux of f≈ 2x 10-17 ergs cm-2 s-1. The line is clearly resolved with detectable structure at our resolution of better than 55 km s-1, and the only plausible interpretation consistent with the ACS photometry is that we are seeing Lyman-α emission from a z=5.78 galaxy. This is the highest redshift galaxy to be discovered and studied using HST data. The velocity width (Δ vFWHM=260 km s-1) and rest-frame equivalent width (Wrest Lyα =20 Å ) indicate that this line is most probably powered by star formation, as an AGN would typically have larger values. The starburst interpretation is supported by our non-detection of the high-ionization Nriptsize V λ 1240 Å emission line, and the absence of this source from the deep Chandra X-ray images. The star formation rate inferred from the rest-frame UV continuum is 33.8 h70-2 Msun yr-1 (Ω M=0.3, Ω Λ =0.7). This is the most luminous starburst known at z>5. Our spectroscopic redshift for this object confirms the validity of the i'-drop selection technique of Stanway, Bunker & McMahon (2003) to select star-forming galaxies at z≈ 6.

  3. Spatial release from masking in a free-field source identification task by gray treefrogs

    PubMed Central

    Nityananda, Vivek; Bee, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Humans and other animals often communicate acoustically in noisy social groups, in which the background noise generated by other individuals can mask signals of interest. When listening to speech in the presence of speech-like noise, humans experience a release from auditory masking when target and masker are spatially separated. We investigated spatial release from masking (SRM) in a free-field call recognition task in Cope’s gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis). In this species, reproduction requires that females successfully detect, recognize, and localize a conspecific male in the noisy social environment of a breeding chorus. Using no-choice phonotaxis assays, we measured females’ signal recognition thresholds in response to a target signal (an advertisement call) in the presence and absence of chorus-shaped noise. Females experienced about 3 dB of masking release, compared with a co-localized condition, when the masker was displaced 90° in azimuth from the target. The magnitude of masking release was independent of the spectral composition of the target (carriers of 1.3 kHz, 2.6 kHz, or both). Our results indicate that frogs experience a modest degree of spatial unmasking when performing a call recognition task in the free-field, and suggest that variation in signal spectral content has small effects on both source identification and spatial unmasking. We discuss these results in the context of spatial unmasking in vertebrates and call recognition in frogs. PMID:22240459

  4. A COMPREHENSIVE NONPOINT SOURCE FIELD STUDY FOR SEDIMENT, NUTRIENTS, AND PATHOGENS IN THE SOUTH FORK BROAD RIVER WATERSHED IN NORTHEAST GEORGIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This technical report provides a description of the field project design, quality control, the sampling protocols and analysis methodology used, and standard operating procedures for the South Fork Broad River Watershed (SFBR) Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) project. This watersh...

  5. Reconnaissance of Field Sites for the Study of Chemical Weathering on the Guayana Shield, South America

    SciTech Connect

    Steefell, C I

    2003-02-01

    Despite the fact that chemical weathering of silicate rocks plays an important role in the draw-down of CO{sub 2} over geologic time scales (Berner and Berner, 1996), the overall controls on the rate of chemical weathering are still not completely understood. Lacking a mechanistic understanding of these controls, it remains difficult to evaluate a hypothesis such as that presented by Raymo and Ruddiman (1992), who suggested that enhanced weathering and CO{sub 2} draw-down resulting from the uplift of the Himalayas contributed to global cooling during the Cenozoic. At an even more fundamental level, the three to four order of magnitude discrepancy between laboratory and field weathering rates is still unresolved (White et al., 1996). There is as yet no comprehensive, mechanistic model for silicate chemical weathering that considers the coupled effects of precipitation, vadose zone flow, and chemical reactions. The absence of robust process models for silicate weathering and the failure to resolve some of these important questions may in fact be related-the controls on the overall rates of weathering cannot be understood without considering the weathering environment as one in which multiple, time-dependent chemical and physical processes are coupled (Malmstrom, 2000). Once chemical weathering is understood at a mechanistic process level, the important controls on chemical weathering (physical erosion, temperature, precipitation) can be folded into larger scale models tracking the global carbon cycle. Our goal in this study was to carry out the preliminary work needed to establish a field research site for chemical weathering om the Cuayana Shield in South America. The Guayana Shield is a Precambrian province greater than 1.5 billion years old covering portions of Venezuela, Guyana (the country), Surinam, French Guiana, and Brazil (Figure 1). More important than the age of the rocks themselves, however, is the age of the erosion surface developed on the Shield, with

  6. PCR-based identification of eight Lactobacillus species and 18 hr-HPV genotypes in fixed cervical samples of South African women at risk of HIV and BV.

    PubMed

    Dols, Joke A M; Reid, Gregor; Kort, Remco; Schuren, Frank H J; Tempelman, Hugo; Bontekoe, Tj Romke; Korporaal, Hans; Van der Veer, E M; Smit, Pieter W; Boon, Mathilde E

    2012-06-01

    Vaginal lactobacilli assessed by PCR-based microarray and PCR-based genotyping of HPV in South African women at risk for HIV and BV. Vaginal lactobacilli can be defined by microarray techniques in fixed cervical samples of South African women. Cervical brush samples suspended in the coagulant fixative BoonFix of one hundred women attending a health centre for HIV testing in South Africa were available for this study. In the Ndlovu Medical Centre in Elandsdoorn, South Africa, identification of 18 hr-HPV genotypes was done using the INNO-LiPA method. An inventory of lactobacilli organisms was performed using microarray technology. On the basis of the Lactobacillus and Lactobacillus biofilm scoring, the cases were identified as Leiden bacterial vaginosis (BV) negative (BV-; n = 41), Leiden BV intermediate (BV±; n = 25), and Leiden BV positive (BV+; n = 34). Fifty-one women were HIV positive and 49 HIV negative. Out of the 51 HIV positive women, 35 were HPV infected. These 51 HIV positive women were frequently infected with HPV16 and HPV18. In addition, HPV35, HPV52, HPV33, and HPV66 were often detected in these samples. Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus iners were the most prevalent lactobacilli as established by the microarray technique. In women with HPV infection, the prevalence of Lactobacillus crispatus was significantly reduced. In both HIV and HPV infection, a similar (but not identical) shift in the composition of the lactobacillus flora was observed. We conclude that there is a shift in the composition of vaginal lactobacilli in HIV-infected women. Because of the prominence of HPV35, HPV52, HPV33, and HPV66, vaccination for exclusively HPV16 and HPV18 might be insufficient in South African HIV+ women. PMID:22021225

  7. Comparison of SVM RBF-NN and DT for crop and weed identification based on spectral measurement over corn fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is important to find an appropriate pattern-recognition method for in-field plant identification based on spectral measurement in order to classify the crop and weeds accurately. In this study, the method of Support Vector Machine (SVM) was evaluated and compared with two other methods, Decision ...

  8. Organic Matter and Water Stability of Field Aggregates Affected by Tillage in South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased tillage intensity has been associated with declines in soil organic matter (SOM). A case study was conducted (2001-2004) on adjacent farms (both in a two-year crop rotation) in eastern South Dakota to quantify tillage effects on components of SOM and soil aggregate stability. One farm used...

  9. Tracking Holland Interest Codes: The Case of South African Field Guides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Mark B.; Foxcroft, Cheryl D.; Allen, Lynda J.

    2007-01-01

    Holland believes that specific personality types seek out matching occupational environments and his theory codes personality and environment according to a six letter interest typology. Since 1985 there have been numerous American studies that have queried the validity of Holland's coding system. Research in South Africa is scarcer, despite…

  10. Installation restoration program. Site investigation report for IRP site No. 12 and 13, South Dakota Air National Guard, 114th Fighter Wing, Joe Foss Field, Sioux Falls, South Dakota - Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    Site Investigation Report for IRP Site No 12 and 13, South Dakota Air National Guard, 114th Fighter Wing, Joe Foss Field, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, Volume I. This is the first volume of a two volume site investigation report. Two sites (Site 12 - Ramp area and Site 13 - Motor Vehicle Maintenance Facility) was investigated under the Installation Restoration Program. Soil and groundwater samples were collected and analyzed. No further action was recommended on site 13 and quarterly sampling was recommended for site 12. South Dakota Regulators have agreed to both recommendations. Decision documents will be prepared for each site.

  11. Archaean atmospheric evolution: evidence from the Witwatersrand gold fields, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frimmel, Hartwig E.

    2005-04-01

    The Witwatersrand gold fields in South Africa, the world's largest gold-producing province, play a pivotal role in the reconstruction of the Archaean atmosphere and hydrosphere. Past uncertainties on the genetic model for the gold caused confusion in the debate on Archaean palaeoenvironmental conditions. The majority of Witwatersrand gold occurs together with pyrite, uraninite and locally bitumen, on degradational surfaces of fluvial conglomerates that were laid down between 2.90 and 2.84 Ga in the Central Rand Basin. Although most of the gold appears as a precipitate within, or associated with, post-depositional hydrothermal phases and along microfractures, available microtextural, mineralogical, geochemical and isotopic data all indicate that this hydrothermal gold, analogous to some pyrite and uraninite, was derived from the local mobilisation of detrital particles. Some of the key pieces of evidence are a significant correlation of the gold, pyrite and uraninite with other heavy minerals as well as sedimentary lithofacies, local preservation of in-situ gold micronuggets and abundant rounded forms of pyrite and uraninite, compositional heterogeneity on a microscale of the gold as well as the rounded pyrite and uraninte, and radiometric age data that indicate an age of the gold, pyrite and uraninite that is older than the maximum age of deposition for the host sediment. None of these observations/data is compatible with any of the suggested hydrothermal models, in which auriferous fluids were introduced from an external source into the host rock succession after sediment deposition. In contrast, those arguments, used in favour of hydrothermal models, emphasise the microtextural position of most of the gold, which highlights the undisputed hydrothermal nature of that gold in its present position, but does not explain its ultimate source. Furthermore, the macro-scale setting of the stratiform ore deposits is in stark contrast to any known type of epigenetic

  12. Development of an overnight rapid bovine identification test (ORBIT) for field use.

    PubMed

    Mageau, R P; Cutrufelli, M E; Schwab, B; Johnston, R W

    1984-01-01

    An Overnight Rapid Bovine Identification Test (ORBIT) has been developed as a serological screen test for species verification of raw, whole tissue, bovine meat products. The test, an agar-gel immunodiffusion technique, uses stabilized reagent paper discs and prepared agar plates that have a printed template for correct placement of test components. This test is reliable, practical, economical, and easily performed in the field, such as at a meat import inspection station. The only nonbovine species found to react in the test are the bovine-related species of American bison (buffalo) and water buffalo (from Australia); however, these rare-occurring species do not present a problem for the intended application of the test. Stability of all test components, when stored in a refrigerator, is excellent for at least 1 year. The nature and stability of the test make it suitable for commercial development into test kits which should be highly practical and economical for wide availability and application of this procedure to meat inspection programs concerned with species verification. PMID:6438051

  13. The Sex Attractant Pheromone of Male Brown Rats: Identification and Field Experiment.

    PubMed

    Takács, Stephen; Gries, Regine; Zhai, Huimin; Gries, Gerhard

    2016-05-10

    Trapping brown rats is challenging because they avoid newly placed traps in their habitat. Herein, we report the identification of the sex pheromone produced by male brown rats and its effect on trap captures of wild female brown rats. Collecting urine- and feces-soiled bedding material of laboratory-kept rats and comparing the soiled-bedding odorants of juvenile and adult males, as well as of adult males and females, we found nine compounds that were specific to, or most prevalent in, the odor profiles of sexually mature adult males. When we added a synthetic blend of six of these compounds (2-heptanone, 4-heptanone, 3-ethyl-2-heptanone, 2-octanone, 2-nonanone, 4-nonanone) to one of two paired food-baited trap boxes, these boxes attracted significantly more laboratory-strain female rats in laboratory experiments, and captured ten times more wild female rats in a field experiment than the corresponding control boxes. Our data show that the pheromone facilitates captures of wild female brown rats. PMID:27060700

  14. Rapid and field-deployable biological and chemical Raman-based identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botonjic-Sehic, Edita; Paxon, Tracy L.; Boudries, Hacene

    2011-06-01

    Pathogen detection using Raman spectroscopy is achieved through the use of a sandwich immunoassay. Antibody-modified magnetic beads are used to capture and concentrate target analytes in solution and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) tags are conjugated with antibodies and act as labels to enable specific detection of biological pathogens. The rapid detection of biological pathogens is critical to first responders, thus assays to detect E.Coli and Anthrax have been developed and will be reported. The problems associated with pathogen detection resulting from the spectral complexity and variability of microorganisms are overcome through the use of SERS tags, which provide an intense, easily recognizable, and spectrally consistent Raman signal. The developed E. coli assay has been tested with 5 strains of E. coli and shows a low limit of detection, on the order of 10 and 100 c.f.u. per assay. Additionally, the SERS assay utilizes magnetic beads to collect the labeled pathogens into the focal point of the detection laser beam, making the assay robust to commonly encountered white powder interferants such as flour, baking powder, and corn starch. The reagents were also found to be stable at room temperature over extended periods of time with testing conducted over a one year period. Finally, through a specialized software algorithm, the assays are interfaced to the Raman instrument, StreetLab Mobile, for rapid-field-deployable biological identification.

  15. Glacier modeling in support of field observations of mass balance at South Cascade Glacier, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Josberger, Edward G.; Bidlake, William R.

    2010-01-01

    The long-term USGS measurement and reporting of mass balance at South Cascade Glacier was assisted in balance years 2006 and 2007 by a new mass balance model. The model incorporates a temperature-index melt computation and accumulation is modeled from glacier air temperature and gaged precipitation at a remote site. Mass balance modeling was used with glaciological measurements to estimate dates and magnitudes of critical mass balance phenomena. In support of the modeling, a detailed analysis was made of the "glacier cooling effect" that reduces summer air temperature near the ice surface as compared to that predicted on the basis of a spatially uniform temperature lapse rate. The analysis was based on several years of data from measurements of near-surface air temperature on the glacier. The 2006 and 2007 winter balances of South Cascade Glacier, computed with this new, model-augmented methodology, were 2.61 and 3.41 mWE, respectively. The 2006 and 2007 summer balances were -4.20 and -3.63 mWE, respectively, and the 2006 and 2007 net balances were -1.59 and -0.22 mWE. PDF version of a presentation on the mass balance of South Cascade Glacier in Washington state. Presented at the American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting 2010.

  16. X-ray identifications of FIRST radio sources in the XBoötes field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Bouchefry, K.

    2009-07-01

    With the goal of investigating the nature and the environment of the faint radio sources (at mJy level), here are presented results of X-ray identifications of Faint Imaging Radio Survey at Twenty centimetres (FIRST) in the 9 deg2 Boötes field of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) Deep Wide Field Survey (NDWFS), using data from the Chandra XBoötes survey. A total of 92 (10 per cent) FIRST radio sources are identified above the X-ray flux limit fX(0.5-7)keV = 8 × 10-15ergs-1cm-2, and 79 optical counterparts are common to both the radio and X-ray sources. Spectroscopic identifications [obtained from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) survey] were available for 22 sources (27 per cent). The majority of these sources (59 per cent) are classified as broad line active galactic nuclei (BLAGNs), and 18 per cent as low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs), 14 per cent as star-forming galaxies and one source classified as BL Lac object. Multiwavelength optical/infrared photometric data (Bw ~ 25.5 mag, R ~ 25.8 mag, I ~ 25.5 mag and K ~ 19.4 mag) were available for this field and were used to derive photometric redshift for the remaining 57 sources without spectroscopic information. Most of the radio-X-ray matches are optically extended objects in the R band with a red colour, their radio emission is associated with AGN activity hosted in massive early type host galaxies with a photometric redshift distribution peaking at z ~ 0.7. Based on the hardness ratio and X-ray luminosity, 37 sources (89 per cent) were classified as AGN-1, 19 as AGN-2, 12 as quasi-stellar object 1 (QSO-1), two as QSO-2 and nine sources as normal galaxies. While the majority of these sources have a hard X-ray luminosity LX(2-7) keV > 1042ergs-1, about one third of the sources have LX(2-7) keV > 1044ergs-1 and therefore classified as QSO-1, 92 per cent of these objects are spectroscopically identified as QSOs. I found good agreement between the X-ray classification scheme

  17. Organizational Identification and Social Motivation: A Field Descriptive Study in Two Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barge, J. Kevin

    A study examined the relationships between leadership conversation and its impact upon organizational members' levels of organizational identification and behavior. It was hypothesized (1) that effective leader conversation would be associated with higher levels of role, means, goal and overall organizational identification, and (2) that…

  18. Fast and Confident: Postdicting Eyewitness Identification Accuracy in a Field Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauerland, Melanie; Sporer, Siegfried L.

    2009-01-01

    The combined postdictive value of postdecision confidence, decision time, and Remember-Know-Familiar (RKF) judgments as markers of identification accuracy was evaluated with 10 targets and 720 participants. In a pedestrian area, passers-by were asked for directions. Identifications were made from target-absent or target-present lineups. Fast…

  19. An Intercomparison of RADARSAT-2, SMOS and Field Measured Soil Moisture in the Berambadi Watershed, South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomer, S. K.; Al Bitar, A.; Sekhar, M.; Merlin, O.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Kerr, Y. H.

    2012-12-01

    This study presents an intercomparison of the RADARSAT-2 derived soil moisture, SMOS derived soil moisture and field measured soil moisture in the Berambadi watershed, South India. Seventeen images of RADARSAT-2, SMOS products, and field data collected in the 50 field plots during 2010-2011 were used. The data were collected from field campaigns in the framework of AMBHAS project. A non parametric algorithm was developed based on the CDF transformation to retrieve the soil moisture from RADARSAT-2 backscatter coefficient at a spatial resolution of 100 m based on the measured soil moisture. The developed algorithm to retrieve surface soil moisture from RADARSAT-2 provided a good estimate of the field plot soil moisture with a RMSE of 0.05 cm3 cm-3. The average soil moisture from RADARSAT-2 and field measured soil moisture were compared to SMOS derived soil moisture at the watershed scale. Several averaging strategies were considered to take into account the surface heterogeneity and SMOS antenna patterns. Results were analysed by taking into consideration the soil texture heterogeneity, radio frequency interference effect and climatic effect. SMOS underestimated the soil moisture in compare to both RADARSAT-2 and field averaged soil moisture. A bias correction for the SMOS data is suggested using Clayton copula. SMOS showed a better correlation with the RADARSAT-2 watershed averaged soil moisture than directly averaged field soil moisture, as field campaign covered a smaller region of the watershed than RADARSAT-2 data. This shows the potential synergy between the use of active/passive microwave soil moisture for upscalling/downscalling soil moisture.

  20. Comparison of LANDSAT-2 and field spectrometer reflectance signatures of south Texas rangeland plant communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, A. J.; Escobar, D. E.; Gausman, H. W.; Everitt, J. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The accuracy was assessed for an atmospheric correction method that depends on clear water bodies to infer solar and atmospheric parameters for radiative transfer equations by measuring the reflectance signature of four prominent south Texas rangeland plants with the LANDSAT satellite multispectral scanner (MSS) and a ground based spectroradiometer. The rangeland plant reflectances produced by the two sensors were correlated with no significant deviation of the slope from unity or of the intercept from zero. These results indicated that the atmospheric correction produced LANDSAT MSS estimates of rangeland plant reflectances that are as accurate as the ground based spectroradiometer.

  1. Floating production platforms and their applications in the development of oil and gas fields in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dagang; Chen, Yongjun; Zhang, Tianyu

    2014-03-01

    This paper studies the current available options for floating production platforms in developing deepwater oil fields and the potential development models of future oil and gas exploration in the South China Sea. A detailed review of current deepwater platforms worldwide was performed through the examples of industry projects, and the pros and cons of each platform are discussed. Four types of platforms are currently used for the deepwater development: tension leg platform, Spar, semi-submersible platform, and the floating production system offloading. Among these, the TLP and Spar can be used for dry tree applications, and have gained popularity in recent years. The dry tree application enables the extension of the drilling application for fixed platforms into floating systems, and greatly reduces the cost and complexity of the subsea operation. Newly built wet tree semi-submersible production platforms for ultra deepwater are also getting their application, mainly due to the much needed payload for deepwater making the conversion of the old drilling semi-submersible platforms impossible. These platforms have been used in different fields around the world for different environments; each has its own advantages and disadvantages. There are many challenges with the successful use of these floating platforms. A lot of lessons have been learned and extensive experience accumulated through the many project applications. Key technologies are being reviewed for the successful use of floating platforms for field development, and potential future development needs are being discussed. Some of the technologies and experience of platform applications can be well used for the development of the South China Sea oil and gas field.

  2. z {approx} 7 GALAXY CANDIDATES FROM NICMOS OBSERVATIONS OVER THE HDF-SOUTH AND THE CDF-SOUTH AND HDF-NORTH GOODS FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Bouwens, Rychard J.; Illingworth, Garth D.; Gonzalez, Valentino; Holden, Brad; Magee, Dan; Labbe, Ivo; Franx, Marijn; Conselice, Christopher J.; Blakeslee, John; Van Dokkum, Pieter; Marchesini, Danilo; Zheng Wei

    2010-12-20

    We use {approx}88 arcmin{sup 2} of deep ({approx}>26.5 mag at 5{sigma}) NICMOS data over the two GOODS fields and the HDF-South to conduct a search for bright z {approx}> 7 galaxy candidates. This search takes advantage of an efficient preselection over 58 arcmin{sup 2} of NICMOS H{sub 160}-band data where only plausible z {approx}> 7 candidates are followed up with NICMOS J{sub 110}-band observations. {approx}248 arcmin{sup 2} of deep ground-based near-infrared data ({approx}>25.5 mag, 5{sigma}) are also considered in the search. In total, we report 15 z{sub 850}-dropout candidates over this area-7 of which are new to these search fields. Two possible z {approx} 9 J{sub 110}-dropout candidates are also found, but seem unlikely to correspond to z {approx} 9 galaxies (given the estimated contamination levels). The present z {approx} 9 search is used to set upper limits on the prevalence of such sources. Rigorous testing is undertaken to establish the level of contamination of our selections by photometric scatter, low-mass stars, supernovae, and spurious sources. The estimated contamination rate of our z {approx} 7 selection is {approx}24%. Through careful simulations, the effective volume available to our z {approx}> 7 selections is estimated and used to establish constraints on the volume density of luminous (L*{sub z{sub ={sub 3}}}, or {approx}-21 mag) galaxies from these searches. We find that the volume density of luminous star-forming galaxies at z {approx} 7 is 13{sup +8}{sub -5} times lower than at z {approx} 4 and >25 times lower (1{sigma}) at z {approx} 9 than at z {approx} 4. This is the most stringent constraint yet available on the volume density of {approx}>L*{sub z{sub ={sub 3}}} galaxies at z {approx} 9. The present wide-area, multi-field search limits cosmic variance to {approx}<20%. The evolution we find at the bright end of the UV LF is similar to that found from recent Subaru Suprime-Cam, HAWK-I or ERS WFC3/IR searches. The present paper also

  3. Effects of CRP field age and cover type on ring-necked pheasants in eastern South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eggebo, S.L.; Higgins, K.F.; Naugle, D.E.; Quamen, F.R.

    2003-01-01

    Loss of native grasslands to tillage has increased the importance of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) grasslands to maintain ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) populations. Despite the importance of CRP to pheasants, little is known about the effects of CRP field age and cover type on pheasant abundance and productivity in the northern Great Plains. Therefore, we assessed effects of these characteristics on pheasant use of CRP fields. We stratified CRP grasslands (n=42) by CRP stand age (old [10-13 yrs] vs. new [1-3 yrs] grasslands) and cover type (CP1 [cool-season grasslands] vs. CP2 [warm-season grasslands]) in eastern South Dakota and used crowing counts and roadside brood counts to index ring-necked pheasant abundance and productivity. Field-age and cover-type effects on pheasant abundance and productivity were largely the result of differences in vegetation structure among fields. More crowing pheasants were recorded in old cool-season CRP fields than any other age or cover type, and more broods were recorded in cool- than warm-season CRP fields. Extending existing CRP contracts another 5-10 years would provide the time necessary for new fields to acquire the vegetative structure used most by pheasants without a gap in habitat availability. Cool-season grass-legume mixtures (CP1) that support higher pheasant productivity should be given equal or higher ratings than warm-season (CP2) grass stands. We also recommend that United States Department of Agriculture administrators and field staff provide broader and more flexible guidelines on what seed mixtures can be used in CRP grassland plantings in the northern Great Plains. This would allow landowners and natural resource professionals who manage pheasant habitat to plant a mosaic of cool- and warm-season CRP grassland habitats.

  4. Field performance and identification capability of the Innsbruck PTR-TOF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graus, M.; Müller, M.; Hansel, A.

    2009-04-01

    Over the last one and a half decades Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) [1, 2] has gained recognition as fast on-line sensor for monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the atmosphere. Sample collection is very straight forward and the fact that no pre-concentration is needed is of particular advantage for compounds that are notoriously difficult to pre-concentrate and/or analyze by gas chromatographic (GC) methods. Its ionization method is very versatile, i.e. all compounds that perform exothermic proton transfer with hydronium ions - and most VOCs do so - are readily ionized, producing quasi-molecular ions VOC.H+. In the quasi-molecular ion the elemental composition of the analyte compound is conserved and allows, in combination with some background knowledge of the sample, conclusions about the identity of that compound. De Gouw and Warneke (2007) [3] summarized the applicability of PTR-MS in atmospheric chemistry but they also pointed out shortcomings in the identification capabilities. Goldstein and Galbally (2007) [4] addressed the multitude of VOCs potentially present in the atmosphere and they emphasized the gasphase-to-aerosol partitioning of organic compounds (volatile and semi-volatile) in dependence of carbon-chain length and oxygen containing functional groups. In collaboration with Ionicon and assisted by TOFWERK we developed a PTR time-of-flight (PTR-TOF) instrument that allows for the identification of the atomic composition of oxygenated hydrocarbons by exact-mass determination. A detection limit in the low pptv range was achieved at a time resolution of one minute, one-second detection limit is in the sub-ppbv range. In 2008 the Innsbruck PTR-TOF was field deployed in the icebreaker- and helicopter based Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS) to characterize the organic trace gas composition of the High Arctic atmosphere. During the six-week field campaign the PTR-TOF was run without problems even under harsh conditions in

  5. The ROSAT Deep Survey. 2; Optical Identification, Photometry and Spectra of X-Ray Sources in the Lockman Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, M.; Hasinger, G.; Gunn, J.; Schneider, D.; Burg, R.; Giacconi, R.; Lehmann, I.; MacKenty, J.; Truemper, J.; Zamorani, G.

    1998-01-01

    The ROSAT Deep Survey includes a complete sample of 50 X-ray sources with fluxes in the 0.5 - 2 keV band larger than 5.5 x 10(exp -15)erg/sq cm/s in the Lockman field (Hasinger et al., Paper 1). We have obtained deep broad-band CCD images of the field and spectra of many optical objects near the positions of the X-ray sources. We define systematically the process leading to the optical identifications of the X-ray sources. For this purpose, we introduce five identification (ID) classes that characterize the process in each case. Among the 50 X-ray sources, we identify 39 AGNs, 3 groups of galaxies, 1 galaxy and 3 galactic stars. Four X-ray sources remain unidentified so far; two of these objects may have an unusually large ratio of X-ray to optical flux.

  6. Closed-loop tomographic control on HOMER wide-field AO bench: experimental results and identification issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisot, Amelie; Costille, Anne; Petit, Cyril; Fusco, Thierry

    2010-07-01

    Adaptive Optics (AO) has a limited corrected field of view because of the anisoplanatism effect. Wide Field AO (WFAO) concepts, such as Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO), have been developed to overcome this limitation. These complex WFAO systems raise critical challenges such as tomographic control and calibrations. We present new results obtained in closed-loop configuration with the laboratory bench HOMER which is devoted to implementation and validation of these WFAO concepts in the perspective of future VLT/ELT AO systems. Turbulence is generated with rotating phase screens and multi-directional analysis is performed. Tomographic control relies on Linear Quadratic Gaussian control (LQG). The correction can be applied thanks to two Deformable Mirrors (DM). We also focus on calibration issues and models identification. We investigate in particular identification of relative geometry of the wave front sensors, DM altitude and asterism and its impact on performance.

  7. Simulating solute transport in a structured field soil: uncertainty in parameter identification and predictions.

    PubMed

    Larsbo, Mats; Jarvis, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    Dual-permeability models have been developed to account for the significant effects of macropore flow on contaminant transport, but their use is hampered by difficulties in estimating the additional parameters required. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate data requirements for parameter identification for predictive modeling with the dual-permeability model MACRO. Two different approaches were compared: sequential uncertainty fitting (SUFI) and generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE). We investigated six parameters controlling macropore flow and pesticide sorption and degradation, applying MACRO to a comprehensive field data set of bromide andbentazone [3-isopropyl-1H-2,1,3-benzothiadiazin-4(3H)-one-2,2dioxide] transport in a structured soil. The GLUE analyses of parameter conditioning for different combinations of observations showed that both resident and flux concentrations were needed to obtain highly conditioned and unbiased parameters and that observations of tracer transport generally improved the conditioning of macropore flow parameters. The GLUE "behavioral" parameter sets covered wider parameter ranges than the SUFI posterior uncertainty domains. Nevertheless, estimation uncertainty ranges defined by the 5th and 95th percentiles were similar and many simulations randomly sampled from the SUFI posterior uncertainty domains had negative model efficiencies (minimum of -3.2). This is because parameter correlations are neglected in SUFI and the posterior uncertainty domains were not always determined correctly. For the same reasons, uncertainty ranges for predictions of bentazone losses through drainflow for good agricultural practice in southern Sweden were 27% larger for SUFI compared with GLUE. Although SUFI proved to be an efficient parameter estimation tool, GLUE seems better suited as a method of uncertainty estimation for predictions. PMID:15758115

  8. Spatial heterogeneity of temperature across alpine boulder fields in New South Wales, Australia: multilevel modelling of drivers of microhabitat climate.

    PubMed

    Shi, Haijing; Paull, David; Rayburg, Scott

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the spatial heterogeneity of temperatures across a region is significant for identification and protection of potential microhabitats for species conservation. However, this task is proving difficult because multiple factors drive the temperatures of microhabitats and their effect differs at different scales. In the Australian alpine region, boulder field habitats have been identified as important refugia for a range of small mammals. Vegetation cover and elevation have been found to drive thermal buffering at the level of single sampling sites within boulder fields, whereas the aspect and inclination of slopes have been found to affect thermal buffering at the level of clusters of boulder fields. But how the rock structure (number of rock layers, rock size and cavity of boulders) influences microclimate of boulder fields remains an open question. We used a multilevel modelling approach to detect the factors driving microhabitat temperatures in different seasons at different spatial scales in an Australian alpine region. We found that significant temperature differences existed within and between clusters of boulder fields in different seasons. Besides elevation and vegetation cover, the number of rock layers and rock cavity size also exerts important influences on extreme temperatures at the site (i.e. single boulder field) scale. Topographical variables such as slope gradient and elevation influenced minimum temperatures at the boulder field cluster scale. Variations in boulder field temperatures were significant at fine scales, with variations in minimum temperatures exceeding those of maximum temperatures. We suggest that variations in slope gradient and elevation, interacting with vegetation cover, the number of rock layers and rock cavity size can lead to fine-grained thermal variability, which potentially provides refugia for species at microsites, even when regional climatic conditions become less suitable for their survival. PMID:26511483

  9. Spatial heterogeneity of temperature across alpine boulder fields in New South Wales, Australia: multilevel modelling of drivers of microhabitat climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Haijing; Paull, David; Rayburg, Scott

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the spatial heterogeneity of temperatures across a region is significant for identification and protection of potential microhabitats for species conservation. However, this task is proving difficult because multiple factors drive the temperatures of microhabitats and their effect differs at different scales. In the Australian alpine region, boulder field habitats have been identified as important refugia for a range of small mammals. Vegetation cover and elevation have been found to drive thermal buffering at the level of single sampling sites within boulder fields, whereas the aspect and inclination of slopes have been found to affect thermal buffering at the level of clusters of boulder fields. But how the rock structure (number of rock layers, rock size and cavity of boulders) influences microclimate of boulder fields remains an open question. We used a multilevel modelling approach to detect the factors driving microhabitat temperatures in different seasons at different spatial scales in an Australian alpine region. We found that significant temperature differences existed within and between clusters of boulder fields in different seasons. Besides elevation and vegetation cover, the number of rock layers and rock cavity size also exerts important influences on extreme temperatures at the site (i.e. single boulder field) scale. Topographical variables such as slope gradient and elevation influenced minimum temperatures at the boulder field cluster scale. Variations in boulder field temperatures were significant at fine scales, with variations in minimum temperatures exceeding those of maximum temperatures. We suggest that variations in slope gradient and elevation, interacting with vegetation cover, the number of rock layers and rock cavity size can lead to fine-grained thermal variability, which potentially provides refugia for species at microsites, even when regional climatic conditions become less suitable for their survival.

  10. Spatial heterogeneity of temperature across alpine boulder fields in New South Wales, Australia: multilevel modelling of drivers of microhabitat climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Haijing; Paull, David; Rayburg, Scott

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the spatial heterogeneity of temperatures across a region is significant for identification and protection of potential microhabitats for species conservation. However, this task is proving difficult because multiple factors drive the temperatures of microhabitats and their effect differs at different scales. In the Australian alpine region, boulder field habitats have been identified as important refugia for a range of small mammals. Vegetation cover and elevation have been found to drive thermal buffering at the level of single sampling sites within boulder fields, whereas the aspect and inclination of slopes have been found to affect thermal buffering at the level of clusters of boulder fields. But how the rock structure (number of rock layers, rock size and cavity of boulders) influences microclimate of boulder fields remains an open question. We used a multilevel modelling approach to detect the factors driving microhabitat temperatures in different seasons at different spatial scales in an Australian alpine region. We found that significant temperature differences existed within and between clusters of boulder fields in different seasons. Besides elevation and vegetation cover, the number of rock layers and rock cavity size also exerts important influences on extreme temperatures at the site (i.e. single boulder field) scale. Topographical variables such as slope gradient and elevation influenced minimum temperatures at the boulder field cluster scale. Variations in boulder field temperatures were significant at fine scales, with variations in minimum temperatures exceeding those of maximum temperatures. We suggest that variations in slope gradient and elevation, interacting with vegetation cover, the number of rock layers and rock cavity size can lead to fine-grained thermal variability, which potentially provides refugia for species at microsites, even when regional climatic conditions become less suitable for their survival.

  11. Evaluation of the 16S and 12S rRNA genes as universal markers for the identification of commercial fish species in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Cawthorn, Donna-Mareè; Steinman, Harris Andrew; Witthuhn, R Corli

    2012-01-01

    The development of DNA-based methods for the identification of fish species is important for fisheries research and control, as well as for the detection of unintentional or fraudulent species substitutions in the marketplace. The aim of this study was to generate a comprehensive reference database of DNA sequences from the mitochondrial 16S and 12S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes for 53 commercial fish species in South Africa and to evaluate the applicability of these genetic markers for the identification of fish at the species level. The DNA extracted from all target species was readily amplified using universal primers targeting both rRNA gene regions. Sequences from the 16S and 12S rRNA genes were submitted to GenBank for the first time for 34% and 53% of the fish species, respectively. Cumulative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed mean conspecific, congeneric and confamilial Kimura two parameter (K2P) distances of 0.03%, 0.70% and 5.10% and the corresponding values at the 12S level were 0.03%, 1.00% and 5.57%. K2P neighbour-joining trees based on both sequence datasets generally clustered species in accordance with their taxonomic classifications. The nucleotide variation in both the 16S and 12S sequences was suitable for identifying the large majority of the examined fish specimens to at least the level of genus, but was found to be less useful for the explicit differentiation of certain congeneric fish species. It is recommended that one or more faster-evolving DNA regions be analysed to confirm the identities of closely-related fish species in South Africa. PMID:21963445

  12. First DNA Barcode Reference Library for the Identification of South American Freshwater Fish from the Lower Paraná River.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Juan; Villanova, Gabriela Vanina; Brancolini, Florencia; Del Pazo, Felipe; Posner, Victoria Maria; Grimberg, Alexis; Arranz, Silvia Eda

    2016-01-01

    Valid fish species identification is essential for biodiversity conservation and fisheries management. Here, we provide a sequence reference library based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I for a valid identification of 79 freshwater fish species from the Lower Paraná River. Neighbour-joining analysis based on K2P genetic distances formed non-overlapping clusters for almost all species with a ≥99% bootstrap support each. Identification was successful for 97.8% of species as the minimum genetic distance to the nearest neighbour exceeded the maximum intraspecific distance in all these cases. A barcoding gap of 2.5% was apparent for the whole data set with the exception of four cases. Within-species distances ranged from 0.00% to 7.59%, while interspecific distances varied between 4.06% and 19.98%, without considering Odontesthes species with a minimum genetic distance of 0%. Sequence library validation was performed by applying BOLDs BIN analysis tool, Poisson Tree Processes model and Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery, along with a reliable taxonomic assignment by experts. Exhaustive revision of vouchers was performed when a conflicting assignment was detected after sequence analysis and BIN discordance evaluation. Thus, the sequence library presented here can be confidently used as a benchmark for identification of half of the fish species recorded for the Lower Paraná River. PMID:27442116

  13. First DNA Barcode Reference Library for the Identification of South American Freshwater Fish from the Lower Paraná River

    PubMed Central

    Brancolini, Florencia; del Pazo, Felipe; Posner, Victoria Maria; Grimberg, Alexis; Arranz, Silvia Eda

    2016-01-01

    Valid fish species identification is essential for biodiversity conservation and fisheries management. Here, we provide a sequence reference library based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I for a valid identification of 79 freshwater fish species from the Lower Paraná River. Neighbour-joining analysis based on K2P genetic distances formed non-overlapping clusters for almost all species with a ≥99% bootstrap support each. Identification was successful for 97.8% of species as the minimum genetic distance to the nearest neighbour exceeded the maximum intraspecific distance in all these cases. A barcoding gap of 2.5% was apparent for the whole data set with the exception of four cases. Within-species distances ranged from 0.00% to 7.59%, while interspecific distances varied between 4.06% and 19.98%, without considering Odontesthes species with a minimum genetic distance of 0%. Sequence library validation was performed by applying BOLDs BIN analysis tool, Poisson Tree Processes model and Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery, along with a reliable taxonomic assignment by experts. Exhaustive revision of vouchers was performed when a conflicting assignment was detected after sequence analysis and BIN discordance evaluation. Thus, the sequence library presented here can be confidently used as a benchmark for identification of half of the fish species recorded for the Lower Paraná River. PMID:27442116

  14. Do Toxicity Identification and Evaluation Laboratory-Based Methods Reflect Causes of Field Impairment?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE) methods have been developed for both interstitial waters and whole sediments. These relatively simple laboratory methods are designed to identify specific toxicants or classes of toxicants in sediments; however, the question ...

  15. Source regions of long-period pulsation events in electron precipitation and magnetic fields at South Pole Station

    SciTech Connect

    Paquette, J.A.; Matthews, D.L.; Rosenberg, T.J.; Lanzerotti, L.J.; Inan, U.S.

    1994-03-01

    Pulsation events with long (100-1000 s) periods with a consistent frequency in both particle precipitation and surface geomagnetic field variations have been reported in the past from measurements made at various geomagnetic latitudes. An examination of broad beam riometer and magnetometer data from South Pole Station for the interval from 1982 to 1989 revealed nearly 200 such events. The onset times of these events were determined. This mechanism ascribes the occurrence of correlated magnetic and precipitation pulsations to ULF modulation of equatorial VLF wave-particle interactions. For this reason, VLF data from South Pole Station were also examined. Taking into consideration the ULF wave and particle transit times from an interaction region near the magnetic equator to the ground leads to an expectation that the onset of pulsations in the magnetometer data will lag the onset of pulsations in the riometer data by several minutes. This disparity in onset times, together with modulation of VLF emissions in the 0.5-1 kHz band, serves as an important indicator of whether or not an event can be explained by the above-cited theory. While about a third of the events fit the prediction of Coroniti and Kennel, another third do not. In these events, the onset of magnetic and precipitation pulsations is nearly simultaneous, and possible alternative generation mechanisms are explored. In the remaining third of the events, magnetic pulsations begin substantially earlier than precipitation pulsations. Events of this type appear at first to be inexplicable in terms of any transit time argument. However, data from the imaging riometer at South Pole Station indicate that this third class of events is probably not physically distinct from the first two but is the result of the differing areas to which the riometer and magnetometer are sensitive and can be accounted for by considering the effects of transverse motion of a persistent precipitation region. 24 refs., 13 rigs.

  16. Unambiguous identification of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles through quantitative susceptibility mapping of the nonlinear response to magnetic fields

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tian; Spincemaille, Pascal; de Rochefort, Ludovic; Wong, Richard; Prince, Martin; Wang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles generate signal void regions on gradient echo images due to their strong magnetization. In practice, the signal void region might be indistinguishable from that generated by air. However, the response of SPIO to an externally applied magnetic field is non-linear. Magnetization of SPIO saturates at around 1 Tesla while magnetization of water and air increase linearly with field strength. Phantom experiment and mice experiments demonstrated the feasibility of a non-ambiguous identification of superparamagnetic contrast agents. PMID:20688448

  17. Phylogenetic identification of marine bacteria isolated from deep-sea sediments of the eastern South Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marcus Adonai Castro; Cavalett, Angélica; Spinner, Ananda; Rosa, Daniele Cristina; Jasper, Regina Beltrame; Quecine, Maria Carolina; Bonatelli, Maria Letícia; Pizzirani-Kleiner, Aline; Corção, Gertrudes; Lima, André Oliveira de Souza

    2013-12-01

    The deep-sea environments of the South Atlantic Ocean are less studied in comparison to the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. With the aim of identifying the deep-sea bacteria in this less known ocean, 70 strains were isolated from eight sediment samples (depth range between 1905 to 5560 m) collected in the eastern part of the South Atlantic, from the equatorial region to the Cape Abyssal Plain, using three different culture media. The strains were classified into three phylogenetic groups, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, by the analysis of 16s rRNA gene sequences. Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes were the most frequently identified groups, with Halomonas the most frequent genus among the strains. Microorganisms belonging to Firmicutes were the only ones observed in all samples. Sixteen of the 41 identified operational taxonomic units probably represent new species. The presence of potentially new species reinforces the need for new studies in the deep-sea environments of the South Atlantic. PMID:23565357

  18. Isolation, identification and typification of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris and Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius strains from orchard soil and the fruit processing environment in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Groenewald, Willem H; Gouws, Pieter A; Witthuhn, R Corli

    2009-02-01

    Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris and Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius are thermo-acidophilic, non-pathogenic, spore-forming bacteria that can survive the typical heat processing of fruit juices and concentrates. Bacterial endospores then germinate, grow and cause spoilage of acid food products. Species of Alicyclobacillus were isolated from orchard soil and a fruit concentrate production factory in South Africa. Preliminary identification of the isolates was based on morphological, biochemical and physiological properties. Identification at species level was done by PCR amplification using genus-specific primers and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing. The majority of isolates belonged to the species A. acidoterrestris, but A. acidocaldarius was also isolated and identified. As far as we could determine, this is the first report of the isolation of A. acidoterrestris from wash water and soil outside a fruit processing plant, as well as the isolation of A. acidocaldarius from vinigar flies. The genotypic relatedness between strains of A. acidoterrestris and between strains of A. acidocaldarius was determined by RAPD-PCR. Sixteen isolates identified as A. acidoterrestris grouped into four clusters based on RAPD-PCR banding patterns, suggesting that they belong to at least four genotypic groups. Three isolateT:/PGN/ELSEVIER/YFMIC/web/00001155/s identified as A. acidocaldarius gave three unique banding patterns. PMID:19028308

  19. Applications of exploration technologies to reservoir prediction and management -- Field examples of South-East Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Duval, B.C.; Allen, G.; Madaoui, K.; Gouadain, J.; Kremer, Y.

    1995-10-01

    The paper describes how modern geoscience techniques, developed for a large part in intensive exploration programs, can be used at the field level to improve reservoir prediction and production planning and also to optimize recovery. Detailed sedimentological studies has allowed the authors to determine the environment of the reservoir formations and help define the likely shape and size of individual sands and refine the reservoir model. An illustration is given by fields located in the Mahakam delta area of Kalimantan (Handil, Tunu) and in the Gulf of Thailand (Bongkot). Sequence stratigraphy assists in identifying efficient regional seals which, at field scale, lead to the recomposition of a great number of individual sands (several hundreds in some cases) into fewer flow units, making the system manageable from a reservoir standpoint. This technology was used extensively to delineate the giant Peciko gas field of Indonesia. The geophysical approach of reservoir parameters and the use of seismic attributes are rapidly expanding. The Yadana gas field in the Gulf of Martaban (Myanmar) is a case in point to show how porosities can be determined from impedances obtained by seismic inversion techniques. An example from the Bongkot field shows how 3D seismic and direct hydrocarbon indication technology (DHI) are used to deal with complex faulting to optimize deviated well profiles and improve recoveries.

  20. The generation and expulsion of gases in Ya131 gas field, South China Sea: implication of laboratory pyrolysis results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Ansong; Zhou, Yi; Fu, Jiamo; Sheng, Guoying; Zhang, Qiming

    1998-08-01

    Laboratory pyrolysis methods were used to determine the source and thermal maturity of the gas accumulation in the Ya131 gas field, South China Sea. The mudstone source rock samples used in the pyrolysis experiments were selected from the Yacheng and Meishan Formations in the Ying-Qiong Basin. The total amount of gases generated and expelled from the Yacheng Formation mudstone is larger than that from the Meishan Formation mudstone, suggesting that the gas generation potential of the Yacheng Formation is higher than that of the Meishan Formation. The similarity between the gases from the Ya131 field and the gases produced at the higher pyrolysis temperatures used in the maturation study, in terms of wetness, the amounts of C 1, C 2, C 3, and the percentages of C 1, C 2-C 4 and C 5-C 7, implies that the gases of the Ya131 field are high maturity gases. However, there are distinct differences between the normalised molecular compositions of the C 6 and C 7 species of the gases from the Ya131 field and those of the pyrolysis gases produced in the laboratory. Comparison of the stable carbon isotope composition of the n-alkanes, pristane (Pr) and phytane (Ph) in the saturated hydrocarbon fraction of the condensate from the Ya131 field with that of rock extracts from the Yacheng, Meishan, Ying-Huang Formations indicates no definite correlation between the condensate and the extracts. These observations suggest that there may be additional source rocks for the Ya131 field, existing within the deeper part of the basin.

  1. CANDIDATE CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES AT z > 1.3 IDENTIFIED IN THE SPITZER SOUTH POLE TELESCOPE DEEP FIELD SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Rettura, A.; Stern, D.; Martinez-Manso, J.; Gettings, D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Mei, S.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Brodwin, M.; Stanford, S. A.; Bartlett, J. G.

    2014-12-20

    We present 279 galaxy cluster candidates at z > 1.3 selected from the 94 deg{sup 2} Spitzer South Pole Telescope Deep Field (SSDF) survey. We use a simple algorithm to select candidate high-redshift clusters of galaxies based on Spitzer/IRAC mid-infrared data combined with shallow all-sky optical data. We identify distant cluster candidates adopting an overdensity threshold that results in a high purity (80%) cluster sample based on tests in the Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey of the Boötes field. Our simple algorithm detects all three 1.4 < z ≤ 1.75 X-ray detected clusters in the Boötes field. The uniqueness of the SSDF survey resides not just in its area, one of the largest contiguous extragalactic fields observed with Spitzer, but also in its deep, multi-wavelength coverage by the South Pole Telescope (SPT), Herschel/SPIRE, and XMM-Newton. This rich data set will allow direct or stacked measurements of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect decrements or X-ray masses for many of the SSDF clusters presented here, and enable a systematic study of the most distant clusters on an unprecedented scale. We measure the angular correlation function of our sample and find that these candidates show strong clustering. Employing the COSMOS/UltraVista photometric catalog in order to infer the redshift distribution of our cluster selection, we find that these clusters have a comoving number density n{sub c}=(0.7{sub −0.6}{sup +6.3})×10{sup −7} h{sup 3} Mpc{sup −3} and a spatial clustering correlation scale length r {sub 0} = (32 ± 7) h {sup –1} Mpc. Assuming our sample is comprised of dark matter halos above a characteristic minimum mass, M {sub min}, we derive that at z = 1.5 these clusters reside in halos larger than M{sub min}=1.5{sub −0.7}{sup +0.9}×10{sup 14} h{sup −1} M{sub ⊙}. We find that the mean mass of our cluster sample is equal to M{sub mean}=1.9{sub −0.8}{sup +1.0}×10{sup 14} h{sup −1} M{sub ⊙}; thus, our sample contains the progenitors of

  2. Candidate Clusters of Galaxies at z > 1.3 Identified in the Spitzer South Pole Telescope Deep Field Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rettura, A.; Martinez-Manso, J.; Stern, D.; Mei, S.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Brodwin, M.; Gettings, D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Stanford, S. A.; Bartlett, J. G.

    2014-12-01

    We present 279 galaxy cluster candidates at z > 1.3 selected from the 94 deg2 Spitzer South Pole Telescope Deep Field (SSDF) survey. We use a simple algorithm to select candidate high-redshift clusters of galaxies based on Spitzer/IRAC mid-infrared data combined with shallow all-sky optical data. We identify distant cluster candidates adopting an overdensity threshold that results in a high purity (80%) cluster sample based on tests in the Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey of the Boötes field. Our simple algorithm detects all three 1.4 < z <= 1.75 X-ray detected clusters in the Boötes field. The uniqueness of the SSDF survey resides not just in its area, one of the largest contiguous extragalactic fields observed with Spitzer, but also in its deep, multi-wavelength coverage by the South Pole Telescope (SPT), Herschel/SPIRE, and XMM-Newton. This rich data set will allow direct or stacked measurements of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect decrements or X-ray masses for many of the SSDF clusters presented here, and enable a systematic study of the most distant clusters on an unprecedented scale. We measure the angular correlation function of our sample and find that these candidates show strong clustering. Employing the COSMOS/UltraVista photometric catalog in order to infer the redshift distribution of our cluster selection, we find that these clusters have a comoving number density nc = (0.7+6.3-0.6) × 10-7 h3 {Mpc}-3 and a spatial clustering correlation scale length r 0 = (32 ± 7) h -1 Mpc. Assuming our sample is comprised of dark matter halos above a characteristic minimum mass, M min, we derive that at z = 1.5 these clusters reside in halos larger than Mmin = 1.5+0.9-0.7 × 1014 h-1 M⊙ . We find that the mean mass of our cluster sample is equal to Mmean = 1.9+1.0-0.8 × 1014 h-1 M⊙ ; thus, our sample contains the progenitors of present-day massive galaxy clusters.

  3. An ALMA survey of submillimeter galaxies in the extended Chandra deep field south: The redshift distribution and evolution of submillimeter galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J. M.; Swinbank, A. M.; Smail, Ian; Alexander, D. M.; Danielson, A. L. R.; Thomson, A. P.; Brandt, W. N.; Bertoldi, F.; Karim, A.; De Breuck, C.; Chapman, S. C.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Da Cunha, E.; Hodge, J. A.; Schinnerer, E.; Dannerbauer, H.; Greve, T. R.; Ivison, R. J.; Knudsen, K. K.; Poggianti, B. M.; and others

    2014-06-20

    We present the first photometric redshift distribution for a large sample of 870 μm submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) with robust identifications based on observations with ALMA. In our analysis we consider 96 SMGs in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South, 77 of which have 4-19 band photometry. We model the SEDs for these 77 SMGs, deriving a median photometric redshift of z {sub phot} = 2.3 ± 0.1. The remaining 19 SMGs have insufficient photometry to derive photometric redshifts, but a stacking analysis of Herschel observations confirms they are not spurious. Assuming that these SMGs have an absolute H-band magnitude distribution comparable to that of a complete sample of z ∼ 1-2 SMGs, we demonstrate that they lie at slightly higher redshifts, raising the median redshift for SMGs to z {sub phot} = 2.5 ± 0.2. Critically we show that the proportion of galaxies undergoing an SMG-like phase at z ≥ 3 is at most 35% ± 5% of the total population. We derive a median stellar mass of M {sub *} = (8 ± 1) × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, although there are systematic uncertainties of up to 5 × for individual sources. Assuming that the star formation activity in SMGs has a timescale of ∼100 Myr, we show that their descendants at z ∼ 0 would have a space density and M{sub H} distribution that are in good agreement with those of local ellipticals. In addition, the inferred mass-weighted ages of the local ellipticals broadly agree with the look-back times of the SMG events. Taken together, these results are consistent with a simple model that identifies SMGs as events that form most of the stars seen in the majority of luminous elliptical galaxies at the present day.

  4. Occurrence climatology of F region field-aligned irregularities in middle latitudes as observed by a 40.8 MHz coherent scatter radar in Daejeon, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tae-Yong; Kwak, Young-Sil; Kil, Hyosub; Lee, Young-Sook; Lee, Woo Kyoung; Lee, Jae-jin

    2015-11-01

    A new 40.8 MHz coherent scatter radar was built in Daejeon, South Korea (36.18°N, 127.14°E, dip latitude: 26.7°N) on 29 December 2009 and has since been monitoring the occurrence of field-aligned irregularities (FAIs) in the northern middle latitudes. We report on the occurrence climatology of the F region FAIs as observed by the Daejeon radar between 2010 and 2014. The F region FAIs preferentially occur around 250-350 km at 18:00-21:00 local time (postsunset FAI), around 350-450 km near midnight (nighttime FAI), around 250-350 km before sunrise (presunrise FAI), and around 160-300 km after 05:00 local time (postsunrise FAI). The occurrence rates of nighttime and presunrise FAIs are maximal during summer, though the occurrence rates of postsunset and postsunrise FAIs are maximal during the equinoxes. FAIs rarely occur during local winter. The occurrence rate of F region FAIs increases in concert with increases in solar activity. Medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) are known as an important source of the F region FAIs in middle latitudes. The high occurrence rate of the nighttime FAIs in local summer is consistent with the high occurrence rate of MSTIDs in that season. However, the dependence of the FAI activity on the solar cycle is inconsistent with the MSTID activity. The source of the F region FAIs in middle latitudes is an open question. Our report of different types of FAIs and their occurrence climatology may provide a useful reference for the identification of the source of the middle latitude FAIs.

  5. Identification and field evaluation of attractants for the cranberry weevil, Anthonomus musculus Say.

    PubMed

    Szendrei, Zsofia; Averill, Anne; Alborn, Hans; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar

    2011-04-01

    Studies were conducted to develop an attractant for the cranberry weevil, Anthonomus musculus, a pest of blueberry and cranberry flower buds and flowers in the northeastern United States. In previous studies, we showed that cinnamyl alcohol, the most abundant blueberry floral volatile, and the green leaf volatiles (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and hexyl acetate, emitted from both flowers and flower buds, elicit strong antennal responses from A. musculus. Here, we found that cinnamyl alcohol did not increase capture of A. musculus adults on yellow sticky traps compared with unbaited controls; however, weevils were highly attracted to traps baited with the Anthonomus eugenii Cano aggregation pheromone, indicating that these congeners share common pheromone components. To identify the A. musculus aggregation pheromone, headspace volatiles were collected from adults feeding on blueberry or cranberry flower buds and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Three male-specific compounds were identified: (Z)-2-(3,3-dimethyl-cyclohexylidene) ethanol (Z grandlure II); (Z)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene) acetaldehyde (grandlure III); and (E)-(3,3- dimethylcyclohexylidene) acetaldehyde (grandlure IV). A fourth component, (E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol (geraniol), was emitted in similar quantities by males and females. The emission rates of these volatiles were about 2.8, 1.8, 1.3, and 0.9 ng/adult/d, respectively. Field experiments in highbush blueberry (New Jersey) and cranberry (Massachusetts) examined the attraction of A. musculus to traps baited with the male-produced compounds and geraniol presented alone and combined with (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and hexyl acetate, and to traps baited with the pheromones of A. eugenii and A. grandis. In both states and crops, traps baited with the A. musculus male-produced compounds attracted the highest number of adults. Addition of the green leaf volatiles did not affect A. musculus attraction to its pheromone but skewed the sex ratio

  6. Overview of the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment in Brazil during Sept - Oct 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Ben; Haywood, Jim; Longo, Karla; Coe, Hugh; Artaxo, Paulo; Morgan, William; Freitas, Saulo

    2013-04-01

    The South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) is an international research project investigating the impacts of biomass burning emissions on climate, air quality and numerical weather prediction over South America. The project involves a combination of measurements and modelling activities to assess the role of biomass burning and biogenic emissions in the earth system. This international collaboration has been led by a partnership between the Met Office, the Brazilian National Institute for Space research (INPE), the University of Sao Paulo, and a consortium of UK Universities. The measurement program was headed by the deployment of UK's Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft over Brazil during the dry season of September - October 2012. This was co-ordinated with ground-based measurements operated by the University of Sao Paulo and INPE. This successful field experiment now provides an excellent source of observations to build our understanding of biomass burning processes and improve model simulations of biomass burning aerosols and their interactions with biogenic emissions, atmospheric chemistry, clouds, radiation, and the terrestrial biosphere. This talk will summarise the field experiment, including the aircraft measurements and ground-based observations made during the dry season of 2012. Preliminary results will highlight the range of biomass burning and biogenic emissions observed from tropical forest, deforested zones and scrub-land. Case studies will also show infra-red camera images of fire radiative output, the evolution of large smoke plumes and the variable composition of background aerosol and extensive haze layers across the region. The lidar data and aircraft profiles also highlight the prevalence of elevated aerosol layers observed at altitudes of 3 - 7km, presumed to be detrainment from large smoke plumes, pyrocumulus and mid-level convection. The ground-based observations also highlight the

  7. Models of Active Glacial Isostasy Roofing Warm Subduction: Case of the South Patagonian Ice Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemann, Volker; Ivins, Erik R.; Martinec, Zdenek; Wolf, Detlef

    2007-01-01

    Modern geodetic techniques such as precise Global Positioning System (GPS) and high-resolution space gravity mapping (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment, GRACE) make it possible to measure the present-day rate of viscoelastic gravitational Earth response to present and past glacier mass changes. The Andes of Patagonia contain glacial environments of dramatic mass change. These mass load changes occur near a tectonically active boundary between the Antarctic and South American plates. The mechanical strength of the continental side of this boundary is influenced by Neogene ridge subduction and by the subduction of a youthful oceanic slab. A ridge of young volcanos parallels the Pacific coastline. Release of volatiles (such as water) at depth along this ridge creates a unique rheological environment. To assess the influence of this rheological ridge structure on the observational land uplift rate, we apply a two dimensional viscoelastic Earth model. A numerical study is presented which examines the sensitivity of the glacial loading-unloading response to the complex structure at depth related to the subducting slab, the viscous wedge between slab and continental lithosphere, and the increase of elastic thickness from oceanic to continental lithosphere. A key feature revealed by our numerical experiments is a continuum flow wherein the slab subdues the material transport toward oceanic mantle and crust. The restricted flow is sensitive to the details of slab mechanical strength and penetration into the upper mantle. The reduced viscosity within the mantle wedge, however, enhances the load-induced material transport everywhere within the asthenosphere.

  8. Geology, compositional heterogeneities, and geochemical origin of the Yacheng gas field, Qiongdongnan Basin, South China Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, F.; Li, S.; Sun, Y.; Zhang, Q.

    1998-07-01

    The Yacheng gas field is located in the footwall of the No. 1 fault, the boundary fault between the Yinggehai and Qiongdongnan basins. All strata are normally pressured in the gas field except for the Meishan Formation. The Meishan Formation is overpressured near the No. 1 fault in the gas field and in the adjacent Yinggehai Basin. An obvious thermal anomaly occurs below 3600 m in the gas field. This anomaly, characterized by an abrupt increase in drill-stem test and fluid-inclusion homogenization temperatures, vitrinite reflectance (R{sub o}), and Rock-Eval T{sub max}, and by an abnormally low temperature/R{sub o}/T{sub max} gradient, diminishes away from the Yinggehai Basin. The gases and condensates have abnormally high aromatic hydrocarbon contents and show obvious heterogeneities. Away from the No. 1 fault, the C{sub 2+} hydrocarbon content and C{sub 2+}/{Sigma}C{sub n} increase; carbon dioxide content decreases; {delta}{sup 13}C values for methane, ethane, and carbon dioxide become lighter; the heptane and isoheptane values decrease; and the relative contents of aromatic hydrocarbons, both in C{sub 6}/C{sub 7} light hydrocarbons and in the condensates, decrease. The gas field was charged from both the Qiongdongnan and the Yinggehai basins. Hydrocarbons sourced from the Qiongdongnan Basin have relatively low maturities, whereas hydrocarbons from the Yinggehai Basin have relatively higher maturities and seem to have been in association with hydrothermal fluids. The hydrothermal fluids from the Yinggehai Basin, in which methane, ethane, carbon dioxide, and especially aromatic hydrocarbons dissolved under the high-temperature and high-pressure subsurface conditions, migrated along the No. 1 fault and caused the abnormally high concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as the thermal anomalies in the gas field, especially near the No. 1 fault.

  9. Local Lunar Gravity Field Analysis over the South Pole-aitken Basin from SELENE Farside Tracking Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goossens, Sander Johannes; Ishihara, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Koji; Sasaki, Sho

    2012-01-01

    We present a method with which we determined the local lunar gravity field model over the South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin on the farside of the Moon by estimating adjustments to a global lunar gravity field model using SELENE tracking data. Our adjustments are expressed in localized functions concentrated over the SPA region in a spherical cap with a radius of 45deg centered at (191.1 deg E, 53.2 deg S), and the resolution is equivalent to a 150th degree and order spherical harmonics expansion. The new solution over SPA was used in several applications of geophysical analysis. It shows an increased correlation with high-resolution lunar topography in the frequency band l = 40-70, and admittance values are slightly different and more leveled when compared to other, global gravity field models using the same data. The adjustments expressed in free-air anomalies and differences in Bouguer anomalies between the local solution and the a priori global solution correlate with topographic surface features. The Moho structure beneath the SPA basin is slightly modified in our solution, most notably at the southern rim of the Apollo basin and around the Zeeman crater

  10. A new South American network to study the atmospheric electric field and its variations related to geophysical phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tacza, J.; Raulin, J.-P.; Macotela, E.; Norabuena, E.; Fernandez, G.; Correia, E.; Rycroft, M. J.; Harrison, R. G.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we present the capability of a new network of field mill sensors to monitor the atmospheric electric field at various locations in South America; we also show some early results. The main objective of the new network is to obtain the characteristic Universal Time diurnal curve of the atmospheric electric field in fair weather, known as the Carnegie curve. The Carnegie curve is closely related to the current sources flowing in the Global Atmospheric Electric Circuit so that another goal is the study of this relationship on various time scales (transient/monthly/seasonal/annual). Also, by operating this new network, we may also study departures of the Carnegie curve from its long term average value related to various solar, geophysical and atmospheric phenomena such as the solar cycle, solar flares and energetic charged particles, galactic cosmic rays, seismic activity and specific meteorological events. We then expect to have a better understanding of the influence of these phenomena on the Global Atmospheric Electric Circuit and its time-varying behavior.

  11. Monitoring of flood irrigation for the characterization of irrigation practices of grassland fields in the Crau region (South of France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkassem Alosman, Mohamed; Ruy, Stéphane; Olioso, Albert; Flamain, Fabrice

    2015-04-01

    Surface irrigation (flooding and furrow) is the main irrigation technic in the world. This irrigation system is known as having poor water efficiency and that results in very large water losses through drainage and runoff out the field. Although these unused water amounts can generate positive externalities (wetlands and groundwater recharge), a decreased of water volume used in surface irrigation is sought in a context of limited water resource. In the Crau area (South of France), more than 12,500 ha of grassland are irrigated by flooding. There, at the regional scale, it is estimated that the water volumes brought into the field are very high; and ranges from 15,000; up to 20,000 m3.h-1.year-1; more than 78% of these amounts recharges the Crau aquifer (Saos, 2006). However, the actual volumes which are injected to the plot surface (the " irrigation dose ") are insufficiently known, because of the diversity of encountered agricultural practices and fields topography. For better characterizing these practices, a campaign of irrigation monitoring has been carried out during an irrigation season (March to September 2014) on a set of representative plots of soil variability, practices, and different stages of hay grow. Each grassland field has been also characterized from a topographical and pedological view point. A mobile device for measurements (soil moisture and water level probes, photographic monitoring, soil sampling, .. ) was deployed for each irrigation. A total of 35 irrigation events were followed. The data obtained allow describing accurately and quantitatively the variability in encountered irrigation practices. Combined with a flood irrigation model (Model CALHY, Bader et al., 2010, Hydrol. Sci. J., 55, 177-191), these data will be used to calculate the water balance at the field scale: amounts of injected, infiltrated and lost water by runoff or drainage. They will also offer different ways for optimizing the irrigation efficiency.

  12. FIELD EVALUATION OF A SWIRL DEGRITTER AT TAMWORTH, NEW SOUTH WALES, AUSTRALIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This field evaluation program was initiated with the overall objective of providing information on the behaviour of a full scale swirl degritter designed and constructed in accordance with the shapes and proportions developed during model studies. The swirl degritter was designed...

  13. Validation of in situ networks via field sampling: case study in the South Fork Experimental Watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The calibration and validation of soil moisture remote sensing products is complicated by the logistics of installing a soil moisture network for a long term period in an active landscape. Therefore, these stations are located along field boundaries or in non-representative sites with regards to so...

  14. Petrology and depositional environment of Sunniland producing fields of south Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell-Tapping, H.J.

    1984-09-01

    Oil exploration began in Florida in 1901, but no oil was found until 1943. In November of that year, Humble Oil and Refining Co. made a discovery near Sunniland in southern Florida. This field and the producing zone were called Sunniland. No further discoveries were made in southern Florida until 1954 when the Forty-Mile field was discovered by Gulf Oil Co. Ten years later, in 1964, the Sunoco Felda field was discovered by Sun Oil Co., followed by West Sunoco Felda field in 1968. The examination of numerous cores and thin sections of this formation, both from producing fields and wildcat wells, reveals a sequence of deposition in the Sunniland formation. It has been reported that tintinnids or calpionellids have been observed in the lower mud section, but investigation of many thin sections from this section revealed only ostracod particles. Above the mudstone, the section becomes increasingly plentiful in fragmented microbored rudist particles and forams such as Orbitolina texana, Dictyoconus floridanus, and Coskinolina sunnilandensis. Above this section the sequence is considered regressive and consists of pellets and forams with a few mollusk fragments. This section is interpreted as the basal unit of a grainstone bar shoal. The grainstone bar shoal is made up of reworked particles of oysters (Texigryphea), coated caprinid fragments, forams, and echinoid fragments. For some years, the rocks of the Sunniland formation have been considered reefal, but based on the results of this study, these rocks are interpreted to be a barrier tidal-shoal bar deposited well behind the main reef crest, which lies farther offshore at the edge of the Florida escarpment.

  15. Statistical scaling, Shannon entropy, and Generalized space-time q-entropy of rainfall fields in tropical South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poveda, Germán; Salas, Hernán D.

    2015-07-01

    We study diverse scaling and information theory characteristics of Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs) as seen by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) over continental and oceanic regions of tropical South America, and 2-D radar rainfall fields from Amazonia. The bi-dimensional Fourier spectra of MCSs exhibit inverse power laws with respect to the spatial scale, whose scaling exponents, β, capture the type of spatial correlation of rainfall among the study regions, including those over the Andes of Colombia as well as over oceanic and Amazonian regions. The moment-scaling analysis evidences that the structure function deviates from simple scaling at order q > 1.0, thus signaling the multi-scaling nature of rainfall fields within MCSs in tropical South America, with departures from simple scaling associated with the physical characteristics of MCSs over the different study regions. Entropy is estimated for a large set of radar rainfall fields during the distinctive atmospheric regimes (Easterly and Westerly events) in this part of Amazonia. Results evidence that there are significant differences in the dynamics of rainfall among regimes. No clear-cut relationship is found between entropy and the first two statistical moments, but power fits in space and time, S(γ) ˜ γ-η for skewness and, S(κ) ˜ κ-ɛ for kurtosis. The exponents η and ɛ are statistically different between Easterly and Westerly events, although the significance of fits is less when L-moments are used to estimate skewness and kurtosis. Interesting differences are identified between the time and space generalized q-entropy functions of Amazonian rainfall fields. In both cases, the functions are a continuous set of power laws (analogous to the structure function in turbulence), S(T, q) ˜ Tβ, and, S(λ, q) ˜ λβ, covering a broad range of temporal and spatial scales. Both time and space generalized q-entropy functions exhibit linear growth in the range -1.0 < q < -0.5, and

  16. Statistical scaling, Shannon entropy, and Generalized space-time q-entropy of rainfall fields in tropical South America.

    PubMed

    Poveda, Germán; Salas, Hernán D

    2015-07-01

    We study diverse scaling and information theory characteristics of Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs) as seen by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) over continental and oceanic regions of tropical South America, and 2-D radar rainfall fields from Amazonia. The bi-dimensional Fourier spectra of MCSs exhibit inverse power laws with respect to the spatial scale, whose scaling exponents, β, capture the type of spatial correlation of rainfall among the study regions, including those over the Andes of Colombia as well as over oceanic and Amazonian regions. The moment-scaling analysis evidences that the structure function deviates from simple scaling at order q > 1.0, thus signaling the multi-scaling nature of rainfall fields within MCSs in tropical South America, with departures from simple scaling associated with the physical characteristics of MCSs over the different study regions. Entropy is estimated for a large set of radar rainfall fields during the distinctive atmospheric regimes (Easterly and Westerly events) in this part of Amazonia. Results evidence that there are significant differences in the dynamics of rainfall among regimes. No clear-cut relationship is found between entropy and the first two statistical moments, but power fits in space and time, S(γ) ∼ γ(-η) for skewness and, S(κ) ∼ κ(-ϵ) for kurtosis. The exponents η and ϵ are statistically different between Easterly and Westerly events, although the significance of fits is less when L-moments are used to estimate skewness and kurtosis. Interesting differences are identified between the time and space generalized q-entropy functions of Amazonian rainfall fields. In both cases, the functions are a continuous set of power laws (analogous to the structure function in turbulence), S(T, q) ∼ T(β), and, S(λ, q) ∼ λ(β), covering a broad range of temporal and spatial scales. Both time and space generalized q-entropy functions exhibit linear growth in the

  17. Near-field monitoring of seismic source behavior at South African deep gold mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogasawara, H.; Nakatani, M.; Iio, Y.; Ishii, H.; Yamada, T.; Naoi, M.; Yasutake, G.; Kawakata, H.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamauchi, T.; Nakao, S.; Yabe, Y.; Otsuki, K.; Satoh, T.; Kato, A.; Shinya, Y.; Nagata, K.; Kuwano, O.; Igarashi, T.; Miyake, H.; Ide, S.; van Aswegen, G.; Mendecki, A.; Ward, T.; SeeSA Research Group

    2007-12-01

    We introduce our SeeSA projects, as important as dense array monitoring According to a mining plan and a geological map detailing locations of faults or weakness, we can anticipate potential M > 2 seismic sources at depths of 2.0 - 3.6 km at South African gold mines. At such potential sources, we have installed instruments prior to an onset of irreversible process to monitor earthquake generation process. From the previous projects for periods of from a year to a few years, the possible widest dynamic range and resolution have revealed the finest detail of the process since 1995 in cooperation with ISS International Ltd and South African gold mines (Mponeng, Bambanani, Tau Tona, Buffelsfontein GM, and ERPM), Wits Univ., Geohydroseis CC., Seismogen CC., OHMS CC., GFZ, GMuG, CSIR. The talk summarizes examples of our successful monitoring and introduces some on-going projects. Highlighted are the following. Yamada et al. [05, 07] demonstrated that mine tremors have rupture process as complex as natural larger earthquakes and the scale dependency of rupture parameters is similar to that for natural larger earthquakes. We successfully recorded strain accumulations larger than 100 micro strain, followed by several hundreds of seismic events (-1 < M < 3; distance < ~ 250 m). The seismicity within about 100m from strainmeters caused frequent, seismic strain-steps; the largest recorded was greater than 100 micro strain by an M2.5 earthquake at a distance within ~100 m. One of the most important results were that no detectable accelerating precursors preceded strain-steps associated with several hundreds of the earthquakes (- 1 < M < 3) catalogued by mine's seismic networks (hereinafter Catalogued E/Q; Takeuchi 05), while significant post-seismic drifts followed some strain-steps by Catalogued E/Qs. Frequently observed were episodic strain changes with durations of much slower than strain-steps associated with the Catalogued E/Qs [Naoi et al. 06]. Striking were some examples

  18. Turtle Bayou - 1936 to 1983: case history of a major gas field in south Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Cronquist, C.

    1983-01-01

    Turtle Bayou field, located in the middle Miocene trend in S. Louisiana, is nearing the end of a productive life which spans over 30 yr. Discovered by Shell Oil Co. in 1949 after unsuccessful attempts by 2 other majors, the field is a typical, low relief, moderately faulted Gulf Coast structure, probably associated with deep salt movement. The productive interval includes 22 separate gas-bearing sands in a regressive sequence of sands and shales from approx. 6500 to 12,000 ft. Now estimated to have contained ca 1.2 trillion scf of gas in place, cumulative production through 1982 was 702 billion scf. Cumulative condensate-gas ratio has been 20 bbl/million. Recovery mechanisms in individual reservoirs include strong bottom water drive, partial edgewater drive, and pressure depletion. Recovery efficiencies in major reservoirs range from 40 to 75% of original gas in place.

  19. Seismic-stratigraphic analysis of Hollingsworth field, Fall River County, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Morel, J.A.; Bursk, P.H.; Finch, J.W.

    1986-08-01

    Hollingsworth field produces from a preserved dune in the second bench of the Leo member, Minnelusa Formation. It was discovered in 1984 by Citation Oil and Gas using high-resolution seismic data. The field was fully developed on the basis of seismic data and consists of five wells, all of which encountered the dune. Four wells produce oil, and one is used to reinject produced water. Both the Converse and Leo members consist of interbedded sandstones, shales, carbonates, and anhydrites with occasional preserved dunes. Hydrocarbon traps are formed by structural closure over the top of preserved dunes or by the occurrence of isolated sandstones encased in impermeable facies. The sandstone isopach anomalies occur in several benches of the Converse and Leo members. These are evidenced in outcrops and well logs. High-resolution seismic data can be used to locate these anomalies efficiently and economically.

  20. Validation of in Situ Networks Via Field Sampling: Case Study in the South Fork Experimental Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosh, M. H.; McKee, L.; Bindlish, R.; Coopersmith, E. J.; Jackson, T. J.; Prueger, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    The calibration and validation of soil moisture remote sensing products is complicated by the logistics of installing a soil moisture network for a long term period in an active landscape. Therefore, these stations are located along field boundaries or in non-representative sites with regards to soil type or soil moisture. The representative character of this network can only be established by large scale field sampling to provide a calibration dataset. A team of samplers were deployed twice a week for the summer of 2014 to collect surface soil moisture data across a variety of land covers at 44 sites. These samples were compared and scaled to the domain to get a better understanding of the large scale soil moisture distributions and dynamics. In addition, comparisons are made to the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) soil moisture product for the length of the network installation.

  1. Nondestructive identification of material properties of fibre concrete: A time-harmonic electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobst, L.; Bílek, P.

    2016-06-01

    The magnetic approach to the identification of mechanical properties of fibre concrete, using permanent magnets, has its electromagnetic alternative, more suitable to the nondestructive detection of orientation of fibres, in addition to the evaluation of their volume fraction. This paper sketches related approaches to both experimental settings and computational simulations.

  2. Nondestructive identification of material properties of fibre concrete: A stationary magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobst, L.; Bílek, P.

    2016-06-01

    Mechanical properties of fibre concrete are determined by volume fraction and orientation of metal fibres in a cementitious matrix, thus nondestructive or (at least) low-invasive experimental testing and computational identification approaches are needed. This paper demonstrates the approach relying on the different magnetic permeability of fibres and a matrix, utilizing the Hall probe, as an alternative of results based image processing.

  3. Sex Attractants of the Banana Moth, Opogona sacchari Bojer (Lepidoptera: Tineidae): Provisional Identification and Field Evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: The banana moth, Opogona sacchari Bojer, is a ployphagous agricultural pest in many tropical areas of the world. The identification of an attractant for male O. sacchari could offer new methods for detection, study and control. RESULTS: A male electroantennographically active compound w...

  4. A biorthogonal decomposition for the identification and simulation of non-stationary and non-Gaussian random fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zentner, I.; Ferré, G.; Poirion, F.; Benoit, M.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a new method for the identification and simulation of non-Gaussian and non-stationary stochastic fields given a database is proposed. It is based on two successive biorthogonal decompositions aiming at representing spatio-temporal stochastic fields. The proposed double expansion allows to build the model even in the case of large-size problems by separating the time, space and random parts of the field. A Gaussian kernel estimator is used to simulate the high dimensional set of random variables appearing in the decomposition. The capability of the method to reproduce the non-stationary and non-Gaussian features of random phenomena is illustrated by applications to earthquakes (seismic ground motion) and sea states (wave heights).

  5. Miller field, a subtle upper Jurassic submarine fan trap in the South Viking Graben, United Kingdom sector, North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    McClure, N.M.; Brown, A.A. )

    1990-09-01

    The Miller field is situated at a depth of 4 km in the South Viking Graben, some 270 km northeast of Aberdeen, Scotland. The field was discovered in 1983 in previously relinquished UK Licence Blocks 16/7b and 16/8b. The discovery can be attributed to a detailed understanding of the regional sedimentological and seismic velocity models that predicted the presence of submarine fan sediments within a structural nose some 10 km away from the graben margin sediment source. The field reservoir comprises up to 100 m of oil-bearing Upper Jurassic, Brae Formation turbidites. Cores, electric logs, and well test analyses show the turbidites have excellent reservoir qualities. Porosity ranges from 12 to 23%, and net:gross ratios are typically greater than 0.75. The reservoir is highly productive with permeability typically in the range of 50 to 1200 md. The reservoir fluid is an undersaturated, CO{sub 2}-rich, sour, 37.5{degree} API oil sourced from the Kimmeridge Clay Formation, which overlies and interfingers the reservoir. The oil is trapped by a subtle combination of structural and stratigraphic mechanisms., The field will be developed using 30 wells drilled from a single platform. A total of ten wells (five producers and five injectors) will be pre-drilled through a template prior to platform installation. The first of these was spudded in March 1989 in preparation for first oil production planned for early 1992. Ultimate recovery is estimated to be around 300 MM STB and 0.57 tcf of associated gas.

  6. Tolerance of nonindigenous cichlid fishes (Cichlasoma urophthalmus, Hemichromis letourneuxi) to low temperature: laboratory and field experiments in south Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schofield, Pamela J.; Loftus, William F.; Kobza, Robert M.; Cook, Mark I.; Slone, Daniel H.

    2010-01-01

    The cold tolerance of two non-native cichlids (Hemichromis letourneuxi and Cichlasoma urophthalmus) that are established in south Florida was tested in the field and laboratory. In the laboratory, fishes were acclimated to two temperatures (24 and 28°C), and three salinities (0, 10, and 35 ppt). Two endpoints were identified: loss of equilibrium (11.5–13.7°C for C. urophthalmus; 10.8–12.5°C for H. letourneuxi), and death (9.5–11.1°C for C. urophthalmus; 9.1–13.3°C for H. letourneuxi). In the field, fishes were caged in several aquatic habitats during two winter cold snaps. Temperatures were lowest (4.0°C) in the shallow marsh, where no fish survived, and warmest in canals and solution-holes. Canals and ditches as shallow as 50 cm provided thermal refuges for these tropical fishes. Because of the effect on survival of different habitat types, simple predictions of ultimate geographic expansion by non-native fishes using latitude and thermal isoclines are insufficient for freshwater fishes.

  7. The First Public Release of South Pole Telescope Data: Maps of a 95 deg2 Field from 2008 Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer, K. K.; Crawford, T. M.; Aird, K. A.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Cho, H. M.; Crites, A. T.; de Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; George, E. M.; Halverson, N. W.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hoover, S.; Hrubes, J. D.; Joy, M.; Keisler, R.; Knox, L.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Lueker, M.; Luong-Van, D.; McMahon, J. J.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S. S.; Mohr, J. J.; Montroy, T. E.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Pryke, C.; Reichardt, C. L.; Ruhl, J. E.; Shirokoff, E.; Spieler, H. G.; Stalder, B.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Williamson, R.

    2011-12-01

    The South Pole Telescope (SPT) has nearly completed a 2500 deg2 survey of the southern sky in three frequency bands. Here, we present the first public release of SPT maps and associated data products. We present arcminute-resolution maps at 150 GHz and 220 GHz of an approximately 95 deg2 field centered at R.A. 82fdg7, decl. -55°. The field was observed to a depth of approximately 17 μK arcmin at 150 GHz and 41 μK arcmin at 220 GHz during the 2008 austral winter season. Two variations on map filtering and map projection are presented, one tailored for producing catalogs of galaxy clusters detected through their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect signature and one tailored for producing catalogs of emissive sources. We describe the data processing pipeline, and we present instrument response functions, filter transfer functions, and map noise properties. All data products described in this paper are available for download at http://pole.uchicago.edu/public/data/maps/ra5h30dec-55 and from the NASA Legacy Archive for Microwave Background Data Analysis server. This is the first step in the eventual release of data from the full 2500 deg2 SPT survey.

  8. Surficial geology of the Safsaf region, south-central Egypt, derived from remote-sensing and field data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, P.A.; Breed, C.S.; McCauley, J.F.; Schaber, G.G.

    1993-01-01

    We used a decorrelation-stretched image of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) Bands 1, 4, and 7 and field data to map and describe the main surficial units in the hyperarid Safsaf region in south-central Egypt. We show that the near-infrared bands on Landsat TM, which are sensitive to very subtle changes in mineralogy common to arid regions, significantly improve the geologist's capability to discriminate geologic units in desert regions. These data also provide the spatial and spectral information necessary to determine the migration patterns and provenance of eolian materials. The Safsaf area was the focus of our post flight field studies using Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR) data following the discovery of buried paleochannels in North Africa. Most of the channels discernible on SIR images are not expressed in TM data, but traces of a few channels are present in both the SIR and the TM data within the Wadi Safsaf area. Here we present a detailed digital examination of the SIR and the TM-band reflectance and reflectance-ratio data at three locations of the more obvious surface expressions of the buried channels. Our results indicate that the TM expressions of the channels are not purely topographic but are more compositional in nature. Two possibilities may account for the TM expressions of the buried channels: 1) concentrations of windblown, iron-rich materials that accumulated along subtle curvilinear topograpohic traps, or 2) curvilinear exposures of an iron-rich underlying unit of the flat sand sheet. ?? 1993.

  9. Variations of a gradient of potential electrical field in the south of East Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krechetov, A. A.; Shamansky, U. V.

    2006-02-01

    In work the daily variations of a gradient of potential of an atmosphere electrical field close pulp and paper mill (Baikalsk region) and in the Lake Baikal are analyzed. For the analysis the results of measurements of a gradient of potential in seven items located on various distance from a source of pollution, on the same technique are used. Three are revealed such as a daily course of a gradient of potential, which are substantially caused by transformation of emissions by local winds in area of the lake Baikal. Spectral and components the analysis of results of measurements has allowed to reveal 2-nd and 7 hour periods of fluctuations.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: z>~5 AGN in Chandra Deep Field-South (Weigel+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigel, A. K.; Schawinski, K.; Treister, E.; Urry, C. M.; Koss, M.; Trakhtenbrot, B.

    2015-09-01

    The Chandra 4-Ms source catalogue by Xue et al. (2011, Cat. J/ApJS/195/10) is the starting point of this work. It contains 740 sources and provides counts and observed frame fluxes in the soft (0.5-2keV), hard (2-8keV) and full (0.5-8keV) band. All object IDs used in this work refer to the source numbers listed in the Xue et al. (2011, Cat. J/ApJS/195/10) Chandra 4-Ms catalogue. We make use of Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) data from the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey South (GOODS-south) in the optical wavelength range. We use catalogues and images for filters F435W (B), F606W (V), F775W (i) and 850LP (z) from the second GOODS/ACS data release (v2.0; Giavalisco et al., 2004, Cat. II/261). We use Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3)/infrared data from the first data release (DR1, v1.0) for passbands F105W (Y), F125W (J) and F160W (H) (Grogin et al., 2011ApJS..197...35G; Koekemoer et al., 2011ApJS..197...36K). To determine which objects are red, dusty, low-redshift interlopers, we also include the 3.6 and 4.5 micron Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) channels. We use SIMPLE image data from the DR1 (van Dokkum et al., 2005, Spitzer Proposal, 2005.20708) and the first version of the extended SIMPLE catalogue by Damen et al. (2011, Cat. J/ApJ/727/1). (6 data files).

  11. A joint geophysical analysis of the Coso geothermal field, south-eastern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wamalwa, Antony M.; Mickus, Kevin L.; Serpa, Laura F.; Doser, Diane I.

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional density models derived from gravity data and two-dimensional resistivity models derived from magnetotelluric data collected in the vicinity of the Coso geothermal field are analyzed in order to determine the source region of the geothermal field. The derived models show zones of both low resistivity and low density at and below 6 km depth in the Devils Kitchen and the Coso Hot Springs areas. These zones agree with seismic reflection and tomography results which found a high amplitude reflector at 5 km and low velocities zones below 5 km. We interpret the density and resistivity zones to indicate the presence of cooling magmatic material that provides the heat for the shallower geothermal system in these regions. A zone marked by high resistivity and low density was found to lie directly above the interpreted partially melted region extending to within 1 km depth below the surface in the reservoir region where it is capped by a low resistivity clay zone. In addition, the density models indicate that the high density bodies occurring under volcanic outcrops may be mafic intrusions.

  12. Lessons learned for a more efficient knowledge and technology transfer to South American countries in the fields of solid waste and contaminated sites management.

    PubMed

    Bezama, Alberto; Szarka, Nóra; Navia, Rodrigo; Konrad, Odorico; Lorber, Karl E

    2007-04-01

    The present paper describes the development, performance and conclusions derived from three know-how and technology transfer projects to South American countries. The first project comprised a collaborative study by European and South American universities to find sustainable solutions for Chilean and Ecuadorian leather tanneries which had underachieving process performances. The second project consisted of investigations carried out in a Brazilian municipality to enhance its municipal solid waste management system. The final collaborative programme dealt with the initial identification, evaluation and registration of suspected contaminated sites in an industrial region of Chile. The detailed objectives, methods and procedures applied as well as the results and conclusions obtained in each of the three mentioned projects are presented, giving special attention to the organizational aspects and to the practical approach of each programme, concluding with their main advantages and disadvantages for identifying a set of qualitative and quantitative suggestions, and to establish transferable methods for future applications. PMID:17439050

  13. Reaction of common bean cultivars to the Asian soybean rust pathogen, Phakopsora pachyrhizi, under field conditions in South Africa and Brazil.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the Asian soybean rust (ASR) pathogen, infects soybeans (Glycine max) and some 95 other leguminous species, including dry and snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). This pathogen has been reported infecting dry beans under field conditions in South Africa and the United States in 20...

  14. A COMPREHENISVE NONPOINT SOURCE FIELD STUDY FOR SEDIMENT, NUTRIENTS AND PATHOGENS IN THE SOUTH FORK BROAD RIVER WATERSHED IN NORTHEAST GEORGIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an urgent need for EPA to develop protocols for establishing Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) in streams, lakes and estuaries. A cooperative TMDL field data collection project between ORD and Region 4 is ongoing in the South Fork Broad River Watershed (SFBR), a 245.18 ...

  15. Automatic de-identification of electronic medical records using token-level and character-level conditional random fields.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zengjian; Chen, Yangxin; Tang, Buzhou; Wang, Xiaolong; Chen, Qingcai; Li, Haodi; Wang, Jingfeng; Deng, Qiwen; Zhu, Suisong

    2015-12-01

    De-identification, identifying and removing all protected health information (PHI) present in clinical data including electronic medical records (EMRs), is a critical step in making clinical data publicly available. The 2014 i2b2 (Center of Informatics for Integrating Biology and Bedside) clinical natural language processing (NLP) challenge sets up a track for de-identification (track 1). In this study, we propose a hybrid system based on both machine learning and rule approaches for the de-identification track. In our system, PHI instances are first identified by two (token-level and character-level) conditional random fields (CRFs) and a rule-based classifier, and then are merged by some rules. Experiments conducted on the i2b2 corpus show that our system submitted for the challenge achieves the highest micro F-scores of 94.64%, 91.24% and 91.63% under the "token", "strict" and "relaxed" criteria respectively, which is among top-ranked systems of the 2014 i2b2 challenge. After integrating some refined localization dictionaries, our system is further improved with F-scores of 94.83%, 91.57% and 91.95% under the "token", "strict" and "relaxed" criteria respectively. PMID:26122526

  16. Exploitation of oil in a volcanic cone by horizontal drilling in the Elaine field, south Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, P.A.; Kushner, P.L.; Harbaugh, J.W.

    1991-03-01

    The Uvalde volcanic field west and southwest of San Antonio contains many buried volcanic cones that offer attractive places to exploit with horizontal drilling. These buried cones were formed by eruption of basaltic flows and cinders during the Cretaceous when the Austin Chalk and immediately overlying strate were deposited. The cones vary in size, some being as much as 2 mi in diameter and 1000 ft in vertical dimension. During eruptions, flows and ejecta reacted with sea water, producing intermixtures of basaltic material and limestone. These cones provide attractive targets for oil exploration. The Elaine field about 90 mi southwest of San Antonio is associated with a buried volcanic cone that is now being exploited with horizontal drilling. Horizontal Drilling and Production, Inc., ('HDP') drilled the Autumn 1 as the initial horizontal well at Elaine. A vertical hole was drilled through the cone and underlying Austin Chalk, reconfirming the presence of the oil zone at the contact between volcanics and chalk. Moving back up the hole, a cement plug was set within the volcanics, and a horizontal hole was directed on a N 70W azimuth. The inclined hole's vertical angle had progressively decreased with distance to about 30{degree} from the horizontal when the oil zone was reentered. The hole's inclination continued to decrease within the oil zone, becoming horizontal after about 600 ft. With further distance, the hole passed beneath the oil zone, where its inclination was then reversed so that it climbed gradually and reentered the oil zone before reaching its terminal distance of 1500 horizontal feet. The well was completed on August 17, 1990, with an indicated initial production of 1609 BOPD.

  17. The identification and interaction of network, intranetwork, and ephemeral-region magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Sara F.

    1988-01-01

    Network magnetic fields are described as the dynamic product of the merging and cancelling of intranetwork fields, ephemeral regions, and the remnants of active regions. The similarities of these phenomena with solar magnetic features are pointed out. The intranetwork magnetic fields are characterized by the flow of successive fragments in approximately radial patterns away from their apparent source sites.

  18. Variations of the Geomagnetic Field During the Holocene-Pleistocene: Relative Paleointensity Records From South-Western Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogorza, C. S.

    2008-05-01

    I present a review of the research carried out by the Group of Geomagnetism at Universidad Nacional del Centro (Argentina) on paleointensity records from bottom sediments from three lakes: Escondido (Gogorza et al., 2004), Moreno (Gogorza et al., 2006) and El Trébol (Gogorza et al., 2007; Irurzun et al., 2008) (South-Western Argentina, 41° S, 71° 30'W). Based on these studies, we construct a first relative (RPI) stack for South-Western Argentina covering the last 21,000 14C years BP. The degree of down-core homogeneity of magnetic mineral content as well as magnetic mineral concentration and grain sizes vary between all lakes and are quantified by high-resolution rock magnetic measurements. Rock magnetic studies suggest that the main carriers of magnetization are ferrimagnetic minerals, predominantly pseudo-single domain magnetite The remanent magnetization at 20 mT (NRM20mT) was normalized using the anhysteric remanent magnetization at 20mT (ARM20mT), the saturation of the isothermal remanent at 20 mT (SIRM20mT) and the low field magnetic susceptibility {k}. Coherence function analysis indicates that the normalised records are free of environmental influences. Our paleointensity (NRM20mT/ ARM20mT) versus age curve shows a good agreement with published records from other parts of the world suggesting that, in suitable sediments, paleointensity of the geomagnetic field can give a globally coherent, dominantly dipolar signal. References Gogorza, C.S.G., Irurzun, M.A., Chaparro, M.A.E., Lirio, J.M., Nuñez, H., Bercoff, P.G., Sinito, A.M. Relative Paleointensity of the Geomagnetic Field over the last 21,000 years bp from Sediment Cores, Lake El Trébol, (Patagonia, Argentina). Earth, Planets and Space. V58(10), 1323-1332. 2006. Gogorza, C.S.G., Sinito, A.M., Lirio, J.M., Nuñez, H., Chaparro, M.A.E., Bertorello, H.R. Paleointensity Studies on Holocene-Pleistocene Sediments from Lake Escondido, Argentina. Physical of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Elsevier, ISSN

  19. Fluvial architecture and reservoir heterogeneity of middle Frio sandstones, Seeligson field, Jim Wells and Kleberg Counties, south Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Jirik, L.A.; Kerr, D.R.; Zinke, S.G.; Finley, R.J. )

    1990-05-01

    Evaluation of fluvial Frio reservoirs in south Texas reveals a complex architectural style potentially suited to the addition of incremental gas reserves through recognition of untapped compartments or bypassed gas zones. Seeligson field is being studied as part of a GRI/DOE/Texas-sponsored program, in cooperation with Oryx Energy Company and Mobil Exploration and Production U.S., Inc., and is designed to develop technologies and methodologies for increasing gas reserves from conventional reservoirs in mature fields. Seeligson field, discovered in 1937, has produced 2.2 tcf of gas from more than 50 middle Frio reservoirs. Cross sections as well as net sand and log facies maps illustrate depositional style, sandstone geometry, and reservoir heterogeneities. Far-offset vertical seismic profiles show laterally discontinuous reflections corresponding to the reservoirs. Lenticular lateral-bar sandstones dominate channel-fill deposits that together are commonly less than 50 ft thick, forming belts of sandstone approximately 2,500 ft wide. Crevasse-splay deposits commonly extend a few thousand feet beyond the channel system. Sand-rich channel-fill deposits are flanked by levee and overbank mudstones, isolating the reservoirs in narrow, dip-elongate trends. Deposition on an aggrading coastal plain resulted in a pattern of laterally stacked sandstone bodies that are widespread across the study area. Alternating periods of more rapid aggradation resulted in deposition of vertically stacked sandstones with limited areal distribution. Facies architecture of both depositional styles has implications for reservoir compartmentalization. Reservoir compartments within a laterally stacked system may be leaky, resulting from sandstone contact from producing wells along depositional axes. This effect is a major factor controlling incremental recovery. Reservoirs in vertically stacked systems should be better isolated.

  20. Mantle xenocrysts of Chompolo field of the alkaline volcanics, Aldan shield, South Yakutia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolenko, Evgeny; Tychkov, Nikolay; Afanasiev, Valentin

    2015-04-01

    New mineralogical and chemical constraints for 10 dikes, veins (360-800m) and pipes (60-110 m) of Chompolo field discovered in 1957-1958 are discussed. Feld is located within Central Aldan Archean and Paleoproterozoic granulite-orthogneiss superterrane of Aldan-Stanovoy Shield, with peak of metamorphism - 2.1-1.9 Ga (Smelov, Timofeev, 2007). Originally (Shilina and Zeitlin 1959) and later (Kostrovitsky and Garanin 1992, Ashchepkov, Vladykin et al. 2001) these rocks were classified as kimberlites by mineralogy including pyrope, Cr spinel, and Cr diopside. Panina and Vladykin (1994), Davies et al, (2006) identified them as lamprophyres and lamproites. The age of Chompolo rocks is pre-Jurassic (Vladimirov et. al., 1989) dated by 40Ar/39Ar as 164.7±1 Ma (233.7±2.2 next plato)(unpublished Ashchepkov). The Rb-Sr isochron for lamprophyre "intrusions 104" indicate later age of 131±4 Ma (Zaitsev, Smelov, 2010). Magmatic bodies (Aldanskaya, Sputnik, Gornaya, Ogonek, Perevalnaya, Kilier-E) were studied during 2012-2013 fieldworks. Most of igneous rocks occur as inequigranular volcanic breccias with micro- or crypto-crystalline groundmass of K feldspar (up to 16.3 wt.% K2O, up to 3.2 wt.% FeO), chlorite, opaque minerals, melanocratic xenocrysts and phenocrysts (garnet, pyroxene, amphibole, Cr spinel, apatite, zircon, mica), and abundant xenogenic fragments of wallrock and crystalline basement. Garnet chemistry records the presence of mantle and crustal material. Mantle garnets lack the common megacryst, wehrlite, and high-temperature lherzolite varieties. Mantle mineralization prevails in the Aldan dike and the Sputnik, Gornaya, and Ogonek pipes, while crustal and elcogitic material is in the Perevalnaya and Kilier-E pipes. The Cr spinel consists of (in wt%) 3.5 to 50.9 Al2O3, 18.6-63.5 wt% Cr2O3, 6.1 to 19.1 MgO, and 0 to 1.61 TiO2. Al and Cr in spinels are in inverse proportion. The Chompolo alkaline volcanic rocks are most similar to the Central Aldan lamproites in trace

  1. Source identification and trends in concentrations of gaseous and fine particulate principal species in Seoul, South Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Choong-Min Kang; Byung-Wook Kang; Hak Sung Lee

    2006-07-15

    Ambient measurements were made using two sets of annular denuder system during the four seasons and were then compared with the results during the period of 1996-1997 to estimate the trends and seasonal variations in concentrations of gaseous and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) principal species. Annual averages of gaseous HNO{sub 3} and NH{sub 3} increased by 11% and 6%, respectively, compared with those of the previous study, whereas HONO and SO{sub 2} decreased by 11% and 136%, respectively. The PM2.5 concentration decreased by {approximately} 17%, 35% for SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, and 29% for NH{sub 4}{sup +}, whereas NO{sub 3}{sup -} increased by 21%. Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were 12.8 and 5.98 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, accounting for {approximately} 26 and 12% of PM2.5 concentration, respectively. The species studied accounted for 84% of PM2.5 concentration, ranging from 76% in winter to 97% in summer. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis was used to identify possible source areas affecting air pollution levels at a receptor site in Seoul. High possible source areas in concentrations of PM2.5, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}2, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, and K{sup +} were coastal cities of Liaoning province, inland areas of Heibei/Shandong provinces in China, and typical port cities of South Korea. The PSCF results may suggest that air pollution levels in Seoul are affected considerably by long-range transport from external areas, such as the coastal zone in China and other cities in South Korea, as well as Seoul itself. It appears that the NO{sub 3} contribution to PM2.5 increased by {approximately} 4%, whereas the SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} contribution decreased by {approximately} 2%. This trend may be explained by a shift of fuel patterns from fossil fuel to LNG, according to the governmental policies. 44 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Holocene records of geomagnetic field behavior from a north-south transect along the western Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachfeld, S. A.; Shah, D. P.; St-Onge, M.; St-Onge, G.

    2013-12-01

    Geochronology is inherently difficult when working with Antarctic margin sediments. Radiocarbon dating and oxygen isotope stratigraphy are challenging or impossible in sites with poor preservation of biogenic calcite. Radiocarbon dating of the acid insoluble organic matter (AIOM) is further complicated by organically lean sediment and the presence of reworked organic carbon or detrital carbon from sedimentary rocks. These complications limit the ability to interpret a paleoclimate record. Geomagnetic paleointensity dating is a proven 'tuning' technique that has been successfully applied in several studies around the Antarctic margin. However, the reference curves to which these sites were tuned were constructed primarily from Northern Hemisphere data. Here we present paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) and relative paleointensity (RPI) data from three Antarctic Peninsula sites that possess independent chronologies and which have moderate to ultra-high sedimentation rates (40 - 700 cm/ka). Maxwell Bay, located in the volcanic South Shetland Islands, is an ultra-high-resolution site with strongly magnetic sediments from which the Shallow Drilling (SHALDRIL) program recovered a 108-m record spanning the last 14 ka. Outer Barilari Bay and Hugo Island Trough, which lie to the South along the western Antarctic Peninsula, are moderate resolution sites with a high proportion of biogenic silica. Maxwell Bay and Bariliari Bay are unique in that they possess homogenous sediment and uniform magnetic mineral assemblages, while also preserving biogenic calcite, a rare combination on the Antarctic margin. All three sites preserve strong, stable remanent magnetizations with an easily isolated characteristic component and MAD values generally < 2°, with the exception of turbidites, intervals with abundant dropstones, and biosiliceous ooze intervals. Inclination values fluctuate between the present-day value at the cores sites (-58°) and the geomagnetic axial dipole inclination

  3. An Integrated Study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir Foster and South Cowden fields,

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    GEOPHYSICAL OBJECTIVES: The goals of work done this quarter were to (1) refine the maps of seismic-derived porosity for the upper Grayburg for reapplication to the production model, (2) determine rock fabric and porosity patterns for the lower Grayburg and the upper San Andres, (3) relate any seismic-derived porosity characteristics, particularly seismic waveform attributes, to the historical production of oil allocated to lower Grayburg and San Andres zones, and (4) to test other geologic attributes for possible inter-relationships. GEOLOGIC OBJECTIVES: Continue the integrated geological/geophysical effort to develop a usable seismic velocity/log porosity transform for each Grayburg producing interval. The lower Grayburg and San Andres core were revisited to glean lithology and porosity information for the seismic inversion model. Update recent production and injection for each well in the study area. Add new production and injection wells to spreadsheet. Continue evaluation of effectiveness of recent completions, plug backs and injector conversions by monitoring oil production and produced water composition. ENGINEERING OBJECTIVES: To build the most accurate reservoir picture by continued integration of all data types available and utilize that model to optimize oil production. Monitoring and testing of new and worked-over wells continues to test the early production models. Methods to improve water quality are being evaluated using normal field management procedures.

  4. Innovative automatic resonant mode identification for nano-scale dynamic full-field characterization of MEMS using interferometric fringe analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liang-Chia; Huang, Yao-Ting; Lai, Huang-Wen; Chen, Jin-Liang; Chang, Calvin C.

    2008-12-01

    A dynamic 3D nano-scale surface profilometer was successfully developed for novel automatic resonant frequency identification using stroboscopic interferometric principle. With rapid increase in the application of micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) to industries, the needs of accurate dynamic characterization have become a major challenge in design and fabrication. In view of such, an interferometric microscopy was developed using LED stroboscopic interferometry to achieve dynamic full-field profilometry and characterization of MEMS with a measurement bandwidth exceeding 1 MHz. Most importantly, a novel detection algorithm was also developed employing interferogram fringe density measure for automatic resonant frequency identification. Natural resonant modes of a series of microstructures can be accurately detected, giving values consistent with theoretical ones. To verify the effectiveness of the developed methodology, an AFM cantilever microbeam and a cross-bridge microbeam were measured to analyze their full-field resonant vibratory shapes. Our experimental results confirmed that the resonant vibration of the tested beams can be fully characterized while achieving an accuracy in vertical measurement of 3-5 nm with a vertical measurement range of tens of micrometers.

  5. Stellar Masses from the CANDELS Survey: The GOODS-South and UDS Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santini, P.; Ferguson, H. C.; Fontana, A.; Mobasher, B.; Barro, G.; Castellano, M.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Grazian, A.; Hsu, L. T.; Lee, B.; Lee, S.-K.; Pforr, J.; Salvato, M.; Wiklind, T.; Wuyts, S.; Almaini, O.; Cooper, M. C.; Galametz, A.; Weiner, B.; Amorin, R.; Boutsia, K.; Conselice, C. J.; Dahlen, T.; Dickinson, M. E.; Giavalisco, M.; Grogin, N. A.; Guo, Y.; Hathi, N. P.; Kocevski, D.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Kurczynski, P.; Merlin, E.; Mortlock, A.; Newman, J. A.; Paris, D.; Pentericci, L.; Simons, R.; Willner, S. P.

    2015-03-01

    We present the public release of the stellar mass catalogs for the GOODS-S and UDS fields obtained using some of the deepest near-IR images available, achieved as part of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey project. We combine the effort from 10 different teams, who computed the stellar masses using the same photometry and the same redshifts. Each team adopted their preferred fitting code, assumptions, priors, and parameter grid. The combination of results using the same underlying stellar isochrones reduces the systematics associated with the fitting code and other choices. Thanks to the availability of different estimates, we can test the effect of some specific parameters and assumptions on the stellar mass estimate. The choice of the stellar isochrone library turns out to have the largest effect on the galaxy stellar mass estimates, resulting in the largest distributions around the median value (with a semi interquartile range larger than 0.1 dex). On the other hand, for most galaxies, the stellar mass estimates are relatively insensitive to the different parameterizations of the star formation history. The inclusion of nebular emission in the model spectra does not have a significant impact for the majority of galaxies (less than a factor of 2 for ~80% of the sample). Nevertheless, the stellar mass for the subsample of young galaxies (age <100 Myr), especially in particular redshift ranges (e.g., 2.2 < z < 2.4, 3.2 < z < 3.6, and 5.5 < z < 6.5), can be seriously overestimated (by up to a factor of 10 for <20 Myr sources) if nebular contribution is ignored.

  6. Properties of submillimeter galaxies in the CANDELS-S goods-south field

    SciTech Connect

    Wiklind, Tommy; Dahlen, Tomas; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Dickinson, Mark E.; Guo, Yicheng; Barro, Guillermo; Fontana, Adriano; Castellano, Marco; Davé, Romeel; Yan, Haojing; Acquaviva, Viviana; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Caputi, Karina I.; Dekel, Avishai; Donley, Jennifer L.; and others

    2014-04-20

    We derive physical properties of 10 submillimeter galaxies located in the CANDELS coverage of the GOODS-S field. The galaxies were first identified as submillimeter sources with the LABOCA bolometer and subsequently targeted for 870 μm continuum observation with ALMA. The high angular resolution of the ALMA imaging allows secure counterparts to be identified in the CANDELS multiband data set. The CANDELS data provide deep photometric data from UV through near-infrared wavelengths. Using synthetic spectral energy distributions, we derive photometric redshifts, stellar masses, extinction, ages, and the star formation history. The redshift range is z = 1.65-4.76, with two of the galaxies located at z > 4. Two submillimeter galaxy (SMG) counterparts have stellar masses 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than the rest. The remaining SMG counterparts have stellar masses around 1 × 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}. The stellar population in the SMGs is typically older than the expected duration of the submillimeter phase, suggesting that the star formation history of SMGs is more complex than a single burst. Non-parametric morphology indices suggest that the SMG counterparts are among the most asymmetric systems compared with galaxies of the same stellar mass and redshift. The Hubble Space Telescope images show that three of the SMGs are associated with ongoing mergers. The remaining counterparts are isolated. Estimating the dust and molecular gas mass from the submillimeter fluxes, and comparing with our stellar masses shows that the gas mass fraction of SMGs is ∼28% and that the final stellar mass is likely to be ∼(1-2) × 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}.

  7. Construction of a BAC library and identification of Dmrt1 gene of the rice field eel, Monopterus albus

    SciTech Connect

    Jang Songhun; Zhou Fang; Xia Laixin; Zhao Wei; Cheng Hanhua . E-mail: hhcheng@whu.edu.cn; Zhou Rongjia . E-mail: rjzhou@whu.edu.cn

    2006-09-22

    A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed using nuclear DNA from the rice field eel (Monopterus albus). The BAC library consists of a total of 33,000 clones with an average insert size of 115 kb. Based on the rice field eel haploid genome size of 600 Mb, the BAC library is estimated to contain approximately 6.3 genome equivalents and represents 99.8% of the genome of the rice field eel. This is first BAC library constructed from this species. To estimate the possibility of isolating a specific clone, high-density colony hybridization-based library screening was performed using Dmrt1 cDNA of the rice field eel as a probe. Both library screening and PCR identification results revealed three positive BAC clones which were overlapped, and formed a contig covering the Dmrt1 gene of 195 kb. By sequence comparisons with the Dmrt1 cDNA and sequencing of first four intron-exon junctions, Dmrt1 gene of the rice field eel was predicted to contain four introns and five exons. The sizes of first and second intron are 1.5 and 2.6 kb, respectively, and the sizes of last two introns were predicted to be about 20 kb. The Dmrt1 gene structure was conserved in evolution. These results also indicate that the BAC library is a useful resource for BAC contig construction and molecular isolation of functional genes.

  8. Functionality of veterinary identification microchips following low- (0.5 tesla) and high-field (3 tesla) magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Piesnack, Susann; Frame, Mairi E; Oechtering, Gerhard; Ludewig, Eberhard

    2013-01-01

    The ability to read patient identification microchips relies on the use of radiofrequency pulses. Since radiofrequency pulses also form an integral part of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) process, the possibility of loss of microchip function during MRI scanning is of concern. Previous clinical trials have shown microchip function to be unaffected by MR imaging using a field strength of 1 Tesla and 1.5. As veterinary MRI scanners range widely in field strength, this study was devised to determine whether exposure to lower or higher field strengths than 1 Tesla would affect the function of different types of microchip. In a phantom study, a total of 300 International Standards Organisation (ISO)-approved microchips (100 each of three different types: ISO FDX-B 1.4 × 9 mm, ISO FDX-B 2.12 × 12 mm, ISO HDX 3.8 × 23 mm) were tested in a low field (0.5) and a high field scanner (3.0 Tesla). A total of 50 microchips of each type were tested in each scanner. The phantom was composed of a fluid-filled freezer pack onto which a plastic pillow and a cardboard strip with affixed microchips were positioned. Following an MRI scan protocol simulating a head study, all of the microchips were accurately readable. Neither 0.5 nor 3 Tesla imaging affected microchip function in this study. PMID:23763334

  9. Wide-Field Imaging of the Hubble Deep Field-South Region. II. The Evolution of Galaxy Clustering at z < 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teplitz, Harry I.; Hill, Robert S.; Malumuth, Eliot M.; Collins, Nicholas R.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Palunas, Povilas; Woodgate, Bruce E.

    2001-02-01

    We present the galaxy-galaxy angular correlations as a function of photometric redshift in a deep, wide galaxy survey centered on the Hubble Deep Field-South (HDF-S). Images were obtained with the Big Throughput Camera on the Blanco 4 m telescope at CTIO, of 1/2 square degree in broadband uBVRI, reaching ~24 mag. Approximately 40,000 galaxies are detected in the survey. We determine photometric redshifts using galaxy template fitting to the photometry. Monte Carlo simulations show that redshifts from these data should be reliable out to z~1, where the 4000 Å break shifts into the I band. The inferred redshift distribution, n(z), shows good agreement with the distribution of galaxies measured in the Hubble Deep Field-North (HDF-N) and the Canada-France Redshift Survey. After assigning galaxies to redshift bins with width Δz=0.33, we determine the two-point angular correlation function in each bin. We find that the amplitude of the correlation, Aw, drops across the three bins to redshift z~1. Simple ɛ models of clustering evolution fit this result, with the best agreement for ɛ=0. Hierarchical cold dark matter models best fit in a low-density, Λ-dominated universe. Based on observations obtained at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, a division of the National Optical Astronomy Observatories, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  10. IDENTIFICATION OF FREE-FIELD SOIL PROPERTIES USING NUPEC RECORDED GROUND MOTIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, J.; Costantino, C.; Hofmayer, C.; Murphy, A.; Chokshi, N.; Kitada, Y.

    2001-03-22

    Over the past twenty years, the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan has conducted a series of field model test programs to investigate various aspects of soil-structure interaction (SSI) effects on nuclear power plant structures, including embedment and dynamic structure-soil-structure interaction (SSSI) effects. As part of a collaborative agreement between the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and NUPEC, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) performed a numerical analysis to predict the free field soil profile using industry standard methods and the recorded free field responses to actual earthquake events. This paper describes the BNL free-field analyses, including the methods and the analysis results and their comparison to recorded data in the free field. The free-field soil profiles determined from the BNL analyses are being used for both the embedment and SSSI studies, the results of which will be made available upon their completion.

  11. CANDELS MULTI-WAVELENGTH CATALOGS: SOURCE DETECTION AND PHOTOMETRY IN THE GOODS-SOUTH FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Yicheng; Barro, Guillermo; Faber, Sandra M.; Koo, David C.; Giavalisco, Mauro; Willner, S. P.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Donley, Jennifer L.; Fontana, Adriano; Galametz, Audrey; Grazian, Andrea; Kocevski, Dale D.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Peth, Michael; Salvato, Mara; Wuyts, Stijn; and others

    2013-08-15

    We present a UV to mid-infrared multi-wavelength catalog in the CANDELS/GOODS-S field, combining the newly obtained CANDELS HST/WFC3 F105W, F125W, and F160W data with existing public data. The catalog is based on source detection in the WFC3 F160W band. The F160W mosaic includes the data from CANDELS deep and wide observations as well as previous ERS and HUDF09 programs. The mosaic reaches a 5{sigma} limiting depth (within an aperture of radius 0.''17) of 27.4, 28.2, and 29.7 AB for CANDELS wide, deep, and HUDF regions, respectively. The catalog contains 34,930 sources with the representative 50% completeness reaching 25.9, 26.6, and 28.1 AB in the F160W band for the three regions. In addition to WFC3 bands, the catalog also includes data from UV (U band from both CTIO/MOSAIC and VLT/VIMOS), optical (HST/ACS F435W, F606W, F775W, F814W, and F850LP), and infrared (HST/WFC3 F098M, VLT/ISAAC Ks, VLT/HAWK-I Ks, and Spitzer/IRAC 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0 {mu}m) observations. The catalog is validated via stellar colors, comparison with other published catalogs, zero-point offsets determined from the best-fit templates of the spectral energy distribution of spectroscopically observed objects, and the accuracy of photometric redshifts. The catalog is able to detect unreddened star-forming (passive) galaxies with stellar mass of 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} at a 50% completeness level to z {approx} 3.4 (2.8), 4.6 (3.2), and 7.0 (4.2) in the three regions. As an example of application, the catalog is used to select both star-forming and passive galaxies at z {approx} 2-4 via the Balmer break. It is also used to study the color-magnitude diagram of galaxies at 0 < z < 4.

  12. Identification of American shad spawning sites and habitat use in the Pee Dee River, North Carolina and South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Julianne E.; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined spawning site selection and habitat use by American shad Alosa sapidissima in the Pee Dee River, North Carolina and South Carolina, to inform future management in this flow-regulated river. American shad eggs were collected in plankton tows, and the origin (spawning site) of each egg was estimated; relocations of radio-tagged adults on spawning grounds illustrated habitat use and movement in relation to changes in water discharge rates. Most spawning was estimated to occur in the Piedmont physiographic region within a 25-river-kilometer (rkm) section just below the lowermost dam in the system; however, some spawning also occurred downstream in the Coastal Plain. The Piedmont region has a higher gradient and is predicted to have slightly higher current velocities and shallower depths, on average, than the Coastal Plain. The Piedmont region is dominated by large substrates (e.g., boulders and gravel), whereas the Coastal Plain is dominated by sand. Sampling at night (the primary spawning period) resulted in the collection of young eggs (≤1.5 h old) that more precisely identified the spawning sites. In the Piedmont region, most radio-tagged American shad remained in discrete areas (average linear range = 3.6 rkm) during the spawning season and generally occupied water velocities between 0.20 and 0.69 m/s, depths between 1.0 and 2.9 m, and substrates dominated by boulder or bedrock and gravel. Tagged adults made only small-scale movements with changes in water discharge rates. Our results demonstrate that the upstream extent of migration and an area of concentrated spawning occur just below the lowermost dam. If upstream areas have similar habitat, facilitating upstream access for American shad could increase the spawning habitat available and increase the population's size.

  13. Identification of groundwater flow systems using geological mapping and chemical spring analysis in South Pare Mountains, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mul, M. L.; Mutiibwa, R. K.; Foppen, J. W. A.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    Population growth on the hill slopes of the semi-arid South Pare Mountains in Northeast Tanzania has increased water usage. In this area, water availability is directly dependent on the groundwater/surface water interaction, which in turn is dependent on the hydrogeology of the catchment. In order to better understand the hydrogeology of the area, a groundwater flow system analysis was conducted for two adjacent meso-scale catchments (Makanya and Mbaga, a sub-catchment of the Mkomazi catchment; both around 300 km 2). Geological mapping and spring sampling were done. Thirty spring- and groundwater samples were collected from inside and around the catchment and analysed for all major cations and anions, including dissolved silica. Due to dipping and faulting of the geological units, a substantial amount of water drains out of the Makanya catchment into the Mbaga catchment. Springs found in the elevated parts of the catchments, contribute to base flow and are found in old debris flow deposits, consisting of weathered parent rocks. Water quality in these parts is mainly determined by silicate weathering due to oxidation of organic matter and evaporation. Concentrations of ions generally increase with decreasing altitude. Springs found in the lower parts of the catchments contain high amounts of sodium, chloride and sulphate, different from the water quality found uphill. We concluded that two distinct flow systems exist in the catchment; a local system, defined by the limited thickness of the weathered material and debris flow deposits, and a regional flow system that is most likely controlled by regional tectonics. This case-study demonstrates how geological mapping and chemical methods can be used to analyse groundwater flow systems.

  14. Identification of the VERNALIZATION 4 gene reveals the origin of spring growth habit in ancient wheats from South Asia

    PubMed Central

    Kippes, Nestor; Debernardi, Juan M.; Vasquez-Gross, Hans A.; Akpinar, Bala A.; Budak, Hikment; Kato, Kenji; Chao, Shiaoman; Akhunov, Eduard; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Wheat varieties with a winter growth habit require long exposures to low temperatures (vernalization) to accelerate flowering. Natural variation in four vernalization genes regulating this requirement has favored wheat adaptation to different environments. The first three genes (VRN1–VRN3) have been cloned and characterized before. Here we show that the fourth gene, VRN-D4, originated by the insertion of a ∼290-kb region from chromosome arm 5AL into the proximal region of chromosome arm 5DS. The inserted 5AL region includes a copy of VRN-A1 that carries distinctive mutations in its coding and regulatory regions. Three lines of evidence confirmed that this gene is VRN-D4: it cosegregated with VRN-D4 in a high-density mapping population; it was expressed earlier than other VRN1 genes in the absence of vernalization; and induced mutations in this gene resulted in delayed flowering. VRN-D4 was found in most accessions of the ancient subspecies Triticum aestivum ssp. sphaerococcum from South Asia. This subspecies showed a significant reduction of genetic diversity and increased genetic differentiation in the centromeric region of chromosome 5D, suggesting that VRN-D4 likely contributed to local adaptation and was favored by positive selection. Three adjacent SNPs in a regulatory region of the VRN-D4 first intron disrupt the binding of GLYCINE-RICH RNA-BINDING PROTEIN 2 (TaGRP2), a known repressor of VRN1 expression. The same SNPs were identified in VRN-A1 alleles previously associated with reduced vernalization requirement. These alleles can be used to modulate vernalization requirements and to develop wheat varieties better adapted to different or changing environments. PMID:26324889

  15. Identification and antimicrobial resistance prevalence of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains from treated wastewater effluents in Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Adefisoye, Martins A; Okoh, Anthony I

    2016-02-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global problem impeding the effective prevention/treatment of an ever-growing array of infections caused by pathogens; a huge challenge threatening the achievements of modern medicine. In this paper, we report the occurrence of multidrug resistance (MDR) in Escherichia coli strains isolated from discharged final effluents of two wastewater treatment facilities in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Standard disk diffusion method was employed to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profile of 223 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed E. coli isolates against 17 common antibiotics in human therapy and veterinary medicine. Seven virulence associated and fourteen antibiotic resistance genes were also evaluated by molecular methods. Molecular characterization revealed five pathotypes of E. coli in the following proportions: enterotoxigenic ETEC (1.4%), enteropathogenic EPEC (7.6%), enteroaggregative EAEC (7.6%), neonatal meningitis (NMEC) (14.8%), uropathogenic (41.7%), and others (26.9%). Isolates showed varying (1.7-70.6%) degrees of resistance to 15 of the test antibiotics. Multidrug resistance was exhibited by 32.7% of the isolates, with the commonest multiple antibiotic-resistant phenotype (MARP) being AP-T-CFX (12 isolates), while multiple antibiotic-resistant indices (MARI) estimated are 0.23 (Site 1) and 0.24 (Site 2). Associated antibiotic resistance genes detected in the isolates include: strA (88.2%), aadA (52.9%), cat I (15%), cmlA1 (4.6%), blaTEM (56.4%), tetA (30.4%), tetB (28.4%), tetC (42.2%), tetD (50%), tetK (11.8%), and tetM (68.6%). We conclude that municipal wastewater effluents are important reservoirs for the dissemination of potentially pathogenic E. coli (and possibly other pathogens) and antibiotic resistance genes in the aquatic milieu of the Eastern Cape and a risk to public health. PMID:26758686

  16. Identification and distribution of sulfate reducing bacteria and sulphur-oxidising bacteria in northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, S.; Zhu, X.; Guan, H.; Wu, D.; Wu, N.

    2015-12-01

    Fatty acids are one of the major components in modern marine sediments. It is well known that the saturated short-chain FAs were typically to be from vascular plants, algae, bacteria, and other sources, while the saturated long-chain FAs are the major components found in leaf waxes, suberin, and cutin in terrestrial higher plants. So the lipid biomarkers of fatty acids in Site 4B from Shenhu Area, northern South China Sea were investigated in Recent research supported from the 973 Program (2009CB219506), and the resources of branched fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids were mainly discussed. The results reveal that i/a15:0, i/a17:0, 16:1ω5, 18:1ω9 and 10me16:0 are derived from sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), while 16:1ω7t/c and 18:1ω7 are originated from sulphur-oxidising bacteria (SOB). The biomakers of methanotrophs such as 16:1ω6/8 and 18:1ω6/8 were not detected in the sediments which coincide with more positive carbon isotope values of the fatty acids in the sediments. The stable relationship between SRB and SOB below 97cm in the sediments reflects the relative stable oxidative and reductive depositional environment which may be connected with the sulphur cycle in the sediments, that is carried out as sulfate is reduced to sulfide, and then sulfide is oxidized to sulfate and elemental sulfur, at last elemental sulfur is disproportionated to sulfide and sulfate. The frequently changed relationship of SRB and SOB above 97cm in the sediments indicates intensely changing oxidative and reductive sedimental environment, that may related with diapir structure around Site 4B, which also brings about hydrocarbon seepage leading to increasing biomass at 97cm.

  17. Identification of robust statistical downscaling methods based on a comprehensive suite of performance metrics for South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eum, H. I.; Cannon, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Climate models are a key provider to investigate impacts of projected future climate conditions on regional hydrologic systems. However, there is a considerable mismatch of spatial resolution between GCMs and regional applications, in particular a region characterized by complex terrain such as Korean peninsula. Therefore, a downscaling procedure is an essential to assess regional impacts of climate change. Numerous statistical downscaling methods have been used mainly due to the computational efficiency and simplicity. In this study, four statistical downscaling methods [Bias-Correction/Spatial Disaggregation (BCSD), Bias-Correction/Constructed Analogue (BCCA), Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogs (MACA), and Bias-Correction/Climate Imprint (BCCI)] are applied to downscale the latest Climate Forecast System Reanalysis data to stations for precipitation, maximum temperature, and minimum temperature over South Korea. By split sampling scheme, all methods are calibrated with observational station data for 19 years from 1973 to 1991 are and tested for the recent 19 years from 1992 to 2010. To assess skill of the downscaling methods, we construct a comprehensive suite of performance metrics that measure an ability of reproducing temporal correlation, distribution, spatial correlation, and extreme events. In addition, we employ Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) to identify robust statistical downscaling methods based on the performance metrics for each season. The results show that downscaling skill is considerably affected by the skill of CFSR and all methods lead to large improvements in representing all performance metrics. According to seasonal performance metrics evaluated, when TOPSIS is applied, MACA is identified as the most reliable and robust method for all variables and seasons. Note that such result is derived from CFSR output which is recognized as near perfect climate data in climate studies. Therefore, the

  18. Identification of novel mutations in CD2BP1 gene in clinically proven rheumatoid arthritis patients of south India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Bhattaram Siddhartha; Kumar, Pasupuleti Santhosh; Sowgandhi, Nannepaga; Prajwal, Bhattaram Manoj; Mohan, Alladi; Sarma, Kadainti Venkata Subbaraya; Sarma, Potukuchi Venkata Gurunadha Krishna

    2016-08-01

    Pyogenic Arthritis, Pyoderma gangrenosum, and Acne (PAPA syndrome) is a rare autosomal dominant, auto-inflammatory disease that affects joints and skin. The disease results due to mutations in the cluster of differentiation 2 binding protein 1 (CD2BP1) gene on chromosome 15q24.3. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common, genetically complex disease that affects the joints with occasional skin manifestations. Studies related to the pathophysiology of inflammation in these two disorders show a certain degree of overlap at genetic level. The present study was done to confirm the existence of such a genetic overlap between PAPA syndrome and RA in south Indian population. In the present study 100 patients who were clinically diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis and 100 apparently healthy controls were chosen and the 15 exons of CD2BP1 gene were PCR-amplified and sequenced. The sequence analysis showed that in exon 3 thirty eight patients revealed presence of novel heterozygous missense mutations p.Glu51Asp, p.Leu57Arg and p.Ala64Thr. In exons 6, 10 and 14 eight patients showed 44 novel missense mutations and two patients showed novel frame shift mutations p.(Met123_Leu416delinsThr) and p.(Thr337Profs*52) leading to truncated protein formation. Such mutations were not seen in controls. Further, the in silico analysis revealed the mutant CD2BP1 structure showed deletion of Cdc15 and SH3 domains when superimposed with the wild type CD2BP1 structure with variable RMSD values. Therefore, these structural variations in CD2BP1 gene due to the mutations could be one of the strongest reasons to demonstrate the involvement of these gene variations in the patients with rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:27184502

  19. Eddy covariance flux measurements over a man made lake during the ALEX 2014 field campaign in South Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salgado, R.; Potes, M.; Albino, A.; Rodrigues, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Energy, vapor, CO2 and momentum exchanges between water and air were measured using the new IRGASON eddy covariance system, an integrated open-path CO2 /H2O Gas Analyser and 3D Sonic Anemometer, installed on a instrumented floating platform (Figure 1) in the Alqueva reservoir, a large man made lake (area of 250 km2) in South Portugal. Radiation sensors were also mounted on the raft in order to measure near surface up and down radiative fluxes, while the water temperature profile below the platform were continuously archived. An accelerometer was mounted on the support bar near the sonic anemometer in order to correct the vertical component of the wind due to the the raft swing. The measurements were performed during the ALqueva hydro-meteorological EXperiment, ALEX 2014, between June and September 2014. ALEX 2014 ( http://www.alex2014.cge.uevora.pt) was an integrated field campaign with measurements of chemical, physical and biological parameters at different experimental sites in the reservoir and in its surrounding area. Worldwide, there are few reported flux measurements over lakes. This set of observations contribute to improve the characterization of the exchanges between a lake and the atmosphere in a semi-arid climate. The eddy covariance estimates of lake evaporation are compared against other methods.

  20. An Integrated Study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Weinbrandt, Richard; Trentham, Robert C; Robinson, William

    1997-10-23

    For a part of the Foster and South Cowden (Grayburg-San Andres) oil fields, improvement in oil production has been accomplished, in part, by using "pipeline fracturing" technology in the most recent completion to improve fluid flow rates, and filtration of waterflood injection water to preserve reservoir permeability. The 3D seismic survey acquired in conjunction with this DOE project has been used to calculate a 3D seismic inversion model, which has been analyzed to provide detailed maps of porosity within the productive upper 250 feet of the Grayburg Formation. Geologic data, particularly from logs and cores, have been combined with the geophysical interpretation and production history information to develop a model of the reservoir that defines estimations of remaining producible oil. The integrated result is greater than the sum of its parts, since no single data form adequately describes the reservoir. Each discipline relies upon computer software that runs on PC-type computers, allowing virtually any size company to affordably access the technology required to achieve similar results.

  1. Screening and comparison of remedial alternatives for the South Field and flyash piles at the Fernald site

    SciTech Connect

    Bumb, A.C.; Jones, G.N.; Warner, R.D.

    1996-05-01

    The South Field, the Inactive Flyash Pile, and the Active Flyash Pile are in close proximity to each other and are part of Operable Unit 2 (OU2) at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). The baseline risk assessment indicated that the exposure pathways which pose the most significant risk are external radiation from radionuclides in surface soils and use of uranium contaminated groundwater. This paper presents screening and comparison of various remedial alternatives considered to mitigate risks from the groundwater pathway. Eight remedial alternatives were developed which consisted of consolidation and capping, excavation and off-site disposal with or without treatment, excavation and on-site disposal with or without treatment and combinations of these. Risk-based source (soil) preliminary remediation levels (PRLs) and waste acceptance criteria (WACs) were developed for consolidation and capping, excavation, and on-site disposal cell. The PRLs and WACs were developed using an integrated modeling tool consisting of an infiltration model, a surface water model, a vadose zone model, and a three-dimensional contaminant migration model in saturated media. The PRLs and WACs were then used to determine need for soil treatment, determine excavation volumes, and screen remedial alternatives. The selected remedial alternative consisted of excavation and on-site disposal with off-site disposal of the fraction exceeding the WAC.

  2. VHF coherent scatter radar observations of mid-latitude F-region field-aligned irregularities over South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Y.; Yang, T.; Lee, J.; Hwang, J.; Kil, H.; Park, Y.

    2011-12-01

    We examine the mid-latitude F-region field-aligned irregularity (FAI) activity during 2010-2011 by using the VHF coherent scatter radar data in Daejeon (36.2°N, 127.1°E; dip latitude 26.7°N), South Korea. The VHF radar has been operated since December 2009 and provides a unique opportunity to investigate the variability of the FAI activity with local time, season, solar flux, and magnetic activity. Our preliminary results during the solar minimum show that FAIs preferentially occur at post-sunset and pre-sunrise and during the June solstice. The seasonal variation of the FAI occurrence frequency is similar to that of the electron density irregularities observed by the C/NOFS satellite. For one event, we observed the association of the FAIs with a medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbance (MSTID). Our study extends to the investigation of the correlations between the irregularities in the equatorial region and middle latitudes and between the conjugate F regions, and the causal linkage of the FAIs with the E-region perturbations. For this purpose, we analyze the VHF radar and C/NOFS data during 2010-2011.

  3. Reservoir geology of Crystal Viking field, Lower Cretaceous estuarine tidal channel-bay complex, south-central Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Reinson, G.E.; Clark, J.E.; Foscolos, A.E.

    1988-10-01

    The Lower Cretaceous Viking Formation in the Crystal field of south-central Alberta contains a linear sandstone body, as much as 30 m thick, that forms a complicated dual-pool hydrocarbon reservoir. This contrasts sharply with most other Viking reservoirs, which are much thinner, are commonly oriented northwest, and are composed of a single hydrocarbon pool. Thickness, orientation, and pool duality are attributed to the complicated depositional history of the Viking in the Crystal region. The sandstone body is interpreted as a multistage tidal channel-fill deposit within a larger estuarine channel-bay complex, which rests unconformably on inner shelf-lower shoreface facies. A major lowstand of sea level that occurred approximately 97 m.y. ago is believed to be responsible for incisement of the estuarine valley, which was filled during rising sea level. A depositional model of progressive estuarine valley fill under transgressive conditions readily accounts for the occurrence of two hydrodynamically separated oil pools, and also for differences in reservoir continuity and performance trends within the main oil-bearing A pool. Highly productive wells in the main pool correspond to specific channel-fill deposits, or are situated in areas where deposits of successive channel stages are highly superimposed. Conversely, marginally productive wells and poor reservoir communication between producing wells occur in areas where the different channel-stage deposits diverge. 22 figures, 2 tables.

  4. Oil gravity distribution in the diatomite at South Belridge Field, Kern County, CA: Implications for oil sourcing and migration

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, D.W.; Sande, J.J.; Doe, P.H.

    1995-04-01

    Understanding oil gravity distribution in the Belridge Diatomite has led to economic infill development and specific enhanced recovery methods for targeted oil properties. To date more than 100 wells have provided samples used to determining vertical and areal distribution of oil gravity in the field. Detailed geochemical analyses were also conducted on many of the oil samples to establish different oil types, relative maturities, and to identify transformed oils. The geochemical analysis also helped identify source rock expulsion temperatures and depositional environments. The data suggests that the Belridge diatomite has been charged by a single hydrocarbon source rock type and was generated over a relatively wide range of temperatures. Map and statistical data support two distinct oil segregation processes occurring post expulsion. Normal gravity segregation within depositional cycles of diatomite have caused lightest oils to migrate to the crests of individual cycle structures. Some data suggests a loss of the light end oils in the uppermost cycles to the Tulare Formation above, or through early biodegradation. Structural rotation post early oil expulsion has also left older, heavier oils concentrated on the east flank of the structure. With the addition of other samples from the south central San Joaquin area, we have been able to tie the Belridge diatomite hydrocarbon charge into a regional framework. We have also enhanced our ability to predict oil gravity and well primary recovery by unraveling some key components of the diatomite oil source and migration history.

  5. Identification of the Key Fields and Their Key Technical Points of Oncology by Patent Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ting; Chen, Juan; Jia, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Background This paper aims to identify the key fields and their key technical points of oncology by patent analysis. Methodology/Principal Findings Patents of oncology applied from 2006 to 2012 were searched in the Thomson Innovation database. The key fields and their key technical points were determined by analyzing the Derwent Classification (DC) and the International Patent Classification (IPC), respectively. Patent applications in the top ten DC occupied 80% of all the patent applications of oncology, which were the ten fields of oncology to be analyzed. The number of patent applications in these ten fields of oncology was standardized based on patent applications of oncology from 2006 to 2012. For each field, standardization was conducted separately for each of the seven years (2006–2012) and the mean of the seven standardized values was calculated to reflect the relative amount of patent applications in that field; meanwhile, regression analysis using time (year) and the standardized values of patent applications in seven years (2006–2012) was conducted so as to evaluate the trend of patent applications in each field. Two-dimensional quadrant analysis, together with the professional knowledge of oncology, was taken into consideration in determining the key fields of oncology. The fields located in the quadrant with high relative amount or increasing trend of patent applications are identified as key ones. By using the same method, the key technical points in each key field were identified. Altogether 116,820 patents of oncology applied from 2006 to 2012 were retrieved, and four key fields with twenty-nine key technical points were identified, including “natural products and polymers” with nine key technical points, “fermentation industry” with twelve ones, “electrical medical equipment” with four ones, and “diagnosis, surgery” with four ones. Conclusions/Significance The results of this study could provide guidance on the development

  6. Field and experimental evidence for coseismic ruptures along shallow creeping faults in forearc sediments of the Crotone Basin, South Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsamo, Fabrizio; Aldega, Luca; De Paola, Nicola; Faoro, Igor; Storti, Fabrizio

    2014-05-01

    Large seismic slip occurring along shallow creeping faults in tectonically active areas represents an unsolved paradox, which is largely due to our poor understanding of the mechanics governing creeping faults, and to the lack of documented geological evidence showing how coseismic rupturing overprints creep in near-surface conditions. In this contribution we integrate field, petrophysical, mineralogical and friction data to characterize the signature of coseismic ruptures propagating along shallow creeping faults affecting unconsolidated forearc sediments of the seismically active Crotone Basin, in South Italy. Field observations of fault zones show widespread foliated cataclasites in fault cores, locally overprinted by sharp slip surfaces decorated by thin (0.5-1.5 cm) black gouge layers. Compared to foliated cataclasites, black gouges have much lower grain size, porosity and permeability, which may have facilitated slip weakening by thermal fluid pressurization. Moreover, black gouges are characterized by distinct mineralogical assemblages compatible with high temperatures (180-200°C) due to frictional heating during seismic slip. Foliated cataclasites and black gouges were also produced by laboratory friction experiments performed on host sediments at sub-seismic (≤ 0.1 m/s) and seismic (1 m/s) slip rates, respectively. Black gouges display low friction coefficients (0.3) and velocity-weakening behaviours, as opposed to high friction coefficients (0.65) and velocity-strengthening behaviours shown by the foliated cataclasites. Our results show that narrow black gouges developed within foliated cataclasites represent a potential diagnostic marker for episodic seismic activity in shallow creeping faults. These findings can help understanding the time-space partitioning between aseismic and seismic slip of faults at shallow crustal levels, impacting on seismic hazard evaluation of subduction zones and forearc regions affected by destructive earthquakes and

  7. A FLUX-LIMITED SAMPLE OF z {approx} 1 Ly{alpha} EMITTING GALAXIES IN THE CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH ,

    SciTech Connect

    Barger, A. J.; Wold, I. G. B.; Cowie, L. L.

    2012-04-20

    We describe a method for obtaining a flux-limited sample of Ly{alpha} emitters from Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) grism data. We show that the multiple GALEX grism images can be converted into a three-dimensional (two spatial axes and one wavelength axis) data cube. The wavelength slices may then be treated as narrowband images and searched for emission-line galaxies. For the GALEX NUV grism data, the method provides a Ly{alpha} flux-limited sample over the redshift range z = 0.67-1.16. We test the method on the Chandra Deep Field South field, where we find 28 Ly{alpha} emitters with faint continuum magnitudes (NUV > 22) that are not present in the GALEX pipeline sample. We measure the completeness by adding artificial emitters and measuring the fraction recovered. We find that we have an 80% completeness above a Ly{alpha} flux of 10{sup -15} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. We use the UV spectra and the available X-ray data and optical spectra to estimate the fraction of active galactic nuclei in the selection. We report the first detection of a giant Ly{alpha} blob at z < 1, though we find that these objects are much less common at z = 1 than at z = 3. Finally, we compute limits on the z {approx} 1 Ly{alpha} luminosity function and confirm that there is a dramatic evolution in the luminosity function over the redshift range z = 0-1.

  8. ESO imaging survey. Deep public survey: Multi-color optical data for the Chandra Deep Field South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnouts, S.; Vandame, B.; Benoist, C.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; da Costa, L.; Schirmer, M.; Mignani, R. P.; Slijkhuis, R.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Hook, R.; Madejsky, R.; Rité, C.; Wicenec, A.

    2001-11-01

    This paper presents multi-passband optical data obtained from observations of the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S), located at alpha ~ 3h 32m, delta ~ -27o 48'. The observations were conducted at the ESO/MPG 2.2 m telescope at La Silla using the 8kx8k Wide-Field Imager (WFI). This data set, taken over a period of one year, represents the first field to be completed by the ongoing Deep Public Survey (DPS) being carried out as a part of the ESO Imaging Survey (EIS) project. This paper describes the optical observations, the techniques employed for un-supervised pipeline processing and the general characteristics of the final data set. Image processing has been performed using multi-resolution image decomposition techniques adapted to the EIS pipeline. The automatic processing steps include standard de-bias and flat-field, automatic removal of satellite tracks, de-fringing/sky-subtraction, image stacking/mosaicking and astrometry. Stacking of dithered images is carried out using pixel-based astrometry which enables the efficient removal of cosmic rays and image defects, yielding remarkably clean final images. The final astrometric calibration is based on a pre-release of the GSC-II catalog and has an estimated intrinsic accuracy of la 0.10 arcsec, with all passbands sharing the same solution. The paper includes data taken in six different filters (U'UBVRI). The data cover an area of about 0.25 square degrees reaching 5sigma limiting magnitudes of U'AB=26.0, UAB=25.7, BAB=26.4, VAB=25.4, RAB=25.5 and IAB= 24.7 mag, as measured within a 2 x FWHM aperture. The optical data covers an area of ~ 0.1 square degrees for which moderately deep observations in two near-infrared bands are also available, reaching 5sigma limiting magnitudes of JAB ~ 23.4 and KAB ~ 22.6. The current optical/infrared data also fully encompass the region of the deep X-ray observations recently completed by the Chandra telescope. The optical data presented here, as well as the infrared data released

  9. Field-portable imaging remote sensing system for automatic identification and imaging of hazardous gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harig, R.; Rusch, P.; Peters, H.; Gerhard, J.; Braun, R.,; Sabbah, S.; Beecken, J.

    2009-09-01

    Hazardous compounds may be released into the atmosphere in the case of fires, chemical accidents, terrorist acts, or war. In these cases, information about the released compounds is required immediately in order to take appropriate measures to protect workers, residents, emergency response personnel at the site of the release, and the environment. Remote sensing by infrared spectroscopy allows detection and identification of hazardous clouds in the atmosphere from long distances. In addition, imaging spectroscopy allows an assessment of the location, the dimensions and the dispersion of a potentially hazardous cloud. This additional information may contribute significantly to a correct assessment of a situation by emergency response forces. Therefore an imaging remote sensing system based on a Fourier-transform spectrometer with a focal plane array detector for automatic identification and imaging of gases has been developed. Imaging systems allow the use of spatial information in addition to spectral information. Thus, in order to achieve low limits of detection, algorithms that combine algorithms for spectral analysis and image analysis have been developed. In this work, the system and first results of measurements are presented.

  10. Prevalence of fluorosis and identification of fluoride endemic areas in Manur block of Tirunelveli District, Tamil Nadu, South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, Subarayan Bothi; Viswanathan, Gopalan; Siva Ilango, S.

    2012-12-01

    Prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the consumption of more fluoride through drinking water. It is necessary to identify the fluoride endemic areas to adopt remedial measures for the people under the risk of fluorosis. The objectives of this study were to identify the exact location of fluoride endemic areas in Manur block of Tirunelveli District and to estimate fluoride exposure level through drinking water for different age groups. Identification of fluoride endemic areas was performed through Isopleth and Google earth mapping techniques. Fluoride level in drinking water samples was estimated by fluoride ion selective electrode method. A systematic clinical survey conducted in 19 villages of Manur block revealed the rate of prevalence of fluorosis. From this study, it has been found that Alavanthankulam, Melapilliyarkulam, Keezhapilliyarkulam, Nadupilliyarkulam, Keezhathenkalam and Papankulam are the fluoride endemic villages, where the fluoride level in drinking water is above 1 mg/l. Consumption of maximum fluoride exposure levels of 0.30 mg/kg/day for infants, 0.27 mg/kg/day for children and 0.15 mg/kg/day for adults were found among the respective age group people residing in high fluoride endemic area. As compared with adequate intake level of fluoride of 0.01 mg/kg/day for infants and 0.05 mg/kg/day for other age groups, the health risk due to excess fluoride intake to the people of Alavanthankulam and nearby areas has become evident. Hence the people of these areas are advised to consume drinking water with optimal fluoride to avoid further fluorosis risks.

  11. Co-transmission of the non-transmissible South African Babesia bovis S24 vaccine strain during mixed infection with a field isolate.

    PubMed

    Combrink, M P; Troskie, P C; de Klerk, D G; Pienaar, R; Latif, A A; Mans, B J

    2015-03-01

    The South African Babesia bovis live blood vaccine, originating from a field isolate attenuated by 23 serial syringe passages in splenectomized calves, has lost the ability to infect the natural vector Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. In this study, infection with mixed parasites from the vaccine strain and a field isolate, resulted in transmission of both genotype populations. Comparing the field isolate and transmitted combination indicated no significant difference in their virulence, while challenge of vaccinated cattle with these isolates showed the ability of the vaccine to protect against both. Limiting dilution of the transmitted combination, followed by infection of splenectomized cattle (n=34) yielded no single infections for the vaccine strain genotype, seven clonal lines of the field isolate and one mixture of vaccine strain and field isolate. Only one of two field isolate clonal lines selected for vector transmission study was transmitted. Showing that B. bovis isolates can contain both tick transmissible and non-transmissible subpopulations. The findings of this study also indicate the probability of vaccine co-infection transmission occurring in the field, which may result in new genotype populations of B. bovis. However, the impact of this recombination with field isolates is considered negligible since a genotypically diverse population of B. bovis is already present in South Africa. PMID:25544307

  12. SURVEYS AND FIELD OBSERVATIONS OF HARMONIA AXYRIDIS AND OTHER COCCINELLIDAE (COLEOPTERA) IN EASTERN AND CENTRAL SOUTH DAKOTA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harmonia axyridis, a coccinellid native to Asia, was discovered in South Dakota in 1996, but its distribution and habitat use in the state had remained undetermined. We sampled coccinellids from various habitats, including agricultural and natural areas, in eastern and central South Dakota in 2000 a...

  13. Behaviour model identification based on inverse modeling and using Optical Full Field Measurements (OFFM): application on rubber and steel

    SciTech Connect

    Velay, V.; Robert, L.; Schmidt, F.; Hmida, S.; Vallet, T.

    2007-04-07

    Biaxial properties of materials (polymer or steel) used in many industrial processes are often difficult to measure. However, these properties are useful for the numerical simulations of plastic-processing operations like blow moulding or thermoforming for polymers and superplastic forming or single point incremental forming for steels. Today, Optical Full Field Measurements (OFFM) are promising tools for experimental analysis of materials. Indeed, they are able to provide a very large amount of data (displacement or strain) spatially distributed. In this paper, a mixed numerical and experimental investigation is proposed in order to identify multi-axial constitutive behaviour models. The procedure is applied on two different materials commonly used in forming processes: polymer (rubber in this first approach) and steel. Experimental tests are performed on various rubber and steel structural specimens (notched and open-hole plate samples) in order to generate heterogeneous displacement field. Two different behaviour models are considered. On the one hand, a Money-Rivlin hyperelastic law is investigated to describe the high levels of strain induced in tensile test performed on a rubber open-hole specimen. On the other hand, Ramberg-Osgood law allows to reproduce elasto-plastic behaviour of steel on a specimen that induces heterogeneous strain fields. Each parameter identification is based on a same Finite Element Model Updated (FEMU) procedure which consists in comparing results provided by the numerical simulation (ABAQUS) with full field measurements obtained by the DISC (Digital Image Stereo-Correlation) technique (Vic-3D)

  14. Identification of boundaries in the cometary environment from AC electric field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogilevsky, M.; Mikhailov, Y.; Molchanov, O.; Grard, R.; Pedersen, A.; Trotignon, J. G.; Beghin, C.; Formisano, V.; Shapiro, V.; Shevchenko, V.

    1986-12-01

    Electric fields are measured with the AVP-V experiment in the frequency range 8 Hz - 300 kHz. The field amplitude increases significantly, first at a distance of 2×105km, then at distances of 1.2 - 1.5×105km, and 5 - 7×104km from the nucleus. These phenomena have been observed both on VEGA-1 and VEGA-2. The electric field measurements are compared with data obtained from dust and plasma experiments; possible mechanisms responsible for the existence of these boundaries are discussed.

  15. The Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey. VLT/VIMOS spectroscopy in the GOODS-south field: Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balestra, I.; Mainieri, V.; Popesso, P.; Dickinson, M.; Nonino, M.; Rosati, P.; Teimoorinia, H.; Vanzella, E.; Cristiani, S.; Cesarsky, C.; Fosbury, R. A. E.; Kuntschner, H.; Rettura, A.

    2010-03-01

    Context. We present the full data set of the VIsible Multi-Object Spectrograph (VIMOS) spectroscopic campaign of the ESO/GOODS program in the Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS), which complements the FORS2 ESO/GOODS spectroscopic campaign. Aims: The ESO/GOODS spectroscopic programs are aimed at reaching signal-to-noise ratios adequate to measure redshifts for galaxies with AB magnitudes in the range ~24-25 in the B and R band using VIMOS, and in the z band using FORS2. Methods: The GOODS/VIMOS spectroscopic campaign is structured in two separate surveys using two different VIMOS grisms. The VIMOS Low Resolution Blue (LR-Blue) and Medium Resolution (MR) orange grisms have been used to cover different redshift ranges. The LR-Blue campaign is aimed at observing galaxies mainly at 1.8 < z < 3.5, while the MR campaign mainly aims at galaxies at z < 1 and Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) at z > 3.5. Results: The full GOODS/VIMOS spectroscopic campaign consists of 20 VIMOS masks. This release adds 8 new masks to the previous release (12 masks, Popesso et al. 2009, A&A, 494, 443). In total we obtained 5052 spectra, 3634 from the 10 LR-Blue masks and 1418 from the 10 MR masks. A significant fraction of the extracted spectra comes from serendipitously observed sources: ~21% in the LR-Blue and ~16% in the MR masks. We obtained 2242 redshifts in the LR-Blue campaign and 976 in the MR campaign for a total success rate of 62% and 69% respectively, which increases to 66% and 73% if only primary targets are considered. The typical redshift uncertainty is estimated to be σz ≃ 0.00084 (~255 km s-1) for the LR-Blue grism and σz ≃ 0.00040 (~120 km s-1) for the MR grism. By complementing our VIMOS spectroscopic catalog with all existing spectroscopic redshifts publicly available in the CDFS, we compiled a redshift master catalog with 7332 entries, which we used to investigate large scale structures out to z ≃ 3.7. We produced stacked spectra of LBGs in a few bins of equivalent width

  16. A SEARCH FOR LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES IN THE CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH USING SWIFT ULTRAVIOLET/OPTICAL TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Basu-Zych, Antara R.; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Hoversten, Erik A.; Gronwall, Caryl; Lehmer, Bret E-mail: Ann.Hornschemeier@nasa.gov E-mail: caryl@astro.psu.edu

    2011-10-01

    While the Swift satellite is primarily designed to study gamma-ray bursts, its ultraviolet and optical imaging and spectroscopy capabilities are also being used for a variety of scientific programs. In this study, we use the UV/Optical Telescope (UVOT) instrument on board Swift to discover 0.5 < z < 2 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs). UVOT has covered {approx}266 arcmin{sup 2} at >60 ks exposure time, achieving a limiting magnitude of u < 24.5, in the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S). Applying UVOT near-ultraviolet color selection, we select 50 UV-dropouts from this UVOT CDF-S data. We match the selected sources with available multiwavelength data from Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) South, Multiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile, and COMBO-17 to characterize the spectral energy distributions for these galaxies and determine stellar masses, star formation rates (SFRs), and dust attenuations. We compare these properties for LBGs selected in this paper versus z {approx} 3 LBGs and other CDF-S galaxies in the same redshift range (0.5 < z < 2), identified using photometric redshift techniques. The z {approx} 1 LBGs have stellar masses of (logM{sub *}/M{sub sun}) = 9.4 {+-} 0.6, which is slightly lower than z {approx} 3 LBGs ((logM{sub *}/Ms{sub un}) = 10.2 {+-} 0.4) and slightly higher compared with the z {approx} 1 CDF-S galaxies ((logM{sub *}/M{sub sun}) = 8.7 {+-} 0.7). Similarly, our sample of z {approx} 1 LBGs has SFRs (derived using both ultraviolet and infrared data, where available) of (logSFR/(M{sub sun} yr{sup -1})) = 0.7 {+-} 0.6, nearly an order of magnitude lower than z {approx} 3 LBGs ((logSFR/M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}) = 1.5 {+-} 0.4), but slightly higher than the comparison z {approx} 1 sample of CDF-S galaxies ((logSFR/M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}) = 0.2 {+-} 0.7). We find that our z {approx} 1 UV-dropouts have (A{sub FUV}) = 2.0 {+-} 1.0, which is higher than z {approx} 3 LBGs ((A{sub FUV}) = 1.0 {+-} 0.5), but similar to the distribution of dust

  17. Efficient formulations of the material identification problem using full-field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Zerpa, Jorge M.; Canelas, Alfredo

    2016-08-01

    The material identification problem addressed consists of determining the constitutive parameters distribution of a linear elastic solid using displacement measurements. This problem has been considered in important applications such as the design of methodologies for breast cancer diagnosis. Since the resolution of real life problems involves high computational costs, there is great interest in the development of efficient methods. In this paper two new efficient formulations of the problem are presented. The first formulation leads to a second-order cone optimization problem, and the second one leads to a quadratic optimization problem, both allowing the resolution of the problem with high efficiency and precision. Numerical examples are solved using synthetic input data with error. A regularization technique is applied using the Morozov criterion along with an automatic selection strategy of the regularization parameter. The proposed formulations present great advantages in terms of efficiency, when compared to other formulations that require the application of general nonlinear optimization algorithms.

  18. Efficient formulations of the material identification problem using full-field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Zerpa, Jorge M.; Canelas, Alfredo

    2016-04-01

    The material identification problem addressed consists of determining the constitutive parameters distribution of a linear elastic solid using displacement measurements. This problem has been considered in important applications such as the design of methodologies for breast cancer diagnosis. Since the resolution of real life problems involves high computational costs, there is great interest in the development of efficient methods. In this paper two new efficient formulations of the problem are presented. The first formulation leads to a second-order cone optimization problem, and the second one leads to a quadratic optimization problem, both allowing the resolution of the problem with high efficiency and precision. Numerical examples are solved using synthetic input data with error. A regularization technique is applied using the Morozov criterion along with an automatic selection strategy of the regularization parameter. The proposed formulations present great advantages in terms of efficiency, when compared to other formulations that require the application of general nonlinear optimization algorithms.

  19. Image use in field guides and identification keys: review and recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Leggett, Roxanne; Kirchoff, Bruce K.

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Although illustrations have played an important role in identification keys and guides since the 18th century, their use has varied widely. Some keys lack all illustrations, while others are heavily illustrated. Even within illustrated guides, the way in which images are used varies considerably. Here, we review image use in paper and electronic guides, and establish a set of best practices for image use in illustrated keys and guides. Scope Our review covers image use in both paper and electronic guides, though we only briefly cover apps for mobile devices. With this one exception, we cover the full range of guides, from those that consist only of species descriptions with no keys, to lavishly illustrated technical keys. Emphasis is placed on how images are used, not on the operation of the guides and key, which has been reviewed by others. We only deal with operation when it impacts image use. Main points Few illustrated keys or guides use images in optimal ways. Most include too few images to show taxonomic variation or variation in characters and character states. The use of multiple images allows easier taxon identification and facilitates the understanding of characters. Most images are usually not standardized, making comparison between images difficult. Although some electronic guides allow images to be enlarged, many do not. Conclusions The best keys and guides use standardized images, displayed at sizes that are easy to see and arranged in a standardized manner so that similar images can be compared across species. Illustrated keys and glossaries should contain multiple images for each character state so that the user can judge variation in the state. Photographic backgrounds should not distract from the subject and, where possible, should be of a standard colour. When used, drawings should be prepared by professional botanical illustrators, and clearly labelled. Electronic keys and guides should allow images to be enlarged so that

  20. Identification of fluid-flow paths in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Halfman, S.E.; Lippmann, M.J.; Zelwer, R.; Howard, J.H.

    1982-05-01

    A hydrogeologic model of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field has been developed based on geophysical and lithologic well logs, downhole temperature, and well completion data from about 90 deep wells. The hot brines seem to originate in the eastern part of the field, flowing in a westward direction and rising through gaps in the shaly layers which otherwise act as partial caprocks to the geothermal resource.

  1. The NuSTAR Extragalactic Surveys: Initial Results and Catalog from the Extended Chandra Deep Field South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullaney, J. R.; Del-Moro, A.; Aird, J.; Alexander, D. M.; Civano, F. M.; Hickox, R. C.; Lansbury, G. B.; Ajello, M.; Assef, R.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Balok´, M.; Bauer, F. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Boggs, S. E.; Brightman, M.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Craig, W. W.; Elvis, M.; Forster, K.; Gandhi, P.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Koss, M.; LaMassa, S. M.; Luo, B.; Madsen, K. K.; Puccetti, S.; Saez, C.; Stern, D.; Treister, E.; Urry, C. M.; Wik, D. R.; Zappacosta, L.; Zhang, W.

    2015-08-01

    We present the initial results and the source catalog from the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) survey of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (hereafter, ECDFS)—currently the deepest contiguous component of the NuSTAR extragalactic survey program. The survey covers the full ≈30‧ × 30‧ area of this field to a maximum depth of ≈360 ks (≈ 220 ks when corrected for vignetting at 3-24 keV), reaching sensitivity limits of ≈ 1.3× {10}-14 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 {{cm}}-2 (3-8 keV), ≈ 3.4× {10}-14 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 {{cm}}-2 (8-24 keV), and ≈ 3.0× {10}-14 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 {{cm}}-2 (3-24 keV). A total of 54 sources are detected over the full field, although five of these are found to lie below our significance threshold once contaminating flux from neighboring (i.e., blended) sources is taken into account. Of the remaining 49 that are significant, 19 are detected in the 8-24 keV band. The 8-24 to 3-8 keV band ratios of the 12 sources that are detected in both bands span the range 0.39-1.7, corresponding to a photon index range of {{Γ }}≈ 0.5-2.3, with a median photon index of \\bar{{{Γ }}}=1.70+/- 0.52. The redshifts of the 49 sources in our main sample span the range z=0.21-2.7, and their rest-frame 10-40 keV luminosities (derived from the observed 8-24 keV fluxes) span the range {L}10-40 {keV}≈ (0.7-300)× {10}43 {erg} {{{s}}}-1, sampling below the “knee” of the X-ray luminosity function out to z˜ 0.8-1. Finally, we identify one NuSTAR source that has neither a Chandra nor an XMM-Newton counterpart, but that shows evidence of nuclear activity at infrared wavelengths and thus may represent a genuine, new X-ray source detected by NuSTAR in the ECDFS.

  2. Variability Selected Low-Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei in the 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, M.; Brandt, W. N.; Xue, Y. Q.; Paolillo, D. M.; Alexander, F. E.; Bauer, F. E.; Lehmer, B. D.; Luo, B.; Shemmer, O.; Schneider, D. P.; Vignail, C.

    2012-01-01

    The 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) and other deep X-ray surveys have been highly effective at selecting active galactic nuclei (AGN). However, cosmologically distant low-luminosity AGN (LLAGN) have remained a challenge to identify due to significant contribution from the host galaxy. We identify long-term X ray variability (approx. month years, observed frame) in 20 of 92 CDF-S galaxies spanning redshifts approx equals 00.8 - 1.02 that do not meet other AGN selection criteria. We show that the observed variability cannot be explained by X-ray binary populations or ultraluminous X-ray sources, so the variability is most likely caused by accretion onto a supermassive black hole. The variable galaxies are not heavily obscured in general, with a stacked effective power-law photon index of Gamma(sub Stack) approx equals 1.93 +/- 0.13, and arc therefore likely LLAGN. The LLAGN tend to lie it factor of approx equal 6-89 below the extrapolated linear variability-luminosity relation measured for luminous AGN. This may he explained by their lower accretion rates. Variability-independent black-hole mass and accretion-rate estimates for variable galaxies show that they sample a significantly different black hole mass-accretion-rate space, with masses a factor of 2.4 lower and accretion rates a factor of 22.5 lower than variable luminous AGNs at the same redshift. We find that an empirical model based on a universal broken power-law power spectral density function, where the break frequency depends on SMBH mass and accretion rate, roughly reproduces the shape, but not the normalization, of the variability-luminosity trends measured for variable galaxies and more luminous AGNs.

  3. THE BLACK HOLE-BULGE MASS RELATION OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN THE EXTENDED CHANDRA DEEP FIELD-SOUTH SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, Malte; Silverman, John D.

    2013-04-10

    We present results from a study to determine whether relations-established in the local universe-between the mass of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their host galaxies are in place at higher redshifts. We identify a well-constructed sample of 18 X-ray-selected, broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South Survey with 0.5 < z < 1.2. This redshift range is chosen to ensure that Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging is available with at least two filters that bracket the 4000 A break, thus providing reliable stellar mass estimates of the host galaxy by accounting for both young and old stellar populations. We compute single-epoch, virial black hole (BH) masses from optical spectra using the broad Mg II emission line. For essentially all galaxies in our sample, their total stellar mass content agrees remarkably well, given their BH masses, with local relations of inactive galaxies and active SMBHs. We further decompose the total stellar mass into bulge and disk components separately with full knowledge of the HST point-spread function. We find that {approx}80% of the sample is consistent with the local M{sub BH}-M{sub *,{sub Bulge}} relation even with 72% of the host galaxies showing the presence of a disk. In particular, bulge-dominated hosts are more aligned with the local relation than those with prominent disks. We further discuss the possible physical mechanisms that are capable of building up the stellar mass of the bulge from an extended disk of stars over the subsequent 8 Gyr.

  4. Quantification and regionalization of groundwater recharge in South-Central Kansas: Integrating field characterization, statistical analysis, and GIS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sophocleous, M.

    2000-01-01

    A practical methodology for recharge characterization was developed based on several years of field-oriented research at 10 sites in the Great Bend Prairie of south-central Kansas. This methodology combines the soil-water budget on a storm-by-storm year-round basis with the resulting watertable rises. The estimated 1985-1992 average annual recharge was less than 50mm/year with a range from 15 mm/year (during the 1998 drought) to 178 mm/year (during the 1993 flood year). Most of this recharge occurs during the spring months. To regionalize these site-specific estimates, an additional methodology based on multiple (forward) regression analysis combined with classification and GIS overlay analyses was developed and implemented. The multiple regression analysis showed that the most influential variables were, in order of decreasing importance, total annual precipitation, average maximum springtime soil-profile water storage, average shallowest springtime depth to watertable, and average springtime precipitation rate. Therefore, four GIS (ARC/INFO) data "layers" or coverages were constructed for the study region based on these four variables, and each such coverage was classified into the same number of data classes to avoid biasing the results. The normalized regression coefficients were employed to weigh the class rankings of each recharge-affecting variable. This approach resulted in recharge zonations that agreed well with the site recharge estimates. During the "Great Flood of 1993," when rainfall totals exceeded normal levels by -200% in the northern portion of the study region, the developed regionalization methodology was tested against such extreme conditions, and proved to be both practical, based on readily available or easily measurable data, and robust. It was concluded that the combination of multiple regression and GIS overlay analyses is a powerful and practical approach to regionalizing small samples of recharge estimates.

  5. Bent-tailed radio sources in the australia telescope large area survey of the Chandra deep field south

    SciTech Connect

    Dehghan, S.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Franzen, T. M. O.; Norris, R. P.; Miller, N. A.

    2014-11-01

    Using the 1.4 GHz Australia Telescope Large Area Survey, supplemented by the 1.4 GHz Very Large Array images, we undertook a search for bent-tailed (BT) radio galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field South. Here we present a catalog of 56 detections, which include 45 BT sources, 4 diffuse low-surface-brightness objects (1 relic, 2 halos, and 1 unclassified object), and a further 7 complex, multi-component sources. We report BT sources with rest-frame powers in the range 10{sup 22} ≤ P {sub 1.4} {sub GHz} ≤ 10{sup 26} W Hz{sup –1}, with redshifts up to 2 and linear extents from tens of kiloparsecs up to about 1 Mpc. This is the first systematic study of such sources down to such low powers and high redshifts and demonstrates the complementary nature of searches in deep, limited area surveys as compared to shallower, large surveys. Of the sources presented here, one is the most distant BT source yet detected at a redshift of 2.1688. Two of the sources are found to be associated with known clusters: a wide-angle tail source in A3141 and a putative radio relic which appears at the infall region between the galaxy group MZ 00108 and the galaxy cluster AMPCC 40. Further observations are required to confirm the relic detection, which, if successful, would demonstrate this to be the least powerful relic yet seen with P {sub 1.4} {sub GHz} = 9 × 10{sup 22} W Hz{sup –1}. Using these data, we predict future 1.4 GHz all-sky surveys with a resolution of ∼10 arcsec and a sensitivity of 10 μJy will detect of the order of 560,000 extended low-surface-brightness radio sources of which 440,000 will have a BT morphology.

  6. Bent-tailed Radio Sources in the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey of the Chandra Deep Field South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghan, S.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Franzen, T. M. O.; Norris, R. P.; Miller, N. A.

    2014-11-01

    Using the 1.4 GHz Australia Telescope Large Area Survey, supplemented by the 1.4 GHz Very Large Array images, we undertook a search for bent-tailed (BT) radio galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field South. Here we present a catalog of 56 detections, which include 45 BT sources, 4 diffuse low-surface-brightness objects (1 relic, 2 halos, and 1 unclassified object), and a further 7 complex, multi-component sources. We report BT sources with rest-frame powers in the range 1022 <= P 1.4 GHz <= 1026 W Hz-1, with redshifts up to 2 and linear extents from tens of kiloparsecs up to about 1 Mpc. This is the first systematic study of such sources down to such low powers and high redshifts and demonstrates the complementary nature of searches in deep, limited area surveys as compared to shallower, large surveys. Of the sources presented here, one is the most distant BT source yet detected at a redshift of 2.1688. Two of the sources are found to be associated with known clusters: a wide-angle tail source in A3141 and a putative radio relic which appears at the infall region between the galaxy group MZ 00108 and the galaxy cluster AMPCC 40. Further observations are required to confirm the relic detection, which, if successful, would demonstrate this to be the least powerful relic yet seen with P 1.4 GHz = 9 × 1022 W Hz-1. Using these data, we predict future 1.4 GHz all-sky surveys with a resolution of ~10 arcsec and a sensitivity of 10 μJy will detect of the order of 560,000 extended low-surface-brightness radio sources of which 440,000 will have a BT morphology.

  7. Identification, mapping, and analysis of possible evidences of active petroleum systems in the Colorado Basin, offshore Argentina, South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loegering, Markus; Anka, Zahie; Rodriguez, Jorge; Marchal, Denis; di Primio, Rolando; Vallejo, Eduardo; Kohler, Guillermina; Pangaro, Francisco

    2010-05-01

    The analysis of a dense 2D seismic reflection dataset and 12 exploration wells data, allowed us to reconstruct the geological evolution of the Colorado Basin, offshore Argentina. We identified and mapped the major syn- and post-rift seismic sequences, and their boundaries such as unconformities and regional seismic markers, present on the continental shelf and slope (water depths from 50 to 1800 m) of the Colorado Basin. Seismic-to-well log correlations, as well as integration with biostratigraphic data provided a chrono-stratigraphic framework for the interpreted horizons. The construction of isochronal (twt) maps provided a 3D spatial visualisation of the stratigraphic relationship among the sequences. The maps show a change in configuration from the break-up unconformity (130 Ma) to the present-day seafloor. The break-up unconformity displays a central EW-elongated graben which prevails on the overlying sequences up to the Miocene. The EW Colorado basin turns NW-SE towards the East, going perpendicular to the present-day continental margin (oriented NE-SW). The strong obliquity of the basin orientation related to the direction corresponding to the opening of the South Atlantic (NE-SW) suggests a structural control from the pre-rift basement on the rift and post-rift sequences. Starting from the break-up unconformity, the history of basin filling is illustrated up to the flat seafloor. The basin sag phase is represented by the sequences deposited between the break-up unconformity and the Colorado discontinuity (Aptian to Campanian). The Campanian to Eocene successions are more or less parallel- layered suggesting sequence aggradation. The distribution of liquid/gas hydrocarbon-leakage features (i.e. gas chimneys, mud volcanoes, and seabed pockmarks) should allow the definition of potential migration pathways. In this sense, a systematic mapping of these paleo- and present-day features observed in the seismic profiles has been performed and their distribution was

  8. Counts and Sizes of Galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field South: Implications for the Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.; Satyapal, Shobita

    2000-06-01

    Science objectives for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) include a large component of galaxy surveys, both imaging and spectroscopy. The Hubble Deep Field data sets include the deepest observations ever made in the ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared, reaching depths comparable to that expected for NGST spectroscopy. We present the source counts, galaxy sizes, and isophotal filling factors of the Hubble Deep Field South (HDF-S) images. The observed integrated galaxy counts reach over 500 galaxies per square arcminute at magnitudes AB < 30. We extend these counts to fainter levels and further into the infrared using galaxy-count models. It was determined from the HDF (North) and other deep Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 imaging that fainter galaxies are smaller. This trend continues to AB=29 in the high-resolution HDF-S Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) image, where galaxies have a typical half-light radius of 0.1". We have run extensive Monte Carlo simulations of the galaxy detection in the HDF-S, and we show that the small measured sizes are not due to selection effects until AB > 29. We compare observed sizes in the optical and near-infrared using the HDF-S Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer image, showing that after taking into account the different point-spread functions and pixel sizes of the images, galaxies are smaller in the near-infrared than they are in the optical. We analyze the isophotal filling factor of the HDF-S STIS image and show that this image is mostly empty sky even at the limits of galaxy detection, a conclusion we expect to hold true for NGST spectroscopy. At the surface brightness limits expected for NGST imaging, however, about a quarter of the sky is occupied by the outer isophotes of AB < 30 galaxies, requiring deblending to detect the faintest objects. We discuss the implications of these data on several design concepts for the NGST near-infrared spectrography. We compare the effects of resolution

  9. The 2 Ms Chandra Deep Field-North Survey and the 250 ks Extended Chandra Deep Field-South Survey: Improved Point-Source Catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Y.; Luo, B.; Brandt, W.; Alexander, D.; Bauer, F.; Lehmer, B.; Yang, G.

    2016-06-01

    We present improved point-source catalogs for the 2Ms CDF-N and the 250ks E-CDF-S, implementing a number of recent improvements in Chandra source-cataloging methodology. For the CDF-N/E-CDF-S, we provide a main catalog that contains 683/1003 X-ray sources detected with wavdetect at a false-positive probability threshold of 1E-5 that also satisfy a binomial-probability source-selection criterion of P<0.004/P<0.002. Such an approach maximizes the number of reliable sources detected: a total of 196/275 main-catalog sources are new compared to the A03 CDF-N/L05 E-CDF-S main catalogs. We also provide CDF-N/E-CDF-S supplementary catalogs that consist of 72/56 sources detected at the same wavdetect threshold and having P of 0.004-0.1/0.002-0.1 and K_s<22.9/K_s<22.3 counterparts. For all ≈1800 CDF-N and E-CDF-S sources, including the ≈500 newly detected ones, we determine X-ray source positions utilizing centroid and matched-filter techniques; we also provide multiwavelength identifications, apparent magnitudes of counterparts, spectroscopic and/or photometric redshifts, basic source classifications, and estimates of observed AGN and galaxy source densities around respective field centers. Simulations show that both the CDF-N and E-CDF-S main catalogs are highly reliable and reasonably complete. Background and sensitivity analyses indicate that the on-axis mean flux limits reached represent a factor of ≈1.5-2.0 improvement over the previous CDF-N and E-CDF-S limits.

  10. Application of an Optimal Search Strategy for the DNAPL Source Identification to a Field Site in Nanjing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longting, M.; Ye, S.; Wu, J.

    2014-12-01

    Identification and removing the DNAPL source in aquifer system is vital in rendering remediation successful and lowering the remediation time and cost. Our work is to apply an optimal search strategy introduced by Zoi and Pinder[1], with some modifications, to a field site in Nanjing City, China to define the strength, and location of DNAPL sources using the least samples. The overall strategy uses Monte Carlo stochastic groundwater flow and transport modeling, incorporates existing sampling data into the search strategy, and determines optimal sampling locations that are selected according to the reduction in overall uncertainty of the field and the proximity to the source locations. After a sample is taken, the plume is updated using a Kalman filter. The updated plume is then compared to the concentration fields that emanate from each individual potential source using fuzzy set technique. The comparison followed provides weights that reflect the degree of truth regarding the location of the source. The above steps are repeated until the optimal source characteristics are determined. Considering our site case, some specific modifications and work have been done as follows. K random fields are generated after fitting the measurement K data to the variogram model. The locations of potential sources that are given initial weights are targeted based on the field survey, with multiple potential source locations around the workshops and wastewater basin. Considering the short history (1999-2010) of manufacturing optical brightener PF at the site, and the existing sampling data, a preliminary source strength is then estimated, which will be optimized by simplex method or GA later. The whole algorithm then will guide us for optimal sampling and update as the investigation proceeds, until the weights finally stabilized. Reference [1] Dokou Zoi, and George F. Pinder. "Optimal search strategy for the definition of a DNAPL source." Journal of Hydrology 376.3 (2009): 542

  11. IDENTIFICATION OF CRITICAL NUTRIENT LEVELS THROUGH FIELD VERIFICATION OF MODELS FOR PHOSPHORUS AND PHYTOPLANKTON GROWTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two models for phosphorus and phytoplankton growth were field verified along a marked gradient in trophic conditions in Green Bay (Lake Michigan): one, the Monod model, relates growth rate to external (dissolved) phosphorus concentration, and the other, the Droop model, describes...

  12. Experimental Identification of Electric Field Excitation Mechanisms in a Structural Transition of Tokamak Plasmas.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, T; Itoh, K; Ido, T; Kamiya, K; Itoh, S-I; Miura, Y; Nagashima, Y; Fujisawa, A; Inagaki, S; Ida, K; Hoshino, K

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulation between structure and turbulence, which is a fundamental process in the complex system, has been widely regarded as one of the central issues in modern physics. A typical example of that in magnetically confined plasmas is the Low confinement mode to High confinement mode (L-H) transition, which is intensely studied for more than thirty years since it provides a confinement improvement necessary for the realization of the fusion reactor. An essential issue in the L-H transition physics is the mechanism of the abrupt "radial" electric field generation in toroidal plasmas. To date, several models for the L-H transition have been proposed but the systematic experimental validation is still challenging. Here we report the systematic and quantitative model validations of the radial electric field excitation mechanism for the first time, using a data set of the turbulence and the radial electric field having a high spatiotemporal resolution. Examining time derivative of Poisson's equation, the sum of the loss-cone loss current and the neoclassical bulk viscosity current is found to behave as the experimentally observed radial current that excites the radial electric field within a few factors of magnitude. PMID:27489128

  13. Experimental Identification of Electric Field Excitation Mechanisms in a Structural Transition of Tokamak Plasmas

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, T.; Itoh, K.; Ido, T.; Kamiya, K.; Itoh, S.-I.; Miura, Y.; Nagashima, Y.; Fujisawa, A.; Inagaki, S.; Ida, K.; Hoshino, K.

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulation between structure and turbulence, which is a fundamental process in the complex system, has been widely regarded as one of the central issues in modern physics. A typical example of that in magnetically confined plasmas is the Low confinement mode to High confinement mode (L-H) transition, which is intensely studied for more than thirty years since it provides a confinement improvement necessary for the realization of the fusion reactor. An essential issue in the L-H transition physics is the mechanism of the abrupt “radial” electric field generation in toroidal plasmas. To date, several models for the L-H transition have been proposed but the systematic experimental validation is still challenging. Here we report the systematic and quantitative model validations of the radial electric field excitation mechanism for the first time, using a data set of the turbulence and the radial electric field having a high spatiotemporal resolution. Examining time derivative of Poisson’s equation, the sum of the loss-cone loss current and the neoclassical bulk viscosity current is found to behave as the experimentally observed radial current that excites the radial electric field within a few factors of magnitude. PMID:27489128

  14. Experimental Identification of Electric Field Excitation Mechanisms in a Structural Transition of Tokamak Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Itoh, K.; Ido, T.; Kamiya, K.; Itoh, S.-I.; Miura, Y.; Nagashima, Y.; Fujisawa, A.; Inagaki, S.; Ida, K.; Hoshino, K.

    2016-08-01

    Self-regulation between structure and turbulence, which is a fundamental process in the complex system, has been widely regarded as one of the central issues in modern physics. A typical example of that in magnetically confined plasmas is the Low confinement mode to High confinement mode (L-H) transition, which is intensely studied for more than thirty years since it provides a confinement improvement necessary for the realization of the fusion reactor. An essential issue in the L-H transition physics is the mechanism of the abrupt “radial” electric field generation in toroidal plasmas. To date, several models for the L-H transition have been proposed but the systematic experimental validation is still challenging. Here we report the systematic and quantitative model validations of the radial electric field excitation mechanism for the first time, using a data set of the turbulence and the radial electric field having a high spatiotemporal resolution. Examining time derivative of Poisson’s equation, the sum of the loss-cone loss current and the neoclassical bulk viscosity current is found to behave as the experimentally observed radial current that excites the radial electric field within a few factors of magnitude.

  15. Optimum experimental design of a monitoring network for parameter identification at riverbank well fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; Pozdniakov, Sergey P.; Shestakov, Vsevolod M.

    2015-04-01

    A steady-state flow regime in riverbank well fields is often violated by fluctuations in river stages and variations in groundwater extraction. In this study, a criterion of quasi-steady flow during filtration processes at riverbank well fields was introduced. Under the assumption of steady-state flow, an analytical approach for determining the key hydraulic parameters (aquifer transmissivity and riverbed filtration resistance) between a stream and a hydraulically connected aquifer during riverbank filtration was presented. An optimal regular observation network (consisting of the locations of monitoring wells and the observation regime), which is based on the model-oriented approach using an example of a riverbank well field near the Kuybyshev Reservoir, Russia, was designed to minimise the uncertainty in the estimates of hydraulic parameters. The analyses showed that the initial recession in the surface water levels for the simplest constant groundwater withdrawal patterns can be used to determine the key hydraulic parameters; the error in these estimated parameters was less than 7% or 12%, depending on the designed monitoring network. When comparing the two typical monitoring networks, observation line A-A that passes midway through the water supply wells performed better than observation line B-B that passes through the water supply wells when estimating the hydraulic parameters. The results of this study can be used as a reference for designing and optimising a monitoring network that aims to determine the key hydraulic parameters at riverbank well fields.

  16. AN ALMA SURVEY OF SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES IN THE EXTENDED CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH: NEAR-INFRARED MORPHOLOGIES AND STELLAR SIZES

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chian-Chou; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, A. M.; Simpson, J. M.; Ma, Cheng-Jiun; Alexander, D. M.; Danielson, A. L. R.; Edge, A. C.; Biggs, A. D.; Ivison, R. J.; Brandt, W. N.; Chapman, S. C.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Dannerbauer, H.; Greve, T. R.; Karim, A.; Menten, Karl M.; Schinnerer, E.; Walter, F.; Wardlow, J. L.; and others

    2015-02-01

    We analyze Hubble Space Telescope WFC3/H {sub 160}-band observations of a sample of 48 Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array detected submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South field, to study their stellar morphologies and sizes. We detect 79% ± 17% of the SMGs in the H {sub 160}-band imaging with a median sensitivity of 27.8 mag, and most (80%) of the nondetections are SMGs with 870 μm fluxes of S {sub 870} < 3 mJy. With a surface brightness limit of μ {sub H} ∼ 26 mag arcsec{sup –2}, we find that 82% ± 9% of the H {sub 160}-band-detected SMGs at z = 1-3 appear to have disturbed morphologies, meaning they are visually classified as either irregulars or interacting systems, or both. By determining a Sérsic fit to the H {sub 160} surface brightness profiles, we derive a median Sérsic index of n = 1.2 ± 0.3 and a median half-light radius of r{sub e} = 4.4{sub −0.5}{sup +1.1} kpc for our SMGs at z = 1-3. We also find significant displacements between the positions of the H {sub 160} component and 870 μm emission in these systems, suggesting that the dusty starburst regions and less-obscured stellar distribution are not colocated. We find significant differences in the sizes and the Sérsic index between our z = 2-3 SMGs and z ∼ 2 quiescent galaxies, suggesting that a major transformation of the stellar light profile is needed in the quenching processes if SMGs are progenitors of the red-and-dead z ∼ 2 galaxies. Given the short-lived nature of SMGs, we postulate that the majority of the z = 2-3 SMGs with S {sub 870} ≳ 2 mJy are early/mid-stage major mergers.

  17. UV-DROPOUT GALAXIES IN THE GOODS-SOUTH FIELD FROM WFC3 EARLY RELEASE SCIENCE OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Hathi, N. P.; Ryan, R. E.; Cohen, S. H.; Windhorst, R. A.; Rutkowski, M. J.; Yan, H.; McCarthy, P. J.; O'Connell, R. W.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Bond, H. E.; Balick, B.; Calzetti, D.; Disney, M. J.; Dopita, M. A.; Frogel, Jay A.; Hall, D. N. B.; Holtzman, J. A.; Kimble, R. A.; Paresce, F.; Saha, A.

    2010-09-10

    We combine new high sensitivity ultraviolet (UV) imaging from the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) with existing deep HST/Advanced Camera for Surveys optical images from the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) program to identify UV-dropouts, which are Lyman break galaxy (LBG) candidates at z {approx_equal} 1-3. These new HST/WFC3 observations were taken over 50 arcmin{sup 2} in the GOODS-South field as a part of the Early Release Science program. The uniqueness of these new UV data is that they are observed in three UV/optical (WFC3 UVIS) channel filters (F225W, F275W, and F336W), which allows us to identify three different sets of UV-dropout samples. We apply Lyman break dropout selection criteria to identify F225W-, F275W-, and F336W-dropouts, which are z {approx_equal} 1.7, 2.1, and 2.7 LBG candidates, respectively. We use multi-wavelength imaging combined with available spectroscopic and photometric redshifts to carefully access the validity of our UV-dropout candidates. Our results are as follows: (1) these WFC3 UVIS filters are very reliable in selecting LBGs with z {approx_equal} 2.0, which helps to reduce the gap between the well-studied z {approx}> 3 and z {approx} 0 regimes; (2) the combined number counts with average redshift z {approx_equal} 2.2 agree very well with the observed change in the surface densities as a function of redshift when compared with the higher redshift LBG samples; and (3) the best-fit Schechter function parameters from the rest-frame UV luminosity functions at three different redshifts fit very well with the evolutionary trend of the characteristic absolute magnitude, M*, and the faint-end slope, {alpha}, as a function of redshift. This is the first study to illustrate the usefulness of the WFC3 UVIS channel observations to select z {approx}< 3 LBGs. The addition of the new WFC3 on the HST has made it possible to uniformly select LBGs from z {approx_equal} 1 to z {approx_equal} 9 and

  18. UV-dropout Galaxies in the Goods-South Field from WFC3 Early Release Science Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hathi, N. P.; Ryan, R. E., Jr.; Cohen, S. H.; Yan, H.; Windhorst, R. A.; McCarthy, P. J.; O'Connell, R. W.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Rutkowski, M. J.; Balick, B.; Bond, H. E.; Calzetti, D.; Disney, M. J.; Dopita, M. A.; Frogel, Jay A.; Hall, D. N. B.; Holtzman, J. A.; Kimble, R. A.; Paresce, F.; Saha, A.; Silk, J. I.; Trauger, J. T.; Walker, A. R.; Whitmore, B. C.; Young, E. T.

    2010-09-01

    We combine new high sensitivity ultraviolet (UV) imaging from the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) with existing deep HST/Advanced Camera for Surveys optical images from the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) program to identify UV-dropouts, which are Lyman break galaxy (LBG) candidates at z ~= 1-3. These new HST/WFC3 observations were taken over 50 arcmin2 in the GOODS-South field as a part of the Early Release Science program. The uniqueness of these new UV data is that they are observed in three UV/optical (WFC3 UVIS) channel filters (F225W, F275W, and F336W), which allows us to identify three different sets of UV-dropout samples. We apply Lyman break dropout selection criteria to identify F225W-, F275W-, and F336W-dropouts, which are z ~= 1.7, 2.1, and 2.7 LBG candidates, respectively. We use multi-wavelength imaging combined with available spectroscopic and photometric redshifts to carefully access the validity of our UV-dropout candidates. Our results are as follows: (1) these WFC3 UVIS filters are very reliable in selecting LBGs with z ~= 2.0, which helps to reduce the gap between the well-studied z >~ 3 and z ~ 0 regimes; (2) the combined number counts with average redshift z ~= 2.2 agree very well with the observed change in the surface densities as a function of redshift when compared with the higher redshift LBG samples; and (3) the best-fit Schechter function parameters from the rest-frame UV luminosity functions at three different redshifts fit very well with the evolutionary trend of the characteristic absolute magnitude, M*, and the faint-end slope, α, as a function of redshift. This is the first study to illustrate the usefulness of the WFC3 UVIS channel observations to select z <~ 3 LBGs. The addition of the new WFC3 on the HST has made it possible to uniformly select LBGs from z ~= 1 to z ~= 9 and significantly enhance our understanding of these galaxies using HST sensitivity and resolution.

  19. Climate-sensitive subsea permafrost and related gas expulsions on the South Kara Sea shelf. Field studies and modeling results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portnov, Alexey; Mienert, Jurgen; Serov, Pavel

    2015-04-01

    Thawing subsea permafrost controls methane release bearing a considerable impact on the climate-sensitive Arctic environment. Significant expulsion of methane into shallow Russian shelf areas may continue to rise into the atmosphere on the Arctic shelves in response to intense degradation of relict subsea permafrost. The release of formerly trapped gas, essentially methane, is linked to the permafrost evolution. Modeling of the permafrost at the West Yamal shelf allowed describing its evolution from the Late Pleistocene to Holocene. During the previous work we detected extensive emissions of free gas into the water column at the boundary between today's shallow water permafrost and deeper water non-permafrost areas. These gas expulsions formed seismic and hydro-acoustic anomalies on the high-resolution seismic records. We supposed that in the water depths <20m continuous ice-bearing permafrost plays a role of a seal through which gas can not migrate. We integrate 1D modeling results of relict permafrost distributions with these field data from the South Kara Sea. Modeling results suggest a highly-dynamic permafrost system that directly responds to even minor variations of lower and upper boundary conditions, e.g. heat flux from below and/or bottom water temperature changes from above. We present several scenarios of permafrost evolution and show that potentially minimal modern extent of the permafrost at the West Yamal shelf is limited by ~17 m isobaths, whereas maximal probable extent coincides with ~100 m isobaths. The model also predicts seaward tapering of relict permafrost with its maximal thickness 275-390 m near the shore line. We also present sensitivity analysis which define the wider range of modeling results depending on the changing input parameters (e.g. geothermal heat flux, bottom water temperature, porosity of the sediments). The model adapts well to corresponding field data, providing crucial information about the modern permafrost conditions

  20. Sound Source Identification Through Flow Density Measurement and Correlation With Far Field Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, J.; Seasholtz, R. G.

    2001-01-01

    Sound sources in the plumes of unheated round jets, in the Mach number range 0.6 to 1.8, were investigated experimentally using "casuality" approach, where air density fluctuations in the plumes were correlated with the far field noise. The air density was measured using a newly developed Molecular Rayleigh scattering based technique, which did not require any seeding. The reference at the end provides a detailed description of the measurement technique.

  1. THE GLOBAL SOLAR MAGNETIC FIELD-IDENTIFICATION OF TRAVELING, LONG-LIVED RIPPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, R. K.; Tran, Tham

    2013-05-10

    We have examined the global structure of the solar magnetic field using data from the Fe I spectral line at 5250.2 A obtained at the 150 foot tower telescope at the Mt. Wilson Observatory. For each point on the solar surface, we find the value of the magnetic field in the meridional plane, B{sub m} , by averaging over all available observations using a cosine weighting method. We have revised our cosine weighting method by now taking into account more fully the highest latitude geometry. We use the annual variation in the latitude of the disk center, b{sub 0}, to deduce the tilt angle of the field relative to the local vertical so that we can find the radial component of the field, B{sub r} , from B{sub m} . We find this tilt angle to be small except for a near-polar zone where a tilt-angle model can reduce the annual variation. The reduced annual variation in the deduced B{sub r} allows us to study dB{sub r} /dt and associated deviations in B{sub r} from a smoothed B{sub r} with a smoothing width of 2.5 yr. These functions make evident the presence of small amplitude (3-5 G) but spatially coherent ripples with a semi-regular periodicity of one to three years. At any given time, the half-wavelength (peak to trough) is between 15 Degree-Sign and 30 Degree-Sign of latitude. These patterns are ubiquitous and in many cases drift from near the equator to the poles over a time period of roughly two years. The drift rate pattern is not compatible with simple advection.

  2. Identification and prioritization of rail squat defects in the field using rail magnetisation technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaewunruen, Sakdirat

    2015-04-01

    Inevitably, rail squats and studs are continuing to be a serious problem for railway organisations around the world in the 21st century. They are typically classified as the growth of any cracks that have grown longitudinally through the subsurface and some of the cracks propagating to the bottom of rails transversely, and have branched from initial longitudinal cracks with a depression of rail surface. The horizontal crack, which results in a depression of rail surface, induces increased maintenance level, more frequent monitoring, compromised rail testing (as the crack shields the signal echoes), and possible broken rails. This paper presents field investigations using a magnetised-rail testing device developed by MRX Technologies to identify and prioritise the rail squats. Most of the in situ squats were found on the high rail of the transition (variable-radius curved track), which is associated with rolling contact fatigue (RCF). This investigation highlights the field performance of the MRX's surface crack detection technology in comparison with the traditional ultrasonic method and detailed walking inspection. Visually, it was found in the field that the size of the RCF squats varies from very small to moderate. The predicted crack data were obtained by scanning the magnitised rails. The comparison of the actual crack depths (ultrasonic) and the predicted crack depths (MRX device) shows: • A possible correlation for small RCF/ squat cracks. • Poor interpretation of larger defects and welds. The field assessment also suggests some practical issues required for further development, including the detection of rail spalling, deep transverse crack, welding, and so on.

  3. SOURCE IDENTIFICATION IN THE IGR J17448-3232 FIELD: DISCOVERY OF THE SCORPIUS GALAXY CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Barrière, Nicolas M.; Tomsick, John A.; Wik, Daniel R.; Chaty, Sylvain; Rodriguez, Jérome

    2015-01-20

    We use a 43 ks XMM-Newton observation to investigate the nature of sources first distinguished by a follow-up Chandra observation of the field surrounding INTEGRAL source IGR J17448-3232, which includes extended emission and a bright point source previously classified as a blazar. We establish that the extended emission is a heretofore unknown massive galaxy cluster hidden behind the Galactic bulge. The emission-weighted temperature of the cluster within the field of view is 8.8 keV, with parts of the cluster reaching temperatures of up to 12 keV; no cool core is evident. At a redshift of 0.055, the cluster is somewhat under-luminous relative to the X-ray luminosity-temperature relation, which may be attributable to its dynamical state. We present a preliminary analysis of its properties in this paper. We also confirm that the bright point source is a blazar, and we propose that it is either a flat spectrum radio quasar or a low-frequency peaked BL Lac object. We find four other fainter sources in the field, which we study and tentatively identify. Only one, which we propose is a foreground Galactic X-ray binary, is hard enough to contribute to IGR J17448-3232, but it is too faint to be significant. We thus determine that IGR J17448-3232 is in fact the galaxy cluster up to ≈45 keV and the blazar beyond.

  4. Identification of the Permeability Field of Porous Medium from the Injection of Passive Tracer

    SciTech Connect

    Zhan, Lang; Yortsos, Y.C.

    1999-10-18

    In this paper, a method was proposed which focused on the question, namely on how to invert data on arrival times at various (and numerous) points in the porous medium to map the permeability field. The method, elements of which were briefly described in (9), is based on a direct inversion of the data, as will be described below , rather than on the optimization of initial random (or partly constrained) guesses of the permeability field, to match the available data, as typically done in the analogous problem of pressure transients. The direct inversion is based on two conditions, that Darcy's law for single-phase flow in porous media is valid, and that dispersion of the concentration of the injected tracer is negligible. While the former is a well-accepted premise, the latter depends on injection and field conditions, and may not necessarily apply in all cases. Based on these conditions, we formulate a nonlinear boundary value problem, the coefficients of which depend on the experimental arrival time data.

  5. Source rock identification and oil generation related to trap formation: Southeast Constantine oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Boudjema, A.; Rahmani, A.; Belhadi, E.M.; Hamel, M.; Bourmouche, R. )

    1990-05-01

    Petroleum exploration began in the Southeast Constantine basin in the late 1940s. Despite the very early discovery of Djebel Onk field (1954), exploration remains very sparse and relatively unsuccessful due mainly to the geological complexity of the region. The Ras-Toumb oil field was discovered only twenty years later. In 1988, a new discovery, the Guerguit-El-Kihal oil field renewed the interest of explorationists in this region. The Southeast Constantine Mesozoic-Cenozoic basin has a sedimentary sequence of shales and carbonates with a thickness exceeding 7,000 m. Structural traps are related to pyrenean and post-Villafranchian phases. Potential reservoirs with good petrophysical characteristics and seals can be found throughout the section and are mainly Cenomanian-Turonian and Coniacian limestones and dolomites. The known source rocks are Cenomanian-Turonian and Campanian carbonate shales. Kerogen is a mixture of type II and type III for the Campanian. The kerogen has a fair petroleum potential and is often immature or low mature. The Cenomanian-Turonian kerogen is type II amorphous, with a variable but important petroleum potential. Total organic carbon values range from 1.5% to 7%. Maturity corresponds to the oil window. This source rock is well known throughout the Mediterranean region and is related to the oceanic anoxic event. Kinetic modeling of this organic matter evolution indicates favorable oil generation timing related to trap formation ages.

  6. Identification and Implications of a Submarine Monogenetic Field in the NE Lau Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, K. H.; Embley, R. W.

    2012-12-01

    Short-lived, volcanism at discrete, closely spaced volcanic cones and low lying lava flows in the NE corner of the Lau backarc basin shares many characteristics with subaerial monogenetic fields. We use geological, morphological, petrological, and geochemical observations of this volcanic field made on five research expeditions since 2008, along with comparisons to well-known terrestrial monogenetic fields to assess whether the Mata volcanic group is best thought of as a submarine mongenetic volcanic field (a term rarely, if ever, applied to submarine settings). The volcanism has constructed a series of 9 small, very closely spaced, hydrothermally-active, elongate volcanic edifices near the east-west portion of the Tonga Trench, which are 1.5 to 7.5 km apart (summit to summit) and are 450 to 1400m tall. Only one of the volcanoes (West Mata) is currently active, erupting boninite pillow lavas along with explosively-generated volcaniclastic sediments. The ages of the youngest volcanics on the other Mata volcanoes are not yet determined but most are hydrothermally active and are surfaced with relatively young lava flows without significant sediment cover. The volcanoes are all formed predominantly of low effusion rate pillow lavas with variable amounts of pyroclastic deposits mantling the constructional topography, suggesting relatively long-lived volcanism (ca 100-200 yrs) at each center, similar to large lava shields in Iceland (e.g., skjaldbreidur). Detailed stratigraphic observations are as yet only available for one volcano (with more to come during an ROV field campaign in Sept. 2012). Bottom photographs provide no clear evidence for long-lived hiatuses at any of these cones and bathymetric data do not intricate overlapping constructional structures, resurgent construction, or large scale collapse or mass wasting structures, as might be expected for a protracted, many-eruption volcanic history at any single volcano. However, the oldest edifice does show evidence

  7. Examining the Effectiveness of Discriminant Function Analysis and Cluster Analysis in Species Identification of Male Field Crickets Based on Their Calling Songs

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswara, Ranjana; Nandi, Diptarup; Balakrishnan, Rohini

    2013-01-01

    Traditional taxonomy based on morphology has often failed in accurate species identification owing to the occurrence of cryptic species, which are reproductively isolated but morphologically identical. Molecular data have thus been used to complement morphology in species identification. The sexual advertisement calls in several groups of acoustically communicating animals are species-specific and can thus complement molecular data as non-invasive tools for identification. Several statistical tools and automated identifier algorithms have been used to investigate the efficiency of acoustic signals in species identification. Despite a plethora of such methods, there is a general lack of knowledge regarding the appropriate usage of these methods in specific taxa. In this study, we investigated the performance of two commonly used statistical methods, discriminant function analysis (DFA) and cluster analysis, in identification and classification based on acoustic signals of field cricket species belonging to the subfamily Gryllinae. Using a comparative approach we evaluated the optimal number of species and calling song characteristics for both the methods that lead to most accurate classification and identification. The accuracy of classification using DFA was high and was not affected by the number of taxa used. However, a constraint in using discriminant function analysis is the need for a priori classification of songs. Accuracy of classification using cluster analysis, which does not require a priori knowledge, was maximum for 6–7 taxa and decreased significantly when more than ten taxa were analysed together. We also investigated the efficacy of two novel derived acoustic features in improving the accuracy of identification. Our results show that DFA is a reliable statistical tool for species identification using acoustic signals. Our results also show that cluster analysis of acoustic signals in crickets works effectively for species classification and

  8. Examining the effectiveness of discriminant function analysis and cluster analysis in species identification of male field crickets based on their calling songs.

    PubMed

    Jaiswara, Ranjana; Nandi, Diptarup; Balakrishnan, Rohini

    2013-01-01

    Traditional taxonomy based on morphology has often failed in accurate species identification owing to the occurrence of cryptic species, which are reproductively isolated but morphologically identical. Molecular data have thus been used to complement morphology in species identification. The sexual advertisement calls in several groups of acoustically communicating animals are species-specific and can thus complement molecular data as non-invasive tools for identification. Several statistical tools and automated identifier algorithms have been used to investigate the efficiency of acoustic signals in species identification. Despite a plethora of such methods, there is a general lack of knowledge regarding the appropriate usage of these methods in specific taxa. In this study, we investigated the performance of two commonly used statistical methods, discriminant function analysis (DFA) and cluster analysis, in identification and classification based on acoustic signals of field cricket species belonging to the subfamily Gryllinae. Using a comparative approach we evaluated the optimal number of species and calling song characteristics for both the methods that lead to most accurate classification and identification. The accuracy of classification using DFA was high and was not affected by the number of taxa used. However, a constraint in using discriminant function analysis is the need for a priori classification of songs. Accuracy of classification using cluster analysis, which does not require a priori knowledge, was maximum for 6-7 taxa and decreased significantly when more than ten taxa were analysed together. We also investigated the efficacy of two novel derived acoustic features in improving the accuracy of identification. Our results show that DFA is a reliable statistical tool for species identification using acoustic signals. Our results also show that cluster analysis of acoustic signals in crickets works effectively for species classification and

  9. SNP marker discovery, linkage map construction and identification of QTLs for enhanced salinity tolerance in field pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) is a self-pollinating, diploid, cool-season food legume. Crop production is constrained by multiple biotic and abiotic stress factors, including salinity, that cause reduced growth and yield. Recent advances in genomics have permitted the development of low-cost high-throughput genotyping systems, allowing the construction of saturated genetic linkage maps for identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with traits of interest. Genetic markers in close linkage with the relevant genomic regions may then be implemented in varietal improvement programs. Results In this study, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers associated with expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were developed and used to generate comprehensive linkage maps for field pea. From a set of 36,188 variant nucleotide positions detected through in silico analysis, 768 were selected for genotyping of a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. A total of 705 SNPs (91.7%) successfully detected segregating polymorphisms. In addition to SNPs, genomic and EST-derived simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were assigned to the genetic map in order to obtain an evenly distributed genome-wide coverage. Sequences associated with the mapped molecular markers were used for comparative genomic analysis with other legume species. Higher levels of conserved synteny were observed with the genomes of Medicago truncatula Gaertn. and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) than with soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.), Lotus japonicus L. and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan [L.] Millsp.). Parents and RIL progeny were screened at the seedling growth stage for responses to salinity stress, imposed by addition of NaCl in the watering solution at a concentration of 18 dS m-1. Salinity-induced symptoms showed normal distribution, and the severity of the symptoms increased over time. QTLs for salinity tolerance were identified on linkage groups Ps III and VII, with flanking SNP markers suitable for

  10. Vulcan Identification of Eclipsing Binaries in the Kepler Field of View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mjaseth, Kimberly; Batalha, N.; Borucki, W.; Caldwell, D.; Latham, D.; Martin, K. R.; Rabbette, M.; Witteborn, F.

    2007-05-01

    We report the discovery of 236 new eclipsing binary stars located in and around the field of view of the Kepler Mission. The binaries were identified from photometric light curves from the Vulcan exoplanet transit survey. The Vulcan camera is comprised of a modest aperture (10cm) f/2.8 Canon lens focusing a 7° x 7° field of view onto a 4096 x 4096 Kodak CCD. The system yields an hour-to-hour relative precision of 0.003 on 12th magnitude stars and saturates at 9th magnitude. The binaries have magnitudes in the range of 9.5 < V < 13.5 and periods ranging from 0.5 to 13 days. The milli-magnitude photometric precision allows detection of transits as shallow as 1%. The catalog contains a total of 273 eclipsing binary stars, including detached systems (high and low mass ratio), contact binaries, and triple systems. We present the derived orbital/transit properties, light curves, and stellar properties for selected targets. In addition, we summarize the results of radial velocity follow-up work. Support for this work came from NASA's Discovery Program and NASA's Origins of the Solar System Program.

  11. Identification of the permeability field of a porous medium from the injection of a passive tracer

    SciTech Connect

    Zhan, Lang; Yortsos, Yannis C.

    2000-07-01

    We propose a method for the direct inversion of the permeability field of a porous medium from the analysis of the displacement of a passive tracer. By monitoring the displacement front at successive time intervals (for example, using a tomographic method), the permeability can be directly obtained from the solution of a nonlinear boundary-value problem. Well posedness requires knowledge of the pressure profile or the permeability at no-flow boundaries. The method is tested using synthetic data in two dimensions (2D) (and some 3D) geometries for a variety of heterogeneous fields and found to work well when the permeability contrast is not too large. However, it is sensitive to sharp variations in permeability. In the latter case, a modified approach based on the successive injection in both directions and the use of an optimization technique leads to improved estimates. The sensitivity to measurement errors is analyzed. An important feature of the direct method is that it also applies to anisotropic porous media. When the principal axes of anisotropy are known, a suitable procedure is proposed and demonstrated using synthetic data. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  12. Field Measurement-Based System Identification and Dynamic Response Prediction of a Unique MIT Building

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Young-Jin; Trocha, Peter; Büyüköztürk, Oral

    2016-01-01

    Tall buildings are ubiquitous in major cities and house the homes and workplaces of many individuals. However, relatively few studies have been carried out to study the dynamic characteristics of tall buildings based on field measurements. In this paper, the dynamic behavior of the Green Building, a unique 21-story tall structure located on the campus of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA), was characterized and modeled as a simplified lumped-mass beam model (SLMM), using data from a network of accelerometers. The accelerometer network was used to record structural responses due to ambient vibrations, blast loading, and the October 16th 2012 earthquake near Hollis Center (ME, USA). Spectral and signal coherence analysis of the collected data was used to identify natural frequencies, modes, foundation rocking behavior, and structural asymmetries. A relation between foundation rocking and structural natural frequencies was also found. Natural frequencies and structural acceleration from the field measurements were compared with those predicted by the SLMM which was updated by inverse solving based on advanced multiobjective optimization methods using the measured structural responses and found to have good agreement. PMID:27376303

  13. Identification and field evaluation of pear fruit volatiles attractive to the oriental fruit moth, Cydia molesta.

    PubMed

    Lu, Peng-Fei; Huang, Ling-Qiao; Wang, Chen-Zhu

    2012-08-01

    Plant volatiles play a key role in host plant location of phytophagous insects. Cydia molesta is an important pest of pear fruit late in the growing season. We identified and quantified volatiles from immature and mature fruits of six pear varieties by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Attractiveness of synthetic blends to adults based on gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection (GC-EAD) activity was investigated in both field and laboratory. Consistent electroantennographic activity was obtained for 12 compounds from headspace collections of the mature fruits of the six pear varieties. Qualitative and quantitative differences were found among six odor profiles. Among the six mixtures, the mixture of 1-hexanol, nonanal, ethyl butanoate, butyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate, hexyl butanoate, and farnesene (different isomers) with a 1:1:100:70:7:5:1:4 ratio from the variety Jimi and the mixture of nonanal, ethyl butanoate, 3-methylbutyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate, and farnesene with a 1:100:1:32:1:2 ratio from the variety Huangjin were highly attractive to both sexes in the field. However, male captures were much higher than those of females. Further wind tunnel tests proved that both sexes exhibited upwind flight to the lures, but only males landed on the source. Our finding indicates that mixtures mimicking Jimi and Huangjin volatiles attract both females and males of C. molesta, and these host volatiles may be involved in mate finding behavior. PMID:22730107

  14. Field Measurement-Based System Identification and Dynamic Response Prediction of a Unique MIT Building.

    PubMed

    Cha, Young-Jin; Trocha, Peter; Büyüköztürk, Oral

    2016-01-01

    Tall buildings are ubiquitous in major cities and house the homes and workplaces of many individuals. However, relatively few studies have been carried out to study the dynamic characteristics of tall buildings based on field measurements. In this paper, the dynamic behavior of the Green Building, a unique 21-story tall structure located on the campus of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA), was characterized and modeled as a simplified lumped-mass beam model (SLMM), using data from a network of accelerometers. The accelerometer network was used to record structural responses due to ambient vibrations, blast loading, and the October 16th 2012 earthquake near Hollis Center (ME, USA). Spectral and signal coherence analysis of the collected data was used to identify natural frequencies, modes, foundation rocking behavior, and structural asymmetries. A relation between foundation rocking and structural natural frequencies was also found. Natural frequencies and structural acceleration from the field measurements were compared with those predicted by the SLMM which was updated by inverse solving based on advanced multiobjective optimization methods using the measured structural responses and found to have good agreement. PMID:27376303

  15. Identification of Brucella ovis exclusive genes in field isolates from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Lucía Paula; García-Effrón, Guillermo; Robles, Carlos Alejandro

    2016-03-01

    Brucellosis caused by Brucella ovis is one of the most important infectious diseases of sheep. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of genes both inside and outside the specific B. ovis pathogenicity island 1 (BOPI-1) in a large collection of field isolates of B. ovis and other Brucella spp. from Argentina. The BOV_A0500 gene from B. ovis BOPI-1 was identified in all 104 B. ovis isolates studied. The BOPI-1 complete sequence was found to be conserved in 10 B. ovis strains from the collection, for which whole genome sequencing was performed. The BOV_0198 gene, which is outside BOPI-1 and considered exclusive to B. ovis, showed 90-100% identity with genomic regions of B. ovis, B. melitensis, B. abortus, B. canis, B. suis, B. microti, B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis. The results demonstrate that BOPI-1 is the only exclusive genetic region of B. ovis and marine Brucella spp. and that it is highly conserved in B. ovis field isolates from Argentina. PMID:26831160

  16. Horizontal and vertical deformation field in New Caledonia, South West Pacific, derived from more than 20 years of GNSS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballu, V.; Calmant, S.; Valty, P.; Gravelle, M.; Sakic, P.; Aucan, J.; Pelletier, B.

    2015-12-01

    New Caledonia is located in the South West Pacific Ocean, on the Australian Plate just before its subduction under the North Fiji Basin. Because it is on the subducting side of the plate interface, New Caledonia is considered to be stable to first order and not to undergo rapid deformation. However, moderate seismicity is recorded close to the plate interface, in the southern part of the main land and along the Loyalty ridge. In addition, the main island and Loyalty ridge are subjected to long-term vertical deformation due to the flexure of the plate entering subduction. A geodetic network was installed since the early days of GPS (~1990) and has been further developed and occasionally measured since. Due to the low number of global GNSS recording stations in the early 1990s, the positioning accuracy that can be achieved with these data is poor compared to present-day standards, and expected movements are slow (possibly less than 1 mm/yr). However, the >20 year length of the time series may allow us to determine the current deformation field in New Caledonia and Loyalty Ridge. We pay special care in using older GNSS data for characterizing ground motions, reprocessing all available data using a range of different processing strategies and products. We calculated daily positions from double-differenced ionosphere-free carrier phase data in a global network using the GAMIT software and combined and aligned the results on the ITRF2008 using the CATREF software, according to the processing strategy developed as part of the current ULR6 (www.sonel.org) reprocessing campaign for IGS. We compare the double difference results with those obtained in PPP mode using JPL GIPSY software as well as CNES GINS software and different products (MIT, JPL and GRG orbits and clocks provided in the framework of the IGS2 reprocessing campaign). We present both the results for New Caledonia and an analysis of the applicability of these different processing strategies to older GNSS

  17. Microanalysis of the aerosol collected over south-central New Mexico during the alive field experiment, May-December 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, Patrick J.; Schnell, Russel C.; Kahl, Jonathan D.; Boatman, Joe F.; Garvey, Dennis M.

    Thirty-eight size-segregated aerosol samples were collected in the lower troposphere over the high desert of south-central New Mexico, using cascade impactors mounted onboard two research aircraft. Four of these samples were collected in early May, sixteen in mid-July, and the remaining ones in December 1989, during three segments of the ALIVE field initiative. Analytical electron microscope analyses of aerosol deposits and individual particles from these samples were performed to physically and chemically characterize the major particulate species present in the aerosol. Air-mass trajectories arriving at the sampling area in the May program were quite different from those calculated for the July period. In general, the May trajectories showed strong westerly winds, while the July winds were weaker and southerly, consistently passing over or very near the border cities of El Paso, Texas, and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Aerosol samples collected during the May period were predominantly fine (0.1-0.5 μm dia.), liquid H 2SO 4 droplets. Samples from the July experiment were comprised mostly of fine, solid (NH 4) 2SO 4 or mostly neutralized sulfate particles. In both sampling periods, numerous other particle classes were observed, including many types with probable terrestrial or anthropogenic sources. The numbers of these particles, however, were small when compared with the sulfates. Composite particle types, including sulfate/crustal and sulfate/carbonaceous, were also found to be present. The major differences in aerosol composition between the May and July samples (i.e. the extensive neutralization of sulfates in the July samples) can be explained by considering the different aerosol transport pathways and the proximity of the July aerosol to the El Paso/Juarez urban plume. Winds during the December experiment were quite variable, and may have contributed to the widely varying aerosol compositions observed in these samples. When the aircraft sampled the El Paso

  18. Deep 20-GHz survey of the Chandra Deep Field South and SDSS Stripe 82: source catalogue and spectral properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzen, Thomas M. O.; Sadler, Elaine M.; Chhetri, Rajan; Ekers, Ronald D.; Mahony, Elizabeth K.; Murphy, Tara; Norris, Ray P.; Waldram, Elizabeth M.; Whittam, Imogen H.

    2014-04-01

    We present a source catalogue and first results from a deep, blind radio survey carried out at 20 GHz with the Australia Telescope Compact Array, with follow-up observations at 5.5, 9 and 18 GHz. The Australia Telescope 20 GHz (AT20G) deep pilot survey covers a total area of 5 deg2 in the Chandra Deep Field South and in Stripe 82 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We estimate the survey to be 90 per cent complete above 2.5 mJy. Of the 85 sources detected, 55 per cent have steep spectra (α _{1.4}^{20} < -0.5) and 45 per cent have flat or inverted spectra (α _{1.4}^{20} ≥ -0.5). The steep-spectrum sources tend to have single power-law spectra between 1.4 and 18 GHz, while the spectral indices of the flat- or inverted-spectrum sources tend to steepen with frequency. Among the 18 inverted-spectrum (α _{1.4}^{20} ≥ 0.0) sources, 10 have clearly defined peaks in their spectra with α _{1.4}^{5.5} > 0.15 and α 9^{18} < -0.15. On a 3-yr time-scale, at least 10 sources varied by more than 15 per cent at 20 GHz, showing that variability is still common at the low flux densities probed by the AT20G-deep pilot survey. We find a strong and puzzling shift in the typical spectral index of the 15-20-GHz source population when combining data from the AT20G, Ninth Cambridge and Tenth Cambridge surveys: there is a shift towards a steeper-spectrum population when going from ˜1 Jy to ˜5 mJy, which is followed by a shift back towards a flatter-spectrum population below ˜5 mJy. The 5-GHz source-count model by Jackson & Wall, which only includes contributions from FRI and FRII sources, and star-forming galaxies, does not reproduce the observed flattening of the flat-spectrum counts below ˜5 mJy. It is therefore possible that another population of sources is contributing to this effect.

  19. The ATLAS 5.5 GHz survey of the extended Chandra Deep Field South: the second data release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, M. T.; Bell, M. E.; Hopkins, A. M.; Norris, R. P.; Seymour, N.

    2015-11-01

    We present a new image of the 5.5 GHz radio emission from the extended Chandra Deep Field South. Deep radio observations at 5.5 GHz were obtained in 2010 and presented in the first data release. A further 76 h of integration has since been obtained, nearly doubling the integration time. This paper presents a new analysis of all the data. The new image reaches 8.6 μJy rms, an improvement of about 40 per cent in sensitivity. We present a new catalogue of 5.5 GHz sources, identifying 212 source components, roughly 50 per cent more than were detected in the first data release. Source counts derived from this sample are consistent with those reported in the literature for S5.5 GHz > 0.1 mJy but significantly lower than published values in the lowest flux density bins (S5.5 GHz < 0.1 mJy), where we have more detected sources and improved statistical reliability. The 5.5 GHz radio sources were matched to 1.4 GHz sources in the literature and we find a mean spectral index of -0.35 ± 0.10 for S5.5 GHz > 0.5 mJy, consistent with the flattening of the spectral index observed in 5 GHz sub-mJy samples. The median spectral index of the whole sample is αmed = -0.58, indicating that these observations may be starting to probe the star-forming population. However, even at the faintest levels (0.05 < S5.5 GHz < 0.1 mJy), 39 per cent of the 5.5 GHz sources have flat or inverted radio spectra. Four flux density measurements from our data, across the full 4.5-6.5 GHz bandwidth, are combined with those from literature and we find 10 per cent of sources (S5.5 GHz ≳ 0.1 mJy) show significant curvature in their radio spectral energy distribution spanning 1.4-9 GHz.

  20. Infrared spectrometry field-method for identification of natural seep-oils.

    PubMed

    Grant, D F; Eastwood, D

    1983-11-01

    An infrared field-method has been developed which is capable of distinguishing between oils originating from natural seepage in the Santa Barbara (California) Channel region and closely similar oils from onshore drilling platforms. The technique involves a minimum of sample preparation and the use of simple infrared instrumentation which can be operated by non-technical personnel. Natural seep-oil samples were collected from the surface of the water, underwater, and from beaches in the area. The non-seep oils were obtained from production wells which were located in the same geographical areas as the seepage and were from several different well depths corresponding to different geological zones. Natural seep-oils are more aromatic than the production oils, and this difference is evidenced by observed differences in the spectra for both weathered and unweathered oils. These spectral differences between seep and non-seep oils have been found to persist after exposure to weathering for a week. PMID:18963475

  1. Field identification of groundwater flow systems and hydraulic traps in drainage basins using a geophysical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiao-Wei; Wan, Li; Wang, Jun-Zhi; Yin, Bin-Xi; Fu, Wen-Xiang; Lin, Chang-Hong

    2014-04-01

    Groundwater flow systems and stagnant zones in drainage basins are critical to a series of geologic processes. Unfortunately, the difficulty of mapping flow system boundaries and no field example of detected stagnant zones restrict the application of the concept of nested flow systems. By assuming the variation in bulk resistivity of an aquifer with uniform porosity is mainly caused by groundwater salinity, the magnetotelluric technique is used to obtain the apparent resistivity of a profile across a groundwater-fed river in the Ordos Plateau, China. Based on the variations in apparent resistivity of the Cretaceous sandstone aquifer, the basin-bottom hydraulic trap below the river has been detected for the first time, and its size is found to be large enough for possible deposition of large ore bodies. The boundaries between local and regional flows have also been identified, which would be useful for groundwater exploration and calibration of large-scale groundwater models.

  2. Identification of the elastic stiffness of composites using the virtual fields method and digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lebin; Guo, Baoqiao; Xie, Huimin

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an effective methodology for characterizing the mechanical parameters of composites using digital image correlation combined with the virtual fields method. By using a three-point bending test configuration, this method can identify all mechanical parameters of the material with merely a single test. Successful results verified that this method is especially effective for characterizing composite materials. In this study, the method is applied to measure the orthotropic elastic parameters of fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix composites before and after the hygrothermal aging process. The results indicate that the hygrothermal aging environment significantly influences the mechanical property of a composite. The components of the parameters in the direction of the fiber bundle decreased significantly. From the accuracy analysis, we found that the actual measurement accuracy is sensitive to a shift of the horizontal edges and rotation of the vertical edges.

  3. Identification of island-induced Alfvén eigenmodes in a reversed field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, C. R.; Hegna, C. C.; Anderson, J. K.; McCollam, K. J.; Boguski, J.; Feng, R.; Koliner, J. J.; Spong, D. A.; Hirshman, S. P.

    2016-05-01

    The modification of the shear Alfvén spectrum due to a core resonant magnetic island is used to explain the Alfvénic activity observed on the Madison symmetric torus (MST) reversed-field pinch during neutral beam injection. Theoretical studies show that the Alfvén continua in the core of the island provide a gap in which the observed Alfvénic bursts reside. Numerical simulations using a new code called SIESTAlfvén have identified the bursts as the first observation of an island-induced Alfvén eigenmode (IAE) in an RFP. The IAE arises from a helical coupling of harmonics due to the magnetic island.

  4. Seismic fracture identification and horizontal drilling: Keys to optimizing productivity in fractured reservoir, Giddings Field, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Kuich, N.M. )

    1989-09-01

    Anomalies on conventional seismic data and seismic attributes data have been successfully used to identify fracture swarms in the Austin Chalk. Wells drilled to intersect seismic fracture indicators are proven superior producers. Seismic and geologic data demonstrate fracture swarms separated 100-300 ft by impermeable section. Fractures trend northeast-southwest, on strike with the regional Mexia-Talco and Balcones fault trends. Horizontal drilling allows multiple fracture zones, which are not in communication, and therefore cannot be drained by a single well. Horizontal wellbores have been kicked out from two depleted Giddings field wells. Undrained fractures were encountered in both recompletions, some as close as 120 ft from the original vertical hole. Horizontal drilling, directed by seismic data, is recovering hydrocarbons in a fractured reservoir previously bypassed via standard drilling and completion practices.

  5. Isolation and identification of pathogenic microorganisms at wastewater-irrigated fields: ratios in air and wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Teltsch, B.; Kedmi, S.; Bonnet, L.; Borenzstajn-Rotem, Y.; Katzenelson, E.

    1980-06-01

    Samples of air and corresponding wastewater samples were taken at wastewater spray-irrigated fields. The concentrations of salmonellae and enteroviruses present in these samples were determined and compared with those of coliforms, and the ratios between them were calculated. The most common Salmonella serotype in the air was Salmonella ohio, whereas in the wastewater, Salmonella anatum was the most common. Enteroviruses isolated and identified were poliovirus, echovirus, and coxsackievirus type B. From the ratios of salmonellas to coliforms and enteroviruses to coliforms in the air, as compared to these ratios in the wastewater, it was concluded that the suitability of coliforms as an indication of airborne contamination caused by spray irrigation is questionable.

  6. Identification and field bioassay of the sex pheromone of Trichophysetis cretacea (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Peng, Cheng-Lin; Gu, Ping; Li, Juan; Chen, Qi-Yu; Feng, Chuang-Hong; Luo, Huai-Hai; Du, Yong-Jun

    2012-10-01

    The jasmine bud borer Trichophysetis cretacea (Butler) (Lepidoptera Crambidae) is an important agricultural pest of jasmine flowers Jasminum sambac in China. The extract from the pheromone gland of the female moth was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z11-16:Ac), (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald),and (Z)-11-hexadecenol (Z11-16:OH) were identified as the probable sex pheromone components. The electroantennogram (EAG) bioassay confirmed the results from the chemical analysis. Field bioassays conducted in the late summer and fall in Quanwei, Sichuan, China, showed that the synthetic chemical blend of Z11-16:Ac, Z11-16:Ald, and Z11-16:OH was highly attractive to male T. cretacea moths, and none of the three components was attractive by itself. All three components were necessary and the ratio of the three was critical. The highest number of male moths was captured when the ratio of Z11-16:Ac: Z11-16:Ald:Z11-16:OH was 10:10:1 at a dosage per lure of 200 microg Z11-16:Ac. The binary mixture of 200 microg Z11-16:Ac and 25 microg Z11-16:OH captured a number of Nymphicula mesorphna (10.3 +/- 4.4). The results indicate that traps with synthetic pheromone lures can be used to monitor jasmine bud borer populations in the field and potentially to control this pest. PMID:23156151

  7. A compilation of field surveys on gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) from contrasting environmental settings in Europe, South America, South Africa and China: separating fads from facts.

    PubMed

    Higueras, Pablo; Oyarzun, Roberto; Kotnik, Joze; Esbrí, José María; Martínez-Coronado, Alba; Horvat, Milena; López-Berdonces, Miguel Angel; Llanos, Willians; Vaselli, Orlando; Nisi, Barbara; Mashyanov, Nikolay; Ryzov, Vladimir; Spiric, Zdravko; Panichev, Nikolay; McCrindle, Rob; Feng, Xinbin; Fu, Xuewu; Lillo, Javier; Loredo, Jorge; García, María Eugenia; Alfonso, Pura; Villegas, Karla; Palacios, Silvia; Oyarzún, Jorge; Maturana, Hugo; Contreras, Felicia; Adams, Melitón; Ribeiro-Guevara, Sergio; Niecenski, Luise Felipe; Giammanco, Salvatore; Huremović, Jasna

    2014-08-01

    Mercury is transported globally in the atmosphere mostly in gaseous elemental form (GEM, [Formula: see text]), but still few worldwide studies taking into account different and contrasted environmental settings are available in a single publication. This work presents and discusses data from Argentina, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, China, Croatia, Finland, Italy, Russia, South Africa, Spain, Slovenia and Venezuela. We classified the information in four groups: (1) mining districts where this contaminant poses or has posed a risk for human populations and/or ecosystems; (2) cities, where the concentration of atmospheric mercury could be higher than normal due to the burning of fossil fuels and industrial activities; (3) areas with natural emissions from volcanoes; and (4) pristine areas where no anthropogenic influence was apparent. All the surveys were performed using portable LUMEX RA-915 series atomic absorption spectrometers. The results for cities fall within a low GEM concentration range that rarely exceeds 30 ng m(-3), that is, 6.6 times lower than the restrictive ATSDR threshold (200 ng m(-3)) for chronic exposure to this pollutant. We also observed this behavior in the former mercury mining districts, where few data were above 200 ng m(-3). We noted that high concentrations of GEM are localized phenomena that fade away in short distances. However, this does not imply that they do not pose a risk for those working in close proximity to the source. This is the case of the artisanal gold miners that heat the Au-Hg amalgam to vaporize mercury. In this respect, while GEM can be truly regarded as a hazard, because of possible physical-chemical transformations into other species, it is only under these localized conditions, implying exposure to high GEM concentrations, which it becomes a direct risk for humans. PMID:24379158

  8. Field identification of stagnant zones in nested flow systems using geophysical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, X.; Wan, L.; Wang, J.; Yin, B.

    2013-12-01

    Periodic undulations of the water table create gravity-driven, hierarchically nested flow systems, i.e., local, intermediate and regional flow systems in drainage basins [Tóth, 1963]. The stagnant zones in nested flow systems have been assumed to be critical to accumulation of transported matter, such as metallic ions and hydrocarbons in drainage basins. However, little field research has been devoted to prove this assumption due to difficulties in groundwater sampling. In the current study, the Stratagem EH4, an electromagnetic geophysical exploration technique, is used to measure subsurface resistivity of the Cretaceous Sandstone in the Ordos Basin, Northwestern China. We obtained several two-dimensional images of variations in subsurface resistivity of cross-sections across rivers or lakes, which receive discharge from groundwater. Because the aquifer is relatively homogeneous, the spatial variation in subsurface resistivity is mainly caused by the differences in TDS of groundwater. We found that fresh groundwater with low TDS, which corresponds to local flow systems, are separated by groundwater with relatively higher TDS, which corresponds to stagnant zones caused by convergence of groundwater flow systems. This study helps shed light on the relationship between groundwater flow and distributions of hydrochemistry and also confirms that stagnant zones are loci of mineral deposition.

  9. Specific identification of coconut tinangaja viroid for differential field diagnosis of viroids in coconut palm.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, R A; Wall, G C; Randles, J W

    1998-08-01

    ABSTRACT Tinangaja is a widespread lethal disease of putative viroid etiology affecting coconut palm on the island of Guam. Determination of its distribution and mode of spread requires a simple and reliable diagnostic procedure that is specific for the associated coconut tinangaja viroid (CTiVd). A method of extracting tissue followed by analytical agarose gel electrophoresis for CTiVd detection has been developed and used to identify the viroid in leaf samples of suspect symptomatic palms growing in the field. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the viroid band contained circular molecules that are typical for viroids. Confirmation of the identity of CTiVd and detection of low levels of viroid below the threshold of detection by agarose gel electrophoresis was achieved either by diagnostic oligonucleotide-probe (DOP) hybridization assay or by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with the oligonucleotide probe as one of the two PCR primers. RT-PCR was not substantially more sensitive than DOP-hybridization assay. This procedure also was applicable to coconut cadang-cadang viroid (CCCVd), and oligonucleotide probes designed to be specific for either CTiVd or CCCVd distinguished between these two viroids in coconut leaf extracts. This strategy provides a rapid and specific indexing procedure for the two characterized viroids of coconut palm and will be applicable to further studies on the viroid-like sequences previously reported in tropical monocotyledons. PMID:18944882

  10. Rapid identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Selim, Samy; El Kholy, Iman; Hagagy, Nashwa; El Alfay, Sahar; Aziz, Mohamed Abdel

    2015-01-01

    Twenty clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates recovered from patients admitted to The General Hospital in Ismailia Governorate (Egypt) were examined in this study. We analysed P. aeruginosa ATCC 9027 (as a control strain) and 19 of the isolates after digestion with SpeI restriction endonuclease. After this we conducted a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and typed the obtained 10 unique patterns, designated as A, A1, B, B1, C, C1, D, D1, E and F. We evaluated the genetic relatedness between all strains, based on ≥87% band identity. As a result, the isolates were grouped in the 10 clusters as follows: patterns A, A1, B, B1, C contained two strains each and patterns C1, D, D1, E contained a single strain each; the five remaining strains were closely related (genomic pattern F). One isolate belonged to antibiotype ‘b’. The genotype patterns of the P. aeruginosa ATCC 9027 control strain and isolate no. 11 were closely related and had two different antibiotypes ‘d’ and ‘c’, respectively. PMID:26019629

  11. CANDELS MULTIWAVELENGTH CATALOGS: SOURCE IDENTIFICATION AND PHOTOMETRY IN THE CANDELS UKIDSS ULTRA-DEEP SURVEY FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Galametz, Audrey; Grazian, Andrea; Fontana, Adriano; Castellano, Marco; Ferguson, Henry C.; Dahlen, Tomas; Grogin, Norman; Huang, Kuang-Han; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Willner, S. P.; Barro, Guillermo; Faber, Sandy M.; Guo, Yicheng; Kocevski, Dale D.; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Peth, Michael; Almaini, Omar; Collaboration: CANDELS team; and others

    2013-06-01

    We present the multiwavelength-ultraviolet to mid-infrared-catalog of the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Ultra-Deep Survey field observed as part of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). Based on publicly available data, the catalog includes the CANDELS data from the Hubble Space Telescope (near-infrared WFC3 F125W and F160W data and visible ACS F606W and F814W data); u-band data from CFHT/Megacam; B, V, R{sub c} , i', and z' band data from Subaru/Suprime-Cam; Y and K{sub s} band data from VLT/HAWK-I; J, H, and K band data from UKIDSS (Data Release 8); and Spitzer/IRAC data (3.6, 4.5 {mu}m from SEDS; 5.8 and 8.0 {mu}m from SpUDS). The present catalog is F160W-selected and contains 35, 932 sources over an area of 201.7 arcmin{sup 2} and includes radio- and X-ray-detected sources and spectroscopic redshifts available for 210 sources.

  12. Spectral identification of the u-band variable sources in two LAMOST fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Tian-Wen; Yang, Ming; Wu, Hong; Zhang, Tian-Meng; Shi, Jian-Rong; Zhang, Hao-Tong; Yang, Fan; Zhao, Jing-Kun; Zhou, Xu; Fan, Zhou; Jiang, Zhao-Ji; Ma, Jun; Wang, Jia-Li; Wu, Zhen-Yu; Zou, Hu; Zhou, Zhi-Min; Nie, Jun-Dan; Luo, A.-Li; Wu, Xue-Bing; Zhao, Yong-Heng

    2016-09-01

    We selected 82 u-band variable objects based on the u-band photometry data from SCUSS and SDSS, in the field of LAMOST Complete Spectroscopic Survey of Pointing Area at Southern Galactic Cap. The magnitude variation of the targets is restricted to larger than 0.2 mag and limiting magnitude down to 19.0 mag in u-band. According to the spectra from LAMOST, there are 11 quasars with redshift between 0.4 and 1.8, 60 variable stars and 11 unidentified targets. The variable stars include one active M-dwarf with a series of Balmer emission lines, seven Horizontal Branch stars containing six RR Lyrae stars matching with SIMBAD, and one giant, one AGB star and two RR Lyrae candidates by different color selections. All these variable stars mainly locate near the main sequence in the g--r vs. u--g diagram. The quasars are well distinguished from stars by both u--g color and variation in u-band.

  13. Bright field segmentation tomography (BFST) for use as surface identification in stereomicroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiesse, Jacqueline R.; Namati, Eman; de Ryk, Jessica; Hoffman, Eric A.; McLennan, Geoffrey

    2004-07-01

    Stereomicroscopy is an important method for use in image acquisition because it provides a 3D image of an object when other microscopic techniques can only provide the image in 2D. One challenge that is being faced with this type of imaging is determining the top surface of a sample that has otherwise indistinguishable surface and planar characteristics. We have developed a system that creates oblique illumination and in conjunction with image processing, the top surface can be viewed. The BFST consists of the Leica MZ12 stereomicroscope with a unique attached lighting source. The lighting source consists of eight light emitting diodes (LED's) that are separated by 45-degree angles. Each LED in this system illuminates with a 20-degree viewing angle once per cycle with a shadow over the rest of the sample. Subsequently, eight segmented images are taken per cycle. After the images are captured they are stacked through image addition to achieve the full field of view, and the surface is then easily identified. Image processing techniques, such as skeletonization can be used for further enhancement and measurement. With the use of BFST, advances can be made in detecting surface features from metals to tissue samples, such as in the analytical assessment of pulmonary emphysema using the technique of mean linear intercept.

  14. Identification of characteristic frequencies of damaged railway tracks using field hammer test measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oregui, M.; Li, Z.; Dollevoet, R.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of the Frequency Response Function (FRF)-based statistical method to identify the characteristic frequencies of railway track defects is studied. The method compares a damaged track state to a healthy state based on non-destructive field hammer test measurements. First, a study is carried out to investigate the repeatability of hammer tests in railway tracks. By changing the excitation and measurement locations it is shown that the variability introduced by the test process is negligible. Second, following the concepts of control charts employed in process monitoring, a method to define an approximate healthy state is introduced by using hammer test measurements at locations without visual damage. Then, the feasibility study includes an investigation into squats (i.e. a major type of rail surface defect) of varying severity. The identified frequency ranges related to squats agree with those found in an extensively validated vehicle-borne detection system. Therefore, the FRF-based statistical method in combination with the non-destructive hammer test measurements has the potential to be employed to identify the characteristic frequencies of damaged conditions in railway tracks in the frequency range of 300-3000 Hz.

  15. Hydrology and water quality near the South Well Field, southern Franklin County, Ohio, with emphasis on the simulation of ground-water flow and transport of Scioto River. Water resources investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Childress, C.J.O.; Sheets, R.A.; Bair, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    At present (1990), about 15 percent of the total water supply for the City of Columbus, Ohio, is provided by ground water withdrawn from the South Well Field in southern Franklin County. Much of the flow of Scioto River at the South Well Field originates from the Jackson Pike Wastewater Treatment Facility (WTF), one of two municipal wastewater-treatment plants operated by the City of Columbus. The Jackson Pike WTF discharges effluent into Scioto River about 6 mi upstream from the South Well Field. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), undertook a study to evaluate the hydrologic consequences of changes in effluent discharge to Scioto River and to clarify the interaction of Scioto River and carbonate bedrock and glacial drift aquifers at the South Well Field. The report describes the hydrology and water quality of the South Well Field area by presenting the results of (1) surface-water-transport simulations of a conservative constituent during low flow of Scioto River from Frank Road to the South Well Field and (2) ground-water-flow simulations of the glacial drift and carbonate bedrock aquifers at the South Well Field. The simulations are examined along with surface-water and ground-water quality to describe the relation between the quantity and quality of flow in the Scioto River; the nature of the ground-water-flow system; and the quantity, quality, and sources of water pumped from the South Well Field. Data collection in the study area in August and September 1987 and 1988 included sampling for surface-water and ground-water quality and measurement of surface-water discharge, Scioto River travel-times, ground-water levels, and vertical riverbed hydraulic conductivity.

  16. Higher Education Research as a Field of Study in South Korea: Inward but Starting to Look Outward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Jisun

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore the development of higher education research in South Korea based on historical and scientometric perspectives. After the evolution of the country's higher education research community is presented, articles focusing on higher education from 1995 to 2012 are analysed. In total, 145 articles in international journals and…

  17. Levelling or Playing the Field? The Politics of Access to University Education in Post-Apartheid South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Rajani

    1998-01-01

    Provides an account of access policies in relation to university education in South Africa by analyzing the practices surrounding the report "A Framework for Transformation." Argues that the repositioning of equity, economic development, and academic standards within the arena of the National Commission on Higher Education has shaped access…

  18. Source Identification Of Airborne Antimony On The Basis Of The Field Monitoring And The Source Profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iijima, A.; Sato, K.; Fujitani, Y.; Fujimori, E.; Tanabe, K.; Ohara, T.; Shimoda, M.; Kozawa, K.; Furuta, N.

    2008-12-01

    The results of the long-term monitoring of airborne particulate matter (APM) in Tokyo indicated that APM have been extremely enriched with antimony (Sb) compared to crustal composition. This observation suggests that the airborne Sb is distinctly derived from human activities. According to the material flow analysis, automotive brake abrasion dust and fly ash from waste incinerator were suspected as the significant Sb sources. To clarify the emission sources of the airborne Sb, elemental composition, particle size distribution, and morphological profiles of dust particles collected from two possible emission sources were characterized and compared to the field observation data. Brake abrasion dust samples were generated by using a brake dynamometer. During the abrasion test, particle size distribution was measured by an aerodynamic particle sizer spectrometer. Concurrently, size- classified dust particles were collected by an Andersen type air sampler. Fly ash samples were collected from several municipal waste incinerators, and the bulk ash samples were re-dispersed into an enclosed chamber. The measurement of particle size distribution and the collection of size-classified ash particles were conducted by the same methodologies as described previously. Field observations of APM were performed at a roadside site and a residential site by using an Andersen type air sampler. Chemical analyses of metallic elements were performed by an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometr. Morphological profiling of the individual particle was conducted by a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. High concentration of Sb was detected from both of two possible sources. Particularly, Sb concentrations in a brake abrasion dust were extremely high compared to that in an ambient APM, suggesting that airborne Sb observed at the roadside might have been largely derived from

  19. Faint Radio Sources in the NOAO Bootes Field. VLBA Imaging And Optical Identifications

    SciTech Connect

    Wrobel, J.M.; Taylor, Greg B.; Rector, T.A.; Myers, S.T.; Fassnacht, C.D.; /UC, Davis

    2005-06-13

    As a step toward investigating the parsec-scale properties of faint extragalactic radio sources, the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) was used at 5.0 GHz to obtain phase-referenced images of 76 sources in the NOAO Booetes field. These 76 sources were selected from the FIRST catalog to have peak flux densities above 10 mJy at 5'' resolution and deconvolved major diameters of less than 3'' at 1.4 GHz. Fifty-five of these faint radio sources were identified with accretion-powered radio galaxies and quasars brighter than 25.5 mag in the optical I band. On VLA scales at 1.4 GHz, a measure of the compactness of the faint sources (the ratio of the peak flux density from FIRST to the integrated flux density from the NVSS catalog) spans the full range of possibilities arising from source-resolution effects. Thirty of the faint radio sources, or 39{sub -7}{sup +9}%, were detected with the VLBA at 5.0 GHz with peak flux densities above 6 {sigma} {approx} 2 mJy at 2 mas resolution. The VLBA detections occur through the full range of compactness ratios. The stronger VLBA detections can themselves serve as phase-reference calibrators, boding well for opening up much of the radio sky to VLBA imaging. For the adopted cosmology, the VLBA resolution corresponds to 17 pc or finer. Most VLBA detections are unresolved or slightly resolved but one is diffuse and five show either double or core-jet structures; the properties of these latter six are discussed in detail. Eight VLBA detections are unidentified and fainter than 25.5 mag in the optical I band; their properties are highlighted because they likely mark optically-obscured active nuclei at high redshift.

  20. Faint Radio Sources in the NOAO Boötes Field: VLBA Imaging and Optical Identifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrobel, J. M.; Taylor, G. B.; Rector, T. A.; Myers, S. T.; Fassnacht, C. D.

    2005-09-01

    As a step toward investigating the parsec-scale properties of faint extragalactic radio sources, the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) was used at 5.0 GHz to obtain phase-referenced images of 76 sources in the NOAO Boötes field. These 76 sources were selected from the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm (FIRST) catalog to have peak flux densities above 10 mJy at 5" resolution and deconvolved major diameters of less than 3" at 1.4 GHz. Of these faint radio sources, 57 were identified with accretion-powered radio galaxies and quasars brighter than 25.5 mag in the optical I band. On Very Large Array (VLA) scales at 1.4 GHz, a measure of the compactness of the faint sources (the ratio of the peak flux density from FIRST to the integrated flux density from the NRAO VLA Sky Survey catalog) spans the full range of possibilities arising from source-resolution effects. Of the faint radio sources, 30, or 39+9-7%, were detected with the VLBA at 5.0 GHz with peak flux densities above 6 σ~2 mJy at 2 mas resolution. The VLBA detections occur through the full range of compactness ratios. The stronger VLBA detections can themselves serve as phase-reference calibrators, boding well for opening up much of the radio sky to VLBA imaging. For the adopted cosmology, the VLBA resolution corresponds to 17 pc or finer. Most VLBA detections are unresolved or slightly resolved, but one is diffuse and five show either double or core-jet structures; the properties of these latter six are discussed in detail. Three VLBA detections are unidentified and fainter than 25.5 mag in the optical I band; their properties are highlighted because they likely mark optically obscured active nuclei at high redshift.

  1. Identification, evaluation and change detection of highly sensitive wetlands in South-Eastern Sri Lanka using ALOS (AVNIR2, PALSAR) and Landsat ETM+ data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawardena, Ajith; Fernando, Tamasha; Takeuchi, Wataru; Wickramasinghe, Chathura H.; Samarakoon, Lal

    2014-06-01

    Sri Lanka is an island consists of numerous wetlands and many of these ecosystems have been indiscriminately exploited for a commercial, agricultural, residential and industrial development and waste dumping. Eastern River Basin Region in Sri Lanka is rapidly urbanizing, which leads more threats to the surrounding wetland ecosystems considerably. Therefore, it is important to identify and designated them as reserved areas where necessary in order to protect them under the National Environmental Act of Sri Lanka. Mapping and change detection of wetlands in the selected region is a key requirement to fulfill the above task. GIS and Remote Sensing techniques were used to identify and analyze the wetland eco systems. In this study Landsat ETM+, ALOS-AVNIR2, ALOS-PALSAR images were analyzed for identifying and change detection of wetlands. The secondary information and data were collected through a questionnaire survey to recognize the possible threats and benefits. The collected data and information were incorporated in identification, analyzing and ranking the wetlands. The final outcome of the project is to correlate the satellite data with the field observations to quantify the highly sensitive wetlands to declare as Environmental Protection Areas under the National Environment Act of Sri Lanka.

  2. PCR-based identification of cacao black pod causal agents and identification of biological factors possibly contributing to Phytophthora megakarya's field dominance in West Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among the Phytophthora species that cause black pod of cacao, P. megakarya is the most virulent, posing a serious threat to cacao production in Africa. Correct identification of the species causing the black pod and understanding the virulence factors involved are important for developing sustainabl...

  3. Rapid identification of dengue virus by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction using field-deployable instrumentation.

    PubMed

    McAvin, James C; Escamilla, Elizabeth M; Blow, Jamie A; Turell, Michael J; Quintana, Miguel; Bowles, David E; Swaby, James A; Barnes, William J; Huff, William B; Lohman, Kenton L; Atchley, Daniel H; Hickman, John R; Niemeyer, Debra M

    2005-12-01

    Dengue virus universal and dengue serotype 1 to 4, fluorogenic probe hydrolysis (TaqMan), reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays were developed for screening and serotype identification of infected mosquito vectors and human sera using a field-deployable, fluorometric thermocycler. Dengue universal and dengue 1 to 4 serotype assay in vitro sensitivity and specificity results were 100% concordant when tested with total nucleic acid extracts of multiple strains of dengue serotype 1 to 4, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, and St. Louis encephalitis viruses. The in vitro sensitivity and specificity results for all five assays were concordant when tested with a blind panel of 27 dengue virus-infected mosquitoes, 21 non-dengue (yellow fever, West Nile, or St. Louis encephalitis) flavivirus-infected mosquitoes, and 11 uninfected mosquitoes and with clinical specimens consisting of a human serum panel of eight dengue viremic and 31 non-dengue-infected febrile patient serum samples. No cross-reaction occurred with vector species or human genomic DNA. Sample processing and polymerase chain reaction required <2 hours. PMID:16491947

  4. Rapid field identification of subjects involved in firearm-related crimes based on electroanalysis coupled with advanced chemometric data treatment.

    PubMed

    Cetó, Xavier; O'Mahony, Aoife M; Samek, Izabela A; Windmiller, Joshua R; del Valle, Manel; Wang, Joseph

    2012-12-01

    We demonstrate a novel system for the detection and discrimination of varying levels of exposure to gunshot residue from subjects in various control scenarios. Our aim is to address the key challenge of minimizing the false positive identification of individuals suspected of discharging a firearm. The chemometric treatment of voltammetric data from different controls using Canonical Variate Analysis (CVA) provides several distinct clusters for each scenario examined. Multiple samples were taken from subjects in controlled tests such as secondary contact with gunshot residue (GSR), loading a firearm, and postdischarge of a firearm. These controls were examined at both bare carbon and gold-modified screen-printed electrodes using different sampling methods: the 'swipe' method with integrated sampling and electroanalysis and a more traditional acid-assisted q-tip swabbing method. The electroanalytical fingerprint of each sample was examined using square-wave voltammetry; the resulting data were preprocessed with Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), followed by CVA treatment. High levels of discrimination were thus achieved in each case over 3 classes of samples (reflecting different levels of involvement), achieving maximum accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity values of 100% employing the leave-one-out validation method. Further validation with the 'jack-knife' technique was performed, and the resulting values were in good agreement with the former method. Additionally, samples from subjects in daily contact with relevant metallic constituents were analyzed to assess possible false positives. This system may serve as a potential method for a portable, field-deployable system aimed at rapidly identifying a subject who has loaded or discharged a firearm to verify involvement in a crime, hence providing law enforcement personnel with an invaluable forensic tool in the field. PMID:23121395

  5. Comparing the performance of coupled soil-vegetation-atmosphere models at two contrasting field sites in South-West Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayler, S.; Wöhling, T.; Priesack, E.; Wizemann, H.-D.; Wulfmeyer, V.; Ingwersen, J.; Streck, T.

    2012-04-01

    of their structural complexity on two winter wheat research fields under different climate in South-West Germany. We investigate the ability of the models to simultaneously fit measured soil water contents, leaf area development and actual evapotranspiration rates from eddy-covariance measurements. The calibration of the models is performed in a multi-criteria context using three objective functions, which describe the discrepancy between measurements and simulations of the three data types. We use the AMALGAM evolutionary search algorithm to simultaneously estimate the most important plant and soil hydraulic parameters. The results show that the trade-off in fitting soil moisture, leaf area development and evapotranspiration can be quite large for those models that represent plant processes by simple concepts. However, these trade-offs are smaller for the more mechanistic plant growth models, so that it can be expected that these optimized mechanistic models will provide the basis for improved simulations of land-surface-atmosphere feedback processes.

  6. THE LABOCA SURVEY OF THE EXTENDED CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH: TWO MODES OF STAR FORMATION IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS HOSTS?

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, D.; Shao, L.; Foerster Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Mainieri, V.; Rafferty, D.; Brandt, W. N.; Hasinger, G.; Weiss, A.; Menten, K. M.; Walter, F.; Greve, T. R.; Smail, I.; Coppin, K.; Alexander, D. M.; Chapman, S.; Gawiser, E.; Kurczynski, P.; Ivison, R. J.; Koekemoer, A. M.

    2010-04-01

    We study the co-existence of star formation and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity in Chandra X-ray-selected AGN by analyzing stacked 870 {mu}m submillimeter emission from a deep and wide map of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS), obtained with the LABOCA instrument at the APEX telescope. The total X-ray sample of 895 sources with median redshift z {approx} 1 drawn from the combined (E)CDFS X-ray catalogs is detected at >11sigma significance at a mean submillimeter flux of 0.49 +- 0.04 mJy, corresponding to a typical star formation rate (SFR) around 30 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} for a T = 35 K, beta = 1.5 graybody far-infrared spectral energy distribution. The good signal-to-noise ratio permits stacking analyses for major subgroups, splitting the sample by redshift, intrinsic luminosity, and AGN obscuration properties. We observe a trend of SFR increasing with redshift. An increase of SFR with AGN luminosity is indicated at the highest L{sub 2-10{sub keV}} {approx}> 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1} luminosities only. Increasing trends with X-ray obscuration as expected in some AGN evolutionary scenarios are not observed for the bulk of the X-ray AGN sample but may be present for the highest intrinsic luminosity objects with L{sub 2-10{sub keV}} {approx}> 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}. This behavior suggests a transition between two modes in the co-existence of AGN activity and star formation. For the bulk of the sample, the X-ray luminosity and obscuration of the AGN are not intimately linked to the global SFR of their hosts. The hosts are likely massive and forming stars secularly, at rates similar to the pervasive star formation seen in massive galaxies without an AGN at similar redshifts. In these systems, star formation is not linked to a specific state of the AGN and the period of moderately luminous AGN activity may not highlight a major evolutionary transition of the galaxy. The change indicated toward more intense star formation, and a more pronounced increase

  7. Predicting plant water content in Eucalyptus grandis forest stands in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa using field spectra resampled to the Sumbandila Satellite Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oumar, Z.; Mutanga, O.

    2010-06-01

    The measurement of plant water content is essential to assess stress and disturbance in forest plantations. Traditional techniques to assess plant water content are costly, time consuming and spatially restrictive. Remote sensing techniques offer the alternative of a non-destructive and instantaneous method of assessing plant water content over large spatial scales where ground measurements would be impossible on a regular basis. In the context of South Africa, due to the cost and availability of imagery, studies focusing on the estimation of plant water content using remote sensing data have been limited. With the scheduled launch of the South African satellite SumbandilaSat evident in 2009, it is imperative to test the utility of this satellite in estimating plant water content. This study resamples field spectral data measured from a field spectrometer to the band settings of the SumbandilaSat in order to test its potential in estimating plant water content in a Eucalyptus plantation. The resampled SumbandilaSat wavebands were input into a neural network due to its ability to model non-linearity in a dataset and its inherent ability to perform better than conventional linear models. The integrated approach involving neural networks and the resampled field spectral data successfully predicted plant water content with a correlation coefficient of 0.74 and a root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.41% on an independent test dataset outperforming the traditional multiple regression method of estimation. The best-trained neural network algorithm that was chosen for assessing the relationship between plant water content and the SumbandilaSat bands was based on a few points only and more research is required to test the robustness and effectiveness of this sensor in estimating plant water content across different species and seasons. This is critical for monitoring plantation health in South Africa using a cheaply available local sensor containing key vegetation wavelengths.

  8. A validation study of a rapid field-based rating system for discriminating among flow permanence classes of headwater streams in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Ken M; Wenerick, William R; Kostich, Mitch S

    2013-11-01

    Rapid field-based protocols for classifying flow permanence of headwater streams are needed to inform timely regulatory decisions. Such an existing method was developed for and has been used in North Carolina since 1998. The method uses ordinal scoring of 26 geomorphology, hydrology, and biology attributes of streams. The attribute scores are summed and compared to threshold scores to assign a flow permanence class. Our study objective was to evaluate the method's ability to classify the flow permanence of forested stream reaches from Piedmont and Southeastern Plains ecoregions in South Carolina. Ephemeral reaches scored significantly lower than intermittent and perennial reaches, but scores from intermittent and perennial reaches did not differ. Scores collected in the dry and wet seasons were strongly correlated, indicating that the method was seasonally stable. Scores had positive nonlinear relationships with the maximum recorded wet duration and the proportion of the record that reaches were wet, but were not related to drying frequency. Scores of the presence of baseflow in the dry season were more important in flow permanence classification than those from the wet season. Other important attributes and parameters in discriminating flow classes were macrobenthos, rooted upland plants, bankfull width, drainage area, and ecoregion. Although the North Carolina method did not consistently differentiate intermittent from perennial reaches, the indicator-based approach is a strong foundation from which to build a protocol for South Carolina. Adding measures like bankfull width and drainage area, weighting by ecoregion, or shifting thresholds may be warranted modifications for South Carolina. PMID:24000112

  9. Chip-type asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation channel coupled with mass spectrometry for top-down protein identification.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Hun; Moon, Myeong Hee

    2011-11-15

    A chip-type design asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) channel has been developed for high-speed separation of proteins and top-down proteomic analysis using online coupled electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The new miniaturized AF4 channel was assembled by stacking multilayer thin stainless steel (SS, 1.5 mm each) plates embedded with an SS frit in such a way that the total thickness of the channel assembly was about 6 mm. The efficiency of the miniaturized AF4 channel at different channel lengths was examined with the separation of protein standards by adjusting flow rates in which an identical effective channel flow rate or an identical void time can be maintained at different channels. Detection limit, overloading effect, reproducibility, and influence of channel membrane materials on separation efficiency were investigated. Desalting and purification of proteins achieved during the AF4 operation by the action of an exiting crossflow and the use of aqueous mass-spectrometry-compatible (MS-compatible) buffer were advantageous for online coupling of the chip-type AF4 with ESI-MS. The direct coupling of AF4 and ESI-MS capabilities was demonstrated for the high-speed separation and identification of carbonic anhydrase (29 kDa) and transferrin (78 kDa) by full scan MS and for the first top-down identification of proteins with AF4-ESI-MS-MS using collision-induced fragmentation (CID). The presence of intact dimers (156 kDa) of transferrin was confirmed by AF4-ESI-MS via size separation of the dimers from monomers, followed by multiply charged ion spectral analysis of the dimers and molecular mass determinations. It was also found from these experiments that AF4-ESI-MS analysis of transferrin exhibited an increased signal-to-noise ratio compared to that of direct ESI-MS analysis due to online purification of the protein sample and size separation of dimers with AF4. PMID:21981549

  10. South Pole NO Observations: An Assessment of the Factors Controlling the Large Variability Seen in the ISCAT 2000 Field Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, D. D.; Buhr, M.; Lefer, B.; Shetter, R.; Oncley, S.; Semmer, S.; Lenschow, D.

    2001-12-01

    In December of 1998, the first observations of NO at South Pole were recorded. The surprisingly high levels observed (e.g. median value 225 pptv) were examined in the context of three possible sources: local pollution, long-range transport, and snow surface emissions. Of these possibilities, only the snow source was found to be credible. Of particular significance in our arriving at this conclusion was the fact that other investigators had previous to the ISCAT study reported evidence for a significant snow source of NO. These observations were reported at Summit, Greenland, Alert, Canada, and even at a coastal Antarctic site. What made the South Pole ISCAT 1998 results so unusual was the finding that the median NO level was over one order of magnitude greater than at any other global site. Speculation at the conclusion of the ISCAT 1998 study was that an enhanced NO source strength from the snow at South Pole in conjunction with a very shallow mixing depth were major contributing factors promoting this difference. The ISCAT 2000 study has provided an opportunity to examine the above hypothesis in considerable detail. Centrally important in this new study were measurements of: 1) NO levels at several different heights above the snow surface; 2) NO snow to atmosphere fluxes; 3) NO levels within the snowpack as a function of depth; and 4) more intensive MET observations. The findings from these new observations have provided considerable insight into the large variability seen in South Pole NO (i.e. 10 to 500 pptv) and will be discussed.

  11. Field study on the choice of friends in two multi-racial pre-schools (South Africa/London).

    PubMed

    Exenberger, Silvia

    2003-06-01

    The present research examined the influence of the two independent variables sex and race on the choice of friends in pre-school children. Data for this investigation were collected in two pre-schools, one situated in Stellenbosch, South Africa, the other in London, U.K. Both schools have in common that they accommodate children of different racial backgrounds (black, white, and coloured children), but the children's experience with desegregated classrooms differ. Friendship was operational defined with thirteen categories, summarized to the basic category pro-social behaviour. Fifty hours of free-play time were taped with one video camera in South Africa, and hundred hours were taped with two video cameras in London. The results showed that sex and race interact in their effect on the choice of friends. In South Africa race is supposed to be a strong indicator for friendship choices, especially for black children, whereas the black children in London choose friends more or less on the basis of sex. PMID:12872548

  12. South Africa: Challenge and Hope. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatum, Lyle, Ed.

    In South Africa, racial identification determines all facets of a person's life--political, economic, and social. Divided into ten chapters, this book was prepared to increase public awareness of black South Africans' struggle for freedom. Chapter one discusses how the system of apartheid is built on the official identification of all citizens by…

  13. Consolidation of geologic studies of geopressured-geothermal resources in Texas: Barrier-bar tidal-channel reservoir facies architecture, Jackson Group, Prado field, South Texas; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Seni, S.J.; Choh, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    Sandstone reservoirs in the Jackson barrier/strandplain play are characterized by low recovery efficiencies and thus contain a large hydrocarbon resource target potentially amenable to advanced recovery techniques. Prado field, Jim Hogg County, South Texas, has produced over 23 million bbl of oil and over 32 million mcf gas from combination structural-stratigraphic traps in the Eocene lower Jackson Group. Hydrocarbon entrapment at Prado field is a result of anticlinal nosing by differential compaction and updip pinch-out of barrier bar sandstone. Relative base-level lowering resulted in forced regression that established lower Jackson shoreline sandstones in a relatively distal location in central Jim Hogg County. Reservoir sand bodies at Prado field comprise complex assemblages of barrier-bar, tidal-inlet fill, back-barrier bar, and shoreface environments. Subsequent progradation built the barrier-bar system seaward 1 to 2 mi. Within the barrier-bar system, favorable targets for hydrocarbon reexploration are concentrated in tidal-inlet facies because they possess the greatest degree of depositional heterogeneity. The purpose of this report is (1) to describe and analyze the sand-body architecture, depositional facies variations, and structure of Prado field, (2) to determine controls on distribution of hydrocarbons pertinent to reexploration for bypassed hydrocarbons, (3) to describe reservoir models at Prado field, and (4) to develop new data affecting the suitability of Jackson oil fields as possible candidates for thermally enhanced recovery of medium to heavy oil.

  14. Chemical flood progress evaluation test, South Pass Block 27 field, Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana. Final report, September 28, 1979-May 16, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, J. R.; Guillory, A. J.

    1981-02-01

    A field test of a surfactant flooding process has been designed for a reservoir located in the South Pass Block 27 field, Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana. The objectives of the test are to continue chemical flooding research by applying the process in a reservoir which is a candidate for this enhanced oil recovery technique if the process is proved economically viable. The plan is to acquire field data which will lead to a better understanding of how the process works under reservoir conditions at a well-to-well distance intermediate to laboratory floods and economic well spacing. The initial step in starting the field test began late in 1979 when the first pilot injection-residual oil saturation determination well was drilled and pressured cored in the selected test reservoir, the N/sub 4/ sand Reservoir B, at about 8000 feet. A log-inject-log measurement in this well has also been completed to provide an added evaluation. This report documents the results of the N/sub 4/, sand residual oil saturation measurements in Well SL 1011 No. 88. The Shell-DOE contract is restricted to this phase of the field test. Results indicate a waterswept residual oil saturation less than 20% at the objective location based on coring and PNC log-inject-log measurements. The value is lower than anticipated. Consequently, an alternate test site must be selected if the field test plans are continued.

  15. Comparative Analysis of Visual Field Plotting by Octopus Interzeag 1-2-3, Humphrey Field Analyser II and Frequency Doubling Perimetry in Glaucoma Patients in South Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Suma, Elangovan; Prabhu, D Ranjit

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Standard achromatic perimetry tests the differential light sensitivity whereas the frequency doubling technology tests the contrast sensitivity. The aim of this study was to compare and correlate the visual field indices with three different types of perimeters namely frequency doubling perimetry (FDP), Humphrey field analyser (HFA) and Octopus Interzeag 1-2-3 (OI) for detecting glaucomatous field defects. Design Prospective cross-sectional observational study. Materials and Methods Hundred eyes of 50 glaucoma patients were studied. All the patients underwent visual field examinations by Octopus Interzeag 1-2-3, Humphrey field Analyser II and Frequency Doubling perimetry (FDP). The correlations of the global indices were compared. The time taken to perform the test with the three perimeters was analysed. Results The visual field plotting by the perimeters were comparable and significant positive correlation was observed. The time taken to perform visual field test by Octopus Interzeag 1-2-3 was shorter than the other two methods. Conclusion The visual field plotting by Octopus Interzeag 1-2-3, Humphrey field analyser and frequency doubling technology perimetry were comparable and Octopus field plotting takes lesser time than the rest two methods. PMID:26393152

  16. Mid-Infrared Properties and Color Selection for X-Ray-Detected Active Galactic Nuclei in the MUSYC Extended Chandra Deep Field-South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardamone, Carolin N.; Urry, C. Megan; Damen, Maaike; van Dokkum, Pieter; Treister, Ezequiel; Labbé, Ivo; Virani, Shanil N.; Lira, Paulina; Gawiser, Eric

    2008-06-01

    We present the mid-infrared colors of X-ray-detected AGNs and explore mid-infrared selection criteria. Using a statistical matching technique, the likelihood ratio, over 900 IRAC counterparts were identified with a new MUSYC X-ray source catalog that includes ~1000 published X-ray sources in the Chandra Deep Field-South and Extended Chandra Deep Field-South. Most X-ray-selected AGNs have IRAC spectral shapes consistent with power-law slopes, fν propto να, and display a wide range of colors, -2 <= α <= 2. Although X-ray sources typically fit to redder (more negative α) power laws than non-X-ray-detected galaxies, more than 50% do have flat or blue (galaxy-like) spectral shapes in the observed 3-8 μm band. Only a quarter of the X-ray-selected AGNs detected at 24 μm are well fit by featureless red power laws in the observed 3.6-24 μm, likely the subset of our sample whose infrared spectra are dominated by emission from the central AGN region. Most IRAC color selection criteria fail to identify the majority of X-ray-selected AGNs, finding only the more luminous AGNs, the majority of which have broad emission lines. In deep surveys, these color selection criteria select 10%-20% of the entire galaxy population and miss many moderate-luminosity AGNs.

  17. Field and laboratory data describing physical and chemical characteristics of metal-contaminated flood-plain deposits downstream from Lead, west-central South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marron, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    Samples from metal-contaminated flood-plain sediments at 9 sites downstream from Lead, in west-central South Dakota, were collected during the summers of 1985-87 to characterize aspects of the sedimentology, chemistry, and geometry of a deposit that resulted from the discharge of a large volume of mining wastes into a river system. Field and laboratory data include stratigraphic descriptions, chemical contents and grain-size distributions of samples, and surveyed flood-plain positions of samples. This report describes sampling-site locations, and methods of sample collection and preservation, and subsequent laboratory analysis. Field and laboratory data are presented in 4 figures and 11 tables in the ' Supplemental Data ' section at the back of the report. (USGS)

  18. Evaluation of a total dissolved solids model in comparison to actual field data measurements in the Cheyenne River, South Dakota, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Berdanier, Bruce W; Ziadat, Anf H

    2006-06-01

    During the summers of 2002 and 2004, in-stream integrated flow and concentration measurements for the total dissolved solids in the Cheyenne River, South Dakota, USA was conducted in order to compare the obtained actual field measurements with the predictions values made by the Bureau of Reclamation in the Environmental Impact Statement. In comparison to the actual field measurements conducted in this study, The Bureau of Reclamation extension of a small database used in the analysis for the impact of operations at the Angostura Unit over the past 50 years and into the future to predict the annual total dissolved solid loadings doesn't represent the actual loading values and various conditions in the study area. Additional integrated flow and concentration sampling is required to characterize the impact of the current Angostura Dam operations and Angostura Irrigation District return flows on the Cheyenne River in different seasons of the year. PMID:16917716

  19. Field-trip guide to volcanic and volcaniclastic deposits of the lower Jurassic Talkeetna formation, Sheep Mountain, south-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, Amy E.; Clift, Peter D.; Blodgett, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    This guide provides information for a one-day field trip in the vicinity of Sheep Mountain, just north of the Glenn Highway in south-central Alaska. The Lower Jurassic Talkeetna Formation, consisting of extrusive volcanic and volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks of the Talkeetna arc complex, is exposed on and near Sheep Mountain. Field-trip stops within short walking distance of the Glenn Highway (approximately two hours’ drive from Anchorage) are described, which will be visited during the Geological Society of America Penrose meeting entitled Crustal Genesis and Evolution: Focus on Arc Lower Crust and Shallow Mantle, held in Valdez, Alaska, in July 2006. Several additional exposures of the Talkeetna Formation on other parts of Sheep Mountain that would need to be accessed with longer and more strenuous walking or by helicopter are also mentioned.

  20. Identification and onion pathogenicity of Burkholderia cepacia complex isolates from the onion rhizosphere and onion field soil.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Janette L; Fasi, Anthony C; Ramette, Alban; Smith, James J; Hammerschmidt, Raymond; Sundin, George W

    2008-05-01

    Burkholderia cepacia complex strains are genetically related but phenotypically diverse organisms that are important opportunistic pathogens in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF,) as well as pathogens of onion and banana, colonizers of the rhizospheres of many plant species, and common inhabitants of bulk soil. Genotypic identification and pathogenicity characterization were performed on B. cepacia complex isolates from the rhizosphere of onion and organic soils in Michigan. A total of 3,798 putative B. cepacia complex isolates were recovered on Pseudomonas cepacia azelaic acid tryptamine and trypan blue tetracycline semiselective media during the 2004 growing season from six commercial onion fields located in two counties in Michigan. Putative B. cepacia complex isolates were identified by hybridization to a 16S rRNA gene probe, followed by duplex PCR using primers targeted to the 16S rRNA gene and recA sequences and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the recA sequence. A total of 1,290 isolates, 980 rhizosphere and 310 soil isolates, were assigned to the species B. cepacia (160), B. cenocepacia (480), B. ambifaria (623), and B. pyrrocinia (27). The majority of isolates identified as B. cepacia (85%), B. cenocepacia (90%), and B. ambifaria (76%) were pathogenic in a detached onion bulb scale assay and caused symptoms of water soaking, maceration, and/or necrosis. A phylogenetic analysis of recA sequences from representative B. cepacia complex type and panel strains, along with isolates collected in this study, revealed that the B. cenocepacia isolates associated with onion grouped within the III-B lineage and that some strains were closely related to strain AU1054, which was isolated from a CF patient. This study revealed that multiple B. cepacia complex species colonize the onion rhizosphere and have the potential to cause sour skin rot disease of onion. In addition, the onion rhizosphere is a natural habitat and a potential environmental source

  1. Female sex pheromone of oriental tobacco budworm,Helicoverpa assulta (Guenee) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Identification and field testing.

    PubMed

    Cork, A; Boo, K S; Dunkelblum, E; Hall, D R; Jee-Rajunga, K; Kehat, M; Kong Jie, E; Park, K C; Tepgidagarn, P; Xun, L

    1992-03-01

    Analysis of ovipositor washings from virgin femaleHelicoverpa assulta (Guenée) (Lepidoptere: Noctuidae) from Korea by gas chromatography (GC) linked to electroantennography and GC linked to mass spectrometry resulted in the identification of nine compounds, hexadecanal, (Z)-9-hexadecenal, (Z)-11-hexadecenal, hexadecyl acetate, (Z)-9-hexadecenyl acetate, (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate, hexadecan-l-ol, (Z)-9-hexadecen-l-ol, and (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol. However, ovipositor washings from females from Thailand contained mainly the 16-carbon aldehydes with very small amounts of (Z)-9-hexadecenyl acetate. Field tests conducted in Korea, China, and Thailand indicated that a binary blend of (Z)-9-hexadecenal and (Z)-11-hexadecenal was sufficient for attraction, although the most attractive ratio of compounds varied with location. In Korea a 20∶1 blend of compounds was the most attractive, while in Thailand a 7.5∶1 blend was most attractive. In China both blends of hexadecenal isomers were equally attractive. Addition of the hexadecenyl acetates to the 20∶1 blend of hexadecenals in the ratio of 1∶3.3 increased the trap catch of maleH. assulta compared to lures containing the aldehydes alone in Korea but reduced trap catch in China. Addition of the hexadecenyl acetates to the 7.5∶1 blend of hexadecenals had no significant effect on trap catch in Thailand or China compared to the aldehydes alone. The addition of the 16-carbon alcohols to the aldehydes had a significantly inhibitory effect in all three countries, suggesting they are not pheromone components. Taken together these results indicate thatH. assulta is polymorphic with at least two populations responding to different sex pheromones. PMID:24254945

  2. South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of South Africa was acquired on May 14, 2000, by NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS. The image was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution visible wavelength bands. As part of the opening ceremony to begin the joint U.S.-South Africa SAFARI Field Experiment, NASA presented print copies of this image as GIFts to Dr. Ben Ngubane, Minister of Arts, Science and Technology, and Honorable Advocate Ngoaka Ramathlodi, Premier of the Northern Province, South Africa. The area shown in this image encompasses seven capital cities and a number of the region's distinctive geological features can be seen clearly. Toward the northern (top) central part of the image, the browns and tans comprise the Kalahari Desert of southern Botswana. The Tropic of Capricorn runs right through the heart of the Kalahari and the Botswanan capital city of Gaborone sits on the Limpopo River, southeast of the Kalahari. Along the western coastline of the continent is the country of Namibia, where the Namib Desert is framed against the sea by the Kaokoveld Mountains. The Namibian capital of Windhoek is obscured by clouds. Looking closely in the center of the image, the Orange River can be seen running from east to west, demarcating the boundary between Namibia and South Africa. On the southwestern corner of the continent is the hook-like Cape of Good Hope peninsula and Cape Town, the parliamentary capital of South Africa. Running west to east away from Cape Town are the Great Karroo Mountains. The shadow in this image conveys a sense of the very steep grade of the cliffs along the southern coast of South Africa. Port Elizabeth sits on the southeasternmost point of South Africa, and a large phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the water about 100 miles east of there. Moving northward along the east coast, the Drakensberg Mountains are visible. The two small nations of Lesotho and Swaziland are in this region, completely

  3. Development of a Multiplexed, Bead-Based Assessment Tool for Rapid Identification and Quantitation of Microorganisms in Field Samples. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, M.; Halden, R.

    2002-10-09

    This was the final report for DOE NABIR grant DE-FG02-01ER63264 (PI Mary Lowe). The grant was entitled ''Development of a Multiplexed Bead-Based Assessment Tool for Rapid Identification and Quantitation of Microorganisms in Field Samples.'' The grant duration was one year. The purpose was to develop a bead-based assay for measuring analyte DNAs in environmental PCR products and to apply the method to a field experiment. The primary experiment was located at the UMTRA Old Rifle site.

  4. High-field FT-ICR-MS and aromaticity equivalent approach for structural identification of water soluble organic compounds (WSOC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harir, Mourad; Yassine, Mahmoud M.; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Hertkorn, Norbert; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Organic aerosol (OA) makes up a large and often dominant fraction, (20 to 90%) of the submicron atmospheric particulate mass, and its effects are becoming increasingly important in determining climatic and health effects of atmospheric aerosols. Despite the abundance of OA, our understanding of the sources, formation processes and atmospheric properties of OA is limited. Atmospheric OA has both primary (directly emitted) and secondary (formed in the atmosphere from precursor gases) sources, which can be natural (e.g. vegetation) and/or anthropogenic (e.g. fossil-based vehicle exhaust or biomass burning). A significant fraction of OA contains as much as 20-70% of water soluble organic compounds (WSOC). The WSOC fraction is a very complex mixture of low volatility, polyfunctional aliphatic and aromatic compounds containing carboxyl, alcohol, carbonyl, sulfo, nitro, and other functionalities. This high degree of chemical complexity of atmospheric organics has inspired a number of sophisticated approaches that are capable of identifying and detecting a variety of different analytes in OA. Accordingly, one of the most challenging areas of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) analysis is to comprehend the molecular complexity of the OA, especially WSOC fraction, a significant component of atmospheric fine PM (PM2.5). The sources of WSOC are not well understood, especially the relative contributions of primary vs. secondary organic aerosol. Therefore, the molecular characterization of WSOC is important because it allows gaining insight into aerosol sources and underlying mechanisms of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) formation and transformation. In this abstract, molecular characterization of WSOC was achieved using high-field mass spectrometry FT-ICR-MS and aromaticity equivalent approach. Aromaticity equivalent (Xc), defined recently as a new parameter calculated from the assigned molecular formulas (complementary to the aromaticity index [1]), is introduced to improve

  5. Fracture development in Paleozoic shale of Chongqing area (South China). Part two: Numerical simulation of tectonic stress field and prediction of fractures distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Weite; Ding, Wenlong; Zhang, Jinchuan; Zhang, Yeqian; Guo, Ling; Jiu, Kai; Li, Yifan

    2013-10-01

    A tectonics sedimentation evolution has been researched in Southeast Chongqing, and the reasonable Longmaxi shale highstand system tract (HST) and transgressive system tract (TST) geological model were built respectively based on the rock mechanical test and acoustic emission experiment which the samples are from field outcrop and the Yuye-1 well. The Longmaxi shale two-dimension tectonic stress field during the Cenozoic was simulated by the finite element method, and the distribution of fractures was predicted. The research results show that the tectonic stress field and the distribution of fractures were controlled by lithology and structure. As a result of Cretaceous movement, there are trough-like folds (wide spaced synclines), battlement-like folds (similar spaces between synclines and anticlines) and ejective folds (wide spaced anticlines), which are regularly distributed from southeast to northwest in the study area. Since the strain rate and other physical factors such as the viscosity are not taken into account, and the stress intensity is the main factor that determines the tectonic strength. Therefore, the stronger tectonic strength leads the higher stress intensity in the eastern and southeastern study area than in the northwest. The fracture zones are mainly concentrated in the fold axis, transition locations of faults and folds, the regions where are adjacent to faults. The fragile mineral contents (such as siliceous rock, carbonate rock and feldspar) in the shelf facies shale from south of the study area are higher than in the bathyal facies and abyssal facies shale from center of the study area. The shales characterized by low Poisson's ratio and high elastic modulus from south of the study area are easily broken during Cenozoic orogenic movement.

  6. Arsenic accumulation and phosphorus status in two rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars surveyed from fields in South China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ying; Dong, Fei; Deacon, Claire; Chen, Huo-Jun; Raab, Andrea; Meharg, Andrew A

    2010-05-01

    The consumption of paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a major inorganic arsenic exposure pathway in S.E. Asia. A multi-location survey was undertaken in Guangdong Province, South China to assess arsenic accumulation and speciation in 2 rice cultivars, one an Indica and the other a hybrid Indica. The results showed that arsenic concentrations in rice tissue increased in the order grain < husk < straw < root. Rice grain arsenic content of 2 rice cultivars was significant different and correlated with phosphorus concentration and molar ratio of P/As in shoot, being higher for the Indica cultivar than for the hybrid Indica, which suggests altering shoot phosphorus status as a promising route for breeding rice cultivars with reduced grain arsenic. Speciation of grain arsenic, performed using HPLC-ICP-MS, identified inorganic arsenic as the dominant arsenic species present in the rice grain. PMID:20045585

  7. Petrophysical properties and geology of selected intervals in the Frio Formation, Stratton field, South Texas for modeling interwell seismic logging response

    SciTech Connect

    Collier, H.A.; Parra, J.O.

    1996-09-01

    Seismic or continuity logging consists of locating a seismic source in one borehole near or in a low-velocity layer and deploying a detector array in a second borehole. Detection of guided waves transmitted between the two wells indicates bed connectivity. The guided wave signatures are either leaky modes or normal modes (or both). The technique has numerous applications in various types of heterogeneous geological environments, including many Gulf Coast gas reservoirs. It can be used to determine the continuity of beds between wells, estimate and locate variations in the thickness of beds, and estimate the average rock physical properties of the beds. Stratton field was selected as the Gulf-Coast-gas-play type field for a project to model interwell seismic logging responses. Stratton is a mature gas field located in the south Texas Gulf Coast, about 30 miles southwest of Corpus Christi. It encompasses over 120,000 acres in portions of Kleberg, Nueces, and Jim Wells counties. Stratton is one of 29 fields in the Frio Formation fluvial-deltaic lay associated with the Vicksburg fault zone along the Texas Gulf Coast Basin. This poster presentation explains the technique of interwell seismic logging, documents the petrophysical properties and geology of intervals in the upper and middle Frio, and presents the results of the forward modeling tests.

  8. Identification of significant transport processes for organic micropollutant classes during soil aquifer treatment (SAT) - a controlled field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nödler, Karsten; Licha, Tobias; Sauter, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Supplementing existing water resources with alternative sources of water is a challenge in semi-arid areas, as deterioration of water quality must be avoided. Soil aquifer treatment (SAT) can greatly improve the quality of the injected water by attenuation of organic pollutants via sorption and degradation processes. However, only little is known about the specific transport processes of organic micropollutants under artificial recharge conditions. Organic micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals and their metabolites exhibit a wide range of chemical properties and may undergo very different environmental processes resulting in specific reactions within specified environments. In the presented study fate and transport processes of 25 organic micropollutants (iodinated contrast media, antihypertensive agents, antibiotics, anticonvulsants, lipid regulators, anti-inflammatories, antihistamines and analgesics) were investigated under SAT conditions in a controlled field experiment. Secondary treated effluent (STE) containing the compounds of interest was introduced into the aquifer by an infiltration pond and shallow wells in the vicinity were used for water quality monitoring. By means of strategic sampling procedure and a specialized multi-residue analytical method based on high-performance liquid chromatography / tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) 3 main transport processes were identified: 1. Transport of non-polar compounds according to their respective octanol-water distribution coefficient (Kow) 2. Cation exchange 3. Colloidal transport Identification of transport processes 2 & 3 was not expected to act as a transport controlling process. Results of the positively charged beta-blockers sotalol, atenolol and metoprolol gave clear evidence for cation exchange processes of the compounds with the aquifer material. Correlation of turbidity and concentrations of macrolide antibiotics (clarithromycin, erythromycin and roxithromycin) demonstrated the colloidal transport

  9. Development of a spatially targeted field sampling technique for the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, by mapping white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, habitat in South Texas.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Pamela L; Welch, John B; Kramer, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The objective of our study was to determine whether satellite remote sensed data could be used to identify white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmerman) (Artiodactyla: Cervidae), habitat and target locations for sampling free-living larvae of the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (Ixodida: Ixodidae) in South Texas. Two methods for mapping white-tailed deer habitat were used, an object-oriented method to identify closed canopies and waterways for deer movement and two vegetation indices: the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and the Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index to identify forage for deer. These two data sets of favorable white-tailed deer habitat were combined within a geographic information system to identify locations for sampling ticks. Larvae of R. (B.) microplus, were sampled in Zapata County, Texas, by walking transects with attached flannel panels to jeans. Although the data set and sampling period were limited, data analysis demonstrated that sampling of free-living larvae of R. (B.) microplus can be conducted in South Texas, and larvae were most abundant in areas that harbored O. virginianus. Spatial analysis of satellite imagery to classify white-tailed deer/southern cattle tick habitat proved efficacious and may be useful in directing sampling activities in the field. PMID:25368044

  10. Development of a Spatially Targeted Field Sampling Technique for the Southern Cattle Tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, by Mapping Whitetailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus, Habitat in South Texas

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Pamela L.; Welch, John B.; Kramer, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The objective of our study was to determine whether satellite remote sensed data could be used to identify white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmerman) (Artiodactyla: Cervidae), habitat and target locations for sampling free-living larvae of the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (Ixodida: Ixodidae) in South Texas. Two methods for mapping white-tailed deer habitat were used, an object-oriented method to identify closed canopies and waterways for deer movement and two vegetation indices: the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and the Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index to identify forage for deer. These two data sets of favorable white-tailed deer habitat were combined within a geographic information system to identify locations for sampling ticks. Larvae of R. (B.) microplus, were sampled in Zapata County, Texas, by walking transects with attached flannel panels to jeans. Although the data set and sampling period were limited, data analysis demonstrated that sampling of free-living larvae of R. (B.) microplus can be conducted in South Texas, and larvae were most abundant in areas that harbored O. virginianus. Spatial analysis of satellite imagery to classify white-tailed deer/southern cattle tick habitat proved efficacious and may be useful in directing sampling activities in the field. PMID:25368044

  11. Reverse Sample Genome Probing, a New Technique for Identification of Bacteria in Environmental Samples by DNA Hybridization, and Its Application to the Identification of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Oil Field Samples

    PubMed Central

    Voordouw, Gerrit; Voordouw, Johanna K.; Karkhoff-Schweizer, Roxann R.; Fedorak, Phillip M.; Westlake, Donald W. S.

    1991-01-01

    A novel method for the identification of bacteria in environmental samples by DNA hybridization is presented. It is based on the fact that, even within a genus, the genomes of different bacteria may have little overall sequence homology. This allows the use of the labeled genomic DNA of a given bacterium (referred to as a “standard”) to probe for its presence and that of bacteria with highly homologous genomes in total DNA obtained from an environmental sample. Alternatively, total DNA extracted from the sample can be labeled and used to probe filters on which denatured chromosomal DNA from relevant bacterial standards has been spotted. The latter technique is referred to as reverse sample genome probing, since it is the reverse of the usual practice of deriving probes from reference bacteria for analyzing a DNA sample. Reverse sample genome probing allows identification of bacteria in a sample in a single step once a master filter with suitable standards has been developed. Application of reverse sample genome probing to the identification of sulfate-reducing bacteria in 31 samples obtained primarily from oil fields in the province of Alberta has indicated that there are at least 20 genotypically different sulfate-reducing bacteria in these samples. Images PMID:16348574

  12. Ground based chemical characterization of submicron aerosol during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, Joel; Artaxo, Paulo; Varanda Rizzo, Luciana; Johnson, Ben; Haywood, Jim; Longo, Karla; Freitas, Saulo; Coe, Hugh

    2013-04-01

    This work presents the results of an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) which was successfully operated at a ground station in Porto Velho, Brazil, during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA). SAMBBA is an international research project based on experimental and modeling activities designed to investigate the impacts of biomass burning emissions on climate, air quality and numerical weather prediction over South America. The measurement program was headed by the deployment of UK's Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft over Brazil during the dry season of 2012. The aircraft operation was coordinated with ground-based measurements at Porto Velho, operated by the University of Sao Paulo. Besides the aerosol chemical speciation, continuous measurements of aerosol size distribution and optical properties were carried out at the ground station, together with CO, CO2 and O3. Filters for trace elements measured by XRF and for OC/EC determined using a Sunset instrument were also collected at the ground based component of SAMBBA. The ACSM collected data for three weeks during September 2012. This period included a strong biomass burning event which showed a marked peak in f60, linked with Levoglucosan, a well-known biomass burning marker. During the biomass burning event, organics concentrations rose up to 80 μg/m3, black carbon close to 6 μg/m3 and CO mixing ratio above 2 ppmv. Fast biomass burning aerosol processing in the atmosphere could be observed through the relative contributions of C2H3O+ vs. CO2+ relative to total organic mass (f44 vs. f43). A clear diurnal variation throughout the sampling period has been observed for organic aerosols with a median peak of 9 μg/m3 at 04:00 LT and a minima of 5 μg/m3 at 18:00 LT. Preliminary results indicate that organics are responsible for 85% of PM1 non-refractory aerosols. The data set will allow the study of interactions between biomass burning and biogenic

  13. Blood meal identification and parasite detection in laboratory-fed and field-captured Lutzomyia longipalpis by PCR using FTA databasing paper.

    PubMed

    Sant'Anna, Mauricio R V; Jones, Nathaniel G; Hindley, Jonathan A; Mendes-Sousa, Antonio F; Dillon, Rod J; Cavalcante, Reginaldo R; Alexander, Bruce; Bates, Paul A

    2008-09-01

    The phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis takes blood from a variety of wild and domestic animals and transmits Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi, etiological agent of American visceral leishmaniasis. Blood meal identification in sand flies has depended largely on serological methods but a new protocol described here uses filter-based technology to stabilise and store blood meal DNA, allowing subsequent PCR identification of blood meal sources, as well as parasite detection, in blood-fed sand flies. This technique revealed that 53.6% of field-collected sand flies captured in the back yards of houses in Teresina (Brazil) had fed on chickens. The potential applications of this technique in epidemiological studies and strategic planning for leishmaniasis control programmes are discussed. PMID:18606150

  14. Exploring the Usefulness of MISR-HR Products to Estimate Maize Crop Extent and Using Field Evidence to Evaluate the Results in South Africa's Free State Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstraete, M. M.; Knox, N. M.; Hunt, L. A.; Kleyn, L.

    2014-12-01

    The MISR instrument on NASA's Terra platform has been operating for almost 15 years. Standard products are generated at a spatial resolution of 1.1 km or coarser, but a recently developed method to re-analyze the Level-1B2 data allows the retrieval of biogeophysical products at the native spatial resolution of the instrument (275 m). This development opens new opportunities to better address issues such as the management of agricultural production and food security. South African maize production is of great economic and social importance, not only nationally, but on the global market too, being one of the top ten maize producing countries. Seasonal maize production statistics are currently based on a combination of field measurements and estimates derived from manually digitizing high resolution imagery from the SPOT satellite. The field measurements are collected using the Producer Independent Crop Estimate System (PICES) developed by Crop Estimates Committee of the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. There is a strong desire to improve the quality of these statistics, to generate those earlier, and to automate the process to encompass larger areas. This paper will explore the feasibility of using the MISR-HR spectral and directional products, combined with the finer spatial resolution and the relatively frequent coverage afforded by that instrument, to address these needs. The study area is based in the Free State, South Africa, one of the primary maize growing areas in the country, and took place during the 2012-2013 summer growing season. The significance of the outcomes will be evaluated in the context of the 14+ years of available MISR data.

  15. Distribution of Pleuroncodes monodon larvae over the continental shelf of south-central Chile: Field and modeling evidence for partial local retention and transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yannicelli, Beatriz; Castro, Leonardo; Parada, Carolina; Schneider, Wolfgang; Colas, Francois; Donoso, David

    2012-01-01

    In situ and modeled spatial distribution of squat lobster ( Pleuroncodes monodon) larvae over the continental shelf off south central Chile (35-37°S) was analyzed along with currents and hydrography. We aimed to identify the main larval transport/retention characteristics in the study area, which constitutes the southernmost P. monodon fishing grounds embedded in the Humboldt Current System. We hypothesized that the main contribution to population renewal originates in the two persistent adult aggregations close to the nursery ground that occurs over a continental shelf terrace limited by two submarine canyons. Two extensive bio-physical field campaigns were carried out during the main 2001-2002 upwelling season field data indicated that larvae were released from late austral winter to spring from spots to the north and south of the nursery. Zoea I were found mainly below 50 m depth in southward-flowing waters, whereas older zoea dominated in northward flowing layers above 50 m. Larvae were circumscribed between the coast and the shelf break front and pelagic retention areas were identified over the widest shelf area. Megalopa and juveniles during March, were only found over the nursery area. Individual based simulations coupled to the output of a hydrodynamic model (climatological configuration) for the studied area, showed that the release sites close to the nursery made the largest contribution to recruitment. Sites further north could also contribute to recruitment if hatching occurred later in the upwelling season. The contribution of vertical behavior to larval success was also important, as was the former’s interaction with the site and time of larval release. Our results support the relevance of coastal circulation (affected by topography) on the persistence of P. monodon populations off southern Chile, and the modulation of temporal variability. These results might apply to other abundant species in the area.

  16. A field test for competitive effects of Aedes albopictus on A. aegypti in South Florida: differences between sites of coexistence and exclusion?

    PubMed Central

    Juliano, Steven A.; Lounibos, L. Philip; O’Meara, George F.

    2007-01-01

    We tested whether interspecific competition from Aedes albopictus had measurable effects on A. aegypti at the typical numbers of larval mosquitoes found in cemetery vases in south Florida. We also tested whether the effect of interspecific competition from A. albopictus on A. aegypti differed between sites where A. aegypti either persists or went extinct following invasion by A. albopictus. Similar experiments manipulating numbers of A. albopictus in cemetery vases were conducted at three sites of A. aegypti persistence and three sites where A. aegypti was apparently extinct. The experiments were done using numbers of larvae that were determined by observed numbers of larvae for each site, and with resources (leaf detritus) that accumulated in experimental vases placed into each field site. In both the early rainy season (when number of mosquito larvae was low) and the late rainy season (when number of mosquito larvae was high), there was a significant effect of treatment on developmental progress of experimental A. aegypti. In the late rainy season, when numbers of larvae were high, there was also a significant effect of treatment on survivorship of A. aegypti. However, the competition treatment × site type (A. aegypti persists vs extinct) interaction was never significant, indicating that the competitive effect of A. albopictus on A. aegypti did not differ systematically between persistence versus extinction sites. Thus, although competition from A. albopictus is strong under field conditions at all sites, we find no evidence that variation in the impact of interspecific competition is associated with coexistence or exclusion. Interspecific competition among larvae is thus a viable explanation for exclusion or reduction of A. aegypti in south Florida, but variation in the persistence of A. aegypti following invasion does not seem to be primarily a product of variation in the conditions in the aquatic environments of cemetery vases. PMID:15024640

  17. Suitability of the "'Little DCDQ" for the Identification of DCD in a Selected Group of 3-5-Year-Old South African Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venter, Amné; Pienaar, Anita E.; Coetzee, Dané

    2015-01-01

    Background: In order to identify Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) as soon as possible, we need validated screening instruments that can be used for the early identification of motor coordination delays. The aim of this study was to establish the suitability of the Little Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (Little DCDQ) for…

  18. Multiple episodes of dolomitization in the Arbuckle Group, Arbuckle Mountains, south-central Oklahoma: Field, petrographic, and geochemical evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, G.; Land, L.S.; Elmore, R.D.

    1995-04-03

    The Cambro-Ordovician Arbuckle Group in the Arbuckle Mountains, south-central Oklahoma, had a complex history of dolomitization that resulted in two different geometries of dolomite bodies: stratal dolomite, of stratigraphically consistent, widespread distribution, and non-stratal dolomite, of stratigraphically inconsistent, local occurrence. Stratal dolomite includes the Royer and Butterly units in the lower Arbuckle Group. Most stratal dolomite samples are coarsely crystalline and have {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios similar to Late Cambrian limestone and coeval seawater. All stratal dolomite and Arbuckle limestone samples have low {Delta}{sup 18}O values. Nonstratal dolomite is present in two areas: the Tishomingo Anticline and the Arbuckle Anticline. In the Tishomingo Anticline area, massive bodies (> 10 km{sup 2}) of nonstratal dolomite are present in a paleokarst system of pre-Middle Ordovician age. The petrographic and isotopic characteristics suggest that the nonstratal dolomite probably resulted from dolomitization of recrystallized limestone by post-Early Ordovician seawater. In the Arbuckle Anticline area, nonstratal dolomite is present as small irregular bodies that are related to Pennsylvanian faults and are associated with the margins of stratal Butterly dolomite. The nonstratal dolomite, medium to coarsely crystalline and brightly luminescent, is characterized by high {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios values, and Fe and Mn concentrations, relative to all Arbuckle carbonates. Such compositions suggest that this type of dolomite probably originated from fluids that were derived from the adjacent basin(s) during late Paleozoic time.

  19. Tsunami vulnerability of buildings and people in South Java - field observations after the July 2006 Java tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reese, S.; Cousins, W. J.; Power, W. L.; Palmer, N. G.; Tejakusuma, I. G.; Nugrahadi, S.

    2007-10-01

    A team of scientists from New Zealand and Indonesia undertook a reconnaissance mission to the South Java area affected by the tsunami of 17 July 2006. The team used GPS-based surveying equipment to measure ground profiles and inundation depths along 17 transects across affected areas near the port city of Cilacap and the resort town of Pangandaran. The purpose of the work was to acquire data for calibration of models used to estimate tsunami inundations, casualty rates and damage levels. Additional information was gathered from interviews with eyewitnesses. The degree of damage observed was diverse, being primarily dependant on water depth and the building construction type. Water depths were typically 2 to 4 m where housing was seriously damaged. Damage levels ranged from total for older brick houses, to about 50% for newer buildings with rudimentary reinforced-concrete beams and columns, to 5-20% for engineered residential houses and multi-storey hotels with heavier RC columns. "Punchout" of weak brick walls was widespread. Despite various natural warning signs very few people were alerted to the impending tsunami. Hence, the death toll was significant, with average death and injury rates both being about 10% of the people exposed, for water depths of about 3 m.

  20. Fluid transport by solitary waves along growing faults. A field example from the South Eugene Island Basin, Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revil, A.; Cathles, L. M.

    2002-09-01

    The Red Fault system is one of the main growth faults found in the South Eugene Island Basin, a salt withdrawal minibasin located offshore Louisiana, in the Gulf of Mexico. This fault system corresponds to a lateral boundary between fluid overpressured compartments. In addition, there is a set of observations indicating that the Red Fault system exhibits rapid episodic migration of fluids. This fault represents an example of preferential pathway for the upward episodic migration of overpressured hydrocarbons from deep, heavily pressured, compartments on time scales of years. The migrations of fluids into active growing faults could take the form of propagating surges (solitary waves) that propagate upward along the fault planes in a wave-like manner at km/yr. Solitary waves represent a very efficient mechanism for the upward transport of fluids along growth faults in sedimentary basins generating its own permeability. In addition, this mechanism is compatible with the fact that the fault plane is observed to sustain a static pore fluid pressure difference between its two sides. The propagation of solitary waves in active growth faults appears as a fundamental mechanism to understand the nature of upward fast migration of fluids along active growth faults in compartimentalized sedimentary basins.

  1. Seasonal thermal fronts on the northern South China Sea shelf: Satellite measurements and three repeated field surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Zhiyou; Qi, Yiquan; Fox-Kemper, Baylor; Du, Yan; Lian, Shumin

    2016-03-01

    Seasonal thermal fronts associated with wind-driven coastal downwelling/upwelling in the northern South China Sea are investigated using satellite measurements and three repeated fine-resolution mapping surveys in winter, spring, and summer. The results show that vigorous thermal fronts develop over the broad shelf with variable widths and intensities in different seasons, which tend to be approximately aligned with the 20-100 m isobaths. Driven by the prevailing winter/summer monsoon, the band-shaped fronts were observed with a magnitude exceeding 0.1°C/km in the subsurface, and accompanied by energetic coastal downwelling/upwelling due to shoreward/offshore Ekman transport. The downward/upward tilting of seasonal thermoclines across the shelf exceeds 20 m, significantly contributing to the development of thermal fronts over the shelf. In addition, the diagnostic analysis of Potential Vorticity (PV) suggests that the summer frontal activities induced by the coastal upwelling are more stable to convection and symmetric instabilities in comparison to the winter fronts associated with downwelling-favorable monsoon forcing. This is primarily due to their essential differences in the upper ocean stratification and horizontal buoyancy gradients arising from wind forcing. At the same time, the coastal currents are substantially regulated by the seasonal winds. An expected lag correlation between the velocity from mooring measurements and alongshore wind stress is detected near the frontal region. These results indicate that seasonal wind forcing plays an important role in the frontal activities and coastal water transport over the shelf.

  2. Spatial and Alignment Analyses for a Field of Small Volcanic Vents South of Pavonis Mons and Implications for the Tharsis Province, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleacher, Jacob E.; Glaze, Lori S.; Greeley, Ronald; Hauber, Ernst; Baloga, Stephen; Sakimoto, Susan E. H.; Williams, David A.; Glotch, Timothy D.

    2009-01-01

    A field of small volcanic vents south of Pavonis Mons was mapped with each vent assigned a two-dimensional data point. Nearest neighbor and two-point azimuth analyses were applied to the resulting location data. Nearest neighbor results show that vents within this field are spatially random in a Poisson sense, suggesting that the vents formed independently of each other without sharing a centralized magma source at shallow depth. Two-point azimuth results show that the vents display north-trending alignment relationships between one another. This trend corresponds to the trends of faults and fractures of the Noachian-aged Claritas Fossae, which might extend into our study area buried beneath more recently emplaced lava flows. However, individual elongate vent summit structures do not consistently display the same trend. The development of the volcanic field appears to display tectonic control from buried Noachian-aged structural patterns on small, ascending magma bodies while the surface orientations of the linear vents might reflect different, younger tectonic patterns. These results suggest a complex interaction between magma ascension through the crust, and multiple, older, buried Tharsis-related tectonic structures.

  3. Consolidation of geologic studies of geopressured-geothermal resources in Texas: Barrier-bar tidal-channel reservoir facies architecture, Jackson Group, Prado Field, South Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Seni, S.J.; Choh, S.J.

    1993-09-01

    Sandstone reservoirs in the Jackson barrier/strandplain play are characterized by low recovery efficiencies and thus contain a large hydrocarbon resource target potentially amenable to advanced recovery techniques. Prado field, Jim Hogg County, South Texas, has produced over 23 million bbl of oil and over 32 million mcf gas from combination structural-stratigraphic traps in the Eocene lower Jackson Group. Hydrocarbon entrapment at Prado field is a result of anticlinal nosing by differential compaction and updip pinch-out of barrier bar sandstone. Relative base-level lowering resulted in forced regression that established lower Jackson shoreline sandstones in a relatively distal location in central Jim Hogg County. Reservoir sand bodies at Prado field comprise complex assemblages of barrier-bar, tidal-inlet fill, back-barrier bar, and shoreface environments. Subsequent progradation built the barrier-bar system seaward 1 to 2 mi. With the barrier-bar system, favorable targets for hydrocarbon reexploration are concentrated in tidal-inlet facies because they possess the greatest degree of depositional heterogeneity.

  4. Seasonal and diurnal variations of atmospheric PAHs and OCPs in a suburban paddy field, South China: Impacts of meteorological parameters and sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Li, Qilu; Wang, Shaorui; Wang, Yujie; Luo, Chunling; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2015-07-01

    The atmospheric contaminations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and DDTs have been extensively monitored for decades, but contaminations in agricultural paddy fields have rarely been reported. We measured the atmospheric PAH, HCH, and DDT constituents during different rice growth stages in a suburban paddy field in South China. Diurnal variations were found in the atmospheric concentrations of PAHs and HCHs, but not for DDTs. Additional nocturnal emissions and meteorological conditions, such as low nocturnal stable atmospheric boundary layers, may be mainly responsible for the higher PAH and HCH levels at night, respectively. Atmospheric concentrations of PAH, HCH, and DDT constituents varied with rice growth stage, but no regular seasonal variation was found, suggesting that rice growth has no significant influence on the atmospheric concentrations of these chemicals. A correlation analysis suggested that meteorological parameters, such as temperature, precipitation, mixing layer height, or wind speed, may directly or indirectly affect the air concentrations of PAHs, HCHs, and DDTs. Source apportionment showed that atmospheric PAHs, HCHs, and DDTs in the paddy field originated from mixed sources, and the contribution of each source varied with time. The isomer ratio of fluoranthene/(fluoranthene + pyrene) may result in an invalid diagnosis of PAHs.

  5. Within and Between Field Dispersal of Diabrotica barberi and D. virgifera virgifera in the South Dakota Areawide Management Site

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dispersal is a means by which organisms search for food, shelter, mates, oviposition sites, etc., and can ultimately result in gene flow among populations. We investigated the within and between field movement of Diabrotica barberi Smith and Lawrence and D. virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: C...

  6. Within and Between Field Movement of Diabrotica barberi and D. virgifera virgifera in the South Dakota Areawide Management Site

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dispersal is a way insects search for food, shelter, mates, oviposition sites, etc., and can ultimately result in gene flow among populations. We investigated the within and between field movement of Diabrotica barberi Smith and Lawrence and D. virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)...

  7. Foliar potassium fertilization improves fruit quality of field-grown muskmelon on calcareous soils in south Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among plant nutrients, potassium (K) has the strongest influence on crop quality parameters that determine consumer preference. However, many soil plant factors often limit adequate soil K uptake to satisfy plant requirements during fruit development stages. The objectives of this multiyear field ...

  8. GROUND BEETLE OCCURRENCE IN ROTATED FIELDS OF BT CORN AND SOYBEAN IN THE SOUTH DAKOTA CORN ROOTWORM AREAWIDE SITE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ground beetles are important generalist predators in agricultural landscapes. During 2000-2001 we placed 2 transects of pitfall traps in each of 4 fields of rotated lepidopteran Bt corn and soybean. Sampling was conducted on a weekly basis and traps remained open for a 2-day period. In 2000, we c...

  9. African, southern Indian and South American cratons were not part of the Rodinia supercontinent: evidence from field relationships and geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kröner, Alfred; Cordani, Umberto

    2003-11-01

    We discuss the question whether the late Mesoproterozoic and early Neoproterozoic rocks of eastern, central and southern Africa, Madagascar, southern India, Sri Lanka and South America have played any role in the formation and dispersal of the supercontinent Rodinia, believed to have existed between about 1000 and 750 Ma ago. First, there is little evidence for the production of significant volumes of ~1.4-1.0 Ga (Kibaran or Grenvillian age) continental crust in the Mozambique belt (MB) of East Africa, except, perhaps, in parts of northern Mozambique. This is also valid for most terranes related to West Gondwana, which are made up of basement rocks older than Mesoproterozoic, reworked in the Brasiliano/Pan-African orogenic cycle. This crust cannot be conclusively related to either magmatic accretion processes on the active margin of Rodinia or continental collision leading to amalgamation of the supercontinent. So far, no 1.4-1.0 Ga rocks have been identified in Madagascar. Secondly, there is no conclusive evidence for a ~1.0 Ga high-grade metamorphic event in the MB, although such metamorphism has been recorded in the presumed continuation of the MB in East Antarctica. In South America, even the Sunsas mobile belt, which is correlated with the Grenville belt of North America, does not include high-grade metamorphic rocks. All terranes with Mesoproterozoic ages seem to have evolved within extensional, aulacogen-type structures, and their compressional deformation, where observed, is normally much younger and is related to amalgamation of Gondwana. This is also valid for the Trans-Saharan and West Congo belts of West Africa. Third, there is also no evidence for post-1000 Ma sedimentary sequences that were deposited on the passive margin(s) of Rodinia. In contrast, the MB of East Africa and Madagascar is characterized by extensive structural reworking and metamorphic overprinting of Archaean rocks, particularly in Tanzania and Madagascar, and these rocks either

  10. The Cretaceous opening of the South Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granot, Roi; Dyment, Jérôme

    2015-03-01

    The separation of South America from Africa during the Cretaceous is poorly understood due to the long period of stable polarity of the geomagnetic field, the Cretaceous Normal Superchron (CNS, lasted between ∼121 and 83.6 Myr ago). We present a new identification of magnetic anomalies located within the southern South Atlantic magnetic quiet zones that have arisen due to past variations in the strength of the dipolar geomagnetic field. Using these anomalies, together with fracture zone locations, we calculate the first set of magnetic anomalies-based finite rotation parameters for South America and Africa during that period. The kinematic solutions are generally consistent with fracture zone traces and magnetic anomalies outside the area used to construct them. The rotations indicate that seafloor spreading rates increased steadily throughout most of the Cretaceous and decreased sharply at around 80 Myr ago. A change in plate motion took place in the middle of the superchron, roughly 100 Myr ago, around the time of the final breakup (i.e., separation of continental-oceanic boundary in the Equatorial Atlantic). Prominent misfit between the calculated synthetic flowlines (older than Anomaly Q1) and the fracture zones straddling the African Plate in the central South Atlantic could only be explained by a combination of seafloor asymmetry and internal dextral motion (<100 km) within South America, west of the Rio Grande fracture zone. This process has lasted until ∼92 Myr ago after which both Africa and South America (south of the equator) behaved rigidly. The clearing of the continental-oceanic boundaries within the Equatorial Atlantic Gateway was probably completed by ∼95 Myr ago. The clearing was followed by a progressive widening and deepening of the passageway, leading to the emergence of north-south flow of intermediate and deep-water which might have triggered the global cooling of bottom water and the end for the Cretaceous greenhouse period.

  11. An Integrated Study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, William C.; Trentham, Robert C.; Widner, Kevin; Wienbrandt, Richard

    1999-06-22

    A project to recover economic amounts of oil from a very mature oil field is being conducted by Laguna Petroleum Corporation of Midland, Texas, with partial funding from a U. S. Department of Energy grant to study shallow carbonate rock reservoirs. The objectives of the project are to use modern engineering methods to optimize oil field management and to use geological and geophysical data to recover untapped potential within the petroleum reservoirs. The integration of data and techniques from these disciplines has yielded results greater than those achievable without their cooperation. The cost of successfully accomplishing these goals is to be low enough for even small independent operators to afford. This article is a report describing accomplishments for the fiscal year 1997-1998.

  12. An integrated study of the Grayburg/San Andres reservoir, Foster and South Cowden fields, Ector County, Texas, Class II

    SciTech Connect

    Trentham, DGS, Robert C.; Robinson, M.S., William C.; Wider, Kevin; Weinbrandt, Ph.D.,PE, Richard

    2000-04-14

    A project to recover economic amounts of oil from a very mature oil field is being conducted by Laguna Petroleum Corporation of Midland, Texas, with partial funding from a U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant to study shallow carbonate rock reservoirs. The objectives of the project are to use modern engineering methods to optimize oil field management and to use geological and geophysical data to recover untapped potential within the petroleum reservoirs. The integration of data and techniques from these disciplines has yielded results greater than those achievable without their cooperation. The cost of successfully accomplishing these goals is to be low enough for even small independent operators to afford. This article is a report describing accomplishments for the fiscal year 1998-1999.

  13. Spectroscopy of olivine basalts using FieldSpec and ASTER data: A case study from Wadi Natash volcanic field, south Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madani, Ahmed

    2015-10-01

    This paper aims at revealing the spectral characteristics of the olivine basalts exposed at Wadi Natash area, Egypt, using FieldSpec spectroradiometer. It also evaluates band ratios and fusion techniques for mapping purposes using ASTER data. Several volcanic episodes occurred during Early- to Late-Cretaceous are recorded in the study area. Early-Cretaceous olivine basalts are highly carbonated. Late-Cretaceous eruptions took place throughout several volcanic cones aligned in NW direction. Based on FieldSpec measurements and petrographic data, two groups of olivine basalt namely `A' and `B' are recognized. Fresh olivine basalt (group A) is characterized by low flat spectral profile with overall low reflectance values (˜20%). Spectral profile of altered olivine basalt (group B) shows moderate reflectance values (˜37%) with four little absorption features around the 1.10, 1.40, 2.00 and 2.35 μm wavelength regions. These absorption features are attributed mainly to the presence of chlorite and carbonate alteration products as indicated by petrographic examination. ASTER false colour composite band ratio image (3/2:R, 8/1:G and 8/5:B) discriminates easily the fresh and altered basalts by deep blue and reddish blue colours respectively. Image fusion between previously mentioned FCC ratios image and high spatial resolution ASTER panchromatic image are carried out using brovey and HSV transformation methods. Visual and statistical assessment methods proved that HSV fusion image yields better image interpretability results compared to brovey image. It improves the spatial resolution of original FCC ratios image with acceptable spectral preservation. The present study proved the usefulness of FieldSpec spectral profiles and the processed ASTER data for discriminating different olivine basalt groups exposed at the study area.

  14. Effect of plant spacing on the population of mosquito immatures in rice fields in Madurai, south India.

    PubMed

    Victor, T J; Reuben, R

    2000-01-01

    A study was conducted during 'Kuruvai' crop season from December 1992 to January 1993 in the rice fields of the Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai, Tamil Nadu to determine the influence of plant spacing and plant canopy on the populations of mosquito immatures. Three paddy varieties (ADT36, IR50 and IR20) were selected with two types of plant spacing, one with normal spacing (15 x 10 cm) and another wider (20 x 15 cm) than the normal spacing. Results showed that the field planted with normal spacing of paddy had significantly higher populations of culicine and anopheline immatures than the fields planted with wider spacing of paddy. The paddy varieties did not have any significant effect on the population of mosquito immatures. Light intensity, measured at the water surface using an illuminometer, was inversely related to the development of plant canopy and the results suggested that plant canopy does not inhibit oviposition by mosquitoes in the early stages of paddy growth, but it was responsible for the decline in the populations in the later stages of paddy growth. The plant spacing had a significant effect on the populations of chironomids and libellulids and other insects were not affected significantly. PMID:11820078

  15. CO2 geological storage into a lateral aquifer of an offshore gas field in the South China Sea: storage safety and project design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liang; Li, Dexiang; Ezekiel, Justin; Zhang, Weidong; Mi, Honggang; Ren, Shaoran

    2015-06-01

    The DF1-1 gas field, located in the western South China Sea, contains a high concentration of CO2, thus there is great concern about the need to reduce the CO2 emissions. Many options have been considered in recent years to dispose of the CO2 separated from the natural gas stream on the Hainan Island. In this study, the feasibility of CO2 storage in the lateral saline aquifer of the DF1-1 gas field is assessed, including aquifer selection and geological assessment, CO2 migration and storage safety, project design, and economic analysis. Six offshore aquifers have been investigated for CO2 geological storage. The lateral aquifer of the DF1-1 gas field has been selected as the best target for CO2 injection and storage because of its proven sealing ability, and the large storage capacity of the combined aquifer and hydrocarbon reservoir geological structure. The separated CO2 will be dehydrated on the Hainan Island and transported by a long-distance subsea pipeline in supercritical or liquid state to the central platform of the DF1-1 gas field for pressure adjustment. The CO2 will then be injected into the lateral aquifer via a subsea well-head through a horizontal well. Reservoir simulations suggest that the injected CO2 will migrate slowly upwards in the aquifer without disturbing the natural gas production. The scoping economic analysis shows that the unit storage cost of the project is approximately US26-31/ton CO2 with the subsea pipeline as the main contributor to capital expenditure (CAPEX), and the dehydration system as the main factor of operating expenditure (OPEX).

  16. Near-Field Deformation Associated with the South Napa Earthquake (M 6.0) Using Differential Airborne LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudnut, K. W.; Glennie, C. L.; Brooks, B. A.; Hauser, D. L.; Ericksen, T.; Boatwright, J.; Rosinski, A.; Dawson, T. E.; Mccrink, T. P.; Mardock, D. K.; Hoirup, D. F., Jr.; Bray, J.

    2014-12-01

    Pre-earthquake airborne LiDAR coverage exists for the area impacted by the M 6.0 South Napa earthquake. The Napa watershed data set was acquired in 2003, and data sets were acquired in other portions of the impacted area in 2007, 2010 and 2014. The pre-earthquake data are being assessed and are of variable quality and point density. Following the earthquake, a coalition was formed to enable rapid acquisition of post-earthquake LiDAR. Coordination of this coalition took place through the California Earthquake Clearinghouse; consequently, a commercial contract was organized by Department of Water Resources that allowed for the main fault rupture and damaged Browns Valley area to be covered 16 days after the earthquake at a density of 20 points per square meter over a 20 square kilometer area. Along with the airborne LiDAR, aerial imagery was acquired and will be processed to form an orthomosaic using the LiDAR-derived DEM. The 'Phase I' airborne data were acquired using an Optech Orion M300 scanner, an Applanix 200 GPS-IMU, and a DiMac ultralight medium format camera by Towill. These new data, once delivered, will be differenced against the pre-earthquake data sets using a newly developed algorithm for point cloud matching, which is improved over prior methods by accounting for scan geometry error sources. Proposed additional 'Phase II' coverage would allow repeat-pass, post-earthquake coverage of the same area of interest as in Phase I, as well as an addition of up to 4,150 square kilometers that would potentially allow for differential LiDAR assessment of levee and bridge impacts at a greater distance from the earthquake source. Levee damage was reported up to 30 km away from the epicenter, and proposed LiDAR coverage would extend up to 50 km away and cover important critical lifeline infrastructure in the western Sacramento River delta, as well as providing full post-earthquake repeat-pass coverage of the Napa watershed to study transient deformation.

  17. Development of a regional ocean color algorithm using field- and satellite-derived datasets: Long Bay, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Kimberly Susan

    Coastal and inland waters represent a diverse set of resources that support natural habitat and provide numerous ecosystem services to the human population. Conventional techniques to monitor water quality using in situ sensors and laboratory analysis of water samples can be very time- and cost-intensive. Alternatively, remote sensing techniques offer better spatial coverage and temporal resolution to accurately characterize the dynamic and unique water quality parameters. However, bio and geo-optical models are required that relate the remotely sensed spectral data with color producing agents (CPAs) that define the water quality. These CPAs include chlorophyll-a, suspended sediments, and colored-dissolved organic matter. Developing these models may be challenging for coastal environments such as Long Bay, South Carolina, due to the presence of multiple optically interfering CPAs. In this work, a regionally tiered ocean color model was developed using band ratio techniques to specifically predict the variability of chlorophyll-a concentrations in the turbid Long Bay waters. This model produced higher accuracy results (r-squared = 0.62; RMSE = 0.87 micrograms per liter) compared to the existing models, which gave a highest r-squared value of 0.58 and RMSE = 0.99 micrograms per liter. To further enhance the retrievals of chlorophyll-a in these optically complex waters, a novel multivariate-based approach was developed using current generation hyperspectral data. This approach uses a partial least-squares regression model to identify wavelengths that are more sensitive to chlorophyll-a relative to other associated CPAs. This model was able to explain 80% of the observed chlorophyll-a variability in Long Bay with RMSE = 2.03 micrograms per liter. This approach capitalizes on the spectral advantage gained from hyperspectral sensors, thus providing a more robust predicting model. This enhanced mode of water quality monitoring in marine environments will provide insight

  18. Monitoring the geothermal fluid using time lapse electrical resistivity tomography: The Pisciarelli fumarolic field test site (Campi Flegrei, South Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedele, Alessandro; Giulia Di Giuseppe, Maria; Troiano, Antonio; Somma, Reanto; Caputo, Teresa; Patella, Domenico; Troise, Claudia; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    Pisciarelli area is a fumarolic field subject to very short time morphological changes. A number of critical problems affect this area, i.e. increase of temperature of the fumaroles above the average background temperature, local seismicity and occurrence of fumaroles mixed with jets of boiling water. The presence of a very shallow aquifer seem to have the control on the behavior and composition of the fumaroles. This fumarolic field is still largely unknown regarding geophysical surveys mainly because of its limited space, surrounded on the eastern side by intense urbanization inside the large Agnano crater (Troiano et al. 2014). Currently is mainly affected by geochemical, thermal and seismic monitoring which may not fully explain the behaviour of fluids surface. Many monitoring or time lapse (TL) applications are discussed in literature (e.g., White, 1994; Daily et al., 1995; Barker and Moore, 1998; Ramirez and Daily, 2001; Carter, 2002; Slater et al., 2002; Singha and Gorelick, 2005; Cassiani et al., 2006; Swarzenski et al., 2006; de Franco et al., 2009). However all these experiments are devoted to the use of the ERT for tracer tests or in contaminant hydrology and are characterized by a short monitoring period due to the complexity and problems of long-time instrument maintenance. We propose and present a first approach of a geophysical monitoring by time lapse electrical resistivity in a fumarolic field. The profiles were acquired in January 2013, in January, March, May, July, September and November 2014 respectively. They cross the Pisciarelli area following approximately the NS direction and were characterized by a 2.5 m electrode spacing and maximum penetration depth of about 20 m. and will supply fundamental evidences on the possible seasonal resistivity fluctuations or if the resistivity changes are indicative of an increase in volcanic gases present in the hydrothermal system.

  19. South-to-North, cross-disciplinary training in global health practice: ten years of lessons learned from an infectious disease field course in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Scarlett, Henroy P; Nisbett, Richard A; Stoler, Justin; Bain, Brendan C; Bhatta, Madhav P; Castle, Trevor; Harbertson, Judith; Brodine, Stephanie K; Vermund, Sten H

    2011-09-01

    Global commerce, travel, and emerging and resurging infectious diseases have increased awareness of global health threats and opportunities for collaborative and service learning. We review course materials, knowledge archives, data management archives, and student evaluations for the first 10 years of an intensive summer field course in infectious disease epidemiology and surveillance offered in Jamaica. We have trained 300 students from 28 countries through collaboration between the University of the West Indies and U.S. partner universities. Participants were primarily graduate students in public health, but also included health professionals with terminal degrees, and public health nurses and inspectors. Strong institutional synergies, committed faculty, an emphasis on scientific and cultural competencies, and use of team-based field research projects culminate in a unique training environment that provides participants with career-developing experiences. We share lessons learned over the past decade, and conclude that South-to-North leadership is critical in shaping transdisciplinary, cross-cultural, global health practice. PMID:21896794

  20. The influence of tillage on field scale water fluxes and maize yields in semi-arid environments: A case study of Potshini catchment, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosgei, J. R.; Jewitt, G. P. W.; Kongo, V. M.; Lorentz, S. A.

    Water is a limiting resource to crop production in arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs) and is responsible for substantial yield losses annually. These lands are often occupied by resource poor smallholder rainfed farmers who have little capacity to establish conventional irrigation infrastructure to mitigate recurrent droughts and dry spells. In situ water harvesting techniques in the form of conservation agriculture practices have been identified and promoted as measures that can improve soil water availability and thus enhance crop yields. Land use practices e.g. tillage influences mechanisms of lateral flow, infiltration, storage, redistribution and residence times of water at field scale. Such alterations in flow paths have not been adequately studied in ASALs where small perturbations at field scale upstream of a catchment may have significant effects downstream. Quantifying these fluxes enables better understanding of productive and non-productive water transition processes and thus to evaluate cropping and management systems. On this study the effects of tillage on water fluxes, soil physical properties and maize ( Zea mays L.) yields were examined at three sites in the Potshini catchment, South Africa. Measurements were made on plots under no-till ( NT) and conventional till ( CT) practices. Seasonal analysis indicated that nearly twice as much runoff was generated from CT treatments when compared to NT plots. However, this was not the case at the beginning of the season. The moisture content in the root zone was significantly higher in NT treatments. Maize yield was also higher in NT compared to CT plots.

  1. THE FIRST PUBLIC RELEASE OF SOUTH POLE TELESCOPE DATA: MAPS OF A 95 deg{sup 2} FIELD FROM 2008 OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Schaffer, K. K.; Crawford, T. M.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crites, A. T.; Hoover, S.; Keisler, R.; Aird, K. A.; Hrubes, J. D.; Cho, H. M.; De Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Holder, G. P.; George, E. M.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Halverson, N. W.; Joy, M.; Knox, L.; and others

    2011-12-10

    The South Pole Telescope (SPT) has nearly completed a 2500 deg{sup 2} survey of the southern sky in three frequency bands. Here, we present the first public release of SPT maps and associated data products. We present arcminute-resolution maps at 150 GHz and 220 GHz of an approximately 95 deg{sup 2} field centered at R.A. 82.{sup 0}7, decl. -55 Degree-Sign . The field was observed to a depth of approximately 17 {mu}K arcmin at 150 GHz and 41 {mu}K arcmin at 220 GHz during the 2008 austral winter season. Two variations on map filtering and map projection are presented, one tailored for producing catalogs of galaxy clusters detected through their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect signature and one tailored for producing catalogs of emissive sources. We describe the data processing pipeline, and we present instrument response functions, filter transfer functions, and map noise properties. All data products described in this paper are available for download at http://pole.uchicago.edu/public/data/maps/ra5h30dec-55 and from the NASA Legacy Archive for Microwave Background Data Analysis server. This is the first step in the eventual release of data from the full 2500 deg{sup 2} SPT survey.

  2. Investigating the Clustering and Color of Galaxies in the COMBO-17 Chandra Deep Field South Survey and Possible Effects on Spiral Arm Pitch Angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Benjamin L.; Berlanga Medina, J. E.; Shields, D. W.; Kennefick, J.; Kennefick, D.; Berrier, J.; Seigar, M. S.; Lacy, C. H. S.; AGES

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies by the Arkansas Galaxy Evolution Survey (AGES) collaboration have shown that there is a strong correlation between the pitch angles of field spiral galaxies and the mass of the galaxy's supermassive black holes (SMBHs). For this reason, we are interested in the consistency of measures of average pitch angle across galaxies in different environments. Since galaxies in clusters are more susceptible to galaxy harassment and other effects, we are particularly interested in whether environmental pressures in clusters may have an effect on pitch angle. We have measured the pitch angles of 125 galaxies lying in the Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS). Upon cross-referencing this set with the larger COMBO-17 Survey, we identified several over-dense regions which have been identified as possible clusters in recent literature. Initial results show that when comparing the pitch angle of galaxies in and out of over-dense regions, there seems to be little to no difference on average, suggesting environmental effect of clusters on pitch angle may be limited. Additionally, there appears to be no appreciable difference between the pitch angles of red and blue galaxies at this point in our study. We also plan to look for evidence of variation of pitch angle with cluster age. This work is funded in part by a grant from NASA EPSCoR.

  3. NO EVIDENCE FOR EVOLUTION IN THE FAR-INFRARED-RADIO CORRELATION OUT TO z {approx} 2 IN THE EXTENDED CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Minnie Y.; Huynh, Minh T.; Helou, George; Norris, Ray P.; Dickinson, Mark; Frayer, Dave; Monkiewicz, Jacqueline A.

    2011-04-20

    We investigate the 70 {mu}m far-infrared-radio correlation (FRC) of star-forming galaxies in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS) out to z > 2. We use 70 {mu}m data from the Far-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (FIDEL), which comprises the most sensitive ({approx}0.8 mJy rms) and extensive far-infrared deep field observations using MIPS on the Spitzer Space Telescope, and 1.4 GHz radio data ({approx}8 {mu}Jy beam{sup -1} rms) from the Very Large Array. In order to quantify the evolution of the FRC, we use both survival analysis and stacking techniques, which we find give similar results. We also calculate the FRC using total infrared luminosity and rest-frame radio luminosity, q{sub TIR}, and find that q{sub TIR} is constant (within 0.22) over the redshift range 0-2. We see no evidence for evolution in the FRC at 70 {mu}m, which is surprising given the many factors that are expected to change this ratio at high redshifts.

  4. Field-testing of guidance on the appropriate labelling of processed complementary foods for infants and young children in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sweet, Lara; Jerling, Johann; Van Graan, Averalda

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of formal guidance from international normative bodies on the appropriate marketing of processed complementary foods. Such guidance is necessary to protect and promote optimal infant and young child feeding practices. The aim of this study was to field-test, in South Africa, the interim guidance provided by the Maternal, Infant and Young Child Nutrition Working Group's Draft Guide for Marketing Complementary Foods as a potential tool for use by manufacturers and national governments for guiding the appropriate labelling (as a subset of appropriate marketing practices) of complementary foods. This guidance was used to develop a checklist of questions and criteria for each possible answer, which was tested using a comprehensive database of labels from products purchased in South Africa from June to August 2011. One hundred and sixty product labels of 35 manufacturers were analysed, none of which complied with all checklist criteria. Fifty-six (35%) labels did not provide an appropriate age of introduction while 37 (23%) used images of infants appearing younger than 6 months. Nineteen (12%) labels suggested a daily ration too large for a breastfed child, and 32 (20%) potentially promote the manufacturer's infant formula. Only 58 (36%) labels were easy to read. The majority (69% and 92%) of labels provided instructions for safe and appropriate preparation/use and storage, respectively. The Draft Guide for Marketing Complementary Foods was found to be a useful tool for guiding the appropriate labelling of complementary foods, although some changes and additions are recommended to improve understanding, ease of use and to minimise the subjective interpretation of the guidance. PMID:23167582

  5. 50 CFR 622.243 - Gear identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Golden Crab Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.243 Gear identification. (a) Golden crab traps and associated buoys—(1) Golden crab traps. A golden crab trap used or possessed in the South Atlantic EEZ or on...

  6. 50 CFR 622.243 - Gear identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Golden Crab Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.243 Gear identification. (a) Golden crab traps and associated buoys—(1) Golden crab traps. A golden crab trap used or possessed in the South Atlantic EEZ or on...

  7. 50 CFR 622.376 - Gear identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Coastal Migratory Pelagic Resources (Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic) § 622.376 Gear identification. (a) Spanish... mackerel in, or that possesses Spanish mackerel in or from, the South Atlantic EEZ off Florida north of...

  8. 50 CFR 622.376 - Gear identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Coastal Migratory Pelagic Resources (Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic) § 622.376 Gear identification. (a) Spanish... mackerel in, or that possesses Spanish mackerel in or from, the South Atlantic EEZ off Florida north of...

  9. 50 CFR 622.177 - Gear identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.177 Gear identification. (a) Sea bass pots and associated buoys—(1) Sea bass pots. A sea bass pot used or possessed in the South Atlantic EEZ between...

  10. 50 CFR 622.177 - Gear identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.177 Gear identification. (a) Sea bass pots and associated buoys—(1) Sea bass pots. A sea bass pot used or possessed in the South Atlantic EEZ between...

  11. Special Education in South Korea: Daegu University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Byung Ha; Rhee, Kun Yong; Burns, Carol; Lerner, Janet W.

    2009-01-01

    Daegu University has enjoyed a long and remarkable history of special education. Daegu University is large University located in Daegu, South Korea, a large city in South Korea that is south of Seoul. Since the 1970's, South Korea has achieved unusual and comprehensive growth in its economy, and the field of special education continued to thrive…

  12. Maps showing coal-split boundaries, isopachs of coal splits, coal resources, and coal quality; Mammoth coal bed, Paleocene Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation, Bull Mountain coal field, south-central Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Connor, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    A U.S. Geological Survey Maps are presented showing coal-split boundaries, isopachs of coal splits, coal resources, and coal quality; mammoth coal bed, Paleocene Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation, Bull Mountain coal field, south-central Montana.

  13. Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey -- GOODS-South Field, Non-SNe-Searched Visits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, Sandra

    2011-10-01

    The Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey {CANDELS}is designed to document the ?rst third of galactic evolution from z =8 to 1.5 via deep imaging of more than 250,000 galaxies with WFC3/IRand ACS. It will also find the first Type Ia SNe beyond z > 1.5 andestablish their accuracy as standard candles for cosmology. Fivepremier multi-wavelength sky regions selected from the SpitzerExtragalactic Deep Survey {SEDS} provide complementary IRAC imagingdata down to 26.5 AB mag, a unique resource for stellar masses at allredshifts. The use of ?ve widely separated ?elds mitigates cosmicvariance and yields statistically robust and complete samples ofgalaxies down to 10^9 solar masses out to z 8.The program merges two originally separate MCT proposals. The Faberprogram incorporates a ?Wide? imaging survey in three separate fieldsto 2 orbit depth over 0.2 sq. degrees, plus a ?Deep? imaging surveyto 12 orbit depth in the two GOODS regions over 0.04 sq. degrees.When combined with ultra-deep imaging from the Hubble Ultradeep Fieldprogram {GO 11563}, the result is a three-tiered strategy that ef?cientlysamples both bright/rare and faint/common extragalactic objects. TheFerguson program adds an extensive high-redshift Type Ia SNe search,plus ultraviolet "daytime" UVIS exposures in GOODS-N to exploit theCVZ opportunity in that field.This program, GO 12064, is part of the Wide mosaic survey, which has thefollowing field centers and sizes: Field ID RA{2000} Dec{2000} WFC3 Dim. PA on sky UDS 02 17 38 -05 12 02 4x11 270 COSMOS 10 00 31 +02 24 00 4x11 180 EGS 14 19 31 +52 54 10 3x15 41 Science highlights from the Wide program: * Underlying structural properties of galaxies as revealed by WFC3-IR images sensitive to older stars {beyond the 4000-A break} and less affected by dust than ACS. A key redshift is z 2, where star-formation peaks, QSOs are most abundant, and where restframe B-band is still accessible to WFC3. Sample questions include: - Structure in young vs. old

  14. Optimization of a steam-assisted gravity drainage project in the Monarch sands of the south Midway-Sunset field

    SciTech Connect

    Chona, R.A.; Hazlett, W.G.; Rajtar, J.M.

    1996-02-01

    This report presents several scenarios for oil recovery optimization of Berry Petroleum Company`s properties in the Midway-Sunset field in Kern County, California. The primary goal was to evaluate reservoir performance with a number of vertical wells recompleted in the lower half of the existing oil bank and with a number of horizontal infill wells. Case comparisons and recommendations are based solely on oil production rates and cumulative oil production obtained from the simulations; no economic analyses were performed as part of this study. The results indicate that recompleting two thirds of the vertical wells in the lower half of the existing oil bank will give the most improvement in oil recovery. The models also show that accelerated oil recovery will be obtained from the horizontal well scenario (Case h3), with initial oil rates higher than the vertical well recompletion scenario (Case 3). However, in the long term (11 year period), the cumulative oil production of the horizontal well will fall below that of the vertical well recompletion scheme (Case h3 vs. Case 3). Additionally, a combination of horizontal wells with recompletion of 1/3 of the vertical wells will give a significant improvement in oil recovery (Case h8). We recommend that further studies focus on optimizing the amount of steam injected in horizontal wells, frequency and length of the steam-injection and steam-soak periods, optimal horizontal well spacing, and ideal location of horizontal well in the oil bank. This study used Western Atlas` VIP-THERM numerical simulator to generate the history match and all of the alternative strategies presented in this report. The results presented in this report are based on information and field data provided by Berry Petroleum Company.

  15. Development of a New Crack Identification Technique Based on Near-Tip Singular Electrothermal Field Measured by Lock-in Infrared Thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakagami, Takahide; Kubo, Shiro

    A new thermographic NDT technique was proposed, in which singular electrothermal field near crack tips under the application of periodically modulated electric current was measured using an infrared thermography combined with lock-in data processing technique. Experimental investigations were made on the resolution and the applicability in the identification of through-thickness artificial cracks and fatigue cracks embedded in steel and aluminum alloy plate samples. Modulated electric current was applied to the cracked sample by an induction coli. Lock-in thermal images synchronized to the reference current modulation signal were taken by the lock-in thermography. Significant singular electrothermal field was observed at the crack tip in the lock-in thermal image. The fatigue cracks as well as artificial cracks were found to be sensitively identified by the proposed technique in good resolution compared with the singular method using a conventional thermographic temperature measurement.

  16. ArcGIS studies and field relationships of Paleoproterozoic mafic dyke swarms from the south of Devarakonda area, Eastern Dharwar Craton, southern India: Implications for their relative ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samal, Amiya K.; Srivastava, Rajesh K.; Sinha, Lokesh K.

    2015-07-01

    Google Earth Image and cross-cutting field relationships of distinct Paleoproterozoic mafic dykes from south of Devarakonda area in the Eastern Dharwar Craton has been studied to establish relative emplacement ages. The Devarakonda, covering an area of ˜700 km2, shows spectacular cross-cutting field relationships between different generations of mafic dykes, and is therefore selected for the present study. Although some recent radiometric age data are available for distinct Paleoproterozoic mafic dykes from the Eastern Dharwar Craton, there is no analogous age data available for the study area. Therefore, relative age relationships of distinct mafic dykes have been established for the study area using cross-cutting field relationships and GIS techniques, which shows slightly different picture than other parts of the Eastern Dharwar Craton. It is suggested that NE-SW trending mafic dykes are youngest in age (probably belong to ˜1.89 Ga dyke swarm), whereas NNW-SSE trending mafic dykes have oldest emplacement age. Further, the NNW-SSE mafic dykes are older to the other two identified mafic dyke swarms, i.e., WNW-ESE (˜2.18 Ga) and N-S trending (˜2.21 Ga) mafic dyke swarms, as dykes of these two swarms cross-cut a NNW-SSE dyke. It provides an evidence for existence of a new set of mafic dykes that is older to the ˜2.21 Ga and probably younger to the ˜2.37 Ga swarm. Present study also supports existence of two mafic dyke swarms having similar trend (ENE-WSW to NE-SW) but emplaced in two different ages (one is ˜2.37 Ga and other ˜1.89 Ga).

  17. An integrated study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas. Annual report, August 1, 1996--July 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Trentham, R.C.; Weinbrandt, R.; Robinson, W.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this two-phase study is to demonstrate an integrated methodology for reservoir characterization of shallow shelf carbonate reservoir that is feasible, and cost effective for the independent operator. Furthermore, it will provide one of the first public demonstrations of the enhancement of reservoir characterization using high-resolution three dimensional (3D) seismic data. This particular project is evaluating the Grayburg and San Andres reservoirs in the Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas. This 68 year old field was approaching its economic limit and the leases evaluated would have been abandoned in 10 years. A multidisciplinary approach to waterflood design and implementation, along with the addition of reserves by selective infill drilling and deepening, is being applied to this field. This approach in reservoir development will be applicable to a wide range of shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs throughout the US. The first phase of the project included the design, acquisition, and interpretation of the 3D seismic survey, the collection and evaluation of geologic (core and log) data, and engineering (historical production, well test, injection) data from a variety of sources. From this work, a geologically based production history model was simulated. Based on the recommendations made at the end of Phase One, three new wells were drilled, one existing well was deepened, two wells were worked over, one TA`d well was re-entered, and one well was converted to injection. In addition, the quality of the injection water was greatly improved, a step necessary prior to increasing injection in the project area. The realignment of the waterflood and all additional well work await the completion of the seismic based history match and engineering simulation.

  18. A diagnosis of sub-surface water table dynamics in low hydraulic conductivity soils in the sugar cane fields of Pongola, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malota, Mphatso; Senzanje, Aidan

    2016-04-01

    Water and land are the two natural resources restraining crop production in South Africa. With the increasing demand for food, emphasis has shifted from the sole reliance on rain fed crop production, to irrigation. The deterioration in irrigation water quality from surface water sources is, however, posing a big challenge to the sustainability of irrigated crop production. This is because more water is required for leaching, resulting in shallow water tables in agricultural lands. The installation of well designed subsurface drainage systems alone is not enough; the provision of timely maintenance is also necessary. In this study, the extent and severity of problems as a consequence of shallow water tables and their possible causes were investigated at three sugarcane fields in Pongola, South Africa, having low hydraulic conductivity soils. Also investigated were soil salinity levels and the temporal variation in the salinity of the irrigation water. A water table map of a 32 ha sugarcane field was generated, using observed water table depth (WTD) data from 36 piezometers monitored from September 2011 to February 2012. Out of the total 32 ha under cultivation, 12% was found to be affected by shallow WTDs of less than the 1.0 m design WTD. The inability of natural drainage to cope with subsurface drainage needs and the poor maintenance of subsurface drainage systems contributed to the shallow water tables in the area. Furthermore, the currently adopted drainage design criteria also proved unsatisfactory with mean observed water table depth and drainage discharge (DD) of 20% and 50%, respectively, less than their respective design levels. The salinity of the irrigation water was, on average, 32% higher than threshold tolerance level of sugarcane. The root zone soil salinity levels at the three study sites were greater than the 1.7 dS m-1 threshold for sugar cane. The subsurface drainage design criteria adopted at the site needs to be revisited by ensuring that the

  19. REVEALING A POPULATION OF HEAVILY OBSCURED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AT z {approx} 0.5-1 IN THE CHANDRA DEEP FIELD-SOUTH

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Xue, Y. Q.; Schneider, D. P.; Alexander, D. M.; Brusa, M.; Bauer, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Fabian, A. C.; Lehmer, B. D.; Rafferty, D. A.; Vignali, C.

    2011-10-10

    Heavily obscured (N{sub H} {approx}> 3 x 10{sup 23} cm{sup -2}) active galactic nuclei (AGNs) not detected even in the deepest X-ray surveys are often considered to be comparably numerous to the unobscured and moderately obscured AGNs. Such sources are required to fit the cosmic X-ray background (XRB) emission in the 10-30 keV band. We identify a numerically significant population of heavily obscured AGNs at z {approx} 0.5-1 in the Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) and Extended Chandra Deep Field-South by selecting 242 X-ray undetected objects with infrared-based star-formation rates (SFRs) substantially higher (a factor of 3.2 or more) than their SFRs determined from the UV after correcting for dust extinction. An X-ray stacking analysis of 23 candidates in the central CDF-S region using the 4 Ms Chandra data reveals a hard X-ray signal with an effective power-law photon index of {Gamma} = 0.6{sup +0.3}{sub -0.4}, indicating a significant contribution from obscured AGNs. Based on Monte Carlo simulations, we conclude that 74% {+-} 25% of the selected galaxies host obscured AGNs, within which {approx}95% are heavily obscured and {approx}80% are Compton-thick (CT; N{sub H} > 1.5 x 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2}). The heavily obscured objects in our sample are of moderate intrinsic X-ray luminosity ({approx}(0.9-4) x 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1} in the 2-10 keV band). The space density of the CT AGNs is (1.6 {+-} 0.5) x 10{sup -4} Mpc{sup -3}. The z {approx} 0.5-1 CT objects studied here are expected to contribute {approx}1% of the total XRB flux in the 10-30 keV band, and they account for {approx}5%-15% of the emission in this energy band expected from all CT AGNs according to population-synthesis models. In the 6-8 keV band, the stacked signal of the 23 heavily obscured candidates accounts for <5% of the unresolved XRB flux, while the unresolved {approx}25% of the XRB in this band can probably be explained by a stacking analysis of the X-ray undetected optical galaxies in the CDF

  20. A multi-wavelength study of z = 3.15 Lyman-α emitters in the GOODS South Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, K. K.; Møller, P.; Möller, O.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Michałowski, M. J.; Watson, D.; Ledoux, C.; Rosati, P.; Pedersen, K.; Grove, L. F.

    2007-08-01

    Context: Lyα-emitters have proven to be excellent probes of faint, star-forming galaxies in the high redshift universe. However, although the sample of known emitters is increasingly growing, their nature (e.g. stellar masses, ages, metallicities, star-formation rates) is still poorly constrained. Aims: We aim to study the nature of Lyα-emitters, to find the properties of a typical Lyα-emitting galaxy and to compare these properties with the properties of other galaxies at similar redshift, in particular Lyman-break galaxies. Methods: We have performed narrow-band imaging at the VLT, focused on Lyα at redshift z ≈ 3.15, in the GOODS-S field. We have identified a sample of Lyα-emitting candidates, and we have studied their Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs). Results: We find that the emitters are best fit by an SED with low metallicity (Z/Z⊙ = 0.005), low dust extinction (AV ≈ 0.26) and medium stellar masses of approximately 109 M⊙. The age is not very well constrained. One object out of 24 appears to be a high redshift Lyα-emitting dusty starburst galaxy. We find filamentary structure as traced by the Lyα-emitters at the 4σ level. The rest-frame UV SED of these galaxies is very similar to that of Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) and comply with the selection criteria for U-band drop-outs, except they are intrinsically fainter than the current limit for LBGs. Conclusions: Lyα-emitters are excellent probes of galaxies in the distant universe, and represent a class of star-forming, dust and AGN free, medium mass objects. Based on observations carried out at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) under prog. ID No. 70.A-0447, 274.A-5029 and LP168.A-0485.

  1. The GOODS-MUSIC sample: a multicolour catalog of near-IR selected galaxies in the GOODS-South field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grazian, A.; Fontana, A.; de Santis, C.; Nonino, M.; Salimbeni, S.; Giallongo, E.; Cristiani, S.; Gallozzi, S.; Vanzella, E.

    2006-04-01

    Aims. We present a high quality multiwavelength (from 0.3 to 8.0 μm) catalog of the large and deep area in the GOODS Southern Field covered by the deep near-IR observations obtained with the ESO VLT. Methods. The catalog is entirely based on public data: in our analysis, we have included the F435W, F606W, F775W and F850LP ACS images, the JHKs VLT data, the Spitzer data provided by IRAC instrument (3.6, 4.5, 5.8 and 8.0 μm), and publicly available U-band data from the 2.2ESO and VLT-VIMOS. We describe in detail the procedures adopted to obtain this multiwavelength catalog. In particular, we developed a specific software for the accurate "PSF-matching" of space and ground-based images of different resolution and depth (ConvPhot), of which we analyse performances and limitations. We have included both z-selected, as well as Ks-selected objects, yielding a unique, self-consistent catalog. The largest fraction of the sample is 90% complete at z≃ 26 or Ks≃ 23.8 (AB scale). Finally, we cross-correlated our data with all the spectroscopic catalogs available to date, assigning a spectroscopic redshift to more than 1000 sources. Results. The final catalog is made up of 14 847 objects, at least 72 of which are known stars, 68 are AGNs, and 928 galaxies with spectroscopic redshift (668 galaxies with reliable redshift determination). We applied our photometric redshift code to this data set, and the comparison with the spectroscopic sample shows that the quality of the resulting photometric redshifts is excellent, with an average scatter of only 0.06. The full catalog, which we named GOODS-MUSIC (MUltiwavelength Southern Infrared Catalog), including the spectroscopic information, is made publicly available, together with the software specifically designed to this end.

  2. Modeling Hurricane Katrina's merchantable timber and wood damage in south Mississippi using remotely sensed and field-measured data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Curtis Andrew

    Ordinary and weighted least squares multiple linear regression techniques were used to derive 720 models predicting Katrina-induced storm damage in cubic foot volume (outside bark) and green weight tons (outside bark). The large number of models was dictated by the use of three damage classes, three product types, and four forest type model strata. These 36 models were then fit and reported across 10 variable sets and variable set combinations for volume and ton units. Along with large model counts, potential independent variables were created using power transforms and interactions. The basis of these variables was field measured plot data, satellite (Landsat TM and ETM+) imagery, and NOAA HWIND wind data variable types. As part of the modeling process, lone variable types as well as two-type and three-type combinations were examined. By deriving models with these varying inputs, model utility is flexible as all independent variable data are not needed in future applications. The large number of potential variables led to the use of forward, sequential, and exhaustive independent variable selection techniques. After variable selection, weighted least squares techniques were often employed using weights of one over the square root of the pre-storm volume or weight of interest. This was generally successful in improving residual variance homogeneity. Finished model fits, as represented by coefficient of determination (R2), surpassed 0.5 in numerous models with values over 0.6 noted in a few cases. Given these models, an analyst is provided with a toolset to aid in risk assessment and disaster recovery should Katrina-like weather events reoccur.

  3. An integrated study of the Grayburg/San Andres reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, J.J.; Trentham, R.C.; Weinbrandt, R.; Flanders, W.

    1996-02-02

    An enhanced oil recovery project is being proposed in response to the US Department of Energy`s Near Term Class 2 Oil Program for shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs. Productivity problems associated with a shallow shelf carbonate reservoir will be addressed by integrating high resolution 3-D seismic data, reservoir characterization techniques, and 3-D reservoir simulation. The purpose of the study is to yield results which will preserve access to existing well bores by identifying additional reserves. The general approach will be to shoot a 3-D seismic survey designed specifically for imaging the Grayburg/San Andres interval. The data will then be processed and interpreted using state of the art techniques aimed at identifying porosity, permeability barriers and their zones within the reservoir. A technical team will integrate existing geological data with the geophysical results of the seismic survey for detailed reservoir characterization. These results will be used in a 3-D reservoir simulation model to delineate flow units. A field demonstration of infill drilling and water flood development will follow. The authors expect the results of this study to demonstrate a methodology for reservoir characterization which is feasible for the independent operator. Furthermore, it will provide one of the first public demonstrations of the enhancement of reservoir characterization using high resolution 3-D seismic data. Additionally, it will showcase the improvement of water flood development by using an integrated multi-disciplinary approach, and the addition of otherwise unrecovered reserves by selective infill drilling. This report has four sections: summary of preliminary data; plots and maps; well production data; and well data.

  4. Complete Genome Sequences of Five Bluetongue Virus (BTV) Vaccine Strains from a Commercial Live Attenuated Vaccine, a BTV-4 Field Strain from South Africa, and a Reassortant Strain Isolated from Experimentally Vaccinated Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Coetzee, Peter; le Grange, Misha; Venter, Estelle H.

    2016-01-01

    This is a report of the complete genome sequences of plaque-selected isolates of each of the five virus strains included in a South African commercial trivalent bluetongue virus (BTV) attenuated live virus vaccine, a BTV-4 field strain isolated from Rustenburg, South Africa, in 2011, and a bluetongue reassortant (bluetongue virus 4 strain 4/O. aries-tc/ZAF/11/OBP-115) isolated from experimentally vaccinated cattle. Full-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses show that the bluetongue virus 9 strain 9/B. taurus-tc/ZAF/15/Onderstepoort_B02b is a reassortant virus containing segments from both BTV-9 and BTV-8. PMID:27340051

  5. Enrichment and identification of biosurfactant-producing oil field microbiota utilizing electron acceptors other than oxygen and nitrate.

    PubMed

    Kryachko, Yuriy; Semler, Diana; Vogrinetz, John; Lemke, Markus; Links, Matthew G; McCarthy, E Luke; Haug, Brenda; Hemmingsen, Sean M

    2016-08-10

    Microorganisms indigenous to an oil reservoir were grown in media containing either sucrose or proteins in four steel vessels under anoxic conditions at 30°C and 8.3MPa for 30days, to enrich biosurfactant producers. Fermentation of substrate was possible in the protein-containing medium and either fermentation or respiration through reduction of sulfate occurred in the sucrose-containing medium. Growth of microorganisms led to 3.4-5.4-fold surface tension reduction indicating production of biosurfactants in amounts sufficient for enhancement of gas-driven oil recovery. Analysis of sequenced cpn60 amplicons showed that Pseudomonas sp. highly similar to biosurfactant producing P. fluorescens and to Pseudomonas sp. strain TKP predominated, and a bacterium highly similar to biosurfactant producing Bacillus mojavensis was present in vessels. Analysis of 16S rDNA amplicons allowed only genus-level identification of these bacteria. Thus, cpn60-amplicon analysis was a more relevant tool for identification of putative biosurfactant producers than 16S rDNA-amplicon analysis. PMID:27212608

  6. Statistical characteristics of nighttime mid-latitude F-region field-aligned irregularities observed by Daejeon VHF coherent scattering radar in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, T. Y.; Kwak, Y. S.; Kil, H.; Lee, Y.; Lee, W. K.; Park, Y. D.

    2014-12-01

    We report statistical characteristics of mid-latitude nighttime F-region field-aligned irregularities (FAIs) based on more than three-year observations by Daejeon VHF coherent backscatter radar. This radar has built at Daejeon (36.18°N, 127.14°E, dip lat. 26.7°N) in 2009 with 40.8 MHz operating frequency for continuous monitoring of the behavior of electron density irregularities in the middle latitude. By using long-term observations from January 2010 to December 2013, we obtained the annual, diurnal and seasonal characteristics of a variety of a percentage occurrence, signal-to-noise ratio, and Doppler velocities from the nighttime F-region irregularities over Korea peninsular. From almost four-year observations, the F-region nighttime irregularities occurred most frequently during post-sunset period. These nighttime irregularities usually appeared with occupying different height levels according to local time. This height variation of F-region FAIs was correlated with hmf2 of ionosonde in Icheon, South Korea. The irregularities were least active near the winter solstice and most active near summer solstice. From the annual occurrence variations, F-region nighttime irregularities seem to have tendency with solar activity.

  7. The Taiwan ECDFS Near-Infrared Survey: Ultra-deep J and KS Imaging in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Wang, Wei-Hao; Hsieh, Chih-Chiang; Lin, Lihwai; Yan, Haojing; Lim, Jeremy; Ho, Paul T. P.

    2012-12-01

    We present ultra-deep J and KS imaging observations covering a 30' × 30' area of the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (ECDFS) carried out by our Taiwan ECDFS Near-Infrared Survey (TENIS). The median 5σ limiting magnitudes for all detected objects in the ECDFS reach 24.5 and 23.9 mag (AB) for J and KS , respectively. In the inner 400 arcmin2 region where the sensitivity is more uniform, objects as faint as 25.6 and 25.0 mag are detected at 5σ. Thus, this is by far the deepest J and KS data sets available for the ECDFS. To combine TENIS with the Spitzer IRAC data for obtaining better spectral energy distributions of high-redshift objects, we developed a novel deconvolution technique (IRACLEAN) to accurately estimate the IRAC fluxes. IRACLEAN can minimize the effect of blending in the IRAC images caused by the large point-spread functions and reduce the confusion noise. We applied IRACLEAN to the images from the Spitzer IRAC/MUSYC Public Legacy in the ECDFS survey (SIMPLE) and generated a J+KS -selected multi-wavelength catalog including the photometry of both the TENIS near-infrared and the SIMPLE IRAC data. We publicly release the data products derived from this work, including the J and KS images and the J+KS -selected multi-wavelength catalog.

  8. An integrated study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden fields, Ector County, Texas. Quarterly report, 1 July 1995--30 September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, J.J.; Trentham, R.C.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this study is to demonstrate a methodology for reservoir characterization of shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs which is feasible for the independent operator. Furthermore, it will provide one of the first public demonstrations of the enhancement of reservoir characterization using high resolution three dimensional (3-D) seismic data. This particular project will evaluate the Grayburg and San Andres reservoirs in the Foster and South Cowden Fields of Ector County, Texas. The investigators will showcase a multi-disciplinary approach to waterflood design and implementation, along with the addition of reserves by selective infill drilling. This approach in reservoir development will be applicable to a wide range of shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs throughout the United States. Technology transfer will take place through all phases of the project. Production problems associated with shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs are being evaluated by a technical team integrating subsurface geological data, engineering data and 3-D seismic data. The team is using a network of state-of-the-art industry standard software running on high performance computer workstations. Twenty-four Grayburg and seven San Andres thin sections have been evaluated from the J.E. Witcher Well No. 6. This evaluation has been valuable in formulating a depositional model and in definitively dividing the Grayburg and San Andres reservoirs into distinct layers or ``units``.

  9. An alma survey of sub-millimeter galaxies in the extended Chandra deep field south: Sub-millimeter properties of color-selected galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Decarli, R.; Walter, F.; Hodge, J. A.; Rix, H.-W.; Schinnerer, E.; Smail, I.; Swinbank, A. M.; Karim, A.; Simpson, J. M.; Chapman, S.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Cox, P.; Dannerbauer, H.; Greve, T. R.; Ivison, R.; Knudsen, K. K.; Lindroos, L.; Van der Werf, P.; Weiß, A.

    2014-01-10

    We study the sub-millimeter properties of color-selected galaxies via a stacking analysis applied for the first time to interferometric data at sub-millimeter wavelengths. We base our study on 344 GHz ALMA continuum observations of ∼20''-wide fields centered on 86 sub-millimeter sources detected in the LABOCA Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS) Sub-millimeter Survey. We select various classes of galaxies (K-selected, star-forming sBzK galaxies, extremely red objects, and distant red galaxies) according to their optical/near-infrared fluxes. We find clear, >10σ detections in the stacked images of all these galaxy classes. We include in our stacking analysis Herschel/SPIRE data to constrain the dust spectral energy distribution of these galaxies. We find that their dust emission is well described by a modified blackbody with T {sub dust} ≈ 30 K and β = 1.6 and infrared luminosities of (5-11) × 10{sup 11} L {sub ☉} or implied star formation rates of 75-140 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. We compare our results with those of previous studies based on single-dish observations at 870 μm and find that our flux densities are a factor 2-3 higher than previous estimates. The discrepancy is observed also after removing sources individually detected in ALESS maps. We report a similar discrepancy by repeating our analysis on 1.4 GHz observations of the whole ECDFS. Hence, we find tentative evidence that galaxies that are associated in projected and redshift space with sub-mm bright sources are brighter than the average population. Finally, we put our findings in the context of the cosmic star formation rate density as a function of redshift.

  10. Simple Techniques For Assessing Impacts Of Oil And Gas Operations On Federal Lands - A Field Evaluation At Big South Fork National River And Recreation Area, Scott County, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otton, James K.; Zielinski, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    Simple, cost-effective techniques are needed for land managers to assess the environmental impacts of oil and gas production activities on public lands so that sites may be prioritized for further, more formal assessment or remediation. These techniques should allow the field investigator to extend the assessment beyond the surface disturbances documented by simple observation and mapping using field-portable instruments and expendable materials that provide real-time data. The principal contaminants of current concern are hydrocarbons, produced water, and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Field investigators can examine sites for the impacts of hydrocarbon releases using a photoionization detector (PID) and a soil auger. Volatile organic carbon (VOC) in soil gases in an open auger hole or in the head space of a bagged and gently warmed auger soil sample can be measured by the PID. This allows detection of hydrocarbon movement in the shallow subsurface away from areas of obvious oil-stained soils or oil in pits at a production site. Similarly, a field conductivity meter and chloride titration strips can be used to measure salts in water and soil samples at distances well beyond areas of surface salt scarring. Use of a soil auger allows detection of saline subsoils in areas where salts may be flushed from the surface soil layers. Finally, a microRmeter detects the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in equipment and soils. NORM often goes undetected at many sites although regulations limiting NORM in equipment and soils are being promulgated in several States and are being considered by the USEPA. With each technique, background sampling should be done for comparison with impacted areas. The authors examined sites in the Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area in November of 1999. A pit at one site at the edge of the flood plain of a small stream had received crude oil releases from a nearby tank. Auger holes down

  11. Image segmentation for automatic particle identification in electron micrographs based on hidden Markov random field models and expectation maximization

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vivek; Marinescu, Dan C.; Baker, Timothy S.

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional reconstruction of large macromolecules like viruses at resolutions below 10 ÅA requires a large set of projection images. Several automatic and semi-automatic particle detection algorithms have been developed along the years. Here we present a general technique designed to automatically identify the projection images of particles. The method is based on Markov random field modelling of the projected images and involves a pre-processing of electron micrographs followed by image segmentation and post-processing. The image is modelled as a coupling of two fields—a Markovian and a non-Markovian. The Markovian field represents the segmented image. The micrograph is the non-Markovian field. The image segmentation step involves an estimation of coupling parameters and the maximum áa posteriori estimate of the realization of the Markovian field i.e, segmented image. Unlike most current methods, no bootstrapping with an initial selection of particles is required. PMID:15065680

  12. Near-Field High-Resolution Seismic, Strain and Displacement Measurements for Earthquake Source Studies in Deep Mines in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, M. J.; Reches, Z.; van Aswegan, G.; McGarr, A.; Lockner, D.; Sellers, E.; Ben Zion, Y.; Williams, C.

    2004-12-01

    Unique access to information on the physics of the earthquake source (earthquake nucleation, fault rupture, heat generation, stress state, seismic wave propagation, fault displacement, material properties and particularly changes in some of these parameters prior to rupture) exists in the near-field of mining-induced earthquakes in deep gold mines in South Africa. The new NSF funded Natural Earthquake Laboratory in South African Mines (NELSAM) will provide seismic velocity/acceleration, ground strain, temperature, fault displacement, acoustic emission (AE), and perhaps self-potential (SP) data in small 3-D arrays across and within active faults in two different mines. 3-component accelerometers to be installed in or near the faults have a range from micro g to 0.5 g in the band 0.05 - 500 Hz. Fault displacement meters (creepmeters) to be installed at low angles across faults within boreholes have a range of microns to 0.2 m and cover the frequency range from DC to 100 Hz. Successful measurement of total displacement will depend on the creepmeter reference length surviving the fault rupture. Temperature will be measured to millidegrees C at points within, and at increasing distances from fault zones, to capture the heat generated by future and past earthquakes. Strain transients will be measured with 3-component near-fault borehole strainmeters with capacitance displacement transducers providing a resolution < 10E-9. 3-component seismic velocity transducers will be installed together with each accelerometer and supplement the current mine seismic network. AE and SP will be measured within boreholes crossing faults if recording capability is sufficient. All data will be digitally sampled and transmitted to the surface in real-time for analysis to focus on unraveling the physics of the nucleation process, non-linear deformation prior to rupture, propagating aseismic slip, and variation in the material properties of near-fault materials (e.g. state/rate dependent

  13. X-RAY PROPERTIES OF THE z {approx} 4.5 Ly{alpha} EMITTERS IN THE CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Z. Y.; Wang, J. X.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Finkelstein, K. D.; Malhotra, S.; Rhoads, J. E. E-mail: jxw@ustc.edu.c

    2010-07-20

    We report the first X-ray detection of Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) at redshift z {approx} 4.5. One source (J033127.2-274247) is detected in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (ECDF-S) X-ray data and has been spectroscopically confirmed as a z = 4.48 quasar with L{sub X} = 4.2 x 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}. The single detection gives an Ly{alpha} quasar density of {approx} 2.7{sup +6.2} {sub -2.2} x 10{sup -6} Mpc{sup -3}, consistent with the X-ray luminosity function of quasars. Another 22 LAEs in the central Chandra Deep Field-South region are not detected individually, but their co-added counts yield an S/N = 2.4 (p = 99.83%) detection at soft band, with an effective exposure time of {approx}36 Ms. Further analysis of the equivalent width (EW) distribution shows that all the signals come from 12 LAE candidates with EW{sub rest}< 400 A and 2 of them contribute about half of the signal. From follow-up spectroscopic observations, we find that one of the two is a low-redshift emission-line galaxy, and the other is a Lyman break galaxy at z = 4.4 with little or no Ly{alpha} emission. Excluding these two and combined with ECDF-S data, we derive a 3{sigma} upper limit on the average X-ray flux of F {sub 0.5-2.0keV} < 1.6 x 10{sup -18} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, which corresponds to an average luminosity of (L {sub 0.5-2keV}) <2.4 x 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1} for z {approx} 4.5 LAEs. If the average X-ray emission is due to star formation, it corresponds to a star formation rate (SFR) of <180-530 M {sub sun} yr{sup -1}. We use this SFR {sub X} as an upper limit of the unobscured SFR to constrain the escape fraction of Ly{alpha} photons and find a lower limit of f{sub esc,Ly{alpha}} > 3%-10%. However, our upper limit on the SFR {sub X} is {approx}7 times larger than the upper limit on SFR {sub X} on z {approx} 3.1 LAEs in the same field and at least 30 times higher than the SFR estimated from Ly{alpha} emission. From the average X-ray-to-Ly{alpha} line ratio, we estimate that

  14. Unravelling regolith material types using Mg/Al and K/Al plot to support field regolith identification in the savannah regions of NW Ghana, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arhin, Emmanuel; Zango, Saeed M.

    2015-12-01

    The XRF analytical method was used to measure the weight % of the major oxides in regolith samples. The metal weight % of Mg, K and Al were calculated from their oxides and were normalised relative to immobile Al calculated from its oxide. The plot of Mg/Al and K/Al identified the regolith of the study area to consist of 137 transported clays, 4 ferruginous sediments or ferricrete, 2 lateritic duricrust and 4 saprolites. Surface regolith that had undergone secondary transformation and shows compositional overlaps were 4 transported clays with Fe-oxide impregnation may be referred to as nodular laterite and 5 ferruginous saprolites. The variable regolith materials features identified from the 154 samples enabled the characterisation and identification of the different sample materials because an overprint of bedrock geochemistry is reflected in the regolith. Plot of Mg/Al and K/Al highlighted the compositional variability of the regolith samples and refute the notion of the homogeneity of all the sampled materials in the area. The study thus recognized Mg/Al versus K/Al plots to be used in supporting field identification of regolith mapping units particularly in complex regolith terrains of savannah regions of Ghana and in similar areas where geochemical exploration surveys are being carried out under cover.

  15. Adaptive autoregressive identification with spectral power decomposition for studying movement-related activity in scalp EEG signals and basal ganglia local field potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foffani, Guglielmo; Bianchi, Anna M.; Priori, Alberto; Baselli, Giuseppe

    2004-09-01

    We propose a method that combines adaptive autoregressive (AAR) identification and spectral power decomposition for the study of movement-related spectral changes in scalp EEG signals and basal ganglia local field potentials (LFPs). This approach introduces the concept of movement-related poles, allowing one to study not only the classical event-related desynchronizations (ERD) and synchronizations (ERS), which correspond to modulations of power, but also event-related modulations of frequency. We applied the method to analyze movement-related EEG signals and LFPs contemporarily recorded from the sensorimotor cortex, the globus pallidus internus (GPi) and the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in a patient with Parkinson's disease who underwent stereotactic neurosurgery for the implant of deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes. In the AAR identification we compared the whale and the exponential forgetting factors, showing that the whale forgetting provides a better disturbance rejection and it is therefore more suitable to investigate movement-related brain activity. Movement-related power modulations were consistent with previous studies. In addition, movement-related frequency modulations were observed from both scalp EEG signals and basal ganglia LFPs. The method therefore represents an effective approach to the study of movement-related brain activity.

  16. First field identification of the Cuonadong dome in southern Tibet: implications for EW extension of the North Himalayan gneiss dome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jiangang; Li, Guangming; Wang, Genhou; Huang, Yong; Zhang, Linkui; Dong, Suiliang; Liang, Wei

    2016-07-01

    -NHGD). The NS-NHGD developed by a dominantly N-S contraction and locally extensional regime and keep a close relationship to the South Tibetan Detachment System, whereas the EW-NHGD formed by an E-W extensional deformation along the north-south-trending rifts.

  17. Field and Dual Magnetic Susceptibility Proxies Implication for Heavy Metal Pollution Assessment in the Urban Soil of Al-Karak City, South Jordan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Hasan, T.; Lataifeh, M.

    2012-04-01

    A total of 115 urban soil samples collected on grid bases from Al-Karak City, south Jordan, were investigated for their magnetic properties using Bartington portable magnetic susceptibility system with (MS2B and MS2D) probes. The magnetic proxies that were used in this study are the field & dual magnetic susceptibilities (χ). In addition the heavy metal contents in soil were determined using the Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP-MS). The dual frequency magnetic susceptibility meter (MS2B) measurements showed that upper soils have higher values of (χlf) than lower soils. Moreover, the large grain size particles have more magnetic materials than smaller grain size particles. This might be attributed to the lack or low degree of pedogensis due to prevailing arid climate. The field magnetic susceptibility measurements (χfield) were positively correlated with low frequency dual magnetic susceptibility (χlf). Few selected samples that have anomalous magnetic susceptibility values were analyzed for their heavy metal content. The results showed a positively significant correlation between total heavy metal content and χ, this was evident from the higher degree of fitness between the distribution maps of χ and each heavy metal in the study area. These results indicate the applicability of these proxies as pollution indicator, and showed that higher χ is associated with traffic areas more than industrial and residential areas. The Frequency Dependent Susceptibility (χfd% ) was found to be medium value and ranges between (2-10%), which indicate the presence of admixture of fine Super magnetic Particles (SP) or coarse non-SP grains or SP grains < 0.005 micron. A mildly significant correlation existed between χfd% and χlf, which implies that the soils contain anthropogenic multi-domain and stable single domain grains. Moreover, the hysteresis loop patterns, SEM investigations, thermo magnetic heating curves and XRD charts reveal the presence of magnetite as the main

  18. Shipboard magnetic field data trace magnetic sources in marine sediments: Geophysical studies of the Stono and North Edisto Inlets near Charleston, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, A. K.; Harris, S.

    2010-12-01

    Magnetic field data are traditionally used to analyze igneous and metamorphic rocks, but recent efforts have shown that magnetic sources within sediments may be detectable. Candidates for such sources include heavy mineral sands transported from upland sources, biogenic magnetite, and certain forms of glauconite. Magnetic field surveys can then be used to map distributions of these sediments with much denser and widespread coverage than possible by sampling, providing constraints on the deposition and transport of local sediments. However, as sedimentary sources are likely to be much weaker than their crystalline counterparts, mapping requires the sensor to be relatively close to the source, and filtering approaches are needed to distinguish signals from both system noise and deeper basement features. In July 2010, we conducted marine geophysical surveys over the Stono and North Edisto inlets and their riverine inputs south of Charleston, SC using a total field cesium magnetometer and 900 kHz sidescan sonar. In these tidally influenced estuarine environments, unconsolidated Quaternary sediments of thickness typically vary within 0-10 meters overly an indurated Tertiary substrate. Calm survey conditions allowed the towing of sensors 2-20 m above the seabed with background magnetometer variations less than 0.5 nT for a measurement spacing of less than 0.4 m. Anomalies associated with metallic objects such as crab pots or other anthropogenic debris were filtered in part by comparisons to the high-resolution sonar. Using spectral processing to highlight short-wavelength magnetic anomalies, we find that shallow areas where sidescan data indicate a sand-covered seabed are associated with 10-40 m wide, 1-6 nT magnetic anomalies. These anomalies are distinct from system noise, but are too narrow to represent basement features. The anomalies are observed mostly in shallow areas where rivers that originate from upland areas enter the inlets. In contrast, the anomalies are

  19. {sup 14}C-atrazine metaboite identification in field-grown sugarcane and sorghum by using radioactive detection and electrospray tandem mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, J.D.; Ash, S.G.; Talaat, R.E

    1996-10-01

    The metabolism of [2,4,6-{sup 14}C]-atrazine in field-grown sugarcane and sorghum produced several dechlorinated, dealkylated, and/or glutathione metabolites. These metabolites were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry. The subsequent metabolism of glutathione adducts of atrazine and N-dealkylated atrazine to novel metabolites were studied. Lanthionine, lanthionine sulfoxide, glucose-thiolactate and glutamine adducts of atrazine are examples of metabolites that we postulate arise from a common intermediate metabolite of atrazine, i.e., atrazine-glutathione adduct at position 2. The mass spectra as well as the postulated metabolic pathways will be discussed. The identification of such metabolites at trace levels in plant tissues were made possible by the coupling of the radioactive detector and electrospray interface on-line to the tandem mass spectrometer.

  20. Development of a Portable Field Imaging Spectrometer: Application for the Identification of Sun-Dried and Sulfur-Fumigated Chinese Herbals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongming; Wu, Taixia; Zhang, Lifu; Zhang, Peng

    2016-05-01

    We fabricated a visible-near-infrared (Vis-NIR) portable field imaging spectrometer with a prism-grating-prism element and a scanning mirror. The developed Vis-NIR imaging spectrometer, consisting of an INFINITY 3-1 detector and a V10E spectrometer from Specim Corporation, is designed to measure the spectral range between 0.4 and 1 µm with spectral resolution of 2-4 nm. In recent years, sulfur fumigation has been abused during the processing of certain freshly harvested Chinese herbs. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, fiber optic NIR spectrometry, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry are typically used to analyze the chemical profiles of sulfur-fumigated and sun-dried Chinese herbs. Field imaging spectrometry is rarely used to identify sulfur-fumigated herbs. In this study, field imaging spectrometry, principal component analysis, and the partial least squares-discriminant analysis multivariate data analysis method are used to distinguish sun-dried and sulfur-fumigated Chinese medicinal herbs with a sensitivity of 96.4% and a specificity of 98.3% for RPA identification. These results suggest that hyperspectral imaging is a potential technique to control medicine quality for medical applications. PMID:27006019

  1. View looking south from pavilion, showing south entrance house, south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking south from pavilion, showing south entrance house, south wing, and engine house - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. Identification of sinkhole development mechanism based on a combined geophysical study in Nahal Hever South area (Dead Sea coast of Israel)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezersky, Michael; Legchenko, Anatoly; Camerlynck, Christian; Al-Zoubi, Abdallah

    2009-09-01

    Seismic refraction, magnetic resonance sounding (MRS), and the transient electromagnetic (TEM) method were applied to investigate the geological and hydrogeological conditions in the Nahal Hever South sinkhole development area at the Dead Sea (DS) coast of Israel. Microgravity and MRS results reliably reveal large karst cavity in the central part of investigated area. The map of the seismic velocity shows that sinkholes in Nahal Hever can be divided into two major groups: sinkholes close to the salt edge and sinkholes over compact salt formations between a few tens to a hundred meters from the major cavern. The present study shows that the formation of sinkholes of the first group is caused by soil collapsing into the cavern. In the area occupied by sinkholes of the second group, karst was not detected either by MRS or by seismic diffraction methods. TEM results reveal shallow clay layer saturated with DS brine underlain sinkholes of this group. It allows suggestion that the water drainage and intensive water circulation during rain events wash out fine rock particles from the unsaturated zone into the pre-existing cavern, initiating the formation of sinkholes of the second group. Karst development takes place at a very low bulk resistivity (<1 Ω m) of the DS aquifer, attesting to the fact that pores are filled with a highly saline solution. Refilling of the karstic cavities with collapsing and flushed soil slows down sinkhole development in the area. The sinkhole formation cycle at the site is estimated at 10 years. Sinkhole development throughout the studied area is triggered by a drop in the level of the DS, which reduces the head of the confined aquifer and the strength of the overlain sediments.

  3. Identification of vortical structures inside the human pharynx/larynx region from POD-reconstructed velocity fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinneeb, A.-M.; Pollard, Andrew

    2012-08-01

    This paper reports an experimental investigation of the vortical structures in the pharynx/larynx region of an idealised human extra-thoracic airway obtained using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The inlet velocity was 0.13 m/s yielding a Reynolds number, based on the inlet condition, of 670. Two thousand images were acquired at each location at a framing rate of 2 Hz. The proper orthogonal decomposition method was applied to the PIV data. Only a few modes were used for POD reconstruction which recovered about 60 % of the turbulent kinetic energy. A vortex identification algorithm was employed to identify and measure properties of the structures. This step was followed by a statistical analysis of the distribution of number, size, and strength of these vortices. The results reveal the formation of a large number of structures identified along two planes in the pharynx/larynx region. This study also revealed an increased strength in the counter-clockwise structures as compared to clockwise structures in the pharynx region. As well, there is some evidence to suggest that the vortical structures, whose axes are perpendicular to the sagittal plane, change their orientation as they proceed further into the laryngeal region.

  4. Technical specifications of low-frequency radio identification bedload tracking from field experiments: Differences in antennas, tags and operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaud, F.; Piégay, H.; Vaudor, L.; Bultingaire, L.; Fantino, G.

    2015-06-01

    Low-frequency passive integrated transponders (PIT tags) have been increasingly used for tracking bedload transport in gravel-bed rivers. Prior studies have reported high recovery rates in small streams, while recovery rates remained much lower in large systems, in large part because of the limited reading distance of the tags (< 1 m). Some laboratory tests have identified controlling factors for detection ranges (tag and antenna size, tag orientation, burial, submergence, etc.). Beyond these tests, improving our understanding of PIT tag functioning, using different equipment within different environments, is still needed in order to select the most suitable device for each geomorphic context. We address this knowledge gap with technical specifications for a low-frequency radio identificat