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Sample records for field south region

  1. Wide Field Imaging of the Hubble Deep Field-South Region III: Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palunas, Povilas; Collins, Nicholas R.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Hill, Robert S.; Malumuth, Eliot M.; Rhodes, Jason; Teplitz, Harry I.; Woodgate, Bruce E.

    2002-01-01

    We present 1/2 square degree uBVRI imaging around the Hubble Deep Field - South. These data have been used in earlier papers to examine the QSO population and the evolution of the correlation function in the region around the HDF-S. The images were obtained with the Big Throughput Camera at CTIO in September 1998. The images reach 5 sigma limits of u approx. 24.4, B approx. 25.6, V approx. 25.3, R approx. 24.9 and I approx. 23.9. We present a catalog of approx. 22,000 galaxies. We also present number-magnitude counts and a comparison with other observations of the same field. The data presented here are available over the world wide web.

  2. A Wide-Field Survey in the Chandra Deep Field-South Region: A Combined GTO + GO Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garmire, Gordon

    2013-09-01

    We propose to perform a wide-field (2.2 square degree) survey around the Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) and Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (E-CDF-S). This survey will complement the large observational investments made in multi-square-degree surveys in the CDF-S region by Spitzer, Herschel, the Australia Telescope Compact Array, PRIMUS, Pan-STARRS, DES, LSST, and other facilities. It will allow us to identify the most-luminous active galaxies to z = 1.5-2 and to investigate large-scale structures in the CDF-S region. This is the GTO component of a GTO + GO project; the associated GO observations will be proposed as a Cycle 15 Large Project.

  3. Electric field control of E region coherent echoes: Evidence from radar observations at the South Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarevich, Roman A.; Forsythe, V. V.; Kellerman, A. C.

    2015-03-01

    Characteristics and formation mechanisms of E region plasma irregularities at high latitudes are investigated using observations with the newly deployed Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) radar at the South Pole Antarctic station (SPS) near a magnetic latitude (MLAT) of 75°S. It is shown that E region echo occurrence at SPS exhibits a diurnal variation that is significantly different from those at auroral and polar cap latitudes. Moreover, analysis of major spectral populations also showed a distinct and previously unreported diurnal pattern. The plasma drift velocity estimates are derived at E region ranges of SPS, leveraging the SPS radar's position well within the MLAT region where SuperDARN convection estimates are well constrained by the data. It is shown that E region irregularity occurrence increases when the convection direction is within the SPS field of view and/or when the plasma drift component is comparable with the nominal ion-acoustic speed Cs of 350 m/s. This is the expected behavior for irregularities generated directly by the modified two-stream plasma instability (MTSI). On the other hand, irregularity velocity dependence on convection velocity showed an unexpected saturation at velocity values smaller than nominal Cs. It is demonstrated that the convection velocity at which irregularity velocity starts to differ from the convection component and to approach a maximum value is dependent on the magnetic aspect angle. Moreover, the maximum velocity value itself also depends on the aspect angle. The observed behavior is discussed in context of recent models that involve evolving aspect angles as a key characteristic of MTSI saturation.

  4. Mercury's South Polar Region

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows 89 wide-angle camera (WAC) images of Mercury’s south polar region acquired by the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) over one complete Mercury solar day (176 Earth days). Thi...

  5. Source regions of long-period pulsation events in electron precipitation and magnetic fields at South Pole Station

    SciTech Connect

    Paquette, J.A.; Matthews, D.L.; Rosenberg, T.J.; Lanzerotti, L.J.; Inan, U.S.

    1994-03-01

    Pulsation events with long (100-1000 s) periods with a consistent frequency in both particle precipitation and surface geomagnetic field variations have been reported in the past from measurements made at various geomagnetic latitudes. An examination of broad beam riometer and magnetometer data from South Pole Station for the interval from 1982 to 1989 revealed nearly 200 such events. The onset times of these events were determined. This mechanism ascribes the occurrence of correlated magnetic and precipitation pulsations to ULF modulation of equatorial VLF wave-particle interactions. For this reason, VLF data from South Pole Station were also examined. Taking into consideration the ULF wave and particle transit times from an interaction region near the magnetic equator to the ground leads to an expectation that the onset of pulsations in the magnetometer data will lag the onset of pulsations in the riometer data by several minutes. This disparity in onset times, together with modulation of VLF emissions in the 0.5-1 kHz band, serves as an important indicator of whether or not an event can be explained by the above-cited theory. While about a third of the events fit the prediction of Coroniti and Kennel, another third do not. In these events, the onset of magnetic and precipitation pulsations is nearly simultaneous, and possible alternative generation mechanisms are explored. In the remaining third of the events, magnetic pulsations begin substantially earlier than precipitation pulsations. Events of this type appear at first to be inexplicable in terms of any transit time argument. However, data from the imaging riometer at South Pole Station indicate that this third class of events is probably not physically distinct from the first two but is the result of the differing areas to which the riometer and magnetometer are sensitive and can be accounted for by considering the effects of transverse motion of a persistent precipitation region. 24 refs., 13 rigs.

  6. Surficial geology of the Safsaf region, south-central Egypt, derived from remote-sensing and field data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, P.A.; Breed, C.S.; McCauley, J.F.; Schaber, G.G.

    1993-01-01

    We used a decorrelation-stretched image of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) Bands 1, 4, and 7 and field data to map and describe the main surficial units in the hyperarid Safsaf region in south-central Egypt. We show that the near-infrared bands on Landsat TM, which are sensitive to very subtle changes in mineralogy common to arid regions, significantly improve the geologist's capability to discriminate geologic units in desert regions. These data also provide the spatial and spectral information necessary to determine the migration patterns and provenance of eolian materials. The Safsaf area was the focus of our post flight field studies using Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR) data following the discovery of buried paleochannels in North Africa. Most of the channels discernible on SIR images are not expressed in TM data, but traces of a few channels are present in both the SIR and the TM data within the Wadi Safsaf area. Here we present a detailed digital examination of the SIR and the TM-band reflectance and reflectance-ratio data at three locations of the more obvious surface expressions of the buried channels. Our results indicate that the TM expressions of the channels are not purely topographic but are more compositional in nature. Two possibilities may account for the TM expressions of the buried channels: 1) concentrations of windblown, iron-rich materials that accumulated along subtle curvilinear topograpohic traps, or 2) curvilinear exposures of an iron-rich underlying unit of the flat sand sheet. ?? 1993.

  7. VHF coherent scatter radar observations of mid-latitude F-region field-aligned irregularities over South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Y.; Yang, T.; Lee, J.; Hwang, J.; Kil, H.; Park, Y.

    2011-12-01

    We examine the mid-latitude F-region field-aligned irregularity (FAI) activity during 2010-2011 by using the VHF coherent scatter radar data in Daejeon (36.2°N, 127.1°E; dip latitude 26.7°N), South Korea. The VHF radar has been operated since December 2009 and provides a unique opportunity to investigate the variability of the FAI activity with local time, season, solar flux, and magnetic activity. Our preliminary results during the solar minimum show that FAIs preferentially occur at post-sunset and pre-sunrise and during the June solstice. The seasonal variation of the FAI occurrence frequency is similar to that of the electron density irregularities observed by the C/NOFS satellite. For one event, we observed the association of the FAIs with a medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbance (MSTID). Our study extends to the investigation of the correlations between the irregularities in the equatorial region and middle latitudes and between the conjugate F regions, and the causal linkage of the FAIs with the E-region perturbations. For this purpose, we analyze the VHF radar and C/NOFS data during 2010-2011.

  8. Quantification and regionalization of groundwater recharge in South-Central Kansas: Integrating field characterization, statistical analysis, and GIS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sophocleous, M.

    2000-01-01

    A practical methodology for recharge characterization was developed based on several years of field-oriented research at 10 sites in the Great Bend Prairie of south-central Kansas. This methodology combines the soil-water budget on a storm-by-storm year-round basis with the resulting watertable rises. The estimated 1985-1992 average annual recharge was less than 50mm/year with a range from 15 mm/year (during the 1998 drought) to 178 mm/year (during the 1993 flood year). Most of this recharge occurs during the spring months. To regionalize these site-specific estimates, an additional methodology based on multiple (forward) regression analysis combined with classification and GIS overlay analyses was developed and implemented. The multiple regression analysis showed that the most influential variables were, in order of decreasing importance, total annual precipitation, average maximum springtime soil-profile water storage, average shallowest springtime depth to watertable, and average springtime precipitation rate. Therefore, four GIS (ARC/INFO) data "layers" or coverages were constructed for the study region based on these four variables, and each such coverage was classified into the same number of data classes to avoid biasing the results. The normalized regression coefficients were employed to weigh the class rankings of each recharge-affecting variable. This approach resulted in recharge zonations that agreed well with the site recharge estimates. During the "Great Flood of 1993," when rainfall totals exceeded normal levels by -200% in the northern portion of the study region, the developed regionalization methodology was tested against such extreme conditions, and proved to be both practical, based on readily available or easily measurable data, and robust. It was concluded that the combination of multiple regression and GIS overlay analyses is a powerful and practical approach to regionalizing small samples of recharge estimates.

  9. Monitoring of flood irrigation for the characterization of irrigation practices of grassland fields in the Crau region (South of France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkassem Alosman, Mohamed; Ruy, Stéphane; Olioso, Albert; Flamain, Fabrice

    2015-04-01

    Surface irrigation (flooding and furrow) is the main irrigation technic in the world. This irrigation system is known as having poor water efficiency and that results in very large water losses through drainage and runoff out the field. Although these unused water amounts can generate positive externalities (wetlands and groundwater recharge), a decreased of water volume used in surface irrigation is sought in a context of limited water resource. In the Crau area (South of France), more than 12,500 ha of grassland are irrigated by flooding. There, at the regional scale, it is estimated that the water volumes brought into the field are very high; and ranges from 15,000; up to 20,000 m3.h-1.year-1; more than 78% of these amounts recharges the Crau aquifer (Saos, 2006). However, the actual volumes which are injected to the plot surface (the " irrigation dose ") are insufficiently known, because of the diversity of encountered agricultural practices and fields topography. For better characterizing these practices, a campaign of irrigation monitoring has been carried out during an irrigation season (March to September 2014) on a set of representative plots of soil variability, practices, and different stages of hay grow. Each grassland field has been also characterized from a topographical and pedological view point. A mobile device for measurements (soil moisture and water level probes, photographic monitoring, soil sampling, .. ) was deployed for each irrigation. A total of 35 irrigation events were followed. The data obtained allow describing accurately and quantitatively the variability in encountered irrigation practices. Combined with a flood irrigation model (Model CALHY, Bader et al., 2010, Hydrol. Sci. J., 55, 177-191), these data will be used to calculate the water balance at the field scale: amounts of injected, infiltrated and lost water by runoff or drainage. They will also offer different ways for optimizing the irrigation efficiency.

  10. Development of a regional ocean color algorithm using field- and satellite-derived datasets: Long Bay, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Kimberly Susan

    Coastal and inland waters represent a diverse set of resources that support natural habitat and provide numerous ecosystem services to the human population. Conventional techniques to monitor water quality using in situ sensors and laboratory analysis of water samples can be very time- and cost-intensive. Alternatively, remote sensing techniques offer better spatial coverage and temporal resolution to accurately characterize the dynamic and unique water quality parameters. However, bio and geo-optical models are required that relate the remotely sensed spectral data with color producing agents (CPAs) that define the water quality. These CPAs include chlorophyll-a, suspended sediments, and colored-dissolved organic matter. Developing these models may be challenging for coastal environments such as Long Bay, South Carolina, due to the presence of multiple optically interfering CPAs. In this work, a regionally tiered ocean color model was developed using band ratio techniques to specifically predict the variability of chlorophyll-a concentrations in the turbid Long Bay waters. This model produced higher accuracy results (r-squared = 0.62; RMSE = 0.87 micrograms per liter) compared to the existing models, which gave a highest r-squared value of 0.58 and RMSE = 0.99 micrograms per liter. To further enhance the retrievals of chlorophyll-a in these optically complex waters, a novel multivariate-based approach was developed using current generation hyperspectral data. This approach uses a partial least-squares regression model to identify wavelengths that are more sensitive to chlorophyll-a relative to other associated CPAs. This model was able to explain 80% of the observed chlorophyll-a variability in Long Bay with RMSE = 2.03 micrograms per liter. This approach capitalizes on the spectral advantage gained from hyperspectral sensors, thus providing a more robust predicting model. This enhanced mode of water quality monitoring in marine environments will provide insight

  11. Statistical characteristics of nighttime mid-latitude F-region field-aligned irregularities observed by Daejeon VHF coherent scattering radar in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, T. Y.; Kwak, Y. S.; Kil, H.; Lee, Y.; Lee, W. K.; Park, Y. D.

    2014-12-01

    We report statistical characteristics of mid-latitude nighttime F-region field-aligned irregularities (FAIs) based on more than three-year observations by Daejeon VHF coherent backscatter radar. This radar has built at Daejeon (36.18°N, 127.14°E, dip lat. 26.7°N) in 2009 with 40.8 MHz operating frequency for continuous monitoring of the behavior of electron density irregularities in the middle latitude. By using long-term observations from January 2010 to December 2013, we obtained the annual, diurnal and seasonal characteristics of a variety of a percentage occurrence, signal-to-noise ratio, and Doppler velocities from the nighttime F-region irregularities over Korea peninsular. From almost four-year observations, the F-region nighttime irregularities occurred most frequently during post-sunset period. These nighttime irregularities usually appeared with occupying different height levels according to local time. This height variation of F-region FAIs was correlated with hmf2 of ionosonde in Icheon, South Korea. The irregularities were least active near the winter solstice and most active near summer solstice. From the annual occurrence variations, F-region nighttime irregularities seem to have tendency with solar activity.

  12. Wide-Field Imaging of the Hubble Deep Field-South Region. II. The Evolution of Galaxy Clustering at z < 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teplitz, Harry I.; Hill, Robert S.; Malumuth, Eliot M.; Collins, Nicholas R.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Palunas, Povilas; Woodgate, Bruce E.

    2001-02-01

    We present the galaxy-galaxy angular correlations as a function of photometric redshift in a deep, wide galaxy survey centered on the Hubble Deep Field-South (HDF-S). Images were obtained with the Big Throughput Camera on the Blanco 4 m telescope at CTIO, of 1/2 square degree in broadband uBVRI, reaching ~24 mag. Approximately 40,000 galaxies are detected in the survey. We determine photometric redshifts using galaxy template fitting to the photometry. Monte Carlo simulations show that redshifts from these data should be reliable out to z~1, where the 4000 Å break shifts into the I band. The inferred redshift distribution, n(z), shows good agreement with the distribution of galaxies measured in the Hubble Deep Field-North (HDF-N) and the Canada-France Redshift Survey. After assigning galaxies to redshift bins with width Δz=0.33, we determine the two-point angular correlation function in each bin. We find that the amplitude of the correlation, Aw, drops across the three bins to redshift z~1. Simple ɛ models of clustering evolution fit this result, with the best agreement for ɛ=0. Hierarchical cold dark matter models best fit in a low-density, Λ-dominated universe. Based on observations obtained at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, a division of the National Optical Astronomy Observatories, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  13. Occurrence climatology of F region field-aligned irregularities in middle latitudes as observed by a 40.8 MHz coherent scatter radar in Daejeon, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tae-Yong; Kwak, Young-Sil; Kil, Hyosub; Lee, Young-Sook; Lee, Woo Kyoung; Lee, Jae-jin

    2015-11-01

    A new 40.8 MHz coherent scatter radar was built in Daejeon, South Korea (36.18°N, 127.14°E, dip latitude: 26.7°N) on 29 December 2009 and has since been monitoring the occurrence of field-aligned irregularities (FAIs) in the northern middle latitudes. We report on the occurrence climatology of the F region FAIs as observed by the Daejeon radar between 2010 and 2014. The F region FAIs preferentially occur around 250-350 km at 18:00-21:00 local time (postsunset FAI), around 350-450 km near midnight (nighttime FAI), around 250-350 km before sunrise (presunrise FAI), and around 160-300 km after 05:00 local time (postsunrise FAI). The occurrence rates of nighttime and presunrise FAIs are maximal during summer, though the occurrence rates of postsunset and postsunrise FAIs are maximal during the equinoxes. FAIs rarely occur during local winter. The occurrence rate of F region FAIs increases in concert with increases in solar activity. Medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) are known as an important source of the F region FAIs in middle latitudes. The high occurrence rate of the nighttime FAIs in local summer is consistent with the high occurrence rate of MSTIDs in that season. However, the dependence of the FAI activity on the solar cycle is inconsistent with the MSTID activity. The source of the F region FAIs in middle latitudes is an open question. Our report of different types of FAIs and their occurrence climatology may provide a useful reference for the identification of the source of the middle latitude FAIs.

  14. X-RAY PROPERTIES OF THE z {approx} 4.5 Ly{alpha} EMITTERS IN THE CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Z. Y.; Wang, J. X.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Finkelstein, K. D.; Malhotra, S.; Rhoads, J. E. E-mail: jxw@ustc.edu.c

    2010-07-20

    We report the first X-ray detection of Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) at redshift z {approx} 4.5. One source (J033127.2-274247) is detected in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (ECDF-S) X-ray data and has been spectroscopically confirmed as a z = 4.48 quasar with L{sub X} = 4.2 x 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}. The single detection gives an Ly{alpha} quasar density of {approx} 2.7{sup +6.2} {sub -2.2} x 10{sup -6} Mpc{sup -3}, consistent with the X-ray luminosity function of quasars. Another 22 LAEs in the central Chandra Deep Field-South region are not detected individually, but their co-added counts yield an S/N = 2.4 (p = 99.83%) detection at soft band, with an effective exposure time of {approx}36 Ms. Further analysis of the equivalent width (EW) distribution shows that all the signals come from 12 LAE candidates with EW{sub rest}< 400 A and 2 of them contribute about half of the signal. From follow-up spectroscopic observations, we find that one of the two is a low-redshift emission-line galaxy, and the other is a Lyman break galaxy at z = 4.4 with little or no Ly{alpha} emission. Excluding these two and combined with ECDF-S data, we derive a 3{sigma} upper limit on the average X-ray flux of F {sub 0.5-2.0keV} < 1.6 x 10{sup -18} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, which corresponds to an average luminosity of (L {sub 0.5-2keV}) <2.4 x 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1} for z {approx} 4.5 LAEs. If the average X-ray emission is due to star formation, it corresponds to a star formation rate (SFR) of <180-530 M {sub sun} yr{sup -1}. We use this SFR {sub X} as an upper limit of the unobscured SFR to constrain the escape fraction of Ly{alpha} photons and find a lower limit of f{sub esc,Ly{alpha}} > 3%-10%. However, our upper limit on the SFR {sub X} is {approx}7 times larger than the upper limit on SFR {sub X} on z {approx} 3.1 LAEs in the same field and at least 30 times higher than the SFR estimated from Ly{alpha} emission. From the average X-ray-to-Ly{alpha} line ratio, we estimate that

  15. Field Problems in the South Bronx.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madrigal, Stasia, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Articles in this issue of the bulletin of the Hispanic Research Center focus on the problems of collecting demographic and social data in the South Bronx. The introductory article summarizes the contents of this issue. The second (by Lloyd H. Rogler, Osvaldo Barreras, and Rosemary Santana Cooney) is based on the experiences of field workers…

  16. The use of MODIS data to derive acreage estimations for larger fields: A case study in the south-western Rostov region of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, S.; Massart, M.; Savin, I.; Gallego, J.; Rembold, F.

    2008-12-01

    Recent developments in remote sensing technology, in particular improved spatial and temporal resolution, open new possibilities for estimating crop acreage over larger areas. Remotely sensed data allow in some cases the estimation of crop acreage statistics independently of sub-national survey statistics, which are sometimes biased and incomplete. This work focuses on the use of MODIS data acquired in 2001/2002 over the Rostov Oblast in Russia, by the Azov Sea. The region is characterised by large agricultural fields of around 75 ha on average. This paper presents a methodology to estimate crop acreage using the MODIS 16-day composite NDVI product. Particular emphasis is placed on a good quality crop mask and a good quality validation dataset. In order to have a second dataset which can be used for cross-checking the MODIS classification a Landsat ETM time series for four different dates in the season of 2002 was acquired and classified. We attempted to distinguish five different crop types and achieved satisfactory and good results for winter crops. Three hundred and sixty fields were identified to be suitable for the training and validation of the MODIS classification using a maximum likelihood classification. A novel method based on a pure pixel field sampling is introduced. This novel method is compared with the traditional hard classification of mixed pixels and was found to be superior.

  17. Regional simulation of interannual variability over South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, V.; Dirmeyer, P. A.; Kirtman, B. P.; Juang, H.-M. Henry; Kanamitsu, M.

    2002-08-01

    Three regional climate simulations covering the austral summer season during three contrasting phases of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation cycle were conducted with the Regional Spectral Model (RSM) developed at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). The simulated interannual variability of precipitation over the Amazon River Basin, the Intertropical Convergence Zone, the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean basins, and extratropical South America compare reasonably well with observations. The RSM optimally filters the peturbations about a time-varying base field, thereby enhancing the information content of the global NCEP reanalysis. The model is better than the reanalysis in reproducing the observed interannual variability of outgoing longwave radiation at both high frequencies (3-30 days) and intraseasonal (30-60 days) scales. The low-level jet shows a peak in its speed in 1998 and a minimum in the 1999 simulations. The lag correlation of the jet index with convection over various areas in continental South America indicates that the jet induces precipitation over the Pampas region downstream. A detailed moisture budget was conducted over various subregions. This budget reveals that moisture flux convergence determines most of the interannual variability of precipitation over the Amazon Basin, the Atlantic Intertropical Convergence Zone, and the Nordeste region of Brazil. However, both surface evaporation and surface moisture flux convergence were found to be critical in determining the interannual variability of precipitation over the southern Pampas, Gran Chaco area, and the South Atlantic Convergence Zone.

  18. INTERIOR PERSPECTIVE, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHWEST WITH FIELD SET UP IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR PERSPECTIVE, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHWEST WITH FIELD SET UP IN FOOTBALL CONFIGURATION. FIELD SEATING ROTATES TO ACCOMMODATE BASEBALL GAMES. - Houston Astrodome, 8400 Kirby Drive, Houston, Harris County, TX

  19. Moving Toward a Regional Safeguards System in South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Killinger, Mark H.; Griggs, James R.

    2001-07-28

    In addressing the nuclear nonproliferation challenges of South Asia, it is useful to examine the similar past nonproliferation problems in South America. The nuclear rapprochement between Argentina and Brazil involved several developments in progression. We conclude that two developments are particularly applicable to the India/Pakistan problem: technical cooperation and a regional safeguards system. This paper reviews the history of Argentina/Brazil rapprochement, discusses application to India/Pakistan, and proposes specific actions to move South Asia toward regional stability.

  20. Dolomite occurrence in Coorong region, south Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, M.; Warren, J.K. )

    1988-02-01

    Lakes in the Coorong region are filled with a diverse suite of Holocene carbonates; mineralogies include aragonite, calcite, magnesium-calcite, magnesite, hydromagnesite, and dolomite. Dolomite is the main mineral of concern in this paper, yet it makes up no more than 5% of the carbonate minerals forming surficial deposits in the coastal plain of southeast South Australia. Coorong dolomite occurs as three stratigraphically and mineralogically distinct forms. Volumetrically, the most important type of dolomite is an evaporative dolomite laid down as the last episode of sedimentation in those Coorong Lakes that contain dolomite. In most lakes, dolomite is a capstone unit no more than a meter thick, although in a few lakes it has infilled the lakes to form dolomitic units up to 4-5 m thick. Evaporative dolomite is usually magnesian-rich. In some lakes, a calcian-rich dolomite occurs along the edges of the lake. Like the evaporative upper dolomite, this dolomite is not intergrown with other carbonate phases and appears to define areas where continental ground waters first enter the lake. A third type of dolomite occurs in some Coorong lakes. A basal dolomite, which is more crystalline than the other two forms of dolomite, appears to have formed some 6000 years ago when the rising Pleistocene water table (driven by a transgressing sea) first caused continental ground waters to outcrop and evaporate at the surface.

  1. Dolomite occurrence in Coorong region, South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, M.; Warren, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    Lakes in the Coorong region are filled with a diverse suite of Holocene carbonates; mineralogies include aragonite, calcite, magnesium-calcite, magnesite, hydromagnesite, and dolomite. Dolomite is the main mineral of concern in this paper, yet it makes up no more than 5% of the carbonate minerals forming surficial deposits in the coastal plain of southeast South Australia. Coorong dolomite occurs as three stratigraphically and mineralogically distinct forms. Volumetrically, the most important type of dolomite is an evaporative dolomite laid down as the last episode of sedimentation in those Coorong Lakes that contain dolomite. In most lakes, dolomite is a capstone unit no more than a meter thick, although in a few lakes, it has infilled the lakes to form dolomitic units up to 4-5 m thick. Evaporative dolomite is usually magnesian-rich. In some lakes, a calcian-rich dolomite occurs along the edges of the lake. Like the evaporative upper dolomite, this dolomite is not intergrown with other carbonate phases and appears to define areas where continental ground waters first enter the lake.

  2. Geopotential field anomalies and regional tectonic features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandea, Mioara; Korte, Monika

    2016-07-01

    Maps of both gravity and magnetic field anomalies offer crucial information about physical properties of the Earth's crust and upper mantle, required in understanding geological settings and tectonic structures. Density and magnetization represent independent rock properties and thus provide complementary information on compositional and structural changes. Two regions are considered: southern Africa (encompassing South Africa, Namibia and Botswana) and Germany. This twofold choice is motivated firstly by the fact that these regions represent rather diverse geological and geophysical conditions (old Archean crust with strong magnetic anomalies in southern Africa, and much younger, weakly magnetized crust in central Europe) and secondly by our intimate knowledge of the magnetic vector ground data from these two regions. We take also advantage of the recently developed satellite potential field models and compare magnetic and gravity gradient anomalies of some 200 km resolution. Comparing short and long wavelength anomalies and the correlation of rather large scale magnetic and gravity anomalies, and relating them to known lithospheric structures, we generally find a better agreement over the southern African region than the German territory. This probably indicates a stronger concordance between near-surface and deeper structures in the former area, which can be perceived to agree with a thicker lithosphere.

  3. Distribution and Properties of Aerosol and Gas Phase Constituents within Biomass Burning Regional Haze in Brazil, 2012, during the Sambba (South American Biomass Burning Analysis) Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbyshire, E.; Morgan, W.; Allan, J. D.; Flynn, M.; Liu, D.; O'Shea, S.; Trembath, J.; Szpek, K.; Langridge, J.; Brooke, J.; Ferreira De Brito, J.; Johnson, B. T.; Haywood, J.; Longo, K.; Artaxo, P.; Coe, H.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass Burning (BB) aerosols (BBA) impact upon weather, climate, ecosystems and human health at global and regional scales. Yet quantitative evaluation is impeded by a limited understanding of BB processes and a dearth of in-situ measurements. Thus large model uncertainties prevail, especially in data poor, intensive BB regions such as Brazil. Hence the timely nature of the SAMBBA campaign, utilizing aircraft (UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement BAe-146) and ground based observations out of Porto Velho in Sept-Oct 2012. This work utilizes aircraft measurements to characterize BB regional haze - the inhomogeneous accumulation of aged BBA capped within the boundary layer, present across swathes of Brazil. As context, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and meteorological climatologies are presented and compared to the synoptic conditions of 2012. Throughout the early flights an expansive area of elevated (>1) AOD persisted, although in transitioning toward the wet season, rain out and advection significantly reduced its spatial extent and magnitude in western regions of Brazil. Concurrent decreases in haze BBA concentrations (~50%) were observed from the aircraft measurements sampling in these deforested/forested areas. However, the relative vertical structure, composition, physical and optical properties remained similar. The lofted maxima in aerosol concentrations at ~1.5km, typically not captured in models, is potentially important for regional climate. Significant differences were observed, however, during flights over the eastern savannah-like regions of Brazil, which remained drier throughout. Here, haze BBA concentrations resembled those in the west prior to wash out, with the exception of high loadings of refractive black carbon. This acted to lower the single scattering albedo and alter the number size distribution. The observed haze BBA west-east split is also present at source and remains similar throughout fresh plume evolution, thus we conclude

  4. Characteristics of the E - and F -region field-aligned irregularities in middle latitudes: Initial results obtained from the Daejeon 40.8 MHz VHF radar in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Young-Sil; Yang, Tae-Yong; Kil, Hoysub; Phanikumar, D.; Heo, Bok-Haeng; Lee, Jae-Jin; Hwang, Junga; Choi, Seong-Hwan; Park, Young-Deuk; Choi, Ho-Seong

    2014-03-01

    We present preliminary observations of the field-aligned-irregularities (FAIs) in the E and F regions during the solar minimum (2009 - 2010) using the 40.8 MHz coherent backscatter radar at Daejeon (36.18°N, 127.14°E, 26.7°N dip latitude) in South Korea. The radar, which consists of 24 Yagi antennas, observes the FAIs using a single beam with a peak power of 24 kW. The radar has been continuously operated since December 2009. Depending on the manner of occurrence of the backscatter echoes, the E-region echoes are largely divided into two types: quasi-periodic (QP) and continuous echoes. Our observations show that the QP echoes occur frequently above an altitude of 105 km in the post-sunset period and continuous echoes occur preferentially around an altitude of 105 km in the post-sunrise period. QP echoes appear as striated discrete echoes for a period of about 10 - 20 min. The QP-type echoes occur more frequently than the continuoustype echoes do and the echo intensity of the QP type is stronger than that of the continuous type. In the F region, the FAIs occur at night at an altitude interval of 250 - 450 km. As time proceeds, the occurrence height of the FAIs gradually increases until early in the morning and then decreases. The duration of the F-region FAIs is typically a few hours at night, although, in rare cases, FAIs persist throughout the night or appear even after sunrise. We discuss the similarities and differences of the FAIs observed by the Daejeon radar in comparison with other radar observations.

  5. An Ecological Regional Analysis of South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Frank W.; Robinson, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    This study of the counties of South Carolina introduces a limited purpose, modifiable technology that is designed to reproduce the rapid discovery strategy of the natural sciences. It uses factor analysis to identify types of communities and the threats they face, and evaluates their success in dealing with these by comparisons based on…

  6. South Pole Region of the Moon as Seen by Clementine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Lunar mosaic of 1500 Clementine images of the south polar region of the moon. The projection is orthographic, centered on the south pole. The Schrodinger Basin (320 km in diameter) is located in the lower right of the mosaic. Amundsen-Ganswindt is the more subdued circular basin between Schrodinger and the pole. The polar regions of the moon are of special interest because of the postulated occurrence of ice in permanently shadowed areas. The south pole is of greater interest because the area that remains in shadow is much larger than that at the north pole.

  7. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California; 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyke, Jessica; Parchaso, Janet K.; Thompson, Janet K.; Cain, Daniel J.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2010-01-01

    Results reported herein include trace element concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica (Cohen and Carlton, 1995)), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure for a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay. This report includes data collected for the period January 2009 to December 2009 and extends a critical long-term biogeochemical record dating back to 1974. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto's Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. In 2009, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record and consistent with results observed since 1991. Following significant reductions in the late 1980s, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations appeared to have stabilized. Annual mean concentrations have fluctuated modestly (2-4 fold) in a nondirectional manner. Data for other metals, including chromium, mercury, nickel, selenium, vanadium, and zinc, have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements, which more likely reflect regional inputs and systemwide processes, have remained relatively constant, aside from typical seasonal variation that is common to all elements. Within years, the winter months (January-March) generally exhibit maximum concentrations, with a decline to annual minima in spring through fall. Mercury (Hg) in sediments and M. petalum were comparable to concentrations observed in 2008 and were generally consistent with data from previous years. Selenium (Se) concentrations in sediment varied among years and showed no sustained temporal trend. In 2009, sedimentary Se concentrations declined from the record high concentrations observed in 2008 to concentrations that were among the lowest on record. Selenium in M. petalum was unchanged from 2008

  8. Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring of Trace Metals and a Benthic Community Near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California: 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, Daniel J.; Thompson, Janet K.; Dyke, Jessica; Parcheso, Francis; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2009-01-01

    Results reported herein include trace element concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica (Cohen and Carlton, 1995)), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure for a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay. This report includes data collected for the period January 2008 to December 2008 and extends a critical long-term biogeochemical record dating back to 1974. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto's Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. In 2008, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record and consistent with results observed since 1991. Following significant reductions in the late 1980's, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations appeared to have stabilized. Annual mean concentrations have fluctuated modestly (2-4 fold) in a nondirectional manner. Data for other metals, including chromium, mercury, nickel, selenium, vanadium, and zinc, have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements, which more likely reflect regional inputs and systemwide processes, have remained relatively constant, aside from typical seasonal variation that is common to all elements. Within years, concentrations generally reach maximum in winter months (January-March) and decline to annual minima in spring through fall. Mercury (Hg) in sediments spiked to the highest observed level in January 2008. However, sedimentary concentrations for the rest of the year and concentrations of Hg in M. petalum for the entire year were consistent with data from previous years. Average selenium (Se) concentrations in sediment were the highest on record, but there is no evidence, yet, to suggest a temporal trend of increasing sedimentary Se. Selenium in M. petalum was not elevated relative to

  9. Simulation of South Asian aerosols for regional climate studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Vijayakumar S.; Solmon, Fabien; Giorgi, Filippo; Mariotti, Laura; Babu, S. Suresh; Moorthy, K. Krishna

    2012-02-01

    Extensive intercomparison of columnar and near-surface aerosols, simulated over the South Asian domain using the aerosol module included in the regional climate model (RegCM4) of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) have been carried out using ground-based network of Sun/sky Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) radiometers, satellite sensors such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), and ground-based black carbon (BC) measurements made at Aerosol Radiative Forcing over India (ARFI) network stations. In general, RegCM4 simulations reproduced the spatial and seasonal characteristics of aerosol optical depth over South Asia reasonably well, particularly over west Asia, where mineral dust is a major contributor to the total aerosol loading. In contrast, RegCM4 simulations drastically underestimated the BC mass concentrations over most of the stations, by a factor of 2 to 5, with a large spatial variability. Seasonally, the discrepancy between the measured and simulated BC tended to be higher during winter and periods when the atmospheric boundary layer is convectively stable (such as nighttime and early mornings), while during summer season and during periods when the boundary layer is convectively unstable (daytime) the discrepancies were much lower, with the noontime values agreeing very closely with the observations. A detailed analysis revealed that the model does not reproduce the nocturnal high in BC, observed at most of the Indian sites especially during winter, because of the excessive vertical transport of aerosols under stable boundary layer conditions. As far as the vertical distribution was concerned, the simulated vertical profiles of BC agreed well with airborne measurements during daytime. This comprehensive validation exercise reveals the strengths and weaknesses of the model in simulating the spatial and temporal heterogeneities of the aerosol fields over

  10. A New South America Electric Field Monitor Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin, J.; Tacza, J.; Macotela, E. L.; Norabuena, E. O.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we present the installation and operation of a new network of sensors located in South America in order to monitor the atmospheric electric field.The network is composed of five sensors installed at different locations spread over in Argentina and Perú.The main goals of such new instrumental facility is to provide continuous measurements of the diurnal variations of the atmospheric electric field during undisturbed (fair weather) conditions. Our aim is to study the variations of the daily Carnegie curve in different timescales: (i) monthly and seasonal changes; (ii) short and long-term related to transient explosive solar phenomena, geomagnetic disturbances, and the solar activity cycle, respectively; (iii) time and space variations and their relation with seismic activity occurrence in the region. Here we present the calibration of the different sensors as well as the resulting daily and monthly curves. We also discuss the ability of such data base to investigate the above scientific problems.

  11. Regional integration and south-south cooperation in health in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Carrillo Roa, Alejandra; Santana, José Paranaguá de

    2012-11-01

    This paper analyzes whether south-south cooperation is legitimately a recent practice or merely an improved version of previous regional integration processes in Latin America and the Caribbean. The authors reviewed and systematized the historic development of subregional integration processes in Latin America and the Caribbean and focused on health cooperation in the following contexts: the Central American Integration System, the Andean Community of Nations, the Caribbean Community, the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization, the Southern Common Market, and the Union of South American Nations. The study concludes that the conceptual and methodologic foundations of south-south cooperation in health were born from and nurtured by the processes of regional integration in Latin America and the Caribbean. This paper posits that regional political and economic integration initiatives bring potential benefits to the health sector and act as an important mechanism to develop south-south cooperation in this domain. The study recommends furthering this type of research to provide information that will allow national and multilateral agencies, or other stakeholders, to formulate and implement better policies for international health cooperation that target reducing inequities and promoting health and well-being for all people. PMID:23338694

  12. The South Florida Environment: A Region Under Stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPherson, Benjamin F.; Halley, Robert B.

    1996-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the environmental setting in South Florida and serves as review and framework for developing U.S. Geological Survey programs in the region. The report describes the predevelopment and the current (present-day) environmental conditions in South Florida with emphasis on the quantity and quality of water. The geographical area covered is the southern one-half of the State and includes the South Florida National Water-Quality Assessment study area and adjacent coastal waters. This study area covers about 19,500 square miles and is the watershed of the larger regional ecosystem. The regional ecosystem includes the coastal waters between Charlotte Harbor on the Gulf of Mexico and the St. Lucie River on the Atlantic Ocean and the lands that drain into these waters.

  13. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto regional water quality control plant in south San Francisco Bay, California: 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, Daniel J.; Parcheso, Francis; Thompson, Janet K.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Lorenzi, Allison H.; Moon, Edward; Shouse, Michelle K.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Dyke, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    Trace elements in sediment and the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica (Cohen and Carlton 1995), clam reproductive activity and benthic, macroinvertebrate community structure are reported for a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay. This report includes data collected for the period January to December 2005, and extends a critical long-term biogeochemical record dating back to 1974. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto's Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue during 2005 were consistent with results observed since 1990. Copper and zinc concentrations in sediment and bivalve tissue displayed a continued decrease over the last decade. In 2005, Cu concentrations were at or below the effects range-low (ERL) concentration (34 ?g/g) for the entire year, the first time this has been observed. Also, zinc concentrations never exceeded the ERL (150 ?g/g). Yearly average concentrations of copper, zinc and silver in Macoma petalum for 2005 were some of the lowest recorded since monitoring for metals began in 1975. The concentrations of mercury and selenium in sediments, during April and January 2004, respectively, were the highest values observed for these elements during this study. Later in 2005, concentrations decreased to historic levels. The increase in mercury and selenium in 2004 was not a permanent trend and concentrations of these elements in sediments and clams at Palo Alto remain similar to concentrations observed elsewhere in the San Francisco Bay. Analyses of the benthic-community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 31-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinal clam Macoma petalum from the same area. Analysis of the

  14. Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring of Trace Metals and a Benthic Community Near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California: 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenzi, Allison H.; Cain, Daniel J.; Parcheso, Francis; Thompson, Janet K.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Dyke, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Results reported herein include trace element concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica (Cohen and Carlton 1995)), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure for a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay. This report includes data collected for the period January 2007 to December 2007, and extends a critical long-term biogeochemical record dating back to 1974. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto?s Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue during 2007 remained consistent with results observed since 1990. Most notably, copper and silver concentrations in sediment and clam tissue are elevated for the second consecutive year, but the values remain well within the range of past findings. Other metals such as chromium, nickel, vanadium, and zinc remained relatively constant throughout the year except for maximum values that generally occur in winter months (January-March). Mercury levels in sediment and clam tissue were some of the lowest seen on record. Last year?s elevated selenium levels appear to be transient, and selenium concentrations have returned to background levels. Overall, metal concentrations in sediments and tissue remain within past findings. Analyses of the benthic-community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 31-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam, M. petalum, from the same area. Analysis of the reproductive activity of M. petalum shows increases in reproductive activity concurrent with the decline in metal concentrations in the tissues of this organism. Reproductive activity is presently stable, with almost all animals initiating

  15. Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring of Trace Metals and a Benthic Community Near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California: 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenzi, Allison H.; Cain, Daniel J.; Parcheso, Francis; Thompson, Janet K.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Dyke, Jessica; Cervantes, Raul; Shouse, Michelle K.

    2007-01-01

    Results reported herein include trace element concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica (Cohen and Carlton 1995)), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure for a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay. This report includes data collected for the period January 2006 to December 2006, and extends a critical long-term biogeochemical record dating back to 1974. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto's Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue during 2006 were consistent with results observed since 1990. Most notably, copper and silver concentrations in sediment and clam tissue increased in the last year but the values remain well within range of past data. Other metals such as chromium, nickel, vanadium, and zinc remained relatively constant throughout the year except for maximum values generally occurring in winter months (January-March). Mercury levels in sediment and clam tissue were some of the lowest seen on record. Conversely, selenium concentrations reached a maximum level but soon returned to baseline levels. In all, metal concentrations in sediments and tissue remain within past findings. There are no obvious directional trends (increasing or decreasing). Analyses of the benthic-community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 31-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam M. petalum from the same area. Analysis of the reproductive activity of M. petalum shows increases in reproductive activity concurrent with the decline in metal concentrations in the tissues of this organism. Reproductive activity is presently stable, with almost all animals

  16. Parade field, looking from corner of south Hutton St. And ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Parade field, looking from corner of south Hutton St. And Charlie Kelly Blvd. To the northeast towards the 400 series quarters. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Bounded by East Colfax to south, Peoria Street to west, Denver City/County & Adams County Line to north, & U.S. Route 255 to east, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  17. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in South Asian region: a review.

    PubMed

    Ali, Usman; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C

    2014-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are semi volatile organic compounds of global concern. During the last decades, their distribution, sources, transformation, toxicity and accumulation in the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems have gained significant attention. Many of these chemicals are characterized by long range atmospheric transport potential, and their occurrence in remote areas is attributed to transport of chemicals from places where OCPs are still in use. The South Asia region is a place where primarily emissions are still taking place and thus it is important to assess the status of OCPs pollution. This document provides the historical overview and country specific environmental legislation of OCPs from the South Asian region in the context of their illegal use and storage for extended periods and still until to date. In addition, the current review discusses the existing knowledge on the levels and distribution of OCPs in different environmental compartments of South Asian region. Data on OCPs also highlights the risk assessment of these organic contaminants in the regional environment and spans the long range atmospheric transport phenomena based on Himalayas and Northern mountainous glaciers. Paradoxically in the scientific literature sources, distribution and transport of these organic pollutants in South Asian region are very limited compared to the rest of the world. PMID:24522007

  18. VIEW SOUTH TOWARD MOVEABLE FIELD LEVEL SEATS. NOTE RETRACTABLE PENTAGONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTH TOWARD MOVEABLE FIELD LEVEL SEATS. NOTE RETRACTABLE PENTAGONAL LIGHT RING GONDOLA SUSPENDED FROM ROOF CUPOLA. SKY LIGHTS PAINTED OVER TO REDUCE GLARE FOR BASEBALL OUTFIELDERS. - Houston Astrodome, 8400 Kirby Drive, Houston, Harris County, TX

  19. South Carolina and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This document details South Carolina's participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Each member state receives a number of general services, plus access to targeted programs funded by grants, contracts and fees. Appropriations from member states support SREB's core…

  20. Regional University Access: A Case Study from the South West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eversole, Robyn

    A study examined university service delivery in an isolated, inland region of south Western Australia. Surveys, focus groups, and interviews with students and former students found that many pre-university youths leave the area because education is only offered through year 10. Therefore, college students in the area tend to be mature-aged. Key…

  1. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California: 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyke, Jessica; Thompson, Janet K.; Cain, Daniel J.; Kleckner, Amy E.; Parcheso, Francis; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2012-01-01

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period January 2011 to December 2011. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto's Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Following significant reductions in the late 1980s, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations in sediment and M. petalum appear to have stabilized. Data for other metals, including chromium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc, have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements have remained relatively constant, aside from seasonal variation that is common to all elements. In 2011, concentrations of Ag and Cu in M. petalum varied seasonally in response to a combination of site-specific metal exposures and annual growth and reproduction, as reported previously. Seasonal patterns for other elements, including Cr, Hg, Ni, Se, and Zn, were generally similar in timing and magnitude as those for Ag and Cu. In 2011, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record. This record suggests that regional-scale factors now largely control sedimentary and bioavailable concentrations of Ag and Cu, as well as other elements of regulatory interest, at the Palo Alto site. Analyses of the benthic community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 38-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam, M. petalum, from the same area. Analysis of the M. petalum community

  2. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyke, Jessica; Thompson, Janet K.; Cain, Daniel J.; Kleckner, Amy E.; Parcheso, Francis; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2013-01-01

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period January to December 2012. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto’s Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Following significant reductions in the late 1980s, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations in sediment and in M. petalum appear to have stabilized. Data for other metals, including chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn), have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements have remained relatively constant, aside from seasonal variation that is common to all elements. In 2012, concentrations of Ag and Cu in M. petalum varied seasonally in response to a combination of site-specific metal exposures and annual growth and reproduction, as reported for previous time periods. Seasonal patterns for other elements, including Cr, Ni, Zn, Hg, and Se were generally similar in timing and magnitude as those for Ag and Cu. In 2012, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record. This record suggests that regional-scale factors now largely control sedimentary and bioavailable concentrations of Ag and Cu, as well as other elements of regulatory interest, at the Palo Alto site. Analyses of the benthic community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 39-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam, M. petalum, from the same area

  3. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California: 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyke, Jessica; Cain, Daniel J.; Thompson, Janet K.; Kleckner, Amy E.; Parcheso, Francis; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2014-01-01

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period January 2013 to December 2013. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto’s Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Following significant reductions in the late 1980s, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations in sediment and M. petalum appear to have stabilized. Data for other metals, including chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn), have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements have remained relatively constant, aside from seasonal variation that is common to all elements. In 2013, concentrations of Ag and Cu in M. petalum varied seasonally in response to a combination of site-specific metal exposures and annual growth and reproduction, as reported previously. Seasonal patterns for other elements, including Cr, Ni, Zn, Hg, and Se, were generally similar in timing and magnitude as those for Ag and Cu. In M. petalum, all observed elements showed annual maxima in January–February and minima in April, except for Zn, which was lowest in December. In sediments, annual maxima also occurred in January–February, and minima were measured in June and September. In 2013, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record. This record suggests that regional-scale factors now largely control sedimentary and bioavailable concentrations of Ag and Cu, as well as other elements of regulatory interest, at the Palo Alto site. Analyses of the benthic community structure of a

  4. The South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study: Nearshore Hydrodynamics Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, K. A.; Voulgaris, G.; Demir, H.; Work, P. A.; Hanes, D. M.

    2004-12-01

    As part of the South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study (SCCES) a nearshore field experiment was carried out for five days in December 2003 just north of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, providing measurements of the waves, currents and morphological evolution. This experiment occurred concurrently with an extensive field campaign several kilometers offshore which included measurements of the waves and currents on and near a significant sand shoal. The purpose of the nearshore experiment was to aid in the identification of the effect of the offshore shoal on the nearshore processes. The resulting dataset will be used for verification of numerical models being used to investigate the hydrodynamics of the region. The experiment was carried out from December 10 to December 15 and consisted of measurements of the waves and currents, extensive surveys of the bathymetry every day, grab samples of the sediments, and video imagery. The hydrodynamics were measured using two Sontek Triton downward-looking Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters and two Nortek AquaDopp profilers arranged in a cross-shore line from inside the swash to several surf zone widths past the breakers. The bathymetric surveying was accomplished using both a differential GPS system and a total station. Surveying was performed each day in order to capture the morphological changes. On the last day, seven sediment samples were taken along a single cross-section to determine the sediment characteristics across the beach. Additionally, a video camera was located on a balcony of the top floor of a nearby hotel providing an excellent field of view of the entire experimental area. Digital video was captured directly onto a computer during all daylight hours and many control points were surveyed in each day to facilitate rectification of the imagery. A variety of conditions were encountered during the experiment, including two storm fronts which passed through, generating wind speeds up to 15 m/s. The first storm generated

  5. Variation of the Earth's magnetic field strength in South America during the last two millennia: New results from historical buildings of Buenos Aires and re-evaluation of regional data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Morales, Juan; Schavelzon, Daniel; Vásquez, Carlos; Gogorza, Claudia S. G.; Loponte, Daniel; Rapalini, Augusto

    2015-08-01

    The causes of the systematic decay of the Earth's Magnetic Field strength since eighteen century have been a matter of debate during the last decade. It is also well known that such variations may have completely different expressions under an area characterized with strong magnetic anomalies, such as the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly. To fully understand these atypical phenomena, it is crucial to retrieve the past evolution of Earth's magnetic field beyond the observatory records. We report on detailed rock-magnetic and archeointensity investigations from some well-studied historical buildings of Buenos Aires city, located at the heart of the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly. Samples consist of bricks, tiles, fireplaces and pottery, which are considered as highly suitable materials for archaeointensity studies. The dating is ascertained by historical documents complemented by archeological constraints. Eighteen out of 26 analyzed samples yield reliable absolute intensity determinations. The site-mean archaeointensity values obtained in this study range from 28.5 to 43.5 μT, with corresponding virtual axial dipole moments (VADMs) ranging from 5.3 to 8.04 × 1022 Am2. Most determinations obtained in the present study are in remarkable agreement with the values predicted by the time varying field model CALS10k.1b (Korte et al., 2011). For the older periods the recently available SHA.DIF.14 model (Pavon-Carrasco et al., 2014) seems to have greater resolution. South American archaeointensity database now includes absolute intensities from 400 to 1930 AD based on 63 selected archaeointensity determinations. The data set reveals several distinct periods of quite large fluctuations of intensity. However, most data are concentrated into a relatively narrow interval from AD 1250 to AD 1450. At the beginning of the record, values between 400 AD and 830 AD match well with ARCH3k.1 model. Some general features may be detected: the time intervals from about AD 400 to 950 and

  6. Evaluation Field Building in South Asia: Reflections, Anecdotes, and Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    This article examines evaluation field building in South Asia and the role of international collaboration in this field building. The article explores aspects of the supply and demand of development evaluation and the political, historical, and systemic factors that bridge or block evaluation use. The article calls for and suggests elements to…

  7. High-Resolution Local Crustal Magnetic Field Modeling of the Martian South Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plattner, A.; Simons, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) satellite mission has brought us a wealth of information about the Martian magnetic field. Besides determining that Mars currently does not possess an active core field, MGS revealed that Mars contains an unexpectedly wide crustal magnetic field intensity range. In its orbit insertion, MGS performed a series of low altitude passes down to around 100 km above surface. During this mission phase the magnetic field measurements were active. In particular the nighttime low-altitude data are of high interest because they contain minimal noise from solar wind. Since these data only cover a small portion of the planet's surface, to date all Martian crustal magnetic field models blend the highest-quality data with lower quality measurements collected either at higher satellite altitudes or during daytime. In this contribution we present a locally inverted crustal magnetic field model for the Martian South Polar region calculated from only the highest-quality MGS data using locally constructed altitude vector Slepian functions. The South Polar region of Mars contains the southern part of the strongly magnetized Terra Sirenum and the area south of the Tharsis volcanic highland. Besides parts of planetary scale features our area of data coverage also contains local features such as the presumably volcanic Australe Montes and the Prometheus impact crater. These ingredients compose a highly heterogeneous crustal magnetic field. We show that even for our dense low-altitude low-noise data set the inversion for the crustal magnetic field of a weakly magnetized region adjacent to a region containing a strong magnetic field leads to artifacts in the weak region. With our local method we can avoid these artifacts by selecting subregions of roughly homogeneous field intensity and individually invert for crustal magnetic fields from data within only these subregions. This regional and subregional modeling allows us to reveal previously obscured crustal

  8. Surface Texture Analysis of Enceladus' South Polar Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, J. P.; Buratti, B. J.; Hicks, M.; Mosher, J.; Landry, B.

    2009-12-01

    The Cassini spacecraft's discovery of active plumes at the south pole of Enceladus on its July 2006 flyby has sparked greater interest in both its internal and external physical and chemical properties. We choose to investigate the macroscopic surface texture of this active south polar region by implementing a surface roughness model developed by Buratti and Veverka (1985). The model requires intensity scans of Enceladus's surface and two unknown parameters: a scattering parameter A that indicates whether single or diffuse scattering is occurring, and a surface phase function f (α) that reflects changes in intensity due to various factors such as the single scattering albedo and the single particle phase function. The output is a quantitative description of surface roughness through a depth-to-radius ratio q. After fitting the model to the data, we find that plains north of the “tiger stripes” are fairly smooth, with preliminary values for q of around 0.08. Meanwhile, the stripes themselves are only slightly more rough, with preliminary values for q of around 0.10. These results strongly suggest in-filled coating of craters with water-ice throughout the entire south polar region of Enceladus. Furthermore, the model surface roughness of Enceladus does not appear to be sensitive to the choice of our photometric function, as changing A has little effect on q.

  9. 40 CFR 81.166 - South Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false South Central Coast Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.166 South Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (California) consists of the territorial...

  10. High Latitude Meridional Flow on the Sun May Explain North-South Polar Field Asymmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosak, Katie; Upton, Lisa; Hathaway, David

    2012-01-01

    We measured the flows of magnetic elements on the Sun at very high latitudes by analyzing magnetic images from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Mission. Magnetic maps constructed using a fixed, and north-south symmetric, meridional flow profile give weaker than observed polar fields in the North and stronger than observed polar fields in the South during the decline of Cycle 23 and rise of Cycle 24. Our measurements of the meridional flow at high latitudes indicate systematic north-south differences. In the fall of 2010 (when the North Pole was most visible), there was a strong flow in the North while in the spring of 2011 (when the South Pole was most visible) the flow there was weaker. With these results, we have a possible solution to this polar field asymmetry. The weaker flow in the South should keep the polar fields from becoming too strong while the stronger flow in the North should strengthen the field there. In order to gain a better understanding of the Solar Cycle and magnetic flux transport on the Sun, we need further observations and analyses of the Sun s polar regions in general and the polar meridional flow in particular.

  11. High Latitude Meridional Flow on the Sun May Explain North-South Polar Field Asymmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosak, Katie; Upton, Lisa; Hathaway, David

    2012-01-01

    We measured the flows of magnetic elements on the Sun at very high latitudes by analyzing magnetic images from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Mission. Magnetic maps constructed using a fixed, and north-south symmetric, meridional flow profile give weaker than observed polar fields in the North and stronger than observed polar fields in the South during the decline of Cycle 23 and rise of Cycle 24. Our measurements of the meridional flow at high latitudes indicate systematic north-south differences. There was a strong flow in the North while the flow in the South was weaker. With these results, we have a possible solution to the polar field asymmetry. The weaker flow in the South should keep the polar fields from becoming too strong while the stronger flow in the North should strengthen the field there. In order to gain a better understanding of the Solar Cycle and magnetic flux transport on the Sun, we need further observations and analyses of the Sun's polar regions in general and the polar meridonal flow in particular.

  12. High Latitude Meridional Flow on the Sun May Explain North-South Polar Field Asymmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosak, Katie; Upton, Lisa; Hathaway, David

    2012-01-01

    We measured the flows of magnetic elements on the Sun at very high latitudes by analyzing magnetic images from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Mission. Magnetic maps constructed using a fixed, and north ]south symmetric, meridional flow profile give weaker than observed polar fields in the North and stronger than observed polar fields in the South during the decline of Cycle 23 and rise of Cycle 24. Our measurements of the meridional flow at high latitudes indicate systematic north ]south differences. There was a strong flow in the North while the flow in the South was weaker. With these results, we have a possible solution to the polar field asymmetry. The weaker flow in the South should keep the polar fields from becoming too strong while the stronger flow in the North should strengthen the field there. In order to gain a better understanding of the Solar Cycle and magnetic flux transport on the Sun, we need further observations and analyses of the Sun fs polar regions in general and the polar meridional flow in particular

  13. Preliminary albedo map of the south polar region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devaucouleurs, G.; Roth, J.; Mulholand, C.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary albedo map of the Martian south polar region in stereographic projection was prepared mainly from mission test video system (MTVS) prints before rectified and gridded prints were received, but some adjustments were made to conform with a semi-controlled photomosaic. Wherever possible, use also was made of crater coordinates. Two versions of the map are presented: one with a coordinate grid overlay and one without it. The precision of the coordinates is generally within 1 deg in latitude and the corresponding are in longitude. The maps show both the albedo markings and, with subdued contrast, the craters and topographic features that are necessary to locate the former. The map covers the range of latitudes from - 65 deg to the south pole.

  14. Opium Field Detection in South Oxfordshire Using SAR Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Nick; Marino, Armando

    2011-03-01

    To-date the use of satellite imagery to monitor the growth of illicit crops such as marijuana, opium and coca has mostly been conducted using optical frequencies. However, it is well known that while optical imagery can be hampered by localised aerosols such as thin clouds, cirrus, haze and smoke, these do not present a problem for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). In recent years a new generation of satellite borne sensors have also been equipped with enhanced polarimetric capabilities, which can potentially help with detecting and classifying different terrain types. For these reasons we believe it is useful to consider whether high resolution polarimetric SAR data can be applied to illicit crop detection.In this paper we present the results of an experiment whereby opium poppy fields were successfully detected in the south Oxfordshire region in the UK using RadarSat-2 quad-polarisation imagery. It should be noted that these crops are not being grown illicitly but instead are being cultivated for medicinal reasons in parts of the UK. It is interesting to note that the poppies cultivated for opium in the UK have white flowers rather than the more familiar red as can be seen from the photograph in Figure 1, which was taken 11 days earlier in the season compared to Figure 4 and Figure 5.

  15. Stratigraphy of the south polar region of Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dehon, R. A.

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary assessment is made of the stratigraphy and geology in the south polar region of the Jovian satellite, Ganymede. Geologic mapping is based on inspection of Voyager images and compilation on an airbrush base map at a scale of 1:5M. Illumination and resolution vary greatly in the region. Approximately half of the quadripole is beyond the terminator. Low angle illumination over a large part of the area precludes distinction of some units by albedo characteristics. Several types of grooved terrain and groove related terrain occur in the southern polar region. Grooves typically occur in straight to curvilinear sets or lanes. Bright lanes and grooved lanes intersect at high angles outlining polygons of dark cratered terrain. Groove sets exhibit a range of ages as shown by superposition or truncation and by crater superposition ages.

  16. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 7. The south central region

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.L.; Graves, L.F.; Sprankle, A.C.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-03-01

    This atlas of the south central region combines seven collections of wind resource data: one for the region, and one for each of the six states (Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas). At the state level, features of the climate, topography, and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than that provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  17. Regional climate model projections of the South Pacific Convergence Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. P.; Bormann, K.; Katzfey, J.; Dean, S.; Arritt, R.

    2016-08-01

    This study presents results from regional climate model (RCM) projections for the south-west Pacific Ocean. The regional models used bias corrected sea surface temperatures. Six global climate models (GCMs) were used to drive a global variable resolution model on a quasi-uniform 60 km grid. One of these simulations was used to drive three limited area regional models. Thus a four member ensemble was produced by different RCMs downscaling the same GCM (GFDL2.1), and a six member ensemble was produced by the same RCM (Conformal Cubic Atmospheric Model—CCAM) downscaling six different GCMs. Comparison of the model results with precipitation observations shows the differences to be dominated by the choice of RCM, with all the CCAM simulations performing similarly and generally having lower error than the other RCMs. However, evaluating aspects of the model representation of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) does not show CCAM to perform better in this regard. In terms of the future projections of the SPCZ for the December-January-February season, the ensemble showed no consensus change in most characteristics though a majority of the ensemble members project a decrease in the SPCZ strength. Thus, similar to GCM based studies, there is large uncertainty concerning future changes in the SPCZ and there is no evidence to suggest that future changes will be outside the natural variability. These RCM simulations do not support an increase in the frequency of zonal SPCZ events.

  18. Regional climate model projections of the South Pacific Convergence Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. P.; Bormann, K.; Katzfey, J.; Dean, S.; Arritt, R.

    2015-10-01

    This study presents results from regional climate model (RCM) projections for the south-west Pacific Ocean. The regional models used bias corrected sea surface temperatures. Six global climate models (GCMs) were used to drive a global variable resolution model on a quasi-uniform 60 km grid. One of these simulations was used to drive three limited area regional models. Thus a four member ensemble was produced by different RCMs downscaling the same GCM (GFDL2.1), and a six member ensemble was produced by the same RCM (Conformal Cubic Atmospheric Model—CCAM) downscaling six different GCMs. Comparison of the model results with precipitation observations shows the differences to be dominated by the choice of RCM, with all the CCAM simulations performing similarly and generally having lower error than the other RCMs. However, evaluating aspects of the model representation of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) does not show CCAM to perform better in this regard. In terms of the future projections of the SPCZ for the December-January-February season, the ensemble showed no consensus change in most characteristics though a majority of the ensemble members project a decrease in the SPCZ strength. Thus, similar to GCM based studies, there is large uncertainty concerning future changes in the SPCZ and there is no evidence to suggest that future changes will be outside the natural variability. These RCM simulations do not support an increase in the frequency of zonal SPCZ events.

  19. Regional Framework for Self Paced Learning Modules. South Fraser Health Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blenkinsopp, John

    The purpose of this manual is to provide a guide for developing consistent, effective self-directed learning modules for the Surrey Memorial Hospital staff, physicians, and volunteers in the South Fraser Region. Eleven sections include: (1) "Philosophy for Self Paced Learning"; "What's Exciting?"; "What's the Challenge?"; (2) "Purpose"; (3)…

  20. Regional Consortia for E-Resources: A Case Study of Deals in the South China Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chunrong, Luo; Jingfen, Wang; Zhinong, Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the current situation and the social and economic benefits from the consortia acquisitions of electronic resources by the China Academic Library and Information System (CALIS) South China Regional Centre and to recommend improvements for consortia acquisitions. Design/methodology/approach: Analyses…

  1. Scrap tire management in the mid south region

    SciTech Connect

    Blumenthal, M.

    1996-08-01

    The Scrap Tire Management Council (STMC) is a North American tire manufacturer-sponsored advocacy organization, created to identify and promote environmentally and economically sound markets for scrap tires. This presentation gives a national overview of the scrap tire situation, and focuses on the Tennessee and Mid-south region. National generation rates and markets for scrap tires are discussed, and markets for scrap tires are described. The major markets identified are fuel, rubber products, and civil engineering applications. Three technologies that may have an impact on scrap tire recycling are discussed: pyrolysis, gasification, and devulcanization.

  2. A Multihazard Regional Level Impact Assessment for South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amarnath, Giriraj; Alahacoon, Niranga; Aggarwal, Pramod; Smakhtin, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    To prioritize climate adaptation strategies, there is a need for quantitative and systematic regional-level assessments which are comparable across multiple climatic hazard regimes. Assessing which countries in a region are most vulnerable to climate change requires analysis of multiple climatic hazards including: droughts, floods, extreme temperature as well as rainfall and sea-level rise. These five climatic hazards, along with population densities were modelled using GIS which enabled a summary of associated human exposure and agriculture losses. A combined index based on hazard, exposure and adaptive capacity is introduced to identify areas of extreme risks. The analysis results in population climate hazard exposure defined as the relative likelihood that a person in a given location was exposed to a given climate-hazard event in a given period of time. The study presents a detailed and coherent approach to fine-scale climate hazard mapping and identification of risks areas for the regions of South Asia that, for the first time, combines the following unique features: (a) methodological consistency across different climate-related hazards, (b) assessment of total exposure on population and agricultural losses, (c) regional-level spatial coverage, and (d) development of customized tools using ArcGIS toolbox that allow assessment of changes in exposure over time and easy replacement of existing datasets with a newly released or superior datasets. The resulting maps enable comparison of the most vulnerable regions in South Asia to climate-related hazards and is among the most urgent of policy needs. Subnational areas (regions/districts/provinces) most vulnerable to climate change impacts in South Asia are documented. The approach involves overlaying climate hazard maps, sensitivity maps, and adaptive capacity maps following the vulnerability assessment framework of the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The study used data on the

  3. 40 CFR 81.113 - Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South Carolina) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.113 Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South Carolina) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South...

  4. 40 CFR 81.113 - Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South Carolina) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.113 Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South Carolina) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South...

  5. 40 CFR 81.113 - Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South Carolina) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.113 Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South Carolina) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South...

  6. 40 CFR 81.113 - Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South Carolina) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.113 Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South Carolina) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South...

  7. 40 CFR 81.113 - Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South Carolina) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.113 Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South Carolina) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South...

  8. Measuring the economic impact of climate change on major South African field crops: a Ricardian approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gbetibouo, G. A.; Hassan, R. M.

    2005-07-01

    This study employed a Ricardian model to measure the impact of climate change on South Africa's field crops and analysed potential future impacts of further changes in the climate. A regression of farm net revenue on climate, soil and other socio-economic variables was conducted to capture farmer-adapted responses to climate variations. The analysis was based on agricultural data for seven field crops (maize, wheat, sorghum, sugarcane, groundnut, sunflower and soybean), climate and edaphic data across 300 districts in South Africa. Results indicate that production of field crops was sensitive to marginal changes in temperature as compared to changes in precipitation. Temperature rise positively affects net revenue whereas the effect of reduction in rainfall is negative. The study also highlights the importance of season and location in dealing with climate change showing that the spatial distribution of climate change impact and consequently needed adaptations will not be uniform across the different agro-ecological regions of South Africa. Results of simulations of climate change scenarios indicate many impacts that would induce (or require) very distinct shifts in farming practices and patterns in different regions. Those include major shifts in crop calendars and growing seasons, switching between crops to the possibility of complete disappearance of some field crops from some region.

  9. Magnetic Field Strengths in Photodissociation Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balser, Dana S.; Anish Roshi, D.; Jeyakumar, S.; Bania, T. M.; Montet, Benjamin T.; Shitanishi, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    We measure carbon radio recombination line (RRL) emission at 5.3 {{GHz}} toward four H ii regions with the Green Bank Telescope to determine the magnetic field strength in the photodissociation region (PDR) that surrounds the ionized gas. Roshi suggests that the non-thermal line widths of carbon RRLs from PDRs are predominantly due to magneto-hydrodynamic waves, thus allowing the magnetic field strength to be derived. We model the PDR with a simple geometry and perform the non-LTE radiative transfer of the carbon RRL emission to solve for the PDR physical properties. Using the PDR mass density from these models and the carbon RRL non-thermal line width we estimate total magnetic field strengths of B∼ 100{--}300 μ {{G}} in W3 and NGC 6334A. Our results for W49 and NGC 6334D are less well constrained with total magnetic field strengths between B∼ 200{--}1000 μ {{G}}. H i and OH Zeeman measurements of the line of sight magnetic field strength ({B}{{los}}), taken from the literature, are between a factor of ∼ 0.5{--}1 of the lower bound of our carbon RRL magnetic field strength estimates. Since | {B}{{los}}| ≤slant B, our results are consistent with the magnetic origin of the non-thermal component of carbon RRL widths.

  10. Transient surface liquid in Titan's south polar region from Cassini

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, A.G.; Aharonson, O.; Lunine, J.I.; Kirk, R.L.; Zebker, H.A.; Wye, L.C.; Lorenz, R.D.; Turtle, E.P.; Paillou, P.; Mitri, G.; Wall, S.D.; Stofan, E.R.; Mitchell, K.L.; Elachi, C.

    2011-01-01

    Cassini RADAR images of Titan's south polar region acquired during southern summer contain lake features which disappear between observations. These features show a tenfold increases in backscatter cross-section between images acquired one year apart, which is inconsistent with common scattering models without invoking temporal variability. The morphologic boundaries are transient, further supporting changes in lake level. These observations are consistent with the exposure of diffusely scattering lakebeds that were previously hidden by an attenuating liquid medium. We use a two-layer model to explain backscatter variations and estimate a drop in liquid depth of approximately 1-m-per-year. On larger scales, we observe shoreline recession between ISS and RADAR images of Ontario Lacus, the largest lake in Titan's south polar region. The recession, occurring between June 2005 and July 2009, is inversely proportional to slopes estimated from altimetric profiles and the exponential decay of near-shore backscatter, consistent with a uniform reduction of 4 ± 1.3 m in lake depth. Of the potential explanations for observed surface changes, we favor evaporation and infiltration. The disappearance of dark features and the recession of Ontario's shoreline represents volatile transport in an active methane-based hydrologic cycle. Observed loss rates are compared and shown to be consistent with available global circulation models. To date, no unambiguous changes in lake level have been observed between repeat images in the north polar region, although further investigation is warranted. These observations constrain volatile flux rates in Titan's hydrologic system and demonstrate that the surface plays an active role in its evolution. Constraining these seasonal changes represents the first step toward our understanding of longer climate cycles that may determine liquid distribution on Titan over orbital time periods.

  11. Vector Magnetic Field in Emerging Flux Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, B.; Pariat, E.

    A crucial phase in magnetic flux emergence is the rise of magnetic flux tubes through the solar photosphere, which represents a severe transition between the very different environments of the solar interior and corona. Multi-wavelength observations with Flare Genesis, TRACE, SoHO, and more recently with the vector magnetographs at THEMIS and Hida (DST) led to the following conclusions. The fragmented magnetic field in the emergence region - with dipped field lines or bald patches - is directly related with Ellerman bombs, arch filament systems, and overlying coronal loops. Measurements of vector magnetic fields have given evidence that undulating "serpentine" fields are present while magnetic flux tubes cross the photosphere. See the sketch below, and for more detail see Pariat et al. (2004, 2007); Watanabe et al. (2008):

  12. Mass Wasting Processes in Vesta's South Polar Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, K.; Jaumann, R.; Krohn, K.; Preusker, F.; Roatsch, T.; Stephan, K.; Sykes, M. V.; Schenk, P.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2012-12-01

    Images of Asteroid Vesta taken by the Dawn framing camera give insight to a wide range of geologic phenomena on Vesta's surface. In this abstract we focus on the evidence of different types of gravity-driven mass wasting that can be seen on Vesta with an emphasis on the south polar region where the formation of the giant impact basin of Rheasilvia (1, 2) caused significant mass movements and lateral displacement. During the formation of the impact basin various processes such as uplift and stretching moved material of the impact site (3). The remnant are fault scarps, ridges, and uplift features inside the Rheasilvia basin (2). Beside these mass movements, there are also three types of debris movement associated with the Rheasilvia impact basin: block slumping of solid material, granular landslides, and flow-like features. They all occur on the rim of the basin and the central peak with slopes varying from 10° to 40°. The movement, however, is in different directions. While the block slumping and landslides occur on the steep slopes of the crater wall facing inward, the flow-like movements go outward from the crater rim on less steep slopes. The block slumping is most prominent in the region between 80° and 120° east and 50° and 60° south (4). The slump blocks in a rotational movement showing multiple scarps and ridges. Landslides on the steep slopes inward of Rheasilvia have a length to height ratio of about 1. The flow-like features occur in the region between 50° and 90° east and 20° to 40° south. They are in a relatively young area and have a length to height ratio up to 35. Additionally, many small elongate depressions of about 1.5 km length can be found near the central peak of Rheasilvia. They are mainly arranged parallel to the slope with a slight curvature and are related to instability of granular material on a slope. References: (1) Jaumann et al., Science 336, 687 (2012); (2) Schenk et al., Science 336, 694 (2012); (3) Melosh, Impact Cratering

  13. Challenges Facing Managers in Managing Conflict in Schools in the South and South Central Regions of Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morake, Nnior Machomi; Monobe, Ratau John; Dingwe, Stephonia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the challenges facing managers in managing conflict in schools of South and South Central Regions of Botswana. In this study, the schedule of interview was used to collect empirical data. A random sample of 50 school managers and deputy school managers was selected for interviews. Major findings of the…

  14. Atmospheric Pollution and Emission Sources in South Asian Urban Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, K. F.; Husain, Liaquat

    2009-04-01

    Rapid urbanization, and lack of efficient monitoring and control of pollution, along with phenomena like Asian Brown Haze or prolonged episodes of winter fog, makes the South Asian atmospheric chemistry a very complex one. The anthropogenic aerosols released from this region are projected to become the dominant component of anthropogenic aerosols worldwide in the next 25 years (Nakicenovic and Swart, 2000). The region is one of the most densely populated in the world, with present population densities of 100-500 persons km-2. There are six big cities, namely, Delhi, Dhaka, Karachi, Kolkata, Lahore, and Mumbai, each housing a population around or above 10 million. There is now a real concern about the sustainability of the region's ability to support the population due to air pollution, loss of biodiversity and soil degradation. Therefore, we conducted several extensive campaigns over last 10 years in Lahore, Karachi, and Islamabad in Pakistan to (1) chemically characterize the aerosols (PM2.5 mass, concentrations of trace elements, ions, black and organic carbon), and gaseous pollutants (concentrations of NH3, SO2, HONO, HNO3, HCl and (COOH)2, and (2) identify the major emission sources in this region. Exceedingly high concentrations of all species, relative to major urban areas of US and Europe, were observed. Concentrations of PM2.5, BC, Pb, SO42-, NH4+, HONO, NH3 respectively, up to 476, 110, 12, 66, 60, 19.6 and 50 μgm-3 were observed in these cities, which were far in excess of WHO and US EPA air quality standard (Biswas et al., 2008). We use air parcel back trajectories, intercomponent relationships and meteorological observations to explain chemistry and emission sources of aerosol constituents. Carbonaceous aerosols contributed up to 69% of the PM2.5 mass (Husain et al., 2007). Source apportionment was conducted using positive matrix factorization. The analysis has classified six emission sources of aerosol components, namely, industrial activities, wood

  15. Imaging Enceladus' Exotic South Polar Regions: Imaging Science Team Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, T.

    2005-12-01

    The Cassini spacecraft had a close (175 km altitute) encounter with Saturn's moon Enceladus on 14 July 2005, resulting in a major discovery: evidence from multiple experiments show that there is a large `plume' of water vapor and particles emanating from the satellite's south polar region. Infrared data from the CIRS instrument showed that this area is also anomalously warm, providing evidence for internal heat. High resolution images taken by the Imaging Science System during the encounter show that the warm region associated with water vapor venting is a unique area on this icy world. The region has very few if any detectable impact craters, making it the youngest surface seen on Enceladus, or any of the other icy Saturnian satellites; estimates from cratering models place its age at less than 10-100 million years. It is surrounded by tectonic features suggesting a global stress pattern that may be associated with a change in spin rate. Long, parallel fractures, informally dubbed `tiger stripes', cross the region and are correlated with at least some of the thermal anomalies, making them good candidates for the source regions of the water venting. Spectral data and photometric studies also show that the whole area and the tiger stripes in particular have fewer fine grained particles on the surface than most of the moon's surface, in agreement with a young surface and crystalinity and grain size interpretations of data from the Visual and Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer experiment. Tidal forces and radioactive heating are probably responsible for the activity, although generating such intense internal heating is challenging for current models. Portions of this work were done at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA.

  16. Total Electron Content Monitoring over South America Region: Validation and Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negreti, P. M. D. S.; Paula, E. R.; Otsuka, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The Total Electron Content (TEC) is being extensively used to monitor the ionospheric behavior under geomagnetically quiet and disturbed conditions. The complex effects of magnetospheric convection and geomagnetic disturbances on ionospheric electric fields and currents in middle and low latitudes were documented in several studies. Under disturbed conditions the two main sources of electric fields, which are responsible for changes in the plasma drifts and for current perturbations, are the short-lived prompt penetration electric fields (PPEFs) and the longer lasting ionospheric disturbance dynamo (DD) electric fields, and both modulate the TEC around the globe. In this work we present the validation of a computational tool to calculate TEC maps over the low latitude of South America region. We used two methods to calculate the absolute VTEC: TECMAP-Nagoya tool and Magic (NOAA) tool. Their results were compared to the TEC measured by an Allen Osborne receiver placed at São José dos Campos (Brazil) and show a good agreement. The results were performed considering quiet and disturbed conditions, and also HILDCAAs events. Data from the RBMC/IBGE (Brazil), IGS and RAMSAC (Argentina) networks were used to calculate TEC over the South America. The expansion of RBMC and RAMSAC networks is providing a good coverage and understanding of TEC behavior at this complex low latitude region.

  17. North-south asymmetry of eolian features in Martian polar regions - Analysis based on crater-related wind markers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, P.

    1981-01-01

    Crater-related wind markers in the north and south polar regions of Mars are analyzed in a study of possible north-south asymmetries in wind activity. Features including crater splotches and associated streaks, and depositional, erosional, frost and frost-sediment streaks were identified and analyzed as wind direction indicators on Viking Orbiter and Mariner 9 images of areas poleward of + or - 40 deg latitude. The wind streaks reveal eolian activity at present to be strongest in the north in winter and in the south in spring, due to the hemispherical asymmetry in climate. The alignment of the more massive intercrater dune fields with the presently strongest wind may reflect a longer-term asymmetry in spring flows, as the reorientation times of the dunes exceeded the period of climate asymmetry cycles. Finally, a wider distribution of dune latitudes in the southern polar region is noted to be suggestive of the greater effectiveness of windflow from the south pole.

  18. Focal region fields of distorted reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buris, N. E.; Kauffman, J. F.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of the focal region fields scattered by an arbitrary surface reflector under uniform plane wave illumination is solved. The physical optics (PO) approximation is used to calculate the current induced on the reflector. The surface of the reflector is described by a number of triangular domain-wise 5th degree bivariate polynomials. A 2-dimensional Gaussian quadrature is employed to numerically evaluate the integral expressions of the scattered fields. No Freshnel or Fraunhofer zone approximations are made. The relation of the focal fields problem to surface compensation techniques and other applications are mentioned. Several examples of distorted parabolic reflectors are presented. The computer code developed is included, together with instructions on its usage.

  19. 40 CFR 81.253 - South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.253 Section 81.253 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.253 South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region....

  20. 40 CFR 81.253 - South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.253 Section 81.253 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.253 South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region....

  1. 40 CFR 81.253 - South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.253 Section 81.253 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.253 South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region....

  2. 40 CFR 81.253 - South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.253 Section 81.253 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.253 South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region....

  3. 40 CFR 81.253 - South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.253 Section 81.253 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.253 South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region....

  4. Higher Education Reform in South Korea: Perspectives on the New University for Regional Innovation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Sheena; Yeom, Minho

    2010-01-01

    The New University for Regional Innovation (NURI) is one of the South Korean Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development's key projects supporting regional universities. NURI aims to develop areas of specialization in regional universities and link universities to local industries. In 2004, the South Korean government pledged to invest…

  5. 77 FR 11894 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; South Carolina; Regional Haze...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ...EPA is proposing a limited approval of a revision to the South Carolina state implementation plan (SIP) submitted by the State of South Carolina, through the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SC DHEC), on December 17, 2007, that addresses regional haze for the first implementation period. This revision addresses the requirements of the Clean Air Act (CAA or Act)......

  6. View of South TwentySixth Street. Stairs to sports field on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of South Twenty-Sixth Street. Stairs to sports field on right which are seen in photo no. HABS CA-2783-3. Buildings No. 25, 26, 27, seen left to right at rear, looking south - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  7. North south asymmetry in the coronal and photospheric magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, I.; Mursula, K.

    2013-12-01

    Several recent studies have shown that the Heliospheric current sheet (HCS) is southward shifted during about three years in the solar declining phase (the so-called bashful ballerina phenomenon). We study the hemispherical asymmetry in the photospheric and coronal magnetic fields using Wilcox Solar Observatory (WSO) measurements of the photospheric magnetic field since 1976 and the potential field source surface (PFSS) model. Multipole analysis of the photospheric magnetic field shows that during the late declining phase of solar cycles since 1970s, bashful ballerina phenomenon is a consequence of g02 quadrupole term, signed oppositely to the dipole moment. Surges of new flux transport magnetic field from low latitudes to the poles, thus leading to a systematically varying contribution to the g02-term from different latitudes. In the case of a north-south asymmetric flux production this is seen as a quadrupole contribution traveling towards higher latitudes. When the quadrupole term is largest the main contribution comes from the polar latitudes. At least during the four recent solar cycles the g02-term arises because the magnitude of the southern polar field is larger than in the north in the declining phase of the cycle. Magnetic flux is transported polewards by the meridional flow and it is most likely that besides the north-south asymmetric production of the magnetic flux, also the asymmetric transportation may significantly contribute to the observed asymmetry of polar field intensities. The overall activity during solar cycle is not significantly different in the northern and southern hemispheres, but hemispheres tend to develop in a different phase.

  8. Regionalized Lunar South Pole Surface Navigation System Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan W.

    2008-01-01

    Apollo missions utilized Earth-based assets for navigation because the landings took place at lunar locations in constant view from the Earth. The new exploration campaign to the lunar south pole region will have limited Earth visibility, but the extent to which a navigation system comprised solely of Earth-based tracking stations will provide adequate navigation solutions in this region is unknown. This report presents a dilution-of-precision (DoP)-based, stationary surface navigation analysis of the performance of multiple lunar satellite constellations, Earth-based deep space network assets, and combinations thereof. Results show that kinematic and integrated solutions cannot be provided by the Earth-based deep space network stations. Also, the stationary surface navigation system needs to be operated either as a two-way navigation system or as a one-way navigation system with local terrain information, while the position solution is integrated over a short duration of time with navigation signals being provided by a lunar satellite constellation.

  9. Estimated north-south conponent of the electric field in the geomagnetotail plasma sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Lui, A.T.Y.; Akasofu, S.

    1980-11-01

    It is shown that the north-south component of electric fields in the plasma sheet can be estimated uniquely from simultaneous measurements of plasma flow components (v/sub x/, v/sub y/) and the magnetic field components (B/sub x/, B/sub y/) in the equatorial plane. The estimated field strength ranges from 0.3 to 7.8 mv/m during substorms at geocentric distances beyond approx.15 R/sub e/. During the magnetospheric substorm expansion phase, the north-south component of the electric fields is almost oppositely directed from what one would expect on the basis of projection of the general pattern of the ionospheric electric field to the plasma sheet along geomagnetic field lines (assumed to be equipotential). It is only during the recovery phase when both electric field patterns become similar. The result also suggests that strong fields occur preferentially near the plasma sheet boundary rather than near the neutral sheet region.

  10. Holocene morphologic changes offshore the Quarteira region, Algarve, south Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noiva, João.; Duarte, Henrique; Terrinha, Pedro; Gonçalves, Daniela

    2010-05-01

    A 160 km long SPARKER single channel seismic reflection survey was acquired in November 2008 on the shallow continental shelf of south Portugal to investigate the recent tectonics of the S.Marcos - Quarteira Fault (SMQF) and of the Carcavai Fault. The NW-SE trending S.Marcos - Quarteira Fault (SMQF) can be traced on the onshore-offshore region of south Portugal for an extension of 160 km. It is a Variscan (Hercynian) orogenic thrust that was inverted as an extensional fault during the Mesozoic rifting in south Portugal, during which it played a major role in the segmentation of the Algarve Basin. The SMQF was re-inverted as a transpressive fault during the Paleogene-Miocene compression and folding and thrusting of Pleistocene terrigenous strata attest for its present day tectonic activity. The Carcavai fault trends NE-SW, intersects the SMQF. The Carcavai fault also played the role of rift fault during the Mesozoic and was inverted as a thrust during the Cenozoic compression. The mapping of both SMQ and Carcavai Faults offshore south Portugal attests for a complex interaction between the two in what concerns the Holocene and tectonics and paleogeography. The Carcavai Fault accommodates most of the Pliocene-Quaternary compression on its hanging-wall, whilst the SMQF takes up the deformation on the foot-wall of the Carcavai Fault. In what refers the early Holocene paleogeography, the interpretation of the seismic profiles shows the existence of two sedimentary bodies of possible Holocene age separated by a peninsula that consists of Pliocene-Pleistocene prograding clastics that make up the present day coastal cliff. This peninsula is parallel to the present day coastline, which is also parallel to the SMQF. The two bodies have different seismic facies. The offshore Holocene displays fairly continuous reflections, whilst the internal Holocene is made up of more discontinuous reflections. The isobaths map of the base of the external Holocene unit shows a smooth gently

  11. South Belridge fields, Borderland basin, U. S. , San Joaquin Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.D. ); McPherson, J.G. )

    1991-03-01

    South Belridge is a giant field in the west San Joaquin Valley, Kern County. Cumulative field production is approximately 700 MMBO and 220 BCFG, with remaining recoverable reserves of approximately 500 MMBO. The daily production is nearly 180 MBO from over 6100 active wells. The focus of current field development and production is the shallow Tulare reservoir. Additional probable diatomite reserves have been conservatively estimated at 550 MMBO and 550 BCFG. South Belridge field has two principal reservoir horizons; the Mio-Pliocene Belridge diatomite of the upper Monterey Formation, and the overlying Plio-Pleistocene Tulare Formation. The field lies on the crest of a large southeast-plunging anticline, sub-parallel to the nearby San Andreas fault system. The reservoir trap in both the Tulare and diatomite reservoir horizons is a combination of structure, stratigraphic factors, and tar seals; the presumed source for the oil is the deeper Monterey Formation. The diatomite reservoir produces light oil (20-32{degree} API gravity) form deep-marine diatomite and diatomaceous shales with extremely high porosity (average 60%) and low permeability (average 1 md). In contrast, the shallow ({lt}1000 ft (305 m) deep) overlying Tulare reservoir produces heavy oil (13-14{degree} API gravity) from unconsolidated, arkosic, fluviodeltaic sands of high porosity (average 35%) and permeability (average 3000 md). The depositional model is that of a generally prograding fluviodeltaic system sourced in the nearby basin-margin highlands. More than 6000 closely spaced, shallow wells are the key to steamflood production from hundreds of layered and laterally discontinuous reservoir sands which create laterally and vertically discontinuous reservoir flow units.

  12. Mortality of children in the Transkei region of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Meel, B L

    2003-06-01

    This study attempted to unfold, perhaps for the first time, the problem of childhood mortality resulting from trauma in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. This study was carried out in the Umtata and Ngqeleni magisterial districts, which have a combined population of about 400,000. Most people there have very few resources and have historically relied on money repatriated by migrant workers. In the Transkei region, unemployment is at a very high level: 48.5%. Assault on children is very common in this region, and this may result in death. The aim of this study was to establish the state of deaths resulting from pediatric trauma, and to formulate recommendations that could probably help prevent or reduce these deaths. The objective was to gather epidemiologic information on the victims of pediatric trauma. The study was designed as a descriptive study, using reviews of traumatic deaths in pediatric age groups during the period January 1993 to December 1999. This study was carried out on cases that were brought to the medicolegal laboratory at Umtata General Hospital, Umtata, in the Transkei region of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. There were 6181 autopsies conducted from 1993 to 1999. All the medicolegal autopsies were divided into two groups: pediatric (15 years of age or younger) and adult (older than 15 years). Of the autopsies, 89.4% (n = 5587) were in the adult group, and 10.6% (n = 594) were in the pediatric group. Of the pediatric deaths, 64% (n = 383) were related to trauma. The highest numbers were in the 11- to 15-year (n = 146, 38%) and the 6- to 10-year (n = 135, 34%) age groups. Of the children who died of trauma, 112 (28%) were aged 0 to 5 years. Unintentional injuries from motor vehicle accidents were the leading cause of death (59%), whereas intentional injuries (41%) were associated with murder. Nearly a quarter (22%) of pediatric traumatic deaths were due to penetrating injuries: stab (12%) and gunshot (10%) wounds. Most of the

  13. Palaeomagnetic evidence for the persistence or recurrence of geomagnetic main field anomalies in the South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Jay; Koppers, Anthony A. P.; Leitner, Marko; Leonhardt, Roman; Muxworthy, Adrian R.; Heunemann, Christoph; Bachtadse, Valerian; Ashley, Jack A. D.; Matzka, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    We present a dataset of a full-vector palaeomagnetic study of Late Pleistocene lavas from the island Tristan da Cunha in the South Atlantic Ocean. The current day geomagnetic field intensity in this region is approximately 25 μT, compared to an expected value of ∼43 μT; this phenomenon is known as the South Atlantic geomagnetic Anomaly (SAA). Geomagnetic field models extending back to the last 10 ka find no evidence for this being a persistent feature of the geomagnetic field, albeit, all models are constructed from data which is particularly sparse in the southern hemisphere. New 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating dating indicates the studied lavas from Tristan da Cunha extruded between 90 and 46 ka. Palaeointensity estimations of eight lava flows made using the Thellier method yield an average palaeointensity of 18 ± 6 μT and virtual axial dipole moment (VADM) of 3.1 ± 1.2 ×1022 Am2. The lava flows demonstrate four time intervals comparable to the present day SAA, where the average VADM of the Tristan da Cunha lavas is weaker than the global VADM average. This suggests a persistent or recurring low intensity anomaly to the main geomagnetic field similar to the SAA existed in the South Atlantic between 46 and 90 ka.

  14. Regional, Continental, and Global Mobility to an Emerging Economy: The Case of South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jenny J.; Sehoole, Chika

    2015-01-01

    This study examined mobility within the understudied region of southern Africa and particularly, the factors that drive and shape educational migration toward South Africa as a regional, continental, and global destination. Based on a survey administered to international students across seven South African universities, the findings revealed…

  15. Multicolor Observations of the Hubble Deep Field South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanzella, Eros; Cristiani, Stefano; Saracco, Paolo; Arnouts, Stephane; Bianchi, Simone; D'Odorico, Sandro; Fontana, Adriano; Giallongo, Emanuele; Grazian, Andrea

    2001-11-01

    We present a deep multicolor (U, B, V, I, Js, H, Ks) catalog of galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field South, based on observations obtained with the HST WFPC2 in 1998 and VLT-ISAAC in 1999. The photometric procedures were tuned to derive a catalog optimized for the estimation of photometric redshifts. In particular we adopted a ``conservative'' detection threshold, which resulted in a list of 1611 objects. The behavior of the observed source counts is in general agreement with the previous results of Casertano et al. in the Hubble Deep Field South and Williams et al. in the Hubble Deep Field North, while the corresponding counts in the Hubble Deep Field North provided by Fernández-Soto, Lanzetta, & Yahil are systematically lower by a factor 1.5 beyond IAB=26. After correcting for the incompleteness of the source counts, the object surface density at IAB<=27.5 is estimated to be 220 arcmin-2, in agreement with the corresponding measure of Volonteri et al. and providing an estimate of the extragalactic background light in the I band consistent with the work of Madau & Pozzetti. The comparison between the median V-I color in the Hubble Deep Field North and South shows a significant difference around IAB~26, possibly due to the presence of large-scale structure at z~1 in the HDF-N. High-redshift galaxy candidates (90 U dropouts and 17 B dropouts) were selected by means of color diagrams, down to a magnitude IAB=27, with a surface density of (21+/-1) and (3.9+/-0.9) arcmin-2, respectively. Eleven extremely red objects [with (I-K)AB>2.7] were selected down to KAB=24, plus three objects whose upper limit to the Ks flux is still compatible with the selection criterion. The corresponding surface density of EROs is (2.5+/-0.8) arcmin-2 [(3.2+/-0.9) arcmin-2 if we include the three Ks upper limits]. They show a remarkably nonuniform spatial distribution and are classified with roughly equal fractions in the categories of elliptical and starburst galaxies.

  16. Research Ready Program: A First in Regional South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penman, Joy; Oliver, Mary

    2012-01-01

    In response to the South Australian Certificate of Education (SACE) Board's introduction in 2010 of the new Research Project subject, the University of South Australia's Centre for Participation and Community Engagement took the opportunity to engage further with school students by organising the Research Ready Program. The adoption of the program…

  17. A COMPREHENSIVE NONPOINT SOURCE FIELD STUDY FOR SEDIMENT, NUTRIENTS AND PATHOGENS IN THE SOUTH FORK BROAD RIVER WATERSHED, GEORGIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an urgent need for EPA to develop protocols for establishing Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) in streams, lakes and estuaries. A cooperative TMDL field data collection project between ORD and Region 4 is ongoing in the South Fork Broad River Watershed (SFBR), a 245.18 ...

  18. Biophysical regions identification using an artificial neuronal network: A case study in the South Western Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraceno, Martin; Provost, Christine; Lebbah, Mustapha

    A classification method based on an artificial neuronal network is used to identify biophysical regions in the South Western Atlantic (SWA). The method comprises a probabilistic version of the Kohonen’s self-organizing map and a Hierarchical Ascending Clustering algorithm. It objectively defines the optimal number of classes and the class boundaries. The method is applied to ocean surface data provided by satellite: chlorophyll-a, sea surface temperature and sea surface temperature gradient, first to means and then, in an attempt to examine seasonal variations, to monthly climatologies. Both results reflect the presence of the major circulation patterns and frontal positions in the SWA. The provinces retrieved using mean fields are compared to previous results and show a more accurate description of the SWA. The classification obtained with monthly climatologies offers the flexibility to include the time dimension; the boundaries of biophysical regions established are not fixed, but vary in time. Perspectives and limitations of the methodology are discussed.

  19. Molecular Epidemiology and Characterization of Genotypes of Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates from Regions of South China.

    PubMed

    Ying, Jun; Lu, Junwan; Zong, Li; Li, Ailing; Pan, Ruowang; Cheng, Cong; Li, Kunpeng; Chen, Liqiang; Ying, Jianchao; Tou, Huifen; Zhu, Chuanxin; Xu, Teng; Yi, Huiguang; Li, Jinsong; Ni, Liyan; Xu, Zuyuan; Bao, Qiyu; Li, Peizhen

    2016-05-20

    The aim of this study was to analyze the molecular epidemiologic characteristics of Acinetobacter baumannii. A total of 398 isolates were collected in 7 regions of South China from January to June of 2012. Drug sensitivity was tested toward 15 commonly used antibiotics; thus, 146 multi-drug-resistant strains (resistant to more than 7 drugs) were identified, representing 36.7% of all isolates. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were used for molecular subtyping. According to the PFGE results (with a cutoff of 70% similarity for the DNA electrophoretic bands), 146 strains were subdivided into 15 clusters, with cluster A being the largest (33.6%, distributed in all districts except Jiaxing). Cluster B was also widespread and included 14.4% of all strains. In addition, MLST results revealed 11 sequence types (ST), with ST208 being the most prevalent, followed by ST191 and ST729. Furthermore, 4 novel alleles and 6 novel STs were identified. Our results showed that multi-drug-resistant A. baumannii in South China shares the origin with other widespread strains in other countries. The nosocomial infections caused by A. baumannii have been severe in South China. Continuous monitoring and judicious antibiotic use are required. PMID:26166496

  20. Wadi dynamics in the Souss region, South Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchhoff, Mario; Peter, Klaus Daniel; Ries, Johannes B.

    2016-04-01

    The Souss region is strongly influenced by sheet wash, rill and gully erosion and intersected by ephemeral rivers, varying in size, called wadis or Oueds. Since this region is used intensely for agricultural purposes, land levelling is used to prevent the area from becoming badlands. The aim of this study was to identify the factors controlling the dynamics inside a wadi and especially to determine if wadis act as sinks for the sediment that is washed from the plains or if the sediment is transported further through the network of wadis. Scour chains were used to measure erosion or accumulation on the wadi bed. During the years 2011-2014 37 measurements were conducted in seven different wadis. These study areas were situated from northeast to southwest on an alluvial fan between the High Atlas in the North and the city of Taroudant in the South. To be able to identify factors contributing to wadi dynamics accumulated wadi length and catchment area as well as land use classes were mapped based on a Quickbird satellite image. The measurements showed variable data, with results ranging from +30 cm (accumulation) to -37 cm (erosion) per measurement interval ranging from two weeks to one year. While erosion was dominant in some wadis, others showed a tendency towards accumulation. From the measurement data, the phenomenon of 'Scour & Fill' becomes apparent. Sediment from the plains is eroded from the wadi with high water velocities and with decreasing flow speed fills scour rills downstream. Due to the high variability of measurement data from the scour chains, satisfying correlations between wadi erosion/accumulation and possibly contributing factors could not be detected. Daily maximum precipitation ranked as the factor that most likely controlled wadi dynamics, while land use showed virtually no correlation, possibly because of limited connectivity in the study area. Other contributing factors like accumulated wadi length and wadi width are linked more closely to the

  1. South Fence Road -- Phase 1 field operations summary

    SciTech Connect

    McCord, J.P.; Neel, D.

    1996-03-01

    The South Fence Road (SFR) project is part of the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization (SWHC) task. The SWHC task has as its objective the reduction of uncertainty about the rate and direction of groundwater flow in the SNL/NM/Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) area. The SFR project area is located along the southern boundary of SNL/KAFB. This project area was selected to provide site-specific information related to geology and groundwater hydrology within the Hubbell Spring/Tijeras/Sandia fault complex. Specific objectives included determining the depth to the Santa Fe Group/bedrock contact, the depth to the water table, and the hydrogeologic complexities related to faulting. This report is a basic data report from the first phase of field operations associated with the drilling, logging, completion, and development of South Fence Road Wells SFR-1D and SFR-1S, SFR-2, SFR-3D and SFR-3S, and SFR-4. These test/monitoring wells were installed as part of Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Environmental Restoration Project.

  2. Regional assessment of nonforestry related biomass resources: South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This document is a collection of spreadsheets detailing in a county by county manner the agricultural crop, agricultural wastes, municipal wastes, and industrial wastes of South Carolina that are potential biomass energy sources.

  3. Magnetic fields on the sun and the north-south component of transient variations of the interplanetary magnetic field at 1 AU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, F.; Akasofu, S.-I.; Smith, E.; Tsurutani, B.

    1985-01-01

    In order to study the relationship between solar magnetic fields and the transient variations of the north-south component B(Z) of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) at 1 AU, flares from unusual north-south oriented active regions, large IMF B(Z) events, and large flares with comprehensive flare index higher than 12 were collected. The associated IMF B(Z) changes or the magnetic field of the initiating flares are investigated. For those cases where an association between a transient B(Z) variation and an initiating flare is plausible, it is found that, for a given flare field, the orientation of the corresponding transient variation of B(Z) may be in agreement with the flare field, opposite to it, or more often, fluctuating in both magnitude and direction. Conversely, an IMF B(Z) event may originate in a flare field in the same magnetic orientation, opposite to it, or in the east-west orientation.

  4. EIS Data on the Chandra Deep Field South Released

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this note is to announce that the ESO Imaging Survey programme has released a full set of optical/infrared data covering the socalled Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S) rapidly becoming a favoured target for cosmological studies in the southern hemisphere. The field was originally selected for deep X-ray observations with Chandra and XMM. The former have already been completed producing the deepest high-resolution X-ray image ever taken with a total integration time of one million seconds. The data obtained by EIS include J and Ks infrared observations of an area of 0.1 square degree nearly matching the Chandra image down to JAB ~ 23.4 and KAB ~ 22.6 and UU'BVRI optical observations over 0.25 square degree, matching the XMM field of view, reaching 5 s limiting magnitudes of U'AB = 26.0, UAB = 25.7, BAB = 26.4, VAB = 25.4, RA B = 25.5 and IA B = 24.7 mag, as measured within a 2 ´ FWHM aperture.

  5. Bob West field: Extending upper Wilcox production in south Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, S.L.

    1997-05-01

    Discovered in 1990 near the southern limit of the upper Wilcox gas-producing trend in south Texas, Bob West field is the largest pool to date in this trend, with probable reserves of up to 1 Tcf. The field produces from seven major sandstone {open_quotes}packages,{close_quotes} comprising 27 individual reservoirs and distributed over 3500 productive acres. The sandstones represent either fluvial/deltaic deposits or delta-margin barrier bar and strand-plain sediments. Porosities range up to 20%, but permeabilities are low, commonly less than 1.5 md. Artificial stimulation is therefore required to establish commercial rates of production. Bob West lies on a faulted anticline between two major growth-fault structures, with several stages of structural development evident. Such development has directly affected sandstone thickness. Rates of production are higher at Bob West than at other upper Wilcox fields due to commingling of zones, large-scale fracture treatments, and directional drilling. Discovery at Bob West has significant implications for renewed exploration in this part of the upper Wilcox gas trend.

  6. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyke, Jessica; Parcheso, Francis; Thompson, Janet K.; Cain, Daniel J.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2011-01-01

    Analyses of the benthic community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 37-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam, M. petalum, from the same area. Analysis of the M. petalum community shows increases in reproductive activity concurrent with the decline in metal concentrations in the tissues of this organism. Reproductive activity is presently stable (2010), with almost all animals initiating reproduction in the fall and spawning the following spring of most years. The community has shifted from being dominated by several opportunistic species to a community where the species are more similar in abundance, a pattern that indicates a more stable community that is subjected to fewer stressors. In addition, two of the opportunistic species (Ampelisca abdita and Streblospio benedicti) that brood their young and live on the surface of the sediment in tubes have shown a continual decline in dominance coincident with the decline in metals; both species had short-lived rebounds in abundance in 2008, 2009, and 2010. Heteromastus filiformis (a subsurface polychaete worm that lives in the sediment, consumes sediment and organic particles residing in the

  7. Carbon Erosion in the Great Karoo Region of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krenz, Juliane; Greenwood, Philip; Kuhn, Brigitte; Foster, Ian; Boardman, John; Meadows, Mike; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2015-04-01

    Work undertaken in the seasonally arid upland areas of the Great Karoo region of South Africa has established a link between land degradation and overgrazing which began in the second half of the 18th century when European farmers first settled the area. Ongoing land use change and shifting rainfall patterns resulted in the development of badlands on foot slopes of upland areas, and gully systems on valley bottoms. As a consequence of agricultural intensification and overgrazing, accompanied by a higher water demand, many small reservoirs were constructed, most of which are now in-filled with sediment. The deposited material serves as an environmental archive by which land use change over the last 100 years can be analysed, but with a particular focus on erosion and deposition of soil-associated carbon (C). It is assumed that erosion caused an initial flush of carbon rich soil which was subsequently buried and stored off-site. Despite this assumption, however the net-effect of erosion on carbon dioxide emissions is still unknown. In this project, preliminary results are presented from an investigation to determine whether land degradation in the Karoo has resulted in a shift from a net sink of C to a net source of C. Firstly, a high resolution digital elevation model was generated and erosion modelling was then employed to create an erosion risk map showing areas most prone to erosion. Information from the model output then served as the basis for ground-truthing and on-site erosion mapping. Secondly, sediment deposits from silted reservoirs were analysed for varying physicochemical parameters, in order to reconstruct spatial patterns of erosion and deposition. Analysis of total carbon (TC) content revealed a sharp decrease with decreasing depth. This provisionally suggests that land degradation during and after post-European settlement probably led to accelerated erosion of the relatively fertile surface soils. This presumably resulted in the rapid in-filling of

  8. Incidense of spider mites in South Texas cotton fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of spider mites was evaluated· in four locations of south Texas between Progreso (Hidalgo Co.) to Bishop (Nueces Co.). This is an area with a south to north transect of 125 miles from south Progreso to north Bishop (respectively).The other two intermediate sampled locations were Harlin...

  9. Spiculitic chert reservoir in Glick Field, South-Central Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.P.; Longman, M.W.; Lloyd, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Glick Field, located in Kiowa and Comanche counties of southern Kansas, was discovered in 1957 and has produced more than 362 BCF from Mississippian Osage chert, commonly referred to as the {open_quotes}Chat.{close_quotes} Other {open_quotes}CHAT{close_quotes} reservoirs in Kansas and Oklahoma produce mainly from mixed chert and dolomite beneath the pre-Pennsylvanian unconformity, but Glick Field`s reservoir is dominated by chert containing abundant sponge spicules. Glick Field is a stratigraphic trap with production ending where the spiculitic facies pinches out into tight limestones to the south and west which provide a lateral seal. Additionally, updip, to the northeast, the productive facies is truncated by the unconformity. Reworked chert conglomerates overlying the spiculitic reservoir at the unconformity also produce some gas. The spiculitic chert forming the reservoir was desposited below storm wavebase and grades laterally in all directions into echinoderm and brachiopod-rich skeletal wackestones and lime mudstones. Even where completely silicified, these associated limestone are tight. Thus, the reservoir is an in situ oval-shaped complex of internally brecciated sponge mats and bioherms capped in part by the chert conglomerate. The spiculitic chert contains up to 50% porosity in molds after sponge spicules, matrix micropores and vugs are connected in part by fracture and breccia porosity. Distribution of the sponge bioherms which form the reservoir facies was partly controlled by a subtle change on the shallow Mississippian carbonate shelf from clean skeletal limestones southward into shaly (and probably more anoxic) carbonates known locally as the {open_quotes}Cowley Facies.{close_quotes} The sponge bioherms formed most commonly just updip from this boundary, which can be mapped across southern Kansas. Thus, lithologic mapping provides a potential exploration tool with which to find other stratigraphically trapped spiculitic reservoirs in the area.

  10. Pre-Kindergarten in the South: Preserving the Region's Comparative Advantage in Education. Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Education Foundation, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This Southern Education Foundation (SEF) report warns Southern states against endangering critical, hard-earned gains in early childhood education--the South's most effective innovation in public education--as state legislatures in the region consider substantial cuts to education programs. The SEF report reviews how the South continues to lead…

  11. South Polar Region of Mars: Topography and Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, P. M.; Moore, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    The polar layered deposits of Mars represent potentially important volatile reservoirs and tracers for the planet's geologically recent climate history. Unlike the north polar cap, the uppermost surface of the bright residual south polar deposit is probably composed of carbon dioxide ice. It is unknown whether this ice extends through the entire thickness of the deposit. The Mars Polar Lander (MPL), launched in January 1999, is due to arrive in December 1999 to search for water and carbon dioxide on layered deposits near the south pole (SP) of Mars. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  12. Glacier surface velocity fields in South Shetland Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmanoglu, B.; Giseke, H.; Navarro, F. J.; Rueckamp, M.; Falk, U.; Corcuera, M. I.; Braun, M.

    2011-12-01

    In this study surface velocity of glaciers in South Shetland Islands (Antarctic Peninsula) are calculated based on synthetic aperture radar data from ALOS PALSAR and TerraSAR-X as well as differential GPS measurements. The obtained glacier velocities will be used to calculate the total glacier mass budget and to better understand the contribution of the study areas to the sea level rise. Only recent studies have examined the region for mass balance and sea level rise estimates. However, larger scale mass budget computations are not yet available. Ice dynamics obtained from satellite data have only been derived in a few occasions, often due to lacking spatial resolution or temporal decorrelation. Hence, any spacebased information on ice dynamics can significantly improve estimates of calving fluxes and mass loss. In this study we analysed over 30 PALSAR and 30 TSX scenes acquired over the King George Island and Livingston Island, the two largest islands in the South Shetland Island group. In the study areas the glacier velocities are calculated using two independent data sets; namely satellite radar imagery and GPS. Feature-tracking methods are applied to the radar imagery to obtain glacier velocities using Gamma Interferometric SAR Processor and TU-Delft DORIS. Results from Gamma and Doris software packages are compared to each other as well as GPS measurements where available. For a subset of the study area tracking results from different acquisitions modes (stripmap and spotlight) and orbits are compared. Comparison of glacier velocities obtained by radar and GPS provide an estimate for the uncertainties in the measured rates. The results obtained from all data sets are then compiled to construct a map of glacier velocities for the entire island group.

  13. Subsidence and well failure in the South Belridge Diatomite field

    SciTech Connect

    Rouffignac, E.P. de; Bondor, P.L.; Karanikas, J.M. Hara, S.K.

    1995-12-31

    Withdrawal of fluids from shallow, thick and low strength rock can cause substantial reservoir compaction leading to surface subsidence and well failure. This is the case for the Diatomite reservoir, where over 10 ft of subsidence have occurred in some areas. Well failure rates have averaged over 3% per year, resulting in several million dollars per year in well replacement and repair costs in the South Belridge Diatomite alone. A program has been underway to address this issue, including experimental, modeling and field monitoring work. An updated elastoplastic rock law based on laboratory data has been generated which includes not only standard shear failure mechanisms but also irreversible pore collapse occurring at low effective stresses (<150 psi). This law was incorporated into a commercial finite element geomechanics simulator. Since the late 1980s, a network of level survey monuments has been used to monitor subsidence at Belridge. Model predictions of subsidence in Section 33 compare very well with field measured data, which show that water injection reduces subsidence from 7--8 inches per year to 1--2 inches per year, but does not abate well failure.

  14. Crustal structure of the south-central Andes Cordillera and backarc region from regional waveform modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado, P.; Beck, S.; Zandt, G.

    2007-08-01

    We investigate the crustal structure in the Andes Cordillera and its backarc region using regional broadband waveforms from crustal earthquakes. We consider seismic waveforms recorded at regional distances by the CHile-ARgentina Geophysical Experiment (CHARGE) during 2000-2002 and utilize previous seismic moment tensor inversion results. For each single station-earthquake pair, we fixed the source parameters and performed forward waveform modelling using ray paths that sample the crust of the highest elevation Cordillera and the accreted terranes in the backarc region. Our investigation indicates that synthetic seismograms for our earthquake-station geometry are most sensitive to crustal parameters and less sensitive to mantle parameters. We performed a grid search around crustal thickness, P-wave seismic velocity (Vp) and P- to S-wave seismic velocity ratio (Vp/Vs), fixing mantle parameters. We evaluated this waveform analysis by estimating an average correlation coefficient between observed and synthetic data over the three broadband components. We identified all acceptable crustal models that correspond to high correlation coefficients that provide best overall seismogram fits for the data and synthetic waveforms filtered mainly between 10 and 80 s. Our results indicate along strike variations in the crustal structure for the north-south high Cordillera with higher P-wave velocity and thickness in the northern segment (north of 33°S), and persistently high Vp/Vs ratio (>1.85) in both segments. This is consistent with a colder mafic composition for the northern segment and a region of crustal thickening above the flat slab region. In contrast, the results for the current volcanic arc (south of 33°S) agree with a warmer crust consistent with partial melt related to Quaternary volcanism presumably of an intermediate to mafic composition. A distinctive feature in the backarc region is the marked contrast between the seismic properties of the Cuyania and Pampia

  15. Pioneer 7 observations of plasma flow and field reversal regions in the distant geomagnetic tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. C.; Lazarus, A. J.; Villante, U.

    1975-01-01

    The present paper gives the results of an extensive analysis of plasma and magnetic-field data from Pioneer 7 taken in the geomagnetic tail approximately 1000 earth radii downstream from earth. The principal observations are: (1) measurable fluxes of protons in the tail, flowing away from earth, sometimes with a double-peaked velocity distribution; (2) field reversal regions in which the field changes from radial to antiradial by a vector rotation in the north-south plane; and (3) general characteristics of the tail similar to those observed near earth with good correlation between taillike magnetic fields and plasma.

  16. Australian and South Pacific External Studies Association: Odlaa's Regional Predecessor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bewley, Donald

    2008-01-01

    The Australian and South Pacific External Studies Association (ASPESA)-- the predecessor of the Open and Distance Learning Association of Australia, Inc. (ODLAA)--was founded in 1973. From the outset, ASPESA adopted a broader-than-Australia focus for open and distance learning that included New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and the member countries…

  17. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California: 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, Daniel J.; Thompson, Janet K.; Crauder, Jeff; Parcheso, Francis; Stewart, Robin; Kleckner, Amy E.; Dyke, Jessica; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of the benthic community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 40-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam, M. petalum, from the same area. Analysis of M. petalum shows increases in reproductive activity concurrent with the decline in metal concentrations in the tissues of this organism. Reproductive activity is presently stable (2014), with almost all animals initiating reproduction in the fall and spawning the following spring. The entire infaunal community has shifted from being dominated by several opportunistic species to a community where the species are more similar in abundance, a pattern that indicates a more stable community that is subjected to fewer stressors. In addition, two of the opportunistic species (Ampelisca abdita and Streblospio benedicti) that brood their young and live on the surface of the sediment in tubes have shown a continual decline in dominance coincident with the decline in metals; both species had short-lived rebounds in abundance in 2008, 2009, and 2010. Heteromastus filiformis (a subsurface polychaete worm that lives in the sediment, consumes sediment and organic particles residing in the sediment, and reproduces by laying its eggs on or in the sediment) showed a concurrent increase in dominance and, in the last several years before 2008, showed a stable population. H. filiformis abundance increased slightly in 2011–2012 and returned to pre-2011 numbers in 2014. An unidentified disturbance occurred on the mudflat in early 2008 that resulted in the loss of the benthic animals, except for deep-dwelling animals like Macoma petalum. However, within two months of this event animals returned to the mudflat. The resilience of the community suggested that the disturbance was not due to a persistent toxin or to anoxia. The reproductive mode of most species present in 2014 is

  18. 40 CFR 81.114 - Augusta (Georgia)-Aiken (South Carolina) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.114 Augusta (Georgia)-Aiken (South..., Orangeburg County. Note: For identification purposes, the Columbus (Georgia)-Phenix City (Alabama)...

  19. 40 CFR 81.114 - Augusta (Georgia)-Aiken (South Carolina) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.114 Augusta (Georgia)-Aiken (South..., Orangeburg County. Note: For identification purposes, the Columbus (Georgia)-Phenix City (Alabama)...

  20. 40 CFR 81.114 - Augusta (Georgia)-Aiken (South Carolina) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.114 Augusta (Georgia)-Aiken (South..., Orangeburg County. Note: For identification purposes, the Columbus (Georgia)-Phenix City (Alabama)...

  1. 40 CFR 81.114 - Augusta (Georgia)-Aiken (South Carolina) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.114 Augusta (Georgia)-Aiken (South..., Orangeburg County. Note: For identification purposes, the Columbus (Georgia)-Phenix City (Alabama)...

  2. Human Constraints to Sustainable Agriculture in the Arid Regions of South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duvel, G. H.; Botha, A. J.

    1999-01-01

    Interviews with 79 South African farmers in arid regions showed that their conservation practices were influenced by such human factors as needs, perceptions, and knowledge. Direct influence on adoption behaviors was recommended to encourage sustainable agriculture practices. (SK)

  3. Jupiter - Region from the Great Red Spot to the South Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This picture shows a region of the southern hemisphere extending from the Great Red Spot to the south pole. The white oval is seen beneath the Great Red Spot, and several small scale spots are visible farther to the south. Some of these organized cloud spots have similar morphologies, such as anticyclonic rotations and cyclonic regions to their west. The presence of the white oval causes the streamlines of the flow to bunch up between it and the Great Red Spot.

  4. Amplitude enhancement of SC(H) events in the South Atlantic anomaly region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivedi, N. B.; Abdu, M. A.; Pathan, B. M.; Dutra, S. L. G.; Schuch, N. J.; Santos, J. C.; Barreto, L. M.

    2005-12-01

    South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA) due to its weak total geomagnetic field F is known to be a sink of trapped charged particles from the inner radiation belt during both magnetically quiet and disturbed periods. Ionosondes, riometers, and VLF radio propagation monitoring experiments have shown ionospheric effects due to increase of ionization caused by the process of electron precipitation in the ionosphere of SAMA region during the quiet and disturbed periods. We have examined the records of geomagnetic horizontal component variations at the time of sudden commencement (SC) from two stations, São Martinho da Serra (SMS) (29.43S, 53.82W, -19.0 geomagnetic latitude and 33dip) and Vassouras (VSS) (22.40S, 43.65W, -16.7 geomagnetic latitude and 33dip), both situated in the SAMA region at nearly the same magnetic latitude. The SC(H) amplitudes in general are found to be larger at SMS situated close to the center of SAMA, compared to the ones found at the station VSS situated away from the center of SAMA. The results seem to provide an evidence that the amplitude enhancements of the SC(H) impulse in the SAMA region could be caused by the differential increase of ionization due to the continuous loss of electrons and ions from the magnetosphere into the atmosphere of SAMA region.

  5. A Comment on "Evaluation Field Building in South Asia: Reflections, Anecdotes, and Questions"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, A. K. Shiva

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the author's comment on "Evaluation Field Building in South Asia: Reflections, Anecdotes, and Questions" by Katherine Hay. Hay raises a number of extremely relevant issues relating to evaluation field building in South Asia. In this paper, the author aims to underscore the importance of three priorities for initiating public…

  6. Feature-oriented regional modeling and simulations (FORMS) for the western South Atlantic: Southeastern Brazil region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calado, L.; Gangopadhyay, A.; da Silveira, I. C. A.

    The multi-scale synoptic circulation system in the southeastern Brazil (SEBRA) region is presented using a feature-oriented approach. Prevalent synoptic circulation structures, or "features," are identified from previous observational studies. These features include the southward-flowing Brazil Current (BC), the eddies off Cabo São Tomé (CST - 22°S) and off Cabo Frio (CF - 23°S), and the upwelling region off CF and CST. Their synoptic water-mass ( T- S) structures are characterized and parameterized to develop temperature-salinity ( T- S) feature models. Following [Gangopadhyay, A., Robinson, A.R., Haley, P.J., Leslie, W.J., Lozano, C.J., Bisagni, J., Yu, Z., 2003. Feature-oriented regional modeling and simulation (forms) in the gulf of maine and georges bank. Cont. Shelf Res. 23 (3-4), 317-353] methodology, a synoptic initialization scheme for feature-oriented regional modeling and simulation (FORMS) of the circulation in this region is then developed. First, the temperature and salinity feature-model profiles are placed on a regional circulation template and objectively analyzed with available background climatology in the deep region. These initialization fields are then used for dynamical simulations via the Princeton Ocean Model (POM). A few first applications of this methodology are presented in this paper. These include the BC meandering, the BC-eddy interaction and the meander-eddy-upwelling system (MEUS) simulations. Preliminary validation results include realistic wave-growth and eddy formation and sustained upwelling. Our future plan includes the application of these feature models with satellite, in-situ data and advanced data-assimilation schemes for nowcasting and forecasting the SEBRA region.

  7. Fracturing results in diatomaceous earth formations, South Belridge Field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Strubhar, M.K.; Medin, W.L.

    1982-09-01

    Fracturing significantly increases light oil production rates at South Belridge making this an economically successful technique for exploitation of the Reef Ridge reservoir. No fracturing mechanics problems were encountered in any of the treatments. The loosely consolidated formations behaved mechanically much like brittle, elastic rocks. Net oil and gross production is typified by initial high rates and an early rapid decline. The major cause of this early rapid decline is the transient flow effect. This behavior is typical of low permeability oil and gas production. Fractures are vertical, as shown by gamma ray and temperature logs run following several treatments. The fractures grow slightly out of the perforated intervals (10 to 15 feet). Loss of fracture conductivity due to fines migration, scale deposition, and/or fracture healing (imbedment) is not a serious problem. Oil viscosity can vary as much as ten-fold. Some wells produce significant amounts of gas--100 to 200 MCFPD initially. The formation is primarily diatomaceous earth which is very fine particle size siliceous material composed of whole or fragmented diatom tests (skeletons). There is no evidence that clay swelling or dispersion is a problem. Field and laboratory data support this conclusion. Aqueous fracturing fluids were successfully used which confirmed laboratory tests on cores.

  8. Galaxy Merger Identification in the CANDELS GOODS-South Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Leary, Erin M.; Kartaltepe, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed a catalog of 7,628 galaxies at 0South field in order to identify a sample of galaxy mergers and interactions. Mergers are believed to play a fundamental role in galaxy evolution. Developing methods to robustly and efficiently identify mergers becomes vital as we look to higher redshifts. We explored merger identification based on visual morphology classification and preliminary attempts with automated methods. Using multiple detailed visual morphology classifications for each galaxy conducted by the CANDELS structure and morphology team, we created selection criteria to identify mergers from this visual classification catalog. We chose galaxies with high interaction classification and evidence of merger signatures (i.e. tidal features, double nuclei) to generate a catalog of 1051 galaxies we are confident are mergers. This represents a conservative sample of possible mergers. For comparison, we also tested automated merger identification techniques previously used for lower redshift (z<1) galaxies. This is one of the first large investigations of galaxy mergers at z>1. O’Leary was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program and the Department of Defense ASSURE program through Scientific Program Order No. 13 (AST-0754223) of the Cooperative Agreement No. AST-0132798 between the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) and the NSF.

  9. Genetic type of natural gas in Ya13-1 gas field, South China Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Gang

    1995-08-01

    Ya13-1 is one of the largest gas field ever found in China in recent years. Studying on the genetic type of natural gas in the field is one of the key factors to determine the regional hydrocarbon potential--Qiongdongnan Basin and Yinggerhaii Basin, northwest part of South China Sea. Series of geochemical methods have been undertook including the analysis of the chemical composition of the natural gas and their isotopic ratio discussed in this paper. Other related studied including geological settings, gas-source correlations, geochemistry of the condensates and extractable compounds of source rocks, and thermal simulation and evaluation of the marine shales provides further informations. It is noticeable that the higher content of mercury (44000 ng/cubic meter) and aromatics such as benzene and toluene may be related to the joint of condensates, which derived from coal-bearing Oligocene shales in the adjacent Qingdingnan Basin. Studies show that the natural gas in Ya13-1 gas field belong to high to post mature non-associated gas derived in marine source rocks, and mainly come from Oligocene to Pliocene marine shales in Yinggerhai Basin. This is quite different with the former studies, which believe the gas derived from Oligocene coal-bearing strata of Yacheng formation, Qiongdongnan Basin. The new results of the studies make sure further a pretty good potential of gas resources in the northwest part ofSouth China Sea.

  10. Numerical simulation of wave field in the South China Sea using WAVEWATCH III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Liangming; Li, Zhanbin; Mou, Lin; Wang, Aifang

    2014-05-01

    Wave fields of the South China Sea (SCS) from 1976 to 2005 were simulated using WAVEWATCH III by inputting high-resolution reanalysis wind field datasets assimilated from several meteorological data sources. Comparisons of wave heights between WAVEWATCH III and TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter and buoy data show a good agreement. Our results show seasonal variation of wave direction as follows: 1. During the summer monsoon (April-September), waves from south occur from April through September in the southern SCS region, which prevail taking about 40% of the time; 2. During the winter monsoon (December-March), waves from northeast prevail throughout the SCS for 56% of the period; 3. The dominant wave direction in SCS is NE. The seasonal variation of wave height H s in SCS shows that in spring, H s ≥1 m in the central SCS region and is less than 1 m in other areas. In summer, H s is higher than in spring. During September-November, influenced by tropical cyclones, H s is mostly higher than 1 m. East of Hainan Island, H s>2 m. In winter, H s reaches its maximum value influenced by the north-east monsoon, and heights over 2 m are found over a large part of SCS. Finally, we calculated the extreme wave parameters in SCS and found that the extreme wind speed and wave height for the 100-year return period for SCS peaked at 45 m/s and 19 m, respectively, SE of Hainan Island and decreased from north to south.

  11. Michael Young and the Curriculum Field in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoadley, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    The paper addresses the question of what we should make of Michael Young's recent work with respect to curriculum theory by considering the particular case of South African curriculum reform. The paper thus traces two trajectories: the evolution of Michael Young's ideas over time and South African curriculum reform in the post-apartheid period.…

  12. Geographically Sourcing Cocaine's Origin - Delineation of the Nineteen Major Coca Growing Regions in South America.

    PubMed

    Mallette, Jennifer R; Casale, John F; Jordan, James; Morello, David R; Beyer, Paul M

    2016-01-01

    Previously, geo-sourcing to five major coca growing regions within South America was accomplished. However, the expansion of coca cultivation throughout South America made sub-regional origin determinations increasingly difficult. The former methodology was recently enhanced with additional stable isotope analyses ((2)H and (18)O) to fully characterize cocaine due to the varying environmental conditions in which the coca was grown. An improved data analysis method was implemented with the combination of machine learning and multivariate statistical analysis methods to provide further partitioning between growing regions. Here, we show how the combination of trace cocaine alkaloids, stable isotopes, and multivariate statistical analyses can be used to classify illicit cocaine as originating from one of 19 growing regions within South America. The data obtained through this approach can be used to describe current coca cultivation and production trends, highlight trafficking routes, as well as identify new coca growing regions. PMID:27006288

  13. 40 CFR 81.73 - South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton Harbor (Michigan) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.73 South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton Harbor (Michigan) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton...

  14. 40 CFR 81.73 - South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton Harbor (Michigan) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.73 South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton Harbor (Michigan) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton...

  15. A Determination of the North-South Heliospheric Magnetic Field Component from Inner Corona Closed-loop Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, B. V.; Hick, P. P.; Buffington, A.; Yu, H.-S.; Bisi, M. M.; Tokumaru, M.; Zhao, X.

    2015-04-01

    A component of the magnetic field measured in situ near the Earth in the solar wind is present from north-south fields from the low solar corona. Using the Current-sheet Source Surface model, these fields can be extrapolated upward from near the solar surface to 1 AU. Global velocities inferred from a combination of interplanetary scintillation observations matched to in situ velocities and densities provide the extrapolation to 1 AU assuming mass and mass flux conservation. The north-south field component is compared with the same ACE in situ magnetic field component—the Normal (Radial Tangential Normal) Bn coordinate—for three years throughout the solar minimum of the current solar cycle. We find a significant positive correlation throughout this period between this method of determining the Bn field compared with in situ measurements. Given this result from a study during the latest solar minimum, this indicates that a small fraction of the low-coronal Bn component flux regularly escapes from closed field regions. The prospects for Space Weather, where the knowledge of a Bz field at Earth is important for its geomagnetic field effects, is also now enhanced. This is because the Bn field provides the major portion of the Geocentric Solar Magnetospheric Bz field coordinate that couples most closely to the Earth’s geomagnetic field.

  16. North-South Asymmetries in Earth's Magnetic Field - Effects on High-Latitude Geospace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laundal, K. M.; Cnossen, I.; Milan, S. E.; Haaland, S. E.; Coxon, J.; Pedatella, N. M.; Förster, M.; Reistad, J. P.

    2016-07-01

    The solar-wind magnetosphere interaction primarily occurs at altitudes where the dipole component of Earth's magnetic field is dominating. The disturbances that are created in this interaction propagate along magnetic field lines and interact with the ionosphere-thermosphere system. At ionospheric altitudes, the Earth's field deviates significantly from a dipole. North-South asymmetries in the magnetic field imply that the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere (M-I-T) coupling is different in the two hemispheres. In this paper we review the primary differences in the magnetic field at polar latitudes, and the consequences that these have for the M-I-T coupling. We focus on two interhemispheric differences which are thought to have the strongest effects: 1) A difference in the offset between magnetic and geographic poles in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, and 2) differences in the magnetic field strength at magnetically conjugate regions. These asymmetries lead to differences in plasma convection, neutral winds, total electron content, ion outflow, ionospheric currents and auroral precipitation.

  17. Forecasting auroras from regional and global magnetic field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauristie, Kirsti; Myllys, Minna; Partamies, Noora; Viljanen, Ari; Peitso, Pyry; Juusola, Liisa; Ahmadzai, Shabana; Singh, Vikramjit; Keil, Ralf; Martinez, Unai; Luginin, Alexej; Glover, Alexi; Navarro, Vicente; Raita, Tero

    2016-06-01

    We use the connection between auroral sightings and rapid geomagnetic field variations in a concept for a Regional Auroral Forecast (RAF) service. The service is based on statistical relationships between near-real-time alerts issued by the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center and magnetic time derivative (dB/dt) values measured by five MIRACLE magnetometer stations located in Finland at auroral and sub-auroral latitudes. Our database contains NOAA alerts and dB/dt observations from the years 2002-2012. These data are used to create a set of conditional probabilities, which tell the service user when the probability of seeing auroras exceeds the average conditions in Fennoscandia during the coming 0-12 h. Favourable conditions for auroral displays are associated with ground magnetic field time derivative values (dB/dt) exceeding certain latitude-dependent threshold values. Our statistical analyses reveal that the probabilities of recording dB/dt exceeding the thresholds stay below 50 % after NOAA alerts on X-ray bursts or on energetic particle flux enhancements. Therefore, those alerts are not very useful for auroral forecasts if we want to keep the number of false alarms low. However, NOAA alerts on global geomagnetic storms (characterized with Kp values > 4) enable probability estimates of > 50 % with lead times of 3-12 h. RAF forecasts thus rely heavily on the well-known fact that bright auroras appear during geomagnetic storms. The additional new piece of information which RAF brings to the previous picture is the knowledge on typical storm durations at different latitudes. For example, the service users south of the Arctic Circle will learn that after a NOAA ALTK06 issuance in night, auroral spotting should be done within 12 h after the alert, while at higher latitudes conditions can remain favourable during the next night.

  18. Southern Regional Education Board: Serving Community Colleges in the South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Cheryl D.

    2015-01-01

    The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) is a nonprofit, nonpartisan regional compact focused on critical issues with strong potential to improve quality of life by advancing public education. Designed primarily for legislators and other policymakers and policyshapers, SREB's research is policy-oriented, descriptive, and centered on statewide…

  19. Simulation of the annual and diurnal cycles of rainfall over South Africa by a regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, Benjamin; Rouault, Mathieu; Roy, Shouraseni Sen

    2014-10-01

    The capability of a current state-of-the-art regional climate model for simulating the diurnal and annual cycles of rainfall over a complex subtropical region is documented here. Hourly rainfall is simulated over Southern Africa for 1998-2006 by the non-hydrostatic model weather research and forecasting (WRF), and compared to a network of 103 stations covering South Africa. We used five simulations, four of which consist of different parameterizations for atmospheric convection at a 0.5 × 0.5° resolution, performed to test the physic-dependency of the results. The fifth experiment uses explicit convection over tropical South Africa at a 1/30° resolution. WRF simulates realistic mean rainfall fields, albeit wet biases over tropical Africa. The model mean biases are strongly modulated by the convective scheme used for the simulations. The annual cycle of rainfall is well simulated over South Africa, mostly influenced by tropical summer rainfall except in the Western Cape region experiencing winter rainfall. The diurnal cycle shows a timing bias, with atmospheric convection occurring too early in the afternoon, and causing too abundant rainfall. This result, particularly true in summer over the northeastern part of the country, is weakly physic-dependent. Cloud-resolving simulations do not clearly reduce the diurnal cycle biases. In the end, the rainfall overestimations appear to be mostly imputable to the afternoon hours of the austral summer rainy season, i.e., the periods during which convective activity is intense over the region.

  20. 40 CFR 81.166 - South Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false South Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.166 Section 81.166 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.166...

  1. 40 CFR 81.105 - South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES... Region. The South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial... territorial area of all municipalities (as defined in section 302(f) of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C....

  2. 40 CFR 81.166 - South Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false South Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.166 Section 81.166 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.166...

  3. Balloon observations of ultra-low-frequency waves in the electric field above the South Pole

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, B.; Benbrrook, J.R.; Bering E.A. III; Byrne, G.J.; Theall, J.R. )

    1988-01-01

    The physics of ultra-low-frequency waves in the magnetosphere, near the cusp and in the polar cap, is important because this region is one where ultra-low-frequency wave energy from the magnetopause can most easily enter the magnetosphere. During the 1985-1986 South Pole balloon campaign, eight stratospheric balloon payloads were launched from Amundsen-Scott Station, South Geographic Pole, Antarctica, to record data on ultra-low-frequency waves. The payloads were instrumented with three-axis double-probe electric field detectors and X-ray scintillation counters. This paper concentrates on the third flight of this series, which was launched at 2205 universal time on 21 December 1985. Good data were received from the payload until the transmitter failed at 0342 universal time on 22 December. During most of the four hours that the balloon was afloat, an intense ultra-low-frequency wave event was in progress. The electric-field data from this period have been examined in detail and compared with magnetic field data, obtained with ground-based fluxgate and induction magnetometers to determine the characteristics of the waves. After float was reached, the electric-field data in figure 1 show large-amplitude, quasi-periodic fluctuations suggesting the presence of intense ultra-low-frequency wave activity. In conclusion, the electric-field signature observed from flight 3 appears to have been essentially an electrostatic event or possibly a short-wavelength hydromagnetic wave with a varying and interesting polarization character. The authors are continuing the analysis of the data to determine the source of the observed ultra-low-frequency waves.

  4. Areas of permanent shadow in Mercury's south polar region ascertained by MESSENGER orbital imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabot, Nancy L.; Ernst, Carolyn M.; Denevi, Brett W.; Harmon, John K.; Murchie, Scott L.; Blewett, David T.; Solomon, Sean C.; Zhong, Ellen D.

    2012-05-01

    Radar-bright features near Mercury's poles have been postulated to be deposits of water ice trapped in cold, permanently shadowed interiors of impact craters. From its orbit about Mercury, MESSENGER repeatedly imaged the planet's south polar region over one Mercury solar day, providing a complete view of the terrain near the south pole and enabling the identification of areas of permanent shadow larger in horizontal extent than approximately 4 km. In Mercury's south polar region, all radar-bright features correspond to areas of permanent shadow. Application of previous thermal models suggests that the radar-bright deposits in Mercury's south polar cold traps are in locations consistent with a composition dominated by water ice provided that some manner of insulation, such as a thin layer of regolith, covers many of the deposits.

  5. Tobacco and youth in the South East Asian region.

    PubMed

    2002-03-01

    Tobacco use among youth in South-East asian countries was reviewed using available literature. Youth who are out-out-of school, earning, less educated and live in rural areas are more likely to use tobacco and start during the Preteen years. Better educated youth may know the health effects of smoking but the dangers of passive smoking are generally unknown. Youth are fairly unconcerned about the present or future effect of tobacco use on health but do favour tobacco control measures. Children and youth are more responsive than adults to tobacco education. In India, a manufactured smokeless tobacco product, gutkha, has been targeted toward youth and has become extremely popular. An evolving epidemic of oral submucous fibrosis attributed to to gutkha use has been documented among youth, with a resultant increase in oral cancer in lower age groups. Children in India are often illegally employed in bidi manufacturing. This review points out the need for specific actions. PMID:12931709

  6. Overview of the South American biomass burning analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, W. T.; Allan, J. D.; Flynn, M.; Darbyshire, E.; Hodgson, A.; Johnson, B. T.; Haywood, J. M.; Freitas, S.; Longo, K.; Artaxo, P.; Coe, H.

    2013-05-01

    Biomass burning represents one of the largest sources of particulate matter to the atmosphere, which results in a significant perturbation to the Earth's radiative balance coupled with serious negative impacts on public health. Globally, biomass burning aerosols are thought to exert a small warming effect of 0.03 Wm-2, however the uncertainty is 4 times greater than the central estimate. On regional scales, the impact is substantially greater, particularly in areas such as the Amazon Basin where large, intense and frequent burning occurs on an annual basis for several months (usually from August-October). Furthermore, a growing number of people live within the Amazon region, which means that they are subject to the deleterious effects on their health from exposure to substantial volumes of polluted air. Initial results from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment, which took place during September and October 2012 over Brazil, are presented here. A suite of instrumentation was flown on-board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft and was supported by ground based measurements, with extensive measurements made in Porto Velho, Rondonia. The aircraft sampled a range of conditions with sampling of fresh biomass burning plumes, regional haze and elevated biomass burning layers within the free troposphere. The physical, chemical and optical properties of the aerosols across the region will be characterized in order to establish the impact of biomass burning on regional air quality, weather and climate.

  7. Evaluation Field Building in South Asia: Insights from the Rear View Mirror

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grob, George F.

    2010-01-01

    The author enjoyed reading Katharine Hay's ambitious and humbling visions for evaluation field building in South Asia. She has successfully positioned herself on a high mountain with a wonderful set of binoculars that enable her to see the entire evaluation landscape of South Asia. She magically sees and describes significant historical forces and…

  8. Determination of the North-South Heliospheric Magnetic-Field Component from Inner-Corona Closed-Loop Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, B. V.; Yu, H. S.; Hick, P. P.; Buffington, A.; Bisi, M. M.; Tokumaru, M.; Kim, J.; Hong, S.; Lee, B.; Yi, J.; Yun, J.

    2015-12-01

    We find that a portion of the north-south interplanetary magnetic field measured in situ near Earth is present from a direct outward mapping of closed fields from the low solar corona. Using the Current-Sheet Source Surface (CSSS) model (Zhao & Hoeksema, 1995 JGR 100, 19), these lower coronal fields are extrapolated upward from near the solar surface. Global velocities inferred from a combination of observations of interplanetary scintillation (IPS) matched to in-situ velocities and densities measured by spacecraft instrumentation provide an accurate outward timing to 1 AU from a model assuming conservation of mass and mass flux. The north-south field component at 1 AU is compared with the appropriate ACE magnetometer in-situ Normal (RTN) or Bn field coordinate (Jackson et al., 2015, ApJL, 803:L1). From a significant positive correlation between this method of determining the Bn field compared with in-situ measurements over a three-year period during the last solar minimum, we find that a small fraction of the low-coronal Bn component flux (~1%) regularly escapes from closed-field regions. Since the Bn field provides the major portion of the Geocentric Solar Magnetospheric (GSM) Bz field component that couples most closely to the Earth's geomagnetic field, the prospects for its determination using this technique for space weather use are being actively developed by our many colleague groups.

  9. The Life Cycle of Active Region Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, M. C. M.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Martínez Pillet, V.; Thompson, M. J.

    2016-08-01

    We present a contemporary view of how solar active region magnetic fields are understood to be generated, transported and dispersed. Empirical trends of active region properties that guide model development are discussed. Physical principles considered important for active region evolution are introduced and advances in modeling are reviewed.

  10. Cooperative Regional Bibliographic Projects in South-East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hwa-Wei

    1977-01-01

    Seven projects operating in five countries (Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, Indonesia) are described in terms of development, current status, and activities. Most notable are the Asian Mass Communication Research and Information Centre (AMIC) and the International Serials Data System Regional Centre (ISDS). (JAB)

  11. Traditional Geology Field Camp: A capstone course at South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (BHNSFS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzunlar, N.; Lisenbee, A. L.

    2012-12-01

    The Black Hills Natural Sciences Field Station (BHNSFS) has provided field training in geology and geological engineering for more than 40 years, and since the 1980's as a consortium serving five schools with South Dakota School of Mines and Technology as the coordinator. The traditional summer geology field camp is a five week long, intense program aimed to prepare students for subsequent professional geologic experiences. It is delivered from two separate facilities, one in the Black Hills (South Dakota) from a beautiful log lodge along Sand Creek, in eastern Wyoming, and a second from the town of Taskesti along the North Anatolian fault approximately 200 km east of Istanbul, Turkey. At both locations, the courses maintain a strong emphasis on basic field applications, including the use of GPS as a mapping tool in most exercises. The preparation of well-written reports, based on field descriptions supplemented by research on the web or through published documents, is strongly emphasized. Projects at the Black Hills field camp includes mapping of Precambrian basement, Paleozoic stratigraphy, and Laramide Tertiary plutons and structural features as welll as post-Laramide,, faulted continental strata. The popular Taskesti field camp utilizes the diverse geology of the Tethyan realm, as well as the culture and history, of central Turkey (Anatolia). The course is based at a Turkish Government Earthquake Research Center facility along the North Anatolian fault. Students examine and map selected locations across the Izmir-Ankara suture including: 1) Deformed Cretaceous and Tertiary carbonate and clastic strata of the Sakarya micro-continent in a fore-arc basin; 2) Marble and skarn surrounding Eocene, subduction-related granite intruded into a passive margin sequence in the Sivrihisar region of central Anatolia; 3) Faulted and folded Neogene strata in the northern flank of the post-Tethyan, Haymana Basin and the contrasting terrains across the North Anatolian fault (J

  12. Archive of digital Boomer seismic reflection data collected during USGS Cruise 94CCT02, south-central South Carolina coastal region, August 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calderon, Karynna; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Kindinger, Jack G.; Flocks, James G.; Wiese, Dana S.

    2005-01-01

    In August of 1994, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Coastal Carolina University, conducted marine geophysical surveys in numerous water bodies adjacent to the south-central South Carolina coastal region. Data were collected aboard the MS Coastal in the Ashley, North Edisto, Wadmalaw, Dawho, South Edisto, and Ashepoo Rivers; the Wappoo, North, Steamboat, Bohicket, and Toogoodoo Creeks; Charleston Harbor; Wadmalaw Sound; Fenwick Cut; and the Atlantic Ocean from offshore Isle of Palms to Kiawah Island. This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital boomer seismic reflection data, trackline maps, navigation files, GIS information, observers' logbooks, Field Activity Collection System (FACS) logs, and FGDC metadata. Filtered and gained digital images of the seismic profiles are also provided. The archived trace data are in standard Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) SEG-Y format (Barry and others, 1975) and may be downloaded and processed with commercial or public domain software such as Seismic Unix (SU). Example SU processing scripts and USGS software for viewing the SEG-Y files (Zihlman, 1992) are also provided.

  13. Discovery Of A Rossby Wave In Jupiter's South Equatorial Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Choi, D. S.; Rogers, J. H.; Gierasch, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed study of the chevron-shaped dark spots on the strong southern equatorial wind jet near 7.5 deg S planetographic latitude shows variations in velocity with longitude and time. The chevrons move with velocities near the maximum wind jet velocity of approx.140 m/s, as deduced by the history of velocities at this latitude and the magnitude of the symmetric wind jet near 7 deg N latitude. Their repetitive nature is consistent with an inertia-gravity wave (n = 75-100) with phase speed up to 25 m/s, relative to the local flow, but the identity of this wave mode is not well constrained. However, high spatial resolution movies from Cassini images show that the chevrons oscillate in latitude with a approx.7-day period. This oscillating motion has a wavelength of approx.20 deg and a speed of approx.100 m/s, following a pattern similar to that seen in the Rossby wave plumes of the North Equatorial Zone, and possibly reinforced by it, though they are not perfectly in phase. The transient anticyclonic South Equatorial Disturbance (SED) may be a similar wave feature, but moves at slower velocity. All data show chevron latitude variability, but it is unclear if this Rossby wave is present during other epochs, without time series movies that fully delineate it. In the presence of multiple wave modes, the difference in dominant cloud appearance between 7 deg N and 7.5 deg S may be due to the presence of the Great Red Spot, either through changes in stratification and stability or by acting as a wave boundary.

  14. Discovery Of A Rossby Wave In Jupiter's South Equatorial Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Choi, D. S.; Rogers, J. H.; Gierasch, P. J.

    2012-10-01

    A detailed study of the chevron-shaped dark spots on the strong southern equatorial wind jet near 7.5 deg S planetographic latitude shows variations in velocity with longitude and time. The chevrons move with velocities near the maximum wind jet velocity of 140 m/s, as deduced by the history of velocities at this latitude and the magnitude of the symmetric wind jet near 7 deg N latitude. Their repetitive nature is consistent with an inertia-gravity wave (n = 75-100) with phase speed up to 25 m/s, relative to the local flow, but the identity of this wave mode is not well constrained. However, high spatial resolution movies from Cassini images show that the chevrons oscillate in latitude with a 7-day period. This oscillating motion has a wavelength of 20 deg and a speed of 100 m/s, following a pattern similar to that seen in the Rossby wave plumes of the North Equatorial Zone, and possibly reinforced by it, though they are not perfectly in phase. The transient anticyclonic South Equatorial Disturbance (SED) may be a similar wave feature, but moves at slower velocity. All data show chevron latitude variability, but it is unclear if this Rossby wave is present during other epochs, without time series movies that fully delineate it. In the presence of multiple wave modes, the difference in dominant cloud appearance between 7 deg N and 7.5 deg S may be due to the presence of the Great Red Spot, either through changes in stratification and stability or by acting as a wave boundary.

  15. An Investigation into Why Students from Regional South Australia Choose to Study Business Programs in the Capital City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Janet; Ellis, Bronwyn

    2011-01-01

    Although Business undergraduate studies are available at the University of South Australia's (UniSA) Centre for Regional Engagement (CRE), both at the Whyalla Campus and the Mount Gambier Regional Centre (MGRC), many students from regional South Australia choose to undertake Business degrees in Adelaide, the state capital, rather than locally.…

  16. Differential Magnetic Field Shear in an Active Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmeider, B.; DeMoulin, P.; Aulanier, G.; Golub, Leon

    1997-01-01

    The three-dimensional extrapolation of magnetic field lines from a magnetogram obtained at Kitt Peak allows us to understand the global structure of the NOAA active region 6718, as observed in X-rays with the Normal Incidence X-ray Telescope (NIXT) and in Ha with the Multichannel Subtractive Double Pass spectrograph (MSDP) in Meudon on 1991 July 11. This active region was in a quiet stage. Bright X-ray loops connect plages having field strengths of approx. 300 G, while H-alpha fibriles connect penumbrae having strong spot fields to the surrounding network. Small, intense X-ray features in the moat region around a large spot, which could be called X-ray-bright points, are due mainly to the emergence of magnetic flux and merging of these fields with surrounding ones. A set of large-scale, sheared X-ray loops is observed in the central part of the active region. Based on the fit between the observed coronal structure and the field configurations (and assuming a linear force-free field), we propose a differential magnetic field shear model for this active region. The decreasing shear in outer portions of the active region may indicate a continual relaxation of the magnetic field to a lower energy state in the progressively older portions of the AR.

  17. South Carolina Field Recordings in the Archive of Folk Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Stephanie A., Comp.

    This document describes recordings of the Library of Congress's unique collections of folklife and ethnomusicology from South Carolina. Information given includes length of recording, name of recorder, dates of recording, and content of recording. Recordings include songs, spirituals, hymns, sermons, prayers, dialect tales, and street songs.…

  18. Solar energy resources at South region of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinicius Fiorin, Daniel; Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Ramos Martins, Fernando; Bueno Pereira, Enio; Ceconi, Marcio; Brackmann, Rodrigo; Guarnieri, Ricardo André

    The Center for Weather Forecast and Climate Studies at the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research, Ministry of Science and Technology - CPTEC/INP-MCT, have installed throughout Brazilian territory several sites to acquired solar irradiation data used to assess the renewable energy potential of Brazil as part of SONDA project (www.cptec.inpe.br/sonda/). One of ground sites is located at the Southern Space Observatory-SSO/CRS/CIE/INPE-MCT, (29o S; 53o W), in São Martinho da Serra, RS, South of Brazil, where diffuse and global solar a irradiation are measured by CM 22 and CM21 Pyrhanometers), direct solar radiation are measured by Pyrheliometer NIP and opaque and thin cloudiness fractions were esteemed by a Total Sky Imager TSI-440 (YES, Inc). Our concern is with the fact that the current world energy scenery, characterized by petroleum sources exhaustion and environmental concerns, point out to the use of clean and renewable energy sources such as the solar energy. This work aims to the evaluation of the solar energy resource by using stochastic models relating the cloud cover fraction and solar radiation parameters such as diffuse-to-direct-beam ratio (DDB), diffuse-toglobal solar irradiation ratio (K), diffuse-to-TOA irradiation ratio (KD ), and global-to-TOA irradiation ratio (KT ), measured with the SONDA Project, where TOA is the total irradiation that reach the atmosphere. Only data collected for zenithal solar angle (SZA) lesser than 75 deg for the period between September/2005 to September/2007 were used. The ground data were averaged for fifteen minutes intervals in order to reduce the influence of high frequency variability of cloud cover. It was observed low correlation (around 0.55) among the diffuse to TOA irradiation ratio and cloud cover. Better correlation (about 0.94) were obtained for K parameter. The statistic deviations RMSE (23-28%) and MBE (0.3-5%) were calculated to validate and compare the models performance. The results showed more

  19. Wake Fields in the Super B Factory Interaction Region

    SciTech Connect

    Weathersby, Stephen; Novokhatski, Alexander; /SLAC

    2011-06-02

    The geometry of storage ring collider interaction regions present an impedance to beam fields resulting in the generation of additional electromagnetic fields (higher order modes or wake fields) which affect the beam energy and trajectory. These affects are computed for the Super B interaction region by evaluating longitudinal loss factors and averaged transverse kicks for short range wake fields. Results indicate at least a factor of 2 lower wake field power generation in comparison with the interaction region geometry of the PEP-II B-factory collider. Wake field reduction is a consderation in the Super B design. Transverse kicks are consistent with an attractive potential from the crotch nearest the beam trajectory. The longitudinal loss factor scales as the -2.5 power of the bunch length. A factor of 60 loss factor reduction is possible with crotch geometry based on an intersecting tubes model.

  20. The Spitzer South Pole Telescope Deep Field: Survey Design and Infrared Array Camera Catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashby, M. L. N.; Stanford, S. A.; Brodwin, M.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Martinez-Manso, J.; Bartlett, J. G.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Crawford, T. M.; Dey, A.; Dressler, A.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Galametz, A.; Jannuzi, B. T.; Marrone, D. P.; Mei, S.; Muzzin, A.; Pacaud, F.; Pierre, M.; Stern, D.; Vieira, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    The Spitzer South Pole Telescope Deep Field (SSDF) is a wide-area survey using Spitzer's Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) to cover 94 deg2 of extragalactic sky, making it the largest IRAC survey completed to date outside the Milky Way midplane. The SSDF is centered at (α, δ) = (23:30, -55:00), in a region that combines observations spanning a broad wavelength range from numerous facilities. These include millimeter imaging from the South Pole Telescope, far-infrared observations from Herschel/SPIRE, X-ray observations from the XMM XXL survey, near-infrared observations from the VISTA Hemisphere Survey, and radio-wavelength imaging from the Australia Telescope Compact Array, in a panchromatic project designed to address major outstanding questions surrounding galaxy clusters and the baryon budget. Here we describe the Spitzer/IRAC observations of the SSDF, including the survey design, observations, processing, source extraction, and publicly available data products. In particular, we present two band-merged catalogs, one for each of the two warm IRAC selection bands. They contain roughly 5.5 and 3.7 million distinct sources, the vast majority of which are galaxies, down to the SSDF 5σ sensitivity limits of 19.0 and 18.2 Vega mag (7.0 and 9.4 μJy) at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, respectively.

  1. Formation of active region and quiescent prominence magnetic field configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    An, C.-H.; Bao, J. J.; Wu, S. T.

    1986-01-01

    To investigate the formation of prominences, researchers studied chromospheric mass injection into an overlying coronal dipole magnetic field using a 2-D ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical model. Researchers propose that active region prominences are formed by chromospheric plasmas injected directly into the overlying coronal magnetic field and that quiescent prominences are formed by plasmas evaporated at the interface between spicules and corona. Hence, for the simulation of an active region prominence magnetic field we inject the mass from one side, but use a symmetric mass injection to form a quiescent prominence field configuration. Researchers try to find optimum conditions for the formation of Kippenhahn-Schuluter(K-S)type field configuration for stable support of the injection plasmas. They find that the formation of K-S type field configuration by mass injection requires a delicate balance between injection velocity, density, and overlying magnetic fields. These results may explain why a prominence does not form on every neutral line.

  2. Seismotectonic Analysis for the KZN region of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, M.

    2012-04-01

    Recently, devastating earthquakes and tsunamis have shocked the modern world (Japan [April 7 2011, Mw 9.0, loss of life and destruction of infrastructure, 15,457 deaths 5,389 injured, US300billion loss (Japanese National Police Agency 2011)], New Zealand [21 February 2011, Mw 6.3, 148 killed], Haiti [12 January 2010, Mw 7.0, estimated 316 000 killed and 300 000 injured]. These earthquakes have caused large scale damage to the built environment not to mention the high number of fatalities. The KZN coastal region is also fast developing especially towards the north of Durban CBD (Cornubia [New development near Umhlanga, 25 Billion Rands investment], Gateway/Umhlanga Business District, Moses Mabida Stadium (cost of R3.4 billion ), King Shaka International Airport at a cost of R6.8 billion, Dube Tradeport to be developed next to the airport at a cost of R5 billion, as well as the development of the Richards Bay Industrial Development Zone . The KZN is home to 10 million inhabitants with a relatively denser population distribution around the Durban and Pietermaritzburg CBDs. With the increasing amount of investment towards the north coast of Durban, the population distribution will migrate to these areas. These areas now become 'vulnerable' to rare, infrequent and potentially devastating natural disasters like earthquakes. One of the first steps to understand and plan for an earthquake occurrence is through a seismic hazard and risk assessment. The seismic hazard and risk method has well been established since 1968 (see Cornell (1968); Veneziano et al., (1984); Bender and Perkins (1993); McGuire (1993); McGuire and Toro (2008); Kijko and Graham (1998); Kijko and Sellevoll, (1989, 1992)). The components of a seismic risk assessment (SRA) include several building blocks namely: the development of the earthquake catalogue, seismotectonic model, attenuation models, seismic hazard assessment (SHA), vulnerability assessment and seismic risk computations. The seismotectonic

  3. 40 CFR 81.247 - South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.247 Section 81.247 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... portions of the 1956 Election Districts 7-17, inclusive, and Election District 24 as described in...

  4. Distance Education Regulatory Frameworks: Readiness for Openness in Southwest Pacific/South East Asia Region Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tynan, Belinda; James, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports in brief the pilot study, Distance Education Regulatory Frameworks, undertaken by the International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE) in 2010-2012 and the implications for openness for higher education in Southwest Pacific/South East Asia region nations. The project developed a methodological approach to…

  5. The Emergence of a Regional Hub: Comparing International Student Choices and Experiences in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jon, Jae-Eun; Lee, Jenny J.; Byun, Kiyong

    2014-01-01

    As the demand for international education increases, middle-income non-English speaking countries, such as South Korea, play an increasing role in hosting the world's students. This mixed-methods study compares the different motivations and experiences of international students within and outside the East Asian region. Based on findings, this…

  6. 40 CFR 81.114 - Augusta (Georgia)-Aiken (South Carolina) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Augusta (Georgia)-Aiken (South Carolina) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. 81.114 Section 81.114 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality...

  7. Trends in Articulation Arrangements for Technical and Vocational Education in the South East Asian Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Adrian R.

    Trends in articulation arrangements for technical and vocational education (TVE) in the South East Asia region were studied. A key feature of articulation is the existence of pathways that allow graduates of one course of study to progress to other courses. Effective articulation opens up advancement for individuals and helps to create a flexible…

  8. Early Holocene basinal sediments of the Dakhleh Oasis region, south central Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brookes, Ian A.

    1989-09-01

    Twenty samples of artifactual ostrich eggshell and hearth charcoal, firmly to loosely associated with basinal lacustrine, playa, and sand sheet sediments in the Dakhleh Oasis region of south-central Egypt, yield radiocarbon ages between ca. 8800 and ca. 4700 yr B.P. The sediments record variable sedimentary responses to an early Holocene pluvial interval in this virtually rainless region. Differences of hydrogeology and morphometry among and within basin types complicate paleoclimatic interpretation.

  9. Characterisation of plumes from the Johannesburg-Pretoria megacity within the regional South African context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beukes, J. P.; Vakkari, V.; Van Zyl, P. G.; Venter, A. D.; Josipovic, M.; Tiitta, P.; Jaars, K.; Pienaar, J. J.; Kulmala, M.; Worsnop, D.; Laakso, L.

    2012-04-01

    Introduction The Johannesburg-Pretoria conurbation in South Africa is inhabited by more than 10 million people, making it one of the 40 largest metropolitan areas in the world. Conurbations of this magnitude have been defined as megacities (Molina and Molina, 2004). However, similar to many developing world megacities, relatively little has been published on the Johannesburg-Pretoria conurbation. Megacities are not only important from a local air quality (health) perspective, but also since they have a global atmospheric impact (Butler and Lawrence, 2009). Approach In this paper, the Johannesburg-Pretoria megacity source region, as well as other source regions in the interior of South Africa was defined, as observed from a relatively new super site for atmospheric measurements (www.welgegund.org) that is located at Welgegund (26°34'10"S, 26° 56'21"E, 1480 m.asl). This site is approximately 70km west of the Johannesburg-Pretoria megacity source region. Plumes from the megacity source region arriving at Welgegund were identified via obtaining and overlaying back trajectories for a two year period. The back trajectory arrival times were correlated to in situ measurement to chemically and physically characterize the plumes. The characteristics of the megacity plumes were also compared to plumes from other defined source regions, as well as the regional background. Results Results indicated that the plumes arriving at Welgegund after passing over the Johannesburg-Pretoria megacity source region had much higher concentrations of gaseous pollutant species which include NO, NO2, O3, SO2, CO and anthropogenic VOC's, as well as aerosol total organic content, SO42-, NO3- and NH4+, if compared to the regional background. PM1 aerosol absorption (black carbon), scattering and number concentrations indicated similar trends. Comparison of the Johannesburg-Pretoria megacity source region with other defined source regions indicated that plumes from the megacity was as polluted as

  10. Earth's Magnetic Field Monitoring in the AMAS Region with the NANOSATC-BR1 Nanosatellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilibio, Andreos Vestena; Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Mendes, Odim; Marchezi, Jose Paulo; Cupertino Durao, Otavio S.

    The objectives of the Southern Regional Space Research Center's Solar Physics and Interplanetary Medium & Magnetosphere Laboratory is to study Geomagnetic field techniques in experimental measurements and monitoring changes in the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA) region by continuous measurements of the three orthogonal components of Geomagnetic field: H (North-South), D (East- West) and Z (vertical down). The observation measurements are made at the Southern Space Observatory - SSO/CRS/INPE - MCTI in São Martinho da Serra (29.43º S, 53.82º W, elevation 488m), southern Brazil. Nanosatellites, such as CubeSats, have been used in many scientific space applications. The NANOSATC-BR1 is the second nanosatellite of the NANOSATC-BR, Development of CubeSats Program, a Brazilian Partnership between INPE/MCTI & UFSM. The NANOSATC-BR1 Project has been planed, designed and executed in the facilities built on the partnership between CRS/INPE/MCTI and the Federal University of Santa Maria (LACESM/CT-UFSM), with its undergraduate students. The nanosatellite has three payloads: two integrated circuits (designed in Brazil for space use) to be tested for radiation resistance and a fluxgate magnetometer (model XEM - 12.10 FGM), that will be used for geomagnetic field measurements over the AMAS region. The magnetometer is a magnetic field sensor based on the Hall effect. The instrument will perform data collection in a frequency of three samples per seconds, with a resolution of 15 nT for magnetic field intensity. The intention for future studies is to do comparison between SSO data and monitoring the spatial and temporal variation of magnetic field intensity in AMAS region.

  11. Strain in southern California: Measured uniaxial north-south regional contraction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, J.C.; Prescott, W.H.; Lisowski, M.; King, N.

    1978-01-01

    The plate tectonics model of the Pacific moving northwest relative to North America implies that the regional strain in California should be simple shear across a vertical plane striking N45??W or equivalently equal parts of north-south contraction and east-west extension. Measurements of the strain accumulation at seven separate sites in southern California in the interval 1972 through 1978 indicate a remarkably consistent uniaxial north-south contraction of about 0.3 part per million per year; the expected east-west extension is absent. It is not clear whether the period from 1972 through 1978 is anomalous or whether the secular strain in southern California is indeed a uniaxial north-south contraction.

  12. Mixing of biogenic siliceous and terrigenous clastic sediments: South Belridge field and Beta field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, D.E. )

    1990-05-01

    The intermixing and interbedding of biogenically derived siliceous sediment with terrigenous clastic sediment in reservoirs of upper Miocene age provides both reservoir rock and seal and influences productivity by affecting porosity and permeability. Miocene reservoirs commonly contain either biogenic-dominated cyclic diatomite, porcelanite, or chert (classic Monterey Formation) or clastic-dominated submarine fan sequences with interbedded or intermixed siliceous members of biogenic origin. Biogenic-clastic cycles, 30-180 ft thick, at South Belridge field were formed by episodic influx of clastic sediment from distant submarine fans mixing with slowly accumulating diatomaceous ooze. The cycles consist of basal silt and pelletized massive diatomaceous mudstone, overlain by burrowed, faintly bedded clayey diatomite and topped by laminated diatomite. Cycle tops have higher porosity and permeability, lower grain density, and higher oil saturation than clay and silt-rich portions of the cycles. Submarine fan sediments forming reservoirs at the Beta field are comprised of interbedded sands and silts deposited in a channelized middle fan to outer fan setting. Individual turbidites display fining-upward sequences, with oil-bearing sands capped by wet micaceous silts. Average sands are moderately to poorly sorted, fine- to medium-grained arkosic arenites. Sands contain pore-filling carbonate and porcelaneous cements. Porcelaneous cement consists of a mixture of opal-A, opal-CT, and chert with montmorillonite and minor zeolite. This cement is an authigenic material precipitated in intergranular pore space. The origin of the opal is biogenic, with recrystallization of diatom frustules (opal-A) into opal-CT lepispheres and quartz crystals. Porcelaneous cement comprises 4-21% of the bulk volume of the rock. Seventy percent of the bulk volume of the cement is micropore space.

  13. A COMPREHENISVE NONPOINT SOURCE FIELD STUDY FOR SEDIMENT, NUTRIENTS AND PATHOGENS IN THE SOUTH FORK BROAD RIVER WATERSHED IN NORTHEAST GEORGIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an urgent need for EPA to develop protocols for establishing Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) in streams, lakes and estuaries. A cooperative TMDL field data collection project between ORD and Region 4 is ongoing in the South Fork Broad River Watershed (SFBR), a 245.18 ...

  14. Active tectonics of North Haji Abad (Hormozgan region) in south of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    shafiei bafti, amir

    2014-05-01

    Zagros Active Fold -thrust Belt is situated in the northern margin of the Arabian Plat and formed due to shortening, thickening and uplift of tethys sedimentary basin between Arabian and Iranian plates. In this study, the rate of uplift in the northern margin of the Zagros Mountains in southern Iran are examined. The Zagros fault zone in this region is composed of a set faults, including Deragah, Haji Abad, Tezerj and several other faults and also we call these branches from F1 to F8. These segments puts from northwest to the East- Southeast. Based on field surveys and Geological maps, we prepared a structural map from major faults of Zagros fault system for identify faults pattern and estimating of uplift rate movements in Zagros fault. Three methods used to calculation of uplift rate: A: Asymmetry index Accordance with the procedure, in studied area, northeast drainage are longer than of southwest drainage and east minor drainages also longer than the west side drainages, Uplifting in this region is characterized by mentioned asymmetry factor. The amount of this index is AF=71.81. B. Interaction between the faults movements and erosion process We comparison contrast between uplifting movement rates and erosion rates in different parts of studied region by Smf and other indexes. Average amount of Smf=1.1. C. Evaluation of Uplift rate of alluvial terraces was performed by sediment ages and terraces height. We surveyed Quaternary facieses which have ages between 17,000 and 30,000 years old. the rate of uplifting for each fault is follows : Deragah fault and F8 fault between 1.0 to 1.85mm per year and F7, F6, F5, and F4 faults, have a rate Uplifting between 0.6 to 1.0 mm per year and the rate of Uplift for other faults is between 0.04 to 0.06 mm per year. According to our studies, uplift rates in north -east and south-west more than other regions The minimum rate at different stations are about 0.5mm/y to 0.93mm/y and its maximum is 0.88 mm/y to 1.47mm/y.

  15. Constrained Regional Recovery of Continental Water Mass Time-variations from GRACE-based Geopotential Anomalies over South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramillien, G. L.; Seoane, L.; Frappart, F.; Biancale, R.; Gratton, S.; Vasseur, X.; Bourgogne, S.

    2012-09-01

    We propose a "constrained" least-squares approach to estimate regional maps of equivalent-water heights by inverting GRACE-based potential anomalies at satellite altitude. According to the energy integral method, the anomalies of difference of geopotential between the two GRACE vehicles are derived from along-track K-Band Range-Rate (KBRR) residuals that correspond mainly to the continental water storage changes, once a priori known accelerations (i.e. static field, polar movements, atmosphere and ocean masses including tides) are removed during the orbit adjustment process. Newton's first law merely enables the Difference of Potential Anomalies from accurate KBRR data and the equivalent-water heights to be recovered. Spatial constraints versus spherical distance between elementary surface tiles are introduced to stabilize the linear system to cancel the effects of the north-south striping. Unlike the "mascons" approach, no basis of orthogonal functions (e.g., spherical harmonics) is used, so that the proposed regional method does not suffer from drawbacks related to any spectrum truncation. Time series of 10-day regional maps over South America for 2006-2009 also prove to be consistent with independent data sets, namely the outputs of hydrological models, "mascons" and global GRACE solutions.

  16. Abundant cyanopolyynes as a probe of infall in the Serpens South cluster-forming region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, R. K.; Medeiros, L.; Schnee, S.; Bourke, T. L.; Francesco, J. Di; Gutermuth, R.; Myers, P. C.

    2013-12-01

    We have detected bright HC7N J = 21 - 20 emission towards multiple locations in the Serpens South cluster-forming region using the K-Band Focal Plane Array at the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope. HC7N is seen primarily towards cold filamentary structures that have yet to form stars, largely avoiding the dense gas associated with small protostellar groups and the main central cluster of Serpens South. Where detected, the HC7N abundances are similar to those found in other nearby star-forming regions. Towards some HC7N `clumps', we find consistent variations in the line centroids relative to NH3 (1,1) emission, as well as systematic increases in the HC7N non-thermal line widths, which we argue reveal infall motions on to dense filaments within Serpens South with minimum mass accretion rates of M ˜ 2-5 M⊙ Myr-1. The relative abundance of NH3 to HC7N suggests that the HC7N is tracing gas that has been at densities n ˜ 104 cm-3 for time-scales t ≲ 1-2 × 105 yr. Since HC7N emission peaks are rarely co-located with those of either NH3 or continuum, it is likely that Serpens South is not particularly remarkable in its abundance of HC7N, but instead the serendipitous mapping of HC7N simultaneously with NH3 has allowed us to detect HC7N at low abundances in regions where it otherwise may not have been looked for. This result extends the known star-forming regions containing significant HC7N emission from typically quiescent regions, like the Taurus molecular cloud, to more complex, active environments.

  17. Understanding the regional anthropogenic signature in weakening of the south Asian Summer Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    TP, S.

    2014-12-01

    The evidence from observation shows that South Asia underwent a widespread drying from the last five to six decades during the summer. The underlying reasons are unclear, whether this trend is due to natural or anthropogenic activities. Using a state-of-the-art global variable resolution climate model with high-resolution zooming over South-Asia, we decomposed the regional factors responsible for the weakening of monsoon circulation and rainfall. To address this issue we conducted several long simulations from 1886 to 2095, with and without anthropogenic forcing. The simulation provides key information about the regional responses to changes in south Asian summer monsoon, which leads to the decline in mean monsoon, and enhancement in the occurrence of localized extreme precipitation events in a warming climate. Further the 21st century climate projection using the same high-resolution model indicates persistent decrease of monsoonal rains due to land-atmosphere feedbacks in a warming environment. This would have severe impacts on agriculture, water resources and ecosystem over South Asia.

  18. EVALUATION OF THE FLOOD POTENTIAL OF THE SOUTH HOUSE (BLINEBRY) FIELD, LEA COUNTY, NEW MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    L. Stephen Melzer

    2000-12-01

    The Blinebry (Permian) formation of eastern Lea County, NM has a long history of exploitation for petroleum and continues even today to be a strong target horizon for new drilling in the Permian Basin. Because of this long-standing interest it should be classified of strategic interest to domestic oil production; however, the formation has gained a reputation as a primary production target with limited to no flooding potential. In late May of 1999, a project to examine the feasibility of waterflooding the Blinebry formation was proposed to the U.S. Department of Energy's National Petroleum Technology Office (Tulsa, OK). A new well was proposed in one region (the South House area) to examine the reputation by acquiring core and borehole logging data for the collection of formation property data in order to conduct the waterflood evaluation. Notice of the DOE award was received on August 19, 1999 and the preparations for drilling, coring and logging were immediately made for a drilling start on 9/9/99. The Blinebry formation at 6000 feet, foot depth was reached on 9/16/99 and the coring of two 60 foot intervals of the Blinebry was completed on 9/19/99 with more than 98% core recovery. The well was drilled to a total depth of 7800 feet and the Blinebry interval was logged with spectral gamma ray, photoelectric cross section, porosity, resistivity, and borehole image logs on 8/24/99. The well was determined to be likely productive from the Blinebry interval and five & 1/2 inch casing was cemented in the hole on 9/25/99. Detailed core descriptions including environment of deposition have been accomplished. Whole core (a 4-inch diameter) and plug (1.5 inch diameter) testing for formation properties has been completed and are reported. Acquisition and analysis of the borehole logging results have been completed and are reported. Perforation of the Blinebry intervals was accomplished on November 8, 1999. The intervals were acidized and hydrofraced on 11/9 and 11

  19. Regional stress field around the Taigu fault zone in Shanxi Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Li, Zihong; Sørensen, Mathilde B.; Løvlie, Reidar; Liu, Liqiang; Atakan, Kuvvet

    2015-12-01

    A comprehensive study on regional stress field around the Taigu fault zone in Shanxi Province, China, was performed in this study. To get a better understanding of the present-day stress status in this area, 31 focal mechanisms of M L ≥3 earthquakes since 1965 were compiled, and the best stress tensor was then inverted based on the database. Additionally, magnetic fabrics along the Taigu fault zone were investigated to get an indication of the regional stress field in the past. Our results show that the present-day stress field around the Taigu fault zone is characterized by astable NW-SE extension with a strike-slip component, consistent with the geological surveys and recent GPS data. Results from magnetic fabrics indicate that the orientations of principal stress axes from magnetic fabrics of sedimentary rocks in Neogene coincide to the orientations of principal stress axes from focal mechanisms. The south segment of the Taigu fault displays more complicated magnetic fabrics and more activity of moderate earthquakes. It is connected with the Mianshan west fault and intersects with NW-SE striking Fenyang fault and the north fault of the Lingshi uplift at the south edge of Taiyuan basin. This may be the area needing more attention in terms of seismic risk along the Taigu fault.

  20. Mortality due to cutaneous melanoma in south region of Brazil: a spatial approach*

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Flávia Regina; Nascimento, Luiz Fernando Costa

    2016-01-01

    Background Cutaneous melanoma is a skin cancer with low incidence but high mortality rates. The South region of Brazil has the highest death rates by melanoma per 100,000 inhabitants of the country. Little is known about the spatial distribution of this malignancy in southern Brazil. Objectives Identify the spatial patterns of deaths from cutaneous melanoma in South region of Brazil, using geoprocessing tools. Methods This is an ecological and exploratory study of death information by cutaneous melanoma obtained from portal Datasus, for Brazil's southern region, from January 2008 to December 2012. Deaths were separated by gender and rates per 100,000 inhabitants were calculated and used to compile thematic maps, Moran maps and Kernel maps, using TerraView software. It was adopted an alpha = 5%. Results There were data on 2378 deaths from cutaneous melanoma in the study period. High rates were identified in the northern and littoral regions of Rio Grande do Sul; the northeast of Santa Catarina; and west of Paraná - for the total population, with minor differences detected and indicated regarding gender. The global Moran index presented p-values of 0.03, 0.04 and 0.03, respectively, for male, female and overall deaths. All the micro-regions that showed high priority for intervention were detected in the Rio Grande do Sul. Conclusion Spatial clusters of micro-regions with high death rates from cutaneous melanoma in South region of Brazil were identified, serving as an important tool for health managers. PMID:27579737

  1. The coronal field lines of an evolving bipolar magnetic region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheeley, N. R., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A simple potential field model is presented to illustrate that loops of magnetic flux rise upward through the corona during the relatively short growth phase of a bipolar magnetic region but contract back to the sun's surface during the much longer decay phase of the photospheric region. To reconcile this behavior with the unidirectional, solar-wind-driven convection of flux outward from the sun, one must postulate the existence of an X-type neutral line in the middle corona where open field lines can be converted back to closed ones.

  2. Relationship between Birkeland current regions, particle precipitation, and electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De La Beaujardiere, O.; Watermann, J.; Newell, P.; Rich, F.

    1993-01-01

    The relationship of the large-scale dayside Birkeland currents to large-scale particle precipitation patterns, currents, and convection is examined using DMSP and Sondrestrom radar observations. It is found that the local time of the mantle currents is not limited to the longitude of the cusp proper, but covers a larger local time extent. The mantle currents flow entirely on open field lines. About half of region 1 currents flow on open field lines, consistent with the assumption that the region 1 currents are generated by the solar wind dynamo and flow within the surface that separates open and closed field lines. More than 80 percent of the Birkeland current boundaries do not correspond to particle precipitation boundaries. Region 2 currents extend beyond the plasma sheet poleward boundary; region 1 currents flow in part on open field lines; mantle currents and mantle particles are not coincident. On most passes when a triple current sheet is observed, the convection reversal is located on closed field lines.

  3. The debris flows risk in south Baikal region of Russia - high losses or low risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shnyparkov, Aleksandr; Baburin, Vyacheslav; Sokratov, Sergey; Khismatullin, Timur

    2016-04-01

    Debris flows were previously not considered as frequent and disastrous natural hazards in the south Baikal region of Russia. The historical records list only two events resulting in reported serious economical losses in here (1903 and 1962). However, an event of June 2014 (Arshan settlement destruction) raised discussion on the debris flow danger and necessity of expensive mitigation measures in the regions. That is why debris flow risk was estimated for the region as a whole with the purpose to calculate the necessary investments into the debris flows protection. The presented results suggests that the degree of debris flows danger is still at least twice lower than is such regions as the North Caucasus in Russia and single events should not be considered as a main basis for regional land use planning.

  4. The South American Meridional B-field Array (SAMBA) and Pc4-5 Wave Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterner, Lt. Nathan; Zesta, Eftyhia; Boudouridis, Athanasios; Moldwin, Mark; Yizengaw, Endawoke; Chi, Peter

    The Antarctic continent, the only landmass in the southern polar region, offers the unique opportunity for observations that geomagnetically range from polar latitudes to well into the inner magnetosphere, thus enabling conjugate observations in a wide range of geomagnetic lat-itudes. The SAMBA (South American Meridional B-field Array) chain is a meridional chain of 12 magnetometers, 11 of them at L=1.1 to L=2.5 along the coast of Chile and in the Antarc-tica peninsula, and one auroral station along the same meridian. SAMBA is conjugate to the northern hemisphere MEASURE and McMAC chains, offering unique opportunities for inter-hemispheric studies. In particular, we study asymmetries in the power of ULF waves and the role of the ionosphere in such observed asymmetries. Utilizing conjugate magnetometer stations at L=1.7 and L=2.3, we previously demonstrated that the northern hemisphere consistently shows higher ULF wave power. One possible reason for the asymmetry is solar zenith angles differences with the northern hemisphere station being closer to the ecliptic plain and having a higher power ratio. These hemispheric differences were also observed with TEC measurements indicating that the north and south conjugate ionospheres are similarly asymmetric. The initial study was done with Pc3 waves, which include the resonance frequencies for the flux tubes of our conjugate stations. We now extend the study to Pc4 and Pc5 waves that reach the lower latitudes via different mechanisms and compare these waves to the resonant Pc3 waves.

  5. Soil cover patterns and land resources in the south of the Selenga mountainous region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydova, T. V.; Tsybzhitov, Ts. Kh.; Tsybikdorzhiev, Ts. Ts.; Gonchikov, B.-M. N.

    2009-04-01

    Soil cover patterns within the Kyakhta area of pine stands and the Kudarinsk area of dry steppes in the south of the Selenga mountainous region are characterized. The groups of soil combinations are shown on the map developed on a scale of 1: 500000. The areas of particular soils composing the combinations have been calculated. Thus, this small-scale soil map generally preserves information reflected on large- and medium-scale soil maps.

  6. Mitochondrial DNA control region haplotype and haplogroup diversity in South Eastern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Serin, Ayse; Canan, Husniye; Alper, Behnan; Korkut Gulmen, Mete; Zimmermann, Bettina; Parson, Walther

    2016-09-01

    Despite its large geographic and population size only little is known about the mitochondrial (mt)DNA make up of Turkey.orensically relevant data are almost completely absent in the literature. We analyzed the mtDNA control region of 224 volunteers from South Eastern Turkey and compared the data to populations from neighboring countries. The haplotypes will be made available via the EMPOP database (EMP00670) and contribute to the body of forensic mtDNA data. PMID:27479879

  7. Bacterial diversity of rice fields in the South of Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigated rice fields are aquatic agroecosystems directly influenced by agricultural practices, which include agrochemical application and the input of nutrients related to resource of irrigation. In addition, root exudation and the levels of soil mineral nutrients are important modifiers of the rhi...

  8. A preliminary evaluation of regional ground-water flow in south-central Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    La Sala, A. M., Jr.; Doty, G.C.; Pearson, F.J., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of regional ground-water flow were investigated in a 4,500-square-mile region of south-central Washington, centered on the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Hanford Reservation. The investigation is part of the Commission's feasibility study on storing high-level radioactive waste in chambers mined in basaltic rocks at a. depth of about 3,000 feet or more below the surface. Ground-water flow., on a regional scale, occurs principally in the basalt and-in interbedded sediments of the Columbia River Group, and is controlled by topography, the structure of the basalt, and the large streams--the Columbia, Snake, and Yakima Rivers. The ground water beneath the main part of the Hanford Reservation, south and west of the Columbia River, inures southeastward from recharge areas in the uplands, including Cold Creek and Dry Creek valleys, and ultimately discharges to the Columbia River south of the reservation: East and southeast of the Columbia River, ground water flows generally southwestward and discharges to the River. The Yakima River valley contains a distinct flow system in which movement is toward the Yakima River from the topographic divides. A large southward-flowing ground-water system beneath the southern flank of the Horse Heaven Hills discharges to the Columbia River in the westward-trending reach downstream from Wallula Gap.

  9. Comparison Between North and South Near Polar Regions of Mars from HEND/Odyssey Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvak, M. L.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Sanin, A. B.; Tretyakov, V.; Boynton, W. V.; Hamara, D. K.; Shinohara, C.; Saunders, R. S.; Drake, D.

    2003-01-01

    It is known that North and South near polar regions are affected by global redistribution of atmospheric CO2. The maximal thickness of CO2 snow depth may be as high as 1 m at latitudes close to martian poles. It explains why neutron flux above martian poles significantly varies from summer to winter seasons. It occurs because CO2 frost hides upper surface layer from the orbit observations. This fact was used to estimate thickness of CO2 deposit at different latitudes. Here we suggest to make comparison between martian near polar regions in both ways as in terms of subsurface regolith structure as in terms of distribution of CO2 deposits.

  10. Progress Toward Measles Elimination - South-East Asia Region, 2003-2013.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Arun; Khanal, Sudhir; Sharapov, Umid; Swezy, Virginia; Sedai, Tika; Dabbagh, Alya; Rota, Paul; Goodson, James L; McFarland, Jeffrey

    2015-06-12

    In 2013, the 66th session of the Regional Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region adopted the goal of measles elimination and rubella and congenital rubella syndrome control by 2020 after rigorous prior consultations. The recommended strategies include 1) achieving and maintaining ≥95% coverage with 2 doses of measles- and rubella-containing vaccine in every district through routine or supplementary immunization activities (SIAs); 2) developing and sustaining a sensitive and timely case-based measles surveillance system that meets recommended performance indicators; 3) developing and maintaining an accredited measles laboratory network; and 4) achieving timely identification, investigation, and response to measles outbreaks. This report updates previous reports and summarizes progress toward measles elimination in the South-East Asia Region during 2003-2013. Within the region, coverage with the first dose of a measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) increased from 67% to 78%; an estimated 286 million children (95% of the target population) were vaccinated in SIAs; measles incidence decreased 73%, from 59 to 16 cases per million population; and estimated measles deaths decreased 63%. To achieve measles elimination in the region, additional efforts are needed in countries with <95% 2-dose routine MCV coverage, particularly in India and Indonesia, to strengthen routine immunization services, conduct periodic high-quality SIAs, and strengthen measles case-based surveillance and laboratory diagnosis of measles. PMID:26068565

  11. Stess field in Brazil: First and Second-Order Stress Patterns: Examples of Regional Forces Controlling the Stress Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, F.; Assumpcao, M.

    2012-12-01

    The knowledge of stress field is fundamental not only to understand driving forces and plate deformation as also it helps in the study of intraplate seismicity. In Brazil, we find reverse, strike-slip and normal mechanisms that indicates a variable stress field. The stress field has been mainly obtained using focal mechanism results and a few breakout data and in-situ measurements. However the stress field is still poorly known in Brazil. Recent earthquake focal mechanisms were determinate using P-wave modeling of seismogram stacks of several teleseismic stations ( > 30°) grouped according to distance and azimuth and first motion polarities. Every record was visually inspected and those with a good signal/noise ratio (SNR) were grouped in latitude-longitude windows of ten degrees and stacked. We usually consider groups with at least two stations, but, in sometimes a good record of single station with different azimuth was also used to constrain the focal depth. The P, pP, sP wavetrains of the stacked signals were modelled using the hudson96 program of Herrman seismology package (Herrman, 2002). We also determinate moment tensor of same events in the central region. The major difficulty is to determinate focal mechanism of low magnitudes events (< 4.0 mb) using distants seismograph stations. The central region shows a purely compressional pattern which are predicted by regional theoretical models (Richardson & Coblentz, 1996 and the TD0 model of Lithgow& Bertelloni, 2004). Meanwhile in the Amazonic region we find a SHmax from E-W to SE-NW probably caused by Caribbean and South American plates interaction (Meijer, 1995). In NE region, the compression rotates following the coast line which indicates an important component regional present in stress field spreading effects due to the continental/oceanic crustal (Assumpção, 1998) and cases of stress caused by sedimentary load in Amazon Fan in agreement local theoretical models (Watts et al., 2009). We determinate the

  12. Clusters, groups, and filaments in the Chandra deep field-south up to redshift 1

    SciTech Connect

    Dehghan, S.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.

    2014-03-01

    We present a comprehensive structure detection analysis of the 0.3 deg{sup 2} area of the MUSYC-ACES field, which covers the Chandra Deep Field-South (CDFS). Using a density-based clustering algorithm on the MUSYC and ACES photometric and spectroscopic catalogs, we find 62 overdense regions up to redshifts of 1, including clusters, groups, and filaments. We also present the detection of a relatively small void of ∼10 Mpc{sup 2} at z ∼ 0.53. All structures are confirmed using the DBSCAN method, including the detection of nine structures previously reported in the literature. We present a catalog of all structures present, including their central position, mean redshift, velocity dispersions, and classification based on their morphological and spectroscopic distributions. In particular, we find 13 galaxy clusters and 6 large groups/small clusters. Comparison of these massive structures with published XMM-Newton imaging (where available) shows that 80% of these structures are associated with diffuse, soft-band (0.4-1 keV) X-ray emission, including 90% of all objects classified as clusters. The presence of soft-band X-ray emission in these massive structures (M {sub 200} ≥ 4.9 × 10{sup 13} M {sub ☉}) provides a strong independent confirmation of our methodology and classification scheme. In the closest two clusters identified (z < 0.13) high-quality optical imaging from the Deep2c field of the Garching-Bonn Deep Survey reveals the cD galaxies and demonstrates that they sit at the center of the detected X-ray emission. Nearly 60% of the clusters, groups, and filaments are detected in the known enhanced density regions of the CDFS at z ≅ 0.13, 0.52, 0.68, and 0.73. Additionally, all of the clusters, bar the most distant, are found in these overdense redshift regions. Many of the clusters and groups exhibit signs of ongoing formation seen in their velocity distributions, position within the detected cosmic web, and in one case through the presence of tidally

  13. Identification of Whole Mitochondrial Genomes from Venezuela and Implications on Regional Phylogenies in South America.

    PubMed

    Lee, Esther J; Merriwether, D Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have expanded and refined the founding haplogroups of the Americas using whole mitochondrial (mtDNA) genome analysis. In addition to pan-American lineages, specific variants have been identified in a number of studies that show higher frequencies in restricted geographical areas. To further characterize Native American maternal lineages and specifically examine local patterns within South America, we analyzed 12 maternally unrelated Yekuana whole mtDNA genomes from one village (Sharamaña) that include the four major Native American haplogroups A2, B2, C1, and D1. Based on our results, we propose a reconfiguration of one subhaplogroup A2 (A2aa) that is specific to South America and identify other singleton branches across the four haplogroups. Furthermore, we show nucleotide diversity values that increase from north to south for haplogroups C1 and D1. The results from our work add to the growing mitogenomic data that highlight local phylogenies and support the rapid genetic differentiation of South American populations, which has been correlated with the linguistic diversity in the region by previous studies. PMID:26416320

  14. A brief overview of the history of veterinary field services in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Brückner, Gideon K

    2014-01-01

    The historical evolution of veterinary services in South Africa is closely linked to the colonial history of the past and the eventual political formation of the Union of South Africa in 1910, as well as the establishment of a fully democratic South Africa in 1994. The majority of the early pioneering veterinarians had close links to military activities and were originally mostly of British origin. The appointment of the first colonial chief veterinary officers occurred in the late 1800s. These appointments were dictated by the need to combat devastating animal diseases, such as rinderpest and African horse sickness, mainly because they affected draught oxen (used for travel) and horses (used in combat). Veterinary field services was established in 1962 as a separate functional entity within government services when M.C. Lambrechts became Director of Veterinary Services of South Africa. In the context of this article, veterinary field services refers to that sphere of veterinary service delivery conducted by government-appointed or seconded veterinarians applying disease control and prevention, as required by animal health legislation. Paging through the history of veterinary field services in South Africa confirms that the problems faced by the veterinary services of today were just as real during the times of our pioneers. The pioneers of veterinary services transformed unknown animal diseases into textbook descriptions still used today and also demonstrated the important link to, and use of, the observations made by farmers, as well as the need for continued basic and applied research on animal diseases. This article provided a brief overview of the evolution of veterinary field services and the important role played by pioneers over the last two centuries to make South Africa relatively free and safe from the most important trade-sensitive and economically important animal diseases. PMID:25685939

  15. ABRUPT LONGITUDINAL MAGNETIC FIELD CHANGES IN FLARING ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Petrie, G. J. D.; Sudol, J. J.

    2010-12-01

    We characterize the changes in the longitudinal photospheric magnetic field during 38 X-class and 39 M-class flares within 65{sup 0} of disk center using 1 minute GONG magnetograms. In all 77 cases, we identify at least one site in the flaring active region where clear, permanent, stepwise field changes occurred. The median duration of the field changes was about 15 minutes and was approximately equal for X-class and for M-class flares. The absolute values of the field changes ranged from the detection limit of {approx}10 G to as high as {approx}450 G in two exceptional cases. The median value was 69 G. Field changes were significantly stronger for X-class than for M-class flares and for limb flares than for disk-center flares. Longitudinal field changes less than 100 G tended to decrease longitudinal field strengths, both close to disk center and close to the limb, while field changes greater than 100 G showed no such pattern. Likewise, longitudinal flux strengths tended to decrease during flares. Flux changes, particularly net flux changes near disk center, correlated better than local field changes with GOES peak X-ray flux. The strongest longitudinal field and flux changes occurred in flares observed close to the limb. We estimate the change of Lorentz force associated with each flare and find that this is large enough in some cases to power seismic waves. We find that longitudinal field decreases would likely outnumber increases at all parts of the solar disk within 65{sup 0} of disk center, as in our observations, if photospheric field tilts increase during flares as predicted by Hudson et al.

  16. South Lake Arthur field and occurrence of buried structures along Oligocene trend of southwestern Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Prescott, M.P.

    1988-09-01

    Significant gas reserves have recently been discovered in the Miogypsinoides sands along the Oligocene trend at the South Lake Arthur field. Detailed subsurface maps and seismic data are presented to exhibit the extent and nature of this local structure and to demonstrate future opportunities along the Oligocene trend.

  17. Soccer field at West 101st102nd streets, Riverside Park, looking south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Soccer field at West 101st-102nd streets, Riverside Park, looking south with railroad retaining wall in background. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY

  18. G-2 and G-3 reservoirs, Delta South field, Nigeria - 2. Simulation of water injection

    SciTech Connect

    Thakur, G.C.; Stanat, P.L.; Aruna, M.; Ajayi, S.A.; Poston, S.

    1982-01-01

    A description is given of a two-dimensional, three-phase, black-oil simulation of the G-2 and G-3 reservoirs in the Delta South field offshore Nigeria. The purpose of these studies was to investigate, from an engineering standpoint, various operating schemes for optimizing the oil recovery from each of these highly gravity-segregated reservoirs. 4 refs.

  19. Summary of South Fence Road phase II 1993 field operations at Site SFR-4

    SciTech Connect

    Foutz, W.L.; McCord, J.P.

    1996-05-01

    This report is a basic data report for field operations associated with the drilling, logging, completion, and development of South Fence Road Wells SFR-4P and SFR-4T. These test/monitoring wells were installed as part of Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Environmental Restoration Project.

  20. Summary of South Fence Road phase II 1993 field operations at site SFR-3

    SciTech Connect

    Foutz, W.L.; McCord, J.P.

    1996-05-01

    This report is a basic data report fro field operations associated with the drilling, logging, completion, and development of South Fence Road Wells SFR-3P and SFR-3T. These test/monitoring wells were installed as part of Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Environmental Restoration Project.

  1. Magmatic evolution of the Easter microplate-Crough Seamount region (South East Pacific)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hekinian, R.; Stoffers, P.; Akermand, D.; Binard, N.; Francheteau, Jean; Devey, C.; Garbe-Schonberg, D.

    1995-01-01

    The Easter microplate-Crough Seamount region located between 25?? S-116?? W and 25?? S-122?? W consists of a chain of seamounts forming isolated volcanoes and elongated (100-200 km in length) en echelon volcanic ridges oriented obliquely NE (N 065??), to the present day general spreading direction (N 100??) of the Pacific-Nazca plates. The extension of this seamount chain into the southwestern edge of the Easter microplate near 26??30??? S-115?? W was surveyed and sampled. The southern boundary including the Orongo fracture zone and other shallow ridges ( 0.25) MORBs which are similar in composition to other more recent basalts from the Southwest and East Rifts spreading axes of the Easter microplate. Incompatible element ratios normalized to chondrite values [(Ce/Yb)N = 1-2.5}, {(La/Sm)N = 0.4-1.2} and {(Zr/Y)N = 0.7-2.5} of the basalts are also similar to present day volcanism found in the Easter microplate. The volcanics from the Easter microplate-Crough region are unrelated to other known South Pacific intraplate magmatism (i.e. Society, Pitcairn, and Salas y Gomez Islands). Instead their range in incompatible element ratios is comparable to the submarine basalts from the recently investigated Ahu and Umu volcanic field (Easter hotspot) (Scientific Party SO80, 1993) and centered at about 80 km west of Easter Island. The oblique ridges and their associated seamounts are likely to represent ancient leaky transform faults created during the initial stage of the Easter microplate formation (??? 5 Ma). It appears that volcanic activity on seamounts overlying the oblique volcanic ridges has continued during their westward drift from the microplate as shown by the presence of relatively fresh lava observed on one of these structures, namely the first Oblique Volcanic Ridge near 25?? S-118?? W at about 160 km west of the Easter microplate West Rift. Based on a reconstruction of the Easter microplate, it is suggested that the Crough seamount (< 800 m depth) was formed

  2. First steps towards the development of regional magnetic indices designed for South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Moro, Juliano; Araujo Resende, Laysa Cristina; Chen, Sony Su

    In the present paper we present the first steps towards the development of regional magnetic indices designed for South America, based on data collected by the EMBRACE Magnetometer Network, which so far is planned to cover most of the Easter Southern American longitudinal sector. Thereafter, we provide details of the development of the region K, named Ksa (K South America), and of the proxy for the Dst Index, obtained in near real-time (1 minute cadence with 5 minutes latency). We also compare the evolution of our indices with the evolution of the Kp and Dst index during geomagnetic storms occurred in 2012 and 2013. We will show some similarities representing the accuracy of our measurements and some dissimilarity that may be attributed the presence of the South American Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA). This, in turn, may reflect in the global models that use such indices for disturbance time estimates during different solar cycles. Contacting Author: C. M. Denardini (clezio.denardin@inpe.br)

  3. AgMIP: New Results from Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia Regional Integrated Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, C.

    2014-12-01

    AgMIP conducted the first set of comprehensive regional integrated assessments of climate change impacts on smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia led by researchers from the regions themselves. The project developed new methods integrating climate, crop, livestock and economic models to conduct climate change impact assessments that characterize impacts on smallholder groups. AgMIP projections of climate change impacts on agriculture are more realistic than previous assessments because they take agricultural development into account. Using the best available data and models, the assessments directly evaluated yield, income, and poverty outcomes including the effects of adaptation packages and development pathways. Results show that even with agricultural development, climate change generally will exert negative pressure on yields of smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Without adaptation, climate change leads to increased poverty in some locations in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia compared to a future in which climate change does not occur. Adaptation can significantly improve smallholder farmer responses to climate change. AgMIP expert teams identified improved varieties, sowing practices, fertilizer application, and irrigation applications as prioritized adaptation strategies. These targeted adaptation packages were able to overcome a portion of detrimental impacts but could not compensate completely in many locations. Even in cases where average impact is near zero, vulnerability (i.e., those at risk of loss) can be substantial even when mean impacts are positive.

  4. Mitochondrial control region haplotypes of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800).

    PubMed

    Artico, L O; Bianchini, A; Grubel, K S; Monteiro, D S; Estima, S C; Oliveira, L R de; Bonatto, S L; Marins, L F

    2010-09-01

    The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, is widely distributed along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of South America. However, along the Brazilian coast, there are only two nonbreeding sites for the species (Refúgio de Vida Silvestre da Ilha dos Lobos and Refúgio de Vida Silvestre do Molhe Leste da Barra do Rio Grande), both in Southern Brazil. In this region, the species is continuously under the effect of anthropic activities, mainly those related to environmental contamination with organic and inorganic chemicals and fishery interactions. This paper reports, for the first time, the genetic diversity of O. flavescens found along the Southern Brazilian coast. A 287-bp fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region (D-loop) was analyzed. Seven novel haplotypes were found in 56 individuals (OFA1-OFA7), with OFA1 being the most frequent (47.54%). Nucleotide diversity was moderate (π = 0.62%) and haplotype diversity was relatively low (67%). Furthermore, the median joining network analysis indicated that Brazilian haplotypes formed a reciprocal monophyletic clade when compared to the haplotypes from the Peruvian population on the Pacific coast. These two populations do not share haplotypes and may have become isolated some time back. Further genetic studies covering the entire species distribution are necessary to better understand the biological implications of the results reported here for the management and conservation of South American sea lions. PMID:20838754

  5. The Suruli shear zone and regional scale folding pattern in Madurai block of Southern Granulite Terrain, south India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, V.; Rajeshdurai, P.

    2010-04-01

    Through the application of remote sensing techniques followed by field checks, the exact extension and nature of Suruli shear zone in Madurai block of southern granulite terrain (SGT) in south India is brought out for the first time in this work. The dominant rock type exposed in this area is charnockite intruded by granites. The Suruli ductile shear zone extends from just west of Kadaiyanallur in the south to Ganguvarpatti in the north over a length of 150 km. Between Kadaiyanallur and Kambam, the shear zone extends roughly in N-S direction. From Kambam, it swerves towards NE and then towards ENE near Ganguvarpatti. The strongly developed transposed foliation and mylonite foliation within the shear zone dip towards east only and so the eastern block (Varushanad hills) is the hanging wall and the western block (Cardamom hills) is the footwall of the shear zone. In the eastern block, three distinct phases of regional scale folding (F1, F2 and F3) are recognized. In complete contrast, the western block recorded only the last phase (F3) regional scale folding. As the more deformed eastern block (older terrain) moved over the relatively less deformed western block (younger terrain) along the Suruli shear zone, it is proposed that this shear zone is a thrust or reverse fault, probably of Proterozoic age. As there are evidences for decreasing displacement from north to south (i.e., from Ganguvarpatti to Kadaiyanallur), the Suruli shear zone could be a rotational thrust or reverse fault with the pivot located close to Kadaiyanallur. As the pivot is located near Achankovil shear zone which trends WNW-ESE (dip towards SSW), the Suruli shear zone could be splaying (branching) out from Achankovil shear zone. In a nutshell, the Suruli shear zone could be a splay, rotational thrust or reverse fault.

  6. Regional temporal persistence of dried soil layer along south-north transect of the Loess Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Xiaoxu; Shao, Ming'an; Zhang, Chencheng; Zhao, Chunlei

    2015-09-01

    The occurrence of dried soil layer (DSL) threatens the sustainable development of restored ecosystems in the Loess Plateau of China. Knowledge of the regional spatiotemporal characteristics of DSL in water-deficient regions is critical for optimal water management and vegetation restoration. This study assessed regional temporal persistence of DSL using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs) and relative difference (RD) analyses and determined the dominant driving factors. Two DSL evaluation indices [DSL thickness (DSLT) and DSL soil water content (DSL-SWC)] were calculated by measuring volumetric SWC of the 0-500 cm soil layer at 86 locations along a south-north regional transect of the Loess Plateau in 2013-2014. Based on the study, there was DSL formation at most of the sites (61 out of 86 sites) along the transect. The level of DSL was severe, with mean DSLT of 273 cm and mean DSL-SWC of only 10.8% (v/v) [field capacity (FC) = 22.5% (v/v)]. Mean DSL-SWC generally decreased from south to north, while no obvious trend was noted in DSLT along the transect. Derived rs values indicated a good temporal persistence of spatial patterns of DSL. Also RD analysis showed that DSL with thicker DSLT and/or lower DSL-SWC had much stronger temporal persistence, implying higher possibility for the formation of permanent DSL. The representative locations of each DSL index well represented the regional means of DSLT and DSL-SWC. This suggested that there was the feasibility of directly estimating regional patterns of DSL from theoretical temporal stability. The temporal persistence of DSL patterns was mainly controlled by soil texture, soil organic carbon, field capacity, mean annual precipitation, precipitation seasonal distribution (PSD) and mean annual temperature. We concluded that soil- and climate-related factors dominated regional temporal persistence of DSL. Lower soil water holding capacity, fewer rainfall and more concentrated PSD could intensify the formation and

  7. Progress in health-related millennium development goals in the WHO South-East Asia Region.

    PubMed

    Singh, Poonam Khetrapal

    2012-01-01

    Home to 25% of the world's population and bearing 30% of the Global disease burden, the South-East Asia Region [1] of the World Health Organization has an important role in the progress of global health. Three of the eight million development goal (MDG) goals that relate to health are MDG 4, 5, and 6. There is progress in all three goals within the countries of the region, although the progress varies across countries and even within countries. With concerted and accelerated efforts in some countries and certain specific areas, the region will achieve the targets of the three health MDGs. The key challenges are in sustainable scaling up of evidence-based interventions to improve maternal and child health and controlling communicable diseases. This will require continued focus and investments in strengthening health systems that provide individual and family centered comprehensive package of interventions with equitable reach and that which is provided free at the point of service delivery. Important lessons that have been learnt in implementing the MDG agenda in the past two decades will inform setting up of the post MDG global health agenda. This article provides a snap shot of progress thus far, key challenges and opportunities in WHO South-East Asia Region and lays down the way forward for the global health agenda post 2015. PMID:23354135

  8. Chromospheric magnetic fields of an active region filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Z.; Solanki, S.; Lagg, A.

    2012-06-01

    Vector magnetic fields of an active region filament are co-spatially and co-temporally mapped in photosphere and upper chromosphere, by using spectro-polarimetric observations made by Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter (TIP II) at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT). A Zeeman-based ME inversion is performed on the full Stokes vectors of both the photospheric Si I 1082.7 nm and the chromospheric He I 1083.0 nm lines. We found that the strong magnetic fields, with the field strength of 600 - 800 G in the He I line formation height, are not uncommon among AR filaments. But such strong magnetic field is not always found in AR filaments.

  9. Quasistatic electric field structures and field-aligned currents in the polar cusp region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, K. S.; Moen, J. I.; Pedersen, A.

    2010-10-01

    Cluster data have been examined for quasi-stationary electric field structures and field-aligned currents (FACs) in the vicinity of the dayside cusp region. We have related the measurements to the Region 1/Region 2 (R1/R2) current system and the cusp current system. It has been theoretically proposed that the dayside R1 current may be located on open field lines, and experimental evidence has been shown for R1 currents partially on open field lines. We document that R1 currents may flow entirely on open field lines. The electric field structures are found to occur at plasma density gradients in the cusp. They are associated with strong FACs with current directions that are consistent with the cusp currents. This indicates that the electric field structures are closely coupled to the cusp current system. The electric equipotential structures linking the perpendicular electric fields seen at Cluster altitudes to field-aligned electric fields at lower altitudes fall into one of two categories: S shape or U shape. Both types are found at both the equatorward edge of the cusp ion dispersion and at the equatorward edge of injection events within the cusp. Previous studies in the nightside auroral region attributed the S-shaped potential structures to the boundary transition between the low-density polar cap and the high-density plasma sheet, concluding that the shape of the electric potential structure depends on whether the plasma populations on each side of the structure can support intense currents. This explanation is not applicable for the S-shaped structures observed in the dayside cusp region.

  10. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow at the South Well Field, Columbus, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, W.L.; Bair, E.S.; Yost, W.P.

    1996-01-01

    The City of Columbus, Ohio, operates four radial collector wells in southern Franklin County. The 'South Well Field' is completed in permeable outwash and ice-contact deposits, upon which flow the Scioto River and Big Walnut Creek. The wells are designed to yield approximately 42 million gallons per day; part of that yield results from induced infiltration of surface water from the Scioto River and Big Walnut Creek. The well field supplied up to 30 percent of the water supply of southern Columbus and its suburbs in 1991. This report describes the hydrogeology of southern Franklin County and a tran sient three-dimensional, numerical ground-water- flow model of the South Well Field. The primary source of ground water in the study area is the glacial drift aquifer. The glacial drift is composed of sand, gravel, and clay depos ited during the Illinoian and Wisconsinan glaciations. In general, thick deposits of till containing lenses of sand and gravel dominate the drift in the area west of the Scioto River. The thickest and most productive parts of the glacial drift aquifer are in the buried valleys in the central and eastern parts of the study area underlying the Scioto River and Big Walnut Creek. Horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the glacial drift aquifer differs spa tially and ranges from 30 to 375 feet per day. The specific yield ranges from 0.12 to 0.30. The secondary source of ground water within the study area is the underlying carbonate bedrock aquifer, which consists of Silurian and Devonian limestones, dolomites, and shales. The horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the carbonate bedrock aquifer ranges from 10 to 15 feet per day. The storage coefficient is about 0.0002. The ground-water-flow system in the South Well Field area is recharged by precipitation, regional ground-water flow, and induced stream infiltration. Yearly recharge rates varied spatially and ranged from 4.0 to 12.0 inches. The three-dimensional, ground-water-flow model was constructed by

  11. Major Paleostress Field Differences on Complementary Margins of the South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomon, E.; Koehn, D.; Passchier, C. W.; Hackspacher, P. C.; Glasmacher, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    We present a detailed study of paleostress fields of the Namibian and Brazilian passive continental margins of the South Atlantic to address a general debate on whether or not these complementary margins experienced similar tectonic histories (e.g. Cobbold et al., 2001; Al-Hajri et al., 2009; Japsen et al., 2012). In our study, we compare the NW of Namibia and the SE of Brazil with each other. These areas are largely covered by the flood basalts of the Paraná-Etendeka-Large Igneous Province overlying Neo-Proterozoic basement of the Pan-African orogeny. With an age of ~133 Ma the basalts were emplaced just before or during the onset of the South Atlantic opening and thus serve as a good time marker for rift- and post-rift-related tectonics. We studied mainly fault planes and associated striations within the flood basalts and compared the resulting stress patterns of both margins. Results reveal remarkable differences in the stress patterns for SE Brazil and NW Namibia. In NW Namibia, a WSW-ENE directed extensional stress field dominates and fits well with extension of the original continental rift and the passive margin. A second extensional stress field (σ3 SSW oriented) and a strike-slip system (σ1 NW oriented) appear only subdued. In contrast, the SE of Brazil is mainly characterized by two strike-slip systems (σ1 oriented SW and E, respectively) whereas an extensional stress field is almost non-existent. The strike-slip faulting of the Brazilian study area occur widespread across SE Brazil as they are also evident in other paleostress studies of the region and might thus be the result of far-field stresses. Margin-parallel faults are scarce, so it appears that rift-related extension was restricted to a narrower strip along the continent-ocean boundary, now lying offshore. In NW Namibia, the faults of the extensional stress regime run parallel to the sub-margin-parallel basement structure (i.e. shear zones and foliation) and hence indicate a reactivation of

  12. 3-D Structure of the Moho Interface beneath South Korea from Regional Seismic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritto, R.; Siegel, J.; Chan, W. C.

    2007-12-01

    The current project is concerned with the collection and processing of seismic waveform data to perform 3-D tomographic inversions and produce high-resolution 3-D crustal P- and S-wave velocity models for the South Korean peninsula. At present, we have analyzed and archived Korean Meteorological Administration (KMA) waveform data from 2001 through 2006 and mapped of the Moho discontinuity below South Korea. Phase arrival information from both, velocity and accelerometer sensors were collected. The analysis included 226 events throughout the region producing a total of 6,275 phase picks including Pg, Pn, Sg/Lg, and Sn phases. A total of 3,550 P-wave and 2,725 S-wave phases were identified. Using the combination of all available velocity and accelerometer data it was possible to estimate depth locations for 198 KMA events. The hypocenters were subsequently used to derive travel-time distance curves to appraise the quality of the travel-time picks. Static corrections were calculated for each seismic station within the KMA network to remove the effects of local inhomogeneities in the vicinity of each station. After applying static corrections to the observed travel-times, refracted P-wave phases along the Moho boundary were selected from the dataset to estimate the depth and topography of the Moho discontinuity beneath South Korea. In total, 526 Pn phases were collected from the KMA data with hypocentral distances from 130 km to over 650 km. The resulting Moho topography reveals a slightly undulating interface with a large-scale dip from north (31 km) to south (38 km) and a depth range from 32 km in the east to 39 km in the south-west. On a smaller scale, a more pronounced depression is evident in the south- central part of the mapped area, which opens to the south. The presented results are corroborated by other studies which mapped the Moho interface using surface-wave dispersion and receiver-function analysis. The present study is complementary to these earlier

  13. Spatial and temporal variation of gravity field in the capital region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Chang-Cai; Guo, Yong; Liu, Duan-Fa; Xiao, Gang; Kuo, J. T.; Brown, Walter

    1995-08-01

    The high accurate gravity measurement have been carried out many years in the capital region. The main characteristics of the change of gravity field during the latest eight years (1981 1988) in the region are presented in this paper. The more gravitational variation appeared in the southern and south-eastern part, the maximum variation come to 10-6 ms-2. In the northern part, for instance: Chengde City, and Wanxian County—west Taihang mountain area which are in the westside of the network, were relative stable. The noticeable areas of gravitational variation were in Tianjin-Baxian-Renqiu which correspond with the crustal vertical deformation. The main cause of that is related to pump ground water and petroleum.

  14. Active Region Filaments Might Harbor Weak Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz Baso, C. J.; Martínez González, M. J.; Asensio Ramos, A.

    2016-05-01

    Recent spectropolarimetric observations of active region filaments have revealed polarization profiles with signatures typical of the strong field Zeeman regime. The conspicuous absence in those observations of scattering polarization and Hanle effect signatures was then pointed out by some authors. This was interpreted as either a signature of mixed “turbulent” field components or as a result of optical thickness. In this article, we present a natural scenario to explain these Zeeman-only spectropolarimetric observations of active region (AR) filaments. We propose a two-component model, one on top of the other. Both components have horizontal fields, with the azimuth difference between them being close to 90°. The component that lies lower in the atmosphere is permeated by a strong field of the order of 600 G, while the upper component has much weaker fields, of the order of 10 G. The ensuing scattering polarization signatures of the individual components have opposite signs, so its combination along the line of sight reduces—and even can cancel out—the Hanle signatures, giving rise to an apparent Zeeman-only profile. This model is also applicable to other chromospheric structures seen in absorption above ARs.

  15. SENSITIVE SEARCH FOR RADIO VARIABLES AND TRANSIENTS IN THE EXTENDED CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH

    SciTech Connect

    Mooley, K. P.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Horesh, A.; Frail, D. A.; Ofek, E. O.; Miller, N. A.

    2013-05-10

    We report on an analysis of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (E-CDFS) region using archival data from the Very Large Array, with the goal of studying radio variability and transients at the sub-milliJansky level. The 49 epochs of E-CDFS observations at 1.4 GHz sample timescales from 1 day to 3 months. We find that only a fraction (1%) of unresolved radio sources above 40 {mu}Jy are variable at the 4{sigma} level. There is no evidence that the fractional variability changes along with the known transition of radio-source populations below 1 mJy. Optical identifications of the sources show that the variable radio emission is associated with the central regions of an active galactic nucleus or a star-forming galaxy. After a detailed comparison of the efficacy of various source-finding algorithms, we use the best to carry out a transient search. No transients were found. This implies that the areal density of transients with peak flux density greater than 0.21 mJy is less than 0.37 deg{sup -2} (at a confidence level of 95%). This result is approximately an order of magnitude below the transient rate measured at 5 GHz by Bower et al. but it is consistent with more recent upper limits from Frail et al. Our findings suggest that the radio sky at 1.4 GHz is relatively quiet. For multi-wavelength transient searches, such as the electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational waves, this frequency may be optimal for reducing the high background of false positives.

  16. Changes in the D region associated with three recent solar eclipses in the South Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sushil; Kumar, Abhikesh; Maurya, Ajeet K.; Singh, Rajesh

    2016-06-01

    We estimate D region changes due to 22 July 2009 total solar eclipse (SE), 13-14 November 2012 total SE, and 9-10 May 2013 annular SE, using VLF navigational transmitters signal observations at Suva, Fiji. The North West Cape (NWC) signal (19.8 kHz) showed an amplitude and phase decrease of 0.70 dB and 23° during November SE and 2.0 dB and 90° during May SE. The modeling using Long Wave Propagation Capability code for NWC-Suva path during November and May SEs showed an increase in average D region reflection height (H') and sharpness factor (β) by 0.6 and 0.5 km and 0.012 and 0.015 km-1, respectively. The July total SE for JJI-Suva path showed an increase in H' of 1.5 km and a decrease in β of 0.055 km-1. The decrease in the electron density calculated using SE time H' and β is maximum for July total SE and minimum for May annular SE. The effective recombination coefficient estimated from the decay and recovery of signal phase associated with May annular SE was higher (27%) than normal daytime value 5.0 × 10-7 cm-3 s-1 and varied between 1.47 × 10-6 and 1.15 × 10-7 cm-3 s-1 in the altitude 70 to 80 km. Morlet wavelet analysis of signals amplitude shows strong wave-like signatures (WLS) associated with three SEs with period ranging 24-66 min, but the intensity and duration of WLS show no clear dependence on SE magnitude and type. Apart from the cooling spot, the eclipse shadow can also generate WLS associated with atmospheric gravity waves.

  17. Simulation of 1986 South China Sea Monsoon with a Regional Climate Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W. -K.; Lau, W. K.-M.; Jia, Y.; Juang, H.; Wetzel, P.; Qian, J.; Chen, C.

    1999-01-01

    A Regional Land-Atmosphere Climate Simulation System (RELACS) project is being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. One of the major goals of RELACS is to use a regional scale model with improved physical processes and in particular land-related processes, to understand the role of the land surface and its interaction with convection and radiation as well as the water/energy cycles in the IndoChina/South China Sea (SCS) region. The Penn State/NCAR MM5 atmospheric modeling system, a state of the art atmospheric numerical model designed to simulate regional weather and climate, has been successfully coupled to the Parameterization for Land-Atmosphere-Cloud Exchange (PLACE) land surface model. The original MM5 model (without PLACE) includes the option for either a simple slab soil model or a five-layer soil model (MRF) in which the soil moisture availability evolves over time. However, the MM5 soil models do not include the effects of vegetation, and thus important physical processes such as evapotranspiration and interception are precluded. The PLACE model incorporates vegetation type and has been shown in international comparisons to accurately predict evapotranspiration and runoff over a wide variety of land surfaces. The coupling of MM5 and PLACE creates a numerical modeling system with the potential to more realistically simulate atmosphere and land surface processes including land-sea interaction, regional circulations such as monsoons, and flash flood events. In addition, the Penn State/NCAR MM5 atmospheric modeling system has been: (1) coupled to the Goddard Ice Microphysical scheme; (2) coupled to a turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) scheme; (3) modified to ensure cloud budget balance; and (4) incorporated initialization with the Goddard EOS data sets at NASA/Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres. The improved MM5 with two nested domains (60 and 20 km horizontal resolution) was used to simulate convective activity over IndoChina and the South China Sea

  18. Towards malaria elimination in the MOSASWA (Mozambique, South Africa and Swaziland) region.

    PubMed

    Moonasar, Devanand; Maharaj, Rajendra; Kunene, Simon; Candrinho, Baltazar; Saute, Francisco; Ntshalintshali, Nyasatu; Morris, Natashia

    2016-01-01

    The substantial impact of cross-border collaborative control efforts on the burden of malaria in southern Africa has previously been demonstrated through the successes of the Lubombo Spatial Development Initiative. Increases in malaria cases recorded in the three partner countries (Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland) since termination of that programme in 2011 have provided impetus for the resuscitation of cooperation in the form of the MOSASWA malaria initiative. MOSASWA, launched in 2015, seeks to renew regional efforts to accelerate progress towards malaria elimination goals already established in the region. National malaria programmes, together with developmental partners, academic institutions and the private sector seek to harmonize policy, strengthen capacity, share expertise, expand access to elimination interventions particularly amongst migrant and border population groups, mobilize resources and advocate for long-term funding to ultimately achieve and sustain malaria elimination in the MOSASWA region. PMID:27538990

  19. Chiral Effective Field Theory in the $\\Delta$-resonance region

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir Pascalutsa

    2006-09-18

    I discuss the problem of constructing an effective low-energy theory in the vicinity of a resonance or a bound state. The focus is on the example of the $\\Delta(1232)$, the lightest resonance in the nucleon sector. Recent developments of the chiral effective-field theory in the $\\Delta$-resonance region are briefly reviewed. I conclude with a comment on the merits of the manifestly covariant formulation of chiral EFT in the baryon sector.

  20. Automated detection of open magnetic field regions in EUV images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krista, Larisza Diana; Reinard, Alysha

    2016-05-01

    Open magnetic regions on the Sun are either long-lived (coronal holes) or transient (dimmings) in nature, but both appear as dark regions in EUV images. For this reason their detection can be done in a similar way. As coronal holes are often large and long-lived in comparison to dimmings, their detection is more straightforward. The Coronal Hole Automated Recognition and Monitoring (CHARM) algorithm detects coronal holes using EUV images and a magnetogram. The EUV images are used to identify dark regions, and the magnetogam allows us to determine if the dark region is unipolar – a characteristic of coronal holes. There is no temporal sensitivity in this process, since coronal hole lifetimes span days to months. Dimming regions, however, emerge and disappear within hours. Hence, the time and location of a dimming emergence need to be known to successfully identify them and distinguish them from regular coronal holes. Currently, the Coronal Dimming Tracker (CoDiT) algorithm is semi-automated – it requires the dimming emergence time and location as an input. With those inputs we can identify the dimming and track it through its lifetime. CoDIT has also been developed to allow the tracking of dimmings that split or merge – a typical feature of dimmings.The advantage of these particular algorithms is their ability to adapt to detecting different types of open field regions. For coronal hole detection, each full-disk solar image is processed individually to determine a threshold for the image, hence, we are not limited to a single pre-determined threshold. For dimming regions we also allow individual thresholds for each dimming, as they can differ substantially. This flexibility is necessary for a subjective analysis of the studied regions. These algorithms were developed with the goal to allow us better understand the processes that give rise to eruptive and non-eruptive open field regions. We aim to study how these regions evolve over time and what environmental

  1. Intraplate Stress Field in Brazil Using Focal Mechanisms: Regional and Local Patterns: Examples of Regional Forces Controlling the Stress Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, F. L.; Assumpcao, M.

    2014-12-01

    The knowledge of stress field is fundamental not only to understand driving forces and plate deformation but also in the study of intraplate seismicity. In Brazil, the stress field has been determined mainly using focal mechanisms and a breakout data and in-situ measurements. However, the stress field still is poorly known in Brazil. We show a recent compilation of focal mechanism determined in Brazil (Fig 1). The focal mechanisms of some recent earthquakes (magnitude lower than 5 mb) were studied using waveform modeling. We stacked the record of several teleseismic stations (> 30°) with a good signal/noise ratio and we grouped then according to distance and azimuth. With the focal mechanisms available in literature and those obtained in this work, we were able to identify some patterns: the central region shows compressional pattern (E-W SHmax), which is predicted by regional theoretical models ( Coblentz & Richardson, 1996 and the TD0 model of Lithgow & Bertelloni, 2004). This compression is mainly due to the interaction of tectonic plate forces. Meanwhile in the Amazon region, we find an indication of SHMax oriented in the SE-NW direction, probably caused by the Caribbean plate interaction (Meijer, 1995) and Amazon Fan, we have flexural stresses caused by sedimentary load with is in agreement with local theoretical models (Watts et al., 2009) . In northern coastal region, the compression rotates following the coastline, which indicates an important local component related to spreading effects at the continental/oceanic transition (Assumpção, 1998). We determine the focal mechanism of several events in Brazil using different techniques according to the available data. The major difficulty is to determine focal mechanism of low magnitudes events (< 5.0 mb) using distant or few seismograph stations. We find examples of stress perturbations induced by local effects (e.g. flexure and continental spreading). The results of this work should be useful for future

  2. Utilization of the Primary Health Care Services in the Tshwane Region of Gauteng Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Nteta, Thembi P.; Mokgatle-Nthabu, Matilda; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O.

    2010-01-01

    Background In South Africa, the provision of primary health care is a basic service designed to be cost effective and bring healthcare as close as possible to the population, particularly to those people of low economic status. It is a service which is provided free of charge by the South African government and as part of the millennium health goals, it is intended that the service should be accessible to the populace and be effectively utilized. Objective This study was designed to investigate the accessibility and utilization of the primary health care services in three community health care centres in the Tshwane of the Gauteng Province, South Africa. Methodology Data were obtained from participants attending three Community Health Care Centres in the Tshwane Region using self-administered structured questionnaires. A document review of the Community Health Care Centres records was conducted to investigate the utilization trends of the services provided and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data obtained. Results The results showed that the Community Health Care Centres in the Tshwane Region are accessible to most participants who lived within 5 km of such centres and who traveled 30 minutes or less to the clinic. Using a taxi or walking were found to be the most common means of transport used to gain access to such a clinic. The findings showed that generally, participants were satisfied with the services provided. Conclusion Participants of this study have access to the community health care centres in the Tshwane Region and there seems to be effective utilization by patients attending them. PMID:21085475

  3. Vertical variations in the influence of the amount effect: South American Summer Monsoon Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuels-Crow, K. E.; Galewsky, J.; Worden, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Recent theoretical studies have shown that convective recycling of atmospheric water vapor gives rise to the isotope "amount effect" in which d values are lower than predicted by simple Rayleigh distillation processes (i.e. (DdD = dDvapor ­- dDRayleigh < 0‰). Several studies have linked isotopes in precipitation [e.g. Vimeux et al., 2009] and atmospheric water vapor [e.g. Samuels-Crow et al., 2014] in the tropical Andes to upwind convection associated with the South American Summer Monsoon (SASM). The vertical structure of this convective influence, however, remains unknown. Understanding the vertical structure of the amount effect over South America is essential for improving theoretical constraints and developing better models of the influence of the SASM on southern hemisphere humidity. Additionally, evaluating the vertical and lateral extent of the SASM's convective influence can provide important constraints for interpreting paleoclimate proxies in the region. We use data from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) to examine the vertical structure of the amount effect associated with the SASM and relate these results to regional convective precipitation and local subcloud equivalent potential temperature. Preliminary results show that DdD is below 0‰ from the boundary layer through the mid-troposphere over tropical South America during austral summer, and meridional averages show that convective precipitation is highest over these areas where DdD < 0‰ extends higher in the atmosphere. We hypothesize that the depth of convection in the monsoon region controls the vertical structure of DdD, which should also be coherently linked to local equivalent potential temperature. References Vimeux et al. (2009), Palaeogeogr Palaeocl, 281(3-4), 229-241, doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2008.03.054. Samuels-Crow et al. (2014), J Geophys Res-Atmos, doi:10.1002/(ISSN)2169-8996.

  4. Dynamic nuclear polarization in the hyperfine-field-dominant region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seong-Joo; Shim, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Kiwoong; Yu, Kwon Kyu; Hwang, Seong-min

    2015-06-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) allows measuring enhanced nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals. Though the efficiency of DNP has been known to increase at low fields, the usefulness of DNP has not been throughly investigated yet. Here, using a superconducting quantum interference device-based NMR system, we performed a series of DNP experiments with a nitroxide radical and measured DNP spectra at several magnetic fields down to sub-microtesla. In the DNP spectra, the large overlap of two peaks having opposite signs results in net enhancement factors, which are significantly lower than theoretical expectations [30] and nearly invariant with respect to magnetic fields below the Earth's field. The numerical analysis based on the radical's Hamiltonian provides qualitative explanations of such features. The net enhancement factor reached 325 at maximum experimentally, but our analysis reveals that the local enhancement factor at the center of the rf coil is 575, which is unaffected by detection schemes. We conclude that DNP in the hyperfine-field-dominant region yields sufficiently enhanced NMR signals at magnetic fields above 1 μ T.

  5. Measuring Magnetic Fields in Photoionized Interstellar Plasmas (HII Regions)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spangler, Steven; Costa, Allison

    2015-11-01

    Hot luminous stars photoionize the interstellar gas around them, creating plasmas with a very high ionization fraction. In astronomical terminology, these are called HII regions. They are dynamic plasmas, expanding due to overpressure with respect to the interstellar medium. We are making diagnostic measurements to determine the strength and structure of magnetic fields in these objects. This paper presents our results on the Rosette Nebula. We diagnose the magnetic field in the Rosette by measurements of Faraday rotation on lines of sight passing through the nebula. These measurements are made with the Very Large Array radio telescope of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. We have measurements of the rotation measure for 18 lines of sight. Values of the mean, line of sight component of the magnetic field range from about 3 to 5 microGauss. We will discuss comparison of these measurements with models for modification of the interstellar magnetic field by an HII region. This work was supported by grants AST09-07911 and ATM09-56901 from the National Science Foundation.

  6. Regional climate change scenarios over South Asia in the CMIP5 coupled climate model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasanna, Venkatraman

    2015-10-01

    This paper evaluates the performance of a suite of state-of-art coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) in their representation of regional characteristics of hydrological cycle and temperature over South Asia. Based on AOGCM experiments conducted for two types of future greenhouse gas emission scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) extending up to the end of 21st century, scenarios of temperature and hydrological cycle are presented. The AOGCMs, despite their relatively coarse resolution, have shown a reasonable skill in depicting the hydrological cycle over the South Asian region. However, considerable biases do exist with reference to the observed hydrological cycle and also inter-model differences. The regional climate change scenarios of temperature ( T), atmospheric water balance components, precipitation, moisture convergence and evaporation ( P, C and E) up to the end of the 21st century based on CMIP5 modeling experiments conducted for (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) indicate marked increase in both rainfall and temperature into the 21st century, particularly becoming conspicuous after the 2050s. The monsoon rainfall and atmospheric water balance changes under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios are discussed in detail in this paper. Spatial patterns of rainfall change projections indicate maximum increase over South Asia in most of the models. Model simulations under scenarios of increased greenhouse gas concentrations suggests that the intensification of the hydrological cycle is driven mainly by the increased moisture convergence due to increase in the water holding capacity of the atmosphere in a warmer environment, the intensification of the hydrological cycle is greater for RCP8.5 compared to RCP4.5, also fewer models indicate increased variance of temperature and rainfall in a warmer environment. While the scenarios presented in this study are indicative of the expected range of rainfall and water balance changes, it must be noted that the quantitative

  7. Some photometric properties of the Martian south polar cap region during the 1971 apparition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumme, K.; James, P. B.

    1984-01-01

    High-quality earth-based photographs from the Lowell Observatory Planetary Research Center collection have been analyzed to derive some photometric parameters for the Martian south polar cap region during the 1971 apparition. The optical thickness of the atmosphere above the cap varied with wavelength from 0.35 + or - 0.05 in red light to 0.58 + or 0.06 in UV light. The effective geometric albedo is calculated from the 30 deg phase data assuming isotropic scattering: it varies from 0.85 + or - 0.04 (in red light) to 0.63 + or 0.05 (in UV light).

  8. Simulation of the low latitude ionosphere response to disturbed winds and electric fields: Brazilian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batista, Inez S.; Souza, Jonas; Bailey, Graham; Bravo, Manuel

    2016-07-01

    Modeling the ionosphere during disturbed periods is one of the most challenging tasks due to the complexity of the phenomena that affect the electric fields and the thermosphere environment as whole. It is well known that depending on the direction of the interplanetary magnetic field disturbance electric fields (undershielding or overshielding) can penetrate from high to low latitudes causing significant disturbances in the electron density distribution and in the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) development. Besides that, the large amount of energy deposited in the polar region during disturbed periods will be responsible for the generation of disturbed winds that will flow towards the equator where they produce a disturbance dynamo which also affects the EIA density distribution. The TIDs and TADs are also sources of disturbances that propagate at high velocity reaching the equator 2-3 hours after the beginning of the magnetic storm. In this work we use the Sheffield University Plasmasphere-Ionosphere Model at INPE (SUPIM-INPE), to simulate the drastic effects that were observed at the low latitude ionosphere in the Brazilian region during a very intense magnetic storm event. A few models are tested for the disturbed electric field and wind. The simulation results showed that the observations are better explained when considering a traveling waveform disturbance propagating from north to south at a velocity equal to 200 m/s.

  9. Regional and local geologic structure of the Momotombo field, Nicaragua

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, L.H.

    1980-09-01

    The regional geologic-tectonic setting of northwestern Nicaragua is the result of subduction. Differential plate margin movement and segmentation formed a deep rift paralleling the Middle American Trench. Deep-seated shear faults provided access to sublithospheric magmas to create the Nicaraguan volcanic chain. Volcan Momotombo is the southernmost volcano of the Marabios Range of northern Nicaragua. It hosts a proven geothermal resource known as the Momotombo field, located within a small graben structure and measuring less than one square kilometer. This geothermally productive area appears not to be a geothermal reservoir, but rather part of a thermal convection system. Wells in the central and eastern part of the field have diminished in output and temperature. The presence of a temperature inversion zone, clearly distinguishable in the eastern end of the field, indicates that no conductive heating of the productive zone is taking place.

  10. California Reanalysis Downscaling at 10km: Implication to regional reanalysis over south Asia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanamaru, H.; Kanamitsu, M.

    2006-12-01

    regional dynamical downscaling. If time allows, we will demonstrate our preliminary regional downscaling runs over south Asia.

  11. Late Cenozoic deformation in the South Caspian region: effects of a rigid basement block within a collision zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Mark B.; Vincent, Stephen J.; Alsop, G. Ian; Ismail-zadeh, Arif; Flecker, Rachel

    2003-05-01

    Active deformation in the South Caspian region demonstrates the enormous variation in kinematics and structural style generated where a rigid basement block lies within a collision zone. Rigid basement to the South Caspian Basin moves with a westward component relative both to stable Eurasia and Iran, and is beginning to subduct at its northern and western margins. This motion is oblique to the approximately north-south Arabia-Eurasia convergence, and causes oblique shortening to the south and northeast of the South Caspian Basin: thrusting in the Alborz and Kopet Dagh is accompanied by range-parallel strike-slip faults, which are respectively left- and right-lateral. There are also arcuate fold and thrust belts in the region, for two principal reasons. Firstly, weaker regions deform and wrap around the rigid block. This occurs at the curved transition zone between the Alborz and Talysh ranges, where thrust traces are concave towards the foreland. Secondly, a curved fold and thrust belt can link a deformation zone created by movement of the basement block to one created by the regional convergence: west-to-east thrusts in the eastern Talysh represent underthrusting of the South Caspian basement, but pass via an arcuate fan of fold trains into SSW-directed thrusts in the eastern Greater Caucasus, which accommodates part of the Arabia-Eurasia convergence. Each part of the South Caspian region contains one or more detachment levels, which vary dependent on the pre-Pliocene geology. Buckle folds in the South Caspian Basin are detached from older rocks on thick mid-Tertiary mudrocks, whereas thrust sheets in the eastern Greater Caucasus detach on Mesozoic horizons. In the future, the South Caspian basement may be largely eliminated by subduction, leading to a situation similar to Archaean greenstone belts of interthrust mafic and sedimentary slices surrounded by the roots of mountain ranges constructed from continental crust.

  12. Climatic changes between 20th century and pre-industrial times over South America in regional model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, S.; Fast, I.; Kaspar, F.

    2011-09-01

    Two simulations with a regional climate model are analyzed for climatic changes between the late 20th century and a pre-industrial period over central and southern South America. The model simulations have been forced with large-scale boundary data from the global simulation performed with a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model. The regional simulations have been carried out on a 0.44° × 0.44° grid (approx. 50 km × 50 km horizontal resolution). The differences in the external forcings are related to a changed greenhouse gas content of the atmosphere, being higher in the present-day simulation. For validation purposes the climate model is analyzed using a five year long simulation between 1993 and 1997 forced with re-analysis data. The climate model reproduces the main climatic features reasonably well, especially when comparing model output co-located with observational station data. However, the comparison between observed and simulated climate is hampered by the sparse meteorological station network in South America. The present-day simulation is compared with the pre-industrial simulation for atmospheric fields of near-surface temperatures, precipitation, sea level pressure and zonal wind. Higher temperatures in the present-day simulation are evident over entire South America, mostly pronounced over the southern region of the Andes Mountains and the Parana basin. During southern winter the higher temperatures prevail over the entire continent, with largest differences over the central Andes Mountains and the Amazonian basin. Precipitation differences show a more heterogeneous pattern, especially over tropical regions. This might be explained by changes in convective processes acting on small scales. During southern summer wetter conditions are evident over the Amazonian and Parana basin in the present-day simulation. Precipitation increases are evident over Patagonia together with decreases to the north along the western slope of the Andes

  13. Use of community health needs assessment for regional planning in country South Australia.

    PubMed

    Fuller, J; Bentley, M; Shotton, D

    2001-02-01

    This study examined the impact of community health needs assessments used in country South Australian health service planning between 1995 and 1999. Data were collected from regional health planning officers during a Search Conference and a series of Delphi rounds. The needs assessments were found to vary from regionally to locally driven approaches. Locally driven approaches ensured local involvement but the process was slower and required more effort from the planner. It was also felt that locally driven approaches could exacerbate tension between a community's imperatives and the regional focus of regional decision-makers. In the overall regional budgets, the reallocation of health service funds according to the needs assessment findings was only small because of difficulties in refocusing from traditional clinical services in the short term. In contrast, the impact on health service thinking about population health issues was thought to have been more significant, for example, in the development of regional women's health plans. The use of community health needs assessments was useful, but for greater impact these should not now be so 'broad-brushed', but be more focused on feasible changes that health services could support. Other priority-setting techniques, such as marginal analysis, should also be used to determine where maximum health gains can be obtained. PMID:11703261

  14. Social, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco and its control in South-East Asia region.

    PubMed

    Kyaing, Nyo Nyo; Islam, Md Ashadul; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Rinchen, Sonam

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the social, cultural, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region in a holistic view through the review of findings from various studies on prevalence, tobacco economics, poverty alleviation, women and tobacco and tobacco control laws and regulations. Methods were Literature review of peer reviewed publications, country reports, WHO publications, and reports of national and international meetings on tobacco and findings from national level surveys and studies. Tobacco use has been a social and cultural part of the people of South-East Asia Region. Survey findings show that 30% to 60% of men and 1.8% to 15.6% of women in the Region use one or the other forms of tobacco products. The complex nature of tobacco use with both smoking and smokeless forms is a major challenge for implementing tobacco control measures. Prevalence of tobacco use is high among the poor and the illiterate. It is higher among males than females but studies show a rising trend among girls and women due to intensive marketing of tobacco products by the tobacco industry. Tobacco users spend a huge percent of their income on tobacco which deprives them and their families of proper nutrition, good education and health care. Some studies of the Region show that cost of treatment of diseases attributable to tobacco use was more than double the revenue that governments received from tobacco taxation. Another challenge the Region faces is the application of uniform tax to all forms of tobacco, which will reduce not only the availability of tobacco products in the market but also control people switching over to cheaper tobacco products. Ten out of eleven countries are Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and nine countries have tobacco control legislation. Enforcement of control measures is weak, particularly in areas such as smoke-free environments, advertisement at the point of sale and sale of tobacco to minors. Socio

  15. Configuring a regional model for climate change simulations over South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvão de Souza, Samuel; Araújo Costa, Alexandre; Cassain Sales, Domingo

    2013-04-01

    The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), developed at Colorado State University is being used for regional climate simulations at the State University of Ceará in the context of Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX). This work describes configuration tests for simulations over an extended South America CORDEX domain, for a short period (1984 - 1985). The horizontal model grid comprises 182 by 172 points with 50 km spacing, ranging from 85.25W - 20.75W and 58.75S - 15.25N. The regional model was driven by data from the member 1 of the historical run from the global model HadGEM2-ES and regional model precipitation results were compared against GPCP data. The use of large-scale nudging was shown to be a very important parameter, as we tested central nudging timescales ranging from relatively strong (12h) to weak (10 days). Strong nudging was generally associated with a wet bias over the Amazon and Central Brazil, which was reduced as the nudging timescale increased. Simulations with weak nudging, in opposition, tended to produce a dry bias. The role of the width of the nudging "buffer zone" for lateral nudging was also investigated and model results suggest that a small number of points (3, in our case) can indeed be used, with no negative impacts in the model results over the area of interest within its domain We analyzed model sensitivity regarding parameters of plant fisiology (such as root depth and stomatal resistance), and the number of model soil levels, but those showed less influence in model results. In the end, we found that the best possible RAMS configuration that enable investigating climate processes and climate change over South America (especially over the Amazon) is the one that uses a 5-day large-scale nudging timescale, a 3-point "buffer zone" for lateral nudging and a 2,0m deep soil model, with 20 levels.

  16. Model of macroeconomic evolution in stable regionally dependent economic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ausloos, M.; Clippe, P.; Pekalski, A.

    2004-06-01

    We develop a model for the evolution of economic entities within a geographical type of framework. On a square symmetry lattice made of three (economic) regions, firms, described by a scalar fitness, are allowed to move, adapt, merge or create spin-offs under predetermined rules, in a space- and time-dependent economic environment. We only consider here one timely variation of the “external economic field condition”. For the firm fitness evolution, we take into account a constraint such that the disappearance of a firm modifies the fitness of nearest-neighboring ones, as in Bak-Sneppen population fitness evolution model. The concentration of firms, the averaged fitness, the regional distribution of firms, and fitness for different time moments, the number of collapsed, merged and new firms as a function of time have been recorded and are discussed. Also the asymptotic values of the number of firms present in the three regions together with their average fitness, as well as the number of respective births and collapses in the three regions are examined. It appears that a sort of critical selection pressure exists. A power-law dependence, signature of self-critical organization is seen in the birth and collapse asymptotic values for a high selection pressure only. A lack of self-organization is also seen at region borders.

  17. Hydraulic properties and scale effects investigation in regional rock aquifers, south-western Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastev, M.; Savard, M. M.; Lapcevic, P.; Lefebvre, R.; Martel, R.

    This paper reports on the characterization of hydraulic properties of regional rock aquifers carried out within a groundwater resources assessment project in the St. Lawrence Lowlands of south-western Quebec. To understand the aquifer behavior at both the fracture level and at field scale, hydraulic investigations were carried out using various aquifer tests. The groundwater flow at the local scale is controlled mostly by the fracture system. Results of the constant-head injection tests show a weak decreasing trend of hydraulic conductivity with depth indicating that a major part of the groundwater flow occurs in the first meters of the rock sequence. At the regional scale, the equivalent porous media approach is applicable. The hydraulic conductivity measurements were correlated to the scale of the aquifer tests expressed with the investigated aquifer volume. A simple interpolation procedure for the hydraulic conductivity field was developed based on the distance between field measurements and the tested aquifer volumes. The regional distribution of the hydraulic conductivity for the major fractured aquifer units indicates that dolostone is the most permeable whereas sandstone and crystalline rocks are the least permeable units. Este artículo trata de la caracterización de las propiedades hidráulicas en acuíferos regionales rocosos, la cual se llevó a cabo dentro del proyecto de evaluación de los recursos de agua subterránea en St. Lawrence Lowlands al suroeste de Quebec. Para entender el comportamiento del acuífero tanto a nivel de fractura como a escala del campo, se ejecutaron investigaciones hidráulicas usando varias pruebas de acuífero. El flujo del agua subterránea a escala local está controlado principalmente por el sistema de fracturas. Los resultados de las pruebas de inyección con cabeza constante muestran una tendencia decreciente débil de la conductividad hidráulica con la profundidad, indicando que la mayor parte del flujo de agua

  18. Geographically Sourcing Cocaine’s Origin – Delineation of the Nineteen Major Coca Growing Regions in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallette, Jennifer R.; Casale, John F.; Jordan, James; Morello, David R.; Beyer, Paul M.

    2016-03-01

    Previously, geo-sourcing to five major coca growing regions within South America was accomplished. However, the expansion of coca cultivation throughout South America made sub-regional origin determinations increasingly difficult. The former methodology was recently enhanced with additional stable isotope analyses (2H and 18O) to fully characterize cocaine due to the varying environmental conditions in which the coca was grown. An improved data analysis method was implemented with the combination of machine learning and multivariate statistical analysis methods to provide further partitioning between growing regions. Here, we show how the combination of trace cocaine alkaloids, stable isotopes, and multivariate statistical analyses can be used to classify illicit cocaine as originating from one of 19 growing regions within South America. The data obtained through this approach can be used to describe current coca cultivation and production trends, highlight trafficking routes, as well as identify new coca growing regions.

  19. Geographically Sourcing Cocaine’s Origin – Delineation of the Nineteen Major Coca Growing Regions in South America

    PubMed Central

    Mallette, Jennifer R.; Casale, John F.; Jordan, James; Morello, David R.; Beyer, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Previously, geo-sourcing to five major coca growing regions within South America was accomplished. However, the expansion of coca cultivation throughout South America made sub-regional origin determinations increasingly difficult. The former methodology was recently enhanced with additional stable isotope analyses (2H and 18O) to fully characterize cocaine due to the varying environmental conditions in which the coca was grown. An improved data analysis method was implemented with the combination of machine learning and multivariate statistical analysis methods to provide further partitioning between growing regions. Here, we show how the combination of trace cocaine alkaloids, stable isotopes, and multivariate statistical analyses can be used to classify illicit cocaine as originating from one of 19 growing regions within South America. The data obtained through this approach can be used to describe current coca cultivation and production trends, highlight trafficking routes, as well as identify new coca growing regions. PMID:27006288

  20. X-ray observations of dust obscured galaxies in the Chandra deep field south

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corral, A.; Georgantopoulos, I.; Comastri, A.; Ranalli, P.; Akylas, A.; Salvato, M.; Lanzuisi, G.; Vignali, C.; Koutoulidis, L.

    2016-08-01

    We present the properties of X-ray detected dust obscured galaxies (DOGs) in the Chandra deep field south. In recent years, it has been proposed that a significant percentage of the elusive Compton-thick (CT) active galactic nuclei (AGN) could be hidden among DOGs. This type of galaxy is characterized by a very high infrared (IR) to optical flux ratio (f24 μm/fR > 1000), which in the case of CT AGN could be due to the suppression of AGN emission by absorption and its subsequent re-emission in the IR. The most reliable way of confirming the CT nature of an AGN is by X-ray spectroscopy. In a previous work, we presented the properties of X-ray detected DOGs by making use of the deepest X-ray observations available at that time, the 2Ms observations of the Chandra deep fields, the Chandra deep field north (CDF-N), and the Chandra deep field south (CDF-S). In that work, we only found a moderate percentage (<50%) of CT AGN among the DOGs sample. However, we pointed out that the limited photon statistics for most of the sources in the sample did not allow us to strongly constrain this number. In this paper, we further explore the properties of the sample of DOGs in the CDF-S presented in that work by using not only a deeper 6Ms Chandra survey of the CDF-S, but also by combining these data with the 3Ms XMM-Newton survey of the CDF-S. We also take advantage of the great coverage of the CDF-S region from the UV to the far-IR to fit the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of our sources. Out of the 14 AGN composing our sample, 9 are highly absorbed (NH > 1023 cm-2), whereas 2 look unabsorbed, and the other 3 are only moderately absorbed. Among the highly absorbed AGN, we find that only three could be considered CT AGN. In only one of these three cases, we detect a strong Fe Kα emission line; the source is already classified as a CT AGN with Chandra data in a previous work. Here we confirm its CT nature by combining Chandra and XMM-Newton data. For the other two CT

  1. Education and the New Technologies. Report of the WCOTP Asian and South Pacific Regional Conference (10th, Seoul, South Korea, August 7-13, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Confederation of Organizations of the Teaching Profession, Morges (Switzerland).

    This report on the 1985 Asian and South Pacific Regional Conference of the World Confederation of Organizations of the Teaching Profession (WCOTP) presents the full text of three addresses presented during the opening ceremony, as well as four major presentations by invited speakers and three addresses from the closing ceremony. A day of…

  2. LSPECS: A Proposed Robotic Astronomy Mission to the Lunar South Polar Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This paper outlines a possible mission to emplace a robotic infrared/submillimeter wave interferometer array near the lunar south pole. This region has now been investigated by the Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions, and by Earth-based radar, and its topography and thermal environment are fairly well-known. The area would be exceptionally suitable for infrared/submillimeter astronomy because of the continually low temperatures, approaching that of liquid nitrogen (77K) in some places. The presence of ice has been inferred independently from Clementine and Lunar Prospector, providing another incentive for a south polar mission. A submillimeter spaceborne interferometer mission, Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of the Cosmic Structure (SPECS) has been proposed by John Mather and others, covering the 40 - 500 micron region with 3 formation flying telescopes. The present paper proposes a lunar adaptation of the SPECS concept, LSPECS. This adaptation would involve landing 4 telescopes on the area north of Shackleton crater at zero degrees longitude. This is in nearly year round darkness but is continually radar visible from Earth. The landed payload of LSPECS would include a telerobotic rover, 4 three meter submm telescopes, a solar power array to be emplaced on the continually sunlit north rim of Shackleton crater, and an S-band antenna for data relay to Earth. Operation without the use of expendable cryogenics for cooling might be possible, trading long exposure time for instrument temperatures above that of liquid helium. The LSPECS would permit long-term study of an extremely wide range of cosmic and solar system phenomena in the southern celestial hemisphere. For complete sky coverage, a similar installation near the north pole would be required. The LSPECS site would also be suitable other types of observation, such as optical interferometry or centimeter wavelength radio astronomy. The lunar south pole is also of great interest because of its extensive

  3. Multifractal analysis of seismicity observed in the Mexican South Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Marquez, Leticia; Ramírez Rojas, Alejandro

    2014-05-01

    We investigated the multifractal properties of seismicity monitored on the Mexican Pacific south Coast. Some authors in several seismic regions around the world have investigated multifractality in earthquakes, reveling scaling regimes: non homogeneous and multifraltals at small scales, monofractals and close to Poissonian at large scales. Our analysis consider that the different subduction features, due to the interactions between the La Rivera and Cocos plates with the North America plate is able to describe local particular dynamical properties. The multifractal spectrum, f(α), calculated for four seismic subregions displays specific properties suggesting that such singularities spectrum contains local dynamical information which is able to contribute in the knowledge of the tectonics dynamics in subduction phenomena, in particular the four studied regions show multifractality behavior.

  4. Radon radioactivity in groundwater from the Calabria region, south of Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caridi, F.; D'Agostino, M.; Belvedere, A.; Marguccio, S.; Belmusto, G.

    2016-05-01

    In the present study the radon radioactivity in selected groundwater (boreholes and wells) from the Calabria region, south of Italy, was investigated. Water samples were analyzed by gamma spectrometry and by RAD7 + RAD H2O setup to determine the 222Rn activity concentration. Obtained values were used with the ingested dose conversion factor for 222Rn to estimate the annual effective dose for adult members of public due to consumption of the groundwater. The estimated average value was (88±5) μ Sv/y. It was compared with the estimated average annual effective dose due to ingestion of groundwater by the WHO (100 μ Sv/y) and that due to ingestion of food and water (290 μ Sv/y) by the UNSCEAR (2000). Results show that the presence of radon may not pose any radiological health hazard to the public due to the consumption of groundwater in the investigated region.

  5. Magnetic fields in star-forming regions - Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heiles, Carl; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Mckee, Christopher F.; Zweibel, Ellen G.

    1993-01-01

    We review the observational aspects of magnetic fields in dense, star-forming regions. First we discuss ways to observe the field. These include direct methods, which consist of the measurement of both linear and circular polarization of spectral line and continuum radiation; and indirect methods, consisting of the angular distribution of H2O masers on the sky and the measurement of ambipolar diffusion. Next we discuss selected observational results, focusing on detailed discussions of a small number of points rather than a generalized discussion that covers the waterfront. We discuss the Orion/BN-KL region in detail, both on the small and large scales. Next we discuss the derivation of the complete magnetic vector, including both the systematic and fluctuating component, from a large sample of Zeeman and linear polarization measurements for the L204 dark cloud. We examine the virial theorem as it applies to dark clouds in general and one dark cloud, Barnard 1, in particular. We critically discuss the numerous claims for alignment of cloud structural features with the plane-of-the-sky component of the magnetic field, and find that many of these have not been definitively established.

  6. Density and magnetic suseptibility values for rocks in the Talkeetna Mountains and adjacent region, south-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanger, Elizabeth A.; Glen, Jonathan M.G.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents a compilation and statistical analysis of 306 density and 706 magnetic susceptibility measurements of rocks from south-central Alaska that were collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS) scientists between the summers of 1999 and 2002. This work is a product of the USGS Talkeetna Mountains Transect Project and was supported by USGS projects in the Talkeetna Mountains and Iron Creek region, and by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) projects in the Delta River Mining District that aim to characterize the subsurface structures of the region. These data were collected to constrain potential field models (i.e., gravity and magnetic) that are combined with other geophysical methods to identify and model major faults, terrane boundaries, and potential mineral resources of the study area. Because gravity and magnetic field anomalies reflect variations in the density and magnetic susceptibility of the underlying lithology, these rock properties are essential components of potential field modeling. In general, the average grain density of rocks in the study region increases from sedimentary, felsic, and intermediate igneous rocks, to mafic igneous and metamorphic rocks. Magnetic susceptibility measurements performed on rock outcrops and hand samples from the study area also reveal lower magnetic susceptibilities for sedimentary and felsic intrusive rocks, moderate susceptibility values for metamorphic, felsic extrusive, and intermediate igneous rocks, and higher susceptibility values for mafic igneous rocks. The density and magnetic properties of rocks in the study area are generally consistent with general trends expected for certain rock types.

  7. Geographic Variations in Chilled Margin Chemistry of Jurassic Dolerite Intrusions in the Dry Valley Region of South Victoria Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, T. H.; Elliot, D. H.; Calhoun, A.

    2005-12-01

    Jurassic tholeiites of the Ferrar Large Igneous Province (FLIP) crop out in a linear belt that extends for over 3000 km along the Transantarctic Mtns. The FLIP was emplaced over a short period of time (<1 m.y.) and is temporally associated with the initiation of Gondwana break-up in the Weddell Sea sector of Antarctica. The intrusive phase of the FLIP consists primarily of a high level complex of dolerite sills and subordinate connecting and cross-cutting dikes that have intruded near the base of and within flat-lying Devonian to Triassic supracrustal strata of the Beacon Supergroup. In the Dry Valley region of south Victoria Land (SVL), the two most prominent sills are intruded along (peneplain sill) and just below (basement sill) the regional unconformity. Geologic mapping has commonly assumed that each of these intrusions is regionally extensive in SVL at roughly the same stratigraphic level. No extensive dike swarm has been identified within the province to act as a feeder for these sills and a number of possible magma transport models have been proposed. During the 2004-05 Magmatic Field Laboratory Workshop, chilled margin samples of dolerite intrusions were systematically collected from localities in the Wright and Victoria Valleys adjacent to Bull Pass. The major and trace element composition of samples from the basement sill in this region tightly cluster around a single composition (SiO2=55.0%, MgO=6.8%, TiO2=0.63%, Zr=100 ppm) despite a geographic spread of ~16 km. Two chilled margin samples collected from the Peneplain sill in the same region have identical chemical compositions to the basement sill. In contrast, prior work on chilled margins of intrusions from the upper Taylor Glacier region fall into three distinctly different compositional groups. The basement sill in the Taylor Glacier region has slightly more evolved compositions (SiO2=55.7%, MgO=5.6%, TiO2=0.71%, Zr=117 ppm) than in the region surrounding Bull Pass. The peneplain sill and several

  8. Estimation of foF2 from GPS TEC over the South African region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ssessanga, Nicholas; Mckinnell, Lee-Anne; Bosco Habarulema, John

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes a statistical method (TEC2F2) of estimating the critical frequency (foF2) values from Global Positioning System (GPS) Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC). The method has been developed over the South African region using the available ionosonde stations; Grahamstown (33.2°S, 26.3°E), Hermanus (34.4°S, 19.2°E), Louisvale (28.5°S, 21.2°E) and Madimbo (22.4°S, 30.9°E), and nearby GPS receiver stations. The analysis of the results showed the TEC2F2 method to be more accurate at estimating the foF2 parameter over South Africa than the most commonly used International Reference Ionosphere (IRI-2012) model. On average, the TEC2F2 improves foF2 estimation by 15% (2006-2012) over the IRI-2012 model. The application of this method over the rest of Africa is proposed in order to more accurately estimate the foF2 parameter in regions where ionosondes do not exist. This is a pioneering new method that allows for the utilisation of additional resources to close the gap in ionospheric mapping over Africa.

  9. Regional and Seasonal Diet of the Western Burrowing Owl in South-Central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Derek B. Hall, Paul D. Greger, Jeffrey R. Rosier

    2009-04-01

    We examined diets of Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) based on contents of pellets and large prey remains collected year-round at burrows in each of the 3 regions in south central Nevada (Mojave Desert, Great Basin Desert, and Transition region). The most common prey items, based on percent frequency of occurrence, were crickets and grasshoppers, beetles, rodents, sun spiders, and scorpions. The most common vertebrate prey was kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.). True bugs (Hemiptera), scorpions, and western harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis) occurred most frequently in pellets from the Great Basin Desert region. Kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.) and pocket mice (Perognathinae) were the most important vertebrate prey items in the Transition and Mojave Desert regions, respectively. Frequency of occurrence of any invertebrate prey was high (>80%) in samples year-round but dropped in winter samples, with scorpions and sun spiders exhibiting the steepest declines. Frequency of occurrence of any vertebrate prey peaked in spring samples, was intermediate for winter and summer samples, and was lowest in fall samples. With the possible exception of selecting for western harvest mice in the Great Basin Desert region, Western Burrowing Owls in our study appeared to be opportunistic foragers with a generalist feeding strategy.

  10. Generation of a North/South Magnetic Field Component from Variations in the Photospheric Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, Roger K.; Tran, Tham

    2016-04-01

    We address the problem of calculating the transverse magnetic field in the solar wind outside of the hypothetical sphere that is called the source surface where the solar wind originates. This calculation must overcome a widely used fundamental assumption about the source surface - the field is normally required to be purely radial at the source surface. Our model rests on the fact that a change in the radial field strength at the source surface is a change in the field line density. Surrounding field lines must move laterally to accommodate this field line density change. As the outward wind velocity drags field lines past the source surface, this lateral component of motion produces a tilt, implying there is a transverse component to the field. An analytic method of calculating the lateral translation speed of the field lines is developed. We apply the technique to an interval of approximately two Carrington rotations at the beginning of 2011 using 2-h averages of data from the Helioseismic Magnetic Imager instrument onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory spacecraft. We find that the value of the transverse magnetic field is dominated on a global scale by the effects of high-latitude concentrations of field lines that are buffeted by supergranular motions.

  11. Videomagnetograph studies of solar magnetic fields. II - Field changes in an active region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoolman, S. A.

    1973-01-01

    Using the Caltech videomagnetograph, we obtained a 6.5-hr movie of the magnetic fields in a young active region. The major contribution to the short term magnetic evolution of the region was provided by many discrete magnetic points which move in apparently random directions with typical velocities of 0.4 - 1.0 km/sec. The majority of these features appear to be footpoints of new EFR's, which emerge at an observed rate of one to two per hour. The pattern of the motions suggests that the magnetic evolution of a growing region cannot be principally due to photospheric convective cells.

  12. Fine structure of the magnetic field in active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pustilnik, Lev; Beskrovnaya, Nina; Ikhsanov, Nazar

    High-resolution observations with SOHO, SDO, TRACE, HINODE suggest that the solar magnetic field in active regions has a complicated fine structure. There is a large number of thin magnetic arcs extended from the photosphere to corona with almost constant cross-section. We explore a possibility to model the complex of interacting arcs in terms of a dynamical percolating network. A transition of the system into flaring can be triggered by the flute instability of prominences and/or coronal condensations. We speculate around an assumption that the energy release in active regions is governed by the same scenario as dynamical current percolation through a random resistors network in which the saltatory conduction is controlled by a local current level.

  13. Two-field high-scale inflation in a sub-Planckian region of field space

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Marcus; Pajer, Enrico; Sjoers, Stefan

    2010-05-15

    We present a simple two-field model of inflation and show how to embed it in string theory as a straightforward generalization of axion monodromy models. Phenomenologically, the predictions are equivalent to those of chaotic inflation, and, in particular, include observably large tensor modes. The whole high-scale large-field inflationary dynamics takes place within a region of field space that is parametrically sub-Planckian in diameter, hence improving our ability to control quantum corrections and achieve slow-roll inflation.

  14. Plasma Equilibrium in a Magnetic Field with Stochastic Regions

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Krommes and Allan H. Reiman

    2009-04-23

    The nature of plasma equilibrium in a magnetic field with stochastic regions is examined. It is shown that the magnetic differential equation that determines the equilibrium Pfirsch-Schluter currents can be cast in a form similar to various nonlinear equations for a turbulent plasma, allowing application of the mathematical methods of statistical turbulence theory. An analytically tractable model, previously studied in the context of resonance-broadening theory, is applied with particular attention paid to the periodicity constraints required in toroidal configurations. It is shown that even a very weak radial diffusion of the magnetic field lines can have a significant effect on the equilibrium in the neighborhood of the rational surfaces, strongly modifying the near-resonant Pfirsch-Schluter currents. Implications for the numerical calculation of 3D equilibria are discussed

  15. Analysis of supersonic combustion flow fields with embedded subsonic regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dash, S.; Delguidice, P.

    1972-01-01

    The viscous characteristic analysis for supersonic chemically reacting flows was extended to include provisions for analyzing embedded subsonic regions. The numerical method developed to analyze this mixed subsonic-supersonic flow fields is described. The boundary conditions are discussed related to the supersonic-subsonic and subsonic-supersonic transition, as well as a heuristic description of several other numerical schemes for analyzing this problem. An analysis of shock waves generated either by pressure mismatch between the injected fluid and surrounding flow or by chemical heat release is also described.

  16. Tectonics in the South Caspian region constrained through earthquake source mechanism reinterpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covellone, B. M.; Savage, B.

    2008-12-01

    cause of the most recent rapid subsidence is likely a result of lithospheric flexure caused by an overburden or loading from the surrounding crust as a result of regional compression along 3 of the 4 edges of the south Caspian Sea.

  17. Quasistatic electric field structures and field-aligned currents in the polar cusp region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Knut; Moen, Joran; Pedersen, Arne

    2010-05-01

    Quasistatic electric field structures in the vicinity of the cusp have been studied using Cluster data. There are two categories of electric potential structures, S-shaped and U-shaped. In previous studies in the nightside auroral region, the S-shaped potential was uniquely related to the boundary transition between low density and high density plasma regimes, leading to the conclusion that the electric field profile depends on whether the plasma populations on each side of the boundary can support intense field-aligned and Pedersen currents. In this study in the dayside cusp this is not the case, and a different explanation has to be sought. Most electric field structures are associated with the start of the cusp ion dispersion or with injection signatures within the cusp, and the field-aligned currents associated with these structures are found to be consistent with the cusp currents expected for the IMF By polarity at the time. This indicates that the electric field structures are generated by the cusp current system, or modified by the cusp current system to be consistent with the required currents. Furthermore, we provide firm evidence for the dayside Region 1 current to be located on open field lines, which have been postulated but to our knowledge heretofore not experimentally verified.

  18. Geophysical observations from the South Pole region of the Antarctic Ice Sheet: Evidence for a subglacial lake?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, L. E.; Anandakrishnan, S. L.; Horgan, H. J.; Voigt, D. E.; Holland, C. W.

    2007-12-01

    Radio-echo sounding and satellite altimetry observations have been used to identify a catalog of well over one hundred subglacial lakes beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet. These lakes provide a unique laboratory for studying life in extreme environments, and may also contain paleoclimate records and ecological records that may date back as far as ~35 million years, when the Antarctic continent was ice-free. One of these lakes, which is near the South Pole (and is hereafter referred to as Lake Amundsen-Scott), is typical of many subglacial lakes in its radar signature and subglacial morphology. However, both temperature modeling and radar reflection strength modeling have cast doubts on the presence of free water at the base of the ice sheet near the South Pole. We set out to reconcile these contradictions and establish the truth behind Lake Amundsen-Scott through a series of geophysical techniques. Here we present the results of several geophysical experiments performed in the proposed Lake Amundsen- Scott region, along with temperature modeling of the local ice column. In the 2006-2007 Antarctic field season, we collected ~9 km of seismic reflection and refraction data, as well as ~15 km of ice-penetrating radar profiles, in order to characterize the firn, the local ice column, and the subglacial environment. Kinematic GPS measurements were also made to determine if basal conditions are reflected in the surface expression of the region. Our temperature modeling supports the potential for liquid water at the bed, suggesting that the base of the ice sheet is at the pressure melting point here. The amalgamation of these results will reveal whether or not Lake Amundsen-Scott truly exists, as well as determine the validity of similar lakes in the current subglacial lake inventory.

  19. Nutrient dynamics in the winter thermohaline frontal zone of the northern shelf region of the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Su Mei; Guo, Xinyu; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Jing; Bi, Yan Feng; Luo, Xin; Li, Jian Bing

    2010-11-01

    As the first attempt to estimate the nutrient transport across the winter thermohaline frontal zone on the northern shelf of the South China Sea, the nutrient dynamics around the front and the effects of cross-frontal water exchange on nutrient transport were investigated using wintertime field observations. Both water temperature and salinity increased from coastal to oceanic waters, showing the presence of a thermohaline front. The concentrations of dissolved inorganic nutrients decreased oceanward, especially across the thermohaline front, while those of dissolved organic nutrients (i.e., dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and dissolved organic phosphorus) showed patchy distributions. Ammonium was the major constituent of dissolved inorganic nitrogen, and DON was the main component of total dissolved nitrogen. Molar ratios of PO43-/total dissolved phosphorus decreased from coastal to oceanic waters, indicating that PO43- was rapidly removed and/or consumed from the water column and that organic matter degradation increased offshore, replenishing PO43-. Molar ratios of NO3-/(NH4+ + DON) were 0.01-0.6, indicating dominance of regenerated nitrogen. Surface water convergence and bottom water divergence were identified in the across-shore velocity field, and the calculated across-shore nutrient fluxes suggest that the presence of the winter thermohaline front promotes the offshore transport of nutrients from coastal waters. The transport path begins with convergence of surface coastal waters toward the front, followed by the sinking in the frontal region and the oceanward movement through the bottom layer of the front offshore side. With an assumption of 500 km as the length of thermohaline front on the northern shelf of the South China Sea, the calculated offshore fluxes of nutrients across the entire front are larger than those from the Zhujiang (Pearl River) and the Changjiang (Yangtze River).

  20. Estimates of the North--South electric field component in the magnetotail low latitude boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Candidi, M.; Orsini, S.

    1981-06-01

    The measurements of 0/sup +/ ions drift velocity in the magnetotail boundary layer are used to infer the North--South E/sub z/ component of the local electric field. It is shown that E/sub z/ is generally a substantial component of the field and that it reverses its sign from the dawn to the dusk side of the northern magnetotail between X/sub SM/ = -15 R/sub E/ and X/sub SM/ = -23 R/sub E/.

  1. An Intercomparison of RADARSAT-2, SMOS and Field Measured Soil Moisture in the Berambadi Watershed, South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomer, S. K.; Al Bitar, A.; Sekhar, M.; Merlin, O.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Kerr, Y. H.

    2012-12-01

    This study presents an intercomparison of the RADARSAT-2 derived soil moisture, SMOS derived soil moisture and field measured soil moisture in the Berambadi watershed, South India. Seventeen images of RADARSAT-2, SMOS products, and field data collected in the 50 field plots during 2010-2011 were used. The data were collected from field campaigns in the framework of AMBHAS project. A non parametric algorithm was developed based on the CDF transformation to retrieve the soil moisture from RADARSAT-2 backscatter coefficient at a spatial resolution of 100 m based on the measured soil moisture. The developed algorithm to retrieve surface soil moisture from RADARSAT-2 provided a good estimate of the field plot soil moisture with a RMSE of 0.05 cm3 cm-3. The average soil moisture from RADARSAT-2 and field measured soil moisture were compared to SMOS derived soil moisture at the watershed scale. Several averaging strategies were considered to take into account the surface heterogeneity and SMOS antenna patterns. Results were analysed by taking into consideration the soil texture heterogeneity, radio frequency interference effect and climatic effect. SMOS underestimated the soil moisture in compare to both RADARSAT-2 and field averaged soil moisture. A bias correction for the SMOS data is suggested using Clayton copula. SMOS showed a better correlation with the RADARSAT-2 watershed averaged soil moisture than directly averaged field soil moisture, as field campaign covered a smaller region of the watershed than RADARSAT-2 data. This shows the potential synergy between the use of active/passive microwave soil moisture for upscalling/downscalling soil moisture.

  2. A Regional Stable Carbon Isotope Dendro-Climatology from the South African Summer Rainfall Area

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Carbon isotope analysis of four baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) trees from the Pafuri region of South Africa yielded a 1000-year proxy rainfall record. The Pafuri record age model was based on 17 radiocarbon dates, cross correlation of the climate record, and ring structures that were presumed to be annual for two of the trees. Here we present the analysis of five additional baobabs from the Mapungubwe region, approximately 200km west of Pafuri. The Mapungubwe chronology demonstrates that ring structures are not necessarily annually formed, and accordingly the Pafuri chronology is revised. Changes in intrinsic water-use efficiency indicate an active response by the trees to elevated atmospheric CO2, but this has little effect on the environmental signal. The revised Pafuri record, and the new Mapungubwe record correlate significantly with local rainfall. Both records confirm that the Medieval Warm Period was substantially wetter than present, and the Little Ice Age was the driest period in the last 1000 years. Although Mapungubwe is generally drier than Pafuri, both regions experience elevated rainfall peaking between AD 1570 and AD 1620 after which dry conditions persist in the Mapungubwe area until about AD 1840. Differences between the two records correlate with Agulhas Current sea-surface temperature variations suggesting east/west displacement of the temperate tropical trough system as an underlying mechanism. The Pafuri and Mapungubwe records are combined to provide a regional climate proxy record for the northern summer rainfall area of southern Africa. PMID:27427912

  3. Systematic review of birth cohort studies in South East Asia and Eastern Mediterranean regions

    PubMed Central

    McKinnon, Rachel; Campbell, Harry

    2011-01-01

    Background Few longitudinal studies of children have taken place in the developing world, despite child mortality being concentrated there. This review summarises the methodologies and main outcomes of longitudinal studies of pre-school children (0 to 59 months) in the World Health Organization’s South East Asia (SEA) and Eastern Mediterranean (EM) Regions. Methods A systematic search of literature using pre-defined criteria revealed 7863 papers. After application of quality criteria, 120 studies were selected for analysis. Results The search revealed 83 studies in the SEA region and 37 in the EM region, of which 92 were community-based and 8 facility-based. Objectives were diverse but topics included growth (n = 49 studies), mortality (n = 28), nutrition (n = 24), and infectious diseases (n = 33). Only 12 studies focused on non-communicable diseases. Duration ranged from 7 to 384 months. Measurements included anthropometric (n = 56 studies), socioeconomic (n = 50) and biological sampling (n = 25), but only one study was DNA-based. Conclusion Biobanks have emerged as the most successful approach to generating knowledge about disease causes and mechanisms. Little of this is possible to undertake in the in SEA or EM regions, however. Further longitudinal studies of young children with DNA sampling should be set up to better understand determinants of diseases in low-income countries. PMID:23198103

  4. A Regional Stable Carbon Isotope Dendro-Climatology from the South African Summer Rainfall Area.

    PubMed

    Woodborne, Stephan; Gandiwa, Patience; Hall, Grant; Patrut, Adrian; Finch, Jemma

    2016-01-01

    Carbon isotope analysis of four baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) trees from the Pafuri region of South Africa yielded a 1000-year proxy rainfall record. The Pafuri record age model was based on 17 radiocarbon dates, cross correlation of the climate record, and ring structures that were presumed to be annual for two of the trees. Here we present the analysis of five additional baobabs from the Mapungubwe region, approximately 200km west of Pafuri. The Mapungubwe chronology demonstrates that ring structures are not necessarily annually formed, and accordingly the Pafuri chronology is revised. Changes in intrinsic water-use efficiency indicate an active response by the trees to elevated atmospheric CO2, but this has little effect on the environmental signal. The revised Pafuri record, and the new Mapungubwe record correlate significantly with local rainfall. Both records confirm that the Medieval Warm Period was substantially wetter than present, and the Little Ice Age was the driest period in the last 1000 years. Although Mapungubwe is generally drier than Pafuri, both regions experience elevated rainfall peaking between AD 1570 and AD 1620 after which dry conditions persist in the Mapungubwe area until about AD 1840. Differences between the two records correlate with Agulhas Current sea-surface temperature variations suggesting east/west displacement of the temperate tropical trough system as an underlying mechanism. The Pafuri and Mapungubwe records are combined to provide a regional climate proxy record for the northern summer rainfall area of southern Africa. PMID:27427912

  5. The Deep South Clouds & Aerosols project: Improving the modelling of clouds in the Southern Ocean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, Olaf; McDonald, Adrian; Harvey, Mike; Davies, Roger; Katurji, Marwan; Varma, Vidya; Williams, Jonny

    2016-04-01

    Southern-Hemisphere climate projections are subject to persistent climate model biases affecting the large majority of contemporary climate models, which degrade the reliability of these projections, particularly at the regional scale. Southern-Hemisphere specific problems include the fact that satellite-based observations comparisons with model output indicate that cloud occurrence above the Southern Ocean is substantially underestimated, with consequences for the radiation balance, sea surface temperatures, sea ice, and the position of storm tracks. The Southern-Ocean and Antarctic region is generally characterized by an acute paucity of surface-based and airborne observations, further complicating the situation. In recognition of this and other Southern-Hemisphere specific problems with climate modelling, the New Zealand Government has launched the Deep South National Science Challenge, whose purpose is to develop a new Earth System Model which reduces these very large radiative forcing problems associated with erroneous clouds. The plan is to conduct a campaign of targeted observations in the Southern Ocean region, leveraging off international measurement campaigns in this area, and using these and existing measurements of cloud and aerosol properties to improve the representation of clouds in the nascent New Zealand Earth System Model. Observations and model development will target aerosol physics and chemistry, particularly sulphate, sea salt, and non-sulphate organic aerosol, its interactions with clouds, and cloud microphysics. The hypothesis is that the cloud schemes in most GCMs are trained on Northern-Hemisphere data characterized by substantial anthropogenic or terrestrial aerosol-related influences which are almost completely absent in the Deep South.

  6. 30 MHz radar observations of artificial E region field-aligned plasma irregularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hysell, D. L.

    2008-02-01

    Artificial E region field aligned irregularities (FAIs) have been observed during heating experiments at the HAARP facility using a new 30 MHz coherent scatter radar imager deployed near Homer, Alaska. Irregularities were observed during brief experiments on three quiet days in July and August, 2007, when the daytime E region critical frequency was close to 3 MHz. Irregularities were consistently generated and detected during experiments with O-mode HF pumping on zenith with a 1-min on, 1-min off CW modulation. The scattering cross sections, rise, and fall times of the echoes were observed as well as their spectral properties. Results were found to be mainly in agreement with observations from other mid- and high-latitude sites with some discrepancies. Radar images of the irregularity-filled volume on one case exhibited clear variations in backscatter power and Doppler shift across the volume. The images furthermore show the emergence of a small irregularity-filled region to the south southwest of the main region in the approximate direction of magnetic zenith.

  7. Adiabatic theory in regions of strong field gradients. [in magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, E. C.; Northrop, T. G.; Birmingham, T. J.

    1986-01-01

    The theory for the generalized first invariant for adiabatic motion of charged particles in regions where there are large gradients in magnetic or electric fields is developed. The general condition for an invariant to exist in such regions is that the potential well in which the particle oscillates change its shape slowly as the particle drifts. It is shown how the Kruskal (1962) procedure can be applied to obtain expressions for the invariant and for drift velocities that are asymptotic in a smallness parameter epsilon. The procedure is illustrated by obtaining the invariant and drift velocities for particles traversing a perpendicular shock, and the generalized invariant is compared with the magnetic moment, and the drift orbits with the actual orbits, for a particular case. In contrast to the magnetic moment, the generalized first invariant is better for large gyroradii (large kinetic energies) than for small gyroradii. Expressions for the invariant when an electrostatic potential jump is imposed across the perpendicular shock, and when the particle traverses a rotational shear layer with a small normal component of the magnetic field are given.

  8. Tsunami Simulations for Regional Sources in the South China and Adjoining Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okal, Emile A.; Synolakis, Costas E.; Kalligeris, Nikos

    2011-06-01

    We present 14 scenarios of potential tsunamis in the South China Sea and its adjoining basins, the Sulu and Sulawezi Seas. The sources consist of earthquake dislocations inspired by the the study of historical events, either recorded (since 1900) or described in historical documents going back to 1604. We consider worst-case scenarios, where the size of the earthquake is not limited by the largest known event, but merely by the dimension of the basin over which a coherent fault may propagate. While such scenarios are arguably improbable, they may not be impossible, and as such must be examined. For each scenario, we present a simulation of the tsunami's propagation in the marine basin, exclusive of its interaction with the coastline. Our results show that the South China, Sulu and Sulawezi Seas make up three largely independent basins where tsunamis generated in one basin do not leak into another. Similarly, the Sunda arc provides an efficient barrier to tsunamis originating in the Indian Ocean. Furthermore, the shallow continental shelves in the Java Sea, the Gulf of Thailand and the western part of the South China Sea significantly dampen the amplitude of the waves. The eastern shores of the Malay Peninsula are threatened only by the greatest—and most improbable—of our sources, a mega-earthquake rupturing all of the Luzon Trench. We also consider two models of underwater landslides (which can be triggered by smaller events, even in an intraplate setting). These sources, for which there is both historical and geological evidence, could pose a significant threat to all shorelines in the region, including the Malay Peninsula.

  9. Statistical scaling, Shannon entropy, and Generalized space-time q-entropy of rainfall fields in tropical South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poveda, Germán; Salas, Hernán D.

    2015-07-01

    We study diverse scaling and information theory characteristics of Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs) as seen by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) over continental and oceanic regions of tropical South America, and 2-D radar rainfall fields from Amazonia. The bi-dimensional Fourier spectra of MCSs exhibit inverse power laws with respect to the spatial scale, whose scaling exponents, β, capture the type of spatial correlation of rainfall among the study regions, including those over the Andes of Colombia as well as over oceanic and Amazonian regions. The moment-scaling analysis evidences that the structure function deviates from simple scaling at order q > 1.0, thus signaling the multi-scaling nature of rainfall fields within MCSs in tropical South America, with departures from simple scaling associated with the physical characteristics of MCSs over the different study regions. Entropy is estimated for a large set of radar rainfall fields during the distinctive atmospheric regimes (Easterly and Westerly events) in this part of Amazonia. Results evidence that there are significant differences in the dynamics of rainfall among regimes. No clear-cut relationship is found between entropy and the first two statistical moments, but power fits in space and time, S(γ) ˜ γ-η for skewness and, S(κ) ˜ κ-ɛ for kurtosis. The exponents η and ɛ are statistically different between Easterly and Westerly events, although the significance of fits is less when L-moments are used to estimate skewness and kurtosis. Interesting differences are identified between the time and space generalized q-entropy functions of Amazonian rainfall fields. In both cases, the functions are a continuous set of power laws (analogous to the structure function in turbulence), S(T, q) ˜ Tβ, and, S(λ, q) ˜ λβ, covering a broad range of temporal and spatial scales. Both time and space generalized q-entropy functions exhibit linear growth in the range -1.0 < q < -0.5, and

  10. Statistical scaling, Shannon entropy, and Generalized space-time q-entropy of rainfall fields in tropical South America.

    PubMed

    Poveda, Germán; Salas, Hernán D

    2015-07-01

    We study diverse scaling and information theory characteristics of Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs) as seen by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) over continental and oceanic regions of tropical South America, and 2-D radar rainfall fields from Amazonia. The bi-dimensional Fourier spectra of MCSs exhibit inverse power laws with respect to the spatial scale, whose scaling exponents, β, capture the type of spatial correlation of rainfall among the study regions, including those over the Andes of Colombia as well as over oceanic and Amazonian regions. The moment-scaling analysis evidences that the structure function deviates from simple scaling at order q > 1.0, thus signaling the multi-scaling nature of rainfall fields within MCSs in tropical South America, with departures from simple scaling associated with the physical characteristics of MCSs over the different study regions. Entropy is estimated for a large set of radar rainfall fields during the distinctive atmospheric regimes (Easterly and Westerly events) in this part of Amazonia. Results evidence that there are significant differences in the dynamics of rainfall among regimes. No clear-cut relationship is found between entropy and the first two statistical moments, but power fits in space and time, S(γ) ∼ γ(-η) for skewness and, S(κ) ∼ κ(-ϵ) for kurtosis. The exponents η and ϵ are statistically different between Easterly and Westerly events, although the significance of fits is less when L-moments are used to estimate skewness and kurtosis. Interesting differences are identified between the time and space generalized q-entropy functions of Amazonian rainfall fields. In both cases, the functions are a continuous set of power laws (analogous to the structure function in turbulence), S(T, q) ∼ T(β), and, S(λ, q) ∼ λ(β), covering a broad range of temporal and spatial scales. Both time and space generalized q-entropy functions exhibit linear growth in the

  11. Quantifying solar superactive regions with vector magnetic field observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, A. Q.; Wang, J. X.

    2012-07-01

    Context. The vector magnetic field characteristics of superactive regions (SARs) hold the key for understanding why SARs are extremely active and provide the guidance in space weather prediction. Aims: We aim to quantify the characteristics of SARs using the vector magnetograms taken by the Solar Magnetic Field Telescope at Huairou Solar Observatory Station. Methods: The vector magnetic field characteristics of 14 SARs in solar cycles 22 and 23 were analyzed using the following four parameters: 1) the magnetic flux imbalance between opposite polarities; 2) the total photospheric free magnetic energy; 3) the length of the magnetic neutral line with its steep horizontal magnetic gradient; and 4) the area with strong magnetic shear. Furthermore, we selected another eight large and inactive active regions (ARs), which are called fallow ARs (FARs), to compare them with the SARs. Results: We found that most of the SARs have a net magnetic flux higher than 7.0 × 1021 Mx, a total photospheric free magnetic energy higher than 1.0 × 1024 erg cm-1, a magnetic neutral line with a steep horizontal magnetic gradient (≥300 G Mm-1) longer than 30 Mm, and an area with strong magnetic shear (shear angle ≥ 80°) greater than 100 Mm2. In contrast, the values of these parameters for the FARs are mostly very low. The Pearson χ2 test was used to examine the significance of the difference between the SARs and FARs, and the results indicate that these two types of ARs can be fairly distinguished by each of these parameters. The significance levels are 99.55%, 99.98%, 99.98%, and 99.96%, respectively. However, no single parameter can distinguish them perfectly. Therefore we propose a composite index based on these parameters, and find that the distinction between the two types of ARs is also significant with a significance level of 99.96%. These results are useful for a better physical understanding of the SAR and FAR.

  12. Ground-based aerosol characterization during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, J.; Rizzo, L. V.; Morgan, W. T.; Coe, H.; Johnson, B.; Haywood, J.; Longo, K.; Freitas, S.; Andreae, M. O.; Artaxo, P.

    2014-11-01

    This paper investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols at ground level at a site heavily impacted by biomass burning. The site is located near Porto Velho, Rondônia, in the southwestern part of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest, and was selected for the deployment of a large suite of instruments, among them an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor. Our measurements were made during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment, which consisted of a combination of aircraft and ground-based measurements over Brazil, aimed to investigate the impacts of biomass burning emissions on climate, air quality, and numerical weather prediction over South America. The campaign took place during the dry season and the transition to the wet season in September/October 2012. During most of the campaign, the site was impacted by regional biomass burning pollution (average CO mixing ratio of 0.6 ppm), occasionally superimposed by intense (up to 2 ppm of CO), freshly emitted biomass burning plumes. Aerosol number concentrations ranged from ~1000 cm-3 to peaks of up to 35 000 cm-3 (during biomass burning (BB) events, corresponding to an average submicron mass mean concentrations of 13.7 μg m-3 and peak concentrations close to 100 μg m-3. Organic aerosol strongly dominated the submicron non-refractory composition, with an average concentration of 11.4 μg m-3. The inorganic species, NH4, SO4, NO3, and Cl, were observed, on average, at concentrations of 0.44, 0.34, 0.19, and 0.01 μg m-3, respectively. Equivalent black carbon (BCe) ranged from 0.2 to 5.5 μg m-3, with an average concentration of 1.3 μg m-3. During BB peaks, organics accounted for over 90% of total mass (submicron non-refractory plus BCe), among the highest values described in the literature. We examined the ageing of biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) using the changes in the H : C and O : C ratios, and found that throughout most of the aerosol processing (O : C &cong

  13. Ground based aerosol characterization during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, J.; Rizzo, L. V.; Morgan, W. T.; Coe, H.; Johnson, B.; Haywood, J.; Longo, K.; Freitas, S.; Andreae, M. O.; Artaxo, P.

    2014-05-01

    This paper investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols at ground level at a site heavily impacted by biomass burning. The site is located near Porto Velho, Rondônia, in the Southwestern part of the Brazilian Amazon forest, and was selected for the deployment of a large suite of instruments, among them an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor. Our measurements were made during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment, which consisted of a combination of aircraft and ground based measurements over Brazil, aiming to investigate the impacts of biomass burning emissions on climate, air quality, and numerical weather prediction over South America. The campaign took place during the dry season and the transition to the wet season in September/October 2012. During most of the campaign, the site was impacted by regional biomass burning pollution (average CO mixing ratio of 0.6 ppm), occasionally superimposed by intense (up to 2 ppm of CO), freshly emitted biomass burning plumes. Aerosol number concentrations ranged from ∼1000 cm-3 to peaks of up to 35 000 cm-3 during biomass burning (BB) events, corresponding to an average submicron mass mean concentrations of 13.7 μg m-3 and peak concentrations close to 100 μg m-3. Organic aerosol strongly dominated the submicron non-refractory composition, with an average concentration of 11.4 μg m-3. The inorganic species, NH4, SO4, NO3, and Cl, were observed on average at concentrations of 0.44, 0.34, 0.19, and 0.01 μg m-3, respectively. Equivalent Black Carbon (BCe) ranged from 0.2 to 5.5 μg m-3, with an average concentration of 1.3 μg m-3. During BB peaks, organics accounted for over 90% of total mass (submicron non-refractory plus BCe), among the highest values described in the literature. We examined the ageing of Biomass Burning Organic Aerosol (BBOA) using the changes in the H : C and O : C ratios, and found that throughout most of the aerosol processing (O : C ≅ 0

  14. Spatial variability of soil 137Cs in the South Caspian region.

    PubMed

    Khoshbinfar, Soheil; Vahabi Moghaddam, Masoud

    2012-05-01

    In a comprehensive program of environmental radioactivity survey in South Caspian region, (137)Cs inventories in soil has been measured at more than 50 sites in the Iranian northern province of Guilan. This has been the first wide-range survey of soil radionuclide inventories in the narrow band sensitive ecosystem of south Caspian shore. Radioactivity measurements were carried out using HPGe gamma-spectrometry system. The activity concentration of (137)Cs in surface soil exhibits a mean value of 17.6 ± 9.4 Bq kg(-1), with a range of 2.3-41.7 Bq kg(-1). In many sites, split-level sampling method has been applied down to a depth of 20 cm. There were found generally two profiles. Most profiles exhibit a negative exponential distribution, while others revealed a clear subsurface peak in 5-10-cm layer. Cesium deposition in the study area has been estimated to be in the range of 0.38-2.9 kBq m(-2) with a mean value of 1.7 kBq m(-2). Distribution patterns of (137)Cs concentration levels and deposition values have been estimated using Kriging interpolation method. Observed hotspots in deposition pattern coincide with areas of higher precipitation. PMID:21713484

  15. Drug utilization in selected health facilities of South West Shoa Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Kebede, Mengistu; Kebebe Borga, Dereje; Mulisa Bobasa, Eshetu

    2015-01-01

    Background Sustaining the availability and rational use of safe and effective drugs is a major problem in developing countries. Irrational drug use affects quality of health care more than accessibility of drugs. Objective To assess drug utilization in selected health facilities of South West Shoa Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in selected health facilities of South West Shoa Zone from January 21–28, 2012 by using structured questionnaires. Results Of 50 prescribers and 30 dispensers, 58% and 83.3% were males, respectively. The result showed that majority of prescribers agreed on availability of essential drugs (72%) and had access to up-to-date drug information (76%). However, 43.3% of dispensers didn’t get access to up-to-date drug information. 86% and 88% of prescribers note cost of drugs and stick to standard treatment guidelines of Ethiopia during prescription, respectively. All drug dispensers check the name of the drug (100%), age of the patient (90%), the dosage form of drug (96.7%), the route of administration (90%), the duration of therapy (86.7%), and frequency of administration (86.7%) for prescription papers. Conclusion In general, drug utilization at the study sites was found to be good, although there are major deviations from the concept of rational drug use. PMID:26229506

  16. Population Accessibility to Radiotherapy Services in New South Wales Region of Australia: a methodological contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Nagesh; Wickramasuriya, Rohan; Miller, Andrew; Perez, Pascal

    2015-05-01

    This paper proposes an integrated modelling process to assess the population accessibility to radiotherapy treatment services in future based on future cancer incidence and road network-based accessibility. Previous research efforts assessed travel distance/time barriers affecting access to cancer treatment services, as well as epidemiological studies that showed that cancer incidence rates vary with population demography. It is established that travel distances to treatment centres and demographic profiles of the accessible regions greatly influence the demand for cancer radiotherapy (RT) services. However, an integrated service planning approach that combines spatially-explicit cancer incidence projections, and the RT services accessibility based on patient road network have never been attempted. This research work presents this novel methodology for the accessibility assessment of RT services and demonstrates its viability by modelling New South Wales (NSW) cancer incidence rates for different age-sex groups based on observed cancer incidence trends; estimating the road network-based access to current NSW treatment centres; and, projecting the demand for RT services in New South Wales, Australia from year 2011 to 2026.

  17. Radionuclide radiologist directed nuclear medicine services in district general hospitals in the South Thames Region.

    PubMed

    Conry, B G; Burwood, R J

    2001-08-01

    The equipment, staffing levels and imaging workload of all 14 radiologist directed nuclear medicine services in district general hospitals in the South Thames Region are presented. These are generally single camera departments providing a broad range of imaging procedures, including cardiac studies and white cell labelling, as well as the more usual renal, lung, thyroid and bone examinations. All departments have a high throughput, averaging 2358 examinations per year. Departmental staffing levels are variable, with some institutions having inadequate consultant radiology sessions free of other commitments as well as inadequate physics support. Potentially, these are important quality and legal issues that departments may need to address with hospital Trusts and Commissioning Agencies. Four small departments provided a service without any formally contracted radiologist sessions for nuclear medicine in the radiologists' job plans. The three medium sized departments have a closer match between sessions contracted and those actually worked, but in only one of these did the contracted sessional commitment equal the recommendation of the Nuclear Medicine Committee of the Royal College of Physicians. There is a disparity between the number of contracted consultant sessions and those actually worked in most institutions (86%), being at least two sessions in eight hospitals. Recommendations are made regarding the adequacy of some of the elements of provision in South Thames and the legal and safety implications for hospital Trust management and Commissioning Agencies. PMID:11511496

  18. Comparison and validation of global and regional ocean forecasting systems for the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xueming; Wang, Hui; Liu, Guimei; Régnier, Charly; Kuang, Xiaodi; Wang, Dakui; Ren, Shihe; Jing, Zhiyou; Drévillon, Marie

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the performance of two operational ocean forecasting systems, the global Mercator Océan (MO) Operational System, developed and maintained by Mercator Océan in France, and the regional South China Sea Operational Forecasting System (SCSOFS), by the National Marine Environmental Forecasting Center (NMEFC) in China, have been examined. Both systems can provide science-based nowcast/forecast products of temperature, salinity, water level, and ocean circulations. Comparison and validation of the ocean circulations, the structures of temperature and salinity, and some mesoscale activities, such as ocean fronts, typhoons, and mesoscale eddies, are conducted based on observed satellite and in situ data obtained in 2012 in the South China Sea. The results showed that MO performs better in simulating the ocean circulations and sea surface temperature (SST), and SCSOFS performs better in simulating the structures of temperature and salinity. For the mesoscale activities, the performance of SCSOFS is better than MO in simulating SST fronts and SST decrease during Typhoon Tembin compared with the previous studies and satellite data; but model results from both of SCSOFS and MO show some differences from satellite observations. In conclusion, some recommendations have been proposed for both forecast systems to improve their forecasting performance in the near future based on our comparison and validation.

  19. The ICTP Regional System Model (RESM) to simulate the monsoon in the South Asia CORDEX domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Sante, Fabio; Coppola, Erika; Farneti, Riccardo; Giorgi, Filippo

    2016-04-01

    South Asian climate is characterized mainly by the wet and dry dipole that divides the annual cycle in two seasons: the monsoon season and the dry season. The life and the economy of those regions is very much influenced by the climate variability and the monsoon variability therefore is crucial to understand the physical mechanism associated with them. The spatial and temporal representation of the monsoons over the South Asian region is one of the main challenge of global and regional climate models principally because they fail to represent the SST (sea surface temperature) induced rainfall when forced with observed SST resulting in a poor representation of the monsoon cycle (Fu et al. 2002). The coupling with the ocean is essential to be able to simulate the correct air-sea interaction; the results are in general much improved and the monsoon patterns and the time representation (like the onset for example) are closer to the observations (Fu et al. 2002; Fu et al. 2007; Ratnam et Al. 2008; Seo et Al. 2009). Here we present a Regional Earth System Model (RESM) composed by a regional climate model RegCM4 (Giorgi et al, 2012) coupled with the regional oceanic model MITgcm (Marshall et al, 1997) and two hydrological model: ChyM (Cetemps Hydrological Model, Coppola et al, 2007) and HD model (Max-Planck's HD model; Hagemann and Dümenil, 1998). We simulate the Southern Asian Climate taking into account the whole hydrological cycle. Wind stress, water fluxes and heat fluxes are exchanged from the atmosphere to the ocean, SST are exchanged from ocean to the atmosphere and in order to conserve mass, the river discharge is calculated from the Hydrological model and sent to the ocean. The main goal of this work is to evaluate the impacts of local air-sea interaction in the simulation of the interannual variability, over the Indian CORDEX (Giorgi et al, 2009) domain through regionally ocean-atmosphere-river coupled and uncoupled simulations, with a focus on monsoon season

  20. Notes about the uses of plants by one of the last healers in the Basilicata Region (South Italy)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The paper refers to the knowledge and uses of plants and to the linked ritual practices as referred by Matteo (It.‘Zì Matteo’, En. ‘Uncle Matthew’), one of the last elder healers in the Basilicata Region (South Italy). Particular attention is also paid to the uses of ‘Vruca’ (Tamarix gallica L.) as a medicinal and magical plant used to heal common warts on various parts of the body. Methods After obtaining prior informed consent, we collected data through an open interview about the uses of the plants and on the associated ritual practices. For each species, data were collected that included the vernacular names, preparation, plant parts utilized and their method of use. Results The uses of 52 taxa are described. Among these, 43 are or were employed medicinally, eight as culinary foodstuffs, and 4 for domestic, handicraft or ethnoveterinary uses. Among the major findings: the ritual and magical use of Tamarix gallica L. to heal warts is described in detail; so far, no records of similar use were found in any Italian ethnobotanical studies conducted in southern Italy. Conclusion Phytotherapy in the Basilicata region is practiced by elderly people who resort to medicinal plants for mild illnesses; we interviewed one of those traditional healers who is very experienced in the field, and possesses rich ethno-pharmacological knowledge. PMID:22546322

  1. The Artificial Neural Network Estimation for Daily and Hourly Rice Evapotranspiration in the Region of Red Soil, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Yuanshu; Ruthaikarn, Buaphean; Jin, Xinyi; Pang, Bo

    The evapotranspiration estimation is a key item for irrigation program. It has the important practical significance for high stable yield and water-saving in the region of red soil, South China. Penman-Monteith equation, recommended by FAO, is verified to be the most effective calculation to actual evaporation in many regions of the world. The only default is it has to use complete meteorological factors. To solve this problem, we are trying to find out a artificial neural network model (ANN) which can easily get its information and easy to calculate as well as guaranteed accuracy. A Bowen ratio energy balance (BREB) system and automatic weather station were employed for simultaneous measurement of actual evapotranspiration above the rice field. The frequency of 20-min recording provided the possibility for the estimation of daily and hourly evapotranspiration. The determined coefficient from the artificial neural network model on daily scale R2 is 0.9642, while hourly scale R2 is 0.9880. The reason was that the hourly scale training samples was greater than the daily scale measures. In general, the model gives an effective and feasible way for the evaluation of paddy rice evapotranspiration by the conventional parameters.

  2. Extreme rainfall in South East France: added value of a convection-permitting regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alias, Antoinette; Déqué, Michel; Somot, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    EURO-CORDEX simulations are based on 12 km numerical model. They represent with some accuracy, compared to global coupled models used in CMIP, the surface elevation in mountainous regions. As a consequence, the geographical distribution of precipitation is better at regional scale, and the frequency of high precipitation is more realistic. However these models do not explicitly resolve the convective phenomena which are responsible for the heavy accumulated rainfall. Arome model is derived from Aladin model (used in EURO-CORDEX) but uses non-hydrostatic equations, 2.5 km horizontal resolution, and a dedicated set of physical parameterizations. Its domain covers South-East France, a region which undergoes severe rainfall events in autumn. We present ERA-interim driven simulations with Aladin (12 km) driving Arome (2.5 km). The analysis is focussed on daily and hourly precipitation in extended autumn (ASOND) in the central part of the domain. We compare Aladin (i.e. EURO-CORDEX) and Arome simulations in their ability to simulate observed data.

  3. South Asian Aerosols: Observations and regional scale modeling perspectives from the Nepal Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikary, B.; Bonasoni, P.; Cristofanelli, P.; Marinoni, A.; Duchi, R.; Calzolari, F.; Landi, T.; Putero, D.; Fuzzi, S.; Decesari, S.; Vuillermoz, E.; Stocchi, P.; Verza, G.; Kulkarni, S.

    2012-12-01

    SHARE (Stations at High Altitude Research on the Environment) project is promoted by Ev-K2-CNR and funded by the Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) through the Italian National Research Council (CNR). Today SHARE monitoring stations span four continents around the globe. This paper will present the results from the SHARE-Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (NCO-P) monitoring station located in the foothills of Mount Everest at an altitude of 5079 m.a.s.l. NCO-P is also one of the Global AtmosphericWatch stations of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO-GAW) and is the only currently operating GAW station in South Asia and the highest station of the UNEP ABC (Atmospheric Brown Clouds) project. Results obtained from the monitoring of aerosols and trace gases for multi years starting from 2006 will be presented. Seasonal distribution, composition, case studies and events related to high aerosol loadings will be discussed. A regional scale meteorological / chemical transport modeling projecthas been initiated to help put the measurements in perspective and provide decision support for policy makers. The paper will also describe themodeling framework,modeled case studiesillustrating sectoral and regional contribution to the aerosol loading over the Himalayan region will be presented.

  4. Regional Implications of Ypresian Flysch Sequence From South of Marmara Sea: Structural, Stratigraphic and Paleontological Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ülgen, S. C.; Okay, A. I.; Özcan, E.; Şengör, A. M. C.; Akbayram, K.

    2012-04-01

    The study of a Ypresian flysch sequence, immediately southern of the Intra-Pontid suture zone and overlying the Upper Cretaceous basement rocks, permit us to comment on the late Cretaceous-early Tertiary tectonic history of the region This flysch sequence with a thickness 1500-2000 m consisting of sandstones, shales and conglomerates derived from the Upper-Cretaceous basement rocks. These clastics are intercalated with andesitic tuffs, pyroclasts, agglomerates and lenticular limestones. The flysch contains some larger foraminifera levels including Orbitoclypeus douvillei douvillei, O. douvillei yesilyurtensis, O. schopeni ex. interc. suvlukayensis-crimensis, O. schopeni crimensis, O.munieri munieri, Asterocyclina alticostata cf. gallica, , Discocyclina fortisi simferopolensis. The Ypresian flysch overlies a unit which consists of quartz conglomerate and boulders, chert, serpentinite , metamorphic rock blocks and conglomerates. Some think this unit to be a debris flow, but the range of rock types, the style of deformation and the its areal extent clearly shows it could be a mélange. Gravity flows like mudflows, slump folds and NW-SE trending anticline and synclines are observed and mapped in Ypresian flysch which suggest that it was tectonized during or soon after deposition. Anticlines, synclines and north-nortwest dipping thrust faults point SE vergance in the region. Also earlier published apatite fission track data from metamorphic rocks cropping out at south of Marmara Sea shows that nearby areas uplifted during Early Eocene (~ 52 Ma). We suggest that there are two probable sources for this tectonism in northwest Turkey; the compression related to the consumption of the Intra-Pontide Ocean in the north or the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene collision of Pontides and Taurides in the south.

  5. Unnatural deaths among children in the Transkei region of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Meel, B L

    2008-07-01

    Nearly 99% of the 10.9 million children worldwide under the age of five years who died in 2000 were from developing countries. This amounts to at least 29,000 deaths per day (UNICEF, 2005). This study aims to trace the pattern of unnatural deaths in the Transkei region of South Africa. It is a records review of the medico-legal autopsies carried out between 1996 and 2004 at Umtata General Hospital (UGH). All subjects aged 18 years or below were considered as children. Between 1996-2004, 7,303 unnatural deaths were recorded. Of these, 1,449 (19.8%) were children. Trauma accounted for 1,028 (70.9%) child deaths and 421 (29.1%) were deaths related to other causes such as hanging, burns, lightning strike, drowning, gas suffocation, falls from a height and poisoning. Motor vehicle accidents accounted for 469 (45.6%) deaths and homicides for 553 (54.4%) deaths. The homicides were firearms injuries, 196 (19%), stab wounds, 185 (18%), and blunt trauma, 178 (17.3%). Non-traumatic deaths were hanging, 81 (19.2%), drowning, 166 (39.4%), lightning strike, 38 (9%), burns, 51 (12.1%), gas suffocation, 24 (5.7%), poisoning, 33 (8.4%) and falls from a height 28 (6.7%). There is a high risk of unnatural death among children in the area of Mthatha. It threatens the survival of young children in this region of South Africa. Poverty is an underlying cause for these preventable deaths. PMID:18754210

  6. Regional climate change projections over South America based on the CLARIS-LPB RCM ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuelsson, Patrick; Solman, Silvina; Sanchez, Enrique; Rocha, Rosmeri; Li, Laurent; Marengo, José; Remedio, Armelle; Berbery, Hugo

    2013-04-01

    CLARIS-LPB was an EU FP7 financed Europe-South America Network for Climate Change Assessment and Impact Studies in La Plata Basin. CLARIS-LPB has created the first ensemble ever of RCM downscalings over South America. Here we present the climate change scenarios for a near future period (2011-2040) and for a far future period (2071-2100). The ensemble is based on seven RCMs driven by three CMIP3 GCMs for emission scenario SRES A1B. The RCM model domains cover all of South America, with a horizontal resolution of approximately 50 km, but project focus has been on results over the La Plata Basin. The ensemble mean for temperature change shows more warming over tropical South America than over the southern part of the continent. During summer (DJF) the Low-Parana and Uruguay regions show less warming than the surrounding regions. For the ensemble mean of precipitation changes the patterns are almost the same for near and far future but with larger values for far future. Thus overall trends do not change with time. The near future shows in general small changes over large areas (less than ±10%). For JJA a dry tendency is seen over eastern Brazil that becomes stronger and extends geographically with time. In near future most models show a drying trend over this area. In far future almost all models agree on the drying. For DJF a wet tendency is seen over the La Plata basin area which becomes stronger with time. In near future almost all downscalings agree on this wet tendency and in far future all downscalings agree on the sign. The RCM ensemble is unbalanced with respect to forcing GCMs. 6 out of 11(10) simulations use ECHAM5 for the near(far) future period while 4(3) use HadCM3 and only one IPSL. Thus, all ensemble mean values will be tilted towards ECHAM5. It is of course possible to compensate for this imbalance among GCMs by some weighting but no such weighting has been applied for the current analysis. The north-south gradient in warming is in general stronger in

  7. Study on the time difference of solar polar field reversal between the north and south hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukuya, D.; Kusano, K.

    2013-12-01

    Dynamo is a mechanism whereby the kinetic energy of plasma is converted to the magnetic energy. This mechanism works to generate and maintain the solar and stellar magnetic field. Since the sun is only a star whose magnetic field can be directly observed, the understanding of solar dynamo can provide clues to clarify dynamo mechanisms. On the other hand, because solar activities, which are caused by solar dynamo, can influence the Earth's climate, solar variability is an important issue also to understand long-term evolution of the Earth's climate. It is widely known that the polarity of the solar magnetic fields on the north and south poles periodically reverses at every sunspot maxima. It is also known that the reversal at one pole is followed by that on the other pole. The time difference of magnetic field reversal between the poles was first noted by Babcock (1959) from the very first observation of polar field. Recently, it was confirmed by detailed observations with the HINODE satellite (Shiota et al. 2012). Svalgaard and Kamide (2013) indicated that there is a relationship between the time difference of the polarity reversal and the hemispheric asymmetry of the sunspot activity. However, the mechanisms for the hemispheric asymmetry are still open to be revealed. In this paper, we study the asymmetric feature of the solar dynamo based on the flux transport dynamo model (Chatterjee et al. 2004) to explain the time difference of magnetic polarity reversal between the north and south poles. In order to calculate long-term variations of solar activities, we use the mean field kinematic dynamo model, which is derived from magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equation through the mean field and other approximations. We carried out the mean field dynamo simulations using the updated SURYA code which was developed originally by Choudhuri and his collaborators (2004). We decomposed the symmetric and asymmetric components of magnetic field, which correspond respectively to the

  8. Magnetic field in Photodissociation Regions (PDRs) : A case study of PDR in NGC 2024

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anish Roshi, D.; Goss, Miller; Jeyakumar, S.

    2015-01-01

    We present images of C110α and H110α radio recombination line (RRL) emission at 4.8 GHz and images of H166α, C166α and X166α RRL emission at 1.4 GHz, observed toward the starforming region NGC 2024. The 1.4 GHz image with angular resolution ˜ 70 arcsec is obtained using VLA data. The 4.8 GHz image with angular resolution ˜ 17 arcsec is obtained by combining VLA and GBT data. These images reveal that the spatial distributions of C110α line emission is confined to the southern rim of the HII region close to the ionization front whereas the C166α line emission is extended in the north-south direction across the HII region. The LSR velocity of the C110α line is 10.3 kms similar to that of lines observed from molecular material located at the far side of the HII region. This similarity suggests that the photo dissociation region (PDR) responsible for C110α line emission is at the far side of the HII region. The LSR velocity of C166α is 8.8 kms. This velocity is comparable with the velocity of molecular absorption lines observed from the foreground gas, suggesting that the PDR is at the near side of the HII region. Non-LTE models for carbon line forming regions are presented. Typical properties of the foreground PDR are T_{PDR} ˜ 100 K, n_e^{PDR} ˜ 5 \\cm3, n_H ˜ 1.7 × 10^4 \\cm3, path length l ˜ 0.06 pc and those of the far side PDR are T_{PDR} ˜ 200 K, n_e^{PDR} ˜ 50 \\cm3, n_H ˜ 1.7 × 10^5 \\cm3, l ˜ 0.03 pc. Our modeling indicates that the far side PDR is located within the HII region. Using the method proposed by Roshi (2007), we estimate magnetic field strength in the foreground PDR to be 60 μG and that in the far side PDR to be 220 μG. Our field estimates compare well with the values obtained from OH Zeeman observations toward NGC 2024.

  9. Rotation of the photospheric magnetic fields: A north-south asymmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antonucci, E.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Scherrer, P. H.

    1989-01-01

    During most of solar cycle 21 the large-scale photospheric field rotated more rapidly in the Northern Hemisphere than in the southern. The large-scale northern field rotated with a 26.9 day period (synodic), was centered at 15 degress N, and covered a latitude zone about 24 degrees wide. The large-scale southern field rotated with a periodicity of 28.1 days, was centered at 26 degrees S, and covered a latitude zone about 32 degrees wide. Our analysis showed rotational power at only a few discrete latitudes and frequencies in each hemisphere. The center of each peak lies near the sunspot differential rotation curve. The largest scale field contributes to the configuration of the coronal and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The strength of the first harmonic of the northern field suggests that this structure may be related to the 4-sector pattern observed in the IMF polarity. The southern field had much lower power at the first harmonic of the solar rotation rate and so would contribute only to a 2-sector structure in the IMF. These results were discovered in Fourier analysis of photospheric synoptic charts obtained at the Wilcox Solar Observatory from 1976 to 1986 and confirmed in higher resolution maps from the National Solar Observatory. Mt. Wilson magnetic field measurements from solar cycle 20 show a similar north-south asymmetry.

  10. Global Positioning System constraints on the active tectonics of NE Iran and the South Caspian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, Z.; Walpersdorf, A.; Walker, R. T.; Tavakoli, F.; Pathier, E.; Nankali, H.; Nilfouroushan, F.; Djamour, Y.

    2013-09-01

    We present a velocity field compiled from a network of 27 permanent and 20 campaign GPS stations across NE Iran. This new GPS velocity field helps to investigate how Arabia-Eurasia collision deformation is accommodated at the northern boundary of the deforming zone. The present-day northward motion decreases eastward from 11 mm/yr at Tehran (˜52°E) to 1.5 mm/yr at Mashhad (˜60°E). N-S shortening across the Kopeh Dagh, Binalud and Koh-e-Sorkh ranges sums to 4.5±0.5 mm/yr at longitude 59°E. The available GPS velocities allow us to describe the rigid-body rotation of the South Caspian about an Euler pole that is located further away than previously thought. We suggest that two new stations (MAVT and MAR2), which are sited far from the block boundaries, are most likely to indicate the full motion of the South Caspian basin. These stations suggest that NW motion is accommodated by right-lateral slip on the Ashkabad fault (at a rate of up to 7 mm/yr) and by up to 4-6 mm/yr of summed left-lateral slip across the Shahroud left-lateral strike-slip system. Our new GPS results are important for assessing seismic hazard in NE Iran, which contains numerous large population centers and possesses an abundant historical earthquake record. Our results suggest that the fault zones along the eastern Alborz and western Kopeh Dagh may accommodate slip at much faster rates than previously thought. Fully assessing the role of these faults, and the hazard that they represent, requires independent verification of their slip-rates through additional GPS measurements and geological fieldwork.

  11. An analysis of the flow field in the region of the ASRM field joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dill, Richard A.; Whitesides, Harold R.

    1992-01-01

    The flow field in the region of a solid rocket motor field joint is very important since fluid dynamic and mechanical propellant stresses can couple to cause a motor failure at a joint. Presented here is an examination of the flow field in the region of the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) field joints. The analyses were performed as a first step in assessing the design of the ASRM forward and aft field joints in order to assure the proper operation of the motor prior to further development of test firing. The analyses presented here were performed by employing a two-dimensional axisymmetric assumption. Fluent/BFC, a three dimensional full Navier-Stokes flow field code, was used to make the numerical calculations. This code utilizes a staggered grid formulation along with the SIMPLER numerical algorithm. Wall functions are used to determine the character of the laminar sublayer, and a standard kappa-epsilon turbulence model is used to close the fluid dynamic equations. The analyses performed to this date verify that the ASRM field joint design operates properly. The fluid dynamic stresses at the field joints are small due to the inherent design of the field joints. A problem observed in some other solid rocket motors is that large fluid dynamic stresses are generated at the motor joint on the downstream propellant grain due to forward facing step geometries. The design of the ASRM field joints are such that this is not a problem as shown by the analyses. Also, the analyses of the inhibitor stub left protruding into the port flow from normal propellant burn back show that more information is necessary to complete these analyses. These analyses were performed as parametric analyses in relation to the height of the inhibitor stub left protruding into the motor port. A better estimate of the amount of the inhibitor stub remaining at later burn times must be determined since the height which the inhibitor stub protrudes into the port flow drastically affects the fluid

  12. An analysis of the flow field in the region of the ASRM field joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dill, Richard A.; Whitesides, Harold R.

    1992-07-01

    The flow field in the region of a solid rocket motor field joint is very important since fluid dynamic and mechanical propellant stresses can couple to cause a motor failure at a joint. Presented here is an examination of the flow field in the region of the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) field joints. The analyses were performed as a first step in assessing the design of the ASRM forward and aft field joints in order to assure the proper operation of the motor prior to further development of test firing. The analyses presented here were performed by employing a two-dimensional axisymmetric assumption. Fluent/BFC, a three dimensional full Navier-Stokes flow field code, was used to make the numerical calculations. This code utilizes a staggered grid formulation along with the SIMPLER numerical algorithm. Wall functions are used to determine the character of the laminar sublayer, and a standard kappa-epsilon turbulence model is used to close the fluid dynamic equations. The analyses performed to this date verify that the ASRM field joint design operates properly. The fluid dynamic stresses at the field joints are small due to the inherent design of the field joints. A problem observed in some other solid rocket motors is that large fluid dynamic stresses are generated at the motor joint on the downstream propellant grain due to forward facing step geometries. The design of the ASRM field joints are such that this is not a problem as shown by the analyses. Also, the analyses of the inhibitor stub left protruding into the port flow from normal propellant burn back show that more information is necessary to complete these analyses. These analyses were performed as parametric analyses in relation to the height of the inhibitor stub left protruding into the motor port. A better estimate of the amount of the inhibitor stub remaining at later burn times must be determined since the height which the inhibitor stub protrudes into the port flow drastically affects the fluid

  13. Magnetic field measurements in and above a limb active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philip, Judge

    2013-07-01

    We analyze spectropolarimetric data of a limb active region (NOAA 11302) obtained on September 22nd 2011 using the Facility Infrared Spectrometer (FIRS) at the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST). Stokes profiles including lines of Si I 1028.7 nm and He I 1083 nm were obtained in three scans over a 45"x75" area. Simultaneous narrow band Ca II K and G-band intensity data were acquired with a cadence of 5s at the DST. The He I data show not only typical active region polarization signatures, but also signatures in plumes -- cool post flare loops -- which extend many Mm into the corona across the visible limb. The plumes have remarkably uniform brightness, and the plume plasma is significantly Doppler shifted as it drains from the corona. Using carefully constructed observing and calibration sequences and applying Principal Component Analysis to remove instrumental artifacts, we achieved a polarization sensitivity approaching 0.02%. With this sensitivity we attempt to diagnose the vector magnetic fields and plasma properties of chromospheric and cool coronal material in and above NOAA 11302. Inversions using various radiative transfer models in the HAZEL code are remarkably consistent with the idea that plume spectra are formed in a simple, slab-like geometry, but that the ``disk'' spectra are formed under more traditional models (Milne-Eddington). The inverted magnetic data of He I lines are compared with photospheric inversions of DST Si I and Fe I data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory.

  14. Generation and Suppression of E Region Artificial Field Aligned Irregularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miceli, R. J.; Hysell, D. L.; Munk, J.; Han, S.

    2012-12-01

    Artificial field-aligned plasma density irregularities (FAIs) were generated in the E region of the ionosphere above the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility during campaigns in May and August of 2012 and were quantified using a 30 MHz coherent scatter radar in Homer, Alaska. The purpose of the experiment was to analyze the X-mode suppression of FAIs generated from O-mode heating and to measure the threshold required to excite thermal parametric instabilities. The irregularities were excited by gradually increasing the power of a zenith pointing O-mode emission transmitted at a frequency of 2.75 MHz. To suppress the irregularities, a second X-mode emission at a higher frequency was added on alternating power cycles. The Homer radar measured the signal-to-noise ratio, Doppler shift, and spectral width of echoes reflected from the irregularities. We will calculate the threshold electric field required to excite the irregularities and compare with similar experiments in order to better understand the thermal parametric instability.

  15. The effects of magnetic field in plume region on the performance of multi-cusped field thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Peng Liu, Hui Yu, Daren; Gao, Yuanyuan; Mao, Wei

    2015-10-15

    The performance characteristics of a Multi-cusped Field Thruster depending on the magnetic field in the plume region were investigated. Five magnetic field shielding rings were separately mounted near the exit of discharge channel to decrease the strength of magnetic field in the plume region in different levels, while the magnetic field in the upstream was well maintained. The test results show that the electron current increases with the decrease of magnetic field strength in the plume region, which gives rise to higher propellant utilization and lower current utilization. On the other hand, the stronger magnetic field in the plume region improves the performance at low voltages (high current mode) while lower magnetic field improves the performance at high voltages (low current mode). This work can provide some optimal design ideas of the magnetic strength in the plume region to improve the performance of thruster.

  16. Study of the regional air quality south of Mexico City (Morelos state).

    PubMed

    Salcedo, D; Castro, T; Ruiz-Suárez, L G; García-Reynoso, A; Torres-Jardón, R; Torres-Jaramillo, A; Mar-Morales, B E; Salcido, A; Celada, A T; Carreón-Sierra, S; Martínez, A P; Fentanes-Arriaga, O A; Deustúa, E; Ramos-Villegas, R; Retama-Hernández, A; Saavedra, M I; Suárez-Lastra, M

    2012-01-01

    Results from the first study of the regional air quality in Morelos state (located south of Mexico City) are presented. Criteria pollutants concentrations were measured at several sites within Morelos in February and March of 2007 and 2009; meteorological data was also collected along the state for the same time periods; additionally, a coupled meteorology-chemistry model (Mesoscale Climate Chemistry Model, MCCM) was used to gain understanding on the atmospheric processes occurring in the region. In general, concentrations of almost all the monitored pollutants (O(3), NO(x), CO, SO(2), PM) remained below the Mexican air quality standards during the campaign; however, relatively high concentrations of ozone (8-hour average concentrations above the 60 ppb level several times during the campaigns, i.e. exceeding the World Health Organization and the European Union maximum levels) were observed even at sites with very low reported local emissions. In fact, there is evidence that a large percentage of Morelos vegetation was probably exposed to unhealthy ozone levels (estimated AOT40 levels above the 3 ppm h critical limit). The MCCM qualitatively reproduced ozone daily variations in the sites with an urban component; though it consistently overestimated the ozone concentration in all the sites in Morelos. This is probably because the lack of an updated and detailed emission inventory for the state. The main wind patterns in the region corresponded to the mountain-valley system (downslope flows at night and during the first hours of the day, and upslope flows in the afternoon). At times, Morelos was affected by emissions from surrounding states (Distrito Federal or Puebla). The results are indicative of an efficient transport of ozone and its precursors at a regional level. They also suggest that the state is divided in two atmospheric basins by the Sierras de Tepoztlán, Texcal and Monte Negro. PMID:22154481

  17. Regional analysis of the mean annual maximum peak flow in South West Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjeldsen, Thomas; Cooper, David

    2010-05-01

    The work reported here is a pilot study carried out as part of the EU FP7 project Mirage, and aims to derive flood frequency relationships for temporary rivers in the Mediterranean region. Regional studies of flood characteristics are often limited to national, or even sub-national, regions. Reasons for these spatially limited studies are manifold, but include: lack of international co-operation, difficulties in getting access to hydrometric data from other countries, and inconsistencies in national datasets for deriving catchment characteristics. As part of this study, preliminary regional datasets from south-west Europe of flood statistics and relevant catchment descriptors have been derived. The annual maximum peak flow data have been obtained from the UNESCO/FRIEND project and includes 381 time series of daily river flow from Portugal, Spain and southern France. Note that a majority of these data comes from perennial rivers. The catchment descriptors including catchment area, mean annual rainfall, soil properties and land-use characteristics. These characteristics have been derived from pan-European dataset including the SRTM (90m) dtm, gridded precipitation data from CRU (18km), the JRC soil database (1km) and CORINE land-cover data (250m). The logarithm of the mean annual maximum peak flow (QBAR) has been linked to a subset of log-transformed catchment descriptors using a linear regression-type model, including correlation in both observations and regression model errors. The existence of model error correlation suggests that the data contains more between-catchment variation in QBAR than can be explained by the catchment descriptors alone. Thus, further research is needed to identify additional explanatory variables with the potential to be made available on a pan-European scale.

  18. Long period pulsation events in electron precipitation and magnetic fields at the South Pole

    SciTech Connect

    Paquette, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Geomagnetic pulsation events with long (100-1000 second) periods that are accompanied by electron precipitation pulsations at the same frequency were reported at various latitudes. A search of the data from South Pole station for the period from 1982 to 1989 revealed over 200 such events. A comparison of these events with the predictions of Coroniti and Kennel was undertaken, including examination of VLF data, interplanetary magnetic field data, DMSP satellite data, and data from South Pole's conjugate station at Iqaluit, as well as the riometer and magnetometer data from South Pole used in the original search. Data from the IRIS Imaging Radiometer were also used when available. A consideration of the respective wave and particle transit times from the magnetic equator to the ground leads to an expectation that the onset of pulsations in the magnetometer data will lag the onset of pulsations in the riometer data by several minutes. This disparity in onset times, together with VLF modulation in the proper frequency range, serve as important indicators of whether or not an event can be explained by the above-cited theory. While about a third of the events fit the prediction of Coroniti and Kennel, another third cannot be explained by this theory, and possible alternative mechanisms are explored. The remaining third of the events appear at first to be inexplicable in terms of any transit time argument, but analysis of the IRIS data shows that this third class of events arises from differences in the spatial coverage of the instruments.

  19. Infrared Faint Radio Sources in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, Minh T.

    2009-01-01

    Infrared-Faint Radio Sources (IFRSs) are a class of radio objects found in the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS) which have no observable counterpart in the Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic Survey (SWIRE). The extended Chandra Deep Field South now has even deeper Spitzer imaging (3.6 to 70 micron) from a number of Legacy surveys. We report the detections of two IFRS sources in IRAC images. The non-detection of two other IFRSs allows us to constrain the source type. Detailed modeling of the SED of these objects shows that they are consistent with high redshift AGN (z > 2).

  20. Deep Crustal Earthquakes in the Sierras Pampeanas Region of the South Central Andean Backarc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado, P. M.; Beck, S.; Zandt, G.; Fromm, R.; Araujo, M.; Bufaliza, M.; Triep, E.

    2003-12-01

    In the last 20 years almost 500 earthquakes with depths less than 50 km and magnitudes over 4.0 have occurred in the Andean cordillera and backarc region between 29-34S as a consequence of the compression between the Nazca and South American plates. Many of these earthquakes as well as large (M>7) damaging shallow earthquakes in 1861, 1894, 1944, 1952 and 1977 are associated with the Precordillera and Sierras Pampeanas, characterized by a thinn-skinned fold and thrust belt that contrast with the thick-skinned basement cored uplifts deformation, respectively. This high level of crustal seismicity corresponds to a segment of flat slab subduction beneath Argentina. Very few crustal earthquakes occur in the high cordillera in the volcanic arc region that shut off approximately 10 Ma ago when the subducting slab became flat. We have used regional broadband seismic waveforms recorded on the portable CHilean Argentinean Geophysical Experiment network to determine focal mechanisms and depths for 22 crustal earthquakes (M > 3.6) during 2001 and 2002. We first located the earthquakes and then used a least squares moment tensor inversion technique to match 3-component data to determine the best focal mechanism and depth. A simple crust and upper mantle velocity model was used in the inversions (crustal thickness 45 km, crustal Vp=6.2 km/sec, Vp/Vs=1.70). Our results indicate that 20 of the events have predominately thrust fault focal mechanisms with an average P-axis azimuth orientation of 97° . More than 85% of the earthquakes had locations in the Pampean Ranges and focal depths between 18 and ~40 km, corresponding to mid to lower crust. The furthest east crustal earthquakes occur inland nearly 800 km from the trench. Five of the events are concentrated near the oldest part of the Pampean Ranges (Sierra Pie de Palo), which was also the site of the most recent large damaging crustal earthquake (1977 San Juan earthquake). We identified only one shallow strike-slip event

  1. Protoptiline Caddisfly Genera Endemic to the Southern Cone Region of South America (Trichoptera: Glossosomatidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, D. R.; Holzenthal, R. W.

    2005-05-01

    The Trichoptera fauna of the Southern Cone region of South America (Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay, and SE Brazil) is well known for its high degree of endemism, at both the species and genus level. This is also true for the saddle or tortoise case-making family Glossosomatidae, represented entirely in the region by members of the subfamily Protoptilinae. The Southern Cone includes six endemic protoptiline genera: Canoptila, Itauara, Mastigoptila, Merionoptila, Scotiotrichia, and Tolhuaca, containing 19 described species. Although not particularly species diverse when compared to the rest of the Neotropical Trichoptera fauna, these endemics are note-worthy: some genera display morphological characteristics that may be considered very primitive and others are very evolutionarily derived. Additionally, there are at least 11 new species whose placement is uncertain. This points out the need to reexamine the taxonomy and evaluate the evolutionary relationships among these genera. Recently several new species of Mastigoptila and Tolhuaca were described, including some females. Taxonomic revisions of the remaining genera based on careful examination of the male and female genitalia, wing venation, and other adult morphological characters, are currently underway. Included in the revisions are descriptions of new species, new illustrations of previously described species, and a phylogenetic assessment.

  2. Lightning fatalities in the Transkei sub-region of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Meel, B L

    2007-04-01

    Lightning is a particularly unsettling product of bad weather. It kills more people than other natural disasters such as floods, hurricanes, and tornadoes, but, because lightning usually kills people one at a time, it tends to be an underrated hazard. High risk groups are uneducated, unsheltered and rural people. This study was carried out to determine the incidence of lightning fatalities in the Transkei sub-region. It is a review of records between 1993 and 2004 from the medico-legal autopsies at Umtata General Hospital (UGH). During the study period there were 10,860 autopsies performed on those who died of trauma and other unnatural circumstances which included 151 (1.4%) lightning fatalities. This represents 0.31 deaths per million per year. The highest (0.5/million) was in 1999, and the lowest (0.13/million) in 1997. The age of the victims ranged from 1 to 82 years, with a mean of 22 years. Males and females were almost equally represented (50%). The highest number of deaths (26.5%) was in the age group of 11 to 20 years, and the lowest number (2.7%) in the age group of 70+ years. There is a high incidence of lightning fatalities in the Transkei sub-region of South Africa. People need to be educated to disregard the myths of lightning strike. PMID:17520962

  3. Estimation of underground river water availability based on rainfall in the Maros karst region, South Sulawesi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsyad, Muhammad; Ihsan, Nasrul; Tiwow, Vistarani Arini

    2016-02-01

    Maros karst region, covering an area of 43.750 hectares, has water resources that determine the life around it. Water resources in Maros karst are in the rock layers or river underground in the cave. The data used in this study are primary and secondary data. Primary data includes characteristics of the medium. Secondary data is rainfall data from BMKG, water discharge data from the PSDA, South Sulawesi province in 1990-2010, and the other characteristics data Maros karst, namely cave, flora and fauna of the Bantimurung Bulusaraung National Park. Data analysis was conducted using laboratory test for medium characteristics Maros karst, rainfall and water discharge were analyzed using Minitab Program 1.5 to determine their profile. The average rainfall above 200 mm per year occurs in the range of 1999 to 2005. The availability of the water discharge at over 50 m3/s was happened in 1993 and 1995. Prediction was done by modeling Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), with the rainfall data shows that the average precipitation for four years (2011-2014) will sharply fluctuate. The prediction of water discharge in Maros karst region was done for the period from January to August in 2011, including the type of 0. In 2012, the addition of the water discharge started up in early 2014.

  4. Surficial geologic map of the Charleston region, Berkeley, Charleston, Colleton, Dorchester, and Georgetown Counties, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weems, Robert E.; Lewis, William C.; Lemon, Earl M., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    This map portrays the surface and shallow subsurface geology of the greater Charleston, S.C. region east of 80°30′ west and south of 33°15′ north. The region covers the entirety of Charleston County and portions of Berkeley, Colleton, Dorchester, and Georgetown Counties. Units locally exposed at the surface range in age from middle Eocene to Holocene, but most of the area is covered by Quaternary interglacial deposits. These are, from oldest to youngest, the Okefenokee, Waccamaw(?), Penholoway, Ladson, Ten Mile Hill, and Wando Formations and the Silver Bluff beds. Two cross sections, one running southeast from Harleyville to the coastline on James Island and the other running along the coastal barrier islands from the town of Edisto Beach to the northeast end of Bull Island at the southwest edge of Bull Bay, portray the complex geometry of the Paleogene and Neogene marine units that directly lie beneath the Quaternary units. These older units include the Santee Limestone, Tupelo Bay, Parkers Ferry, Ashley, Chandler Bridge, Edisto, Parachucla, and Marks Head Formations, the Goose Creek Limestone, and the Raysor Formation. The estimated locations of deeply buried active basement faults are shown which are responsible for ongoing modern seismicity in the Charleston, S.C. area.

  5. Possible recent and ancient glacial ice flow in the south polar region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kargel, J. S.

    1992-01-01

    Martian polar science began almost as soon as small telescopes were trained on the planet. The seasonal expansion and contraction of the polar caps and their high albedoes led most astronomers to think that water ice is the dominant constituent. In 1911 Lowell perceived a bluish band around the retreating edge of the polar caps, and interpreted it as water from melting polar ice and seasonal snow. An alternative idea in his time was that the polar caps consist of frozen carbonic acid. Lowell rejected the carbonic acid hypothesis on account of his blue band. He also pointed out that carbonic acid would sublimate rather than melt at confining pressures near and below one bar, hence, carbonic acid could not account for the blue band. In comparing Lowell's theories with today's knowledge, it is recognized that (1) sublimation is mainly responsible for the growth and contraction of Mars' polar caps, (2) carbon dioxide is a major component of the southern polar cap, and (3) Lowell's blue band was probably seasonal dust and/or clouds. Geomorphic evidence that glacial ice and glacial melt waters once flowed over broad areas of the southern polar region. Two aspects of the south polar region suggest possible glacial processes during two distinct eras in Mars' history.

  6. Coral oxygen isotope records of interdecadal climate variations in the South Pacific Convergence Zone region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnato, Stefan; Linsley, Braddock K.; Howe, Stephen S.; Wellington, Gerard M.; Salinger, Jim

    2005-06-01

    The South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ), a region of high rainfall, is a major feature of subtropical Southern Hemisphere climate and contributes to and interacts with circulation features across the Pacific, yet its past temporal variability and forcing remain only partially understood. Here we compare coral oxygen isotopic (δ18O) series (spanning A.D. 1997-1780 and A.D. 2001-1776) from two genera of hermatypic corals in Fiji, located within the SPCZ, to examine the fidelity of these corals in recording climate change and SPCZ interdecadal dynamics. One of these coral records is a new 225-year subannually resolved δ18O series from the massive coral Diploastreaheliopora. Diploastrea's use in climate reconstructions is still relatively new, but this coral has shown encouragingly similar interannual variability to Porites, the coral genus most commonly used in Pacific paleoclimate studies. In Fiji we observe that interdecadal δ18O variance is also similar in these two coral genera, and Diploastrea contains a larger-amplitude interdecadal signal that more closely tracks instrumental-based indices of Pacific interdecadal climate change and the SPCZ than Porites. Both coral δ18O series record greater interdecadal variability from ˜1880 to 1950, which is consistent with the observations of Folland et al. (2002), who reported higher variability in SPCZ position before 1945. These observations indicate that Diploastrea will likely provide a significant new source of long-term climate information from the SPCZ region.

  7. Modeling and mapping regional land use/land cover change in South Central Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranatunga, T.; Messen, D.

    2014-12-01

    Houston-Galveston Area Council (H-GAC) conducted a land use/land cover (LULC) change detection study to generate information about the LULC changes in a 15-county area of South Central Texas. Such information is essential in regional planning, natural resource management, monitoring and modeling of environmental characteristics. The objectives of this study are (1) Identification of regional spatial patterns of each LULC conversion, (2) Estimation of the area coverage of each LULC conversion, and (3) Estimation of the net gain and losses of each LULC classes. To achieve these objectives, ArcGIS Spatial analysis functions and data management tools were employed in python environment. Change detection was estimated from 1992 to 2011 using datasets from NLCD (National Land Cover Database) 1992, NLCD 2001 and NOAA C-CAP (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Coastal Change Analysis Program) 2011. Through visual analysis and comparisons with aerial imagery, we established that NLCD 1992 and 2001 datasets contained more classification inaccuracies than the NOAA 2011 dataset. The misclassified cells in the 1992 and 2001 NLCD datasets were corrected to be consistent with the 2011 C-CAP dataset. The NLCD 2001 dataset was first corrected using a logical evaluation with 2011 classes in each pixel. Then the NLCD 1992 dataset was corrected using the correct 2001 dataset. After correcting 1992 dataset, a cell by cell comparison was conducted with the NOAA 2011 dataset, and individual changes were recorded.

  8. Initial results on the correlation between the magnetic and electric fields observed from the DE-2 satellite in the field-aligned current regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugiura, M.; Maynard, N. C.; Farthing, W. H.; Heppner, J. P.; Ledley, B. G.; Cahill, L. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Initial results of the electric and magnetic field observations from the DE-2 satellite show a remarkably good correlation between the north-south component of the electric field and the east-west component of the magnetic field in many passes of the field-aligned current regions. For a dayside cusp pass on August 15, 1981 the coefficient of correlation between these components was 0.996. A preliminary inspection of the available data from the first 6 months of the DE operation indicates that the similarity between the electric and magnetic field signatures of the field-aligned currents is a commonly observed feature at all local times. This high correlation is interpreted to be an indication that the closure of the field-aligned current is essentially meridional. When the correlation between these components is not good, the closure current is likely to be flowing along the auroral belt. When the correlation between the electric and magnetic fields is high, it is possible to estimate the height-integrated Pedersen conductivity from the observed field components.

  9. EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES FROM THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE PROBING EVOLUTION AND REIONIZATION SPECTROSCOPICALLY (PEARS) GRISM SURVEY. I. THE SOUTH FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Straughn, Amber N.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Pirzkal, Norbert; Grogin, Norman; Panagia, Nino; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Cohen, Seth H.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; Jansen, Rolf A.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Di Serego Alighieri, Sperello; Gronwall, Caryl; Walsh, Jeremy; Pasquali, Anna; Xu, Chun

    2009-10-15

    We present results of a search for emission-line galaxies (ELGs) in the southern fields of the Hubble Space Telescope Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) grism survey. The PEARS South Fields consist of five Advanced Camera for Surveys pointings (including the Hubble Ultra Deep Field) with the G800L grism for a total of 120 orbits, revealing thousands of faint object spectra in the GOODS-South region of the sky. ELGs are one subset of objects that are prevalent among the grism spectra. Using a two-dimensional detection and extraction procedure, we find 320 emission lines originating from 226 galaxy 'knots' within 192 individual galaxies. Line identification results in 118 new grism-spectroscopic redshifts for galaxies in the GOODS-South Field. We measure emission-line fluxes using standard Gaussian fitting techniques. At the resolution of the grism data, the H{beta} and [O III] doublet are blended. However, by fitting two Gaussian components to the H{beta} and [O III] features, we find that many of the PEARS ELGs have high [O III]/H{beta} ratios compared to other galaxy samples of comparable luminosities. The star formation rates of the ELGs are presented, as well as a sample of distinct giant star-forming regions at z {approx} 0.1-0.5 across individual galaxies. We find that the radial distances of these H II regions in general reside near the galaxies' optical continuum half-light radii, similar to those of giant H II regions in local galaxies.

  10. NEAR-INFRARED-IMAGING POLARIMETRY TOWARD SERPENS SOUTH: REVEALING THE IMPORTANCE OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Sugitani, K.; Nakamura, F.; Tamura, M.; Kandori, R.; Watanabe, M.; Nishiyama, S.; Nagata, T.; Nagayama, T.; Sato, S.; Gutermuth, R. A.; Wilson, G. W.; Kawabe, R.

    2011-06-10

    The Serpens South embedded cluster, which is located in the constricted part of a long, filamentary, infrared dark cloud, is believed to be in a very early stage of cluster formation. We present results of near-infrared (JHKs) polarization observations of the filamentary cloud. Our polarization measurements of near-infrared point sources indicate a well-ordered global magnetic field that is perpendicular to the main filament, implying that the magnetic field is likely to have controlled the formation of the main filament. On the other hand, the sub-filaments, which converge on the central part of the cluster, tend to run along the magnetic field. The global magnetic field appears to be curved in the southern part of the main filament. Such morphology is consistent with the idea that the global magnetic field is distorted by gravitational contraction along the main filament toward the northern part, which contains larger mass. Applying the Chandrasekhar-Fermi method, the magnetic field strength is roughly estimated to be a few x100 {mu}G, suggesting that the filamentary cloud is close to magnetically critical.

  11. Local Lunar Gravity Field Analysis over the South Pole-aitken Basin from SELENE Farside Tracking Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goossens, Sander Johannes; Ishihara, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Koji; Sasaki, Sho

    2012-01-01

    We present a method with which we determined the local lunar gravity field model over the South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin on the farside of the Moon by estimating adjustments to a global lunar gravity field model using SELENE tracking data. Our adjustments are expressed in localized functions concentrated over the SPA region in a spherical cap with a radius of 45deg centered at (191.1 deg E, 53.2 deg S), and the resolution is equivalent to a 150th degree and order spherical harmonics expansion. The new solution over SPA was used in several applications of geophysical analysis. It shows an increased correlation with high-resolution lunar topography in the frequency band l = 40-70, and admittance values are slightly different and more leveled when compared to other, global gravity field models using the same data. The adjustments expressed in free-air anomalies and differences in Bouguer anomalies between the local solution and the a priori global solution correlate with topographic surface features. The Moho structure beneath the SPA basin is slightly modified in our solution, most notably at the southern rim of the Apollo basin and around the Zeeman crater

  12. Insecticide concentrations in stream sediments of soy production regions of South America.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Lisa; Bonetto, Carlos; Resh, Vincent H; Buss, Daniel Forsin; Fanelli, Silvia; Marrochi, Natalia; Lydy, Michael J

    2016-03-15

    Concentrations of 17 insecticides were measured in sediments collected from 53 streams in soy production regions of South America (Argentina in 2011-2014, Paraguay and Brazil in 2013) during peak application periods. Although environmental regulations are quite different in each country, commonly used insecticides were detected at high frequencies in all regions. Maximum concentrations (and detection frequencies) for each sampling event ranged from: 1.2-7.4ng/g dw chlorpyrifos (56-100%); 0.9-8.3ng/g dw cypermethrin (20-100%); 0.42-16.6ng/g dw lambda-cyhalothrin (60-100%); and, 0.49-2.1ng/g dw endosulfan (13-100%). Other pyrethroids were detected less frequently. Banned organochlorines were most frequently detected in Brazil. In all countries, cypermethrin and/or lambda-cyhalothrin toxic units (TUs), based on Hyalella azteca LC50 bioassays, were occasionally>0.5 (indicating likely acute toxicity), while TUs for other insecticides were <0.5. All samples with total insecticide TU>1 were collected from streams with riparian buffer width<20m. A multiple regression analysis that included five landscape and habitat predictor variables for the Brazilian streams examined indicated that buffer width was the most important predictor variable in explaining total insecticide TU values. While Brazil and Paraguay require forested stream buffers, there were no such regulations in the Argentine pampas, where buffer widths were smaller. Multiple insecticides were found in almost all stream sediment samples in intensive soy production regions, with pyrethroids most often occurring at acutely toxic concentrations, and the greatest potential for insecticide toxicity occurring in streams with minimum buffer width<20m. PMID:26780136

  13. Wave climate simulation for southern region of the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaei, Ali; Tangang, Fredolin; Juneng, Liew; Mustapha, Muzneena Ahmad; Husain, Mohd Lokman; Akhir, Mohd Fadzil

    2013-08-01

    This study investigates long-term variability and wave characteristic trends in the southern region of the South China Sea (SCS). We implemented the state-of-the art WAVEWATCH III spectral wave model to simulate a 31-year wave hindcast. The simulation results were used to assess the inter-annual variability and long-term changes in the SCS wave climate for the period 1979 to 2009. The model was forced with Climate Forecast System Reanalysis winds and validated against altimeter data and limited available measurements from an Acoustic Wave and Current recorder located offshore of Terengganu, Malaysia. The mean annual significant wave height and peak wave period indicate the occurrence of higher wave heights and wave periods in the central SCS and lower in the Sunda shelf region. Consistent with wind patterns, the wave direction also shows southeasterly (northwesterly) waves during the summer (winter) monsoon. This detailed hindcast demonstrates strong inter-annual variability of wave heights, especially during the winter months in the SCS. Significant wave height correlated negatively with Niño3.4 index during winter, spring and autumn seasons but became positive in the summer monsoon. Such correlations correspond well with surface wind anomalies over the SCS during El Nino events. During El Niño Modoki, the summer time positive correlation extends northeastwards to cover the entire domain. Although significant positive trends were found at 95 % confidence levels during May, July and September, there is significant negative trend in December covering the Sunda shelf region. However, the trend appears to be largely influenced by large El Niño signals.

  14. Climatic controls on ecosystem resilience: Postfire regeneration in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Adam M.; Latimer, Andrew M.; Silander, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Conservation of biodiversity and natural resources in a changing climate requires understanding what controls ecosystem resilience to disturbance. This understanding is especially important in the fire-prone Mediterranean systems of the world. The fire frequency in these systems is sensitive to climate, and recent climate change has resulted in more frequent fires over the last few decades. However, the sensitivity of postfire recovery and biomass/fuel load accumulation to climate is less well understood than fire frequency despite its importance in driving the fire regime. In this study, we develop a hierarchical statistical framework to model postfire ecosystem recovery using satellite-derived observations of vegetation as a function of stand age, topography, and climate. In the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa, a fire-prone biodiversity hotspot, we found strong postfire recovery gradients associated with climate resulting in faster recovery in regions with higher soil fertility, minimum July (winter) temperature, and mean January (summer) precipitation. Projections using an ensemble of 11 downscaled Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) general circulation models (GCMs) suggest that warmer winter temperatures in 2080–2100 will encourage faster postfire recovery across the region, which could further increase fire frequency due to faster fuel accumulation. However, some models project decreasing precipitation in the western CFR, which would slow recovery rates there, likely reducing fire frequency through lack of fuel and potentially driving local biome shifts from fynbos shrubland to nonburning semidesert vegetation. This simple yet powerful approach to making inferences from large, remotely sensed datasets has potential for wide application to modeling ecosystem resilience in disturbance-prone ecosystems globally. PMID:26150521

  15. MOMENT TENSOR SOLUTIONS OF RECENT EARTHQUAKES IN THE CALABRIAN REGION (SOUTH ITALY)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orecchio, B.; D'Amico, S.; Gervasi, A.; Guerra, I.; Presti, D.; Zhu, L.; Herrmann, R. B.; Neri, G.

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study is to provide moment tensor solutions for recent events occurred in the Calabrian region (South Italy), an area struck by several destructive earthquakes in the last centuries. The seismicity of the area under investigation is actually characterized by low to moderate magnitude earthquakes (up to 4.5) not properly represented in the Italian national catalogues of focal mechanisms like RCMT (Regional Centroid Moment Tensor, Pondrelli et al., PEPI, 2006) and TDMT (Time Domain Moment Tensors, Dreger and Helmerger, BSSA, 1993). Also, the solutions estimated from P-onset polarities are often poorly constrained due to network geometry in the study area. We computed the moment tensor solutions using the “Cut And Paste” method originally proposed by Zhao and Helmerger (BSSA, 1994) and later modified by Zhu and Helmerger (BSSA, 1996). Each waveform is broken into the Pnl and surface wave segments and the source depth and focal mechanisms are determined using a grid search technique. The technique allows time shifts between synthetics and observed data in order to reduce dependence of the solution on the assumed velocity model and earthquake locations. This method has shown to provide good-quality solutions for earthquakes of magnitude as small as 2.5. The data set of the present study consists of waveforms from more than 100 earthquakes that were recorded by the permanent seismic network run by Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) and about 40 stations of the NSF CAT/SCAN project. The results concur to check and better detail the regional geodynamic model assuming subduction of the Ionian lithosphere beneath the Tyrrhenian one and related response of the shallow structures in terms of normal and strike-slip faulting seismicity.

  16. Climatic controls on ecosystem resilience: Postfire regeneration in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Adam M; Latimer, Andrew M; Silander, John A

    2015-07-21

    Conservation of biodiversity and natural resources in a changing climate requires understanding what controls ecosystem resilience to disturbance. This understanding is especially important in the fire-prone Mediterranean systems of the world. The fire frequency in these systems is sensitive to climate, and recent climate change has resulted in more frequent fires over the last few decades. However, the sensitivity of postfire recovery and biomass/fuel load accumulation to climate is less well understood than fire frequency despite its importance in driving the fire regime. In this study, we develop a hierarchical statistical framework to model postfire ecosystem recovery using satellite-derived observations of vegetation as a function of stand age, topography, and climate. In the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa, a fire-prone biodiversity hotspot, we found strong postfire recovery gradients associated with climate resulting in faster recovery in regions with higher soil fertility, minimum July (winter) temperature, and mean January (summer) precipitation. Projections using an ensemble of 11 downscaled Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) general circulation models (GCMs) suggest that warmer winter temperatures in 2080-2100 will encourage faster postfire recovery across the region, which could further increase fire frequency due to faster fuel accumulation. However, some models project decreasing precipitation in the western CFR, which would slow recovery rates there, likely reducing fire frequency through lack of fuel and potentially driving local biome shifts from fynbos shrubland to nonburning semidesert vegetation. This simple yet powerful approach to making inferences from large, remotely sensed datasets has potential for wide application to modeling ecosystem resilience in disturbance-prone ecosystems globally. PMID:26150521

  17. Metamorphic and tectonic evolution of the Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex in Nyalam region, south Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia-Min; Zhang, Jin-Jiang; Rubatto, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies evoke dispute whether the Himalayan metamorphic core - Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex (GHC) - was exhumed as a lateral crustal flow or a critical taper wedge during the India-Asia collision. This contribution investigated the evolution of the GHC in the Nyalam region, south Tibet, with comprehensive studies on structural kinematics, metamorphic petrology and geochronology. The GHC in the Nyalam region can be divided into the lower and upper GHC. Phase equilibria modelling and conventional thermobarometric results show that peak temperature conditions are lower in the lower GHC (~660-700°C) and higher in the upper GHC (~740-780°C), whereas corresponding pressure conditions at peak-T decrease from ~9-13 kbar to ~4 kbar northward. Monazite, zircon and rutile U-Pb dating results reveal two distinct blocks within the GHC of the Nyalam region. The upper GHC underwent higher degree of partial melting (15-25%, via muscovite dehydration melting) that initiated at ~32 Ma, peaked at ~29 Ma to 25 Ma, possibly ended at ~20 Ma. The lower GHC underwent lower degree of melting (0-10%) that lasted from 19 to 16 Ma, which was produced mainly via H2O-saturated melting. At different times, both the upper and lower blocks underwent initial slow cooling (35 ± 8 and 10 ± 5°C/Myr, respectively) and subsequent rapid cooling (120 ± 40°C/Myr). The established timescale of metamorphism suggests that high-temperature metamorphism within the GHC lasted a long duration (~15 Myr), whereas duration of partial melting lasted for ~3 Myr in the lower GHC and lasted for 7-12 Myr in the upper GHC. The documented diachronous metamorphism and discontinuity of peak P-T conditions implies the presence of the Nyalam Thrust in the study area. This thrust is probably connected to the other thrusts in Nepal and Sikkim Himalaya, which extends over ~800 km and is named the "High Himalayan Thrust". Timing of activity along this thrust is at ~25-16 Ma, which is coeval with active

  18. Asian Values and Democratic Citizenship: Exploring Attitudes among South Korean Eighth Graders Using Data from the ICCS Asian Regional Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Ryan Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing data from the 2009 IEA International Civic and Citizenship Study Asian Regional Module, this secondary analysis explores the relationship between traditional Asian values and democratic citizenship. Findings identify two dimensions of Asian values: Asian civic values and obedience to authority. Among South Korean students, Asian civic…

  19. Morphological and molecular observations on the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera filipjevi from the Volga and South Ural regions of Russia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During 2010-2012, a survey was conducted to determine the distribution and species diversity of the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera filipjevi within the Volga and South Ural regions of the Russian Federation. A total of 270 soil samples were collected. Seven populations of CCN were found in the rhiz...

  20. Strategies to Improve Teacher Retention in American Overseas Schools in the Near East South Asia Region: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancuso, Steven V.; Roberts, Laura; White, George P.; Yoshida, Roland K.; Weston, David

    2011-01-01

    Using a qualitative analysis and drawing from sociological theory, this study examined reasons for teacher turnover and retention from a representative sample of 248 teachers in American overseas schools in the Near East South Asia region. Results suggested that the most important reasons to stay or move pertained to supportive leadership,…

  1. Atmospheric Modeling of the Martian Polar Regions: One Mars Year of CRISM EPF Observations of the South Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, A. J.; Wolff, M. J.

    2009-03-01

    We have used CRISM Emission Phase Function gimballed observations to investigate atmospheric dust/ice opacity and surface albedo in the south polar region for the first Mars year of MRO operations. This covers the MY28 "dust event" and cap recession.

  2. An Examination of Hurricane Emergency Preparedness Planning at Institutions of Higher Learning of the Gulf South Region Post Hurricane Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventura, Caterina Gulli

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine hurricane emergency preparedness planning at institutions of higher learning of the Gulf South region following Hurricane Katrina. The problem addressed the impact of Hurricane Katrina on decision-making and policy planning processes. The focus was on individuals that administer the hurricane emergency…

  3. Dielectric Constant of Titan's South Polar Region from Cassini Radio Science Bistatic Scattering Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marouf, E.; Rappaport, N.; French, R.; Simpson, R.; Kliore, A.; McGhee, C.; Schinder, P.; Anabtawi, A.

    2008-12-01

    (~ 23 minutes). The relatively more grazing incidence geometry (θ ~ 70-79°) caused the RCP component to dominate the LCP component, as expected. Nonetheless, the later was mostly detectable, allowing estimation of the corresponding polarization ratio and hence profiling of the variability of the dielectric constant along the ground track. The inferred dielectric constant ɛ appears to vary over the large surface region probed but falls generally in the range 2 to 2.5, suggesting solid hydrocarbons or hydrocarbon "sludge" surface composition close to Titan's south pole. The small observed spectral Doppler broadening suggests that the echoes originate from gently undulating surface regions with RMS slopes of order few degrees.

  4. Freshening of the South Indian Ocean during the Argo period: observations, causes, and impact on regional sea level change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llovel, William; Lee, Tong

    2015-04-01

    Steric sea level change has been identified as one of the major contributors to the regional sea level changes. This contribution varies in space and time. Temperature (thermosteric) contribution to sea level has been found to be generally more important than salinity (halosteric) effect. Based on temperature and salinity data from Argo floats during 2005-2013 and coincident sea level measurements from satellite altimetry, we found that the central-eastern part of the South Indian Ocean stood out in the entire world ocean as a region that had a more dominant halosteric contribution to sea level change. The conspicuously large halosteric contribution was associated with a freshening in the upper few hundred meters. Neither local atmospheric forcing nor halosteric signal transmitted from the Pacific can explain this freshening. An observed strengthening of the Indonesian throughflow since early 2007 and the enhanced precipitation in the Indonesian Seas inferred from various precipitation estimates compounded by strong tidal mixing are the likely causes of the freshening of the South Indian Ocean. The findings also have implications to the potential influence of regional water cycle and ocean currents in the maritime Continent region to sea level changes in the South Indian Ocean prior to the Argo era and sea level projection in the future in response to climate change. Sustained measurements of sea surface salinity from satellites will significantly enhance our capability to study the impact of regional water cycle in the Maritime Continent region to related changes in the marginal seas and the Indian Ocean.

  5. CMC Participation in the Regional Centre for Strategic Studies (RCSS) Workshop: Defense, Technology and Cooperative Security in South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Biringer, K.L.; Olsen, J.

    1998-11-01

    As an ongoing part of the collaborative efforts between the Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) at Sandia National Laboratories, the United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA), and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), staff from the CMC served as faculty in conducting a workshop in Shanghai, China. Sponsor of the workshop was the Regional Centre for Strategic Studies (RCSS) based in Colombo, Sri Lanka. The workshop included participants from throughout South Asia and China. The CMC presented four sessions related to the role of monitoring technologies in promoting regional security and building confidence among nations. Participation in these workshops supports U.S. efforts to further regional cooperation and promote arms control, nonproliferation and other cooperative securily measures and supplements efforts funded by DOE and ACDA over the past four years. The RCSS Shanghai meeting permitted a continued CMC involvement in regionally conducted training for anew generation of leaders in government, the military, and academia throughout South Asia and China. Nuclear issues are clearly a dominant South Asian concern since the nuclear tests of May 1998. However, there remains a strong interest in identifying opportunities for increased trade and reduced tensions in other areas. The RCSS and other regional organizations are enthusiastic about continued CMC involvement in future regional courses.

  6. Survey of Medicinal Plants Used to Treat Malaria by Sidama People of Boricha District, Sidama Zone, South Region of Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Asnake, Solomon; Teklehaymanot, Tilahun; Hymete, Ariaya; Erko, Berhanu; Giday, Mirutse

    2016-01-01

    In Ethiopia, malaria control has been complicated due to resistance of the parasite to the current drugs. Thus, new drugs are required against drug-resistant Plasmodium strains. Historically, many of the present antimalarial drugs were discovered from plants. This study was, therefore, conducted to document antimalarial plants utilized by Sidama people of Boricha District, Sidama Zone, South Region of Ethiopia. An ethnobotanical survey was carried out from September 2011 to February 2012. Data were collected through semistructured interview and field and market observations. Relative frequency of citation (RFC) was calculated and preference ranking exercises were conducted to estimate the importance of the reported medicinal plants in Boricha District. A total of 42 antimalarial plants belonging to 27 families were recorded in the study area. Leaf was the dominant plant part (59.0%) used in the preparation of remedies and oral (97.4%) was the major route of administration. Ajuga integrifolia scored the highest RFC value (0.80). The results of this study revealed the existence of rich knowledge on the use of medicinal plants in the study area to treat malaria. Thus, an attempt should be made to conserve and evaluate the claimed antimalarial medicinal plants with priority given to those that scored the highest RFC values. PMID:26989429

  7. Survey of Medicinal Plants Used to Treat Malaria by Sidama People of Boricha District, Sidama Zone, South Region of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Asnake, Solomon; Teklehaymanot, Tilahun; Hymete, Ariaya; Erko, Berhanu; Giday, Mirutse

    2016-01-01

    In Ethiopia, malaria control has been complicated due to resistance of the parasite to the current drugs. Thus, new drugs are required against drug-resistant Plasmodium strains. Historically, many of the present antimalarial drugs were discovered from plants. This study was, therefore, conducted to document antimalarial plants utilized by Sidama people of Boricha District, Sidama Zone, South Region of Ethiopia. An ethnobotanical survey was carried out from September 2011 to February 2012. Data were collected through semistructured interview and field and market observations. Relative frequency of citation (RFC) was calculated and preference ranking exercises were conducted to estimate the importance of the reported medicinal plants in Boricha District. A total of 42 antimalarial plants belonging to 27 families were recorded in the study area. Leaf was the dominant plant part (59.0%) used in the preparation of remedies and oral (97.4%) was the major route of administration. Ajuga integrifolia scored the highest RFC value (0.80). The results of this study revealed the existence of rich knowledge on the use of medicinal plants in the study area to treat malaria. Thus, an attempt should be made to conserve and evaluate the claimed antimalarial medicinal plants with priority given to those that scored the highest RFC values. PMID:26989429

  8. Rongbuk re-visited: Geochronology of leucogranites in the footwall of the South Tibetan Detachment System, Everest Region, Southern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottle, John M.; Searle, Michael P.; Jessup, Micah J.; Crowley, James L.; Law, Richard D.

    2015-06-01

    The Hermit's Gorge area adjacent to the Rongbuk Glacier on the north side of Mount Everest is a critical location to establish the timing and duration of movement along the ductile strand of the South Tibetan Detachment system (STDS), a low-angle, north-dipping normal fault that bounds the upper part of the Greater Himalayan Sequence. Monazite from four leucogranite samples in the Hermit's Gorge that bracket the timing of ductile fabric development has been dated using both U/Th-Pb ID-TIMS and LA-MC-ICPMS. Results suggest that the earliest, ~ 16.4 Ma, leucogranite sills have been folded and deformed along with the host sillimanite gneisses and calc-silicates whereas structurally higher sills and dykes that post-date fabric development are slightly younger, all within uncertainty of one another at 15.6 to 15.4 Ma. Field relations combined with age data constrain ductile fabric formation associated with movement along this strand of the STDS as being on-going at 16.4 Ma but had ceased prior to 15.6 Ma, while brittle faulting along the STDS is younger than 15.4 Ma. Combined with data from the Everest massif and surrounding region, ages of granite crystallization and ductile shearing propagated up-structural section and northward with time.

  9. Overview of the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment in Brazil during Sept - Oct 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Ben; Haywood, Jim; Longo, Karla; Coe, Hugh; Artaxo, Paulo; Morgan, William; Freitas, Saulo

    2013-04-01

    The South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) is an international research project investigating the impacts of biomass burning emissions on climate, air quality and numerical weather prediction over South America. The project involves a combination of measurements and modelling activities to assess the role of biomass burning and biogenic emissions in the earth system. This international collaboration has been led by a partnership between the Met Office, the Brazilian National Institute for Space research (INPE), the University of Sao Paulo, and a consortium of UK Universities. The measurement program was headed by the deployment of UK's Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft over Brazil during the dry season of September - October 2012. This was co-ordinated with ground-based measurements operated by the University of Sao Paulo and INPE. This successful field experiment now provides an excellent source of observations to build our understanding of biomass burning processes and improve model simulations of biomass burning aerosols and their interactions with biogenic emissions, atmospheric chemistry, clouds, radiation, and the terrestrial biosphere. This talk will summarise the field experiment, including the aircraft measurements and ground-based observations made during the dry season of 2012. Preliminary results will highlight the range of biomass burning and biogenic emissions observed from tropical forest, deforested zones and scrub-land. Case studies will also show infra-red camera images of fire radiative output, the evolution of large smoke plumes and the variable composition of background aerosol and extensive haze layers across the region. The lidar data and aircraft profiles also highlight the prevalence of elevated aerosol layers observed at altitudes of 3 - 7km, presumed to be detrainment from large smoke plumes, pyrocumulus and mid-level convection. The ground-based observations also highlight the

  10. Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic intraplate magmatism in Central Asia and its relation with mantle diapirism: Evidence from the South Khangai volcanic region, Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarmolyuk, Vladimir V.; Kudryashova, Ekaterina A.; Kozlovsky, Alexander M.; Lebedev, Vladimir A.; Savatenkov, Valery M.

    2015-11-01

    The South Khangai volcanic region (SKVR) comprises fields of Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic volcanic rocks scattered over southern and central Mongolia. Evolution of the region from the Late Jurassic to the Late Cenozoic includes 13 successive igneous episodes that are more or less evenly distributed in time. Major patterns in the distribution of different-aged volcanic complexes were controlled by a systematic temporal migration of volcanic centers over the region. The total length of their trajectory exceeds 1600 km. Principle characteristics of local magmatism are determined. The composition of igneous rocks varies from basanites to rhyolites (predominantly, high-K rocks), with geochemistry close to that of OIB. The rock composition, however, underwent transformations in the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Rejuvenation of mafic rocks is accompanied by decrease in the contents of HREE and increase of Nb and Ta. According to isotope data, the SKVR magmatic melts were derived from three isotope sources that differed in the Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions and successively alternated in time. In the Early Cretaceous, the predominant source composition was controlled by interaction of the EMII- and PREMA-type mantle materials. The PREMA-type mantle material dominated quantitatively in the Late Cretaceous and initial Early Cenozoic. From the latest Early Cenozoic to Late Cenozoic, the magma source also contained the EMI-type material along with the PREMA-type. The structural fabric, rock composition, major evolutionary pattern, and inner structure of SKVR generally comply with the criteria used to distinguish the mantle plume-related regions. Analogous features can be seen in other regions of recent volcanism in Central Asia (South Baikal, Udokan, Vitim, and Tok Stanovik). The structural autonomy of these regions suggests that distribution of the Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic volcanism in Central Asia was controlled by a group of relatively small hot finger-type mantle plumes associated with

  11. Time lapse seismic observations and effects of reservoir compressibility at Teal South oil field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Nayyer

    One of the original ocean-bottom time-lapse seismic studies was performed at the Teal South oil field in the Gulf of Mexico during the late 1990's. This work reexamines some aspects of previous work using modern analysis techniques to provide improved quantitative interpretations. Using three-dimensional volume visualization of legacy data and the two phases of post-production time-lapse data, I provide additional insight into the fluid migration pathways and the pressure communication between different reservoirs, separated by faults. This work supports a conclusion from previous studies that production from one reservoir caused regional pressure decline that in turn resulted in liberation of gas from multiple surrounding unproduced reservoirs. I also provide an explanation for unusual time-lapse changes in amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) data related to the compaction of the producing reservoir which, in turn, changed an isotropic medium to an anisotropic medium. In the first part of this work, I examine regional changes in seismic response due to the production of oil and gas from one reservoir. The previous studies primarily used two post-production ocean-bottom surveys (Phase I and Phase II), and not the legacy streamer data, due to the unavailability of legacy prestack data and very different acquisition parameters. In order to incorporate the legacy data in the present study, all three post-stack data sets were cross-equalized and examined using instantaneous amplitude and energy volumes. This approach appears quite effective and helps to suppress changes unrelated to production while emphasizing those large-amplitude changes that are related to production in this noisy (by current standards) suite of data. I examine the multiple data sets first by using the instantaneous amplitude and energy attributes, and then also examine specific apparent time-lapse changes through direct comparisons of seismic traces. In so doing, I identify time-delays that, when

  12. The MUSE 3D view of the Hubble Deep Field South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, R.; Brinchmann, J.; Richard, J.; Contini, T.; Drake, A.; Franx, M.; Tacchella, S.; Vernet, J.; Wisotzki, L.; Blaizot, J.; Bouché, N.; Bouwens, R.; Cantalupo, S.; Carollo, C. M.; Carton, D.; Caruana, J.; Clément, B.; Dreizler, S.; Epinat, B.; Guiderdoni, B.; Herenz, C.; Husser, T.-O.; Kamann, S.; Kerutt, J.; Kollatschny, W.; Krajnovic, D.; Lilly, S.; Martinsson, T.; Michel-Dansac, L.; Patricio, V.; Schaye, J.; Shirazi, M.; Soto, K.; Soucail, G.; Steinmetz, M.; Urrutia, T.; Weilbacher, P.; de Zeeuw, T.

    2015-03-01

    We observed Hubble Deep Field South with the new panoramic integral-field spectrograph MUSE that we built and have just commissioned at the VLT. The data cube resulting from 27 h of integration covers one arcmin2 field of view at an unprecedented depth with a 1σ emission-line surface brightness limit of 1 × 10-19 erg s-1 cm-2 arcsec-2, and contains ~90 000 spectra. We present the combined and calibrated data cube, and we performed a first-pass analysis of the sources detected in the Hubble Deep Field South imaging. We measured the redshifts of 189 sources up to a magnitude I814 = 29.5, increasing the number of known spectroscopic redshifts in this field by more than an order of magnitude. We also discovered 26 Lyα emitting galaxies that are not detected in the HST WFPC2 deep broad-band images. The intermediate spectral resolution of 2.3 Å allows us to separate resolved asymmetric Lyα emitters, [O ii]3727 emitters, and C iii]1908 emitters, and the broad instantaneous wavelength range of 4500 Å helps to identify single emission lines, such as [O iii]5007, Hβ, and Hα, over a very wide redshift range. We also show how the three-dimensional information of MUSE helps to resolve sources that are confused at ground-based image quality. Overall, secure identifications are provided for 83% of the 227 emission line sources detected in the MUSE data cube and for 32% of the 586 sources identified in the HST catalogue. The overall redshift distribution is fairly flat to z = 6.3, with a reduction between z = 1.5 to 2.9, in the well-known redshift desert. The field of view of MUSE also allowed us to detect 17 groups within the field. We checked that the number counts of [O ii]3727 and Lyα emitters are roughly consistent with predictions from the literature. Using two examples, we demonstrate that MUSE is able to provide exquisite spatially resolved spectroscopic information on the intermediate-redshift galaxies present in the field. Thisunique data set can be used for a

  13. The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000): Overview of the Dry Season Field Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swap, R. J.; Annegarn, H. J.; Suttles, J. T.; Haywood, J.; Helmlinger, M. C.; Hely, C.; Hobbs, P. V.; Holben, B. N.; Ji, J.; King, M. D.

    2002-01-01

    The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) is an international project investigating the earth atmosphere -human system in southern Africa. The programme was conducted over a two year period from March 1999 to March 2001. The dry season field campaign (August-September 2000) was the most intensive activity involved over 200 scientist from eighteen countries. The main objectives were to characterize and quantify biogenic, pyrogenic and anthropogenic aerosol and trace gas emissions and their transport and transformations in the atmosphere and to validate NASA's Earth Observing System's Satellite Terra within a scientific context. Five aircraft-- two South African Weather Service Aeorcommanders, the University of Washington's CV-880, the U.K. Meteorological Office's C-130, and NASA's ER-2 --with different altitude capabilities, participated in the campaign. Additional airborne sampling of southern African air masses, that had moved downwind of the subcontinent, was conducted by the CSIRO over Australia. Multiple Observations were made in various geographical sections under different synoptic conditions. Airborne missions were designed to optimize the value of synchronous over-flights of the Terra Satellite platform, above regional ground validation and science targets. Numerous smaller scale ground validation activities took place throughout the subcontinent during the campaign period.

  14. HLA gene and haplotype frequencies in Russians, Bashkirs and Tatars, living in the Chelyabinsk Region (Russian South Urals).

    PubMed

    Suslova, T A; Burmistrova, A L; Chernova, M S; Khromova, E B; Lupar, E I; Timofeeva, S V; Devald, I V; Vavilov, M N; Darke, C

    2012-10-01

    We have characterized the HLA-A, -B, -DRB1, -DQA1 and -DQB1 profiles of three major ethnic groups living in Chelyabinsk Region of Russian South Urals, viz., Russians (n = 207), Bashkirs (n = 146) and Tatars (n = 135). First field level typing was performed by PCR using sequence-specific primers. Estimates included carriage and gene frequencies, linkage disequilibrium and its significance and related values. Population comparisons were made between the allele family frequencies of the three populations and between these populations and 20 others using a dendrogram. Chelyabinsk Region Russians demonstrate all the features typical of a Caucasoid population, but also have some peculiarities. Together with Tatars, Russians have high frequencies of allele families and haplotypes characteristic of Finno-Ugric populations. This presupposes a Finno-Ugric impact on Russian and Tatar ethnogenesis. However, this was not apparent in Bashkirs, the first of the three populations to live in this territory, and implies admixture with populations of a Finno-Ugric origin with precursors of Russians and Tatars before they came to the South Urals. The Bashkirs appear close to Mongoloids in allele and haplotype distribution. However, Bashkirs cannot be labelled either as typical Mongoloids or as Caucasoids. Thus, Bashkirs possess some alleles and haplotypes frequent in Mongoloids, which supports the Turkic impact on Bashkir ethnogenesis, but also possess the AH 8.1 haplotype, which could evidence an ancient Caucasoid population that took part in their ethnic formation or of recent admixture with adjacent populations (Russians and Tatars). Bashkirs showed no features of populations with a substantial Finno-Ugric component, for example Chuvashes or Russian Saami. This disputes the commonly held belief of a Finno-Ugric origin for Bashkirs. Tatars appeared close to many European populations. However, they possessed some characteristics of Asiatic populations possibly reflecting a Mongoloid

  15. Using Global Plate Velocity Boundary Conditions for Embedded Regional Geodynamic Models: Application to 3-D Modeling of the Early Rifting of the South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taramón, Jorge M.; Morgan, Jason P.; Pérez-Gussinyé, Marta

    2016-04-01

    The treatment of far-field boundary conditions is one of the most poorly resolved issues for regional modeling of geodynamic processes. In viscous flow, the choice of far-field boundary conditions often strongly shapes the large-scale structure of a geosimulation. The mantle velocity field along the sidewalls and base of a modeling region is typically much more poorly known than the geometry of past global motions of the surface plates as constrained by global plate motion reconstructions. For regional rifting models it has become routine to apply highly simplified 'plate spreading' or 'uniform rifting' boundary conditions to a 3-D model that limits its ability to simulate the geodynamic evolution of a specific rifted margin. One way researchers are exploring the sensitivity of regional models to uncertain boundary conditions is to use a nested modeling approach in which a global model is used to determine a large-scale flow pattern that is imposed as a constraint along the boundaries of the region to be modeled. Here we explore the utility of a different approach that takes advantage of the ability of finite element models to use unstructured meshes than can embed much higher resolution sub-regions. Here we demonstrate the workflow and code tools that we created to generate this unstructured mesh: solver based on springs, guide-mesh and routines to improve the quality, e.g., closeness to a regular tetrahedron, of the tetrahedral elements of the mesh. Note that the same routines are used to generate a new mesh in the remeshing of a distorted Lagrangian mesh. In our initial project to validate this approach, we create a global spherical shell mesh in which a higher resolution sub-region is created around the nascent South Atlantic Rifting Margin. Global Plate motion BCs and plate boundaries are applied for the time of the onset of rifting, continuing through several 10s of Ma of rifting. Thermal, compositional, and melt-related buoyancy forces are only non

  16. Evolution of naturally occurring 5'non-coding region variants of Hepatitis C virus in human populations of the South American region

    PubMed Central

    Moratorio, Gonzalo; Martínez, Mariela; Gutiérrez, María F; González, Katiuska; Colina, Rodney; López-Tort, Fernando; López, Lilia; Recarey, Ricardo; Schijman, Alejandro G; Moreno, María P; García-Aguirre, Laura; Manascero, Aura R; Cristina, Juan

    2007-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been the subject of intense research and clinical investigation as its major role in human disease has emerged. Previous and recent studies have suggested a diversification of type 1 HCV in the South American region. The degree of genetic variation among HCV strains circulating in Bolivia and Colombia is currently unknown. In order to get insight into these matters, we performed a phylogenetic analysis of HCV 5' non-coding region (5'NCR) sequences from strains isolated in Bolivia, Colombia and Uruguay, as well as available comparable sequences of HCV strains isolated in South America. Methods Phylogenetic tree analysis was performed using the neighbor-joining method under a matrix of genetic distances established under the Kimura-two parameter model. Signature pattern analysis, which identifies particular sites in nucleic acid alignments of variable sequences that are distinctly representative relative to a background set, was performed using the method of Korber & Myers, as implemented in the VESPA program. Prediction of RNA secondary structures was done by the method of Zuker & Turner, as implemented in the mfold program. Results Phylogenetic tree analysis of HCV strains isolated in the South American region revealed the presence of a distinct genetic lineage inside genotype 1. Signature pattern analysis revealed that the presence of this lineage is consistent with the presence of a sequence signature in the 5'NCR of HCV strains isolated in South America. Comparisons of these results with the ones found for Europe or North America revealed that this sequence signature is characteristic of the South American region. Conclusion Phylogentic analysis revealed the presence of a sequence signature in the 5'NCR of type 1 HCV strains isolated in South America. This signature is frequent enough in type 1 HCV populations circulating South America to be detected in a phylogenetic tree analysis as a distinct type 1 sub-population. The

  17. Spatiotemporal patterns of wetland occurrence in the prairie pothole region of eastern South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kahara, S.N.; Mockler, R.M.; Higgins, K.F.; Chipps, S.R.; Johnson, R.R.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated changes in wetland abundance, size, and classification between average (19791986) and above-average (19951999) precipitation periods for two physiographic regions in eastern South Dakota. Temporal shifts in wetland numbers, area, and class varied by topographic location. In high wetland density areas (> 8 wetlands/100 ha), our data suggests that larger, semipermanent wetlands expanded and absorbed nearby wetland basins into their margins, resulting in a net "loss" or disappearance of temporary and seasonal wetlands in above-average water condition years. "Losses" described here are not deemed permanent as in cases of draining or filling, and wetlands may re-form when water conditions return to normal. Nevertheless, temporary disappearance of smaller more isolated wetlands may have implications for breeding waterfowl and other fauna. Percent change of semipermanent basin numbers was positively correlated with wetland density, whereas the opposite was true for seasonal wetlands. Loss of temporary wetlands was correlated with wetland aggregation within the sample area. However, in low wetland density areas, the number and size of seasonal and temporary wetlands generally increased following above-average precipitation. We suggest that wetlands' spatial arrangement be considered along with traditional wetland quantification techniques to better account for shifts in wetland habitat in dry versus wet years. ?? 2009 The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  18. [Syntaxonomic analysis of restorative successions after cutting down light coniferous forests of South Ural Region].

    PubMed

    Martynenko, V B; Shirokhikh, P S; Mirkin, B M; Naumova, L G

    2014-01-01

    Discussed are the possibilities of using syntaxa from floristic classification for the analysis of secondary restorative successions after forest cutting in South Ural Region. Peculiarities of secondary forest communities classification that may be viewed as subjects of indigenous vegetation syntaxa forming, sub-associations or could be systematized according to 'deductive' classification introduced by K. Kopecky and S. Heiny are considered. An example is presented of an analysis of communities succession system formed after cutting down hemiboreal pine and birch-pine herbaceous forests of Bupleuro-Pinetum association. Within this system the processes of divergence and convergence of succession series take place. Divergence occur as a result of lifting of the influence caused by dominants edificating role and manifestation of differences in soil humidification, also as a consequence of soil enrichment by mineral elements after burning down the felling debris. The reason behind convergence is grading influence of renewed forest stand. Trends in species richness changes during restorative successions may differ depending on ecotope features. In course of a succession, models of tolerance and inhibition become apparent. PMID:25782280

  19. Intraseasonal Oscillations over South America: A Study with a Regional Climate Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Baode; Chao, Winston

    2003-01-01

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) regional climate model version 2 (RegCM2) is used to investigate the observed characteristics of intraseasonal oscillations over South America. Our study is mainly concentrated on an intraseaonal mode, which is observed to account for a large portion of the intraseasonal variation, to have a standing feature and to be independent of the MJO. The NCEPDOE AMIP-II reanalysis is utilized to provide initial and lateral boundary conditions for the RegCM2 based upon the OOZ, 062, 122 and 182 data.Our results indicate that the intraseasonal oscillation still exists with time- averaged lateral boundary condition, which prevents the MJO and other outside disturbances from entering the model's domain, suggesting a locally forced oscillation responsible for ths intraseasonal mode independent of the MJO. Further experiments show that the annual and daily variabilities and a radiative-convective interaction are not essential to the locally forced intraseasonal oscillation. The intraseasonal oscillations over Amazon in our model essentially result from interactions among atmospheric continental- scale circulation, surface radiation, surface sensible and latent heat fluxes, and cumulus convection. The wavelet analyses of various surface energy fluxes and surface energy budget also verify that the primary cause of intraseasonal oscillation is the interaction of land surface processes with the atmosphere.

  20. A Database and Meta-Analysis of Ecological Responses to Flow in the South Atlantic Region

    SciTech Connect

    McManamay, Ryan A; Orth, Dr. Donald J; Davis, Dr, Mary; Kauffman, John

    2013-01-01

    Generalized and quantitative relationships between flow and ecology are pivotal to developing environmental flow standards based on socially acceptable ecological conditions. Informing management at regional scales requires compiling sufficient hydrologic and ecological sources of information, identifying information gaps, and creating a framework for hypothesis development and testing. We compiled studies of empirical and theoretical relationships between flow and ecology in the South Atlantic region (SAR) of the United States to evaluate their utility for the development of environmental flow standards. Using database searches, internet searches, and agency contacts, we gathered 186 sources of information that provided a qualitative or quantitative relationship between flow and ecology within states encompassing the SAR. A total of 109 of the 186 sources had sufficient information to support quantitative analyses. Ecological responses to natural changes in flow magnitude, frequency, and duration were highly variable regardless of the direction and magnitude of changes in flow. In contrast, the majority of ecological responses to anthropogenic-induced flow alterations were negative. Fish consistently showed negative responses to anthropogenic flow alterations whereas other ecological groups showed somewhat variable responses (e.g. macroinvertebrates and riparian vegetation) and even positive responses (e.g. algae). Fish and organic matter had sufficient sample sizes to stratify natural flow-ecology relationships by specific flow categories (e.g. high flow, baseflows) or by region (e.g. coastal plain, uplands). After stratifying relationships, we found that significant correlations existed between changes in natural flow and ecological responses. In addition, a regression tree explained 57% of the variation in fish responses to anthropogenic and natural changes in flow. Because of some ambiguity in interpreting the directionality in ecological responses, we

  1. P-wave tomography of the Calabrian Arc region (South Italy) using a new 'a priori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orecchio, Barbara; Presti, Debora; Totaro, Cristina; Guerra, Ignazio; Neri, Giancarlo

    2010-05-01

    A recently published tomographic investigation of the Calabrian Arc, South Italy (Neri et al., SRL, 2009) has shown that the Ionian subducting slab appears in-depth continuous only beneath the central part of the Arc (southern Calabria), while it has already undergone detachment at the edges of the arcuate structure (northern Calabria and northeastern Sicily). Starting from this result we tried to better define the features of the slab by performing a new tomographic inversion of crust and upper lithosphere in the Calabrian Arc region. The starting velocity model was derived from the integration of a new crustal velocity model obtained applying the method proposed by Waldhauser et al. (GJI, 1998 and 2002) and a deep model used by Neri et al. (SRL, 2009). We merged these two models into an averaged regional one, ranging between the surface and 300km depth. Then we used it to perform a new P-wave tomographic inversion of shallow and deep earthquakes occurred between 1981 and 2008 in Southern Italy. We selected all the events with a minimum of 12P+S and 8 P+S readings for shallow and deep earthquakes respectively. The quality of the readings was, in the majority of cases, checked directly on the recordings. The final inversion dataset consists of 75141 P and 40118 S arrival times relative to 7050 earthquakes recorded at a total of 591 stations. All the data available from the national and local networks, including the CAT-SCAN and UniCal network, have been used for inversion. This new model reduced significantly the RMS parameter and allowed us to enlarge the inversion zone. The investigation, together with a detailed analysis of seismicity, allows us to propose an improved and more complete view of the subduction system with respect to the previous works, including Neri et al. (SRL, 2009).

  2. Collaboration and Development of Radio Astronomy in Australasia and South-Pacific Region: New Zealand Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulyaev, S.; Natusch, T.

    2006-08-01

    Radio telescopes in the Asia-Pacific region form a natural network for VLBI observations, similar to the very successful networks in North America (Network Users Group) and Europe (European VLBI Network). New Zealand's VLBI facility, which we are developing since 2005, has the potential to strengthen the Asian-Pacific VLBI network and its role in astronomy, geodesy and geoscience. It will positively influence regional and international activities in geoscience and geodesy that advance New Zealand's national interests. A self-contained radio astronomy system for VLBI, including a 1.658 GHz (centre frequency), 16 MHz bandwidth RF system (feed and downconversion system locked to a Rubidium maser and GPS clock), an 8-bit sampler/digitisation system, and a disk-based recording system built around a commodity PC was developed in New Zealand Centre for Radiophysics and Space Research. This was designed as a portable system for use on various radio telescopes. A number of Trans-Tasman tests has been conducted in 2005-2006 between the CRSR system installed on a 6 metre dish located in Auckland and the Australia Telescope Compact Array in Narrabri, Australia. This work has been successful, with fringes located from the recorded data and high resolution image of the quasar PKS1921-231 obtained. Experiments were recently conducted with Japan; new tests are planned with Korea and Fiji. Plans have been made to build a new 16.5 m antenna in New Zealand's North Island and to upgrade an 11 m dish in the South Island. A possible future of New Zealand's participation in the SKA is being discussed.

  3. Topography of the Lunar South Polar Region: Implications for the Size and Location of Permanently Shaded Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.

    1997-01-01

    We analyze Clementine altimetry to constrain the size and location of proposed permanently shadowed regions in the vicinity of the lunar south pole. Long and short wavelength topography in the vicinity of the pole, in combination with measurements of depths of well-preserved craters and basins and the lunar topographic power spectrum, have direct bearing on the nature of elevations in the south polar region. A criterion based on geometric considerations and altimetry demonstrates that the existence of permanent shadowing is not very sensitive to the elevation of the south pole. In addition, permanent shadowing cannot be a consequence of large structures such as the South Pole-Aitken Basin and/or a 300-km degraded polar basin. Perennially dark regions, if they exist, are most likely associated with craters or other axisymmetric features with diameters of at most 80 km centered at the pole. For structures displaced 2 deg from the pole the maximum allowable diameter decreases to approximately 30 km.

  4. Paleosecular Variation and Time-Averaged Field Behavior: Global and Regional Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. L.; Cromwell, G.; Tauxe, L.; Constable, C.

    2012-12-01

    We use an updated global dataset of directional and intensity data from lava flows to investigate time-averaged field (TAF) and paleosecular variation (PSV) signatures regionally and globally. The data set includes observations from the past 10 Ma, but we focus our investigations on the field structure over past 5 Ma, in particular during the Brunhes and Matuyama. We restrict our analyses to sites with at least 5 samples (all of which have been stepwise demagnetized), and for which the estimate of the Fisher precision parameter, k, is at least 50. The data set comprises 1572 sites from the past 5 Ma that span latitudes 78oS to 71oN; of these ˜40% are from the Brunhes chron and ˜20% are from the Matuyama chron. Age control at the site level is variable because radiometric dates are available for only about one third of our sites. New TAF models for the Brunhes show longitudinal structure. In particular, high latitude flux lobes are observed, constrained by improved data sets from N. and S. America, Japan, and New Zealand. We use resampling techniques to examine possible biases in the TAF and PSV incurred by uneven temporal sampling, and the limited age information available for many sites. Results from Hawaii indicate that resampling of the paleodirectional data onto a uniform temporal distribution, incorporating site ages and age errors leads to a TAF estimate for the Brunhes that is close to that reported for the actual data set, but a PSV estimate (virtual geomagnetic pole dispersion) that is increased relative to that obtained from the unevenly sampled data. The global distribution of sites in our dataset allows us to investigate possible hemispheric asymmetries in field structure, in particular differences between north and south high latitude field behavior and low latitude differences between the Pacific and Atlantic hemispheres.

  5. Spectral analysis of pipe-to-soil potentials with variations of the Earth's magnetic field in the Australian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, R. A.; Waters, C. L.; Sciffer, M. D.

    2010-05-01

    Long, steel pipelines used to transport essential resources such as gas and oil are potentially vulnerable to space weather. In order to inhibit corrosion, the pipelines are usually coated in an insulating material and maintained at a negative electric potential with respect to Earth using cathodic protection units. During periods of enhanced geomagnetic activity, potential differences between the pipeline and surrounding soil (referred to as pipe-to-soil potentials (PSPs)) may exhibit large voltage swings which place the pipeline outside the recommended "safe range" and at an increased risk of corrosion. The PSP variations result from the "geoelectric" field at the Earth's surface and associated geomagnetic field variations. Previous research investigating the relationship between the surface geoelectric field and geomagnetic source fields has focused on the high-latitude regions where line currents in the ionosphere E region are often the assumed source of the geomagnetic field variations. For the Australian region Sq currents also contribute to the geomagnetic field variations and provide the major contribution during geomagnetic quiet times. This paper presents the results of a spectral analysis of PSP measurements from four pipeline networks from the Australian region with geomagnetic field variations from nearby magnetometers. The pipeline networks extend from Queensland in the north of Australia to Tasmania in the south and provide PSP variations during both active and quiet geomagnetic conditions. The spectral analyses show both consistent phase and amplitude relationships across all pipelines, even for large separations between magnetometer and PSP sites and for small-amplitude signals. Comparison between the observational relationships and model predictions suggests a method for deriving a geoelectric field proxy suitable for indicating PSP-related space weather conditions.

  6. [Regional differences of inputs of organic matter and chemical fertilizer in South Central China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan-yao; Wu, Jin-shui; Zhou, Jiao-gen; Xiao, He-ai; Zhou, Ping

    2015-09-01

    This article analyzed the inputs of organic matter and chemical fertilizer in the cropland of South Central China, i.e., Hunan, Hubei, Guangdong and Guangxi, and then calculated the budgets of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), based on the data from field investigations and peasant household surveys in the four provinces. The results showed that total amounts of organic matter inputs in the four provinces was ranked as follow: 8993 kg · hm(-2) in Guangxi, 6390 kg · hm(-2) in Hunan, 5012 kg · hm(-2) in Hubei, 4630 kg · hm(-2) in Guangdong, and average NPK inputs in the four provinces were ranked as follow: 777.5 kg · hm(-2) in Guangxi, 501.6 kg · hm(-2) in Hunan, 486.4 kg · hm(-2) in Hubei, 340.4 kg · hm(-2) in Guangdong. The N and P input surpluses were greatest in Guangxi (67.2% and 99.0% as for N and P, respectively) , followed by Hunan (33.2% and 50.8%), Hubei (11.8% and 11.0%), and Guangdong (7.8% and 30.0%). However, K input was deficient in Hunan, Hubei, and Guangdong (6.6%, 18.7% and 12.4%), but surplus in Guangxi (19.5%). PMID:26785554

  7. The associations between El Niño-Southern Oscillation and tropical South American climate in a regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGlone, Dana; Vuille, Mathias

    2012-03-01

    High-resolution regional climate models (RCMs), run over a limited domain, are increasingly used to simulate seasonal to interannual climate variability over South America and to assess the spatiotemporal impact of future climate change under a variety of emission scenarios. These models often give a better spatiotemporal representation of climate at a regional scale; however, they are subject to errors introduced by the driving global models. Here we analyze two different simulations with the Hadley Centre Regional Climate Modeling System Providing Regional Climate for Impact Studies (PRECIS) model over tropical South America. The two simulations cover the same 30 year period (1961-1990) but were forced with different lateral boundary conditions. The first simulation was forced with the Hadley Centre Atmospheric Model version 3 (baseline), and the second was forced with European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Re-analysis (ERA) data. Our results indicate that the ERA-forced simulation more accurately portrays seasonal temperature and precipitation, consistent with previous studies. Empirical orthogonal function and spatial regression analyses further indicate that the ERA-forced simulation more realistically simulates the El Niño-Southern Oscillation related fingerprint on interannual climate variability over South America during austral summer. The two gridded observational data sets used for model validation display large differences, which highlight significant uncertainties and errors in observational data sets over this region. In some instances the observational data quality is rivaled or even surpassed by the ERA-forced RCM results.

  8. North south asymmetry in the photospheric and coronal magnetic fields observed by different instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, Ilpo; Mursula, Kalevi

    2015-04-01

    Several recent studies have shown that the solar and heliospheric magnetic fields are north-south asymmetric. The southward shift of the Heliospheric current sheet (HCS) (the so-called bashful ballerina phenomenon) is a persistent pattern, which occurs typically for about three years during the late declining phase of solar cycle. We study here the hemispherical asymmetry in the photospheric and coronal magnetic fields using Wilcox Solar Observatory (WSO), Mount Wilson, Kitt Peak, Solis, SOHO/MDI and SDO/HMI measurements of the photospheric magnetic field since the 1970s and the potential field source surface (PFSS) model.Multipole analysis of the photospheric magnetic field has shown that the bashful ballerina phenomenon is a consequence of g20 quadrupole term, which is oppositely signed to the dipole moment. We find that, at least during the four recent solar cycles, the g20 reflects the larger magnitude of the southern polar field during a few years in the declining phase of the cycle. Although the overall magnetic activity during the full solar cycle is not very different in the two hemispheres, the temporal distribution of activity is different, contributing to the asymmetry. The used data sets are in general in a good agreement with each other, but there are some significant deviations, especially in WSO data. Also, the data from Kitt Peak 512 channel magnetograph is known to suffer from zero level errors.We also note that the lowest harmonic coefficients do not scale with the overall magnitude in photospheric synoptic magnetic maps. Scaling factors based on histogram techniques can be as large as 10 (from Wilcox to HMI), but the corresponding difference in dipole strength is typically less than two. This is because the polar field has a dominant contribution to the dipole and quadrupole components. This should be noted, e.g., when using synoptic maps as input for coronal models.

  9. Secondary natural gas recovery in mature fluvial sandstone reservoirs, Frio Formation, Agua Dulce Field, South Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose, W.A.; Levey, R.A. ); Vidal, J.M. ); Sippel, M.A. ); Ballard, J.R. ); Coover, D.M. Jr. ); Bloxsom, W.E. )

    1993-09-01

    An approach that integrates detailed geologic, engineering, and petrophysical analyses combined with improved well-log analytical techniques can be used by independent oil and gas companies of successful infield exploration in mature Gulf Coast fields that larger companies may consider uneconomic. In a secondary gas recovery project conducted by the Bureau of Economic Geology and funded by the Gas Research Institute and the U.S. Department of Energy, a potential incremental natural gas resource of 7.7 bcf, of which 4.0 bcf may be technically recoverable, was identified in a 490-ac lease in Agua Dulce field. Five wells in this lease had previously produced 13.7 bcf from Frio reservoirs at depths of 4600-6200 ft. The pay zones occur in heterogeneous fluvial sandstones offset by faults associated with the Vicksburg fault zone. The compartments may each contain up to 1.0 bcf of gas resources with estimates based on previous completions and the recent infield drilling experience of Pintas Creek Oil Company. Uncontacted gas resources occur in thin (typically less than 10 ft) bypassed zones that can be identified through a computed log evaluation that integrates open-hole logs, wireline pressure tests, fluid samples, and cores. At Agua Dulce field, such analysis identified at 4-ft bypassed zone uphole from previously produced reservoirs. This reservoir contained original reservoir pressure and flowed at rates exceeding 1 mmcf/d. The expected ultimate recovery is 0.4 bcf. Methodologies developed in the evaluation of Agua Dulce field can be successfully applied to other mature gas fields in the south Texas Gulf Coast. For example, Stratton and McFaddin are two fields in which the secondary gas recovery project has demonstrated the existence of thin, potentially bypassed zones that can yield significant incremental gas resources, extending the economic life of these fields.

  10. Regional Ecorisk Field investigation, upper Clark Fork River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Pastorok, R.; LaTier, A.; Ginn, T.

    1995-12-31

    The Regional Ecorisk Field Investigation was conducted at the Clark Fork River Superfund Site (Montana) to evaluate the relationships between plant communities and tailings deposits in riparian habitats and to evaluate food-chain transfer of trace elements to selected wildlife species. Stations were selected to represent a range of vegetation biomass (or cover) values and apparent impact of trace elements, with some areas of lush vegetation, some areas of mostly unvegetated soil (e.g., < 30 percent plant cover), and a gradient in between. For the evaluation of risk to wildlife, bioaccumulation of metals was evaluated in native or naturalized plants, terrestrial invertebrates, and the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus). Potential reproductive effects in the deer mouse were evaluated by direct measurements. For other wildlife species, bioaccumulation data were interpreted in the context of food web exposure models. Total biomass and species richness of riparian plant communities are related to tailings content of soil as indicated by pH and metals concentrations. Risk to populations of omnivorous small mammals such as the deer mouse was not significant. Relative abundance and reproductive condition of the deer mouse were normal, even in areas of high metals enrichment. Based on exposure models and site-specific tissue residue data for dietary species, risk to local populations of predators such as red fox and American kestrel that feed on deer mice and terrestrial invertebrates is not significant. Risk to herbivores related to metals bioaccumulation in plant tissues is not significant. Population level effects in deer and other large wildlife are not expected because of the large home ranges of such species and compensatory demographic factors.

  11. Well kill (quenching) study of thermal producers in the South Belridge field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Fram, J.W.

    1994-08-01

    This paper presents a field study confirming that damage occurs during kill (quenching) operations of thermal producers in the South Belridge field, Kern County, CA. Implementation of the recommendations from this study are expected to decrease damage that occurs during quenching by an average of 0.5 BOPD/kill. Results indicate that producers completed with openhole, gravel-packed, slotted liners in high-permeability sandstones can sustain substantial, irreversible damage when subjected to unfiltered produced-water kills. The damage results when previously produced sand and fines, which have settled in the flowline, are reinjected into the wellbore. Most of the damage is in the slots and gravel pack. Previous studies, field tests, and laboratory work quantifying the amount and site of the damage are detailed. Methods of determining water-quality specifications needed to minimize damage that occurs during well kills are outlined. The approach presented can be used to identify and quantify damage in any field where producers require kills before workover operations. The current recommended kill procedure is also included.

  12. Preliminary notes about Heritage Stone Resources from Apulia region South Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeone, Vincenzo; Doglioni, Angelo

    2013-04-01

    Apulia region in south Italy is characterized by a calcareous basement of cretaceous limestone outcropping in the large Murgia highland in central Apulia and by the presence of Miocenic and Pleistocenic calcareous sandstone that historically the have been used for many buildings and architectural purpose and can be considered as part of heritage stone resources that still today are used for several building purpose. Here is presented a preliminary overview of the main kind of stone that can be properly included in the global stone resources. The main limestone stones are the Bari cretaceous limestone that have been used to build up many Apulia Romanic cathedrals as Trani Cathedral, and also many mediaeval castle as the famous Castel del Monte built by Fredric II. The most famous variety is Trani stone dug in large open quarry in the area at north of Bari. A second important stone resource is the Lecce sandstone. It is a quite homogeneous and compact Miocenic sandstone, made up by fragments of limestone and fossil carbonate with calcites cement and the presence of other substances included dispersion of clay minerals. It has a light-colored or pale yellow with tiny pink veins. It is dug in large quarries throughout the Salento peninsula in southern Apulia. It is a rock relatively soft and easily workable also due to the presence of small quantities of clay. Improves its characteristics of resistance as a result of drying. Even if it was largely used for architecture and decorative purpose it is easily degradable for effect of weathering effects. It was the base of famous monuments and decoration of Lecce Baroque in the XVIII century, including the palace of Celestine and the adjacent Santa Croce Church, the Church of Santa Chiara and the Cathedral. A third relevant heritage stone is the Gravina calcareous sandstone (Upper Pleistocene) largely outcropping along the border of Murge calcareous horst. It has been used for several historical ancient building (XVII

  13. The petrology and petrogenesis of the Swaldale region, Motzfeldt Center, South Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reekie, Callum; Finch, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    Motzfeldt is one of several high-level alkaline plutonic centers that collectively define the mid-Proterozoic Gardar Province of South Greenland. Despite pyrochlore-hosted Ta-enrichment (± Nb-Zr-REE), the petrology, geochemistry and petrogenesis across the center remain to be fully constrained. We present petrological and geochemical data for the Swaldale region, an arcuate band of nepheline syenite and associated intrusives on Motzfeldt's NW margin. Work for this present study was undertaken in collaboration with the license holder, Regency Mines plc. Swaldale comprises two geochemically distinct magmatic members. The largest, the Motzfeldt Sø Formation (MSF; EuN/Eu*N = 0.35), is a suite of diverse syenite variants that show significant petrological and geochemical heterogeneity. These rocks have a relatively restricted SiO2 range (57.4-62.9 wt.%) with concurrent variation in (Na+K)/Al (0.75-0.95), Mg/(Mg+Fe) (2.18-19.82) and ΣREE (595.0-3095.9 ppm), emphasizing their evolved but not peralkaline nature. Fractionation is mirrored by pyroxene geochemistry with evolution from aegirine-augite, aegirine-hedenbergite, to aegirine. Accessory pyrochlore, titanite, and zircon are rare; however, anomalous facies of zircon-rich (~2 wt.%) syenite are observed. Intercumulus fluorite is a common accessory within MSF rocks. Hydrothermal alteration, marked by hematized alkali-feldspar, is pervasive and ubiquitous. Further peraluminous syenite of the Geologfjeld Formation ((Na+K)/Al = 0.74; EuN/Eu*N = 1.60) marks the truncated remnant of an early syenite stock to the north of the MSF. These rocks contain salite, which, in addition to a lower ΣREE and higher Mg/(Mg+Fe) (18.01), demonstrates the less-fractionated nature of this stock in comparison with the MSF. Sheeted intrusions of peralkaline syenite ((Na+K)/Al = 1.1; Ta = 32.4 ppm) truncate the MSF across central Swaldale. On a mineralogical basis, it is hypothesized that such intrusions reflect outward sheeting of the

  14. The State of the South: A Report to the Region and Its Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MDC, Inc., Chapel Hill, NC.

    This report analyzes 30-year trends in population, jobs, income, poverty, and education in the South, including comparisons to national trends and projections for the year 2010. The report aims to document the South's success in overcoming poverty and discrimination, draw attention to barriers that block further economic progress, and make…

  15. Perspectives on nutrition needs for the new millennium for South Asian regions.

    PubMed

    Krishnaswamy, K

    2001-06-01

    South Asia is the most populated region of the world with several nutritional challenges. Though per capita food energy supply, child survival and life expectancy have improved, and even today large segments of the population are below the poverty line with high infant and maternal mortality rates. It is important to recognize the crucial role of nutrition throughout the life cycle-from conception to old age. It is very necessary now to move from food security to nutrition security and improve the quality of foods both in macro- and micronutrients in order to break the transgenerational effects of malnutrition. The key solutions to the problems should address the issue of social development, population stabilization, environmental degradation and inadequate health and nutritional services. Strategies for empowering women and actuating community participation as sustainable programmes for human development, measures to reduce underweight and stunting in children and prevention of micronutrient malnutrition across the population are required. Enhancing food and nutrition security through innovative diversified agriculture and dietary practices, prevention and control of infection, promotion of food safety and fortification of staples with appropriate attention on emerging chronic disorders are essential. Population control measures to stabilize the fertility rates, biotechnological approaches for genetically modified foods, nutrition surveillance based on assessment, analysis and action to address the logistic, technical and compliance issues with emphasis on promotion of breast feeding and complementary foods with adequate attention on the reproductive needs of adolescent girls, pregnant mothers and lactating women would eliminate low birth weight, stunting, and chronic energy deficiency in vulnerable groups. Focused studies on bioavailability of micronutrients and its enhancement, innovative horticulture interventions, fortifications, social marketing strategies

  16. Black carbon and trace gases over South Asia: Measurements and Regional Climate model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuyan, Pradip; Pathak, Binita; Parottil, Ajay

    2016-07-01

    Trace gases and aerosols are simulated with 50 km spatial resolution over South Asian CORDEX domain enclosing the Indian sub-continent and North-East India for the year 2012 using two regional climate models RegCM4 coupled with CLM4.5 and WRF-Chem 3.5. Both models are found to capture the seasonality in the simulated O3 and its precursors, NOx and CO and black carbon concentrations together with the meteorological variables over the Indian Subcontinent as well as over the sub-Himalayan North-Eastern region of India including Bangladesh. The model simulations are compared with the measurements made at Dibrugarh (27.3°N, 94.6°E, 111 m amsl). Both the models are found to capture the observed diurnal and seasonal variations in O3 concentrations with maximum in spring and minimum in monsoon, the correlation being better for WRF-Chem (R~0.77) than RegCM (R~0.54). Simulated NOx and CO is underestimated in all the seasons by both the models, the performance being better in the case of WRF-Chem. The observed difference may be contributed by the bias in the estimation of the O3 precursors NOx and CO in the emission inventories or the error in the simulation of the meteorological variables which influences O3 concentration in both the models. For example, in the pre-monsoon and winter season, the WRF-Chem model simulated shortwave flux overestimates the observation by ~500 Wm-2 while in the monsoon and post monsoon season, simulated shortwave flux is equivalent to the observation. The model predicts higher wind speed in all the seasons especially during night-time. In the post-monsoon and winter season, the simulated wind pattern is reverse to observation with daytime low and night-time high values. Rainfall is overestimated in all the seasons. RegCM-CLM4.5 is found to underestimate rainfall and other meteorological parameters. The WRF-Chem model closely captured the observed values of black carbon mass concentrations during pre-monsoon and summer monsoon seasons, but

  17. Involvement of health professionals in tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, S; Sinha, D N

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco use is widely entrenched in the South-East Asia (SEA) Region leading to high morbidity and mortality in this region. Several studies revealed that tobacco use is widespread among youth and school children. Exposure to second-hand smoke was reported as around 50% or more in three countries - Myanmar (59.5%), Bangladesh (51.3%), and Indonesia (49.6%). Health profession students encompassing medical, dental, nursing and pharmacy disciplines, and even qualified health professionals are no exception from tobacco use. While they are regarded as role models in tobacco cessation programs, their tobacco addiction will carry a negative impact in this endeavour. A mere inquiry about the smoking status of patients and a brief advice by doctors or dentists increases quit rates and prompts those who have not thought about quitting to consider doing so. Evidence from some randomized trials suggests that advice from motivated physicians to their smoking patients could be effective in facilitating cessation of smoking. However, the low detection rate of smokers by many physicians and the small proportion of smokers who routinely receive advice from their physicians to quit have been identified as a matter of concern. This paper describes the role and issues of involvement of health professionals in tobacco control. Data from a variety of sources is used to assess the status. Although there are some differences, tobacco use is widespread among the students and health professional students. Exposure to second hand smoke is also a matter of concern. Tobacco-related problems and tobacco control cut across a vast range of health disciplines. Building alliances among the health professional associations in a vertical way will help synergize efforts, and obtain better outcomes from use of existing resources. Health professional associations in some countries in the SEA region have already taken the initiative to form coalitions at the national level to advance the tobacco control

  18. Overview of ASIAEX field experiments in the South and East China Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, James F.; Dahl, Peter H.

    2002-11-01

    In the spring of 2001 the Asian Seas International Acoustics Experiment (ASIAEX) was performed in the South and East China Seas. The ASIAEX program originated from the Office of Naval Research's initiative to develop a Sino-American cooperation in the field of ocean acoustics, and expanded to involve Taiwan, Korea, Singapore, and Japan. In the South China Sea, the emphasis was on lower frequency (50-600 Hz) acoustic propagation through complex oceanography along and across the shelfbreak. The oceanographic variability was driven at the mesoscale by the monsoonal wind stress, buoyancy fluxes from the Chinese coast, and by occasional Kuroshio intrusions through the Luzon Strait. Large, nonlinear internal waves also significantly affected the acoustics. In the East China Sea the emphasis was on low- to- midfrequency acoustic interaction with, and reverberation from, the sea floor and sea surface. The experimental site was chosen for flatness, to minimize the influence of bathymetric trends, and emphasize bottom roughness and subbottom structures, in the measurements. This talk will describe the scope of the ASIAEX experimental program, including the ocean acoustic and environmental characterization of the seafloor, sea surface, and water column. Results from various measurement programs will be described in separate papers.

  19. Miller field, a subtle upper Jurassic submarine fan trap in the South Viking Graben, United Kingdom sector, North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    McClure, N.M.; Brown, A.A. )

    1990-09-01

    The Miller field is situated at a depth of 4 km in the South Viking Graben, some 270 km northeast of Aberdeen, Scotland. The field was discovered in 1983 in previously relinquished UK Licence Blocks 16/7b and 16/8b. The discovery can be attributed to a detailed understanding of the regional sedimentological and seismic velocity models that predicted the presence of submarine fan sediments within a structural nose some 10 km away from the graben margin sediment source. The field reservoir comprises up to 100 m of oil-bearing Upper Jurassic, Brae Formation turbidites. Cores, electric logs, and well test analyses show the turbidites have excellent reservoir qualities. Porosity ranges from 12 to 23%, and net:gross ratios are typically greater than 0.75. The reservoir is highly productive with permeability typically in the range of 50 to 1200 md. The reservoir fluid is an undersaturated, CO{sub 2}-rich, sour, 37.5{degree} API oil sourced from the Kimmeridge Clay Formation, which overlies and interfingers the reservoir. The oil is trapped by a subtle combination of structural and stratigraphic mechanisms., The field will be developed using 30 wells drilled from a single platform. A total of ten wells (five producers and five injectors) will be pre-drilled through a template prior to platform installation. The first of these was spudded in March 1989 in preparation for first oil production planned for early 1992. Ultimate recovery is estimated to be around 300 MM STB and 0.57 tcf of associated gas.

  20. First web-based database on total phenolics and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of fruits produced and consumed within the south Andes region of South America.

    PubMed

    Speisky, Hernan; López-Alarcón, Camilo; Gómez, Maritza; Fuentes, Jocelyn; Sandoval-Acuña, Cristian

    2012-09-12

    This paper reports the first database on antioxidants contained in fruits produced and consumed within the south Andes region of South America. The database ( www.portalantioxidantes.com ) contains over 500 total phenolics (TP) and ORAC values for more than 120 species/varieties of fruits. All analyses were conducted by a single ISO/IEC 17025-certified laboratory. The characterization comprised native berries such as maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis ), murtilla ( Ugni molinae ), and calafate ( Barberis microphylla ), which largely outscored all other studied fruits. Major differences in TP and ORAC were observed as a function of the fruit variety in berries, avocado, cherries, and apples. In fruits such as pears, apples, apricots, and peaches, a significant part of the TP and ORAC was accounted for by the antioxidants present in the peel. These data should be useful to estimate the fruit-based intake of TP and, through the ORAC data, their antioxidant-related contribution to the diet of south Andes populations. PMID:22512599

  1. Spatial distribution of precipitation annual cycles over South Africa in 10 CORDEX regional climate model present-day simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favre, Alice; Philippon, Nathalie; Pohl, Benjamin; Kalognomou, Evangelia-Anna; Lennard, Christopher; Hewitson, Bruce; Nikulin, Grigori; Dosio, Alessandro; Panitz, Hans-Juergen; Cerezo-Mota, Ruth

    2016-03-01

    This study presents an evaluation of the ability of 10 regional climate models (RCMs) participating in the COordinated Regional climate Downscaling Experiment-Africa to reproduce the present-day spatial distribution of annual cycles of precipitation over the South African region and its borders. As found in previous studies, annual mean precipitation is quasi-systematically overestimated by the RCMs over a large part of southern Africa south of about 20°S and more strongly over South Africa. The spatial analysis of precipitation over the studied region shows that in most models the distribution of biases appears to be linked to orography. Wet biases are quasi-systematic in regions with higher elevation with inversely neutral to dry biases particularly in the coastal fringes. This spatial pattern of biases is particularly obvious during summer and specifically at the beginning of the rainy season (November and December) when the wet biases are found to be the strongest across all models. Applying a k-means algorithm, a classification of annual cycles is performed using observed precipitation data, and is compared with those derived from modeled data. It is found that the in-homogeneity of the spatial and temporal distribution of biases tends to impact the modeled seasonality of precipitation. Generally, the pattern of rainfall seasonality in the ensemble mean of the 10 RCMs tends to be shifted to the southwest. This spatial shift is mainly linked to a strong overestimation of convective precipitation at the beginning of the rainy season over the plateau inducing an early annual peak and to an underestimation of stratiform rainfall in winter and spring over southwestern South Africa.

  2. High field FT-ICR mass spectrometry for molecular characterization of snow board from Moscow regions.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Dmitry M; Harir, Mourad; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Polyakova, Olga V; Lebedev, Albert T

    2016-07-01

    High field Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry analysis of eight snow samples from Moscow city allowed us to identify more than 2000 various elemental compositions corresponding to regional air pollutants. The hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of the data showed good concordance of three main groups of samples with the main wind directions. The North-West group (A1) is represented by several homologous CHOS series of aliphatic organic aerosols. They may form as a result of enhanced photochemical reactions including oxidation of hydrocarbons with sulfonations due to higher amount of SO2 emissions in the atmosphere in this region. Group A2, corresponding to the South-East part of Moscow, contains large amount of oxidized hydrocarbons of different sources that may form during oxidation in atmosphere. These hydrocarbons appear correlated to emissions from traffic, neighboring oil refinery, and power plants. Another family of compounds specific for this region involves CHNO substances formed during oxidation processes including NOx and NO3 radical since emissions of NOx are higher in this part of the city. Group A3 is rich in CHO type of compounds with high H/C and low O/C ratios, which is characteristic of oxidized hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol. CHNO types of compounds in A3 group are probably nitro derivatives of condensed hydrocarbons such as PAH. This non-targeted profiling revealed site specific distribution of pollutants and gives a chance to develop new strategies in air quality control and further studies of Moscow environment. PMID:26994789

  3. Star Formation in Distant Red Galaxies: Spitzer Observations in the Hubble Deep Field-South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Tracy M. A.; van Dokkum, Pieter; Egami, Eiichi; Fazio, Giovanni; Franx, Marijn; Gawiser, Eric; Herrera, David; Huang, Jiasheng; Labbé, Ivo; Lira, Paulina; Marchesini, Danilo; Maza, José; Quadri, Ryan; Rudnick, Gregory; van der Werf, Paul

    2006-01-01

    We present Spitzer 24 μm imaging of 1.5Field-South of the Multiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile. We detect 65% of the DRGs with KAB<23.2 mag at S24μm>~40 μJy and conclude that the bulk of the DRG population is dusty active galaxies. A mid-infrared (MIR) color analysis with IRAC data suggests that the MIR fluxes are not dominated by buried AGNs, and we interpret the high detection rate as evidence for a high average star formation rate of =130+/-30 Msolar yr-1. From this, we infer that DRGs are important contributors to the cosmic star formation rate density at z~2, at a level of ~0.02 Msolar yr-1 Mpc-3 to our completeness limit of KAB=22.9 mag.

  4. The South: Birmingham Case Study, and The South as a Region. Grade Five (Unit IV). Resource Unit. Project Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    A case study on Birmingham is presented in the first part of this resource unit on regional studies designed for fifth graders. The objective of the sequent occupance unit is to illustrate the impact which the discovery and utilization of a large natural resource, namely, iron ore, can have on the development of a city, in the hope that students…

  5. Intraseasonal Variability of the South Asian Summer Monsoon: Present-day Simulations with the Regional Atmospheric Model HIRHAM5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanf, F. S.; Rinke, A.; Dethloff, K.

    2014-12-01

    Since 1950, observations show a robust negative trend of the seasonal rainfall associated with the South Asian summer monsoon over India coinciding with a continuous decrease in surface solar radiation ("dimming") over South Asia due to an increase of local aerosol emissions. On the intraseasonal timescale the summer monsoon fluctuates between periods of enhanced and reduced rainfall. The frequency of occurrence of these active and breaks monsoon phases affects directly the seasonal monsoon rainfall. This study investigates the regional pattern and changes of the South Asian monsoon for the period 1979-2012 using the regional atmospheric model HIRHAM5 with a horizontal resolution of 0.25° forced at the lateral and lower boundaries with ERA-Interim reanalysis data. Despite the dry bias in the mean summer monsoon rainfall over the Indian landmass, the simulated temperature and atmospheric circulation patterns are in agreement with the ERA-Interim reanalysis indicating a realistic representation of important dynamical summer monsoon features. In addition, mechanisms which controls active and break phases within the summer monsoon season are analyzed using daily outgoing longwave radiation model data as an identification tool of monsoon breaks as proposed by Krishnan et al. (2000). Model results reveal an increasing trend of the cumulative monsoon break days of around 1.4 days per year during the last 30 years. The possible link between this increasing of cumulative monsoon break days and the observed decrease of seasonal South Asian monsoon rainfall will be the scope of further investigations.

  6. The Last Glacial Maximum and Termination in the Torres del Paine Region, Southern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, J.; Hall, B. L.; Kaplan, M. R.; Vega, R. M.; Binnie, S.; Gómez, G.; Santana, F.

    2012-12-01

    Deciphering the timing, structure and termination of the local last glacial maximum (LGM) throughout Patagonia (42-55 S) remains one of the key unsolved paleoclimate questions in Quaternary sciences. During the last glaciation, the Patagonian ice sheet formed one ice body along the Patagonian Andes (42-55 S) in southern South America, but previous work has revealed different spatiotemporal ice dynamics along the eastern and western ice margins. The Patagonian Andes is the only landmass that exists at this latitude confronting the southern westerly wind belt, which seems to have played a key role in past glacial and climate changes. Therefore, reconstructing southern Andes glacier history constitutes a key element for understanding the causes of glaciations in the Southern Hemisphere. Major progress has been made to document the local Late-Pleistocene glacier history, particularly in response to recent application of exposure-cosmogenic dating technique in the region, although only sparse well-dated paleoclimate records exist in this vast area. LGM moraine-based records in south Patagonia (~48-55 S) have been developed for the Strait of Magellan area, where full glacial conditions seems to have occurred between ~28.0 - 17.5 ka. Despite that these data seem to confirm previous glacial chronologies developed in north Patagonia and the Chilean Lake District (40-42 S), recent works in Torres del Paine and Última Esperanza basins (50-51 S), suggest that glacial maximum conditions may have occurred earlier (i.e., during Marine Isotope Stage 3) and that ice extent could have been twice the size of previously thought. Here, we discuss paleoclimatological implications from our 10Be and 26Al-dating program of moraines in the Torres del Paine region in southern Patagonia. We focused our efforts in the previously undated Río de las Viscachas (RV) I and II moraines, which occur distal to the late-glacial TDP II, III and IV moraines that enclose present lake bodies at the

  7. Historical trends and ozone forecasting for urban regions of South Texas using statistical and heuristic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Ronald K.

    A comprehensive overview of the historical trends of ozone air quality in major urban centers of South Texas is provided in this study. The historical data was then utilized to develop a forecasting model using statistical and heuristic techniques. A variety of robust nonparametric statistical methods was used to analyze raw trends incorporating both the one-hour and eight-hour standards. The results showed that generally there was a decreasing trend in ozone concentrations in the study sites for both the one and eight hour standards. However, in some cases there was a trend reversal which showed increases when the more stringent eight-hour standard was applied. Trends are also derived by the use of the Kolmogorov-Zurbenko filter, a low-pass moving average technique for removing background noise and making meteorological adjustments that discern anthropogenic emissions to air quality. The Kolmogorov-Zurbenko filter is usually coupled with the statistical linear regression technique to adjust for emissions to air quality. This research revealed about 10% of ozone variation over the study period using this technique. A third trend analysis highlighted in the study combined the Kolmogorov-Zurbenko technique, but incorporating artificial neural networks technique in lieu of the statistical linear regression technique produced results showing decreasing trends at four sites in the study which explained 10.38% to 28.76% variability. This study presents a holistic synopsis of usage of current-state-of-science heuristic models in order to forecast daily maximum one-hour and eight-hour ozone concentrations in the semi-arid South Texas region. The two models used in this study are the Statistical Analysis Linear Regression (LR) model, and the Artificial Neural Networks multilayer perceptron (MLP) type model which have been developed and applied at four ozone observational sites: CAMS04 and CAMS21 in the Corpus Christi area, CAMS23 in San Antonio, and CAMS80 in Victoria

  8. Regional modeling of wind erosion in the North West and South West of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirmousavi, S. H.

    2016-08-01

    About two-thirds of the Iran's area is located in the arid and semiarid region. Lack of soil moisture and vegetation is poor in most areas can lead to soil erosion caused by wind. So that the annual suffered severe damage to large areas of rich soils. Modeling studies of wind erosion in Iran is very low and incomplete. Therefore, this study aimed to wind erosion modeling, taking into three factors: wind speed, vegetation and soil types have been done. Wind erosion sensitivity was modeled using the key factors of soil sensitivity, vegetation cover and wind erodibility as proxies. These factors were first estimated separately by factor sensitivity maps and later combined by fuzzy logic into a regional-scale wind erosion sensitivity map. Large areas were evaluated by using publicly available datasets of remotely sensed vegetation information, soil maps and meteorological data on wind speed. The resulting estimates were verified by field studies and examining the economic losses from wind erosion as compensated by the state insurance company. The spatial resolution of the resulting sensitivity map is suitable for regional applications, as identifying sensitive areas is the foundation for diverse land development control measures and implementing management activities.

  9. Turtle Bayou 1936-1983: case history of a major gas field in south Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Cronquist, C.

    1984-11-01

    Turtle Bayou field, located in the middle Miocene trend in south Louisiana, is nearing the end of a productive life spanning more than 30 years. Discovered by Shell Oil Co. in 1949 after unsuccessful attempts by two other companies, the field is a typical, low-relief, moderately faulted U.S. Gulf Coast structure, probably associated with deep salt movement. The productive interval includes 22 separate gas-bearing sands in a regressive sequence of sands and shales from approximately 6,500 to 12,000 ft (1980 to 3660 m). Now estimated to have contained about 1.2 trillion scf (34 X 10/sup 9/ std m/sup 3/) of gas in place, cumulative production through 1982 was 702 billion scf (20 X 10/sup 9/ std m/sup 3/). Cumulative condensate/gas ration (CGR) has been 20 bbl/MMcf (110 X 10/sup -6/ m/sup 3//m/sup 3/. Recovery mechanisms in individual reservoirs include strong bottomwater drive, partial edgewater drive, and pressure depletion. Recovery efficiencies in major reservoirs range form 40 to 83% of original gas in place (OGIP). On decline since 1973, it is anticipated the field will be essentially depleted in the next 5 years.

  10. Turtle Bayou--1936 to 1983--case history of a major gas field in South Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Cronquist, C.

    1983-10-01

    Turtle Bayou Field, located in the middle Miocene trend in South Louisiana, is nearing the end of a productive life which spans over 30 years. Discovered by Shell Oil Company in 1949 after unsuccessful attempts by two other majors, the field is a typical, low relief, moderately faulted Gulf Coast structure, probably associated with deep salt movement. The productive interval includes 22 separate gas-bearing sands in a regressive sequence of sands and shales from approximately 6500 to 12,000 feet. Now estimated to have contained about 1.2 trillion standard cubic feet of gas in place, cumulative production through 1982 was 702 billion standard cubic feet. Cumulative condensate-gas ratio has been 20 barrels per million. Recovery mechanisms in individual reservoirs include strong bottom water drive, partial edgewater drive, and pressure depletion. Recovery efficiencies in major reservoirs range from 40 to 75 percent of original gas in place. On decline since 1973, it is anticipated the field will be essentially depleted in the next five years.

  11. The Spitzer-IRAC/MIPS Extragalactic Survey (SIMES) in the South Ecliptic Pole Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baronchelli, I.; Scarlata, C.; Rodighiero, G.; Franceschini, A.; Capak, P. L.; Mei, S.; Vaccari, M.; Marchetti, L.; Hibon, P.; Sedgwick, C.; Pearson, C.; Serjeant, S.; Menéndez-Delmestre, K.; Salvato, M.; Malkan, M.; Teplitz, H. I.; Hayes, M.; Colbert, J.; Papovich, C.; Devlin, M.; Kovacs, A.; Scott, K. S.; Surace, J.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Atek, H.; Urrutia, T.; Scoville, N. Z.; Takeuchi, T. T.

    2016-03-01

    We present the Spitzer-IRAC/MIPS Extragalactic survey (SIMES) in the South Ecliptic Pole field. The large area covered (7.7 deg2), together with one of the lowest Galactic cirrus emissions in the entire sky and a very extensive coverage by Spitzer, Herschel, Akari, and GALEX, make the SIMES field ideal for extragalactic studies. The elongated geometry of the SIMES area (≈4:1), allowing for significant cosmic variance reduction, further improves the quality of statistical studies in this field. Here we present the reduction and photometric measurements of the Spitzer/IRAC data. The survey reaches depths of 1.93 and 1.75 μJy (1σ) at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, respectively. We discuss the multiwavelength IRAC-based catalog, completed with optical, mid-, and far-IR observations. We detect 341,000 sources with {F}3.6μ {{m}}≥slant 3σ . Of these, 10% have an associated 24 μm counterpart, while 2.7% have an associated SPIRE source. We release the catalog through the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive. Two scientific applications of these IRAC data are presented in this paper. First, we compute integral number counts at 3.6 μm. Second, we use the [3.6]-[4.5] color index to identify galaxy clusters at z > 1.3. We select 27 clusters in the full area, a result consistent with previous studies at similar depth.

  12. STAR FORMATION IN THE CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH: OBSERVATIONS CONFRONT SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Damen, Maaike; Franx, Marijn; Foerster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Labbe, Ivo; Toft, Sune; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Wuyts, Stijn

    2009-11-01

    We investigate the star formation history of the universe using FIREWORKS, a multiwavelength survey of the Chandra Deep Field South. We study the evolution of the specific star formation rate (sSFR) with redshift in different mass bins from z = 0 to z approx 3. We find that the sSFR increases with redshift for all masses. The logarithmic increase of the sSFR with redshift is nearly independent of mass, but this cannot yet be verified at the lowest-mass bins at z>0.8, due to incompleteness. We convert the sSFRs to a dimensionless growth rate to facilitate a comparison with a semianalytic galaxy formation model that was implemented on the Millennium Simulation. The model predicts that the growth rates and sSFRs increase similarly with redshift for all masses, consistent with the observations. However, we find that for all masses, the inferred observed growth rates increase more rapidly with redshift than the model predictions. We discuss several possible causes for this discrepancy, ranging from field-to-field variance, conversions to SFR, and shape of the initial mass function. We find that none of these can solve the discrepancy completely. We conclude that the models need to be adapted to produce the steep increase in growth rate between redshift z = 0 and z = 1.

  13. Regional assemblages of Lygus (Heteroptera: Miridae) in Montana canola fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweep net sampling of canola (Brassica napus L.) was conducted in 2002 and 2003 to determine Lygus (Heteroptera: Miridae) species composition and parasitism levels in four regions of Montana. Regardless of region or seasonal change, Lygus elisus (Van Duzee) was the dominant species in all canola fi...

  14. Holocene records of geomagnetic field behavior from a north-south transect along the western Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachfeld, S. A.; Shah, D. P.; St-Onge, M.; St-Onge, G.

    2013-12-01

    (-77°) values for each site, with a temporal wavelength of approximately 1000 years. The Holocene intensity of the geomagnetic field in this region was highest during the last 3000 years, broadly similar to patterns observed in the Northern Hemisphere. The records will be stacked in order to generate a regional reference curve for the Antarctic Peninsula. Moreover, these sites have the potential to fill a spatial gap in the distribution of paleomagnetic records that are used in geomagnetic field models.

  15. EDs in the Midwest and South activate disaster plans as deadly tornadoes sweep through the region.

    PubMed

    2012-05-01

    Hospitals in the Midwest and South activated their disaster plans in early March to deal with a phalanx of powerful tornadoes that leveled several small towns and killed at least two dozen people. Some hospitals had to activate plans for both internal and external disasters as their own facilities were threatened. One small critical-access hospital in West Liberty, KY, sustained significant damage and had to evacuate its patients to another facility. All the hospitals credit their disaster plans and practice drills with helping them to manage the crisis as efficiently as possible. Morgan County ARH Hospital in West Liberty, KY, went for several days without an operational lab or radiology department, but staff kept the ED open for absolute emergencies. Margaret Mary Community Hospital (MMCH) in Batesville, IN, received six tornado victims, but it was prepared for many more. Administrators credit advanced warning of the storms with helping them to prepare effectively, as well as to coordinate their response with other hospitals in the area. As a level 1 trauma center, the University of Louisville Hospital in Louisville, KY, received all the most seriously injured patients in the region, even while the facility itself was under a tornado warning. Staff had to route families away from the glassed-in waiting room to the basement until the tornado warning had passed. At one point during the crisis, there were 90 patients in the hospital's ED even though the department is only equipped with 29 beds. Administrators at Huntsville Hospital in Huntsville, AL, encouraged colleagues to take advantage of smaller-scale emergencies to activate parts of their disaster plans, and to focus disaster preparation drills on their hospital's top hazard vulnerabilities. PMID:22545338

  16. Mesoscale eddies in the South Atlantic Bight and the Gulf Stream Recirculation region: Vertical structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelao, Renato M.

    2014-03-01

    Sea level anomalies from altimeters are combined with decade-long potential temperature and salinity profiles from Argo floats to investigate the vertical structure of mesoscale eddies in the South Atlantic Bight (SAB) and the Gulf Stream Recirculation region. Eddy detection and eddy tracking algorithms are applied to the satellite observations, and hydrography profiles from floats that surfaced inside eddies are used to construct three-dimensional composites of cyclones and anticyclones. Eddies are characterized by large temperature and salinity anomalies at 500-1000 m depth and near the surface, and by small anomalies at 200-400 m below the surface at the depth of the North Atlantic Subtropical Mode Water. Anomalies associated with anticyclones are generally larger and found deeper in the water column compared to those due to the presence of cyclones. Geostrophic velocities around eddies generally exceed their translation speed in the top 1000 m of the water column. As such, these eddies can trap water in their interior as they propagate westward. Combining the volume of water inside eddies above their trapping depths with the number of eddies that propagate into the SAB each year, it is estimated that cyclones and anticyclones transport 3.5 ± 0.9 Sv and 4.1 ± 1.7 Sv onshore toward the Gulf Stream, respectively. The total volume transport of 7.6 ± 2.2 Sv represents an important fraction of previous estimates of the onshore transport in the Gulf Stream Recirculation gyre. Since eddies are characterized by large temperature and salinity anomalies, they also contribute significantly to the onshore transport of heat and salt.

  17. Analysis of Regionally Detected Icequakes Using the STEEP Network, South-Central AK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neel, S.; Leblanc, L.; Larsen, C.; Truffer, M.; Hansen, R.; Rupert, N.; Pavlis, G.; None, N.

    2007-12-01

    Glaciers produce seismic energy that is detectable from local to teleseismic distances. Glaciolgical processes including calving, surface crevassing, basal sliding and other, yet unresolved source processes are capable of producing recordable seismicity. Twenty-two broadband sensors deployed in south-central Alaska during the SainT Elias TEctonics and Erosion Project (STEEP) provide an excellent means to study glacier-generated seismicity at regional distances. These instruments surround over 7500 km2 of glacier area including the Bering Glacier, Bagley Icefield and the tidewater calving glaciers of Icy Bay (Yahtse, Guyot, Tyndal). Our analysis shows that icequakes nominally occur several times hourly, and can be separated from tectonic seismicity using their unique spectral characteristics and hypocenter locations. The events typically propagate over 50-75 km distances, but occasionally are recorded at stations over 150 km away from the energy source. Hypocenters for more than 1000 events were manually calculated through a 26-day interval during October 2006, and suggest that a majority of the icequakes are associated with calving at tidewater glaciers that terminate in Icy Bay. Events with similar time and frequency domain characteristics also occur at locations away from calving fronts, but less often, and their mechanical origin remains undetermined. Automated detections from a frequency domain event detector exhibit strong correlation with the handpicked time series, and extend our analysis to all available data collected during 2006. We present the time distribution of several categories of icequakes and compare these distributions to environmental variables such as precipitation, temperature and tides to explore potential forcing for observed variability in icequake occurrence.

  18. 3D Airborne Electromagnetic Inversion: A case study from the Musgrave Region, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, L. H.; Wilson, G. A.; Zhdanov, M. S.; Sunwall, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    Geophysicists know and accept that geology is inherently 3D, and is resultant from complex, overlapping processes related to genesis, metamorphism, deformation, alteration, weathering, and/or hydrogeology. Yet, the geophysics community has long relied on qualitative analysis, conductivity depth imaging (CDIs), 1D inversion, and/or plate modeling. There are many reasons for this deficiency, not the least of which has been the lack of capacity for historic 3D AEM inversion algorithms to invert entire surveys so as to practically affect exploration decisions. Our recent introduction of a moving sensitivity domain (footprint) methodology has been a paradigm shift in AEM interpretation. The basis of this method is that one needs only to calculate the responses and sensitivities for that part of the 3D earth model that is within the AEM system's sensitivity domain (footprint), and then superimpose all sensitivity domains into a single, sparse sensitivity matrix for the entire 3D earth model which is then updated in a regularized inversion scheme. This has made it practical to rigorously invert entire surveys with thousands of line kilometers of AEM data to mega-cell 3D models in hours using multi-processor workstations. Since 2010, over eighty individual projects have been completed for Aerodat, AEROTEM, DIGHEM, GEOTEM, HELITEM, HoisTEM, MEGATEM, RepTEM, RESOLVE, SkyTEM, SPECTREM, TEMPEST, and VTEM data from Australia, Brazil, Canada, Finland, Ghana, Peru, Tanzania, the US, and Zambia. Examples of 3D AEM inversion have been published for a variety of applications, including mineral exploration, oil sands exploration, salinity, permafrost, and bathymetry mapping. In this paper, we present a comparison of 3D inversions for SkyTEM, SPECTREM, TEMPET and VTEM data acquired over the same area in the Musgrave region of South Australia for exploration under cover.

  19. The identification and interaction of network, intranetwork, and ephemeral-region magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Sara F.

    1988-01-01

    Network magnetic fields are described as the dynamic product of the merging and cancelling of intranetwork fields, ephemeral regions, and the remnants of active regions. The similarities of these phenomena with solar magnetic features are pointed out. The intranetwork magnetic fields are characterized by the flow of successive fragments in approximately radial patterns away from their apparent source sites.

  20. Candidate high-redshift and primeval galaxies in Hubble Deep Field South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, D. L.; Eales, S. A.; Baker, A. C.

    1999-09-01

    We present the results of colour selection of candidate high-redshift galaxies in Hubble Deep Field South (HDF-S) using the Lyman dropout scheme. The HDF-S data we discuss were taken in a number of different filters extending from the near-UV (F300W) to the infrared (F222M) in two different fields. This allows us to select candidates with redshifts from z~3 to z~12. We find 15 candidate z~3 objects (F300W dropouts), one candidate z~4 object (F450W dropout) and 16 candidate z~5 objects (F606W dropouts) in the ~4.7-arcmin^2 WFPC-2 field, and four candidate z~6 objects (optical dropouts) and one candidate z~8 object (F110W dropout) in the 0.84-arcmin^2 NICMOS-3 field. No F160W dropouts are found (z~12). We compare our selection technique with existing data for Hubble Deep Field North (HDF-N) and discuss alternative interpretations of the objects. We conclude that there are a number of lower redshift interlopers in the selections, including one previously identified object, and reject those objects most likely to be foreground contaminants. Even after this we conclude that the F606W dropout list is likely to still contain substantial foreground contamination. The lack of candidate very-high-redshift UV-luminous galaxies supports earlier conclusions by Lanzetta et al. We discuss the morphologies and luminosity functions of the high-redshift objects, and their cosmological implications.

  1. Regional earthquake loss estimation in the Autonomous Province of Bolzano - South Tyrol (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huttenlau, Matthias; Winter, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    Beside storm events geophysical events cause a majority of natural hazard losses on a global scale. However, in alpine regions with a moderate earthquake risk potential like in the study area and thereupon connected consequences on the collective memory this source of risk is often neglected in contrast to gravitational and hydrological hazards processes. In this context, the comparative analysis of potential disasters and emergencies on a national level in Switzerland (Katarisk study) has shown that earthquakes are the most serious source of risk in general. In order to estimate the potential losses of earthquake events for different return periods and loss dimensions of extreme events the following study was conducted in the Autonomous Province of Bolzano - South Tyrol (Italy). The applied methodology follows the generally accepted risk concept based on the risk components hazard, elements at risk and vulnerability, whereby risk is not defined holistically (direct, indirect, tangible and intangible) but with the risk category losses on buildings and inventory as a general risk proxy. The hazard analysis is based on a regional macroseismic scenario approach. Thereby, the settlement centre of each community (116 communities) is defined as potential epicentre. For each epicentre four different epicentral scenarios (return periods of 98, 475, 975 and 2475 years) are calculated based on the simple but approved and generally accepted attenuation law according to Sponheuer (1960). The relevant input parameters to calculate the epicentral scenarios are (i) the macroseismic intensity and (ii) the focal depth. The considered macroseismic intensities are based on a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) of the Italian earthquake catalogue on a community level (Dipartimento della Protezione Civile). The relevant focal depth are considered as a mean within a defined buffer of the focal depths of the harmonized earthquake catalogues of Italy and Switzerland as well as

  2. The Spatial Distribution of Radiated Endogenic Power from Enceladus' South Polar Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howett, C.; Spencer, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Estimates of the total power radiated by Enceladus' tiger stripes are constrained by Cassini CIRS observations of the thermal emission from the tiger stripe region. Unfortunately, these data have several limitations imposed by the nature of the CIRS instrument, and the very limited time available for high resolution observations of Enceladus' south pole. Short-wavelength (7 - 16 micron) maps have complete coverage with good spatial resolution, but do not capture the bulk of the radiated power, which is emitted at longer wavelengths. Long-wavelength (> 16 micron) maps which capture most of the emission have either very limited spatial coverage, or spatial resolution insufficient to separate the tiger stripes from background thermal emission. In Howett et al. (2011) we estimated ~16 GW of total endogenic heat flow based on low-resolution long-wavelength data. This estimate required model-dependent assumptions about passive background thermal emission, which was not directly separated spatially from the tiger stripes, but included potential inter-stripe endogenic background emission. Our recent much lower estimate of emission from the tiger stripes alone, ~4.5 GW (Spencer et al. 2013), uses high-resolution long-wavelength data to exclude both passive and possible endogenic inter-stripe emission, but is based on poorly-constrained extrapolations to the entire system of long-wavelength observations of small portions of the tiger stripes. We eagerly await the one remaining opportunity to extend long-wavelength, high spatial resolution, mapping to more of the tiger stripe system in Cassini's final close Enceladus flyby, in December 2015. In the meantime, existing long-wavelength data of intermediate spatial resolution provides intriguing additional clues about the true spatial distribution, and thus the total power, of the long-wavelength emission. In particular, a March 2008 scan of Damascus and Baghdad Sulci shows surprisingly bright 16 - 200 micron emission at the anti

  3. Regional Impact on Pollution Event in the Upper Troposphere during CARIBIC Flights between South China and the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, S. C.; Baker, A. R.; Schuck, T. J.; van Velthoven, P.; Oram, D. E.; Zahn, A.; Hermann, M.; Weigelt, A.; Slemr, S.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

    2010-05-01

    The research project CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrumented Container, phase II) is designed to conduct regular, long-term and detailed observations of the free troposphere and UT/LS regions where passenger aircraft happen to cruise. A fully-automated measurement container (1.5 tons) was equipped onboard an Airbus 340-600 operated by Lufthansa Airlines during regular passenger flights to conduct real time trace gas and aerosol measurements and to collect aerosol and air samples on a near monthly basis. During May 2005 - March 2008, CARIBIC observations have been performed along the flight tracks of Frankfurt-Guangzhou-Manila. Data have been collected in the upper troposphere during a total of 81 flights over the region between South China and the Philippines. Carbon monoxide was used an indicator to identify the pollution events and to access the regional impacts of fossil fuel burning and biomass/biofuel burning on upper tropospheric air. Five regions, i.e. Northeast Asia, South China, Indochina Peninsula, India and Indonesia/Philippines, are identified as the major source regions to be related to the observed pollution events. The characteristics of the events from these regions are investigated. The contributions of different source categories are also estimated.

  4. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Cook Inlet region, south-central Alaska, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Richard G.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Houseknecht, David W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Lewis, Kristen A.; Lillis, Paul G.; Nelson, Philip H.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Potter, Christopher J.; Rouse, William A.; Saltus, Richard W.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Shah, Anjana K.; Valin, Zenon C.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a new assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources in the Cook Inlet region of south-central Alaska. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimates that mean undiscovered volumes of nearly 600 million barrels of oil, about 19 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 46 million barrels of natural gas liquids remain to be found in this area.

  5. Features of water chemical composition of oligotrophic and eutrophic bogs in the South of the Tomsk region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naymushina, O.

    2016-03-01

    On the basis of the actual material the analysis of chemical composition of bog waters in the territory of the South of the Tomsk region is carried out. The data on average concentration of macro and trace components, organic matter, pH of bog waters are obtained. Significant distinctions in a chemical composition of surface water for different types of bogs are revealed. The composition and macrostructure of humic acids by the example of eutrophic bogs is studied.

  6. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2013, seismotectonics of South America (Nazca Plate Region)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Gavin P.; Smoczyk, Gregory M.; Benz, Harley M.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The South American arc extends over 7,000 kilometers (km), from the Chilean margin triple junction offshore of southern Chile, to its intersection with the Panama fracture zone, offshore of the southern coast of Panama in Central America. It marks the plate boundary between the subducting Nazca plate and the South America plate, where the oceanic crust and lithosphere of the Nazca plate begin their descent into the mantle beneath South America. The convergence associated with this subduction process is responsible for the uplift of the Andes Mountains, and for the active volcanic chain present along much of this deformation front. Relative to a fixed South America plate, the Nazca plate moves slightly north of eastwards at a rate varying from approximately 80 millimeters/year (mm/yr) in the south, to approximately 65 mm/yr in the north. Although the rate of subduction varies little along the entire arc, there are complex changes in the geologic processes along the subduction zone that dramatically influence volcanic activity, crustal deformation, earthquake generation and occurrence all along the western edge of South America.

  7. Development of regional future climate change scenarios in South America using the Eta CPTEC/HadCM3 climate change projections: climatology and regional analyses for the Amazon, São Francisco and the Paraná River basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marengo, Jose A.; Chou, Sin Chan; Kay, Gillian; Alves, Lincoln M.; Pesquero, José F.; Soares, Wagner R.; Santos, Daniel C.; Lyra, André A.; Sueiro, Gustavo; Betts, Richard; Chagas, Diego J.; Gomes, Jorge L.; Bustamante, Josiane F.; Tavares, Priscila

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the climate projections over South America using the Eta-CPTEC regional model driven by four members of an ensemble of the Met Office Hadley Centre Global Coupled climate model HadCM3. The global model ensemble was run over the twenty-first century according to the SRES A1B emissions scenario, but with each member having a different climate sensitivity. The four members selected to drive the Eta-CPTEC model span the sensitivity range in the global model ensemble. The Eta-CPTEC model nested in these lateral boundary conditions was configured with a 40-km grid size and was run over 1961-1990 to represent baseline climate, and 2011-2100 to simulate possible future changes. Results presented here focus on austral summer and winter climate of 2011-2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100 periods, for South America and for three major river basins in Brazil. Projections of changes in upper and low-level circulation and the mean sea level pressure (SLP) fields simulate a pattern of weakening of the tropical circulation and strengthening of the subtropical circulation, marked by intensification at the surface of the Chaco Low and the subtropical highs. Strong warming (4-6°C) of continental South America increases the temperature gradient between continental South America and the South Atlantic. This leads to stronger SLP gradients between continent and oceans, and to changes in moisture transport and rainfall. Large rainfall reductions are simulated in Amazonia and Northeast Brazil (reaching up to 40%), and rainfall increases around the northern coast of Peru and Ecuador and in southeastern South America, reaching up to 30% in northern Argentina. All changes are more intense after 2040. The Precipitation-Evaporation (P-E) difference in the A1B downscaled scenario suggest water deficits and river runoff reductions in the eastern Amazon and São Francisco Basin, making these regions susceptible to drier conditions and droughts in the future.

  8. The systematic search for z ≳ 5 active galactic nuclei in the Chandra Deep Field South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigel, Anna K.; Schawinski, Kevin; Treister, Ezequiel; Urry, C. Megan; Koss, Michael; Trakhtenbrot, Benny

    2015-04-01

    We investigate early black hole (BH) growth through the methodical search for z ≳ 5 active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the Chandra Deep Field South. We base our search on the Chandra 4-Ms data with flux limits of 9.1 × 10-18 (soft, 0.5-2 keV) and 5.5 × 10-17 erg s-1 cm-2 (hard, 2-8 keV). At z ˜ 5, this corresponds to luminosities as low as ˜1042 (˜1043) erg s-1 in the soft (hard) band and should allow us to detect Compton-thin AGN with MBH > 107 M⊙ and Eddington ratios >0.1. Our field (0.03 deg2) contains over 600z ˜ 5 Lyman Break Galaxies. Based on lower redshift relations, we would expect ˜20 of them to host AGN. After combining the Chandra data with Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS)/Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), CANDELS/Wide Field Camera 3 and Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera data, the sample consists of 58 high-redshift candidates. We run a photometric redshift code, stack the GOODS/ACS data, apply colour criteria and the Lyman Break Technique and use the X-ray Hardness Ratio. We combine our tests and using additional data find that all sources are most likely at low redshift. We also find five X-ray sources without a counterpart in the optical or infrared which might be spurious detections. We conclude that our field does not contain any convincing z ≳ 5 AGN. Explanations for this result include a low BH occupation fraction, a low AGN fraction, short, super-Eddington growth modes, BH growth through BH-BH mergers or in optically faint galaxies. By searching for z ≳ 5 AGN, we are setting the foundation for constraining early BH growth and seed formation scenarios.

  9. Mapping Magnetic Fields in Star Forming Regions with BLASTPol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fissel, Laura M.; Ade, Peter; Angilè, Francesco E.; Ashton, Peter; Benton, Steven J.; Devlin, Mark J.; Dober, Bradley; Fukui, Yasuo; Galitzki, Nicholas B.; Gandilo, Natalie; Klein, J. R.; Li, Zhi-Yun; Korotkov, Andrei; Martin, Peter G.; Matthews, Tristan; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; nakamura, fumitaka; Barth Netterfield, Calvin; Novak, Giles; Pascale, Enzo; Poidevin, Frédérick; Pereira Santos, Fábio; Savini, Giorgio; Scott, Douglas; Shariff, Jamil; Soler, Juan D.; Thomas, Nicholas; tucker, carole; Tucker, Gregory S.; Ward-Thompson, Derek

    2016-01-01

    A key outstanding question in our understanding of star formation is whether magnetic fields provide support against the gravitational collapse of their parent molecular clouds and cores. Direct measurement of magnetic field strength is observationally challenging, however observations of polarized thermal emission from dust grains aligned with respect to the local cloud magnetic field can be used to map out the magnetic field orientation in molecular clouds. Statistical comparisons between these submillimeter polarization maps and three-dimensional numerical simulations of magnetized star-forming clouds provide a promising method for constraining magnetic field strength. We present early results from a BLASTPol study of the nearby giant molecular cloud (GMC) Vela C, using data collected during a 2012 Antarctic flight. This sensitive balloon-borne polarimeter observed Vela C for 57 hours, yielding the most detailed submillimeter polarization map ever made of a GMC forming high mass stars. We find that most of the structure in p can be modeled by a power-law dependence on two quantities: the hydrogen column density and the local dispersion in magnetic field orientation. Our power-law model for p(N,S) provides new constraints for models of magnetized star-forming clouds and an important first step in the interpretation of the BLASTPol 2012 data set.

  10. Regional climate modelling in CLARIS-LPB: a concerted approach towards twentyfirst century projections of regional temperature and precipitation over South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, E.; Solman, S.; Remedio, A. R. C.; Berbery, H.; Samuelsson, P.; Da Rocha, R. P.; Mourão, C.; Li, L.; Marengo, J.; de Castro, M.; Jacob, D.

    2015-10-01

    The results of an ensemble of regional climate model (RCM) simulations over South America are presented. This is the first coordinated exercise of regional climate modelling studies over the continent, as part of the CLARIS-LPB EU FP7 project. The results of different future periods, with the main focus on (2071-2100) is shown, when forced by several global climate models, all using the A1B greenhouse gases emissions scenario. The analysis is focused on the mean climate conditions for both temperature and precipitation. The common climate change signals show an overall increase of temperature for all the seasons and regions, generally larger for the austral winter season. Future climate shows a precipitation decrease over the tropical region, and an increase over the subtropical areas. These climate change signals arise independently of the driving global model and the RCM. The internal variability of the driving global models introduces a very small level of uncertainty, compared with that due to the choice of the driving model and the RCM. Moreover, the level of uncertainty is larger for longer horizon projections for both temperature and precipitation. The uncertainty in the temperature changes is larger for the subtropical than for the tropical ones. The current analysis allows identification of the common climate change signals and their associated uncertainties for several subregions within the South American continent.

  11. Correlation between magnetic and electric field perturbations in the field-aligned current regions deduced from DE 2 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishii, M.; Sugiura, M.; Iyemori, T.; Slavin, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    The satellite-observed high correlations between magnetic and electric field perturbations in the high-latitude field-aligned current regions are investigated by examining the dependence of the relationship between Delta-B and E on spatial scale, using the electric and magnetic field data obtained by DE 2 in the polar regions. The results are compared with the Pedersen conductivity inferred from the international reference ionosphere model and the Alfven wave velocity calculated from the in situ ion density and magnetic field measurements.

  12. Estimation of constitutive parameters for the Belridge Diatomite, South Belridge Diatomite Field

    SciTech Connect

    Fossum, A.F.; Fredrich, J.T.

    1998-06-01

    A cooperative national laboratory/industry research program was initiated in 1994 that improved understanding of the geomechanical processes causing well casing damage during oil production from weak, compactible formations. The program focused on the shallow diatomaceous oil reservoirs located in California`s San Joaquin Valley, and combined analyses of historical field data, experimental determination of rock mechanical behavior, and geomechanical simulation of the reservoir and overburden response to production and injection. Sandia National Laboratories` quasi-static, large-deformation structural mechanics finite element code JAS3D was used to perform the three-dimensional geomechanical simulations. One of the material models implemented in JAS3D to simulate the time-independent inelastic (non-linear) deformation of geomaterials is a generalized version of the Sandler and Rubin cap plasticity model (Sandler and Rubin, 1979). This report documents the experimental rock mechanics data and material cap plasticity models that were derived to describe the Belridge Diatomite reservoir rock at the South Belridge Diatomite Field, Section 33.

  13. Spatial and Alignment Analyses for a field of Small Volcanic Vents South of Pavonis Mons Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleacher, J. E.; Glaze, L. S.; Greeley, R.; Hauber, E.; Baloga, S. M.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Williams, D. A.; Glotch, T. D.

    2008-01-01

    The Tharsis province of Mars displays a variety of small volcanic vent (10s krn in diameter) morphologies. These features were identified in Mariner and Viking images [1-4], and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data show them to be more abundant than originally observed [5,6]. Recent studies are classifying their diverse morphologies [7-9]. Building on this work, we are mapping the location of small volcanic vents (small-vents) in the Tharsis province using MOLA, Thermal Emission Imaging System, and High Resolution Stereo Camera data [10]. Here we report on a preliminary study of the spatial and alignment relationships between small-vents south of Pavonis Mons, as determined by nearest neighbor and two-point azimuth statistical analyses. Terrestrial monogenetic volcanic fields display four fundamental characteristics: 1) recurrence rates of eruptions,2 ) vent abundance, 3) vent distribution, and 4) tectonic relationships [11]. While understanding recurrence rates typically requires field measurements, insight into vent abundance, distribution, and tectonic relationships can be established by mapping of remotely sensed data, and subsequent application of spatial statistical studies [11,12], the goal of which is to link the distribution of vents to causal processes.

  14. Diagenesis and reservoir quality of Paleocoene sandstones in the Kupe South field, Taranaki Basin, New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, K.R. ); Baker, J.C. ); Hamilton, P.J. ); Thrasher, G.P. )

    1994-04-01

    The Kupe South field, Taranaki basin, New Zealand is a gas condensate and oil field offshore in the southern Taranaki basin. Its Paleocene reservoir sandstones contain a diagenetic mineral assemblage that records major shifts in pore-water composition during the burial history of the basin. Early calcite formed a shallow burial largely from meteoric depositional pore waters, whereas later chlorite/smectic records the downward passage of marine pore waters into the sandstones from overlying, marine mudrocks prior to significant sandstone compaction during the late Miocene. Late calcite and ferroan carbonates may record the presence of connate meteoric water expelled upward from nonmarine sedimentary rocks of the underyling Cretaceous sequence, whereas later kaolinite and secondary porosity formation are related to localized meteoric influx resulting from late Miocene to early Pliocene uplift and erosion of the reservoir section. Hydrocarbon entrapment occurred during further Pliocene to Holocene sediment accumulation. Labile-grain alteration has been less severe in the lower part of the hydrocarbon-bearing section than in the upper sands with the result that the lower sands contain mainly chlorite/smectite and the upper sands contain mainly ferroan carbonates and kaolinite formed by extensive alteration of labile grains and earlier formed chlorite/smectite. Reservoir quality in the lower sands is controlled mostly by grain size and the presence of chlorite/smectite, but in the upper sands, the presence of kaolinite is the single most important cause of poor reservoir quality. 36 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Definition of reservoir configuration in ancient glacial environment: case history from Rima field, south Oman

    SciTech Connect

    Penneycard, A.J.

    1986-05-01

    The Al Khlata Formation (Permian-Carboniferous) is an important reservoir unit of the Eastern Flank province of South Oman. The formation consists of an unusual series of glacial sand, silt, shale, and diamictite exhibiting such gross heterogeneity that conventional correlation techniques are ineffective. A threefold palynologic subdivision has been developed, which has allowed the recognition of a number of genetically distinct units. Major periods of erosion separate the units, erosive processes dominating the 20-40 million year period during which the Al Khlata accumulated. Deposition occurred in a sequence of deep valleys cut into the early Al Khlata and underlying Haima (Cambrian-Ordovician) reservoirs. The extent of these deposits is controlled by the morphology of these incisive valleys. A case history of the large Rima field illustrates the use of palynology in unraveling the temporal and spatial relationships of the individual Al Khlata and Haima units. The resultant reservoir-geologic model of this internally complex fields has enabled more confident assessment of variations in well performance with reservoir type, and has guided plans for future offtake levels and overall development planning.

  16. BLAST OBSERVATIONS OF THE SOUTH ECLIPTIC POLE FIELD: NUMBER COUNTS AND SOURCE CATALOGS

    SciTech Connect

    Valiante, Elisabetta; Braglia, Filiberto G.; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; Scott, Douglas; Ade, Peter A. R.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip; Pascale, Enzo; Bock, James J.; Devlin, Mark J.; Klein, Jeff; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hughes, David H.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Olmi, Luca; Patanchon, Guillaume; Rex, Marie

    2010-12-15

    We present results from a survey carried out by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) on a 9 deg{sup 2} field near the South Ecliptic Pole at 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m. The median 1{sigma} depths of the maps are 36.0, 26.4, and 18.4 mJy, respectively. We apply a statistical method to estimate submillimeter galaxy number counts and find that they are in agreement with other measurements made with the same instrument and with the more recent results from Herschel/SPIRE. Thanks to the large field observed, the new measurements give additional constraints on the bright end of the counts. We identify 132, 89, and 61 sources with S/N {>=}4 at 250, 350, 500 {mu}m, respectively and provide a multi-wavelength combined catalog of 232 sources with a significance {>=}4{sigma} in at least one BLAST band. The new BLAST maps and catalogs are available publicly at http://blastexperiment.info.

  17. Trace contraband detection field-test by the south Texas specialized crimes and narcotics task force.

    SciTech Connect

    Hannum, David W.; Shannon, Gary W.

    2006-04-01

    This report describes the collaboration between the South Texas Specialized Crimes and Narcotics Task Force (STSCNTF) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in a field test that provided prototype hand-held trace detection technology for use in counter-drug operations. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ)/National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC)/Border Research and Technology Center (BRTC) was contacted by STSCNTF for assistance in obtaining cutting-edge technology. The BRTC created a pilot project for Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the STSCNTF for the use of SNLs Hound, a hand-held sample collection and preconcentration system that, when combined with a commercial chemical detector, can be used for the trace detection of illicit drugs and explosives. The STSCNTF operates in an area of high narcotics trafficking where methods of concealment make the detection of narcotics challenging. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Contraband Detection Department personnel provided the Hound system hardware and operational training. The Hound system combines the GE VaporTracer2, a hand-held commercial chemical detector, with an SNL-developed sample collection and preconcentration system. The South Texas Task force reported a variety of successes, including identification of a major shipment of methamphetamines, the discovery of hidden compartments in vehicles that contained illegal drugs and currency used in drug deals, and the identification of a suspect in a nightclub shooting. The main advantage of the hand-held trace detection unit is its ability to quickly identify the type of chemical (drugs or explosives) without a long lag time for laboratory analysis, which is the most common analysis method for current law enforcement procedures.

  18. A joint geophysical analysis of the Coso geothermal field, south-eastern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wamalwa, Antony M.; Mickus, Kevin L.; Serpa, Laura F.; Doser, Diane I.

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional density models derived from gravity data and two-dimensional resistivity models derived from magnetotelluric data collected in the vicinity of the Coso geothermal field are analyzed in order to determine the source region of the geothermal field. The derived models show zones of both low resistivity and low density at and below 6 km depth in the Devils Kitchen and the Coso Hot Springs areas. These zones agree with seismic reflection and tomography results which found a high amplitude reflector at 5 km and low velocities zones below 5 km. We interpret the density and resistivity zones to indicate the presence of cooling magmatic material that provides the heat for the shallower geothermal system in these regions. A zone marked by high resistivity and low density was found to lie directly above the interpreted partially melted region extending to within 1 km depth below the surface in the reservoir region where it is capped by a low resistivity clay zone. In addition, the density models indicate that the high density bodies occurring under volcanic outcrops may be mafic intrusions.

  19. Land use and land cover change impacts on the regional climate of non-Amazonian South America: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, Alvaro; Baldi, Germán; Hirota, Marina; Syktus, Jozef; McAlpine, Clive

    2015-05-01

    Land use and land cover change (LUCC) affects regional climate through modifications in the water balance and energy budget. These impacts are frequently expressed by: changes in the amount and frequency of precipitation and alteration of surface temperatures. In South America, most of the studies of the effects of LUCC on the local and regional climate have focused on the Amazon region (54 studies), whereas LUCC within non-Amazonian regions have been largely undermined regardless their potential importance in regulating the regional climate (19 studies). We estimated that 3.6 million km2 of the original natural vegetation cover in non-Amazonian South America were converted into other types of land use, which is about 4 times greater than the historical Amazon deforestation. Moreover, there is evidence showing that LUCC within such fairly neglected ecosystems cause significant reductions in precipitation and increases in surface temperatures, with occasional impacts affecting neighboring or remote areas. We explore the implications of these findings in the context of water security, climatic extremes and future research priorities.

  20. [Selected medical closed claims in the field of regional anaesthesia].

    PubMed

    Kessler, Paul; Schaffartzik, Walter; Neu, Johann

    2016-05-01

    Legal malpractice cases in regional anaesthesia comprise a significant number of all cases before the expert commissions and arbitration boards of the state medical associations. One reason for this is the increasing use of neuraxial and peripheral regional blocks in orthopaedics and traumatology. Only in about one fourth of the reviewed cases could either a causal relationship between substandard performance and patient injury or an inadequate obtaining of informed consent be established. In the great majority of cases patients' claims were unfounded, since the patients' injuries were adjudged to be unavoidable and adequate consent had been abtained prior to performance of the blocks. PMID:27213606

  1. Applications of exploration technologies to reservoir prediction and management -- Field examples of South-East Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Duval, B.C.; Allen, G.; Madaoui, K.; Gouadain, J.; Kremer, Y.

    1995-10-01

    The paper describes how modern geoscience techniques, developed for a large part in intensive exploration programs, can be used at the field level to improve reservoir prediction and production planning and also to optimize recovery. Detailed sedimentological studies has allowed the authors to determine the environment of the reservoir formations and help define the likely shape and size of individual sands and refine the reservoir model. An illustration is given by fields located in the Mahakam delta area of Kalimantan (Handil, Tunu) and in the Gulf of Thailand (Bongkot). Sequence stratigraphy assists in identifying efficient regional seals which, at field scale, lead to the recomposition of a great number of individual sands (several hundreds in some cases) into fewer flow units, making the system manageable from a reservoir standpoint. This technology was used extensively to delineate the giant Peciko gas field of Indonesia. The geophysical approach of reservoir parameters and the use of seismic attributes are rapidly expanding. The Yadana gas field in the Gulf of Martaban (Myanmar) is a case in point to show how porosities can be determined from impedances obtained by seismic inversion techniques. An example from the Bongkot field shows how 3D seismic and direct hydrocarbon indication technology (DHI) are used to deal with complex faulting to optimize deviated well profiles and improve recoveries.

  2. Reservoir geology of Crystal Viking field, Lower Cretaceous estuarine tidal channel-bay complex, south-central Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Reinson, G.E.; Clark, J.E.; Foscolos, A.E.

    1988-10-01

    The Lower Cretaceous Viking Formation in the Crystal field of south-central Alberta contains a linear sandstone body, as much as 30 m thick, that forms a complicated dual-pool hydrocarbon reservoir. This contrasts sharply with most other Viking reservoirs, which are much thinner, are commonly oriented northwest, and are composed of a single hydrocarbon pool. Thickness, orientation, and pool duality are attributed to the complicated depositional history of the Viking in the Crystal region. The sandstone body is interpreted as a multistage tidal channel-fill deposit within a larger estuarine channel-bay complex, which rests unconformably on inner shelf-lower shoreface facies. A major lowstand of sea level that occurred approximately 97 m.y. ago is believed to be responsible for incisement of the estuarine valley, which was filled during rising sea level. A depositional model of progressive estuarine valley fill under transgressive conditions readily accounts for the occurrence of two hydrodynamically separated oil pools, and also for differences in reservoir continuity and performance trends within the main oil-bearing A pool. Highly productive wells in the main pool correspond to specific channel-fill deposits, or are situated in areas where deposits of successive channel stages are highly superimposed. Conversely, marginally productive wells and poor reservoir communication between producing wells occur in areas where the different channel-stage deposits diverge. 22 figures, 2 tables.

  3. Oil gravity distribution in the diatomite at South Belridge Field, Kern County, CA: Implications for oil sourcing and migration

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, D.W.; Sande, J.J.; Doe, P.H.

    1995-04-01

    Understanding oil gravity distribution in the Belridge Diatomite has led to economic infill development and specific enhanced recovery methods for targeted oil properties. To date more than 100 wells have provided samples used to determining vertical and areal distribution of oil gravity in the field. Detailed geochemical analyses were also conducted on many of the oil samples to establish different oil types, relative maturities, and to identify transformed oils. The geochemical analysis also helped identify source rock expulsion temperatures and depositional environments. The data suggests that the Belridge diatomite has been charged by a single hydrocarbon source rock type and was generated over a relatively wide range of temperatures. Map and statistical data support two distinct oil segregation processes occurring post expulsion. Normal gravity segregation within depositional cycles of diatomite have caused lightest oils to migrate to the crests of individual cycle structures. Some data suggests a loss of the light end oils in the uppermost cycles to the Tulare Formation above, or through early biodegradation. Structural rotation post early oil expulsion has also left older, heavier oils concentrated on the east flank of the structure. With the addition of other samples from the south central San Joaquin area, we have been able to tie the Belridge diatomite hydrocarbon charge into a regional framework. We have also enhanced our ability to predict oil gravity and well primary recovery by unraveling some key components of the diatomite oil source and migration history.

  4. A GCM investigation of dust aerosol impact on the regional climate of North Africa and South/East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Y.; Xue, Y.; De Sales, F.; Liou, K. N.

    2016-04-01

    The climatic effects of dust aerosols in North Africa and South/East Asia have been investigated using an atmospheric general circulation model, NCEP/GCM/SSiB (Simplified Simple Biosphere Model) and the three-dimensional aerosol data simulated by the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model. GCM simulations show that due to the scattering and absorption of solar radiation by dust particles, surface temperature decreases over both regions, accompanied by a reduced sensible heat flux. However, precipitation responses are different in these two regions. Due to differences in dust location and the associated heating with respect to the rainfall band and circulation, the effect of dust could either enhance or suppress precipitation. Over the North Africa region where dust particles are mainly located to the north of rainfall band, heating of the air column by dust particles forces a stronger ascent motion over dust layers, which induces an anomalous subsidence (or a weakened upward motion) and suppressed cyclonic circulation to its south where precipitation reduces. Furthermore, both humidity and cloud decrease due to the heating in the middle troposphere (semi-direct effect). In South/East Asia, dust particles are located in the upper troposphere over the major rainfall band during the monsoon season, especially Southwest India and the coastal area of Bay of Bengal. Heating of the air column increases upward motion and strengthens cyclonic circulation. Humidity also increases due to the draw-in of the low level moist air. Therefore, cloud and precipitation increase over South/East Asia associated with dust effect. During the pre-monsoon season, when dust particles are located to the north of the monsoon rainfall band, the heating effect results in shifting precipitation northward. The heating of air column due to dust particles, not surface cooling, plays the major role in precipitation changes. The anomalous upward motion over dust regions will

  5. 76 FR 12132 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Wright Area South Hilight Field Coal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Final EIS was publicly available on July 30, 2010 (75 FR 44951). This decision is subject to appeal to... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Wright Area South Hilight Field Coal Lease-by-Application and Environmental Impact Statement, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of...

  6. Hydraulic Fracturing of 403 Shallow Diatomite Wells in South Belridge Oil Field, Kern County, California, in 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynne, D. B.; Agusiegbe, V.

    2015-12-01

    We examine all 403 Hydraulic Fracture (HF) jobs performed by Aera Energy, LLC, in the South Belridge oil field, Kern County, CA in 2014. HFs in the South Belridge oil field are atypical amongst North American plays because the reservoir is shallow and produced via vertical wells. Our data set constitutes 88% of all HF jobs performed in CA oil fields in calendar-2014. The South Belridge field produces 11% of California's oil and the shallow HFs performed here differ from most HFs performed elsewhere. We discuss fracture modeling and methods and summary statistics, and modelled dimensions of fractures and their relationships to depth and reservoir properties. The 403 HFs were made in the diatomite-dominated Reef Ridge member of the Monterey Formation. The HFs began at an average depth of 1047 feet below ground (ft TVD) and extended an average of 626 ft vertically downward. The deepest initiation of HF was at 2380 ft and the shallowest cessation was at 639 ft TVD. The average HF was performed using 1488 BBL (62,496 gallons) of water. The HFs were performed in no more than 6 stages and nearly all were completed within one day. We (1) compare metrics of the South Belridge sample group with recent, larger "all-CA" and nationwide samples; and (2) conclude that if relationships of reservoir properties, well completion and HF are well understood, shallow diatomite HF may be optimized to enhance production while minimizing environmental impact.

  7. The Great Karoo region of South Africa: A carbon source or sink?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus; Greenwood, Philip; Kuhn, Brigitte; Boardman, John; Foster, Ian; Meadows, Mike

    2014-05-01

    Work undertaken in the seasonally arid upland areas of the Great Karoo region of South Africa has established a link between land degradation and overgrazing that began approximately 200 years ago when European farmers first settled the area. In response to changing land use, coupled with shifting rainfall patterns, parts of the landscape are now characterised by badlands on footslopes of valley-sides and complex gully systems on valley floors. Limited precipitation and agricultural intensification, particularly from around the 1920s onwards, resulted in a growing demand for water, and led to the construction of many small reservoirs, most of which are now in-filled with sediment. Whilst the deposited material has provided a means of linking catchment-scale responses to land use changes over the last ca. 100 years, the influence of land degradation on erosion and deposition of soil-associated carbon (C) has received only limited attention. Despite a reversion to extensive agriculture and reduced livestock densities in certain areas, limited vegetation regrowth suggests that soil rehabilitation will be a long-term process. This communication presents preliminary results from an investigation to determine whether land degradation in the Karoo has resulted in a shift from a net sink of C to a net source of C. Sediment deposits from a silted-up reservoir in a small dry valley system was analysed for varying physicochemical parameters. Total Carbon (TC) content was recorded and the sharp decrease in total C content with decreasing depth suggests that land degradation during and after post-European settlement probably led to accelerated erosion of the relatively fertile surface soils, and this presumably resulted in the rapid in-filling of reservoirs with carbon-rich surface material. Overall, the results indicate a sharp decline in soil organic matter (SOM) of eroded material, presumably as a consequence of land degradation. This suggests that in landscapes such as the

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Chandra Deep Field South: multi-colour data (Wolf+, 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, C.; Meisenheimer, K.; Kleinheinrich, M.; Borch, A.; Dye, S.; Gray, M.; Wisotzki, L.; Bell, E. F.; Rix, H.-W.; Cimatti, A.; Hasinger, G.; Szokoly, G.

    2004-04-01

    Table 3 contains the object catalogue of the COMBO-17 CDFS field. The observations were carried out with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) at the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope on La Silla, Chile, between October 1999 and January 2001 in four independent observing runs. The field measures 31.5'x30', is centered on RA=03:32:25, DE=-27:48:50 and contains the Chandra Deep Field South. The table contains 63501 objects found on the deep R-band image cdfs_r.fit by SExtractor with S/N>3. The 5-{sigma} magnitude limit for point sources is Rmag=26.0. Morphological information from the SExtractor measurement is included. Multiple observations in different observing runs of six different filters allow the identification of variable objects. The table contains positions, flags and flux measurements in UBVRI and 12 optical medium-band filters. In addition, we include multi-colour classification, photometric redshifts, luminosity distances and a number of absolute restframe magnitudes in different filters (Johnson, Sloan, Bessell). cdfsu.fit, cdfsb.fit, cdfsv.fit, cdfsr.fit and cdfs_i.fit are coadded sumframes in UBVRI of the CDFS field. These sumframes are stacked from flat-fielded and cosmic-corrected individual images by applying only full pixel shifts. Therefore, the coordinate frames differ slightly between the images. The coordinates in Table 3 refer to image cdfs_r.fit. The images in BVRI are obtained from observations carried out in observing run D (Oct 1999, see also Note (11) in the byte-by-byte description of table3.dat) while the U-band image is obtained from observing run G (Jan 2001). The exposure times are 14400s (U), 5000s (B), 8400s (V), 15000s (R) and 7550s (I). The intensity levels are given in units of photons hitting the detector (already corrected for the gain of the CCD). The data included here supersede the table2.dat of the COMBO-17 published in 2001 (J/A+A/377/442) (6 data files).

  9. 3D airflow dynamics over transverse ridges Mpekweni, South Africa: implications for dune field migration behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Derek; Cooper, Andrew; Green, Andrew; Beyers, Meiring; Wiles, Errol; Benallack, Keegan

    2016-04-01

    Un-vegetated dune fields provide excellent opportunities to examine airflow dynamics over various types and scales of dune landforms. The three dimensional surface over which lower boundary layers travel, help adjust surface airflow and consequently the aeolian response of the dunes themselves. The use of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modelling in recent studies now enables investigation of the 3D behaviour of airflow over complex terrain, providing new insights into heterogeneous surface flow and aeolian response of dune surfaces on a large (dunefield) scale. Using a largely un-vegetated coastal dune field site at Mpekweni, Eastern Cape, South Africa, a detailed (0.1m gridded) terrestrial laser scanning survey was conducted to create a high resolution topographical surface. Using local wind flow measurements and local met station records as input, CFD modelling was performed for a number of scenarios involving variable direction and magnitude to examine surface flow patterns across multiple dune forms. Near surface acceleration, expansion and separation of airflow inducing convergence and divergence (steering) of flow velocity streamlines are investigated. Flow acceleration over dune crests/brink lines is a key parameter in driving dune migration and slip face dynamics. Dune aspect ratio (height to length) is also important in determining the degree of crestal flow acceleration, with an increase in flow associated with increasing aspect ratios. Variations in dune height appear to be the most important parameter in driving general flow acceleration. The results from the study provide new insights into dune migration behaviour at this site as well as surface flow behaviour across multiple dune configurations and length scales within un-vegetated dune fields.

  10. Topography of the South Polar Cap and Layered Deposits of Mars: Viking Stereo Grametry at Regional and Local Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, P.; Moore, J.; Stoker, C.

    1998-01-01

    Layered deposits and residual polar caps on Mars may record the deposition of ice and sediment modulated by periodic climate change. Topographic information relating to layer thicknesses, erosional processes, and formation of dark spirals within these deposits has been sparce or unreliable until the arrival of MOLA in orbit in September 1997. To assist in evaluating these terrains prior to launch and to assess formation and erosion processes in the polar deposits, we have assembled Viking stereo mosaics of the region and have produced the first reliable DEM models of the south polar deposits using automated stereogrammetry tools. Here we report our preliminary topographic results, pending final image pointing updates. The maximum total thickness of the layered deposits in the south polar region is 2.5 km. The thick layered deposits consist of a series of megaterraces. Each terrace is several tens of kilometers wide and is flat or slopes very gently toward the pole. These terraces step downward from a central plateau near the south pole. Terraces are bounded by relatively steep scarps 100-500 meters high that face toward the equator. These scarps correspond to the pattern of dark spirals observed within the residual cap in southern summer, and are interpreted as ice or frost-free surfaces warmed by solar insolation. Several tongue-shaped troughs, with rounded cirquelike heads, are observed near the margins of the deposit. These troughs are 300-600 meters in deep and may be similar to troughs observed in the northern polar deposit.

  11. Reservoir compaction of the Belridge Diatomite and surface subsidence, south Belridge field, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Bowersox, J.R.; Shore, R.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Surface subsidence due to reservoir compaction during production has been observed in many large oil fields. Subsidence is most obvious in coastal and offshore fields where inundation by the sea occurs. Well-known examples are Wilmington field in California and Ekofisk field in the North Sea. In South Belridge field, the Belridge Diatomite member of the late Miocene Reef Ridge Shale has proven prone to compaction during production. The reservoir, a high-porosity, low-permeability, highly compressive rock composed largely of diatomite and mudstone, is about 1,000 ft thick and lies at an average depth of 1,600 ft. Within the Belridge Diatomite, reservoir compaction due to withdrawal of oil and water in Sec. 12, T28S, R20E, MDB and M, was noticed after casing failures in producing wells began occurring and tension cracks, enlarged by hydrocompaction after a heavy rainstorm were observed. Surface subsidence in Sec. 12 has been monitored since April 1987, through the surveying of benchmark monuments. The average annualized subsidence rate during 1987 was {minus}1.86 ft/yr, {minus}0.92 ft/yr during 1988, and {minus}0.65 ft/yr during 1989; the estimated peak subsidence rate reached {minus}7.50 ft/yr in July 1985, after 1.5 yrs of production from the Belridge Diatomite reservoir. Since production from the Belridge Diatomite reservoir commenced in February 1984, the surface of the 160-ac producing area has subsided about 12.5 ft. This equates to an estimated reservoir compaction of 30 ft in the Belridge Diatomite and an average loss of reservoir porosity of 2.4% from 55.2 to 52.8%. Injection of water for reservoir pressure maintenance in the Belridge diatomite began in June 1987, and has been effective in mitigating subsidence to current rates and repressurizing the reservoir to near-initial pressure. An added benefit of water injection has been improved recovery of oil from the Belridge Diatomite by waterflood.

  12. Optical singularities and power flux in the near-field region of planar evanescent-field superlenses.

    PubMed

    Perez-Molina, Manuel; Carretero, L; Acebal, P; Blaya, S

    2008-11-01

    We rigorously analyze the optical singularities and power flux in the near-field region of the novel superlenses reported in [Science317, 927 (2007)] For this purpose, we derive near-field expressions and a general criterion to classify the optical singularities in the vacuum, which are valid when the (s- or p-polarized) electromagnetic fields are generated by any planar field distribution with Cartesian or azimuthal symmetry. Such general results are particularized to the superlenses [Science317, 927 (2007)], for which we identify a sequence of optical vortices and saddles that arise from evanescent-field interference. While the saddles are always located around the focal region, the vortex locations depend on the source field. The features of the topological connection between vortices and saddles are also discussed. PMID:18978868

  13. Field and experimental evidence for coseismic ruptures along shallow creeping faults in forearc sediments of the Crotone Basin, South Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsamo, Fabrizio; Aldega, Luca; De Paola, Nicola; Faoro, Igor; Storti, Fabrizio

    2014-05-01

    Large seismic slip occurring along shallow creeping faults in tectonically active areas represents an unsolved paradox, which is largely due to our poor understanding of the mechanics governing creeping faults, and to the lack of documented geological evidence showing how coseismic rupturing overprints creep in near-surface conditions. In this contribution we integrate field, petrophysical, mineralogical and friction data to characterize the signature of coseismic ruptures propagating along shallow creeping faults affecting unconsolidated forearc sediments of the seismically active Crotone Basin, in South Italy. Field observations of fault zones show widespread foliated cataclasites in fault cores, locally overprinted by sharp slip surfaces decorated by thin (0.5-1.5 cm) black gouge layers. Compared to foliated cataclasites, black gouges have much lower grain size, porosity and permeability, which may have facilitated slip weakening by thermal fluid pressurization. Moreover, black gouges are characterized by distinct mineralogical assemblages compatible with high temperatures (180-200°C) due to frictional heating during seismic slip. Foliated cataclasites and black gouges were also produced by laboratory friction experiments performed on host sediments at sub-seismic (≤ 0.1 m/s) and seismic (1 m/s) slip rates, respectively. Black gouges display low friction coefficients (0.3) and velocity-weakening behaviours, as opposed to high friction coefficients (0.65) and velocity-strengthening behaviours shown by the foliated cataclasites. Our results show that narrow black gouges developed within foliated cataclasites represent a potential diagnostic marker for episodic seismic activity in shallow creeping faults. These findings can help understanding the time-space partitioning between aseismic and seismic slip of faults at shallow crustal levels, impacting on seismic hazard evaluation of subduction zones and forearc regions affected by destructive earthquakes and

  14. Crustal Extension and Rotation in the Isparta Angle Region of South-West Anatolia from a new GPS Velocity Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floyd, M.; Tiryakioğlu, I.; Erdogan, S.; Gulal, E.; Ergintav, S.; McClusky, S.; Reilinger, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    We present a model of crustal kinematics for the south-west region of Anatolia (Turkey) using a new, expanded and updated GPS velocity solution, focusing on the motion of the Isparta Angle. This region, bordered by the Fethiye Burdur Fault Zone (FBFZ) in the west and the Aksehir Simav Fault Zone (AKSFZ) in the east, accommodates a part of the active deformation of south-western Anatolia. We use survey and continuous GPS observations during the period 1997-2010, combined with the published results of Reilinger et al. (2006) and Aktug et al. (2009). Our results show that the Isparta region rotates couterclockwise relative to Anatolia. Both the FBFZ and the AKSFZ are predominantly trans-tensional boundaries that accommodate this motion. The FBFZ has left-lateral strike slip behavior along its south-west segment that changes to right-lateral strike-slip along its north-east extension. This change in the sense of strike-slip motion is accommodated by extension on a NW-SE-striking normal fault system that is associated with the Menderes graben system. Trans-tensional fault systems along the boundaries of the Isparta Angle with Anatolia are inconsistent with extrusion models for present-day southward motion. An increase in motion rates towards the Hellenic and Cyprus arc subduction systems, and counterclockwise rotation of the Isparta region, support dynamic models involving active rollback of the subducting African Plate, toroidal mantle flow around the eastern edge of the subducting African slab near the Hellenic arc/Florence Rise junction, and/or gravitational collapse of the overriding Anatolia Plate.

  15. Comparison of 20th century and pre-industrial climate over South America in regional model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, S.; Fast, I.; Kaspar, F.

    2012-10-01

    In this study, we assess how the anthropogenically induced increase in greenhouse gas concentrations affects the climate of central and southern South America. We utilise two regional climate simulations for present day (PD) and pre-industrial (PI) times. These simulations are compared to historical reconstructions in order to investigate the driving processes responsible for climatic changes between the different periods. The regional climate model is validated against observations for both re-analysis data and GCM-driven regional simulations for the second half of the 20th century. Model biases are also taken into account for the interpretation of the model results. The added value of the regional simulation over global-scale modelling relates to a better representation of hydrological processes that are particularly evident in the proximity of the Andes Mountains. Climatic differences between the simulated PD minus PI period agree qualitatively well with proxy-based temperature reconstructions, albeit the regional model overestimates the amplitude of the temperature increase. For precipitation the most important changes between the PD and PI simulation relate to a dipole pattern along the Andes Mountains with increased precipitation over the southern parts and reduced precipitation over the central parts. Here only a few regions show robust similarity with studies based on empirical evidence. However, from a dynamical point-of-view, atmospheric circulation changes related to an increase in high-latitude zonal wind speed simulated by the regional climate model are consistent with numerical modelling studies addressing changes in greenhouse gas concentrations. Our results indicate that besides the direct effect of greenhouse gas changes, large-scale changes in atmospheric circulation and sea surface temperatures also exert an influence on temperature and precipitation changes in southern South America. These combined changes in turn affect the relationship between

  16. 5 CFR Appendix II to Part 1201 - Appropriate Regional or Field Office for Filing Appeals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appropriate Regional or Field Office for Filing Appeals II Appendix II to Part 1201 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES Pt. 1201, App. II Appendix II to Part 1201—Appropriate Regional or Field Office for Filing...

  17. Explaining the Ordinary Magic of Stable African Multilingualism in the Vaal Triangle Region in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coetzee-Van Rooy, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The academic and public debates about language maintenance and language shift in the post-1994 South Africa distract attention from the more productive and important endeavour of explaining the nature of the multilingualism observed among users of African languages in urban contexts. An explanation for this phenomenon is offered here, based on…

  18. Challenges in Services to the South Pacific Region for International Nongovernmental Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdsworth, J. K.; Winkley, B.

    1990-01-01

    Establishing community-based rehabilitation projects for visually impaired populations in developing countries in the South Pacific presents challenges in communication, logistics, security, and other factors. Program development must consider differences in geography, population distribution, resources, cultural and religious values, and needs.…

  19. Demography and Socio-Economic Characteristics of South Dakota and lts Economic Regions. Bulletin Number 120.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, W. H.

    The information about South Dakota presented in this booklet is intended for use by both private and government sector planners and decisionmakers at every level who would profit from knowledge of the character of the underlying trends and forces at work within the State. The first half of the booklet is devoted to the State in general: History…

  20. Characterization of the seasonal cycle of south Asian aerosols: A Regional-Scale Modeling Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Adhikary, Bhupesh; Carmichael, Gregory; Tang, Youhua; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Qian, Yun; Schauer, James J.; Stone, Elizabeth A.; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran; Ramana, Muvva V.

    2007-11-07

    The STEM chemical transport model is used to study the aerosol distribution, composition and seasonality over South Asia from September 2004 to August 2005. Model predictions of sulfate, black carbon, primary organic carbon, other anthropogenic particulate matter, wind blown mineral dusts and sea salt are compared at two sites in South Asia where year long experimental observations are available from the Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC) Project. The model predictions are able to capture both the magnitude and seasonality of aerosols over Hanimaadhoo Observatory, Maldives. However, the model is not able to explain the seasonality at the Kathmandu Observatory; but the model does capture Kathmandu’s observed annual mean concentration. The absence of seasonal brick kiln emissions within Kathmandu valley in the current inventory is a probable reason for this problem. This model study reveals high anthropogenic aerosol loading over the Ganges valley even in the monsoonal months, which needs to be corroborated by experimental observations. Modeling results also show a high dust loading over South Asia with a distinct seasonality. Model results of aerosol monthly composition are also presented at 5 cities in South Asia. Total and fine mode aerosol optical depth along with contribution from each aerosol species is presented; the results show that the anthropogenic fraction dominates in the dry season with major contributions from sulfate and absorbing aerosols. Finally comparison with observations show that model improvements are needed in the treatment of aerosol dry and wet removal processes and increase in sulfate production via heterogeneous pathways.

  1. MONITORING REGIONAL-SCALE HYDROLOGIC PROCESSES IN THE SOUTH FLORIDA ECOSYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall goal of the research project is to develop new approaches to monitor and predict hydrologic processes in the South Florida ecosystem. The processes to be studied include: (1) the patterns of overland surface flow and freshwater estuarine inflow in southwestern Florida...

  2. Farm Family Adaptations to Severe Economic Distress: South Dakota. Results of the 1989 Regional Farm Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Ronald G.; Stover, Penny W.

    During the farm crisis of the 1980s, many midwestern farm families suffered financial distress, but by 1989 an uneven financial recovery was under way. This report summarizes data collected from 207 South Dakota farm operators (a 29.6% response) and 182 spouses (a 26% response) as part of large survey conducted in 12 North Central states. The…

  3. Sensitivity of systematic biases in South Asian summer monsoon simulations to regional climate model domain size and implications for downscaled regional process studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmacharya, J.; Levine, R. C.; Jones, R.; Moufouma-Okia, W.; New, M.

    2015-07-01

    Global climate models (GCMs) have good skill in simulating climate at the global scale yet they show significant systematic errors at regional scale. For example, many GCMs exhibit significant biases in South Asian summer monsoon (SASM) simulations. Those errors not only limit application of such GCM output in driving regional climate models (RCMs) over these regions but also raise questions on the usefulness of RCMs derived from those GCMs. We focus on process studies where the RCM is driven by realistic lateral boundary conditions from atmospheric re-analysis which prevents remote systematic errors from influencing the regional simulation. In this context it is pertinent to investigate whether RCMs also suffer from similar errors when run over regions where their parent models show large systematic errors. Furthermore, the general sensitivity of the RCM simulation to domain size is informative in understanding remote drivers of systematic errors in the GCM and in choosing a suitable RCM domain that minimizes those errors. We investigate Met Office Unified Model systematic errors in SASM by comparing global and regional model simulations with targeted changes to the domain and forced with atmospheric re-analysis. We show that excluding remote drivers of systematic errors from the direct area of interest allows the application of RCMs for process studies of the SASM, despite the large errors in the parent global model. The findings in this study are also relevant to other models, many of which suffer from a similar pattern of systematic errors in global model simulations of the SASM.

  4. Ground-based instrumentation for measurements of atmospheric conduction current and electric field at the South Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrne, G. J.; Benbrook, J. R.; Bering, E. A.; Few, A. A.; Morris, G. A.; Trabucco, W. J.; Paschal, E. W.

    1993-01-01

    Attention is given to instruments constructed to measure the atmospheric conduction current and the atmospheric electric field - two fundamental parameters of the global-electric circuit. The instruments were deployed at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station in January 1991 and are designed to operate continuously for up to one year without operator intervention. The atmospheric current flows into one hemisphere, through the electronics where it is measured, and out the other hemisphere. The electric field is measured by a field mill of the rotating dipole type. Sample data from the first days of operation at the South Pole indicate variations in the global circuit over time scales from minutes to hours to days.

  5. Clay minerals as indicators for depositional environment in the south Hallettsville Field, Lavaca County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Freed, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    The South Hallettsville Field, Lavaca County, Texas, produces gas and condensate from Lower Wilcox sandstones and shales which have been interpreted as either channel turbidite deposits in outer-shelf to slope locations or as delta to pro-delta sands and muds. Thirteen core samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction methods to determine whether a semiquantitative estimate of clay mineral content would aid in determining the depositional environment. Discrete illite, kaolinite, and chlorite are of particular interest because the presence of these minerals is interpreted as being due to original deposition. If a turbidity-type event occurred, the weight percents of nondiagenetic clays in this sequence should: (1) decrease significantly as the boundary is crossed between the shale and the overlying sandstone; and (2) gradually increase in progressively shallower samples within the sandstone. However, the weight percents for kaolinite and chlorite do not vary significantly; the illite content gradually decreases with shallower depths. This sequence is more compatible with a deltaic environment of deposition. 10 references.

  6. South Harmony Church field, Southwest Louisiana - Further insights on uppermost Wilcox shelf-margin trend

    SciTech Connect

    Belvedere, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    The uppermost Wilcox Group (Eocene) in the South Harmony Church field is a 2,000-ft thick sequence of single and multistory sandstones and shales. Cores of three separate intervals from four different wells display sedimentologic and lithologic features characteristic of inner shelf and shoreface deposition, representing an offshore bar complex. Typical lithofacies assemblages within an interval include, from top to bottom, (1) bioturbated, muddy sandstone--inner shelf, (2) less bioturbated, arenaceous sandstone--mostly inner shelf, (3) structureless to faintly horizontally laminated sandstone--mostly lower shoreface, and (4) horizontal to cross-laminated, and commonly deformed sandstone with shale and siltstone interbeds--lower surface. Sandstones are fine to very fine-grained, poorly to moderately well-sorted sublitharenites. Optimum reservoir quality is observed in the bioturbated, clean sandstones of the self-shoreface transition zone, where porosity ranges from 5 to 23% and permeability from less than 0.01 to 31 md. Porosity is mostly secondary and attributed to the leaching of labile constituents.

  7. A SEARCH FOR FIELD HORIZONTAL-BRANCH STARS NEAR THE SOUTH GALACTIC POLE

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, R.; Wilhelm, R.; Costa, R. D. D.; Rossi, S.

    2010-03-15

    Searches for field horizontal-branch (FHB) stars in the halo of the Galaxy in the past have been carried out by several techniques, such as objective-prism surveys and visual or infrared photometric surveys. By choosing adequate color criteria, it is possible to improve the efficiency of identifying bona fide FHB stars among the other objects that exhibit similar characteristics, such as main-sequence A-stars, blue stragglers, subdwarfs, etc. In this work, we report the results of a spectroscopic survey carried out near the south Galactic pole intended to validate FHB stars originally selected from the HK objective-prism survey of Beers and colleagues, based on near-infrared color indices. A comparison between the stellar spectra obtained in this survey with theoretical stellar atmosphere models allows us to determine T {sub eff}, log g, and [Fe/H] for 13 stars in the sample. Stellar temperatures were calculated from measured (B - V) {sub o}, when this measurement was available (16 stars). The color index criteria adopted in this work are shown to correctly classify 30% of the sample as FHB, 25% as non-FHB (main-sequence stars and subdwarfes), whereas 40% could not be distinguished between FHB and main-sequence stars. We compare the efficacy of different color criteria in the literature intended to select FHB stars, and discuss the use of the Mg II 4481 line to estimate the metallicity.

  8. X-ray Evolution of Normal Galaxies in the 6 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmer, Bret; Basu-Zych, Antara; Mineo, Stefano; Brandt, W. Niel; Eufrasio, Rafael T.; Fragos, Tassos; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Luo, Bin; Xue, Yongquan; Bauer, Franz E.; Gilfanov, Marat; Kalogera, Vassiliki; Ranalli, Piero; Schneider, Donald P.; Shemmer, Ohad; Tozzi, Paolo; Trump, Jonathan R.; Vignali, Cristian; Wang, JunXian; Yukita, Mihoko; Zezas, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    I will discuss recent efforts to quantify the evolution of X-ray binary (XRB) populations through cosmic time using the 6 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) survey. The formation of XRBs is sensitive to galaxy properties like stellar age and metallicity---properties that have evolved significantly in the broader galaxy population throughout cosmic history. I will show that scaling relations between X-ray emission from low-mass XRBs (LMXBs) with stellar mass (LX/M) and high-mass XRBs (HMXBs) with star-formation rate (LX/SFR) change significantly with redshift, such that LX(LMXB)/M ~ (1+z)^2-3 and LX(HMXB)/SFR ~ (1+z). These findings are consistent with population synthesis models, which attribute the increase in LMXB and HMXB scaling relations with redshift as being due to declining host galaxy stellar ages and metallicities, respectively. These findings have important implications for the X-ray emission from young, low-metallicity galaxies at high redshift, which are likely to be more X-ray luminous per SFR and play a significant role in the heating of the intergalactic medium.

  9. GIS-based technology for marine geohazards in LW3-1 Gas Field of the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Tianyun; Liu, Lejun; Li, Xishuang; Hu, Guanghai; Liu, Haixing; Zhou, Lin

    2013-04-01

    The exploration and exploitation of deep-water oil-gas are apt to be suffered from high-risk geo-hazards such as submarine landslide, soft clay creep, shallow gas, excess pore-water pressure, mud volcano or mud diaper, salt dome and so on. Therefore, it is necessary to survey the seafloor topography, identify the unfavourable geological risks and investigate their environment and mechanism before exploiting the deep-water oil-gas. Because of complex environment, the submarine phenomenon and features, like marine geohazards, can not be recognized directly. Multi-disciplinary data are acquired and analysed comprehensively in order to get more clear understanding about the submarine processes. The data include multi-beam bathymetry data, sidescan sonar images, seismic data, shallow-bottom profiling images, boring data, etc.. Such data sets nowadays increase rapidly to large amounts, but may be heterogeneous and have different resolutions. It is difficult to make good management and utilization of such submarine data with traditional means. GIS technology can provide efficient and powerful tools or services in such aspects as spatial data management, processing, analysis and visualization. They further promote the submarine scientific research and engineering development. The Liwan 3-1 Gas Field, the first deep-water gas field in China, is located in the Zhu II Depression in the Zhujiang Basin along the continental slope of the northern South China Sea. The exploitation of this field is designed to establish subsea wellhead and to use submarine pipeline for the transportation of oil. The deep-water section of the pipeline route in the gas field is to be selected to pass through the northern continental slope of the South China Sea. To avoid huge economic loss and ecological environmental damage, it is necessary to evaluate the geo-hazards for the establishment and safe operation of the pipeline. Based on previous scientific research results, several survey cruises have

  10. Organochlorine insecticide and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in martens and fishers from the Algonquin region of south-central Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Steeves, T.; Strickland, M. ); Frank, R.; Rasper, J. ); Douglas, C.W.

    1991-03-01

    Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine insecticides (OCI) has been restricted in the Province of Ontario, Canada, since 1971. This study reports on OCI and PCB levels in two carnivores, fishers (Martes pennanti) and martens (Martes americana), collected in the Algonquin Region of south-central Ontario in 1976 and 1981, and compares them to data collected for the same species in the same area in 1972-74. Algonquin Region is a forested area of 43,000 km{sup 2} on the Precambrian shield, and has no major industrial or agricultural development. Except for DDT, which was used in the 1950's and 1960's to control biting insects around tourist establishments, there has been little use of OCIs or PCBs in this area. Their occurrence in the Algonquin Region is most likely due to atmospheric transport.

  11. Variations of a gradient of potential electrical field in the south of East Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krechetov, A. A.; Shamansky, U. V.

    2006-02-01

    In work the daily variations of a gradient of potential of an atmosphere electrical field close pulp and paper mill (Baikalsk region) and in the Lake Baikal are analyzed. For the analysis the results of measurements of a gradient of potential in seven items located on various distance from a source of pollution, on the same technique are used. Three are revealed such as a daily course of a gradient of potential, which are substantially caused by transformation of emissions by local winds in area of the lake Baikal. Spectral and components the analysis of results of measurements has allowed to reveal 2-nd and 7 hour periods of fluctuations.

  12. Integrated Assessments of the Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture: An Overview of AgMIP Regional Research in South Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDermid, Sonali P.; Dileepkumar, Guntuku; Murthy, K. M. Dakshina; Nedumaran, S.; Singh, Piara; Srinivasa, Chukka; Gangwar, B.; Subash, N.; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Zubair, Lareef; Nissanka, S. P.

    2015-01-01

    South Asia encompasses a wide and highly varied geographic region, and includes climate zones ranging from the mountainous Himalayan territory to the tropical lowland and coastal zones along alluvial floodplains. The region's climate is dominated by a monsoonal circulation that heralds the arrival of seasonal rainfall, upon which much of the regional agriculture relies. The spatial and temporal distribution of this rainfall is, however, not uniform over the region. Northern South Asia, central India, and the west coast receive much of their rainfall during the southwest monsoon season, between June and September. These rains partly result from the moisture transport accompanying the monsoonal winds, which move in the southwesterly direction from the equatorial Indian Ocean. Regions further south, such as south/southeast India and Sri Lanka, may receive rains from both the southwest monsoon, and also during the northeast monsoon season between October and December (with northeasterly monsoon wind flow and moisture flux), which results in a bi- or multi-modal rainfall distribution. In addition, rainfall across South Asia displays a large amount of intraseasonal and interannual variability. Interannual variability is influenced by many drivers, both natural (e.g., El Ni-Southern Oscillation; ENSO) and man-made (e.g., rising temperatures due to increasing greenhouse gas concentrations), and it is challenging to obtaining accurate time-series of annual rainfall, even amongst various observed data products, which display inconsistencies amongst themselves. These climatic and rainfall variations can further complicate South Asia's agricultural and water management. Agriculture employs at least 65 of the workforce in most South Asian countries, and nearly 80 of South Asia's poor inhabit rural areas. Understanding the response of current agricultural production to climate variability and future climate change is of utmost importance in securing food and livelihoods for

  13. Ground-water resources of the south metropolitan Atlanta region, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, John S.; Peck, Michael F.

    1991-01-01

    Ground-water resources of the nine county south metropolitan Atlanta region were evaluated in response to an increased demand for water supplies and concern that existing surface water supplies may not be able to meet future supply demands. Previous investigations have suggested that crystalline rock in the study area has low permeability and can not sustain well yields suitable for public supply. However, the reported yield for 406 wells drilled into crystalIine rock units in this area ranged from less than 1 to about 700 gallons per minute, and averaged 43 gallons per minute. The reported flow from 13 springs ranged from 0.5 to 679 gallons per minute. The yield of 43 wells and flow from five springs was reported to exceed 100 gallons per minute. Most of the high-yielding wells and springs were near contact zones between rocks of contrasting lithologic and weathering properties. The high-yielding wells and springs are located in a variety of topographic settings: hillsides, upland draws, and hilltops were most prevalent. The study area, which includes Henry, Fayette, Coweta, Spalding, Lamar, Pike, Meriwether, Upson and Talbot Counties, is within the Piedmont physiographic province except for the southernmost part of Talbot County, which is in the Coastal Plain physiographic province. In the Piedmont, ground-water storage occurs in joints, fractures and other secondary openings in the bedrock, and in pore spaces in the regolith. The most favorable geologic settings for siting highyielding wells are along contact zones between rocks of contrasting lithology and permeability, major zones of fracturing such as the Towaliga and Auchumpkee fault zones, and other numerous shear and microbreccia zones. Although most wells in the study area are from 101 to 300 feet deep, the highest average yields were obtained from wells 51 to 100 feet deep, and 301 to 500 feet deep. Of the wells inventoried, the average diameter of well casing was largest for wells located on hills and

  14. ESO imaging survey. Deep public survey: Multi-color optical data for the Chandra Deep Field South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnouts, S.; Vandame, B.; Benoist, C.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; da Costa, L.; Schirmer, M.; Mignani, R. P.; Slijkhuis, R.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Hook, R.; Madejsky, R.; Rité, C.; Wicenec, A.

    2001-11-01

    This paper presents multi-passband optical data obtained from observations of the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S), located at alpha ~ 3h 32m, delta ~ -27o 48'. The observations were conducted at the ESO/MPG 2.2 m telescope at La Silla using the 8kx8k Wide-Field Imager (WFI). This data set, taken over a period of one year, represents the first field to be completed by the ongoing Deep Public Survey (DPS) being carried out as a part of the ESO Imaging Survey (EIS) project. This paper describes the optical observations, the techniques employed for un-supervised pipeline processing and the general characteristics of the final data set. Image processing has been performed using multi-resolution image decomposition techniques adapted to the EIS pipeline. The automatic processing steps include standard de-bias and flat-field, automatic removal of satellite tracks, de-fringing/sky-subtraction, image stacking/mosaicking and astrometry. Stacking of dithered images is carried out using pixel-based astrometry which enables the efficient removal of cosmic rays and image defects, yielding remarkably clean final images. The final astrometric calibration is based on a pre-release of the GSC-II catalog and has an estimated intrinsic accuracy of la 0.10 arcsec, with all passbands sharing the same solution. The paper includes data taken in six different filters (U'UBVRI). The data cover an area of about 0.25 square degrees reaching 5sigma limiting magnitudes of U'AB=26.0, UAB=25.7, BAB=26.4, VAB=25.4, RAB=25.5 and IAB= 24.7 mag, as measured within a 2 x FWHM aperture. The optical data covers an area of ~ 0.1 square degrees for which moderately deep observations in two near-infrared bands are also available, reaching 5sigma limiting magnitudes of JAB ~ 23.4 and KAB ~ 22.6. The current optical/infrared data also fully encompass the region of the deep X-ray observations recently completed by the Chandra telescope. The optical data presented here, as well as the infrared data released

  15. Impacts of Humic Injection Experiments on the South Oyster Field Research Site

    SciTech Connect

    John F. McCarthy

    2004-04-27

    A closure plan for the South Oyster Focus Area (SOFA) is being implemented to assess the impacts of a series of experimental injections of microorganisms, tracers and chemical amendments on the chemical and physical properties of the aquifer. The proposed research addresses environmental monitoring of humic substances injected into the aquifer, as described in the Site Closure Plan for the South Oyster Field Research Site. The goal of the research is to demonstrate that the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the groundwater at and downgradient from the injection site has returned to a pre-injection �baseline� conditions with respect to either the concentration or chemical composition of the DOM. For clarity, the humic solution injected during the experiment will be referred to as �humic injectate.� The term �DOM� will refer to the organic material recovered in the groundwater, which includes the autochthonous groundwater DOM as well as any of the humic injectate remaining in the groundwater. Specific objectives include: � Estimate the amount of humic material remaining in the aquifer at the completion of the push-pull experiment and the potential for environmental impacts due to release of humics retained on the sediments. � Monitor the DOM concentrations in groundwater over time at the injection well and at sampling locations within the potential downgradient plume of the injected tracers. � Evaluate the chemical composition of the DOM to determine whether the injection experiment had an impact of the chemical properties of the aquifer. The product of this research will be a contribution to the Site Closure Report documenting the impact of the humic experiments on the aquifer. Return of the aquifer to a �baseline� conditions will be achieved if the DOM concentrations in the groundwater are determined over the course of the research to have decreased to the pre-injection level, or if the chemical properties of

  16. Assessment of the performance of CORDEX-South Asia experiments for monsoonal precipitation over the Himalayan region during present climate: part I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimire, S.; Choudhary, A.; Dimri, A. P.

    2015-07-01

    Analysis of regional climate simulations to evaluate the ability of 11 Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment in South Asia experiments (CORDEX-South Asia) along with their ensemble to produce precipitation from June to September (JJAS) over the Himalayan region have been carried out. These suite of 11 combinations come from 6 regional climate models (RCMs) driven with 10 initial and boundary conditions from different global climate models and are collectively referred here as 11 CORDEX South Asia experiments. All the RCMs use a similar domain and are having similar spatial resolution of 0.44° (~50 km). The set of experiments are considered to study precipitation sensitivity associated with the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) over the study region. This effort is made as ISM plays a vital role in summertime precipitation over the Himalayan region which acts as driver for the sustenance of habitat, population, crop, glacier, hydrology etc. In addition, so far the summer monsoon precipitation climatology over the Himalayan region has not been studied with the help of CORDEX data. Thus this study is initiated to evaluate the ability of the experiments and their ensemble in reproducing the characteristics of summer monsoon precipitation over Himalayan region, for the present climate (1970-2005). The precipitation climatology, annual precipitation cycles and interannual variabilities from each simulation have been assessed against the gridded observational dataset: Asian Precipitation-Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards the Evaluation of Water Resources for the given time period. Further, after the selection of the better performing experiment the frequency distribution of precipitation was also studied. In this study, an approach has also been made to study the degree of agreement among individual experiments as a way to quantify the uncertainty among them. The experiments though show a wide variation among themselves and individually over

  17. Establishment of the South-Eastern Norway Regional Health Authority Resource Center for Children with Prenatal Alcohol/Drug Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Løhaugen, Gro C. C.; Flak, Marianne Møretrø; Gerstner, Thorsten; Sundberg, Cato; Lerdal, Bjørn; Skranes, Jon

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new initiative in the South-Eastern Health Region of Norway to establish a regional resource center focusing on services for children and adolescents aged 2–18 years with prenatal exposure to alcohol or other drugs. In Norway, the prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum (FAS) is not known but has been estimated to be between 1 and 2 children per 1000 births, while the prevalence of prenatal exposure to illicit drugs is unknown. The resource center is the first of its kind in Scandinavia and will have three main objectives: (1) provide hospital staff, community health and child welfare personnel, and special educators with information, educational courses, and seminars focused on the identification, diagnosis, and treatment of children with a history of prenatal alcohol/drug exposure; (2) provide specialized health services, such as diagnostic services and intervention planning, for children referred from hospitals in the South-Eastern Health Region of Norway; and (3) initiate multicenter studies focusing on the diagnostic process and evaluation of interventions. PMID:26692762

  18. The 17 July 2006 Tsunami Along the South Coast of Java, Indonesia: Field Survey and Near Field Tsunami Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavigne, F.; Gomez, C.; Hebert, H.; Sladen, A.; Schindele, F.; Mardiatno, D.; Priyono, J.; Giffo, M.; Wassmer, P.

    2006-12-01

    The 17th July 2006, a tsunami struck the southern coast of Java, Indonesia. The triggering earthquake at 15:19 WIB was located about 200 km south from Pangandaran (9°24S-117°36E), with a magnitude reaching M_w = 7.7. In order to calibrate numerical models, field surveys were conducted by a team divided into threee groups - from the French CNRS and the Indonesian Research Center for Disasters - from Pangandaran district in West Java to Gunungkidul district in Central Java. The surveys began the day after the tsunami and lasted more than one month. Data collection involved measurements of the wave height and runup, inundation depth, flow direction, and chronology of the tsunami event. Two main waves were reported by eyewitnesses' accounts. The second wave reached locally 8 to 11 m high before its breaking at several sites. Depending on the nearshore topography, this wave broke either nearshore, on the beaches or up to 100 meters inland. Local runups up to 15 m asl were measured on cliffs at Nusa Kambangan Island. Inundation depth usually ranged 2 to 3 m from ground. The tsunami arrival time has been recorded precisely at several locations owing to good recorders: a clock which stopped working when struck by the tsunami, pictures taken by testimonies, or a video movie at the Cilacap power plant construction. The first wave reached the whole coast between Pangandaran and pantai Ayah between 16:15 and 16:20 WIB, one hour after the earthquake. Further East, Baron Beach in Central Java was struck around 16:30 WIB, and the tide gauge at Benoa (Bali) recorded the tsunami at 17:00 WIB. We discuss the source of the tsunami in trying several seismological models used to trigger the waves and compute their impact onland. We particularly stress on the tsunami effect in the Cilacap area where detailed bathymetric and topographic data have been used to refine the modeling. When compared to the high amplitudes measured, the results provide indications on the most realistic source

  19. [Risk of transmission of cholera by fish products: regional perspective in South America].

    PubMed

    Quevedo, F; Arámbulo, P; Escalante, J A; Estupiñán, J; Almeida, C; Cuellar, J

    1997-08-01

    Cholera returned to South America in January 1991, after almost a century of absence. The hygienic status of the countries affected, aggravated by economic and political difficulties, allowed the disease to spread rapidly. In Peru, fishery products were incriminated from the outset, although without conclusive evidence. However, epidemiological and laboratory findings in other countries have confirmed the transmission of the disease by these products. The authors discuss the effects of the recent cholera epidemic on the trade and consumption of fishery products in countries of South America. The actual risk of cholera transmission by food and in particular by the consumption of fishery products is discussed, and a basis for conducting an accurate evaluation of these risks is proposed. Finally, the authors summarise the measures recommended to prevent the transmission of cholera by fishery products. PMID:9580317

  20. Basement structures of East and South China Seas and adjacent regions from gravity inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Dongliang; Ke, Xiaoping; Wang, Yong

    2016-03-01

    The satellite-derived gravity gives us an opportunity to investigate the basement structures of the East and South China Seas since the satellite gravimetry could provide large scale gravity data with high resolution of 1 arc-min by 1 arc-min. We isolate the residual gravity anomaly corresponding to the basement by subtracting the gravity anomalies of sediments and Moho undulations from satellite-derived free-air gravity anomalies. Two methods, namely gravity inversion method and convolution method based on flexure isostasy model, are used to calculate the Moho undulations in order to guarantee the accuracy of the Moho undulations since it occupies large percentages of the gravity anomalies. We invert the isolated gravity anomaly for the basement depths of East and South China Seas and adjacent areas with resolution of 1 arc-min by 1 arc-min. The basement depths of East and South China Seas range from 0.5 km to 12 km and the Moho depths vary between 6 km and 32 km. The basement topography reveals many tectonic depressions and two spreading axes concealed by the sediments, which are unseen in the bathymetry. The two spreading axes correspond to the spreading ridges derived from magnetic anomaly and the SW-NE oriented spreading axis extends SW much farther than that identified from magnetic anomaly, almost reaching to the Nam Con Son Basin. We also find that the faults constrain the distributions of basement depressions since the faults usually lie along the places where large changes of basement depth take place. Reversely, the basement map could be used to identify the unknown faults. Besides, according to the four profiles in the East and South China Seas, the mirror-image relation was found between the basement topography and the underlying Moho undulations that when the basement depth increases or decreases, the corresponding Moho depth decreases or increases.

  1. Birth defects and household water supply. Epidemiological studies in the Mount Gambier region of South Australia.

    PubMed

    Scragg, R K; Dorsch, M M; McMichael, A J; Baghurst, P A

    We report a descriptive study indicating a localised excess of congenital malformations in Mount Gambier, South Australia, and summary results of a subsequent case-control study showing an association between the occurrence of congenital malformations and the consumption of underground water by pregnant women. The internal cohesion of the data analyses, and the plausibility conferred by experimental evidence, suggests that the underground water, and its elevated concentration of nitrates, may warrant further consideration as a source of human teratogens. PMID:7162445

  2. Rapid identification of female Culexmosquito species using Expert System in the South East Asian region

    PubMed Central

    Murty, Upadhyayula Suryanarayana; Kumar, Duvvuri Venkata Rama Satya; Rao, Mutheneni Srinivasa; Reuben, Rachel; Tewari, Satish Chandra; Hiriyan, J; Akiyama, J; Akavaram, Deepa

    2005-01-01

    Rapid identification of mosquito (vector) species is critical for vector control and disease management. Pictorial keys of mosquito species are currently used for the identification of new mosquito species. However, this approach is not very effective. Here, we describe the use of an ID3 algorithm (part of artificial intelligence) for the rapid identification of the South East Asian female Culex mosquito species. Availability http://www.envisiict.org/ PMID:17597850

  3. Laboratory study of diffusion region with electron energization during high guide field reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, K.; Inoue, S.; Kamio, S.; Watanabe, T. G.; Ushiki, T.; Guo, X.; Sugawara, T.; Matsuyama, K.; Kawakami, N.; Yamada, T.; Inomoto, M.; Ono, Y.

    2015-10-01

    Floating potential profile was measured around the X-point during high guide field reconnection in UTST merging experiment where the ratio of guide field ( Bg ) to reconnecting magnetic field ( Brec ) is Bg/Brec>10 . Floating potential measurement revealed that a quadrupole structure of electric potential is formed around the X-point during the fast reconnection phase due to the polarization by inductive electric field. Also, our floating potential measurement revealed the existence of parallel electric field in the vicinity of the X-point. While field-aligned components of inductive electric field ( E∥ind ) and electrostatic electric field ( E∥es ) cancel out with each other away from the X-point, E∥ind exceeds E∥es around the X-point, indicating the deviation from ideal MHD criterion within the region. The diffusion region extends in the outflow region and the scale length of region is an order of ion skin depth, which is quite different from the VTF experiment result. Based on the measured magnetic field and electric field profile, our particle trajectory analysis indicates that fast electrons with energies over 300 eV are produced within 1 μs around the X-point in the non-ideal MHD region. These results indicate that production of fast electrons or electron heating are expected to be observed in the vicinity of the X-point.

  4. Simulations of Tsunami Hazard from Regional Sources in the South China and Adjoining Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalligeris, N.; Synolakis, C. E.; Okal, E. A.

    2008-12-01

    We examine the tsunami potential from sources located in the South China Sea and its adjoining basins, the Sulu and Sulawezi Seas, by running simulations using the MOST code for a number of scenarios of possible earthquakes at the various local subduction zones. In the Sulawezi Sea, we consider the events of 1918 at the Mindanao subduction zone, and 1996 at the Northern end of the Makassar Strait. In the Sulu Sea, we consider a scenario inspired by the 1948 Panay earthquake (because of the fractured nature of the plate system in those areas, it is not feasible to consider much larger earthquakes). In all three cases, we find that the tsunami is contained within the relevant marginal sea and does not penetrate significantly the greater South China Basin, but could cause significant damage to the Eastern coast of Borneo. Farther North, we consider as worst case scenarios events reaching 10**29 dyn*cm with rupture lengths of 400 km, both off Luzon Island and, under a slightly different geometry, off the Luzon Straits separating the Philippines and Taiwan. Such scenarios carry very significant hazard to all coastlines bordering the South China Sea, including Indochina and Borneo. We will also present models of landslide-generated tsunamis, inspired from the event of 14 February 1934 off the Luzon Strait, and the presumably Holocene Brunei mega-slide.

  5. Tsunami Simulations for Regional Sources in the South China and Adjoining Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalligeris, N.; Okal, E. A.; Synolakis, C. E.

    2009-04-01

    The tsunami potential from sources located in the South China Sea and its adjoining basins, Sulu and Sulawesi Seas, is examined. Tsunami numerical modeling was performed using the MOST code [Titov and Synolakis, 1998] for a number of possible earthquake scenarios at the various local subduction zones. For the Sulawesi Sea, we consider the events of 1918 at the Mindanao subduction zone, and the 1996 at the Northern end of the Makassar Strait. For the Sulu Sea, we consider a scenario inspired by the 1948 Panay earthquake (because of the fractured nature of the plate system in those areas, it is not feasible to consider much larger earthquakes). Tsunami simulations of these events show that the tsunami is contained within the relevant marginal seas and does not penetrate significantly the greater South China Basin. However, tsunami hazard that could cause significant damage was found for the Eastern coast of Borneo. Farther North, we consider as worst case scenarios events reaching 10**29 dyn*cm with rupture lengths of 400 km, both off Luzon Island and, under a slightly different geometry, off the Luzon Straits separating the Philippines and Taiwan. These scenarios show very significant hazard to all coastlines bordering the South China Sea, including Indochina and Borneo. Finally, two landslide-generated tsunami scenarios are presented, inspired from the event of 14 February 1934 off the Luzon Strait, and the presumably Holocene Brunei mega-slide.

  6. Retrospective seroepidemiological study of chikungunya infection in South Asia, Southeast Asia and the Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Ngwe Tun, M M; Inoue, S; Thant, K Z; Talemaitoga, N; Aryati, A; Dimaano, E M; Matias, R R; Buerano, C C; Natividad, F F; Abeyewickreme, W; Thuy, N T T; Mai, L T Q; Hasebe, F; Hayasaka, D; Morita, K

    2016-08-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Ross River virus (RRV) of the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae are mainly transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and the symptoms they cause in patients are similar to dengue. A chikungunya (CHIK) outbreak re-emerged in several Asian countries during 2005-2006. This study aimed to clarify the prevalence of CHIKV infection in suspected dengue patients in six countries in South Asia and Southeast Asia. Seven hundred forty-eight serum samples were from dengue-suspected patients in South Asia and Southeast Asia, and 52 were from patients in Fiji. The samples were analysed by CHIKV IgM capture ELISA, CHIKV IgG indirect ELISA and focus reduction neutralization test against CHIKV or RRV. CHIK-confirmed cases in South Asia, particularly Myanmar and Sri Lanka, were 4·6%, and 6·1%, respectively; and in Southeast Asia, particularly Indonesia, the Philippines and Vietnam, were 27·4%, 26·8% and 25·0%, respectively. It suggests that CHIK was widely spread in these five countries in Asia. In Fiji, no CHIK cases were confirmed; however, RRV-confirmed cases represented 53·6% of suspected dengue cases. It suggests that RRV is being maintained or occasionally entering from neighbouring countries and should be considered when determining a causative agent for dengue-like illness in Fiji. PMID:27018566

  7. The cost implications of participatory research. Experience of a health services review in a rural region in South Africa

    PubMed

    Doherty; Price

    1998-03-01

    OBJECTIVES: The study objectives were to estimate the total costs incurred by a comprehensive review of primary health care services in a rural region in South Africa, and to determine which of these costs were incurred because of the participatory research techniques employed by the review. DESIGN: The costing study estimated the direct and indirect costs of each component of the review in order to determine total costs. Costs that were linked to participatory research activities were aggregated separately. SETTING: The review that was costed was conducted in an area that included the former 'homeland' KaNgwane and the adjacent areas of 'white' South Africa, in part of what is now known as Mpumalanga Province. SUBJECTS: Not relevant. OUTCOME MEASURES: Direct, indirect, total, research and participation costs were used as outcome measures. RESULTS: Expenditure generated by participatory research techniques was estimated to be almost 14% of the total (direct and indirect) costs. CONCLUSIONS: Despite these costs, participatory research techniques are invaluable in terms of the many benefits they have for a research project. However, because of these costs, it is important that the financing of participatory research should be carefully planned. Projects must budget for the direct costs of participatory techniques, participating organisations and individuals must be committed to bearing the indirect costs of participation, and, increasingly, funders must consider funding these indirect costs. This is important in the South African situation, where public health research relies increasingly on the participation of relevant stakeholders. PMID:9608312

  8. Phylogenetic analysis of the polyprotein coding region of an infectious South African bursal disease virus (IBDV) strain.

    PubMed

    Vukea, Phillia R; Willows-Munro, Sandi; Horner, Roger F; Coetzer, Theresa H T

    2014-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes Gumboro disease, which is highly contagious and immunosuppressive in young chickens. A virulent form of IBDV reached South Africa in 1989 and to date there has been little molecular information available for this strain. In this study, the polyprotein coding region of the South African strain SA-KZN95 was sequenced and analysed along with 52 representative sequences of other serotype I and II strains. We explored the relative impact of recombination on phylogenetic reconstruction using a multidimensional scaling approach. Phylogenetic analyses consistently placed the South African isolate within the very virulent IBDV clade. Selection analyses were also conducted to identify evolutionarily relevant amino acid residues. Previously, 19 residues in the polyprotein were shown to be potentially diagnostic for the different IBDV pathotypes. This study identified an additional two unique residues in the polyprotein which may be used as genetic signatures in future viral identifications. Better strain identification would aid in the development and application of vaccines. PMID:24291011

  9. 77 FR 38509 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; South Carolina; Regional Haze State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ....'' See 45 FR 80084. These regulations represented the first phase in addressing visibility impairment... promulgated a rule to address regional haze on July 1, 1999 (64 FR 35714), the Regional Haze Rule (RHR). The... address the first implementation period for regional haze.\\1\\ See 77 FR 11894. EPA proposed a...

  10. Regional-scale ecohydrological consequences of widespread forest cover in northern South-America: Amazon forest effects on atmospheric and surface water balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villegas Palacio, J. C.; Salazar, J. F.; Molina, R.; Mercado-Betin, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Vegetation plays a key role on the distribution and regulation of the water budget in multiple spatial and temporal scales. These regulation properties occur as a consequence of vegetation-mediated ecohydrological processes that result in the modification of hydrological fluxes that define water budgets in basins, ranging in size from squared meters to millions of squared kilometers. Important empirical and theoretical advances in the field of Ecohydrology have developed a robust theoretical framework to explain these interactions, particularly at local to regional scales. However, recent hypotheses have suggested that the presence of widespread-continuous forests, such as those occurring in tropical South America, plays a more active role in the regional climate, and particularly in the transport of atmospheric moisture from the ocean, eventually becoming precipitation over the continental masses. This condition, associated with the regulating role of natural vegetation on surface water balance and ecohydrological processes, produces ecohydrological and ecoclimatological effects that have important regional and potentially global implications. In this work we present preliminary observations on the relationship between the presence of widespread continouos forests in tropical South-America and the characteristics of precipitation regimes along atmospheric moisture transport pathways, through the combined use of multiple hydroclimatological and vegetation cover datasets. Further, we develop a corresponding analysis of the relationship between the forest cover and streamflow dynamics in tropical basins, using the scaling theory framework. Our preliminary observations highlight a distinguishable differentiation in precipitation regimes in atmospheric moisture pathways in forested vs. non-forested areas. Additionally, the regulating effect of tropical forests is also highlighted by differences in rainfall-runoff relationships and hydrological scaling properties of

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus type O circulating in the Andean region of South America during 2002-2008.

    PubMed

    Malirat, Viviana; Bergmann, Ingrid Evelyn; Campos, Renata de Mendonça; Salgado, Gustavo; Sánchez, Camilo; Conde, Florangel; Quiroga, José Luis; Ortiz, Salomón

    2011-08-26

    At present, Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) has been successfully controlled in most territories of South America, where only Ecuador and Venezuela remain as endemic countries. In this context, the precise characterization of circulating viruses is of utmost importance. This work describes the first molecular epidemiology study performed with the complete VP(1)-coding region of 114 field isolates of FMD virus (FMDV) type O, collected in the Andean countries mainly during 2002-2008. Sequences were aligned and compared to isolates responsible for emergencies in the Southern Cone of the continent between the years 2000 and 2006, and to other representative type O viruses worldwide. The results showed that FMD type O viruses isolated in South America and analyzed up to date are placed in 11 different lineages within the Euro SA topotype. Five of these lineages included viruses circulating in Ecuador and Venezuela during 2002-2008. The last emergencies reported in already-free areas in the Andean region, showed close relationships with viruses circulating in these endemic countries. Andean lineages showed a clear separation from the unique lineage containing viruses responsible for the emergencies in the Southern Cone, reflecting the different livestock circuits and providing evidence that support the ecosystem dynamics in the region. A wide geographical dissemination of the same strain in short time intervals has been observed, pointing to animal movements as the most significant risk parameter. This fact, together with an important generation of viral variants in areas under weak control strategies, reinforce the need of stronger official controls, as well as for establishing multinational cooperative measures in the border areas. PMID:21601999

  12. South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of South Africa was acquired on May 14, 2000, by NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS. The image was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution visible wavelength bands. As part of the opening ceremony to begin the joint U.S.-South Africa SAFARI Field Experiment, NASA presented print copies of this image as GIFts to Dr. Ben Ngubane, Minister of Arts, Science and Technology, and Honorable Advocate Ngoaka Ramathlodi, Premier of the Northern Province, South Africa. The area shown in this image encompasses seven capital cities and a number of the region's distinctive geological features can be seen clearly. Toward the northern (top) central part of the image, the browns and tans comprise the Kalahari Desert of southern Botswana. The Tropic of Capricorn runs right through the heart of the Kalahari and the Botswanan capital city of Gaborone sits on the Limpopo River, southeast of the Kalahari. Along the western coastline of the continent is the country of Namibia, where the Namib Desert is framed against the sea by the Kaokoveld Mountains. The Namibian capital of Windhoek is obscured by clouds. Looking closely in the center of the image, the Orange River can be seen running from east to west, demarcating the boundary between Namibia and South Africa. On the southwestern corner of the continent is the hook-like Cape of Good Hope peninsula and Cape Town, the parliamentary capital of South Africa. Running west to east away from Cape Town are the Great Karroo Mountains. The shadow in this image conveys a sense of the very steep grade of the cliffs along the southern coast of South Africa. Port Elizabeth sits on the southeasternmost point of South Africa, and a large phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the water about 100 miles east of there. Moving northward along the east coast, the Drakensberg Mountains are visible. The two small nations of Lesotho and Swaziland are in this region, completely

  13. Real time earthquake information and tsunami estimation system for Indonesia, Philippines and Central-South American regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulido Hernandez, N. E.; Inazu, D.; Saito, T.; Senda, J.; Fukuyama, E.; Kumagai, H.

    2015-12-01

    Southeast Asia as well as Central-South American regions are within the most active seismic regions in the world. To contribute to the understanding of source process of earthquakes the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention NIED maintains the international seismic Network (ISN) since 2007. Continuous seismic waveforms from 294 broadband seismic stations in Indonesia, Philippines, and Central-South America regions are received in real time at NIED, and used for automatic location of seismic events. Using these data we perform automatic and manual estimation of moment tensor of seismic events (Mw>4.5) by using the SWIFT program developed at NIED. We simulate the propagation of local tsunamis in these regions using a tsunami simulation code and visualization system developed at NIED, combined with CMT parameters estimated by SWIFT. The goals of the system are to provide a rapid and reliable earthquake and tsunami information in particular for large seismic, and produce an appropriate database of earthquake source parameters and tsunami simulations for research. The system uses the hypocenter location and magnitude of earthquakes automatically determined at NIED by the SeisComP3 system (GFZ) from the continuous seismic waveforms in the region, to perform the automated calculation of moment tensors by SWIFT, and then carry out the automatic simulation and visualization of tsunami. The system generates maps of maximum tsunami heights within the target regions and along the coasts and display them with the fault model parameters used for tsunami simulations. Tsunami calculations are performed for all events with available automatic SWIFT/CMT solutions. Tsunami calculations are re-computed using SWIFT manual solutions for events with Mw>5.5 and centroid depths shallower than 100 km. Revised maximum tsunami heights as well as animation of tsunami propagation are also calculated and displayed for the two double couple solutions by SWIFT

  14. Analysis of extreme climatic features over South America from CLARIS-LPB ensemble of regional climate models for future conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, E.; Zaninelli, P.; Carril, A.; Menendez, C.; Dominguez, M.

    2012-04-01

    An ensemble of seven regional climate models (RCM) included in the European CLARIS-LPB project (A Europe-South America Network for Climate Change Assessment and Impact Studies in La Plata Basin) are used to study how some features related to climatic extremes are projected to be changed by the end of XXIst century. These RCMs are forced by different IPCC-AR4 global climate models (IPSL, ECHAM5 and HadCM3), covering three different 30-year periods: present (1960-1990), near future (2010-2040) and distant future (2070-2100), with 50km of horizontal resolution. These regional climate models have previously been forced with ERA-Interim reanalysis, in a consistent procedure with CORDEX (A COordinated Regional climate Downscaling EXperiment) initiative for the South-America domain. The analysis shows a good agreement among them and the available observational databases to describe the main features of the mean climate of the continent. Here we focus our analysis on some topics of interest related to extreme events, such as the development of diagnostics related to dry-spells length, the structure of the frequency distribution functions over several subregions defined by more or less homogeneous climatic conditions (four sub-basins over the La Plata Basin, the southern part of the Amazon basin, Northeast Brazil, and the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ)), the structure of the annual cycle and their main features and relation with the length of the seasons, or the frequency of anomalous hot or cold events. One shortcoming that must be considered is the lack of observational databases with both time and spatial frequency to validate model outputs. At the same time, one challenging issue of this study is the regional modelling description of a continent where a huge variety of climates are present, from desert to mountain conditions, and from tropical to subtropical regimes. Another basic objective of this preliminary work is also to obtain a measure of the spread among

  15. HCMM energy budget data as a model input for assessing regions of high potential groundwater pollution. [South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, D. G. (Principal Investigator); Heilman, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Day thermal data were analyzed to assess depth to groundwater in the test site. HCMM apparent temperature was corrected for atmospheric effects using lake temperature of the Oahe Reservoir in central South Dakota. Soil surface temperatures were estimated using an equation developed for ground studies. A significant relationship was found between surface soil temperature and depth to groundwater, as well as between the surface soil-maximum air temperature differential and soil water content (% of field capacity) in the 0 cm and 4 cm layer of the profile. Land use for the data points consisted of row crops, small grains, stubble, and pasture.

  16. H II REGION DRIVEN GALACTIC BUBBLES AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO THE GALACTIC MAGNETIC FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Pavel, Michael D.; Clemens, D. P. E-mail: clemens@bu.edu

    2012-12-01

    The relative alignments of mid-infrared traced Galactic bubbles are compared to the orientation of the mean Galactic magnetic field in the disk. The orientations of bubbles in the northern Galactic plane were measured and are consistent with random orientations-no preferential alignment with respect to the Galactic disk was found. A subsample of H II region driven Galactic bubbles was identified, and as a single population they show random orientations. When this subsample was further divided into subthermal and suprathermal H II regions, based on hydrogen radio recombination linewidths, the subthermal H II regions showed a marginal deviation from random orientations, but the suprathermal H II regions showed significant alignment with the Galactic plane. The mean orientation of the Galactic disk magnetic field was characterized using new near-infrared starlight polarimetry and the suprathermal H II regions were found to preferentially align with the disk magnetic field. If suprathermal linewidths are associated with younger H II regions, then the evolution of young H II regions is significantly affected by the Galactic magnetic field. As H II regions age, they cease to be strongly linked to the Galactic magnetic field, as surrounding density variations come to dominate their morphological evolution. From the new observations, the ratios of magnetic-to-ram pressures in the expanding ionization fronts were estimated for younger H II regions.

  17. Land-sea contrast in lightning activity over the sea and peninsular regions of South/Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh Kumar, P.; Kamra, A. K.

    2012-11-01

    The land-sea contrast in lightning activity between three sea regions of the Arabian sea (AS), the Bay of Bengal (BB) and the Chinese sea (CS) and two land regions of the Peninsular India (PI) and the Indo-China Peninsula (IP) has been studied from the 11-year (1995 to 2005) data obtained from the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. Lightning activities in different sea regions and over different peninsular regions are also compared with each other. The values of flash rate over peninsular regions (PI and IP) are 2.6 to 33 times of those over sea regions (AS, BB, CS). Although this contrast is seen throughout the year it is more dominant in the premonsoon and postmonsoon seasons. Seasonal variations of the monthly-averaged values of the average flash rate are semiannual in all regions with one maximum in April/May and another in October. The two peaks in semiannual variations are attributed to the variation in surface air temperature. In addition, the October peak may have some contribution from the unstable thermodynamic conditions during the withdrawal phase of the summer monsoon. The annual flash rate shows an increasing trend of 1.1 to 1.2 times increase in both land and sea regions in South Asia but no significant change in the regions in Southeast Asia during the 1995-2005 period. The monthly-averaged flash rates are positively correlated with the average surface temperature and convective available potential energy (CAPE) and negatively correlated with the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), with higher correlation coefficients over peninsular regions than over the sea regions. The flashes over peninsular regions, though more frequent, are likely to be less energetic and have only 0.4 to 0.9 of the radiance that is found over the sea regions. The lowest flash rate in the AS region can be attributed to the dominance of more maritime conditions with shallower

  18. Forced and Free Intra-Seasonal Variability Over the South Asian Monsoon Region Simulated by 10 AGCMs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Man Li C.; Kang, In-Sik; Waliser, Duane; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This study examines intra-seasonal (20-70 day) variability in the South Asian monsoon region during 1997/98 in ensembles of 10 simulations with 10 different atmospheric general circulation models. The 10 ensemble members for each model are forced with the same observed weekly sea surface temperature (SST) but differ from each other in that they are started from different initial atmospheric conditions. The results show considerable differences between the models in the simulated 20-70 day variability, ranging from much weaker to much stronger than the observed. A key result is that the models do produce, to varying degrees, a response to the imposed weekly SST. The forced variability tends to be largest in the Indian and western Pacific Oceans where, for some models, it accounts for more than 1/4 of the 20-70 day intra-seasonal variability in the upper level velocity potential during these two years. A case study of a strong observed MJO (intraseasonal oscillation) event shows that the models produce an ensemble mean eastward propagating signal in the tropical precipitation field over the Indian Ocean and western Pacific, similar to that found in the observations. The associated forced 200 mb velocity potential anomalies are strongly phase locked with the precipitation anomalies, propagating slowly to the east (about 5 m/s) with a local zonal wave number two pattern that is generally consistent with the developing observed MJO. The simulated and observed events are, however, approximately in quadrature, with the simulated response 2 leading by 5-10 days. The phase lag occurs because, in the observations, the positive SST anomalies develop upstream of the main convective center in the subsidence region of the MJO, while in the simulations, the forced component is in phase with the SST. For all the models examined here, the intraseasonal variability is dominated by the free (intra-ensemble) component. The results of our case study show that the free variability has a

  19. A Search for Field Horizontal-Branch Stars Near the South Galactic Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, R.; Wilhelm, R.; Costa, R. D. D.; Rossi, S.; Beers, T. C.

    2010-03-01

    Searches for field horizontal-branch (FHB) stars in the halo of the Galaxy in the past have been carried out by several techniques, such as objective-prism surveys and visual or infrared photometric surveys. By choosing adequate color criteria, it is possible to improve the efficiency of identifying bona fide FHB stars among the other objects that exhibit similar characteristics, such as main-sequence A-stars, blue stragglers, subdwarfs, etc. In this work, we report the results of a spectroscopic survey carried out near the south Galactic pole intended to validate FHB stars originally selected from the HK objective-prism survey of Beers and colleagues, based on near-infrared color indices. A comparison between the stellar spectra obtained in this survey with theoretical stellar atmosphere models allows us to determine T eff, log g, and [Fe/H] for 13 stars in the sample. Stellar temperatures were calculated from measured (B - V) o , when this measurement was available (16 stars). The color index criteria adopted in this work are shown to correctly classify 30% of the sample as FHB, 25% as non-FHB (main-sequence stars and subdwarfes), whereas 40% could not be distinguished between FHB and main-sequence stars. We compare the efficacy of different color criteria in the literature intended to select FHB stars, and discuss the use of the Mg II 4481 line to estimate the metallicity. Based on observations obtained at the Pico dos Dias Observatory, operated by the National Laboratory for Astrophysics, Brazil.

  20. Schmallenberg virus infection in South American camelids: Field and experimental investigations.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Claudia; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2015-11-18

    During the first epizootic wave of the novel, teratogenic Schmallenberg virus (SBV, Orthobunyavirus) in ruminants in Northern Europe, serological evidence of a previous SBV-infection demonstrated that South American camelids (SAC) are also susceptible to SBV. However, their potential role in SBV spread remains unknown. To investigate the prevalence and course of SBV-infection in SAC, a German field study and an animal trial with three llamas and three alpacas were conducted. From September 2012 to December 2013, 313 of 502 SAC (62.35%) were found SBV seropositive, but negative for SBV-RNA. The estimated between-district (94.23% of 52) and median within-district (71.43%) and herd (73.13%) SBV seroprevalence in German SAC was similar to the seroprevalence reported in cattle herds and sheep flocks at the time. An age of >1 year was found a statistically significant risk factor for SBV-infection, which could be explained by the spatio-temporal spread of SBV in Germany during the study period. No clinical signs or an increase of abortion and congenital malformation associated with SBV-infection in SAC were reported by the study participants. Similar to SBV-infected ruminants, SBV-RNAemia in experimentally SBV-infected SAC was detected for a short time between days 3 and 7 after infection (dpi), and seroconversion occurred between 9 and 21 dpi. Despite the similar virological and serological results, the lack of clinical signs and congenital malformation associated with SBV-infection suggests that SBV causes subclinical infection in SAC. However, their role as reservoirs in the spread of SBV has to be further investigated. PMID:26361966

  1. Near-Field Deformation Associated with the M6.0 South Napa Earthquake Surface Rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, B. A.; Hudnut, K. W.; Glennie, C. L.; Ericksen, T.

    2014-12-01

    We characterize near-field deformation associated with the surface rupture of the M6.0 South Napa earthquake from repeat mobile laser scanning (MLS) surveys. Starting the day after the main shock, we operated, sometime simultaneously, short (~75 m range) and medium (~400m range) range laser scanners on a truck or backpack. We scanned most of the length of the principal and secondary surface ruptures at speeds less than 10 km/hr. Scanning occurred primarily in either suburban subdivisions or cultivated vineyards of varying varietals with differing leaf patterns and stages of maturity. Spot-spacing is dense enough (100s of points/m^2) to permit creation of 10-25cm digital elevation models of much of the surface rupture. Scanned features of the right-lateral rupture include classic mole tracks through a variety of soil types, en echelon cracks, offset vine rows, and myriad types of pavement-related deformation. We estimate coseismic surface displacements ranging from 5 to 45 cm by examining offset cultural features and vine rows and by comparing the MLS data with preexisting airborne laser scans from 2003 using point-cloud and solid-modeling methodologies. Additionally, we conducted repeat MLS scans to measure the magnitude and spatial variation of fault afterslip, exceeding 20 cm in some places, particularly in the southern portion of the rupture zone. We anticipate these data sets, in conjunction with independently collected ground-based alinement arrays and space-based geodetic data will contribute significant insight into topics of current debate including assessing the most appropriate material models for shallow fault zones and how shallow and deeper fault slip relate to one another.

  2. Storm time equatorial plasma bubble zonal drift reversal due to disturbance Hall electric field over the Brazilian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A. M.; Abdu, M. A.; Souza, J. R.; Sobral, J. H. A.; Batista, I. S.; Denardini, C. M.

    2016-06-01

    The dynamics of equatorial ionospheric plasma bubbles over Brazilian sector during two magnetic storm events are investigated in this work. The observations were made at varying phases of magnetic disturbances when the bubble zonal drift velocity was found to reverse westward from its normally eastward velocity. Calculation of the zonal drift based on a realistic low-latitude ionosphere modeled by the Sheffield University Plasmasphere-Ionosphere Model showed on a quantitative basis a clear competition between vertical Hall electric field and disturbance zonal winds on the variations observed in the zonal velocity of the plasma bubble. The Hall electric field arising from enhanced ratio of field line-integrated conductivities, ΣH/ΣP, is most often generated by an increase in the integrated Hall conductivity, arising from enhanced energetic particle precipitation in the South American Magnetic Anomaly region for which evidence is provided from observation of anomalous sporadic E layers over Cachoeira Paulista and Fortaleza. Such sporadic E layers are also by themselves evidence for the development of the Hall electric field that modifies the zonal drift.

  3. Bent-tailed radio sources in the australia telescope large area survey of the Chandra deep field south

    SciTech Connect

    Dehghan, S.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Franzen, T. M. O.; Norris, R. P.; Miller, N. A.

    2014-11-01

    Using the 1.4 GHz Australia Telescope Large Area Survey, supplemented by the 1.4 GHz Very Large Array images, we undertook a search for bent-tailed (BT) radio galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field South. Here we present a catalog of 56 detections, which include 45 BT sources, 4 diffuse low-surface-brightness objects (1 relic, 2 halos, and 1 unclassified object), and a further 7 complex, multi-component sources. We report BT sources with rest-frame powers in the range 10{sup 22} ≤ P {sub 1.4} {sub GHz} ≤ 10{sup 26} W Hz{sup –1}, with redshifts up to 2 and linear extents from tens of kiloparsecs up to about 1 Mpc. This is the first systematic study of such sources down to such low powers and high redshifts and demonstrates the complementary nature of searches in deep, limited area surveys as compared to shallower, large surveys. Of the sources presented here, one is the most distant BT source yet detected at a redshift of 2.1688. Two of the sources are found to be associated with known clusters: a wide-angle tail source in A3141 and a putative radio relic which appears at the infall region between the galaxy group MZ 00108 and the galaxy cluster AMPCC 40. Further observations are required to confirm the relic detection, which, if successful, would demonstrate this to be the least powerful relic yet seen with P {sub 1.4} {sub GHz} = 9 × 10{sup 22} W Hz{sup –1}. Using these data, we predict future 1.4 GHz all-sky surveys with a resolution of ∼10 arcsec and a sensitivity of 10 μJy will detect of the order of 560,000 extended low-surface-brightness radio sources of which 440,000 will have a BT morphology.

  4. Bent-tailed Radio Sources in the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey of the Chandra Deep Field South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghan, S.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Franzen, T. M. O.; Norris, R. P.; Miller, N. A.

    2014-11-01

    Using the 1.4 GHz Australia Telescope Large Area Survey, supplemented by the 1.4 GHz Very Large Array images, we undertook a search for bent-tailed (BT) radio galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field South. Here we present a catalog of 56 detections, which include 45 BT sources, 4 diffuse low-surface-brightness objects (1 relic, 2 halos, and 1 unclassified object), and a further 7 complex, multi-component sources. We report BT sources with rest-frame powers in the range 1022 <= P 1.4 GHz <= 1026 W Hz-1, with redshifts up to 2 and linear extents from tens of kiloparsecs up to about 1 Mpc. This is the first systematic study of such sources down to such low powers and high redshifts and demonstrates the complementary nature of searches in deep, limited area surveys as compared to shallower, large surveys. Of the sources presented here, one is the most distant BT source yet detected at a redshift of 2.1688. Two of the sources are found to be associated with known clusters: a wide-angle tail source in A3141 and a putative radio relic which appears at the infall region between the galaxy group MZ 00108 and the galaxy cluster AMPCC 40. Further observations are required to confirm the relic detection, which, if successful, would demonstrate this to be the least powerful relic yet seen with P 1.4 GHz = 9 × 1022 W Hz-1. Using these data, we predict future 1.4 GHz all-sky surveys with a resolution of ~10 arcsec and a sensitivity of 10 μJy will detect of the order of 560,000 extended low-surface-brightness radio sources of which 440,000 will have a BT morphology.

  5. Multi-Scale Interactions Associated with the Monsoon Onset Over South China Sea and Adjacent Regions during SCSMEX-98

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, William K. M.; Li, X.; Wu, H.-T.

    1999-01-01

    Using data collected during The South China Sea Monsoon Experiment (SCSMEX) (1998) as well as from the TRMM Microwave-Imager (TMI) and precipitation radar (PR), we have studied the multi-scale interactions (meso-synoptic-intraseasonal) associated with monsoon onset over South China Sea (SCS) and its subsequent evolution. Results show that the monsoon onset (defined by development of steady wind direction and heavy precipitation) over the northern SCS occurred around May 15 -17. Prevailing southerlies and southwesterlies developed over the central SCS after May 20. Shortly after, monsoon convection developed over the whole SCS region around May 23-27. The entire onset process appeared to be delayed by about a week to 10 days compared with climatology. During late spring of 1998, mid-latitude frontal systems were particularly active. These systems strongly impacted the northern SCS convection and may have been instrumental in triggering the onset of the SCS monsoon. The Tropical Oceans and Global Atmosphere (TOGA) and Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre (BMRC) radar showed a wide variety of convective systems over the Intensive Flux Array, from frontal bands to shear-banded structure, deep convection, pop-corn type shallow convection, slow moving "fine lines" to water spout. Analysis of SSM/I wind and moisture data suggested that the delayed convective activity over the SCS may be linked to the weakened northward propagation of monsoon rain band, hence contributing to a persistence of the rainband south of the Yangtze River and the disastrous flood that occurred over this region during mid to late June, 1998.

  6. Future changes in drought characteristics over South Korea using multi regional climate models with the standardized precipitation index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yeon-Woo; Ahn, Joong-Bae; Suh, Myoung-Seok; Cha, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Kyou; Hong, Song-You; Min, Seung-Ki; Park, Seong-Chan; Kang, Hyun-Suk

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the projection of future drought conditions is estimated over South Korea based on the latest and most advanced sets of regional climate model simulations under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) scenarios, within the context of the national downscaling project of the Republic of Korea. The five Regional Climate Models (RCMs) are used to produce climate-change simulations around the Korean Peninsula and to estimate the uncertainty associated with these simulations. The horizontal resolution of each RCM is 12.5 km and model simulations are available for historical (1981-2010) and future (2021-2100) periods under forcing from the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. To assess the characteristics of drought on multiple time scales in the future, we use Standardized Precipitation Indices for 1-month (SPI- 1), 6-month (SPI-6) and 12-month (SPI-12). The number of drought months in the future is shown to be characterized by strong variability, with both increasing and decreasing trends among the scenarios. In particular, the number of drought months over South Korea is projected to increase (decrease) for the period 2041-2070 in the RCP8.5 (RCP4.5) scenario and increase (decrease) for the period 2071-2100 in the RCP4.5 (RCP8.5) scenario. In addition, the percentage area under any drought condition is overall projected to gradually decrease over South Korea during the entire future period, with the exception of SPI-1 in the RCP4.5 scenario. Particularly, the drought areas for SPI-1 in the RCP4.5 scenario show weakly positive long-term trend. Otherwise, future changes in drought areas for SPI-6 and SPI-12 have a marked downward trend under the two RCP scenarios.

  7. Social Determinants of Cardiovascular Health among Black and White Women Residing in Stroke Belt and Buckle Regions of the South

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Sharon K.; Gebreab, Samson; Quarells, Rakale; Gibbons, Gary H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the associations of social determinants on cardiovascular health among White and Black residing in Stroke Belt (urban) and Stroke Buckle (rural) regions of the South. Design A cross-sectional observational analysis based on a random digit-dial telephone survey of a representative sample of White and Black adults residing in urban and rural Georgia conducted from 2004–2005. Separate logistic regression analyses examined the effects of social determinants on cardiovascular health within and between White and Black women and within and between urban and rural residential location. The main outcome measure was poor cardiovascular health defined as ≥2 self-reported clinical cardiovascular disease risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, elevated cholesterol, overweight or obese). Social determinants were defined as socioeconomic status (SES), general daily stress, racial discrimination, and stress due to exposure to racial discrimination. Significance was established as a two-tailed P,.05. Results A total of 674 White and Black women aged 18–90 years were included in the sample. Results showed Black women with lower SES had worse cardiovascular health than White women in both rural and urban areas (rural odds ratio [OR] 2.68; confidence interval [CI] 1.44, 4.90; P=.001; urban OR=2.92; CI=1.62, 5.23; P=.0003). White women reporting high or very high exposure to general daily stress where more likely to have worse cardiovascular health than White women reporting very little to no daily stress (OR =2.85; CI=1.49, P5.44; P5.001). Conclusion Our findings demonstrate the importance of social determinants associated with cardiovascular health. Tailored cardiovascular risk reduction intervention is needed among lower SES Black women in Stroke Belt and Buckle regions of the South, as well as stress-reduction intervention among White women in the South. (Ethn Dis. 2014;24[2]:133–143) PMID:24804357

  8. Seismicity and Tectonics of the South Shetland Islands Region From a Combined Land-Sea Seismograph Deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, S. D.; Wiens, D. A.; Dorman, L. M.; Shore, P. J.; Vera, E.

    2001-12-01

    During 1997-1999 we deployed seven land seismometers and fourteen ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) in the South Shetland Island - Antarctic Peninsula region. The seven land stations were part of the Seismic Experiment in Patagonia and Antarctica (SEPA), and they were equipped with broadband STS-2 sensors. The OBSs were deployed between December of 1998 and May of 1999. Seven of the OBSs were equipped with broadband PMD sensors and the other seven used 1 Hz L4 sensors. Although the South Shetland Island area displays a low level of seismicity in global catalogs, our data indicates a high level of local seismicity (Mb 2-4). The combination of OBS and land station data allowed us to accurately locate more than 170 events. Subduction beneath the South Shetland Islands either slowed or stopped with the cessation of spreading at the Aluk spreading ridge 4 million years ago; our results show many earthquakes at locations and depths indicative of ongoing subduction. Earthquakes are located on both the outer rise and along the shallow thrust interface. We determined a focal mechanism for the largest shallow interface event using regional waveform inversion and found that it is indeed a thrusting event. The maximum depth of seismicity is approximately 50 km, but the majority of the events are shallower than 30 km. These seismic results are consistent with recent GPS data that suggests a subduction rate of 1 cm/yr (Taylor, personal communication, 1998). We have also located many earthquakes associated with volcanism and rifting in Bransfield Strait. Swarms of events located on a few submarine volcanoes suggest current eruptive activity. Earthquakes associated with rifting in the northeastern portion of the strait are clustered along well-established rifts that are visible in bathymetric profiles, but the seismicity is much more diffuse to the southwest where the rifts are less established. This evidence supports the hypothesis that the backarc rift is propagating from

  9. A review about the mechanisms associated with active deformation, regional uplift and subsidence in southern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folguera, Andrés; Gianni, Guido; Sagripanti, Lucía; Rojas Vera, Emilio; Novara, Iván; Colavitto, Bruno; Alvarez, Orlando; Orts, Darío; Tobal, Jonathan; Giménez, Mario; Introcaso, Antonio; Ruiz, Francisco; Martínez, Patricia; Ramos, Victor A.

    2015-12-01

    A broad range of processes acted simultaneously during the Quaternary producing relief in the Andes and adjacent foreland, from the Chilean coast, where the Pacific Ocean floor is being subducted beneath South American, to the Brazilian and the Argentinean Atlantic platform area. This picture shows to be complex and responds to a variety of processes. The Geoid exemplifies this spectrum of uplift mechanisms, since it reflects an important change at 35°S along the Andes and the foreland that could be indicating the presence of dynamic forces modeling the topography with varying intensity through the subduction margin. On the other hand, mountains uplifted in the Atlantic margin, along a vast sector of the Brazilian Atlantic coast and inland regions seem to be created at the area where the passive margin has been hyper-extended and consequently mechanically debilitated and the forearc region shifts eastwardly at a similar rate than the westward advancing continent. Therefore the forearc at the Arica latitudes can be considered as relatively stationary and dynamically sustained by a perpendicular-to-the-margin asthenospheric flow that inhibits trench roll back, determining a highly active orogenic setting at the eastern Andes in the Subandean region. To the south, the Pampean flat subduction zone creates particular conditions for deformation and rapid propagation of the orogenic front producing a high-amplitude orogen. In the southern Central and Patagonian Andes, mountain (orogenic) building processes are attenuated, becoming dominant other mechanisms of exhumation such as the i) impact of mantle plumes originated in the 660 km mantle transition, ii) the ice-masse retreat from the Andes after the Pleistocene producing an isostatic rebound, iii) the dynamic topography associated with the opening of an asthenospheric window during the subduction of the Chile ridge and slab tearing processes, iv) the subduction of oceanic swells linked to transform zones and v) the

  10. A WFC3 Grism Emission Line Redshift Catalog in the GOODS-South Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Aaron M.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Barro, Guillermo; Dahlen, Tomas; Faber, Sandra M.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Fontana, Adriano; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Grützbauch, Ruth; Guo, Yicheng; Hsu, Li-Ting; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Koo, David C.; Mobasher, Bahram; Pforr, Janine; Salvato, Mara; Wiklind, Tommy; Wuyts, Stijn

    2015-06-01

    We combine Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Wide Field Camera3 (WFC3) imaging and G141 grism observations from the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) and 3D-HST surveys to produce a catalog of grism spectroscopic redshifts for galaxies in the CANDELS/GOODS-South field. The WFC3/G141 grism spectra cover a wavelength range of 1.1≤slant λ ≤slant 1.7 μm with a resolving power of R∼ 130 for point sources, thus providing rest-frame optical spectra for galaxies out to z∼ 3.5. The catalog is selected in the H-band (F160W) and includes both galaxies with and without previously published spectroscopic redshifts. Grism spectra are extracted for all H-band detected galaxies with H ≤slant 24 and a CANDELS photometric redshift {{z}phot}≥slant 0.6. The resulting spectra are visually inspected to identify emission lines, and redshifts are determined using cross-correlation with empirical spectral templates. To establish the accuracy of our redshifts, we compare our results against high-quality spectroscopic redshifts from the literature. Using a sample of 411 control galaxies, this analysis yields a precision of {{σ }NMAD}=0.0028 for the grism-derived redshifts, which is consistent with the accuracy reported by the 3D-HST team. Our final catalog covers an area of 153 arcmin2 and contains 1019 redshifts for galaxies in GOODS-S. Roughly 60% (608/1019) of these redshifts are for galaxies with no previously published spectroscopic redshift. These new redshifts span a range of 0.677≤slant z≤slant 3.456 and have a median redshift of z = 1.282. The catalog contains a total of 234 new redshifts for galaxies at z\\gt 1.5. In addition, we present 20 galaxy pair candidates identified for the first time using the grism redshifts in our catalog, including four new galaxy pairs at z∼ 2, nearly doubling the number of such pairs previously identified.

  11. Regional generalisations about the relationships between the environment and foraminifera along the SW Cape coast, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Toefy, R; Gibbons, M J

    2014-03-15

    Factors influencing the composition of shallow water benthic foraminifera along the SW coast of South Africa at two locations (Table Bay, TB; St Helena Bay, SHB) ∼200km from each other were examined. Small taxa dominated in both locations; living assemblages from SHB (28 species, Ammonia parkinsoniana dominant) differed from TB (34 species, Elphidium articulatum dominant). Environmental parameters were similar in both areas. Patchiness in assemblage structure was pronounced, differences between pipeline and non-pipeline sites within locations were evident in environmental parameters. Diversity was significantly correlated with grain size, the nitrogen and heavy metal content (especially Cd). These data represent the first for extant benthic Foraminifera from the southern Benguela upwelling area and is the first attempt at using foraminifera as indicators of pollution in this region. The data stressed the need for more than one sampling location to better understand the factors influencing foraminiferal assemblages in any regional context. PMID:24393379

  12. Changes in Climate over the South China Sea and Adjacent Regions: Response to and Feedback on Global Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Song

    2016-04-01

    El Niño-Southern Oscillation and the Asian monsoon have experienced significant long-term changes in the past decades. These changes, together with other factors, have in turn led to large climate change signals over the South China Sea and adjacent regions including Southeast Asia, the western Pacific, and the tropical Indian Ocean. An attribution analysis of the feedback processes of these signals indicate the predominant importance of water vapor and cloud radiative feedbacks. Experiments with multiple earth system models also show that these regional climate change signals exert significant influences on global climate. The increases in atmospheric heating over Southeast Asia and sea surface temperature in the adjacent oceans in the past decades have weakened the Indian and African monsoons, led to a drying effect over East Asia, and generated wave-train patterns in both the northern and southern hemispheres, explaining several prominent climate features in and outside Southeast Asia.

  13. Luteocirrhus shearii gen. sp. nov. (Diaporthales, Cryphonectriaceae) pathogenic to Proteaceae in the South Western Australian Floristic Region.

    PubMed

    Crane, Colin; Burgess, Treena I

    2013-07-01

    Morphological and DNA sequence characteristics of a pathogenic fungus isolated from branch cankers in Proteaceae of the South West Australian Floristic Region elucidated a new genus and species within Cryphonectriaceae (Diaporthales). The pathogen has been isolated from canker lesions in several Banksia species and Lambertia echinata subsp. citrina, and is associated with a serious decline of the rare B. verticillata. Lack of orange pigment in all observed structures except cirrhi, combined with pulvinate to globose black semi-immersed conidiomata with paraphyses, distinguishes the canker fungus from other genera of Cryphonectriaceae. This was confirmed by DNA sequence analysis of the ITS regions, β-tubulin, and LSU genes. The fungus (sexual morph unknown) is described as Luteocirrhus shearii gen. sp. nov. Lesions in seedlings of Banksia spp. following wound inoculation and subsequent recovery confirm Koch's postulates for pathogenicity. This pathogen of native Proteaceae is currently an emerging threat, particularly toward B. baxteri and B. verticillata. PMID:23898417

  14. Scaling up from field to region for wind erosion prediction using a field-scale wind erosion model and GIS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zobeck, T.M.; Parker, N.C.; Haskell, S.; Guoding, K.

    2000-01-01

    Factors that affect wind erosion such as surface vegetative and other cover, soil properties and surface roughness usually change spatially and temporally at the field-scale to produce important field-scale variations in wind erosion. Accurate estimation of wind erosion when scaling up from fields to regions, while maintaining meaningful field-scale process details, remains a challenge. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of using a field-scale wind erosion model with a geographic information system (GIS) to scale up to regional levels and to quantify the differences in wind erosion estimates produced by different scales of soil mapping used as a data layer in the model. A GIS was used in combination with the revised wind erosion equation (RWEQ), a field-scale wind erosion model, to estimate wind erosion for two 50 km2 areas. Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite imagery from 1993 with 30 m resolution was used as a base map. The GIS database layers included land use, soils, and other features such as roads. The major land use was agricultural fields. Data on 1993 crop management for selected fields of each crop type were collected from local government agency offices and used to 'train' the computer to classify land areas by crop and type of irrigation (agroecosystem) using commercially available software. The land area of the agricultural land uses was overestimated by 6.5% in one region (Lubbock County, TX, USA) and underestimated by about 21% in an adjacent region (Terry County, TX, USA). The total estimated wind erosion potential for Terry County was about four times that estimated for adjacent Lubbock County. The difference in potential erosion among the counties was attributed to regional differences in surface soil texture. In a comparison of different soil map scales in Terry County, the generalised soil map had over 20% more of the land area and over 15% greater erosion potential in loamy sand soils than did the detailed soil map. As

  15. Mid-Infrared Properties and Color Selection for X-Ray-Detected Active Galactic Nuclei in the MUSYC Extended Chandra Deep Field-South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardamone, Carolin N.; Urry, C. Megan; Damen, Maaike; van Dokkum, Pieter; Treister, Ezequiel; Labbé, Ivo; Virani, Shanil N.; Lira, Paulina; Gawiser, Eric

    2008-06-01

    We present the mid-infrared colors of X-ray-detected AGNs and explore mid-infrared selection criteria. Using a statistical matching technique, the likelihood ratio, over 900 IRAC counterparts were identified with a new MUSYC X-ray source catalog that includes ~1000 published X-ray sources in the Chandra Deep Field-South and Extended Chandra Deep Field-South. Most X-ray-selected AGNs have IRAC spectral shapes consistent with power-law slopes, fν propto να, and display a wide range of colors, -2 <= α <= 2. Although X-ray sources typically fit to redder (more negative α) power laws than non-X-ray-detected galaxies, more than 50% do have flat or blue (galaxy-like) spectral shapes in the observed 3-8 μm band. Only a quarter of the X-ray-selected AGNs detected at 24 μm are well fit by featureless red power laws in the observed 3.6-24 μm, likely the subset of our sample whose infrared spectra are dominated by emission from the central AGN region. Most IRAC color selection criteria fail to identify the majority of X-ray-selected AGNs, finding only the more luminous AGNs, the majority of which have broad emission lines. In deep surveys, these color selection criteria select 10%-20% of the entire galaxy population and miss many moderate-luminosity AGNs.

  16. Capturing field-scale variability in crop performance across a regional-scale climosequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, E. S.; Poggio, M.; Anderson, T. R.; Gasch, C.; Yourek, M. A.; Ward, N. K.; Magney, T. S.; Brown, D. J.; Huggins, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    With the increasing availability of variable rate technology for applying fertilizers and other agrichemicals in dryland agricultural production systems there is a growing need to better capture and understand the processes driving field scale variability in crop yield and soil water. This need for a better understanding of field scale variability has led to the recent designation of the R. J. Cook Agronomy Farm (CAF) (Pullman, WA, USA) as a United States Department of Agriculture Long-Term Agro-Ecosystem Research (LTAR) site. Field scale variability at the CAF is closely monitored using extensive environmental sensor networks and intensive hand sampling. As investigating land-soil-water dynamics at CAF is essential for improving precision agriculture, transferring this knowledge across the regional-scale climosequence is challenging. In this study we describe the hydropedologic functioning of the CAF in relation to five extensively instrumented field sites located within 50 km in the same climatic region. The formation of restrictive argillic soil horizons in the wetter, cooler eastern edge of the region results in the development of extensive perched water tables, surface saturation, and surface runoff, whereas excess water is not an issue in the warmer, drier, western edge of the region. Similarly, crop and tillage management varies across the region as well. We discuss the implications of these regional differences on field scale management decisions and demonstrate how we are using proximal soil sensing and remote sensing imagery to better understand and capture field scale variability at a particular field site.

  17. Spatial distributions of magnetic field in the RHIC and LHC energy regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Yang; Yang, Chun-Bin; Cai, Xu; Feng, Sheng-Qin

    2015-10-01

    Relativistic heavy-ion collisions can produce extremely strong magnetic fields in the collision regions. The spatial variation features of the magnetic fields are analyzed in detail for non-central Pb-Pb collisions at LHC at \\sqrt{s_NN}=900, 2760 and 7000 GeV and Au-Au collisions at RHIC at \\sqrt{s_NN}=62.4, 130 and 200 GeV. The dependencies of magnetic field on proper time, collision energies and impact parameters are investigated in this paper. It is shown that an enormous and highly inhomogeneous spatial distribution magnetic field can indeed be created in off-centre relativistic heavy-ion collisions in RHIC and LHC energy regions. The enormous magnetic field is produced just after the collision, and the magnitude of magnetic field of the LHC energy region is larger than that of the RHIC energy region at small proper time. It is found that the magnetic field in the LHC energy region decreases more quickly with the increase of proper time than that of the RHIC energy region. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375069, 11435054, 11075061, 11221504) and Key Laboratory foundation of Quark and Lepton Physics (Hua-Zhong Normal University) (QLPL2014P01)

  18. The 1985 Biomass Burning Season in South America: Satellite Remote Sensing of Fires, Smoke, and Regional Radiative Energy Budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christopher, Sundar A.; Wang, Min; Berendes, Todd A.; Welch, Ronald M.; Yang, Shi-Keng

    1998-01-01

    Using satellite imagery, more than five million square kilometers of the forest and cerrado regions over South America are extensively studied to monitor fires and smoke during the 1985 biomass burning season. The results are characterized for four major ecosystems, namely: (1) tropical rain forest, (2) tropical broadleaf seasonal, (3) savannah/grass and seasonal woods (SGW), and (4) mild/warm/hot grass/shrub (MGS). The spatial and temporal distribution of fires are examined from two different methods using the multispectral Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Local Area Coverage data. Using collocated measurements from the instantaneous scanner Earth Radiation Budget Experiment data, the direct regional radiative forcing of biomass burning aerosols is computed. The results show that more than 70% of the fires occur in the MGS and SGW ecosystems due to agricultural practices. The smoke generated from biomass burning has negative instantaneous net radiative forcing values for all four major ecosystems within South America. The smoke found directly over the fires has mean net radiative forcing values ranging from -25.6 to -33.9 W m(exp -2). These results confirm that the regional net radiative impact of biomass burning is one of cooling. The spectral and broadband properties for clear-sky and smoke regions are also presented that could be used as input and/or validation for other studies attempting to model the impact of aerosols on the earth-atmosphere system. These results have important applications for future instruments from the Earth Observing System (EOS) program. Specifically, the combination of the Visible Infrared Scanner and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and the combination of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer and CERES instruments from the EOS morning crossing mission could provide reliable estimates of the direct radiative forcing of aerosols on a global scale

  19. Patterns of active and passive smoking, and associated factors, in the South-east Anatolian Project (SEAP) region in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, Ali I; Şahinöz, Saime; Özçırpıcı, Birgül; Özgür, Servet; Şahinöz, Turgut; Acemoğlu, Hamit; Saka, Günay; Ceylan, Ali; Palanci, Yılmaz; İlçin, Ersen; Akkafa, Feridun

    2006-01-01

    Background Smoking is an important health threat in Turkey. This study aimed to determine the frequency of and main factors associated with smoking in persons of 15 years and over, and the frequency of passive smoking in homes in the South-east Anatolian Project (SEAP) Region in Turkey. Methods A cross sectional design was employed. The sample waschosen by the State Institute of Statistics using a stratified cluster probability sampling method. 1126 houses representing the SEAP Region were visited. Questionnaires about tobacco smoking and related factors were applied to 2166 women and 1906 men (of 15 years old and above) in their homes. Face-to-face interview methods were employed. Participants were classified as current, ex, and non-smokers. The presence of a regular daily smoker in a house was used as an indication of passive smoking. The chi-square andlogistic regressionanalysis methods were used for the statistical analysis. Results The prevalence of smoking, in those of 15 years and over, was 11.8% in women and 49.7% in men. The prevalence of current smokers was higher in urban (34.5 %) than in rural (22.8 %) regions. The mean of total cigarette consumption was 6.5 packs/year in women and 17.9 packs/year in men. There was at least one current smoker in 70.1% of the houses. Conclusion Smoking is a serious problem in the South-eastern Anatolian Region. Male gender, middle age, a high level of education and urban residency were most strongly associated with smoking. PMID:16436202

  20. Building a risk-targeted regional seismic hazard model for South-East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woessner, J.; Nyst, M.; Seyhan, E.

    2015-12-01

    The last decade has tragically shown the social and economic vulnerability of countries in South-East Asia to earthquake hazard and risk. While many disaster mitigation programs and initiatives to improve societal earthquake resilience are under way with the focus on saving lives and livelihoods, the risk management sector is challenged to develop appropriate models to cope with the economic consequences and impact on the insurance business. We present the source model and ground motions model components suitable for a South-East Asia earthquake risk model covering Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Indochine countries. The source model builds upon refined modelling approaches to characterize 1) seismic activity from geologic and geodetic data on crustal faults and 2) along the interface of subduction zones and within the slabs and 3) earthquakes not occurring on mapped fault structures. We elaborate on building a self-consistent rate model for the hazardous crustal fault systems (e.g. Sumatra fault zone, Philippine fault zone) as well as the subduction zones, showcase some characteristics and sensitivities due to existing uncertainties in the rate and hazard space using a well selected suite of ground motion prediction equations. Finally, we analyze the source model by quantifying the contribution by source type (e.g., subduction zone, crustal fault) to typical risk metrics (e.g.,return period losses, average annual loss) and reviewing their relative impact on various lines of businesses.

  1. HELIOSHEATH MAGNETIC FIELDS BETWEEN 104 AND 113 AU IN A REGION OF DECLINING SPEEDS AND A STAGNATION REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Burlaga, L. F.; Ness, N. F. E-mail: nfnudel@yahoo.com

    2012-04-10

    We examine the relationships between the magnetic field and the radial velocity component V{sub R} observed in the heliosheath by instruments on Voyager 1 (V1). No increase in the magnetic field strength B was observed in a region where V{sub R} decreased linearly from 70 km s{sup -1} to 0 km s{sup -1} as plasma moved outward past V1. An unusually broad transition from positive to negative polarity was observed during a Almost-Equal-To 26 day interval when the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) moved below the latitude of V1 and the speed of V1 was comparable to the radial speed of the heliosheath flow. When V1 moved through a region where V{sub R} Almost-Equal-To 0 (the 'stagnation region'), B increased linearly with time by a factor of two, and the average of B was 0.14 nT. Nothing comparable to this was observed previously. The magnetic polarity was negative throughout the stagnation region for Almost-Equal-To 580 days until 2011 DOY 235, indicating that the HCS was below the latitude of V1. The average passage times of the magnetic holes and proton boundary layers were the same during 2009 and 2011, because the plasma moved past V1 during 2009 at the same speed that V1 moved through the stagnation region during 2011. The microscale fluctuations of B in the stagnation region during 2011 are qualitatively the same as those observed in the heliosheath during 2009. These results suggest that the stagnation region is a part of the heliosheath, rather than a 'transition region' associated with the heliopause.

  2. Marine and Maritime Sector Skills Shortages in the South West of England: Developing Regional Training Provision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beer, Julian; Meethan, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Clustering theory assumes that companies gravitate towards each other on the basis of locally and regionally specific resources and supply chain characteristics, which lead in turn to innovation and high-value economic development. In line with such thinking, UK government policy has devolved certain functions to regional development agencies such…

  3. Regional Mapping of the Lunar Crustal Magnetic Field: Correlation of Strong Anomalies with Curvilinear Albedo Markings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.; Yingst, A.; Zakharian, A.; Lin, R. P.; Mitchell, D. L.; Halekas, J.; Acuna, M. H.; Binder, A. B.

    2000-01-01

    Using high-resolution regional Lunar Prospector magnetometer magnetic field maps, we report here a close correlation of the strongest individual crustal anomalies with unusual curvilinear albedo markings of the Reiner Gamma class.

  4. Sedimentology and magnetostratigraphy of the Tierekesazi Cenozoic section in the foreland region of south West Tian Shan in Western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xinwei; Chen, Hanlin; Cheng, Xiaogan; Shen, Zhongyue; Lin, Xiubin

    2015-