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Sample records for field tests-low input

  1. Field tests-low input, side-wall vented boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Litzke, W.L.; Butcher, T.A.; Celebi, Y.

    1996-07-01

    The Fan Atomized Burner (FAB) was developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory as part of the Oil Heat Combustion Equipment Technology Program to provide a practical low-firing rate technology leading to new, high efficiency oil-fired appliances. The development of the burner design and results of application testing have been presented in prior oil heat conferences over the past several years. This information is also summarized in a more comprehensive BNL report. The first field trial of a prototype unit was initiated during the 1994-95 heating season. This paper presents the results of the second year of testing, during the 1995-96 heating season. The field tests enable the demonstration of the reliability and performance of the FAB under practical, typical operating conditions. Another important objective of the field test was to demonstrate that the low input is adequate to satisfy the heating and hot water demands of the household. During the first field trial it was shown that at a maximum input rate of 0.4 gph (55,000 Btu/hr) the burner was able to heat a home with over 2,000 square feet of conditioned living space and provide adequate supply of domestic hot water for a family of six. The test is located in Long Island, NY.

  2. COSMIC/NASTRAN Free-field Input

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, G. C.

    1984-01-01

    A user's guide to the COSMIC/NASTRAN free field input for the Bulk Data section of the NASTRAN program is proposed. The free field input is designed to be user friendly and the user is not forced out of the computer system due to input errors. It is easy to use, with only a few simple rules to follow. A stand alone version of the COSMIC/NASTRAN free field input is also available. The use of free field input is illustrated by a number of examples.

  3. Response of traveling waves to transient inputs in neural fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilpatrick, Zachary P.; Ermentrout, Bard

    2012-02-01

    We analyze the effects of transient stimulation on traveling waves in neural field equations. Neural fields are modeled as integro-differential equations whose convolution term represents the synaptic connections of a spatially extended neuronal network. The adjoint of the linearized wave equation can be used to identify how a particular input will shift the location of a traveling wave. This wave response function is analogous to the phase response curve of limit cycle oscillators. For traveling fronts in an excitatory network, the sign of the shift depends solely on the sign of the transient input. A complementary estimate of the effective shift is derived using an equation for the time-dependent speed of the perturbed front. Traveling pulses are analyzed in an asymmetric lateral inhibitory network and they can be advanced or delayed, depending on the position of spatially localized transient inputs. We also develop bounds on the amplitude of transient input necessary to terminate traveling pulses, based on the global bifurcation structure of the neural field.

  4. Mapping Synaptic Input Fields of Neurons with Super-Resolution Imaging.

    PubMed

    Sigal, Yaron M; Speer, Colenso M; Babcock, Hazen P; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2015-10-01

    As a basic functional unit in neural circuits, each neuron integrates input signals from hundreds to thousands of synapses. Knowledge of the synaptic input fields of individual neurons, including the identity, strength, and location of each synapse, is essential for understanding how neurons compute. Here, we developed a volumetric super-resolution reconstruction platform for large-volume imaging and automated segmentation of neurons and synapses with molecular identity information. We used this platform to map inhibitory synaptic input fields of On-Off direction-selective ganglion cells (On-Off DSGCs), which are important for computing visual motion direction in the mouse retina. The reconstructions of On-Off DSGCs showed a GABAergic, receptor subtype-specific input field for generating direction selective responses without significant glycinergic inputs for mediating monosynaptic crossover inhibition. These results demonstrate unique capabilities of this super-resolution platform for interrogating neural circuitry. PMID:26435106

  5. Active control of sound fields in elastic cylinders by vibrational inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. D.; Fuller, C. R.

    1987-01-01

    An experiment is performed to study the mechanisms of active control of sound fields in elastic cylinders via vibrational outputs. In the present method of control, a vibrational force input was used as the secondary control input to reduce the radiated acoustic field. For the frequencies considered, the active vibration technique provided good global reduction of interior sound even though only one actuator was used.

  6. Multi-bump solutions in a neural field model with external inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Flora; Erlhagen, Wolfram; Bicho, Estela

    2016-07-01

    We study the conditions for the formation of multiple regions of high activity or "bumps" in a one-dimensional, homogeneous neural field with localized inputs. Stable multi-bump solutions of the integro-differential equation have been proposed as a model of a neural population representation of remembered external stimuli. We apply a class of oscillatory coupling functions and first derive criteria to the input width and distance, which relate to the synaptic couplings that guarantee the existence and stability of one and two regions of high activity. These input-induced patterns are attracted by the corresponding stable one-bump and two-bump solutions when the input is removed. We then extend our analytical and numerical investigation to N-bump solutions showing that the constraints on the input shape derived for the two-bump case can be exploited to generate a memory of N > 2 localized inputs. We discuss the pattern formation process when either the conditions on the input shape are violated or when the spatial ranges of the excitatory and inhibitory connections are changed. An important aspect for applications is that the theoretical findings allow us to determine for a given coupling function the maximum number of localized inputs that can be stored in a given finite interval.

  7. Quantification of deterministic matched-field source localization error in the face of random model inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, Peter M.; Hebenstreit, Gerald T.

    2003-04-01

    Deterministic source localization using matched-field processing (MFP) has yielded good results in propagation scenarios where the nonrandom model parameter input assumption is valid. In many shallow water environments, inputs to acoustic propagation models may be better represented using random distributions rather than fixed quantities. One can estimate the negative effect of random source inputs on deterministic MFP by (1) obtaining a realistic statistical representation of a signal model parameter, then (2) using the mean of the parameter as input to the MFP signal model (the so-called ``replica vector''), (3) synthesizing a source signal using multiple realizations of the random parameter, and (4) estimating the source localization error by correlating the synthesized signal vector with the replica vector over a three dimensional space. This approach allows one to quantify deterministic localization error introduced by random model parameters, including sound velocity profile, hydrophone locations, and sediment thickness and speed. [Work supported by DARPA Advanced Technology Office.

  8. Hebbian Analysis of the Transformation of Medial Entorhinal Grid-Cell Inputs to Hippocampal Place Fields

    PubMed Central

    Knierim, James J.

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of grid cells in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) permits the characterization of hippocampal computation in much greater detail than previously possible. The present study addresses how an integrate-and-fire unit driven by grid-cell spike trains may transform the multipeaked, spatial firing pattern of grid cells into the single-peaked activity that is typical of hippocampal place cells. Previous studies have shown that in the absence of network interactions, this transformation can succeed only if the place cell receives inputs from grids with overlapping vertices at the location of the place cell's firing field. In our simulations, the selection of these inputs was accomplished by fast Hebbian plasticity alone. The resulting nonlinear process was acutely sensitive to small input variations. Simulations differing only in the exact spike timing of grid cells produced different field locations for the same place cells. Place fields became concentrated in areas that correlated with the initial trajectory of the animal; the introduction of feedback inhibitory cells reduced this bias. These results suggest distinct roles for plasticity of the perforant path synapses and for competition via feedback inhibition in the formation of place fields in a novel environment. Furthermore, they imply that variability in MEC spiking patterns or in the rat's trajectory is sufficient for generating a distinct population code in a novel environment and suggest that recalling this code in a familiar environment involves additional inputs and/or a different mode of operation of the network. PMID:20357069

  9. Active control of structurally-coupled sound fields in elastic cylinders by vibrational force inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. D.; Fuller, C. R.

    1990-01-01

    Active control of structurally-coupled sound fields in elastic cylinders is analytically and experimentally studied. The primary (noise) field in the cylinder model is generated by the coupled dynamic response of the shell under loading by a single exterior acoustic source. Control of the interior sound field is achieved by applying vibrational force inputs directly to the shell wall. Action of the point controllers serve to increase the input impedance of select structural modes of the shell which are well-coupled to the interior acoustic cavity, thus substantially reducing sound transmission into the cavity. Spatially-averaged noise reductions in excess of 30 dB are demonstrated for acoustic resonant conditions within the cavity. Twin controller configurations are presented which demonstrate the ability to independently control orthogonal modes of the interior acoustic space. Benefits and drawbacks of this new methodology for noise control are discussed and clearly demonstrated.

  10. Diffuse-source pesticide inputs in surface waters: online risk assessment at field scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichenberger, S.; Röpke, B.; Bach, M.; Frede, H.-G.

    2003-04-01

    Diffuse pesticide input from agricultural fields into surface waters depends, apart from substance properties, also on soil properties, site hydrology, tillage and application practices, weather conditions, and distance to water bodies. A product which can be used safely at one site may pose unacceptable risk to aquatic life at another site. Thus, there is a great need for site-specific risk assessment approaches. Our objective is therefore to develop a tool for assessing pesticide inputs via runoff/erosion, drainflow, and spraydrift for single fields. The tool will be part of the web-based Information System for Integrated Plant Production (ISIP, www.isip.de), but also able to run independently. ISIP is an interactive portal for both farmers and advisors and will become the leading decision support system for plant production and plant protection in Germany over the next years. The aim is an approach which i) is applicable for the majority of European countries, ii) needs only input data readily available for large areas (such as provided by hydrological and soil maps), iii) predicts, with daily resolution, realistic (not worst-case) loads and resulting aquatic concentrations (PECsw), and iv) provides a substance-specific risk assessment on the basis of model results for consulting and management purposes. Special emphasis is laid on scientifically up-to-date model approaches and robust, but site-specific parameterization. For instance, drainage inputs will be calculated using the preferential flow model MACRO 5 (Nick Jarvis, SLU, Sweden). In the later stages of the project, the tool will provide a fully GIS-based risk assessment in ISIP for single fields in Germany.

  11. What input data are needed to accurately model electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base stations?

    PubMed

    Beekhuizen, Johan; Kromhout, Hans; Bürgi, Alfred; Huss, Anke; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-01-01

    The increase in mobile communication technology has led to concern about potential health effects of radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) from mobile phone base stations. Different RF-EMF prediction models have been applied to assess population exposure to RF-EMF. Our study examines what input data are needed to accurately model RF-EMF, as detailed data are not always available for epidemiological studies. We used NISMap, a 3D radio wave propagation model, to test models with various levels of detail in building and antenna input data. The model outcomes were compared with outdoor measurements taken in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Results showed good agreement between modelled and measured RF-EMF when 3D building data and basic antenna information (location, height, frequency and direction) were used: Spearman correlations were >0.6. Model performance was not sensitive to changes in building damping parameters. Antenna-specific information about down-tilt, type and output power did not significantly improve model performance compared with using average down-tilt and power values, or assuming one standard antenna type. We conclude that 3D radio wave propagation modelling is a feasible approach to predict outdoor RF-EMF levels for ranking exposure levels in epidemiological studies, when 3D building data and information on the antenna height, frequency, location and direction are available. PMID:24472756

  12. A seismic free field input model for FE-SBFE coupling in time domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junyi, Yan; Feng, Jin; Yanjie, Xu; Guanglun, Wang; Chuhan, Zhang

    2003-06-01

    A seismic free field input formulation of the coupling procedure of the finite element (FE) and the scaled boundary finite-element (SBFE) is proposed to perform the unbounded soil-structure interaction analysis in time domain. Based on the substructure technique, seismic excitation of the soil-structure system is represented by the free-field motion of an elastic half-space. To reduce the computational effort, the acceleration unit-impulse response function of the unbounded soil is decomposed into two functions; linear and residual. The latter converges to zero and can be truncated as required. With the prescribed tolerance parameter, the balance between accuracy and efficiency of the procedure can be controlled. The validity of the model is verified by the scattering analysis of a hemi-spherical canyon subjected to plane harmonic P, SV and SH wave incidence. Numerical results show that the new procedure is very efficient for seismic problems within a normal range of frequency. The coupling procedure presented herein can be applied to linear and nonlinear earthquake response analysis of practical structures which are built on unbounded soil.

  13. Using Whole-House Field Tests to Empirically Derive Moisture Buffering Model Inputs

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, J.; Winkler, J.; Christensen, D.; Hancock, E.

    2014-08-01

    Building energy simulations can be used to predict a building's interior conditions, along with the energy use associated with keeping these conditions comfortable. These models simulate the loads on the building (e.g., internal gains, envelope heat transfer), determine the operation of the space conditioning equipment, and then calculate the building's temperature and humidity throughout the year. The indoor temperature and humidity are affected not only by the loads and the space conditioning equipment, but also by the capacitance of the building materials, which buffer changes in temperature and humidity. This research developed an empirical method to extract whole-house model inputs for use with a more accurate moisture capacitance model (the effective moisture penetration depth model). The experimental approach was to subject the materials in the house to a square-wave relative humidity profile, measure all of the moisture transfer terms (e.g., infiltration, air conditioner condensate) and calculate the only unmeasured term: the moisture absorption into the materials. After validating the method with laboratory measurements, we performed the tests in a field house. A least-squares fit of an analytical solution to the measured moisture absorption curves was used to determine the three independent model parameters representing the moisture buffering potential of this house and its furnishings. Follow on tests with realistic latent and sensible loads showed good agreement with the derived parameters, especially compared to the commonly-used effective capacitance approach. These results show that the EMPD model, once the inputs are known, is an accurate moisture buffering model.

  14. Reconstructing the 3D coronal magnetic field using a Potential Field Source Surface model comparing different magnetograph input data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, M. A., II; Peleikis, T.; Berger, L.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.

    2014-12-01

    We utilize a Potential Field Source Sourface (PFSS) model developed by Altschuler & Newkirk (1969) to model and analyze the coronal magnetic field up to the source surface at 2.5 solar radii. As the photospheric boundary to that model we employ data from several instruments, namely the Wilcox Solar Observatory, NSO's Kitt Peak Vacuum Telescope, the Michelson Doppler Imager onboard the SOHO spacecraft and its successor, the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager onboard SDO. Instead of the harmonic function approach commonly used, we employ a three dimensional computational grid and methods of computational fluid dynamics to solve the governing equations in order to easily incorporate more complex phenomena if the need for doing so arises during the course of our work. Another advantage of the grid approach is the possibility to outsource the computational work to a parallel computing architecture like NVIDIA's CUDA, which we employ to speed up processing time and increase data throughput significantly. The obtained magnetic field data is utilized in several ways. First it is compared with in-situ data from several spacecraft like Ulysses to validate the employed PFSS model. We further use the expansion geometry of the magnetic field as an input to a 1D-solar-wind model developed by Cranmer et al. (2007) to determine characteristics of the solar wind in several magnetic flux tubes. We can then infer the theoretical charge-state composition inside these flux tubes, which in turn can be employed to test our hypotheses on the origin of the slow solar wind.

  15. Selecting a first-guess sea surface temperature field as input to forward radiative transfer models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Korak; Ignatov, Alexander; Liang, Xing Ming; Dash, Prasanjit

    2012-12-01

    Advanced Clear-Sky Processor for Oceans (ACSPO), developed at National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service, reports observed top-of-atmosphere clear-sky brightness temperatures (BT) in AVHRR channels 3B (3.7), 4 (11), and 5 (12μm) along with the sea surface temperatures (SST) retrieved from these BTs as a level 2 (L2) product. Additionally, ACSPO provides the corresponding BTs simulated with Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM), using Reynolds daily Level 4 (L4) optimum interpolation SST (OISST) and NCEP-GFS profiles as inputs. Accuracy of simulated BTs is critical for ACSPO functionalities, including detecting clouds, retrieving physical SSTs, monitoring sensor performance, and validating CRTM. This paper tests 11 gap-free gridded L4 SSTs for their potential use as first-guess fields in ACSPO to improve accuracy of simulated BTs. As a first step toward the objective, this study checks for consistency between various L4 products and ACSPO L2 SSTs. This SST consistency was shown earlier to be representative of, and equivalent to, the consistency between measured and simulated BTs, thus avoiding expensive CRTM calculations. The metrics employed in L4 comparisons include the global spatial L4-L2 SST biases and variances and their temporal stability. Also, the effect of L4 fields on the corresponding satellite-to-satellite consistency (calculated as L2-L2 double differences) is examined. Several L4 products, including the GHRSST Multi-Product Ensemble and Canadian Meteorological Centre analysis (CMC-0.2°), show better consistency with ACSPO L2 SST and will be explored in the future versions of ACSPO.

  16. Field measurement of moisture-buffering model inputs for residential buildings

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Woods, Jason; Winkler, Jon

    2016-02-05

    Moisture adsorption and desorption in building materials impact indoor humidity. This effect should be included in building-energy simulations, particularly when humidity is being investigated or controlled. Several models can calculate this moisture-buffering effect, but accurate ones require model inputs that are not always known to the user of the building-energy simulation. This research developed an empirical method to extract whole-house model inputs for the effective moisture penetration depth (EMPD) model. The experimental approach was to subject the materials in the house to a square-wave relative-humidity profile, measure all of the moisture-transfer terms (e.g., infiltration, air-conditioner condensate), and calculate the onlymore » unmeasured term—the moisture sorption into the materials. We validated this method with laboratory measurements, which we used to measure the EMPD model inputs of two houses. After deriving these inputs, we measured the humidity of the same houses during tests with realistic latent and sensible loads and demonstrated the accuracy of this approach. Furthermore, these results show that the EMPD model, when given reasonable inputs, is an accurate moisture-buffering model.« less

  17. Field performance of potential biomass feedstocks under no inputs in South Georgia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Warm-season perennial grasses have the greatest potential for biomass production in the Southeast for the emerging bioenergy industry. The larger root systems of perennial crops should be able to adapt to lower inputs of water and fertilizer, and should also contribute to soil carbon sequestration....

  18. Reorganization in processing of spectral and temporal input in the rat posterior auditory field induced by environmental enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Jakkamsetti, Vikram; Chang, Kevin Q.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental enrichment induces powerful changes in the adult cerebral cortex. Studies in primary sensory cortex have observed that environmental enrichment modulates neuronal response strength, selectivity, speed of response, and synchronization to rapid sensory input. Other reports suggest that nonprimary sensory fields are more plastic than primary sensory cortex. The consequences of environmental enrichment on information processing in nonprimary sensory cortex have yet to be studied. Here we examine physiological effects of enrichment in the posterior auditory field (PAF), a field distinguished from primary auditory cortex (A1) by wider receptive fields, slower response times, and a greater preference for slowly modulated sounds. Environmental enrichment induced a significant increase in spectral and temporal selectivity in PAF. PAF neurons exhibited narrower receptive fields and responded significantly faster and for a briefer period to sounds after enrichment. Enrichment increased time-locking to rapidly successive sensory input in PAF neurons. Compared with previous enrichment studies in A1, we observe a greater magnitude of reorganization in PAF after environmental enrichment. Along with other reports observing greater reorganization in nonprimary sensory cortex, our results in PAF suggest that nonprimary fields might have a greater capacity for reorganization compared with primary fields. PMID:22131375

  19. Uncertainty related to input parameters of (137)Cs soil redistribution model for undisturbed fields.

    PubMed

    Iurian, Andra-Rada; Mabit, Lionel; Cosma, Constantin

    2014-10-01

    This study presents an alternative method to empirically establish the effective diffusion coefficient and the convective velocity of (137)Cs in undisturbed soils. This approach offers the possibility to improve the parameterisation and the accuracy of the (137)Cs Diffusion and Migration Model (DMM) used to assess soil erosion magnitudes. The impact of the different input parameters of this radiometric model on the derived-soil redistribution rates has been determined for a Romanian pastureland located in the northwest extremity of the Transylvanian Plain. By fitting the convection-diffusion equation to the available experimental data, the diffusion coefficient and convection velocity of (137)Cs in soil could be determined; 72% of the (137)Cs soil content could be attributed to the (137)Cs fallout originating from Chernobyl. The medium-term net erosion rate obtained with the calculated input parameters reached -6.6 t ha(-1) yr(-1). The model highlights great sensitivity to parameter estimations and the calculated erosion rates for undisturbed landscapes can be highly impacted if the input parameters are not accurately determined from the experimental data set. Upper and lower bounds should be established based on the determined uncertainty budget for the reliable estimates of the derived redistribution rates. PMID:24929506

  20. Processing of vestibular inputs by the medullary lateral tegmental field of conscious cats: implications for generation of motion sickness

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Andrew A.; Moy, Jennifer D.; DeMayo, William M.; Puterbaugh, Sonya R.; Miller, Daniel J.; Catanzaro, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    The dorsolateral reticular formation of the caudal medulla, the lateral tegmental field (LTF), participates in generating vomiting. LTF neurons exhibited complex responses to vestibular stimulation in decerebrate cats, indicating that they received converging inputs from a variety of labyrinthine receptors. Such a convergence pattern of vestibular inputs is appropriate for a brain region that participates in generating motion sickness. Since responses of brainstem neurons to vestibular stimulation can differ between decerebrate and conscious animals, the current study examined the effects of whole-body rotations in vertical planes on the activity of LTF neurons in conscious felines. Wobble stimuli, fixed-amplitude tilts, the direction of which moves around the animal at a constant speed, were used to determine the response vector orientation, and also to ascertain whether neurons had spatial–temporal convergence (STC) behavior (which is due to the convergence of vestibular inputs with different spatial and temporal properties). The proportion of LTF neurons with STC behavior in conscious animals (25 %) was similar to that in decerebrate cats. Far fewer neurons in other regions of the feline brainstem had STC behavior, confirming findings that many LTF neurons receive converging inputs from a variety of labyrinthine receptors. However, responses to vertical plane vestibular stimulation were considerably different in decerebrate and conscious felines for LTF neurons lacking STC behavior. In decerebrate cats, most LTF neurons had graviceptive responses to rotations, similar to those of otolith organ afferents. However, in conscious animals, the response properties were similar to those of semicircular canal afferents. These differences show that higher centers of the brain that are removed during decerebration regulate the labyrinthine inputs relayed to the LTF, either by gating connections in the brainstem or by conveying vestibular inputs directly to the region

  1. Genesis of Dune Fields Under Unidirectional Wind with Sand Input Flux Control: An Experimental Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, A.; Courrech du Pont, S.; Rodriguez, S.; Valance, A.; Narteau, C.; Gao, X.; Lucas, A.

    2015-05-01

    Our experimental studies with control of wind and sediment source will characterize more precisely the different modes of dune formation and long-term evolution, and constrain the physics behind the morphogenesis and dynamics of dunes fields.

  2. Inferring electric fields and currents from ground magnetometer data - A test with theoretically derived inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, R. A.; Kamide, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Advanced techniques considered by Kamide et al. (1981) seem to have the potential for providing observation-based high time resolution pictures of the global ionospheric current and electric field patterns for interesting events. However, a reliance on the proposed magnetogram-inversion schemes for the deduction of global ionospheric current and electric field patterns requires proof that reliable results are obtained. 'Theoretical' tests of the accuracy of the magnetogram inversion schemes have, therefore, been considered. The present investigation is concerned with a test, involving the developed KRM algorithm and the Rice Convection Model (RCM). The test was successful in the sense that there was overall agreement between electric fields and currents calculated by the RCM and KRM schemes.

  3. The post-natal development of cutaneous afferent fibre input and receptive field organization in the rat dorsal horn.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, M

    1985-01-01

    The responses evoked in lumbar dorsal horn cells by both natural and electrical hind-limb skin stimulation were recorded in the spinal cord of rat pups aged 0-15 days under urethane anaesthesia. The input volley was recorded on the L4 dorsal root and consisted of two separate waves from birth. Latency and threshold measurements were consistent with these two waves being immature A (myelinated fibre) waves and C (non-myelinated fibre) waves. On the first 3 days of life background activity of cells in the dorsal horn was low and evoked discharges were sluggish. On electrical stimulation of the skin, neonatal dorsal horn cells frequently responded with only 1 or 2 impulses per input volley with long central delays of up to 20 ms. Synaptic linkage appeared weak and many cells failed to follow stimulation rates of 5 Hz. Natural skin stimulation showed that the majority of cells at days 0-3 responded to pinching the skin only. The development of responses evoked by C fibres in the dorsal horn was delayed compared to that of responses evoked by A fibres. Short and long latency responses corresponding to the early A and late C afferent input volleys could be recorded in the superficial laminae (I, II and III) of the dorsal horn from day 0, but in the deeper laminae only early short latency A responses were evoked until the age of day 7-8. After this time, a long latency C response also appeared and increased in strength with age. Convergence of low and high threshold inputs onto dorsal horn cells was rare at birth but increased gradually over the following two weeks. Receptive field areas, mapped by natural mechanical stimulation of skin, were large at birth and decreased in size with age. At birth the mean receptive field area was 14.2% of the total hind-limb area whereas at day 15 it was 3.6%. This fall in size was particularly marked in cells of the deep dorsal horn. Pinching or brushing the receptive field of many neonatal dorsal horn cells resulted in long

  4. Influence of spatiotemporally distributed irradiance data input on temperature evolution in parabolic trough solar field simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubolz, K.; Schenk, H.; Hirsch, T.

    2016-05-01

    Concentrating solar field operation is affected by shadowing through cloud movement. For line focusing systems the impact of varying irradiance has been studied before by several authors with simulations of relevant thermodynamics assuming spatially homogeneous irradiance or using artificial test signals. While today's simulation capabilities allow more and more a higher spatiotemporal resolution of plant processes there are only few studies on influence of spatially distributed irradiance due to lack of available data. Based on recent work on generating real irradiance maps with high spatial resolution this paper demonstrates their influence on solar field thermodynamics. For a case study an irradiance time series is chosen. One solar field section with several loops and collecting header is modeled for simulation purpose of parabolic trough collectors and oil as heat transfer medium. Assuming homogeneous mass flow distribution among all loops we observe spatially varying temperature characteristics. They are analysed without and with mass flow control and their impact on solar field control design is discussed. Finally, the potential of distributed irradiance data is outlined.

  5. Comparative value of respiratory input and transfer impedances in field studies.

    PubMed

    Peslin, R; Pham, Q T; Teculescu, D; Gallina, C; Duvivier, C

    1987-01-01

    Total respiratory impedance was obtained from 4 to 30 Hz in 39 healthy males and in 140 iron miners by studying the relationship between transrespiratory pressure and mouth flow when forced oscillations were applied to the respiratory system in two different ways: by varying pressure at the mouth (input impedance, Zin); by varying pressure around the chest (transfer impedance, Ztr). Zin was characterized by the slope (S) and intercept (R0) of the resistance-frequency curve, by the resonant frequency (fn), and by total respiratory inertance (I) and compliance (C) obtained from the reactance. Transfer resistance and reactance curves were respectively analysed with a two-parameter (m1, m3) and a three-parameter (m0, m2, m4) equation. Significant correlations were found between impedance indices, particularly between m1 and both R0 (r = 0.931; p less than 0.001) and m2 (r = 0.739; p less than 0.001), and also between impedance indices and maximal expiratory flows. Nonsmoking miners (n = 40), compared to control nonsmokers (n = 16), had slightly lower maximal flows at high lung volumes (p less than 0.05) and higher values of m1 (p less than 0.001), R0, S, m3 (p less than 0.01) and m2 (p less than 0.05). In contrast, miners who smoked (n = 46) mainly differed from miners who did not smoke by lower flows at middle and low lung volumes (p less than 0.01) and larger m0 (p less than 0.01), m2 and m4 (p less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3593995

  6. Tidal and groundwater fluxes to a shallow, microtidal estuary: Constraining inputs through field observations and hydrodynamic modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ganju, Neil K.; Hayn, Melanie; Chen, Shih-Nan; Howarth, Robert W.; Dickhudt, Patrick J.; Aretxabaleta, Alfredo L.; Marino, Roxanne

    2012-01-01

    Increased nutrient loading to estuaries has led to eutrophication, degraded water quality, and ecological transformations. Quantifying nutrient loads in systems with significant groundwater input can be difficult due to the challenge of measuring groundwater fluxes. We quantified tidal and freshwater fluxes over an 8-week period at the entrance of West Falmouth Harbor, Massachusetts, a eutrophic, groundwater-fed estuary. Fluxes were estimated from velocity and salinity measurements and a total exchange flow (TEF) methodology. Intermittent cross-sectional measurements of velocity and salinity were used to convert point measurements to cross-sectionally averaged values over the entire deployment (index relationships). The estimated mean freshwater flux (0.19 m3/s) for the 8-week period was mainly due to groundwater input (0.21 m3/s) with contributions from precipitation to the estuary surface (0.026 m3/s) and removal by evaporation (0.048 m3/s). Spring–neap variations in freshwater export that appeared in shorter-term averages were mostly artifacts of the index relationships. Hydrodynamic modeling with steady groundwater input demonstrated that while the TEF methodology resolves the freshwater flux signal, calibration of the index–salinity relationships during spring tide conditions only was responsible for most of the spring–neap signal. The mean freshwater flux over the entire period estimated from the combination of the index-velocity, index–salinity, and TEF calculations were consistent with the model, suggesting that this methodology is a reliable way of estimating freshwater fluxes in the estuary over timescales greater than the spring–neap cycle. Combining this type of field campaign with hydrodynamic modeling provides guidance for estimating both magnitude of groundwater input and estuarine storage of freshwater and sets the stage for robust estimation of the nutrient load in groundwater.

  7. Map transfer from the thalamus to the neocortex: inputs from the barrel field.

    PubMed

    Lokmane, Ludmilla; Garel, Sonia

    2014-11-01

    Sensory perception relies on the formation of stereotyped maps inside the brain. This feature is particularly well illustrated in the mammalian neocortex, which is subdivided into distinct cortical sensory areas that comprise topological maps, such as the somatosensory homunculus in humans or the barrel field of the large whiskers in rodents. How somatosensory maps are formed and relayed into the neocortex remain essential questions in developmental neuroscience. Here, we will present our current knowledge on whisker map transfer in the mouse model, with the goal of linking embryonic and postnatal studies into a comprehensive framework. PMID:25020201

  8. A biologically inspired model of bat echolocation in a cluttered environment with inputs designed from field Recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loncich, Kristen Teczar

    Bat echolocation strategies and neural processing of acoustic information, with a focus on cluttered environments, is investigated in this study. How a bat processes the dense field of echoes received while navigating and foraging in the dark is not well understood. While several models have been developed to describe the mechanisms behind bat echolocation, most are based in mathematics rather than biology, and focus on either peripheral or neural processing---not exploring how these two levels of processing are vitally connected. Current echolocation models also do not use habitat specific acoustic input, or account for field observations of echolocation strategies. Here, a new approach to echolocation modeling is described capturing the full picture of echolocation from signal generation to a neural picture of the acoustic scene. A biologically inspired echolocation model is developed using field research measurements of the interpulse interval timing used by a frequency modulating (FM) bat in the wild, with a whole method approach to modeling echolocation including habitat specific acoustic inputs, a biologically accurate peripheral model of sound processing by the outer, middle, and inner ear, and finally a neural model incorporating established auditory pathways and neuron types with echolocation adaptations. Field recordings analyzed underscore bat sonar design differences observed in the laboratory and wild, and suggest a correlation between interpulse interval groupings and increased clutter. The scenario model provides habitat and behavior specific echoes and is a useful tool for both modeling and behavioral studies, and the peripheral and neural model show that spike-time information and echolocation specific neuron types can produce target localization in the midbrain.

  9. Sensitivity of Global Modeling Initiative Model Predictions of Antarctic Ozone Recovery to Input Meteorological Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Considine, David B.; Connell, Peter S.; Bergmann, Daniel J.; Rotman, Douglas A.; Strahan, Susan E.

    2004-01-01

    We use the Global Modeling Initiative chemistry and transport model to simulate the evolution of stratospheric ozone between 1995 and 2030, using boundary conditions consistent with the recent World Meteorological Organization ozone assessment. We compare the Antarctic ozone recovery predictions of two simulations, one driven by an annually repeated year of meteorological data from a general circulation model (GCM), the other using a year of output from a data assimilation system (DAS), to examine the sensitivity of Antarctic ozone recovery predictions to the characteristic dynamical differences between GCM- and DAS-generated meteorological data. Although the age of air in the Antarctic lower stratosphere differs by a factor of 2 between the simulations, we find little sensitivity of the 1995-2030 Antarctic ozone recovery between 350 and 650 K to the differing meteorological fields, particularly when the recovery is specified in mixing ratio units. Percent changes are smaller in the DAS-driven simulation compared to the GCM-driven simulation because of a surplus of Antarctic ozone in the DAS-driven simulation which is not consistent with observations. The peak ozone change between 1995 and 2030 in both simulations is approx.20% lower than photochemical expectations, indicating that changes in ozone transport due to changing ozone gradients at 450 K between 1995 and 2030 constitute a small negative feedback. Total winter/spring ozone loss during the base year (1995) of both simulations and the rate of ozone loss during August and September is somewhat weaker than observed. This appears to be due to underestimates of Antarctic Cl(sub y) at the 450 K potential temperature level.

  10. Response variability of frontal eye field neurons modulates with sensory input and saccade preparation but not visual search salience.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Braden A; Heitz, Richard P; Cohen, Jeremiah Y; Schall, Jeffrey D

    2012-11-01

    Discharge rate modulation of frontal eye field (FEF) neurons has been identified with a representation of visual search salience (physical conspicuity and behavioral relevance) and saccade preparation. We tested whether salience or saccade preparation are evident in the trial-to-trial variability of discharge rate. We quantified response variability via the Fano factor in FEF neurons recorded in monkeys performing efficient and inefficient visual search tasks. Response variability declined following stimulus presentation in most neurons, but despite clear discharge rate modulation, variability did not change with target salience. Instead, we found that response variability was modulated by stimulus luminance and the number of items in the visual field independently of attentional demands. Response variability declined to a minimum before saccade initiation, and presaccadic response variability was directionally tuned. In addition, response variability was correlated with the response time of memory-guided saccades. These results indicate that the trial-by-trial response variability of FEF neurons reflects saccade preparation and the strength of sensory input, but not visual search salience or attentional allocation. PMID:22956785

  11. Parallel ON and OFF cone bipolar inputs establish spatially-coextensive receptive field structure of blue-yellow ganglion cells in primate retina

    PubMed Central

    Crook, Joanna D.; Davenport, Christopher M.; Peterson, Beth B.; Packer, Orin S.; Detwiler, Peter B.; Dacey, Dennis M.

    2009-01-01

    In the primate retina the small bistratified, ‘blue-yellow’ color-opponent ganglion cell receives parallel ON-depolarizing and OFF-hyperpolarizing inputs from short (S) wavelength sensitive and combined long (L) and middle (M) wavelength sensitive cone photoreceptors respectively. However the synaptic pathways that create S vs LM cone-opponent receptive field structure remain controversial. Here we show in the macaque monkey retina in vitro that at photopic light levels, when an identified rod input is excluded, the small bistratified cell displays a spatially coextensive receptive field in which the S-ON-input is in spatial, temporal and chromatic balance with the LM-OFF-input. ON pathway block with L-AP-4, the mGluR6 receptor agonist, abolished the SON response but spared the LM-OFF response. The isolated LM component showed a center-surround receptive field structure consistent with an input from OFF-center, ON-surround ‘diffuse’ cone bipolar cells. Increasing retinal buffering capacity with HEPES attenuated the LM-ON surround component, consistent with a non-GABAergic outer retina feedback mechanism for the bipolar surround. The GABAa/c receptor antagonist picrotoxin and the glycine receptor antagonist strychnine did not affect chromatic balance or the basic coextensive receptive field structure suggesting that the LM-OFF field is not generated by an inner retinal inhibitory pathway. We conclude that the opponent S-ON and LM-OFF responses originate from the excitatory receptive field centers of S-ON and LM-OFF cone bipolar cells and that the LM-OFF- and ON-surrounds of these parallel bipolar inputs largely cancel, explaining the small, spatially coextensive but spectrally antagonistic receptive field structure of the blue-ON ganglion cell. PMID:19571128

  12. Towards integrating the influence of erosion on within field variability of C input, stock and stability in regional SOC estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meersmans, J.; Quine, T. A.

    2013-12-01

    approach allows us to unravel the influence of lateral transport processes (erosion) on the within field vertical heterogeneity in SOC stock and stability and associated variation in C input, and hence can be considered as a first step to refine spatial-temporal mapping of SOC at regional scales.

  13. Water vapour correction of the daily 1 km AVHRR global land dataset: Part I validation and use of the Water Vapour input field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeFelice, Thomas P.; Lloyd, D.; Meyer, D.J.; Baltzer, T. T.; Piraina, P.

    2003-01-01

    An atmospheric correction algorithm developed for the 1 km Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) global land dataset was modified to include a near real-time total column water vapour data input field to account for the natural variability of atmospheric water vapour. The real-time data input field used for this study is the Television and Infrared Observational Satellite (TIROS) Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) Pathfinder A global total column water vapour dataset. It was validated prior to its use in the AVHRR atmospheric correction process using two North American AVHRR scenes, namely 13 June and 28 November 1996. The validation results are consistent with those reported by others and entail a comparison between TOVS, radiosonde, experimental sounding, microwave radiometer, and data from a hand-held sunphotometer. The use of this data layer as input to the AVHRR atmospheric correction process is discussed.

  14. Testing low cost anaerobic digestion (AD) systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the potential for low technology and low cost digesters for small dairies, BARC and researchers from the University of Maryland installed six modified Taiwanese-model field-scale (FS) digesters near the original dairy manure digester. The FS units receive the same post-separated liquid ...

  15. Bedtime Stories in English: Field-Testing Comprehensible Input Materials for Natural Second-Language Acquisition in Japanese Pre-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the prototype of a new type of bilingual picture book was field-tested with two sets of mother-son subject pairs. This picture book was designed as a possible tool for providing children with comprehensible input during their critical period for second language acquisition. Context is provided by visual cues and both Japanese and…

  16. Simulation of a two step TGF ignition above cloudtops with MeV electron input fluxes generated in the electric fields of lightning streamers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, P. H.

    2014-12-01

    The origin of high energy electrons which contribute to the Runaway Electron Avalanche of a TGF are not precisely known, or yet observed, though the most obvious source would seem to be the products of cosmic ray showers, or electron avalanches generated in the high electric field near the tips of lightning leaders. With our TGF simulation software package LEPTRACK we can easily create all kinds of electric field geometries and are investigating the second scenario with combinations of lightning leader and streamer micro-fields producing electron avalanches, which may or may not be runaway, which are then input to the macro-fields expected at or above thunderstorm cloudtops.We will present the detailed evolution of photon, electron, neutron/proton and ionization density fields resulting to demonstrate the possibility that TGF origin is not one of the two models currently proposed but may be a combination of both.

  17. The Central Complex of the Flesh Fly, Neobellieria bullata: Recordings and Morphologies of Protocerebral Inputs and Small-Field Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Phillips-Portillo, James

    2014-01-01

    The central complex in the brains of insects is a series of midline neuropils involved in motor control, sensory integration, and associative learning. To understand better the role of this center and its supply of sensory information, intracellular recordings and dye fills were made of central complex neurons in the fly, Neobellieria bullata. Recordings were obtained from 24 neurons associated with the ellipsoid body, fan-shaped body, and protocerebral bridge, all of which receive both visual and mechanosensory information from protocerebral centers. One neuron with dendrites in an area of the lateral protocerebrum associated with motion-sensitive outputs from the optic lobes invades the entire protocerebral bridge and was driven by visual motion. Inputs to the fan-shaped body and ellipsoid body responded both to visual stimuli and to air puffs directed at the head and abdomen. Intrinsic neurons in both of these structures respond to changes in illumination. A putative output neuron connecting the protocerebral bridge, the fan-shaped body, and one of the lateral accessory lobes showed opponent responses to moving visual stimuli. These recordings identify neurons with response properties previously known only from extracellular recordings in other species. Dye injections into neurons connecting the central complex with areas of the protocerebrum suggest that some classes of inputs into the central complex are electrically coupled. PMID:22528883

  18. Dual Input AND Gate Fabricated From a Single Channel Poly (3-Hexylthiophene) Thin Film Field Effect Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinto, N. J.; Perez, R.; Mueller, C. H.; Theofylaktos, N.; Miranda, F. A.

    2006-01-01

    A regio-regular poly (3-hexylthiophene) (RRP3HT) thin film transistor having a split-gate architecture has been fabricated on a doped silicon/silicon nitride substrate and characterized. This device demonstrates AND logic functionality. The device functionality was controlled by applying either 0 or -10 V to each of the gate electrodes. When -10 V was simultaneously applied to both gates, the device was conductive (ON), while any other combination of gate voltages rendered the device resistive (OFF). The p-type carrier charge mobility was about 5x10(exp -4) per square centimeter per V-sec. The low mobility is attributed to the sharp contours of the RRP3HT film due to substrate non-planarity. A significant advantage of this architecture is that AND logic devices with multiple inputs can be fabricated using a single RRP3HT channel with multiple gates.

  19. The influence of anatomical and physiological parameters on the interference voltage at the input of unipolar cardiac pacemakers in low frequency electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joosten, S.; Pammler, K.; Silny, J.

    2009-02-01

    The problem of electromagnetic interference of electronic implants such as cardiac pacemakers has been well known for many years. An increasing number of field sources in everyday life and occupational environment leads unavoidably to an increased risk for patients with electronic implants. However, no obligatory national or international safety regulations exist for the protection of this patient group. The aim of this study is to find out the anatomical and physiological worst-case conditions for patients with an implanted pacemaker adjusted to unipolar sensing in external time-varying electric fields. The results of this study with 15 volunteers show that, in electric fields, variation of the interference voltage at the input of a cardiac pacemaker adds up to 200% only because of individual factors. These factors should be considered in human studies and in the setting of safety regulations.

  20. Pre-Mission Input Requirements to Enable Successful Sample Collection by A Remote Field/EVA Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. A.; Lim, D. S. S.; Young, K. E.; Brunner, A.; Elphic, R. E.; Horne, A.; Kerrigan, M. C.; Osinski, G. R.; Skok, J. R.; Squyres, S. W.; Saint-Jacques, D.; Heldmann, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    The FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) team, part of the Solar System Exploration Virtual Institute (SSERVI), is a field-based research program aimed at generating strategic knowledge in preparation for human and robotic exploration of the Moon, near-Earth asteroids, Phobos and Deimos, and beyond. In contract to other technology-driven NASA analog studies, The FINESSE WCIS activity is science-focused and, moreover, is sampling-focused with the explicit intent to return the best samples for geochronology studies in the laboratory. We used the FINESSE field excursion to the West Clearwater Lake Impact structure (WCIS) as an opportunity to test factors related to sampling decisions. We examined the in situ sample characterization and real-time decision-making process of the astronauts, with a guiding hypothesis that pre-mission training that included detailed background information on the analytical fate of a sample would better enable future astronauts to select samples that would best meet science requirements. We conducted three tests of this hypothesis over several days in the field. Our investigation was designed to document processes, tools and procedures for crew sampling of planetary targets. This was not meant to be a blind, controlled test of crew efficacy, but rather an effort to explicitly recognize the relevant variables that enter into sampling protocol and to be able to develop recommendations for crew and backroom training in future endeavors.

  1. Organic and inorganic inputs and losses in an irrigated corn field after inorganic fertilizer or manure application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about inorganic fertilizer or manure effects on organic carbon (OC) and inorganic C (IC) losses from a furrow irrigated field, particularly in the context of other system C gains or losses. In 2003 and 2004, we measured dissolved organic and inorganic C (DOC, DIC), particulate OC an...

  2. Pre-Mission Input Requirements to Enable Successful Sample Collection by a Remote Field/EVA Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. A.; Young, K. E.; Lim, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is intended to evaluate the sample collection process with respect to sample characterization and decision making. In some cases, it may be sufficient to know whether a given outcrop or hand sample is the same as or different from previous sampling localities or samples. In other cases, it may be important to have more in-depth characterization of the sample, such as basic composition, mineralogy, and petrology, in order to effectively identify the best sample. Contextual field observations, in situ/handheld analysis, and backroom evaluation may all play a role in understanding field lithologies and their importance for return. For example, whether a rock is a breccia or a clast-laden impact melt may be difficult based on a single sample, but becomes clear as exploration of a field site puts it into context. The FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) team is a new activity focused on a science and exploration field based research program aimed at generating strategic knowledge in preparation for the human and robotic exploration of the Moon, near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and Phobos and Deimos. We used the FINESSE field excursion to the West Clearwater Lake Impact structure (WCIS) as an opportunity to test factors related to sampling decisions. In contract to other technology-driven NASA analog studies, The FINESSE WCIS activity is science-focused, and moreover, is sampling-focused, with the explicit intent to return the best samples for geochronology studies in the laboratory. This specific objective effectively reduces the number of variables in the goals of the field test and enables a more controlled investigation of the role of the crewmember in selecting samples. We formulated one hypothesis to test: that providing details regarding the analytical fate of the samples (e.g. geochronology, XRF/XRD, etc.) to the crew prior to their traverse will result in samples that are more likely to meet specific analytical

  3. Ctip1 Controls Acquisition of Sensory Area Identity and Establishment of Sensory Input Fields in the Developing Neocortex.

    PubMed

    Greig, Luciano C; Woodworth, Mollie B; Greppi, Chloé; Macklis, Jeffrey D

    2016-04-20

    While transcriptional controls over the size and relative position of cortical areas have been identified, less is known about regulators that direct acquisition of area-specific characteristics. Here, we report that the transcription factor Ctip1 functions in primary sensory areas to repress motor and activate sensory programs of gene expression, enabling establishment of sharp molecular boundaries defining functional areas. In Ctip1 mutants, abnormal gene expression leads to aberrantly motorized corticocortical and corticofugal output connectivity. Ctip1 critically regulates differentiation of layer IV neurons, and selective loss of Ctip1 in cortex deprives thalamocortical axons of their receptive "sensory field" in layer IV, which normally provides a tangentially and radially defined compartment of dedicated synaptic territory. Therefore, although thalamocortical axons invade appropriate cortical regions, they are unable to organize into properly configured sensory maps. Together, these data identify Ctip1 as a critical control over sensory area development. PMID:27100196

  4. Wireless hippocampal neural recording via a multiple input RF receiver to construct place-specific firing fields.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Bae; Manns, Joseph R; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports scientifically meaningful in vivo experiments using a 32-channel wireless neural recording system (WINeR). The WINeR system is divided into transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) parts. On the Tx side, we had WINeR-6, a system-on-a-chip (SoC) that operated based on time division multiplexing (TDM) of pulse width modulated (PWM) samples. The chip was fabricated in a 0.5-µm CMOS process, occupying 4.9 × 3.3 mm(2) and consuming 15 mW from ±1.5V supplies. The Rx used two antennas with separate pathways to down-convert the RF signal from a large area. A time-to-digital converter (TDC) in an FPGA converted the PWM pulses into digitized samples. In order to further increase the wireless coverage area and eliminate blind spots within a large experimental arena, two receivers were synchronized. The WINeR system was used to record epileptic activities from a rat that was injected with tetanus toxin (TT) in the dorsal hippocampus. In a different in vivo experiment, place-specific firing fields of place cells, which are parts of the hippocampal-dependent memory, were mapped from a series of behavioral experiments from a rat running in a circular track. Results from the same animal were compared against a commercial hard-wired recording system to evaluate the quality of the wireless recordings. PMID:23366004

  5. Logic gates realized by nonvolatile GeTe/Sb2Te3 super lattice phase-change memory with a magnetic field input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Bin; Cheng, Xiaomin; Feng, Jinlong; Guan, Xiawei; Miao, Xiangshui

    2016-07-01

    Nonvolatile memory devices or circuits that can implement both storage and calculation are a crucial requirement for the efficiency improvement of modern computer. In this work, we realize logic functions by using [GeTe/Sb2Te3]n super lattice phase change memory (PCM) cell in which higher threshold voltage is needed for phase change with a magnetic field applied. First, the [GeTe/Sb2Te3]n super lattice cells were fabricated and the R-V curve was measured. Then we designed the logic circuits with the super lattice PCM cell verified by HSPICE simulation and experiments. Seven basic logic functions are first demonstrated in this letter; then several multi-input logic gates are presented. The proposed logic devices offer the advantages of simple structures and low power consumption, indicating that the super lattice PCM has the potential in the future nonvolatile central processing unit design, facilitating the development of massive parallel computing architecture.

  6. Parallel molecular computation of modular-multiplication with two same inputs over finite field GF(2(n)) using self-assembly of DNA tiles.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongnan; Xiao, Limin; Ruan, Li

    2014-06-01

    Two major advantages of DNA computing - huge memory capacity and high parallelism - are being explored for large-scale parallel computing, mass data storage and cryptography. Tile assembly model is a highly distributed parallel model of DNA computing. Finite field GF(2(n)) is one of the most commonly used mathematic sets for constructing public-key cryptosystem. It is still an open question that how to implement the basic operations over finite field GF(2(n)) using DNA tiles. This paper proposes how the parallel tile assembly process could be used for computing the modular-square, modular-multiplication with two same inputs, over finite field GF(2(n)). This system could obtain the final result within less steps than another molecular computing system designed in our previous study, because square and reduction are executed simultaneously and the previous system computes reduction after calculating square. Rigorous theoretical proofs are described and specific computing instance is given after defining the basic tiles and the assembly rules. Time complexity of this system is 3n-1 and space complexity is 2n(2). PMID:24534382

  7. More Gamma More Predictions: Gamma-Synchronization as a Key Mechanism for Efficient Integration of Classical Receptive Field Inputs with Surround Predictions.

    PubMed

    Vinck, Martin; Bosman, Conrado A

    2016-01-01

    During visual stimulation, neurons in visual cortex often exhibit rhythmic and synchronous firing in the gamma-frequency (30-90 Hz) band. Whether this phenomenon plays a functional role during visual processing is not fully clear and remains heavily debated. In this article, we explore the function of gamma-synchronization in the context of predictive and efficient coding theories. These theories hold that sensory neurons utilize the statistical regularities in the natural world in order to improve the efficiency of the neural code, and to optimize the inference of the stimulus causes of the sensory data. In visual cortex, this relies on the integration of classical receptive field (CRF) data with predictions from the surround. Here we outline two main hypotheses about gamma-synchronization in visual cortex. First, we hypothesize that the precision of gamma-synchronization reflects the extent to which CRF data can be accurately predicted by the surround. Second, we hypothesize that different cortical columns synchronize to the extent that they accurately predict each other's CRF visual input. We argue that these two hypotheses can account for a large number of empirical observations made on the stimulus dependencies of gamma-synchronization. Furthermore, we show that they are consistent with the known laminar dependencies of gamma-synchronization and the spatial profile of intercolumnar gamma-synchronization, as well as the dependence of gamma-synchronization on experience and development. Based on our two main hypotheses, we outline two additional hypotheses. First, we hypothesize that the precision of gamma-synchronization shows, in general, a negative dependence on RF size. In support, we review evidence showing that gamma-synchronization decreases in strength along the visual hierarchy, and tends to be more prominent in species with small V1 RFs. Second, we hypothesize that gamma-synchronized network dynamics facilitate the emergence of spiking output that is

  8. More Gamma More Predictions: Gamma-Synchronization as a Key Mechanism for Efficient Integration of Classical Receptive Field Inputs with Surround Predictions

    PubMed Central

    Vinck, Martin; Bosman, Conrado A.

    2016-01-01

    During visual stimulation, neurons in visual cortex often exhibit rhythmic and synchronous firing in the gamma-frequency (30–90 Hz) band. Whether this phenomenon plays a functional role during visual processing is not fully clear and remains heavily debated. In this article, we explore the function of gamma-synchronization in the context of predictive and efficient coding theories. These theories hold that sensory neurons utilize the statistical regularities in the natural world in order to improve the efficiency of the neural code, and to optimize the inference of the stimulus causes of the sensory data. In visual cortex, this relies on the integration of classical receptive field (CRF) data with predictions from the surround. Here we outline two main hypotheses about gamma-synchronization in visual cortex. First, we hypothesize that the precision of gamma-synchronization reflects the extent to which CRF data can be accurately predicted by the surround. Second, we hypothesize that different cortical columns synchronize to the extent that they accurately predict each other’s CRF visual input. We argue that these two hypotheses can account for a large number of empirical observations made on the stimulus dependencies of gamma-synchronization. Furthermore, we show that they are consistent with the known laminar dependencies of gamma-synchronization and the spatial profile of intercolumnar gamma-synchronization, as well as the dependence of gamma-synchronization on experience and development. Based on our two main hypotheses, we outline two additional hypotheses. First, we hypothesize that the precision of gamma-synchronization shows, in general, a negative dependence on RF size. In support, we review evidence showing that gamma-synchronization decreases in strength along the visual hierarchy, and tends to be more prominent in species with small V1 RFs. Second, we hypothesize that gamma-synchronized network dynamics facilitate the emergence of spiking output that

  9. QuickFF: A program for a quick and easy derivation of force fields for metal-organic frameworks from ab initio input.

    PubMed

    Vanduyfhuys, Louis; Vandenbrande, Steven; Verstraelen, Toon; Schmid, Rochus; Waroquier, Michel; Van Speybroeck, Veronique

    2015-05-15

    QuickFF is a software package to derive accurate force fields for isolated and complex molecular systems in a quick and easy manner. Apart from its general applicability, the program has been designed to generate force fields for metal-organic frameworks in an automated fashion. The force field parameters for the covalent interaction are derived from ab initio data. The mathematical expression of the covalent energy is kept simple to ensure robustness and to avoid fitting deficiencies as much as possible. The user needs to produce an equilibrium structure and a Hessian matrix for one or more building units. Afterward, a force field is generated for the system using a three-step method implemented in QuickFF. The first two steps of the methodology are designed to minimize correlations among the force field parameters. In the last step, the parameters are refined by imposing the force field parameters to reproduce the ab initio Hessian matrix in Cartesian coordinate space as accurate as possible. The method is applied on a set of 1000 organic molecules to show the easiness of the software protocol. To illustrate its application to metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), QuickFF is used to determine force fields for MIL-53(Al) and MOF-5. For both materials, accurate force fields were already generated in literature but they requested a lot of manual interventions. QuickFF is a tool that can easily be used by anyone with a basic knowledge of performing ab initio calculations. As a result, accurate force fields are generated with minimal effort. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25740170

  10. Differences in Visual-Spatial Input May Underlie Different Compression Properties of Firing Fields for Grid Cell Modules in Medial Entorhinal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Raudies, Florian; Hasselmo, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Firing fields of grid cells in medial entorhinal cortex show compression or expansion after manipulations of the location of environmental barriers. This compression or expansion could be selective for individual grid cell modules with particular properties of spatial scaling. We present a model for differences in the response of modules to barrier location that arise from different mechanisms for the influence of visual features on the computation of location that drives grid cell firing patterns. These differences could arise from differences in the position of visual features within the visual field. When location was computed from the movement of visual features on the ground plane (optic flow) in the ventral visual field, this resulted in grid cell spatial firing that was not sensitive to barrier location in modules modeled with small spacing between grid cell firing fields. In contrast, when location was computed from static visual features on walls of barriers, i.e. in the more dorsal visual field, this resulted in grid cell spatial firing that compressed or expanded based on the barrier locations in modules modeled with large spacing between grid cell firing fields. This indicates that different grid cell modules might have differential properties for computing location based on visual cues, or the spatial radius of sensitivity to visual cues might differ between modules. PMID:26584432

  11. Talking Speech Input.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berliss-Vincent, Jane; Whitford, Gigi

    2002-01-01

    This article presents both the factors involved in successful speech input use and the potential barriers that may suggest that other access technologies could be more appropriate for a given individual. Speech input options that are available are reviewed and strategies for optimizing use of speech recognition technology are discussed. (Contains…

  12. MDS MIC Catalog Inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Vowell, C. W.; Smith, Byron; Darcy, Jeannette

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the inputs to the MDS Medical Information Communique (MIC) catalog. The purpose of the group is to provide input for updating the MDS MIC Catalog and to request that MMOP assign Action Item to other working groups and FSs to support the MITWG Process for developing MIC-DDs.

  13. High input impedance amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, Leonard L.

    1995-01-01

    High input impedance amplifiers are provided which reduce the input impedance solely to a capacitive reactance, or, in a somewhat more complex design, provide an extremely high essentially infinite, capacitive reactance. In one embodiment, where the input impedance is reduced in essence, to solely a capacitive reactance, an operational amplifier in a follower configuration is driven at its non-inverting input and a resistor with a predetermined magnitude is connected between the inverting and non-inverting inputs. A second embodiment eliminates the capacitance from the input by adding a second stage to the first embodiment. The second stage is a second operational amplifier in a non-inverting gain-stage configuration where the output of the first follower stage drives the non-inverting input of the second stage and the output of the second stage is fed back to the non-inverting input of the first stage through a capacitor of a predetermined magnitude. These amplifiers, while generally useful, are very useful as sensor buffer amplifiers that may eliminate significant sources of error.

  14. Method for first-order design of a transfer optics system to throughput match a Fourier transform spectrometer to a sample cell without use of a field lens at the cell input.

    PubMed

    Olson, W B

    1987-06-15

    The realization that the usual optical geometry of an absorption cell is the frustrum of a cone and that a requirement can be put on any transfer optics system that eliminates the need for a field lens at the cell input leads to a powerful method of first-order optical system design through (1) determination of a required ray transfer matrix, unique except for sign, which requires a single concave spherical mirror (or lens) to implement and (2) getting additional degrees of freedom to make the system more practical at the expense of additional spherical mirrors (or lenses). Two successful applications of the method are described. PMID:20489890

  15. A methodology for fast assessments to the electrical activity of barrel fields in vivo: from population inputs to single unit outputs

    PubMed Central

    Riera, Jorge J.; Goto, Takakuni; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-01-01

    Here we propose a methodology to analyze volumetric electrical activity of neuronal masses in the somatosensory barrel field of Wistar rats. The key elements of the proposed methodology are a three-dimensional microelectrode array, which was customized by our group to observe extracellular recordings from an extended area of the barrel field, and a novel method for the current source density analysis. By means of this methodology, we were able to localize single barrels from their event-related responses to single whisker deflection. It was also possible to assess the spatiotemporal dynamics of neuronal aggregates in several barrels at the same time with the resolution of single neurons. We used simulations to study the robustness of our methodology to unavoidable physiological noise and electrode configuration. We compared the accuracy to reconstruct neocortical current sources with that obtained with a previous method. This constitutes a type of electrophysiological microscopy with high spatial and temporal resolution, which could change the way we analyze the activity of cortical neurons in the future. PMID:24550785

  16. Format( )MEDIC( )Input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, K.

    1994-09-01

    This document is a description of a computer program called Format( )MEDIC( )Input. The purpose of this program is to allow the user to quickly reformat wind velocity data in the Model Evaluation Database (MEDb) into a reasonable 'first cut' set of MEDIC input files (MEDIC.nml, StnLoc.Met, and Observ.Met). The user is cautioned that these resulting input files must be reviewed for correctness and completeness. This program will not format MEDb data into a Problem Station Library or Problem Metdata File. A description of how the program reformats the data is provided, along with a description of the required and optional user input and a description of the resulting output files. A description of the MEDb is not provided here but can be found in the RAS Division Model Evaluation Database Description document.

  17. CHARMM-GUI Input Generator for NAMD, GROMACS, AMBER, OpenMM, and CHARMM/OpenMM Simulations Using the CHARMM36 Additive Force Field

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jumin; Cheng, Xi; Swails, Jason M.; Yeom, Min Sun; Eastman, Peter K.; Lemkul, Justin A.; Wei, Shuai; Buckner, Joshua; Jeong, Jong Cheol; Qi, Yifei; Jo, Sunhwan; Pande, Vijay S.; Case, David A.; Brooks, Charles L.; MacKerell, Alexander D.; Klauda, Jeffery B.; Im, Wonpil

    2015-11-12

    Here we report that proper treatment of nonbonded interactions is essential for the accuracy of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, especially in studies of lipid bilayers. The use of the CHARMM36 force field (C36 FF) in different MD simulation programs can result in disagreements with published simulations performed with CHARMM due to differences in the protocols used to treat the long-range and 1-4 nonbonded interactions. In this study, we systematically test the use of the C36 lipid FF in NAMD, GROMACS, AMBER, OpenMM, and CHARMM/OpenMM. A wide range of Lennard-Jones (LJ) cutoff schemes and integrator algorithms were tested to find the optimal simulation protocol to best match bilayer properties of six lipids with varying acyl chain saturation and head groups. MD simulations of a 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer were used to obtain the optimal protocol for each program. MD simulations with all programs were found to reasonably match the DPPC bilayer properties (surface area per lipid, chain order parameters, and area compressibility modulus) obtained using the standard protocol used in CHARMM as well as from experiments. The optimal simulation protocol was then applied to the other five lipid simulations and resulted in excellent agreement between results from most simulation programs as well as with experimental data. AMBER compared least favorably with the expected membrane properties, which appears to be due to its use of the hard-truncation in the LJ potential versus a force-based switching function used to smooth the LJ potential as it approaches the cutoff distance. The optimal simulation protocol for each program has been implemented in CHARMM-GUI. This protocol is expected to be applicable to the remainder of the additive C36 FF including the proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and small molecules.

  18. Limitations of short range Mexican hat connection for driving target selection in a 2D neural field: activity suppression and deviation from input stimuli.

    PubMed

    Mégardon, Geoffrey; Tandonnet, Christophe; Sumner, Petroc; Guillaume, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic Neural Field models (DNF) often use a kernel of connection with short range excitation and long range inhibition. This organization has been suggested as a model for brain structures or for artificial systems involved in winner-take-all processes such as saliency localization, perceptual decision or target/action selection. A good example of such a DNF is the superior colliculus (SC), a key structure for eye movements. Recent results suggest that the superficial layers of the SC (SCs) exhibit relatively short range inhibition with a longer time constant than excitation. The aim of the present study was to further examine the properties of a DNF with such an inhibition pattern in the context of target selection. First we tested the effects of stimulus size and shape on when and where self-maintained clusters of firing neurons appeared, using three variants of the model. In each model variant, small stimuli led to rapid formation of a spiking cluster, a range of medium sizes led to the suppression of any activity on the network and hence to no target selection, while larger sizes led to delayed selection of multiple loci. Second, we tested the model with two stimuli separated by a varying distance. Again single, none, or multiple spiking clusters could occur, depending on distance and relative stimulus strength. For short distances, activity attracted toward the strongest stimulus, reminiscent of well-known behavioral data for saccadic eye movements, while for larger distances repulsion away from the second stimulus occurred. All these properties predicted by the model suggest that the SCs, or any other neural structure thought to implement a short range MH, is an imperfect winner-take-all system. Although, those properties call for systematic testing, the discussion gathers neurophysiological and behavioral data suggesting that such properties are indeed present in target selection for saccadic eye movements. PMID:26539103

  19. Limitations of short range Mexican hat connection for driving target selection in a 2D neural field: activity suppression and deviation from input stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Mégardon, Geoffrey; Tandonnet, Christophe; Sumner, Petroc; Guillaume, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic Neural Field models (DNF) often use a kernel of connection with short range excitation and long range inhibition. This organization has been suggested as a model for brain structures or for artificial systems involved in winner-take-all processes such as saliency localization, perceptual decision or target/action selection. A good example of such a DNF is the superior colliculus (SC), a key structure for eye movements. Recent results suggest that the superficial layers of the SC (SCs) exhibit relatively short range inhibition with a longer time constant than excitation. The aim of the present study was to further examine the properties of a DNF with such an inhibition pattern in the context of target selection. First we tested the effects of stimulus size and shape on when and where self-maintained clusters of firing neurons appeared, using three variants of the model. In each model variant, small stimuli led to rapid formation of a spiking cluster, a range of medium sizes led to the suppression of any activity on the network and hence to no target selection, while larger sizes led to delayed selection of multiple loci. Second, we tested the model with two stimuli separated by a varying distance. Again single, none, or multiple spiking clusters could occur, depending on distance and relative stimulus strength. For short distances, activity attracted toward the strongest stimulus, reminiscent of well-known behavioral data for saccadic eye movements, while for larger distances repulsion away from the second stimulus occurred. All these properties predicted by the model suggest that the SCs, or any other neural structure thought to implement a short range MH, is an imperfect winner-take-all system. Although, those properties call for systematic testing, the discussion gathers neurophysiological and behavioral data suggesting that such properties are indeed present in target selection for saccadic eye movements. PMID:26539103

  20. CHARMM-GUI Input Generator for NAMD, GROMACS, AMBER, OpenMM, and CHARMM/OpenMM Simulations Using the CHARMM36 Additive Force Field

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lee, Jumin; Cheng, Xi; Swails, Jason M.; Yeom, Min Sun; Eastman, Peter K.; Lemkul, Justin A.; Wei, Shuai; Buckner, Joshua; Jeong, Jong Cheol; Qi, Yifei; et al

    2015-11-12

    Here we report that proper treatment of nonbonded interactions is essential for the accuracy of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, especially in studies of lipid bilayers. The use of the CHARMM36 force field (C36 FF) in different MD simulation programs can result in disagreements with published simulations performed with CHARMM due to differences in the protocols used to treat the long-range and 1-4 nonbonded interactions. In this study, we systematically test the use of the C36 lipid FF in NAMD, GROMACS, AMBER, OpenMM, and CHARMM/OpenMM. A wide range of Lennard-Jones (LJ) cutoff schemes and integrator algorithms were tested to find themore » optimal simulation protocol to best match bilayer properties of six lipids with varying acyl chain saturation and head groups. MD simulations of a 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer were used to obtain the optimal protocol for each program. MD simulations with all programs were found to reasonably match the DPPC bilayer properties (surface area per lipid, chain order parameters, and area compressibility modulus) obtained using the standard protocol used in CHARMM as well as from experiments. The optimal simulation protocol was then applied to the other five lipid simulations and resulted in excellent agreement between results from most simulation programs as well as with experimental data. AMBER compared least favorably with the expected membrane properties, which appears to be due to its use of the hard-truncation in the LJ potential versus a force-based switching function used to smooth the LJ potential as it approaches the cutoff distance. The optimal simulation protocol for each program has been implemented in CHARMM-GUI. This protocol is expected to be applicable to the remainder of the additive C36 FF including the proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and small molecules.« less

  1. CHARMM-GUI Input Generator for NAMD, GROMACS, AMBER, OpenMM, and CHARMM/OpenMM Simulations Using the CHARMM36 Additive Force Field

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Proper treatment of nonbonded interactions is essential for the accuracy of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, especially in studies of lipid bilayers. The use of the CHARMM36 force field (C36 FF) in different MD simulation programs can result in disagreements with published simulations performed with CHARMM due to differences in the protocols used to treat the long-range and 1-4 nonbonded interactions. In this study, we systematically test the use of the C36 lipid FF in NAMD, GROMACS, AMBER, OpenMM, and CHARMM/OpenMM. A wide range of Lennard-Jones (LJ) cutoff schemes and integrator algorithms were tested to find the optimal simulation protocol to best match bilayer properties of six lipids with varying acyl chain saturation and head groups. MD simulations of a 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer were used to obtain the optimal protocol for each program. MD simulations with all programs were found to reasonably match the DPPC bilayer properties (surface area per lipid, chain order parameters, and area compressibility modulus) obtained using the standard protocol used in CHARMM as well as from experiments. The optimal simulation protocol was then applied to the other five lipid simulations and resulted in excellent agreement between results from most simulation programs as well as with experimental data. AMBER compared least favorably with the expected membrane properties, which appears to be due to its use of the hard-truncation in the LJ potential versus a force-based switching function used to smooth the LJ potential as it approaches the cutoff distance. The optimal simulation protocol for each program has been implemented in CHARMM-GUI. This protocol is expected to be applicable to the remainder of the additive C36 FF including the proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and small molecules. PMID:26631602

  2. Climate Change and Potassium Effects Under Different N-Fertilization Input on Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in a Long Term Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    Climate change of Hungary was initiated about of 1850. Nowadays among the natural catastrophes, drought and flooding caused by over-abundant rainfall cause the greatest problems in field crop production. The droughts and the floods were experienced in the early eighties as well as today have drawn renewed attention to the analysis of this problem. The potato is demanding indicator crop of climate factors (temperature, rainfall) and soil nutrient status. Has a particularly high requirement for quantity of precipitation and for supply of soil potassium, nitrogen, phosphorus and magnesium. This paper reports the results achieved in the period from 1962 to 2001 of a long term small- plot fertilization experiment set up on acidic sandy brown forest soil at Nyírlugos in the Nyírség region in North- Eastern Hungary. Characteristics of the experiment soil were a pH (KCl) 4.5, humus 0.5%, CEC 5-10 mgeq 100g-1 in the ploughed layer. The topsoil was poor in all four macronutrient N, P, K and Mg. The mineral fertilization experiment involved 2 (genotype: Gülbaba and Aranyalma) x 2 (ploughed depth: 20 and 40 cm) x 16 (fertilizations: N, P, K, Mg) = 64 treatments in 8 replications, giving a total of 512 plots. The gross and net plot sizes were 10x5=50 m2 and 35.5 m2. The experimental designe was split-split-plot. The N levels were 0, 50, 100, 150 kg ha-1 year-1 and the P, K, Mg levels were 48, 150, 30 kg ha-1 year-1 P2O5, K2O, MgO in the form of 25% calcium ammonium nitrate, 18% superphosphate, 40% potassium chloride, and technological powdered magnesium sulphate. The forecrop every second year was rye. The groundwater level was at a depth of 2-3 m. From the 64 treatments, eight replications, altogether 512- experimental plots with 7 treatments and their 16 combinations are summarised of experiment period from 1962 to 1979. The main conclusions were as follows: 1. The experiment years (1962-1963, 1964-1965, 1966-1967, 1968-1969, 1970-1971, 1972-1973, 1974-1975, 1976

  3. Input Decimated Ensembles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Kagan; Oza, Nikunj C.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Using an ensemble of classifiers instead of a single classifier has been shown to improve generalization performance in many pattern recognition problems. However, the extent of such improvement depends greatly on the amount of correlation among the errors of the base classifiers. Therefore, reducing those correlations while keeping the classifiers' performance levels high is an important area of research. In this article, we explore input decimation (ID), a method which selects feature subsets for their ability to discriminate among the classes and uses them to decouple the base classifiers. We provide a summary of the theoretical benefits of correlation reduction, along with results of our method on two underwater sonar data sets, three benchmarks from the Probenl/UCI repositories, and two synthetic data sets. The results indicate that input decimated ensembles (IDEs) outperform ensembles whose base classifiers use all the input features; randomly selected subsets of features; and features created using principal components analysis, on a wide range of domains.

  4. Climate Change and Potassium Effects Under Different N-Fertilization Input on Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in a Long Term Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    Climate change of Hungary was initiated about of 1850. Nowadays among the natural catastrophes, drought and flooding caused by over-abundant rainfall cause the greatest problems in field crop production. The droughts and the floods were experienced in the early eighties as well as today have drawn renewed attention to the analysis of this problem. The potato is demanding indicator crop of climate factors (temperature, rainfall) and soil nutrient status. Has a particularly high requirement for quantity of precipitation and for supply of soil potassium, nitrogen, phosphorus and magnesium. This paper reports the results achieved in the period from 1962 to 2001 of a long term small- plot fertilization experiment set up on acidic sandy brown forest soil at Nyírlugos in the Nyírség region in North- Eastern Hungary. Characteristics of the experiment soil were a pH (KCl) 4.5, humus 0.5%, CEC 5-10 mgeq 100g-1 in the ploughed layer. The topsoil was poor in all four macronutrient N, P, K and Mg. The mineral fertilization experiment involved 2 (genotype: Gülbaba and Aranyalma) x 2 (ploughed depth: 20 and 40 cm) x 16 (fertilizations: N, P, K, Mg) = 64 treatments in 8 replications, giving a total of 512 plots. The gross and net plot sizes were 10x5=50 m2 and 35.5 m2. The experimental designe was split-split-plot. The N levels were 0, 50, 100, 150 kg ha-1 year-1 and the P, K, Mg levels were 48, 150, 30 kg ha-1 year-1 P2O5, K2O, MgO in the form of 25% calcium ammonium nitrate, 18% superphosphate, 40% potassium chloride, and technological powdered magnesium sulphate. The forecrop every second year was rye. The groundwater level was at a depth of 2-3 m. From the 64 treatments, eight replications, altogether 512- experimental plots with 7 treatments and their 16 combinations are summarised of experiment period from 1962 to 1979. The main conclusions were as follows: 1. The experiment years (1962-1963, 1964-1965, 1966-1967, 1968-1969, 1970-1971, 1972-1973, 1974-1975, 1976

  5. Impacts of an African Green Revolution on Greenhouse Gases and Pollution Precursors: Nonlinear Trace N Gas Emission Responses to Incremental Increases in Fertilizer Inputs in a Western Kenyan Maize Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, J. E.; Palm, C.

    2011-12-01

    Over the last several decades, agricultural soils in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa have become depleted of nitrogen (N) and other nutrients, creating challenges to achieving food security in many countries. At only 7 kg N ha-1 yr-1, average fertilizer application rates in the region are an order of magnitude lower than typical rates in the United States, and well below optimal levels. Increased use of nutrient inputs is a centerpiece of most African Green Revolution strategies, making it important to quantify the impacts of this change in practices as farmers begin moving towards 50-80 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Increased N inputs are invariably accompanied by losses of trace N gases to the atmosphere, including the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O), and nitric oxide (NO), a precursor to tropospheric ozone pollution. Several investigations of greenhouse gas emissions and one investigation of NO emissions from sub-Saharan agricultural systems have been conducted over the last 20 years, but they are few in number and were not designed to identify potentially important thresholds in the response of trace gas emissions to fertilization rate. Here we examine the response function of NO and N2O emissions to 6 different levels of inorganic fertilizer additions in a maize field in Yala, Kenya during the 2011 long rainy season. We used a randomized complete block design incorporating inorganic fertilizer treatments of 0, 50, 75, 100, 150, and 200 kg N ha-1 in 4 blocks. After each of 2 fertilizer applications, we measured trace gas fluxes daily, and conducted weekly measurements until trace gas emissions subsided to control levels. We fit the data to linear and exponential models relating N gas emissions to N input levels, and conducted a model comparison using AIC. Preliminary analysis suggests that NO emissions do respond in a non-linear fashion over the course of 67 days, as has been found in several commercial agroecosystems for N2O. Although N2O emissions responded linearly

  6. Hypermnesia using auditory input.

    PubMed

    Allen, J

    1992-07-01

    The author investigated whether hypermnesia would occur with auditory input. In addition, the author examined the effects of subjects' knowledge that they would later be asked to recall the stimuli. Two groups of 26 subjects each were given three successive recall trials after they listened to an audiotape of 59 high-imagery nouns. The subjects in the uninformed group were not told that they would later be asked to remember the words; those in the informed group were. Hypermnesia was evident, but only in the uninformed group. PMID:1447564

  7. Input distributions for VISA

    SciTech Connect

    Liebetrau, A.M.

    1983-10-01

    Work is underway at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to improve the probabilistic analysis used to model pressurized thermal shock (PTS) incidents in reactor pressure vessels, and, further, to incorporate these improvements into the existing Vessel Integrity Simulation Analysis (VISA) code. Two topics related to work on input distributions in VISA are discussed in this paper. The first involves the treatment of flaw size distributions and the second concerns errors in the parameters in the (Guthrie) equation which is used to compute ..delta..RT/sub NDT/, the shift in reference temperature for nil ductility transition.

  8. Nitrogen loss from high N-input vegetable fields: a) Direct N2O emissions b) Spatiotemporal variability of N species (N2O, NH4+, NO3-) in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, I.; Pfab, H.; Ruser, R.; Fiedler, S.

    2009-04-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a greenhouse gas contributing to stratospheric ozone depletion. Soils are considered to be the major (70%) source for atmospheric N2O. Agriculture in general accounts for about 85% of the anthropogenic N2O emissions. Whereas 80% of these, are emitted from ag-riculturally used soils. Such estimations of N2O fluxes are associated with a high degree of uncertainties. Uncertainty of source strength estimates mainly results from local scale variability of known and unknown sources. It is not known how much uncertainty is due to unmeasured sources. For example, considerations of N2O fluxes from soils used for intensive vegetable production within inventories are still missing. We speculate that these types of arable soils act as ‚hot spots' for N2O. Given conditions (1) high N-input due to fertilization in concert with (2) easily mineralizable harvest residues should pro-mote disproportional high reaction rates in N-cycling and enhance N2O production as a by-product of nitrification and denitrification. Our investigation focused on the influence of: (1) N-input level (Ammonium Sulfate Nitrate (ASN)) below and above common N doses used for "good agricultural practice". (2) Application of modified fertilizers including nitrification inhibitor DMPP (Dimethylpyrazolphosphate, ENTEC®) and depot fertilization (pseudo-CULTAN) in comparison to non-fertilized control and common ASN application. (3) Effects of plant residues on N-cycling and (4) the deduction of mitigation strategies to reduce the potential N-loss from theses sites. The study was carried out during summer and autumn 2008 on a field cropped with cauliflower, located at the "Heidfeldhof" (South-West Germany; MAT 10.5°C, MAP 660 mm). Three different N-species (N2O; within gaseous soil phase, ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-) extracted from bulk soil) were measured weekly in three different soil depths (0-25 cm; 25-50 cm and 50-75 cm) in a fully randomized field design. At same depths water

  9. Arctic science input wanted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Arctic Research and Policy Act (Eos, June 26, 1984, p. 412) was signed into law by President Ronald Reagan this past July. One of its objectives is to develop a 5-year research plan for the Arctic. A request for input to this plan is being issued this week to nearly 500 people in science, engineering, and industry.To promote Arctic research and to recommend research policy in the Arctic, the new law establishes a five-member Arctic Research Commission, to be appointed by the President, and establishes an Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee, to be composed of representatives from nearly a dozen agencies having interests in the region. The commission will make policy recommendations, and the interagency committee will implement those recommendations. The National Science Foundation (NSF) has been designated as the lead agency of the interagency committee.

  10. Input Multiplicities in Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppel, Lowell B.

    1983-01-01

    Describes research investigating potential effect of input multiplicity on multivariable chemical process control systems. Several simple processes are shown to exhibit the possibility of theoretical developments on input multiplicity and closely related phenomena are discussed. (JN)

  11. Modeling and generating input processes

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    This tutorial paper provides information relevant to the selection and generation of stochastic inputs to simulation studies. The primary area considered is multivariate but much of the philosophy at least is relevant to univariate inputs as well. 14 refs.

  12. Serial Input Output

    SciTech Connect

    Waite, Anthony; /SLAC

    2011-09-07

    Serial Input/Output (SIO) is designed to be a long term storage format of a sophistication somewhere between simple ASCII files and the techniques provided by inter alia Objectivity and Root. The former tend to be low density, information lossy (floating point numbers lose precision) and inflexible. The latter require abstract descriptions of the data with all that that implies in terms of extra complexity. The basic building blocks of SIO are streams, records and blocks. Streams provide the connections between the program and files. The user can define an arbitrary list of streams as required. A given stream must be opened for either reading or writing. SIO does not support read/write streams. If a stream is closed during the execution of a program, it can be reopened in either read or write mode to the same or a different file. Records represent a coherent grouping of data. Records consist of a collection of blocks (see next paragraph). The user can define a variety of records (headers, events, error logs, etc.) and request that any of them be written to any stream. When SIO reads a file, it first decodes the record name and if that record has been defined and unpacking has been requested for it, SIO proceeds to unpack the blocks. Blocks are user provided objects which do the real work of reading/writing the data. The user is responsible for writing the code for these blocks and for identifying these blocks to SIO at run time. To write a collection of blocks, the user must first connect them to a record. The record can then be written to a stream as described above. Note that the same block can be connected to many different records. When SIO reads a record, it scans through the blocks written and calls the corresponding block object (if it has been defined) to decode it. Undefined blocks are skipped. Each of these categories (streams, records and blocks) have some characteristics in common. Every stream, record and block has a name with the condition that each

  13. SDR input power estimation algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briones, J. C.; Nappier, J. M.

    The General Dynamics (GD) S-Band software defined radio (SDR) in the Space Communications and Navigation (SCAN) Testbed on the International Space Station (ISS) provides experimenters an opportunity to develop and demonstrate experimental waveforms in space. The SDR has an analog and a digital automatic gain control (AGC) and the response of the AGCs to changes in SDR input power and temperature was characterized prior to the launch and installation of the SCAN Testbed on the ISS. The AGCs were used to estimate the SDR input power and SNR of the received signal and the characterization results showed a nonlinear response to SDR input power and temperature. In order to estimate the SDR input from the AGCs, three algorithms were developed and implemented on the ground software of the SCAN Testbed. The algorithms include a linear straight line estimator, which used the digital AGC and the temperature to estimate the SDR input power over a narrower section of the SDR input power range. There is a linear adaptive filter algorithm that uses both AGCs and the temperature to estimate the SDR input power over a wide input power range. Finally, an algorithm that uses neural networks was designed to estimate the input power over a wide range. This paper describes the algorithms in detail and their associated performance in estimating the SDR input power.

  14. SDR Input Power Estimation Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nappier, Jennifer M.; Briones, Janette C.

    2013-01-01

    The General Dynamics (GD) S-Band software defined radio (SDR) in the Space Communications and Navigation (SCAN) Testbed on the International Space Station (ISS) provides experimenters an opportunity to develop and demonstrate experimental waveforms in space. The SDR has an analog and a digital automatic gain control (AGC) and the response of the AGCs to changes in SDR input power and temperature was characterized prior to the launch and installation of the SCAN Testbed on the ISS. The AGCs were used to estimate the SDR input power and SNR of the received signal and the characterization results showed a nonlinear response to SDR input power and temperature. In order to estimate the SDR input from the AGCs, three algorithms were developed and implemented on the ground software of the SCAN Testbed. The algorithms include a linear straight line estimator, which used the digital AGC and the temperature to estimate the SDR input power over a narrower section of the SDR input power range. There is a linear adaptive filter algorithm that uses both AGCs and the temperature to estimate the SDR input power over a wide input power range. Finally, an algorithm that uses neural networks was designed to estimate the input power over a wide range. This paper describes the algorithms in detail and their associated performance in estimating the SDR input power.

  15. Nitrogen loss from high N-input vegetable fields - a) direct N2O emissions b) Spatiotemporal variability of N species (N2O, NH4+, NO3-) in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfab, H.; Ruser, R.; Palmer, I.; Fiedler, S.

    2009-04-01

    Nitrous oxide is a climate relevant trace gas. It contributes 7.9 % to the total anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission and it is also involved in stratospheric ozone depletion. Approximately 85 % of the anthropogenic N2O emissions result from agricultural activities, more than 50 % are produced during microbial N-turnover processes in soils. Especially soils with high N-input (N-fertilizer and high amount of N in plant residues) like vegetable cropped soils are assumed to cause high N2O losses. The aims of the study presented were (i) to quantify the N2O loss from a vegetable field (lettuce-cauliflower crop rotation), (ii) to calculate an emission factor for the study site in Southwest Germany and to compare this factor with the default value provided by the IPCC (2006) and (iii) to test the emission reduction potential (Ammonium Sulfate Nitrate fertilizer, ASN either by reduced N-fertilization) in comparison with common N doses used for good agricultural practice or by the use of a nitrification inhibitor (DMPP), a banded N-application (lettuce) or a depot fertilization measure (pseudo-CULTAN in order to suppress nitrification). N2O fluxes determined with the closed chamber method were highly variable in time with strongly increased flux rates after N-fertilization in combination with rainfall or irrigation measures and after the incorporation of cauliflower crop residues. Using the mean soil nitrate contents of the top soil of our investigated treatments (0-25 cm depth), we could explain approximately 60 % of the variability of the cumulative N2O losses during the vegetation period of lettuce and cauliflower. The cumulative N2O emissions ranged between 0,99 kg N2O-N ha-1 from the unfertilized control plots (vegetation period) and 6,81 kg N2O-N ha-1 from the plots with the highest N-dose. Based on the guidelines of the IPCC (2006), we calculated an emission factor around 0,9 % for the cropping season. This value is in good agreement with the default value of the

  16. REL - English Bulk Data Input.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Richard Henry

    A bulk data input processor which is available for the Rapidly Extensible Language (REL) English versions is described. In REL English versions, statements that declare names of data items and their interrelationships normally are lines from a terminal or cards in a batch input stream. These statements provide a convenient means of declaring some…

  17. Input Range Testing for the General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    This document contains a test plan for testing input values to the General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT). The plan includes four primary types of information, which rigorously define all tests that should be performed to validate that GMAT will accept allowable inputs and deny disallowed inputs. The first is a complete list of all allowed object fields in GMAT. The second type of information, is test input to be attempted for each field. The third type of information is allowable input values for all objects fields in GMAT. The final piece of information is how GMAT should respond to both valid and invalid information. It is VERY important to note that the tests below must be performed for both the Graphical User Interface and the script!! The examples are illustrated using a scripting perspective, because it is simpler to write up. However, the test must be performed for both interfaces to GMAT.

  18. Solar wind-magnetosphere energy input functions

    SciTech Connect

    Bargatze, L.F.; McPherron, R.L.; Baker, D.N.

    1985-01-01

    A new formula for the solar wind-magnetosphere energy input parameter, P/sub i/, is sought by applying the constraints imposed by dimensional analysis. Applying these constraints yields a general equation for P/sub i/ which is equal to rho V/sup 3/l/sub CF//sup 2/F(M/sub A/,theta) where, rho V/sup 3/ is the solar wind kinetic energy density and l/sub CF//sup 2/ is the scale size of the magnetosphere's effective energy ''collection'' region. The function F which depends on M/sub A/, the Alfven Mach number, and on theta, the interplanetary magnetic field clock angle is included in the general equation for P/sub i/ in order to model the magnetohydrodynamic processes which are responsible for solar wind-magnetosphere energy transfer. By assuming the form of the function F, it is possible to further constrain the formula for P/sub i/. This is accomplished by using solar wind data, geomagnetic activity indices, and simple statistical methods. It is found that P/sub i/ is proportional to (rho V/sup 2/)/sup 1/6/VBG(theta) where, rho V/sup 2/ is the solar wind dynamic pressure and VBG(theta) is a rectified version of the solar wind motional electric field. Furthermore, it is found that G(theta), the gating function which modulates the energy input to the magnetosphere, is well represented by a ''leaky'' rectifier function such as sin/sup 4/(theta/2). This function allows for enhanced energy input when the interplanetary magnetic field is oriented southward. This function also allows for some energy input when the interplanetary magnetic field is oriented northward. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Nonlinear input-output systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, L. R.; Luksic, Mladen; Su, Renjeng

    1987-01-01

    Necessary and sufficient conditions that the nonlinear system dot-x = f(x) + ug(x) and y = h(x) be locally feedback equivalent to the controllable linear system dot-xi = A xi + bv and y = C xi having linear output are found. Only the single input and single output case is considered, however, the results generalize to multi-input and multi-output systems.

  20. Time course of soil carbon storage, 15N and radiocarbon signature in top- and subsoil of a 60-years agricultural field trial - indications for compensating effects of carbon input and turnover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leifeld, Jens; Conen, Franz; Oberholzer, Hans Rudolf; Jochen, Mayer

    2014-05-01

    Soil carbon dynamics are controlled by the delicate balance between carbon inputs and outputs which both are co-regulated by land use and management (LUM) as important anthropogenic drivers. Upon land use change to cropland carbon stocks generally tend to decline but often the contribution of two opposing factors, namely changes in input and decomposition rates, to soil carbon stock changes is indistinguishable. Here we report on an ongoing cropland experiment in Zurich, Switzerland, named ZOFE (Zurich Organic Fertilization Experiment), established on former grassland in 1949. ZOFE encompasses a range of mineral and organic fertilization practices and a zero fertilizer treatment as control. The experiment has a block design with five replicates per treatment. We make use of productivity and fertilization gradients in selected treatments of the ZOFE trial to evaluate how low or high inputs (induced by differential yields and organic fertilization) may affect soil organic carbon storage and transformation. For the most recent sampling that also included subsoil down to 0.9 m, all properties were measured for every single replicate. Topsoil carbon storage declined after grassland conversion at rates of c. 0.2 t C ha-1 a-1, particularly in treatments with mineral fertilizer and high yields, and without fertilization and low yields. Organic matter amendments such as manure or compost could partially offset but not fully compensate some of the topsoil carbon loss. Over time the soil's delta 15N signature declined as well, probably due to increased atmospheric nitrogen deposition. It increased from the top- to the subsoil, indicating increasing microbial transformation, particularly with manure added. The soil's radiocarbon signature revealed distinct bomb peak patterns in all treatments but only in the topsoil. The 14C data confirmed that with higher productivity more recent organic matter was incorporated, both in top and subsoil. Because, in contrast to topsoil

  1. Convergence of sensory inputs upon projection neurons of somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Zarzecki, P; Wiggin, D M

    1982-01-01

    Cortico-cortical neurons and pyramidal tract neurons of the cat were tested for convergent inputs from forelimb afferents. Neurons were recorded in cortical areas 1, 2, and 3a. Consideration was given to both suprathreshold and subthreshold inputs evoked by electrical stimulation of forelimb nerves. Individual cortico-cortical neurons and also pyramidal tract neurons were characterized by convergence of multiple somatosensory inputs from different regions of skin, from several muscle groups, and between group I deep afferents and low threshold cutaneous afferents. Certain patterns of afferent input varied with cytoarchitectonic area. There was, however, no difference between area 3a and areas 1-2 in the incidence of cross-modality convergence in the form of input from cutaneous and also deep nerves. Many of the inputs were subthreshold. Arguments are presented that these inputs, though subthreshold, must be considered for a role in cortical information processing. The convergent nature of the sensory inputs is discussed in relation to the proposed specificities of cortical columns. The patterns of afferent inputs reaching cortico-cortical neurons seem to be appropriate for them to have a role in the formation of sensory fields of motor cortex neurons. PT neurons of somatosensory cortex have possible roles as modifiers of ascending sensory systems, however, the convergent input which these PT neurons receive argues against a simple relationship between the modality of peripheral stimuli influencing them and the modality of the ascending tract neurons under their descending control. PMID:7140889

  2. Input Type and Parameter Resetting: Is Naturalistic Input Necessary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Jason; Iverson, Michael

    2007-01-01

    It has been argued that extended exposure to naturalistic input provides L2 learners with more of an opportunity to converge of target morphosyntactic competence as compared to classroom-only environments, given that the former provide more positive evidence of less salient linguistic properties than the latter (e.g., Isabelli 2004). Implicitly,…

  3. World Input-Output Network.

    PubMed

    Cerina, Federica; Zhu, Zhen; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO) tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION) and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries. PMID:26222389

  4. Signal Prediction With Input Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jer-Nan; Chen, Ya-Chin

    1999-01-01

    A novel coding technique is presented for signal prediction with applications including speech coding, system identification, and estimation of input excitation. The approach is based on the blind equalization method for speech signal processing in conjunction with the geometric subspace projection theory to formulate the basic prediction equation. The speech-coding problem is often divided into two parts, a linear prediction model and excitation input. The parameter coefficients of the linear predictor and the input excitation are solved simultaneously and recursively by a conventional recursive least-squares algorithm. The excitation input is computed by coding all possible outcomes into a binary codebook. The coefficients of the linear predictor and excitation, and the index of the codebook can then be used to represent the signal. In addition, a variable-frame concept is proposed to block the same excitation signal in sequence in order to reduce the storage size and increase the transmission rate. The results of this work can be easily extended to the problem of disturbance identification. The basic principles are outlined in this report and differences from other existing methods are discussed. Simulations are included to demonstrate the proposed method.

  5. World Input-Output Network

    PubMed Central

    Cerina, Federica; Zhu, Zhen; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO) tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION) and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries. PMID:26222389

  6. The advanced LIGO input optics.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Chris L; Arain, Muzammil A; Ciani, Giacomo; DeRosa, Ryan T; Effler, Anamaria; Feldbaum, David; Frolov, Valery V; Fulda, Paul; Gleason, Joseph; Heintze, Matthew; Kawabe, Keita; King, Eleanor J; Kokeyama, Keiko; Korth, William Z; Martin, Rodica M; Mullavey, Adam; Peold, Jan; Quetschke, Volker; Reitze, David H; Tanner, David B; Vorvick, Cheryl; Williams, Luke F; Mueller, Guido

    2016-01-01

    The advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are nearing their design sensitivity and should begin taking meaningful astrophysical data in the fall of 2015. These resonant optical interferometers will have unprecedented sensitivity to the strains caused by passing gravitational waves. The input optics play a significant part in allowing these devices to reach such sensitivities. Residing between the pre-stabilized laser and the main interferometer, the input optics subsystem is tasked with preparing the laser beam for interferometry at the sub-attometer level while operating at continuous wave input power levels ranging from 100 mW to 150 W. These extreme operating conditions required every major component to be custom designed. These designs draw heavily on the experience and understanding gained during the operation of Initial LIGO and Enhanced LIGO. In this article, we report on how the components of the input optics were designed to meet their stringent requirements and present measurements showing how well they have lived up to their design. PMID:26827334

  7. The advanced LIGO input optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Chris L.; Arain, Muzammil A.; Ciani, Giacomo; DeRosa, Ryan. T.; Effler, Anamaria; Feldbaum, David; Frolov, Valery V.; Fulda, Paul; Gleason, Joseph; Heintze, Matthew; Kawabe, Keita; King, Eleanor J.; Kokeyama, Keiko; Korth, William Z.; Martin, Rodica M.; Mullavey, Adam; Peold, Jan; Quetschke, Volker; Reitze, David H.; Tanner, David B.; Vorvick, Cheryl; Williams, Luke F.; Mueller, Guido

    2016-01-01

    The advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are nearing their design sensitivity and should begin taking meaningful astrophysical data in the fall of 2015. These resonant optical interferometers will have unprecedented sensitivity to the strains caused by passing gravitational waves. The input optics play a significant part in allowing these devices to reach such sensitivities. Residing between the pre-stabilized laser and the main interferometer, the input optics subsystem is tasked with preparing the laser beam for interferometry at the sub-attometer level while operating at continuous wave input power levels ranging from 100 mW to 150 W. These extreme operating conditions required every major component to be custom designed. These designs draw heavily on the experience and understanding gained during the operation of Initial LIGO and Enhanced LIGO. In this article, we report on how the components of the input optics were designed to meet their stringent requirements and present measurements showing how well they have lived up to their design.

  8. Analog Input Data Acquisition Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arens, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    DAQ Master Software allows users to easily set up a system to monitor up to five analog input channels and save the data after acquisition. This program was written in LabVIEW 8.0, and requires the LabVIEW runtime engine 8.0 to run the executable.

  9. Regional Hospital Input Price Indexes

    PubMed Central

    Freeland, Mark S.; Schendler, Carol Ellen; Anderson, Gerard

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the development of regional hospital input price indexes that is consistent with the general methodology used for the National Hospital Input Price Index. The feasibility of developing regional indexes was investigated because individuals inquired whether different regions experienced different rates of increase in hospital input prices. The regional indexes incorporate variations in cost-share weights (the amount an expense category contributes to total spending) associated with hospital type and location, and variations in the rate of input price increases for various regions. We found that between 1972 and 1979 none of the regional price indexes increased at average annual rates significantly different from the national rate. For the more recent period 1977 through 1979, the increase in one Census Region was significantly below the national rate. Further analyses indicated that variations in cost-share weights for various types of hospitals produced no substantial variations in the regional price indexes relative to the national index. We consider these findings preliminary because of limitations in the availability of current, relevant, and reliable data, especially for local area wage rate increases. PMID:10309557

  10. Input/output interface module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozyazici, E. M.

    1980-01-01

    Module detects level changes in any of its 16 inputs, transfers changes to its outputs, and generates interrupts when changes are detected. Up to four changes-in-state per line are stored for later retrieval by controlling computer. Using standard TTL logic, module fits 19-inch rack-mounted console.

  11. Changing and shielded magnetic fields suppress c-Fos expression in the navigation circuit: input from the magnetosensory system contributes to the internal representation of space in a subterranean rodent

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Tomáš; Lucová, Marcela; Moritz, Regina E.; Oelschläger, Helmut H. A.; Druga, Rastislav; Burda, Hynek; Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Wiltschko, Roswitha; Němec, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    The neural substrate subserving magnetoreception and magnetic orientation in mammals is largely unknown. Previous experiments have demonstrated that the processing of magnetic sensory information takes place in the superior colliculus. Here, the effects of magnetic field conditions on neuronal activity in the rodent navigation circuit were assessed by quantifying c-Fos expression. Ansell's mole-rats (Fukomys anselli), a mammalian model to study the mechanisms of magnetic compass orientation, were subjected to natural, periodically changing, and shielded magnetic fields while exploring an unfamiliar circular arena. In the undisturbed local geomagnetic field, the exploration of the novel environment and/or nesting behaviour induced c-Fos expression throughout the head direction system and the entorhinal–hippocampal spatial representation system. This induction was significantly suppressed by exposure to periodically changing and/or shielded magnetic fields; discrete decreases in c-Fos were seen in the dorsal tegmental nucleus, the anterodorsal and the laterodorsal thalamic nuclei, the postsubiculum, the retrosplenial and entorhinal cortices, and the hippocampus. Moreover, in inactive animals, magnetic field intensity manipulation suppressed c-Fos expression in the CA1 and CA3 fields of the hippocampus and the dorsal subiculum, but induced expression in the polymorph layer of the dentate gyrus. These findings suggest that key constituents of the rodent navigation circuit contain populations of neurons responsive to magnetic stimuli. Thus, magnetic information may be integrated with multimodal sensory and motor information into a common spatial representation of allocentric space within this circuit. PMID:20219838

  12. Systems and methods for reconfiguring input devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lancaster, Jeff (Inventor); De Mers, Robert E. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A system includes an input device having first and second input members configured to be activated by a user. The input device is configured to generate activation signals associated with activation of the first and second input members, and each of the first and second input members are associated with an input function. A processor is coupled to the input device and configured to receive the activation signals. A memory coupled to the processor, and includes a reconfiguration module configured to store the input functions assigned to the first and second input members and, upon execution of the processor, to reconfigure the input functions assigned to the input members when the first input member is inoperable.

  13. Reconstruction of dynamic structural inputs in the presence of noise

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, V.I.; Solomon, O.M. Jr.

    1986-08-01

    This report describes a technique to reconstruct dynamic structural inputs by deconvolution of measured data. The structure to which this technique has been applied is a mild steel bar (3 in diameter and 60 in. long) with a conical nose which provides some geometric simulation of penetrating structures which are used in field test. The deconvolution technique successfully reconstructs dynamic inputs to the bar with and without additive white noise present in the measured response.

  14. National Hospital Input Price Index

    PubMed Central

    Freeland, Mark S.; Anderson, Gerard; Schendler, Carol Ellen

    1979-01-01

    The national community hospital input price index presented here isolates the effects of prices of goods and services required to produce hospital care and measures the average percent change in prices for a fixed market basket of hospital inputs. Using the methodology described in this article, weights for various expenditure categories were estimated and proxy price variables associated with each were selected. The index is calculated for the historical period 1970 through 1978 and forecast for 1979 through 1981. During the historical period, the input price index increased an average of 8.0 percent a year, compared with an average rate of increase of 6.6 percent for overall consumer prices. For the period 1979 through 1981, the average annual increase is forecast at between 8.5 and 9.0 percent. Using the index to deflate growth in expenses, the level of real growth in expenditures per inpatient day (net service intensity growth) averaged 4.5 percent per year with considerable annual variation related to government and hospital industry policies. PMID:10309052

  15. Sensitivity of acoustic predictions to variation of input parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.; Burley, Casey L.; Marcolini, Michael A.

    1994-01-01

    Rotor noise prediction codes predict the thickness and loading noise produced by a helicopter rotor, given the blade motion, rotor operating conditions, and fluctuating force distribution over the blade surface. However, the criticality of these various inputs, and their respective effects on the predicted acoustic field, have never been fully addressed. This paper examines the importance of these inputs, and the sensitivity of the acoustic predicitions to a variation of each parameter. The effects of collective and cyclic pitch, as well as coning and cyclic flapping, are presented. Blade loading inputs are examined to determine the necessary spatial and temporal resolution, as well as the importance of the chordwise distribution. The acoustic predictions show regions in the acoustic field where significant errors occur when simplified blade motions or blade loadings are used. An assessment of the variation in the predicted acoustic field is balanced by a consideration of Central Processing Unit (CPU) time necessary for the various approximations.

  16. Sensitivity of acoustic predictions to variation of input parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.; Marcolini, Michael A.; Burley, Casey L.

    1991-01-01

    The noise prediction code WOPWOP predicts the thickness and loading noise produced by a helicopter rotor, given the blade motion, rotor operating conditions, and fluctuating force distribution over the blade surface. However, the criticality of these various inputs, and their respective effects on the predicted acoustic field, have never been fully addressed. This paper examines the importance of these inputs, and the sensitivity of the acoustic predictions to a variation of each parameter. The effects of collective and cyclic pitch, as well as coning and flapping, are presented. Blade loading inputs are examined to determine the necessary spatial and temporal resolution, as well as the importance of the cordwise distribution. The acoustic predictions show regions in the acoustic field where significant errors occur when simplified blade motions or blade loadings are used. An assessment of the variation in the predicted acoustic field is balanced by a consideration of CPU time necessary for the various approximations.

  17. Finite Difference Simulations of Seismic Wave Propagation for the 2007 Mw 6.6 Niigata-ken Chuetsu-Oki Earthquake: Validity of Models and Reliable Input Ground Motion in the Near-Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aochi, Hideo; Ducellier, Ariane; Dupros, Fabrice; Delatre, Mickael; Ulrich, Thomas; de Martin, Florent; Yoshimi, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Finite difference simulations of seismic wave propagation are performed in the Niigata area, Japan, for the 2007 Mw 6.6 Niigata-ken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake at low frequencies. We test three 3D structural models built independently in various studies. First aftershock simulations are carried out. The model based on 3D tomography yields correct body waves in the near field, but later phases are imperfectly reproduced due to the lack of shallow sediment layers; other models based on various 1D/2D profiles and geological interpretation provide good site responses but generate seismic phases that may be shifted from those actually observed. Next, for the mainshock simulations, we adopt two different finite source models that differ in the near-field ground motion, especially above the fault plane (but under the sea) and then along the coastline. Each model is found to be calibrated differently for the given stations. For engineering purposes, the variations observed in simulated ground motion are significant, but for seismological purposes, additional parameter calibrations would be possible for such a complex 3D case.

  18. EPICS Input Output Controller (IOC) Record Reference Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.B.; Kraimer, M.R.

    1994-12-01

    This manual describes all supported EPICS record types. The first chapter gives introduction and describes the field summary table. The second chapter describes the fields in database common, i.e. the fields that are present in every record type. The third chapter describes the input and output field that are common to many record types and have the same usage wherever they are used. Following the third chapter is a separate chapter for each record type containing a description of all the fields for that record type except those in database common.

  19. Dendritic Organization of Olfactory Inputs to Medial Amygdala Neurons.

    PubMed

    Keshavarzi, Sepideh; Power, John M; Albers, Eva H H; Sullivan, Robert K S; Sah, Pankaj

    2015-09-23

    The medial amygdala (MeA) is a central hub in the olfactory neural network. It receives vomeronasal information directly from the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) and main olfactory information largely via odor-processing regions such as the olfactory cortical amygdala (CoA). How these inputs are processed by MeA neurons is poorly understood. Using the GAD67-GFP mouse, we show that MeA principal neurons receive convergent AOB and CoA inputs. Somatically recorded AOB synaptic inputs had slower kinetics than CoA inputs, suggesting that they are electrotonically more distant. Field potential recording, pharmacological manipulation, and Ca(2+) imaging revealed that AOB synapses are confined to distal dendrites and segregated from the proximally located CoA synapses. Moreover, unsynchronized AOB inputs had significantly broader temporal summation that was dependent on the activation of NMDA receptors. These findings show that MeA principal neurons process main and accessory olfactory inputs differentially in distinct dendritic compartments. Significance statement: In most vertebrates, olfactory cues are processed by two largely segregated neural pathways, the main and accessory olfactory systems, which are specialized to detect odors and nonvolatile chemosignals, respectively. Information from these two pathways ultimately converges at higher brain regions, one of the major hubs being the medial amygdala. Little is known about how olfactory inputs are processed by medial amygdala neurons. This study shows that individual principal neurons in this region receive input from both pathways and that these synapses are spatially segregated on their dendritic tree. We provide evidence suggesting that this dendritic segregation leads to distinct input integration and impact on neuronal output; hence, dendritic mechanisms control olfactory processing in the amygdala. PMID:26400933

  20. Repositioning Recitation Input in College English Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Qing

    2009-01-01

    This paper tries to discuss how recitation input helps overcome the negative influences on the basis of second language acquisition theory and confirms the important role that recitation input plays in improving college students' oral and written English.

  1. Flight Test Validation of Optimal Input Design and Comparison to Conventional Inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    1997-01-01

    A technique for designing optimal inputs for aerodynamic parameter estimation was flight tested on the F-18 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV). Model parameter accuracies calculated from flight test data were compared on an equal basis for optimal input designs and conventional inputs at the same flight condition. In spite of errors in the a priori input design models and distortions of the input form by the feedback control system, the optimal inputs increased estimated parameter accuracies compared to conventional 3-2-1-1 and doublet inputs. In addition, the tests using optimal input designs demonstrated enhanced design flexibility, allowing the optimal input design technique to use a larger input amplitude to achieve further increases in estimated parameter accuracy without departing from the desired flight test condition. This work validated the analysis used to develop the optimal input designs, and demonstrated the feasibility and practical utility of the optimal input design technique.

  2. Solid state switch provides high input-to-output isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magee, R. L.; Trowbridge, L. E.

    1970-01-01

    Switch uses a combination of N-channel and P-channel Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors /MOSFET/ to obtain a normally open switch with no power applied. Series-shunt-series MOSFET switching achieves high input-output isolation.

  3. Input cavity for high-order asymmetric-mode gyroklystron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilov, Yu. Yu.

    2012-06-01

    A new input cavity design for a high-order asymmetric-mode gyroklystron is proposed. Methods of the selective excitation of a resonant mode with a rotating field structure and the prevention of cavity self-excitation at harmonics of the gyrofrequency are proposed. Results of experimental investigation of the H711 mode cavity for a multimegawatt pulsed gyroklystron are presented.

  4. Textual Enhancement of Input: Issues and Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, ZhaoHong; Park, Eun Sung; Combs, Charles

    2008-01-01

    The input enhancement hypothesis proposed by Sharwood Smith (1991, 1993) has stimulated considerable research over the last 15 years. This article reviews the research on textual enhancement of input (TE), an area where the majority of input enhancement studies have aggregated. Methodological idiosyncrasies are the norm of this body of research.…

  5. Input Devices for Young Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Karen

    The versatility of the computer can be expanded considerably for young handicapped children by using input devices other than the typewriter-style keyboard. Input devices appropriate for young children can be classified into four categories: alternative keyboards, contact switches, speech input devices, and cursor control devices. Described are…

  6. Effects of Auditory Input in Individuation Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Christopher W.; Sloutsky, Vladimir M.

    2008-01-01

    Under many conditions auditory input interferes with visual processing, especially early in development. These interference effects are often more pronounced when the auditory input is unfamiliar than when the auditory input is familiar (e.g. human speech, pre-familiarized sounds, etc.). The current study extends this research by examining how…

  7. Input filter compensation for switching regulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, F. C.

    1984-01-01

    Problems caused by input filter interaction and conventional input filter design techniques are discussed. The concept of feedforward control is modeled with an input filter and a buck regulator. Experimental measurement and comparison to the analytical predictions is carried out. Transient response and the use of a feedforward loop to stabilize the regulator system is described. Other possible applications for feedforward control are included.

  8. Investigation of abnormal negative threshold voltage shift under positive bias stress in input/output n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors with TiN/HfO{sub 2} structure using fast I-V measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Szu-Han; Chen, Ching-En; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen; Chang, Ting-Chang Lu, Ying-Hsin; Tsai, Jyun-Yu; Liu, Kuan-Ju; Cheng, Osbert; Huang, Cheng-Tung; Lu, Ching-Sen

    2014-03-17

    This letter investigates abnormal negative threshold voltage shifts under positive bias stress in input/output (I/O) TiN/HfO{sub 2} n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors using fast I-V measurement. This phenomenon is attributed to a reversible charge/discharge effect in pre-existing bulk traps. Moreover, in standard performance devices, threshold-voltage (V{sub t}) shifts positively during fast I-V double sweep measurement. However, in I/O devices, V{sub t} shifts negatively since electrons escape from bulk traps to metal gate rather than channel electrons injecting to bulk traps. Consequently, decreasing pre-existing bulk traps in I/O devices, which can be achieved by adopting Hf{sub x}Zr{sub 1−x}O{sub 2} as gate oxide, can reduce the charge/discharge effect.

  9. PREVIMER : Meteorological inputs and outputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravenel, H.; Lecornu, F.; Kerléguer, L.

    2009-09-01

    PREVIMER is a pre-operational system aiming to provide a wide range of users, from private individuals to professionals, with short-term forecasts about the coastal environment along the French coastlines bordering the English Channel, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Mediterranean Sea. Observation data and digital modelling tools first provide 48-hour (probably 96-hour by summer 2009) forecasts of sea states, currents, sea water levels and temperatures. The follow-up of an increasing number of biological parameters will, in time, complete this overview of coastal environment. Working in partnership with the French Naval Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service (Service Hydrographique et Océanographique de la Marine, SHOM), the French National Weather Service (Météo-France), the French public science and technology research institute (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, IRD), the European Institute of Marine Studies (Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer, IUEM) and many others, IFREMER (the French public institute fo marine research) is supplying the technologies needed to ensure this pertinent information, available daily on Internet at http://www.previmer.org, and stored at the Operational Coastal Oceanographic Data Centre. Since 2006, PREVIMER publishes the results of demonstrators assigned to limited geographic areas and to specific applications. This system remains experimental. The following topics are covered : Hydrodynamic circulation, sea states, follow-up of passive tracers, conservative or non-conservative (specifically of microbiological origin), biogeochemical state, primary production. Lastly, PREVIMER provides researchers and R&D departments with modelling tools and access to the database, in which the observation data and the modelling results are stored, to undertake environmental studies on new sites. The communication will focus on meteorological inputs to and outputs from PREVIMER. It will draw the lessons from almost 3 years during

  10. Turn customer input into innovation.

    PubMed

    Ulwick, Anthony W

    2002-01-01

    It's difficult to find a company these days that doesn't strive to be customer-driven. Too bad, then, that most companies go about the process of listening to customers all wrong--so wrong, in fact, that they undermine innovation and, ultimately, the bottom line. What usually happens is this: Companies ask their customers what they want. Customers offer solutions in the form of products or services. Companies then deliver these tangibles, and customers just don't buy. The reason is simple--customers aren't expert or informed enough to come up with solutions. That's what your R&D team is for. Rather, customers should be asked only for outcomes--what they want a new product or service to do for them. The form the solutions take should be up to you, and you alone. Using Cordis Corporation as an example, this article describes, in fine detail, a series of effective steps for capturing, analyzing, and utilizing customer input. First come indepth interviews, in which a moderator works with customers to deconstruct a process or activity in order to unearth "desired outcomes." Addressing participants' comments one at a time, the moderator rephrases them to be both unambiguous and measurable. Once the interviews are complete, researchers then compile a comprehensive list of outcomes that participants rank in order of importance and degree to which they are satisfied by existing products. Finally, using a simple mathematical formula called the "opportunity calculation," researchers can learn the relative attractiveness of key opportunity areas. These data can be used to uncover opportunities for product development, to properly segment markets, and to conduct competitive analysis. PMID:12964470

  11. Optical device with conical input and output prism faces

    DOEpatents

    Brunsden, Barry S.

    1981-01-01

    A device for radially translating radiation in which a right circular cylinder is provided at each end thereof with conical prism faces. The faces are oppositely extending and the device may be severed in the middle and separated to allow access to the central part of the beam. Radiation entering the input end of the device is radially translated such that radiation entering the input end at the perimeter is concentrated toward the output central axis and radiation at the input central axis is dispersed toward the output perimeter. Devices are disclosed for compressing beam energy to enhance drilling techniques, for beam manipulation of optical spatial frequencies in the Fourier plane and for simplification of dark field and color contrast microscopy. Both refracting and reflecting devices are disclosed.

  12. Driving neural oscillations with correlated spatial input and topographic feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutt, Axel; Sutherland, Connie; Longtin, André

    2008-08-01

    We consider how oscillatory activity in networks of excitable systems depends on spatial correlations of random inputs and the spatial range of feedback coupling. Analysis of a neural field model with topographic delayed recurrent feedback reveals how oscillations in certain frequency bands, including the gamma band, are enhanced by increases in the input correlation length. Further, the enhancement is maximal when this length exceeds the feedback coupling range. Suppression of oscillatory power occurs concomitantly in other bands. These effects depend solely on the ratio of input and feedback length scales. The precise positions of these bands are determined by the synaptic constants and the delays. The results agree with numerical simulations of the model and of a network of stochastic spiking neurons, and are expected for any noise-driven excitable element networks.

  13. Input filter compensation for switching regulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, F. C.; Kelkar, S. S.

    1982-01-01

    The problems caused by the interaction between the input filter, output filter, and the control loop are discussed. The input filter design is made more complicated because of the need to avoid performance degradation and also stay within the weight and loss limitations. Conventional input filter design techniques are then dicussed. The concept of pole zero cancellation is reviewed; this concept is the basis for an approach to control the peaking of the output impedance of the input filter and thus mitigate some of the problems caused by the input filter. The proposed approach for control of the peaking of the output impedance of the input filter is to use a feedforward loop working in conjunction with feedback loops, thus forming a total state control scheme. The design of the feedforward loop for a buck regulator is described. A possible implementation of the feedforward loop design is suggested.

  14. Input estimation from measured structural response

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, Dustin; Cross, Elizabeth; Silva, Ramon A; Farrar, Charles R; Bement, Matt

    2009-01-01

    This report will focus on the estimation of unmeasured dynamic inputs to a structure given a numerical model of the structure and measured response acquired at discrete locations. While the estimation of inputs has not received as much attention historically as state estimation, there are many applications where an improved understanding of the immeasurable input to a structure is vital (e.g. validating temporally varying and spatially-varying load models for large structures such as buildings and ships). In this paper, the introduction contains a brief summary of previous input estimation studies. Next, an adjoint-based optimization method is used to estimate dynamic inputs to two experimental structures. The technique is evaluated in simulation and with experimental data both on a cantilever beam and on a three-story frame structure. The performance and limitations of the adjoint-based input estimation technique are discussed.

  15. Input apparatus for dynamic signature verification systems

    DOEpatents

    EerNisse, Errol P.; Land, Cecil E.; Snelling, Jay B.

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure relates to signature verification input apparatus comprising a writing instrument and platen containing piezoelectric transducers which generate signals in response to writing pressures.

  16. Robust image retrieval from noisy inputs using lattice associative memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urcid, Gonzalo; Nieves-V., José Angel; García-A., Anmi; Valdiviezo-N., Juan Carlos

    2009-02-01

    Lattice associative memories also known as morphological associative memories are fully connected feedforward neural networks with no hidden layers, whose computation at each node is carried out with lattice algebra operations. These networks are a relatively recent development in the field of associative memories that has proven to be an alternative way to work with sets of pattern pairs for which the storage and retrieval stages use minimax algebra. Different associative memory models have been proposed to cope with the problem of pattern recall under input degradations, such as occlusions or random noise, where input patterns can be composed of binary or real valued entries. In comparison to these and other artificial neural network memories, lattice algebra based memories display better performance for storage and recall capability; however, the computational techniques devised to achieve that purpose require additional processing or provide partial success when inputs are presented with undetermined noise levels. Robust retrieval capability of an associative memory model is usually expressed by a high percentage of perfect recalls from non-perfect input. The procedure described here uses noise masking defined by simple lattice operations together with appropriate metrics, such as the normalized mean squared error or signal to noise ratio, to boost the recall performance of either the min or max lattice auto-associative memories. Using a single lattice associative memory, illustrative examples are given that demonstrate the enhanced retrieval of correct gray-scale image associations from inputs corrupted with random noise.

  17. Remote sensing inputs to water demand modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Jensen, J. R.; Tinney, L. R.; Rector, M.

    1975-01-01

    In an attempt to determine the ability of remote sensing techniques to economically generate data required by water demand models, the Geography Remote Sensing Unit, in conjunction with the Kern County Water Agency of California, developed an analysis model. As a result it was determined that agricultural cropland inventories utilizing both high altitude photography and LANDSAT imagery can be conducted cost effectively. In addition, by using average irrigation application rates in conjunction with cropland data, estimates of agricultural water demand can be generated. However, more accurate estimates are possible if crop type, acreage, and crop specific application rates are employed. An analysis of the effect of saline-alkali soils on water demand in the study area is also examined. Finally, reference is made to the detection and delineation of water tables that are perched near the surface by semi-permeable clay layers. Soil salinity prediction, automated crop identification on a by-field basis, and a potential input to the determination of zones of equal benefit taxation are briefly touched upon.

  18. 7 CFR 3430.907 - Stakeholder input.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Stakeholder input. 3430.907 Section 3430.907 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... input and/or Web site), as well as through a notice in the Federal Register, from the following...

  19. 7 CFR 3430.907 - Stakeholder input.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stakeholder input. 3430.907 Section 3430.907 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... input and/or Web site), as well as through a notice in the Federal Register, from the following...

  20. 7 CFR 3430.607 - Stakeholder input.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stakeholder input. 3430.607 Section 3430.607 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... input and/or via Web site), as well as through a notice in the Federal Register, from the...

  1. 7 CFR 3430.907 - Stakeholder input.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Stakeholder input. 3430.907 Section 3430.907 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... input and/or Web site), as well as through a notice in the Federal Register, from the following...

  2. 7 CFR 3430.607 - Stakeholder input.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Stakeholder input. 3430.607 Section 3430.607 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... input and/or via Web site), as well as through a notice in the Federal Register, from the...

  3. 7 CFR 3430.607 - Stakeholder input.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Stakeholder input. 3430.607 Section 3430.607 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... input and/or via Web site), as well as through a notice in the Federal Register, from the...

  4. EDP Applications to Musical Bibliography: Input Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Donald C.

    1972-01-01

    The application of Electronic Data Processing (EDP) has been a boon in the analysis and bibliographic control of music. However, an extra step of encoding must be undertaken for input of music. The best hope to facilitate musical input is the development of an Optical Character Recognition (OCR) music-reading machine. (29 references) (Author/NH)

  5. 7 CFR 3430.607 - Stakeholder input.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Stakeholder input. 3430.607 Section 3430.607 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... input and/or via Web site), as well as through a notice in the Federal Register, from the...

  6. 7 CFR 3430.907 - Stakeholder input.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Stakeholder input. 3430.907 Section 3430.907 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND..., requests for input and/or Web site), as well as through a notice in the Federal Register, from...

  7. Computing Functions by Approximating the Input

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Mayer

    2012-01-01

    In computing real-valued functions, it is ordinarily assumed that the input to the function is known, and it is the output that we need to approximate. In this work, we take the opposite approach: we show how to compute the values of some transcendental functions by approximating the input to these functions, and obtaining exact answers for their…

  8. Managing Input during Assistive Technology Product Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Young Mi

    2011-01-01

    Many different sources of input are available to assistive technology innovators during the course of designing products. However, there is little information on which ones may be most effective or how they may be efficiently utilized within the design process. The aim of this project was to compare how three types of input--from simulation tools,…

  9. 39 CFR 3020.92 - Public input.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public input. 3020.92 Section 3020.92 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PRODUCT LISTS Requests Initiated by the Postal Service to Change the Mail Classification Schedule § 3020.92 Public input. The Commission shall publish...

  10. Statistical identification of effective input variables. [SCREEN

    SciTech Connect

    Vaurio, J.K.

    1982-09-01

    A statistical sensitivity analysis procedure has been developed for ranking the input data of large computer codes in the order of sensitivity-importance. The method is economical for large codes with many input variables, since it uses a relatively small number of computer runs. No prior judgemental elimination of input variables is needed. The sceening method is based on stagewise correlation and extensive regression analysis of output values calculated with selected input value combinations. The regression process deals with multivariate nonlinear functions, and statistical tests are also available for identifying input variables that contribute to threshold effects, i.e., discontinuities in the output variables. A computer code SCREEN has been developed for implementing the screening techniques. The efficiency has been demonstrated by several examples and applied to a fast reactor safety analysis code (Venus-II). However, the methods and the coding are general and not limited to such applications.

  11. Beyond Field Education: Leadership of Field Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertheimer, Mindy R.; Sodhi, Mimi

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a conceptual model of the field director's role outside of field education, specifically in the following 3 areas of leadership: (1) curricular, (2) programmatic, and (3) institutional. A survey was conducted to explore the field director's input targeted in these areas beyond prescribed field education tasks. The…

  12. Measuring Input Thresholds on an Existing Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuperman, Igor; Gutrich, Daniel G.; Berkun, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    A critical PECL (positive emitter-coupled logic) interface to Xilinx interface needed to be changed on an existing flight board. The new Xilinx input interface used a CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) type of input, and the driver could meet its thresholds typically, but not in worst-case, according to the data sheet. The previous interface had been based on comparison with an external reference, but the CMOS input is based on comparison with an internal divider from the power supply. A way to measure what the exact input threshold was for this device for 64 inputs on a flight board was needed. The measurement technique allowed an accurate measurement of the voltage required to switch a Xilinx input from high to low for each of the 64 lines, while only probing two of them. Directly driving an external voltage was considered too risky, and tests done on any other unit could not be used to qualify the flight board. The two lines directly probed gave an absolute voltage threshold calibration, while data collected on the remaining 62 lines without probing gave relative measurements that could be used to identify any outliers. The PECL interface was forced to a long-period square wave by driving a saturated square wave into the ADC (analog to digital converter). The active pull-down circuit was turned off, causing each line to rise rapidly and fall slowly according to the input s weak pull-down circuitry. The fall time shows up as a change in the pulse width of the signal ready by the Xilinx. This change in pulse width is a function of capacitance, pulldown current, and input threshold. Capacitance was known from the different trace lengths, plus a gate input capacitance, which is the same for all inputs. The pull-down current is the same for all inputs including the two that are probed directly. The data was combined, and the Excel solver tool was used to find input thresholds for the 62 lines. This was repeated over different supply voltages and

  13. Reticular thalamic responses to nociceptive inputs in anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Yen, Chen-Tung; Shaw, Fu-Zen

    2003-04-11

    The present study compares nociceptive responses of neurons in the reticular thalamic nucleus (RT) to those of the ventroposterior lateral nucleus (VPL). Extracellular single-unit activities of cells in the RT and VPL were recorded in anesthetized rats. Only units with identified tactile receptive fields in the forepaw or hindpaw were studied. In the first series of experiments, RT and VPL responses to pinching with a small artery clamp were tested with the rats under pentobarbital, urethane, ketamine, or halothane anesthesia. Under all types of anesthesia, many RT units were inhibited. Second, the specificity of the nociceptive response was tested by pinching and noxious heating of the unit's tactile receptive field. Of the 39 VPL units tested, 20 were excited by both types of noxious stimuli. In sharp contrast, of the 30 RT units tested, none were excited and 17 were inhibited. In a third series of experiments, low-intensity and beam-diffused CO(2) laser irradiation was used to activate peripheral nociceptive afferents. Wide-dynamic-range VPL units responded with short- and long-latency excitations. In contrast, RT units had short-latency excitation followed by long-latency inhibition. Nociceptive input inhibited RT units in less than 500 ms. We conclude that a significant portion of RT neurons were polysynaptically inhibited by nociceptive inputs. Since all the cells tested were excited by light tactile inputs, the somatosensory RT may serve in the role of a modality gate, which modifies (i.e. inhibits) tactile inputs while letting noxious inputs pass. PMID:12663087

  14. Optical input impedance of nanostrip antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ivan; Du, Ya-ping

    2012-05-01

    We conduct an investigation into optical nanoantennas in the form of a strip dipole made from aluminum. With the finite-difference time domain simulation both optical input impedance and radiation efficiency of nanostrip antennas are addressed. An equivalent circuit is presented as well for the nanostrip antennas at optical resonances. The optical input resistance can be adjusted by varying the geometric parameters of antenna strips. By changing both strip area and strip length simultaneously, optical input resistance can be adjusted for matching impedance with an external feeding or loading circuit. It is found that the optical radiation efficiency does not change significantly when the size of a nanostrip antenna varies moderately.

  15. Wireless, relative-motion computer input device

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, John F.; Rosenbury, Erwin T.

    2004-05-18

    The present invention provides a system for controlling a computer display in a workspace using an input unit/output unit. A train of EM waves are sent out to flood the workspace. EM waves are reflected from the input unit/output unit. A relative distance moved information signal is created using the EM waves that are reflected from the input unit/output unit. Algorithms are used to convert the relative distance moved information signal to a display signal. The computer display is controlled in response to the display signal.

  16. Quantum Trajectories for Squeezed Input Processes: Explicit Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabrowska, Anita; Gough, John

    2016-03-01

    We consider the quantum (trajectories) filtering equation for the case when the system is driven by Bose field inputs prepared in an arbitrary non-zero mean Gaussian state. The a posteriori evolution of the system is conditioned by the results of a single or double homodyne measurements. The system interacting with the Bose field is a single cavity mode taken initially in a Gaussian state. We show explicit solutions using the method of characteristic functions to the filtering equations exploiting the linear Gaussian nature of the problem.

  17. Design of frequency domain multiplexing of TES signals by multi-input SQUIDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, Noriko Y.; Masui, Kensuke; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Morooka, Toshimitsu; Nakayama, Satoshi; Takei, Yoh

    2006-04-01

    In frequency-domain Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) multiplexing for Transition Edge Sensor (TES) readout, a magnetic field summation method utilizing multi-input SQUIDs has a fundamental merit of small degradation of signal-to-noise ratio. Independent wiring without common impedance avoids the cross talk current, and the current induced by magnetic coupling between the input coils is suppressed by the direct feedback at the summing point. A multi-input SQUID which has 8 input coils has been fabricated and requirements for Flux Locked Loop (FLL) circuits are summarized.

  18. Impact of land use change on atmospheric P inputs in a tropical dry forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Rishiraj; Lawrence, Deborah; D'Odorico, Paolo; Delonge, Marcia

    2011-03-01

    Forest canopies increase atmospheric inputs of nutrients to forest ecosystems by trapping dust and particulates. In tropical dry forests, this mechanism may contribute significant amounts of phosphorus, often a limiting nutrient in these ecosystems. Shifting cultivation may reduce the atmospheric inputs of phosphorus through the removal and restructuring of the forest canopy. We studied the impacts of land clearing by shifting cultivation in the southern Yucatan peninsula by measuring P in atmospheric bulk deposition and throughfall in two secondary forest stands and one mature forest stand to determine whether mature forests have greater throughfall P inputs than regenerating areas. From May to November 2007, we sampled rainfall in an open field and throughfall in three adjacent forest stands of different ages: 6 year old, 20 year old and mature (>60 year). We analyzed subsamples for inorganic and organic P. During the 7 month wet season, cumulative P input for the open field was 0.28 kg/ha, the 6 year stand accumulated 0.44 kg/ha, the 20 year stand accumulated 0.55 kg/ha and the mature stand accumulated 0.81 kg/ha. Organic P inputs were ˜50% of total P inputs in the open field, and 30-38% of total P inputs for the forest stands. The mature forest had significantly higher P concentrations and inputs than the open field or secondary forest stands, and forest stands had significantly greater P inputs than the open field, but there were no significant differences between the older and younger secondary forests. The repeated clearing of forests may thus reduce important P inputs to the ecosystem in the long-term.

  19. Scaling of global input-output networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Sai; Qi, Zhengling; Qu, Shen; Zhu, Ji; Chiu, Anthony S. F.; Jia, Xiaoping; Xu, Ming

    2016-06-01

    Examining scaling patterns of networks can help understand how structural features relate to the behavior of the networks. Input-output networks consist of industries as nodes and inter-industrial exchanges of products as links. Previous studies consider limited measures for node strengths and link weights, and also ignore the impact of dataset choice. We consider a comprehensive set of indicators in this study that are important in economic analysis, and also examine the impact of dataset choice, by studying input-output networks in individual countries and the entire world. Results show that Burr, Log-Logistic, Log-normal, and Weibull distributions can better describe scaling patterns of global input-output networks. We also find that dataset choice has limited impacts on the observed scaling patterns. Our findings can help examine the quality of economic statistics, estimate missing data in economic statistics, and identify key nodes and links in input-output networks to support economic policymaking.

  20. Multiple-input experimental modal analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allemang, R. J.; Brown, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    The development of experimental modal analysis techniques is reviewed. System and excitation assumptions are discussed. The methods examined include the forced normal mode excitation method, the frequency response function method, the damped complex exponential response method, the Ibrahim time domain approach, the polyreference approach, and mathematical input-output model methods. The current trend toward multiple input utilization in the estimation of system parameters is noted.

  1. Rat olfactory bulb mitral cells receive sparse glomerular inputs.

    PubMed

    Fantana, Antoniu L; Soucy, Edward R; Meister, Markus

    2008-09-11

    Center-surround receptive fields are a fundamental unit of brain organization. It has been proposed that olfactory bulb mitral cells exhibit this functional circuitry, with excitation from one glomerulus and inhibition from a broad field of glomeruli within reach of the lateral dendrites. We investigated this hypothesis using a combination of in vivo intrinsic imaging, single-unit recording, and a large panel of odors. Assuming a broad inhibitory field, a mitral cell would be influenced by >100 contiguous glomeruli and should respond to many odors. Instead, the observed response rate was an order of magnitude lower. A quantitative model indicates that mitral cell responses can be explained by just a handful of glomeruli. These glomeruli are spatially dispersed on the bulb and represent a broad range of odor sensitivities. We conclude that mitral cells do not have center-surround receptive fields. Instead, each mitral cell performs a specific computation combining a small and diverse set of glomerular inputs. PMID:18786363

  2. Influential input classification in probabilistic multimedia models

    SciTech Connect

    Maddalena, Randy L.; McKone, Thomas E.; Hsieh, Dennis P.H.; Geng, Shu

    1999-05-01

    Monte Carlo analysis is a statistical simulation method that is often used to assess and quantify the outcome variance in complex environmental fate and effects models. Total outcome variance of these models is a function of (1) the uncertainty and/or variability associated with each model input and (2) the sensitivity of the model outcome to changes in the inputs. To propagate variance through a model using Monte Carlo techniques, each variable must be assigned a probability distribution. The validity of these distributions directly influences the accuracy and reliability of the model outcome. To efficiently allocate resources for constructing distributions one should first identify the most influential set of variables in the model. Although existing sensitivity and uncertainty analysis methods can provide a relative ranking of the importance of model inputs, they fail to identify the minimum set of stochastic inputs necessary to sufficiently characterize the outcome variance. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate a novel sensitivity/uncertainty analysis method for assessing the importance of each variable in a multimedia environmental fate model. Our analyses show that for a given scenario, a relatively small number of input variables influence the central tendency of the model and an even smaller set determines the shape of the outcome distribution. For each input, the level of influence depends on the scenario under consideration. This information is useful for developing site specific models and improving our understanding of the processes that have the greatest influence on the variance in outcomes from multimedia models.

  3. Input/output system for multiprocessors

    SciTech Connect

    Bernick, D.L.; Chan, K.K.; Chan, W.M.; Dan, Y.F.; Hoang, D.M.; Hussain, Z.; Iswandhi, G.I.; Korpi, J.E.; Sanner, M.W.; Zwangerman, J.A.

    1989-04-11

    A device controller is described, comprising: a first port-input/output controller coupled to a first input/output channel bus; and a second port-input/output controlled coupled to a second input/output channel bus; each of the first and second port-input/output controllers having: a first ownership latch means for granting shared ownership of the device controller to a first host processor to provide a first data path on a first I/O channel through the first port I/O controller between the first host processor and any peripheral, and at least a second ownership latch means operative independently of the first ownership latch means for granting shared ownership of the device controller to a second host processor independently of the first port input/output controller to provide a second data path on a second I/O channel through the second port I/O controller between the second host processor and any peripheral devices coupled to the device controller.

  4. Input filter compensation for switching regulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelkar, S. S.; Lee, F. C.

    1983-01-01

    A novel input filter compensation scheme for a buck regulator that eliminates the interaction between the input filter output impedance and the regulator control loop is presented. The scheme is implemented using a feedforward loop that senses the input filter state variables and uses this information to modulate the duty cycle signal. The feedforward design process presented is seen to be straightforward and the feedforward easy to implement. Extensive experimental data supported by analytical results show that significant performance improvement is achieved with the use of feedforward in the following performance categories: loop stability, audiosusceptibility, output impedance and transient response. The use of feedforward results in isolating the switching regulator from its power source thus eliminating all interaction between the regulator and equipment upstream. In addition the use of feedforward removes some of the input filter design constraints and makes the input filter design process simpler thus making it possible to optimize the input filter. The concept of feedforward compensation can also be extended to other types of switching regulators.

  5. Significance of Input Correlations in Striatal Function

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Man Yi; Aertsen, Ad; Kumar, Arvind

    2011-01-01

    The striatum is the main input station of the basal ganglia and is strongly associated with motor and cognitive functions. Anatomical evidence suggests that individual striatal neurons are unlikely to share their inputs from the cortex. Using a biologically realistic large-scale network model of striatum and cortico-striatal projections, we provide a functional interpretation of the special anatomical structure of these projections. Specifically, we show that weak pairwise correlation within the pool of inputs to individual striatal neurons enhances the saliency of signal representation in the striatum. By contrast, correlations among the input pools of different striatal neurons render the signal representation less distinct from background activity. We suggest that for the network architecture of the striatum, there is a preferred cortico-striatal input configuration for optimal signal representation. It is further enhanced by the low-rate asynchronous background activity in striatum, supported by the balance between feedforward and feedback inhibitions in the striatal network. Thus, an appropriate combination of rates and correlations in the striatal input sets the stage for action selection presumably implemented in the basal ganglia. PMID:22125480

  6. Examination of time-variable input effects in a nonlinear analogue magnetosphere model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, D. N.; Klimas, A. J.; Roberts, D. A.

    1991-01-01

    The plasma physical analog model (an extension of the damped, harmonic-oscillator dripping faucet model) is employed to consider explicitly the effect of time-varying the inputs. This work is equivalent to considering the effects of northward and southward turnings of the interplanetary magnetic field for various periods of time. It is found that relatively extended episodes (not less than 2 hours) of turned-on input with shorter (about 1 hour) periods of turned-off input lead to model behavior much like the continuously driven case. Going to short input intervals with longer periods of zero input leads to highly irregular and dramatically fluctuating episodes of magnetotail unloading. These results give an insight into the diversity of apparent magnetospheric responses during relatively isolated substorm conditions. This work shows the absolutely critical interdependence (in a nonlinear dynamical system) of input phasing and internal magnetospheric response cycles.

  7. A new synthesis for terrestrial nitrogen inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houlton, B. Z.; Morford, S. L.

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) inputs sustain many different aspects of local soil processes, their services, and their interactions with the broader Earth system. We present a new synthesis for terrestrial N inputs that explicitly considers both rock and atmospheric sources of N. We review evidence for state-factor regulation over biological fixation, deposition, and rock-weathering inputs from local to global scales and in transient vs. steady-state landscapes. Our investigation highlights strong organism and topographic (relief) controls over all three N input pathways, with the anthropogenic factor clearly important in rising N deposition rates. In addition, the climate, parent material, and time factors are shown to influence patterns of fixation and rock-weathering inputs of N in diverse soil systems. Data reanalysis suggests that weathering of N-rich parent material could resolve several known cases of "missing N inputs" in ecosystems, and demonstrates how the inclusion of rock N sources into modern concepts can lead to a richer understanding of spatial and temporal patterns of ecosystem N availability. For example, explicit consideration of rock N inputs into classic pedogenic models (e.g., the Walker and Syers model) yields a fundamentally different expectation from the standard case: weathering of N-rich parent material could enhance N availability and facilitate terrestrial succession in developmentally young sites even in the absence of N-fixing organisms. We conclude that a state-factor framework for N complements our growing understanding multiple-source controls on phosphorus and cation availability in Earth's soil, but with significant exceptions given the lack of an N fixation analogue in all other biogeochemical cycles. Rather, non-symmetrical feedbacks among input pathways in which high N inputs via deposition or rock-weathering sources have the potential to reduce biological fixation rates mark N as fundamentally different from other nutrients. The new synthesis

  8. Micromachined dual input axis rate gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juneau, Thor Nelson

    The need for inexpensive yet reliable angular rate sensors in fields ranging from automotive to consumer electronics has motivated prolific micromachined rate gyroscope research. The vast majority of research has focused on single input axis rate gyroscopes based upon either translational resonance, such as tuning forks, or structural mode resonance, such as vibrating rings. However, this work presents a novel, contrasting approach based on angular resonance of a rotating rigid rotor suspended by torsional springs. The inherent symmetry of the circular design allows angular rate measurement about two axes simultaneously, hence the name micromachined dual-axis rate gyroscope. The underlying theory of operation, mechanical structure design optimization, electrical interface circuitry, and signal processing are described in detail. Several operational versions were fabricated using two different fully integrated surface micromachining processes as proof of concept. The heart of the dual-axis rate gyroscope is a ˜2 mum thick polysilicon disk or rotor suspended above the substrate by a four beam suspension. When this rotor in driven into angular oscillation about the axis perpendicular to the substrate, a rotation rate about the two axes parallel to the substrate invokes an out of plane rotor tilting motion due to Coriolis acceleration. This tilting motion is capacitively measured and on board integrated signal processing provides two output voltages proportional to angular rate input about the two axes parallel to the substrate. The design process begins with the derivation of gyroscopic dynamics. The equations suggest that tuning sense mode frequencies to the drive oscillation frequency can vastly increase mechanical sensitivity. Hence the supporting four beam suspension is designed such that electrostatic tuning can match modes despite process variations. The electrostatic tuning range is limited only by rotor collapse to the substrate when tuning-voltage induced

  9. Multi-input distributed classifiers for synthetic genetic circuits.

    PubMed

    Kanakov, Oleg; Kotelnikov, Roman; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Tsimring, Lev; Huerta, Ramón; Zaikin, Alexey; Ivanchenko, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    For practical construction of complex synthetic genetic networks able to perform elaborate functions it is important to have a pool of relatively simple modules with different functionality which can be compounded together. To complement engineering of very different existing synthetic genetic devices such as switches, oscillators or logical gates, we propose and develop here a design of synthetic multi-input classifier based on a recently introduced distributed classifier concept. A heterogeneous population of cells acts as a single classifier, whose output is obtained by summarizing the outputs of individual cells. The learning ability is achieved by pruning the population, instead of tuning parameters of an individual cell. The present paper is focused on evaluating two possible schemes of multi-input gene classifier circuits. We demonstrate their suitability for implementing a multi-input distributed classifier capable of separating data which are inseparable for single-input classifiers, and characterize performance of the classifiers by analytical and numerical results. The simpler scheme implements a linear classifier in a single cell and is targeted at separable classification problems with simple class borders. A hard learning strategy is used to train a distributed classifier by removing from the population any cell answering incorrectly to at least one training example. The other scheme implements a circuit with a bell-shaped response in a single cell to allow potentially arbitrary shape of the classification border in the input space of a distributed classifier. Inseparable classification problems are addressed using soft learning strategy, characterized by probabilistic decision to keep or discard a cell at each training iteration. We expect that our classifier design contributes to the development of robust and predictable synthetic biosensors, which have the potential to affect applications in a lot of fields, including that of medicine and industry

  10. Multi-Input Distributed Classifiers for Synthetic Genetic Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Kanakov, Oleg; Kotelnikov, Roman; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Tsimring, Lev; Huerta, Ramón; Zaikin, Alexey; Ivanchenko, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    For practical construction of complex synthetic genetic networks able to perform elaborate functions it is important to have a pool of relatively simple modules with different functionality which can be compounded together. To complement engineering of very different existing synthetic genetic devices such as switches, oscillators or logical gates, we propose and develop here a design of synthetic multi-input classifier based on a recently introduced distributed classifier concept. A heterogeneous population of cells acts as a single classifier, whose output is obtained by summarizing the outputs of individual cells. The learning ability is achieved by pruning the population, instead of tuning parameters of an individual cell. The present paper is focused on evaluating two possible schemes of multi-input gene classifier circuits. We demonstrate their suitability for implementing a multi-input distributed classifier capable of separating data which are inseparable for single-input classifiers, and characterize performance of the classifiers by analytical and numerical results. The simpler scheme implements a linear classifier in a single cell and is targeted at separable classification problems with simple class borders. A hard learning strategy is used to train a distributed classifier by removing from the population any cell answering incorrectly to at least one training example. The other scheme implements a circuit with a bell-shaped response in a single cell to allow potentially arbitrary shape of the classification border in the input space of a distributed classifier. Inseparable classification problems are addressed using soft learning strategy, characterized by probabilistic decision to keep or discard a cell at each training iteration. We expect that our classifier design contributes to the development of robust and predictable synthetic biosensors, which have the potential to affect applications in a lot of fields, including that of medicine and industry

  11. Inferring Nonlinear Neuronal Computation Based on Physiologically Plausible Inputs

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, James M.; Cui, Yuwei; Butts, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    The computation represented by a sensory neuron's response to stimuli is constructed from an array of physiological processes both belonging to that neuron and inherited from its inputs. Although many of these physiological processes are known to be nonlinear, linear approximations are commonly used to describe the stimulus selectivity of sensory neurons (i.e., linear receptive fields). Here we present an approach for modeling sensory processing, termed the Nonlinear Input Model (NIM), which is based on the hypothesis that the dominant nonlinearities imposed by physiological mechanisms arise from rectification of a neuron's inputs. Incorporating such ‘upstream nonlinearities’ within the standard linear-nonlinear (LN) cascade modeling structure implicitly allows for the identification of multiple stimulus features driving a neuron's response, which become directly interpretable as either excitatory or inhibitory. Because its form is analogous to an integrate-and-fire neuron receiving excitatory and inhibitory inputs, model fitting can be guided by prior knowledge about the inputs to a given neuron, and elements of the resulting model can often result in specific physiological predictions. Furthermore, by providing an explicit probabilistic model with a relatively simple nonlinear structure, its parameters can be efficiently optimized and appropriately regularized. Parameter estimation is robust and efficient even with large numbers of model components and in the context of high-dimensional stimuli with complex statistical structure (e.g. natural stimuli). We describe detailed methods for estimating the model parameters, and illustrate the advantages of the NIM using a range of example sensory neurons in the visual and auditory systems. We thus present a modeling framework that can capture a broad range of nonlinear response functions while providing physiologically interpretable descriptions of neural computation. PMID:23874185

  12. Blurring the Inputs: A Natural Language Approach to Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleb, William L.; Thompson, Richard A.; Johnston, Christopher O.

    2007-01-01

    To document model parameter uncertainties and to automate sensitivity analyses for numerical simulation codes, a natural-language-based method to specify tolerances has been developed. With this new method, uncertainties are expressed in a natural manner, i.e., as one would on an engineering drawing, namely, 5.25 +/- 0.01. This approach is robust and readily adapted to various application domains because it does not rely on parsing the particular structure of input file formats. Instead, tolerances of a standard format are added to existing fields within an input file. As a demonstration of the power of this simple, natural language approach, a Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis is performed for three disparate simulation codes: fluid dynamics (LAURA), radiation (HARA), and ablation (FIAT). Effort required to harness each code for sensitivity analysis was recorded to demonstrate the generality and flexibility of this new approach.

  13. Noise facilitates transcriptional control under dynamic inputs.

    PubMed

    Kellogg, Ryan A; Tay, Savaş

    2015-01-29

    Cells must respond sensitively to time-varying inputs in complex signaling environments. To understand how signaling networks process dynamic inputs into gene expression outputs and the role of noise in cellular information processing, we studied the immune pathway NF-κB under periodic cytokine inputs using microfluidic single-cell measurements and stochastic modeling. We find that NF-κB dynamics in fibroblasts synchronize with oscillating TNF signal and become entrained, leading to significantly increased NF-κB oscillation amplitude and mRNA output compared to non-entrained response. Simulations show that intrinsic biochemical noise in individual cells improves NF-κB oscillation and entrainment, whereas cell-to-cell variability in NF-κB natural frequency creates population robustness, together enabling entrainment over a wider range of dynamic inputs. This wide range is confirmed by experiments where entrained cells were measured under all input periods. These results indicate that synergy between oscillation and noise allows cells to achieve efficient gene expression in dynamically changing signaling environments. PMID:25635454

  14. Six axis force feedback input device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohm, Timothy (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a low friction, low inertia, six-axis force feedback input device comprising an arm with double-jointed, tendon-driven revolute joints, a decoupled tendon-driven wrist, and a base with encoders and motors. The input device functions as a master robot manipulator of a microsurgical teleoperated robot system including a slave robot manipulator coupled to an amplifier chassis, which is coupled to a control chassis, which is coupled to a workstation with a graphical user interface. The amplifier chassis is coupled to the motors of the master robot manipulator and the control chassis is coupled to the encoders of the master robot manipulator. A force feedback can be applied to the input device and can be generated from the slave robot to enable a user to operate the slave robot via the input device without physically viewing the slave robot. Also, the force feedback can be generated from the workstation to represent fictitious forces to constrain the input device's control of the slave robot to be within imaginary predetermined boundaries.

  15. Retrieval of Branching Sequences in an Associative Memory Model with Common External Input and Bias Input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katahira, Kentaro; Kawamura, Masaki; Okanoya, Kazuo; Okada, Masato

    2007-04-01

    We investigate a recurrent neural network model with common external and bias inputs that can retrieve branching sequences. Retrieval of memory sequences is one of the most important functions of the brain. A lot of research has been done on neural networks that process memory sequences. Most of it has focused on fixed memory sequences. However, many animals can remember and recall branching sequences. Therefore, we propose an associative memory model that can retrieve branching sequences. Our model has bias input and common external input. Kawamura and Okada reported that common external input enables sequential memory retrieval in an associative memory model with auto- and weak cross-correlation connections. We show that retrieval processes along branching sequences are controllable with both the bias input and the common external input. To analyze the behaviors of our model, we derived the macroscopic dynamical description as a probability density function. The results obtained by our theory agree with those obtained by computer simulations.

  16. The input optics of Advanced LIGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, D. B.; Arain, M. A.; Ciani, G.; Feldbaum, D.; Fulda, P.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, R.; Heintze, M.; Martin, R. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Williams, L. F.; Mueller, G.; Quetschke, V.; Korth, W. Z.; Reitze, D. H.; Derosa, R. T.; Effler, A.; Kokeyama, K.; Frolov, V. V.; Mullavey, A.; Poeld, J.

    2016-03-01

    The Input Optics (IO) of advanced LIGO will be described. The IO consists of all the optics between the laser and the power recycling mirror. The scope of the IO includes the following hardware: phase modulators, power control, input mode cleaner, an in-vacuum Faraday isolator, and mode matching telescopes. The IO group has developed and characterized RTP-based phase modulators capable of operation at 180 W cw input power. In addition, the Faraday isolator is compensated for depolarization and thermal lensing effects up to the same power and is capable of achieving greater than 40 dB isolation. This research has been supported by the NSF through Grants PHY-1205512 and PHY-1505598. LIGO-G1600067.

  17. Computer Generated Inputs for NMIS Processor Verification

    SciTech Connect

    J. A. Mullens; J. E. Breeding; J. A. McEvers; R. W. Wysor; L. G. Chiang; J. R. Lenarduzzi; J. T. Mihalczo; J. K. Mattingly

    2001-06-29

    Proper operation of the Nuclear Identification Materials System (NMIS) processor can be verified using computer-generated inputs [BIST (Built-In-Self-Test)] at the digital inputs. Preselected sequences of input pulses to all channels with known correlation functions are compared to the output of the processor. These types of verifications have been utilized in NMIS type correlation processors at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory since 1984. The use of this test confirmed a malfunction in a NMIS processor at the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) in 1998. The NMIS processor boards were returned to the U.S. for repair and subsequently used in NMIS passive and active measurements with Pu at VNIIEF in 1999.

  18. An update of input instructions to TEMOD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The theory and operation of a FORTRAN 4 computer code, designated as TEMOD, used to calcuate tubular thermoelectric generator performance is described in WANL-TME-1906. The original version of TEMOD was developed in 1969. A description is given of additions to the mathematical model and an update of the input instructions to the code. Although the basic mathematical model described in WANL-TME-1906 has remained unchanged, a substantial number of input/output options were added to allow completion of module performance parametrics as required in support of the compact thermoelectric converter system technology program.

  19. Replenishment of magma chambers by light inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huppert, Herbert E.; Sparks, R. Stephen J.; Whitehead, John A.; Hallworth, Mark A.

    1986-05-01

    Magma chambers, particularly those of basaltic composition, are often replenished by an influx of magma whose density is less than that of the resident magma. This paper describes the fundamental fluid mechanics involved in the replenishment by light inputs. If ρ denotes the uniform density of the resident magma and ρ — Δρ that of the input, the situation is described by the reduced gravity g' = gΔρ/ρ, the volume flux Q, and the viscosities of the resident and input magmas νe and νi, respectively. The (nondimensional) Reynolds numbers, Ree = (g'Q3)1/5/νe and Rei = (g'Q3)1/5/νi and chamber geometry then completely specify the system. For sufficiently low values of the two Reynolds numbers (each less than approximately 10), the input rises as a laminar conduit. For larger values of the Reynolds numbers, the conduit may break down and exhibit either a varicose or a meander instability and entrain some resident magma. At still larger Reynolds numbers, the flow will become quite unsteady and finally turbulent. The values of the Reynolds numbers at which these transitions occur have been documented by a series of experiments with water, glycerine, and corn syrup. If the input rises as a turbulent plume, significant entrainment of the resident magma can take place. The final spatial distribution of the mixed magma depends on the geometry of the chamber. If the chamber is much wider than it is high, the mixed magma forms a compositionally stratified region between the roof and a sharp front above uncontaminated magma. In the other geometrical extreme, the input magma is mixed with almost all of the resident magma. If the density of the resident magma is already stratified, the input plume may penetrate only part way into the chamber, even though its initial density is less than that of the lowest density resident magma. The plume will then intrude horizontally and form a hybrid layer at an intermediate depth. This provides a mechanism for preventing even

  20. Input/Output Subroutine Library Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, James B.

    1988-01-01

    Efficient, easy-to-use program moved easily to different computers. Purpose of NAVIO, Input/Output Subroutine Library, provides input/output package of software for FORTRAN programs that is portable, efficient, and easy to use. Implemented as hierarchy of libraries. At bottom is very small library containing only non-portable routines called "I/O Kernel." Design makes NAVIO easy to move from one computer to another, by simply changing kernel. NAVIO appropriate for software system of almost any size wherein different programs communicate through files.

  1. Locked-mode avoidance and recovery without momentum input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Rice, J. E.; Wolfe, S.; Cziegler, I.; Gao, C.; Granetz, R.; Wukitch, S.; Terry, J.; Greenwald, M.; Sugiyama, L.; Hubbard, A.; Hugges, J.; Marmar, E.; Phillips, P.; Rowan, W.

    2015-11-01

    Error-field-induced locked-modes (LMs) have been studied in Alcator C-Mod at ITER-Bϕ, without NBI fueling and momentum input. Delay of the mode-onset and locked-mode recovery has been successfully obtained without external momentum input using Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH). The use of external heating in-sync with the error-field ramp-up resulted in a successful delay of the mode-onset when PICRH > 1 MW, which demonstrates the existence of a power threshold to ``unlock'' the mode; in the presence of an error field the L-mode discharge can transition into H-mode only when PICRH > 2 MW and at high densities, avoiding also the density pump-out. The effects of ion heating observed on unlocking the core plasma may be due to ICRH induced flows in the plasma boundary, or modifications of plasma profiles that changed the underlying turbulence. This work was performed under US DoE contracts including DE-FC02-99ER54512 and others at MIT, DE-FG03-96ER-54373 at University of Texas at Austin, and DE-AC02-09CH11466 at PPPL.

  2. Encoding of whisker input by cerebellar Purkinje cells

    PubMed Central

    Bosman, Laurens W J; Koekkoek, Sebastiaan K E; Shapiro, Joël; Rijken, Bianca F M; Zandstra, Froukje; van der Ende, Barry; Owens, Cullen B; Potters, Jan-Willem; de Gruijl, Jornt R; Ruigrok, Tom J H; De Zeeuw, Chris I

    2010-01-01

    The cerebellar cortex is crucial for sensorimotor integration. Sensorimotor inputs converge on cerebellar Purkinje cells via two afferent pathways: the climbing fibre pathway triggering complex spikes, and the mossy fibre–parallel fibre pathway, modulating the simple spike activities of Purkinje cells. We used, for the first time, the mouse whisker system as a model system to study the encoding of somatosensory input by Purkinje cells. We show that most Purkinje cells in ipsilateral crus 1 and crus 2 of awake mice respond to whisker stimulation with complex spike and/or simple spike responses. Single-whisker stimulation in anaesthetised mice revealed that the receptive fields of complex spike and simple spike responses were strikingly different. Complex spike responses, which proved to be sensitive to the amplitude, speed and direction of whisker movement, were evoked by only one or a few whiskers. Simple spike responses, which were not affected by the direction of movement, could be evoked by many individual whiskers. The receptive fields of Purkinje cells were largely intermingled, and we suggest that this facilitates the rapid integration of sensory inputs from different sources. Furthermore, we describe that individual Purkinje cells, at least under anaesthesia, may be bound in two functional ensembles based on the receptive fields and the synchrony of the complex spike and simple spike responses. The ‘complex spike ensembles’ were oriented in the sagittal plane, following the anatomical organization of the climbing fibres, while the ‘simple spike ensembles’ were oriented in the transversal plane, as are the beams of parallel fibres. PMID:20724365

  3. 7 CFR 3430.607 - Stakeholder input.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stakeholder input. 3430.607 Section 3430.607 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMPETITIVE AND NONCOMPETITIVE NON-FORMULA...

  4. 7 CFR 3430.15 - Stakeholder input.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stakeholder input. 3430.15 Section 3430.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMPETITIVE AND NONCOMPETITIVE NON-FORMULA...

  5. 7 CFR 3430.907 - Stakeholder input.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stakeholder input. 3430.907 Section 3430.907 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMPETITIVE AND NONCOMPETITIVE NON-FORMULA...

  6. 7 CFR 3430.15 - Stakeholder input.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Stakeholder input. 3430.15 Section 3430.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE COMPETITIVE AND NONCOMPETITIVE NON-FORMULA FEDERAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS-GENERAL...

  7. Anomalous neuronal responses to fluctuated inputs.

    PubMed

    Hosaka, Ryosuke; Sakai, Yutaka

    2015-10-01

    The irregular firing of a cortical neuron is thought to result from a highly fluctuating drive that is generated by the balance of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs. A previous study reported anomalous responses of the Hodgkin-Huxley neuron to the fluctuated inputs where an irregularity of spike trains is inversely proportional to an input irregularity. In the current study, we investigated the origin of these anomalous responses with the Hindmarsh-Rose neuron model, map-based models, and a simple mixture of interspike interval distributions. First, we specified the parameter regions for the bifurcations in the Hindmarsh-Rose model, and we confirmed that the model reproduced the anomalous responses in the dynamics of the saddle-node and subcritical Hopf bifurcations. For both bifurcations, the Hindmarsh-Rose model shows bistability in the resting state and the repetitive firing state, which indicated that the bistability was the origin of the anomalous input-output relationship. Similarly, the map-based model that contained bistability reproduced the anomalous responses, while the model without bistability did not. These results were supported by additional findings that the anomalous responses were reproduced by mimicking the bistable firing with a mixture of two different interspike interval distributions. Decorrelation of spike trains is important for neural information processing. For such spike train decorrelation, irregular firing is key. Our results indicated that irregular firing can emerge from fluctuating drives, even weak ones, under conditions involving bistability. The anomalous responses, therefore, contribute to efficient processing in the brain. PMID:26565270

  8. Adaptive Random Testing with Combinatorial Input Domain

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yansheng

    2014-01-01

    Random testing (RT) is a fundamental testing technique to assess software reliability, by simply selecting test cases in a random manner from the whole input domain. As an enhancement of RT, adaptive random testing (ART) has better failure-detection capability and has been widely applied in different scenarios, such as numerical programs, some object-oriented programs, and mobile applications. However, not much work has been done on the effectiveness of ART for the programs with combinatorial input domain (i.e., the set of categorical data). To extend the ideas to the testing for combinatorial input domain, we have adopted different similarity measures that are widely used for categorical data in data mining and have proposed two similarity measures based on interaction coverage. Then, we propose a new version named ART-CID as an extension of ART in combinatorial input domain, which selects an element from categorical data as the next test case such that it has the lowest similarity against already generated test cases. Experimental results show that ART-CID generally performs better than RT, with respect to different evaluation metrics. PMID:24772036

  9. Soil Organic Carbon Input from Urban Turfgrasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turfgrass is a major vegetation type in the urban and suburban environment. Management practices such as species selection, irrigation, and mowing may affect carbon (C) input and storage in these systems. Research was conducted to determine the rate of soil organic carbon (SOC) changes, soil carbon ...

  10. Multiple Input Microcantilever Sensor with Capacitive Readout

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, C.L., Jr.; Brown, G.M.; Bryan, W.L.; Clonts, L.G.; DePriest, J.C.; Emergy, M.S.; Ericson, M.N.; Hu, Z.; Jones, R.L.; Moore, M.R.; Oden, P.I.; Rochelle, J.M.; Smith, S.F.; Threatt, T.D.; Thundat, T.; Turner, G.W.; Warmack, R.J.; Wintenberg, A.L.

    1999-03-11

    A surface-micromachined MEMS process has been used to demonstrate multiple-input chemical sensing using selectively coated cantilever arrays. Combined hydrogen and mercury-vapor detection was achieved with a palm-sized, self-powered module with spread-spectrum telemetry reporting.

  11. Input-Based Incremental Vocabulary Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcroft, Joe

    2012-01-01

    This fascinating presentation of current research undoes numerous myths about how we most effectively learn new words in a second language. In clear, reader-friendly text, the author details the successful approach of IBI vocabulary instruction, which emphasizes the presentation of target vocabulary as input early on and the incremental (gradual)…

  12. Soil Organic Carbon Input from Urban Turfgrasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turfgrass is a major vegetation type in the urban and suburban environment. Management practices such as species selection, irrigation, and mowing may affect carbon input and storage in these systems. Research was conducted to determine the rate of soil organic carbon (SOC) changes, soil carbon sequ...

  13. Treatments of Precipitation Inputs to Hydrologic Models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrological models are used to assess many water resources problems from agricultural use and water quality to engineering issues. The success of these models are dependent on correct parameterization; the most sensitive being the rainfall input time series. These records can come from land-based ...

  14. Instrumentation for measuring energy inputs to implements

    SciTech Connect

    Tompkins, F.D.; Wilhelm, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    A microcomputer-based instrumentation system for monitoring tractor operating parameters and energy inputs to implements was developed and mounted on a 75-power-takeoff-KW tractor. The instrumentation system, including sensors and data handling equipment, is discussed. 10 refs.

  15. Selecting training inputs via greedy rank covering

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, A.L.; Santen, J.P.H. van

    1996-12-31

    We present a general method for selecting a small set of training inputs, the observations of which will suffice to estimate the parameters of a given linear model. We exemplify the algorithm in terms of predicting segmental duration of phonetic-segment feature vectors in a text-to-speech synthesizer, but the algorithm will work for any linear model and its associated domain.

  16. Multichannel analyzers at high rates of input

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudnick, S. J.; Strauss, M. G.

    1969-01-01

    Multichannel analyzer, used with a gating system incorporating pole-zero compensation, pile-up rejection, and baseline-restoration, achieves good resolution at high rates of input. It improves resolution, reduces tailing and rate-contributed continuum, and eliminates spectral shift.

  17. Numerical simulation of LIGO input optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    None, Shivanand; Jamal, Nafis; Yoshida, Sanichiro

    2005-11-01

    Numerical analysis has been carried out to understand the performance of the Input Optics used in the first generation of LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory) detector. The input optics is a subsystem consisting of a mode cleaner and mode-matching telescope, where all the optics are suspended and installed in vacuum. Using the end-to-end package (LIGO programming language), computer codes have been made to simulate the input optics. Giving realistic seismic noise to the suspension point of the optics and using the length sensing/alignment sensing control for the mode cleaner, the performance of the input optics has been simulated under various scenarios such as with an order of magnitude higher seismic noise than the normal level, and with/without the alignment sensing control feedback from the arm cavity to the mode-matching telescope. The results are assessed in terms of the beam pointing fluctuation of the laser beam going into the arm cavities, and its influence on the optical coupling to the arm cavities and the noise level at the gravitational wave port signal.

  18. DO MODEL UNCERTAINTY WITH CORRELATED INPUTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of correlation among the input parameters and variables on the output uncertainty of the Streeter-Phelps water quality model is examined. hree uncertainty analysis techniques are used: sensitivity analysis, first-order error analysis, and Monte Carlo simulation. odifie...

  19. Input, Interaction and Output: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Susan; Mackey, Alison

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of what has come to be known as the "Interaction Hypothesis," the basic tenet of which is that through input and interaction with interlocutors, language learners have opportunities to notice differences between their own formulations of the target language and the language of their conversational…

  20. Anomalous neuronal responses to fluctuated inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosaka, Ryosuke; Sakai, Yutaka

    2015-10-01

    The irregular firing of a cortical neuron is thought to result from a highly fluctuating drive that is generated by the balance of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs. A previous study reported anomalous responses of the Hodgkin-Huxley neuron to the fluctuated inputs where an irregularity of spike trains is inversely proportional to an input irregularity. In the current study, we investigated the origin of these anomalous responses with the Hindmarsh-Rose neuron model, map-based models, and a simple mixture of interspike interval distributions. First, we specified the parameter regions for the bifurcations in the Hindmarsh-Rose model, and we confirmed that the model reproduced the anomalous responses in the dynamics of the saddle-node and subcritical Hopf bifurcations. For both bifurcations, the Hindmarsh-Rose model shows bistability in the resting state and the repetitive firing state, which indicated that the bistability was the origin of the anomalous input-output relationship. Similarly, the map-based model that contained bistability reproduced the anomalous responses, while the model without bistability did not. These results were supported by additional findings that the anomalous responses were reproduced by mimicking the bistable firing with a mixture of two different interspike interval distributions. Decorrelation of spike trains is important for neural information processing. For such spike train decorrelation, irregular firing is key. Our results indicated that irregular firing can emerge from fluctuating drives, even weak ones, under conditions involving bistability. The anomalous responses, therefore, contribute to efficient processing in the brain.

  1. A probabilistic graphical model based stochastic input model construction

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Jiang; Zabaras, Nicholas

    2014-09-01

    Model reduction techniques have been widely used in modeling of high-dimensional stochastic input in uncertainty quantification tasks. However, the probabilistic modeling of random variables projected into reduced-order spaces presents a number of computational challenges. Due to the curse of dimensionality, the underlying dependence relationships between these random variables are difficult to capture. In this work, a probabilistic graphical model based approach is employed to learn the dependence by running a number of conditional independence tests using observation data. Thus a probabilistic model of the joint PDF is obtained and the PDF is factorized into a set of conditional distributions based on the dependence structure of the variables. The estimation of the joint PDF from data is then transformed to estimating conditional distributions under reduced dimensions. To improve the computational efficiency, a polynomial chaos expansion is further applied to represent the random field in terms of a set of standard random variables. This technique is combined with both linear and nonlinear model reduction methods. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the probabilistic graphical model based stochastic input models. - Highlights: • Data-driven stochastic input models without the assumption of independence of the reduced random variables. • The problem is transformed to a Bayesian network structure learning problem. • Examples are given in flows in random media.

  2. Input on NIH Toolbox inclusion criteria

    PubMed Central

    Victorson, David; Debb, Scott M.; Gershon, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The NIH Toolbox is intended to be responsive to the needs of investigators evaluating neurologic and behavioral function in diverse settings. Early phases of the project involved gathering information and input from potential end users. Methods: Information was collected through literature and instrument database reviews, requests for information, consensus meetings, and expert interviews and integrated into the NIH Toolbox development process in an iterative manner. Results: Criteria for instrument inclusion, subdomains to be assessed, and preferences regarding instrument cost and length were obtained. Existing measures suitable for inclusion in the NIH Toolbox and areas requiring new measure development were identified. Conclusion: The NIH Toolbox was developed with explicit input from potential end users regarding many of its key features. PMID:23479548

  3. Multimodal interfaces with voice and gesture input

    SciTech Connect

    Milota, A.D.; Blattner, M.M.

    1995-07-20

    The modalities of speech and gesture have different strengths and weaknesses, but combined they create synergy where each modality corrects the weaknesses of the other. We believe that a multimodal system such a one interwining speech and gesture must start from a different foundation than ones which are based solely on pen input. In order to provide a basis for the design of a speech and gesture system, we have examined the research in other disciplines such as anthropology and linguistics. The result of this investigation was a taxonomy that gave us material for the incorporation of gestures whose meanings are largely transparent to the users. This study describes the taxonomy and gives examples of applications to pen input systems.

  4. Input to state stability in reservoir models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Markus; Sierra, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Models in ecology and biogeochemistry, in particular models of the global carbon cycle, can be generalized as systems of non-autonomous ordinary differential equations (ODEs). For many applications, it is important to determine the stability properties for this type of systems, but most methods available for autonomous systems are not necessarily applicable for the non-autonomous case. We discuss here stability notions for non-autonomous nonlinear models represented by systems of ODEs explicitly dependent on time and a time-varying input signal. We propose Input to State Stability (ISS) as candidate for the necessary generalization of the established analysis with respect to equilibria or invariant sets for autonomous systems, and show its usefulness by applying it to reservoir models typical for element cycling in ecosystem, e.g. in soil organic matter decomposition. We also show how ISS generalizes existent concepts formerly only available for Linear Time Invariant (LTI) and Linear Time Variant (LTV) systems to the nonlinear case.

  5. XBox Input -Version 1.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-10-03

    Contains class for connecting to the Xbox 360 controller, displaying the user inputs {buttons, triggers, analog sticks), and controlling the rumble motors. Also contains classes for converting the raw Xbox 360 controller inputs into meaningful commands for the following objects: • Robot arms - Provides joint control and several tool control schemes • UGV's - Provides translational and rotational commands for "skid-steer" vehicles • Pan-tilt units - Provides several modes of control including velocity, position,more » and point-tracking • Head-mounted displays (HMO)- Controls the viewpoint of a HMO • Umbra frames - Controls the position andorientation of an Umbra posrot object • Umbra graphics window - Provides several modes of control for the Umbra OSG window viewpoint including free-fly, cursor-focused, and object following.« less

  6. Circadian light-input pathways in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Yoshii, Taishi; Hermann-Luibl, Christiane; Helfrich-Förster, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Light is the most important environmental cue to entrain the circadian clock in most animals. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the light entrainment mechanisms of the clock have been well-studied. The Drosophila brain contains approximately 150 neurons that rhythmically express circadian clock genes. These neurons are called "clock neurons" and control behavioral activity rhythms. Many clock neurons express the Cryptochrome (CRY) protein, which is sensitive to UV and blue light, and thus enables clock neurons deep in the brain to directly perceive light. In addition to the CRY protein, external photoreceptors in the Drosophila eyes play an important role in circadian light-input pathways. Recent studies have provided new insights into the mechanisms that integrate these light inputs into the circadian network of the brain. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge on the light entrainment pathways in the Drosophila circadian clock. PMID:27066180

  7. XBox Input -Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    2012-10-03

    Contains class for connecting to the Xbox 360 controller, displaying the user inputs {buttons, triggers, analog sticks), and controlling the rumble motors. Also contains classes for converting the raw Xbox 360 controller inputs into meaningful commands for the following objects: • Robot arms - Provides joint control and several tool control schemes • UGV's - Provides translational and rotational commands for "skid-steer" vehicles • Pan-tilt units - Provides several modes of control including velocity, position, and point-tracking • Head-mounted displays (HMO)- Controls the viewpoint of a HMO • Umbra frames - Controls the position andorientation of an Umbra posrot object • Umbra graphics window - Provides several modes of control for the Umbra OSG window viewpoint including free-fly, cursor-focused, and object following.

  8. Multi-input square iterative learning control with input rate limits and bounds.

    PubMed

    Driessen, B J; Sadegh, N

    2002-01-01

    We present a simple modification of the iterative learning control algorithm of Arimoto et al. (1984) for the case where the inputs are bounded and time-rate-limited. The Jacobian error condition for monotonicity of input-error, rather than output-error, norms, is specified, the latter being insufficient to assure convergence, as proved herein. To the best of our knowledge, these facts have not been previously pointed out in the iterative learning control literature. We present a new proof that the modified controller produces monotonically decreasing input error norms, with a norm that covers the entire time interval of a learning trial. PMID:18238150

  9. Optimum employment of satellite indirect soundings as numerical model input

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, L. H.; Derber, J. C.; Koehler, T. L.; Schmidt, B. D.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of satellite-derived temperature soundings that would significantly affect their use as input for numerical weather prediction models were examined. Independent evaluations of satellite soundings were emphasized to better define error characteristics. Results of a Nimbus-6 sounding study reveal an underestimation of the strength of synoptic scale troughs and ridges, and associated gradients in isobaric height and temperature fields. The most significant errors occurred near the Earth's surface and the tropopause. Soundings from the TIROS-N and NOAA-6 satellites were also evaluated. Results again showed an underestimation of upper level trough amplitudes leading to weaker thermal gradient depictions in satellite-only fields. These errors show a definite correlation to the synoptic flow patterns. In a satellite-only analysis used to initialize a numerical model forecast, it was found that these synoptically correlated errors were retained in the forecast sequence.

  10. Sensory synergy as environmental input integration

    PubMed Central

    Alnajjar, Fady; Itkonen, Matti; Berenz, Vincent; Tournier, Maxime; Nagai, Chikara; Shimoda, Shingo

    2015-01-01

    The development of a method to feed proper environmental inputs back to the central nervous system (CNS) remains one of the challenges in achieving natural movement when part of the body is replaced with an artificial device. Muscle synergies are widely accepted as a biologically plausible interpretation of the neural dynamics between the CNS and the muscular system. Yet the sensorineural dynamics of environmental feedback to the CNS has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we address this issue by exploring the concept of sensory synergy. In contrast to muscle synergy, we hypothesize that sensory synergy plays an essential role in integrating the overall environmental inputs to provide low-dimensional information to the CNS. We assume that sensor synergy and muscle synergy communicate using these low-dimensional signals. To examine our hypothesis, we conducted posture control experiments involving lateral disturbance with nine healthy participants. Proprioceptive information represented by the changes on muscle lengths were estimated by using the musculoskeletal model analysis software SIMM. Changes on muscles lengths were then used to compute sensory synergies. The experimental results indicate that the environmental inputs were translated into the two dimensional signals and used to move the upper limb to the desired position immediately after the lateral disturbance. Participants who showed high skill in posture control were found to be likely to have a strong correlation between sensory and muscle signaling as well as high coordination between the utilized sensory synergies. These results suggest the importance of integrating environmental inputs into suitable low-dimensional signals before providing them to the CNS. This mechanism should be essential when designing the prosthesis' sensory system to make the controller simpler. PMID:25628523

  11. Aortic Input Impedance during Nitroprusside Infusion

    PubMed Central

    Pepine, Carl J.; Nichols, W. W.; Curry, R. C.; Conti, C. Richard

    1979-01-01

    Beneficial effects of nitroprusside infusion in heart failure are purportedly a result of decreased afterload through “impedance” reduction. To study the effect of nitroprusside on vascular factors that determine the total load opposing left ventricular ejection, the total aortic input impedance spectrum was examined in 12 patients with heart failure (cardiac index <2.0 liters/min per m2 and left ventricular end diastolic pressure >20 mm Hg). This input impedance spectrum expresses both mean flow (resistance) and pulsatile flow (compliance and wave reflections) components of vascular load. Aortic root blood flow velocity and pressure were recorded continuously with a catheter-tip electromagnetic velocity probe in addition to left ventricular pressure. Small doses of nitroprusside (9-19 μg/min) altered the total aortic input impedance spectrum as significant (P < 0.05) reductions in both mean and pulsatile components were observed within 60-90 s. With these acute changes in vascular load, left ventricular end diastolic pressure declined (44%) and stroke volume increased (20%, both P < 0.05). Larger nitroprusside doses (20-38 μg/min) caused additional alteration in the aortic input impedance spectrum with further reduction in left ventricular end diastolic pressure and increase in stroke volume but no additional changes in the impedance spectrum or stroke volume occurred with 39-77 μg/min. Improved ventricular function persisted when aortic pressure was restored to control values with simultaneous phenylephrine infusion in three patients. These data indicate that nitroprusside acutely alters both the mean and pulsatile components of vascular load to effect improvement in ventricular function in patients with heart failure. The evidence presented suggests that it may be possible to reduce vascular load and improve ventricular function independent of aortic pressure reduction. PMID:457874

  12. Generalized Input-Output Inequality Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yingfan Zhang Qinghong

    2006-09-15

    In this paper two types of generalized Leontief input-output inequality systems are introduced. The minimax properties for a class of functions associated with the inequalities are studied. Sufficient and necessary conditions for the inequality systems to have solutions are obtained in terms of the minimax value. Stability analysis for the solution set is provided in terms of upper semi-continuity and hemi-continuity of set-valued maps.

  13. A mathematical method to estimate the thalamic input to the cerebral cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jradeh, Mouhamad

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a new mathematical method to predict the thalamic input to the cerebral cortex. The thalamus projects all over the cortex and receives projections from many brain regions. For that, the thalamic signals can be reasonably introduced in the neural field, as an input signal to the cortex, as already proposed by Robinson and colleagues [1]. By solving an ordinary differential equation, we provide a method to estimate this efferent signal in the brain.

  14. Minimizing structural vibrations with Input Shaping (TM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singhose, Bill; Singer, Neil

    1995-01-01

    A new method for commanding machines to move with increased dynamic performance was developed. This method is an enhanced version of input shaping, a patented vibration suppression algorithm. This technique intercepts a command input to a system command that moves the mechanical system with increased performance and reduced residual vibration. This document describes many advanced methods for generating highly optimized shaping sequences which are tuned to particular systems. The shaping sequence is important because it determines the trade off between move/settle time of the system and the insensitivity of the input shaping algorithm to variations or uncertainties in the machine which can be controlled. For example, a system with a 5 Hz resonance that takes 1 second to settle can be improved to settle instantaneously using a 0.2 shaping sequence (thus improving settle time by a factor of 5). This system could vary by plus or minus 15% in its natural frequency and still have no apparent vibration. However, the same system shaped with a 0.3 second shaping sequence could tolerate plus or minus 40% or more variation in natural frequency. This document describes how to generate sequences that maximize performance, sequences that maximize insensitivity, and sequences that trade off between the two. Several software tools are documented and included.

  15. [Input and output channels of quantum biocomputers].

    PubMed

    Minina, S V; Liberman, E A

    1990-01-01

    It is proposed that "Quantum Molecular" computer of a neuron consists of the cell cytoskeleton serving as calculating media and input ionic channel sending a hypersound signal to observe these media. The sound spreads through the media travelling along microtubules and microfilaments and switching between those via molecular bridges which serve as elementary switches. The whole system works like a wave guiding net connecting input ionic channels (which generate different sound signals) and output ionic channels (which are controlled by the processed sound signals). Thus the output of such systems depends on the input (controlled by synaptic activity) and on the construction and state of these calculating media. We think that the sound waves spreading through different calculating media solve different physical problems. The construction of the calculating part of the cytoskeleton, according to the hypothesis, is different in different neurons. It is defined by special protein which is produced by DNA, RNA and protein molecular word processor (during brain development and, may be, education). We comment on how the existence of an extremal computer produces an impact on physics and mathematics exemplified by the optimality principle as substitution of physical relativity principle for a complex problem. PMID:1693290

  16. INDES User's guide multistep input design with nonlinear rotorcraft modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The INDES computer program, a multistep input design program used as part of a data processing technique for rotorcraft systems identification, is described. Flight test inputs base on INDES improve the accuracy of parameter estimates. The input design algorithm, program input, and program output are presented.

  17. Cone inputs to murine striate cortex

    PubMed Central

    Ekesten, Björn; Gouras, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background We have recorded responses from single neurons in murine visual cortex to determine the effectiveness of the input from the two murine cone photoreceptor mechanisms and whether there is any unique selectivity for cone inputs at this higher region of the visual system that would support the possibility of colour vision in mice. Each eye was stimulated by diffuse light, either 370 (strong stimulus for the ultra-violet (UV) cone opsin) or 505 nm (exclusively stimulating the middle wavelength sensitive (M) cone opsin), obtained from light emitting diodes (LEDs) in the presence of a strong adapting light that suppressed the responses of rods. Results Single cells responded to these diffuse stimuli in all areas of striate cortex. Two types of responsive cells were encountered. One type (135/323 – 42%) had little to no spontaneous activity and responded at either the on and/or the off phase of the light stimulus with a few impulses often of relatively large amplitude. A second type (166/323 – 51%) had spontaneous activity and responded tonically to light stimuli with impulses often of small amplitude. Most of the cells responded similarly to both spectral stimuli. A few (18/323 – 6%) responded strongly or exclusively to one or the other spectral stimulus and rarely in a spectrally opponent manner. Conclusion Most cells in murine striate cortex receive excitatory inputs from both UV- and M-cones. A small fraction shows either strong selectivity for one or the other cone mechanism and occasionally cone opponent responses. Cells that could underlie chromatic contrast detection are present but extremely rare in murine striate cortex. PMID:19014590

  18. Conjunctive input processing drives feature selectivity in hippocampal CA1 neurons.

    PubMed

    Bittner, Katie C; Grienberger, Christine; Vaidya, Sachin P; Milstein, Aaron D; Macklin, John J; Suh, Junghyup; Tonegawa, Susumu; Magee, Jeffrey C

    2015-08-01

    Feature-selective firing allows networks to produce representations of the external and internal environments. Despite its importance, the mechanisms generating neuronal feature selectivity are incompletely understood. In many cortical microcircuits the integration of two functionally distinct inputs occurs nonlinearly through generation of active dendritic signals that drive burst firing and robust plasticity. To examine the role of this processing in feature selectivity, we recorded CA1 pyramidal neuron membrane potential and local field potential in mice running on a linear treadmill. We found that dendritic plateau potentials were produced by an interaction between properly timed input from entorhinal cortex and hippocampal CA3. These conjunctive signals positively modulated the firing of previously established place fields and rapidly induced new place field formation to produce feature selectivity in CA1 that is a function of both entorhinal cortex and CA3 input. Such selectivity could allow mixed network level representations that support context-dependent spatial maps. PMID:26167906

  19. Conjunctive input processing drives feature selectivity in hippocampal CA1 neurons

    PubMed Central

    Bittner, Katie C.; Grienberger, Christine; Vaidya, Sachin P.; Milstein, Aaron D.; Macklin, John J.; Suh, Junghyup; Tonegawa, Susumu; Magee, Jeffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Feature selective firing allows networks to produce representations of the external and internal environments. Despite its importance, the mechanisms generating neuronal feature selectivity are incompletely understood. In many cortical microcircuits the integration of two functionally distinct inputs occurs nonlinearly via generation of active dendritic signals that drive burst firing and robust plasticity. To examine the role of this processing in feature selectivity we recorded CA1 pyramidal neuron membrane potential and local field potential in mice running on a linear treadmill. We found that dendritic plateau potentials are produced by an interaction between properly timed input from entorhinal cortex (EC3) and hippocampal CA3. These conjunctive signals positively modulate the firing of previously established place fields and rapidly induce novel place field formation to produce feature selectivity in CA1 that is a function of both EC3 and CA3 input. Such selectivity could allow mixed network level representations that support context-dependent spatial maps. PMID:26167906

  20. Intelligent Graph Layout Using Many Users' Input.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiaoru; Che, Limei; Hu, Yifan; Zhang, Xin

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a new strategy for graph drawing utilizing layouts of many sub-graphs supplied by a large group of people in a crowd sourcing manner. We developed an algorithm based on Laplacian constrained distance embedding to merge subgraphs submitted by different users, while attempting to maintain the topological information of the individual input layouts. To facilitate collection of layouts from many people, a light-weight interactive system has been designed to enable convenient dynamic viewing, modification and traversing between layouts. Compared with other existing graph layout algorithms, our approach can achieve more aesthetic and meaningful layouts with high user preference. PMID:26357179

  1. Example of input-output analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The thirty sectors included in the ECASTAR energy input-output model were listed. Five of these belong to energy producing sectors, fifteen to manufacturing industries, two to residential and commercial sectors, and eight to service industries. The model is capable of tracing impacts of an action in three dimensions: dollars, BTU's of energy, and labor. Four conservation actions considered were listed and then discussed separately, dealing with the following areas: increase in fuel efficiency, reduction in fuel used by the transportation and warehousing group, manufacturing of smaller automobiles, and a communications/transportation trade-off.

  2. Input-output-controlled nonlinear equation solvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padovan, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    To upgrade the efficiency and stability of the successive substitution (SS) and Newton-Raphson (NR) schemes, the concept of input-output-controlled solvers (IOCS) is introduced. By employing the formal properties of the constrained version of the SS and NR schemes, the IOCS algorithm can handle indefiniteness of the system Jacobian, can maintain iterate monotonicity, and provide for separate control of load incrementation and iterate excursions, as well as having other features. To illustrate the algorithmic properties, the results for several benchmark examples are presented. These define the associated numerical efficiency and stability of the IOCS.

  3. Feed and manure use in low-N-input and high-N-input dairy cattle production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, J. Mark

    2014-11-01

    In most parts of Sub-Saharan Africa fertilizers and feeds are costly, not readily available and used sparingly in agricultural production. In many parts of Western Europe, North America, and Oceania fertilizers and feeds are relatively inexpensive, readily available and used abundantly to maximize profitable agricultural production. A case study, dairy systems approach was used to illustrate how differences in feed and manure management in a low-N-input dairy cattle system (Niger, West Africa) and a high-N-input dairy production system (Wisconsin, USA) impact agricultural production and environmental N loss. In Niger, an additional daily feed N intake of 114 g per dairy animal unit (AU, 1000 kg live weight) could increase annual milk production from 560 to 1320 kg AU-1, and the additional manure N could greatly increase millet production. In Wisconsin, reductions in daily feed N intake of 100 g AU-1 would not greatly impact milk production but decrease urinary N excretion by 25% and ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from manure by 18% to 30%. In Niger, compared to the practice of housing livestock and applying dung only onto fields, corralling cattle or sheep on cropland (to capture urinary N) increased millet yields by 25% to 95%. The additional millet grain due to dung applications or corralling would satisfy the annual food grain requirements of 2-5 persons; the additional forage would provide 120-300 more days of feed for a typical head of cattle; and 850 to 1600 kg ha-1 more biomass would be available for soil conservation. In Wisconsin, compared to application of barn manure only, corralling heifers in fields increased forage production by only 8% to 11%. The application of barn manure or corralling increased forage production by 20% to 70%. This additional forage would provide 350-580 more days of feed for a typical dairy heifer. Study results demonstrate how different approaches to feed and manure management in low-N-input and high-N-input dairy cattle

  4. Water resources and environmental input-output analysis and its key study issues: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YANG, Z.; Xu, X.

    2013-12-01

    Used to study the material and energy flow in socioeconomic system, Input-Output Analysis(IOA) had been an effective analysis tool since its appearance. The research fields of Input-Output Analysis were increasingly expanded and studied in depth with the development of fundamental theory. In this paper, starting with introduction of theory development, the water resources input-output analysis and environmental input-output analysis had been specifically reviewed, and two key study issues mentioned as well. Input-Occupancy-Output Analysis and Grey Input-Output Analysis whose proposal and development were introduced firstly could be regard as the effective complements of traditional IOA theory. Because of the hypotheses of homogeneity, stability and proportionality, Input-Occupancy-Output Analysis and Grey Input-Output Analysis always had been restricted in practical application inevitably. In the applied study aspect, with investigation of abundant literatures, research of water resources input-output analysis and environmental input-output analysis had been comprehensively reviewed and analyzed. The regional water resources flow between different economic sectors had been systematically analyzed and stated, and several types of environmental input-output analysis models combined with other effective analysis tools concluded. In two perspectives in terms of external and inland aspect, the development of water resources and environmental input-output analysis model had been explained, and several typical study cases in recent years listed respectively. By the aid of sufficient literature analysis, the internal development tendency and study hotspot had also been summarized. In recent years, Chinese literatures reporting water resources consumption analysis and virtue water study had occupied a large share. Water resources consumption analysis had always been the emphasis of inland water resources IOA. Virtue water study had been considered as the new hotspot of

  5. The Effects of Pre Modified Input, Interactionally Modified Input, and Modified Output on EFL Learners' Comprehension of New Vocabularies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maleki, Zinat; Pazhakh, AbdolReza

    2012-01-01

    The present study was an attempt to investigate the effects of premodified input, interactionally modified input and modified output on 80 EFL learners' comprehension of new words. The subjects were randomly assigned into four groups of pre modified input, interactionally modified input, modified output and unmodified (control) groups. Each group…

  6. Ground motion input in seismic evaluation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Sewell, R.T.; Wu, S.C.

    1996-07-01

    This report documents research pertaining to conservatism and variability in seismic risk estimates. Specifically, it examines whether or not artificial motions produce unrealistic evaluation demands, i.e., demands significantly inconsistent with those expected from real earthquake motions. To study these issues, two types of artificial motions are considered: (a) motions with smooth response spectra, and (b) motions with realistic variations in spectral amplitude across vibration frequency. For both types of artificial motion, time histories are generated to match target spectral shapes. For comparison, empirical motions representative of those that might result from strong earthquakes in the Eastern U.S. are also considered. The study findings suggest that artificial motions resulting from typical simulation approaches (aimed at matching a given target spectrum) are generally adequate and appropriate in representing the peak-response demands that may be induced in linear structures and equipment responding to real earthquake motions. Also, given similar input Fourier energies at high-frequencies, levels of input Fourier energy at low frequencies observed for artificial motions are substantially similar to those levels noted in real earthquake motions. In addition, the study reveals specific problems resulting from the application of Western U.S. type motions for seismic evaluation of Eastern U.S. nuclear power plants.

  7. Input-output dynamic mode decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annoni, Jennifer; Jovanovic, Mihailo; Nichols, Joseph; Seiler, Peter

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this work is to obtain reduced-order models for fluid flows that can be used for control design. High-fidelity computational fluid dynamic models provide accurate characterizations of complex flow dynamics but are not suitable for control design due to their prohibitive computational complexity. A variety of methods, including proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and dynamic mode decomposition (DMD), can be used to extract the dominant flow structures and obtain reduced-order models. In this presentation, we introduce an extension to DMD that can handle problems with inputs and outputs. The proposed method, termed input-output dynamic mode decomposition (IODMD), utilizes a subspace identification technique to obtain models of low-complexity. We show that, relative to standard DMD, the introduction of the external forcing in IODMD provides robustness with respect to small disturbances and noise. We use the linearized Navier-Stokes equations in a channel flow to demonstrate the utility of the proposed approach and to provide a comparison with standard techniques for obtaining reduced-order dynamical representations. NSF Career Grant No. NSFCMMI-1254129.

  8. Two-Input Enzymatic Logic Gates Made Sigmoid by Modifications of the Biocatalytic Reaction Cascades

    SciTech Connect

    Zavalov, Oleksandr; Bocharova, Vera; Halamek, Jan; Halamkova, Lenka; Korkmaz, Sevim; Arugula, Mary; Chinnapareddy, Soujanya; Katz, Evgeny; Privman, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Computing based on biochemical processes is a newest rapidly developing field of unconventional information and signal processing. In this paper we present results of our research in the field of biochemical computing and summarize the obtained numerical and experimental data for implementations of the standard two-input OR and AND gates with double-sigmoid shape of the output signal. This form of response was obtained as a function of the two inputs in each of the realized biochemical systems. The enzymatic gate processes in the first system were activated with two chemical inputs and resulted in optically detected chromogen oxidation, which happens when either one or both of the inputs are present. In this case, the biochemical system is functioning as the OR gate. We demonstrate that the addition of a filtering biocatalytic process leads to a considerable reduction of the noise transmission factor and the resulting gate response has sigmoid shape in both inputs. The second system was developed for functioning as an AND gate, where the output signal was activated only by a simultaneous action of two enzymatic biomarkers. This response can be used as an indicator of liver damage, but only if both of these of the inputs are present at their elevated, pathophysiological values of concentrations. A kinetic numerical model was developed and used to estimate the range of parameters for which the experimentally realized logic gate is close to optimal. We also analyzed the system to evaluate its noise-handling properties.

  9. Echo state property linked to an input: exploring a fundamental characteristic of recurrent neural networks.

    PubMed

    Manjunath, G; Jaeger, H

    2013-03-01

    The echo state property is a key for the design and training of recurrent neural networks within the paradigm of reservoir computing. In intuitive terms, this is a passivity condition: a network having this property, when driven by an input signal, will become entrained by the input and develop an internal response signal. This excited internal dynamics can be seen as a high-dimensional, nonlinear, unique transform of the input with a rich memory content. This view has implications for understanding neural dynamics beyond the field of reservoir computing. Available definitions and theorems concerning the echo state property, however, are of little practical use because they do not relate the network response to temporal or statistical properties of the driving input. Here we present a new definition of the echo state property that directly connects it to such properties. We derive a fundamental 0-1 law: if the input comes from an ergodic source, the network response has the echo state property with probability one or zero, independent of the given network. Furthermore, we give a sufficient condition for the echo state property that connects statistical characteristics of the input to algebraic properties of the network connection matrix. The mathematical methods that we employ are freshly imported from the young field of nonautonomous dynamical systems theory. Since these methods are not yet well known in neural computation research, we introduce them in some detail. As a side story, we hope to demonstrate the eminent usefulness of these methods. PMID:23272918

  10. Residential oil burners with low input and two stages firing

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.; Krajewski, R.; Leigh, R.

    1997-12-31

    The residential oil burner market is currently dominated by the pressure-atomized, retention head burner. At low firing rates pressure atomizing nozzles suffer rapid fouling of the small internal passages, leading to bad spray patterns and poor combustion performance. To overcome the low input limitations of conventional burners, a low pressure air-atomized burner has been developed watch can operate at fining rates as low as 0.25 gallons of oil per hour (10 kW). In addition, the burner can be operated in a high/low fining rate mode. Field tests with this burner have been conducted at a fixed input rate of 0.35 gph (14 kW) with a side-wall vented boiler/water storage tank combination. At the test home, instrumentation was installed to measure fuel and energy flows and record trends in system temperatures. Laboratory efficiency testing with water heaters and boilers has been completed using standard single purpose and combined appliance test procedures. The tests quantify benefits due to low firing rates and other burner features. A two stage oil burner gains a strong advantage in rated efficiency while maintaining capacity for high domestic hot water and space heating loads.

  11. Influence of magnetospheric inputs definition on modeling of ionospheric storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashchilin, A. V.; Romanova, E. B.; Kurkin, V. I.

    Usually for numerical modeling of ionospheric storms corresponding empirical models specify parameters of neutral atmosphere and magnetosphere. Statistical kind of these models renders them impractical for simulation of the individual storm. Therefore one has to correct the empirical models using various additional speculations. The influence of magnetospheric inputs such as distributions of electric potential, number and energy fluxes of the precipitating electrons on the results of the ionospheric storm simulations has been investigated in this work. With this aim for the strong geomagnetic storm on September 25, 1998 hour global distributions of those magnetospheric inputs from 20 to 27 September were calculated by the magnetogram inversion technique (MIT). Then with the help of 3-D ionospheric model two variants of ionospheric response to this magnetic storm were simulated using MIT data and empirical models of the electric fields (Sojka et al., 1986) and electron precipitations (Hardy et al., 1985). The comparison of the received results showed that for high-latitude and subauroral stations the daily variations of electron density calculated with MIT data are more close to observations than those of empirical models. In addition using of the MIT data allows revealing some peculiarities in the daily variations of electron density during strong geomagnetic storm. References Sojka J.J., Rasmussen C.E., Schunk R.W. J.Geophys.Res., 1986, N10, p.11281. Hardy D.A., Gussenhoven M.S., Holeman E.A. J.Geophys.Res., 1985, N5, p.4229.

  12. Extreme inputs/outputs for multiple input multiple output linear systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Smallwood, David Ora

    2005-09-01

    A linear structure is excited at multiple points with a stationary normal random process. The response of the structure is measured at multiple outputs. If the auto spectral densities of the inputs are specified, the phase relationships between the inputs are derived that will minimize or maximize the trace of the auto spectral density matrix of the outputs. If the autospectral densities of the outputs are specified, the phase relationships between the outputs that will minimize or maximize the trace of the input auto spectral density matrix are derived. It is shown that other phase relationships and ordinary coherence less than one will result in a trace intermediate between these extremes. Least favorable response and some classes of critical response are special cases of the development. It is shown that the derivation for stationary random waveforms can also be applied to nonstationary random, transients, and deterministic waveforms.

  13. Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Linear Systems Extreme Inputs/Outputs

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Smallwood, David O.

    2007-01-01

    A linear structure is excited at multiple points with a stationary normal random process. The response of the structure is measured at multiple outputs. If the autospectral densities of the inputs are specified, the phase relationships between the inputs are derived that will minimize or maximize the trace of the autospectral density matrix of the outputs. If the autospectral densities of the outputs are specified, the phase relationships between the outputs that will minimize or maximize the trace of the input autospectral density matrix are derived. It is shown that other phase relationships and ordinary coherence less than one willmore » result in a trace intermediate between these extremes. Least favorable response and some classes of critical response are special cases of the development. It is shown that the derivation for stationary random waveforms can also be applied to nonstationary random, transients, and deterministic waveforms.« less

  14. A Role for Synaptic Input Distribution in a Dendritic Computation of Motion Direction in the Retina.

    PubMed

    Vlasits, Anna L; Morrie, Ryan D; Tran-Van-Minh, Alexandra; Bleckert, Adam; Gainer, Christian F; DiGregorio, David A; Feller, Marla B

    2016-03-16

    The starburst amacrine cell in the mouse retina presents an opportunity to examine the precise role of sensory input location on neuronal computations. Using visual receptive field mapping, glutamate uncaging, two-photon Ca(2+) imaging, and genetic labeling of putative synapses, we identify a unique arrangement of excitatory inputs and neurotransmitter release sites on starburst amacrine cell dendrites: the excitatory input distribution is skewed away from the release sites. By comparing computational simulations with Ca(2+) transients recorded near release sites, we show that this anatomical arrangement of inputs and outputs supports a dendritic mechanism for computing motion direction. Direction-selective Ca(2+) transients persist in the presence of a GABA-A receptor antagonist, though the directional tuning is reduced. These results indicate a synergistic interaction between dendritic and circuit mechanisms for generating direction selectivity in the starburst amacrine cell. PMID:26985724

  15. Variation in freshwater input to the Eastern US coastal ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, D.; Yoon, Y.; Beighley, E., II; Hughes, R.; Kimbro, D.

    2014-12-01

    Phragmites is one of the most invasive plants in North American wetlands. Although its spread in coastal marshes has been linked by independent studies to urbanization, eutrophication, and salinity change, there is good evidence that these factors may interactively determine invasion success and in turn, the ecosystem services provided by marshes. We hypothesize that the invasion of Phragmites is linked to changes in freshwater inputs due to climate and/or land use change. El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), originating in the sea surface temperature anomalies (warm or cold) in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean, is a notable and prominent signal in inter-annual climatic variation. Recent studies shows that the probability of strong El Nino events may increase in the future. In this study, we will investigate the teleconnections between freshwater inputs to the coastal zone along the eastern U.S. and ENSO indices, and attempt to explore the predictability of temporal and spatial variation of freshwater inputs based on ENSO conditions. To quantify changes in freshwater input in this region, hydrologic modeling, remote sensing and field measurements are combined. The Hillslope River Routing (HRR) model is used to simulate hourly streamflow from all watersheds from southern Florida to northern Maine draining into the Atlantic Ocean. The modeling effort utilizes satellite precipitation (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Product 3B42v7: 2001-current with a 3-hr temporal resolution and 0.25 degree spatial resolution), land surface temperature and vegetation measures (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, MODIS, products: 2001-current with a monthly temporal resolution and 0.05 degree spatial resolution). To account for land cover change, annual MODIS land cover data and time varying population statics are merged to estimate annual land cover characteristics for each sub-catchment within the study region. Static datasets for soils and ground elevations are

  16. Auto Draw from Excel Input Files

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strauss, Karl F.; Goullioud, Renaud; Cox, Brian; Grimes, James M.

    2011-01-01

    The design process often involves the use of Excel files during project development. To facilitate communications of the information in the Excel files, drawings are often generated. During the design process, the Excel files are updated often to reflect new input. The problem is that the drawings often lag the updates, often leading to confusion of the current state of the design. The use of this program allows visualization of complex data in a format that is more easily understandable than pages of numbers. Because the graphical output can be updated automatically, the manual labor of diagram drawing can be eliminated. The more frequent update of system diagrams can reduce confusion and reduce errors and is likely to uncover symmetric problems earlier in the design cycle, thus reducing rework and redesign.

  17. High-performance parallel input device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, R. W.; Fischer, Patrick J.; Hunter, B.

    1993-12-01

    Research into force reflecting remote manipulation has recently started to move away from common error systems towards explicit force control. In order to maximize the benefit provided by explicit force reflection the designer has to take into account the asymmetry of the bandwidths of the forward and reflecting loops. This paper reports on a high performance system designed and built at Oxford University and Harwell Laboratories and on the preliminary results achieved when performing simple force reflecting tasks. The input device is based on a modified Stewart Platform, which offers the potential of very high bandwidth force reflection, well above the normal 2 - 10 Hz range achieved with common error systems. The slave is a nuclear hardened Puma industrial robot, offering a low cost, reliable solution to remote manipulation tasks.

  18. Automatic Parsing of Parental Verbal Input

    PubMed Central

    Sagae, Kenji; MacWhinney, Brian; Lavie, Alon

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate theoretical proposals regarding the course of child language acquisition, researchers often need to rely on the processing of large numbers of syntactically parsed utterances, both from children and their parents. Because it is so difficult to do this by hand, there are currently no parsed corpora of child language input data. To automate this process, we developed a system that combined the MOR tagger, a rule-based parser, and statistical disambiguation techniques. The resultant system obtained nearly 80% correct parses for the sentences spoken to children. To achieve this level, we had to construct a particular processing sequence that minimizes problems caused by the coverage/ambiguity trade-off in parser design. These procedures are particularly appropriate for use with the CHILDES database, an international corpus of transcripts. The data and programs are now freely available over the Internet. PMID:15190707

  19. Standardized input for Hanford environmental impact statements

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, B.A.

    1981-05-01

    Models and computer programs for simulating the environmental behavior of radionuclides in the environment and the resulting radiation dose to humans have been developed over the years by the Environmental Analysis Section staff, Ecological Sciences Department at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Methodologies have evolved for calculating raidation doses from many exposure pathways for any type of release mechanism. Depending on the situation or process being simulated, different sets of computer programs, assumptions, and modeling techniques must be used. This report is a compilation of recommended computer programs and necessary input information for use in calculating doses to members of the general public for environmental impact statements prepared for DOE activities to be conducted on or near the Hanford Reservation.

  20. Acoustic input impedance measurements on brass instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyle, Robert W., Jr.

    2002-11-01

    Measurement of the acoustic input impedance of a brass instrument can reveal something about the instrument's intonation, its reasonable playing range, its tone color, and perhaps whether the mouthpiece used for the impedance measurement is appropriate for the instrument. Such measurements are made at sound-presssure levels much lower than those encountered under playing conditions. Thus, impedance measurements may offer the only feasible way to infer something about the playing characteristics of instruments, typically museum specimens, that are too rare or too fragile to be played. In this paper the effects of some of the available choices of sound source and stimulus signal on measurement accuracy will be explored. Driver-transducer nonlinearity, source impedance, signal-to-noise ratio, and any necessary signal processing will be discussed.

  1. Effect of the shrinking dipole on solar-terrestrial energy input to the Earth's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPherron, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    The global average temperature of the Earth is rising rapidly. This rise is primarily attributed to the release of greenhouse gases as a result of human activity. However, it has been argued that changes in radiation from the Sun might play a role. Most energy input to the Earth is light in the visible spectrum. Our best measurements suggest this power input has been constant for the last 40 years (the space age) apart from a small 11-year variation due to the solar cycle of sunspot activity. Another possible energy input from the Sun is the solar wind. The supersonic solar wind carries the magnetic field of the Sun into the solar system. As it passes the Earth it can connect to the Earth's magnetic field whenever it is antiparallel t the Earth's field. This connection allows mass, momentum, and energy from the solar wind to enter the magnetosphere producing geomagnetic activity. Ultimately much of this energy is deposited at high latitudes in the form of particle precipitation (aurora) and heating by electrical currents. Although the energy input by this process is miniscule compared to that from visible radiation it might alter the absorption of visible radiation. Two other processes affected by the solar cycle are atmospheric entry of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar energetic protons (SEP). A weak solar magnetic field at sunspot minimum facilitates GCR entry which has been implicated in creation of clouds. Large coronal mass ejections and solar flares create SEP at solar maximum. All of these alternative energy inputs and their effects depend on the strength of the Earth's magnetic field. Currently the Earth's field is decreasing rapidly and conceivably might reverse polarity in 1000 years. In this paper we describe the changes in the Earth's magnetic field and how this might affect GCR, SEP, electrical heating, aurora, and radio propagation. Whether these effects are important in global climate change can only be determined by detailed physical models.

  2. The IVS data input to ITRF2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nothnagel, Axel; Alef, Walter; Amagai, Jun; Andersen, Per Helge; Andreeva, Tatiana; Artz, Thomas; Bachmann, Sabine; Barache, Christophe; Baudry, Alain; Bauernfeind, Erhard; Baver, Karen; Beaudoin, Christopher; Behrend, Dirk; Bellanger, Antoine; Berdnikov, Anton; Bergman, Per; Bernhart, Simone; Bertarini, Alessandra; Bianco, Giuseppe; Bielmaier, Ewald; Boboltz, David; Böhm, Johannes; Böhm, Sigrid; Boer, Armin; Bolotin, Sergei; Bougeard, Mireille; Bourda, Geraldine; Buttaccio, Salvo; Cannizzaro, Letizia; Cappallo, Roger; Carlson, Brent; Carter, Merri Sue; Charlot, Patrick; Chen, Chenyu; Chen, Maozheng; Cho, Jungho; Clark, Thomas; Collioud, Arnaud; Colomer, Francisco; Colucci, Giuseppe; Combrinck, Ludwig; Conway, John; Corey, Brian; Curtis, Ronald; Dassing, Reiner; Davis, Maria; de-Vicente, Pablo; De Witt, Aletha; Diakov, Alexey; Dickey, John; Diegel, Irv; Doi, Koichiro; Drewes, Hermann; Dube, Maurice; Elgered, Gunnar; Engelhardt, Gerald; Evangelista, Mark; Fan, Qingyuan; Fedotov, Leonid; Fey, Alan; Figueroa, Ricardo; Fukuzaki, Yoshihiro; Gambis, Daniel; Garcia-Espada, Susana; Gaume, Ralph; Gaylard, Michael; Geiger, Nicole; Gipson, John; Gomez, Frank; Gomez-Gonzalez, Jesus; Gordon, David; Govind, Ramesh; Gubanov, Vadim; Gulyaev, Sergei; Haas, Ruediger; Hall, David; Halsig, Sebastian; Hammargren, Roger; Hase, Hayo; Heinkelmann, Robert; Helldner, Leif; Herrera, Cristian; Himwich, Ed; Hobiger, Thomas; Holst, Christoph; Hong, Xiaoyu; Honma, Mareki; Huang, Xinyong; Hugentobler, Urs; Ichikawa, Ryuichi; Iddink, Andreas; Ihde, Johannes; Ilijin, Gennadiy; Ipatov, Alexander; Ipatova, Irina; Ishihara, Misao; Ivanov, D. V.; Jacobs, Chris; Jike, Takaaki; Johansson, Karl-Ake; Johnson, Heidi; Johnston, Kenneth; Ju, Hyunhee; Karasawa, Masao; Kaufmann, Pierre; Kawabata, Ryoji; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Kawai, Eiji; Kaydanovsky, Michael; Kharinov, Mikhail; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Kokado, Kensuke; Kondo, Tetsuro; Korkin, Edward; Koyama, Yasuhiro; Krasna, Hana; Kronschnabl, Gerhard; Kurdubov, Sergey; Kurihara, Shinobu; Kuroda, Jiro; Kwak, Younghee; La Porta, Laura; Labelle, Ruth; Lamb, Doug; Lambert, Sébastien; Langkaas, Line; Lanotte, Roberto; Lavrov, Alexey; Le Bail, Karine; Leek, Judith; Li, Bing; Li, Huihua; Li, Jinling; Liang, Shiguang; Lindqvist, Michael; Liu, Xiang; Loesler, Michael; Long, Jim; Lonsdale, Colin; Lovell, Jim; Lowe, Stephen; Lucena, Antonio; Luzum, Brian; Ma, Chopo; Ma, Jun; Maccaferri, Giuseppe; Machida, Morito; MacMillan, Dan; Madzak, Matthias; Malkin, Zinovy; Manabe, Seiji; Mantovani, Franco; Mardyshkin, Vyacheslav; Marshalov, Dmitry; Mathiassen, Geir; Matsuzaka, Shigeru; McCarthy, Dennis; Melnikov, Alexey; Michailov, Andrey; Miller, Natalia; Mitchell, Donald; Mora-Diaz, Julian Andres; Mueskens, Arno; Mukai, Yasuko; Nanni, Mauro; Natusch, Tim; Negusini, Monia; Neidhardt, Alexander; Nickola, Marisa; Nicolson, George; Niell, Arthur; Nikitin, Pavel; Nilsson, Tobias; Ning, Tong; Nishikawa, Takashi; Noll, Carey; Nozawa, Kentarou; Ogaja, Clement; Oh, Hongjong; Olofsson, Hans; Opseth, Per Erik; Orfei, Sandro; Pacione, Rosa; Pazamickas, Katherine; Petrachenko, William; Pettersson, Lars; Pino, Pedro; Plank, Lucia; Ploetz, Christian; Poirier, Michael; Poutanen, Markku; Qian, Zhihan; Quick, Jonathan; Rahimov, Ismail; Redmond, Jay; Reid, Brett; Reynolds, John; Richter, Bernd; Rioja, Maria; Romero-Wolf, Andres; Ruszczyk, Chester; Salnikov, Alexander; Sarti, Pierguido; Schatz, Raimund; Scherneck, Hans-Georg; Schiavone, Francesco; Schreiber, Ulrich; Schuh, Harald; Schwarz, Walter; Sciarretta, Cecilia; Searle, Anthony; Sekido, Mamoru; Seitz, Manuela; Shao, Minghui; Shibuya, Kazuo; Shu, Fengchun; Sieber, Moritz; Skjaeveland, Asmund; Skurikhina, Elena; Smolentsev, Sergey; Smythe, Dan; Sousa, Don; Sovers, Ojars; Stanford, Laura; Stanghellini, Carlo; Steppe, Alan; Strand, Rich; Sun, Jing; Surkis, Igor; Takashima, Kazuhiro; Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Takiguchi, Hiroshi; Tamura, Yoshiaki; Tanabe, Tadashi; Tanir, Emine; Tao, An; Tateyama, Claudio; Teke, Kamil; Thomas, Cynthia; Thorandt, Volkmar; Thornton, Bruce; Tierno Ros, Claudia; Titov, Oleg; Titus, Mike; Tomasi, Paolo; Tornatore, Vincenza; Trigilio, Corrado; Trofimov, Dmitriy; Tsutsumi, Masanori; Tuccari, Gino; Tzioumis, Tasso; Ujihara, Hideki; Ullrich, Dieter; Uunila, Minttu; Venturi, Tiziana; Vespe, Francesco; Vityazev, Veniamin; Volvach, Alexandr; Vytnov, Alexander; Wang, Guangli; Wang, Jinqing; Wang, Lingling; Wang, Na; Wang, Shiqiang; Wei, Wenren; Weston, Stuart; Whitney, Alan; Wojdziak, Reiner; Yatskiv, Yaroslav; Yang, Wenjun; Ye, Shuhua; Yi, Sangoh; Yusup, Aili; Zapata, Octavio; Zeitlhoefler, Reinhard; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Ming; Zhang, Xiuzhong; Zhao, Rongbing; Zheng, Weimin; Zhou, Ruixian; Zubko, Nataliya

    2015-01-01

    Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is a primary space-geodetic technique for determining precise coordinates on the Earth, for monitoring the variable Earth rotation and orientation with highest precision, and for deriving many other parameters of the Earth system. The International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS, http://ivscc.gsfc.nasa.gov/) is a service of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) and the International Astronomical Union (IAU). The datasets published here are the results of individual Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) sessions in the form of normal equations in SINEX 2.0 format (http://www.iers.org/IERS/EN/Organization/AnalysisCoordinator/SinexFormat/sinex.html, the SINEX 2.0 description is attached as pdf) provided by IVS as the input for the next release of the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRF): ITRF2014. This is a new version of the ITRF2008 release (Bockmann et al., 2009). For each session/ file, the normal equation systems contain elements for the coordinate components of all stations having participated in the respective session as well as for the Earth orientation parameters (x-pole, y-pole, UT1 and its time derivatives plus offset to the IAU2006 precession-nutation components dX, dY (https://www.iau.org/static/resolutions/IAU2006_Resol1.pdf). The terrestrial part is free of datum. The data sets are the result of a weighted combination of the input of several IVS Analysis Centers. The IVS contribution for ITRF2014 is described in Bachmann et al (2015), Schuh and Behrend (2012) provide a general overview on the VLBI method, details on the internal data handling can be found at Behrend (2013).

  3. Input and output constraints affecting irrigation development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, G.

    1981-05-01

    In many of the developing countries the expansion of irrigated agriculture is used as a major development tool for bringing about increases in agricultural output, rural economic growth and income distribution. Apart from constraints imposed by water availability, the major limitations considered to any acceleration of such programs are usually thought to be those of costs and financial resources. However, as is shown on the basis of empirical data drawn from Mexico, in reality the feasibility and effectiveness of such development programs is even more constrained by the lack of specialized physical and human factors on the input and market limitations on the output side. On the input side, the limited availability of complementary factors such as, for example, truly functioning credit systems for small-scale farmers or effective agricultural extension services impose long-term constraints on development. On the output side the limited availability, high risk, and relatively slow growth of markets for high-value crops sharply reduce the usually hoped-for and projected profitable crop mix that would warrant the frequently high costs of irrigation investments. Three conclusions are drawn: (1) Factors in limited supply have to be shadow-priced to reflect their high opportunity costs in alternative uses. (2) Re-allocation of financial resources from immediate construction of projects to longer-term increase in the supply of scarce, highly-trained manpower resources are necessary in order to optimize development over time. (3) Inclusion of high-value, high-income producing crops in the benefit-cost analysis of new projects is inappropriate if these crops could potentially be grown in already existing projects.

  4. Operation of the MPD thruster with stepped current input

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    A magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster was operated with stepped current pulses in order to investigate the sensitivity of its operation to non-constant current input. The thruster terminal voltage is found to lag the current increment by increasing times as the highest level of the stepped current pulse nears the onset condition. Magnetic field transients corresponding to the terminal voltage transients appear in the thruster exhaust. The magnetic field and terminal voltage equilibrations can be interpreted in terms of magnetic diffusion and convection processes. The time constants of equilibration are largest in the exhaust portion of the discharge, where the discharge scale length is much larger than in the thrust chamber. The transient thrust following a current step up is estimated to be below the quasi steady thrust, while the transient thrust following a current step down is estimated to be above the quasi steady thrust. When the thruster is powered with a current step up whose upper plateau is near the onset conditions, the prolonged discharge transient allows a diagnostic look at the development on the onset condition. Electric field probing for different propellant injection geometries suggest that the larger terminal voltages associated with operation near onset may result from two distinct processes: an increasing anode fall, probably caused by insufficient propellant near the anode, or the back emf of the plasma flow.

  5. Locked-mode avoidance and recovery without external momentum input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Gates, D. A.; Wolfe, S.; Rice, J. E.; Gao, C.; Wukitch, S.; Greenwald, M.; Hughes, J.; Marmar, E.; Scott, S.

    2014-10-01

    Error-field-induced locked-modes (LMs) have been studied in C-Mod at ITER toroidal fields without NBI fueling and momentum input. The use of ICRH heating in synch with the error-field ramp-up resulted in a successful delay of the mode-onset when PICRH > 1 MW and a transition into H-mode when PICRH > 2 MW. The recovery experiments consisted in applying ICRH power during the LM non-rotating phase successfully unlocking the core plasma. The ``induced'' toroidal rotation was in the counter-current direction, restoring the direction and magnitude of the toroidal flow before the LM formation, but contrary to the expected Rice-scaling in the co-current direction. However, the LM occurs near the LOC/SOC transition where rotation reversals are commonly observed. Once PICRH is turned off, the core plasma ``locks'' at later times depending on the evolution of ne and Vt. This work was performed under US DoE contracts including DE-FC02-99ER54512 and others at MIT and DE-AC02-09CH11466 at PPPL.

  6. Uncertainties in emissions inputs for near-road assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, M. G.; Isakov, V.; Arunachalam, S.; Cook, R.; Kimbrough, S.

    2013-12-01

    Dispersion modeling tools have traditionally provided critical information for air quality management decisions. However, these models can be challenging to implement, particularly in near-road studies, due to the detailed input requirements necessary to estimate traffic-related emissions. Emissions, travel demand, and dispersion models are all needed to obtain temporally and spatially resolved pollutant concentrations. Current methodology combines these three models in a bottom-up approach based on hourly traffic and emissions estimates, and hourly dispersion concentrations from individual road links that represent the traffic activity. To model a large urban area, this method can be computationally expensive, but can significantly improve characterization of spatial and temporal variability, and reduce model uncertainties. Uncertainties in emissions are hard to quantify and are unique to each urban area. In a recent health study application in Detroit, Michigan, current methodology was used to determine pollutant exposure levels near major roadways. This application provided an opportunity to combine emissions, travel demand, and dispersion models to estimate spatiotemporally resolved concentration fields in the near-road environment for two and a half years. During this health study period pollutant measurements were taken at multiple AQS sites around the Detroit area. In addition, an intensive near-road field study with continuous measurements of multiple pollutants and traffic volumes was conducted. Traffic volumes are also measured on a continuous basis around the city on various roadway types. The duration and spatial separation of pollutant measurements and traffic volumes allow comparison of traffic-related pollutant concentration measurements to model predictions. In this paper, we outline the current methodology to combine emissions, traffic, and dispersion models for near-road assessments. Then the temporally and spatially pollutant estimates are

  7. How Much Input Is Enough? Correlating Comprehension and Child Language Input in an Endangered Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meakins, Felicity; Wigglesworth, Gillian

    2013-01-01

    In situations of language endangerment, the ability to understand a language tends to persevere longer than the ability to speak it. As a result, the possibility of language revival remains high even when few speakers remain. Nonetheless, this potential requires that those with high levels of comprehension received sufficient input as children for…

  8. Parallel momentum input by tangential neutral beam injections in stellarator and heliotron plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Nishioka, K.

    2015-09-15

    The configuration dependence of parallel momentum inputs to target plasma particle species by tangentially injected neutral beams is investigated in non-axisymmetric stellarator/heliotron model magnetic fields by assuming the existence of magnetic flux-surfaces. In parallel friction integrals of the full Rosenbluth-MacDonald-Judd collision operator in thermal particles' kinetic equations, numerically obtained eigenfunctions are used for excluding trapped fast ions that cannot contribute to the friction integrals. It is found that the momentum inputs to thermal ions strongly depend on magnetic field strength modulations on the flux-surfaces, while the input to electrons is insensitive to the modulation. In future plasma flow studies requiring flow calculations of all particle species in more general non-symmetric toroidal configurations, the eigenfunction method investigated here will be useful.

  9. INGEN: A COBRA-NC input generator user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, C.L.; Dodge, R.E.

    1986-12-01

    The INGEN (INput GENerator) computer program has been developed as a preprocessor to simplify input generation for the COBRA-NC computer program. INGEN uses several empirical correlations and geometric assumptions to simplify the data input requirements for the COBRA-NC computer code. The simplified input scheme is obtained at the expense of much flexibility provided by COBRA-NC. For more complex problems requiring additional flexibility however, INGEN may be used to provide a skeletal input file to which the more detailed input may be added. This report describes the input requirements for INGEN and describes the algorithms and correlations used to generate the COBRA-NC input. 9 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Automatic gain control circuit handles wide input range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, S. H.

    1966-01-01

    Automatic gain control circuit for a radio receiver handles a wide range of input signal levels without overloading the output stage. The transistorized circuit maintains a relatively constant output by varying attenuation of the input signal.

  11. Toward an inventory of nitrogen input to the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate accounting of nitrogen inputs is increasingly necessary for policy decisions related to aquatic nutrient pollution. Here we synthesize available data to provide the first integrated estimates of the amount and uncertainty of nitrogen inputs to the United States. Abou...

  12. Life-threatening postpartum hemolysis, elevated liver functions tests, low platelets syndrome versus thrombocytopenic purpura – Therapeutic plasma exchange is the answer

    PubMed Central

    Nasa, Prashant; Dua, J. M.; Kansal, Sudha; Chadha, Geeta; Chawla, Rajesh; Manchanda, Manav

    2011-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of life-threatening microangiopathic disorders in a postpartum female includes severe preeclampsia–eclampsia, hemolysis, elevated liver functions tests, low platelets syndrome and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. There is considerable overlapping in the clinical and laboratory findings between these conditions, and hence an exact diagnosis may not be always possible. However, there is considerable maternal mortality and morbidity associated with these disorders. This case underlines the complexity of pregnancy-related microangiopathies regarding their differential diagnosis, multiple organ dysfunction and role of therapeutic plasma exchange in their management. PMID:21814380

  13. Input File Creation for the Molecular Dynamics Program LAMMPS.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2001-05-30

    The program creates an input data file for the molecular dynamics program LAMMPS. The input file created is a liquid mixture between two walls explicitly composed of particles. The liquid molecules are modeled as a bead-spring molecule. The input data file specifies the position and topology of the starting state. The data structure of input allows for dynamic bond creation (cross-linking) within the LAMMPS code.

  14. IG/OG program for generating and displaying NASTRAN input and output data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishima, R.; Myojin, A.

    1978-01-01

    A software system was provided for structural analysis fields using NASTRAN. The HITAC users in Japan can use IG/OG (input generator/output generator) program for NASTRAN. The IG/OG saves time required to make a structure analysis for interpreting NASTRAN results.

  15. Informing Decision-Making in Libraries: Informetric Research as Input to LIS Education and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Mari; Wilson, Concepcion S.; Horn, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Findings from informetric research represent an important background resource to add to the mix of information useful for resolving difficult and ongoing problems in specific library environments or information service settings. This paper provides examples of informetric research that can be useful input to decision-making in the field of library…

  16. Density of Visual Input Enhancement and Grammar Learning: A Research Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Thu Hoang

    2009-01-01

    Research in the field of second language acquisition (SLA) has been done to ascertain the effectiveness of visual input enhancement (VIE) on grammar learning. However, one issue remains unexplored: the effects of VIE density on grammar learning. This paper presents a research proposal to investigate the effects of the density of VIE on English…

  17. Investigation of Effects of Varying Model Inputs on Mercury Deposition Estimates in the Southwest US

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model version 4.7.1 was used to simulate mercury wet and dry deposition for a domain covering the continental United States (US). The simulations used MM5-derived meteorological input fields and the US Environmental Protection Agency (E...

  18. Comparison of Linear Microinstability Calculations of Varying Input Realism

    SciTech Connect

    G. Rewoldt

    2003-09-08

    The effect of varying ''input realism'' or varying completeness of the input data for linear microinstability calculations, in particular on the critical value of the ion temperature gradient for the ion temperature gradient mode, is investigated using gyrokinetic and gyrofluid approaches. The calculations show that varying input realism can have a substantial quantitative effect on the results.

  19. 42 CFR 460.138 - Committees with community input.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Committees with community input. 460.138 Section 460.138 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... community input. A PACE organization must establish one or more committees, with community input, to do...

  20. 42 CFR 460.138 - Committees with community input.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Committees with community input. 460.138 Section 460.138 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... community input. A PACE organization must establish one or more committees, with community input, to do...

  1. 42 CFR 460.138 - Committees with community input.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Committees with community input. 460.138 Section 460.138 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... community input. A PACE organization must establish one or more committees, with community input, to do...

  2. Analysis of Stochastic Response of Neural Networks with Stochastic Input

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1996-10-10

    Software permits the user to extend capability of his/her neural network to include probablistic characteristics of input parameter. User inputs topology and weights associated with neural network along with distributional characteristics of input parameters. Network response is provided via a cumulative density function of network response variable.

  3. New input data for synthetic AGB evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenhuber, J.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.

    1998-12-01

    Analytic formulae are presented to construct detailed secular lightcurves of both early asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and thermally pulsing AGB stars. They are based on an extensive grid of evolutionary calculations, performed with an updated stellar evolution code. Basic input parameters are the initial mass MI i, 0.8 <= MI i/Msun <= 7, metallicity ZI i =0.0001, 0.008, 0.02, and the mixing length theory (MLT) parameter. The formulae allow for two important effects, namely that the first pulses do not reach the full amplitude, and hot bottom burning (HBB) in massive stars, which are both not accounted for by core mass - luminosity relations of the usual type. Furthermore, the dependence of the effective temperature and a few other quantities characterizing the conditions at the base of the convective envelope, which are relevant for HBB, are investigated as functions of luminosity, total and core mass for different formulations of the convection theory applied, MLT or Canuto & Mazzitelli's (\\cite{can:maz}) theory.

  4. Combined contributions of feedforward and feedback inputs to bottom-up attention

    PubMed Central

    Khorsand, Peyman; Moore, Tirin; Soltani, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    In order to deal with a large amount of information carried by visual inputs entering the brain at any given point in time, the brain swiftly uses the same inputs to enhance processing in one part of visual field at the expense of the others. These processes, collectively called bottom-up attentional selection, are assumed to solely rely on feedforward processing of the external inputs, as it is implied by the nomenclature. Nevertheless, evidence from recent experimental and modeling studies points to the role of feedback in bottom-up attention. Here, we review behavioral and neural evidence that feedback inputs are important for the formation of signals that could guide attentional selection based on exogenous inputs. Moreover, we review results from a modeling study elucidating mechanisms underlying the emergence of these signals in successive layers of neural populations and how they depend on feedback from higher visual areas. We use these results to interpret and discuss more recent findings that can further unravel feedforward and feedback neural mechanisms underlying bottom-up attention. We argue that while it is descriptively useful to separate feedforward and feedback processes underlying bottom-up attention, these processes cannot be mechanistically separated into two successive stages as they occur at almost the same time and affect neural activity within the same brain areas using similar neural mechanisms. Therefore, understanding the interaction and integration of feedforward and feedback inputs is crucial for better understanding of bottom-up attention. PMID:25784883

  5. Influences of sensory input from the limbs on feline corticospinal neurons during postural responses

    PubMed Central

    Karayannidou, A; Deliagina, T G; Tamarova, Z A; Sirota, M G; Zelenin, P V; Orlovsky, G N; Beloozerova, I N

    2008-01-01

    The dorsal-side-up body posture of standing quadrupeds is maintained by coordinated activity of all limbs. Somatosensory input from the limbs evokes postural responses when the supporting surface is perturbed. The aim of this study was to reveal the contribution of sensory inputs from individual limbs to the posture-related modulation of pyramidal tract neurons (PTNs) arising in the primary motor cortex. We recorded the activity of PTNs from the limb representation of motor cortex in the cat maintaining balance on a platform periodically tilted in the frontal plane. Each PTN was recorded during standing on four limbs, and when two or three limbs were lifted from the platform and thus did not signal its displacement to motor cortex. By comparing PTN responses to tilts in different tests we found that the amplitude and the phase of the response in the majority of them were determined primarily by the sensory input from the corresponding contralateral limb. In a portion of PTNs, this input originated from afferents of the peripheral receptive field. Sensory input from the ipsilateral limb, as well as input from limbs of the other girdle made a much smaller contribution to the PTN modulation. These results show that, during postural activity, a key role of PTNs is the feedback control of the corresponding contralateral limb and, to a lesser extent, the coordination of posture within a girdle and between the two girdles. PMID:17974591

  6. Optimal control of chaotic systems with input saturation using an input-state linearization scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuh, Chyun-Chau

    2009-08-01

    Chaos is undesirable in many engineering applications since it causes a serious degradation of the system performance and restricts the system's operating range. Therefore, the problem of controlling chaos has attracted intense interest in recent years. This paper proposes an approach for optimizing the control of chaotic systems with input saturation using an input-state linearization scheme. In the proposed approach, the optimal system gains are identified using the Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm. This algorithm does not require the derivatives of the cost function (or the performance index) to be optimized, and is therefore particularly applicable to problems with undifferentiable elements or discontinuities. Two numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Input-anticipating critical reservoirs show power law forgetting of unexpected input events.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Norbert Michael

    2015-05-01

    Usually reservoir computing shows an exponential memory decay. This letter investigates under which circumstances echo state networks can show a power law forgetting. That means traces of earlier events can be found in the reservoir for very long time spans. Such a setting requires critical connectivity exactly at the limit of what is permissible according to the echo state condition. However, for general matrices, the limit cannot be determined exactly from theory. In addition, the behavior of the network is strongly influenced by the input flow. Results are presented that use certain types of restricted recurrent connectivity and anticipation learning with regard to the input, where power law forgetting can indeed be achieved. PMID:25774542

  8. Evaluation of Piloted Inputs for Onboard Frequency Response Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grauer, Jared A.; Martos, Borja

    2013-01-01

    Frequency response estimation results are presented using piloted inputs and a real-time estimation method recently developed for multisine inputs. A nonlinear simulation of the F-16 and a Piper Saratoga research aircraft were subjected to different piloted test inputs while the short period stabilator/elevator to pitch rate frequency response was estimated. Results show that the method can produce accurate results using wide-band piloted inputs instead of multisines. A new metric is introduced for evaluating which data points to include in the analysis and recommendations are provided for applying this method with piloted inputs.

  9. An affine projection algorithm using grouping selection of input vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, JaeWook; Kong, NamWoong; Park, PooGyeon

    2011-10-01

    This paper present an affine projection algorithm (APA) using grouping selection of input vectors. To improve the performance of conventional APA, the proposed algorithm adjusts the number of the input vectors using two procedures: grouping procedure and selection procedure. In grouping procedure, the some input vectors that have overlapping information for update is grouped using normalized inner product. Then, few input vectors that have enough information for for coefficient update is selected using steady-state mean square error (MSE) in selection procedure. Finally, the filter coefficients update using selected input vectors. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has small steady-state estimation errors comparing with the existing algorithms.

  10. Handling Input and Output for COAMPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, Patrick; Tran, Nam; Li, Yongzuo; Anantharaj, Valentine

    2007-01-01

    Two suites of software have been developed to handle the input and output of the Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Prediction System (COAMPS), which is a regional atmospheric model developed by the Navy for simulating and predicting weather. Typically, the initial and boundary conditions for COAMPS are provided by a flat-file representation of the Navy s global model. Additional algorithms are needed for running the COAMPS software using global models. One of the present suites satisfies this need for running COAMPS using the Global Forecast System (GFS) model of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The first step in running COAMPS downloading of GFS data from an Internet file-transfer-protocol (FTP) server computer of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) is performed by one of the programs (SSC-00273) in this suite. The GFS data, which are in gridded binary (GRIB) format, are then changed to a COAMPS-compatible format by another program in the suite (SSC-00278). Once a forecast is complete, still another program in the suite (SSC-00274) sends the output data to a different server computer. The second suite of software (SSC- 00275) addresses the need to ingest up-to-date land-use-and-land-cover (LULC) data into COAMPS for use in specifying typical climatological values of such surface parameters as albedo, aerodynamic roughness, and ground wetness. This suite includes (1) a program to process LULC data derived from observations by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments aboard NASA s Terra and Aqua satellites, (2) programs to derive new climatological parameters for the 17-land-use-category MODIS data; and (3) a modified version of a FORTRAN subroutine to be used by COAMPS. The MODIS data files are processed to reformat them into a compressed American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) format used by COAMPS for efficient processing.