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Sample records for fifty years chlorpromazine

  1. Chlorpromazine

    MedlinePlus

    Chlorpromazine is used to treat the symptoms of schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... chlorpromazine.If you are taking chlorpromazine to treat schizophrenia or another psychotic disorder, chlorpromazine may control your ...

  2. Chlorpromazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... life, and strong or inappropriate emotions) and other psychotic disorders (conditions that cause difficulty telling the difference between ... before surgery. Chlorpromazine is also used to treat acute intermittent porphyria (condition in which certain natural substances ...

  3. Fifty years of stacking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashed, Mohamed

    2014-06-01

    Common-Mid-Point (CMP) stacking is a major process to enhance signal-to-noise ratio in seismic data. Since its appearance fifty years ago, CMP stacking has gone through different phases of prosperity and negligence within the geophysical community. During those times, CMP stacking developed from a simple process of averaging into a sophisticated process that involves complicated mathematics and state-of-the-art computation. This article summarizes the basic principles, assumptions, and violations related to the CMP stacking technique, presents a historical overview on the development stages of CMP stacking, and discusses its future potentiality.

  4. Fifty years with nuclear fission

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, J.W.; Carlson, A.D. )

    1989-01-01

    The news of the discovery of nucler fission, by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann in Germany, was brought to the United States by Niels Bohr in January 1939. Since its discovery, the United States, and the world for that matter, has never been the same. It therefore seemed appropriate to acknowledge the fiftieth anniversary of its discovery by holding a topical meeting entitled, Fifty years with nuclear fission,'' in the United States during the year 1989. The objective of the meeting was to bring together pioneers of the nuclear industry and other scientists and engineers to report on reminiscences of the past and on the more recent developments in fission science and technology. The conference highlighted the early pioneers of the nuclear industry by dedicating a full day (April 26), consisting of two plenary sessions, at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in Washington, DC. More recent developments in fission science and technology in addition to historical reflections were topics for two full days of sessions (April 27 and 28) at the main sites of the NIST in Gaithersburg, Maryland. The wide range of topics covered by Volume 2 of this topical meeting included plenary invited, and contributed sessions entitled, Nuclear fission -- a prospective; reactors II; fission science II; medical and industrial applications by by-products; reactors and safeguards; general research, instrumentation, and by-products; and fission data, astrophysics, and space applications. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  5. Fifty years with nuclear fission

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, J.W.; Carlson, A.D. )

    1989-01-01

    The news of the discovery of nuclear fission, by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann in Germany, was brought to the United States by Niels Bohr in January 1939. Since its discovery, the United States, and the world for that matter, has never been the same. It therefore seemed appropriate to acknowledge the fifieth anniversary of its discovery by holding a topical meeting entitled, Fifty Years with Nuclear Fission,'' in the United States during the year 1989. The objective of the meeting was to bring together pioneers of the nuclear industry and other scientists and engineers to report on reminiscences of the past and on the more recent development in fission science and technology. The conference highlighted the early pioneers of the nuclear industry by dedicated a full day (April 26), consisting of two plenary sessions, at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in Washington, DC. More recent developments in fission science and technology in addition to historical reflections were topics for two fully days of sessions (April 27 and 28) at the main site of the NIST in Gaithersburg, Maryland. The wide range of topics covered in this Volume 1 by this topical meeting included plenary invited, and contributed sessions entitled: Preclude to the First Chain Reaction -- 1932 to 1942; Early Fission Research -- Nuclear Structure and Spontaneous Fission; 50 Years of Fission, Science, and Technology; Nuclear Reactors, Secure Energy for the Future; Reactors 1; Fission Science 1; Safeguards and Space Applications; Fission Data; Nuclear Fission -- Its Various Aspects; Theory and Experiments in Support of Theory; Reactors and Safeguards; and General Research, Instrumentation, and By-Product. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  6. Fifty Years of Aeronautical Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This booklet contains a detailed review of the aeronautical research conducted at Langley Research Center during the 50 years after its construction in 1917 as the first research laboratory for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The research is discussed in five parts, by decades: 1917-27, 1928-37, 1938-47, 1948-57, 1958-67.…

  7. Vannevar Bush: Fifty Years Later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-12-01

    It is ironic that the 50th anniversary year of Vannevar Bush's Report to President Truman entitled "Science the Endless Frontier", which put into motion the eminently successful current system of education of scientists in this country occurs at a time when serious questions are being asked about the usefulness of that very system. Bush viewed his proposal to establish a national research foundation (later to be called the National Science Foundation) as a "social compact." Judgment of scientific merit would be delegated to expert peers in return for scientific progress, which would ultimately benefit the nation in terms of scientific needs--military security, economic productivity, and enhanced quality of life. Bush wanted the funding of basic research intertwined with training, and preferred to use universities for this purpose rather than industrial or national labs. Bush viewed college and university scientists as teachers and investigators. He believed university-based research would uniquely encourage and engage the next generation of scientists as no other institutional arrangement could. Bush did not trust industry's commitment to basic research, an instinct that proved prophetic. The academic reserve of scientists (PhD's in training and postdoctoral students) that existed before World War II, and upon which the United States could draw for its needs, which were primarily associated with defense efforts, was probably one of the defining factors in Bush's suggested strategy. Currently, that reserve of talent has gotten so large that it is the obvious throttle in the pipeline slowing the continued development of the university research enterprise. Since 1977, the rate at which we have trained new scientists exceeds an average of 4% annually. Since 1987, the "science work force"--PhD's--has grown at three times the rate of the general labor supply. Temporary positions for postdoctoral scientists have grown even faster (over 5% per year since 1989). To compound

  8. Vannevar Bush: Fifty Years Later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-12-01

    It is ironic that the 50th anniversary year of Vannevar Bush's Report to President Truman entitled "Science the Endless Frontier", which put into motion the eminently successful current system of education of scientists in this country occurs at a time when serious questions are being asked about the usefulness of that very system. Bush viewed his proposal to establish a national research foundation (later to be called the National Science Foundation) as a "social compact." Judgment of scientific merit would be delegated to expert peers in return for scientific progress, which would ultimately benefit the nation in terms of scientific needs--military security, economic productivity, and enhanced quality of life. Bush wanted the funding of basic research intertwined with training, and preferred to use universities for this purpose rather than industrial or national labs. Bush viewed college and university scientists as teachers and investigators. He believed university-based research would uniquely encourage and engage the next generation of scientists as no other institutional arrangement could. Bush did not trust industry's commitment to basic research, an instinct that proved prophetic. The academic reserve of scientists (PhD's in training and postdoctoral students) that existed before World War II, and upon which the United States could draw for its needs, which were primarily associated with defense efforts, was probably one of the defining factors in Bush's suggested strategy. Currently, that reserve of talent has gotten so large that it is the obvious throttle in the pipeline slowing the continued development of the university research enterprise. Since 1977, the rate at which we have trained new scientists exceeds an average of 4% annually. Since 1987, the "science work force"--PhD's--has grown at three times the rate of the general labor supply. Temporary positions for postdoctoral scientists have grown even faster (over 5% per year since 1989). To compound

  9. Environment and Policy, The Next Fifty Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewald, William R., Jr.

    This is the third of three volumes published as a part of the American Institute of Planners' two-year consultation on "the next fifty years." Leaders in the fields of education, government, medicine, planning, civil rights, transportation, and conservation discuss their expectations for urban planning in regard to the urban crisis and specify…

  10. Human space exploration the next fifty years.

    PubMed

    Williams, David R; Turnock, Matthew

    2011-06-01

    Preparation for the fiftieth anniversary of human spaceflight in the spring of 2011 provides the space faring nations with an opportunity to reflect on past achievements as well as consider the next fifty years of human spaceflight. The International Space Station is a unique platform for long duration life science research that will play a critical role in preparing for future human space exploration beyond low earth orbit. Some feel the future path back to the Moon and on to Mars may be delayed with the current commitment of the United States to support the development of human-rated commercial spacecraft. Others see this as a unique opportunity to leverage the capability of the private sector in expanding access to space exploration. This article provides an overview of the past achievements in human spaceflight and discusses future missions over the next fifty years and the role space medicine will play in extending the time-distance constant of human space exploration. PMID:22363199

  11. Human Space Exploration The Next Fifty Years

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David R.; Turnock, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Preparation for the fiftieth anniversary of human spaceflight in the spring of 2011 provides the space faring nations with an opportunity to reflect on past achievements as well as consider the next fifty years of human spaceflight. The International Space Station is a unique platform for long duration life science research that will play a critical role in preparing for future human space exploration beyond low earth orbit. Some feel the future path back to the Moon and on to Mars may be delayed with the current commitment of the United States to support the development of human-rated commercial spacecraft. Others see this as a unique opportunity to leverage the capability of the private sector in expanding access to space exploration. This article provides an overview of the past achievements in human spaceflight and discusses future missions over the next fifty years and the role space medicine will play in extending the time-distance constant of human space exploration. PMID:22363199

  12. Magnetic bearings: Fifty years of progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swann, Michael K.

    1993-01-01

    Magnetic bearings are just beginning to be flown in spacecraft systems, but their development spans more than 50 years. The promise of completely noncontacting, unlubricated rotating systems operating at speeds substantially beyond the range of conventional bearings, and with no wear and virtually no vibration, has provided the incentive to develop magnetic bearing technology for many diverse applications. Earnshaw theorized in 1842 that stable magnetic suspension is not possible in all three spatial directions unless the magnetic field is actively controlled. Since that time, researchers have attempted to successfully support spinning rotors in a stable manner. Development of magnetic suspension systems over the past fifty years has included progress on both passive (permanent magnet) and active (electromagnet) systems. The improvements in bearing load capacity, stiffness, and damping characteristics are traced. The trends in rotor size, rotational kinetic energy, and improvements in active control systems capabilities are also reviewed. Implications of superconductivity on suspension system design and performance are discussed.

  13. Dental standards: fifty years of development.

    PubMed

    Jones, D W

    2012-09-01

    Dental standards play a vital and important role in society by contributing to the quality and safety levels of products used in dental treatments by dental professionals as well as the hygiene products used by the general public. Few members of the public or indeed many dentists fully appreciate the contribution made by ISO international dental standards to the safety and quality of dental care. Further more the United Kingdom played a significant role in the establishment of the international standards organisation (ISO). The first two meetings of the dental international standards committee took place in England. In this article Derek W. Jones outlines the significant and important role played by the UK during the fifty years of dental international standards. PMID:22996480

  14. Fifty years with nuclear fission. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, J.W.; Carlson, A.D.

    1989-12-31

    The news of the discovery of nucler fission, by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann in Germany, was brought to the United States by Niels Bohr in January 1939. Since its discovery, the United States, and the world for that matter, has never been the same. It therefore seemed appropriate to acknowledge the fiftieth anniversary of its discovery by holding a topical meeting entitled, ``Fifty years with nuclear fission,`` in the United States during the year 1989. The objective of the meeting was to bring together pioneers of the nuclear industry and other scientists and engineers to report on reminiscences of the past and on the more recent developments in fission science and technology. The conference highlighted the early pioneers of the nuclear industry by dedicating a full day (April 26), consisting of two plenary sessions, at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in Washington, DC. More recent developments in fission science and technology in addition to historical reflections were topics for two full days of sessions (April 27 and 28) at the main sites of the NIST in Gaithersburg, Maryland. The wide range of topics covered by Volume 2 of this topical meeting included plenary invited, and contributed sessions entitled, Nuclear fission -- a prospective; reactors II; fission science II; medical and industrial applications by by-products; reactors and safeguards; general research, instrumentation, and by-products; and fission data, astrophysics, and space applications. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  15. Fifty years of dielectrophoretic cell separation technology

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    In 1966, Pohl and Hawk [Science 152, 647–649 (1966)] published the first demonstration of dielectrophoresis of living and dead yeast cells; their paper described how the different ways in which the cells responded to an applied nonuniform electric field could form the basis of a cell separation method. Fifty years later, the field of dielectrophoretic (DEP) cell separation has expanded, with myriad demonstrations of its ability to sort cells on the basis of differences in electrical properties without the need for chemical labelling. As DEP separation enters its second half-century, new approaches are being found to move the technique from laboratory prototypes to functional commercial devices; to gain widespread acceptance beyond the DEP community, it will be necessary to develop ways of separating cells with throughputs, purities, and cell recovery comparable to gold-standard techniques in life sciences, such as fluorescence- and magnetically activated cell sorting. In this paper, the history of DEP separation is charted, from a description of the work leading up to the first paper, to the current dual approaches of electrode-based and electrodeless DEP separation, and the path to future acceptance outside the DEP mainstream is considered. PMID:27462377

  16. Fifty years of dielectrophoretic cell separation technology.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Michael P

    2016-05-01

    In 1966, Pohl and Hawk [Science 152, 647-649 (1966)] published the first demonstration of dielectrophoresis of living and dead yeast cells; their paper described how the different ways in which the cells responded to an applied nonuniform electric field could form the basis of a cell separation method. Fifty years later, the field of dielectrophoretic (DEP) cell separation has expanded, with myriad demonstrations of its ability to sort cells on the basis of differences in electrical properties without the need for chemical labelling. As DEP separation enters its second half-century, new approaches are being found to move the technique from laboratory prototypes to functional commercial devices; to gain widespread acceptance beyond the DEP community, it will be necessary to develop ways of separating cells with throughputs, purities, and cell recovery comparable to gold-standard techniques in life sciences, such as fluorescence- and magnetically activated cell sorting. In this paper, the history of DEP separation is charted, from a description of the work leading up to the first paper, to the current dual approaches of electrode-based and electrodeless DEP separation, and the path to future acceptance outside the DEP mainstream is considered. PMID:27462377

  17. Fifty years with nuclear fission. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, J.W.; Carlson, A.D.

    1989-12-31

    The news of the discovery of nuclear fission, by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann in Germany, was brought to the United States by Niels Bohr in January 1939. Since its discovery, the United States, and the world for that matter, has never been the same. It therefore seemed appropriate to acknowledge the fifieth anniversary of its discovery by holding a topical meeting entitled, ``Fifty Years with Nuclear Fission,`` in the United States during the year 1989. The objective of the meeting was to bring together pioneers of the nuclear industry and other scientists and engineers to report on reminiscences of the past and on the more recent development in fission science and technology. The conference highlighted the early pioneers of the nuclear industry by dedicated a full day (April 26), consisting of two plenary sessions, at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in Washington, DC. More recent developments in fission science and technology in addition to historical reflections were topics for two fully days of sessions (April 27 and 28) at the main site of the NIST in Gaithersburg, Maryland. The wide range of topics covered in this Volume 1 by this topical meeting included plenary invited, and contributed sessions entitled: Preclude to the First Chain Reaction -- 1932 to 1942; Early Fission Research -- Nuclear Structure and Spontaneous Fission; 50 Years of Fission, Science, and Technology; Nuclear Reactors, Secure Energy for the Future; Reactors 1; Fission Science 1; Safeguards and Space Applications; Fission Data; Nuclear Fission -- Its Various Aspects; Theory and Experiments in Support of Theory; Reactors and Safeguards; and General Research, Instrumentation, and By-Product. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  18. Chlorpromazine overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... other reasons. This medicine may also change the metabolism and the effect of other drugs. Chlorpromazine overdose ... Anticholinergics. In: Marx JA, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  19. FIFTY YEARS AS A PLANT PHYSIOLOGIST.

    PubMed

    Henderson, James HM

    2001-06-01

    This chapter is a chronological and biographical sketch of the professional life of a botanist-plant physiologist. He just happens to be of African-American descent. He cites his early education and through college and graduate school, as well as his war years at the University of Chicago. His postdoc appointment at Caltech with James Bonner was really his professional beginning and highlight. Most of his teaching and research years were spent at Tuskegee University and the George Washington Carver Research Foundation. He spent several tours of research activity, in both the United States and foreign countries. His contact with plant physiologists was quite broad, both in the United States and overseas. Finally, in his senior years, he has turned to mentoring young students into careers in the biological and allied sciences. This activity, he states, has "kept me young beyond my chronological age." PMID:11337390

  20. Liver transplantation: Fifty years of experience

    PubMed Central

    Song, Alice Tung Wan; Avelino-Silva, Vivian Iida; Pecora, Rafael Antonio Arruda; Pugliese, Vincenzo; D’Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto Carneiro; Abdala, Edson

    2014-01-01

    Since 1963, when the first human liver transplantation (LT) was performed by Thomas Starzl, the world has witnessed 50 years of development in surgical techniques, immunosuppression, organ allocation, donor selection, and the indications and contraindications for LT. This has led to the mainstream, well-established procedure that has saved innumerable lives worldwide. Today, there are hundreds of liver transplant centres in over 80 countries. This review aims to describe the main aspects of LT regarding the progressive changes that have occurred over the years. We herein review historical aspects since the first experimental studies and the first attempts at human transplantation. We also provide an overview of immunosuppressive agents and their potential side effects, the evolution of the indications and contraindications of LT, the evolution of survival according to different time periods, and the evolution of methods of organ allocation. PMID:24833866

  1. Liver transplantation: fifty years of experience.

    PubMed

    Song, Alice Tung Wan; Avelino-Silva, Vivian Iida; Pecora, Rafael Antonio Arruda; Pugliese, Vincenzo; D'Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto Carneiro; Abdala, Edson

    2014-05-14

    Since 1963, when the first human liver transplantation (LT) was performed by Thomas Starzl, the world has witnessed 50 years of development in surgical techniques, immunosuppression, organ allocation, donor selection, and the indications and contraindications for LT. This has led to the mainstream, well-established procedure that has saved innumerable lives worldwide. Today, there are hundreds of liver transplant centres in over 80 countries. This review aims to describe the main aspects of LT regarding the progressive changes that have occurred over the years. We herein review historical aspects since the first experimental studies and the first attempts at human transplantation. We also provide an overview of immunosuppressive agents and their potential side effects, the evolution of the indications and contraindications of LT, the evolution of survival according to different time periods, and the evolution of methods of organ allocation. PMID:24833866

  2. Fifty Years of the Markarian Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.

    2016-06-01

    Markarian survey was conducted 50 years ago, in 1965. It was the first systematic survey for active galaxies and was a new method for search for such objects. Until now, it is the largest objective prism survey of the sky (17,000 deg2). It was carried out in 1965-1980 by Beniamin Markarian and colleagues and resulted in discovery of 1515 UV-excess (Markarian) galaxies. They contain many active galaxies, as well as powerful γ-, X-ray, IR and radio sources, BCDGs and interacting/merging systems. They led to the classification of Seyfert galaxies into Sy1 and Sy2 and the definition of Starbursts. Markarian survey (or the First Byurakan Survey, FBS) also served as a basis for search for UVX stellar objects, late-type stars and optical identification of IR sources. At present the survey is digitized and DFBS database is available.

  3. Fifty years of progress in acoustic phonetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Kenneth N.

    2004-10-01

    Three events that occurred 50 or 60 years ago shaped the study of acoustic phonetics, and in the following few decades these events influenced research and applications in speech disorders, speech development, speech synthesis, speech recognition, and other subareas in speech communication. These events were: (1) the source-filter theory of speech production (Chiba and Kajiyama; Fant); (2) the development of the sound spectrograph and its interpretation (Potter, Kopp, and Green; Joos); and (3) the birth of research that related distinctive features to acoustic patterns (Jakobson, Fant, and Halle). Following these events there has been systematic exploration of the articulatory, acoustic, and perceptual bases of phonological categories, and some quantification of the sources of variability in the transformation of this phonological representation of speech into its acoustic manifestations. This effort has been enhanced by studies of how children acquire language in spite of this variability and by research on speech disorders. Gaps in our knowledge of this inherent variability in speech have limited the directions of applications such as synthesis and recognition of speech, and have led to the implementation of data-driven techniques rather than theoretical principles. Some examples of advances in our knowledge, and limitations of this knowledge, are reviewed.

  4. Fifty Years of Innovation in Plastic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Marcus, Hani J; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara; Hettiaratchy, Shehan

    2016-01-01

    Background Innovation has molded the current landscape of plastic surgery. However, documentation of this process only exists scattered throughout the literature as individual articles. The few attempts made to profile innovation in plastic surgery have been narrative, and therefore qualitative and inherently biased. Through the implementation of a novel innovation metric, this work aims to identify and characterise the most prevalent innovations in plastic surgery over the last 50 years. Methods Patents and publications related to plastic surgery (1960 to 2010) were retrieved from patent and MEDLINE databases, respectively. The most active patent codes were identified and grouped into technology areas, which were subsequently plotted graphically against publication data. Expert-derived technologies outside of the top performing patents areas were additionally explored. Results Between 1960 and 2010, 4,651 patents and 43,118 publications related to plastic surgery were identified. The most active patent codes were grouped under reconstructive prostheses, implants, instruments, non-invasive techniques, and tissue engineering. Of these areas and other expert-derived technologies, those currently undergoing growth include surgical instruments, implants, non-invasive practices, transplantation and breast surgery. Innovations related to microvascular surgery, liposuction, tissue engineering, lasers and prostheses have all plateaued. Conclusions The application of a novel metric for evaluating innovation quantitatively outlines the natural history of technologies fundamental to the evolution of plastic surgery. Analysis of current innovation trends provides some insight into which technology domains are the most active. PMID:27019807

  5. Fifty years of progress in speech synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeter, Juergen

    2004-10-01

    A common opinion is that progress in speech synthesis should be easier to discern than in other areas of speech communication: you just have to listen to the speech! Unfortunately, things are more complicated. It can be said, however, that early speech synthesis efforts were primarily concerned with providing intelligible speech, while, more recently, ``naturalness'' has been the focus. The field had its ``electronic'' roots in Homer Dudley's 1939 ``Voder,'' and it advanced in the 1950s and 1960s through progress in a number of labs including JSRU in England, Haskins Labs in the U.S., and Fant's Lab in Sweden. In the 1970s and 1980s significant progress came from efforts at Bell Labs (under Jim Flanagan's leadership) and at MIT (where Dennis Klatt created one of the first commercially viable systems). Finally, over the past 15 years, the methods of unit-selection synthesis were devised, primarily at ATR in Japan, and were advanced by work at AT&T Labs, Univ. of Edinburgh, and ATR. Today, TTS systems are able to ``convince some of the listeners some of the time'' that synthetic speech is as natural as live recordings. Ongoing efforts aim at replacing ``some'' with ``most'' for a wide range of real-world applications.

  6. Fifty years of progress in speaker verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Aaron E.

    2004-10-01

    The modern era in speaker recognition started about 50 years ago at Bell Laboratories with the controversial invention of the voiceprint technique for speaker identification based on expert analysis of speech spectrograms. Early speaker recognition research concentrated on finding acoustic-phonetic features effective in discriminating speakers. The first truly automatic text dependent speaker verification systems were based on time contours or templates of speaker specific acoustic features. An important element of these systems was the ability to time warp sample templates with model templates in order to provide useful comparisons. Most modern text dependent speaker verification systems are based on statistical representations of acoustic features analyzed as a function of time over specified utterances, most particularly the hidden markov model (HMM) representation. Modern text independent systems are based on vector quantization representations and, more recently, on Gaussian mixture model (GMM) representations. An important ingredient of statistically based systems is likelihood ratio decision techniques making use of speaker background models. Some recent research has shown how to extract higher level features based on speaking behavior and combine it with lower level, acoustic features for improved performance. The talk will present these topics in historical order showing the evolution of techniques.

  7. Atoms for Peace after Fifty Years

    SciTech Connect

    Joeck, N; Lehman, R; Vergino, E; Schock, R

    2004-03-15

    President Eisenhower's hopes for nuclear technology still resonate, but the challenges to fulfilling them are much different today. On December 8, 1953, President Eisenhower, returning from his meeting with the leaders of Britain and France at the Bermuda Summit, flew directly to New York to address the United Nations General Assembly. His presentation, known afterwards as the ''Atoms for Peace'' speech, was bold, broad, and visionary. Eisenhower highlighted dangers associated with the further spread of nuclear weapons and the end of the thermonuclear monopoly, but the president also pointed to opportunities. Earlier that year, Stalin had died and the Korean War armistice was signed. Talks on reunification of Austria were about to begin. The speech sought East-West engagement and outlined a framework for reducing nuclear threats to security while enhancing the civilian benefits of nuclear technology. One specific proposal offered to place surplus military fissile material under the control of an ''international atomic energy agency'' to be used for peaceful purposes, especially economic development. Eisenhower clearly recognized the complex interrelationships between different nuclear technologies and the risks and the benefits that accrue from each. The widespread use of civilian nuclear technology and absence of any use of a nuclear weapon during the next half-century reflects success in his approach. Today, the world faces choices about nuclear technology that have their parallels in the Eisenhower calculus and its legacy. Although his specific fissile material proposal was never implemented, his broader themes gave impetus to agreements such as the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and institutions such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The resulting governance process has promoted some and restricted other nuclear technology. Perhaps even more influential was Eisenhower's overarching recommendation that we try to reduce the risks and seek

  8. EDITORIAL: Semiconductor lasers: the first fifty years Semiconductor lasers: the first fifty years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvez, S.; Adams, M. J.

    2012-09-01

    Anniversaries call for celebrations. Since it is now fifty years since the first semiconductor lasers were reported, it is highly appropriate to celebrate this anniversary with a Special Issue dedicated to the topic. The semiconductor laser now has a major effect on our daily lives since it has been a key enabler in the development of optical fibre communications (and hence the internet and e-mail), optical storage (CDs, DVDs, etc) and barcode scanners. In the early 1960s it was impossible for most people (with the exception of very few visionaries) to foresee any of these future developments, and the first applications identified were for military purposes (range-finders, target markers, etc). Of course, many of the subsequent laser applications were made possible by developments in semiconductor materials, in the associated growth and fabrication technology, and in the increased understanding of the underlying fundamental physics. These developments continue today, so that the subject of semiconductor lasers, although mature, is in good health and continues to grow. Hence, we can be confident that the pervasive influence of semiconductor lasers will continue to develop as optoelectronics technology makes further advances into other sectors such as healthcare, security and a whole host of applications based on the global imperatives to reduce energy consumption, minimise environmental impact and conserve resources. The papers in this Special Issue are intended to tell some of the story of the last fifty years of laser development as well as to provide evidence of the current state of semiconductor laser research. Hence, there are a number of papers where the early developments are recalled by authors who played prominent parts in the story, followed by a selection of papers from authors who are active in today's exciting research. The twenty-fifth anniversary of the semiconductor laser was celebrated by the publication of a number of papers dealing with the early

  9. Fifty years of Jaynes-Cummings physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greentree, Andrew D.; Koch, Jens; Larson, Jonas

    2013-11-01

    electromagnetic modes, arrays of coupled cavities [5-7], and optomechanical systems [8] have further enriched the physics of the Jaynes-Cummings model. From the early interests in masers and the consistent quantum description of radiation and atom-photon interaction, the Jaynes-Cummings model has evolved into a cornerstone of quantum state engineering [9]. The authors of this editorial had not been born when Jaynes and Cummings wrote their remarkable paper. It is, therefore, a special honour for us to be able to draw the reader's attention to the accompanying reminiscence contributed by Frederick Cummings where he gives us a glimpse of the early history of the Jaynes-Cummings model from his perspective [11]. By now, the original 1963 paper by Jaynes and Cummings has gathered numerous citations and, at the time of writing, the number of articles involving Jaynes-Cummings physics is approaching 15 000.1 This special issue does not attempt to review this impressive wealth of research. The interested reader, however, is urged to consult the definitive article by Shore and Knight [10] for a comprehensive review of the first 30 years of Jaynes-Cummings physics. The collection of 26 papers presented in this issue, showcases a snapshot of some of the most recent and continuing research devoted to Jaynes-Cummings physics. We begin our special issue with Professor Cumming's recollections [11]. We then have six papers on quantum information aspects of the Jaynes-Cummings model [12-17]. The next topic includes seven papers on the Dicke and generalized Jaynes-Cummings models [18-24], followed by six papers on circuit QED, which is one of the most important experimental frameworks for Jaynes-Cummings systems [25-30]. Finally, we have six papers on the extension to many cavities, the Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard model [31-36]. The snapshot of research captured in this special issue illustrates the unifying language provided by the Jaynes-Cummings model, tying together research in a number of

  10. Fifty years of Jaynes-Cummings physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greentree, Andrew D.; Koch, Jens; Larson, Jonas

    2013-11-01

    electromagnetic modes, arrays of coupled cavities [5-7], and optomechanical systems [8] have further enriched the physics of the Jaynes-Cummings model. From the early interests in masers and the consistent quantum description of radiation and atom-photon interaction, the Jaynes-Cummings model has evolved into a cornerstone of quantum state engineering [9]. The authors of this editorial had not been born when Jaynes and Cummings wrote their remarkable paper. It is, therefore, a special honour for us to be able to draw the reader's attention to the accompanying reminiscence contributed by Frederick Cummings where he gives us a glimpse of the early history of the Jaynes-Cummings model from his perspective [11]. By now, the original 1963 paper by Jaynes and Cummings has gathered numerous citations and, at the time of writing, the number of articles involving Jaynes-Cummings physics is approaching 15 000.1 This special issue does not attempt to review this impressive wealth of research. The interested reader, however, is urged to consult the definitive article by Shore and Knight [10] for a comprehensive review of the first 30 years of Jaynes-Cummings physics. The collection of 26 papers presented in this issue, showcases a snapshot of some of the most recent and continuing research devoted to Jaynes-Cummings physics. We begin our special issue with Professor Cumming's recollections [11]. We then have six papers on quantum information aspects of the Jaynes-Cummings model [12-17]. The next topic includes seven papers on the Dicke and generalized Jaynes-Cummings models [18-24], followed by six papers on circuit QED, which is one of the most important experimental frameworks for Jaynes-Cummings systems [25-30]. Finally, we have six papers on the extension to many cavities, the Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard model [31-36]. The snapshot of research captured in this special issue illustrates the unifying language provided by the Jaynes-Cummings model, tying together research in a number of

  11. Fifty Years after "Brown": Tarnished Gold, Broken Promises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gantz, Julie

    2004-01-01

    May 17, 2004 marked the fifty years that have passed since the United States Supreme Court handed down one of its most famous, compelling and iconic decisions, "Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas." Certainly the decision itself, labeling the practice of "separate but equal" as unconstitutional, deserves the fanfare and celebration of a…

  12. Tanzania Higher Education--Fifty Years after Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mnubi, Godfrey M.

    2013-01-01

    As Tanzania celebrates fifty years of independence at the crossroads of globalization, the country has experienced a changing landscape and a major transformation in higher learning education with spectacular expansion in student enrollment rates. This requires its higher education institutions, particularly universities, to function effectively…

  13. Fifty Year Canon of Lunar Eclipses: 1986-2035

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred

    1989-01-01

    A complete catalog is presented, listing the general circumstances of every lunar eclipse from 1901 through 2100. To compliment this catalog, a set of figures illustrate the basic Moon-shadow geometry and global visibility for every lunar eclipse over the 200 year interval. Focusing in on the next fifty years, 114 detailed diagrams show the Moon's path through Earth's shadow during every eclipse, including contact times at each phase. The accompanying cylindrical projection maps of Earth show regions of hemispheric visibility for all phases. The appendices discuss eclipse geometry, eclipse frequency and recurrence, enlargement of Earth's shadow, crater timings, eclipse brightness and time determination. Finally, a simple FORTRAN program is provided which can be used to predict the occurrence and general characteristics of lunar eclipses. This work is a companion volume to NASA Reference Publication 1178: Fifty Year Canon of Solar Eclipses: 1986-2035.

  14. Fifty years of Cuba's medical diplomacy: from idealism to pragmatism.

    PubMed

    Feinsilver, Julie M

    2010-01-01

    Medical diplomacy, the collaboration between countries to simultaneously produce health benefits and improve relations, has been a cornerstone of Cuban foreign policy since the outset of the revolution fifty years ago. It has helped Cuba garner symbolic capital (goodwill, influence, and prestige) well beyond what would have been possible for a small, developing country, and it has contributed to making Cuba a player on the world stage. In recent years, medical diplomacy has been instrumental in providing considerable material capital (aid, credit, and trade), as the oil-for-doctors deals with Venezuela demonstrates. This has helped keep the revolution afloat in trying economic times. What began as the implementation of the one of the core values of the revolution, namely health as a basic human right for all peoples, has continued as both an idealistic and a pragmatic pursuit. This article examines the factors that enabled Cuba to conduct medical diplomacy over the past fifty years, the rationale behind the conduct of this type of soft power politics, the results of that effort, and the mix of idealism and pragmatism that has characterized the experience. Moreover, it presents a typology of medical diplomacy that Cuba has used over the past fifty years. PMID:21506308

  15. The last fifty years in obstetrics and gynecology.

    PubMed

    Anspaugh, R D

    1993-12-01

    The last fifty years in Obstetrics and Gynecology have been associated with some of the most outstanding changes in the history of this specialty. We have seen the discovery and use of antibiotics, the Pap smear, shortened hospital stays, the Rh factor, and the birth control pill. It is doubtful we shall ever see as many changes in an equal period of time. PMID:8126591

  16. 1961-2011: Fifty years of Hayashi tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palla, Francesco

    2012-09-01

    Fifty years after the seminal paper by Prof. C. Hayashi, the field of pre-main sequence (PMS) evolution still plays a fundamental role in observational and theoretical astrophysics. In this contribution, I highlight the contribution made by Hayashi in establishing the theoretical foundation of early stellar evolution. Then, I discuss the changes of the classical theory introduced by the inclusion of protostellar evolution in PMS models and present selected results on young stars.

  17. Fifty years of accelerator based physics at Chalk River

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, John W.

    1999-04-26

    The Chalk River Laboratories of Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. was a major centre for Accelerator based physics for the last fifty years. As early as 1946, nuclear structure studies were started on Cockroft-Walton accelerators. A series of accelerators followed, including the world's first Tandem, and the MP Tandem, Superconducting Cyclotron (TASCC) facility that was opened in 1986. The nuclear physics program was shut down in 1996. This paper will describe some of the highlights of the accelerators and the research of the laboratory.

  18. Thermal fluctuations of magnetic nanoparticles: Fifty years after Brown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffey, William T.; Kalmykov, Yuri P.

    2012-12-01

    The reversal time, superparamagnetic relaxation time, of the magnetization of fine single domain ferromagnetic nanoparticles owing to thermal fluctuations plays a fundamental role in information storage, paleomagnetism, biotechnology, etc. Here a comprehensive tutorial-style review of the achievements of fifty years of development and generalizations of the seminal work of Brown [Phys. Rev. 130, 1677 (1963)] on thermal fluctuations of magnetic nanoparticles is presented. Analytical as well as numerical approaches to the estimation of the damping and temperature dependence of the reversal time based on Brown's Fokker-Planck equation for the evolution of the magnetic moment orientations on the surface of the unit sphere are critically discussed while the most promising directions for future research are emphasized.

  19. Fifty years of progress in radiation therapy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jay R

    2014-01-01

    Fifty years ago, radiation therapy (RT) was only used after mastectomy in patients with high-risk disease. The equipment, treatment planning, and treatment delivery were rudimentary compared to what is available today. In retrospect, the deleterious effects of the RT back then negated its benefits. The strategy of combining lesser surgery with RT (and adjuvant systemic therapy) has been successfully employed in breast-conserving therapy (BCT) and in avoiding axillary lymph node dissection in patients with 1 or 2 involved sentinel nodes. Local recurrence rates at 10 years following BCT are now similar to those following mastectomy. RT after breast-conserving surgery and after mastectomy has been demonstrated to not only decrease local-regional recurrence but also decrease distant metastases and improve long-term survival. The development of effective adjuvant systemic therapy has made RT not only more effective but also arguably more important. If systemic therapy is effective at addressing micro-metastatic disease, then obtaining local tumor control becomes even more important. Moderately hypofractionated RT (2.66 Gy per day) is just as safe and effective as conventional fractionation shortening BCT from 6 weeks to 3-4 weeks. Treatment is now given with multiple-energy linear accelerators, CT-based simulation, 3-dimensional beam modulation for much greater dose homogeneity, on-board imaging for greater daily accuracy, and various techniques to reduce cardiac dose. PMID:24857056

  20. Windscale pile reactors - Decommissioning progress on a fifty year legacy

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, Richard J.

    2007-07-01

    The decommissioning of the Windscale Pile 1 reactor, fifty years after the 1957 fire, is one of the most technically challenging decommissioning projects in the UK, if not the world. This paper presents a summary of the 1957 Windscale Pile 1 accident, its unique challenges and a new technical approach developed to safely and efficiently decommission the two Windscale Pile Reactors. The reactors will be decommissioned using a top down approach that employs an array of light weight, carbon fiber, high payload robotic arms to remove the damaged fuel, the graphite core, activated metals and concrete. This relatively conventional decommissioning approach has been made possible by a recently completed technical assessment of reactor core fire and criticality risk which concluded that these types of events are not credible if relatively simple controls are applied. This paper presents an overview of the design, manufacture and testing of equipment to remove the estimated 15 tons of fire damaged fuel and isotopes from the Pile 1 reactor. The paper also discusses recently conducted characterization activities which have allowed for a refined waste estimate and conditioning strategy. These data and an innovative approach have resulted in a significant reduction in the estimated project cost and schedule. (authors)

  1. Revisiting fifty years of research on pheromone signaling in ciliates.

    PubMed

    Luporini, Pierangelo; Pedrini, Bill; Alimenti, Claudio; Vallesi, Adriana

    2016-08-01

    Among protists, pheromones have been identified in a great variety of algal species for their activity in driving gamete-gamete interactions for fertilization. Analogously in ciliates, pheromones have been identified for their activity in inducing the sexual phenomenon of conjugation. Although this identification was pioneered by Kimball more than fifty years ago, an effective isolation and chemical characterization of ciliate pheromones has remained confined to species of Blepharisma, Dileptus and Euplotes. In Euplotes species, in which the molecular structures have been determined, pheromones form species-specific families of structurally homologous helical, cysteine-rich, highly-stable proteins. Being structurally homologous, they can bind cells in competition with one another, raising interesting functional analogies with the families of growth factors and cytokines that regulate cell differentiation and development in higher organisms. In addition to inducing conjugation by binding cells in heterologous fashion, Euplotes pheromones act also as autocrine growth factors by binding to, and promoting the vegetative reproduction of the same cells from which they originate. This autocrine activity is most likely primary, providing a concrete example of how the original function of a molecule can be obscured during evolution by the acquisition of a new one. PMID:27345662

  2. Fifty Years of Space Weather Forecasting from Boulder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, T. E.

    2015-12-01

    The first official space weather forecast was issued by the Space Disturbances Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado, in 1965, ushering in an era of operational prediction that continues to this day. Today, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) charters the Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) as one of the nine National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) to provide the nation's official watches, warnings, and alerts of space weather phenomena. SWPC is now integral to national and international efforts to predict space weather events, from the common and mild, to the rare and extreme, that can impact critical technological infrastructure. In 2012, the Strategic National Risk Assessment included extreme space weather events as low-to-medium probability phenomena that could, unlike any other meteorogical phenomena, have an impact on the government's ability to function. Recognizing this, the White House chartered the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) to produce the first comprehensive national strategy for the prediction, mitigation, and response to an extreme space weather event. The implementation of the National Strategy is ongoing with NOAA, its partners, and stakeholders concentrating on the goal of improving our ability to observe, model, and predict the onset and severity of space weather events. In addition, work continues with the research community to improve our understanding of the physical mechanisms - on the Sun, in the heliosphere, and in the Earth's magnetic field and upper atmosphere - of space weather as well as the effects on critical infrastructure such as electrical power transmission systems. In fifty years, people will hopefully look back at the history of operational space weather prediction and credit our efforts today with solidifying the necessary developments in observational systems, full-physics models of the entire Sun-Earth system, and tools for predicting the impacts to infrastructure to protect

  3. Fifty Years of Transuranic Waste at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, A.

    2002-11-20

    Three years into the Cold War, in 1950, President Truman asked the E. I. du Pont de Nemours Company to build and operate a plant to produce materials for nuclear weapons. This document covers 50 years of transuranic waste at Savannah River Site from production to cleanup.

  4. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Comayagua, Hondura

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Comayagua that would be inundated by 50-year floods on Rio Humuya and Rio Majada. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Comayagua as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for 50-year-floods on Rio Humuya and Rio Majada at Comayagua were estimated using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area. The 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Humuya at Comayagua, 1,400 cubic meters per second, was estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The reasonableness of the regression discharge was evaluated by comparing it with drainage-area-adjusted 50-year-flood discharges estimated for three long-term Rio Humuya stream-gaging stations. The drainage-area-adjusted 50-year-flood discharges estimated from the gage records ranged from 946 to 1,365 cubic meters per second. Because the regression equation discharge agrees closely with the high end of the range of discharges estimated from the gaging-station records, it was used for the hydraulic modeling to ensure that the resulting 50-year-flood water-surface elevations would not be underestimated. The 50-year

  5. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Choluteca, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Choluteca that would be inundated by 50-year floods on Rio Choluteca and Rio Iztoca. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Choluteca as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for 50-year-floods on Rio Choluteca and Rio Iztoca at Choluteca were estimated using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area. The estimated 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Choluteca at Choluteca is 4,620 cubic meters per second, which is the drainage-area-adjusted weighted-average of two independently estimated 50-year-flood discharges for the gaging station Rio Choluteca en Puente Choluteca. One discharge, 4,913 cubic meters per second, was estimated from a frequency analysis of the 17 years of peak discharge record for the gage, and the other, 2,650 cubic meters per second, was estimated from a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The weighted-average of the two discharges at the gage is 4,530 cubic meters per second. The 50-year-flood discharge for the study area reach of Rio Choluteca was estimated by multiplying the weighted discharge at the gage by the ratio of the drainage

  6. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Nacaome, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, M.C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Nacaome that would be inundated by 50-year floods on Rio Nacaome, Rio Grande, and Rio Guacirope. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Nacaome as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for 50-year-floods on Rio Nacaome, Rio Grande, and Rio Guacirope at Nacaome were computed using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area and ground surveys at two bridges. The estimated 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Nacaome at Nacaome, 5,040 cubic meters per second, was computed as the drainage-area-adjusted weighted average of two independently estimated 50-year-flood discharges for the gaging station Rio Nacaome en Las Mercedes, located about 13 kilometers upstream from Nacaome. One of the discharges, 4,549 cubic meters per second, was estimated from a frequency analysis of the 16 years of peak-discharge record for the gage, and the other, 1,922 cubic meters per second, was estimated from a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The weighted-average of the two discharges is 3,770 cubic meters per second. The 50-year-flood discharges for Rio Grande, 3,890 cubic meters per

  7. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Tegucigalpa, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Tegucigalpa that would be inundated by a 50-year flood of Rio Choluteca, Rio Grande, Rio Guacerique, and Rio Chiquito. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Tegucigalpa as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for an estimated 50-year-flood on Rio Choluteca, Rio Grande, Rio Guacerique, and Rio Chiquito at Tegucigalpa were determined using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area and ground surveys at bridges. There are no nearby long-term stream-gaging stations; therefore, the 50-year-flood discharges were estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The estimated 50-year-flood discharge is 922 cubic meters per second at Rio Choluteca at downstream end of the study area boundary, 663 cubic meters per second at the mouth of the Rio Grande, 475 cubic meters per second at the mouth of the Rio Guacerique, and 254 cubic meters per second at the mouth of the Rio Chiquito.

  8. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Tocoa, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Tocoa that would be inundated by a 50-year flood of Rio Tocoa. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Tocoa as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for an estimated 50-year-flood on Rio Tocoa at Tocoa were estimated using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area and a ground survey at one bridge. There are no nearby long-term stream-gaging stations on Rio Tocoa; therefore, the 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Tocoa, 552 cubic meters per second, was estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The drainage area and mean annual precipitation estimated for Rio Tocoa at Tocoa are 204 square kilometers and 1,987 millimeters, respectively. It was assumed that a portion of the 50-year flood, 200 cubic meters per second, would escape the main channel and flow down a side channel before re-entering the main channel again near the lower end of the study area.

  9. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Siguatepeque, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Siguatepeque that would be inundated by 50-year floods on Rio Selguapa, Rio Guique, Rio Celan, Rio Calan, and Quebrada Chalantuma. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Siguatepeque as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for 50-year-floods on each of the streams studied were computed using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area and ground surveys at six bridges. There are no nearby long-term stream-gaging stations on any of the streams studied; therefore, the 50-year-flood discharges were estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The 50-year-flood discharges estimated for Rio Selguapa, Rio Guique, Rio Celan, Rio Calan, and Quebrada Chalantuma are 323, 168, 161, 146, and 90 cubic meters per second, respectively.

  10. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Juticalpa, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, M.C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Juticalpa that would be inundated by a 50-year flood of Rio Juticalpa. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Juticalpa as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for a 50-year-flood on Rio Juticalpa at Juticalpa were estimated using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area. The estimated 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Juticalpa at Juticalpa, 1,360 cubic meters per second, was computed as the drainage-area-adjusted weighted average of two independently estimated 50-year-flood discharges for the gaging station Rio Juticalpa en El Torito, located about 2 kilometers upstream from Juticalpa. One discharge, 1,551 cubic meters per second, was estimated from a frequency analysis of the 33 years of peak-discharge record for the gage, and the other, 486 cubic meters per second, was estimated from a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The weighted-average of the two discharges at the gage is 1,310 cubic meters per second. The 50-year flood discharge for the study area reach of Rio Juticalpa was estimated by multiplying the weighted discharge at the gage by the

  11. Behavioral and Social Science: Fifty Years of Discovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smelser, Neil J., Ed.; Gerstein, Dean R., Ed.

    This commemorative book contains 10 papers that provide a selective sample of behavioral and social science research accomplishments and trends over a 50-year period, and comparisons are made with research presented in the 1933 report, "Recent Social Trends in the United States" (The Ogburn Report). Four chapters in part 1, "Understanding Social…

  12. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Olanchito, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, M.C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Olanchito that would be inundated by a 50-year-flood of Rio Uchapa. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Olanchito as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for a 50-year-flood discharge of 243 cubic meters per second on Rio Uchapa at Olanchito were estimated using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area. There are no nearby long-term stream-gaging stations on Rio Uchapa; therefore, the 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Uchapa was estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The drainage area and mean annual precipitation estimated for Rio Uchapa at Olanchito are 97.1 square kilometers and 1,178 millimeters, respectively.

  13. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Sonaguera, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Sonaguera that would be inundated by a 50-year flood of Rio Sonaguera and its tributary, Rio Juan Lazaro. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Sonaguera as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for an estimated 50-year-flood on Rio Sonaguera and Rio Juan Lazaro at Sonaguera were determined using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area and a ground survey at the bridge. There are no nearby long-term stream-gaging stations on Rio Sonaguera or Rio Juan Lazaro; therefore, the 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Sonaguera above the confluence with Rio Juan Lazaro, 194 cubic meters per second; for Rio Juan Lazaro at its mouth, 168 cubic meters per second, and for Rio Sonaguera at the downstream end of the study area, 282 cubic meters per second; were estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation.

  14. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Catacamas, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Catacamas that would be inundated by a 50-year-flood of Rio Catacamas. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Catacamas as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/ floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for a 50-year-flood on Rio Catacamas at Catacamas were estimated using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area. The 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Catacamas at Catacamas, 216 cubic meters per second, was estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation because there are no long-term stream-gaging stations on the river from which to estimate the discharge. The drainage area and mean annual precipitation estimated for Rio Catacamas at Catacamas are 45.4 square kilometers and 1,773 millimeters, respectively.

  15. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Choloma, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Choloma that would be inundated by a 50-year flood of Rio Choloma. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Choloma as part of the in the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for a 50-year-flood on Rio Choloma at Choloma were determined using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area. There are no nearby long-term stream-gaging stations on Rio Choloma; therefore, the 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Choloma, 370 cubic meters per second, was estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The drainage area and mean annual precipitation estimated for Rio Choloma at Choloma are 89.5 square kilometers and 2,164 millimeters, respectively.

  16. Fifty year canon of solar eclipses: 1986 - 2035

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred

    1987-01-01

    A complete catalog is presented, listing the general characteristics of every solar eclipse from 1901 through 2100. To complement this catalog, a detailed set of cylindrical projection world maps shows the umbral paths of every solar eclipse over the 200 year interval. Focusing in on the next 50 years, accurate geodetic path coordinates and local circumstances for the 71 central eclipses from 1987 through 2035 are tabulated. Finally, the geodetic paths of the umbral and penumbral shadows of all 109 solar eclipses in this period are plotted on orthographic projection maps of the Earth. Appendices are included which discuss eclipse geometry, eclipse frequency and occurrence, modern eclipse prediction and time determination. Finally, code for a simple Fortran program is given to predict the occurrence and characteristics of solar eclipses.

  17. Fifty Years of Boundary-Layer Theory and Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dryden, Hugh L.

    1955-01-01

    The year 1954 marked the 50th anniversary of the Prandtl boundary-layer theory from which we may date the beginning of man's understanding of the dynamics of real fluids. A backward look at this aspect of the history of the last 50 years may be instructive. This paper (1) attempts to compress the events of those 50 years into a few thousand words, to tell in this brief space the interesting story of the development of a new concept, its slow acceptance and growth, its spread from group to group within its country of origin, and its diffusion to other countries of the world. The original brief paper of Prandtl (2) was presented at the Third International Mathematical Congress at Heidelberg in 1904 and published in the following year. It was an attempt to explain the d'Alembert paradox, namely, that the neglect of the small friction of air in the theory resulted in the prediction of zero resistance to motion. Prandtl set himself the task of computing the motion of a fluid of small friction, so small that its effect could be neglected everywhere except where large velocity differences were present or a cumulative effect of friction occurred This led to the concept of boundary layer, or transition layer, near the wall of a body immersed in a fluid stream in which the velocity rises from zero to the free-stream value. It is interesting that Prandtl used the term Grenzsehicht (boundary layer) only once and the term Ubergangsschicht (transition layer) seven times in the brief article. Later writers also used Reibungsschicht (friction layer), but most writers today use Grenzschicht (boundary layer).

  18. Fifty years of IMOG (International Meetings on Organic Geochemistry)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, Keith A.

    2012-01-01

    IMOG2011 is the 25th of a series of international meetings on organic geochemistry that began in 1962. Thus, this 25th meeting marks the 50th anniversary year of IMOG, which has (a) had a rich history with meetings taking place in 11 different countries, (b) published Proceedings, titled “Advances in Organic Geochemistry,” from each meeting that now number 24 volumes totaling almost 18,000 pages, and (c) documented the content and development of the science of organic geochemistry. IMOG2011 adds a new milestone to the progress of organic geochemistry through time.

  19. Fifty-five-year-old man with chronic yeast infections

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Nikhila; Palacios, Thamiris; Rosen, Lindsey B.; Martinez, Bianca; Browne, Sarah; Borish, Larry

    2014-01-01

    As immunologists, we are frequently asked to evaluate patients with recurrent infections. These infections can provide us with clues regarding what pathways might be aberrant in a given patient, e.g., specific pyogenic bacteria with Toll-like receptor problems, atypical mycobacteria with interferon gamma receptor autoantibodies, and Candida/staphylococcal infections with cellular immune abnormalities. We present a 55-year-old man who presented to our immunology clinic with onychodystrophy of the toenails and fingernails and recurrent oral–esophageal candidiasis. The differential diagnosis for recurrent yeast infections is complex and includes usual suspects as well as some that are not as straightforward. PMID:25295810

  20. The reconstruction of a repressed sexual molestation fifty years later.

    PubMed

    Viederman, M

    1995-01-01

    The current public concern about childhood molestation and abuse has fueled the debate in psychoanalysis about historical versus narrative truth, a subject that has implicitly and explicitly been an important theme since the origin of psychoanalysis. The evocation of false memories by suggestion has had significant social consequences. This raises important questions about the role of real trauma as contrasted with fantasy in the genesis of psychic conflict. This paper explores the conditions for the emergence of long repressed trauma. It is argued that such traumatic memories emerge only after significant structural change has occurred, in particular modifications in the representational world (self and object representations). This substantive change may be viewed as a macroscopic way station in the evolution of the analysis. This is demonstrated in the description of the analysis of a patient born with a congenital anomaly. The analysis of her unconscious fantasies about her deformity, her identifications with defective people, and of a negative paternal transference had to occur before the development of an erotic transference. It was then that fragments of the memory of the sexual trauma emerged. Details of the reconstruction are presented. The successful integration of this painful experience is described. Six years after termination of the analysis, the patient wrote a letter describing a confirmation of the event, now sixty years past, from the sole other survivor of the period who had knowledge of what had happened. PMID:8926329

  1. Fifty years of dialysis in Africa: challenges and progress.

    PubMed

    Barsoum, Rashad S; Khalil, Soha S; Arogundade, Fatiu A

    2015-03-01

    This review addresses the development of dialysis services in Africa in the face of past and contemporary challenges. Maintenance dialysis treatment programs developed in 29 countries over the past 50 years, usually many years after their independence and the end of subsequent territorial and civil wars. Eight countries had the resources to launch national dialysis programs, conventionally defined as those accommodating at least 100 patients per million population. Additionally, based on information obtained from international and local publications, conference proceedings, and personal communications, it appears that limited short-term dialysis therapy currently is available in most African countries. Currently, the prevalence of and outcomes associated with dialysis in Africa are influenced significantly by the following: (1) local health indexes, including the prevalence of undernutrition and chronic infections; (2) per capita gross domestic product; (3) national expenditures on health and growth of these expenditures with incremental demand; (4) availability and adequate training of health care providers; and (5) literacy. In an attempt to reduce the socioeconomic burden of maintenance dialysis treatment, 12 countries have adopted active transplantation programs and 5 are striving to develop screening and prevention programs. Our recommendations based on these observations include optimizing dialysis treatment initiatives and integrating them with other health strategies, as well as training and motivating local health care providers. These steps should be taken in collaboration with regulatory authorities and the public. PMID:25600487

  2. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) Phase Diagrams: Fifty Years of Research.

    PubMed

    Halperin, Avraham; Kröger, Martin; Winnik, Françoise M

    2015-12-14

    In 1968, Heskins and Guillet published the first systematic study of the phase diagram of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM), at the time a "young polymer" first synthesized in 1956. Since then, PNIPAM became the leading member of the growing families of thermoresponsive polymers and of stimuli-responsive, "smart" polymers in general. Its thermal response is unanimously attributed to its phase behavior. Yet, in spite of 50 years of research, a coherent quantitative picture remains elusive. In this Review we survey the reported phase diagrams, discuss the differences and comment on theoretical ideas regarding their possible origins. We aim to alert the PNIPAM community to open questions in this reputably mature domain. PMID:26612195

  3. Comparison of pediatric airway foreign bodies over fifty years.

    PubMed

    White, David R; Zdanski, Carlton J; Drake, Amelia F

    2004-05-01

    Prevention and early recognition remain critical factors in the treatment of foreign body inhalation in children. Accidental inhalation of both organic and nonorganic foreign body material continues to be a cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. The University of North Carolina Department of Otolaryngology has collected foreign bodies acquired from the airways of young children since its inception in 1954. The authors reviewed 26 foreign bodies removed bronchoscopically from the airways of children during the years 1955 to 1960, and compared these to 27 foreign bodies collected from 1999 to 2003. Findings showed remarkable similarities in the types of foreign bodies aspirated. Organic foreign bodies were most commonly found. Differences existed in the type of organic foreign body aspirated, with popcorn being retrieved in 15% of cases during the later time period. Also, an increase in bronchoscopically removed small toy parts was found in the later group. PMID:15180015

  4. Fifty years of federal radioactive waste management: Policies and practices

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, R.G.

    1997-04-01

    This report provides a chronological history of policies and practices relating to the management of radioactive waste for which the US Atomic Energy Commission and its successor agencies, the Energy Research and Development Administration and the Department of Energy, have been responsible since the enactment of the Atomic Energy Act in 1946. The defense programs and capabilities that the Commission inherited in 1947 are briefly described. The Commission undertook a dramatic expansion nationwide of its physical facilities and program capabilities over the five years beginning in 1947. While the nuclear defense activities continued to be a major portion of the Atomic Energy Commission`s program, there was added in 1955 the Atoms for Peace program that spawned a multiplicity of peaceful use applications for nuclear energy, e.g., the civilian nuclear power program and its associated nuclear fuel cycle; a variety of industrial applications; and medical research, diagnostic, and therapeutic applications. All of these nuclear programs and activities generated large volumes of radioactive waste that had to be managed in a manner that was safe for the workers, the public, and the environment. The management of these materials, which varied significantly in their physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics, involved to varying degrees the following phases of the waste management system life cycle: waste characterization, storage, treatment, and disposal, with appropriate transportation linkages. One of the benefits of reviewing the history of the waste management program policies and practices if the opportunity it provides for identifying the lessons learned over the years. Examples are summarized at the end of the report and are listed in no particular order of importance.

  5. Fifty (Plus) Years of Polymer Nano-Science (Art)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geil, Phillip

    2007-03-01

    At least one dimension of the fundamental structure of all polymers, on the next hierarchical size scale larger than the repeat distance and unit cell, is on the order of 100 å; hence these days one uses the label ``nano.'' This includes the coil size in solution and melt, and the morphology of both crystalline and block polymers. For study of morphology, the principle techniques, until recently, have been transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small angle x-ray diffraction, with polymer TEM being the ``art of producing interpretable artifacts.'' Having first been shown chain folded polyethylene single crystals almost exactly 51 years ago, we will summarize and represent some half century of morphology research, and the resulting art, including addressing the areas of nucleation, growth from solution and melt, and deformation of macromolecular materials. Particular emphasis will be placed on early observations with implications on various current crystallizable polymer morphology proposals including chain folding regularity, spherulite nucleation and growth, molecular mobility in the melt and thin film crystallization.

  6. Chemical Hydrogeology: Fifty Years of Advances, Breakthroughs, and Innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brusseau, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Chemical hydrogeology focuses on the composition, properties, and biogeochemical processes inherent to water in subsurface environments. Multiple avenues of research coalesced in the 1960's to foment the development of chemical hydrogeology as a distinct field. In the intervening 50 years, chemical hydrogeology principles have been applied to innumerable issues and problems, and concomitantly, the field has continually experienced advances, breakthroughs, and innovations in theory, analysis, and application. An overarching theme to chemical hydrogeology in both theory and application is integration--- integration of disciplines (interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary), integration of approaches (theoretical, experimental, analytical), and integration of scales (spatial, temporal). Chemical hydrogeology has never been more relevant and more challenged as today, as we face critical issues related to for example water scarcity and availability of clean water, impacts of energy development, production and storage, and human interactions with ecosystem services. This presentation will illustrate recent advances in chemical hydrogeology, ranging from application of advanced imaging for characterization of pore-scale multiphase systems to integrated physical and biogeochemical assessments of field-scale contaminant transport.

  7. Marijuana: A Fifty-Year Personal Addiction Medicine Perspective.

    PubMed

    Smith, David E

    2016-01-01

    As of September 2015, the cultivation, possession, and/or use of marijuana is illegal under U.S. federal law as a Schedule I narcotic; however, it is legal in four states and Washington, D.C. Forty-six states allow some form of medicinal marijuana or decriminalization. Marijuana has been used medicinally for thousands of years; Marijuana's regulation by law enforcement in the U.S., rather than the medical community, led to an almost complete halt to academic and scientific research after the 1930s. The late 1960s saw an upsurge in recreational marijuana use by middle-class youth, the majority of whom experienced minimal adverse effects aside from arrest and attendant legal complications. Since the mid-1990s, the use of medicinal marijuana for certain conditions has gained increasing acceptance. Stronger strains and formulations of marijuana pose a risk to the developing brains of adolescents. Within the addiction medicine community, there is currently no consensus on marijuana. In the East, the feeling is primarily that marijuana continue to be proscribed. In the West, where clinicians must face the realities of medicalization, decriminalization, and/or legalization, as well as widespread recreational use, there is more of a movement to minimize adverse effects, particularly on youth. PMID:26757396

  8. Fifty years of progress in speech waveform coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atal, Bishnu S.

    2004-10-01

    Over the past 50 years, sustained research in speech coding has made it possible to encode speech with high speech quality at rates as low as 4 kb/s. The technology is now used in many applications, such as digital cellular phones, personal computers, and packet telephony. The early research in speech coding was aimed at reproducing speech spectra using a small number of slowly varying parameters. The focus of research shifted later to accurate reproduction of speech waveforms at low bit rates. The introduction of linear predictive coding (LPC) led to the development of new algorithms, such as adaptive predictive coding, multipulse and code-excited LPC. Code-excited LPC has become the method of choice for low bit rate speech coding and is used in most voice transmission standards. Digital speech communication is rapidly moving away from traditional circuit-switched to packet-switched networks based on IP protocols (VoIP). The focus of speech coding research is now on providing to low cost, reliable, and secure transmission of high-quality speech on IP networks.

  9. Fifty thousand years of Arctic vegetation and megafaunal diet.

    PubMed

    Willerslev, Eske; Davison, John; Moora, Mari; Zobel, Martin; Coissac, Eric; Edwards, Mary E; Lorenzen, Eline D; Vestergård, Mette; Gussarova, Galina; Haile, James; Craine, Joseph; Gielly, Ludovic; Boessenkool, Sanne; Epp, Laura S; Pearman, Peter B; Cheddadi, Rachid; Murray, David; Bråthen, Kari Anne; Yoccoz, Nigel; Binney, Heather; Cruaud, Corinne; Wincker, Patrick; Goslar, Tomasz; Alsos, Inger Greve; Bellemain, Eva; Brysting, Anne Krag; Elven, Reidar; Sønstebø, Jørn Henrik; Murton, Julian; Sher, Andrei; Rasmussen, Morten; Rønn, Regin; Mourier, Tobias; Cooper, Alan; Austin, Jeremy; Möller, Per; Froese, Duane; Zazula, Grant; Pompanon, François; Rioux, Delphine; Niderkorn, Vincent; Tikhonov, Alexei; Savvinov, Grigoriy; Roberts, Richard G; MacPhee, Ross D E; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Kjær, Kurt H; Orlando, Ludovic; Brochmann, Christian; Taberlet, Pierre

    2014-02-01

    Although it is generally agreed that the Arctic flora is among the youngest and least diverse on Earth, the processes that shaped it are poorly understood. Here we present 50 thousand years (kyr) of Arctic vegetation history, derived from the first large-scale ancient DNA metabarcoding study of circumpolar plant diversity. For this interval we also explore nematode diversity as a proxy for modelling vegetation cover and soil quality, and diets of herbivorous megafaunal mammals, many of which became extinct around 10 kyr bp (before present). For much of the period investigated, Arctic vegetation consisted of dry steppe-tundra dominated by forbs (non-graminoid herbaceous vascular plants). During the Last Glacial Maximum (25-15 kyr bp), diversity declined markedly, although forbs remained dominant. Much changed after 10 kyr bp, with the appearance of moist tundra dominated by woody plants and graminoids. Our analyses indicate that both graminoids and forbs would have featured in megafaunal diets. As such, our findings question the predominance of a Late Quaternary graminoid-dominated Arctic mammoth steppe. PMID:24499916

  10. Fifty-one Years of Hawaiian Hotspot Debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, A. W.; Farnetani, C. G.

    2014-12-01

    Tuzo Wilson's ground breaking realization that the progressively increasing ages of volcanism along linear chains of Pacific islands are best explained by movement of the Pacific plate over a stationary heat source was followed by Jason Morgan's physically more plausible plume theory. Hawaii, the "mother" of all plumes/hotspots, has become the focus of a continuing burden-of-proof battle about the existence of mantle plumes. The monotonic age progression of this island chain has been amply confirmed, but the hotspot locus is not perfectly fixed, and this has been taken to be a failed test of the plume model. Numerous numerical experiments in bottom-heated settings have demonstrated that plumes are a physically natural mode of convection, but antiplumers focus on the fact that in internally heated media, plumes are unlikely. Early proposals of propagating lithospheric fractures with magma tapped from the underlying asthenosphere have never been sufficiently developed to seriously compete with the convection models. Geochemists eagerly adopted the plume model and developed highly model-dependent criteria for identifying mantle plumes, but these are easily knocked down, because most geochemical tracers carry no information about the specific mantle depth being sampled. Conversely, petrological-geochemical models invoking exclusively asthenospheric magma sources have not explained how, in the absence of a Bunsen burner, high melt production can be localized in one geographic spot for 108 years. Our work has focussed on using dynamic modelling to trace the path of geochemical heterogeneities from the base of the mantle to the volcanoes. We find that large-scale heterogeneities existing in the lower thermal boundary layer are drawn into close proximity in the plume conduit and in the erupting volcanoes. Geochemistry cannot prove mantle plumes, but plumes offer a promising path to understanding the geochemistry of the deep mantle.

  11. Fifty Years of Quasars: Physical Insights and Potential for Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulentic, J. W.; Marziani, P.; Dultzin, D.; D'Onofrio, M.; del Olmo, A.

    2014-12-01

    Last year (2013) was more or less the 50th anniversary of the discovery of quasars. It is an interesting time to review what we know (and don't know) about them both empirically and theoretically. These compact sources involving line emitting plasma show extraordinary luminosities extending to one thousand times that of our Milky Way in emitting volumes of a few solar system diameters (log Lboi= 44.0 - 48.0 erg s-1: D=1-3 light months ~ 103 - 104 gravitational radii). The advent of 8-10 meter class telescopes enables us to study them spectroscopically in ever greater detail. In 2000 we introduced a 4D Eigenvector 1 parameters space involving optical, UV and X- ray measures designed to serve as a 4D equivalent of the 2D H-R diagram so important for depicting the diversity of stellar types and evolutionary states. This diagram has revealed a principal sequence of quasars distinguished by Eddington ratio (proportional to the accretion rate per unit mass). Thus while stellar differences are primarily driven by the mass of a star, quasar differences are apparently driven by the ratio of luminosity-to-mass. Out of this work has emerged the concept of two quasars populations A and B separated at Eddington ratio around 0.2 which maximizes quasar multispectral differences. The mysterious 8% of quasars that are radio-loud belong to population B which are the lowest accretors with the largest black hole masses. Finally we consider the most extreme population A quasars which are the highest accretors and in some cases are among the youngest quasars. We describe how these sources might be exploited as standard candles for cosmology.

  12. Fifty Years of THERP and Human Reliability Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring

    2012-06-01

    In 1962 at a Human Factors Society symposium, Alan Swain presented a paper introducing a Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction (THERP). This was followed in 1963 by a Sandia Laboratories monograph outlining basic human error quantification using THERP and, in 1964, by a special journal edition of Human Factors on quantification of human performance. Throughout the 1960s, Swain and his colleagues focused on collecting human performance data for the Sandia Human Error Rate Bank (SHERB), primarily in connection with supporting the reliability of nuclear weapons assembly in the US. In 1969, Swain met with Jens Rasmussen of Risø National Laboratory and discussed the applicability of THERP to nuclear power applications. By 1975, in WASH-1400, Swain had articulated the use of THERP for nuclear power applications, and the approach was finalized in the watershed publication of the NUREG/CR-1278 in 1983. THERP is now 50 years old, and remains the most well known and most widely used HRA method. In this paper, the author discusses the history of THERP, based on published reports and personal communication and interviews with Swain. The author also outlines the significance of THERP. The foundations of human reliability analysis are found in THERP: human failure events, task analysis, performance shaping factors, human error probabilities, dependence, event trees, recovery, and pre- and post-initiating events were all introduced in THERP. While THERP is not without its detractors, and it is showing signs of its age in the face of newer technological applications, the longevity of THERP is a testament of its tremendous significance. THERP started the field of human reliability analysis. This paper concludes with a discussion of THERP in the context of newer methods, which can be seen as extensions of or departures from Swain’s pioneering work.

  13. Serving the Nation for Fifty Years: 1952 - 2002 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory [LLNL], Fifty Years of Accomplishments

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    2002-01-01

    For 50 years, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has been making history and making a difference. The outstanding efforts by a dedicated work force have led to many remarkable accomplishments. Creative individuals and interdisciplinary teams at the Laboratory have sought breakthrough advances to strengthen national security and to help meet other enduring national needs. The Laboratory's rich history includes many interwoven stories -- from the first nuclear test failure to accomplishments meeting today's challenges. Many stories are tied to Livermore's national security mission, which has evolved to include ensuring the safety, security, and reliability of the nation's nuclear weapons without conducting nuclear tests and preventing the proliferation and use of weapons of mass destruction. Throughout its history and in its wide range of research activities, Livermore has achieved breakthroughs in applied and basic science, remarkable feats of engineering, and extraordinary advances in experimental and computational capabilities. From the many stories to tell, one has been selected for each year of the Laboratory's history. Together, these stories give a sense of the Laboratory -- its lasting focus on important missions, dedication to scientific and technical excellence, and drive to made the world more secure and a better place to live.

  14. A case of tinnitus induced by chlorpromazine in a pediatric patient

    PubMed Central

    Carnovale, Carla; Pellegrino, Paolo; Beretta, Silvia; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo; Perrone, Valentina; Antoniazzi, Stefania; Pozzi, Marco; Clementi, Emilio; Radice, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Chlorpromazine is a well-known antipsychotic agent that binds with a variety of receptors in the central nervous system. To date, chlorpromazine has never been associated with onset of hearing disorders and tinnitus. We report on an unexpected suspect adverse reaction to chlorpromazine that occurred in a 12-year-old boy, affected by severe generalized anxiety disorder. After treatment with chlorpromazine, the patient experienced an enhanced sensitivity to sounds accompanied by perception of noises of the buzzing or ringing type. This clinical case is of great clinical interest as chlorpromazine is not currently included among potentially ototoxic drugs. PMID:24799822

  15. Deterrence, denuclearization, and proliferation: Alternative visions of the next fifty years

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1994-02-12

    The great library of Alexandria may have contained fewer volumes than the number which have been written on the subject of nuclear weapons in the Cold War. With the end of the Cold War, a new nuclear library is in the making. Much thought is being given to the next steps in nuclear policy, strategy, forces, arms control, and nonproliferation. For this very distinguished conference, however, I have been asked to look further ahead indeed, forward fifty-years. Prognostication is always a risky business. Detailed predictions beyond the shortest duration are difficult to label as ``scientific`` even in the social sciences. Forecasting ahead fifty years in an age of ever accelerating change would seem to be hopeless. Projecting the future of nuclear weapons, however, may not be as complex as one might think. Detailing the future fifty years from now is not necessary. We want to inform upcoming decisions by examining the possibilities, not write a history in advance of what is to happen. Our look forward con benefit from a brief look back fifty years. In retrospect, those years passed quickly, and with each additional year, analysts make them appear more simple than they seemed at the time. This paper contributes further to this process of oversimplification, as we say, ``for heuristic purposes.`` When in doubt, I have erred on the side of being provocative.

  16. Fifty years of Integrated Control Concept: Moving the Model and Implementation Forward in Arizona.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: Fifty years ago Stern and colleagues outlined a simple but sophisticated idea of pest control based on the complementary action of chemical and biological control. This Integrated Control (IC) Concept has since been the driving force and conceptual foundation for all IPM program...

  17. Domain analysis of computational science - Fifty years of a scientific computing group

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, M.

    2010-02-23

    I employed bibliometric- and historical-methods to study the domain of the Scientific Computing group at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for an extended period of fifty years, from 1958 to 2007. I noted and confirmed the growing emergence of interdisciplinarity within the group. I also identified a strong, consistent mathematics and physics orientation within it.

  18. Fifty Years Later: Comments on the Further Development of a Science of Verbal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigland, Sam

    2007-01-01

    Fifty years after the publication of Skinner's "Verbal Behavior", some possibilities for the future of Skinner's "science of verbal behavior" are considered. Specifically, certain areas of development or advancement are examined which might be of special importance to the expansion and influence of the functional analysis of verbal behavior.…

  19. Werner Heisenberg and Carl Friedrich Freiherr von Weizsäcker: A Fifty-Year Friendship*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, David C.

    2015-03-01

    This paper follows Werner Heisenberg and Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker during their fifty-year friendship from 1926, when they first met in Copenhagen, to Heisenberg's death in Munich in 1976. The relationship underwent profound changes during that period, as did physics, philosophy, and German society and politics, all of which exerted important influences on their lives, work, and interactions with each other. The nature of these developments and their impact are explored in this paper.

  20. Ecology and management of a forested landscape: fifty years on the Savannah River Site.

    SciTech Connect

    Kilgo, John, C.; Blake, John, I.

    2005-07-01

    Kilgo, John, C., and John I. Blake. 2005. Ecology and management of a forested landscape; fifty years on the Savannah River Site. Island Press. Washington, DC. John C. Kilgo and John I. Blake, eds. 479 pp. Abstract: This book chronicles and catalogs the forest management and forest restoration practices over the last 50 years at the Savannah River Site. It includes a description of the land use history, physical environment, forest management, biotic communities, threatened and endangered species and harvestable natural resources of the area known today as the Savannah River Site, South Carolina.

  1. Fifty Years of Ornithological Coverage at SRS: What Species and Groups Have Fallen Through the Cracks?

    SciTech Connect

    McCallum, D.A.; Leatherman, S.; Mayer, J.J.

    2000-10-01

    The extensive databases on avian species developed at SRS over the last fifty years have been significant. The authors identified that temporal periods and higher taxonomic groups have received little or no coverage. Waterfowl and water birds have been adequately covered as have the three endangered species. Extensive terrestrial monitoring was initiated in the 1990's. Two groups are singled out for study include raptors and cavity nesters. Aerial foragers and nocturnal species have received little attention. Recommendations are made to compare on-site and off-site populations through partnerships.

  2. The Research of Dr. Joanne Simpson: Fifty Years Investigating Hurricanes, Tropical Clouds and Cloud Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W. -K.; Halverson, J.; Adler, R.; Garstang, M.; Houze, R., Jr.; LeMone, M.; Pielke, R., Sr.; Woodley, W.; O'C.Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This AMS Meteorological Monographs is dedicated to Dr. Joanne Simpson for her many pioneering research efforts in tropical meteorology during her fifty-year career. Dr. Simpson's major areas of scientific research involved the "hot tower" hypothesis and its role in hurricanes, structure and maintenance of trade winds, air-sea interaction, and observations and the mechanism for hurricanes and waterspouts. She was also a pioneer in cloud modeling with the first one-dimensional model and had the first cumulus model on a computer. She also played a major role in planning and leading observational experiments on convective cloud systems. The launch of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, a joint U.S.-Japan project, in November of 1997 made it possible for quantitative measurements of tropical rainfall to be obtained on a continuous basis over the entire global tropics. Dr. Simpson was the TRAM Project Scientist from 1986 until its launch in 1997. Her efforts during this crucial period ensured that the mission was both well planned scientifically and well engineered as well as within budget. In this paper, Dr. J. Simpson's nine specific accomplishments during her fifty-year career: (1) hot tower hypothesis, (2) hurricanes, (3) airflow and clouds over heated islands, (4) cloud models, (5) trade winds and their role in cumulus development, (6) air-sea interaction, (7) cloud-cloud interactions and mergers, (8) waterspouts, and (9) TRMM science, will be described and discussed.

  3. Microprobe analysis of chlorpromazine pigmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Benning, T.L.; McCormack, K.M.; Ingram, P.; Kaplan, D.L.; Shelburne, J.D.

    1988-10-01

    We describe the histochemical, ultrastructural, and microanalytical features of a skin biopsy specimen obtained from a patient with chlorpromazine pigmentation. Golden-brown pigment granules were present in the dermis, predominantly in a perivascular arrangement. The granules stained positively with the Fontana-Masson stain for silver-reducing substances and negatively with Perl's stain for iron. Electron microscopy revealed dense inclusion bodies in dermal histiocytes, pericytes, endothelial cells, and Schwann cells, as well as lying free in the extracellular matrix. These ''chlorpromazine bodies'' were quite dense even in unosmicated, unstained ultrathin sections, indicating that the pigmentation is related, at least in part, to the inclusions. Microprobe analysis of the chlorpromazine bodies revealed a striking peak for sulfur, which strongly suggests the presence of the drug or its metabolite within these inclusions.

  4. A Report on the Hysteroscopic Removal of a Gräfenberg Ring After Almost Fifty Years in Utero.

    PubMed

    Baldauf, P; Tönnes, R; Simon, S; David, M

    2014-11-01

    A report on the hysteroscopic removal of a Gräfenberg ring after almost fifty years in utero. In addition to the differential diagnostic considerations, the medical history aspects of this case are particularly interesting. PMID:25484377

  5. Fifty Years of Progress, 1937-1987 [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL, LBNL)

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Budinger, T. F. (ed.)

    1987-01-01

    This booklet was prepared for the 50th anniversary of medical and biological research at the Donner Laboratory and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory of the University of California. The intent is to present historical facts and to highlight important facets of fifty years of accomplishments in medical and biological sciences. A list of selected scientific publications from 1937 to 1960 is included to demonstrate the character and lasting importance of early pioneering work. The organizational concept is to show the research themes starting with the history, then discoveries of medically important radionuclides, then the use of accelerated charged particles in therapy, next human physiology studies then sequentially studies of biology from tissues to macromolecules; and finally studies of the genetic code.

  6. Bovine pancreatic ribonuclease: fifty years of the first enzymatic reaction mechanism.

    PubMed

    Cuchillo, Claudi M; Nogués, M Victòria; Raines, Ronald T

    2011-09-20

    Fifty years ago, the group of Tony Mathias and Bob Rabin at University College London deduced the first mechanism for catalysis by an enzyme, ribonuclease [Findlay, D., Herries, D. G., Mathias, A. P., Rabin, B. R., and Ross, C. A. (1961) Nature 190, 781-784]. Here, we celebrate this historic accomplishment by surveying knowledge of enzymology and protein science at that time, facts that led to the formulation of the mechanism, criticisms and alternative mechanisms, data that supported the proposed mechanism, and some of the refinements that have since provided a more precise picture of catalysis of RNA cleavage by ribonucleases. The Mathias and Rabin mechanism has appeared in numerous textbooks, monographs, and reviews and continues to have a profound impact on biochemistry. PMID:21838247

  7. Psychological Resources and Self-rated Health Status on Fifty-year-old Women

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study is to expand knowledge about predictors of the self-rated health and mental health in fifty-year-old women. The study exploring links between self-rated mental/health and optimism, self-esteem, acceptance of the changes in physical look and some sociodemographic factors. Methods Participants in this study were 209 women aged 50 to 59. A single-items measures of self-rated health and mental health were used. Self-esteem was measured through the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; optimism through the OPEB questionnaire; acceptance of the changes in physical look was rated by respondents on a seven-point scale. Participants were also asked about weight loss attempts, the amount of leisure time, and going on vacation during the last year. Results Predictors of the self-rated mental health in women in the age range of 50 to 59 were: acceptance of the changes in physical look, self-esteem and optimism. Predictors of the self-rated health were: optimism and acceptance of the changes in physical look. Conclusion Optimism and acceptance of the changes in physical look seem to be important factors that may impact subjective health both physical and mental of women in their 50s. The role of the leisure time and vacation in instilling the subjective health requires further investigation. PMID:26793678

  8. Withdrawal of chronic chlorpromazine medication: an experimental analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Marholin, D; Touchette, P E; Stewart, R M

    1979-01-01

    Approximately 50% of all institutionalized, mentally retarded adults receive psychotropic medication to control inappropriate behavior. In this study, behaviors exhibited by five retarded adults were formally observed while they were on and off medication. Each subject had been receiving chlorpromazine for six or more years prior to the start of the study. The drug was withdrawn and readministered using a double-blind B-A-B (drug placebo-drug) design. Effects were highly individualized. Some desirable behavior emerged when chlorpromazine was discontinued. PMID:489476

  9. FOREWORD: Fifty years of atomic time-keeping: 1955 to 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Terry

    2005-06-01

    The year 2005 is the centenary of Einstein's four famous papers that were published in 1905. This anniversary is being widely celebrated all over the world and, indeed, 2005 has been dubbed World Year of Physics. The year 2005, however, also marks the fiftieth anniversary of the first operation of Essen and Parry's caesium beam atomic frequency standard at the NPL in May 1955. While Einstein's papers signalled a revolution in physics and in our understanding of the natural world, the first atomic clock signalled a revolution in time-keeping that has become, among other things, one of the most powerful tools in pushing back the frontiers of Einstein's theories of special and general relativity. The atomic clock has also had consequences for navigation comparable to those brought about by Harrison's mechanical clocks almost exactly two hundred years before. Harrison's H3 was completed in 1757 and H4 in 1759. The atomic clock, and the creation of an atomic time scale that quickly followed, led ten years later to the adoption of an atomic definition for the SI second in Resolution 1 of the 13th General Conference on Weights and Measures, 1967/68. This marked the end of time-keeping based on the movements of the heavenly bodies that had beaten the rhythm of the days and the seasons since the dawn of human civilization. Fifty years on is a good occasion to look back, to look forward and at the same time to examine where we are today, in terms of measuring time. While we still arrange for our atomic clocks to show noon when the sun is overhead on the Greenwich meridian, everything else has changed in the fifty years since 1955. In this special issue of Metrologia the reader will find articles on the development of the atomic clock, its theory and practice, how the first atomic time scale was devised and formally introduced and how we maintain atomic time today, as well as articles looking forward to even more accurate clocks and time scales. Included also are articles on

  10. Emerging frontiers of pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia: The metamorphosis in the last fifty years

    PubMed Central

    Asiri, Yousif A.

    2010-01-01

    The trends in the quality of biomedical education in pharmacy schools have witnessed significant changes in the 21st century. With the advent of continuous revision and standardization processes of medical curricula throughout the world, the focus has been on imparting quality education. This pedagogic paradigm has shifted to pharmacy schools. In Saudi Arabia, the concept of “medical and pharmacy education” is relatively new as mainstream pharmacy curriculum and universities were established only half a century ago. This period has seen major changes in the dimension of “pharmacy education” to keep pace with the education systems in the United States and Europe. As our knowledge and perceptions about pharmaceuticals change with time, this motivates educators to search for better teaching alternatives to the ever increasing number of enthusiastic and budding pharmacists. Recently, the academic system in Saudi Arabian Pharmacy has adopted a more clinically-oriented Pharm. D. curriculum. This paper deals with the major changes from the inception of a small pharmacy faculty in 1959, the College of Pharmacy at the King Saud University, Riyadh, to the model of progress and a prototype of pharmacy colleges in Saudi Arabia. The fifty year chronological array can be regarded as an epitome of progress in pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia from its traditional curriculum to the modern day Pharm. D. curriculum with a high population growth and expanding health care sector, the demand for qualified pharmacists is growing and is projected to grow considerably in the future. The number of pharmacy graduates is increasing each year by many folds and to meet the needs the system lays stress upon a constant revising and updating of the current curriculum from a global perspective. PMID:23960737

  11. Fifty years of the integrated control concept: moving the model and implementation forward in Arizona.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, Steven E; Ellsworth, Peter C

    2009-12-01

    Fifty years ago, Stern, Smith, van den Bosch and Hagen outlined a simple but sophisticated idea of pest control predicated on the complementary action of chemical and biological control. This integrated control concept has since been a driving force and conceptual foundation for all integrated pest management (IPM) programs. The four basic elements include thresholds for determining the need for control, sampling to determine critical densities, understanding and conserving the biological control capacity in the system and the use of selective insecticides or selective application methods, when needed, to augment biological control. Here we detail the development, evolution, validation and implementation of an integrated control (IC) program for whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.), in the Arizona cotton system that provides a rare example of the vision of Stern and his colleagues. Economic thresholds derived from research-based economic injury levels were developed and integrated with rapid and accurate sampling plans into validated decision tools widely adopted by consultants and growers. Extensive research that measured the interplay among pest population dynamics, biological control by indigenous natural enemies and selective insecticides using community ordination methods, predator:prey ratios, predator exclusion and demography validated the critical complementary roles played by chemical and biological control. The term 'bioresidual' was coined to describe the extended environmental resistance from biological control and other forces possible when selective insecticides are deployed. The tangible benefits have been a 70% reduction in foliar insecticides, a >$200 million saving in control costs and yield, along with enhanced utilization of ecosystem services over the last 14 years. PMID:19834884

  12. Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin, Henry Norris Russell Lecture: Fifty Years of Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbidge, E. M.

    1999-05-01

    It is easy to pick out my most memorable meeting of the AAS: the 149th meeting held in January, 1977, and hosted by the University of Hawaii, in Honolulu, HI. It was the meeting at which two traditions of the Society were broken, and we moved into the era of equal opportunity for women astronomers. Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin received the highest award of the AAS: the Henry Norris Russell Lectureship. This award had never before been available to women, otherwise Cecilia would, years earlier, have been honored for the many achievements in her lifetime of renowned astronomical research. And I, the first woman to be elected President of the AAS, had the honor of presenting the illuminated scroll to Cecilia, and of introducing her on the platform where she delivered the Henry Norris Russell Prize Lecture, entitled ``Fifty Years of Novae"(1) . Cecilia opened by comparing the experience of young and old scientists in achieving exciting results from their research, and then led us through the history of the discoveries of and about some famous novae. She described the physical picture that emerged from studies of their light curves, their spectra, and the discovery of their binary nature. Three important tables were included, listing data on cataclysmic binaries (dwarf novae) and their link to the nova phenomenon in general. She recalled that she and Sergei Gaposchkin had hesitated between the names catastrophic and cataclysmic for the dwarf novae, and decided on the latter, from the dictionary definitions of those two terms: ``a cataclysm is a great and general flood" while a catastrophe ``is a final event". The nova phenomenon is recurrent, as are the dwarf novae, and both involve an outpouring of a flood of energy. She concluded by describing her 50 years' experience with novae as presenting ``the contemporary portrait of a nova", rather than a final picture, and by forecasting that the next 50 years of discovering and studying novae will be as full of surprises as the

  13. Seismically Articulating Kilauea Volcano's Active Conduits, Rift Zones, and Faults through HVO's Second Fifty Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okubo, P.; Nakata, J.; Klein, F.; Koyanagi, R.; Thelen, W.

    2011-12-01

    While seismic monitoring of active Hawaiian volcanoes began 100 years ago, the build-up of the U. S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) seismographic network to its current configuration began in 1955, when Jerry Eaton established remote stations that telemetered data via landline to recorders at HVO. With network expansion through the 1960's, earthquake location and cataloging capabilities have evolved to afford a computer processed seismic catalog now spanning fifty years. Location accuracy and catalog completeness to smaller magnitudes have increased. Research and insights developed using HVO's seismic record have exploited the ability to seismically monitor volcanic activity at depth, to identify active regions within the volcanoes on the basis of computed hypocentral locations, to infer regions of magma storage by recognizing different families of volcanic earthquakes, and to forecast volcanic activity in both short and longer term from seismicity patterns. HVO's seismicity catalog was central to calculations of probabilistic seismic hazards. The ability to develop and implement additional analytical and interpretive capabilities has kept pace with improvements in both field and laboratory hardware and software. While the basic capabilities continue as part of HVO's core monitoring, additional interpretive capabilities now include adding details of volcanic and earthquake source regions, and viewing seismic data in juxtaposition with other observatory data streams. As HVO looks to its next century of volcano studies, research and development continue to shape the future. Broadband seismic recording at HVO has enabled extensive study by Chouet, Dawson, and co-workers of the relationship of very-long-period seismic sources beneath Kilauea's summit caldera to magma supply and transport. Recent upgrades have improved the ability to use these data in seismic cataloging and research. Data processing upgrades have bolstered the ability to

  14. Through the Looking Glass: Adult Education through the Lens of the Australian Journal of Adult Learning over Fifty Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Roger; Morrison, Anne

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we review fifty years of articles published in Australian Journal of Adult Learning in its various iterations. We examine the different roles of the journal: to illuminate the history and trends of adult education authors; to be the flagship of the adult education profession in Australia; to reflect on significant national events;…

  15. Planning for a Statewide System of Public Higher Education: Fifty Years of Trial, Error, and Eventual Success in Georgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincher, Cameron

    Fifty years of planning in the Georgia statewide system of public higher education is reviewed. Based on planning completed by survey experts in 1933 and a 1940 re-study of conditions in the university system, recurrent themes were identified including the following: the geographic distribution of institutions and programs, the role of general…

  16. A Fifty-Year Love Affair with Organic Chemistry (by William S. Johnson)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffman, Reviewed By George B.; Kauffman, Laurie M.

    1999-12-01

    This latest volume is the 20th in Jeff Seeman's projected 22-volume series of autobiographies of 20th-century organic chemists that began publication in 1990 (Kauffman, G. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A21). Unfortunately, Johnson did not live to see this volume in print. Ted Bartlett and Ray Conrow reviewed the final manuscript, galleys, and page proofs; and Ted Bartlett, Paul Bartlett, John D. Roberts, and Gilbert Stork contributed an epilogue that complements Johnson's own words, adds a warm, personal final touch that he was unable to provide, and incorporates his final research into the volume. Born in New Rochelle, New York, on February 24, 1913, William Summer Johnson attended Amherst College with the aid of a scholarship and various odd jobs such as tending furnace, washing dishes, and playing saxophone in dance bands (he seriously considered becoming a professional musician). Here he became enamored with organic chemistry, which he taught as an instructor for a year after his graduation magna cum laude in 1936. He then worked with a fellowship under Louis Fieser, who sparked his interest in steroids, at Harvard University, from which he received his M.A. (1938) and Ph.D. (1940) degrees. In 1940 Johnson joined the faculty at the University of Wisconsin, where he rose through the ranks, eventually becoming Homer Adkins Professor of Chemistry (1954-60). He began the total synthesis of steroids, the main subject of his life's work, "which soon proved to be the hottest synthetic target of the time". In 1960 he accepted an invitation to become head of and to upgrade the Stanford University Chemistry Department. With faculty recruiting as his primary concern, he was able to add Carl Djerassi, Paul J. Flory, Harden M. McConnell, Henry Taube, and Eugene E. van Tamelen to the department, resulting in its spectacular rise from 15th to 5th place in the nation. He remained at Stanford for the rest of his career, serving as department head for nine years. He died at the

  17. Interaction of chlorpromazine with DNA.

    PubMed

    Motohashi, N; Kamata, K; Meyer, R

    1990-01-01

    The mechanism of the potential anticancer agent chlorpromazine hydrochloride (CPZ) with DNA was investigated by the techniques of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), viscosity and Raman spectroscopy. It has been suggested from HPLC work that DNA nucleotides (except nucleosides) from either a CPZ-DNA system or a CPZ-nucleotide system. Furthermore, the shear stress of the viscosity of the CPZ-DNA system and the CPZ-nucleotide systems ware shown to be apparently the higher increasing than that of DNA and nucleotide alone. These systems had non-Newtonian properties for the formation of the CPZ-DNA and the CPZ-nucleotide systems under experimental conditions. The Raman spectra showed a dramatic difference at 982 cm-1 due to the symmetric P-O stretching vibration of the PO4(2-) group between dGMP and the CPZ-dGMP system. PMID:2285233

  18. Fifty-Year Record of Glacier Change Reveals Shifting Climate in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2009-01-01

    Fifty years of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research on glacier change shows recent dramatic shrinkage of glaciers in three climatic regions of the United States. These long periods of record provide clues to the climate shifts that may be driving glacier change. The USGS Benchmark Glacier Program began in 1957 as a result of research efforts during the International Geophysical Year (Meier and others, 1971). Annual data collection occurs at three glaciers that represent three climatic regions in the United States: South Cascade Glacier in the Cascade Mountains of Washington State; Wolverine Glacier on the Kenai Peninsula near Anchorage, Alaska; and Gulkana Glacier in the interior of Alaska (fig. 1).

  19. The First Fifty Years of the 4-H Program (Part 1).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Beth E.; Flanagan, Constance A.; Thomson, Joan S.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews achievements during the first 50 years of 4-H club work, including volunteer leadership development, funding support, and response to society's needs during the war years. Demonstrates how 4-H has changed to meet societal needs while remaining true to the original mission. (SK)

  20. Economies of Scale in Higher Education: Fifty Years of Research. ASHE 1985 Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkman, Paul T.; Leslie, Larry L.

    Results of empirical studies of the size-cost relationship in higher education are synthesized, with emphasis on comprehensives, standardization, and mathematical integration. Results of research on economies of scale at two- and four-year colleges and research are summarized as follows: (1) two- and four-year colleges, on average, do experience…

  1. A fifty-year follow-up of an abandoned child: a personal commentary.

    PubMed

    Beiser, H R

    1996-01-01

    A five-year-old girl came under the care of a Social Agency because of behavior problems and a severely dysfunctional family. After numerous failed placements, she was treated by the author in a State in-patient ward for a year. As an adolescent and young adult she spent eleven years in a State Institution for the Retarded. After discharge, she made contact with the author at intervals up to the age of sixty. Issues of diagnosis are discussed, as well as the dynamic basis for the long contact. PMID:8935311

  2. Degradation and restoration of soils in the Moscow River floodplain for the last fifty years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidelman, F. R.; Belichenko, M. V.; Bibin, A. S.

    2013-11-01

    During a short-term recent period (about 50 years), many floodplains of the Nonchernozemic zone were used as meadows, croplands for growing row crops, or they were abandoned. This was done to supply the populations of industrial cities with vegetables. In this case, the agrotechnical, ameliorative, and some other measures applied were often incompatible with the properties of the floodplain soils and caused their degradation. Among these measures was the elimination of grasses in the crop rotation, the monoculture of row crops, inadequate irrigation inducing systematic waterlogging, and the wide use of heavy agricultural machines. The consequences of using such technologies were investigated by the authors; on these soils, row crop were grown for 30 years and, for the next 20 years, the soils were left under fallow. Based on the data obtained, methods for the floodplain soils' protection against degradation are proposed.

  3. Fifty Years of the Index to Dental Literature: A Critical Appraisal

    PubMed Central

    1971-01-01

    The year 1971 marks the fiftieth anniversary of the Index to Dental Literature. The Index had a slow and stormy birth, with twenty-three years of hard work put in until the first volume was issued. The first Index is described and the changes in its contents and format are traced through the years until its production in 1965 by the National Library of Medicine. The current Index is analyzed with attention paid to nomenclature, classification scheme, quality of the index entries and cross references. The results of a survey of regular users of the Index are interpreted, and suggestions gleaned for the improvement of this most useful tool in dental research. Images PMID:4947815

  4. Fifty-Year Flood-Inundation Maps for Santa Rosa de Aguan, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the coastal municipality of Santa Rosa de Aguan that are prone to oceanic storm-surge flooding and wave action. The 50-year flood on the Rio Aguan (4,270 cubic meters per second), would inundate most of the area surveyed for this municipality and beyond. Therefore a detailed numerical hydraulic model was not developed for this municipality as it was for the others. The 50-year storm surge would likely produce higher water levels than the 50-year flood on the river during normal astronomical tides. The elevation of the 50-year storm surge was estimated to be 4.35 meters above normal sea level, based on hurricane probabilities and published storm-surge elevations associated with various hurricane categories. Flood-inundation maps, including areas of wave-action hazard and a color-shaded elevation map, were created from the available data and the estimated 50-year storm tide. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the hazard areas are available on a computer in the municipality of Santa Rosa de Aguan as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Data Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the maps in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report.

  5. Longstanding Hypoparathyroidism in a Fifty-Two-Year-Old Woman Misdiagnosed as Spondyloarthropathy

    PubMed Central

    Zabihiyeganeh, Mozhdeh; Jahed, Seyed Adel; Akbari, Hounaz

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Hypoparathyroidism might cause various musculoskeletal findings, resembling Spondyloarthropathies. Case Presentation: We described a 52-year-old woman, diagnosed as a case of undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy for ten years, who was unresponsive to classic anti-inflammatory therapies. She developed anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and had elevated muscle enzymes during the course of disease. On a routine checkup, marked hypocalcemia and suppressed parathyroid hormone levels were found. Calcium and calcitriol therapy led to clinical and laboratory improvement. Conclusions: This case emphasizes the importance of recognizing rheumatic manifestations of hypoparathyroidism to preclude unnecessary treatments. Serum calcium should be included in the diagnostic workup of these patients. PMID:25763244

  6. FIFTY YEARS IN PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY: Homage to Mentors, Methods, and Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herschbach, Dudley

    2000-10-01

    A nostalgic account is given of my scientific odyssey, recalling early encounters, some fateful, some just fun, with mentors, methods, and molecules. These include stories of my student years at Stanford, pursuing chemical kinetics with Harold Johnston; graduate study at Harvard, doing molecular spectroscopy with Bright Wilson; and fledgling faculty years at Berkeley, launching molecular beam studies of reaction dynamics. A few vignettes from my "ever after " era on the Harvard faculty emphasize thematic motivations or methods inviting further exploration. An Appendix provides a concise listing of colleagues in research and the topics we have pursued.

  7. The Kitty Genovese Story in Introductory Psychology Textbooks: Fifty Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Given the many inaccuracies in the original "New York Times" 38-witnesses version of the Kitty Genovese story, this study examined the accuracy of this story in current introductory psychology textbooks, 50 years later. Recent studies have shown that there is no evidence for the following three key features of the original story: (1)…

  8. Higher Education Financing in the Fifty States: Interstate Comparisons, Fiscal Year 1982. 4th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Marilyn; Halstead, D. Kent

    Information on state-level financing of higher education and on institutional revenues and expenditures is presented for fiscal year (FY) 1982, with trend data back to FY 1978. In addition to a narrative analysis, nearly 200 tables show state rankings on 46 factors involved in higher education finance. The state rankings cover state and local…

  9. Higher Education Financing in the Fifty States: Interstate Comparisons Fiscal Year 1979. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Marilyn; Halstead, D. Kent

    Information on state-level financing of higher education and on institutional revenues and expenditures is presented for fiscal year 1979. State rankings are provided on state and local government finances, support of colleges, and other trend data. Each state report consists of eight pages and is divided into eight topics: commentary on unique…

  10. Higher Education Financing in the Fifty States: Interstate Comparisons Fiscal Year 1981. 3rd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Marilyn; Halstead, D. Kent

    Information on state-level financing of higher education and on institutional revenues and expenditures is presented for fiscal year 1981. State rankings are provided on state and local government finances, support of colleges, and other trend data. Each state report consists of eight pages and is divided into eight topics: commentary on unique…

  11. Fifty-year follow-up and Strampelli anterior chamber intraocular lens

    PubMed Central

    Oakley, Carmen L.; Nigro, Matthew A.; Vote, Brendan J.

    2015-01-01

    The Strampelli anterior chamber intraocular lens was created in 1953, and was primarily used to treat myopia and aphakia. Due to the positioning of the lens, it was associated with a number of complications, and was later modified to decrease the rate of significant complications, including endothelial cell loss. This paper describes a 62-year-old man, who has had a Strampelli intraocular lens (IOL) in situ for 52 years, with relatively few complications. The case provides a framework for reflection on the significant advances in the development of IOLs since the Strampelli era. The Strampelli anterior chamber intraocular lens was created in 1953, and was primarily used to treat myopia and aphakia. Due to the positioning of the lens, it was associated with a number of complications, and was later modified to decrease the rate of significant complications, including endothelial cell loss. This paper describes a 62-year-old man, who has had a Strampelli intraocular lens (IOL) in situ for 52 years, with relatively few complications. The case provides a framework for reflection on the significant advances in the development of IOLs since the Strampelli era.

  12. Fifty Years Later: A Chance to Get ESEA Back on Track

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Joseph P.; Jackson, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Looking at the evolution of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) over the last 50 years, this paper argues that many of the racial, social, and economic inequities of 1965 that President Johnson was hoping to address have only been accelerated. It's not only time for a modern rethink on educational equity, but also a much broader set…

  13. The State of the South 2004. Fifty Years after Brown v. Board of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Alison; Guillory, Ferrel; Lipsitz, Joan; Rubin,Sarah

    2004-01-01

    State of the South 2004 is the fifth edition in North Carolina Manpower Development Corporation MDC's State of the South series, which examines the region's economic and demographic landscape and how Southerners are faring within it. This edition considers the region through the lens of public education, 50 years after the Supreme Court?s Brown…

  14. C. H. McCloy Lecture: Fifty Years of Advancements in Fitness and Activity Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbin, Charles B.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 50 years progress in fitness and activity research has been influenced by social events, technical innovations, and changes in the field of physical education and kinesiology. The conventional wisdom of the 1950s yielded to a new wisdom based on research evidence. The author's research, as well as the research of others, from 1960 to…

  15. Fifty-Year Trends in the Chemical Industry: What Do They Mean for Chemical Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Chadwick A.; Parshall, George W.

    1999-01-01

    Describes major changes that have occurred in the chemical industry over the last 50 years including trends in the development of products and processes, changes in chemical manufacturing, the globalization of business, and modifications of research laboratory practices. Discusses implications for chemistry education and predictions for future…

  16. Strategic Concepts for the Development of Chinese Education and Human Resources for the Next Fifty Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinese Education and Society, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the strategic concepts for the development of Chinese education and human resources for the next 50 years. These concepts include: (a) Strategic Choice: Human Resources Are the Most Important Resource Development; (b) Strategic Targets: Realize the "Three Steps" of Education and the "Two Promotions" of Human Resources; and…

  17. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for La Ceiba, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, M.C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of La Ceiba that would be inundated by a 50-year-flood of Rio Cangrejal. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of La Ceiba as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for a 50-year-flood discharge of 1,030 cubic meters per second on Rio Cangrejal at La Ceiba were computed using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area. There are no nearby long-term stream-gaging stations on Rio Cangrejal; therefore, the 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Cangrejal at La Ceiba was estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The drainage area and mean annual precipitation estimated for Rio Cangrejal at La Ceiba are 498 square kilometers and 2,306 millimeters, respectively.

  18. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for El Progreso, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of El Progreso that would be inundated by a 50-year flood of Rio Pelo. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of El Progreso as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for a 50-year-flood on Rio Pelo at El Progreso were estimated using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area. There are no nearby long-term stream-gaging stations on Rio Pelo; therefore, the 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Pelo, 235 cubic meters per second, was estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The drainage area and mean annual precipitation estimated for Rio Pelo at El Progreso are 47.4 square kilometers and 1,920 millimeters, respectively.

  19. Introduction to the focus issue: Fifty years of chaos: Applied and theoretical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hikihara, Takashi; Holmes, Philip; Kambe, Tsutomu; Rega, Giuseppe

    2012-12-01

    The discovery of deterministic chaos in the late nineteenth century, its subsequent study, and the development of mathematical and computational methods for its analysis have substantially influenced the sciences. Chaos is, however, only one phenomenon in the larger area of dynamical systems theory. This Focus Issue collects 13 papers, from authors and research groups representing the mathematical, physical, and biological sciences, that were presented at a symposium held at Kyoto University from November 28 to December 2, 2011. The symposium, sponsored by the International Union of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, was called 50 Years of Chaos: Applied and Theoretical. Following some historical remarks to provide a background for the last 50 years, and for chaos, this Introduction surveys the papers and identifies some common themes that appear in them and in the theory of dynamical systems.

  20. Fifty years of systemic therapy for breast cancer: from one size fits all to tailored therapy.

    PubMed

    Burstein, Harold J

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer treatment has evolved dramatically in the past 50 years. In addition to innovations in medical therapy-including widespread use of endocrine treatments, chemotherapy, and anti-HER2 agents-medical advances in genetic testing, imaging, and screening have revolutionized care. As profound as these changes in medical treatment have been, however, they are matched by a cultural transformation in the way society understands, discusses, and cares about breast cancer. Breast cancer has evolved from an unnamed affliction to a disease that is regularly featured on the front page of the newspapers, and is discussed in countless forums in traditional and social media. Clinical specialization in breast cancer among oncologists has given patients access to dedicated specialists around the country. These transformations will be highlighted through the analysis of a patient, Rachel Carson, who died 50 years ago from breast cancer. PMID:24857085

  1. Fifty-six-year-old man with anaphylaxis: A novel delayed food hypersensitivity reaction.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Kendall D; Bell, Matthew C; Pesek, Robert D; Kennedy, Joshua L

    2015-11-01

    Anaphylaxis and urticaria are commonly seen in both primary care and allergy clinics. Foods, drugs, and insects are frequent culprits for immediate reactions; however, the trigger for recurring and/or chronic episodes is often unclear. We present a 56-year-old male with recurrent symptoms of urticaria, angioedema, and anaphylaxis found to be triggered by sensitization to galactose-alpha 1, 3-galactose (alpha-gal), a novel food allergen. PMID:26625604

  2. A new experimental proposal for {sup 235}U PFNS to answer a fifty years old question

    SciTech Connect

    Kornilov, N.; Massey, T.; Grimes, S.; Voinov, A.

    2011-07-01

    The Prompt Fission Neutron Spectrum (PFNS) from {sup 235}U(n,f) is very important for various nuclear applications. It has been investigated in different experiments. In spite of {approx}50 years of experimental efforts, a continuing conflict exists at thermal neutron energy. Microscopic experimental PFNS cannot describe macroscopic data. In this report we discuss the current status of this problem and suggest a new experiment, which could possibly resolve this problem. (authors)

  3. Fifty years of ERA-EDTA Registry—a registry in transition

    PubMed Central

    Jager, Kitty J; Wanner, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    In 1964 the ERA-EDTA Registry was started as one of the first renal registries in the world. This meeting report describes how this European registry has developed over the 50 years of its existence. Where the first report presented patient numbers, nowadays the Registry acts as a platform for collaborative renal research in Europe. In addition, it provides training in epidemiology methods to nephrologists and other renal researchers. PMID:26097780

  4. Partial trisomy 21: a fifty-year follow-up visit.

    PubMed

    Hamm, J Austin; Carroll, Andrew J; Mikhail, Fady M; Korf, Bruce R; Finley, Wayne H

    2015-07-01

    We describe a clinical encounter with family members that carry a balanced translocation involving chromosomes 15 and 21 roughly 50 years after the proband was diagnosed with partial trisomy 21 due to an unbalanced translocation. We discuss how these chromosomal rearrangements have impacted the lives of these individuals, and how they responded to revisiting their diagnoses after using updated cytogenetic techniques including high resolution chromosome banding and array comparative genomic hybridization. PMID:25944586

  5. Cognitive function fifty-six years after surgical treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy: A case study.

    PubMed

    Banks, Sarah Jane; Feindel, William; Milner, Brenda; Jones-Gotman, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    We report a long-term follow-up investigation of a patient who was operated in 1954 to relieve intractable temporal lobe seizures characterized by automatism and amnesia. Neuropsychological review at 16 months after surgery showed a slight residual impairment of verbal comprehension and verbal recall and good nonverbal skills. Seizure-free since the operation except for two attacks in the early postoperative years, the patient has been off medication for 25 years and has pursued a successful career as an artist. Our investigation at 56 postoperative years focused on cognitive skills, with some emphasis on learning and memory; a clinical examination was also performed, and the anatomical extent of the resection was determined on 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. Four age- and IQ-appropriate women were tested as healthy control subjects. The patient showed material-specific impairments in language and verbal memory compared with the control subjects and also compared with her own earlier performance, but her performance on other cognitive tasks did not differ from that of the control subjects. Thus, her specific deficits had worsened over time, and she was also impaired compared with healthy individuals of her age, but her deficits remained confined to the verbal sphere, consistent with her temporal lobe seizure focus and surgery. PMID:25667864

  6. Cognitive function fifty-six years after surgical treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy: A case study☆

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Sarah Jane; Feindel, William; Milner, Brenda; Jones-Gotman, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    We report a long-term follow-up investigation of a patient who was operated in 1954 to relieve intractable temporal lobe seizures characterized by automatism and amnesia. Neuropsychological review at 16 months after surgery showed a slight residual impairment of verbal comprehension and verbal recall and good nonverbal skills. Seizure-free since the operation except for two attacks in the early postoperative years, the patient has been off medication for 25 years and has pursued a successful career as an artist. Our investigation at 56 postoperative years focused on cognitive skills, with some emphasis on learning and memory; a clinical examination was also performed, and the anatomical extent of the resection was determined on 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. Four age- and IQ-appropriate women were tested as healthy control subjects. The patient showed material-specific impairments in language and verbal memory compared with the control subjects and also compared with her own earlier performance, but her performance on other cognitive tasks did not differ from that of the control subjects. Thus, her specific deficits had worsened over time, and she was also impaired compared with healthy individuals of her age, but her deficits remained confined to the verbal sphere, consistent with her temporal lobe seizure focus and surgery. PMID:25667864

  7. Fifty-Year Trends in Atrial Fibrillation Prevalence, Incidence, Risk Factors, and Mortality in the Community

    PubMed Central

    Schnabel, Renate B.; Yin, Xiaoyan; PhilimonGona; Larson, Martin G.; Beiser, Alexa S.; McManus, David D.; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Lubitz, Steven A.; Magnani, Jared W.; Ellinor, Patrick T.; SudhaSeshadri; Wolf, Philip A; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Levy, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Comprehensive long-term data on atrial fibrillation trends in men and women are scant. Methods We investigated trends in atrial fibrillation incidence, prevalence, and risk factors, and in stroke and mortality following its onset in Framingham Heart Study participants (n=9511) from 1958 to 2007. To accommodate sex differences in atrial fibrillation risk factors and disease manifestations, sex-stratified analyses were performed. Findings During 50 years of observation (202,417 person-years), there were 1,544 new-onset atrial fibrillation cases (46.8% women). We observed about a fourfold increase in the age-adjusted prevalence and more than a tripling in age-adjusted incidence of atrial fibrillation (prevalence 20.4 versus 96.2 per 1000 person-years in men; 13.7 versus 49.4 in women; incidence rates in first versus last decade 3.7 versus 13.4 per 1000 person-years in men; 2.5 versus 8.6 in women, ptrend<0.0001). For atrial fibrillation diagnosed by ECG during routine Framingham examinations, age-adjusted prevalence increased (12.6versus 25.7 per 1000 person-years in men; 8.1 versus 11.8 in women, ptrend<0.0001). The age-adjusted incidence increased, but did not achieve statistical significance. Although the prevalence of most risk factors changed over time, their associated hazards for atrial fibrillation changed little. Multivariable-adjusted proportional hazards models revealed a 73.5% decline in stroke and a 25.4% decline in mortality following atrial fibrillation onset (ptrend=0.0001, ptrend=0.003, respectively). Interpretation Our data suggest that observed trends of increased incidence of atrial fibrillation in the community were partially due to enhanced surveillance. Stroke occurrence and mortality following atrial fibrillation onset declined over the decades, and prevalence increased approximately fourfold. The hazards for atrial fibrillation risk factors remained fairly constant. Our data indicate a need for measures to enhance early

  8. Photoaddition of chlorpromazine to DNA.

    PubMed

    Kochevar, I E; Chung, F L; Jeffrey, A M

    1984-10-01

    Chlorpromazine, 2-chloro-N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)phenothiazine (CPZ), is a frequently prescribed antipsychotic drug that causes cutaneous photosensitivity in man. CPZ is also phototoxic and photomutagenic in vitro. We have investigated the photoaddition of CPZ to DNA as a possible mechanism for these photobiologic effects. Prior to irradiation, CPZ binds non-covalently to double-stranded calf thymus DNA. At high nucleotide to CPZ ratios, the CPZ absorption maximum shifts from 305 nm to 340 nm with an isosbestic point at 323 nm and 90% of the CPZ fluorescence at 455 nm is quenched. The excitation and emission spectra for the unquenchable fluorescence are the same as those for unbound CPZ. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of unbound CPZ are restored at 0.1 mM magnesium acetate or 100 mM sodium acetate. Non-covalent binding of CPZ to heat-denatured DNA does not shift the CPZ absorption spectrum but quenches 65% of the CPZ fluorescence. Photolytic decomposition of CPZ was inhibited by binding to DNA. In the presence of high concentrations of double-stranded DNA or denatured DNA the photolysis rates were reduced by greater than 98% and 65%, respectively, compared to free CPZ. Formation of covalent photoadducts between CPZ and denatured DNA was 10-fold more efficient than photoadduct formation with double-stranded DNA. Approximately 10% of the CPZ which photodecomposed upon irradiation at 323 nm photoadded to denatured DNA. These results indicate that formation of a complex between CPZ and double-stranded DNA absorbing at 340 nm protects CPZ from photodecomposition and inhibits covalent photoadduct formation. PMID:6488389

  9. The 1953 Stanley L. Miller Experiment: Fifty Years of Prebiotic Organic Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazcano, Antonio; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2003-01-01

    The field of prebiotic chemistry effectively began with a publication in Science 50 years ago by Stanley L. Miller on the spark discharge synthesis of amino acids and other compounds using a mixture of reduced gases that were thought to represent the components of the atmosphere on the primitive Earth. On the anniversary of this landmark publication, we provide here an accounting of the events leading to the publication of the paper. We also discuss the historical aspects that lead up to the landmark Miller experiment.

  10. Soil Carbon Change During Fifty Years of Old-Field Forest Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobley, M. L.; Heine, P. R.; Billings, S. A.; Lajtha, K.; Kramer, M. G.; Richter, D. D.

    2010-12-01

    At the Calhoun Experimental Forest, a 50-year-old loblolly pine plantation in the South Carolina Piedmont, researchers have sampled soils and trees regularly since forest establishment in 1957. The Calhoun’s archived soils and data present a unique opportunity to quantify above- and belowground carbon sequestration of an economically and ecologically important ecosystem. This research explores the changes in soil organic carbon quantity, quality, and residence times following conversion of an agricultural field to a 50-year-old pine forest. Following planting of the rapidly-growing forest in an old cotton field, almost 20 years were required to observe any increases in surficial (0-7.5cm) soil carbon. Over the 50-year period, the deepest soil layer sampled (35-60cm) has experienced an on-going and significant loss of soil carbon. Thus, after 50 years, there has been no net change in SOC content of the upper 60cm of mineral soil, despite the development of a mature pine forest canopy and the accumulation of a thick acidic mor-type organic horizon. The bomb spike in radiocarbon enrichment propagated from the surface soil in the 1960s down to the 35-60cm soil in the early 1970s, showing that “new” forest carbon entered the 35-60cm soil layer. A drop in 35-60cm δ14C nearly back to pre-bomb testing levels by the mid-1980s indicated that much of this “new” carbon had been quickly respired. Taken together, the bulk soil C and isotopic data suggest that a) subsoils are sites of active carbon cycling and b) at least some “old”, slow-turnover carbon has been lost from these deeper layers. Stable isotope values have shown divergent trends over time: accumulation of new forest organic matter at the surface has depleted 13C in surface soils, while microbial- and mycorrhizal-mediated tree root uptake of nitrogen has greatly enriched 15N in 15-60cm soils over the course of forest development. For some time, the loss of SOC at depth has been hypothesized to be the

  11. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for La Lima, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of La Lima that would be inundated by Rio Chamelecon with a discharge of 500 cubic meters per second, the approximate capacity of the river channel through the city of La Lima. The 50-year flood (2,400 cubic meters per second), the original design flow to be mapped, would inundate the entire area surveyed for this municipality. Because water-surface elevations of the 50-year flood could not be mapped properly without substantially expanding the area of the survey, the available data were used instead to estimate the channel capacity of Rio Chamelecon in La Lima by trial-and-error runs of different flows in a numerical model and to estimate the increase in height of levees needed to contain flows of 1,000 and 2,400 cubic meters per second. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of La Lima as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for various discharges on Rio Chamelecon at La Lima were determined using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area and ground surveys at three bridges. Top-of-levee or top-of-channel-bank elevations and locations at the cross sections were critical to estimating the channel capacity of Rio Chamelecon

  12. Invertebrate learning and memory: Fifty years of olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension response in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Giurfa, Martin; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2012-02-01

    The honeybee Apis mellifera has emerged as a robust and influential model for the study of classical conditioning, thanks to the existence of a powerful Pavlovian conditioning protocol, the olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER). In 2011, the olfactory PER conditioning protocol celebrates 50 years since it was first introduced by Kimihisa Takeda in 1961. Here, we review its origins, developments, and perspectives in order to define future research avenues and necessary methodological and conceptual evolutions. We show that olfactory PER conditioning has become a versatile tool for the study of questions in extremely diverse fields in addition to the study of learning and memory and that it has allowed behavioral characterizations, not only of honeybees, but also of other insect species, for which the protocol was adapted. We celebrate, therefore, Takeda's original work and prompt colleagues to conceive and establish further robust behavioral tools for an accurate characterization of insect learning and memory at multiple levels of analysis. PMID:22251890

  13. [Fifty years of population growth and absorbing manual labor in Brazil, 1950-2000].

    PubMed

    Paiva, P D

    1986-01-01

    The economically active population has grown rapidly in Brazil, resulting either from population growth or increased female participation in the work force. This rhythm of growth will continue at least until the end of this century. The authors suggest that the impact of the recent decline in fertility will be moderate and will only affect the younger age groups. Despite the rapid growth of employment in the processing industry, the relative size of the so-called informal sector has remained stable since 1950. It is further predicted that, given the economically active population's rate of growth and the decrease in employment in agriculture, there will be a great demand for urban employment in the next 20 years. PMID:12143702

  14. Conservation of migratory raptors: An overview based on fifty years of raptor banding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    During the 50-year period 1931-80, 422,000 raptors were banded in the United States and Canada. Encounter rates were calculated, by decades of banding, for all birds reported outside of the l0-min block of latitude and longitude where they had been banded. Encounter rates for the various raptor species decreased from about 15-25% in the 1930s to about 1-5% in the 1970s. The percentage of encounters that were reported as shot also decreased sharply, from 55-85% for most species in the 1930s to 3-16% in the 1970s, reflecting the increase in protective state and federal legislation. During the same period the percentage of raptors found dead increased. In contrast, no such trends were apparent in raptors encountered south of the United States

  15. Trypanosomes and the solution of a fifty years-mitochondrial calcium mystery

    PubMed Central

    Docampo, Roberto; Lukeš, Julius

    2011-01-01

    The ability of mitochondria to take up Ca2+ was discovered 50 years ago. This calcium uptake, through a mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), is important not only for the regulation of cellular ATP concentration but also for more complex pathways such as shaping Ca2+ signals and activation of programmed cell death. The molecular nature of the uniporter remained unknown for decades. By a comparative study of mitochondrial protein profiles of organisms lacking or possessing MCU, such as yeast in the former case and vertebrates and trypanosomes in the latter, two groups recently found the protein that possesses all the characteristics of the MCU. These results add another success story to the already substantial contributions of trypanosomes to mammalian biochemistry. PMID:22088944

  16. Legend and legacy: Fifty years of defense production at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M.S.

    1992-09-01

    Today, the Hanford Site is engaged in the largest waste cleanup effort ever undertaken in human history. That in itself makes the endeavor historic and unique. The Hanford Site has been designated the ``flagship`` of Department of Energy (DOE) waste remediation endeavors. And, just as the wartime Hanford Project remains unmatched in history, no counterpart exists for the current waste cleanup enterprise. This report provides a summary of the extensive historical record, however, which does give a partial road map. The science of environmental monitoring pioneered at the Hanford Site, and records of this type are the most complete of any in the world, from private companies or public agencies, for the early years of Site operations. The Hanford Site was unique for establishing a detailed, scientific, and multi-faceted environmental monitoring program.

  17. Fifty Years of Diazeniumdiolate Research. From Laboratory Curiosity to Broad-Spectrum Biomedical Advances

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Here I show that a “pure” research project, seemingly totally lacking in practical application when it was first published, can years later spark a whole new scientific field with the potential to revolutionize clinical practice. A 1961 publication describing adducts of nitric oxide (NO) with certain nucleophiles attracted little notice at the time, but later work showing that the adducts could be hydrolyzed to regenerate the NO in bioactive form has provided the foundation for a host of biomedical applications. Crucial to the discovery of widely used tools for studying NO’s chemical biology as well as for the design of a variety of promising therapeutic advances has been the increasingly detailed understanding of the physicochemical properties of these “diazeniumdiolates” (also known as NONOates). PMID:21932836

  18. World meat consumption patterns: An overview of the last fifty years (1961-2011).

    PubMed

    Sans, P; Combris, P

    2015-11-01

    Driven by economic development and urbanisation, protein consumption has surged worldwide over the last 50years, rising from 61g per person per day in 1961 to 80g per person per day in 2011 [Corrected]. This contribution analyses the apparent convergence of dietary models worldwide with respect to the proportion of ABP and especially meat in intake. By using FAO data for 183 countries over the period 1961-2011, the authors show the connection between annual per capita GDP and the level of ABP (R2=0.62) and meat consumption (R2=0.62). They emphasise the surge in ABP intake in emerging countries (China, Brazil) which has partly replaced plant protein. However, for similar degrees of economic development, the composition of ABPs and the position of meat within this category vary significantly among countries, suggesting that historical, geographical, cultural and religious factors may be involved. PMID:26117396

  19. One hundred and fifty years of sprint and distance running – Past trends and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Martin; Newman, Alexandra; Whitmore, Ceri; Weiss, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sprint and distance running have experienced remarkable performance improvements over the past century. Attempts to forecast running performances share an almost similarly long history but have relied so far on relatively short data series. Here, we compile a comprehensive set of season-best performances for eight Olympically contested running events. With this data set, we conduct (1) an exponential time series analysis and (2) a power-law experience curve analysis to quantify the rate of past performance improvements and to forecast future performances until the year 2100. We find that the sprint and distance running performances of women and men improve exponentially with time and converge at yearly rates of 4% ± 3% and 2% ± 2%, respectively, towards their asymptotic limits. Running performances can also be modelled with the experience curve approach, yielding learning rates of 3% ± 1% and 6% ± 2% for the women's and men's events, respectively. Long-term trends suggest that: (1) women will continue to run 10–20% slower than men, (2) 9.50 s over 100 m dash may only be broken at the end of this century and (3) several middle- and long-distance records may be broken within the next two to three decades. The prospects of witnessing a sub-2 hour marathon before 2100 remain inconclusive. Our results should be interpreted cautiously as forecasting human behaviour is intrinsically uncertain. The future season-best sprint and distance running performances will continue to scatter around the trends identified here and may yield unexpected improvements of standing world records. PMID:26088705

  20. Retinoblastoma. Fifty Years of Progress. The LXXI Edward Jackson Memorial Lecture

    PubMed Central

    Grossniklaus, Hans E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To review the progress made in understanding the genetic basis, molecular pathology, and treatment of retinoblastoma since the previous Jackson lecture on the topic was published 50 years ago. Design Perspective based on personal experience and the literature. Methods The literature regarding retinoblastoma was reviewed since 1963. Advances in understanding the biology and treatment of retinoblastoma provided context through the author’s clinical, pathological and research experiences. Results Retinoblastoma was first identified in the 1500s and defined as a unique clinicopathologic entity in 1809. Until the mid-1900s, knowledge advanced sporadically, with technological developments of ophthalmoscopy and light microscopy, and with the introduction of surgical enucleation, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. During the last 50 years, research and treatment have progressed at an unprecedented rate due to innovations in molecular biology and the development of targeted therapies. During this time period, the retinoblastoma gene was discovered; techniques for genetic testing for retinoblastoma were developed; and plaque brachytherapy, chemoreduction, intraarterial chemotherapy, and intraocular injections of chemotherapeutic agents were successfully introduced. Conclusions Nearly all patients with retinoblastoma in developed countries can now be cured of their primary cancer- a remarkable achievement for a childhood cancer that once was uniformly fatal. Much of this success is owed to deciphering the role of the Rb gene, and the benefits of targeted therapies, such as chemoreduction with consolidation as well as intra-arterial and intravitreal chemotherapies. Going forward, the main challenge will be ensuring that access to care is available for all children, particularly those in developing countries. PMID:25065496

  1. One hundred and fifty years of sprint and distance running - Past trends and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Martin; Newman, Alexandra; Whitmore, Ceri; Weiss, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Sprint and distance running have experienced remarkable performance improvements over the past century. Attempts to forecast running performances share an almost similarly long history but have relied so far on relatively short data series. Here, we compile a comprehensive set of season-best performances for eight Olympically contested running events. With this data set, we conduct (1) an exponential time series analysis and (2) a power-law experience curve analysis to quantify the rate of past performance improvements and to forecast future performances until the year 2100. We find that the sprint and distance running performances of women and men improve exponentially with time and converge at yearly rates of 4% ± 3% and 2% ± 2%, respectively, towards their asymptotic limits. Running performances can also be modelled with the experience curve approach, yielding learning rates of 3% ± 1% and 6% ± 2% for the women's and men's events, respectively. Long-term trends suggest that: (1) women will continue to run 10-20% slower than men, (2) 9.50 s over 100 m dash may only be broken at the end of this century and (3) several middle- and long-distance records may be broken within the next two to three decades. The prospects of witnessing a sub-2 hour marathon before 2100 remain inconclusive. Our results should be interpreted cautiously as forecasting human behaviour is intrinsically uncertain. The future season-best sprint and distance running performances will continue to scatter around the trends identified here and may yield unexpected improvements of standing world records. PMID:26088705

  2. Fifty years dynamics of Russian forests: Impacts on the earth system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Kraxner, Florian

    2015-04-01

    The paper presents a succinct history of Russian forests during the time period of 1960-2010 and reanalysis of their impacts on global carbon and nitrogen cycles. We present dynamics of land cover change (including major categories of forest land) and biometric characteristics of forests (species composition, age structure, growing stock volume etc.) based on reconciling all relevant information (data of forest and land inventories, official forest management statistics, multi-sensor remote sensing products, data of forest pathological monitoring etc.). Completeness and reliability of background information was different during the period of the study. Forest inventory data and official statistics were partially modified based on relevant auxiliary information and used for 1960-2000. The analysis for 2001-2010 was provided with a crucial use of multi-sensor remote sensing data. For this last period a hybrid forest mask was developed at resolution of 230m by integration of 8 remote sensing products and using geographical weighted regression and data of crowdsourcing. During the considered 50 years forested areas of Russia substantially increased by middle of 1990s and slightly declined (at about 5%) after. Indicators needed for assessment of carbon and nitrogen cycles of forest ecosystems were defined for the entire period (aggregated estimates by decades for 1960-2000 and yearly for 2001-2010) based on unified methodology with some peculiarities following from availability of information. Major results were obtained by landscape-ecosystem method that uses as comprehensive as possible empirical and semi-empirical information on ecosystems and landscapes in form of an Integrated Land Information System and complimentary combines pool- and flux-based methods. We discuss and quantify major drivers of forest cover change (socio-economic, environmental and climatic) including forest management (harvest, reforestation and afforestation), impacts of seasonal weather on

  3. Fifty-year trends in a box turtle population in Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, R.J.; Henry, P.F.P.; Bunck, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    A survey conducted in 1995 investigated long term declines reported in a population of box turtles Terrapene Carolina monitored each decade since 1945 in bottomland hardwood forest at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Maryland. Methods duplicated past surveys in most respects, but were supplemented by radiotelemetry and a survey of dominant vegetation. Seventy different turtles were found on the 11.8 ha study area, a decline of >75% since peak populations were recorded in 1955. Searchers were less efficient in 1995 than in 1945-1975 for a variety of possible reasons. Among turtles recorded, approximately equal numbers persisted from each of the past five decades, with some individuals surviving >70 years. A sex ratio strongly favoring males was first recorded in 1975 and continued in 1995, but juveniles and subadults were found in greater proportion in 1995 than in any other survey. Six of nine radio-marked turtles left the bottomland study area and migrated to the adjoining bluffs to hibernate, suggesting more extensive movements and perhaps less stable home ranges than formerly thought. Age structure of trees indicated a gradual change to more shade-tolerant species. Examination of rates of change from survey data suggested that major losses probably resulted from changes in hydrology that exacerbated flooding in 1972, with recovery only beginning in 1995 and perhaps limited both by repeated flood events and successional changes in the forest. Slow recovery from losses may indicate that populations of the species would respond poorly to exploitation.

  4. Fifty years on: a training for the 21 century, from couple to community.

    PubMed

    Wiener, Jan; Perry, Christopher

    2006-04-01

    The paper describes the gradual transformation of the structures, process and content of the adult training at the Society of Analytical Psychology (SAP) from 1997 when the potential for individuation had gone awry through lack of a culturally relevant and coherent programme until 2005 when trainees' professional and personal individuation could be enhanced by a process and a curriculum representing fairly the interests and beliefs of the range of different approaches to Jungian psychology that are to be found in the SAP. The process has taken eight years to complete and in the paper, the authors, two successive Directors of Training, describe the persistent resistances to necessary change from within their Society, focusing in particular on the key role of the founder member; the privileging of the internal world at the expense of significant external factors; a confusion of roles among members between volunteers and professionals and last, but by no means least, the contamination of the educative task and the creation of a training community by fantasies of the mother/infant couple. PMID:16573749

  5. Fifty years of changes in UV Index and implications for skin cancer in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemus-Deschamps, Lilia; Makin, Jennifer K.

    2012-07-01

    Surface ultraviolet (UV) radiation plays an important role in human health. Increased exposure to UV radiation increases the risk of skin cancer. In Australia, public campaigns to prevent skin cancer include the promotion of daily UV forecasts. If all other atmospheric factors are equal, stratospheric ozone decreases result in UV increases. Given that Australia still has the highest skin cancer rates in the world, it is important to monitor Australia's stratospheric ozone and UV radiation levels over time because of the effects cumulative exposure can have on humans. In this paper, two long-term ozone datasets derived from surface and satellite measurements, a radiation code and atmospheric meteorological fields are used to calculate clear-sky UV radiation over a 50-year period (1959-2009) for Australia. The deviations from 1970-1980 levels show that clear-sky UV is on the rise. After the 1990s, an overall annual increase from 2 to 6% above the 1970-1980 levels was observed at all latitudes. Examining the summer and winter deviations from 1970-1980 showed that the winter signal dominated the annual changes, with winter increases almost twice those in summer. With ozone levels not expected to recover to pre-depletion levels until the middle of this century, UV levels are expected to continue to rise. Combined with Australians favoring an outdoor life-style, when temperatures are warmer, under high levels of UV, the associated risk of skin cancer will increase.

  6. Fifty years of changes in UV Index and implications for skin cancer in Australia.

    PubMed

    Lemus-Deschamps, Lilia; Makin, Jennifer K

    2012-07-01

    Surface ultraviolet (UV) radiation plays an important role in human health. Increased exposure to UV radiation increases the risk of skin cancer. In Australia, public campaigns to prevent skin cancer include the promotion of daily UV forecasts. If all other atmospheric factors are equal, stratospheric ozone decreases result in UV increases. Given that Australia still has the highest skin cancer rates in the world, it is important to monitor Australia's stratospheric ozone and UV radiation levels over time because of the effects cumulative exposure can have on humans. In this paper, two long-term ozone datasets derived from surface and satellite measurements, a radiation code and atmospheric meteorological fields are used to calculate clear-sky UV radiation over a 50-year period (1959-2009) for Australia. The deviations from 1970-1980 levels show that clear-sky UV is on the rise. After the 1990s, an overall annual increase from 2 to 6% above the 1970-1980 levels was observed at all latitudes. Examining the summer and winter deviations from 1970-1980 showed that the winter signal dominated the annual changes, with winter increases almost twice those in summer. With ozone levels not expected to recover to pre-depletion levels until the middle of this century, UV levels are expected to continue to rise. Combined with Australians favoring an outdoor life-style, when temperatures are warmer, under high levels of UV, the associated risk of skin cancer will increase. PMID:21870202

  7. The Sertoli cell: one hundred fifty years of beauty and plasticity.

    PubMed

    França, L R; Hess, R A; Dufour, J M; Hofmann, M C; Griswold, M D

    2016-03-01

    It has been one and a half centuries since Enrico Sertoli published the seminal discovery of the testicular 'nurse cell', not only a key cell in the testis, but indeed one of the most amazing cells in the vertebrate body. In this review, we begin by examining the three phases of morphological research that have occurred in the study of Sertoli cells, because microscopic anatomy was essentially the only scientific discipline available for about the first 75 years after the discovery. Biochemistry and molecular biology then changed all of biological sciences, including our understanding of the functions of Sertoli cells. Immunology and stem cell biology were not even topics of science in 1865, but they have now become major issues in our appreciation of Sertoli cell's role in spermatogenesis. We end with the universal importance and plasticity of function by comparing Sertoli cells in fish, amphibians, and mammals. In these various classes of vertebrates, Sertoli cells have quite different modes of proliferation and epithelial maintenance, cystic vs. tubular formation, yet accomplish essentially the same function but in strikingly different ways. PMID:26846984

  8. White water: Fifty years of snow research in WRR and the outlook for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturm, Matthew

    2015-07-01

    Over the past 50 years, 239 papers related to snow have been published in Water Resources Research (WRR). Seminal papers on virtually every facet of snow physics and snow water resources have appeared in the journal. These include papers on drifting snow, the snow surface energy balance, the effect of grain size on albedo, chemical elution, water movement through snow, and canopy interception. In particular, papers in WRR have explored the distribution of snow across different landscapes, providing data, process knowledge, and the basis for virtually all of the distributed snow models in use today. In this paper, I review these key contributions and provide some personal thoughts on what is likely to be the focus and nature of papers published in the next few decades, a period that is likely to see an increasing ability to map snow cover in detail, which should serve as a basis for the further development and improvement of snow models. It will also be an uncertain future, with profound changes in snow climatology predicted. I expect WRR will continue to play a key role in documenting and understanding these important cryospheric changes.

  9. The 7Q10 in South Carolina water-quality regulation: Nearly fifty years later

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feaster, Toby D.; Cantrell, Wade M.

    2010-01-01

    The annual minimum 7-day average streamflow with a 10-year recurrence interval, often referred to as the 7Q10, has a long history of being an important low-flow statistic used in water-quality management in South Carolina as evidenced by its adoption into South Carolina law in 1967. State agencies, such as the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control and the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources, use such lowflow statistics to determine Wasteload Allocations for National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System discharges, develop Total Maximum Daily Loads for streams, prepare the State Water Plan, and restrict the quantity of water that can be transferred out of basin. The U.S. Geological Survey, working cooperatively with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, is updating low-flow statistics at continuous-record streamflow gages in South Carolina on a basin-by-basin approach. Such statistics are influenced by length of record and hydrologic conditions under which the record was collected. Statewide low-flow statistics in South Carolina were last updated in 1987. Since that time several droughts have occurred with the most severe occurring from 1998-2002 and the most recent occurring from 2006-2009. The low-flow statistics for the Pee Dee River basin were the first to be completed in this ongoing investigation.

  10. The centenary of Lester Dragstedt--fifty years of therapeutic vagotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Modlin, I. M.; Darr, U.

    1994-01-01

    Lester Reynolds Dragstedt was trained initially as a physiologist and subsequently became a surgeon. He achieved renown not only because of his intellectual and technical skills, but because he was able to utilize physiological principles to define the development of surgical procedures. A humble upbringing in Anaconda, Montana was followed by a scientific education in Chicago. His brief background in surgery was obtained during a two year period spent mostly in Vienna and Budapest. At the University of Chicago, he pioneered the development of therapeutic vagotomy in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease. His research interests were many and varied, ranging from the toxemia of intestinal obstruction to the quest for a pancreatic hormone which might regulate fat metabolism. After retiring as Chairman of Surgery at the University of Chicago, he assumed a research position in surgery at the University of Florida in Gainesville. Dragstedt was a creative scientist, a superlative clinical surgeon, and a teacher honored by his pupils. The example of his life confirms the benefit of scientific inquiry when applied to clinical and surgical practice. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 PMID:7502534

  11. The big and little of fifty years of Moessbauer spectroscopy at Argonne.

    SciTech Connect

    Westfall, C.

    2005-09-20

    Using radioactive materials obtained by chance, a turntable employing gears from Heidelberg's mechanical toy shops, and other minimal equipment available in post World War II Germany, in 1959 Rudolf Moessbauer confirmed his suspicion that his graduate research had yielded ground-breaking results. He published his conclusion: an atomic nucleus in a crystal undergoes negligible recoil when it emits a low energy gamma ray and provides the entire energy to the gamma ray. In the beginning Moessbauer's news might have been dismissed. As Argonne nuclear physicist Gilbert Perlow noted: ''Everybody knew that nuclei were supposed to recoil when emitting gamma rays--people made those measurements every day''. If any such effect existed, why had no one noticed it before? The notion that some nuclei would not recoil was ''completely crazy'', in the words of the eminent University of Illinois condensed matter physicist Frederich Seitz. Intrigued, however, nuclear physicists as well as condensed matter (or solid state) physicists in various locations--but particularly at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Harwell in Britain and at Argonne and Los Alamos in the U.S.--found themselves pondering the Moessbauer spectra with its nuclear and solid state properties starting in late 1959. After an exciting year during which Moessbauer's ideas were confirmed and extended, the physics community concluded that Moessbauer was right. Moessbauer won the Nobel Prize for his work in 1961. In the 1960s and 1970s Argonne physicists produced an increasingly clear picture of the properties of matter using the spectroscopy ushered in by Moessbauer. The scale of this traditional Moessbauer spectroscopy, which required a radioactive source and other simple equipment, began quite modestly by Argonne standards. For example Argonne hosted traditional Moessbauer spectroscopy research using mostly existing equipment in the early days and equipment that cost $100,000 by the 1970s alongside work at

  12. Fifty Years of Investigations on the Origin and Nature of Hot Gases in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Edward B.

    2006-06-01

    On the basis of indirect observational evidence, in 1956 Lyman Spitzer proposed that the Galactic plane is surrounded by a corona of low density gas at temperatures of around 106 K. It took some time to confirm this idea, since observatories in space were needed to gather the required ultraviolet spectroscopic evidence and detect the soft X-ray emission. In the 1970's the Copernicus satellite recorded interstellar O VI absorption for sight lines within the Milky Way, signaling the presence of material at temperatures of about 300,000 K, and small experiments launched on sounding rockets recorded a soft X-ray background emitted by gases at temperatures of order or greater than 106 K. Theorists proposed that blast waves from supernovae could produce and maintain an extensive network of hot gas within the Galactic plane, and that such material could also invade the halo regions, either to escape as a galactic wind or to assume the form of a "Galactic fountain" as it cools radiatively, condenses, and falls back onto the plane.In recent years, ever more powerful UV and X-ray observatories that can detect both the emission and absorption by highly ionized atoms have confirmed that hot plasmas extend well outside the thin disk structures of galaxies and even permeate vast regions of space between galaxies. This material can be the product of either star formation activity within the galaxies or the accretion and shocking of more generally distributed material that accumulates in the gravitational potential wells of cosmic structures, including those identified with individual galaxies and clusters of galaxies.

  13. Maternal health in fifty years of Tanzania independence: Challenges and opportunities of reducing maternal mortality.

    PubMed

    Shija, Angela E; Msovela, Judith; Mboera, Leonard E G

    2011-12-01

    High rate of maternal death is one of the major public health concerns in Tanzania. Most of maternal deaths are caused by factors attributed to pregnancy, childbirth and poor quality of health services. More than 80% of maternal deaths can be prevented if pregnant women access essential maternity care and assured of skilled attendance at childbirth as well as emergency obstetric care. The objective of this review was to analyse maternal mortality situation in Tanzania during the past 50 years and to identify efforts, challenges and opportunities of reducing it. This paper was written through desk review of key policy documents, technical reports, publications and available internet-based literature. From 1961 to 1990 maternal mortality ratio in Tanzania had been on a downward trend from 453 to 200 per 100,000 live births. However, from 1990's there been an increasing trend to 578 per 100,000 live births. Current statistics indicate that maternal mortality ratio has dropped slightly in 2010 to 454 per 100,000 live births. Despite a high coverage (96%) in pregnant women who attend at least one antenatal clinic, only half of the women (51%) have access to skilled delivery. Coverage of emergence obstetric services is 64.5% and utilization of modern family planning method is 27%. Only about 13% of home deliveries access post natal check-up. Despite a number of efforts maternal mortality is still unacceptably high. Some of the efforts done to reduce maternal mortality in Tanzania included the following initiatives: reproductive and child survival; increased skilled delivery; maternal death audit; coordination and integration of different programs including maternal and child health services, family planning, malaria interventions, expanded program on immunization and adolescent health and nutrition programmes. These initiatives are however challenged by inadequate access to maternal health care services. In order to considerably reduce maternal deaths some of recommended

  14. Magnetite Biomineralization: Fifty years of progress, from beach-combing to the SQUID microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschvink, J. L.; Dixson, A. D.; Raub, T.

    2012-12-01

    Magnetite biomineralization was first discovered 50 years ago as a hardening agent in the teeth of the Polyplacophoran molluscs (chitons) by the late Prof. Heinz A. Lowenstam of Caltech, when he noticed unusual erosional effects produced by their grazing in the intertidal zones of Palau (Lowenstam, 1962). Since then, biogenic magnetite has been detected in a broad range of organisms, including magnetotactic bacteria, protists, insects, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals including humans. In many species, the role of ferromagnetic material as a neurophysiological transducer is demonstrated clearly through the effects of pulse-remagnetization on behavior. A brief (1 uS), properly configured magnetic discharge from a rectified LC circuit, tailored to exceed the coercivity of the magnetite, will often abolish a magnetic behavioral response, or in some cases make the organism go the wrong way. This is a unique ferromagnetic effect. The genes controlling magnetite biomineralization are well characterized in several species of bacteria, and the ability of some of these bacterial genes to initiate magnetite precipitation in mammalian cell lines argues for a common descent, probably via a magnetotactic mitochondrial ancestor. Previous studies in fish reported the presence of single-domain magnetite crystals in cells near projections of the trigeminal nerve, co-located in the olfactory epithelium. Although the cells are rare, the recent development of a spinning magnetic field technique allows easy identification and isolation of these cells for individual study (Eder et al., 2012). The cells are surprisingly magnetic, with moments hundreds of times larger than typical magnetotactic bacteria. Subsequent efforts to identify the anatomical seat of magnetoreceptors have focused on the same locations in new organisms, excluding other areas. Using SQUID moment magnetometry and SQUID scanning microscopy, we report here the unexpected presence of biogenic magnetite in

  15. Fifty years with bile acids and steroids in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Sjövall, Jan

    2004-08-01

    Cholesterol and its metabolites, e.g., steroid hormones and bile acids, constitute a class of compounds of great biological importance. Their chemistry, biochemistry, and regulation in the body have been intensely studied for more than two centuries. The author has studied aspects of the biochemistry and clinical chemistry of steroids and bile acids for more than 50 years, and this paper, which is an extended version of the Schroepfer Medal Award lecture, reviews and discusses part of this work. Development and application of analytical methods based on chromatography and mass spectrometry (MS) have been a central part of many projects, aiming at detailed characterization and quantification of metabolic profiles of steroids and bile acids under different conditions. In present terminology, much of the work may be termed steroidomics and cholanoidomics. Topics discussed are bile acids in human bile and feces, bile acid production, bacterial dehydroxylation of bile acids and steroids during the enterohepatic circulation, profiles of steroid sulfates in plasma of humans and other primates, development of neutral and ion-exchanging lipophilic derivatives of Sephadex for sample preparation and group separation of steroid and bile acid conjugates, profiles of steroids and bile acids in human urine under different conditions, hydroxylation of bile acids in liver disease, effects of alcohol-induced redox changes on steroid synthesis and metabolism, alcohol-induced changes of bile acid biosynthesis, compartmentation of bile acid synthesis studied with 3H-labeled ethanol, formation and metabolism of sulfated metabolites of progesterone in human pregnancy, abnormal patterns of these in patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy corrected by ursodeoxycholic acid, inherited and acquired defects of bile acid biosynthesis and their treatment, conjugation of bile acids and steroids with N-acetylglucosamine, sulfate-glucuronide double conjugates of hydroxycholesterols

  16. Basis of behavioral influence of chlorpromazine.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emley, G. S.; Hutchinson, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    Squirrel monkeys, studied during response-independent, periodic presentation of electric shock, engaged in biting attack behavior after shock and anticipatory manual and locomotor behavior prior to shock. For all subjects, administration of chlorpromazine caused a dose-dependent decrease in biting attack reactions and a simultaneous increase in anticipatory manual responses. Administration of d-Amphetamine increased while morphine decreased both responses. The results suggest that the tranquilizer, chlorpromazine, produces a shift in an organism's response tendency from post-event aggressivity toward pre-event anticipatory responding.

  17. Fifty Years of Pulsar Candidate Selection: From simple filters to a new principled real-time classification approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, R. J.; Stappers, B. W.; Cooper, S.; Brooke, J. M.; Knowles, J. D.

    2016-04-01

    Improving survey specifications are causing an exponential rise in pulsar candidate numbers and data volumes. We study the candidate filters used to mitigate these problems during the past fifty years. We find that some existing methods such as applying constraints on the total number of candidates collected per observation, may have detrimental effects on the success of pulsar searches. Those methods immune to such effects are found to be ill-equipped to deal with the problems associated with increasing data volumes and candidate numbers, motivating the development of new approaches. We therefore present a new method designed for on-line operation. It selects promising candidates using a purpose-built tree-based machine learning classifier, the Gaussian Hellinger Very Fast Decision Tree (GH-VFDT), and a new set of features for describing candidates. The features have been chosen so as to i) maximise the separation between candidates arising from noise and those of probable astrophysical origin, and ii) be as survey-independent as possible. Using these features our new approach can process millions of candidates in seconds (˜1 million every 15 seconds), with high levels of pulsar recall (90%+). This technique is therefore applicable to the large volumes of data expected to be produced by the Square Kilometre Array (SKA). Use of this approach has assisted in the discovery of 20 new pulsars in data obtained during the LOFAR Tied-Array All-Sky Survey (LOTAAS).

  18. Celebrating fifty years of research and applications in reminiscence and life review: state of the art and new directions.

    PubMed

    Westerhof, Gerben J; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T

    2014-04-01

    Fifty years ago, psychiatrist Robert Butler (1963) published an influential article on the recollection and evaluation of personal memories in later life. We discuss the major insights and applications in psychological gerontology that were inspired by Butler. Reminiscence and life review serve to create bonds between people, to cope with important life events, and to attribute meaning to life. We discuss a heuristic framework that relates reminiscence and life review to individual and contextual characteristics as well as to psychological resources and mental health and well-being. The increasing evidence is discussed that different types of interventions can effectively promote mental health and well-being in later life. We propose that processes of reminiscence and life review need further study. This can partly be achieved within the current research tradition by longitudinal studies and good trials that also address the processes accounting for effects of interventions. Synergy with psychological studies on autobiographical remembering and life stories will provide further innovation in the field, as these studies provide new methods and evidence of processes linked to the recollection and evaluation of personal memories. PMID:24655678

  19. Protein binding of chlorpromazine in vivo and in vitro: effect of chlorpromazine metabolite on chlorpromazine protein binding in rat.

    PubMed

    Sato, S; Koshiro, A

    1995-04-01

    The serum protein binding curve of chlorpromazine (CPZ) on the Scatchard plot in vitro was a two-phase downward curve. However, after i.v. administration of CPZ the curve was altered to an upward curve. To clarify the reasons for these in vivo changes, the influence of chlorpromazine S-oxide (CPZSO), chlorpromazine N-oxide (CPZNO), desmethylchlorpromazine (nor1-CPZ), chlorpromazine sulfone (sul-CPZ) and 7-hydroxychlorpromazine (7-OH-CPZ) on CPZ protein binding were studied in vitro. The results indicated that the characteristics of the CPZ protein binding are altered by the combination of CPZSO or CPZNO or by either of them. Since it was very difficult to explain the relationship between serum total and free concentrations of CPZ in vivo using mass-balance equations like Hill's equation or a competitive inhibition equation on the multiple binding sites for drug, the correlation between the ratio ot total concentration of CPZ metabolites and CPZ (CPZSO/CPZ or CPZNO/CPZ) and the free fraction of CPZ was examined using the in vitro and in vivo data. The correlation between the ratio of CPZSO/CPZ and the free fraction of CPZ was good in both the in vivo and the in vitro studies. There was no statistically significant difference between the population regression coefficient of the two studies. The values of the slope and the intercept became almost the same as those obtained using the in vivo studies when combined with CPZNO.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7655433

  20. Fifty years of the integrated control concept: moving the model and implementation forward in Arizona††

    PubMed Central

    Naranjo, Steven E; Ellsworth, Peter C

    2009-01-01

    Fifty years ago, Stern, Smith, van den Bosch and Hagen outlined a simple but sophisticated idea of pest control predicated on the complementary action of chemical and biological control. This integrated control concept has since been a driving force and conceptual foundation for all integrated pest management (IPM) programs. The four basic elements include thresholds for determining the need for control, sampling to determine critical densities, understanding and conserving the biological control capacity in the system and the use of selective insecticides or selective application methods, when needed, to augment biological control. Here we detail the development, evolution, validation and implementation of an integrated control (IC) program for whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.), in the Arizona cotton system that provides a rare example of the vision of Stern and his colleagues. Economic thresholds derived from research-based economic injury levels were developed and integrated with rapid and accurate sampling plans into validated decision tools widely adopted by consultants and growers. Extensive research that measured the interplay among pest population dynamics, biological control by indigenous natural enemies and selective insecticides using community ordination methods, predator:prey ratios, predator exclusion and demography validated the critical complementary roles played by chemical and biological control. The term ‘bioresidual’ was coined to describe the extended environmental resistance from biological control and other forces possible when selective insecticides are deployed. The tangible benefits have been a 70% reduction in foliar insecticides, a >$200 million saving in control costs and yield, along with enhanced utilization of ecosystem services over the last 14 years. Published in 2009 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:19834884

  1. The Cost of Postgraduate Medical Education and Continuing Medical Education: Re-Examining the Status Fifty Years Back

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The subject of the cost and value of medical education is becoming increasingly important. However, this subject is not a new one. Fifty years ago, Mr. DH Patey, Dr. OF Davies, and Dr. John Ellis published a report on the state of postgraduate medical education in the UK. The report was wide-ranging, but it made a considerable mention of cost. In this short article, I have presented the documentary research that I conducted on their report. I have analyzed it from a positivist perspective and have concentrated on the subject of cost, as it appears in their report. The authors describe reforms within postgraduate medical education; however, they are clear from the start that the issue of cost can often be a barrier to such reforms. They state the need for basic facilities for medical education, but then outline the financial barriers to their development. The authors then discuss the costs of library services for education. They state that the "annual spending on libraries varies considerably throughout the country." The authors also describe the educational experiences of newly graduated doctors. According to them, the main problem is that these doctors do not have time to attend formal educational events, and that this will not be possible until there is "a more graduated approach to responsible clinical work," something which is not possible without financial investment. While concluding their report, the authors state that the limited money invested in postgraduate medical education and continuing medical education has been well spent, and that this has had a dual effect on improving medical education as well as the standards of medical care. PMID:25802685

  2. The cost of postgraduate medical education and continuing medical education: re-examining the status fifty years back.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kieran

    2015-03-01

    The subject of the cost and value of medical education is becoming increasingly important. However, this subject is not a new one. Fifty years ago, Mr. DH Patey, Dr. OF Davies, and Dr. John Ellis published a report on the state of postgraduate medical education in the UK. The report was wide-ranging, but it made a considerable mention of cost. In this short article, I have presented the documentary research that I conducted on their report. I have analyzed it from a positivist perspective and have concentrated on the subject of cost, as it appears in their report. The authors describe reforms within postgraduate medical education; however, they are clear from the start that the issue of cost can often be a barrier to such reforms. They state the need for basic facilities for medical education, but then outline the financial barriers to their development. The authors then discuss the costs of library services for education. They state that the "annual spending on libraries varies considerably throughout the country." The authors also describe the educational experiences of newly graduated doctors. According to them, the main problem is that these doctors do not have time to attend formal educational events, and that this will not be possible until there is "a more graduated approach to responsible clinical work," something which is not possible without financial investment. While concluding their report, the authors state that the limited money invested in postgraduate medical education and continuing medical education has been well spent, and that this has had a dual effect on improving medical education as well as the standards of medical care. PMID:25802685

  3. An Ode to Stuart Hall's "The Supply of Demand": The Case of Post-Secondary Education in Ontario Fifty Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FitzGerald Murphy, Maggie

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that over fifty years have passed since its publication, Stuart Hall's article "The Supply of Demand" (1960), is remarkably relevant today. The central message that society must not be blinded by "prosperity" such that it no longer envisions and demands a better world is especially pertinent in light of the…

  4. Early Onset Priapism Under Chlorpromazine and Risperidone Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Eslami Shahrbabaki, Mahin; Sabzevari, Laya

    2011-01-01

    Priapism is a prolonged and usually painful erection which is not associated with the sexual desire. It is an uncommon urologic emergency with variety of known etiologies such as the use of psychotropic medications. Priapism under concurrent treatment with chlorpromazine and risperidone has not been reported so far. Herein, a psychotic patient who developed priapism during chlorpromazine and risperidone therapy will be reported. PMID:24644460

  5. An Interview with Joe McMann: Lessons Learned from Fifty Years of Observing Hardware and Human Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMann, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Pica Kahn conducted "An Interview with Joe McMann: Lessons Learned in Human and Hardware Behavior" on August 16, 2011. With more than 40 years of experience in the aerospace industry, McMann has gained a wealth of knowledge. This presentation focused on lessons learned in human and hardware behavior. During his many years in the industry, McMann observed that the hardware development process was intertwined with human influences, which impacted the outcome of the product.

  6. Recovery dynamics and invasibility of herbaceous plant communities after exposure to fifty-year climate extremes in different seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreesen, F. E.; De Boeck, H. J.; Janssens, I. A.; Nijs, I.

    2013-10-01

    Disturbance events such as climatic extremes may enhance the invasibility of plant communities, through the creation of gaps and the associated local increase in available resources. In this study, experimental herbaceous communities consisting of three species were subjected to 50 yr extreme drought and/or heat events, in spring, summer or autumn. In the year of the induced extremes, species mortality and end-of-season biomass were examined. In two subsequent years without further disturbances, establishment of new species was recorded. The drought and drought + heat extremes in summer and autumn induced greater plant mortality compared with the heat extremes in those seasons and compared with all extremes applied in spring, in all three originally planted species. Recovery in terms of biomass towards the end of the growing season, however, was species-specific. The dominant species, the nitrogen fixer Trifolium repens, recovered poorly from the drought and drought + heat extremes which governed the community response. Community biomass, which was heavily affected by the drought and especially by the drought + heat events in summer and autumn, reached control values already one year later. Invasibility was increased in the communities that underwent the drought + heat extremes in the first year following the extreme events, but no longer in the second year. During the two years of invasion, the community composition changed, but independently of the type and impact of the extreme event. In short, the extreme climate events greatly affected the survival and productivity of the species, modified the species composition and dominance patterns, and increased the invasibility of our plant communities. However, none of these community properties seemed to be affected in the long term, as the induced responses faded out after one or two years.

  7. Fifty-four-month survival in a 3-year-old child presenting with an aggressive metastatic dedifferentiated clival chordoma.

    PubMed

    Kearns, Ciléin; Kearns, Cónail

    2016-01-01

    Dedifferentiated chordoma is a rare, aggressive, chemoresistant and radioresistant malignancy arising from notochord remnants that can occur anywhere along the spine. Incidence in patients under 20 years of age is 1 per 250 million. We report a case of dedifferentiated clival chordoma presenting in a 3-year-old boy with pulmonary metastasis, which responded unusually well to chemotherapy, achieving complete metastatic clearance and debulking of the primary tumour. Proton beam therapy achieved further tumour control, with excellent quality of life for multiple years. On disease relapse, an atypical lateral transcondylar surgical approach achieved complete macroscopic clearance but there was cutaneous seeding. This, and continued primary site activity, failed to be controlled with targeted therapy, traditional chemotherapy and photon radiation, resulting in gradual neurological decline and death. Intensive management resulted in above-average survival despite diagnosis late in the disease course, which may be of value directing investigation into optimal management. PMID:27284102

  8. Oak Ridge National Laboratory [ORNL] Review, Vol. 25, Nos. 3 and 4, 1992 [The First Fifty Years

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Krause, C.(ed.)

    1992-01-01

    In observation of the 50th anniversary of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, this special double issue of the Review contains a history of the Laboratory, complete with photographs, drawings, and short accompanying articles. Table of contents include: Wartime Laboratory; High-flux Years; Accelerating Projects; Olympian Feats; Balancing Act; Responding to Social Needs; Energy Technologies; Diversity and Sharing; Global Outreach; Epilogue

  9. From the laboratory to the factory, by way of the countryside: Fifty years of Italian scientific cinema (1908-1958).

    PubMed

    de Ceglia, Francesco Paolo

    2012-11-01

    The history of the Italian scientific documentary is not very well known nor, with the exception of the pioneer efforts in cinema, is it contemplated in the more complete studies of the evolution of the genre. This article aims to outline the ground covered by Italian scientific cinema in the first 50 years of its existence, from the pioneering works by Roberto Omegna to the industrial documentaries of the 1950s. PMID:23832747

  10. Lauriston S. Taylor lecture: fifty years of scientific research: the importance of scholarship and the influence of politics and controversy.

    PubMed

    Brent, Robert L

    2007-11-01

    Over the past 50 years our laboratory has performed and published many studies in the fields of teratology, radiation biology and radiation embryology. The early work took place when I was a research employee at the University of Rochester Manhattan Project in 1944 and where I had my introduction to embryology and genetics. Over the years our lab has provided consultations dealing with the risks of various environmental toxicant exposures during pregnancy. With the advent of the Internet, consulting has become more rapid and efficient. In the past year our pregnancy Web site of the Health Physics Society received approximately 154,000 hits, of which over a thousand contacts were still quite anxious after reading the Web site answers and requested a personal consultation. From this extensive experience we have learned that many physicians and other counselors are not prepared to counsel patients concerning radiation risks. Approximately 8% of the patient contacts who have consulted a professional have been provided with inaccurate information that would have resulted in an unnecessary interruption of a wanted pregnancy. There are five areas of radiation embryology that are considered to be controversial. 1) Can the fetus be harmed by ionizing radiation if the fetus is not directly exposed? 2) Is the production of mental retardation from radiation during pregnancy a threshold phenomenon? 3) Does fractionation and protraction of radiation decrease the magnitude of the reproductive and developmental risks? 4) Is there a period during pregnancy when radiation will result in an increased mortality but not an increase in malformations? 5) How sensitive is the fetus to the oncogenic effects of radiation? We utilize the scientific information obtained from studies in these five areas to counsel patients concerning pregnancy radiation risks. The willingness and persistence of scientists to debate the controversial aspects of this research and apply the best available

  11. The Influence of Migration on Secular Trends in Sex Ratios at Birth in Cuba in the Past Fifty Years

    PubMed Central

    Grech, V

    2014-01-01

    Background: Secular trends have been found in the male-female ratio at birth (M/F: male births divided by total births) in various countries and this ratio is anticipated to approximate 0.515. Methods: Annual national data for male and female live births in Cuba with contingency tables were obtained from the World Health Organization and analysed. Results: There were 3 736 718 male and 3 534 270 female births (1960–96). Births declined steadily over the entire period. The male-female ratio at birth remained relatively stable over the period 1960– 1985 with significant sharp dips for the years 1966, 1980 and 1985. There was a sharp rise in M/F from 1966 to 1969, another rise after 1985, a steep drop to 1989, and then a sharp rise once more after 1993 (all p < 0.0001). Conclusion: The single year dips are associated with the passage of laws in the United States of America (USA) that facilitated Cuban entry to the USA. The increases in M/F tended to be associated with a skew toward an efflux from Cuba that was predominantly male. This paralleled the situation in the Second World War where a surplus of women left behind led to an increase in M/F in belligerent countries. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report of migration influencing M/F. PMID:25429484

  12. Changes in Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Fragile Adults over Fifty Years of Age and in Elderly People Exclusively Fed Enteral Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Mesa, Maria D.; Olza, Josune; Gonzalez-Anton, Carolina; Aguilera, Concepcion M.; Moreno-Torres, Rosario; Jimenez, Africa; Perez de la Cruz, Antonio; Ruperez, Azahara I.; Gil, Angel

    2016-01-01

    We aim to evaluate whether exclusive feeding of an enteral formula enriched with n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) affects oxidative stress and the antioxidant defence system and may improve the levels of some relevant inflammatory, and cardiovascular biomarkers in frail adults over fifty years of age and in elderly subjects. Fifty-five patients were divided into two groups and were exclusively fed a newly designed normoproteic and isocaloric enteral formula enriched with eicosapentaenoic (98 mg/d) and docosahexaenoic acids (46 mg/d) (n = 26) or a reference enteral diet (n = 29). Oxidative, inflammatory and cardiovascular risk biomarkers and red blood cell fatty acid profiles were determined at the beginning and after 90 and 180 days of feeding. The n-3 LC-PUFA percentage tended to be higher (P = 0.053) in the experimental group than in the reference group. Administration of the n-3 LC-PUFA diet did not increase oxidative stress or modify plasma antioxidant capacity but decreased antioxidant enzymatic activities. MMP-9 plasma concentration decreased with both formulae, whereas tPAI-1 tended to decrease (P = 0.116) with the administration of the experimental formula. In conclusion, administration of the new n-3 LC-PUFA-enriched product for 6 months did not negatively alter the oxidative status and improved some cardiovascular risk biomarkers. PMID:26697137

  13. Summary of Symposium on Cloud Systems, Hurricanes and TRMM: Celebration of Dr. Joanne Simpson's Career, The First Fifty Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.-K.; Adler, R.; Braun, S.; Einaudi, F.; Ferrier, B.; Halverson, J.; Heymsfield, G.; Kummerow, C.; Negri, A.; Kakar, R.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A symposium celebrating the first 50 years of Dr. Joanne Simpson's career took place at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center from December 1 - 3, 1999. This symposium consisted of presentations that focused on: historical and personal points of view concerning Dr. Simpson's research career, her interactions with the American Meteorological Society, and her leadership in TRMM; scientific interactions with Dr. Simpson that influenced personal research; research related to observations and modeling of clouds, cloud systems and hurricanes; and research related to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). There were a total of 36 presentations and 103 participants from the US, Japan and Australia. The specific presentations during the symposium are summarized in this paper.

  14. Fifty-Year Trend Towards Suppression of Wolbachia-Induced Male-Killing by Its Butterfly Host, Hypolimnas bolina

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuhashi, Wataru; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Muraji, Masahiko

    2011-01-01

    Some intracellular symbionts of arthropods induce a variety of reproductive alterations in their hosts, and the alterations tend to spread easily within the host populations. A few cases involving the spread of alteration-inducing Wolbachia bacteria in natural populations with time have been reported, but the investigations on the increasing trend in counteracting the bacterial effect on hosts in natural populations (i.e., increased resistance in hosts against the alterations) have been limited. In the present study, the prevalence of an alteration, killing of male Hypolimnas bolina (L.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) butterflies by their inherited Wolbachia strain in the wild in Japan, was surveyed over a continuous 50-year period, which is far longer than ever before analyzed in studies of dynamics between reproductive alteration-inducing symbionts and their host arthropods. Thus, the results in this study provide the first instance of a long-term trend involving a change in reproductive alteration; and it strongly suggests a change in the opposite direction (i.e., suppression of male-killing) in natural populations. This change in the current combination of the Wolbachia and butterflies appears to be dependent upon the host taxon (race). PMID:21870980

  15. Fifty Years of Flight Research: An Annotated Bibliography of Technical Publications of NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, 1946-1996

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, David F.

    1999-01-01

    Titles, authors, report numbers, and abstracts are given for more than 2200 unclassified and unrestricted technical reports and papers published from September 1946 to December 1996 by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center and its predecessor organizations. These technical reports and papers describe and give the results of 50 years of flight research performed by the NACA and NASA, from the X-1 and other early X-airplanes, to the X-15, Space Shuttle, X-29 Forward Swept Wing, and X-31 aircraft. Some of the other research airplanes tested were the D-558, phase 1 and 2; M-2, HL-10 and X-24 lifting bodies; Digital Fly-By-Wire and Supercritical Wing F-8; XB-70; YF-12; AFTI F-111 TACT and MAW; F-15 HiDEC; F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle, and F-18 Systems Research Aircraft. The citations of reports and papers are listed in chronological order, with author and aircraft indices. In addition, in the appendices, citations of 233 contractor reports, more than 200 UCLA Flight System Research Center reports and 25 video tapes are included.

  16. Effect of chlorpromazine on rat arterial lipid synthesis, in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, F.P.; Hubert, E.V.

    1982-10-01

    The effect of chlorpromazine, a major tranquilizer, on arterial lipid metabolism was studied in vitro in rat aortas incubated with (/sup 14/C)acetate and (/sup 14/C)mevalonate as lipid precursors. Chlorpromazine at a level of 0.25 mM in the incubation medium significantly reduced the incorporation of (/sup 14/C)acetate into free fatty acids (p less than 0.01) and total phospholipids (p less than 0.001) but not triglycerides. Chlorpromazine also altered the pattern of arterial phospholipids synthesized from (/sup 14/C)acetate by significantly increasing the relative proportion of phosphatidylinositol plus phosphatidylserine (p less than 0.02) and reducing the relative proportion of sphingomyelin (p less than 0.001). (/sup 14/C) Acetate incorporation into the combined fractions of steryl esters plus hydrocarbons and sterols plus diglycerides was also significantly reduced (p less than 0.001) by 0.25 mM chlorpromazine. Studies with (/sup 14/C)mevalonate showed that chlorpromazine is also an inhibitor of sterol biosynthesis in arterial tissues as evidenced by 35-40% reductions (p less than 0.05) in the formation of /sup 14/C-labeled squalene and C27 sterols.

  17. Biotransformation of chlorpromazine and methdilazine by Cunninghamella elegans.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, D; Freeman, J P; Sutherland, J B; Walker, A E; Yang, Y; Cerniglia, C E

    1996-01-01

    When tested as a microbial model for mammalian drug metabolism, the filamentous fungus Cunninghamella elegans metabolized chlorpromazine and methdilazine within 72 h. The metabolites were extracted by chloroform, separated by high-performance liquid chromatography, and characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance, mass, and UV spectroscopic analyses. The major metabolites of chlorpromazine were chlorpromazine sulfoxide (36%), N-desmethylchlorpromazine (11%), N-desmethyl-7-hydroxychlorpromazine (6%), 7-hydroxychlorpromazine sulfoxide (36%), N-hydroxychlorpromazine (11%), 7-hydroxychlorpromazine sulfoxide (5%), and chlorpromazine N-oxide (2%), all of which have been found in animal studies. The major metabolites of methdilazine were 3-hydroxymethdilazine (3%). (18)O(2) labeling experiments indicated that the oxygen atoms in methdilazine sulfoxide, methdilazine N-oxide, and 3-hydroxymethdilazine were all derived from molecular oxygen. The production of methdilazine sulfoxide and 3-hydroxymethdilazine was inhibited by the cytochrome P-450 inhibitors metyrapone and proadifen. An enzyme activity for the sulfoxidation of methdilazine was found in microsomal preparations of C. elegans. These experiments suggest that the sulfoxidation and hydroxylation of methdilazine and chlorpromazine by C. elegans are catalyzed by cytochrome P-450. PMID:8975609

  18. Fifty years of Brazilian Dental Materials Group: scientific contributions of dental materials field evaluated by systematic review

    PubMed Central

    ROSA, Wellington Luiz de Oliveira; SILVA, Tiago Machado; LIMA, Giana da Silveira; SILVA, Adriana Fernandes; PIVA, Evandro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective A systematic review was conducted to analyze Brazilian scientific and technological production related to the dental materials field over the past 50 years. Material and Methods This study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (Prisma) statement. Searches were performed until December 2014 in six databases: MedLine (PubMed), Scopus, LILACS, IBECS, BBO, and the Cochrane Library. Additionally, the Brazilian patent database (INPI - Instituto Nacional de Propriedade Industrial) was screened in order to get an overview of Brazilian technological development in the dental materials field. Two reviewers independently analyzed the documents. Only studies and patents related to dental materials were included in this review. Data regarding the material category, dental specialty, number of documents and patents, filiation countries, and the number of citations were tabulated and analyzed in Microsoft Office Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington, United States). Results A total of 115,806 studies and 53 patents were related to dental materials and were included in this review. Brazil had 8% affiliation in studies related to dental materials, and the majority of the papers published were related to dental implants (1,137 papers), synthetic resins (681 papers), dental cements (440 papers), dental alloys (392 papers) and dental adhesives (361 papers). The Brazilian technological development with patented dental materials was smaller than the scientific production. The most patented type of material was dental alloys (11 patents), followed by dental implants (8 patents) and composite resins (7 patents). Conclusions Dental materials science has had a substantial number of records, demonstrating an important presence in scientific and technological development of dentistry. In addition, it is important to approximate the relationship between academia and industry to expand the technological development in

  19. Fifty years fused to lac.

    PubMed

    Beckwith, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    I recount the history of how I became interested in the use of gene fusions for studying biological problems. Initially, selections for mutations that would restore function to an inactivated lac operon unexpectedly yielded fusions in which lac was expressed from the controlling elements of upstream genes. Subsequently, by chance, I generated strains in which the lac operon was transposed from its normal position on the chromosome to a position close to the trp operon, thus facilitating sets of useful fusions of the two operons. The development of a more generalized technique for obtaining fusions by my student Malcolm Casadaban opened up a much broader set of biological problems that could be approached with fusions. Work on these problems included the study of protein translocation across membranes, the analysis of membrane protein topology, and the discovery of the pathway of electron transfer that leads to disulfide bond formation in proteins. PMID:24024632

  20. Fifty years of migraine research.

    PubMed

    Lance, J W

    1988-05-01

    The prevalence of ice-pick pains and ice-cream headache in migrainous patients and their localisation to the habitual site of migraine headache, suggest that segments of the central pain pathways remain hyperexcitable between spontaneous attacks. Excessive afferent stimulation (flashing lights, noise, strong perfumes) or hypothalamic changes resulting from emotion, stress or the operation of some internal clock may set in motion brainstem mechanisms, including spontaneous unilateral or bilateral discharge of pain pathways. Studies in the experimental animal have shown that certain monoaminergic brainstem nuclei can influence the cerebral circulation unilaterally and that they and the trigeminal system can induce a reflex dilatation of the external carotid circulation. Descending pathways from the same brainstem nuclei cause the adrenal gland to secrete noradrenaline, which in turn can release serotonin from blood platelets. Free serotonin may become adsorbed to the arterial wall, thus increasing sensitivity to pain, augmenting afferent input and adding a pulsating quality to migrainous pain. Both neural and vascular components of migraine implicate monoamines, specifically noradrenaline and serotonin, as neurotransmitters and humoral agents. The recent pharmacological classification of serotonin (5HT) receptors indicates that agonists of a subset of the 5HT1 receptor and antagonists of 5HT2 receptors are most likely to be helpful in the treatment of migraine. PMID:3056372

  1. Fifty years of genetic load

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, B.

    1991-01-01

    This book discusses the radiation effects on Drosophila. It was originally thought that irradiating Drosophila would decrease the average fitness of the population, thereby leading to information about the detrimental effects of mutations. Surprisingly, the fitness of the irradiated population turned out to be higher than that of the control population. The original motivation for the experiment was as a test of genetic load theory. The average fitness of a population is depressed by deleterious alleles held in the population by the balance between mutation and natural selection. The depression is called the genetic load of the population. The load dose not depend on the magnitude of the deleterious effect of alleles, but only on the mutation rate.

  2. [Photodegradation of chlorpromazine, a drug-related adverse event].

    PubMed

    Chabi, Yossounon; Brahim, Kheira; Da Costa, Maryline; Caffin, Anne-Gaëlle; Camus, Gisèle; Paillet, Michel; Bohand, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    The photodegradation of an active substance during treatment is a rare drug-related adverse event which can sometimes have serious consequences. Health professionals must be aware of the specific storage and administration instructions with regard to chlorpromazine and ensure that they are respected. PMID:27085925

  3. Kinetics membrane disruption due to drug interactions of chlorpromazine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Nussio, Matthew R; Sykes, Matthew J; Miners, John O; Shapter, Joseph G

    2009-01-20

    Drug-membrane interactions assume considerable importance in pharmacokinetics and drug metabolism. Here, we present the interaction of chlorpromazine hydrochloride (CPZ) with supported phospholipid bilayers. It was demonstrated that CPZ binds rapidly to phospholipid bilayers, disturbing the molecular ordering of the phospholipids. These interactions were observed to follow first order kinetics, with an activation energy of approximately 420 kJ mol(-1). Time-dependent membrane disruption was also observed for the interaction with CPZ, such that holes appeared in the phospholipid bilayer after the interaction of CPZ. For this process of membrane disruption, "lag-burst" kinetics was demonstrated. PMID:19093750

  4. In vivo study of the mutagenicity of biperidine, pipotiazine, chlorpromazine, and haloperidol

    SciTech Connect

    de Arruda Cardoso Smith, M.; Valentim de Souza, M.A.; Pugliese, S.; Jesus Mari, J. de

    1996-04-09

    The evaluation of the mutagenic potential of drugs during long-term psychiatric use in schizophrenic patients is of interest considering that the incidence and treatment of this disorder comes in the reproductive age and that there is a close correlation between mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds. We did a case-control study involving 12 patients with schizophrenia diagnosed by DMS III-R, of whom 6 were men and 6 women, with an average age of 33.25 years (s.d. {+-} 7.44) and 12 controls matched for sex and for the same age. This is the first case-controlled study comparing patients under treatment with biperidine, pipotiazine, chlorpromazine, and haloperidol with normal controls in relation to the frequency of chromosomal lesions. 4 refs.

  5. Reactions and structural investigation of chlorpromazine radical cation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Ravi; Ghanty, Tapan K.; Mukherjee, T.

    2008-10-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies have been carried out to understand pro-oxidant behaviour of chlorpromazine radical cation (CPZ rad + ). Pulse radiolysis studies have shown that CPZ rad + oxidizes physiological antioxidants (uric acid and bilirubin), and biomolecules like, tyrosine and proteins (bovine serum albumin and casein), thereby acting as a pro-oxidant. Ab-initio quantum chemical calculations suggest structural and electronic changes on oxidation of CPZ. The calculations with Hartree-Fock and density functional methods show that ring nitrogen atom is the site of electron removal from CPZ and sulfur atom is the site of maximum spin in CPZ rad + . The calculations also suggest that oxidation of CPZ leads to increase in planarity of the tricyclic ring as well as tilting of alkyl side chain towards chlorine containing ring. The structural changes on oxidation of CPZ and spin delocalization in CPZ rad + fairly explain the pro-oxidant activity of CPZ.

  6. Phototoxicity mechanisms: chlorpromazine photosensitized damage to DNA and cell membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Kochevar, K.E.

    1981-07-01

    Photosensitized damage to biological molecules is the initial process in phototoxic responses. It is now recognized that many phototoxic compounds can photosensitize damage to more than one type of biological substrate. The in vitro light-initiated reactions of phototoxic compounds with DNA, soluble proteins and membrane components can be classified by their molecular mechanisms: (1) those in which an excited state of the phototoxic compound (or an unstable species derived from it) reacts directly with the biological substrate and (2) those in which a molecule derived from the phototoxic compound (a photoproduct or an activated oxygen species) reacts with the biological substrate. This paper describes the mechanisms by which chlorpromazine photosensitizes damage to membranes, protein and DNA and compares them to the mechanisms of photosensitization by psoralens, porphyrins, dyes, and other molecules.

  7. Chlorpromazine-induced changes in membrane micro-architecture inhibit thrombopoiesis in rat megakaryocytes.

    PubMed

    Kazama, Itsuro; Ejima, Yutaka; Endo, Yasuhiro; Toyama, Hiroaki; Matsubara, Mitsunobu; Baba, Asuka; Tachi, Masahiro

    2015-11-01

    Chlorpromazine often causes severe and persistent thrombocytopenia. Several clinical studies have suggested the presence of an as-yet-unknown mechanism in this drug-induced thrombocytopenia, by which the platelet production from megakaryocytes may directly be affected. As we previously demonstrated in rat peritoneal mast cells or adipocytes, chlorpromazine is amphiphilic and preferentially partitioned into the lipid bilayers of the plasma membrane. Therefore, it can induce some structural changes in the megakaryocyte membrane surface and thus affect the process of thrombopoiesis. In the present study, employing the standard patch-clamp whole-cell recording technique, we examined the effects of chlorpromazine on the membrane capacitance and Kv1.3-channel currents in rat megakaryocytes. By electron microscopic imaging of the cellular surface, we also examined the effects of chlorpromazine on the membrane micro-architecture of megakaryocytes. Chlorpromazine markedly decreased the membrane capacitance of megakaryocytes, indicating the decreased number of invaginated plasma membranes, which was not detected by the fluorescent imaging techniques. As shown by electron microscopy, chlorpromazine actually changed the membrane micro-architecture of megakaryocytes, and was likely to halt the process of pro-platelet formation in the cells. This drug persistently decreased the membrane capacitance and almost totally and irreversibly inhibited the Kv1.3-channel currents in megakaryocytes. This study demonstrated for the first time that chlorpromazine is likely to inhibit the process of thrombopoiesis persistently in megakaryocytes, as detected by the long-lasting decrease in the membrane capacitance and the irreversible suppression of the Kv1.3-channel currents. Chlorpromazine-induced changes in the membrane micro-architecture are thought to be responsible for its persistent effects. PMID:26299819

  8. Hydrology and Ecology of the Colorado River Delta in the Face of Changing Climate and Land Use Practices: the Next Fifty Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagler, P. L.; Glenn, E. P.

    2007-12-01

    The Lower Colorado River Delta in the U.S. and Mexico is an internationally important aquatic biome, supporting fresh water and estuarine wetlands and a riparian corridor rich in avian and other wildlife. These rich ecosystems could be severely harmed by invasive species interacting with projected climate change and land use practices over the next 50 years. It is critical to measure land cover and monitor ecosystem and land use changes because these ecosystems are supported by fresh and brackish water flows originating from flood control releases and agricultural return flows in the U.S. and Mexico. Most climate models project a drying trend in the Colorado River watershed due to global warming, decreasing the frequency of flood releases to the Delta. Total basin water storage in the reservoir system is expected to be reduced by 32-40 percent, and flow volume is expected to meet demands in only 59-75 percent of years in 50 years. The frequency of spills (years in which water is released from the reservoirs to the Delta) will decrease under a global warming scenario. However, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and ENSO events will continue to introduce variability into river flows, and there will still be years in which water is spilled to the Delta. Agricultural return flows will decrease as more water is diverted from agriculture to metropolitan use in both countries. The salinity of the ground water in Mexico, which currently supports cottonwood and willow trees in the riparian corridor, is increasing at a rate of about 20 ppm per year, and in 50 years it might be too saline for cottonwoods and willows. The riparian zone may become dominated by saltcedar and other salt-tolerant shrubs, degrading the habitat for birds and other wildlife. As flows to the Delta diminish, monitoring and active restoration projects to maintain trees and wetlands will be needed to preserve habitat value.

  9. Fifty Years of Supporting Children's Learning: A History of Public School Libraries and Federal Legislation from 1953 to 2000. NCES 2005-311

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michie, Joan S.; Holton, Barbara A.

    2005-01-01

    This report provides basic information on school libraries from 1953-54 to 1999-2000. It describes some of the key variables for which data were available over this nearly 50-year timeframe. This report provides a wealth of information drawn from more than 50 sources, the majority of which are federal surveys and reports. Data in the tables of…

  10. Preface to special section on Fifty Years of Research and Data Collection: U.S. Department of Agriculture Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed 1930

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This Special Section of Water Resources Research and the associated web site (http://www.tucson.ars.ag.gov/dap/) describe 50 years of data collection and the most recent research results at the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Walnut Gulch Experimental Waters...

  11. Fifty not out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-12-01

    What have the DESY laboratory in Germany, Richard Feynman's visionary lecture on nanotechnology, the discovery of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the "two cultures" debate got in common? The answer is that they are all half a century old this year. The DESY lab was officially launched on 18 December 1959 and is marking its 50th anniversary with a series of events that included the official opening of the PETRA III synchrotron last month. Initially a particle-physics lab pure and simple, DESY is now changing its focus to accelerator science and is set to open its massive new 1bn European X-ray Free Electron Laser in 2014 (p12).

  12. Risk factors and socioeconomic condition effects on periodontal and dental health: A pilot study among adults over fifty years of age

    PubMed Central

    Bertoldi, Carlo; Lalla, Michele; Pradelli, John Mauricio; Cortellini, Pierpaolo; Lucchi, Andrea; Zaffe, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Observational studies on the association among systemic/general and oral cavity indices, tooth loss, periodontal conditions, and socioeconomic inequalities are to be still performed in the population of Southern Europe. This study aims to determine the extent of this relationship among Italian healthy adults 50 years of age and above. Materials and Methods: Socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics, cardiovascular indicators, and systemic indices were examined by contrasting the dental indices among adult people of Northern Italy. Data were processed through correlation analysis, and multivariate analysis was carried out using seemingly unrelated regressions. Results: A total of 118 adults 50 years of age and above, after anamnesis, underwent systemic and dental examination. Their socioeconomic status was found to be inversely associated only with smoking and dental parameters. Unexpected outcomes between lifestyle and risk factors were detected. The statistical analysis showed an uneven correlation among dental indices and between those indices and the socioeconomic status, such as, a periodontal condition, apparently free from influences, unusually became worse as the socioeconomic status enhanced. Conclusions: The study outcomes indicate a relationship between tooth loss and conservative endodontic therapy, but they result in alternative choices. Nevertheless, the socioeconomic status has an inverse relationship with tooth loss and conservative endodontic therapy, but a direct relation with worsening of the periodontal condition. This pilot study highlights a need for the public health administration to adopt a socioeconomic assessment not only based on the household income, but also to accordingly improve its therapeutic course. PMID:24926214

  13. Chlorpromazine distribution in hamsters and mice bearing transplantable melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, R.G.; Greenberg, D.; Watts, K.P.; Packer, S.; Atkins, H.L.; Som, P.; Hannon, S.J.; Brill, A.B.; Fand, I.; McNally, W.P.

    1982-02-01

    Chlorpromazine (CPZ) distribution was measured in tissues of Syrian golden hamsters bearing Greene melanoma and in BALB/c mice bearing Harding-Passey melanoma. Distribution was evaluated as a function of time (0.5 to 14 days) and as a function of single and multiple doses (up to five) of from 5 to 50 mg CPZ per kg body weight. Routes of administration (i.p., i.v., p.o.) were compared. The physiological behavior of CPZ is of interest as it is used extensively as a tranquilizing drug (Thorazine). Further, since CPZ binds to the pigment melanin, the possibility exists of using CPZ to transport diagnostic or therapeutic agents to melanoma. It was found that, at 2 days postinjection, tumor/tissue concentration ratios exceeded 10 for metabolizing organs, such as liver, and 100 for background tissues, such as blood and muscle. Absolute concentrations of CPZ in tumor exceeding 100 ..mu..g CPZ per g tumor were obtained with both single and multiple doses. This selective high concentration in tumor would make CPZ an ideal vehicle for the transport of boron to tumor for use in neutron capture therapy via the /sup 10/B(n,..cap alpha..)/sup 7/Li reaction.

  14. Phototoxicity of chlorpromazine on retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Persad, S; Menon, I A; Basu, P K; Carre, F

    1988-01-01

    As it is known that chlorpromazine (CPZ) can bind to melanins as well as cause ocular phototoxicity, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of UV-visible irradiation of melanotic and amelanotic retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in the presence of CPZ. At low concentrations (5 micrograms/ml) of CPZ a photosensitization reaction took place which lysed the cells as measured by the release of 51Cr from cells labelled with chromium. At concentrations of CPZ less than 5 micrograms/ml, no significant cell lysis occurred when the cells were incubated at 37 degrees C in the dark. As the concentration of CPZ was increased to 25 micrograms/ml or more, high percentages of cells were lysed. When the melanotic RPE cells were exposed to different concentrations of CPZ and grown in culture, the cell growth (multiplication) diminished drastically with low concentrations (less than 2 micrograms/ml CPZ). Vitamin E decreased the cell lysis both in the dark and upon irradiation. Oxygen radical scavengers such as glutathione, B-carotene, mannitol, D-penicillamine as well as superoxide dismutase and catalase did not decrease cell lysis. The phototoxic effects of CPZ was found not to be due to stable photoproducts formed during irradiation of CPZ. PMID:3359800

  15. Fifty years of changes in reef flat habitats of the Grand Récif of Toliara (SW Madagascar) and the impact of gleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andréfouët, S.; Guillaume, M. M. M.; Delval, A.; Rasoamanendrika, F. M. A.; Blanchot, J.; Bruggemann, J. H.

    2013-09-01

    The Grand Récif of Toliara (GRT) in Madagascar is a large (33 km2) barrier reef system of the SW Indian Ocean that had been well investigated in the 1960s and early 1970s. A massive degradation of the reef has been reported since at least the early 1980s, just a few years after research activities ceased in the area. Examination of historical aerial photographs and modern high-resolution remote sensing images confirms a continuous loss of coral habitat on GRT outer reef flats between 1962 and 2011, with an average loss of 65 % and a range of 37-79 % loss during this 50-year period. The usual suspects of coral community declines (cyclones, bleaching and sedimentation) may have contributed to the demise of the GRT. However, an independent study (Salimo 1997) suggests that the chronic pressure of fisherman gleaning on reef flats with destructive tools is the main driver of the observed changes. Salimo's reported level of frequentation (6.8 fishermen per day and per km-2) and rates of destruction per fisherman (7.7 m2 of coral habitat h-1) yield a cumulated overall loss in agreement with the image-based rates of habitat loss. The GRT is unlikely to recover because this chronic stress is unlikely to decrease in the near future. Indeed, the GRT daily provides subsistence fishery resources for local Vezo people and to agriculturalist or pastoralist ethnic groups who have turned to exploiting coastal resources due to increasing aridity and dwindling agricultural and livestock production.

  16. The 1.3-m Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) at Kitt Peak - A Fifty year old dream Realized: Telescope Characteristics, Current Research and Education Progr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinan, Edward; Gelderman, Richard; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Carini, Michael T.; McGruder, Charles, III; Campbell, Rachel; Walter, Donald K.; Davis, Donald R.; Tedesco, Edward F.; Engle, Scott G.

    2011-03-01

    The 1.3 m Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) on Kitt Peak has a rich history, including its role as a prototype for remotely controlled telescopes during the 1960s. As such, the RCT could be considered one of the first - Telescopes from Afar. The telescope, originally called the Remotely Controlled Telescope, has been renamed the Robotically Controlled Telescope to reflect the change in operational control and mode of use. The RCT was a conceptual precursor of today's robotic telescopes, but the actual operation of a remotely controlled telescope was technologically premature for its time, and was subsequently manually operated primarily to conduct optical and infrared observations as well being used as a test bed for new spectroscopic and photometric instruments. In 1995 budget constraints forced the closing of the telescope as part of the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO), following nearly 30 years of distinguished service to KPNO. A request for proposals to operate this telescope was issued to the science community. The RCT consortium, lead by Western Kentucky University, was the successful proposer for operation of the telescope. After several difficult years of retrofitting, refurbishing, and automating the telecope and observatory dome, the telescope has returned to routine science operations in November 2009. The RCT has operated smoothly since that time, with no major interruptions. Observations of objects of interest to the consortium partners (including: comets & asteroids, variable & binary stars, exoplanets, supernovae, quasars & blazars) are being routinely obtained and evaluated. One of the distinguishing features of the RCT is that it is an autonomous observatory designed to handle diverse optical imaging and photometry programs. These include being able to automatically deal with a wide range of observing parameters such as -integration time, sky conditions, repetitions, return visits, filters, air mass, non-sidereal objects, transients etc

  17. Long-term trends in sodium and chloride in the Mohawk River, New York: the effect of fifty years of road-salt application.

    PubMed

    Godwin, K S; Hafner, S D; Buff, M F

    2003-01-01

    Ecological studies have demonstrated the adverse effects of road-salt, primarily NaCl, on water quality, flora, and fauna. In this study, we quantified changes in ionic composition and solute flux of water draining the Mohawk River Basin (9103 km(2)) in New York State, from 1952 to 1998. Using various statistical, graphical, and modeling techniques, we showed that concentrations ofNa+ and Cl- have increased by 130 and 243%, respectively, while other constituents have decreased or remained constant. The use of de-icing salt on roads within the watershed, which we estimate at 39 kg km(-2) day(-1), appears to be the primary mechanism responsible for reported increases, accounting for the increase in NaCl export from 16 to 46 kg km(-2) day(-1) over the 47-year period.Moreover, despite population decline within this rural upstate watershed, increased environmental stewardship, and The Clean Water Act, concentrations of Na+ and Cl- still increased during the 1990s. PMID:12713927

  18. A Study on Mortality Profile among Fifty Plus- (50+-) Population (FPP) of India: A 5-Year Retrospective Study at New Delhi District

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, B. L.; Kumar, Arvind; Bajaj, Amrita V.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To find out the mortality profile vis-a-vis different epidemiological factors at the time of autopsy among the 50+-Population. Material and Method. A five-year retrospective evaluation of medicolegal records between 2006 and 2010 was done at Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi. Results. A total of 493 (17.78%) cases belonged to 50+-Population age group out of total 2773 autopsies performed. The proportion of unidentified/unknown persons among this age group was 36.51%. The unnatural and natural causes constituted 44.62% and 55.38% cases, respectively. The unspecified pneumonitis (50.18%) was reported as the commonest cause followed by coronary artery disease and respiratory tuberculosis among natural ones and the transport accident (57.27%) followed by accidental and intentional self-poisoning and exposure to noxious substances and falls among the unnatural ones. Conclusion. The findings reveal that this age group most commonly dies of natural causes rather than the unnatural ones even in autopsy cases. They have definite cure with timely interventions. The study also points out the need to devise the road and home safety measures to reduce mortality among the study population. PMID:27042177

  19. [Effects of fire recurrence on fire behaviour in cork oak woodlands (Quercus suber L.) and Mediterranean shrublands over the last fifty years].

    PubMed

    Schaffhauser, Alice; Pimont, François; Curt, Thomas; Cassagne, Nathalie; Dupuy, Jean-Luc; Tatoni, Thierry

    2015-12-01

    Past fire recurrence impacts the vegetation structure, and it is consequently hypothesized to alter its future fire behaviour. We examined the fire behaviour in shrubland-forest mosaics of southeastern France, which were organized along a range of fire frequency (0 to 3-4 fires along the past 50 years) and had different time intervals between fires. The mosaic was dominated by Quercus suber L. and Erica-Cistus shrubland communities. We described the vegetation structure through measurements of tree height, base of tree crown or shrub layer, mean diameter, cover, plant water content and bulk density. We used the physical model Firetec to simulate the fire behaviour. Fire intensity, fire spread, plant water content and biomass loss varied significantly according to fire recurrence and vegetation structure, mainly linked to the time since the last fire, then the number of fires. These results confirm that past fire recurrence affects future fire behaviour, with multi-layered vegetation (particularly high shrublands) producing more intense fires, contrary to submature Quercus woodlands that have not burnt since 1959 and that are unlikely to reburn. Further simulations, with more vegetation scenes according to shrub and canopy covers, will complete this study in order to discuss the fire propagation risk in heterogeneous vegetation, particularly in the Mediterranean area, with a view to a local management of these ecosystems. PMID:26646258

  20. Adolescent Self-Organization and Adult Smoking and Drinking over Fifty Years of Follow-Up: The British 1946 Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Variations in markers of adolescent self-organization predict a range of economic and health-related outcomes in general population studies. Using a population-based birth cohort study we investigated associations between adolescent self-organization and two common factors over adulthood influencing health, smoking and alcohol consumption. The MRC National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort) was used to test associations between a dimensional measure of adolescent self-organization derived from teacher ratings, and summary longitudinal measures of smoking and alcohol consumption over the ensuing five decades. Multinomial regression models were adjusted for sex, adolescent emotional and conduct problems, occupational social class of origin, childhood cognition, educational attainment and adult occupational social class. With all covariates adjusted, higher adolescent self-organization was associated with fewer smoking pack years, although not with quitting; there was no association with alcohol consumption across adulthood (none or heavy compared with light to moderate). Adolescent self-organization appears to be protective against smoking, but not against heavy alcohol consumption. Interpretation of this differential effect should be embedded in an understanding of the social and sociodemographic context in which these health behaviours occur over time. PMID:26752724

  1. An exponential growth of computational phantom research in radiation protection, imaging, and radiotherapy: a review of the fifty-year history.

    PubMed

    Xu, X George

    2014-09-21

    Radiation dose calculation using models of the human anatomy has been a subject of great interest to radiation protection, medical imaging, and radiotherapy. However, early pioneers of this field did not foresee the exponential growth of research activity as observed today. This review article walks the reader through the history of the research and development in this field of study which started some 50 years ago. This review identifies a clear progression of computational phantom complexity which can be denoted by three distinct generations. The first generation of stylized phantoms, representing a grouping of less than dozen models, was initially developed in the 1960s at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to calculate internal doses from nuclear medicine procedures. Despite their anatomical simplicity, these computational phantoms were the best tools available at the time for internal/external dosimetry, image evaluation, and treatment dose evaluations. A second generation of a large number of voxelized phantoms arose rapidly in the late 1980s as a result of the increased availability of tomographic medical imaging and computers. Surprisingly, the last decade saw the emergence of the third generation of phantoms which are based on advanced geometries called boundary representation (BREP) in the form of Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) or polygonal meshes. This new class of phantoms now consists of over 287 models including those used for non-ionizing radiation applications. This review article aims to provide the reader with a general understanding of how the field of computational phantoms came about and the technical challenges it faced at different times. This goal is achieved by defining basic geometry modeling techniques and by analyzing selected phantoms in terms of geometrical features and dosimetric problems to be solved. The rich historical information is summarized in four tables that are aided by highlights in the text on how some of the most

  2. An exponential growth of computational phantom research in radiation protection, imaging, and radiotherapy: A review of the fifty-year history

    PubMed Central

    Xu, X. George

    2014-01-01

    Radiation dose calculation using models of the human anatomy has been a subject of great interest to radiation protection, medical imaging, and radiotherapy. However, early pioneers of this field did not foresee the exponential growth of research activity as observed today. This review article walks the reader through the history of the research and development in this field of study which started some 50 years ago. This review identifies a clear progression of computational phantom complexity which can be denoted by three distinct generations. The first generation of stylized phantoms, representing a grouping of less than dozen models, was initially developed in the 1960s at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to calculate internal doses from nuclear medicine procedures. Despite their anatomical simplicity, these computational phantoms were the best tools available at the time for internal/external dosimetry, image evaluation, and treatment dose evaluations. A second generation of a large number of voxelized phantoms arose rapidly in the late 1980s as a result of the increased availability of tomographic medical imaging and computers. Surprisingly, the last decade saw the emergence of the third generation of phantoms which are based on advanced geometries called boundary representation (BREP) in the form of Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) or polygonal meshes. This new class of phantoms now consists of over 287 models including those used for non-ionizing radiation applications. This review article aims to provide the reader with a general understanding of how the field of computational phantoms came about and the technical challenges it faced at different times. This goal is achieved by defining basic geometry modeling techniques and by analyzing selected phantoms in terms of geometrical features and dosimetric problems to be solved. The rich historical information is summarized in four tables that are aided by highlights in the text on how some of the most well

  3. Modeling soil water fluxes in two arable Chernozems with different depth to carbonates after fifty years under bare fallow and under corn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhangelskaya, Tatiana; Khokhlova, Olga

    2014-05-01

    Arable Chernozems of the East European Plain were studied in Voronezh region (51°36' N, 38°58' E, 180-185 m AMSL). The studied soils were formed on calcareous loess-like loam parent material in well-drained position with groundwater level at 8-10 m depth. The mean annual air temperature at the site is 6.9 °C, mean annual precipitation is 587 mm. The weather conditions are highly variable: the extreme values of monthly precipitation registered in June were 7 (in 1960) and 219 mm (in 1988); the extreme daily value of precipitation was 95 mm (in 1988); the extreme air temperatures registered in June were -1.6 and 38.9 °C. The first experimental plot was under corn monocrop and another one was under bare fallow for 50 years. The depth to the top of the carbonate horizon was 1.4-1.6 m under corn and 0.8 m under bare fallow. We supposed that this difference in carbonate depths is due to carbonate accumulation in the upper soil layers under bare fallow and that it can be explained by the repeating upward water fluxes, which are much greater under bare fallow than those under corn. To test this hypothesis a series of simulations was carried out using the Hydrus-1D modeling environment. Simulation of soil hydrology was performed for the vegetation period. The depth of modeled soil profile was 2 m. Sand, silt and clay contents were about 20, 40 and 40 % and were similar for both plots. The lower boundary condition was free drainage. Monthly precipitation was set equal to (1) long-term average norm, (2) half-norm, (3) two norms and (4) three norms. The monthly distribution of precipitation was either (a) two rainy days at the beginning of each month followed by 28-days dry period or (b) one rainy day at the beginning of each decade followed by 9-days dry period. Evapotranspiration during dry periods was estimated using the standardized FAO56 Penman - Monteith model. Simulations were performed for each combination of (1)-(4) and (a)-(b) conditions and for the real

  4. Chlorpromazine, clozapine and olanzapine inhibit anionic amino acid transport in cultured human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Marchesi, C; Dall'Asta, V; Rotoli, B M; Bianchi, M G; Maggini, C; Gazzola, G C; Bussolati, O

    2006-09-01

    We report here that chlorpromazine, a first generation antipsychotic drug, inhibits anionic amino acid transport mediated by system X(-) (AG) (EAAT transporters) in cultured human fibroblasts. With 30 microM chlorpromazine, transport inhibition is detectable after 3 h of treatment, maximal after 48 h (>60%), and referable to a decrease in V(max). Chlorpromazine effect is not dependent upon changes of membrane potential and is selective for system X(-) (AG) since transport systems A and y(+) are not affected. Among antipsychotic drugs, the inhibitory effect of chlorpromazine is shared by two dibenzodiazepines, clozapine and olanzapine, while other compounds, such as risperidon, zuclopentixol, sertindol and haloperidol, are not effective. Transport inhibition by clozapine and olanzapine, but not by chlorpromazine, is reversible, suggesting that the mechanisms involved are distinct. These results indicate that a subset of antipsychotic drugs inhibits EAAT transporters in non-nervous tissues and prompt further investigation on possible alterations of glutamate transport in peripheral tissues of schizophrenic patients. PMID:16699818

  5. Environment for Man, The Next Fifty Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewald, William R., Jr.

    This volume is the first of three publications emanating from the American Institute of Planners' nationwide campaign to encourage study and public education on "the future environment of a democracy." Experts in many areas scrutinize the psychological, physiological, and social needs of modern man in an attempt to discover the kind of environment…

  6. Catenanes: Fifty Years of Molecular Links

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Ramírez, Guzmán; Leigh, David A; Stephens, Alexander J

    2015-01-01

    Half a century after Schill and Lüttringhaus carried out the first directed synthesis of a [2]catenane, a plethora of strategies now exist for the construction of molecular Hopf links (singly interlocked rings), the simplest type of catenane. The precision and effectiveness with which suitable templates and/or noncovalent interactions can arrange building blocks has also enabled the synthesis of intricate and often beautiful higher order interlocked systems, including Solomon links, Borromean rings, and a Star of David catenane. This Review outlines the diverse strategies that exist for synthesizing catenanes in the 21st century and examines their emerging applications and the challenges that still exist for the synthesis of more complex topologies. PMID:25951013

  7. Sandia National Laboratories: The First Fifty Years

    SciTech Connect

    MORA,CARL J.

    1999-11-03

    On Nov. 1, 1999, Sandia National Laboratories celebrates its 50th birthday. Although Sandia has its roots in the World War II-era Manhattan Project, Sandia began operating as a separate nuclear weapons engineering laboratory under the management of AT&T on Nov. 1, 1949. Today the lab employs more than 7,000 people at its two sites in Albuquerque and Livermore, California, and has research and development missions in national security, energy and environmental technologies, and U.S. economic competitiveness. Lockheed Martin Corporation operates Sandia for the US. Department of Energy.

  8. Fifty years of stroke researches in India.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Tapas Kumar; Das, Shyamal Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the stroke incidence in India is much higher than Western industrialized countries. Large vessel intracranial atherosclerosis is the commonest cause of ischemic stroke in India. The common risk factors, that is, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, and dyslipidemia are quite prevalent and inadequately controlled; mainly because of poor public awareness and inadequate infrastructure. Only a small number of ischemic stroke cases are able to have the benefit of thrombolytic therapy. Benefits from stem cell therapy in established stroke cases are under evaluation. Presently, prevention of stroke is the best option considering the Indian scenario through control and/or avoiding risk factors of stroke. Interventional studies are an important need for this scenario. PMID:27011621

  9. Energy Resources and the Next Fifty Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landon, S. M.

    2002-05-01

    At this time, approximately 85 percent of the energy needs of the United States are supplied by fossil fuels. Crude oil currently supports transportation, generally as gasoline or jet fuel. The United States is importing roughly 60 percent of the crude oil we are now using and our domestic refining capacity is declining. Coal is providing more than 56 percent of the nation's electricity, although the use of natural gas as a fuel for electricity generation has been increasing. Natural gas, with today's technology, is considered a cleaner fuel as we continue to move toward decarbonization. The next logical phase in this historical progress will probably be the transition to pure hydrogen as an energy source, chiefly as a fuel for fuel cells. The initial source of hydrogen will probably be natural gas, given the existing infrastructure for natural gas, its cost, and its availability. Demand for natural gas is expected to peak in approximately 2050. But in the transition to an affordable, efficient, reliable, market-driven, carbon-free energy economy, substantial demand will still exist for coal and crude oil, even as these energy fuels are phased out. A massive requirement will exist for natural gas as the transition fuel since renewables will probably continue to supply only about 10 percent of our nation's electricity demand. The implied demand for coal and oil in the U. S. and the World can readily be met with existing known or probable resources; the challenge will be in assuring supplies that are secure, priced reasonably, and made ever cleaner. The implied demand for natural gas, however, exceeds the currently estimated resource base both in the U. S. and globally. For example, the currently estimated remaining resource of natural gas in the U. S. is about 2,000 TCF. The implied demand for natural gas in a methane economy, during the transition to a non-fossil source of hydrogen, is on the order of 3,000 to 4,000 TCF, half again to twice currently estimated volumes, assuming likely population growth, average economic growth of 3 percent annually, average energy efficiency of 2 percent annually, and a contribution of natural gas of more than 50 percent of total energy used. Potential additions to the resource base are from such sources as basin-centered formations, coalbed methane, sub-volcanic reservoirs, methane hydrates, among others; but many of these sources are not well understood and the practicality and cost of their availability are not known.

  10. Plastochromanol-8: fifty years of research.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Jerzy; Szymańska, Renata; Cela, Jana; Munne-Bosch, Sergi

    2014-12-01

    Plastochromanol-8 (PC-8) is an antioxidant that, together with tocopherols and tocotrienols, belongs to the group of tocochromanols. Plastochromanol-8 has been found to occur in several plant species, including mosses, and lichens. PC-8 is found in seeds, leaves and other organs of higher plants. In leaves, PC-8 is restricted to chloroplasts. The identification of tocopherol cyclase (VTE1) as the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of PC-8 suggests that plastoglobules are the primary site of its biosynthesis. Other enzymes related with PC-8 biosynthesis in plastoglobules include: NDC1 and the ABC1-like kinase ABC1K3. The antioxidant properties of PC-8 are similar to those of other chloroplastic antioxidants in polar solvents but considerably they are enhanced in hydrophobic environments, suggesting that the unsaturated side chain performs some quenching activity. As a result of a non-enzymatic reaction, singlet oxygen can oxidize any of the 8 double bonds in the side chain of PC-8, giving at least eight hydroxy-PC-8 isomers. This review summarizes current evidence of a widespread distribution of PC-8 in photosynthetic organisms, as well as the contribution of PC-8 to the pool of lipid-soluble antioxidants in both leaves and seeds. PMID:25308762

  11. Fifty years of genetic load: An odyssey

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, B.

    1991-01-01

    This book is an engaging, personalized account of attempts in population genetics to develop a useful quantitative theory of genetic load. The author concludes that genetic loads do not tell us anything about real populations because of the conceptual ambiguities and the oversimplified view of differential reproductive success.

  12. Fifty years of bistatic and multistatic radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, J. I.

    1986-12-01

    The article begins with a review of bistatic and multistatic radars, including the simultaneous introduction of radar technology in several countries during the 1930s and the various areas of technology development pursued by those countries. Technical descriptions are presented of nine different experimental systems. The article continues with a discussion of the potential military and nonmilitary advantages of bistatic radars compared with monostatic radars in special applications, including increased coverage, increased radar cross-section, avoidance of attack by antiradiation homing missiles, reduction in probability of intercept by electronic intelligence and direction-finding equipment, and elimination of interference caused by retrodirective jamming. The article concludes with an outline of several suggestions for future applications of bistatic and multistatic systems.

  13. The Fifty Year Rehabilitation of the Egg

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Donald J.

    2015-01-01

    The 1968 American Heart Association announced a dietary recommendation that all individuals consume less than 300 mg of dietary cholesterol per day and no more than three whole eggs per week. This recommendation has not only significantly impacted the dietary patterns of the population, but also resulted in the public limiting a highly nutritious and affordable source of high quality nutrients, including choline which was limited in the diets of most individuals. The egg industry addressed the egg issue with research documenting the minimal effect of egg intake on plasma lipoprotein levels, as well as research verifying the importance of egg nutrients in a variety of issues related to health promotion. In 2015 dietary cholesterol and egg restrictions have been dropped by most health promotion agencies worldwide and recommended to be dropped from the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. PMID:26506379

  14. Fifty Years of Scholarship in Media Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christians, Clifford G.

    1977-01-01

    Describes changing attitudes toward the role of mass media ethics, as reflected in the literature. Available from: Journal of Communication, The Annenberg School of Communications, University of Pennsylvania, 3620 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, $15.00 yr; $4.00 sc. (KS)

  15. Perilymph Fistula: Fifty Years of Controversy

    PubMed Central

    Hornibrook, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Perilymph fistula (PLF) is defined as a leak of perilymph at the oval or round window. It excludes other conditions with “fistula” tests due to a dehiscent semi circular canal from cholesteatoma and the superior canal dehiscence syndrome. It was first recognized in the early days of stapedectomy as causing disequilibrium and balance problems before sealing of the stapedectomy with natural tissue became routine. It then became apparent that head trauma and barotraumatic trauma from flying or diving could be a cause of PLF. Descriptions of “spontaneous” PLF with no trauma history followed. A large literature on PLF from all causes accumulated. It became an almost emotional issue in Otolaryngology with “believers” and “nonbelievers.” The main criticisms are a lack of reliable symptoms and diagnostic tests and operative traps in reliably distinguishing a perilymph leak from local anaesthetic. There are extensive reviews on the whole topic, invariably conveying the authors' own experiences and their confirmed views on various aspects. However, a close examination reveals a disparity of definitions and assumptions on symptoms, particularly, vestibular. This is an intentionally provocative paper with suggestions on where some progress might be made. PMID:23724269

  16. William Lincer: Fifty Years of String Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kella, John J.

    1982-01-01

    Describes Lincer's eight-part, innovative program for string instrument instruction used at the Julliard School of Music. The program includes breathing and relaxation studies, body-movement and muscle-action studies, feeling and self-awareness studies, and concentration and visualization studies. (AM)

  17. Fifty years of stroke researches in India

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Tapas Kumar; Das, Shyamal Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the stroke incidence in India is much higher than Western industrialized countries. Large vessel intracranial atherosclerosis is the commonest cause of ischemic stroke in India. The common risk factors, that is, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, and dyslipidemia are quite prevalent and inadequately controlled; mainly because of poor public awareness and inadequate infrastructure. Only a small number of ischemic stroke cases are able to have the benefit of thrombolytic therapy. Benefits from stem cell therapy in established stroke cases are under evaluation. Presently, prevention of stroke is the best option considering the Indian scenario through control and/or avoiding risk factors of stroke. Interventional studies are an important need for this scenario. PMID:27011621

  18. Fifty Years in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werry, John

    2013-01-01

    John Werry completed training in child and adolescent psychiatry at McGill University in Montreal, and has been a world renowned leader in children's mental health. Drawing on a half century of work in Canada, the United States, and his native New Zealand, he shares his reflections and vision for the future in the interview given for this…

  19. Chlorpromazine-Induced Hyperprolactinemia on Rat’s Uterus

    PubMed Central

    Zamani, Zahra; Zare, Samad; Sadrkhanlou, Rajabali; Ahmadi, Abbas; Movahed, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hyperprolactinemia is a common side effect of antipsychotic drugs that requires further investigation. The current study was designed to evaluate dose-dependent effect of chlorpromazine (CPZ) on hormonal changes and uterine horn histological structure in rats. Moreover, the mammary glands were analyzed to show hyperprolactinemia-induced histological changes. Methods: Albino Wistar rats (n = 32) were divided into four groups. The first group was set as a control. In the three drug-treated groups (eight rats in each group), CPZ was administered by a gavage at doses of 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg/day for 28 days. One day after the last administration of the drug, the animals were sacrificed. Histopathological and histomorphometrical analyses of the uterine horns and mammary glands were carried out to evaluate dose-dependent effect of CPZ on histological structure. Serum levels of prolactin (PRL), estradiol, progesterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) were also evaluated. Results: Remarkable (P < 0.05) elevation was observed in CPZ-administrated animals' uterine horn endometrium, myometrium, and perimetrium thicknesses, and the mammary glands were observed with galactorrhea features. The serum level of progesterone and PRL significantly (P < 0.05) increased, while the serum concentration of LH, FSH, and estradiol was notably (P < 0.05) decreased depending on administrated CPZ dose. No histological and biological changes were occurred in the control animals. Conclusion: The present findings suggest that CPZ-induced disturbances not only depend on PRL level and increased PRL level largely depends on administrated doses of the CPZ. PMID:26239213

  20. Replacement of chlorpromazine with other neuroleptics: effect on abnormal skin pigmentation and ocular changes.

    PubMed Central

    Lal, S; Bloom, D; Silver, B; Desjardins, B; Krishnan, B; Thavundayil, J; Thompson, T

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the outcome of 15 patients with chlorpromazine (CPZ)-induced abnormal skin pigmentation (ASP) in whom CPZ was replaced with other neuroleptics for three to 13 years. Complete resolution of ASP occurred over a period of six months to five years following substitution with haloperidol (four patients), levomepromazine (three patients), trifluoperazine (one patient), thioproperazine (one patient) as the sole neuroleptic, by a combination of two of the three phenothiazines (four patients) or haloperidol plus pipotiazine (one patient). Resolution was maintained during the remainder of the follow-up period. In one patient, at final follow-up, marked improvement was present three years after CPZ was replaced with levomepromazine. Bilateral lenticular pigmentary deposits persisted in all eight patients examined 3.3 to 13 years after replacing CPZ and less than three months to nine years after resolution of ASP; improvement was noted in only one of these patients. Bilateral endothelial corneal deposits, present in five patients while on CPZ therapy, had disappeared in two patients seven and 13 years, respectively, after replacing CPZ; improvement was noted in two other patients. These findings indicate that: 1. CPZ-induced ASP is completely reversible in most, if not all, patients if CPZ is withdrawn; 2. a variety of neuroleptics including other phenothiazines can be used to replace CPZ without risk of re-emergence of ASP; 3. CPZ-induced lenticular changes persist whereas corneal changes may resolve slowly over a period of many years following replacement of CPZ; 4. ASP and ocular changes induced by CPZ may be subserved by two different pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:8104031

  1. Photoinduced free radicals from chlorpromazine and related phenothiazines: relationship to phenothiazine-induced photosensitization.

    PubMed Central

    Chignell, C F; Motten, A G; Buettner, G R

    1985-01-01

    Chlorpromazine and several other related phenothiazines are known to cause both phototoxic and photoallergic reactions in the skin and eyes of patients receiving these drugs. While the detailed mechanisms of photosensitization are not known, it is obvious that the first step must be the absorption of light by the drug, its metabolites, or photoproducts, or possibly an induced endogenous chemical. In this review, the free-radical photochemistry of phenothiazines is described, and the evidence for the involvement of photoinduced free radicals in photosensitization is examined. Upon irradiation chlorpromazine yields a variety of free radicals including the corresponding cation radical (via photoionization), the neutral promazinyl radical and a chlorine atom (Cl.) (via homolytic cleavage), and a sulfur-centered peroxy radical. The chlorpromazine cation radical is probably responsible for some of the observed in vitro phototoxic effects of this drug. However, it seems unlikely that the cation radical is involved in phototoxicity in vivo, since photoionization only occurs when chlorpromazine is excited into the S2 level (lambda ex less than 280 nm). The promazinyl radical is a more likely candidate for the phototoxic species both in vivo and in vitro. In addition, this radical can react covalently with proteins and other macromolecules to yield antigens which could be responsible for the photoallergic response to chlorpromazine. Neither oxygen-derived radicals nor singlet oxygen (1O2*), appear to be important in chlorpromazine photosensitization. In contrast, it would seem that promazine-induced phototoxicity may result in part from the generation of superoxide (O2-.).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2869942

  2. Thermal responses to 5. 6-GHz radiofrequency radiation in anesthetized rats. Effect of chlorpromazine

    SciTech Connect

    Jauchem, J.R.; Frei, M.R.; Heinmets, F.

    1988-01-01

    Anesthetized rats were exposed to 5.6-GHz continuous-wave radiofrequency radiation (RFR) at an average power density of 60 mW/Sq. cm (average specific absorption rate 12 W/kg). Exposure was performed to raise colonic temperature from 38.5 to 39.5C. Following acute administration of chlorpromazine, body temperature exhibited a faster return to baseline temperature when exposure was discontinued. When exposure was initiated at 38.5C and continued until lethal temperature resulted, chlorpromazine-treated animals exhibited significantly shorter survival times than saline-treated animals. Thus, although chlorpromazine enhanced thermoregulatory efficiency at colonic temperature below 39.5 deg C, the drug caused increased susceptibility to terminal RFR. The present results, when compared with previous studies of irradiation at 2.8 GHz, indicate that the effects of chlorpromazine on thermal response to RFR during intermittent and terminal exposure are similar at both 2.8 and 5.6 GHz.

  3. Thermal responses to 5. 6-GHz radiofrequency radiation in anesthetized rats: effect of chlorpromazine

    SciTech Connect

    Jauchem, J.R.; Frei, M.R.; Heinmets, F.

    1988-01-01

    Anesthetized rats were exposed to 5.6-GHz continuous wave radiofrequency radiation at an average power density of 60 mW/cm2 (average specific absorption rate 12 W/kg). Exposure was performed to raise colonic temperature from 38.5 to 39.5 degrees C. Following acute administration of chlorpromazine, body temperature exhibited a faster return to baseline temperature when exposure was discontinued. When exposure was initiated at 38.5 degrees C and continued until lethal temperatures resulted, chlorpromazine-treated animals exhibited significantly shorter survival times than saline-treated animals. Thus, although chlorpromazine enhanced thermo-regulatory efficiency at colonic temperatures below 39.5 degrees C, the drug caused increased susceptibility to terminal radiofrequency radiation exposure. The present results, when compared to previous studies of irradiation at 2.8 GHz, indicate that the effects of chlorpromazine on thermal responses to RFR during intermittent and terminal exposure are similar at both 2.8 and 5.6 GHz.

  4. The effect of anti-parkinsonian drugs on chlorpromazine-induced depression of operant behaviour.

    PubMed

    Székely, J I; Dunai-Kovács, Z; Borsy, J

    1976-01-01

    Rats were conditioned in automatic Skinner boxes on a discrete trial avoidance-escape schedule. The chlorpromazine-induced conditioned reflex inhibition could be reversed by apomorphine and amantadine, but not by atropine, trihexyphenidyl and diethazine. These findings seem to provide an additional tool for differentiating the atropine-like and dopaminergic anti-parkinsonian drugs. PMID:989172

  5. Unilateral Conjunctival in situ Squamous Carcinoma with Bilateral Conjunctival Chlorpromazine-Induced Secondary Melanosis Masquerading as in situ and Invasive Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Sears, Katharine S.; Rennie, Ian G.; Mudhar, Hardeep Singh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe the clinical and histopathological features of a 61-year-old male with a history of eczema, asthma and schizophrenia on long-term chlorpromazine medication, who developed a unilateral limbal tumour in association with bilateral melanosis. Procedures The patient was referred for a routine cataract assessment, and an incidental pink gelatinous limbal lesion was detected on the left side, associated with bilateral speckled brown conjunctival pigmentation. The limbal lesion and brown pigmentation were biopsied. The tissue was fixed in standard buffered formalin and processed to paraffin wax, and sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Tissue from the pigmented area was also processed for transmission electron microscopy. Results The biopsy from the limbal lesion showed an in situ squamous carcinoma associated with prominent numbers of intra-epithelial eosinophils. The biopsy of the pigmented area showed bilateral melanosis without atypia. The latter was attributable to an increase in melanin production rather than to melanocyte hyperplasia. Melanophages were also present in the adjacent substantia propria. These pigment changes were entirely compatible with chlorpromazine-induced secondary melanosis. Conclusions This paper highlights the first documented occurrence of in situ squamous carcinoma with bilateral chlorpromazine-induced conjunctival secondary melanosis. This clinically masqueraded as in situ melanoma/primary acquired melanosis and invasive melanoma. Bilateral melanosis is rare, has many causes and, in this case, was drug induced. This highlights the importance of thorough history taking and illustrates that not all pigmented and amelanotic lesions are in situ melanomas, primary acquired melanosis or invasive melanomas. Lastly, atopy was a risk factor for the development of this in situ squamous carcinoma. PMID:27171521

  6. NEUROMODULATORY EFFECTS OF THYMOQUINONE IN EXTENUATING OXIDATIVE STRESS IN CHLORPROMAZINE TREATED RATS.

    PubMed

    Safhi, Mohammed Mohsin

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible protective effect of thymoquinone on chlorpromazine induced catalepsy, locomotor activity and cerebral oxidative stress in rats. The rats were divided into four groups, each group containing eight animals. The animals were evaluated after repeated administration of chlorpromazine (CPZ) 30 min before the administration of thymoquinone (TQ) for 21 days. Catalepsy was assessed using block method whereas the locomotor activity was assessed using acceleratory rotarod and actophotometer. Markers of oxidative stress parameters (LPO, GSH, GPx, GR, GST and CAT) were evaluated in the brain of rats. The cataleptic scores were significantly increased in CPZ treated rats when compared with normal control rats. Oral administration of TQ (5 and 10 mg/kg) significantly decreased cataleptic scores when compared with chlorpromazine (CPZ) treated rats. The muscle coordination and spontaneous locomotor activity was significantly decreased in CPZ treated rats when compared with normal control rats. Treatment with TQ significantly improved the muscle coordination and spontaneous locomotor activity when compared with CPZ treated rats. TQ treated rats significantly reduced the elevated levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO), increased levels of antioxidant enzymes i.e., reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) when compared with CPZ treated rats. The results clearly suggest that supplementation with TQ can be used to preclude CPZ induced extrapyramidal side effects and may find a role in reducing the oxidative stress. PMID:27180446

  7. Possible interactions between zolpidem, a new sleep inducer and chlorpromazine, a phenothiazine neuroleptic.

    PubMed

    Desager, J P; Hulhoven, R; Harvengt, C; Hermann, P; Guillet, P; Thiercelin, J F

    1988-01-01

    The combined use of a hypnotic and a neuroleptic is a rather frequent situation, encountered especially in the psychiatric sphere. We therefore tested zolpidem and chlorpromazine in six healthy subjects by using a double-blind latin square design. All of them received single doses of 20 mg zolpidem (ZOL), 50 mg chlorpromazine (CPZ) and the combination of ZOL + CPZ. The medication was given as a single dose in the morning and each treatment being separated by a 1-week interval. Zolpidem produced moderate to severe sedation varying according to the subjects. Psychometric performances (manual dexterity, Stroop test), alertness and psychomotricity (visual analogue scales) were reduced up to 3 h after drug intake. Chlorpromazine alone did not have much effect. Combined administration of ZOL and CPZ was rather more effective than ZOL alone. The pharmacokinetics of ZOL or CPZ remained unchanged except for the elimination half-life of CPZ, which increased significantly when administered along with ZOL. No other pharmacodynamic or pharmacokinetic interaction between ZOL and CPZ was evident. The fact that the ZOL and CPZ combination accentuated the pharmacodynamical effects can be explained to result from the summation of each of their own pharmacological effect. PMID:3147477

  8. Effect of lipid emulsion during resuscitation of a patient with cardiac arrest after overdose of chlorpromazine and mirtazapine.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hisatake; Ohnishi, Mitsuo; Takegawa, Ryosuke; Hirose, Tomoya; Hattori, Yuji; Shimazu, Takeshi

    2015-10-01

    No specific treatment exists for poisoning with most fat-soluble drugs. Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) may be effective therapy against such drugs, but effects of ILE treatment are unclear. A 24-year-old woman with depression seen sleeping in the morning was found comatose in the evening, and an emerging lifesaving technologies service was called. After emerging lifesaving technologies departure to hospital, she stopped breathing, became pulseless, and cardiopulmonary life support was started immediately. Electrocardiographic monitoring showed asystole during resuscitation even after arrival at hospital. Empty packaging sheets of 60-tablet chlorpromazine (CPZ) (50 mg/tablet) and 66-tablet mirtazapine (MZP) (15 mg/tablet) found at the scene suggested drug-related cardiopulmonary arrest. Along with conventional administration of adrenaline (total dose, 5 mg), 20% Intralipid 100 mLwas given intravenously 8 minutes after hospital arrival and readministered 27 minutes after hospital arrival because of continued asystole. Return of spontaneous circulation occurred 29 minutes after arrival (70 minutes after cardiac arrest). The patient recovered without any major complications and was transferred to another hospital for psychiatric treatment 70 days after admission. Concentrations of CPZ and MZP were still high when return of spontaneous circulation was achieved with ILE. This case suggested the possible benefit of ILE in treating life threatening cardiotoxicity from CPZ and MZP overdose. PMID:26314213

  9. Chlorpromazine-induced hepatotoxicity during inflammation is mediated by TIRAP-dependent signaling pathway in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Gandhi, Adarsh; Guo, Tao; Shah, Pranav; Moorthy, Bhagavatula; Ghose, Romi

    2013-02-01

    Inflammation is a major component of idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions (IADRs). To understand the molecular mechanism of inflammation-mediated IADRs, we determined the role of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway in idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity of the anti-psychotic drug, chlorpromazine (CPZ). Activation of TLRs recruits the first adaptor protein, Toll-interleukin 1 receptor domain containing adaptor protein (TIRAP) to the TIR domain of TLRs leading to the activation of the downstream kinase, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK). Prolonged activation of JNK leads to cell-death. We hypothesized that activation of TLR2 by lipoteichoic acid (LTA) or TLR4 by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) will augment the hepatotoxicity of CPZ by TIRAP-dependent mechanism involving prolonged activation of JNK. Adult male C57BL/6, TIRAP{sup +/+} and TIRAP{sup −/−} mice were pretreated with saline, LPS (2 mg/kg) or LTA (6 mg/kg) for 30 min or 16 h followed by CPZ (5 mg/kg) or saline (vehicle) up to 24 h. We found that treatment of mice with CPZ in presence of LPS or LTA leads to ∼ 3–4 fold increase in serum ALT levels, a marked reduction in hepatic glycogen content, significant induction of serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α and prolonged JNK activation, compared to LPS or LTA alone. Similar results were observed in TIRAP{sup +/+} mice, whereas the effects of LPS or LTA on CPZ-induced hepatotoxicity were attenuated in TIRAP{sup −/−} mice. For the first time, we show that inflammation-mediated hepatotoxicity of CPZ is dependent on TIRAP, and involves prolonged JNK activation in vivo. Thus, TIRAP-dependent pathways may be targeted to predict and prevent inflammation-mediated IADRs. -- Highlights: ► Inflammation augments the toxicity of an idiosyncratic hepatotoxin chlorpromazine. ► Activation of Toll-like receptors by LPS or LTA induces chlorpromazine toxicity. ► Sustained stress kinase (JNK) activation is associated with chlorpromazine toxicity. ► These studies

  10. The "Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior" at Fifty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laties, Victor G.

    2008-01-01

    The "Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior" was founded in 1958 by a group of male psychologists, mainly from the northeastern USA and connected with either Harvard or Columbia. Fifty years later about 20% of both editors and authors reside outside this country and almost the same proportion is women. Other changes in the journal…

  11. The effects of chlorpromazine and pentobarbital on behavior maintained by electric shock or point loss avoidance in humans.

    PubMed

    Fischman, M W; Schuster, C R

    1979-01-01

    Human volunteer subjects were trained to press a lever to avoid or escape electric shock or loss of points which could be redeemed for money at the termination of the study. The effects of pentobarbital and chlorpromazine on avoidance and escape behavior were compared. Both aversive stimuli maintained behavior which was differentially sensitive to these two drugs. Chlorpromazine caused a decrease in avoidance responding at doses which had little effect on escape responding. Pentobarbital, in contrast, suppressed avoidance responding at doses which also had a suppressant effect on escape responding. PMID:120538

  12. Characterization of inhibition by haloperidol and chlorpromazine of a voltage-activated K+ current in rat phaeochromocytoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Nakazawa, K.; Ito, K.; Koizumi, S.; Ohno, Y.; Inoue, K.

    1995-01-01

    1. Inhibition by haloperidol and chlorpromazine of a voltage-activated K+ current was characterized in rat phaeochromocytoma PC12 cells by use of whole-cell voltage-clamp techniques. 2. Haloperidol or chlorpromazine (1 and 10 microM) inhibited a K+ current activated by a test potential of +20 mV applied from a holding potential of -60 mV. The K+ current inhibition did not exhibit voltage-dependence when test potentials were changed between -10 and +40 mV or when holding potentials were changed between -120 and -60 mV. 3. Effects of compounds that are related to haloperidol and chlorpromazine in their pharmacological actions were examined. Fluspirilene (1 and 10 microM), an antipsychotic drug, inhibited the K+ current, but pimozide (1 and 10 microM), another antipsychotic drug did not significantly inhibit the K+ current. Sulpiride (1 or 10 microM), an antagonist of dopamine D2 receptors, did not affect the K+ current whereas (+)-SCH-23390 (10 microM), an antagonist of dopamine D1 receptors, reduced the K+ current. As for calmodulin antagonists, W-7 (100 microM), but not calmidazolium (1 microM), reduced the K+ current. 4. The inhibition by haloperidol or chlorpromazine of the K+ current was abolished when GTP in intracellular solution was replaced with GDP beta S. Similarly, the inhibition by pimozide, fluspirilene, (+)-SCH-23390 or W-7 was abolished or attenuated in the presence of intracellular GDP beta S. The inhibition by haloperidol or chlorpromazine was not prevented when cells were pretreated with pertussis toxin or when K-252a, an inhibitor of a variety of protein kinases, was included in the intracellular solution. 5. Haloperidol and chlorpromazine reduced a Ba2+ current permeating through Ca2+ channels. Inhibition by haloperidol or chlorpromazine of the Ba2+ current was not affected by GDP beta S included in the intracellular solution. 6. It is concluded that haloperidol and chlorpromazine inhibit voltage-gated K+ channels in PC12 cells by a mechanism

  13. Agmatine protection against chlorpromazine-induced forebrain cortex injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Dejanovic, Bratislav; Stevanovic, Ivana; Ninkovic, Milica; Stojanovic, Ivana; Lavrnja, Irena; Radicevic, Tatjana; Pavlovic, Milos

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate whether agmatine (AGM) provides protection against oxidative stress induced by treatment with chlorpromazine (CPZ) in Wistar rats. In addition, the role of reactive oxygen species and efficiency of antioxidant protection in the brain homogenates of forebrain cortexes prepared 48 h after treatment were investigated. Chlorpromazine was applied intraperitoneally (i.p.) in single dose of 38.7 mg/kg body weight (BW) The second group was treated with both CPZ and AGM (75 mg/kg BW). The control group was treated with 0.9% saline solution in the same manner. All tested compounds were administered i.p. in a single dose. Rats were sacrificed by decapitation 48 h after treatment Treatment with AGM significantly attenuated the oxidative stress parameters and restored antioxidant capacity in the forebrain cortex. The data indicated that i.p. administered AGM exerted antioxidant action in CPZ-treated animals. Moreover, reactive astrocytes and microglia may contribute to secondary nerve-cell damage and participate in the balance of destructive vs. protective actions involved in the pathogenesis after poisoning. PMID:27051340

  14. Agmatine protection against chlorpromazine-induced forebrain cortex injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Stevanovic, Ivana; Ninkovic, Milica; Stojanovic, Ivana; Lavrnja, Irena; Radicevic, Tatjana; Pavlovic, Milos

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate whether agmatine (AGM) provides protection against oxidative stress induced by treatment with chlorpromazine (CPZ) in Wistar rats. In addition, the role of reactive oxygen species and efficiency of antioxidant protection in the brain homogenates of forebrain cortexes prepared 48 h after treatment were investigated. Chlorpromazine was applied intraperitoneally (i.p.) in single dose of 38.7 mg/kg body weight (BW) The second group was treated with both CPZ and AGM (75 mg/kg BW). The control group was treated with 0.9% saline solution in the same manner. All tested compounds were administered i.p. in a single dose. Rats were sacrificed by decapitation 48 h after treatment Treatment with AGM significantly attenuated the oxidative stress parameters and restored antioxidant capacity in the forebrain cortex. The data indicated that i.p. administered AGM exerted antioxidant action in CPZ-treated animals. Moreover, reactive astrocytes and microglia may contribute to secondary nerve-cell damage and participate in the balance of destructive vs. protective actions involved in the pathogenesis after poisoning. PMID:27051340

  15. Short-Term Effects of Chlorpromazine on Oxidative Stress in Erythrocyte Functionality: Activation of Metabolism and Membrane Perturbation.

    PubMed

    Ficarra, Silvana; Russo, Annamaria; Barreca, Davide; Giunta, Elena; Galtieri, Antonio; Tellone, Ester

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to focus on the short-term effects of chlorpromazine on erythrocytes because it is reported that the drug, unstable in plasma but more stable in erythrocytes, interacts with erythrocyte membranes, membrane lipids, and hemoglobin. There is a rich literature about the side and therapeutic effects or complications due to chlorpromazine, but most of these studies explore the influence of long-term treatment. We think that evaluating the short-term effects of the drug may help to clarify the sequence of chlorpromazine molecular targets from which some long-term effects derive. Our results indicate that although the drug is primarily intercalated in the innermost side of the membrane, it does not influence band 3 anionic flux, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonylation processes. On the other hand, it destabilizes and increases the autooxidation of haemoglobin, induces activation of caspase 3, and, markedly, influences the ATP and reduced glutathione levels, with subsequent exposure of phosphatidylserine at the erythrocyte surface. Overall our observations on the early stage of chlorpromazine influence on erythrocytes may contribute to better understanding of new and interesting characteristics of this compound improving knowledge of erythrocyte metabolism. PMID:27579150

  16. Short-Term Effects of Chlorpromazine on Oxidative Stress in Erythrocyte Functionality: Activation of Metabolism and Membrane Perturbation

    PubMed Central

    Ficarra, Silvana; Russo, Annamaria; Barreca, Davide; Giunta, Elena; Galtieri, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to focus on the short-term effects of chlorpromazine on erythrocytes because it is reported that the drug, unstable in plasma but more stable in erythrocytes, interacts with erythrocyte membranes, membrane lipids, and hemoglobin. There is a rich literature about the side and therapeutic effects or complications due to chlorpromazine, but most of these studies explore the influence of long-term treatment. We think that evaluating the short-term effects of the drug may help to clarify the sequence of chlorpromazine molecular targets from which some long-term effects derive. Our results indicate that although the drug is primarily intercalated in the innermost side of the membrane, it does not influence band 3 anionic flux, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonylation processes. On the other hand, it destabilizes and increases the autooxidation of haemoglobin, induces activation of caspase 3, and, markedly, influences the ATP and reduced glutathione levels, with subsequent exposure of phosphatidylserine at the erythrocyte surface. Overall our observations on the early stage of chlorpromazine influence on erythrocytes may contribute to better understanding of new and interesting characteristics of this compound improving knowledge of erythrocyte metabolism. PMID:27579150

  17. The Fifties ... Fifty Years Later: "Connection" Interviews Historian David Halberstam on a Half Century of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connection: The Journal of the New England Board of Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an interview with historian David Halberstam who graduated from Harvard University in 1955 after serving as managing editor of the "Harvard Crimson." Upon graduation, he joined the staff of the "Daily Times Leader" newspaper of West Point, Mississippi, and then moved on to the "Nashville Tennessean," where he covered the…

  18. Therapeutic and hypothermic properties of diazepam altered by a diazepam-chlorpromazine association.

    PubMed

    Taukulis, H K; Brake, L D

    1989-09-01

    Rats were injected (IP) with diazepam (2.5 mg/kg) and chlorpromazine (10.0 mg/kg) with a 30-min interval between the two injections. After 10-12 repeated drug pairings of this type, the thermic, muscle relaxant, and anxiolytic responses of the animals to diazepam alone were tested. These tests revealed: 1) an enhanced hypothermia (rectal temperature), 2) an attenuated muscle relaxant effect (inclined plane test), and 3) a potentiated anxiolytic effect (plus-maze test). Although various interdrug associations have previously been demonstrated using other measures of conditioning, this is the first instance in which changes in the therapeutic effects of a drug (in this case, muscle relaxation and anxiety reduction) have been obtained with this procedure. PMID:2626441

  19. Heterogeneity of laboratory test results for antiphospholipid antibodies in patients treated with chlorpromazine and other phenothiazines.

    PubMed

    Lillicrap, D P; Pinto, M; Benford, K; Ford, P M; Ford, S

    1990-06-01

    Ninety-seven psychiatric patients who have been treated with the antipsychotic drug chlorpromazine or another phenothiazine have been investigated for the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. A variety of coagulation studies and specific antiphospholipid immunoassays were performed to define the spectrum of antigen specificity of these antibodies. Coagulation studies showed an increasing sensitivity for the lupus anticoagulant with reagents of differing phospholipid content. Prolonged activated partial thromboplastin times (APTTs) were found in five patients with the use of an insensitive APTT reagent and in 14 patients with a lower phospholipid content reagent. In every case, attempted correction of the clotting time with normal plasma was unsuccessful. Twenty-one patients had abnormal kaolin clotting time profiles. In seven of these patients, test results with both APTT reagents had been normal. Antibody reactivity was tested against three negatively charged phospholipids, phosphatidyl-serine, cardiolipin, and phosphatidylinositol. Only five patients demonstrated reactivity against phosphatidylinositol, whereas high antibody titers were observed in 28 patients against one or both of phosphatidylserine and cardiolipin. Twenty-three of these patients were found to have elevated anticardiolipin-specific IgM antibodies. Overall, 41 of the patients had at least one laboratory abnormality suggestive of antiphospholipid antibody activity. Seven of the 26 patients, taking phenothiazines other than chlorpromazine, had positive test results for antiphospholipid antibodies. No clinical thromboembolic events were recorded in any patient. These findings demonstrate the heterogeneity of antiphospholipid antibody specificity induced in patients treated with various phenothiazine drugs and indicate that none of these patterns of reactivity marks a predisposition for thromboembolism in this population. PMID:1971739

  20. Fate of the drug chlorpromazine in river water according to laboratory assays. Identification and evolution over time of degradation products. Sorption to sediment.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Juan J; Muñoz, Beatriz E; Sánchez, María I; Pardo, Rafael; Vega, María S

    2016-11-01

    Toxic effects of the non-biodegradable drug chlorpromazine and its degradation products have been reported on microorganisms in aqueous media. Here, chlorpromazine degradation assays in forced and non-forced conditions have been done to know its persistence and degradation products in river water. Sunlight irradiation promotes the complete degradation of chlorpromazine (2 μg L(-1)) in less than 4 h, but if the exposure to sunlight is limited chlorpromazine is detected during 4 weeks in river water. Sixteen degradation products in surface water are described for first time after solid-phase extraction and analysis by ultra-pressure liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight/mass spectrometry; their structures are proposed from the molecular formulae of the fragment-ions observed in high-resolution tandem mass spectra. Hydroxylation and oxidation products such as chlorpromazine sulfoxide, 2-hydroxypromazine and 2-hydroxypromazine sulfoxide were predominant degradation products in the early stages; some benzo[1,4]thiazin-6-ol derivatives resulting from the breakdown of the phenothiazine core were the major and relatively stable products after 20 weeks under non-forced conditions. A degradation pathway of chlorpromazine in water is outlined. Moreover, it is shown that chlorpromazine is very strongly adsorbed on sediment while the degradation products that kept the promazine core have a notable capacity of sorption, too; sorption coefficients are calculated. Finally, a prediction about the toxicity of the degradation products in aquatic ecosystems suggests that some of them have toxicities similar, or even higher, than chlorpromazine. PMID:27513549

  1. Comparison of the Effects of Chlorpromazine, Dextroamphetamine and Methylphenidate on the Behaviour and Functioning of Hyperactive Children

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Gabrielle; Minde, Klaus; Douglas, Virginia; Werry, John; Sykes, Donald

    1971-01-01

    Chlorpromazine, dextroamphetamine and methylphenidate were significantly superior to placebo in producing overall improvement in the behaviour of hyperactive children. Chlorpromazine was effective for the majority of the children, but reduced only hyperactivity, having no demonstrable effect on distractibility, aggressivity or excitability. Both stimulants produced more goal-oriented behaviour and reduced distractibility. Methylphenidate was the most effective of the drugs in prpducing exceptional improvement. All three active drugs had to be discontinued in a few of the children because of side effects. Not all hyperactive children were benefited by the drugs. No background variables (with the exception of mother-child relationship) were found in the present studies to predict favourable response to the drugs. Methylphenidate became our drug of choice for this group of hyperactive children. PMID:5540117

  2. Chlorpromazine interactions to sera albumins. A study by the quenching of fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Dilson; Cortez, Célia M.; Louro, Sônia R. W.

    2004-04-01

    Binding of chlorpromazine (CPZ) and hemin (Hmn) to human (HSA) and bovine (BSA) serum albumin was studied by fluorescence quenching technique. Intrinsic fluorescences of BSA and HSA were measured by selectively exciting their tryptophan residues. Gradual quenching was observed by titration of both proteins with CPZ and Hmn. CPZ is a widely used anti-psychosis drug that causes severe side effects and strongly interacts with biomembranes, both in its lipidic and proteic regions. CPZ also interacts with blood components, influences bioavailability, and affects the function of several biomolecules. Albumin plays an important role in the transport and storage of hormones, ions, fatty acids and others substances, including CPZ, affecting the regulation of their plasmatic concentration. Hmn is an important ferric residue of hemoglobin that binds within the hydrophobic region of albumin with great specificity. Hmn added to HSA and BSA solutions at a molar ratio of 1:1 quenched about half of their fluorescence. Stern-Volmer plots obtained from experiments carried out at 25 and 35 °C showed the quenching of fluorescence of HSA and BSA by CPZ to be a collisional phenomenon. Hmn quenches fluorescence by a static process, which specifically indicates the formation of a complex. Our results suggest the prime binding site for CPZ and Hmn on both HSA and BSA to be near tryptophan residues.

  3. Oxidation of Chlorpromazine by Lipoxygenase Immobilized on Magnetic Fe3O4 Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ding, Wenwu; Hou, Zhaosheng; Che, Zhenming; Li, Mingyuan; Chen, Xianggui; Zhang, Junqing; Zhang, Qikun

    2016-06-01

    In this work, soybean lipoxygenase enzyme was immobilized on the magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles to oxidate chlorpromazine (CPZ). The physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles were characterized with transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and the magnetic properties were detected by a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The TEM images indicated the surface and the size of the immobilized enzyme were much rougher and thicker than those of the naked particles. The analyses of XRD patterns showed that the structure of the magnetic nanoparticles had no significant change while the nanoparticles also exhibited higher superparamagnetism at room temperature. Compared to free enzyme or the enzyme immobilized with other methods, the optimal pH, temperature and H2O2 concentration for the activity of immobilized enzyme did not have great changes, but the immobilized enzyme was more stable and less sensitive to the change of the influence factors than free counterpart. The immobilized enzyme could be recovered easily by magnetic separation and could be reused for many times in the process of CPZ oxidation. The results obtained by simulating the model of Michaelis-Menten indicated that the reaction of CPZ oxidation followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics and the enzyme still retained its affinity for CPZ while the enzyme was immobilized. PMID:27427602

  4. The Effects of Chlorpromazine on Reproductive System and Function in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zamani, Zahra; Zare, Samad; Sadrkhanlou, Rajabali; Ahmadi, Abbas; Movahed, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Background Chlorpromazine (CPZ), an antipsychotic drug, is associated with increased risk of sexual dysfunction through increasing prolactin levels. The current study evaluates the effect of CPZ-induced hyperprolactinemia on ovarian follicular growth, gonadotropins, and alteration of ovarian source hormones. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, animals were divided into four groups, control and CPZ (n=8 per group). In the treated groups, CPZ was administered by gavage at doses of 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg per day for 28 days. On day 29 the animals were killed after which histopathological and histomorphometric analyses of the ovaries were performed. We evaluated the levels of prolactin serum, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol (E2) and progesterone. Results The ovaries of the test groups showed numerous atretic follicles of various sizes. CPZ caused a significant difference between the test groups and the control group (P<0.05) on the amount of atresia and the size of the normal corpora lutea (CL). The increased dysfunction of the ovaries from the different groups depended on the amount of CPZ administered. The serum concentrations of prolactin and progesterone significantly increased (P<0.05), while the serum concentrations of estradiol, LH and FSH notably decreased (P<0.05), depending on the CPZ dose. CPZ-induced animals had unsuccessful mating and decreased pregnancy rate. Conclusion The present findings suggest that CPZ-induced disturbances not only depend on prolactin level but the increased prolactin level is largely dose-dependent. PMID:26644861

  5. Interaction of structural analogs of dopamine, chlorpromazine and sulpiride with striatal dopamine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives of these studies were to determine if the nitrogen atom of dopaminergic agonists and antagonists drugs is required for interaction with the D-1 and D-2 dopamine receptors and whether the positively charged or uncharged molecular species interacts with these receptors. To address these issues, permanently charged analogs of dopamine, chlorpromazine and sulpiride were synthesized in which a dimethylsulfonium, dimethylselenonium or quaternary ammonium group replaced the amine group. Permanently uncharged analogs which contained a methylsulfide, methylselenide and sulfoxide group instead of an amine group were also synthesized. The interactions of these compounds with striatal dopamine receptors were studied. We found that the permanently charged dopamine analogs bound to the D-2 receptor of striatal membranes like conventional dopaminergic agonists and displayed agonist activity at the D-2 receptor regulating potassium-evoked (/sup 3/H) acetylcholine release. In contrast, the permanently uncharged analogs bound only to the high affinity state of the D-2 receptor and had neither agonist or antagonist activity.

  6. Chlorpromazine reduces the intercellular communication via gap junctions in mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Orellana, Juan A.; Palacios-Prado, Nicolas; Saez, Juan C. . E-mail: jsaez@bio.puc.cl

    2006-06-15

    In the work presented herein, we evaluated the effect of chlorpromazine (CPZ) on gap junctions expressed by two mammalian cell types; Gn-11 cells (cell line derived from mouse LHRH neurons) and rat cortical astrocytes maintained in culture. We also attempted to elucidate possible mechanisms of action of CPZ effects on gap junctions. CPZ, in concentrations comparable with doses used to treat human diseases, was found to reduce the intercellular communication via gap junctions as evaluated with measurements of dye coupling (Lucifer yellow). In both cell types, maximal inhibition of functional gap junctions was reached within about 1 h of treatment with CPZ, an recovery was almost complete at about 5 h after CPZ wash out. In both cell types, CPZ treatment increased the phosphorylation state of connexin43 (Cx43), a gap junction protein subunit. Moreover, CPZ reduced the reactivity of Cx43 (immunofluorescence) at cell interfaces and concomitantly increased its reactivity in intracellular vesicles, suggesting an increased retrieval from and/or reduced insertion into the plasma membrane. CPZ also caused cellular retraction reducing cell-cell contacts in a reversible manner. The reduction in contact area might destabilize existing gap junctions and abrogate formation of new ones. Moreover, the CPZ-induced reduction in gap junctional communication may depend on the connexins (Cxs) forming the junctions. If Cx43 were the only connexin expressed, MAPK-dependent phosphorylation of this connexin would induce closure of gap junction channels.

  7. Chlorpromazine Protects Against Apoptosis Induced by Exogenous Stimuli in the Developing Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yujun; Zhang, Qingmeng; Chen, Yang; Fu, Yingmei; Fang, Wenjuan; Wang, Jindong; Zhong, Zhaohua; Ling, Hong; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Fengmin

    2011-01-01

    Background Chlorpromazine (CPZ), a commonly used antipsychotic drug, was found to play a neuroprotective role in various models of toxicity. However, whether CPZ has the potential to affect brain apoptosis in vivo is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential effect of CPZ on the apoptosis induced by exogenous stimuli. Methodology The ethanol treated infant rat was utilized as a valid apoptotic model, which is commonly used and could trigger robust apoptosis in brain tissue. Prior to the induction of apoptosis by subcutaneous injection of ethanol, 7-day-old rats were treated with CPZ at several doses (5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection. Apoptotic cells in the brain were measured using TUNEL analysis, and the levels of cleaved caspase-3, cytochrome c, the pro-apoptotic factor Bax and the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2 were assessed by immunostaining or western blot. Findings Compared to the group injected with ethanol only, the brains of the CPZ-pretreated rats had fewer apoptotic cells, lower expression of cleaved caspase-3, cytochrome c and Bax, and higher expression of Bcl-2. These results demonstrate that CPZ could prevent apoptosis in the brain by regulating the mitochondrial pathway. Conclusions CPZ exerts an inhibitory effect on apoptosis induced by ethanol in the rat brain, intimating that it may offer a means of protecting nerve cells from apoptosis induced by exogenous stimuli. PMID:21779358

  8. The Journal of The Experimental Analysis of Behavior at Fifty

    PubMed Central

    Laties, Victor G

    2008-01-01

    The Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior was founded in 1958 by a group of male psychologists, mainly from the northeastern USA and connected with either Harvard or Columbia. Fifty years later about 20% of both editors and authors reside outside this country and almost the same proportion is made up of women. Other changes in the journal include having its own website for more than a decade and now publishing online as well as on paper. A recent connection with PubMed Central of the National Library of Medicine has made possible the completely free electronic presentation of the entire archive of about 3,800 articles. PMID:18338677

  9. Ion Channels, from Fantasy to Fact in Fifty Years1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Peter C.

    Biologists have long recognized that the transport of ions and of neutral species across cell membranes is central to physiological function. Cells rely on their biomembranes, which separate the cytoplasm from the extracellular medium, to maintain the two electrolytes at very different composition. Specialized molecules, essentially biological nanodevices, have evolved to selectively control the movement of all the major physiological species. As should be clear, there have to be at least two distinct modes of transport. To maintain the disequilibrium, there must be molecular assemblies that drive ions and other permeable species against their electrochemical potential gradients. Such devices require energy input, typically coupling a vectorial pump with a chemical reaction, the dephosphorylation of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). These enzymes (biochemical catalysts) control highly concerted, and relatively slow, process, with turnovers of ≫ 100 s¡ 1.

  10. Fifty year canon of solar eclipses: 1986-2035

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred

    1986-01-01

    A reference of moderately detailed eclipse predictions and maps for use by the professional astronomical community is provided. The general characteristics of every solar eclipse and a detailed set of cylindrical project world maps which show the umbral paths of every solar eclipse from 1901 to 2100 are presented. The geodetic path coordinates and local circumstance on the center line, and a series of orthographic projection maps which show the regions of visibility of both partial and central phases for every eclipse from 1986 through 2035 are also provided.

  11. Transactions with Literature: A Fifty-Year Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Edmund J., Ed.; Squire, James R., Ed.

    To honor the fiftieth anniversary of the publication of Louise M. Rosenblatt's book "Literature as Exploration," this book offers 12 essays that demonstrate the extraordinary influence of Rosenblatt's work on the teaching of literature, on literary theory, and on educational research in all English-speaking countries. Further, it evinces the power…

  12. The Fermi-Pasta-Ulam problem: fifty years of progress.

    PubMed

    Berman, G P; Izrailev, F M

    2005-03-01

    A brief review of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) paradox is given, together with its suggested resolutions and its relation to other physical problems. We focus on the ideas and concepts that have become the core of modern nonlinear mechanics, in their historical perspective. Starting from the first numerical results of FPU, both theoretical and numerical findings are discussed in close connection with the problems of ergodicity, integrability, chaos and stability of motion. New directions related to the Bose-Einstein condensation and quantum systems of interacting Bose-particles are also considered. PMID:15836281

  13. Fifty Years of Federal Teacher Policy: An Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Gary; Dibner, Kenne

    2009-01-01

    Federal policy directed to teaching and teachers is the subject of this review, which is organized around: (1) recruitment; (2) training; (3) accountability; (4) incentives; (5) qualifications; (6) class size reduction; (teacher working conditions; and (8) human resource management and the overall coordination of teacher policy. For each theme,…

  14. Beyond the Ionosphere: Fifty Years of Satellite Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butrica, Andrew J. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The three overlapping stages of satellite communications development outlined provide the three-part framework for the organization of the papers contained in this book. Part 1, 'Passive Origins,' treats the first stage of satellite communications development, extending from the 1940s into the early 1960s, when passive artificial and natural satellites funded by the military and private enterprise established the field. Part 2, 'Creating the Global, Regional, and National Systems,' addresses events that constituted the second stage of development. Early in this stage, which stretched from the 1960s into the 1970s, satellite systems began to make their appearance in the United States, while domestic and international efforts sought to bring order to this new but chaotic, field in the form of Comsat and Intelsat. Part 3, 'The Unfolding of the World System,' explores the development of satellite communications in the remainder of the world, with a strong emphasis on Asia.

  15. Fifty years of nuclear fission: Nuclear data and measurements series

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, J.E.

    1989-06-01

    This report is the written version of a colloquium first presented at Argonne National Laboratory in January 1989. The paper begins with an historical preamble about the events leading to the discovery of nuclear fission. This leads naturally to an account of early results and understanding of the fission phenomena. Some of the key concepts in the development of fission theory are then discussed. The main theme of this discussion is the topography of the fission barrier, in which the interplay of the liquid-drop model and nucleon shell effects lead to a wide range of fascinating phenomena encompassing metastable isomers, intermediate-structure effects in fission cross-sections, and large changes in fission product properties. It is shown how study of these changing effects and theoretical calculations of the potential energy of the deformed nucleus have led to broad qualitative understanding of the nature of the fission process. 54 refs., 35 figs.

  16. The lure of local SETI: Fifty years of field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ailleris, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    With the commemoration in October 2007 of the Sputnik launch, space exploration celebrated its 50th anniversary. Despite impressive technological and scientific achievements the fascination for space has weakened during the last decades. One contributing factor has been the gradual disappearance of mankind's hope of discovering extraterrestrial life within its close neighbourhood. In striking contrast and since the middle of the 20th century, a non-negligible proportion of the population have already concluded that intelligent beings from other worlds do exist and visit Earth through space vehicles popularly called Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs). In light of the continuous public interest for the UFO enigma symbolized by the recent widely diffused media announcements on the release of French and English governmental files; and considering the approach of broadening the strategies of the "Active SETI" approach and the existence of a rich multi-disciplinary UFO documentation of potential interest for SETI; this paper describes some past scientific attempts to demonstrate the physical reality of the phenomena and potentially the presence on Earth of probes of extraterrestrial origin. Details of the different instrumented field studies deployed by scientists and organizations during the period 1950-1990 in the USA, Canada and Europe are provided. In conclusion it will be argued that while continuing the current radio/optical SETI searches, there is the necessity to maintain sustaining attention to the topic of anomalous aerospace phenomena and to develop new rigorous research approaches.

  17. American Academic Culture in Transformation: Fifty Years, Four Disciplines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Thomas, Ed.; Schorske, Carl E., Ed.

    The 14 essays in this collection reflect on how the major academic disciplines of economics, English, philosophy, and political science have changed in the decades since World War II. Following an introductory essay by the editors, essay titles are: (1) "Politics, Intellect, and the American University, 1945-1995" (Thomas Bender); (2) "How Did…

  18. Fifty Years of the European Convention on Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).

    This booklet is intended as the nongovernmental organization's (NGO's) contribution to the celebration of the 50th anniversary of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). Its aim is to bear witness to the commitment of the NGOs having consultative status with the Council of Europe, and to all that they have done to make known, put into…

  19. Fifty-Year Fate and Impact of General Medical Journals

    PubMed Central

    Ioannidis, John P. A.; Belbasis, Lazaros; Evangelou, Evangelos

    2010-01-01

    Background Influential medical journals shape medical science and practice and their prestige is usually appraised by citation impact metrics, such as the journal impact factor. However, how permanent are medical journals and how stable is their impact over time? Methods and Results We evaluated what happened to general medical journals that were publishing papers half a century ago, in 1959. Data were retrieved from ISI Web of Science for citations and PubMed (Journals function) for journal history. Of 27 eligible journals publishing in 1959, 4 have stopped circulation (including two of the most prestigious journals in 1959) and another 7 changed name between 1959 and 2009. Only 6 of these 27 journals have been published continuously with their initial name since they started circulation. The citation impact of papers published in 1959 gives a very different picture from the current journal impact factor; the correlation between the two is non-significant and very close to zero. Only 13 of the 5,223 papers published in 1959 received at least 5 citations in 2009. Conclusions Journals are more permanent entities than single papers, but they are also subject to major change and their relative prominence can change markedly over time. PMID:20824146

  20. Fifty-five years of enzyme classification: advances and difficulties.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Andrew G; Tipton, Keith F

    2014-01-01

    Since the publication of a list of enzymes classified according to the reactions that they catalysed, by Dixon and Webb in 1958, its content and presentation have undergone a number of significant changes. These have been necessitated by new information, as well as the need to improve clarity. The move from printed versions to the online environment, through the ExplorEnz website, has allowed the process of adding newly reported enzymes to be automated and the information content to be enriched. Search and output facilities have also been enhanced. These and the problems attendant on the use of the Enzyme Commission classification system for some groups of enzymes are the subject of this review. PMID:24103004

  1. [Fifty year's career of Chinese Journal of Medical History].

    PubMed

    Lu, Z

    1996-01-01

    The Journal of Medical History, the antecedent of the now Chinese Journal of Medical History, was inaugurated in March 1947. This paper divides the whole course of publication and compilation of this Journal into 3 stages, namely, Stage of Initiation and Growth (1947-1948), Stage of Tortuous Progressing (1951-1959), Stage of Flourishing and developing (1980-). Altogether 25 volumes, 95 issues have been published in 953 millon Chinese characters and 1684 original articles. Being a highly effective major journal of medical history, this Journal satisfies nearly 40% of the information in this subject and has been indexed by major medical cataloging tool books, both domestic and foreign. Experience and prospects are also mentioned here. PMID:11618794

  2. Anniversary Paper: Nuclear medicine: Fifty years and still counting

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Lawrence E.

    2008-01-01

    The history, present status, and possible future of nuclear medicine are presented. Beginning with development of the rectilinear scanner and gamma camera, evolution to the present forms of hybrid technology such as single photon emission computed tomography∕computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography∕CT is described. Both imaging and therapy are considered and the recent improvements in dose estimation using hybrid technologies are discussed. Future developments listed include novel radiopharmaceuticals created using short chains of nucleic acids and varieties of nanostructures. Patient-specific radiotherapy is an eventual outcome of this work. Possible application to proving the targeting of potential chemotherapeutics is also indicated. PMID:18697524

  3. Fifty Years of Institutional Rehabilitation Outcomes: Inventory and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, David; Fields, Donald L.

    1983-01-01

    Temporal variability within the record was more easily attributed to the adequacy of past accountability research and to public policy than to program effects, socioeconomic climate, or changing receiver group attitudes. (Author/SEW)

  4. Fifty-one years of Los Alamos Spacecraft

    SciTech Connect

    Fenimore, Edward E.

    2014-09-04

    From 1963 to 2014, the Los Alamos National Laboratory was involved in at least 233 spacecraft. There are probably only one or two institutions in the world that have been involved in so many spacecraft. Los Alamos space exploration started with the Vela satellites for nuclear test detection, but soon expanded to ionospheric research (mostly barium releases), radioisotope thermoelectric generators, solar physics, solar wind, magnetospheres, astrophysics, national security, planetary physics, earth resources, radio propagation in the ionosphere, and cubesats. Here, we present a list of the spacecraft, their purpose, and their launch dates for use during RocketFest

  5. [Fifty years of green memory: nursing care for the environment].

    PubMed

    Wächter, Maria Isaura Fradera; Piccinini, Gema Conte; Matzenbacher, Nelson Ivo

    2003-08-01

    This paper describes the activities related to the 50th anniversary celebration of the Nursing School of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. It aimed at surveying the trees of the florula of the green area that surrounds the School and rescuing the memory of those who planted each specimen. The orphan trees were offered to the teaching and administrative staff for adoption. Adding up the erva-mate and the pau-brasil trees planted during the celebration, there are a total of 100 trees distributed into 18 families and 29 species out of which 15 are native and 14 are exotic trees. The erva-mate tree and its monument represent the landmark of this significant date. PMID:15058829

  6. Metallography at the Met Lab -- The first fifty years

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.H.

    1995-12-31

    The Met Lab at the University of Chicago was established to build the world`s first nuclear reactor. The object was to see if a pile (CP-1) could be built to create a sustained chain reaction, i.e., controlled nuclear fission. New materials of the very best quality were needed and people of many skills worked together to achieve the goal as quickly as possible. This is the story of a select group of people who were scientific and engineering pioneers in this new field. Research continued at new sites on more advanced reactors and cooling systems. Many problems were encountered in the fabrication of reactor components, and metallography was a crucial method of analyzing the reactions and quality of consolidation. 1996 will be the 50th anniversary of the beginning of the National Laboratories, so it is appropriate to commemorate and recall some pioneering achievements.

  7. [Information explosion in a better light after fifty years].

    PubMed

    Spála, M

    2004-01-01

    The phenomenon of "Information explosion" emerged in the professional and later also in the unprofessional community in the middle of the twentieth century. It expresses feeling of an unexpected general congestion with increasing number of published articles and books, which are not possible to go through, process and use in the real time. Unexpected development of the science after the Second World War resulted in unusually high production of new data and information. Their fast release was enabled by modernization of the publication process together with an increase of the number of scientific journals. Despite the relative information isolationism during the totalitarian regiment, this worldwide process soon emerged also in our region. However, the overload in information was not balanced by modernization of methods in the bibliographic and librarian systems, which could bring the new information to the scientific community. The turning point in the transfer of information was the development of worldwide interconnection - the word wide web or the Internet. For the processing of new information it was possible to introduce gradually still more powerful information technologies based on computers with on-line connection to the Internet. To solve the information explosion it was necessary to possess such technology and necessary programs and to master the elements of information and computer know-how. Contemporary modern technology with various user-friendly search engines, catalogues, repositories, and with voluminous bibliographic databases enable the use of full-text sources and give a better view on the formerly catastrophically looking information explosion. Along with that it is necessary to find financial sources to cover the access to the system. Information support of the scientific work based on such possibilities represents in the brim of modern information society the only possibility of effective activity in any field. It is also a good way how to precede the possible next information overload. PMID:15730220

  8. FIFTY YEARS OF GRASSLAND SCIENCE LEADING TO CHANGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Division C-6 was established in 2000, but members associated with forages and grazing lands have been active in the Crop Science Society of America (CSSA) since its inception; 21 have served as President and many authored textbooks and comprehensive reference works. Complex forage and pasture mixtur...

  9. Fifty Years of Classical Computing: A Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latousek, Rob

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses the history of the use of computers for research and instruction in classics, highlighting the use of mainframe applications, microcomputers, multimedia, CD-ROMs, Web-based research tools, and the construction of VirtualRome online. Describes recent development efforts in this area and examines trends revealed by this…

  10. Fifty years of oxacalix[3]arenes: A review

    PubMed Central

    Cottet, Kevin; Marcos, Paula M

    2012-01-01

    Summary Hexahomotrioxacalix[3]arenes, commonly called oxacalix[3]arenes, were first reported in 1962. Since then, their chemistry has been expanded to include numerous derivatives and complexes. This review describes the syntheses of the parent compounds, their derivatives, and their complexation behaviour towards cations. Extraction data are presented, as are crystal structures of the macrocycles and their complexes with guest species. Applications in fields as diverse as ion selective electrode modifiers, fluorescence sensors, fullerene separations and biomimetic chemistry are described. PMID:22423288

  11. Chlorpromazine in human scalp hair as an index of dosage history: comparison with simultaneously measured haloperidol.

    PubMed

    Sato, H; Uematsu, T; Yamada, K; Nakashima, M

    1993-01-01

    The concentration of chlorpromazine (CPZ) in hair was measured to demonstrate its value as an index of individual dosage history and compliance. An animal study using pigmented rats was conducted to confirm the dose-dependent accumulation of CPZ in hair. The concentration of CPZ in hair, newly regrown on a denuded area of the back after the administration of CPZ for 3 weeks, was 4.6, 8.5 and 16.6 ng.mg-1 hair after daily doses of 1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg.kg-1.day-1, respectively, significantly correlated with the daily dose. The concentration of CPZ in black hairs collected from 23 Japanese patients, who had been taking CPZ in fixed daily doses (30-300 mg/day), ranged from 1.6 to 27.5 ng.mg-1, and was significantly correlated both with the daily dose and with the trough plasma concentration at steady state. Several strands of hair collected from each of 5 patients, whose doses of CPZ had been changed within several months before sampling, were cut into 1-cm pieces successively from the scalp end and the concentration of CPZ in each piece was measured. With the assumption of a hair growth rate of 1 cm per month, the individual history of CPZ doses in all patients could be deduced from the distribution of CPZ along the hair shaft. In 5 patients with grizzled hair the concentration of CPZ in white hairs was much lower (< 10%) than in black hairs, suggesting that the strong affinity of CPZ for hair melanin may explain the accumulation of CPZ in black hair.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8359180

  12. A study of the physicochemical interactions between biliary lipids and chlorpromazine hydrochloride. Bile-salt precipitation as a mechanism of phenothiazine-induced bile secretory failure.

    PubMed Central

    Carey, M C; Hirom, P C; Small, D M

    1976-01-01

    Since chlorpromazine hydrochloride [2-chloro-10-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-phenothiazine hydrochloride] is commonly implicated in causing bile-secretory failure in man and is secreted into bile, we have studied the physicochemical interactions of the drug with the major components of bile in vitro. Chlorpromazine hydrochloride molecules are amphiphilic by virtue of possessing a polar tertiary amine group linked by a short paraffin chain to a tricyclic hydrophobic part. At pH values below the apparent pK (pK'a 7.4) the molecules are water-soluble cationic detergents. We show that bile salts in concentrations above their critical micellar concentrations are precipitated from solution by chlorpromazine hydrochloride as insoluble 1:1 salt complexes. In the case of mixed bile-salt/phosphatidylcholine micellar solutions, however, the degree of precipitation is inhibited by the phospholipid in proportion to its mole fraction. With increases in the concentration of chlorpromazine hydrochloride or bile salt, micellar solubilization of the precipitated complexes results. Sonicated dispersions of the negatively charged phospholipid phosphatidylserine were also precipitated, but dispersions of the zwitterionic phospholipid phosphatidylcholine were not. Chlorpromazine hydrochloride efficiently solubilized these membrane phospholipids as mixed micellar solutions when the drug:phospholipid molar ratio reached 4:1. Polarizing-microscopy and X-ray-diffraction studies revealed that the precipitated complexes were amorphous and potentiometric studies confirmed the presence of a salt bond. Some dissociation of the complex occurred in the case of the most polar bile salt (Ks 0.365). As canalicular bile-salt secretion determines much of bile-water flow, we propose that complexing and precipitation of bile salts by chlorpromazine hydrochloride and its metabolites may be physicochemically related to the reversible bile-secretory failure produced by this drug. Images PLATE 1 PLATE 2 PMID

  13. A comparison of the effects of chlorpromazine and more selective histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine antagonists on human IgG synthesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Martinez, F; Coleman, J W

    1990-01-01

    We have shown previously that chlorpromazine, a drug associated with immunological abnormalities in vivo, significantly potentiates pokeweed mitogen (PWM)-stimulated IgG synthesis by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in culture. Chlorpromazine is a pharmacological antagonist of histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and thus may exert its immune-enhancing effects by competing with these amines for their respective receptors, which are known to be present on lymphocytes. In this report we show that histamine and 5-HT are present at micromolar concentrations in PBMC cultures. To examine the role of histamine and 5-HT in chlorpromazine-induced enhancement of IgG synthesis we incubated PWM-treated cells with a range of selective histamine and 5-HT antagonists, and with the amines added to cultures either alone or in combination with chlorpromazine. The H1 antagonists mepyramine and promethazine and the H2 antagonist cimetidine had no significant effect on IgG synthesis. The combined 5-HT1/5-HT2 antagonists methysergide and methiothepin also failed to modulate synthesis. Neither histamine nor 5-HT at concentrations up to 100 microM modulated IgG synthesis, nor did they abrogate the enhancement of IgG synthesis induced by chlorpromazine. We conclude that the modulation of IgG synthesis in vitro by chlorpromazine cannot be attributed to an interaction of this drug with lymphocyte receptors for histamine and 5-HT. Other possibilities for the mechanism of action of this drug on immune function are discussed. PMID:2329012

  14. FIFTY-FIVE GALLON DRUM STANDARD STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    PUIGH RJ

    2009-05-14

    Fifty-five gallon drums are routinely used within the U.S. for the storage and eventual disposal of fissionable materials as Transuranic or low-level waste. To support these operations, criticality safety evaluations are required. A questionnaire was developed and sent to selected Endusers at Hanford, Idaho National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Oak Ridge and the Savannah River Site to solicit current practices. This questionnaire was used to gather information on the kinds of fissionable materials packaged into drums, the models used in performing criticality safety evaluations in support of operations involving these drums, and the limits and controls established for the handling and storage of these drums. The completed questionnaires were reviewed and clarifications solicited through individual communications with each Enduser to obtain more complete and consistent responses. All five sites have similar drum operations involving thousands to tens of thousands of fissionable material waste drums. The primary sources for these drums are legacy (prior operations) and decontamination and decommissioning wastes at all sites except Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The results from this survey and our review are discussed in this paper.

  15. America's top fifty power plant mercury pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    2008-11-15

    The fifty most-polluting coal-burning power plants in the United States emitted twenty tons of mercury into the air in 2007. Of the ten highest-emitting plants, all but one reported an increase as compared to 2006. Coal-fired power plants are the single largest source of mercury air pollution in the U.S., accounting for roughly 40 per cent of all mercury emissions. This report rates the power plants both in terms of sheer mercury pollution and mercury pollution adjusted per kilowatt hour. It also outlines the ways in which mercury removal is achievable with existing technology. Activated carbon injection, which is commercially available and has been tested, can achieve mercury reductions of 90 per cent (and better when coupled with a fabric filter for particulate control) on both bituminous and sub-bituminous coals. In addition, mercury can be significantly reduced as a 'co-benefit' of controls for other pollutants, such as fabric filters, flue gas desulphurization, and selective catalytic reduction. 3 tabs.

  16. Effect of chlorpromazine pretreatment on cadmium toxicity in the male Wistar (WF/NCr) rat.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, N; Rehm, S; Waalkes, M P

    1994-06-01

    A recent report has indicated that cadmium-induced testicular damage in CF-1 mice can be prevented by pretreatment with calmodulin inhibitors such as chlorpromazine (CPZ), trifluoperazine, or N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalene sulfonamide (W-7). However, the basis of this tolerance to cadmium is unclear and has not been demonstrated in any species other than mice. Thus, we examined the effects of the calmodulin inhibitor CPZ on cadmium toxicity in male Wistar (WF/NCr) rats. A single sc injection of 25 mumol CdCl2/kg proved nonlethal over 24 h but caused the typical spectrum of testicular lesions and increases in hemoglobin content (as assessed by hemoglobin absorbance in testicular supernatant). Pretreatment with 40 mumol CPZ/kg had no effect on cadmium-induced testicular lesions but did reduce testicular hemoglobin content, while 120 mumol CPZ/kg moderately reduced the severity of testicular lesions and hemoglobin contents. CPZ pretreatment in some cases increased cadmium content in liver and reduced testicular content but had no effect on renal levels. Cadmium treatment markedly increased hepatic and renal metallothionein (MT), a metal-binding protein often associated with tolerance to cadmium. CPZ alone likewise increased hepatic MT and MT mRNA, but did not modify renal MT, renal MT mRNA, or testicular MT mRNA. In contrast to liver and kidney, testicular cadmium-binding protein (TCBP) decreased in rats exposed only to cadmium or to CPZ, while CPZ pretreatment had no further effect on cadmium-induced reductions in TCBP levels. These results indicate that, like mice, CPZ in rats can reduce the testicular toxicity of cadmium as indicated by CPZ-induced reductions in testicular vascular lesions and hemoglobin contents. However, in rats CPZ has a less dramatic effect on such cadmium-induced lesions than in mice. The CPZ-induced stimulation of hepatic MT gene expression or modification of toxicokinetics may both play roles in this acquired tolerance to cadmium

  17. Characterization of mixtures of compounds produced in chlorpromazine aqueous solutions by ultraviolet laser irradiation: their applications in antimicrobial assays.

    PubMed

    Alexandru, Tatiana; Staicu, Angela; Pascu, Alexandru; Radu, Elena; Stoicu, Alexandru; Nastasa, Viorel; Dinache, Andra; Boni, Mihai; Amaral, Leonard; Pascu, Mihail Lucian

    2015-05-01

    The study reports an investigation of the photoproducts obtained by exposure of chlorpromazine hydrochloride in ultrapure water (concentration 2 mg/mL) to a 266-nm laser beam obtained by fourth harmonic generation from a Nd:YAG laser (6-ns full time width at half maximum, 10-Hz pulse repetition rate). The photoproducts were analyzed by steady-state UV-Vis absorption, laser-induced fluorescence, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography-tandem time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. Two figures showing pathways that take place during irradiation for obtaining the final products are shown. The quantum yield of singlet oxygen generation by chlorpromazine (CPZ) was determined relative to standard Zn-phthalocyanine in dimethyl sulfoxide. To outline the role of fluorescence in photoproducts formation rates, fluorescence quantum yield of CPZ during exposure to 355-nm radiation (third harmonic of the fundamental beam of Nd:YAG laser) was investigated relative to standard Coumarin 1 in ethanol. The CPZ solutions exposed 60 and 240 min to 266-nm laser beam, respectively, were tested against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 strain. For 25 μL of CPZ samples irradiated 240 min, a higher diameter of inhibition has obtained against the tested strain than for the 60-min exposed ones. PMID:25365041

  18. Characterization of mixtures of compounds produced in chlorpromazine aqueous solutions by ultraviolet laser irradiation: their applications in antimicrobial assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandru, Tatiana; Staicu, Angela; Pascu, Alexandru; Radu, Elena; Stoicu, Alexandru; Nastasa, Viorel; Dinache, Andra; Boni, Mihai; Amaral, Leonard; Pascu, Mihail Lucian

    2015-05-01

    The study reports an investigation of the photoproducts obtained by exposure of chlorpromazine hydrochloride in ultrapure water (concentration 2 mg/mL) to a 266-nm laser beam obtained by fourth harmonic generation from a Nd:YAG laser (6-ns full time width at half maximum, 10-Hz pulse repetition rate). The photoproducts were analyzed by steady-state UV-Vis absorption, laser-induced fluorescence, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography-tandem time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. Two figures showing pathways that take place during irradiation for obtaining the final products are shown. The quantum yield of singlet oxygen generation by chlorpromazine (CPZ) was determined relative to standard Zn-phthalocyanine in dimethyl sulfoxide. To outline the role of fluorescence in photoproducts formation rates, fluorescence quantum yield of CPZ during exposure to 355-nm radiation (third harmonic of the fundamental beam of Nd:YAG laser) was investigated relative to standard Coumarin 1 in ethanol. The CPZ solutions exposed 60 and 240 min to 266-nm laser beam, respectively, were tested against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 strain. For 25 μL of CPZ samples irradiated 240 min, a higher diameter of inhibition has obtained against the tested strain than for the 60-min exposed ones.

  19. Chemoradiotherapy of cancer: Boronated antibodies and boron-containing derivatives of chlorpromazine and porphyrins for neutron capture therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Soloway, A.H.

    1988-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies directed against tumor associated antigens have been proposed for the selective targeting of malignant cells with boron-10. The purpose of this task was to optimize the conditions for linking a large number of boron atoms to antibody molecules without compromising the antibody's immunoreactivity. There has been a need to develop methodologies for the separation, purification and characterization of such immunoconjugates prior to their evaluation both under in vitro and in vivo conditions. During this project period, much of the effort has concentrated on MoAb 17-1A which is directed against human colorectal cancer. The observed selective concentration of chlorpromazine in melanotic tissue and its high localization in murine melanoma indicated that boronated analogues of chlorpromazine potentially could be used to deliver sufficient concentration of boron-10 for BNCT of melanomas. Five boronated promazines have been synthesized and fully characterized. The phthalocyanines, as with various porphyrins, have been shown to be incorporated to a significant extent in malignant tumors. As a consequence, we have undertaken the synthesis of boron-containing phthalocyanines. Initial efforts have concentrated on the sulfonation of copper phthalocyanine by chlorosulfonation followed by reaction with aminocarboranes such as p-amino-phenylcarborane. We have achieved an average of 18 boron atoms per phthalocyanine molecule. 1 fig.

  20. Nanostructured biocompatible thermal/electrical stimuli-responsive biopolymer-doped polypyrrole for controlled release of chlorpromazine: kinetics studies.

    PubMed

    Shamaeli, Ehsan; Alizadeh, Naader

    2014-09-10

    Biocompatible nanostructured conductive heparin-doped polypyrrole film was fabricated and employed as a high-capacity cation exchanger for programmable release of neuroleptic drug, chlorpromazine (CPZ) with thermally and electrical dual-stimulation. Releasing behavior were studied at different applied potentials and temperatures by in-situ monitoring of UV absorbance measurements. Three mathematical models (Higuchi, Power, and Avrami equation) were employed to investigate kinetics of the release. Based on the obtained results, the Avrami model found to be more comprehensive than two other ones for mathematical description of electro-stimulated release of CPZ. A quantitative relationship between activation energy parameters (Ea, ΔG(≠), ΔH(≠), and ΔS(≠)) and release conditions (applied potential and temperature) has been developed and established to predict release rate constants at various applied conditions. PMID:24969668

  1. Lloyd Berkner: Catalyst for Meteorology's Fabulous Fifties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, J. M.

    2002-05-01

    In the long sweep of meteorological history - from Aristotle's Meteorologica to the threshold of the third millennium - the 1950s will surely be recognized as a defining decade. The contributions of many individuals were responsible for the combination of vision and institution building that marked this decade and set the stage for explosive development during the subsequent forty years. In the minds of many individuals who were active during those early years, however, one name stands out as a prime mover par excellence: Lloyd Viel Berkner. On May 1, 1957, Berkner addressed the National Press Club. The address was entitled, "Horizons of Meteorology". It reveals Berkner's insights into meteorology from his position as Chairman of the Committee on Meteorology of the National Academy of Sciences, soon to release the path-breaking report, Research and Education in Meteorology (1958). The address also reflects the viewpoint of an individual deeply involved in the International Geophysical Year (IGY). It is an important footnote to meteorological history. We welcome this opportunity to profile Berkner and to discuss "Horizons of Meteorology" in light of meteorology's state-of-affairs in the 1950s and the possible relevance to Berkner's ideas to contemporary issues.

  2. Science and Human Behavior at fifty.

    PubMed Central

    Pilgrim, Carol

    2003-01-01

    The golden anniversary of Science and Human Behavior is cause for celebration. Toward that end, the present paper is largely an historical consideration of the book, its inception and reception, both at the time of its publication and in subsequent years. The range and intensity of reactions to S&HB mark its impact and show it to be among Skinner's most important works, if not the most important. S&HB was written as an introductory psychology text--a vigorous use of the book in our teaching could do much to benefit the dissemination of behavior analysis. PMID:14964713

  3. 12. CLOSEUP VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF SPILLWAY FIFTY FEET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF SPILLWAY FIFTY FEET FROM LAKESHORE, SHOWING REMAINS OF SPILLWAY TIMBERS, LOOKING WEST - Three Bears Lake & Dams, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  4. The in vitro biokinetics of chlorpromazine and diazepam in aggregating rat brain cell cultures after repeated exposure.

    PubMed

    Broeders, Jessica J W; Hermens, Joop L M; Blaauboer, Bas J; Zurich, Marie-Gabrielle

    2015-12-25

    Neurotoxic effects of compounds can be tested in vitro using cell systems. One example is aggregating rat brain cell cultures. For the extrapolation of in vitro data to the in vivo situation, it is important to take the biokinetics of the test compound into account. In addition, the exposure in vivo is often for a longer period of time; therefore, it is crucial to incorporate this into in vitro assays as well. In this study, aggregating rat brain cell cultures were exposed to chlorpromazine (CPZ) and diazepam (DZP) for 12-days with repeated exposure. Samples were taken from the stocks, test media, cell culture media and cells at specific time points on the first and last exposure day. These samples were analysed by HPLC-UV. The amount of CPZ in the medium decreased over time, whereas the amount in the cells showed an increase. Accumulation of CPZ in the cells was seen over the 12-day repeated exposure. The amount of DZP in the medium remained stable over time and only up to 2% of DZP added was found in the cells. Different biokinetic behaviour was found for CPZ and DZP. Possible explanations are differences in uptake into the cells or efflux out of the cells. The decrease of CPZ in the medium versus the stable amount of DZP results in differences in exposure concentrations over time, which should be taken into account when interpreting in vitro effect data. PMID:25193744

  5. "Fifty-Fifty?" Comparative Comments on Access to Adult and Higher Education in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahamsson, Kenneth

    It is necessary to develop some comparative indicators in order to describe and compare the systems of education in countries other than one's own. Access to higher education is an important indicator. Currently, 50 percent of the Swedish adult population takes part in some organized learning activity every year and 50 percent of the student…

  6. Contradictory effects of chlorpromazine on endothelial cells in a rat model of endotoxic shock in association with its actions on serum TNF-alpha levels and antioxidant enzyme activities.

    PubMed

    Can, Cenk; Demirci, Buket; Uysal, Ayşegül; Akçay, Yasemin Delen; Koşay, Sezen

    2003-09-01

    We examined the effects of the phenothiazine derivative, chlorpromazine on thoracic aortic endothelial cell histology (14 h after LPS challenge) in a model of endotoxic shock in rats. Since excessive formation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and oxygen-derived free radicals contribute to endothelial injury in endotoxemia, we also evaluated the effect of the drug on the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in liver tissue in this model and tried to find out whether this possible effect was associated with a change in serum TNF-alpha levels (measured 90 min after chlorpromazine administration). Endotoxemia was induced by a single i.p. injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (5 mg kg(-1) in 1.5 ml of saline; LPS from Escherichia coli serotype 055:B5, L-2880, Sigma Chemical Company). Electron microscopic evaluation of the aortas revealed that chlorpromazine (administered 30 min prior to LPS challenge), in smaller doses (3 mg kg(-1)) ameliorated the endothelial cell injury caused by LPS, whereas it caused deterioration of endothelial cell morphology in higher doses (10 and 25 mg kg(-1)). Chlorpromazine administration caused a significant reduction in serum TNF-alpha levels, which was correlated well with an increase in SOD activity in all drug doses (3, 10 and 25 mg kg(-1)). Catalase activity was increased only in the 25 mg kg(-1) chlorpromazine group. PMID:12860438

  7. Biokinetics of chlorpromazine in primary rat and human hepatocytes and human HepaRG cells after repeated exposure.

    PubMed

    Broeders, Jessica J W; Parmentier, Céline; Truisi, Germaine L; Jossé, Rozenn; Alexandre, Eliane; Savary, Camille C; Hewitt, Philip G; Mueller, Stefan O; Guillouzo, André; Richert, Lysiane; van Eijkeren, Jan C H; Hermens, Joop L M; Blaauboer, Bas J

    2015-12-25

    Since drug induced liver injury is difficult to predict in animal models, more representative tests are needed to better evaluate these effects in humans. Existing in vitro systems hold great potential to detect hepatotoxicity of pharmaceuticals. In this study, the in vitro biokinetics of the model hepatotoxicant chlorpromazine (CPZ) were evaluated in three different liver cell systems after repeated exposure in order to incorporate repeated-dose testing into an in vitro assay. Primary rat and human hepatocytes, cultured in sandwich configuration and the human HepaRG cell line were treated daily with CPZ for 14 days. Samples were taken from medium, cells and well plastic at specific time points after the first and last exposure. The samples were analysed by HPLC-UV to determine the amount of CPZ in these samples. Based on cytotoxicity assays, the three models were tested at 1-2 μM CPZ, while the primary rat hepatocytes and the HepaRG cell line were in addition exposed to a higher concentration of 15-20 μM. Overall, the mass balance of CPZ decreased in the course of 24 h, indicating the metabolism of the compound within the cells. The largest decrease in parent compound was seen in the primary cultures; in the HepaRG cell cultures the mass balance only decreased to 50%. CPZ accumulated in the cells during the 14-day repeated exposure. Possible explanations for the accumulation of CPZ are a decrease in metabolism over time, inhibition of efflux transporters or binding to phospholipids. The biokinetics of CPZ differed between the three liver cell models and were influenced by specific cell properties as well as culture conditions. These results support the conclusion that in vitro biokinetics data are necessary to better interpret chemical-induced cytotoxicity data. PMID:25458484

  8. Association studies of genomic variants with treatment response to risperidone, clozapine, quetiapine and chlorpromazine in the Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Xu, Q; Wu, X; Li, M; Huang, H; Minica, C; Yi, Z; Wang, G; Shen, L; Xing, Q; Shi, Y; He, L; Qin, S

    2016-08-01

    Schizophrenia is a widespread mental disease with a prevalence of about 1% in the world population. Continuous long-term treatment is required to maintain social functioning and prevent symptom relapse of schizophrenia patients. However, there are considerable individual differences in response to the antipsychotic drugs. There is a pressing need to identify more drug-response-related markers. But most pharmacogenomics of schizophrenia have typically focused on a few candidate genes in small sample size. In this study, 995 subjects were selected for discovering the drug-response-related markers. A total of 77 single-nucleotide polymorphisms of 25 genes have been investigated for four commonly used antipsychotic drugs in China: risperidone, clozapine, quetiapine, and chlorpromazine. Significant associations with treatment response for several genes, such as CYP2D6, CYP2C19, COMT, ABCB1, DRD3 and HTR2C have been verified in our study. Also, we found several new candidate genes (TNIK, RELN, NOTCH4 and SLC6A2) and combinations (haplotype rs1544325-rs5993883-rs6269-rs4818 in COMT) that are associated with treatment response to the four drugs. Also, multivariate interactions analysis demonstrated the combination of rs6269 in COMT and rs3813929 in HTR2C may work as a predictor to improve the clinical antipsychotic response. So our study is of great significance to improve current knowledge on the pharmacogenomics of schizophrenia, thus promoting the implementation of personalized medicine in schizophrenia.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 18 August 2015; doi:10.1038/tpj.2015.61. PMID:26282453

  9. Inhibitory effect of chlorpromazine on the syndrome of hyperactivity produced by L-tryptophan or 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine in rats treated with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Grahame-Smith, D. G.

    1971-01-01

    1. The hyperactivity and hyperpyrexia produced by L-tryptophan in rats treated with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor was inhibited by chlorpromazine. 2. Chlorpromazine did not inhibit the increased rate of synthesis of brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) produced by tryptophan loading. 3. Hyperactivity and hyperpyrexia were also produced by 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeODMT) in rats. Pretreatment with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor potentiated the hyperactivity response. Pretreatment of rats with p-chlorophenylalanine did not inhibit hyperactivity produced by 5-MeODMT. 4. Chlorpromazine inhibits hyperactivity caused by tryptophan or 5-MeODMT after monoamine oxidase inhibition either by competition with 5-HT or 5-MeODMT, respectively, at receptor sites or by physiological antagonism. PMID:4261561

  10. The effects of selected drugs, including chlorpromazine and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, on polyclonal IgG synthesis and interleukin 1 production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Martinez, F; Coleman, J W

    1989-05-01

    We tested a range of drugs for their effects on in vitro polyclonal IgG synthesis by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulated with the lectin pokeweed mitogen (PWM). The test drugs were selected on the basis of reported disruptive effects on immune function in vivo. IgG production between day 4 and days 7 or 8 of culture was measured by biotin-streptavidin sandwich ELISA. The anti-psychotic agent chlorpromazine (0.55-1.7 microM) enhanced IgG synthesis to approximately double control levels. In contrast, the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) indomethacin, piroxicam, ibuprofen and aspirin inhibited IgG synthesis by up to 50%, with a rank order of potency that reflects their activity as inhibitors of cyclo-oxygenase. Phenytoin, procainamide, propylthiouracil, methimazole, D-penicillamine and D-penicillamine-L-cysteine all failed to modulate IgG synthesis at non-toxic concentrations. The potentiation and inhibition of IgG synthesis by chlorpromazine and indomethacin, respectively, was observed only when the drug was present during the first 24 h of culture. Neither chlorpromazine nor indomethacin, at non-toxic concentrations, affected PHA- and PWM-stimulated proliferation of PBMC. In addition, chlorpromazine, indomethacin and piroxicam, at concentrations which produced maximal modulation of IgG synthesis, and D-penicillamine and D-penicillamine-L-cysteine at 10 microM failed to influence production of interleukin-1-like activity. We conclude that chlorpromazine and NSAIDs, although they exert opposite effects on IgG synthesis, act at an early stage of B cell differentiation that appears to be independent of interleukin 1 synthesis and early proliferative events. PMID:2788047

  11. High resolution scanning electron microscopy of rabbit corneal endothelium to show effects of UV-visible irradiation in the presence of chlorpromazine

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, P.J.; Hollenberg, M.J.; Menon, I.A.; Temkin, R.J.; Persad, S.D.; Basu, P.K. )

    1989-01-01

    The ultrastructure of rabbit cornea endothelial cells was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in freeze-cleaved corneas using a Hitachi S-570 scanning electron microscope in the high resolution mode (HRSEM). In order to study phototoxic effects in vitro, rabbit corneas (experimental) were cultured as organ culture in the presence of 5 micrograms/ml chlorpromazine (CPZ) and irradiated. For comparison, control 1 corneas were not irradiated but incubated in the dark without CPZ in the medium; control 2 corneas were also kept in the dark but in the presence of CPZ; control 3 corneas were irradiated with no CPZ in the medium. Cellular damage was not seen in the three types of control corneas, but in the experimental corneas the endothelial cells showed extensive disruption of the cell membrane and some deterioration of the intracellular components. Our study confirmed that HRSEM is a satisfactory new technique for visualizing damage of the intracellular organelles of corneal endothelium.

  12. Comparison of desensitization and time-dependent block of the acetylcholine receptor responses by chlorpromazine, cytochalasin B, triton X-100 and other agents.

    PubMed Central

    Anwyl, R.; Narahashi, T.

    1980-01-01

    1 Chlorpromazine, cytochalasin B, Triton X-100, lidocaine, QX-314, pentobarbitone, heptanol and ethanol, but not benzocaine or methylguanidine, caused a time-dependent inhibition of acetylcholine (ACh) potentials. Increasing the concentration of the agents increased the rate of inhibition. 2 The recovery rate from the time-dependent inhibition was the same as from desensitization except in Triton X-100 which slowed the recovery. 3 Hyperpolarizing the membrane potential caused an increase in the rate of the time-dependent inhibition. 4 It is suggested that the time-dependent inhibition and desensitization are very similar phenomena, with either ACh (in desensitization) or an agent (in time-dependent inhibition) causing a block of the activated ACh receptor, and with dissociation from the binding site being very slow. 5 Many of the agents also cause a steady state inhibition of the ACh receptor which appears to be caused by a separate blocking action of the agents. PMID:7378656

  13. Involvement of the first transmembrane segment of human α2-adrenoceptors in the subtype-selective binding of chlorpromazine, spiperone and spiroxatrine

    PubMed Central

    Laurila, JMM; Wissel, G; Xhaard, H; Ruuskanen, JO; Johnson, MS; Scheinin, M

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Some large antagonist ligands (ARC239, chlorpromazine, prazosin, spiperone, spiroxatrine) bind to the human α2A-adrenoceptor with 10- to 100-fold lower affinity than to the α2B- and α2C-adrenoceptor subtypes. Previous mutagenesis studies have not explained this subtype selectivity. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The possible involvement of the extracellular amino terminus and transmembrane domain 1 (TM1) in subtype selectivity was elucidated with eight chimaeric receptors: six where TM1 and the N-terminus were exchanged between the α2-adrenoceptor subtypes and two where only TM1 was exchanged. Receptors were expressed in CHO cells and tested for ligand binding with nine chemically diverse antagonist ligands. For purposes of interpretation, molecular models of the three human α2-adrenoceptors were constructed based on the β2-adrenoceptor crystal structure. KEY RESULTS The affinities of three antagonists (spiperone, spiroxatrine and chlorpromazine) were significantly improved by TM1 substitutions of the α2A-adrenoceptor, but reciprocal effects were not seen for chimaeric receptors based on α2B- and α2C-adrenoceptors. Molecular docking of these ligands suggested that binding occurs in the orthosteric ligand binding pocket. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS TM1 is involved in determining the low affinity of some antagonist ligands at the human α2A-adrenoceptor. The exact mechanism is not known, but the position of TM1 at a large distance from the binding pocket indicates that TM1 does not participate in specific side-chain interactions with amino acids within the binding pocket of the receptor or with ligands bound therein. Instead, molecular models suggest that TM1 has indirect conformational effects related to the charge distribution or overall shape of the binding pocket. PMID:21649638

  14. Voluntary private health insurance among the over fifties in Europe◊

    PubMed Central

    Paccagnella, Omar; Rebba, Vincenzo; Weber, Guglielmo

    2012-01-01

    Using data from SHARE (Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe), we investigate the determinants of voluntary private health insurance (VPHI) among the over fifties in eleven European countries, and their effects on health care spending. Firstly, we find that the main determinants of VPHI are different in each country, reflecting differences in the underlying health care systems, but in most countries education levels and cognitive abilities have a strong positive effect on holding a VPHI policy. We also analyse the effect of holding a voluntary additional health insurance policy on out-of-pocket (OOP) health care spending. We adopt a simultaneous-equations approach to control for self-selection into VPHI policy holding and find that only in the Netherlands VPHI policyholders have lower OOP spending than the rest of the population while in some countries (Italy, Spain, Denmark and Austria) they spend significantly more. This could be due to increased utilisation but also to cost-sharing measures adopted by the insurers in order both to counter the effects of moral hazard and to keep adverse selection under control. PMID:22315160

  15. Paper Mill Effluent Decolorization by Fifty Streptomyces Strains

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Manuel; Rodríguez, Juana; Soliveri, Juan; Copa, José L.; Pérez, María I.; Arias, María E.

    1994-01-01

    Fifty actinomycete strains isolated from lignocellulosic substrates were examined for the ability to remove the color from a paper mill effluent obtained after semichemical alkaline pulping of wheat straw. Streptomyces sp. strains UAH 15, UAH 23, UAH 30, and UAH 51 were selected for their ability to decolorize the effluent in a liquid medium containing 1% (wt/vol) glycerol, 0.2% (wt/vol) ammonium sulfate, and 80% (vol/vol) effluent. The highest levels of decolorization achieved after the strains grew were 60 to 65%. Strains UAH 30 and UAH 51 were selected for further study because of their different patterns of effluent decolorization during growth. Fractionation of the decolorized effluent by gel permeation chromatography demonstrated that there were reductions in the levels of absorbance of the high- and medium-molecular-weight compounds. These fractions were mainly responsible for the color of the effluent, while the last fractions, the low-molecular-weight compounds, could have been responsible for the residual color of the decolorized effluent. Thin-layer chromatography revealed significant differences among the patterns of bands corresponding to the acidified supernatants obtained after precipitation of alkali-lignin from the effluent samples decolorized by different Streptomyces strains. Images PMID:16349426

  16. Structure of the high-affinity binding site for noncompetitive blockers of the acetylcholine receptor: (/sup 3/H)chlorpromazine labels homologous residues in the. beta. and delta chains

    SciTech Connect

    Giraudat, J.; Dennis, M.; Heidmann, T.; Haumont, P.Y.; Lederer, F.; Changeux, J.P.

    1987-05-05

    The membrane-bound acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo marmorata was photolabeled by the noncompetitive channel blocker (/sup 3/H)chlorpromazine under equilibrium conditions in the presence of the agonist carbamoylcholine. The amount of radioactivity incorporated into all subunits was reduced by addition of phencyclidine, a specific ligand for the high-affinity site for noncompetitive blockers. The labeled ..beta.. chain was purified and digested with trypsin or CNBr, and the resulting fragments were fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Sequence analysis resulted in the identification of Ser-254 and Leu-257 as residues labeled by (/sup 3/H)chlorpromazine in a phencyclidine-sensitive manner. These residues are located in the hydrophobic and potentially transmembrane segment M II of the ..beta.. chain, a region homologous to that containing the chlorpromazine-labeled Ser-262 in the delta chain. These results show that homologous regions of different receptor subunits contribute to the unique high-affinity site for noncompetitive blockers, a finding consistent with the location of this site on the axis of symmetry of the receptor molecule.

  17. Fifty Years in Higher Education: Personal Influences in My Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Earl J.

    1980-01-01

    Third in a series of professional memoirs by leaders in higher education, Earl J. McGrath, Director of Liberal Studies at the University of Arizona, recounts personal influences on his professional development. Of special importance were his experiences as Commissioner of Education, as a researcher and writer, and in the founding of Eisenhower…

  18. In Fifty Years, Who Will Be Here? Reflections on Globalisation, Migration and Spiritual Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erricker, Clive

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the significance of debate within and beyond religious communities over faith representation in relation to globalisation and migration. It analyses ways in which globalisation affects forms of religiosity and spiritual identity, among the young and their elders in religious communities, using two case studies: one from Islam…

  19. Fifty years of chasing lizards: new insights advance optimal escape theory.

    PubMed

    Samia, Diogo S M; Blumstein, Daniel T; Stankowich, Theodore; Cooper, William E

    2016-05-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses often examine data from diverse taxa to identify general patterns of effect sizes. Meta-analyses that focus on identifying generalisations in a single taxon are also valuable because species in a taxon are more likely to share similar unique constraints. We conducted a comprehensive phylogenetic meta-analysis of flight initiation distance in lizards. Flight initiation distance (FID) is a common metric used to quantify risk-taking and has previously been shown to reflect adaptive decision-making. The past decade has seen an explosion of studies focused on quantifying FID in lizards, and, because lizards occur in a wide range of habitats, are ecologically diverse, and are typically smaller and differ physiologically from the better studied mammals and birds, they are worthy of detailed examination. We found that variables that reflect the costs or benefits of flight (being engaged in social interactions, having food available) as well as certain predator effects (predator size and approach speed) had large effects on FID in the directions predicted by optimal escape theory. Variables that were associated with morphology (with the exception of crypsis) and physiology had relatively small effects, whereas habitat selection factors typically had moderate to large effect sizes. Lizards, like other taxa, are very sensitive to the costs of flight. PMID:25620002

  20. Fifty Years of Silent Service: A Peek Inside the CIA Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newlen, Robert R.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) library. Highlights include security measures, a day in the life of two CIA librarians, sample reference questions, collection development, the Historical Intelligence Collection, the CIA Web site, and library modernization. (JAK)

  1. Two Hundred Fifty Years of Aerosols and Climate: The End of the Age of Aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; Bond, Tami C.

    2014-01-20

    Carbonaceous and sulfur aerosols have a substantial global and regional influence on climate in addition to their impact on health and ecosystems. The magnitude of this influence has changed substantially over the past and is expected to continue to change into the future. An integrated picture of the changing climatic influence of black carbon, organic carbon and sulfate over the period 1850 through 2100, focusing on uncertainty, is presented using updated historical inventories and a coordinated set of emission projections. While aerosols have had a substantial impact on climate over the past century, by the end of the 21st century aerosols will likely be only a minor contributor to radiative forcing due to increases in greenhouse gas forcing and a global decrease in pollutant emissions. This outcome is even more certain under a successful implementation of a policy to limit greenhouse gas emissions as low-carbon energy technologies that do not emit appreciable aerosol or SO2 are deployed.

  2. Fifty Years after "Brown v. Board of Education": A Two-Tiered Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Thomas G.; Fulton, Kathleen; Abercrombie, Karen; Yoon, Irene

    2004-01-01

    This report provides teachers' views of unequal teaching and learning opportunities that are still common in many of America's public schools. It analyzes the responses of 3,336 public school teachers in California, Wisconsin, and New York who were surveyed by Lou Harris and the Peter Harris Research Group. The findings paint a chilling picture of…

  3. Fifty years of Mössbauer spectroscopy: from alloys and oxides to glasses and nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. E.; Johnson, J. A.

    2012-03-01

    The Mössbauer Effect was discovered in 1957. In 1960 Mössbauer spectroscopy was born when two important papers appeared on (i) the magnetic hyperfine interaction and (ii) the electric monopole (isomer shift) and quadrupole interactions. These transformed an interesting phenomenon into a method for probing solids. Applications to magnetism, metals and alloys, chemical compounds, biological molecules, geology, archaeology and other sciences followed and are still of current interest. Two areas of research where Mössbauer spectroscopy is making unique contributions are in determining oxidation states in (i) glasses and (ii) nanoparticles. Some recent measurements are described.

  4. GABAB Encephalitis: A Fifty-Two-Year-Old Man with Seizures, Dysautonomia, and Acute Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Loftspring, Matthew C.; Landsness, Eric; Wooliscroft, Lindsey; Rudock, Robert; Jo, Sally; Patel, Kevin R.

    2015-01-01

    Autoantibodies to the γ-aminobutyric acid receptor, subtype B (GABAB), are a known cause of limbic encephalitis. The spectrum of clinical manifestations attributable to this antibody is not well defined at the present time. Here we present a case of GABAB encephalitis presenting with encephalopathy, status epilepticus, dysautonomia, and acute heart failure. To our knowledge, heart failure and dysautonomia have not yet been reported with this syndrome. PMID:26609456

  5. [Fifty years of public service for Quebec community psychiatry services. Part I].

    PubMed

    Lesage, Alain

    2015-01-01

    This essay comprises 2 parts. It aims to recognize the public service of psychiatrists of the Département de psychiatrie de l'Université de Montréal who served at the provincial level of the Ministry of Health and Social Services for deinstitutionalisation of policies and organisation of services, at the service of people with severe mental disorders. First with Dr. Camille Laurin post-face of the 1962 book Les fous crient au secours! (Mentally ill patients cry for help); then the insight on the latest phase of differentiated specialised clinics by Dr. Denis Lazure, who participated in 1962 to the Bédard, Lazure, Roberts commission that launched community psychiatry, but who will also be Social Affairs Minister in the late '70 s; Dr. Arthur Amyot will sail through the budgetary issues when in the beginning of the '80s the mental health directorate was under Social Affairs; Dr. Luc Blanchet will be associated to a rich production of interdisciplinary reports by the advisory Mental Health Committee until its dismissal in 2003; and finally, Dr. André Delorme, who probably has the record of longevity at the head of the mental health directorate, transferred in 2003 under the deputy minister for medical and university affairs.The essay will propose since the beginning a grid or referential of four health services analysis. First; the arguments for community care by British and Italian psychiatrists and researchers, Thornicroft and Tansella. Second; system issues of mental health reforms proposed by Canadian psychiatric nurse and researcher Paula Goering. Third; the model of socio-political regulation of health system proposed by the Université de Montréal' health administration researcher Dr. André-Pierre Contandriopoulos; and Fourth; the structural tension between the medical and social sector signaled by the American medical sociologist, Leutz.The same phases of deinstitutionalization in other countries as UK, took place as followed: a) the asylum phase (before 1960); b) the psychiatry community (1960-2000); and c) the differentiated system (since 2000). The essay will evidence the long march towards hospitals without walls, interdisciplinary work, tension between cure and rehabilitation and a relative decreasing budget. This in conjunction with vulnerability in organisation and leadership, attributed to tension or burn out has revealed system deficits like the trans-institution towards homelessness or towards the judiciary system. The essay will conclude with a discussion on the opportunities and challenges of the very new Law 10 that reforms the general governance of the provincial and regional health and social services and hopes for a more balanced mental health care system in Quebec. PMID:26559210

  6. Fifty Years Later: The Sequence, Structure and Function of Lacewing Cross-beta Silk

    SciTech Connect

    Weisman, Sarah; Okada, Shoko; Mudie, Stephen T.; Huson, Mickey G.; Trueman, Holly E.; Sriskantha, Alagacone; Haritos, Victoria S.; Sutherland, Tara D.

    2009-12-01

    Classic studies of protein structure in the 1950s and 1960s demonstrated that green lacewing egg stalk silk possesses a rare native cross-beta sheet conformation. We have identified and sequenced the silk genes expressed by adult females of a green lacewing species. The two encoded silk proteins are 109 and 67 kDa in size and rich in serine, glycine and alanine. Over 70% of each protein sequence consists of highly repetitive regions with 16-residue periodicity. The repetitive sequences can be fitted to an elegant cross-beta sheet structural model with protein chains folded into regular 8-residue long beta strands. This model is supported by wide-angle X-ray scattering data and tensile testing from both our work and the original papers. We suggest that the silk proteins assemble into stacked beta sheet crystallites bound together by a network of cystine cross-links. This hierarchical structure gives the lacewing silk high lateral stiffness nearly threefold that of silkworm silk, enabling the egg stalks to effectively suspend eggs and protect them from predators.

  7. A Pictorial History of the Drury College Student: The First Fifty Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddux, Mindy

    2011-01-01

    Established in 1873, Drury College in Springfield, Missouri, provided a unique experience for their undergraduate students. A limited amount of research has been conducted on the institution but no work has been done to specifically look at the undergraduate student experience. Using archival research methods and information from literature on…

  8. Fifty Years of Children's Books, 1910-1960: Trends, Backgrounds, Influences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dora V.

    Children's books published between 1910 and 1960 reflect a changing world and new attitudes toward children. In 1910, although some of the moral tales of the earlier Puritan era survived, the didactic period in children's books was nearly over. From 1910 to 1925, a transitional period, writers began to look toward the children's own world. Then,…

  9. [Fifty years after the enactment of the law to separate drug dispensing from doctors].

    PubMed

    Mizoroki, Shigeko; Sato, Seiki; Fukushima, Noriko

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the action of Mr. Usho Mizoroki, who was not a pharmacist but was an activist for enacting the law to separate drug dispensing from doctors (Division of Labour Law). We collected the information Mrs. Shigeko Mizoroki revealed about her husband's activities towards enacting the Division of Labour Law, and added the historical background of that era. Nobody knows of his activities related to the enactment of the Division of Labour Law. It may be possible that the law itself was not successful, or that Mr. Usho Mizoroki was not a pharmacist. However it is important to know his efforts because the present division of labour practice is the result of the efforts of many people like him. PMID:19227660

  10. Fifty years of safe operation of the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, A. I.; Vitkovskii, S. L.; Vitkovskii, I. L.; Fomenko, V. I.; Loskutov, V. F.; Topchiyan, R. M.; Nikitenko, M. P.; Zhurbenko, A. V.

    2014-02-01

    Information on the experience gained from safe operation of the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant from the moment its first power unit was commissioned and till now is presented. The following modifications and design solutions on improving the equipment and systems of the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant units that were introduced during plant operation are of special importance: (i) further development of the designs of fuel rods and fuel assemblies

  11. Fifty Years of CPGs: Two Neuroethological Papers that Shaped the Course of Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Mulloney, Brian; Smarandache, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Half a century ago, two independent papers that described unexpected results of experiments on locomotion in insects and crayfish appeared almost simultaneously. Together these papers demonstrated that an animal's central nervous system (CNS) was organized to produce behaviorally important motor output without the need for constant sensory feedback. These results contradicted the established line of thought that was based on interpretations of reflexes and ablation experiments, and established that in these animals the CNS contained neural circuits that could produce complex, periodic, multisegmental patterns of activity. These papers stimulated a flowering of research on central pattern-generating mechanisms that displaced reflex-based thinking everywhere except in medical physiology texts. Here we review these papers and their influence on thinking in the 1960s, 1970s, and today. We follow the development of ideas about central organization and control of expression of motor patterns, the roles of sensory input to central pattern-generating circuits, and integration of continuous sensory signals into a periodic motor system. We also review recent work on limb coordination that provides detailed cellular explanations of observations and speculations contained in those original papers. PMID:20700502

  12. Fifty Years of Publication: Pondering the Legacies of the "Journal of Educational Administration"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oplatka, Izhar

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the legacies of the "Journal of Educational Administration" ("JEA") since its foundation in 1963 to the present (2011) and to illuminate the main contributions of the Journal to the academic field of educational administration (EA) worldwide. Design/methodology/approach: The method employed in…

  13. Fifty years of tobacco carcinogenesis research: from mechanisms to early detection and prevention of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Stephen S; Szabo, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The recognition of the link between cigarette smoking and lung cancer in the 1964 Surgeon General's Report initiated definitive and comprehensive research on the identification of carcinogens in tobacco products and the relevant mechanisms of carcinogenesis. The resultant comprehensive data clearly illustrate established pathways of cancer induction involving carcinogen exposure, metabolic activation, DNA adduct formation, and consequent mutation of critical genes along with the exacerbating influences of inflammation, cocarcinogenesis, and tumor promotion. This mechanistic understanding has provided a framework for the regulation of tobacco products and for the development of relevant tobacco carcinogen and toxicant biomarkers that can be applied in cancer prevention. Simultaneously, the recognition of the link between smoking and lung cancer paved the way for two additional critical approaches to cancer prevention that are discussed here: detection of lung cancer at an early, curable stage, and chemoprevention of lung cancer. Recent successes in more precisely identifying at-risk populations and in decreasing lung cancer mortality with helical computed tomography screening are notable, and progress in chemoprevention continues, although challenges with respect to bringing these approaches to the general population exist. Collectively, research performed since the 1964 Report demonstrates unequivocally that the majority of deaths from lung cancer are preventable. PMID:24403288

  14. Fifty years of human space travel: implications for bone and calcium research.

    PubMed

    Smith, S M; Abrams, S A; Davis-Street, J E; Heer, M; O'Brien, K O; Wastney, M E; Zwart, S R

    2014-01-01

    Calcium and bone metabolism remain key concerns for space travelers, and ground-based models of space flight have provided a vast literature to complement the smaller set of reports from flight studies. Increased bone resorption and largely unchanged bone formation result in the loss of calcium and bone mineral during space flight, which alters the endocrine regulation of calcium metabolism. Physical, pharmacologic, and nutritional means have been used to counteract these changes. In 2012, heavy resistance exercise plus good nutritional and vitamin D status were demonstrated to reduce loss of bone mineral density on long-duration International Space Station missions. Uncertainty continues to exist, however, as to whether the bone is as strong after flight as it was before flight and whether nutritional and exercise prescriptions can be optimized during space flight. Findings from these studies not only will help future space explorers but also will broaden our understanding of the regulation of bone and calcium homeostasis on Earth. PMID:24995691

  15. Fifty years of Water Resources Research: Legacy and perspectives for the science of hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanari, Alberto; Bahr, Jean; Blöschl, Günter; Cai, Ximing; Mackay, D. Scott; Michalak, Anna M.; Rajaram, Harihar; Sander, Graham

    2015-09-01

    We present an overview of the contributions collected to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of Water Resources Research along with a critical discussion of the legacy and perspectives for the science of hydrology in the 21st century. This collection of papers highlights exciting pathways to the future of water sciences. New monitoring and modeling techniques and increasing opportunities for data and knowledge sharing from hydrological research will provide innovative means to improve water management and to ensure a sustainable development to society. We believe that this set of papers will provide valuable inspiration for future hydrologists, and will support the intensification of international cooperation among scientists.

  16. Drawing a Scientist: What We Do and Do Not Know after Fifty Years of Drawings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finson, Kevin D.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews salient studies done on students' drawings of scientists and the perceptions revealed therein since Mead and Metraux's seminal study in 1947. Summarizes what this body of research has not revealed and what seems to lie ahead, including implications for science education. (Author/KHR)

  17. Normalization Fifty Years Beyond--Current Trends in the Nordic Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tossebro, Jan; Bonfils, Inge S.; Teittinen, Antti; Tideman, Magnus; Traustadottir, Rannveig; Vesala, Hannu T.

    2012-01-01

    The authors discuss recent developments in services for people with intellectual disabilities (ID) in the Nordic countries. They note that all of the countries saw important reforms during the 1990s, regarding both deinstitutionalization and decentralization. However, they posit that the litmus test of the reforms is not what happens during reform…

  18. Fifty-thousand-year vegetation and climate history of Noel Kempff Mercado National Park, Bolivian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbridge, Rachel E.; Mayle, Francis E.; Killeen, Timothy J.

    2004-03-01

    Pollen and charcoal records from two large, shallow lakes reveal that throughout most of the past 50,000 yr Noel Kempff Mercado National Park, in northeastern lowland Bolivia (southwestern Amazon Basin), was predominantly covered by savannas and seasonally dry semideciduous forests. Lowered atmospheric CO 2 concentrations, in combination with a longer dry season, caused expansion of dry forests and savannas during the last glacial period, especially at the last glacial maximum. These ecosystems persisted until the mid-Holocene, although they underwent significant species reassortment. Forest communities containing a mixture of evergreen and semideciduous species began to expand between 6000 and 3000 14C yr B.P. Humid evergreen rain forests expanded to cover most of the area within the past 2000 14C yr B.P., coincident with a reduction in fire frequencies. Comparisons between modern pollen spectra and vegetation reveal that the Moraceae-dominated rain forest pollen spectra likely have a regional source area at least 2-3 km beyond the lake shore, whereas the grass- and sedge-dominated savanna pollen spectra likely have a predominantly local source area. The Holocene vegetation changes are consistent with independent paleoprecipitation records from the Bolivian Altiplano and paleovegetation records from other parts of southwestern Amazonia. The progressive expansion in rain forests through the Holocene can be largely attributed to enhanced convective activity over Amazonia, due to greater seasonality of insolation in the Southern Hemisphere tropics driven by the precession cycle according to the Milankovitch Astronomical Theory.

  19. Fifty Years of Predicting Wheat Nitrogen Requirements Based on Soil Water, Yield, Protein and Nitrogen Efficiencies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the early 1950’s synthetic N fertilizers were gaining widespread adoption in the wheat growing region of the inland Pacfic Northwestern U.S. Agronomists quickly recognized water and N as the two principal determinants of grain yield and quality Numerous N fertility trials across a range of...

  20. Humans to Mars: Fifty Years of Mission Planning, 1950-2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portree, David S. F.

    2001-01-01

    Contents of this document include: On the Grand Scale; Earliest NASA Concepts; EMPIRE and After; A Hostile Environment; Apogee; Viking and the Resources of Mars; The Case for Mars; Challengers; Space Exploration Initiative; and Design Reference Mission.

  1. Fifty Interesting Years: Higher Education Funding and Financial Management 1961-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    During the half century of the AUA's existence UK universities have experienced the fastest rate of growth and most far-reaching changes in their history. Funding arrangements in particular have changed radically. Since 1961 the finance office has been transformed from a small group of bean counters into a key management group at the heart of all…

  2. Fifty Years of the Tangherlini Transformations -- an Alternative Version of Special Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabounski, Dmitri; Malykin, Gregory

    2009-05-01

    In 1958, Frank Robert Tangherlini, the US physicist, suggested an original procedure of synchronizations of clocks at two distant inertial frames, which differs from Einstein's method (Tangherlini F.R., PhD thesis, Stanford Univ., 1958; Malykin G.B. Prog. Phys., 2009, v.1, L9, v.2, L14). Einstein's method uses light signals, while Tangherlini's method uses faster-than-light signals, e.g. phase light spots produced by a rotating laser (Malykin G.B. Phys. Usp., 2004, v.47(7), 739) or even super-light speed tachyons. As a result, Tangherlini has obtained the so-called Tangherlini transformations from one inertial frame to another, different from the Lorentz transformations. In particular, the Tangherlini transformations allow an anisotropy of the velocity of light observed in a moving inertial frame, and they give a proper explanations to all known interference experiments of Special Relativity. We emphasize the Tangherlini transformations due to the possibility of a weak anisotropy of the velocity of light as claimed by the Grenoble group (Navia C.E. et al., Prog. Phys., 2007, v.1, 53), and the anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background.

  3. Fifty Years of Predicting Wheat Nitrogen Requirements Based on Soil Water, Yield, Protein, and Nitrogen Efficiencies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the early 1950’s synthetic N fertilizers were gaining widespread adoption in the wheat growing region of the inland Northwestern U.S. Agronomists quickly recognized water and N as the two principal determinants of grain yield and quality. Many N fertility trials across a range of environmen...

  4. Fifty million years of herbivory on coral reefs: fossils, fish and functional innovations

    PubMed Central

    Bellwood, D. R.; Goatley, C. H. R.; Brandl, S. J.; Bellwood, O.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of ecological processes on coral reefs was examined based on Eocene fossil fishes from Monte Bolca, Italy and extant species from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Using ecologically relevant morphological metrics, we investigated the evolution of herbivory in surgeonfishes (Acanthuridae) and rabbitfishes (Siganidae). Eocene and Recent surgeonfishes showed remarkable similarities, with grazers, browsers and even specialized, long-snouted forms having Eocene analogues. These long-snouted Eocene species were probably pair-forming, crevice-feeding forms like their Recent counterparts. Although Eocene surgeonfishes likely played a critical role as herbivores during the origins of modern coral reefs, they lacked the novel morphologies seen in modern Acanthurus and Siganus (including eyes positioned high above their low-set mouths). Today, these forms dominate coral reefs in both abundance and species richness and are associated with feeding on shallow, exposed algal turfs. The radiation of these new forms, and their expansion into new habitats in the Oligocene–Miocene, reflects the second phase in the development of fish herbivory on coral reefs that is closely associated with the exploitation of highly productive short algal turfs. PMID:24573852

  5. Emil Heitz and the concept of heterochromatin: longitudinal chromosome differentiation was recognized fifty years ago.

    PubMed Central

    Passarge, E

    1979-01-01

    The work of Emil Heitz (1892--1965) laid one of the keystones of cytogenetics. Using a new in situ method, he established between 1928 and 1935 the longitudinal differentiation of chromosomes in euchromatin (genetically active) and heterochromatin (genetically inert). He recognized the association of satellited chromosomes with the formation of the nucleolus, co-discovered the giant salivary chromosomes of diptera, and arrived at a cytological and genetic concept of chromosome structure that has been found essentially correct to date. Yet, Emil Heitz did not gain due recognition by his contemporaries, suffered from the political disturbances of his time, and spent almost a lifetime in isolation, bolstered only by the conviction that his scientific work was significant. Images Fig. 1 PMID:377956

  6. Perspective: Fifty years of density-functional theory in chemical physics

    SciTech Connect

    Becke, Axel D.

    2014-05-14

    Since its formal inception in 1964–1965, Kohn-Sham density-functional theory (KS-DFT) has become the most popular electronic structure method in computational physics and chemistry. Its popularity stems from its beautifully simple conceptual framework and computational elegance. The rise of KS-DFT in chemical physics began in earnest in the mid 1980s, when crucial developments in its exchange-correlation term gave the theory predictive power competitive with well-developed wave-function methods. Today KS-DFT finds itself under increasing pressure to deliver higher and higher accuracy and to adapt to ever more challenging problems. If we are not mindful, however, these pressures may submerge the theory in the wave-function sea. KS-DFT might be lost. I am hopeful the Kohn-Sham philosophical, theoretical, and computational framework can be preserved. This Perspective outlines the history, basic concepts, and present status of KS-DFT in chemical physics, and offers suggestions for its future development.

  7. Fifty Years since the Coleman Report: Rethinking the Relationship between Schools and Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Douglas B.; Condron, Dennis J.

    2016-01-01

    In the half century since the 1966 Coleman Report, scholars have yet to develop a consensus regarding the relationship between schools and inequality. The Coleman Report suggested that schools play little role in generating achievement gaps, but social scientists have identified many ways in which schools provide better learning environments to…

  8. Fifty years of Cosmic Era: Real and Virtual Studies of the Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Malkov, O. Yu.; Samus, N. N.

    2012-05-01

    The book presents the Proceedings of the Conference of Young Scientists of CIS countries held on 21-25 November 2011 at the Armenian National Academy of Sciences in Yerevan and dedicated to the 50th anniversary of Yuri Gagarin's flight into Space. The main goal of the Conference was to gather young scientists from CIS countries to familiarize them with the latest developments of Astrophysics and Space Physics, including the use of the latest technology and techniques. Among the participants of the conference there were 47 young scientists and researchers from Armenia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Tajikistan and Ukraine, as well as 5 invited lecturers from Armenia, France and Russia, who gave 5 lectures and 2 different practical exercises (tutorials). The young scientists presented 38 talks on various topics of astrophysics related to their research work or PhD/MSc studies. The book is divided into 5 parts, Invited Lectures and 4 sections by subjects: Solar System and Exoplanets, Stars and Nebulae, Galaxies and Cosmology, Real and Virtual Observatories. It also includes a preface by the editors, the list of participants of the conference, and author index at the end.

  9. Measurement of Physical Fitness and Physical Activity: Fifty Years of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mood, Dale P.; Jackson, Allen W.; Morrow, James R., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The tenth anniversary of "Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science" causes one to reflect on the major measurement issues impacting physical education and exercise science in the latter half of the 20th century. This anniversary causes us to contemplate how this history has brought us to where we are today and what it portends for…

  10. Fifty Years after Brown: New Evidence of the Impact of School Racial Composition on Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurlaender, Michal; Yun, John T.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last half-century, many researchers have studied and written about school desegregation and race in American schools. Most studies on the benefits and costs to school desegregation are primarily from the 1960s and 1970s in response to the changes brought about from "Brown," the 1964 Civil Rights Act, and the "Green" case in 1968--a…

  11. Fifty years of human space travel: implications for bone and calcium research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium and bone metabolism remain key concerns for space travelers, and ground-based models of space flight have provided a vast literature to complement the smaller set of reports from flight studies. Increased bone resorption and largely unchanged bone formation result in the loss of calcium and ...

  12. Fifty cases of late prosthetic valve endocarditis: improvement in prognosis over a 15 year period.

    PubMed

    Leport, C; Vilde, J L; Bricaire, F; Cohen, A; Pangon, B; Gaudebout, C; Valere, P E

    1987-07-01

    The clinical course, prognostic factors, and management of 50 cases of late prosthetic valve endocarditis, occurring more than two months after valve replacement, were reviewed. Twenty nine cases that presented from 1971 to 1980 were compared with 21 cases that presented from 1981 to 1985. Apart from an appreciable decrease in the frequency of neurological complications between the first period (38%) and the second period (10%) no differences in clinical or bacteriological features were seen. Seventeen (59%) of the 29 cases in the earlier period and four (19%) of the 21 cases in the later period died. The rationale for antimicrobial treatment was similar during both periods. Cardiac surgery was performed in eight of 29 cases between 1971 and 1980 and in 11 of 21 between 1981 and 1985; the mean (SD) time between diagnosis of endocarditis and operation was 28 (19) days and 43 (44) days respectively. Six of the eight cases operated on in the first period died as did two of the 11 operated on in the second period. Twenty seven of the 29 cases presenting between 1971 and 1980 were treated with anticoagulants--either warfarin (15 of 27) or heparin sodium (12 of 27). Sixteen of the 21 cases presenting later were given anticoagulants and 15 of these cases were given heparin sodium. Control of anticoagulation was inadequate in nine of the 27 cases treated with anticoagulants during the first period and in only two of 16 treated during the second period. During the first treatment period neurological complications were more frequent when control of anticoagulation was inadequate. PMID:3620245

  13. [Fifty years of plastic surgery in the Netherlands. VIII. Craniofacial surgery].

    PubMed

    Vaandrager, J M; van der Meulen, J C

    2000-06-01

    Craniofacial surgery has developed its own identity in the last 3 decades. The Frenchman Tessier can be seen as the founding father. His concept of intracranial correction of craniofacial malformations is still valid today. There have been many new developments such as distraction osteogenesis and biodegradable miniplate fixation. Microvascular surgery and vascularised calvarial bone grafts help to obtain more predictable results. Three-dimensional CT imaging techniques and modelling result in better surgical planning and help to understand the underlying pathology. Biomolecular knowledge of gene mutations leads to better understanding of the clinical diagnosis. The future will bring minimalisation of surgery and more therapy focused on biomolecular science. The psychosocial welfare of the patient will play a central role in the multidisciplinary team treatment. PMID:10876706

  14. Fifty Years after Brown: The Benefits and Tradeoffs for African American Educators and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, James E.; Chesley, Joanne

    2004-01-01

    The benefits and tradeoffs for African American professional educators and students resulting from the profound Brown v. Board of Education decision are discussed. Results show that the vast majority of respondents believed that Brown had benefited both African American educators and students.

  15. A quantitative assessment and synthesis of fifty years of published drainage phosphorus losses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of artificial drainage systems in intensively cropped areas across North America combined with the importance of freshwater resources in these regions has created a critical intersection where understanding drainage phosphorus (P) transport is vital. In this study, drainage nutrient ...

  16. Educating the Educators: A Fifty-Year Retrospective of Religious Education in the Catholic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmour, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The progressive spirit of the Second Vatican Council (1962-1965) spawned a myriad of graduate departments of religious education in American Catholic colleges and universities. These departments evolved to include other master degrees (e.g., pastoral studies, pastoral counseling, divinity, spirituality, and social justice). As the numbers of…

  17. Analysis of fifty year Gas Flaring Emissions from oil/gas companies in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doumbia, E. H. T.; Liousse, C.; Granier, L.; Granier, C.; Rosset, R.; Oda, T.; Hsu, F. C.

    2014-12-01

    Flaring is a process during which waste gases are burned in an open atmosphere. The quantification of gas flaring emissions represents a major scientific concern due to its magnitude and related uncertainties. In global/regional emission inventories, this source, though releasing large amounts of pollutants in the atmosphere, is still poorly quantified if not missing. It can represent the main emission source of gaseous compounds and particles in some areas, as observed during the AMMA project in the Gulf of Guinea. Our study focuses on Africa, and includes Nigeria, which is one of the largest natural oil and gas reserve in the world. Africa is an important gas flaring area, since technologies for the exploitation of this energy source and the reduction of flaring activities have been only recently implemented. We have developed an emission inventory for gases and particles from flaring in Africa. We have first compiled the few published available dataset of fuel consumption from flaring. The spatial distribution of CO2 and black carbon (BC) emissions from gas flaring in 2011 is estimated using a methodology based on field reports and remote sensing (DMSP satellite data). Our results point out to the importance of flaring activities into the regional anthropogenic emissions in Africa over the period 1960-2011. Finally, the contribution of flaring to total anthropogenic emission can be large and needs to be accurately quantified.

  18. A Fifty-Five Year Partnership: ALA and the AFL-CIO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Arthur S.

    2002-01-01

    Provides a history of the establishment of the AFL-CIO/ALA (American Federation of Labor (AFL)-Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)/American Library Association (ALA)) Joint Committee on Library Service to Labor Groups. Topics include public learning, labor, and libraries; services to labor; problems and issues, including conflicts between…

  19. Hiring and Retaining Direct-Care Staff: After Fifty Years of Research, What Do We Know?.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Philip S.; Hall, Nancy D.

    2002-01-01

    This literature review finds that efforts since the 1950s to develop research-based selection tools for recruiting direct-care staff to work with people with developmental disabilities have not been successful. However, researchers have identified practices that can reduce staff turnover, such as articulating the mission and improving human…

  20. Islands as model systems in ecology and evolution: prospects fifty years after MacArthur-Wilson.

    PubMed

    Warren, Ben H; Simberloff, Daniel; Ricklefs, Robert E; Aguilée, Robin; Condamine, Fabien L; Gravel, Dominique; Morlon, Hélène; Mouquet, Nicolas; Rosindell, James; Casquet, Juliane; Conti, Elena; Cornuault, Josselin; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Hengl, Tomislav; Norder, Sietze J; Rijsdijk, Kenneth F; Sanmartín, Isabel; Strasberg, Dominique; Triantis, Kostas A; Valente, Luis M; Whittaker, Robert J; Gillespie, Rosemary G; Emerson, Brent C; Thébaud, Christophe

    2015-02-01

    The study of islands as model systems has played an important role in the development of evolutionary and ecological theory. The 50th anniversary of MacArthur and Wilson's (December 1963) article, 'An equilibrium theory of insular zoogeography', was a recent milestone for this theme. Since 1963, island systems have provided new insights into the formation of ecological communities. Here, building on such developments, we highlight prospects for research on islands to improve our understanding of the ecology and evolution of communities in general. Throughout, we emphasise how attributes of islands combine to provide unusual research opportunities, the implications of which stretch far beyond islands. Molecular tools and increasing data acquisition now permit re-assessment of some fundamental issues that interested MacArthur and Wilson. These include the formation of ecological networks, species abundance distributions, and the contribution of evolution to community assembly. We also extend our prospects to other fields of ecology and evolution - understanding ecosystem functioning, speciation and diversification - frequently employing assets of oceanic islands in inferring the geographic area within which evolution has occurred, and potential barriers to gene flow. Although island-based theory is continually being enriched, incorporating non-equilibrium dynamics is identified as a major challenge for the future. PMID:25560682

  1. Fifty mega watt peak (50 MWp) photovoltaic rural electrification in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Dasuki, A.S.; Djamin, M.

    1994-12-31

    Indonesia is the world`s largest archipelago which comprises more than 17,500 islands. According to national census, the population is now approaching 190 million inhabitants where 60% of them are living in rural areas. Many rural areas have sparsely populated areas, therefore providing electrical energy through conventional approach needs intensive capital investment for distribution networks and power plant construction. Some of the goals of the long term national energy development as described in the Second Stage Long-Term (twenty-five year) Development Strategy are to optimize the use of nonexportable energy resources, to increase the share of renewable energy use, and to achieve 100% rural electrification at the end of Five Year Development Plan 7. In order to achieve this Indonesian long-term energy development for rural electrification, the attractive solution is to apply photovoltaic system especially Solar Home System. Therefore the Government of Indonesia via the Agency for Assessment and Application of Technology has launched a project which is called ``Fifty Mega Watt Peak (50 MWp) Photovoltaic Rural Electrification in Indonesia``. This project target is to electrified one million households in ten years. This paper discusses and elaborates current status of Solar Home System in Indonesia, project implementation and scope of the project.

  2. Fifty-eighth Christmas Bird Count. 166. Ocean City, Md

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keough, J.R.; Thompson, T.A.; Guntenspergen, G.R.; Wilcox, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    Gauging the impact of manipulative activities, such as rehabilitation or management, on wetlands requires having a notion of the unmanipulated condition as a reference. An understanding of the reference condition requires knowledge of dominant factors influencing ecosystem processes and biological communities. In this paper, we focus on natural physical factors (conditions and processes) that drive coastal wetland ecosystems of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Great Lakes coastal wetlands develop under conditions of large-lake hydrology and disturbance imposed at a hierarchy of spatial and temporal scales and contain biotic communities adapted to unstable and unpredictable conditions. Coastal wetlands are configured along a continuum of hydrogeomorphic types: open coastal wetlands, drowned river mouth and flooded delta wetlands, and protected wetlands, each developing distinct ecosystem properties and biotic communities. Hydrogeomorphic factors associated with the lake and watershed operate at a hierarchy of scales: a) local and short-term (seiches and ice action), b) watershed / lakewide / annual (seasonal water- level change), and c) larger or year-to-year and longer ( regional and/or greater than one-year). Other physical factors include the unique water quality features of each lake. The aim of this paper is to provide scientists and managers with a framework for considering regional and site-specific geomorphometry and a hierarchy of physical processes in planning management and conservation projects.

  3. Effects of zotepine, chlorpromazine and haloperidol on D-1, D-2, D-3 and D-4 subtypes of dopamine receptors in rat striatal and bovine caudate nucleus membranes.

    PubMed

    Arima, T; Makihata, J; Makimura, T; Nomura, Y; Segawa, T

    1986-01-01

    Inhibitory effects of zotepine (Zot) on D-1, D-2, D-3 and D-4 subtypes of dopamine (DA) receptors were investigated in crude synaptic membranes of rat striatum and bovine caudate nucleus and compared to those of chlorpromazine (CPZ) and haloperidol (HAL). From the IC(50)-values of Zot, CPZ and HAL, the K-values of each drug are estimated as follows: 34.4, 152 and 244 nM (D-1, (3)H-labeled cis-flupenthixol binding (1.0 nM) to rat membranes); 37.4, 7.1 and 2.4 nM (D-2, [(3)H]spiperone (Spi) binding (0.5 nM) to rat membranes in the presence of 0.1 ?M ketanserin); 73.1, 15.2 and 22.4 nM (D-3, (3)H-labeled N-propylapomorphine (NPA) binding (0.29 nM) to bovine membranes in the presence of 0.1 ?M Spi); 9.5, 65.3 and 3.1 nM (D-4, [(3)H]NPA binding (0.29 nM) bovine membranes in the presence of 25 nM DA), respectively. Zot binds with higher affinity to D-4 but lower affinity to D-3 than to other subtypes. It is also presumed that Zot binds to D-1 with high affinity and D-2 and D-3 with low affinity compared to CPZ and HAL. PMID:20493089

  4. Exposure of Chlorpromazine to 266 nm Laser Beam Generates New Species with Antibacterial Properties: Contributions to Development of a New Process for Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Pascu, Mihail Lucian; Danko, Balazs; Martins, Ana; Jedlinszki, Nikoletta; Alexandru, Tatiana; Nastasa, Viorel; Boni, Mihai; Militaru, Andra; Andrei, Ionut Relu; Staicu, Angela; Hunyadi, Attila; Fanning, Seamus; Amaral, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Phenothiazines when exposed to white light or to UV radiation undergo a variety of reactions that result in degradation of parental compound and formation of new species. This process is slow and may be sped up with exposure to high energy light such as that produced by a laser. Methods Varying concentrations of Chlorpromazine Hydrochloride (CPZ) (2–20 mg/mL in distilled water) were exposed to 266 nm laser beam (time intervals: 1–24 hrs). At distinct intervals the irradiation products were evaluated by spectrophotometry between 200–1500 nm, Thin Layer Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) - Diode Array Detection, HPLC tandem mass spectrometry, and for activity against the CPZ sensitive test organism Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. Results CPZ exposure to 266 nm laser beam of given energy levels yielded species, whose number increased with duration of exposure. Although the major species produced were Promazine (PZ), hydroxypromazine or PZ sulfoxide, and CPZ sulfoxide, over 200 compounds were generated with exposure of 20 mg/mL of CPZ for 24 hrs. Evaluation of the irradiation products indicated that the bioactivity against the test organism increased despite the total disappearance of CPZ, that is due, most probably, to one or more new species that remain yet unidentified. Conclusions Exposure of CPZ to a high energy (6.5 mJ) 266 nm laser beam yields rapidly a large number of new and stable species. For biological grade phenothiazines (in other words knowing the impurities in the samples: solvent and solute) this process may be reproducible because one can control within reasonably low experimental errors: the concentration of the parent compound, the laser beam wavelength and average energy, as well as the duration of the exposure time. Because the process is “clean” and rapid, it may offer advantages over the pyrogenically based methods for the production of derivatives. PMID:23405212

  5. Inhibition and Ultraviolet-Induced Chemical Modification of UDP-Glucose:(1,3)-β-Glucan (Callose) Synthase by Chlorpromazine 1

    PubMed Central

    Harriman, Robert W.; Shao, Ai-Ping; Wasserman, Bruce P.

    1992-01-01

    UDP-glucose:(1,3)-β-glucan (callose) synthase (CS) from storage tissue of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) was strongly inhibited by the phenothiazine drug chlorpromazine (CPZ). In the absence of ultraviolet irradiation, CPZ was a noncompetitive inhibitor with 50% inhibitory concentration values for plasma membrane and solubilized CS of 100 and 90 μm, respectively. Both the Ca2+- and Mg2+- stimulated components of CS activity were affected. CPZ inhibition was partially alleviated at saturating levels of Ca2+, but not Mg2+, suggesting that CPZ interferes with the Ca2+-binding site of CS. Binding experiments with [14C]CPZ, however, showed strong non-specific partitioning of CPZ into the plasma membrane, providing evidence that perturbation of the membrane environment is probably the predominant mode of inhibition. Ultraviolet irradiation at 254 nm markedly enhanced CPZ inhibition, with complete activity loss following exposure to 4 μm CPZ for 2 min. Inhibition followed a pseudo-first order mechanism with at least three CPZ binding sites per CS complex. Under these conditions, [3H]CPZ was covalently incorporated into plasma membrane preparations by a free radical mechanism; however, polypeptide labeling profiles showed labeling to be largely nonspecific, with many polypeptides labeled even at [3H]CPZ levels as low as 1 μm, and with boiled membranes. Although CPZ is one of the most potent known inhibitors of CS, its use as a photolabel will require a homogeneous CS complex or establishment of conditions that protect against the interaction of CPZ with specific binding sites located on various polypeptide components of the CS complex. PMID:16653219

  6. D-galactosamine induced hepatocyte apoptosis is inhibited in vivo and in cell culture by a calcium calmodulin antagonist, chlorpromazine, and a calcium channel blocker, verapamil.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Shigeki; Itagaki, Shin-ichi; Kawamura, Seiji; Harada, Ken-ichi; Karaki, Hideaki; Doi, Kunio; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro

    2003-01-01

    Studies were conducted in C57BL/6N Crj male mice and in cultured hepatocytes to clarify the relationship between galactosamine (GaIN) induced apoptosis and [Ca2+]i kinetics. Chlorpromazine (CPZ), a Ca(2+)-calmodulin antagonist, and verapamil (VR), a Ca(2+)-channel blocker each inhibited GaIN-induced DNA fragmentation and the appearance of apoptotic bodies. The kinetics of calcium uptake were evaluated using a calcium analyzer with the acetoxymethyl ester of fura-PE3 (fura-PE3/AM, 2.5 microM) as the calcium reporter. An increase in [Ca2+]i was detected in the cultured hepatocytes within 3 hours after treatment with 20 mM GaIN; this increase was inhibited by pretreatment with either 20 microM CPZ or 30 microM VR. Ca2+ imaging by confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that increase in [Ca2+]i after treatment with GaIN was initially localized around nuclei, while [Ca2+]i signals were later diffuse and observed throughout the cytoplasm. The activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (sGPT), used as indicators of plasma membrane damage and leakage, however, were not reduced by pretreatment with CPZ or VR. From these findings, we infer that the DNA fragmentation in GaIN-induced hepatocyte apoptosis is associated with an elevation in the perinuclear concentration of Ca2+, but GaIN-induced necrotic cell death is triggered through pathway(s) that are insensitive to blockage of Ca2+ influx and therefore appear to occur independently of elevation in [Ca2+]i. These results help to clarify the role of calcium flux in hepatocyte apoptosis and necrosis induced by exposure to hepatotoxins in vivo and in vitro. PMID:12638236

  7. PARPs and ADP-Ribosylation: Fifty Years… and Counting

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, W. Lee

    2015-01-01

    Summary Over 50 years ago, the discovery of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) set a new field of science in motion - the field of poly(ADP-ribosyl) transferases (PARPs) and ADP-ribosylation. The field is still flourishing today. The diversity of biological processes now known to require PARPs and ADP-ribosylation was practically unimaginable even two decades ago. From an initial focus on DNA damage detection and repair in response to genotoxic stresses, the field has expanded to include the regulation of chromatin structure, gene expression, and RNA processing in a wide range of biological systems, including reproduction, development, aging, stem cells, inflammation, metabolism, and cancer. This special focus issue of Molecular Cell includes a collection of three Reviews, three Perspectives, and a SnapShot, which together summarize the current state of the field and suggest where it may be headed. PMID:26091339

  8. Fifty Violins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurwitz, Sol

    1999-01-01

    Roberta Guaspari-Tzavoras teaches 125 young violinists in 2 East Harlem elementary schools. Students are chosen by lottery. The only prerequisite is a willingness to do the hard work of practicing and learning. Her success in coaching inner-city students to a performance in Carnegie hall is the subject of a documentary and a feature film. (MLF)

  9. Effect of different factors modifying the activity of some enzyme systems of the endoplasmic reticulum on the sensitivity of cell organelles against the damaging action of chemical agents. II. Studies with chlorpromazine, 2,4-dinitrophenol, phenobarbital and DDT.

    PubMed

    Popov, C S; Yantchev, I; Popova, M P; Vultcheva, G M

    1979-02-01

    Further investigations on the effect of different stress factors on the stability of intracellular membranes were carried out. Large granule fractions derived from livers of sleep-deprived and dehydrated rats and subjected to preincubation at 37 degrees and pH 5 were shown to release latent acid phosphatase with a delayed rate indicating an increased lysosomal stability towards acid media conditioning. Lysosomes of such animals, however, were found to be more sensitive to mechanical treatments (homogenization procedure in this case) than that of controls, a conclusion made on the basis of enhanced "free" and nonsedimentable phosphatase activities in liver homogenates. The stress factors which previously were included in the group of modifiers of the activity of the endoplasmic reticulum-located enzymes caused some changes in the action of certain chemicals on membranes. Earlier such changes were elicited for carbon tetrachloride and only on low-temperature-conditioned rats for chlorpromazine. The present results show that stress factors studied result in deviations (different in extent and in direction) from the usual effects of chlorpromazine, 2,4-dinitrophenol, phenobarbital and DDT on liver lysosomes and peroxisomes. PMID:465308

  10. Higher Education Financing in the Fifty States: Significance for the 'Adams' States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budig, Jeanne E.; Khan, Anwar

    Findings of a study on higher education financing in the states are summarized with specific reference for the states covered by the 1977 Adams versus Richardson decision. The study, "Higher Education Financing in the Fifty States: Interstate Comparisons" (Marilyn McCoy, D. Kent Halstead), was jointly issued by the National Center for Higher…

  11. The Elementary and Secondary Education Act at Fifty: A Changing Federal Role in American Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Adam R.

    2016-01-01

    For this first "History of Education Quarterly Policy Forum," we invited participants in the special Plenary Session at the 2015 Annual Meeting of the History of Education Society (HES) in St. Louis to publish their remarks on the historical significance of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) at fifty. Organized and…

  12. The Fifty-One Society: A Case Study of BBC Radio and the Education of Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Janet; Smith, David

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between sound broadcasting and adult education, looking at the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) during the period of postwar reconstruction and austerity of the 1950s. It considers in particular one of the Corporation's most innovative educative programmes of the period, "The Fifty-One Society". This…

  13. A Cornucopia of Massive Binary Star Systems in the Cygnus OB2 Association: Fifty and Counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Kiminki, D. C.; Burke, J. F.; Chapman, J. E.; Keller, E.; Lester, K. V.; Rolen, E.; Topel, E.; Lundquist, M. J.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Vargas Alvarez, C. A.; Runnoe, J. C.; Dale, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    Massive binary star systems produce nature's most energetic events, including some classes of supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, X-ray binaries, and double-degenerate objects that generate gravitational wave radiation. The Cygnus OB2 Association is the largest nearby collection of massive stars, consisting of several hundred O and early B stars at a distance of just 1.4 kpc. Our Cygnus OB2 Radial Velocity Survey team at the University of Wyoming has spectroscopically monitored 115 stars of type B2 or earlier between 1999 and 2013, accruing an average of 12 observations per star at a velocity precision of 2-6 km/s. We have identified fifty massive binary systems, nearly all of which have full orbital solutions. Periods range from 1.4 days - 12.5 years and velocity semi-amplitudes span 4-300 km/s. Monte-Carlo modeling indicates that as many as 90% of massive systems contain multiple stars and that 45% of these can be characterized as ``close'' binaries that will interact, exchanging matter during main-sequence or post-main-sequence evolution. Statistical analysis of the orbital parameters reveals a striking surplus of close, short-period systems with periods P=1.4--7 days, with fully 30% (17 out of 50 systems) of the known binaries falling in this tight range; their typical orbital separations are just a small fraction of an astronomical unit. The remainder of the binary systems are consistent with a period distribution described as flat in log(P) out to several thousand day periods. The mass ratio distribution appears flat over the interval q=M2/M1=0.1-1.0, meaning that massive stars preferentially have massive companions. These data constitute the largest and most complete homogeneous database on any single collection of massive stars in a common formation environment covering the full range of stars expected to explode as supernovae (B2V and earlier). As such, the Survey provides the raw data for modeling rates of cosmic supernova, gamma-ray bursts, and X-ray binaries

  14. Extreme Markup: The Fifty US Hospitals With The Highest Charge-To-Cost Ratios.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ge; Anderson, Gerard F

    2015-06-01

    Using Medicare cost reports, we examined the fifty US hospitals with the highest charge-to-cost ratios in 2012. These hospitals have markups (ratios of charges over Medicare-allowable costs) approximately ten times their Medicare-allowable costs compared to a national average of 3.4 and a mode of 2.4. Analysis of the fifty hospitals showed that forty-nine are for profit (98 percent), forty-six are owned by for-profit hospital systems (92 percent), and twenty (40 percent) operate in Florida. One for-profit hospital system owns half of these fifty hospitals. While most public and private health insurers do not use hospital charges to set their payment rates, uninsured patients are commonly asked to pay the full charges, and out-of-network patients and casualty and workers' compensation insurers are often expected to pay a large portion of the full charges. Because it is difficult for patients to compare prices, market forces fail to constrain hospital charges. Federal and state governments may want to consider limitations on the charge-to-cost ratio, some form of all-payer rate setting, or mandated price disclosure to regulate hospital markups. PMID:26056196

  15. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-4 - Qualified separate line of business-fifty-employee and notice requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Qualified separate line of business-fifty... Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-4 Qualified separate line of business—fifty-employee and notice requirements. (a) In general. This section sets forth the rules for determining whether a separate line...

  16. Fifty seven years of follow-up of the Israeli cohort of Laron Syndrome patients-From discovery to treatment.

    PubMed

    Laron, Zvi; Kauli, Rivka

    2016-06-01

    Clinical and laboratory investigations of dwarfed children newly Jewish immigrants from Yemen and Middle East and who resembled patients with isolated growth hormone deficiency were started by our group in 1958. In 1963 when we found that they have high serum levels of hGH, we knew that we had discovered a new disease of primary GH insensitivity. It was subsequently coined Laron Syndrome (LS, OMIM #262500). The etiopathogenesis was disclosed by 2 liver biopsies demonstrating a defect in the GH receptor. Subsequent investigations demonstrated deletions or mutations in the GHR gene. The defect lead to an inability of IGF-I generation, resulting in severe dwarfism, obesity, and other morphologic and biochemical pathologies due to IGF-I deficiency. With the biosynthesis of IGF-I in 1986, therapeutic trials started. Following closely our cohort of 69 patients with LS enabled us to study its features in untreated and IGF-I treated patients. This syndrome proved to be a unique model to investigate the effects of IGF-I dissociated from GH stimulation. In recent studies we found that homozygous patients for the GHR mutations are protected lifelong from developing malignancies, opening new directions of research. PMID:26307357

  17. The Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Yale: the first one hundred fifty years, from Nathan Smith to Lee Buxton.

    PubMed Central

    Kohorn, E. I.

    1993-01-01

    The persons who directed the academic teaching of women's health at Yale Medical School are presented by biographical sketches recounting their achievements and some of the difficulties they encountered. Three who provided particular catalysis were Nathan Smith, Herbert Thoms, and Lee Buxton. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 PMID:8303913

  18. Philippe Aries's Discovery of Childhood after Fifty Years: The Impact of a Classic Study on Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekker, Jeroen J. H.; Groenendijk, Leendert F.

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at the impact of Philippe Aries's classic "L'Enfant et la vie familiale sous l'ancien regime", published in 1960. His well-known idea of the emergence of "Le sentiment de l'enfance" caused a lively debate among historians and social scientists resulting in fundamental contributions to our knowledge about the early phase of the…

  19. Fifty-year sedimentary record of heavy metal pollution (Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb) in the Lot River reservoirs (France).

    PubMed

    Audry, Stéphane; Schäfer, Jörg; Blanc, Gérard; Jouanneau, Jean-Marie

    2004-12-01

    The Lot-Garonne fluvial system is known for its historic heavy metal pollution resulting from mining and smelting activities since the late 19th century. Here, we report 137Cs activities and heavy metal (Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb and V) concentration-depth profiles from sediment cores retrieved in 2001 from three reservoirs in the Lot River. High mean sedimentation rates of 2.4-2.8 cm a(-1) are indicated by 137Cs dating. The reservoir sediments have recorded the heavy metal deposition and thus allow establishing a connection between the temporal evolution of the heavy metal pollution and historical changes in smelting and waste-treatment proceedings. Based on heavy metal concentrations in sediments upstream of the anthropogenic inputs and bottom-sediments of the furthest downstream core (interpreted as old soil or riverbed), concentrations of approximately 17, approximately 82, approximately 0.33 and approximately 28 mg kg(-1) for Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb, respectively, are proposed as natural background values for the Lot fluvial system. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo [Müller, G., 1979. Schwermetalle in den Sedimenten des Rheins-Veränderungen seit. Umschav 79, 133-149.]) revealed that the Lot River sediments must be considered as "severely polluted" in Cd and Zn. Moreover, despite remediation efforts undertaken in the former smelting site, the Lot River is still "severely" (Igeo approximately 4) and "moderately to severely" (Igeo>2) impacted by Cd and Zn inputs, respectively. PMID:15325457

  20. Fifty moves a year: is there an association between joint physical custody and psychosomatic problems in children?

    PubMed Central

    Bergström, Malin; Fransson, Emma; Modin, Bitte; Berlin, Marie; Gustafsson, Per A; Hjern, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Background In many Western countries, an increasing number of children with separated parents have joint physical custody, that is, live equally much in their parent's respective homes. In Sweden, joint physical custody is particularly common and concerns between 30% and 40% of the children with separated parents. It has been hypothesised that the frequent moves and lack of stability in parenting may be stressful for these children. Methods We used data from a national classroom survey of all sixth and ninth grade students in Sweden (N=147839) to investigate the association between children's psychosomatic problems and living arrangements. Children in joint physical custody were compared with those living only or mostly with one parent and in nuclear families. We conducted sex-specific linear regression analyses for z-transformed sum scores of psychosomatic problems and adjusted for age, country of origin as well as children's satisfaction with material resources and relationships to parents. Clustering by school was accounted for by using a two-level random intercept model. Results Children in joint physical custody suffered from less psychosomatic problems than those living mostly or only with one parent but reported more symptoms than those in nuclear families. Satisfaction with their material resources and parent–child relationships was associated with children's psychosomatic health but could not explain the differences between children in the different living arrangements. Conclusions Children with non-cohabitant parents experience more psychosomatic problems than those in nuclear families. Those in joint physical custody do however report better psychosomatic health than children living mostly or only with one parent. Longitudinal studies with information on family factors before and after the separation are needed to inform policy of children's postseparation living arrangements. PMID:25922471

  1. Fifty-year sedimentary record of heavy metal pollution in the lagoon of Oualidia (Moroccan Atlantic coast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zourarah, B.; Maanan, M.; Carruesco, C.; Aajjane, A.; Mehdi, K.; Conceição Freitas, M.

    2007-03-01

    The Oualidia lagoon is known for its heavy metal pollution resulting from mining and smelting activities since the late 19th century. Here, we report 137Cs and 210Pb activities and heavy metal concentration depth profiles from sediment cores retrieved in 1997. High mean sedimentation rates of 0.6-1 cm/y are indicated by 210Pb and 137Cs dating. The lagoon sediments have recorded heavy metal deposition and thus allow establishment of a connection between the temporal evolution of the heavy metal pollution and historical changes in smelting and waste-treatment proceedings. Through a study of the evolution of heavy metal contents, we can distinguish between two categories of metals: Al, Fe and Cr contents have varied around a mean value over the last seven decades and could have natural origins. Pb, Zn, Cu and Hg have relatively more elevated contents than those of the natural geochemical background, especially in the station in front of illegal sewerage discharges. These metals are enriched at depths between 20 and 30 cm; this corresponds to the period between 1960 and 1975, which was characterized by the setting up of the main suburbs and the first aquaculture farms that surround the lagoon. The pollution intensity of the lagoon is determined by enrichment factors and the geo-accumulation index, which show that the lagoon of Oualidia is unpolluted to moderately polluted on the Geo-I scale of Müler (1979. Schwermetalle in den Sedimenten, des Rheins-Veränderungen seit 1971. Umschau 79 (24), 778-783.).

  2. Fifty Years after the Replicon Hypothesis: Cell-Specific Master Regulators as New Players in Chromosome Replication Control

    PubMed Central

    Wolański, Marcin; Jakimowicz, Dagmara

    2014-01-01

    Numerous free-living bacteria undergo complex differentiation in response to unfavorable environmental conditions or as part of their natural cell cycle. Developmental programs require the de novo expression of several sets of genes responsible for morphological, physiological, and metabolic changes, such as spore/endospore formation, the generation of flagella, and the synthesis of antibiotics. Notably, the frequency of chromosomal replication initiation events must also be adjusted with respect to the developmental stage in order to ensure that each nascent cell receives a single copy of the chromosomal DNA. In this review, we focus on the master transcriptional factors, Spo0A, CtrA, and AdpA, which coordinate developmental program and which were recently demonstrated to control chromosome replication. We summarize the current state of knowledge on the role of these developmental regulators in synchronizing the replication with cell differentiation in Bacillus subtilis, Caulobacter crescentus, and Streptomyces coelicolor, respectively. PMID:24914187

  3. Fifty Years of Technological Innovation: Potential and Limitations of Current Technologies in Abdominal Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Attenberger, Ulrike I; Morelli, John; Budjan, Johannes; Henzler, Thomas; Sourbron, Steven; Bock, Michael; Riffel, Philipp; Hernando, Diego; Ong, Melissa M; Schoenberg, Stefan O

    2015-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an important modality for the diagnosis of intra-abdominal pathology. Hardware and pulse sequence developments have made it possible to derive not only morphologic but also functional information related to organ perfusion (dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI), oxygen saturation (blood oxygen level dependent), tissue cellularity (diffusion-weighted imaging), and tissue composition (spectroscopy). These techniques enable a more specific assessment of pathologic lesions and organ functionality. Magnetic resonance imaging has thus transitioned from a purely morphologic examination to a modality from which image-based disease biomarkers can be derived. This fits well with several emerging trends in radiology, such as the need to accurately assess response to costly treatment strategies and the need to improve lesion characterization to potentially avoid biopsy. Meanwhile, the cost-effectiveness, availability, and robustness of computed tomography (CT) ensure its place as the current workhorse for clinical imaging. Although the lower soft tissue contrast of CT relative to MRI is a long-standing limitation, other disadvantages such as ionizing radiation exposure have become a matter of public concern. Nevertheless, recent technical developments such as dual-energy CT or dynamic volume perfusion CT also provide more functional imaging beyond morphology.The aim of this article was to review and discuss the most important recent technical developments in abdominal MRI and state-of-the-art CT, with an eye toward the future, providing examples of their clinical utility for the evaluation of hepatic and renal pathologies. PMID:26039773

  4. Fifty years of meteo-glaciological change in Toll Glacier, Bennett Island, De Long Islands, Siberian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konya, Keiko; Kadota, Tsutomu; Yabuki, Hironori; Ohata, Tetsuo

    2014-06-01

    Rapid environmental change has been observed in the De Long Islands, Siberian Arctic, where warming has extensively occurred over the area. To quantitatively evaluate glaciological changes since the 1980s, the climate, mass balance, and the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) of Toll Glacier on Bennett Island were analyzed. Air temperature has increased and solid precipitation has decreased since the 1960s, especially after 2000. The cumulative mass balance of Toll Glacier has had a negative trend since the 1960s and reached approximately -20 m water equivalent (w.e.) in 2000, which is one of the largest changes in the Arctic. These changes are much larger than those in the west Russian Arctic. The warming trend is also correlated with the sea ice distribution in the Siberian Arctic and may lead to feedback effects that cause further Arctic warming.

  5. North Atlantic atmospheric and ocean inter-annual variability over the past fifty years - Dominant patterns and decadal shifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauser, Tristan; Demirov, Entcho; Zhu, Jieshun; Yashayaev, Igor

    2015-03-01

    The atmosphere and ocean of the North Atlantic have undergone significant changes in the past century. To understand these changes, their mechanisms, and their regional implications requires a quantitative understanding of processes in the coupled ocean and atmosphere system. Central to this understanding is the role played by the dominant patterns of ocean and atmospheric variability which define coherent variations in physical characteristics over large areas. Cluster analysis is used in this article to identify the patterns of the North Atlantic atmospheric variability in the subseasonal and interannual spectral intervals. Four dominant subseasonal weather regimes are defined using Bayesian Gaussian mixture models. All correlation patterns of the Sea Level Pressure (SLP) anomalies with the membership probability time series for the weather regimes show similarities with the dipole structure typical for the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The SLP patterns of two of the regimes represent the opposite phases NAO+ and NAO-. The two other weather regimes, the Atlantic Ridge (AR) and Scandinavian-Greenland dipole (SG), have dipole spatial structures with the northern and southern centers of action shifted with respect to the NAO pattern. These two patterns define blocking structures over Scandinavia and near the southern tip of Greenland, respectively. The storm tracks typical for the four regimes resemble the well known paths for positive/negative phases of NAO for the NAO+/NAO- weather regimes, and paths influenced by blocking off the south Greenland tip for AR and over Scandinavia for SG. The correlation patterns of momentum and heat fluxes to the ocean for the four regimes have tripole structures with positive (warm) downward heat flux anomalies over the Subpolar North Atlantic (SPNA) for the NAO- and the AR and negative heat flux anomalies over the SPNA for the NAO+. The downward heat flux anomalies associated with the SG are negative over the Labrador Sea and positive over the eastern SPNA. The long term impact of the weather regimes on the regional climate is characterized by their distribution; i.e. the frequency of occurrence and persistence in time of each of them. Four typical distributions of the weather regimes are identified in this study which are associated with four dominant spatial interannual patterns representing the phases of two asymmetrical "modes". The first two patterns have the spatial structures of positive and negative phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The third and fourth patterns, here referred to as G+ and G-, define the opposite phases of a mode, that has a spatial structure defined by three centers found over Florida, south of Greenland and over Scandinavia. The NAO+ interannual patterns are associated with negative anomalies of the surface downward heat flux and ocean heat content over the SPNA. The NAO- and G+ are associated with positive anomalies of heat flux and ocean heat content. In the 1960s the dominant NAO- and G+ interannual patterns favored warmer than normal atmospheric and ocean temperatures over the SPNA. The winters in the late 1980s and early 1990s over the SPNA were colder than normal. This decadal shift in the atmospheric state between 1970s and 1980s was associated with a change in the dominant interannual patterns towards NAO+ and G- in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The recent warming of the SPNA since the mid-1990s was related to dominance of the G+/G- interannual patterns in the distribution of interannual patterns probability membership. Our analysis suggests that this decadal variability was associated with long term shifts in atmospheric behavior over the SPNA that can be described by a change in the 1980s of the distribution of membership probabilities for the interannual patterns. Within the interannual pattern phase space, this change is characterized with a shift from the NAO-/G+/G- subspace in the 1950 and 1960s, towards NAO+/G+/G- since the mid 1980s.

  6. The Instability of Ni{N(SiMe3 )2 }2 : A Fifty Year Old Transition Metal Silylamide Mystery.

    PubMed

    Faust, Michelle; Bryan, Aimee M; Mansikkamäki, Akseli; Vasko, Petra; Olmstead, Marilyn M; Tuononen, Heikki M; Grandjean, Fernande; Long, Gary J; Power, Philip P

    2015-10-26

    The characterization of the unstable Ni(II) bis(silylamide) Ni{N(SiMe3 )2 }2 (1), its THF complex Ni{N(SiMe3 )2 }2 (THF) (2), and the stable bis(pyridine) derivative trans-Ni{N(SiMe3 )2 }2 (py)2 (3), is described. Both 1 and 2 decompose at ca. 25 °C to a tetrameric Ni(I) species, [Ni{N(SiMe3 )2 }]4 (4), also obtainable from LiN(SiMe3 )2 and NiCl2 (DME). Experimental and computational data indicate that the instability of 1 is likely due to ease of reduction of Ni(II) to Ni(I) and the stabilization of 4 through dispersion forces. PMID:26332337

  7. It's No Secret: Fifty-eight Years of National Security Programs at BNL (463rd Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect

    Indusi, Joseph

    2010-11-17

    Prepare for a true tale of suspense and international intrigue. A tale that began in 1952, continued through the Cold War, and is not yet complete today. A tale of unexpected allies. Hear the true tale of one Laboratory’s efforts to keep nuclear materials out of the hands of evildoers. Freidlander. Higinbotham. Dodson. Kouts. And many more! See some of BNL’s all-star cast in the defining roles that shaped their careers as they worked toward keeping the nation and the world safe from the proliferation of nuclear weapons.

  8. The MANAGE drain load database: Review and compilation of more than fifty years of North American drainage nutrient studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As agriculture in the 21st century is faced with increasing pressure to reduce negative environmental impacts while continuing to efficiently produce food, fiber, and fuel, it becomes ever more important to reflect upon more than half a century of drainage water quality research to identify paths fo...

  9. Fifty Years of Family Planning: New Evidence on the Long-Run Effects of Increasing Access to Contraception

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Martha J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper assembles new evidence on some of the longer-term consequences of U.S. family planning policies, defined in this paper as those increasing legal or financial access to modern contraceptives. The analysis leverages two large policy changes that occurred during the 1960s and 1970s: first, the interaction of the birth control pill’s introduction with Comstock-era restrictions on the sale of contraceptives and the repeal of these laws after Griswold v. Connecticut in 1965; and second, the expansion of federal funding for local family planning programs from 1964 to 1973. Building on previous research that demonstrates both policies’ effects on fertility rates, I find suggestive evidence that individuals’ access to contraceptives increased their children’s college completion, labor force participation, wages, and family incomes decades later. PMID:25339778

  10. From My Place: Teaching the Holocaust and Judaism at the University of Mississippi Fifty-Three Years after James Meredith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Willa M.

    2016-01-01

    This essay explores classroom dynamics when students identify and connect their own painful experiences to structural racism or ethnocentrism exhibited in the Holocaust or parts of Jewish history. The intrusion of this proximal knowledge can be an obstacle to student learning. If engaged by professors, however, I argue that proximal knowledge can…

  11. The Antarctic hemoglobinless icefish, fifty five years later: a unique cardiocirculatory interplay of disaptation and phenotypic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, F; Pellegrino, D; Amelio, D; Tota, B

    2009-09-01

    The teleostean Channichthyidae (icefish), endemic stenotherms of the Antarctic waters, perennially at or near freezing, represent a unique example of disaptation among adult vertebrates for their loss of functional traits, particularly hemoglobin (Hb) and, in some species, cardiac myoglobin (Mb), once considered to be essential-life oxygen-binding chromoproteins. Conceivably, this stably frigid, oxygen-rich habitat has permitted high tolerance of disaptation, followed by subsequent adaptive recovery based on gene expression reprogramming and compensatory responses, including an alternative cardio-circulatory design, Hb-free blood and Mb-free cardiac muscle. This review revisits the functional significance of the multilevel cardio-circulatory compensations (hypervolemia, near-zero hematocrit and low blood viscosity, large bore capillaries, increased vascularity with great capacitance, cardiomegaly with very large cardiac output, high blood flow with low systemic pressure and systemic resistance) that counteract the challenge of hypoxemic hypoxia by increasing peripheral oxygen transcellular movement for aerobic tissues, including the myocardium. Reconsidered in the context of recent knowledge on both polar cold adaptation and the new questions related to the advent of nitric oxide (NO) biology, these compensations can be interpreted either according to the "loss-without-penalty" alternative, or in the context of an excessive environmental oxygen supply at low cellular cost and oxygen requirement in the cold. Therefore, rather than reflecting oxygen limitation, several traits may indicate structural overcompensation of oxygen supply reductions at cell/tissue levels. At the multilevel cardio-circulatory adjustments, NO is revealing itself as a major integrator, compensating disaptation with functional phenotypic plasticity, as illustrated by the heart paradigm. Beside NOS-dependent NO generation, recent knowledge concerning Hb/Mb interplay with NO and nitrite has revealed unexpected functions in addition to the classical respiratory role of these proteins. In fact, nitrite, a major biologic reservoir of NO, generates it through deohyHb- and deoxyMb-dependent nitrite reduction, thereby regulating hypoxic vasodilation, cellular respiration and signalling. We suggest that both Hb and Mb are involved as nitrite reductases under hypoxic conditions in a number of cardiocirculatory processes. On the whole, this opens new horizons in environmental and evolutionary physiology. PMID:19401238

  12. 78 FR 12136 - Fifty Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 186, Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation... (ADS-B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the fifty eighth meeting...

  13. 75 FR 47881 - Fifty-Sixth Meeting, RTCA Special Committee 135: Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fifty-Sixth Meeting, RTCA Special Committee 135: Environmental Conditions... of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 135: Environmental Conditions and... public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 135: Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures...

  14. William Herschel's fifty-two fields of extensive diffused nebulosity - a revision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latusseck, Arndt

    2008-11-01

    Since its publication in 1811, William Herschel's list of fifty-two fields of extensive nebulosity has been largely disregarded, or even discredited, by the astronomical community. Neither he nor his successors decided to include the observations of large structureless fields of background nebulosity in their major catalogues. lt was only during a short period in the early twentieth century that astronomers like I. Roberts, E.E. Barnard, and M. Wolf started more serious investigations into the nature and reality of Herschel's nebulosities, but without deriving conclusive results. Those few who tried to understand Herschel's elusive observations were often puzzled by his ambiguous descriptions and frequently tended to reject the nebulosities as being optical illusions, because only a small number of them could be proven by celestial photography. The only unconditional supporter of the reality of the nebulosities was Johann Georg Hagen, who in the 1920s used them as evidence for his hypothesis that nebulous matter covered almost the entire celestial sphere. He claimed to have succeeded in visually observing nebulous matter in every single one of Herschel's fields, which raised sharp opposition from his numerous critics. The questionable quality of Herschel's original descriptions, the weak supporting arguments, and the lack of photographic evidence, finally led historians to conclude that Herschel's fifty-two fields of extensive nebulosity were illusions. But it would seem astonishing that this gifted observer could have been fooled to such an extent. As a first approach to investigate this apparent anomaly, a complete analysis of Herschel's observing books was carried out, and the raw observations of the various catalogued nebulous fields were extracted. Some important stylistic uncertainties in the descriptions of the visual appearance of the nebulosities were cleared up, leading to a better understanding of what Herschel actually saw. Possible sources of error

  15. Language Development: 1 Year Olds

    MedlinePlus

    ... you really mean “toes.” By providing a good language model, you’ll help him learn to talk with a minimum of confusion. Most toddlers master at least fifty spoken words by the end of the second year and can put two words together to ...

  16. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Fifty-one. Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Wisconsin governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  17. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Fifty. West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of West Virginia governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  18. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Fifty-two. Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Wyoming governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  19. Comparison of the anti-prion mechanism of four different anti-prion compounds, anti-PrP monoclonal antibody 44B1, pentosan polysulfate, chlorpromazine, and U18666A, in prion-infected mouse neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Takeshi; Suzuki, Akio; Hasebe, Rie; Horiuchi, Motohiro

    2014-01-01

    Molecules that inhibit the formation of an abnormal isoform of prion protein (PrP(Sc)) in prion-infected cells are candidate therapeutic agents for prion diseases. Understanding how these molecules inhibit PrP(Sc) formation provides logical basis for proper evaluation of their therapeutic potential. In this study, we extensively analyzed the effects of the anti-PrP monoclonal antibody (mAb) 44B1, pentosan polysulfate (PPS), chlorpromazine (CPZ) and U18666A on the intracellular dynamics of a cellular isoform of prion protein (PrP(C)) and PrP(Sc) in prion-infected mouse neuroblastoma cells to re-evaluate the effects of those agents. MAb 44B1 and PPS rapidly reduced PrP(Sc) levels without altering intracellular distribution of PrP(Sc). PPS did not change the distribution and levels of PrP(C), whereas mAb 44B1 appeared to inhibit the trafficking of cell surface PrP(C) to organelles in the endocytic-recycling pathway that are thought to be one of the sites for PrP(Sc) formation. In contrast, CPZ and U18666A initiated the redistribution of PrP(Sc) from organelles in the endocytic-recycling pathway to late endosomes/lysosomes without apparent changes in the distribution of PrP(C). The inhibition of lysosomal function by monensin or bafilomycin A1 after the occurrence of PrP(Sc) redistribution by CPZ or U18666A partly antagonized PrP(Sc) degradation, suggesting that the transfer of PrP(Sc) to late endosomes/lysosomes, possibly via alteration of the membrane trafficking machinery of cells, leads to PrP(Sc) degradation. This study revealed that precise analysis of the intracellular dynamics of PrP(C) and PrP(Sc) provides important information for understanding the mechanism of anti-prion agents. PMID:25181483

  20. 78 FR 69929 - Fifty-Ninth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 186, Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ... Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation... (ADS-B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the fifty ninth meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 186, Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) DATES: The meeting...

  1. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-4 - Qualified separate line of business-fifty-employee and notice requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-employee and notice requirements. 1.414(r)-4 Section 1.414(r)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-4 Qualified separate line of business—fifty-employee and... line of business (as determined under § 1.414(r)-3) satisfies the 50-employee and notice...

  2. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-4 - Qualified separate line of business-fifty-employee and notice requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-employee and notice requirements. 1.414(r)-4 Section 1.414(r)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-4 Qualified separate line of business—fifty-employee and... line of business (as determined under § 1.414(r)-3) satisfies the 50-employee and notice...

  3. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-4 - Qualified separate line of business-fifty-employee and notice requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-employee and notice requirements. 1.414(r)-4 Section 1.414(r)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-4 Qualified separate line of business—fifty-employee and... line of business (as determined under § 1.414(r)-3) satisfies the 50-employee and notice...

  4. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-4 - Qualified separate line of business-fifty-employee and notice requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-employee and notice requirements. 1.414(r)-4 Section 1.414(r)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-4 Qualified separate line of business—fifty-employee and... line of business (as determined under § 1.414(r)-3) satisfies the 50-employee and notice...

  5. Response to fifty grams oral glucose challenge test and pattern of preceding fasting plasma glucose in normal pregnant Nigerians

    PubMed Central

    Ajayi, Godwin Olufemi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus in pregnancy has profound implications for the baby and mother and thus active screening for this is desirable. Method: Fifty grams oral glucose challenge test was administered after obtaining consent to 222 women in good health with singleton pregnancies without diabetes mellitus at 24 to 28 weeks gestation after an overnight fast. Venous blood sample was obtained before and 1 hour after the glucose load. A diagnostic 3-hour 100 g oral glucose tolerance test was subsequently performed in all. Results: Two hundred and ten women had a normal response to oral glucose tolerance test i.e. venous plasma glucose below these cut-off levels: fasting 95 mg/dl (5.3 mmol/l), 1 hour 180 mg/dl (10.0 mmol/l), 2 hours 155 mg/dl (8.6 mmol/l) and 3 hours 140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/l), while 12 were found to have gestational diabetes mellitus and were subsequently excluded from the study. They were appropriately managed. The mean maternal age was 30.9 ± 4.1 years (range 19 to 45 years) and the mean parity was 1.2 ± 1.1 (range 0 to 5). The mean fasting plasma glucose was 74.5 ± 11.5 mg/dl (range 42 to 117 mg/dl), while the mean plasma glucose 1 hour after 50 g glucose challenge test was 115.3 ± 19.1 mg/dl (range 56 to 180 mg/dl). Conclusions: The mean fasting plasma glucose in normal pregnant Nigerians was 74.5 ± 11.5 mg/dl (range 42 to 117 mg/dl). There is a need to re-appraise and possibly review downwards the World Health Organization fasting plasma glucose diagnostic criteria in pregnant Nigerians for better detection of gestational diabetes mellitus. Pregnant women with venous plasma glucose greater than 153.5 mg/dl (8.5 mmol/l) 1 hour after 50 g glucose challenge test are strongly recommended for diagnostic test of gestational diabetes mellitus.

  6. Fifty-Five Years of Pediatric Endocrinology and 50 Years of the Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    BATTELINO, Tadej

    2015-01-01

    Paediatric endocrinology started its independent development early in the general development of this specialty, with a strong focus on research and clinical excellence. Slovenian paediatric endocrinology was an integral part of the European paediatric endocrinology from its beginnings and a founding member of the first ‘International Study Group for Diabetes in Children and Adolescents’. After the pioneering work of Prof. Lev Matajc, Prof. Ciril Kržišnik firmly integrated the Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases at the University Children’s Hospital in Ljubljana in the international scientific community. In the last decade, the department participates in cutting-edge research and provides clinical services at highest international standards.

  7. The International Heliophysical Year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Barbara J.

    2007-01-01

    In 1957 a program of international research, inspired by the International Polar Years of 1882 and 1932, was organized as the International Geophysical Year (IGY) to study global phenomena of the Earth and geospace. Fifty years later, the world s space science community will again come together for international programs of scientific collaboration: the International Heliophysical Year (IHY), the Electronic Geophysical Year (eGY), and the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007. This time, research will extend out into the Heliosphere to focus on solar-terrestrial-planetary interactions. The ambitious plans for the IHY, eGY and IPY incorporate the activities of scientists in 191 nations, as well as the IGY Gold Historical Preservation initiative, plus a series of coordinated campaigns involving more than 100 instruments and models, education and public outreach programs, a developing nations instrument development program, and opportunities for supported research worldwide. The presentation will focus on the efforts and operations which will make these activities possible.

  8. METHODOLOGICAL NOTES: Adolescent years of experimental physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braginskiĭ, Vladimir B.

    2003-01-01

    Examples of outstanding achievements in several fields of experimental physics over the past fifty years are presented. It is argued that a considerable sensitivity margin exists for experiments involving the measurement of small displacements, forces (accelerations), and frequency shifts. Achievements expected in a number of experimental programs over the next twenty years are listed.

  9. The Journal of The Experimental Analysis of Behavior at Zero, Fifty, and One Hundred

    PubMed Central

    Catania, A Charles

    2008-01-01

    The experimental content areas represented in JEAB in its first volume (1958) and 50 years later in Volume 87 are in many ways similar with regard to research on schedules of reinforcement, research with human subjects, and several other topics. Experimental analysis has not been displaced by quantitative analysis. Much less research on aversive control has been published in recent than in earlier years. Wishes for progress in the next 50 years include experiments on verbal behavior, the sources of novel behavior, and observing responses based on stimuli correlated with escape or avoidance. PMID:18338678

  10. Fifty-sixth annual report of the Director of the Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendenhall, Walter Curran

    1935-01-01

    During the fiscal year 1934-35, although directly appropriated funds for the support of the Survey's regular activities have been at a low ebb (see details in later pages), these have been augmented by substantial allocations for closely related work made by the Public Works Administration.

  11. Fifty-fifth annual report of the Director of the Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendenhall, Walter Curran

    1934-01-01

    From the point of view of the geologists of this continent, the important event of the year was the meeting in Washington, in July, of the sixteenth session of the International Geological Congress.  The only other session held in the United States was the fifth, in 1891.

  12. Expanding the Education Universe: A Fifty-State Strategy for Course Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickman, Michael

    2014-01-01

    After twenty years of expanding school-choice options, state leaders, educators, and families have a new tool: course choice, a strategy for students to learn from unconventional providers that might range from top-tier universities or innovative community colleges to local employers, labs, or hospitals. In "Expanding the Education Universe:…

  13. The Trainee Teacher and His Practice Class. Fifty Pointers for the Student-Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Alun L. W.

    1969-01-01

    This handbook, based on the author's experience of supervising the English practice-classes of trainee teachers, was originally compiled for the specific use of students at the National University of Trujillo, Peru, and consists of a list of pointers embracing the most prevalent of trainees' shortcomings observed over a period of years at all…

  14. Fifty-ninth annual report of the Director of the Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendenhall, Walter Curran

    1938-01-01

    Basically important in the general program of conservation and development were the results of the Geological Survey's work during the fiscal year 1938. Investigations of the Nation's mineral and water supplies were conducted with all possible vigor and dispatch, thousands of square miles were surveyed for topographic maps, and technical supervision was given to prospecting, mining, and producing operations on public and Indian lands. This work was accomplished through the use of the regularly appropriated funds, the co-operative funds from States, counties, and municipalities, the funds transferred from other departments of the Government for types of work within the Survey's field, and the emergency funds derived chiefly from the Public Works Administration and devoted largely to mapping of various types and to studies of floods. The aggregate expenditures amounted to $5,248,000, which was 265,000 less than the amount expended during the preceding year.

  15. Fifty-third annual report of the Director of the Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendenhall, Walter Curran

    1932-01-01

    The appropriations made directly for the work of the Geological Survey for the fiscal year 1932 included 12 items, amounting to $3,141,740. In addition $12,573.23 for miscellaneous supplies was allotted from appropriations for the Interior Department. A detailed statement of the amounts appropriated and expended is given at the end of the report. The balance on July 31 was $206,411.98, of which $150,000 continued available for expenditure in the fiscal year 1933. The total amount of funds made available for disbursement by the Geological Survey, together with State funds directly disbursed for work administered by the Federal officials, was $5,115,087.50.

  16. Fifty-fourth annual report of the Director of the Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendenhall, Walter Curran

    1933-01-01

    The appropriations made directly for the work of the Geological Survey for the fiscal year 1933 included 12 items, amounting, to $2,181,000. Of the balance remaining in the 1932 appropriation for topographic surveys, $150,000 was continued available for expenditure during the fiscal year 1933, and the sum of $284,400 was transferred to the Geological Survey under the provisions of section 317 of the legislative appropriation act of June 30, 1932, making a total of $2,615,400 available for expenditure. In addition, $12,424.50 for miscellaneous supplies was allotted from appropriations for the Interior Department.

  17. Fifty-second annual report of the Director of the Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, George Otis

    1931-01-01

    The appropriations made directly :for the work of the Geological Survey for the fiscal year 1931 included 17 items, amounting to $2,869,990.85. In addition there was allotted $13,013.75 for miscellaneous supplies from appropriations for the Interior Department. A detailed statement of the amounts appropriated and expended is given at the end of the report. The balance on July 31 was $171,300.31. The total amount of funds made available for disbursement by the Geological Survey, together with State funds directly disbursed for work administered by the Federal officials, was $4,842,151.02.

  18. Richard Kluger's "Simple Justice" after 29 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Although it is obligatory to mark the anniversary of "Brown v. Board of Education," why it deserves to be commemorated is not necessarily obvious at a distance of fifty years. In this article, the author discusses this issue in the light of Richard Kluger's remarkable book--"Simple Justice." He states that, today the widespread existence of…

  19. Lessons Drawn from Sputnik 50 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2007-01-01

    Fifty years ago, with the Soviet Union's launch of the Sputnik satellite, millions of Americans found themselves peering anxiously into the night sky--and also looking inward, as they reconsidered previously cozy assumptions about their nation's technological and educational superiority. The 184-pound, unmanned aluminum beacon lasted just three…

  20. Fifty-first annual report of the Director of the Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, George Otis

    1930-01-01

    The appropriations made directly for the work of the Geological Survey for the fiscal year 1930 included 13 items, amounting to $2,182,671. In addition $150,000 was appropriated for printing and binding for the Geological Survey, and an allotment of $12,960 for miscellaneous supplies was made from appropriations for the Interior Department. A detailed statement of the amounts appropriated and expended is given at the end of the report. The balance on July 31 was $8,149. The total amount of funds made available for disbursement by the Geological Survey, together with State funds directly disbursed for work administered by the Federal officials, was $4,212,294.

  1. Fifty-eighth annual report of the Director of the Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendenhall, Walter Curran

    1937-01-01

    During the fiscal year 1937 the Geological Survey continued its systematic work in investigating, mapping, and reporting on the geology, the mineral and water resources, and the physical features of the United States. The results of this work are basic in all conservational activities, as those who plan and direct the conservation policies toward the wise development and use of the Nation's resources must first have the facts about the quantity, quality, distribution, and availability of those resources and adequate maps with which to pursue and record further studies. Through its technical supervision of prospecting, mining, and producing operations on public and Indian land under permits, leases, and licenses, the Survey was directly engaged in the practical application of conservation policies.

  2. Drinking Trajectories From Adolescence to the Fifties Among Alcohol-Dependent Men*

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Theodore; Koenig, Laura B.; Howell, Donelle N.; Wood, Phillip K.; Haber, Jon Randolph

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Although it has been recognized that the course of alcoholism may differ across individuals, little work has characterized drinking trajectories from drinking onset to midlife. Method: The current study examined trajectories of alcohol dependence from adolescence to the mid-50s in a sample of 420 men with a lifetime diagnosis of alcohol dependence. Men from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry were given the Lifetime Drinking History, which assesses the patterns of alcohol consumption and diagnostic symptoms for self-defined drinking phases. Phase data were converted into person-year data, with alcohol-dependence diagnosis coded as present or absent for each of 13 age groupings, starting with up to age 20 and ending with ages 54-56. Results: Latent growth mixture modeling was used to define four drinking trajectories: young-adult, late-onset, severe-nonchronic, and severe-chronic alcoholics. Further analyses with other diagnostic variables, other drinking variables, alcohol expectancies, personality scales, and religiousness scores were completed to differentiate men best categorized by each trajectory. Conclusions: Extension of Latent Growth Mixture Modeling (LGMM) into the mid-50s revealed that, although some individuals remain chronic alcohol users, others decline in alcohol problem use. Differences seen among these groups may help in the treatment of alcohol dependence, such that more energy can be spent treating those likely to be in the more severe trajectories. PMID:19895762

  3. Fifty communities putting prevention to work: accelerating chronic disease prevention through policy, systems and environmental change.

    PubMed

    Bunnell, Rebecca; O'Neil, Dara; Soler, Robin; Payne, Rebecca; Giles, Wayne H; Collins, Janet; Bauer, Ursula

    2012-10-01

    The burden of preventable chronic diseases is straining our nation's health and economy. Diseases caused by obesity and tobacco use account for the largest portions of this preventable burden. CDC funded 50 communities in 2010 to implement policy, systems, and environmental (PSE) interventions in a 2-year initiative. Funded communities developed PSE plans to reduce obesity, tobacco use, and second-hand smoke exposure for their combined 55 million residents. Community outcome objectives and milestones were categorized by PSE interventions as they related to media, access, promotion, pricing, and social support. Communities estimated population reach based on their jurisdiction's census data and target populations. The average proportion of each community's population that was reached was calculated for each intervention category. Outcome objectives that were achieved within 12 months of program initiation were identified from routine program records. The average proportion of a community's jurisdictional population reached by a specific intervention varied across interventions. Mean population reach for obesity-prevention interventions was estimated at 35%, with 14 (26%) interventions covering over 50% of the jurisdictional populations. For tobacco prevention, mean population reach was estimated at 67%, with 16 (84%) interventions covering more than 50% of the jurisdictional populations. Within 12 months, communities advanced over one-third of their obesity and tobacco-use prevention strategies. Tobacco interventions appeared to have higher potential population reach than obesity interventions within this initiative. Findings on the progress and potential reach of this major initiative may help inform future chronic disease prevention efforts. PMID:22323099

  4. Conference on Nuclear Energy and Science for the 21st Century: Atoms for Peace Plus Fifty - Washington, D.C., October 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Pfaltzgraff, Robert L

    2006-10-22

    This conference's focus was the peaceful uses of the atom and their implications for nuclear science, energy security, nuclear medicine and national security. The conference also provided the setting for the presentation of the prestigious Enrico Fermi Prize, a Presidential Award which recognizes the contributions of distinguished members of the scientific community for a lifetime of exceptional achievement in the science and technology of nuclear, atomic, molecular, and particle interactions and effects. An impressive group of distinguished speakers addressed various issues that included: the impact and legacy of the Eisenhower Administration’s “Atoms for Peace” concept, the current and future role of nuclear power as an energy source, the challenges of controlling and accounting for existing fissile material, and the horizons of discovery for particle or high-energy physics. The basic goal of the conference was to examine what has been accomplished over the past fifty years as well as to peer into the future to gain insights into what may occur in the fields of nuclear energy, nuclear science, nuclear medicine, and the control of nuclear materials.

  5. Fifty M31 black hole candidates identified by Chandra and XMM-Newton

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, R.; Garcia, M. R.; Primini, F.; Murray, S. S.

    2014-08-10

    Over approximately the last five years, we have identified ∼35 black hole candidates (BHCs) in M31 from their X-ray spectra. Our BHCs exhibited 0.3-10 keV spectra consistent with the X-ray binary (XB) hard state at luminosities that are above the upper limit for neutron star (NS) XBs. When our BHC spectra were modeled with a disk blackbody + blackbody model for comparison with bright NS XBs, we found that the BHCs inhabited a different parameter space than the NS XBs. However, BH XBs may also exhibit a thermally dominated (TD) state that has never been seen in NS XBs; this TD state is most often observed in X-ray transients. We examined the ∼50 X-ray transients in our Chandra survey of M31 and found 13 with spectra suitable for analysis. We also examined two BHCs outside the field of view of our survey in the globular clusters B045 and B375. We have 42 strong BHCs and 8 plausible BHCs that may benefit from further observation. Of our 15 BHCs in globular clusters, 12 differ from NS spectra by >5σ. Due to improvements in our analysis, we have upgraded 10 previously identified plausible BHCs to strong BHCs. The mean maximum duty cycle of the 33 X-ray transients within 6' of M31* is 0.13; we estimate that >40% of the XBs in this region contain BH accretors. Remarkably, we estimate that BHCs contribute >90% of those XBs >10{sup 38} erg s{sup –1}.

  6. [The historical materials of stomatology in the All Things, Prescriptions of Fifty-two Diseases and Yinshu].

    PubMed

    Li, X J; Zhu, L

    2016-08-01

    All Things, Prescriptions of Fifty-two Diseases and Yinshu were three bamboo and silk medical manuscripts which form-time was no later than the late Warring States period. From the visible bamboo and silk, the ancient Chinese knew the relationships between some drugs and the volume of saliva and used compound drugs to treat dental caries. Some oral and maxillofacial diseases, such as inflammation and pain of oromaxillo-facial region, temporomandibular dislocation and the methods of treatment were descriped in these books. Mouth-rinsing and tooth-picking were the more often used methods for maintaining oral hygiene. Kouchi(clicking the tooth)was also used for prevention and/or treatment of caries. Most of these knowledge were the first documents in ancient China. PMID:27511045

  7. Profiles of Career Education State Planning Projects. Fiscal Year 1976 Funding and Fiscal Year 1977 Funding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas Buffington and Associates, Washington, DC.

    This publication presents profiles of the federally funded career education state planning projects that were conducted in forty-nine states and five territories during fiscal years 1976 and 1977 under the provisions of the Education Amendments of 1974. The fifty-four profiles, arranged alphabetically by state and varying in length (from one to…

  8. Fifty cell test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Arntzen, J. D.; Kolba, V. M.; Miller, W. E.; Gay, E. C.

    1980-07-01

    This report describes the design of a facility capable of the simultaneous testing of up to 50 high-temperature (400 to 500/sup 0/C) lithium alloy/iron sulfide cells; this facility is located in the Chemical Engineering Division of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The emphasis will be on the lifetime testing of cells fabricated by ANL and industrial contractors to acquire statistical data on the performance of cells of various designs. A computer-based data-acquisition system processes the cell performance data generated from the cells on test. The terminals and part of the data-acquisition equipment are housed in an air-conditioned enclosure adjacent to the testing facility; the computer is located remotely.

  9. The Year-Round Calendar in Operation. SREB Research Monograph No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickler, W. Hugh; Carothers, Milton W.

    Relatively new year-round calendars are examined in this book. Chapters deal with the rationale for year-round operation; status, trends, and problems of year-long campus calendars; financial implications of year-round operation; and case studies of selected year-round programs in operation. Fifty-four specific institutions are identified.…

  10. Fifty Years of College Choice: Social, Political and Institutional Influences on the Decision-Making Process. New Agenda Series. Volume 5, Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzie, Jillian; Palmer, Megan; Hayek, John; Hossler, Don; Jacob, Stacy A.; Cummings, Heather

    2004-01-01

    The college-choice process is complex and affects many high school students, family members and public policy-makers, as well as institutions of higher education. This report provides an overview of the college-choice process for traditional-age students and examines how it has evolved during the last half of the 20th century. Material from the…

  11. Current status of immunomodulatory therapy in chronic hepatitis B, fifty years after discovery of the virus: Search for the "magic bullet" to kill cccDNA.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ejuan; Kosinska, Anna; Lu, Mengji; Yan, Huimin; Roggendorf, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is currently treated with IFN-α and nucleos(t)ide analogues, which have many clinical benefits, but there is no ultimate cure. The major problem consists in the persistence of cccDNA in infected hepatocytes. Because no antiviral drug has been evaluated which significantly reduces copies of cccDNA, cytolytic and noncytolytic approaches are needed. Effective virus-specific T- and B-cell responses remain crucial in eliminating cccDNA-carrying hepatocytes and for the long-term control of HBV infection. Reduction of viremia by antiviral drugs provides a window for reconstitution of an HBV-specific immune response. Preclinical studies in mice and woodchucks have shown that immunostimulatory strategies, such as prime-boost vaccination and PD-1 blockade, can boost a weak virus-specific T cell response and lead to effective control of HBV infection. Based on data obtained in our preclinical studies, the combination of antiviral drugs and immunomodulators may control HBV viremia during a patient's drug-off period. In this article, we review current immune-modulatory approaches for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B and the elimination of cccDNA in preclinical models. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on "An unfinished story: from the discovery of the Australia antigen to the development of new curative therapies for hepatitis". PMID:26476376

  12. Wie Effektiv ist Microteaching? Ein Uberblick uber funfundreifsig Jahre Forschung (How Effective Is Micro-Teaching? A Survey of Fifty-Three Years of Research).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinzing, Hans Gerhard

    2002-01-01

    Reviews 200+ studies on microteaching. Argues that the use of microteaching in pre- and inservice education leads to positive and long-term effects in the acquisition of verbal and non-verbal behaviorial patterns, integration of learning into individual behavioral repertoire, and in the transfer into professional teaching practice. (CAJ)

  13. Fifty Years of Research on the Intelligence of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children: A Review of Literature and Discussion of Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, McCay

    2005-01-01

    In 1965, McCay Vernon drove a stake through the heart of the long-established "truth" that deaf people were inferior to hearing people. Launched by Aristotle, emboldened by the 1880 Conference of Milan, and reiterated in the twentieth century through the biased research of many psychologists, this falsehood persisted until the publication of this…

  14. Fifty years of research on the intelligence of deaf and hard-of-hearing children: a review of literature and discussion of implications.

    PubMed

    Vernon, McCay

    2005-01-01

    In 1965, McCay Vernon drove a stake through the heart of the long-established "truth" that deaf people were inferior to hearing people. Launched by Aristotle, emboldened by the 1880 Conference of Milan, and reiterated in the twentieth century through the biased research of many psychologists, this falsehood persisted until the publication of this classic review paper. Vernon succinctly spotlights biases in IQ assessment of deaf children resulting from improper testing methods, research participant sampling, even the experience level of the evaluators themselves. Brief and scholarly, the paper had enormous impact not only on future research regarding cognition and deaf people but on clinical practice as well. Within this paper, insights are evident which Vernon has continued to elucidate throughout his long career. He was arguably the first psychologist to view the deaf population as a heterogeneous one, noting how various hearing loss etiologies differentially affect cognition and other psychological characteristics. His later research, notably that which focused on rubella, deafblind, and deaf forensic populations, has been similarly pioneering. McCay Vernon's extensive professional impact stems not only from his prolific, readily applied research work but also from his generous and vigorous activities as a teacher, a mentor, and advisor. - Robert Q. Pollard, Jr. PMID:15888725

  15. Comparison of content in phenolic compounds, polyphenol oxidase, and peroxidase in grains of fifty sorghum varieties from burkina faso.

    PubMed

    Dicko, Mamoudou H; Hilhorst, Riet; Gruppen, Harry; Traore, Alfred S; Laane, Colja; van Berkel, Willem J H; Voragen, Alphons G J

    2002-06-19

    Analysis of fifty sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] varieties used in Burkina Faso showed that they have different contents of phenolic compounds, peroxidase (POX), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). Most of the varieties (82%) had a tannin content less than 0.25% (w/w). POX specific activity was higher than the monophenolase and o-diphenolase specific activities of PPO. For POX, there was a diversity of isoforms among varieties. No clear correlation could be made between the quantitative composition of the grain in phenolics, PPO, and POX, and resistance of plant to pathogens. In general, varieties good for a thick porridge preparation ("tô") had low phenolic compounds content and a medium POX activity. From the red varieties, those used for local beer ("dolo") had a high content in phenolic compounds and PPO, and a low POX activity. The variety considered good for couscous had a low POX content. The characteristics might be useful as selection markers for breeding for specific applications. PMID:12059160

  16. 50 years of holographic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetson, Karl A.

    2015-01-01

    Fifty years ago, Robert L. Powell and I discovered holographic interferometry while working at the Radar Laboratory of the University of Michigan's Institute of Science and Technology. I have worked in this field for this entire time span, watched it grow from an unexplored technology to become a widespread industrial testing method, and I have contributed to these developments. In this paper, I will trace my history in this field from our discovery to my involvement in its theory and applications. I will conclude with a discussion of digital holography, which is currently replacing photographic holography for most research and industrial applications.

  17. Activities of the ILO, 1971. Report of the Director-General (Part 2) to the International Labour Conference, Fifty-seventh Session, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    Despite unprecedented political and financial difficulties, the International Labour Organization's Director-General reported significant progress in all fields at the Fifty-seventh Session of the International Labour Conference, convened in Switzerland in 1972. An action research program in world employment problems is in progress, with a mission…

  18. Teacher Evaluation as a Policy Target for Improved Student Learning: A Fifty-State Review of Statute and Regulatory Action since NCLB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazi, Helen M.; Rucinski, Daisy Arredondo

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the analysis of state statutes and department of education regulations in fifty states for changes in teacher evaluation in use since the passage of No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. We asked what the policy activity for teacher evaluation is in state statutes and department of education regulations, how these changes in…

  19. Analyzing Social Issues Related to Teaching about the Federal Budget, Federal Debt, and Budget Deficit in Fifty State High School Social Studies Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marri, Anand R.; Crocco, Margaret S.; Shuttleworth, Jay; Gaudelli, William; Grolnick, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    This study of all fifty state, high school social studies curriculum standards found a lack of attention in the vast majority of state standards to the federal budget, federal debt, and budget deficit, topics of significant concern. These concepts are important to teaching about economics in the United States since they lie at the center of…

  20. Ethical decisions in dental treatment planning using the Ozar model: a descriptive study of fifty-two consecutive patients.

    PubMed

    Schuman, N J; Turner, J E

    1997-01-01

    Chairside dental ethics necessitates special consideration by the faculty member-dentist, the dental student, and the patient. The patient must always be aware of treatment options, in addition to learning the health status of the oral hard and soft tissues, costs, and time to be involved to accomplish proposed treatment. What may seem like a burden to an individual practitioner is actually only the necessities incurred by any self governing profession. Fifty-two consecutive dental patients had their cases reviewed for the ethical behavior of the dentist-practitioner, student, and patient. Categories reviewed were informed consent (100%), agreement, compromise, economic issues, conflict, and institutional issues. The results were: 1. Agreement: 17 cases, 2. Compromise: 21 cases, 3. Economic Issues: 4 cases, 4. Conflict: 6 cases, and 5. Institutional Issues: 4 cases. Fourteen percent of all patients were minors. Ninety percent of the patients were treated. Of those 10% not treated, five percent were for medical reasons, and five percent of the patients refused treatment. These results were placed in the Ozar Model 9 and were categorized as follows: 1. Appropriate pain free oral function: 22 cases, 2. Patient Autonomy: 14 cases, 3. Life and health: 9 cases, 4. Preferred practice values: 6 cases, and 5. Other external considerations: 1 case. This template demonstrated appropriate ethical behavior on the part of dentists, students, and patients, especially with a 90% treatment group, and only 5% refusing treatment. The 52 consecutive patients were characteristic of the University of Tennessee's overall patient pool. No identifiable differences were found between patients regardless of gender, age, or race. PMID:9484127

  1. Teaching with Documents: A Cartoonist's View of the Eisenhower Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Jean West; Schamel, Wynell Burroughs

    1990-01-01

    Illustrates how to teach U.S. history through the use of original documents such as Charles Nickerson's cartoon, "Images of the Fifties from Disneyland to Suez." States that the original artwork for this cartoon, which portrays the Eisenhower years, is in the Dwight D. Eisenhower Library in Abilene, Kansas. Provides a pretest, teaching activities,…

  2. Advancement of knowledge of Brucella over the past 50 years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifty years ago, bacteria in the genus Brucella were known to cause infertility and reproductive losses. The genus was considered to contain only three species, B. abortus, B. melitensis and B. suis. Since the early 1960’s, at least seven new species have been identified as belonging to the Brucell...

  3. Lacaille : Lacaille 250 years on

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Brian

    2002-04-01

    Brian Warner, Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, tells the story of Nicolas Louis de Lacaille's sojourn in South Africa. Two hundred and fifty years ago French astronomer Nicolas Louis de la Caille spent two years at the Cape of Good Hope, carrying out astronomical and geodetic observations that had long-lasting repercussions. His measurements of the positions of nearly 10 000 southern stars led to the definition of the southern constellations which are used to this day; his discrepant measurement of the radius of the Earth provided a challenge that took much 19th-century labour to rectify, but led to an accurate trigonometric survey of South Africa that would otherwise not have occurred until much later.

  4. State Policies Affecting the "Adult Re-Entry Pipeline" in Postsecondary Education: Results of a Fifty-State Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeke, Marianne; Zis, Stacey; Ewell, Peter

    2011-01-01

    With support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NCHEMS) is engaged in a two year project centered on state policies that foster student progression and success in the "adult re-entry pipeline." The adult re-entry pipeline consists of the many alternative pathways to obtain a…

  5. EXAMINING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE PHYSICAL AVAILABILITY OF MEDICAL MARIJUANA AND MARIJUANA USE ACROSS FIFTY CALIFORNIA CITIES

    PubMed Central

    Freisthler, Bridget; Gruenewald, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of the current study is to assess statistical associations between individual demographic and personality characteristics, the city-level physical availability of medical marijuana (as measured through densities per roadway mile of storefront dispensaries and delivery services), and the incidence and prevalence of marijuana use. Method Individual level data on marijuana use were collected during a telephone survey of 8,853 respondents living in 50 mid-size cities in California. Data on medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services were obtained via six different websites and official city lists. Three outcome variables pertaining to lifetime, past year use, and frequency of past year use were analyzed using random effects logistic models (for lifetime and past year use) and random effects tobit models (for frequency of past 365-day use). Results The current study finds that the total physical availability of medical marijuana through dispensaries and delivery services per roadway mile at the city-level is positively related to current marijuana use and greater frequency of use, controlling for a variety of demographic and personality characteristics. As expected, current physical availability of medical marijuana was unrelated to lifetime use. Conclusions Regulations on the number and densities of marijuana outlets may be a sufficient means to restrain overall levels of marijuana use within cities. However, alternative use of delivery services may also provide easy access to marijuana and mitigate these effects. PMID:25156224

  6. Struggle and Moral Purpose in American Education 50 Years after "Brown"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishon, Phillip; Geringer, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Fifty years ago, on 17 May 1954, the United States Supreme Court ruled in "Brown v. Board of Education" that the "separate but equal" doctrine that had effectively legalized "educational apartheid" some 58 years earlier deprived racially segregated children of the equal protection of laws guaranteed by the fourteenth Amendment. The historical…

  7. The First-Year Urban High School Teacher: Holding the Torch, Lighting the Fire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Paul J.; Weinberg, Carl

    2008-01-01

    The book tracks co-author Paul Weinberg during his first year of teaching as he is introduced to the daily tribulations of an urban Los Angeles high school. Paul's father Carl Weinberg, who fifty years earlier himself began his career in education an urban secondary school teacher, shares his experiences side-by-side with those of his son.…

  8. Results of a Two-Year Longitudinal Study of Beverage-Specific Alcohol Use among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Michele Johnson; Werch, Chudley

    2007-01-01

    This study explored beverage-specific alcohol consumption patterns among a sample of high school students over a two-year period. Four hundred fifty-five students completed the validated questionnaire at all three time points (2002, 2003, 2004). Variables of interest included five use measures (past year use, 30-day frequency, quantity, heavy use,…

  9. The Active plus protocol: systematic development of two theory- and evidence-based tailored physical activity interventions for the over-fifties

    PubMed Central

    van Stralen, Maartje M; Kok, Gerjo; de Vries, Hein; Mudde, Aart N; Bolman, Catherine; Lechner, Lilian

    2008-01-01

    Background Limited data are available on the development, implementation and evaluation processes of physical activity promotion programmes among older adults. More integrative insights into interventions describing the planned systematic development, implementation and evaluation are needed. Methods and design The purpose of this study is to give an integrative insight into the development of the Active plus programme applying the six-step Intervention Mapping protocol. The Active plus programme consisted of two theory- and evidence-based tailored physical activity promotion interventions, both comprising three tailored letters delivered over four months and aimed at raising awareness of insufficient physical activity, and stimulating physical activity initiation and maintenance among the over-fifties. The first intervention, the basic tailored intervention, provided tailored letters that intervened on the psychosocial determinants of physical activity. The second intervention, the intervention plus, provided the same tailored information but additionally provided tailored information about physical activity opportunities in the specific environment in which the older adults lived. This environment-based component also provided access to a forum and e-buddy system on a website. A plan for implementation and evaluation is also described. Discussion The planned development of the Active plus programme resulted in two theory- and evidence-based tailored physical activity interventions targeted at the over-fifties. Trial Registration Dutch Trial Register NTR 920 PMID:19055806

  10. Ongoing controversies surrounding cardiac remodeling: is it black and white—or rather fifty shades of gray?

    PubMed Central

    Spaich, Sebastian; Katus, Hugo A.; Backs, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac remodeling describes the heart's multimodal response to a myriad of external or intrinsic stimuli and stressors most of which are probably only incompletely elucidated to date. Over many years the signaling molecules involved in these remodeling processes have been dichotomized according to a classic antagonistic view of black and white, i.e., attributed either a solely maladaptive or entirely beneficial character. By dissecting controversies, recent developments and shifts in perspective surrounding the three major cardiac signaling molecules calcineurin (Cn), protein kinase A (PKA) and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII), this review challenges this dualistic view and advocates the nature and dignity of each of these key mediators of cardiac remodeling as a multilayered, highly context-sensitive and sophisticated continuum that can be markedly swayed and influenced by a multitude of environmental factors and crosstalk mechanisms. Furthermore this review delineates the importance and essential contributions of degradation and proteolysis to cardiac plasticity and homeostasis and finally aims to integrate the various aspects of protein synthesis and turnover into a comprehensive picture. PMID:26257654

  11. Early years.

    PubMed

    2011-04-01

    Healthcare professionals in Scotland who are involved in early years work now have an additional resource in the shape of NHS Scotland's Maternal and Early Years website, aimed at practitioners at all levels. The site includes evidence updates, news and events, and can be accessed at www.maternal-and-early-years.org.uk. PMID:27368523

  12. Geologic Exploration of the Planets: The First 50 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Fifty years ago, on 14 December 1962, the Mariner 2 spacecraft flew by Venus and inaugurated the modern era of planetary exploration. Since that first Venus flyby, roughly 80 spacecraft have successfully probed, orbited, flown by, landed on, or roved on other planets, satellites, asteroids, and comets. As Carl Sagan used to say, only one generation of humankind can be the first explorers of the solar system, and we are that generation.

  13. Necroptosis: Fifty shades of RIPKs

    PubMed Central

    Ichim, Gabriel; Tait, Stephen WG

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis and necroptosis are 2 major, yet distinct, forms of regulated cell death. Whereas apoptosis requires caspase protease function, necroptosis requires activation of the receptor interacting protein kinases 1 (RIPK1) and RIPK3. Following activation, RIPK3 phosphorylates mixed-lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL), leading to cell death. Apoptosis and necroptosis are deeply intertwined such that a given death stimulus can often engage either form of cell death. Recent studies published in Cell Death and Differentiation by the Han, Oberst, and Vaux laboratories provide exciting new insights into necroptosis and how it interconnects with apoptosis. As we will discuss, their findings address key questions including: How does a cell choose between apoptosis or necroptosis? How can RIPK3 also induce apoptosis? What is the nature of the RIPK1–3 signaling cascade leading to necroptosis? Finally, data from the Oberst and Han groups strongly argue that RIPK1 is not only involved in executing necroptosis, but also protects against this process in some settings. PMID:27308415

  14. Boys with Asperger Syndrome Grow Up: Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Disorders 20 Years after Initial Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillberg, I. Carina; Helles, Adam; Billstedt, Eva; Gillberg, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We examined comorbid psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders in fifty adult males (mean age 30 years) with Asperger syndrome (AS) diagnosed in childhood and followed up prospectively for almost two decades (13-26 years). Only three of the 50 men had "never" met criteria for an additional psychiatric/neurodevelopmental diagnosis and…

  15. The Consequences of School Desegregation in a Kansas Town 50 Years after "Brown"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Jean A.; Niles, Rae; Carlson, Cameron; Kelley, William L.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the legacy of segregation and desegregation in the town of Parsons, Kansas. We argue that school desegregation, the goal of which was to increase access and equalize educational opportunities for African Americans, did not have that desired affect. Fifty years after the closing of the all-Black Douglass School, Parsons'…

  16. Evaluating the Role of Writing in the First and Second Year University Foreign Language Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubert, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Approaches to foreign language (FL) instruction have changed a great deal in the past fifty years, the most fundamental change being the shift from a focus solely on language form to a focus on communicative competence (CC). Although most FL instructors now appear to focus on CC in the teaching of speaking, they do not necessarily apply CC to…

  17. 50 Years after Sputnik, America Sees Itself in Another Science Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainard, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    Fifty years ago this month, the Soviet Union launched the world's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, an event that transformed American higher education. Americans felt threatened by the "red moon" overhead and communist know-how, and Congress supported a flurry of federal spending that helped to greatly expand the number of American research…

  18. 50 Years after "Brown": Segregation in the Miami-Dade County Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, James

    2004-01-01

    Fifty years after the "Brown v. Board of Education" decision outlawed de jure segregation in American schools, many school districts remain segregated. Despite numerous efforts aimed at desegregation, residential segregation--the primary barrier to significant school desegregation--remains entrenched throughout the United States. The Miami-Dade…

  19. 50(0) Years out and Counting: Native American Language Education and the Four Rs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Teresa L.; Nicholas, Sheilah E.; Wyman, Leisy T.

    2015-01-01

    Fifty years after the U.S. Congress passed the 1964 Civil Rights Act (CRA), Native Americans continue to fight for the right "to remain an Indian" (Lomawaima & McCarty, 2006) against a backdrop of test-driven language policies that threaten to destabilize proven bilingual programs and violate hard-fought language rights protections…

  20. Characterization and evaluation of washability of Alaskan coals: Fifty selected seams from various coal fields: Final technical report, September 30, 1976-February 28, 1986. [50 coal seams

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, P.D.

    1986-09-01

    This final report is the result of a study initiated in 1976 to obtain washability data for Alaskan coals, to supplement the efforts of the US Department of Energy in their ongoing studies on washability of US coals. Washability characteristics were determined for fifty coal samples from the Northern Alaska, Chicago Creek, Unalakleet, Nenana, Matanuska, Beluga, Yentna and Herendeen Bay coal fields. The raw coal was crushed to 1-1/2 inches, 3/8 inch, 14 mesh and 65 mesh top sizes, and float-sink separations were made at 1.30, 1.40 and 1.60 specific gravities. A limited number of samples were also crushed to 200 and 325 mesh sizes prior to float-sink testing. Samples crushed to 65 mesh top size were also separated at 1.60 specific gravity and the float and sink products were characterized for proximate and ultimate analyses, ash composition and ash fusibility. 72 refs., 79 figs., 57 tabs.

  1. Microbial and dietary factors associated with the 8-prenylnaringenin producer phenotype: a dietary intervention trial with fifty healthy post-menopausal Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Bolca, Selin; Possemiers, Sam; Maervoet, Veerle; Huybrechts, Inge; Heyerick, Arne; Vervarcke, Stefaan; Depypere, Herman; De Keukeleire, Denis; Bracke, Marc; De Henauw, Stefaan; Verstraete, Willy; Van de Wiele, Tom

    2007-11-01

    Hop-derived food supplements and beers contain the prenylflavonoids xanthohumol (X), isoxanthohumol (IX) and the very potent phyto-oestrogen (plant-derived oestrogen mimic) 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN). The weakly oestrogenic IX can be bioactivated via O-demethylation to 8-PN. Since IX usually predominates over 8-PN, human subjects may be exposed to increased doses of 8-PN. A dietary intervention trial with fifty healthy post-menopausal Caucasian women was undertaken. After a 4 d washout period, participants delivered faeces, blank urine and breath samples. Next, they started a 5 d treatment with hop-based supplements that were administered three times per d and on the last day, a 24 h urine sample was collected. A semi-quantitative FFQ was used to estimate fat, fibre, alcohol, caffeine and theobromine intakes. The recoveries of IX, 8-PN and X in the urine were low and considerable inter-individual variations were observed. A five-fold increase in the dosage of IX without change in 8-PN concentration resulted in a significant lower IX recovery and a higher 8-PN recovery. Classification of the subjects into poor (60%), moderate (25%) and strong (15%) 8-PN producers based on either urinary excretion or microbial bioactivation capacity gave comparable results. Recent antibiotic therapy seemed to affect the 8-PN production negatively. A positive trend between methane excretion and 8-PN production was observed. Strong 8-PN producers consumed less alcohol and had a higher theobromine intake. From this study we conclude that in vivo O-demethylation of IX increases the oestrogenic potency of hop-derived products. PMID:17521469

  2. Five-chlorodeoxycytidine and biomodulators of its metabolism result in fifty to eighty percent cures of advanced EMT-6 tumors when used with fractionated radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Greer, S.; Schwade, J.; Marion, H.S.

    1995-07-15

    The purpose of this investigation was to extend our findings in previous radiation and biochemical studies with five rodent tumors, in which we used one and occasionally two or three irradiations. The extent of control of the EMT-6 mammary adenocarcinoma was determined using fractionated radiation (12 irradiations) over a 3-week period using the radiosensitizer 5-chloro-2{prime}-deoxycytidine (CldC) and biomodulators of its metabolism. Drug and radiation treatments overlapped for 3 weeks. Fifty to 80% cures (usually 70%) were obtained with no apparent morbidity and the same moderate weight loss that occurs with radiation alone. An apparent threefold dose increase effect was obtained with the end point: {open_quotes}days to reach 4 times initial tumor volume.{close_quotes} Increasing the radiation dose threefold (without drugs) resulted in four out of five deaths; increasing the dose twofold (without drugs) resulted in extensive weight loss and hair loss in the entire ventral area and no cures. Increasing the dose of drugs or radiation 1.5-fold, in the complete protocol, did not result in increased morbidity. Comparative studies with Iododeoxyuridine demonstrate the heightened efficacy of CldC. One cannot achieve the same results obtained with CldC and the modulators by merely increasing the dose of radiation. There is a significant window of safety in this approach. The evidence we have obtained with EMT-6, the fifth rodent tumor we have studied with CldC, as well as the demonstrated and proposed reasons for its superior efficacy over 5-Iododeoxyuridine (and 5-Bromodeoxyuridine), drugs in current use, indicate that CldC will allow more aggressive treatment of human tumors with radiation than is now feasible. 50 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Past Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodge, Oliver

    2012-07-01

    Preface; 1. Ancestry and early days; 2. Schooldays; 3. Relation with other boys at school; 4. Education; 5. Influence of the Royal Institution; 6. Later education in London; 7. Reminiscences of Bedford College; 8. Scientific work and friends in London; 9. Personal retrospect; 10. Romance; 11. Influence of the British Association; 12. Reminiscences of Coopers Hill and assistants and popular lectures; 13. Liverpool; 14. Scientific work at Liverpool; 15. Scientific work at Liverpool (cont.); 16. Scientific work at Liverpool (cont.); 17. Electric waves and the beginnings of wireless; 18. Other friends; 19. Family life; 20. Holidays; 21. Side issues; 22. Early experiences in psychical research; 23. Psychical research; 24. Further psychic adventures, and psycho-physical phenomena; 25. Reminiscences of my years at the university of Birmingham; 26. Birmingham friendships and recollections; 27. Scientific retrospect; 28. Apologia pro vita mea; Index.

  4. Thirteen years of pair production

    SciTech Connect

    Strayer, M.R.

    1994-12-31

    This talk surveys a thirteen-year collaboration with Chris Bottcher on various aspects of strong field electrodynamics. Most of the work centers on the atomic physics associated with the peripheral collisions of ultrarelativistic heavy atoms. The earliest, beginning in about 1979, dealt with the spontaneous emission of positrons from nuclear quasimolecules and touched briefly on the formation of axions as a possible explanation of the anomalous peaks in the spectrum. This work stimulated the extensive studies of particle production from coherent fields that laid the foundations for investigations of nuclear form factors, structure functions, and production mechanisms for the Higgs and other exotic particles. Chris conjectured that the strong fields that are present in these collisions would give rise to nonperturbative effects. Thus, during this time, Chris also worked to develop basis-spline collocation methods for solving dynamical relativistic fermions in super strong fields. This was perhaps one of the best of times for Chris; on these problems alone, he co-authored fifty articles with more than twenty different collaborators.

  5. Choice of therapy in young adults with hyperthyroidism of Graves' disease. A brief, case-directed poll of fifty-four thyroidologists

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.T.

    1984-06-01

    We asked 54 thyroidologists how they would treat each of four patients having moderate hyperthyroidism of Graves' disease and a thyroid gland weighing 70 g (three to four times normal). For a 19-year-old woman, 67% of thyroidologists recommended an initial course of therapy with antithyroid drugs, usually for 1 year; 24% favored radioiodine treatments; and 9%, surgery. Choices for treating a 19-year-old man were similar. For a 29-year-old man, 44% of thyroidologists preferred drug therapy; 50%, radioiodine; and 6%, surgery. For a 29-year-old woman, choices were similar to those for the 29-year-old man, except for a slight preference for drugs over radioiodine. If hyperthyroidism recurred after a first course of antithyroid drugs, the consultants favored radioiodine treatments and surgery about equally, except in the 29-year-old man, in whom radioiodine was preferred. This survey shows considerable variation among experts in treating hyperthyroidism in young adults.

  6. Does Federal Financial Aid Policy Influence the Institutional Aid Policies of Four-Year Colleges and Universities? An Exploratory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossler, Don; Kwon, Jihye

    2015-01-01

    There is a dearth of empirical work that examines the relationships between federal financial aid policy and institutional financial aid priorities and expenditures. This study uses Resource Dependency Theory to explore whether changes the amount of financial aid awarded by colleges and universities during the last fifty years are best explained…

  7. Using Electronic Course Reserves to Promote Information Literacy of First-Year Students in a University Writing Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victor, Paul, Jr.; Ronan, Jana Smith

    2007-01-01

    The University of Florida is a large research institution with a freshman class of more than seven thousand students out of a total enrollment of about fifty thousand. Although a partnership with the University Writing Program has allowed the Libraries to reach almost four thousand students this past academic year, certain barriers still exist.…

  8. Implementing principles of the integrated control concept 50 years later – current challenges in IPM for arthropod pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pest management theory and concepts developed fifty years ago as part of the integrated control concept remain at the foundation of IPM today. Implementation of integrated control and subsequently IPM has always been faced with the challenge of carrying out their principles in a rigorous, disciplin...

  9. Pathways of Sleep, Affect, and Stress Constellations during the First Year of College: Transition Difficulties of Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ari, Lilac Lev; Shulman, Shmuel

    2012-01-01

    One hundred and fifty Israeli first-year college students were assessed twice: during the first semester following the commencement of their undergraduate studies and toward the end of the second semester. At each semester, participants completed web-based daily diaries for seven consecutive days assessing daily sleep, affective mood, stress, and…

  10. Graduating to a Pay Gap: The Earnings of Women and Men One Year after College Graduation. Executive Summary and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of University Women, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Fifty years after the passage of the Equal Pay Act of 1963, women continue to be paid less than men in nearly every occupation. Because pay is a fundamental part of everyday life, enabling individuals to support themselves and their families, the pay gap evokes passionate debate. Although the data confirming the persistence of the pay gap are…

  11. Australian Children with Special Health Care Needs: Social-Emotional and Learning Competencies in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteford, Chrystal; Walker, Sue; Berthelsen, Donna

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between special health care needs and social-emotional and learning competence in the early years, reporting on two waves of data from the Kindergarten Cohort of "Growing up in Australia: The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children" (LSAC). Six hundred and fifty children were identified through the…

  12. Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Social Preference during the Early School Years: Mediation by Maternal Warmth and Child Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kam, Chi-Ming; Greenberg, Mark T.; Bierman, Karen L.; Coie, John D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Foster, Michael E.; Lochman, John E.; McMahon, Robert J.; Pinderhughes, Ellen E.

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined processes that mediate the association between maternal depressive symptoms and peer social preference during the early school years. Three hundred and fifty six kindergarten children (182 boys) and their mothers participated in the study. During kindergarten, mothers reported their level of depressive…

  13. The Use of Discourse Markers in Paragraph Writings: The Case of Preparatory Year Program Students in Qassim University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daif-Allah, Ayman Sabry; Albesher, Khaled

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the discourse markers used by Saudi EFL learners in their paragraph writing. The study was conducted on fifty students of the Preparatory Year Program at Qassim University. Data were collected from one hundred paragraphs written by the students at the end of the first and second semesters of the academic…

  14. Oscillator Phase Noise: A 50-Year Review.

    PubMed

    Leeson, David B

    2016-08-01

    Fifty years ago emerging requirements in oscillator applications led to the 1964 IEEE-NASA Symposium on Short-term Frequency Stability. Following that, IEEE Technical Committee 14.7 was established to unify time- and frequency-domain definitions of frequency stability. I had the good fortune to participate and contribute as a member of the symposium program committee and the IEEE committee. This paper is a personal retrospective of events that are said to have shaped our field: the 1964 Symposium, the 1966 Proc. IEEE special issue on frequency stability we edited (with comments on my oscillator-model paper), and our 1971 paper, "Characterization of Frequency Stability," written as a basis for IEEE STD 1139. PMID:27164585

  15. Fifty Years of Social Security: Past Achievements and Future Challenges. An Information Paper Prepared for Use by the Special Committee on Aging. United States Senate, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Special Committee on Aging.

    This document contains six essays examining the history and impact of the social security program on America's economic and social development. "Social Security: The Cornerstone of American Social Welfare Policy," by Malcolm H. Morrison, presents brief background information on the system and discusses the basic principles of social security. The…

  16. A Follow-Up Study of the Fifty-Eight Graduates, Class of 1970, of the Jackson County Adult Evening High School Completion Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gran, James R.

    One of a series of one year and four year followups in the Jackson County (Iowa) Adult Evening High School Completion Program, this study assessed the educational, social or personal, and/or financial gains experienced thus far by the 58 member Class of 1970. General information (age, sex, residence, marital and family status) was sought, along…

  17. The 11-year cycle in human births

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, Walter; Moos, Walter S.

    1993-06-01

    The annual numbers of human births were analyzed with regard to an 11-year cycle. The annual values were obtained from seven different regions: Australia, Germany, England and Wales, New Zealand, Japan, Switzerland, and the USA. Fifty-five annual values were obtained from each region for the years 1930 to 1984, comprising approximately five sunspot cycles. For each region the annual values were formed into 5 by 11 matrices; the eleven column means obtained were standardized, and plotted. A periodic regression technique, utilizing the fitting functions of the Fourier series, was used to evaluate the temporal order in the column means. Eleven-year rhythms were found and compared with solar and geophysical variables. Correlations were found with sunspots and solar flares, with terrestrial measures of magnetic disturbances (the magnetic indices derived from the K-index), and with temperature. The correlation of conceptions with the 11-year solar cycle may be a potential guide in the selection of further variables for the control and regulation of the rhythms in human conceptions.

  18. Patterns of fatigue and its correlates over the first 2 years after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Bushnik, Tamara; Englander, Jeffrey; Wright, Jerry

    2008-01-01

    This study used a prospective longitudinal design to quantify fatigue and associated factors during the first 2 years after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Fifty-one individuals were assessed at 3 time points: within the first 6, 12, and 18-24 months after TBI. Self-reported fatigue improved during the first year, as did pain, sleep quality, cognitive independence, and involvement in productive activity. Further changes up to 2 years after TBI were not observed. The subset of individuals who reported significant increases in fatigue over the first 2 years demonstrated poorer outcomes in cognition, motor symptoms, and general functioning than those with decreased or stable fatigue. PMID:18219232

  19. [Developmental bilharziasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni discovered 37 years after infestation].

    PubMed

    Chabasse, D; Bertrand, G; Leroux, J P; Gauthey, N; Hocquet, P

    1985-01-01

    The authors report a case of Mansoni Schistosomiasis whose course in always running thirty-seven years after the first and alone infestation in a fifty-six old man who come back from Madagascar in February 1948 and lives in France since this period eggs of schistosomiasis were living in a biopsy of rectal and sigmoid mucosea. Problem of adult worms longevity and clinical importance of such prolonged inapparent schistosomiasis are discussed. PMID:3936631

  20. Relationships between Perceptual-Motor Skills and Postural Balance in Nine Years Old Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atilgan, Oya Erkut

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate relationship between static-dynamic balance performance and two-hand coordination, reaction time, anthropometric measurements and leg strength. Fifty voluntary male children (age: 9.29 plus or minus 1.11 years, height: 138.86 plus or minus 7.86 cm, weight: 35.20 plus or minus 9.2 kg) who did not exercise…

  1. Looking Forward to the electronic Geophysical Year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamide, Y.; Baker, D. N.; Thompson, B.; Barton, C.; Kihn, E.

    2004-12-01

    During the International Geophysical Year (1957-1958), member countries established many new capabilities pursuing the major IGY objectives of collecting geophysical data as widely as possible and providing free access to these data for all scientists around the globe. A key achievement of the IGY was the establishment of a worldwide system of data centers and physical observatories. The worldwide scientific community has now endorsed and is promoting an electronic Geophysical Year (eGY) initiative. The proposed eGY concept would both commemorate the 50th anniversary of the IGY in 2007-2008 and would provide a forward impetus to geophysics in the 21st century, similar to that provide by the IGY fifty years ago. The eGY concept advocates the establishment of a series of virtual geophysical observatories now being deployed in cyberspace. We discuss plans to aggregate measurements into a readily accessible database along with analysis, visualization, and display tools that will make information available and useful to the scientific community, to the user community, and to the general public. We are examining the possibilities for near-realtime acquisition of data and utilization of forecast tools in order to provide users with advanced space weather capabilities. This program will provide powerful tools for education and public outreach concerning the connected Sun-Earth System.

  2. The 'laws' of binocular rivalry: 50 years of Levelt's propositions.

    PubMed

    Brascamp, J W; Klink, P C; Levelt, W J M

    2015-04-01

    It has been fifty years since Levelt's monograph On Binocular Rivalry (1965) was published, but its four propositions that describe the relation between stimulus strength and the phenomenology of binocular rivalry remain a benchmark for theorists and experimentalists even today. In this review, we will revisit the original conception of the four propositions and the scientific landscape in which this happened. We will also provide a brief update concerning distributions of dominance durations, another aspect of Levelt's monograph that has maintained a prominent presence in the field. In a critical evaluation of Levelt's propositions against current knowledge of binocular rivalry we will then demonstrate that the original propositions are not completely compatible with what is known today, but that they can, in a straightforward way, be modified to encapsulate the progress that has been made over the past fifty years. The resulting modified, propositions are shown to apply to a broad range of bistable perceptual phenomena, not just binocular rivalry, and they allow important inferences about the underlying neural systems. We argue that these inferences reflect canonical neural properties that play a role in visual perception in general, and we discuss ways in which future research can build on the work reviewed here to attain a better understanding of these properties. PMID:25749677

  3. Effects of the Emphasis on Achieving Adequate Yearly Progress on Teachers and Administrators at Schools under the Constraints of No Child Left Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Cathy Ann Burnett

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the effects of the emphasis on achieving Adequate Yearly Progress at elementary schools under the regulations of the No Child Left Behind legislation. Qualitative data were gathered through interviews with fifty educators: forty-three teachers and seven administrators. All of the educators worked at six…

  4. A 250-year periodicity in Southern Hemisphere westerly winds over the last 2600 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turney, C. S. M.; Jones, R. T.; Fogwill, C.; Hatton, J.; Williams, A. N.; Hogg, A.; Thomas, Z. A.; Palmer, J.; Mooney, S.; Reimer, R. W.

    2016-02-01

    Southern Hemisphere westerly airflow has a significant influence on the ocean-atmosphere system of the mid- to high latitudes with potentially global climate implications. Unfortunately, historic observations only extend back to the late 19th century, limiting our understanding of multi-decadal to centennial change. Here we present a highly resolved (30-year) record of past westerly wind strength from a Falkland Islands peat sequence spanning the last 2600 years. Situated within the core latitude of Southern Hemisphere westerly airflow (the so-called furious fifties), we identify highly variable changes in exotic pollen and charcoal derived from South America which can be used to inform on past westerly air strength. We find a period of high charcoal content between 2000 and 1000 cal. years BP, associated with increased burning in Patagonia, most probably as a result of higher temperatures and stronger westerly airflow. Spectral analysis of the charcoal record identifies a pervasive ca. 250-year periodicity that is coherent with radiocarbon production rates, suggesting that solar variability has a modulating influence on Southern Hemisphere westerly airflow. Our results have important implications for understanding global climate change through the late Holocene.

  5. Surgical pathology of the thymus: 20 years' experience.

    PubMed Central

    Large, S R; Shneerson, J M; Stovin, P G; Wallwork, J

    1986-01-01

    Fifty five patients underwent thymic surgery at Papworth Hospital from April 1964 to March 1984. The number presenting and the percentage with symptoms annually remained unchanged during this period. Forty four of these 55 patients had tumours. Twenty eight had thymomas (18% of whom had myasthenia gravis and 7% red cell aplasia), nine Hodgkin's disease, four germ cell tumours, and three secondary carcinomatous tumours. Five tumours were cystic. Six further patients had non-tumourous cystic lesions (four simple, one foregut, one lymphangiectatic). The remaining five patients had follicular hyperplasia; all of these had myasthenia gravis. Complete excision was performed in 41 of the 55 patients. So far survival is 100% in those with benign lesions other than benign thymomas, where the survival was 70% at five years. Those with malignant thymomas had a 60% survival rate at five years and those with Hodgkin's disease 29%. PMID:3704966

  6. Seventy Years of Magnetic Disk Drive Technology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryder, Mark H.

    2007-03-01

    The first hard disk drive, the IBM RAMAC, was shipped in September 1956. It was the size of a couple of refrigerators, contained fifty 24-inch diameter disks and stored information at an areal density of 2000 bits per square inch. Although ten years ago, the industry was widely perceived as facing a fundamental limit at 36 Gbit per square inch (Gbpsi) in the form of superparamagnetism, current disk drives provide areal densities in excess of 130 Gbpsi and capacities of 750 Gbytes. Although the original projections of superparamagnetism were correct, by changing the way the devices were scaled and, ultimately by changing from longitudinal to perpendicular recording, it has been possible to circumvent superparamagnetic effects. Our current understanding indicates that it may be possible to extend the areal density by yet another factor of 400 from present densities, if advanced technologies such as heat assisted magnetic recording and bit patterned media are implemented. Assuming this proceeds at the recent rate of 40 percent increase in areal density per year, we would reach roughly 50 Terabit per square inch (Tbpsi) in about 2026, 70 years after the development of the first disk drive. To achieve this, however, the industry will need higher sensitivity giant magnetoresistive sensors, high efficiency near-field transducers powered with surface plasmons and self-assembled or nano-imprinted magnetic particle arrays for media. In this presentation, the author will briefly describe the history of recording on magnetic disk drives, then describe the potential for future growth and some of the physics and materials problems that need solution in order to realize this full potential.

  7. Thermodynamic Data for Fifty Reference Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McBride, Bonnie J.; Gordon, Sanford; Reno, Martin A.

    2001-01-01

    This report is a compilation of thermodynamic functions of 50 elements in their reference state. The functions are: C(sup 0, sub p), {H(T)-H(sup 0)(0)}, S(sup 0)(T), and - {G(sup 0)(T) - H(sup 0)(0)} for the elements Ag, Al, Ar, B, Ba, Be, Br2, C, Ca, Cd, Cl2, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, F2, Fe, Ge, H2, He, Hg, I2, K, Kr, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, N2, Na, Nb, Ne, Ni, O2, P, Pb, Rb, S, Si, Sn, Sr, Th, Th, Ti, U, V, W, Xe, Zn, and Zr. Deuterium D, and electron gas e(sup -) are also included. The data are tabulated as functions of temperature as well as given in the form of least-squares coefficients for two functional forms for C(sup 0, sub p) with integration constants for enthalpy and entropy. One functional form for C(sup 0, sub p) is a fourth-order polynomial and the other has two additional terms, one with T(sup -1) and the other with T(sup -2). The gases Ar, D2, e(sup -), H2, He, Kr, N2, Ne, O2, and Xe are tabulated for temperatures from 100 to 20 000 K. The remaining gases Cl2 and F2 are tabulated from 100 to 6000 K. The polynomial functional form for C(sup 0, sub p) for all these gases is split into two temperature intervals of 200 to 1000 K and 1000 to 6000 K. The second functional form for (sup 0, sub p) has an additional interval from 6000 to 20 000 K for the gases tabulated to 20 000 K. The fits are constrained so that the properties match at the common temperature endpoints. The temperature ranges for the condensed species vary with range of the data, phase changes, and shapes of the C(sup 0, sub p) curves.

  8. Thermodynamic data for fifty reference elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbride, Bonnie J.; Gordon, Sanford; Reno, Martin A.

    1993-01-01

    This report is a compilation of thermodynamic functions of 50 elements in their standard reference state. The functions are C(sub p)(sup 0), (H(sup 0)(T) - H(sup 0)(0)), S(sup 0)(T), and -(G(sup 0)(T) - H(sup 0)(O)) for the elements Ag, Al, Ar, B, Ba, Be, Br2, C, Ca, Cd, Cl2, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, F2, Fe, Ge, H2, He, Hg, I2, K, Kr, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, N2, Na, Nb, Ne, Ni, O2, P, Pb, Rb, S, Si, Sn, Sr, Ta, Th, Ti, U, V, W, Xe, Zn, and Zr. Deuterium D2 and electron gas e(sup -) are also included. The data are tabulated as functions of temperature as well as given in the form of least-squares coefficients for two functional forms for C(sub p)(sup 0) with integration constants for enthalpy and entropy. One functional form for C(sub p)(sup 0) is a fourth-order polynomial and the other has two additional terms, one with T(exp -1) and the other with T(exp -2). The gases Ar, D2, e(sup -), H2, He, Kr, N2, Ne, O2, and Xe are tabulated for temperatures from 100 to 20,000 K. The remaining gases Cl2 and F2 are tabulated from 100 to 6000 K and 1000 to 6000 K. The second functional form for C(sub p)(sup 0) has an additional interval from 6000 to 20,000 K for the gases tabulated to 20,000 K. The fits are constrained so that the match at the common temperature endpoints. The temperature ranges for the condensed species vary with range of the data, phase changes, and shapes of the C(sub p)(sup 0) curves.

  9. Nutrition After Fifty: Tips and Recipes

    MedlinePlus

    ... using less sugar, as well. Substitute whole-wheat flour for white flour. And when you just make the regular recipe, ... ⅛ cup chopped walnuts 3 Tbsp. all-purpose flour 3 Tbsp. whole-wheat flour 2 ½ Tbsp. ...

  10. Novel Tests of Gravity Below Fifty Microns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Gabriela; Johnson, Jeremy; Guerrero, Ian; Hoyle, C. D.

    2016-03-01

    Due to inconsistencies between General Relativity and the Standard Model, tests of gravity remain at the forefront of experimental physics. At Humboldt State University, undergraduates and faculty are designing an experiment sensitive enough to detect gravitational interactions below the 50 micron scale. The experiment measures the twist of a torsion pendulum as an attractor mass is oscillated nearby in a parallel plate configuration, providing time varying gravitational torque on the pendulum. The size and distance dependence of the torque variation will provide a means to determine any deviation from current models of gravity on untested scales. Supported by NSF Grants 1065697 and 1306783.

  11. Occupational fluorosis through 50 years: clinical and epidemiological experiences.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, P

    1982-01-01

    Fifty years ago, in 1932, skeletal fluorosis was discovered as an occupational disease in cryolite workers in Copenhagen, Denmark. Following the initial reports, new cases were identified in other industries, such as the production of aluminum and superphosphate fertilizer. In light cases of fluorosis, the bone changes are often associated with nonspecific joint and muscle pains, but the disease may be entirely asymptomatic. The fluoride-induced osteosclerosis seems to be reversible, but the long-term significance of fluoride accumulation in the body is not known. Family cases of dental fluorosis have been occurred in long-term residents near fluoride-emitting industries, and in hot areas with high, natural fluoride levels in the drinking water. Skeletal fluorosis has only played a minor role in the discussion concerning fluoridation of drinking water, however. Changing and increasing uses of fluorides have led to a renewed interest in this occupational disease. PMID:7137176

  12. Revaluation Of Wrocław Public Use Buildings In Years 2005 - 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschke, Paweł

    2015-09-01

    In the years 2005-2013 in Wroclaw, there was commissioned to use hundreds of public buildings, including fifty revalued monuments These were: offices, museums, theatres, science and education facilities, as well as commercial buildings: banks, department stores, office buildings and hotels. The success of these projects was the merit of Wroclaw scientists who nurtured these outstanding works of architecture and convince the public to the fact that they stand for works which cannot be missed. The merit of architects and conservators was professionally prepared projects and effective supervision of investment, making the implementation of technical and program objectives not colliding with protection of historic material of the objects.

  13. A Case Report: Anti-Psychotic Agents Related Ocular Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Choy, Bonnie Nga Kwan; Ng, Alex Lap Ki; Shum, Jennifer Wei Huen; Fan, Michelle Ching Yim; Lai, Jimmy Shiu Ming

    2016-04-01

    Chlorpromazine is known to cause ocular pigmentary deposits. However, delayed presentation after cessation of chlorpromazine has not been reported. There are also no reports on whether newer generation of anti-psychotic agents contribute to ocular toxicity. We describe a case of ocular toxicity related to anti-psychotic agents. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of anterior segment pigmentary deposits associated with olanzapine use, 2 years after the cessation of chlorpromazine.We report a case of ocular toxicity in a patient with history of chlorpromazine usage of 100 mg per day for 13 years and subsequently switched to olanzapine 5 mg for 2 years. There were no signs of ocular toxicity while the patient was on chlorpromazine. However, when the patient switched to olanzapine, she developed the ocular side effect as described for chlorpromazine-induced ocular toxicity, with pigmentary depositions on both corneas and the anterior lens surface and decrease in vision.Olanzapine, a newer anti-psychotic agent, may play a role in the ocular pigmentary deposition, either directly causing pigmentary deposition itself or accentuating the effect of chlorpromazine as the 2 drugs act on the same receptors, although further studies are required to support this hypothesis. As patients with psychiatric conditions may not voluntarily complain of visual symptoms, ocular screening could be considered in these patients receiving chronic anti-psychotic treatment, so that any ocular toxicity could be diagnosed in a timely manner. PMID:27082594

  14. A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Choy, Bonnie Nga Kwan; Ng, Alex Lap Ki; Shum, Jennifer Wei Huen; Fan, Michelle Ching Yim; Lai, Jimmy Shiu Ming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Chlorpromazine is known to cause ocular pigmentary deposits. However, delayed presentation after cessation of chlorpromazine has not been reported. There are also no reports on whether newer generation of anti-psychotic agents contribute to ocular toxicity. We describe a case of ocular toxicity related to anti-psychotic agents. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of anterior segment pigmentary deposits associated with olanzapine use, 2 years after the cessation of chlorpromazine. We report a case of ocular toxicity in a patient with history of chlorpromazine usage of 100 mg per day for 13 years and subsequently switched to olanzapine 5 mg for 2 years. There were no signs of ocular toxicity while the patient was on chlorpromazine. However, when the patient switched to olanzapine, she developed the ocular side effect as described for chlorpromazine-induced ocular toxicity, with pigmentary depositions on both corneas and the anterior lens surface and decrease in vision. Olanzapine, a newer anti-psychotic agent, may play a role in the ocular pigmentary deposition, either directly causing pigmentary deposition itself or accentuating the effect of chlorpromazine as the 2 drugs act on the same receptors, although further studies are required to support this hypothesis. As patients with psychiatric conditions may not voluntarily complain of visual symptoms, ocular screening could be considered in these patients receiving chronic anti-psychotic treatment, so that any ocular toxicity could be diagnosed in a timely manner. PMID:27082594

  15. Flights of Discovery: 50 Years at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Lance E.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the NASA History Series, this report (NASA SP-4309) describes fifty years of aeronautical research at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. Starting with early efforts to exceed the speed of sound with the X-1 aircraft, and continuing through to the X-31 research aircraft, the report covers the flight activities of all of the major research aircraft and lifting bodies studied by NASA. Chapter One, 'A Place for Discovery', describes the facility itself and the surrounding Mojave Desert. Chapter Two, 'The Right Stuff', is about the people involved in the flight research programs. Chapter Three, 'Higher, Faster' summarizes the early years of transonic flight testing and the development of several lifting bodies. Chapter Four, 'Improving Efficiency, Maneuverability & Systems', outlines the development of aeronautical developments such as the supercritical wing, the mission adaptive wing, and various techniques for improving maneuverability fo winged aircraft. Chapter 5, 'Supporting National Efforts', shows how the research activities carried out at Dryden fit into NASA's programs across the country in supporting the space program, in safety and in problem solving related to aircraft design and aviation safety in general. Chapter Six, ' Future Directions' looks to future research building on the fifty year history of aeronautical research at the Dryden Flight Research Center. A glossary of acronyms and an appendix covering concepts and innovations are included. The report also contains many photographs providing a graphical perspective to the historical record.

  16. International Youth Year Features.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palla, Pier Giovanni, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    A digest of ideas and initiatives to make higher education more responsive to young people is provided. Part 1 includes excerpts of articles and reports concerning the International Youth Year (IYY), a United Nations' sponsored year of celebration of youth and a program of meetings to discuss youth problems and solutions. The themes selected for…

  17. The School Year Preview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiller, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Recommends looking at the entire school year in advance in order to plan for and cover the basic subject areas of art. Provides an overview of the entire school year of a fifth-grade art class, describing the various activities in detail. (CMK)

  18. First-Year Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Greg, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    Being a first-year teacher in New York City is not easy. The author received much of the same preparation and advice that he and his colleagues give their students. But even the best education courses and a positive student teaching experience do not seem to be enough to take the edge off of a year he remembers barely surviving. The author…

  19. Final Year Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hubsch, Tristan

    2013-06-20

    In the last years of this eighteen-year grant project, the research efforts have focused mostly on the study of off-shell representations of supersymmetry, both on the worldline and on the world- sheet, i.e., both in supersymmetric quantum mechanics and in supersymmetric field theory in 1+1-dimensional spacetime.

  20. 20 Years and Counting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuzyk, Raya

    2008-01-01

    In commemoration of the Librarian of the Year Award's 20th anniversary, this article presents brief vignettes on all 19 of the title holders. When "Library Journal" named them Librarians of the Year, these inimitable 19 (for the 20th, Norma Blake, see EJ788676) had singled themselves out as risk takers, visionaries, bulldogs, pragmatists,…

  1. Celebrating 50 Years!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansdottir, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The author congratulates members of the Association of Teachers of Mathematics (ATM) on celebrating the 50th anniversary of their annual conference. These conferences have kept the spirit alive from the early years, especially the engagement in investigative, collaborative, and reasoning activities. In the 50th year as an association, the author…

  2. Firework injuries: a ten-year study.

    PubMed

    Puri, Vinita; Mahendru, Sanjay; Rana, Roshani; Deshpande, Manish

    2009-09-01

    Fireworks are used worldwide to celebrate popular events (e.g. festivals, official celebrations, weddings). The festival of lights (Diwali) is celebrated with fireworks in India. During this period, many patients from all age groups present to hospital with injuries due to fireworks. Prevalence, period of occurrence, sex and age variation, adult supervision, causative fireworks, mode of lighting, age groups prone to injury, patterns of injury caused by individual fireworks, and the body parts injured were studied. One hundred and fifty-seven cases (92 retrospective, 65 prospective) with injury due to fireworks presenting to the Department of Plastic Surgery at KEM Hospital between 1997 and 2006 were studied. The prevalence of injuries has decreased steadily over the last 10 years (41 cases in 1997, 3 cases in 2006). The maximum number of injuries (35%) was seen in the age group 5-14 years; 92% of these children were unsupervised. The commonest cause of injury was firework misuse (41% of cases), followed by device failure (35%). Device failure was commonest with flares/fountains (ground firework emitting sparks upwards) and aerial devices. Flare/fountains caused most injury (39%), sparklers the least (0.6%). Flare/fountains, ground spinners, sparklers, and gunpowder (explosive material from cracker, obtained by tearing paper wrapper and obtaining chemicals) caused only soft tissue burns; stringbombs (high-intensity fire cracker made by wrapping chemicals with jute strings/coir in layers) and rockets (aerial device that zooms upwards and bursts) caused blast injuries, leading to soft tissue disruption and bony injuries. Emergency surgery was done if indicated: tendon and/or neurovascular repair, fracture fixation, flap cover or amputation. Superficial burns were treated with dressings. Certain wounds needed only thorough cleansing of the wound and primary suturing. We concluded that, over a 10-year period, the prevalence of firework injury decreased due to increased

  3. SDO: Year 2

    NASA Video Gallery

    April 21, 2012 marks the two-year anniversary of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) First Light press conference, where NASA revealed the first images taken by the spacecraft. This video highligh...

  4. International Heliophysical Year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, J. M.; Harrison, R.; Poland, A.; St.Cyr, O. C.; Thompson, B. J.; Rabin, Douglas (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In 1957 a program of international research, inspired by the International Polar Years of 1882-83 and 1932-33, was organized as the International Geophysical Year (IGY) to study global phenomena of the Earth and geospace. The IGY involved about 60,000 scientists from 66 nations, working at thousands of stations, from pole to pole to obtain simultaneous, global observations on Earth and in space. There had never been anything like it before. The fiftieth anniversary of the International Geophysical Year will occur in 2007. We propose to organize an international program of scientific collaboration for this time period called the International Heliophysical Year (IHY). Like it predecessors, the IHY will focus on fundamental global questions of Earth science.

  5. Happy (Chinese) New Year!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Georgia G.

    1979-01-01

    Suggestions are made for a classroom celebration of Chinese New Year, including discussion of the Chinese calendar and customs, a short list of appropriate children's stories, and food ideas, including a recipe for fortune cookies. (SJL)

  6. Year 2000 awareness

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, C.

    1997-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on the challenges business face with the year 2000 software problem. Estimates, roadmaps, virtual factory software, current awareness, and world wide web references are given.

  7. [Pacemakers 16 years later].

    PubMed

    Dodinot, B

    1976-01-01

    In 1976, 10 years after the first successful implantations, the pacemaker technique is perfectly well accepted. Transvenous placement of the electrode is preferred in 95 % of the cases. Besides the 15 years nuclear power pacers (1970), conventional mercury pacemakers may reach a longevity of 4 to 5 years because of the reduction of the current drain. Lithium iodine seems a very promising source of energy. The mini-pacemakers with various iodine anodes are particularly attractive. The future is probably a well designed medium sized lithium pacemaker lasting more than 7 years. Patient follow-up is very much improved. All pacemakers exhibit an obvious rate reduction when their source of energy runs down. Therefore general practitioner and even the patients may detect this symptom. The main problem remains the lead resistance. The reduction of the frequency of pacemaker replacements and of the medical check-up makes life more simple for the pacemaker patient. PMID:1087802

  8. Less is still more: maintenance of the very brief exposure effect 1 year later.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Paul; Warren, Richard

    2013-04-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that an immediate effect of exposure to masked phobic stimuli on avoidance of the corresponding feared object would be maintained 1 year later. Fifty-three spider-phobic participants were identified with a questionnaire and a Behavioral Avoidance Test (BAT) with a live tarantula. One week later, they were administered 1 of 3 types of exposure: very brief (25-ms, masked) or clearly visible (125-ms, unmasked) images of spiders, or very brief images of flowers. They engaged in the BAT again immediately thereafter. One year later, they returned for a follow-up BAT. The immediate effect of exposure to very brief spiders on reducing avoidance of the tarantula was still evident 1 year later. Endurance of an effect by masked stimuli of this duration has not been reported before. Potential theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:23527506

  9. SETI: The NASA Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billingham, John

    This chapter, on the years of SETI in NASA, was initially prepared in 2000 for the celebration of Frank Drake's 70th birthday, but has never been previously published. All the material in these pages remains as valid today, in 2010, as it was 10 years ago. So it fits well into this volume on SETI Past, Present, and Future, with only minor revisions, and I am delighted that it is now seeing the light of day.

  10. Theory of mind skills 1 year after traumatic brain injury in 6- to 8-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Walz, Nicolay Chertkoff; Yeates, Keith Owen; Taylor, H Gerry; Stancin, Terry; Wade, Shari L

    2010-09-01

    This study examined the longer-term effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on theory of mind (ToM) skills of children who were between the ages of 5 and 7 years at the time of injury. Fifty-two children with orthopaedic injury, 30 children with moderate TBI, and 12 children with severe TBI were evaluated approximately 1 year post-injury (mean age=6.98 years, SD=0.59, range=6.02-8.26). Children with severe TBI did not engage in representation of first- and second-order mental states at a developmental level comparable to their peers, suggesting stagnation or lack of development, as well as regression of putatively existing ToM skills. Age, task-specific cognitive demands, and verbal abilities were strong predictors of ToM performance. However, even after taking those factors into account, children with severe TBI had poorer ToM performance than children with orthopaedic injuries. PMID:20307379

  11. Novice Non-Native English Teachers' Reflections on Their Teacher Education Programmes and Their First Years of Teaching (Reflexiones de profesores novatos y no nativos del inglés sobre sus programas de formación y sus primeros años de instrucción)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akcan, Sumru

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates novice non-native English teachers' opinions about the effectiveness of their teacher education programme and the challenges during their initial years of teaching. The results of a survey administered to fifty-five novice teachers and follow-up interviews identify strengths and weaknesses in their teacher education…

  12. Congress passes space year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The year 1992 will mark the 500th anniversary of Christopher Columbus' arrival in America and the 35th anniversary of both the International Geophysical Year and the launch of Sputnik. The U.S. Senate passed a joint resolution (S.J.Res. 177) on November 21 recommending that the President endorse an International Space Year (ISY) in 1992. A similar resolution introduced in the House of Representatives was incorporated into the conference report (House Report 99-379) accompanying the authorization bill for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and approved by both houses, also on November 21. As Eos went to press, the NASA authorization bill (H.R. 1714) awaited President Ronald Reagan's signature.

  13. Emergent technologies: 25 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rising, Hawley K.

    2013-03-01

    This paper will talk about the technologies that have been emerging over the 25 years since the Human Vision and Electronic Imaging conference began that the conference has been a part of, and that have been a part of the conference, and will look at those technologies that are emerging today, such as social networks, haptic technologies, and still emerging imaging technologies, and what we might look at for the future.Twenty-five years is a long time, and it is not without difficulty that we remember what was emerging in the late 1980s. Yet to be developed: The first commercial digital still camera was not yet on the market, although there were hand held electronic cameras. Personal computers were not displaying standardized images, and image quality was not something that could be talked about in a standardized fashion, if only because image compression algorithms were not standardized yet for several years hence. Even further away were any standards for movie compression standards, there was no personal computer even on the horizon which could display them. What became an emergent technology and filled many sessions later, image comparison and search, was not possible, nor the current emerging technology of social networks- the world wide web was still several years away. Printer technology was still devising dithers and image size manipulations which would consume many years, as would scanning technology, and image quality for both was a major issue for dithers and Fourier noise.From these humble beginnings to the current moves that are changing computing and the meaning of both electronic devices and human interaction with them, we will see a course through the changing technology that holds some features constant for many years, while others come and go.

  14. New year, old hat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    American Geological Institute; American Institute of Physics; American Associationthe Advancement of Science; Carlowicz, Michael

    It is only August, but October 1 looms large on the calendar. That is the day when the 1997 fiscal year (FY ‧97) begins for the U.S. federal government, and like last year, that day might come without a budget.In a flurry of summer activity, the U.S. Congress has passed several landmark bills on welfare reform, expansion of health coverage for workers between jobs, a raise in the minimum wage, and a Safe Drinking Water Act. The House of Representatives even passed all 13 of its annual appropriations bills before Congress took its August recess.

  15. Smog - the learning years

    SciTech Connect

    Heinen, C.M.; Fagley, W.S. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    35 years of continuous work by government and industry and the public have led to a very sophisticated system of emission controls. This paper is intended to recall and perhaps to honor those who participated in the hectic early period, when instrumentation, basic knowledge, and primitive devices competed for the attention of these pioneers with strident demands from policitians.

  16. Tuskegee: 100 Years Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Renelda

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the history and accomplishments of Tuskegee Institute over the past 100 years. Highlights the role played by Booker T. Washington, and W. E. B. DuBois; discusses the career of the school's retiring president, Luther Foster. Provides information on the new president, Dr. Benjamin Payton, and discusses future directions for the college. (APM)

  17. Physics in 100 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilczek, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Here I indulge in wide-ranging speculations on the shape of physics, and technology closely related to physics, over the next one hundred years. Themes include the many faces of unification, the re-imagining of quantum theory, and new forms of engineering on small, intermediate, and large scales.

  18. Creativity: The Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shade, Rick; Shade, Patti Garrett

    2016-01-01

    There is a myth that some people are creative and others are not. However, all children are born creative. They love to explore, ask questions, and are incredibly imaginative. Parents are key in nurturing their child's creativity in the early years. This article offers resources and strategies parents can use at different ages and stages (newborn,…

  19. Books of the Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adults Learning, 2004

    2004-01-01

    It's that time of year again and "Adults Learning" has once more asked some of the outstanding authors who have contributed to the journal over the past 12 months to nominate their best and most valuable reads of 2004. The authors are: (1) Judith Summers; (2) Thomas Sticht; (3) Alison Wolf; (4) Tom Schuller; (5) Linden West; (6) Brian Groombridge;…

  20. ISME Celebrates 50 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Music, 2004

    2004-01-01

    When members of the International Society for Music Education (ISME) met in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain in July for the 26th ISME World Conference, the gathering was an opportunity to share music from around the world, and to attend music education workshops. It was also an opportunity for its members to look back on the rich 50-year history…