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Sample records for fiji south pacific

  1. Fiji in the South Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Rosalind; Semaan, Leslie

    This text introduces Fiji and other island nations located in the Pacific, the world's largest ocean. Cut off from the world by vast expanses of water, these people developed a unique culture. Contents include: Teacher Overview, Geography of the South Pacific Islands, History of the South Pacific, Fiji, Traditional Village Life, Yaquna Ceremony,…

  2. Fiji South Pacific Severe Storm Detection and Warning System Project (SPSSD/WS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vermillion, C.; Maurer, H.; Williams, M.; Kamowski, J.; Moore, T.; Maksimovich, W.; Hasler, A.

    1988-01-01

    In August 1986, a South Pacific Severe Storm Detection and Warning System (SPSSD/WS) was installed by NASA at the Fiji Meteorological Service (FMS) in Nadi, Fiji. The system consists of a 6.1 meter parabolic dish antenna, a satellite ground station, and computer and image processing facilities. The system allows tracking of all South Pacific tropical cyclones with real-time, high resolution reception of visible and infrared cloud images from both the Japanese Geostationary Meteorological Satellite (GMS) and the U.S. Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-WEST). Training was also provided in system usage and operations. In December 1986, the U.S. AID Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) commissioned an evaluation of the SPSSD/WS. The system was recognized as one of the most advanced of its kind in the Pacific Basin. It has functioned successfully since installation with only minor interruptions, and it has become the prime tool in supporting the FMS' role as the regional tropical cyclone warning center for the Southwest Pacific. However, it was noted that there are needed enhancements to the system.

  3. Fiji.

    PubMed

    1985-11-01

    Fiji is a group of volcanic islands located in the South Pacific. Because of the rough terrain in its center, that area is sparsely populated; most of Fiji's population live on the island coasts. Almost all indigenous Fijians are Christians and English is the official language. In 1970 Fiji became a fully sovereign and independent nation within the British Commonwealth. The British monarch appoints the governor general who in turn appoints as prime minister the leader of the majority party in House of Representatives. The transition to independence for Fijians was achieved in a peaceful fashion. While there are some racial tensions between the Indo-Fijians and the indigenous Fijians, the 2 major political parties and the various leaders have succeeded in maintaining order. The government of Fiji, since attaining independence, has worked hard toward economic and social progress and there have been great strides made in education, health, agriculture, and nutrition. The thrust of Fiji's economy is sugar and the 2nd component is tourism. Fiji does import a wide variety of goods but industrial development is proceeding well. Fiji encourages local and foreign investment in the hopes of promoting development and providing industrial jobs. Regional cooperation is the main element in Fiji foreign policy they joined the UN in 1970. Full diplomatic relations exist between the US and Fiji and US and Fijian officials have exchanged visits. In 1985 the US provided $1.5 million in disaster relief funds to Fiji; there is expedcted to be a bilateral aid agreement between the 2 countries in 1986. Travel notes, government and US officials, and further information are included. PMID:12178129

  4. Genetic analysis of Black Tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) across its natural distribution range reveals more recent colonization of Fiji and other South Pacific islands

    PubMed Central

    Waqairatu, Salote S; Dierens, Leanne; Cowley, Jeff A; Dixon, Tom J; Johnson, Karyn N; Barnes, Andrew C; Li, Yutao

    2012-01-01

    The Black Tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) has a natural distribution range from East Africa to the South Pacific Islands. Although previous studies of Indo-Pacific P. monodon have found populations from the Indian Ocean and Australasia to differ genetically, their relatedness to South Pacific shrimp remains unknown. To address this, polymorphisms at eight shared microsatellite loci and haplotypes in a 418-bp mtDNA-CR (control region) sequence were examined across 682 P. monodon from locations spread widely across its natural range, including the South Pacific islands of Fiji, Palau, and Papua New Guinea (PNG). Observed microsatellite heterozygosities of 0.82–0.91, allele richness of 6.85–9.69, and significant mtDNA-CR haplotype variation indicated high levels of genetic diversity among the South Pacific shrimp. Analysis of microsatellite genotypes using a Bayesian STRUCTURE method segregated Indo-Pacific P. monodon into eight distinct clades, with Palau and PNG shrimp clustering among others from Southeast Asia and eastern Australia, respectively, and Fiji shrimp clustering as a distinct group. Phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA-CR haplotypes delineated shrimp into three groupings, with shrimp from Fiji again being distinct by sharing no haplotypes with other populations. Depending on regional location, the genetic structures and substructures identified from the genotyping and mtDNA-CR haplotype phylogeny could be explained by Metapopulation and/or Member–Vagrant type evolutionary processes. Neutrality tests of mutation-drift equilibrium and estimation of the time since population expansion supported a hypothesis that South Pacific P. monodon were colonized from Southeast Asia and eastern Australia during the Pleistocene period over 60,000 years ago when land bridges were more expansive and linked these regions more closely. PMID:22957205

  5. A coral δ18O record of ENSO driven sea surface salinity variability in Fiji (south -western tropical Pacific)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bec, Nolwenn; Julliet-Leclerc, Anne; Corrège, Thierry; Blamart, Dominique; Delcroix, Thierry

    2000-12-01

    The role of salinity in the dynamics and thermodynamics of El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events is increasingly being investigated. However, instrumental records of salinity are scarce and short in the tropical Pacific, and there is a clear need for a reliable salinity proxy to extend our knowledge of ENSO through time. Here, we present 40 years of δ18O data from a Fiji coral (16°48‧S-177°27‧E). The coral δ18O signal integrates both sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) variations. On a seasonal timescale, δ18O is mainly driven by SST changes whereas on an interannual ENSO timescale, it is almost exclusively affected by SSS variability. Since interannual fluctuations of SSS are rather well correlated to the Southern Oscillation Index in Fiji, coral δ18O can be used to reconstruct paleo-salinity data with some level of confidence. This may help for tracking ENSO influences back in time.

  6. A Fiji multi-coral δ18O composite approach to obtaining a more accurate reconstruction of the last two-centuries of the ocean-climate variability in the South Pacific Convergence Zone region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dassié, Emilie P.; Linsley, Braddock K.; Corrège, Thierry; Wu, Henry C.; Lemley, Gavin M.; Howe, Steve; Cabioch, Guy

    2014-12-01

    The limited availability of oceanographic data in the tropical Pacific Ocean prior to the satellite era makes coral-based climate reconstructions a key tool for extending the instrumental record back in time, thereby providing a much needed test for climate models and projections. We have generated a unique regional network consisting of five Porites coral δ18O time series from different locations in the Fijian archipelago. Our results indicate that using a minimum of three Porites coral δ18O records from Fiji is statistically sufficient to obtain a reliable signal for climate reconstruction, and that application of an approach used in tree ring studies is a suitable tool to determine this number. The coral δ18O composite indicates that while sea surface temperature (SST) variability is the primary driver of seasonal δ18O variability in these Fiji corals, annual average coral δ18O is more closely correlated to sea surface salinity (SSS) as previously reported. Our results highlight the importance of water mass advection in controlling Fiji coral δ18O and salinity variability at interannual and decadal time scales despite being located in the heavy rainfall region of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). The Fiji δ18O composite presents a secular freshening and warming trend since the 1850s coupled with changes in both interannual (IA) and decadal/interdecadal (D/I) variance. The changes in IA and D/I variance suggest a re-organization of climatic variability in the SPCZ region beginning in the late 1800s to period of a more dominant interannual variability, which could correspond to a southeast expansion of the SPCZ.

  7. The Language Situation in Fiji

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangubhai, Francis; Mugler, France

    2003-01-01

    After Papua New Guinea (PNG), Fiji is the second largest island nation in the South-west Pacific and the hub of the region. Nearly all Fiji Islanders have either Fijian or Fiji Hindi as their first language, in roughly equal numbers, while the former colonial language, English, with very few native speakers, has retained an important role,…

  8. Accretion and hydrothermalism in North Fiji basin, Southwest Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Auzende, J.M.; Eissen, J.P.

    1986-07-01

    The North Fiji basin is a marginal basin surrounded by: (1) the New Hebrides island arc in the west, which ends at the Matthew-Hunter Ridge in the south; (2) the Hunter fracture zone in the southeast; (3) the Fiji Islands in the east; and (4) the complex Vitiaz Trench system in the north. The investigations in this area suggest a complex opening has been active for approximately the past 10 m.y. The detailed bathymetry and the structure of the central part of this basin are still poorly known. The major element consists of an axial ridge. The trend of this ridge is imprecise, but it is probably oriented north-south near 173.5/sup 0/E, at least between 21/sup 0/ and 15/sup 0/S. The other remarkable feature consists of a complex system of ridges and faulted blocks running along the western edge of the Fiji Archipelago. This system has been interpreted by some authors as an accretion ridge. The purposes of the third leg of SEAPSO cruise onboard the R/V Jean-Charcot (December 2-24, 1985) are as follows: (1) to explore the typical structures of the North Fiji basin between 21/sup 0/ and 17/sup 0/S (axial ridge, seamounts, fracture zones, and the complex border west of Fiji), using multibeam echo-sounder (Seabeam), seismic reflection, magnetic, and gravimetric surveys; and (2) to complete Seabeam coverage and samplings (such as dredging, coring, water sampling, and bottom photographs) of two to three small box-shaped areas on the axial ridge, in order to localize and eventually characterize hydrothermal vents. The various morphotectonic, petrologic, chemical, and geodynamic results of this survey will be discussed.

  9. Language Attitudes in Multilingual Primary Schools in Fiji

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shameem, Nikhat

    2004-01-01

    Fiji is a multilingual country in the South Pacific with English, Fijian and Hindi being the official languages. As is inevitable in multilingual societies, language use is functional with Fiji Hindi and Fijian being the mother tongues of the two main ethnic groups in the country, the Indo-Fijians and the Fijians. English, because of Fiji's…

  10. The Diplommatinidae of Fiji – a hotspot of Pacific land snail biodiversity (Caenogastropoda, Cyclophoroidea)

    PubMed Central

    Neubert, Eike; Bouchet, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The minute (adult size 1.3–4.8 mm) land snail species of the family Diplommatinidae in the Fiji archipelago are revised based on historical material and modern (1998–99) collections targeting limestone outcrops on the largest island, Viti Levu, and several smaller islands in the Lau group. The forty-two species (including 30 new species) belong to the genera Moussonia Semper, 1865, Palaina Semper, 1865 and Diancta Martens, 1867, which are briefly characterized and keyed. The diagnostic structure of the inner lamellar system of each species is illustrated. All species except one are endemic to Fiji. In Viti Levu, the 12 localities surveyed each had 1–13 (average 5) species of Diplommatinidae; ten species were each found at a single site only. In the Lau islands, five islands were visited, with 1–4 species per island; four species are known from single islands. The number of historically known species not recollected in 1998–99 (7 species), the number of single-site occurrences (14 species), and the numerous islands — including limestone islands — that have not been surveyed at all, indicate that the 42 species of Diplommatinidae currently known from Fiji represent perhaps only half of the Fiji diplommatinid fauna. Such numbers approach the diplommatinid diversity of Palau (39 described and more than 60 undescribed species), and surpasses by far the diversity of other South Pacific archipelagos of comparable land area (New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Samoa). Nomenclatural acts: Lectotypes designated: Diplommatina fuscula, Diplommatina fuscula var. vitiana, Diplommatina godeffroyana, Diplommatina godeffroyana var. latecostata, Diplommatina tuberosa, Diplommatina martensi var. macrostoma, all Mousson, 1870. Neotypes designated: Diplommatina subregularis, Diplommatina ascendens, Diplommatina quadrata, all Mousson, 1870. New species: Diancta aurea sp. n., Diancta aurita sp. n., Diancta basiplana sp. n., Diancta controversa sp. n., Diancta densecostulata sp

  11. Home Reef, South Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    In the South Pacific, south of Late Island along the Tofua volcanic arc in Tonga, a new volcanic island Home Reef is being re-born. The island is thought to have emerged after a volcanic eruption in mid-August that has also spewed large amounts of floating pumice into Tongan waters and sweeping across to Fiji about 350 km (220 miles) to the west of where the new island has formed. In 2004 a similar eruption created an ephemeral island about 0.5 by 1.5 km (0.3 by 0.9 miles) in size; it was no longer visible in an ASTER image acquired November 2005. This simulated natural color image shows the vegetation-covered stratovolcanic island of Late in the upper right. Home Reef is found in the lower left. The two bluish plumes are hot seawater that is laden with volcanic ash and chemicals; the larger one can be traced for more than 14 km (8.4 miles) to the east. The image was acquired October 10, 2006 and covers an area of 24.3 by 30.2 km. It is located at 18.9 degrees South latitude, 174.7 degrees west longitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation

  12. Providing University Education in Physical Geography across the South Pacific Islands: Multi-Modal Course Delivery and Student Grade Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, James P.; Poole, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Enormous distances across the vast South Pacific hinder student access to the main Fiji campus of the regional tertiary education provider, the University of the South Pacific (USP). Fortunately, USP has been a pioneer in distance education (DE) and promotes multi-modal delivery of programmes. Geography has embraced DE, but doubts remain about…

  13. NASA/NOAA/USAID implementation of the South Pacific severe storm detection and warning system project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, J.

    1984-01-01

    Implementation by NASA of the South Pacific severe storm detection and warning system project for the Fiji Meteorological Service (FMS) in Nadi, Fiji, is discussed. A description of the need and use of the system by the FMS, of data reception, of interactive computer techniques, of training, and of the benefits to be derived from implementation of the system is given. The project allows precise tracking of all South Pacific tropical cyclones with frequent high-resolution reception of both the Japanese GMS and the U.S. GOES-West visible and IR cloud images.

  14. Language-in-Education Policies in the South Pacific: Some Possibilities for Consideration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangubhai, Francis

    2002-01-01

    Discusses research related to bilingual education as a means of providing background information for policy makers, and then discusses a number of bilingual education models. Suggests separate models of language-in-education policies for the Melanesian, Micronesian/Polynesian parts of the South Pacific and for Fiji. (Author/VWL)

  15. The South Pacific superswell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, Marcia K.; Fischer, Karen M.

    Seafloor depths in a broad area of French Polynesia are 250 to 750 m shallower than lithosphere of the same age in the North Pacific and the North Atlantic. The area of shallow seafloor also correlates with a region of high density of volcanoes, low seismic velocity in the upper mantle, and a reduction in the thickness of the elastic plate supporting the volcanoes. The Marquesas fracture zone marks an abrupt transition between normal lithosphere to the north which follows the thermal subsidence curve for a 125-km-thick plate and shallow lithosphere to the south which behaves as though it is only 75-km thick. This age dependence in the French Polynesian depth anomalies, the low elastic plate thickness, and the change in depth at the Marquesas fracture zone, a lithospheric discontinuity, require elevated temperatures in the lithosphere. The pattern and amplitude of the depth anomaly is not consistent with the notion that it results from lithospheric thinning beneath a number of overlapping hot spot swells. Rather, we propose that hot spot traces cluster in this region because the lithosphere is already thinner and more vulnerable to magma penetration. The reduction in the thickness of the thermal plate is presumably due to enhanced small-scale convection resulting from the thermal and/or chemical effect of a broad mantle up welling beneath the South Pacific as imaged by seismic tomography. The morphologic and petrologic characteristics of this superswell resemble those that existed in the mid-Cretaceous over H. W. Menard's Darwin Rise, a region of the Pacific which includes the Mid-Pacific Mountains, the Marshall Islands, Magellan Seamounts, and Wake Guyots. We propose that the South Pacific superswell is the modern-day equivalent of the Darwin Rise, and that it may be merely an extreme example of global variability in lithospheric thermal structure as a function of temperature, chemistry, and/or state-of-stress in the upper mantle.

  16. Featuring the South Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagan, Brian Terrence; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This thematic section includes "Community Education in the Cook Islands" (Brian Terrence Hagan); "Developing the Grassroots: A Community Education Program in Fiji" (Joseph Veramu); "Literacy in the Community: The Papua New Guinea Experience" (Vincent Manukayasi); "Young Aborigine People Learn about Life through Comic Books"; and "A New and…

  17. Language, videos and family planning in the South Pacific.

    PubMed

    Winn, M; Lucas, D

    1993-12-01

    In 1984, women in Fiji, Kiribati, the Solomon Islands, and Tonga wanted culture-specific, educational resources on sexuality, family planning, contraception, reproduction, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Family Planning Australia [FPA] found video to be the most appropriate means to present information on these topics, since video continues the story-telling tradition of the Pacific. Women worked with FPA to produce videos addressing these topics. They were filmed in Fiji, which has a broad cross-section of South Pacific people. FPA took into account women's concerns and cultural and religious sensitivities. The English language videos were Better Safe, a story about STDs, condom use, and male sexual responsibility; Taboo Talk, a documentary about women's attitudes on menstruation, sex education, and family planning; AIDS and the South Pacific, about AIDS transmission and prevention; a d Down There, an animated documentary on reproduction and contraceptive methods. A project evaluation revealed that the videos would have received wider acceptance had they been in local languages. Local men and women debated each work of a translation of the list of reproductive health terms, eventually resulting in 20 culturally and linguistically appropriate video translations. A cross section of national language speakers modified and improved the draft translation of the 4 scripts. This whole process resulted in incorporation of the 88 reproductive health terms into the Booklet of South Pacific Reproductive Health Words and Phrases. The project showed that Pacific women were able to compile a booklet of culturally and linguistically acceptable terms and to successfully translate the scripts of health videos. In conclusions, people tend to be more willing to accept sexuality information and frank and explicit material than is usually believed if they are allowed to determine the context in which they receive it. PMID:12318840

  18. 137Cs in the western South Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Wang, Zhong-Liang

    2007-09-01

    The 137Cs activities were determined for seawater samples from the East Caroline, Coral Sea, New Hebrides, South Fiji and Tasman Sea (two stations) Basins of the western South Pacific Ocean by gamma spectrometry using a low background Ge detector. The 137Cs activities ranged from 1.4 to 2.3 Bq m(-3) over the depth interval 0-250 m and decreased exponentially from the subsurface to 1000 m depth. The distribution profiles of 137Cs activity at these six western South Pacific Ocean stations did not differ from each other significantly. There was a remarkable difference for the vertical profiles of 137Cs activity between the East Caroline Basin station in this study and the GEOSECS (Geochemical Ocean Sections Study) station at the same latitude in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean; the 137Cs inventory over the depth interval 100-1000 m increased from 400+/-30 Bq m(-2) to 560+/-30 Bq m(-2) during the period from 1973 to 1992. The total 137Cs inventories in the western South Pacific Ocean ranged from 850+/-70 Bq m(-2) in the Coral Sea Basin to 1270+/-90 Bq m(-2) in the South Fiji Basin. Higher 137Cs inventories were observed at middle latitude stations in the subtropical gyre than at low latitude stations. The 137Cs inventories were 1.9-4.5 times (2.9+/-0.7 on average) and 1.7-4.3 times (3.1+/-0.7 on average) higher than that of the expected deposition density of atmospheric global fallout at the same latitude and that of the estimated 137Cs deposition density in 10 degrees latitude by 10 degrees longitude grid data obtained by Aoyama et al. [Aoyama M, Hirose K, Igarashi Y. Re-construction and updating our understanding on the global weapons tests 137Cs fallout. J Environ Monit 2006;8:431-438], respectively. The possible processes for higher 137Cs inventories in the western South Pacific Ocean than that of the expected deposition density of atmospheric global fallout may be attributable to the inter-hemisphere dispersion of the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing 137Cs from

  19. 137Cs inventory in semi-isolated basins of the western South Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, M.; Wang, Z.

    2007-12-01

    The main introduction routes of 137Cs into the Pacific Ocean are worldwide global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing and close-in fallout from U. S. tests conducted on the Bikini and Enewetak Atolls. The objectives of this study are to measure the 137Cs activities in water columns of the western South Pacific Ocean and to discuss the processes controlling the 137Cs inventory. The 137Cs activities were determined for seawater samples from the East Caroline, Coral Sea, New Hebrides, South Fiji and Tasman Sea Basins of the western South Pacific Ocean. The 137Cs activities in surface waters ranged from 1.7 Bq m- 3 in the Tasman Sea Basin to 2.3 Bq m-3 in the East Caroline Basin. The latitudinal 137Cs distributions in surface waters showed the opposite trend to the expected deposition density from global fallout. The distribution profiles of 137Cs activity at these six western South Pacific Ocean stations did not differ from each other significantly. The total 137Cs inventories in the western South Pacific Ocean ranged from 850 Bq m-2 in the Coral Sea Basin to 1270 Bq m-2 in the South Fiji Basin. Higher 137Cs inventories were observed at middle latitude stations in the subtropical gyre than at low latitude stations. The 137Cs inventories were 1.9 - 4.5 times higher than that of the expected deposition density of atmospheric global fallout at the same latitude. The possible sources of excess 137Cs inventories in the western South Pacific Ocean might be attributable to both the inter-hemisphere dispersion of the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing 137Cs from the northern stratosphere to the southern one and its subsequent deposition, and water- bearing transport of 137Cs from the North Pacific Ocean to the South Pacific.

  20. Understanding the South Pacific Convergence Zone and Its Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, Scott

    2011-02-01

    International Workshop on the South Pacific Convergence Zone; Apia, Samoa, 24-26 August 2010 ; During the Southern Hemisphere summer the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) in the southwestern Pacific Ocean produces the largest rainfall band in the world. The SPCZ tends to move northeast during southern winter and El Niño and move southwest during southern summer and La Niña. These changes in position have a profound influence on climate (e.g., rainfall, winds, and tropical cyclone frequencies) and life in most of the nations in the southwestern Pacific. Despite the importance of the SPCZ to the region and its prominence in the general circulation of the Southern Hemisphere, the SPCZ has been studied relatively little compared with convergence zones in the Northern Hemisphere. An international workshop on the SPCZ was held in Samoa and brought together 30 experts from Australia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, France, India, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Samoa, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Vanuatu.

  1. Perceptions, impacts and adaptation of tropical cyclones in the Southwest Pacific: an urban perspective from Fiji, Vanuatu and Tonga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, A. D.; Verdon-Kidd, D. C.; Kiem, A. S.; Royle, S. A.

    2015-11-01

    To better understand perceptions, impacts and adaptation strategies related to tropical cyclones (TCs) in urban environments of the Southwest Pacific (SWP), a survey (with 130 participants) was conducted across three island nations; Fiji, Vanuatu and Tonga. The key aims of this study include: (i) understanding local perceptions of TC activity, (ii) investigating physical impacts of TC activity, and (iii) uncovering adaptation strategies used to offset the impacts of TCs. It was found that current methods of adaptation generally occur at the local level immediately prior to a TC event (preparation of property, gathering of food, setting up of community centres). This method of adaptation appears to be effective, however higher level adaptation measures (such as the development of building codes as developed in Fiji) may reduce vulnerability further. The survey responses also highlight that there is significant scope to provide education programs specifically aimed at improving the understanding of weather related aspects of TCs. Finally, we investigate the potential to merge ecological traditional knowledge with the non-traditional knowledge of empirical and climate mode based weather forecasts to improve forecasting of TCs, which would ultimately reduce vulnerability and increase adaptive capacity.

  2. The Noucaplac-1 Survey, South Fiji Basin: an International Collaboration Combining UNCLOS and Science Objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roest, W. R.; Herzer, R.; Barker, D. H.; Lafoy, Y.

    2005-12-01

    The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea allows coastal states to claim a legal continental shelf beyond the 200 nautical miles that constitutes the Exclusive Economic Zone. One of the opportunities presented by UNCLOS article 76 is to align essential - and expensive - data acquisition in poorly mapped shelf regions with scientific research interests, thus maximising data value. The Noucaplac-1 survey that took place in August 2004 in the South Fiji Basin is an example of collaboration between neighboring states aiming to address both UNCLOS article 76 requirements and scientific objectives. The Noucaplac-1 survey was designed by the French EXTRAPLAC (reasoned extension of the continental shelf) program to identify the natural prolongation of the New Caledonian territory along the Loyalty Ridge. At the same time, the environs of the potential extended continental shelf claim was identified by the New Zealand collaborators as a key region for study to improve understanding of the regional tectonic evolution and the survey scope was modified accordingly. This contribution describes the data acquired on board the French RV L'Atalante during the Noucaplac-1 cruise. In addition to the multibeam bathymetric data collected with the EM-12 multibeam echo sounder and showing basement tectonic fabric at the sea floor, high-speed seismic data are of particular interest, as they allow the interpretation of basement morphology in this area that is covered by relatively sparse sediments. Regional magnetic data provide additional evidence for distinct morphotectonic regions that may help a New Caledonian extended continental shelf claim

  3. American Dissertations on Foreign Education: A Bibliography with Abstracts. Volume XVII. Pacific: American Samoa, Fiji, Guam, Papua New Guinea, Ryukyu Islands, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Micronesia), Tubuai (French Polynesia), Western Samoa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin, Ed.; Parker, Betty June, Ed.

    The editors attempt to examine and abstract all locatable doctoral dissertations completed in the United States, Canada, and some European countries that pertain to the Pacific area. Specifically, these dissertations deal with American Samoa, Fiji, Guam, Papua New Guinea, Ryukyu Islands, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Trust Territory of the Pacific…

  4. Lack of genetic polymorphism among peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus of Fiji

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, Sandra; Palmer, A.G.; Sage, G.K.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Swem, T.; Brimm, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    We compared levels of genetic diversity and isolation among peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus from two South Pacific island complexes (Fiji and Vanuatu: F. p. nesiotes), relative to other island and mainland populations. Fragment data from 12 microsatellite loci and sequence information from the control region of the mitochondrial DNA indicated levels of genetic variation in the South Pacific populations were lower than other island and mainland populations. Indeed, diversity varied from extremely low (Vanuatu) to completely absent (Fiji). We find little support for a hypothesis that populations on Fiji or Vanuatu were colonized via Australia. The complete lack of polymorphism in peregrine falcons of Fiji is remarkable, and to our knowledge has not been observed in a natural avian population. This lack of polymorphism, and the inability to test for decrease in polymorphism using museum samples, precludes testing whether the lack of genetic diversity in the population on Fiji is due to a recent bottleneck, or sustained isolation over evolutionary time. Increased fertility in eggs of Fiji peregrines upon outbreeding with males from other areas is consistent with inbreeding depression within a population typified by heterozygote deficiency.

  5. Lack of genetic polymorphism among peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus of Fiji

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, S.L.; Palmer, A.G.; Sage, G.K.; Sonsthagen, S.A.; Swem, T.; Brimm, D.J.; White, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    We compared levels of genetic diversity and isolation among peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus from two South Pacific island complexes (Fiji and Vanuatu: F. p. nesiotes), relative to other island and mainland populations. Fragment data from 12 microsatellite loci and sequence information from the control region of the mitochondrial DNA indicated levels of genetic variation in the South Pacific populations were lower than other island and mainland populations. Indeed, diversity varied from extremely low (Vanuatu) to completely absent (Fiji). We find little support for a hypothesis that populations on Fiji or Vanuatu were colonized via Australia. The complete lack of polymorphism in peregrine falcons of Fiji is remarkable, and to our knowledge has not been observed in a natural avian population. This lack of polymorphism, and the inability to test for decrease in polymorphism using museum samples, precludes testing whether the lack of genetic diversity in the population on Fiji is due to a recent bottleneck, or sustained isolation over evolutionary time. Increased fertility in eggs of Fiji peregrines upon outbreeding with males from other areas is consistent with inbreeding depression within a population typified by heterozygote deficiency. ?? 2011 The Authors.

  6. Tropical cyclone perceptions, impacts and adaptation in the Southwest Pacific: an urban perspective from Fiji, Vanuatu and Tonga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, Andrew D.; Verdon-Kidd, Danielle C.; Kiem, Anthony S.; Royle, Stephen A.

    2016-05-01

    The destruction caused by tropical cyclone (TC) Pam in March 2015 is considered one of the worst natural disasters in the history of Vanuatu. It has highlighted the need for a better understanding of TC impacts and adaptation in the Southwest Pacific (SWP) region. Therefore, the key aims of this study are to (i) understand local perceptions of TC activity, (ii) investigate impacts of TC activity and (iii) uncover adaptation strategies used to offset the impacts of TCs. To address these aims, a survey (with 130 participants from urban areas) was conducted across three SWP small island states (SISs): Fiji, Vanuatu and Tonga (FVT). It was found that respondents generally had a high level of risk perception and awareness of TCs and the associated physical impacts, but lacked an understanding of the underlying weather conditions. Responses highlighted that current methods of adaptation generally occur at the local level, immediately prior to a TC event (preparation of property, gathering of food, finding a safe place to shelter). However higher level adaptation measures (such as the modification to building structures) may reduce vulnerability further. Finally, we discuss the potential of utilising weather-related traditional knowledge and non-traditional knowledge of empirical and climate-model-based weather forecasts to improve TC outlooks, which would ultimately reduce vulnerability and increase adaptive capacity. Importantly, lessons learned from this study may result in the modification and/or development of existing adaptation strategies.

  7. Coral oxygen isotope records of interdecadal climate variations in the South Pacific Convergence Zone region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnato, Stefan; Linsley, Braddock K.; Howe, Stephen S.; Wellington, Gerard M.; Salinger, Jim

    2005-06-01

    The South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ), a region of high rainfall, is a major feature of subtropical Southern Hemisphere climate and contributes to and interacts with circulation features across the Pacific, yet its past temporal variability and forcing remain only partially understood. Here we compare coral oxygen isotopic (δ18O) series (spanning A.D. 1997-1780 and A.D. 2001-1776) from two genera of hermatypic corals in Fiji, located within the SPCZ, to examine the fidelity of these corals in recording climate change and SPCZ interdecadal dynamics. One of these coral records is a new 225-year subannually resolved δ18O series from the massive coral Diploastreaheliopora. Diploastrea's use in climate reconstructions is still relatively new, but this coral has shown encouragingly similar interannual variability to Porites, the coral genus most commonly used in Pacific paleoclimate studies. In Fiji we observe that interdecadal δ18O variance is also similar in these two coral genera, and Diploastrea contains a larger-amplitude interdecadal signal that more closely tracks instrumental-based indices of Pacific interdecadal climate change and the SPCZ than Porites. Both coral δ18O series record greater interdecadal variability from ˜1880 to 1950, which is consistent with the observations of Folland et al. (2002), who reported higher variability in SPCZ position before 1945. These observations indicate that Diploastrea will likely provide a significant new source of long-term climate information from the SPCZ region.

  8. Between Academic Theory and Folk Wisdom: Local Discourse on Differential Educational Attainment in Fiji.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Carmen M.

    2001-01-01

    In the multiethnic South Pacific nation of Fiji--a former British colony--the impact of Western theoretical hegemony on educational discourse is evident. Results of extensive fieldwork show how themes of achievement motivation, differential valuation of education, and cultural deficit theory combine with surviving colonial discourse and…

  9. Moving Up the Ranks: Chiefly Status, Prestige, and Schooling in Colonial Fiji

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Carmen M.

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a conflict analysis of colonial schooling in Fiji, tracing how imported schooling was incorporated into indigenous structures of status differentiation. It begins with a discussion of the chieftaincy system as the socio-political institution in place in this South Pacific archipelago when European explorers and missionaries…

  10. Deep earthquakes beneath the Fiji Basin, SW Pacific: Earth's most intense deep seismicity in stagnant slabs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Okal, E.A.; Kirby, S.H.

    1998-01-01

    Previous work has suggested that many of the deep earthquakes beneath the Fiji Basin occur in slab material that has been detached and foundered to the bottom of the transition zone or has been laid down by trench migration in a similar recumbent position. Since nowhere else in the Earth do so many earthquakes occur in slabs stagnated in the transition zone, these earthquakes merit closer study. Accordingly, we have assembled from historical and modern data a comprehensive catalogue of the relocated hypocenters and focal mechanisms of well-located deep events in the geographic area between the bottoms of the main Vanuatu and Tonga Wadati-Benioff zones. Two regions of deep seismogenesis are recognized there: (i) 163 deep shocks have occurred north of 15??S in the Vityaz Group from 1949 to 1996. These seismological observations and the absence of other features characteristic of active subduction suggest that the Vityaz group represents deep failure in a detached slab that has foundered to a horizontal orientation near the bottom of the transition zone. (ii) Another group of nearly 50 'outboard' deep shocks occur between about 450 and 660 km depth, west of the complexly buckled and offset western edge of the Tonga Wadati-Benioff zone. Their geometry is in the form of two or possibly three small-circle arcs that roughly parallel the inferred motion of Tonga trench migration. Earthquakes in the southernmost of these arcs occur in a recumbent high-seismic-wavespeed slab anomaly that connects both to the main inclined Tonga anomaly to the east and a lower mantle anomaly to the west [Van der Hilst, R., 1995. Complex morphology of subducted lithosphere in the mantle beneath the Tonga trench. Nature, Vol. 374, pp. 154-157.]. Both groups show complexity in their focal mechanisms. The major question raised by these observations is the cause of this apparent temporary arrest in the descent of the Tonga slab into the lower mantle. We approach these questions by considering the

  11. SRTM Anaglyph: Fiji Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930s. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.

    This shaded relief anaglyph image was generated using preliminary topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data from the top (north) to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. The stereoscopic effect was created by first draping the shaded relief image back over the topographic data and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    This image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar

  12. Death in the South Pacific.

    PubMed

    Beaglehole, R; Prior, I A; Foulkes, M A; Eyles, E F

    1980-05-28

    The pattern of mortality and the influence of blood pressure, serum cholesterol, and body mass on mortality is examined in 1980 adults in four contrasting South Pacific populations. Three of the populations are Polynesian: Pakapuka, an isolated coral atoll, Rarotonga, a less isolated volcanic island, and the New Zealand Maoris, and they are compared with a New Zealand caucasian sample. The baseline examinations were performed in 1963-64 and the cardiovascular risk factors and associated disease were found to be more prevalent in Polynesians with increasing westernisation. The dead or alive status was ascertained in 1974 for 99 percent of the subjects. The age standardised 10-11 year death rates also increased with increasing westernisation from 11.7 percent in Pukapukan men to 26.7 percent in Maori men. The Mantel-Haenszel method of analysis of survivorship data demonstrated a significant inverse relationship between baseline serum cholesterol and mortality in the New Zealand Maoris. Cox's proportional hazards regression model was used to examine the population differences in mortality and it was found that the variables studied do not explain these differences. This study demonstrates the adverse effect of esternisation on the health of Polynesians and suggests that the relationsip between risk factors and mortality differs between populations. PMID:6931320

  13. New host and distributional records for Cryptosporidium sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) from lizards (Sauria: Gekkonidae, Scincidae) from the Cook Islands and Vanuatu, South Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Between 1991 and 1993, 295 lizards, comprising 21 species in 2 families (Gekkonidae, Scincidae) from the Cook Islands, Fiji, Palau, Takapoto, and Vanuatu in the South Pacific, were examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Only 6 lizards (2%) were found to be passing Cryptosporidium oocysts in their feces, including 2 of 30 (7%) Oceania geckos, Gehyra oceanica, from Rarotonga, Cook Islands, and 4 of 26 (15%) Pacific blue-tailed skinks, Emoia caeruleocauda, from Efate Island, Vanuatu. This represents the largest survey for Cryptosporidium in Pacific island lizards, and we document 2 new host and 2 new locality records for this parasite genus.

  14. Decadal and Lower Frequency South Pacific Climate Variability Since 1619 AD from Replicated Coral Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsley, B. K.; Wellington, G. M.; Kaplan, A.; Demenocal, P. B.

    2004-12-01

    both influenced to varying degrees by the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) one explanation for the \\delta18O trend is that the SPCZ has been intensifying over the last 200 years with increasing cloud cover and rainfall as the surface ocean warmed. On decadal-interdecadal time-scales, comparison of the Fiji and Rarotonga coral \\delta18O series to other coral \\delta18O records from New Caledonia and the Great Barrier Reef indicates that some interdecadal climate shifts apparently were related to changes in the SPCZ and others apparently were unrelated to the SPCZ. This observation suggests the possibility that decadal-interdecadal climate variability in the South Pacific has multiple sources, and may at times be related to higher latitude South Pacific processes.

  15. Recent trends in international migration and economic development in the South Pacific.

    PubMed

    Rallu, J L

    1996-06-01

    The author states that migration among Pacific Island countries was high during the late 1980s. Economic changes and restrictive migration policies led to net losses from New Zealand since 1990. Migration extended toward Australia, the US, and Samoa, and return migration occurred to some extent. Policies in Pacific Island countries favor remittances from migration. Pacific Islander migrants experience difficulties in adjusting to changes in host country labor markets and to competition with better-trained Asian migrants. It is argued that island economies must work toward improvements in education and development of the private sector rather than relying on the export of unskilled labor for securing national economic development. This article estimates the size of the largest flows of migrants in the South Pacific since 1980 (Cook Islands, Fiji, Samoa, and Tonga). The author examines the impact of changes in economic conditions and migration policies on changes in migration patterns, migrant characteristics, and population age structure. It is estimated from Pacific Rim country migration data that about 18,000 immigrants arrived from Tonga during the 1980s, an annual net loss rate of 1.9% over 10 years and 2.2% during the late 1980s. 50,000 immigrants were from Fiji, a net loss rate of 0.7% over 10 years and about 1% during the late 1980s. Samoan estimates revealed a net loss of 16,000, or 23,500 during 1986-91, which would mean underenumeration or population loss in 1991. Migration from the Cook Islands was low and included return migration of about 700 persons. Migration to New Zealand and Australia showed no declines as a whole from Polynesian countries. Changes occurred in the timing of migration due to policy changes. New Zealand-born Polynesians had lower unemployment rates than recent Polynesian migrants. Skilled Polynesians preferred migrating to the US. PMID:12347639

  16. Decadal and lower frequency changes in the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) salinity front gradient over the last 210 years and relationship to Pacific-wide climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsley, B. K.; Dassie, E. P.; Wu, H. C.; Wellington, G. M.

    2010-12-01

    Along the southeastern edge of the SPCZ near 170°W and 15°-20°S a surface ocean salinity frontal zone exists that separates fresher water under the SPCZ from significantly saltier and cooler waters to the east in the South Pacific central gyre. Instrumental sea surface salinity (SSS) data from this region indicate that temporal variability in the SSS difference between Fiji and Tonga is closely coupled to the phase of ENSO. The SSS difference increases by 1.0 to 1.5 p.s.s. during La Niña events and decreases by a comparable magnitude to no difference (0.0 p.s.s.) during El Niño events. The cause of this gradient change is directly related to the position of the salinity front. During La Niña events the salinity front shifts SE as the S. Equatorial Current (SEC) weakens and the zone of maximum rainfall in the SPCZ moves over Fiji, making Fiji fresher than Tonga. During El Niño events, the SEC advects higher salinity water from the east and the SPCZ shifts NE making the SSS difference between Fiji and Tonga close to zero. Using replicated coral δ18O and SSS records over the last 50 years, (Dassie et al., 2010, this meeting) demonstrate that Porites corals from Fiji and Tonga accurately record interannual changes in this SSS difference across the salinity front. Here we evaluate decadal-scale and lower frequency changes in the coral δ18O difference between Fiji and Tonga using replicated Porites coral δ18O records from Fiji (Savusavu Bay, n=2; Vanua Balavu (200km E. of Savusavu Bay, n=2) and Tonga (n=2). Our previous work with coral δ18O records from the region indicates that interannual and lower frequency changes in δ18O are predominantly driven by changes in SSS (Linsley et al., 2006, G^3). Earlier evidence from instrumental salinity data and coral δ18O records indicate that the SPCZ has been expanding SE since the mid 19th century. Our new coral δ18O reconstruction of the SSS gradient provides more details and indicates a reduced or non

  17. Elements of Pacific public health laws: an analysis of the public health acts of Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands, and Fiji.

    PubMed

    Howse, Genevieve

    2012-09-01

    Pacific countries are sovereign nations with distinctive histories, ethnicity, customs, primary resources, economies, and health systems. Despite these and other acknowledged differences, similarities exist in many areas such as geography, legal history, and culture. Many share the experience of colonization, with imported British laws and the subsequent experience of independence. Most Pacific countries are also developing countries. This article broadly describes approaches to legislating in public health in Papua New Guinea, Fiji, Vanuatu, and the Solomon Islands and notes common elements in their public health laws, in particular, in relation to administration, allocation of powers and responsibilities, interaction with local government, communicable disease control, and nuisance. The article concludes that many Pacific public health laws could deliver better support for current health policy, more sensitivity to the culture and customs of the region, and better management of public health risk through laws that are better suited to their Pacific environment, easier to understand, more flexible, and more relevant to current health policy. PMID:23093516

  18. 1. FORMER DENVER, SOUTH PARK AND PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE OVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. FORMER DENVER, SOUTH PARK AND PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE OVER CHALK CREEK, NEAR MT. PRINCETON HOT SPRINGS. VIEW DOWNSTREAM - Denver South Park & Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Chalk Creek, near Mount Princeton Hot Spring, Romley (historical), Chaffee County, CO

  19. 2. FORMER DENVER, SOUTH PARK AND PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE OVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. FORMER DENVER, SOUTH PARK AND PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE OVER CHALK CREEK, NEAR MT. PRINCETON HOT SPRINGS. VIEW UPSTREAM - Denver South Park & Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Chalk Creek, near Mount Princeton Hot Spring, Romley (historical), Chaffee County, CO

  20. Preserving Library Materials in the South Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivia, Ivarature

    1994-01-01

    Discusses problems of preservation and conservation of library materials in the South Pacific, including environmental factors, insect and animal pests, and mishandling. Describes the situation in national, public, and academic libraries in the region; factors in planning library buildings to promote preservation; and preservation efforts at the…

  1. Agricultural Education in the South Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, J. A.

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a paper presenting the results of a survey conducted in 1967 by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations at the request of the South Pacific Commission. The survey included existing facilities for agricultural education in the several territories…

  2. [West and South West Pacific Ocean Islands: General Information and a Bibliography of English-Language Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperry, Robert

    This collection of 10 bibliographies covers islands located in the west and southwest region of the Pacific Ocean. The islands include American Samoa, Fiji, Guam, Kiribati, the Marshall Islands, Pohnpei, Tonga, Truk, Nauru and the New Hebrides (Vanuatu). All the bibliographies focus on education, and all except two (American Samoa and Fiji)…

  3. South Pacific Decadal Variability Since the 1790s and Changes in Earth Surface Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsley, B. K.; Wu, H. C.; Dassie, E. P.; Schrag, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in oceanic heat storage may be partly responsible for the most recent stall (or hiatus) in rising Earth surface temperatures since ~2000 C.E. Instrumental data indicates that this most recent stall is coincident with a phase reversal of the North Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The main locations for this heat exchange with the atmosphere appear to be the tropical and mid-latitude regions of the surface ocean, primarily in the Pacific. We have been investigating poorly understood decadal surface ocean variability in the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) region. Despite very sparse instrumental water temperature data in the South Pacific to define the decadal changes at the sea surface and in the upper water column, the available data suggests a disproportionately large role of the Southwest Pacific in decadal-scale changes in heat sequestration. We have generated coral Sr/Ca-derived sea surface temperature (SST) time-series extending back to 1791 C.E. from Fiji, Tonga and Rarotonga (FTR) in the SPCZ region of the subtropical Southwest Pacific and show that decadal-scale SST fluctuations in this broad region are concurrent with the PDO at least since ~1930 C.E. Beginning in the mid-20th century, when more reliable instrumental temperature and ocean heat content data exist, decades of warmer South Pacific subtropical SST co-occur with elevated South Pacific upper ocean (0-700m) heat content. These decadal-scale South Pacific warming events coincide with decadal-scale stalls or plateaus in rising global temperatures. Cross wavelet coherence analysis reveals an increase in the frequency of decadal SST variability from a period near 30 years throughout the 1800s to ~20 years in the later half of the 20th century. Our results provide strong supporting evidence that decadal-scale changes in global surface temperatures are in-part, related to heat storage in the upper water column in the subtropical Pacific. Our results also suggest that decadal-scale stalls

  4. A new species of the genus Paracypria (Crustacea: Ostracoda: Cypridoidea) from the Fiji Islands.

    PubMed

    Chand, Prerna; Kamiya, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    A new marine species of the genus Paracypria (Paracypria fijiensis n. sp.) is reported from the Fiji Islands, a small island archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean. This is the first report of a Paracypria species from the Fiji Islands. Descriptions of soft parts and valves of Paracypria fijiensis n. sp. are presented herein, and morphological comparisons are made with existing Paracypria species from Australia, Japan and New Caledonia. Although eight coastal sites were sampled across the Fiji Islands, the new Paracypria species was found at only three sites. Large numbers of P. fijiensis n. sp. were recorded from intertidal flats, indicating it to be highly tolerant of the dynamic intertidal zone conditions. PMID:27615895

  5. Decadal changes in South Pacific sea surface temperatures and the relationship to the Pacific decadal oscillation and upper ocean heat content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsley, Braddock K.; Wu, Henry C.; Dassié, Emilie P.; Schrag, Daniel P.

    2015-04-01

    Decadal changes in Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and upper ocean heat content (OHC) remain poorly understood. We present an annual average composite coral Sr/Ca-derived SST time series extending back to 1791 from Fiji, Tonga, and Rarotonga (FTR) in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) sensitive region of the southwest Pacific. Decadal SST maxima between 1805 and 1830 Common Era (C.E.) indicate unexplained elevated SSTs near the end of the Little Ice Age. The mean period of decadal SST variability in this region has a period near 25 years. Decades of warmer (cooler) FTR SST co-occur with PDO negative (positive) phases since at least ~1930 C.E. and positively correlate with South Pacific OHC (0-700 m). FTR SST is also inversely correlated with decadal changes in equatorial Pacific SST as measured by coral Sr/Ca. Collectively, these results support the fluctuating trade wind-shallow meridional overturning cell mechanism for decadal modulation of Pacific SSTs and OHC.

  6. Union List of Serials in Pacific Island Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arlene G., Comp.; Yoshida, Patricia, Comp.

    This union list contains the serial holdings from Pacific Island libraries, including the University of the South Pacific Library (Fiji), the University of Guam Robert F. Kennedy Library, Guam Public Library, College of Micronesia-FSM Library, College of the Marshall Islands Library, Micronesian Seminar Library, Palau Community College Library,…

  7. Automation of the University of the South Pacific Library and the Pacific Information Centre. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer, Daniel

    The Pacific Information Center (PIC) was established in 1983 to identify, collect, and record information about materials from and relating to the South Pacific region. The project involves sharing access and information among countries in this region. PIC, which works in conjunction with the University of the South Pacific (USP) Library, receives…

  8. Community structure and diversity of scavenging amphipods from bathyal to hadal depths in three South Pacific Trenches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacey, Nichola C.; Rowden, Ashley A.; Clark, Malcolm R.; Kilgallen, Niamh M.; Linley, Thomas; Mayor, Dan J.; Jamieson, Alan J.

    2016-05-01

    There are few biological datasets that span large bathymetric ranges with sufficient resolution to identify trends across the abyssal and hadal transition zone, particularly over multiple trenches. Here, scavenging Amphipoda were collected from three trenches in the South Pacific Ocean at bathyal to hadal depths. Diversity and community structure were examined from stations within the Kermadec Trench (1490-9908 m) and New Hebrides Trench (2000-6948 m) and additional data were included from the South Fiji Basin (4000 m) and Peru-Chile Trench (4602-8074 m). The hadal community structure of the Kermadec and New Hebrides trenches were distinct from the surrounding abyssal and bathyal depths and correlated to hydrostatic pressure and POC flux. Low POC flux in the New Hebrides Trench and South Fiji Basin best explained the dissimilarity in abyssal community structure from those of the disparate Kermadec and Peru-Chile trenches. POC flux also best explained patterns in hadal community structure with the Kermadec and New Hebrides Trench communities showing greater similarity to each other than to the eutrophic Peru-Chile Trench. Hydrostatic pressure was the strongest driver of intra-trench assemblage composition in all trench environments. A unimodal pattern of species diversity, peaking between 4000 and 5000 m, was best explained by hydrostatic pressure and temperature.

  9. Tracking the extent of the South Pacific Convergence Zone since the early 1600s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsley, Braddock K.; Kaplan, Alexey; Gouriou, Yves; Salinger, Jim; Demenocal, Peter B.; Wellington, Gerard M.; Howe, Stephen S.

    2006-05-01

    The South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) is the largest and most persistent spur of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. At the southeastern edge of the SPCZ near 170°W and 15°-20°S a surface ocean salinity frontal zone exists that separates fresher Western Pacific Warm Pool water from saltier and cooler waters in the east. This salinity front is known to shift east and west with the phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation. We have generated subannually resolved and replicated coral oxygen isotopic time series from Fiji (17°S, 179°E) and Rarotonga (21.5°S, 160°W) that have recorded interannual displacements of the salinity front over the last 380 years and also indicate that at lower frequencies the decadal mean position of the salinity front, and eastern extent of the SPCZ, has shifted east-west through 10° to 20° of longitude three times during this interval. The most recent and largest shift began in the mid 1800s as the salinity front progressively moved eastward and salinity decreased at both sites. Our results suggest that sea surface salinity at these sites is now at the lowest levels recorded and is evidence for an unprecedented expansion of the SPCZ since the mid 1800s. The expansion of the SPCZ implies a gradual change in the South Pacific to more La Niña-like long-term mean conditions. This observation is consistent with the ocean thermostat mechanism for the Pacific coupled ocean-atmosphere system, whereby exogenous heating of the atmosphere would result in greater warming in the western Pacific and a greater east-west surface temperature gradient.

  10. Ambae Island, Vanuatu (South Pacific)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

    Location: 15.4 degree south latitude, 167.9 degrees east longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 36.8 by 27.8 kilometers (22.9 by 17.3 miles) Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  11. SRTM Stereo Pair: Fiji Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930s. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.

    This stereoscopic view was generated using preliminary topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data from the top (north) to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. Also, colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to pink at the highest elevations. This image contains about 1300 meters (4300 feet) of total relief. The stereoscopic effect was created by first draping the shading and colors back over the topographic data and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. The 3-D perception is achieved by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing), or by downloading and printing the

  12. Iron Fertilization in the Subantarctic South Pacific?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winckler, G.; Anderson, R. F.; Schwartz, R.; Park, J.; Pahnke, K.; Martinez-Garcia, A.; Lamy, F.; Gersonde, R.

    2014-12-01

    The scarcity of iron limits marine export production and carbon uptake in about 25% of the global ocean where the concentration of major nutrients is high, yet phytoplankton growth is low. Of these, the Southern Ocean is the region where variations in iron availability can have the largest effect on Earth's carbon cycle through its fertilizing effect on marine ecosystems, both in the modern and in the past. Recent work in the Subantarctic South Atlantic (Martínez-Garcia et al., 2009, 2014, Anderson et al., 2014) suggests that dust-driven iron fertilization lowered atmospheric CO2 from about 225 ppm to 185 ppm in the latter half of each glacial cycle of the late Pleistocene, with the increase in Subantarctic productivity consuming a greater fraction of the surface nutrients and thus driving more storage of carbon in the ocean interior. The opposite effect, reduced iron fertilization, has been hypothesized to drive the 15-20 ppm increase during Heinrich Events in the last glacial cycle (Martínez -Garcia et al, 2014). The vast majority of the information we have so far is from observations in the Subantarctic Atlantic and therefore our current estimates of the role of the Southern Ocean in lowering CO2 rely critically on the assumed extrapolation of the results from the Atlantic Sector to the entire Southern Ocean. However, the Pacific Sector of the Southern Ocean not only accounts for the largest surface area of the Subantarctic Southern Ocean, but the deep Pacific Ocean also can be inferred - based on its volume - to have stored the largest fraction of carbon that was extracted from the atmosphere and from the terrestrial biosphere during glacial periods. Here we report first results from a set of cores from the Subantarctic Pacific (PS75, Lamy et al 2014), including a high-resolution sediment core (PS75/056-1) from the flank of the East Pacific Rise that allows to resolve millennial year variability over the past glacial cycle. We test how tightly dust and

  13. Variability of South Pacific Tropical Water Subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, X.; Fine, R. A.; Qu, T.

    2014-12-01

    Collection of Argo data provides an opportunity to carefully examine South Pacific Tropical Water (SPTW) subduction rate variability. SPTW is characterized by a vertical salinity maximum exceeding 36.2 psu centered at 20°S and 120°W and lying in the upper thermocline between 24.0 and 25.0 σθ. Subduction rates for SPTW for two different periods are calculated using two methods. Monthly one degree by one degree Argo data covering the South Pacific are used to calculate subduction rates from September 2005 to August 2013, also lateral induction and vertical pumping are calculated. There are two spatial subduction maxima, and the lateral induction process dominates in both maxima. Subduction rates from Argo data vary from 15 to 26 m/yr +/- 7.5% during the 8 year period. Subduction rates are shown to be positively and highly correlated with Southern Oscillation Index. Additionally, using CFC-12 data from the 1990s World Ocean Circulation Experiment, average subduction rate is calculated to be 35 +/- 16.5 m/yr. Some of the difference between Argo and tracer rates is due to a difference in the methods, and some difference may be due to decadal variability. Thus, SPTW subduction rates are shown to vary on interannual and possible decadal time scales.

  14. Reflective Teachers and Teacher Educators in the Pacific Region: Conversations with Us Not about Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Greg; Lingam, Govinda Ishwar

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on a study of Pacific primary school teachers' and university lecturers' reflections on their involvement in the in-service Bachelor of Education degree programme offered at the regional University of the South Pacific (USP) in Fiji. Two rich sets of data have emerged from this study. Firstly, there are a number of critical…

  15. Geographic variation in the assemblages of leptocephali in the western South Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Michael J.; Aoyama, Jun; Mochioka, Noritaka; Otake, Tsuguo; Castle, Peter H. J.; Minagawa, Gen; Inagaki, Tadashi; Tsukamoto, Katsumi

    2006-05-01

    A sampling survey was carried out to study the distribution and ecology of leptocephali in several different areas of the western South Pacific between 160 and 175°E during August and September of 1995. The survey included transects of stations across the westward flowing South Equatorial Current (SEC) region to the northwest of Fiji and south to 30°S, a transect to the north of the Tasman Front, and a transect that passed through the Solomon Islands. A total of 2362 leptocephali of at least 94 species of 13 families of eels and other elopomorph fishes were collected. The most abundant leptocephali in the region were of the marine eel families Serrivomeridae, Congridae, Nemichthyidae, and Muraenidae of the order Anguilliformes. The leptocephali of shallow water eels of the Chlopsidae, Moringuidae, Muraenidae, and Ophichthidae were most abundant and present at a wide size range in the low salinity "Fresh Pool", which is also located closest to the major islands in the SEC region. Anguillid leptocephali were also most abundant in the SEC region and several species appeared to be spawning at that latitude. Cluster analysis and ordination of the catch rates of leptocephali suggested there were four regional assemblages related to the offshore spawning of mesopelagic serrivomerid eels, the presence of anguillid leptocephali in the SEC region and the relationship between the regional ocean current patterns and the geography of islands where shallow water marine eels live and probably spawn nearby. More impoverished assemblages were found in the southern regions where there are fewer islands, colder, higher salinity surface waters, and predominantly eastward flow. These findings support the hypothesis that various taxa of anguillid and marine eels use different spawning and recruitment strategies in the western South Pacific region as has been suggested by studies on leptocephali in the Northern Hemisphere.

  16. A Geochemical Transect Across the Lau and North Fiji Basins: New Evidence for the Distribution of Multiple Mantle Plume Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, A. A.; Jackson, M. G.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Arculus, R. J.; Conatser, C. S.; Konter, J. G.; Koppers, A. A. P.; Blusztajn, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Lau and North Fiji backarc basins are located in a tectonically complex region of the South Pacific, where the upper mantle may have been modified by up to five hotspots (Samoa, Rurutu, Rarotonga, Macdonald, and Louisville), each with distinct geochemical fingerprints. We present new Hf, Nd, Sr, and Pb isotopic data for basaltic samples dredged from seven areas along an east-west transect spanning the Lau and North Fiji basins to determine the possible influence and distribution of these various hotspot sources. We find that the isotope ratios of nearly all samples can be explained by mixing a depleted mantle component, which is ubiquitous in the Lau Basin, with a component similar to that found in Samoan shield (EMII) and/or rejuvenated (EMI) lavas. Lavas as far southwest as the Fiji Triple Junction (North Fiji Basin) show enriched geochemical signatures (87Sr/86Sr and 206Pb/204Pb up to 0.7037 and 18.635 respectively, and 143Nd/144Nd and 176Hf/177Hf down to 0.51285 and 0.283023, respectively) trending toward Samoa. This observation extends the range of Samoan influence into the North Fiji Basin 400 km south of its previous observed extent at South Pandora Ridge. The few samples that cannot be explained solely by incorporation of Samoan material are from the northeastern Lau Basin (Falloon et al., 2007) and host a dilute HIMU component that may relate to the incorporation of material from the Rurutu hotspot. This component is not observed further to the west in the Lau and North Fiji basins. A ubiquitous EMI signature in the region may be linked to the Rarotonga hotspot. New dredges from the northeast Lau Basin may give clearer signals that will reveal the identity of the enriched plume component.

  17. The impact of South Pacific extratropical forcing on ENSO and comparisons with the North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Ruiqiang; Li, Jianping; Tseng, Yu-heng

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies suggest that North Pacific extratropical atmospheric variability influences ENSO via the seasonal footprinting mechanism (SFM). This study confirms that quadrapole sea surface temperature (SST) variability in the extratropical South Pacific triggered by mid-latitude South Pacific atmospheric variability may also have an additional influence on ENSO. The response of the evolution of the ENSO-related zonal wind and SST anomalies in the tropics to the South Pacific extratropical forcing is consistent with the SFM hypothesis. That is, the Pacific-South American (PSA) pattern of the South Pacific extratropical sea level pressure (SLP) anomalies imparts an SST footprint (i.e., a quadrapole SST pattern) onto the ocean during austral summer. This SST footprint subsequently forces the zonal wind anomalies along the equator in the following austral winter that ultimately result in ENSO events during the following austral summer via ocean-atmosphere coupling in the tropics. The present study demonstrates that the influences of extratropical atmospheric variability in the South Pacific and North Pacific on ENSO are different and relatively independent. It is possible that they may, together or separately, influence the occurrence of ENSO events, and the importance of the South Pacific forcing in initiating ENSO events is comparable with that of the North Pacific forcing. An empirical model was established to predict the Niño3.4 index based on the combined South Pacific and North Pacific signals, and results show that it can be used to produce skillful forecasts of the Niño3.4 index with a leading time of up to 1 year.

  18. Interdecadal-decadal climate variability from multicoral oxygen isotope records in the South Pacific Convergence Zone region since 1650 A.D.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsley, Braddock K.; Zhang, Peipei; Kaplan, Alexey; Howe, Stephen S.; Wellington, Gerard M.

    2008-06-01

    In the South Pacific, interdecadal-decadal oceanic and atmospheric variability, referred to as the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO), is most pronounced in the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) salinity front region. Here we have used annual average oxygen isotope (δ18O) time series from five coral cores collected from Fiji and Tonga in this region to construct a Fiji-Tonga Interdecadal-Decadal Pacific Oscillation (F-T IDPO) index of low-frequency (>9 and <55 years) climate variability back to 1650 A.D. We first demonstrate the consistency between this F-T IDPO index and a mean sea level (MSL) pressure-based SPCZ position index (SPI) (1891-2000), thus verifying the ability of coral δ18O to record past interdecadal-decadal climatic variations in this region back to 1891. The F-T IDPO index is then shown to be synchronous with the IPO index (1856-2000), suggesting that this coral-based index effectively represents the interdecadal-decadal scale climate variance back to 1650. The regularity of the F-T IDPO index indicates that interdecadal-decadal variability in the SPCZ region has been relatively constant over the past 350 years with a mean frequency of ˜20 years (variance peaks near 11 and 35 years). There is a consistent antiphase correlation of the F-T IDPO index and the interdecadal-decadal components in equatorial Pacific coral δ18O series from Maiana and Palmyra. This observation indicates that the eastward expansion (westward contraction) of the eastern salinity front of the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) occurs simultaneously (±<1 year) with the westward (eastward) shift of the SPCZ salinity front during positive IPO (negative IPO) phases. This is the same relationship observed during the phases of the El Niño Southern Oscillation.

  19. 36. ORCHARD LINE, LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING PACIFIC FRUIT PACKING HOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. ORCHARD LINE, LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING PACIFIC FRUIT PACKING HOUSE NEAR END OF LINE - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  20. School Libraries in Fiji.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Harry

    1995-01-01

    Presents a 50-year history of school library development and national educational programs in Fiji and discusses the future of Fiji's elementary and secondary school libraries. Examines obstacles to school library development including government ignorance, lack of trained librarians, changes in school curriculum, lack of financing, and high costs…

  1. English in Fiji.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Jeff

    1989-01-01

    Traces the history of English in Fiji, especially in relation to education. The role of English in interethnic communication and as a language of wider communication with the outside world is discussed, and features of Fiji English, a local language variety, are described. (Author/CB)

  2. Seismic hazard of American Samoa and neighboring South Pacific Islands--methods, data, parameters, and results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, Mark D.; Harmsen, Stephen C.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.; Mueller, Charles S.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Luco, Nicolas; Walling, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    American Samoa and the neighboring islands of the South Pacific lie near active tectonic-plate boundaries that host many large earthquakes which can result in strong earthquake shaking and tsunamis. To mitigate earthquake risks from future ground shaking, the Federal Emergency Management Agency requested that the U.S. Geological Survey prepare seismic hazard maps that can be applied in building-design criteria. This Open-File Report describes the data, methods, and parameters used to calculate the seismic shaking hazard as well as the output hazard maps, curves, and deaggregation (disaggregation) information needed for building design. Spectral acceleration hazard for 1 Hertz having a 2-percent probability of exceedance on a firm rock site condition (Vs30=760 meters per second) is 0.12 acceleration of gravity (1 second, 1 Hertz) and 0.32 acceleration of gravity (0.2 seconds, 5 Hertz) on American Samoa, 0.72 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 2.54 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on Tonga, 0.15 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 0.55 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on Fiji, and 0.89 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 2.77 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on the Vanuatu Islands.

  3. Technical and Vocational Education and Training in Fiji--An Overview. Case Studies on Technical and Vocational Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delailomaloma, N. H.

    The Fiji economy has undergone structural transformation as the importance of agriculture, construction, social and community services, finance, and insurance declined, whereas that of hotels and catering, transportation, communication, and mining rose. Capacity utilization, including absorption of already trained and educated people into…

  4. Spin-up of South Pacific Subtropical Gyre Freshens and Cools the Upper Layer of the Eastern South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, W.; Fukasawa, M.; Garcés-Vargas, J.; Bravo, L.

    2007-05-01

    The general circulation in the South Pacific Ocean is dominated by the subtropical gyre, which manifests itself through elevated mean dynamic topography at its center. Gyre circulation consists of the westward South Equatorial Current, a narrow poleward western boundary current, the East Australian current, the eastward South Pacific Current streaming along the South Tropical Front (centered at around 40°S in the western ocean basin and at 30-35°S in the eastern basin), and the Humboldt Current System, a broad equatorward eastern boundary current, (in the literature, also referred to as the Peru/Chile Current) (Tomczak and Godfrey 1994; Levitus 1982; Reid 1986). The volume transport of upper water (700 m) between the Pacific coast of South America and the East Pacific Rise amounted to 18 Sv across 32.5°S (WOCE section P06) and 14 Sv across 17°S (WOCE section P21) (Tsimplis et al. 1998), emphasizing the importance of equatorward transport by this eastern boundary current system. This boundary current also plays a vital role in the fresh water budget by advecting fresher Subantarctic Surface Water northward thus forming Eastern South Pacific Transition Water (Emery and Meincke 1986). Here, temperature and salinity from the upper 200 m of the water column in the South Pacific Ocean were compared basin wide along 32°30'S between 2003 and 1992, based on two vertically and horizontally high resolution hydrographic repeat-sections involving 227 station pairs (WOCE, BEAGLE). Additionally, the seasonal cycles of the upper water column temperature and salinity between 90- 140°W and 30-35°S were established utilizing more than 1500 ARGO profiles from 2003 to 2006. The surface waters (0-200 m) of the eastern South Pacific Ocean, on average and seasonally adjusted, were clearly fresher in 2003 by 0.14 PSU. The seasonally adjusted, depth integrated temperature was 0.25°C colder in the same region. We further concluded a spin-up of the South Pacific subtropical gyre

  5. Trends in extreme daily rainfall and temperature in Southeast Asia and the South Pacific: 1961-1998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manton, M. J.; della-Marta, P. M.; Haylock, M. R.; Hennessy, K. J.; Nicholls, N.; Chambers, L. E.; Collins, D. A.; Daw, G.; Finet, A.; Gunawan, D.; Inape, K.; Isobe, H.; Kestin, T. S.; Lefale, P.; Leyu, C. H.; Lwin, T.; Maitrepierre, L.; Ouprasitwong, N.; Page, C. M.; Pahalad, J.; Plummer, N.; Salinger, M. J.; Suppiah, R.; Tran, V. L.; Trewin, B.; Tibig, I.; Yee, D.

    2001-03-01

    Trends in extreme daily temperature and rainfall have been analysed from 1961 to 1998 for Southeast Asia and the South Pacific. This 38-year period was chosen to optimize data availability across the region. Using high-quality data from 91 stations in 15 countries, significant increases were detected in the annual number of hot days and warm nights, with significant decreases in the annual number of cool days and cold nights. These trends in extreme temperatures showed considerable consistency across the region. Extreme rainfall trends were generally less spatially coherent than were those for extreme temperature. The number of rain days (with at least 2 mm of rain) has decreased significantly throughout Southeast Asia and the western and central South Pacific, but increased in the north of French Polynesia, in Fiji, and at some stations in Australia. The proportion of annual rainfall from extreme events has increased at a majority of stations. The frequency of extreme rainfall events has declined at most stations (but not significantly), although significant increases were detected in French Polynesia. Trends in the average intensity of the wettest rainfall events each year were generally weak and not significant.

  6. Tracking the extent of the South Pacific Convergence Zone since 1619 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsley, B. K.; Kaplan, A.; Gouriou, Y.; Salinger, J.; Demenocal, P. B.; Wellington, G. M.; Howe, S. S.

    2005-12-01

    Enhanced convection and rainfall in the oceanic sectors of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is one of the predicted outcomes of increasing greenhouse gas emissions and rising average global temperatures. However due to the current limited understanding of the past extent and variability of the convergence zones prior to ~1900, it has not been possible to determine pre-anthropogenic ``baseline'' convergence zone variability in order to test these predictions. Here we examine the past extent and variability of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ), the largest and most persistent spur of the ITCZ, using multiple cores from massive coral colonies extending back to 1619. At the southeastern edge of the SPCZ near 170°W and 15°-20°S a surface ocean salinity frontal zone exists that separates fresher Western Pacific Warm Pool water from saltier and cooler waters in the east. Previous analysis of instrumental sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface salinity (SSS), and precipitation records in the SPCZ - SSS front region beginning in 1976 indicate that the amplitudes of the interannual signals in SST and precipitation are an order of magnitude less than the amplitude of the seasonal cycle, whereas for SSS, the interannual signal of 1 to 1.5 p.s.u. is double the amplitude of the seasonal signal. This analysis confirms that in the SPCZ region, SSS is higher and SST and precipitation are lower during El Niño events. The opposite occurs during La Niña events. We have generated sub-annually resolved and replicated coral oxygen isotopic time-series from Fiji (17°S, 179°E) and Rarotonga (21.5°S, 160°W) that record this same relationship between annual SST and interannual SSS. Calibration of the trends in these oxygen isotope records against instrumental SST and coral Sr/Ca from Fiji demonstrates that at lower frequencies the decadal mean position of the salinity front, and eastern extent of the SPCZ, has shifted east-west through 10° to 20° of longitude

  7. Collaboration and Development of Radio Astronomy in Australasia and South-Pacific Region: New Zealand Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulyaev, S.; Natusch, T.

    2006-08-01

    Radio telescopes in the Asia-Pacific region form a natural network for VLBI observations, similar to the very successful networks in North America (Network Users Group) and Europe (European VLBI Network). New Zealand's VLBI facility, which we are developing since 2005, has the potential to strengthen the Asian-Pacific VLBI network and its role in astronomy, geodesy and geoscience. It will positively influence regional and international activities in geoscience and geodesy that advance New Zealand's national interests. A self-contained radio astronomy system for VLBI, including a 1.658 GHz (centre frequency), 16 MHz bandwidth RF system (feed and downconversion system locked to a Rubidium maser and GPS clock), an 8-bit sampler/digitisation system, and a disk-based recording system built around a commodity PC was developed in New Zealand Centre for Radiophysics and Space Research. This was designed as a portable system for use on various radio telescopes. A number of Trans-Tasman tests has been conducted in 2005-2006 between the CRSR system installed on a 6 metre dish located in Auckland and the Australia Telescope Compact Array in Narrabri, Australia. This work has been successful, with fringes located from the recorded data and high resolution image of the quasar PKS1921-231 obtained. Experiments were recently conducted with Japan; new tests are planned with Korea and Fiji. Plans have been made to build a new 16.5 m antenna in New Zealand's North Island and to upgrade an 11 m dish in the South Island. A possible future of New Zealand's participation in the SKA is being discussed.

  8. Shaded relief, color as height, Fiji

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930's. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations top ink at the highest elevations. This image contains about 1300 meters(4300 feet) of total relief.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to

  9. Evaluation, Sustainable Development, and the Environment in the South Pacific

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turvey, Rosario

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines the Results-Based Evaluation (RBE) framework proposed for the ex-post assessment of the National Environmental Management Strategies (NEMS) in 12 small-island developing states (SIDS) in the South Pacific. It gives an overview of the methods and basis of developing an evaluation framework in the context of SIDS in the region.…

  10. Is the South Pacific helium-3 plume dynamically active?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stommel, Henry

    1982-11-01

    It is suggested that the hydrothermal vents of the South Pacific Rise produce a beta-governed circulation at mid-depth, and that perhaps the associated plume of excess 3He (Lupton and Craig [1]) points westward because of the dynamics of this circulation rather than as a passive tracer.

  11. Australian and South Pacific External Studies Association: Odlaa's Regional Predecessor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bewley, Donald

    2008-01-01

    The Australian and South Pacific External Studies Association (ASPESA)-- the predecessor of the Open and Distance Learning Association of Australia, Inc. (ODLAA)--was founded in 1973. From the outset, ASPESA adopted a broader-than-Australia focus for open and distance learning that included New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and the member countries…

  12. Retrospective seroepidemiological study of chikungunya infection in South Asia, Southeast Asia and the Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Ngwe Tun, M M; Inoue, S; Thant, K Z; Talemaitoga, N; Aryati, A; Dimaano, E M; Matias, R R; Buerano, C C; Natividad, F F; Abeyewickreme, W; Thuy, N T T; Mai, L T Q; Hasebe, F; Hayasaka, D; Morita, K

    2016-08-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Ross River virus (RRV) of the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae are mainly transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and the symptoms they cause in patients are similar to dengue. A chikungunya (CHIK) outbreak re-emerged in several Asian countries during 2005-2006. This study aimed to clarify the prevalence of CHIKV infection in suspected dengue patients in six countries in South Asia and Southeast Asia. Seven hundred forty-eight serum samples were from dengue-suspected patients in South Asia and Southeast Asia, and 52 were from patients in Fiji. The samples were analysed by CHIKV IgM capture ELISA, CHIKV IgG indirect ELISA and focus reduction neutralization test against CHIKV or RRV. CHIK-confirmed cases in South Asia, particularly Myanmar and Sri Lanka, were 4·6%, and 6·1%, respectively; and in Southeast Asia, particularly Indonesia, the Philippines and Vietnam, were 27·4%, 26·8% and 25·0%, respectively. It suggests that CHIK was widely spread in these five countries in Asia. In Fiji, no CHIK cases were confirmed; however, RRV-confirmed cases represented 53·6% of suspected dengue cases. It suggests that RRV is being maintained or occasionally entering from neighbouring countries and should be considered when determining a causative agent for dengue-like illness in Fiji. PMID:27018566

  13. The Pacific Way: Sustainability in Higher Education in the South Pacific Island Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Peter Blaze; Koshy, Kanayathu Chacko

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to create an area profile of significant activity and possibility in higher education for sustainable development (ESD) in the island nations of the South Pacific Ocean. Design/methodology/approach: This is a descriptive research paper on philosophy, policy, and practice according to a methodology of…

  14. Use of ICT in Education in the South Pacific: Findings of the Pacific eLearning Observatory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whelan, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The Pacific eLearning Observatory at the University of the South Pacific (USP) conducted an online survey of educational technologists (n = 60) to assess levels of access to information and communication technologies (ICT) in education and identify ways of lowering the barriers to ICT in the Pacific region. Almost half of USP's 22,000 students are…

  15. A map-based South Pacific rainfall climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorrey, A.; Diamond, H.; Renwick, J.; Salinger, J.; Gergis, J.; Dalu, G.

    2008-12-01

    The lives of more than four million people that reside in the South Pacific are greatly affected by rainfall variability. This region is subjected to large rainfall anomalies on seasonal timescales due to tropical cyclone occurrences, ENSO activity, and the AAO. Regional climate anomalies are also dictated by the IPO on multi- decadal scales that alter the motions of large-scale circulation features like the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). Strong climate change impacts are anticipated for this region, so gauging the severity of rainfall variations that can occur are paramount for implementing appropriate climate change adaptation measures. Lack of historical rainfall records and documentation of other climate data hinders our current understanding of South Pacific climate variability. Climate data rescue activities are currently aimed at recovering, archiving, and digitising this information to rectify this issue. This research aims to examine the rainfall database administered by the Island Climate Update (ICU) project, which is contributed to by all Pacific Island national meteorological services (NMS), Meteo-France (New Caledonia and French Polynesia), NIWA (New Zealand), NOAA (USA), the IRI (USA), and the Bureau of Meteorology (Australia). Monthly rainfall totals for all stations in the ICU database were assessed, and allowed construction of master rainfall chronologies for all or portions of the major South Pacific Island nations. Climatic norms were then calculated over common time periods, and monthly-resolved rainfall anomaly maps for the South Pacific covering 1951-2008 were undertaken. Immediate benefits of this exercise have pointed out holes in the rainfall network that can be specifically targeted for data rescue in the near future, which can be achieved by providing financial assistance to Pacific Island NMSs. In addition, there is ample scope to extend the rainfall anomaly map time series into the early 1900s using a spatially degraded data

  16. South Asian high and Asian-Pacific-American climate teleconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peiqun; Song, Yang; Kousky, Vernon E.

    2005-11-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the Asian monsoon plays an important role in affecting the weather and climate outside of Asia. However, this active role of the monsoon has not been demonstrated as thoroughly as has the variability of the monsoon caused by various impacting factors such as sea surface temperature and land surface. This study investigates the relationship between the Asian monsoon and the climate anomalies in the Asian-Pacific-American (APA) sector. A hypothesis is tested that the variability of the upper-tropospheric South Asian high (SAH), which is closely associated with the overall heating of the large-scale Asian monsoon, is linked to changes in the subtropical western Pacific high (SWPH), the mid-Pacific trough, and the Mexican high. The changes in these circulation systems cause variability in surface temperature and precipitation in the APA region. A stronger SAH is accompanied by a stronger and more extensive SWPH. The enlargement of the SWPH weakens the mid-Pacific trough. As a result, the southern portion of the Mexican high becomes stronger. These changes are associated with changes in atmospheric teleconnections, precipitation, and surface temperature throughout the APA region. When the SAH is stronger, precipitation increases in southern Asia, decreases over the Pacific Ocean, and increases over the Central America. Precipitation also increases over Australia and central Africa and decreases in the Mediterranean region. While the signals in surface temperature are weak over the tropical land portion, they are apparent in the mid latitudes and over the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  17. SPCZ migration and ENSO events during the 20th century as revealed by climate proxies from a Fiji coral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juillet-Leclerc, A.; Thiria, S.; Naveau, P.; Delcroix, T.; Le Bec, N.; Blamart, D.; Corrège, T.

    2006-09-01

    Instrumental sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) records since 1975 have indicated that migrations of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) are strongly related to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. To reconstruct independent SSS and SST time series for the past century and document this SPCZ and ENSO relationship prior to 1975, we apply a neural network analysis to seven climate proxies derived from a coral skeleton collected in Fiji. These reconstructions suggest that five SPCZ migrations linked to ENSO occurred between 1908 and 1970 while as many migrations occurred during the last three decades, highlighting the recent enhanced frequency of ENSO occurrence.

  18. Apollo 17 command module splashdown in South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 17 command module, with astronauts Eugene A. Cernan, Ronald E. Evans and Harrison H. Schmitt aboard, nears splashdown in the South Pacific Ocean to conclude the final lunar landing mission in the Apollo program. This overhead view was taken from a recovery aircraft seconds before the spacecraft hit the water. The splashdown occurred at 304:31:59 ground elapsed time, 1:24:59 p.m. December 19, 1972 about 350 nautical miles southeast of the Samoan Islands.

  19. The glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) of five commonly consumed foods of the South Pacific.

    PubMed

    Lako, Jimaima; Sotheeswaran, Subramania; Aalbersberg, William; Sreekumar, K P

    2004-03-01

    Glycemic index (GI) has been widely used in the management of blood sugar levels among diabetes however; in the South Pacific very little information regarding the GI of local foods is made available. The objectives of this research were to determine the glycemic index and the glycemic load of 5 South Pacific foods, which have not been studied. The foods tested were plantain (Musa AAB), tannia (Xanthosoma sagittifolium), roti or chappati, homemade pancake and Lees cabin crackers. Glucose powder mixed in 200 mL of water was used as reference food. Eight apparently healthy indigenous Fijian males from the Fiji Military Forces aged 25-36 years old were recruited for this study. Participants were given a 50 g carbohydrate portion of the test foods to ingest after a 10-12 hour fast the night before the test and the standard reference food were administered to participants on different days for comparison. In the morning, capillary blood samples were drawn from the fingers at 0 min, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes postprandially and the blood glucose level was determined. The equation of Wolever using computer software was used to calculate the glycemic index and the glycemic load was calculated using the formular provided in the Harvard Health Online. The results showed that individuals respond to foods differently thus affecting the GI average values. The glycemic index has been categorized by Miller as low GI is pounds 55, moderate GI is between 56-69 and high GI is > or = 70. All the five carbohydrate foods understudy have moderate GI values ranging from 59 to 68. The Glycemic Load (GL) for cabin biscuit was the highest. PMID:18181442

  20. Verification of SPCZ and ENSO dynamics in the extended reanalysis period using the South Pacific Rainfall Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorrey, Andrew; Dalu, Giovanni; Diamond, Howard; Gaetani, Marco; Renwick, James

    2010-05-01

    Ground-based rainfall observations during the pre-satellite era in the South West Pacific were examined for an extreme La Niña event that occurred in 1955-56. The rainfall observations were derived from the South Pacific Rainfall Atlas (SPRAT), a data compilation contributed by the regional meteorological services. The influence of tropical cyclone activity on both monthly and warm season rainfall anomalies were also accounted for using the International Best Tracks Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS) tropical cyclone database. The rainfall anomalies from more than 60 southwest Pacific Island stations showed a region of enhanced rainfall in the southwest half of the south Pacific encompassing the Southern Cook Islands, Tonga, Fiji, New Caledonia, and Vanuatu. Suppressed rainfall was observed in the northeast corner of the region over the Marquesas, the Northern Cook Islands, Tokelau, and Tuvalu. This pattern is similar to what is expected for La Nina events that occurred during the classic re-analysis period (1958 onward). Elimination of anomalously high historical rainfall totals for individual islands using the IBTrACS data allowed a 'best guess' of the past SPCZ position, suggesting it was probably southwest of the its normal climatological position during the 1955-56 La Nina. A comparison of the 'best guess' SPCZ position fit derived from the rainfall anomalies to the omega velocity furnished by the NOAA-CIRES reanalysis show a remarkably similar position of the SPCZ during the 1955-56 ENSO event. Ground-based rainfall observations that support SPRAT (which extend into the early 1900s and beyond) can therefore confirm the fidelity of the NOAA-CIRES extended 20th century reanalysis and can help to reveal past ENSO and SPCZ dynamics. In addition, the high-resolution daily reanalysis data and IBTrACS information indicate a unique SPCZ control on regional tropical cyclone trajectories into the Southern Hemisphere mid-latitudes during ex-tropical transition

  1. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the WHO Western Pacific and South East Asian Regions, 2010.

    PubMed

    Lahra, Monica M

    2012-03-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (GASP) has conducted continuous surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the WHO Western Pacific Region (WPR) to optimise antibiotic treatment and control of gonococcal disease since 1992. From 2007, this has been enhanced by the inclusion of data from the WHO South East Asian Region (SEAR). Over time, there has been recruitment of additional centres in both regions. This report provides an analysis of antimicrobial resistance in N. gonorrhoeae in the WHO WPR and SEAR derived from results of the 2010 GASP surveillance. In 2010 there were 9,744 N. gonorrhoeae isolates examined for their susceptibility to one or more of the antibiotics used for the treatment of gonorrhoea, incorporating External Quality Assurance controlled methods, from reporting centres in 19 countries and/or jurisdictions. A high proportion of penicillin and quinolone resistance was again detected amongst isolates tested in the 'Asian' countries of WHO WPR and SEAR. In contrast, lower levels of penicillin and quinolone resistance were reported from the Pacific Islands of Fiji and New Caledonia. The proportion of gonococci reported as having 'decreased susceptibility' to the third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic ceftriaxone varied widely, ranging from 1.3% to 55.8%. There is a continued need for revision and clarification of some of the in vitro criteria that are currently used to categorise the clinical importance of gonococci with different ceftriaxone and oral cephalosporin MIC levels, and to relate these to treatment outcome. Azithromycin resistance was very low in most countries reporting, except in Mongolia where it was 34%. The number of instances of spectinomycin resistance remained low. A high proportion of strains tested continued to exhibit high-level plasmid mediated resistance to tetracyclines. The continuing emergence and spread of antibiotic resistant gonococci in and

  2. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the WHO Western Pacific and South East Asian Regions, 2009.

    PubMed

    2011-03-01

    Long-term surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been conducted in the World Health Organization (WHO) Western Pacific Region (WPR) to optimise antibiotic treatment of gonococcal disease since 1992. From 2007, the Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (GASP) has been enhanced by the inclusion of data from the South East Asian Region (SEAR) and recruitment of additional centres in the WPR. Approximately 8,704 isolates of N. gonorrhoeae were examined for their susceptibility to one or more antibiotics used for the treatment of gonorrhoea, incorporating External Quality Assurance controlled methods, from reporting centres in 21 countries and/or jurisdictions. A high proportion of penicillin and/or quinolone resistance was again detected amongst isolates tested in North Asia and the WHO SEAR. In contrast, from the Pacific Island states Fiji reported low penicillin and quinolone resistance, New Caledonia again reported no penicillin resistance and little quinolone resistance, Tonga reported no penicillin resistance and there was a continued absence of quinolone resistance reported in Papua New Guinea in 2009. The proportion of gonococci reported as 'decreased susceptibility' and 'resistant' to the third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic ceftriaxone varied widely but no major changes were evident in cephalosporin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) patterns in 2009. Altered cephalosporin susceptibility has been associated with treatment failures following therapy with oral third-generation cephalosporins. There is a need for revision and clarification of some of the in vitro criteria that are currently used to categorise the clinical importance of gonococci with different ceftriaxone and oral cephalosporin MIC levels. The number of instances of spectinomycin resistance remained low. A high proportion of strains tested continued to exhibit high-level plasmid mediated resistance to tetracyclines. The continuing emergence and

  3. Global GIS database; digital atlas of South Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hearn, P.P., Jr.; Hare, T.M.; Schruben, P.; Sherrill, D.; LaMar, C.; Tsushima, P.

    2001-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains a digital atlas of the countries of the South Pacific. This atlas is part of a global database compiled from USGS and other data sources at a nominal scale of 1:1 million and is intended to be used as a regional-scale reference and analytical tool by government officials, researchers, the private sector, and the general public. The atlas includes free GIS software or may be used with ESRI's ArcView software. Customized ArcView tools, specifically designed to make the atlas easier to use, are also included.

  4. Indian Languages and Identity in Fiji.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Jeff

    1992-01-01

    Describes origins of Fiji Indians and their unique language, Fiji Hindi, and discusses this language as a marker of identity in modern dialects brought to Fiji by Indian indentured laborers. The mixed dialect, Fiji Hindi, developed from these original forms of speech, is highlighted, and the role of Hindi and English in the development of Fiji…

  5. Plutonium and 137Cs in surface water of the South Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Hirose, K; Aoyama, M; Fukasawa, M; Kim, C S; Komura, K; Povinec, P P; Sanchez-Cabeza, J A

    2007-08-01

    The present plutonium and 137Cs concentrations in South Pacific Ocean surface waters were determined. The water samples were collected in the South Pacific mid-latitude region (32.5 degrees S) during the BEAGLE expedition conducted in 2003-04 by JAMSTEC. 239,240Pu concentrations in surface seawater of the South Pacific were in the range of 0.5 to 4.1 mBq m(-3), whereas 137Cs concentrations ranged from 0.07 to 1.7 Bq m(-3). The observed 239,240Pu and 137Cs concentrations in the South Pacific were almost of the same level as those in the North Pacific subtropical gyre. The surface 239,240Pu in the South Pacific subtropical gyre showed larger spatial variations than 137Cs, as it may be affected by physical and biogeochemical processes. The 239,240Pu/137Cs activity ratios, which reflect biogeochemical processes in seawater, were generally smaller than that observed in global fallout, except for the most eastern station. The 239,240Pu/137Cs ratios in the South Pacific tend to be higher than that in the North Pacific. The relationships between anthropogenic radionuclides and oceanographic parameters such as salinity and nutrients were examined. The 137Cs concentrations in the western South Pacific (the Tasman Sea) and the eastern South Pacific were negatively correlated with the phosphate concentration, whereas there is no correlation between the 137Cs and nutrients concentrations in the South Pacific subtropical gyre. The mutual relationships between anthropogenic radionuclides and oceanographic parameters are important for better understanding of transport processes of anthropogenic radionuclides and their fate in the South Pacific. PMID:17459459

  6. South Pacific hotspot swells dynamically supported by mantle flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Claudia; Yoshida, Masaki; Isse, Takehi; Suetsugu, Daisuke; Fukao, Yoshio; Barruol, Guilhem

    2010-05-01

    The dynamics of mantle plumes and the origin of their associated swells remain some of the most controversial topics in geodynamics. According to the plume theory, originally proposed by Morgan, the hotspot volcanoes are created by jets of hot material (plumes) rising from the deep mantle. With later studies, troubling inconsistencies began to emerge and other phenomena are invoked to explain intraplate volcanism, thus tending to nail the plume coffin. However, the problems encountered may simply be "the maturing of a valid theory to deal with the complexity of the real planet". This alternative is tested here by studying the dynamics of the South Pacific plumes through a new numerical model of mantle flow based on a highly-resolved seismic tomography model. We show here, for the first time, that a direct link exists between the surface observations and the mantle flow. We find indeed outstanding correlations between the observed and the modelled swells and between the modelled flow pattern and the active volcanism. This shows that at a first order, the morphology of the volcanic chains and their associated swells is controlled by the mantle flows. The excellent correlation we find between the buoyancy fluxes obtained from our numerical model and the ones deduced from the swells morphology has even broader implications. It implies indeed that we can accurately evaluate the heat transported by mantle plumes from a careful estimation of the swell morphology. We show that the heat transported by the South Pacific plumes accounts for 13% of the total plume heat flux.

  7. Regional climate model projections of the South Pacific Convergence Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. P.; Bormann, K.; Katzfey, J.; Dean, S.; Arritt, R.

    2016-08-01

    This study presents results from regional climate model (RCM) projections for the south-west Pacific Ocean. The regional models used bias corrected sea surface temperatures. Six global climate models (GCMs) were used to drive a global variable resolution model on a quasi-uniform 60 km grid. One of these simulations was used to drive three limited area regional models. Thus a four member ensemble was produced by different RCMs downscaling the same GCM (GFDL2.1), and a six member ensemble was produced by the same RCM (Conformal Cubic Atmospheric Model—CCAM) downscaling six different GCMs. Comparison of the model results with precipitation observations shows the differences to be dominated by the choice of RCM, with all the CCAM simulations performing similarly and generally having lower error than the other RCMs. However, evaluating aspects of the model representation of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) does not show CCAM to perform better in this regard. In terms of the future projections of the SPCZ for the December-January-February season, the ensemble showed no consensus change in most characteristics though a majority of the ensemble members project a decrease in the SPCZ strength. Thus, similar to GCM based studies, there is large uncertainty concerning future changes in the SPCZ and there is no evidence to suggest that future changes will be outside the natural variability. These RCM simulations do not support an increase in the frequency of zonal SPCZ events.

  8. Venereal diseases in the islands of the South Pacific.

    PubMed Central

    Willcox, R R

    1980-01-01

    The island territories of the South Pacific vary considerably in area and in size of population; Pitcairn has a population of 100 in two square miles whereas Papua New Guinea has a population of 2,990,000 in approximately 175,000 square miles. Today the whole ocean is traversed by air routes. Recently, the prevalence of gonorrhoea has decreased in the northern region but increased in the eastern and western; in all these regions the reported prevalence exceeds 200 cases per 100,00 population. In an area where yaws was once widespread, syphilis is being increasingly recognised. Although the figures for syphilis are clearly higher because of the greater use of serological screening, many of the reported cases are of early infection. Yaws has been eliminated from most of the South Pacific Islands but is still present in the western region--more than 99% of the reported cases occurring in Papua New Guinea, particularly in the offshore islands. PMID:7427693

  9. Regional climate model projections of the South Pacific Convergence Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. P.; Bormann, K.; Katzfey, J.; Dean, S.; Arritt, R.

    2015-10-01

    This study presents results from regional climate model (RCM) projections for the south-west Pacific Ocean. The regional models used bias corrected sea surface temperatures. Six global climate models (GCMs) were used to drive a global variable resolution model on a quasi-uniform 60 km grid. One of these simulations was used to drive three limited area regional models. Thus a four member ensemble was produced by different RCMs downscaling the same GCM (GFDL2.1), and a six member ensemble was produced by the same RCM (Conformal Cubic Atmospheric Model—CCAM) downscaling six different GCMs. Comparison of the model results with precipitation observations shows the differences to be dominated by the choice of RCM, with all the CCAM simulations performing similarly and generally having lower error than the other RCMs. However, evaluating aspects of the model representation of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) does not show CCAM to perform better in this regard. In terms of the future projections of the SPCZ for the December-January-February season, the ensemble showed no consensus change in most characteristics though a majority of the ensemble members project a decrease in the SPCZ strength. Thus, similar to GCM based studies, there is large uncertainty concerning future changes in the SPCZ and there is no evidence to suggest that future changes will be outside the natural variability. These RCM simulations do not support an increase in the frequency of zonal SPCZ events.

  10. The longevity of the South Pacific isotopic and thermal anomaly

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staudigel, H.; Park, K.-H.; Pringle, M.; Rubenstone, J.L.; Smith, W.H.F.; Zindler, A.

    1991-01-01

    The South Pacific is anomalous in terms of the Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope ratios of its hot spot basalts, a thermally enhanced lithosphere, and possibly a hotter mantle. We have studied the Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope characteristics of 12 Cretaceous seamounts in the Magellans, Marshall and Wake seamount groups (western Pacific Ocean) that originated in this South Pacific Isotopic and Thermal Anomaly (SOPITA). The range and values of isotope ratios of the Cretaceous seamount data are similar to those of the island chains of Samoa, Tahiti, Marquesas and Cook/Austral in the SOPITA. These define two major mantle components suggesting that isotopically extreme lavas have been produced at SOPITA for at least 120 Ma. Shallow bathymetry, and weakened lithosphere beneath some of the seamounts studied suggests that at least some of the thermal effects prevailed during the Cretaceous as well. These data, in the context of published data, suggest: 1. (1)|SOPITA is a long-lived feature, and enhanced heat transfer into the lithosphere and isotopically anomalous mantle appear to be an intrinsic characteristic of the anomaly. 2. (2)|The less pronounced depth anomaly during northwesterly plate motion suggests that some of the expressions of SOPITA may be controlled by the direction of plate motion. Motion parallel to the alignment of SOPITA hot spots focusses the heat (and chemical input into the lithosphere) on a smaller cross section than oblique motion. 3. (3)|The lithosphere in the eastern and central SOPITA appears to have lost its original depleted mantle characteristics, probably due to enhanced plume/lithosphere interaction, and it is dominated by isotopic compositions derived from plume materials. 4. (4)|We speculate (following D.L. Anderson) that the origin of the SOPITA, and possibly the DUPAL anomaly is largely due to focussed subduction through long periods of the geological history of the earth, creating a heterogeneous distribution of recycled components in the lower mantle

  11. 75 FR 43485 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; South Pacific Tuna Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... Pacific Tuna Act AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... information is required to meet U.S. obligations under the Treaty. The Treaty authorizes U.S. tuna vessels to fish within fishing zones of a large region of the Pacific Ocean. The South Pacific Tuna Act of...

  12. 78 FR 48860 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; South Pacific Tuna Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... Pacific Tuna Act AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice... under the Treaty. The Treaty authorizes U.S. tuna vessels to fish within fishing zones of a large region of the Pacific Ocean. The South Pacific Tuna Act of 1988 (16 U.S.C. 973-973r) and U.S....

  13. Cast the Net a Little Wider: Australian Aid in the South Pacific

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassity, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the development of Australia's bilateral aid program to higher education in the South Pacific, specifically at the University of the South Pacific (USP). The premise is primarily historical, focusing on the important decades of USP's expansion and Australian aid policy development in the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. This article…

  14. Low health-related quality of life in school-aged children in Tonga, a lower-middle income country in the South Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Solveig; Swinburn, Boyd; Mavoa, Helen; Fotu, Kalesita; Tupoulahi-Fusimalohi, Caroline; Faeamani, Gavin; Moodie, Marjory

    2014-01-01

    Background Ensuring a good life for all parts of the population, including children, is high on the public health agenda in most countries around the world. Information about children's perception of their health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and its socio-demographic distribution is, however, limited and almost exclusively reliant on data from Western higher income countries. Objectives To investigate HRQoL in schoolchildren in Tonga, a lower income South Pacific Island country, and to compare this to HRQoL of children in other countries, including Tongan children living in New Zealand, a high-income country in the same region. Design A cross-sectional study from Tonga addressing all secondary schoolchildren (11–18 years old) on the outer island of Vava'u and in three districts of the main island of Tongatapu (2,164 participants). A comparison group drawn from the literature comprised children in 18 higher income and one lower income country (Fiji). A specific New Zealand comparison group involved all children of Tongan descendent at six South Auckland secondary schools (830 participants). HRQoL was assessed by the self-report Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0. Results HRQoL in Tonga was overall similar in girls and boys, but somewhat lower in children below 15 years of age. The children in Tonga experienced lower HRQoL than the children in all of the 19 comparison countries, with a large difference between children in Tonga and the higher income countries (Cohen's d 1.0) and a small difference between Tonga and the lower income country Fiji (Cohen's d 0.3). The children in Tonga also experienced lower HRQoL than Tongan children living in New Zealand (Cohen's d 0.6). Conclusion The results reveal worrisome low HRQoL in children in Tonga and point towards a potential general pattern of low HRQoL in children living in lower income countries, or, alternatively, in the South Pacific Island countries. PMID:25150029

  15. The 2009 South Pacific tsunami - implications for tsunami hazard in the South Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, William; Wilson, Kate; Prasetya, Gegar; Bradley, Brendon; Wang, Xiaoming; Beavan, John; Holden, Caroline

    2010-05-01

    On 29 September 2009 a Mw8.0 earthquake at the northern end of the Tonga Trench created a tsunami with a devastating impact on the islands of Tutuila (American Samoa), Upolu (Samoa) and Niuatoputapu (Tonga). The intensity of the tsunami impact on islands close to the source was surprising for an earthquake of this magnitude, which is presumably a consequence of an unusual earthquake source. Moment tensor solutions suggest a mechanism of normal faulting in the outer-rise though this is not fully consistent with the polarity of waves observed at DART buoys within the Pacific. The written history of tsunami in the southwest Pacific is relatively short, especially for the Tonga-Kermadec-Hikurangi trench, and includes few events; consequently the question ‘How typical is this event of tsunami from this subduction zone?' is critical for understanding the tsunami hazard of the region. An important source of information on the tsunami comes from post-event surveys. Researchers from GNS Science participated in survey teams on each of the three strongly affected islands. Information collected by these surveys is very varied, and includes: estimates of physical parameters such as the distribution of run-up heights, flow depths, and inundation distances; engineering observations regarding the damage to, and relative fragility of, different types of buildings and infrastructure; observations of environmental impact and the role of the environmental factors, such as coral reefs, forests, and sand dunes, on influencing the tsunami impact; and observations of the response to the events by the local communities. This presentation will include a summary of the main findings from these surveys. The earthquake source for this event appears to have an unusual mechanism for a tsunamigenic earthquake, and to be relatively complex. Attempts to invert for the source using any one of the various collected datasets - the survey data described above, DART buoy sea level records, geodetic

  16. South Pacific hotspot swells dynamically supported by mantle flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, M.; Adam, C.; Isse, T.; Suetsugu, D.; Fukao, Y.; Barruol, G.

    2009-12-01

    The dynamics of mantle plumes and the origin of their associated swells remain some of the most controversial topics in geodynamics. According to the plume theory, originally proposed by Morgan, the hotspot volcanoes are created by jets of hot material (plumes) rising from the deep mantle. With later studies, troubling inconsistencies began to emerge and other phenomena are invoked to explain intraplate volcanism, thus tending to nail the plume coffin. However, the problems encountered may simply be “the maturing of a valid theory to deal with the complexity of the real planet”. This alternative is tested here by studying the dynamics of the South Pacific plumes through a new numerical model of mantle flow based on a highly-resolved seismic tomography model. We show here, for the first time, that a direct link exists between the surface observations and the mantle flow. We find indeed outstanding correlations between the observed and the modelled swells and between the modelled flow pattern and the active volcanism. This shows that at a first order, the morphology of the volcanic chains and their associated swells is controlled by the mantle flows. The excellent correlation we find between the buoyancy fluxes obtained from our numerical model and the ones deduced from the swells morphology has even broader implications. It implies indeed that we can accurately evaluate the heat transported by mantle plumes from a careful estimation of the swell morphology. We show that the heat transported by the South Pacific plumes accounts for 13% of the total plume heat flux.

  17. Evolution of Interannual and Decadal/Interdecadal variability of the SPCZ since the late 18th century using a network of Fiji coral δ18O time-series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dassie, E. P.; Linsley, B. K.; Correge, T.; Wu, H. C.; Lemley, G. M.; Cabioch, G.

    2012-12-01

    The South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) region is of high interest due to its impact on tropical rainfall and the export of moisture from the tropics. Documenting the amplitude and periodicity of SPCZ displacements on interannual (mainly influenced by El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)) and decadal/interdecadal (D/I) time-scales is of high importance not only for risk management but also for understanding the dynamics of the SPCZ and for improving General Circulation Model climate predictions. We have generated a unique regional coral δ18O network from the Fiji Islands, which are located just south of the main SPCZ rainfall axis. This network consists of five monthly-resolved coral δ18O time-series from different regions of Fiji. Evaluation of interseries correlation coefficients indicates that ENSO-band (2 to 9 years) and D/I-band (10 to 50 years) δ18O variability is highly reproducible. Correlation to instrumental surface salinity (SSS) data indicates that interannual coral δ18O variability in Fiji is the result of interannual changes in SSS that are coupled to ENSO. The composite reconstruction (arithmetic average of the five Fiji δ18O records), extending from 1790 to 2004 AD, was compared to known climatic indices such as the Southern Oscillation and Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation indices over the 20th century. Pearson Product-Moment correlations between the coral δ18O composite and these target indices of the Pacific basin are r= 0.71 and 0.41 for ENSO and D/I timescales respectively, with p-values better than 0.001. These high values indicate that our Fiji composite δ18O record is suitable for reconstructing past ENSO and D/I variability prior to the instrumental record. Our Fiji ENSO-band and D/I-band reconstructions from the Southwest Pacific also share important similarities with other Pacific coral δ18O records such as the δ18O record from Malo-Channel (Vanuatu). The Fiji composite δ18O reconstruction also correlates negatively with

  18. Health-Related Quality of Life Is Low in Secondary School Children in Fiji

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Solveig; Mavoa, Helen; Swinburn, Boyd; Waqa, Gade; Goundar, Ramneek; Moodie, Marjory

    2012-01-01

    The health and wellbeing of children in lower-income countries is the focus of much international effort, yet there has been very little direct measurement of this. Objective. The current objective was to study the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a general population of secondary school children in Fiji, a low middle-income country in the Pacific. Methods. Self-reported HRQoL was measured by the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 in 8947 school children (aged 12–18 years) from 18 secondary schools on Viti Levu, the main island of Fiji. HRQoL in Fiji was compared to that of school-aged children in 13 high- and upper middle-income countries. Results. The school children in Fiji had lower HRQoL than the children in the 13 comparison countries, with consistently lower physical, emotional, social, and school functioning and wellbeing. HRQoL was particularly low amongst girls and Indigenous Fijians. Conclusions. These findings raise concerns about the general functioning and wellbeing of school children in Fiji. The consistently low HRQoL across all core domains suggests pervasive underlying determinants. Investigation of the potential determinants in Fiji and validation of the current results in Fiji and other lower-income countries are important avenues for future research. PMID:23304170

  19. On the formation of the South Pacific quadrupole mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jian; Wang, Faming

    2016-08-01

    The formation process of the South Pacific (SP) quadrupole (SPQ) mode was investigated in this study based on observations and reanalysis data. The SPQ is the dominant mode of the sea surface temperature (SST)-surface wind covariability in the SP after removing the ENSO-related signals. The positive phase of the SPQ is characterized by a warm SST anomaly (SSTA) west of the South American coast, a cool SSTA in its southwest, a positive SSTA southeast of New Zealand, and a negative SSTA off the southeast coast of Australia, overlain by cyclonic wind anomalies. The anomalous cyclonic winds weaken the mean southeast trade winds in the southeast SP and the westerlies in the high latitudes of the SP, increasing the SSTAs at the two positive poles through decreased evaporation and latent heat flux (LHF) loss. The southeast wind anomalies advect dry and cold air to the negative pole in the central SP, which reduces the SSTA there by increasing the LHF loss. Off the southeast coast of Australia, the southwest wind anomalies induce equatorward Ekman currents and advect cold water. The resulting oceanic horizontal advection is the main contributor to the negative SSTAs there. In addition to the above processes, cloud cover change can enhance the initial SSTAs in the southeast SP by affecting shortwave radiation. The decay of the SPQ is mainly due to LHF changes.

  20. Traditional Coping Strategies and Disaster Response: Examples from the South Pacific Region

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Stephanie M.; Kuruppu, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    The Pacific Islands are vulnerable to climate change and increased risk of disasters not only because of their isolated and often low lying geographical setting but because of their economic status which renders them reliant on donor support. In a qualitative study exploring the adaptive capacity of Pacific Island Countries (PICs) across four countries, Cook Islands, Fiji, Samoa, and Vanuatu, it was clear that traditional coping strategies are consistently being applied as part of response to disasters and climate changes. This paper describes five common strategies employed in PICs as understood through this research: recognition of traditional methods; faith and religious beliefs; traditional governance and leadership; family and community involvement; and agriculture and food security. While this study does not trial the efficacy of these methods, it provides an indication of what methods are being used and therefore a starting point for further research into which of these traditional strategies are beneficial. These findings also provide important impetus for Pacific Island governments to recognise traditional approaches in their disaster preparedness and response processes. PMID:24454413

  1. Traditional coping strategies and disaster response: examples from the South Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Stephanie M; Thiessen, Jodi; Gero, Anna; Rumsey, Michele; Kuruppu, Natasha; Willetts, Juliet

    2013-01-01

    The Pacific Islands are vulnerable to climate change and increased risk of disasters not only because of their isolated and often low lying geographical setting but because of their economic status which renders them reliant on donor support. In a qualitative study exploring the adaptive capacity of Pacific Island Countries (PICs) across four countries, Cook Islands, Fiji, Samoa, and Vanuatu, it was clear that traditional coping strategies are consistently being applied as part of response to disasters and climate changes. This paper describes five common strategies employed in PICs as understood through this research: recognition of traditional methods; faith and religious beliefs; traditional governance and leadership; family and community involvement; and agriculture and food security. While this study does not trial the efficacy of these methods, it provides an indication of what methods are being used and therefore a starting point for further research into which of these traditional strategies are beneficial. These findings also provide important impetus for Pacific Island governments to recognise traditional approaches in their disaster preparedness and response processes. PMID:24454413

  2. Characteristics of the shark fisheries of Fiji.

    PubMed

    Glaus, Kerstin B J; Adrian-Kalchhauser, Irene; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia; White, William T; Brunnschweiler, Juerg M

    2015-01-01

    Limited information is available on artisanal and subsistence shark fisheries across the Pacific. The aim of this study was to investigate Fiji's inshore fisheries which catch sharks. In January and February 2013, 253 semi-directive interviews were conducted in 117 villages and at local harbours on Viti Levu, Vanua Levu, Taveuni, Ovalau and a number of islands of the Mamanuca and Yasawa archipelagos. Of the 253 interviewees, 81.4% reported to presently catch sharks, and 17.4% declared that they did not presently catch any sharks. Of the 206 fishers that reported to catch sharks, 18.4% targeted sharks and 81.6% caught sharks as bycatch. When targeted, primary use of sharks was for consumption or for sale. Sharks caught as bycatch were frequently released (69.6%), consumed (64.9%) or shared amongst the community (26.8%). Fishers' identification based on an identification poster and DNA barcoding revealed that at least 12 species of elasmobranchs, 11 shark and one ray species (Rhynchobatus australiae) were caught. This study, which is the first focused exploration of the shark catch in Fiji's inshore fisheries, suggests that the country's artisanal shark fisheries are small but have the potential to develop into larger and possibly more targeted fisheries. PMID:26626561

  3. Migration and remittances in the South Pacific: towards new perspectives.

    PubMed

    Connell, J; Brown, R P

    1995-06-01

    The South Pacific region is comprised of 22 states. The indigenous populations are Melanesians, Micronesians, and Polynesians. Polynesian states have largely international emigration, Melanesians have considerable internal migration, and Micronesians have both internal and international migration. This article reviews recent research on some issues relating to migration, particularly remittances. Migration includes movement away from small, remote islands, movement down mountains to coastal areas, movement to urban areas, and international migration. Migration has tended to be circular, but it is becoming more permanent. A major influence on migration is identified as changes in aspirations about a suitable standard of living. In the quest for material goods remittances play an important role. Remittances not only satisfy material need, such as debt repayment, but serve as social ties and as insurance premiums. Remittances reinforce the social hierarchy and mainly go to senior family members. In some contexts remittances have reduced the pressure on national governments to provide employment opportunities and welfare services. In the short-term, benefits go to migrant families and sending countries. Remittances are usually cash flows through the banking system, but there is considerable hand-carrying of remittances or transporting of gifts and goods, particularly due to the limited value of money in remote areas. Remittances are bi-directional. Limited evidence suggests that remittances are intended for subsistence, church donations, family occasions, and school fees. "Modern" housing and airfares for relatives are other primary uses of remittances. It is expected that remittances would decline over time. Women tend to be more frequent remitters. Remittances tend to be a high proportion of income. Studies of remittance use in the Pacific suggest diversity of use, but a primary use is for consumption needs. When there is little domestic investment from remittances

  4. Conservation and Management of the Endangered Fiji Sago Palm, Metroxylon vitiense, in Fiji

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Clare; Rounds, Isaac; Watling, Dick

    2012-05-01

    Recovery planning is a key component of many threatened species conservation initiatives and can be a powerful awareness raising tool. One of the largest impediments to conservation efforts in the Pacific region however, is the lack of ecological data and its subsequent effects on the development of feasible and useful recovery plans for threatened species. Without these plans, the understaffed, underfunded and often technically ill-equipped conservation agencies face huge difficulties in planning, prioritizing and conducting conservation activities to adequately protect biodiversity. The Fiji sago palm, Metroxylon vitiense, is an endemic endangered palm species whose survival is heavily dependent on a feasible species recovery plan. It is geographically restricted and threatened by habitat destruction and overexploitation for thatch for the tourism industry and palm heart consumption by local consumers. Despite its threatened status, M. vitiense is not currently protected by national or international legislation. Recent field surveys and extensive stakeholder consultation have resulted in the production of a species recovery plan highlighting the importance of the species and advocating sustainable harvesting rather than complete bans to promote conservation. This article summarizes the recovery plan and its current effects on the status of M. vitiense in Fiji. We also discuss the role of different stakeholders in the conservation of M. vitiense, including the absence of significant behavioral changes by the largest consumer - the tourism industry, and the importance of recovery plans for biodiversity conservation in the Pacific.

  5. Conservation and management of the endangered Fiji sago palm, Metroxylon vitiense, in Fiji.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Clare; Rounds, Isaac; Watling, Dick

    2012-05-01

    Recovery planning is a key component of many threatened species conservation initiatives and can be a powerful awareness raising tool. One of the largest impediments to conservation efforts in the Pacific region however, is the lack of ecological data and its subsequent effects on the development of feasible and useful recovery plans for threatened species. Without these plans, the understaffed, underfunded and often technically ill-equipped conservation agencies face huge difficulties in planning, prioritizing and conducting conservation activities to adequately protect biodiversity. The Fiji sago palm, Metroxylon vitiense, is an endemic endangered palm species whose survival is heavily dependent on a feasible species recovery plan. It is geographically restricted and threatened by habitat destruction and overexploitation for thatch for the tourism industry and palm heart consumption by local consumers. Despite its threatened status, M. vitiense is not currently protected by national or international legislation. Recent field surveys and extensive stakeholder consultation have resulted in the production of a species recovery plan highlighting the importance of the species and advocating sustainable harvesting rather than complete bans to promote conservation. This article summarizes the recovery plan and its current effects on the status of M. vitiense in Fiji. We also discuss the role of different stakeholders in the conservation of M. vitiense, including the absence of significant behavioral changes by the largest consumer - the tourism industry, and the importance of recovery plans for biodiversity conservation in the Pacific. PMID:22441695

  6. Plastic pollution in the South Pacific subtropical gyre.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Marcus; Maximenko, Nikolai; Thiel, Martin; Cummins, Anna; Lattin, Gwen; Wilson, Stiv; Hafner, Jan; Zellers, Ann; Rifman, Samuel

    2013-03-15

    Plastic marine pollution in the open ocean of the southern hemisphere is largely undocumented. Here, we report the result of a (4489 km) 2424 nautical mile transect through the South Pacific subtropical gyre, carried out in March-April 2011. Neuston samples were collected at 48 sites, averaging 50 nautical miles apart, using a manta trawl lined with a 333 μm mesh. The transect bisected a predicted accumulation zone associated with the convergence of surface currents, driven by local winds. The results show an increase in surface abundance of plastic pollution as we neared the center and decrease as we moved away, verifying the presence of a garbage patch. The average abundance and mass was 26,898 particles km(-2) and 70.96 g km(-2), respectively. 88.8% of the plastic pollution was found in the middle third of the samples with the highest value of 396,342 particles km(-2) occurring near the center of the predicted accumulation zone. PMID:23324543

  7. The oxygen minimum zone of the eastern South Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulloa, Osvaldo; Pantoja, Silvio

    2009-07-01

    In spite of the fact that oxygen-deficient waters with ⩽20 μM of dissolved oxygen—known as oxygen minimum zones (OMZs)—occupy only ˜1% of the volume of the global ocean, they disproportionately affect global biogeochemical cycles, particularly the nitrogen cycle. The macrobiota diversity in OMZs is low, but the fauna that do inhabit these regions present special adaptations to the low-oxygen conditions. Conversely, microbial communities in the OMZ water column and sediments are abundant and phylogenetically and metabolically very diverse, and microbial processes occurring therein (e.g., denitrification, anammox, and organic matter degradation) are important for global marine biogeochemical cycles. In this introductory article, we present the collection of papers for the special volume on the OMZ of the eastern South Pacific, one of the three main open-ocean oxygen-deficient regions of the global ocean. These papers deal with aspects of regional oceanography, inorganic and organic geochemistry, ecology, and the biochemistry of micro and macro organisms—both in the plankton and in the sediments—and past changes in the fish scales preserved in the sediments bathed by OMZ waters.

  8. Age estimation and validation for South Pacific albacore Thunnus alalunga.

    PubMed

    Farley, J H; Williams, A J; Clear, N P; Davies, C R; Nicol, S J

    2013-05-01

    Validated estimates of age are presented for albacore Thunnus alalunga, sampled from a large part of the south-western Pacific Ocean, based on counts of annual opaque growth zones from transverse sections of otoliths. Counts of daily increments were used to estimate the location of the first opaque growth zone, which was completed before the first assumed birthday. The periodicity of opaque zones was estimated by marginal increment analysis and an oxytetracycline mark-recapture experiment. Both validation methods indicated that opaque zones formed over the austral summer and were completed by autumn to winter (April to August). The direct comparison of age estimates obtained from otoliths and dorsal-fin spines of the same fish indicated bias, which was assumed to be due to poor increment clarity and resorption of early growth zones in spines, resulting in imprecise age estimates. As such, age estimates from otoliths are considered to be more accurate than those from spines for T. alalunga. This is consistent with results for a growing number of tropical and temperate tuna Thunnini species. It is recommend that validated counts of annual growth zones from sectioned otoliths is used as the preferred method for estimating age-based parameters for assessment and management advice for these important stocks. PMID:23639152

  9. Can Indian Ocean SST variability impact TC activity in the South Pacific? A Spatial Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, Andrew D.; Verdon-Kidd, Danielle C.; Kiem, Anthony S.

    2015-04-01

    Tropical Cyclones (TCs) represent a significant natural hazard to the 15 island nations and 2.7 million inhabitants of the South Pacific, accounting for 76% of reported disasters in the region since 1950. This vast area, dominated by the coupled ocean-atmosphere interactions of the South Pacific fuels the highly variable nature of TCs (both spatially and temporally), leading to difficulties in planning for and responding to these extreme events. While it is well known that the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) plays a significant role in modulating the background state on which TCs form, there are other large-scale climate drivers operating on annual timescales or longer within the South Pacific (e.g. ENSO Modoki and the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation) and outside the Pacific Basin (e.g. the Indian Ocean Dipole and the Southern Annular Mode) that may also influence TC formation. In response to this issue, the impact of these large-scale climate drivers upon the spatial characteristics of tropical cyclogenesis is assessed for the South Pacific region (5o-35oS, 145oE-130oW) over a 67-year period (1945-2011). It is shown, that in addition to the impact of 'Pacific-centric' climate drivers, eastern Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures significantly impact the spatial characteristics of tropical cyclogenesis in the South Pacific. In particular, warming (cooling) in the eastern Indian Ocean is found to result in an eastward (westward) shift in the average location of tropical cyclogenesis in the South Pacific (up to 712km between extreme phases). One mechanism that may account for this east/west modulation of TC activity in the South Pacific is the propagation of warmer water from the Timor Sea through the Coral Sea to the Pacific, resulting in a strengthening of the Pacific Warm Pool and associated meteorological characteristics connected with tropical cyclogenesis. Understanding how other large-scale climate modes interact with Indian Ocean processes is important

  10. Meteorology of the Southern Global Plume: African and South American Fires Pollute the South Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Z.; Chatfield, R. B.

    1999-01-01

    An immense global plume of CO meanders widely around the world in the Southern Hemisphere. It arises over Southern America and Africa and flows eastward. The first emissions are in tropical Brazil, and the plume circulates around the world to South America again. The plume was largely unexpected until there were aircraft studies made in NASA's Pacific Exploratory Mission - Tropics (Part A). This paper describes the meteorology of the Global Plume, as our simulation, with a synoptic model adapted to global transport, reveals it with a tracer-CO simulation. The observations and their simulation require a particular set of conditions of pollutant accumulation, cumulonimbus venting with required strengths at a narrow range of altitude. Additionally, a particular subtropical conduction region, over the Indian Ocean, Australia, and the westeRNmost South Pacific, relatively free of storms, appears to be a key part of the mechanism. These conclusions are the results of a synoptic reconstruction of the PEMT-A period, September- October, 1996.

  11. Eocene and Oligocene basins and ridges of the Coral Sea-New Caledonia region: Tectonic link between Melanesia, Fiji, and Zealandia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortimer, Nick; Gans, Phillip B.; Palin, J. Michael; Herzer, Richard H.; Pelletier, Bernard; Monzier, Michel

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents 34 geochemical analyses, 24 Ar-Ar ages, and two U-Pb ages of igneous rocks from the back-arc basins and submarine ridges in the Coral Sea-New Caledonia region. The D'Entrecasteaux Ridge is a composite structural feature. Primitive arc tholeiites of Eocene age (34-56 Ma) are present along a 200 km length of the ridge and arguably were part of the initial line of subduction inception between Fiji and the Marianas; substantial Eocene arc edifices are only evident at the eastern end where Bougainville Guyot andesite breccias are dated at 40 ± 2 Ma. The South Rennell Trough is confidently identified as a 28-29 Ma (early Oligocene) fossil spreading ridge, and hence, the flanking Santa Cruz and D'Entrecasteaux basins belong in the group of SW Pacific Eocene-Early Miocene back-arc basins that include the Solomon Sea, North Loyalty, and South Fiji basins. The rate and duration of spreading in the North Loyalty Basin is revised to 43 mm/yr between 28 and 44 Ma, longer and faster than previously recognized. The direction of its opening was to the southeast, that is, parallel to the continent-ocean boundary and perpendicular to the direction of coeval New Caledonia ophiolite emplacement. Medium- and high-K alkaline lavas of 23-25 Ma (late Oligocene) age on the northern Norfolk Ridge are an additional magmatic response to Pacific trench rollback.

  12. Infection Frequency of Hepatitis C Virus and IL28B Haplotypes in Papua New Guinea, Fiji, and Kiribati

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, G. L. Abby; Pryor, Jan; Malani, Joji; Supuri, Mathias; Masta, Andrew; Teriboriki, Burentau; Toatu, Tebuka; Penny, David; Allain, Jean-Pierre; Barnes, Eleanor; Pybus, Oliver G.; Klenerman, Paul

    2013-01-01

    It has been estimated that there are more than 60 million Hepatitis C virus (HCV) carriers in the World Health Organisation's Western Pacific region (WHO-WPR), where liver cancer is among the top three causes of cancer death. WHO and the US Centres for Disease Control and Prevention report the prevalence of HCV in the South Pacific islands (countries within the WHO-WPR) to be high (5–10% and >2% respectively). However, since HCV is not tested for in many of these countries, there is sparse data available to support this assertion. We screened ∼2000 apparently healthy individuals from Papua New Guinea, Fiji and Kiribati and found a sero-prevalence of 2.0%, 0.1% and 0%, respectively. All sero-positive samples tested negative for HCV RNA. Curious as to why all the sero-positive individuals were negative for HCV-RNA, we also screened them for the HCV protective IL28B SNP markers rs12979860 and rs8099917. All antibody-positive participants bar one had HCV protective haplotypes. Our results suggest that HCV is present in these Pacific island countries, albeit at a prevalence lower than previous estimates. As none of our participants had undergone antiviral treatment, and therefore must have cleared infection naturally, we hypothesise that genotypes 1 and/or 4 are circulating in South Pacific Island people and that these peoples are genetically predisposed to be more likely to spontaneous resolve HCV infection than to become chronic carriers. PMID:23976941

  13. The migration of doctors and nurses from South Pacific Island Nations.

    PubMed

    Brown, Richard P C; Connell, John

    2004-06-01

    Little is known of the structure of the international migration of skilled health professionals. Accelerated migration of doctors and nurses from the Pacific island states of Fiji, Samoa and Tonga to the Pacific periphery is part of the globalization of health care. The findings from a recent survey of 251 doctors and nurses from the three island countries are reported here. Key determinants of both present migration status and future migration intentions were analyzed using econometric methods. Nurses' and doctors' propensities to migrate are influenced by both income and non-income factors, including ownership of businesses and houses. Migrants also tend to have more close relatives overseas, to have trained there, and so experienced superior working conditions. Migration propensities vary between countries, and between nurses and doctors within countries. Tongan nurses have a higher propensity to migrate, mainly because of greater relative earnings differentials, but are also more likely to return home. The role of kinship ties, relative income differentials and working conditions is evident in other developing country contexts. Remittances and return migration, alongside business investment, bring some benefits to compensate for the skill drain. National development policies should focus on encouraging return migration, alongside retention and recruitment, but are unlikely to prevent out migration. PMID:15047077

  14. Paleoceanography in Pelagic Clay of the South Pacific Gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlea, A. G.; Murray, R. W.; Sauvage, J.; Spivack, A. J.; Harris, R. N.; D'Hondt, S.

    2014-12-01

    A spatially and temporally expansive record of early Cenozoic high-latitude ocean history resides in the pelagic clay of the South Pacific Gyre (SPG). At the beginning of the Cenozoic, four sites drilled during IODP Expedition 329 were located between 40-62°S, which may have been the center of an ancient polar gyre. As the Pacific Plate migrated northward, these sites were subjected to major paleoceanographic changes including the onset of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, Australian desertification, and Southern Hemisphere volcanism. The SPG sediment is homogenous brown, zeolitic, metalliferous pelagic clay. Such sediment can be challenging for paleooceanographic research due its ultrafine grain size, slow accumulation rate, post-depositional alteration, and lack of biogenic material. However, our geochemical techniques embrace the authigenic nature of SPG clay to develop a constant-Co age model and track variations in sediment origin and accumulation. By combining sedimentation patterns with backtracked site paths, we produce an unprecedented characterization of the Cenozoic paleoceanographic evolution of the SPG. We analyzed 47 major, trace, REE concentrations in 206 bulk sediment samples from 7 sites across the SPG, deposited as long ago as 100 Ma. For each sample, traditional geochemical partitioning techniques, Q-mode factor analyses, and multiple linear regressions allowed us to quantify contributions of six end-members: post-Archean average Australian shale (PAAS), Fe-Mn-oxyhydroxides, apatite, biogenic Si, and two distinct types of altered volcanic ash. Mass accumulation of the PAAS end-member increased 12-18% throughout the Cenozoic, with the most rapid increase occurring just after the mid-Miocene when Australia became more arid. The Paleogene/Neogene boundary also marks a change in sedimentation, likely caused by a change in eolian activity and/or a change in authigenic processes due to changing bottom water conditions. Contributions from one kind of

  15. Human Leptospirosis Infection in Fiji: An Eco-epidemiological Approach to Identifying Risk Factors and Environmental Drivers for Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Colleen L.; Watson, Conall H.; Lowry, John H.; David, Michael C.; Craig, Scott B.; Wynwood, Sarah J.; Kama, Mike; Nilles, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease in the Pacific Islands. In Fiji, two successive cyclones and severe flooding in 2012 resulted in outbreaks with 576 reported cases and 7% case-fatality. We conducted a cross-sectional seroprevalence study and used an eco-epidemiological approach to characterize risk factors and drivers for human leptospirosis infection in Fiji, and aimed to provide an evidence base for improving the effectiveness of public health mitigation and intervention strategies. Antibodies indicative of previous or recent infection were found in 19.4% of 2152 participants (81 communities on the 3 main islands). Questionnaires and geographic information systems data were used to assess variables related to demographics, individual behaviour, contact with animals, socioeconomics, living conditions, land use, and the natural environment. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, variables associated with the presence of Leptospira antibodies included male gender (OR 1.55), iTaukei ethnicity (OR 3.51), living in villages (OR 1.64), lack of treated water at home (OR 1.52), working outdoors (1.64), living in rural areas (OR 1.43), high poverty rate (OR 1.74), living <100m from a major river (OR 1.41), pigs in the community (OR 1.54), high cattle density in the district (OR 1.04 per head/sqkm), and high maximum rainfall in the wettest month (OR 1.003 per mm). Risk factors and drivers for human leptospirosis infection in Fiji are complex and multifactorial, with environmental factors playing crucial roles. With global climate change, severe weather events and flooding are expected to intensify in the South Pacific. Population growth could also lead to more intensive livestock farming; and urbanization in developing countries is often associated with urban and peri-urban slums where diseases of poverty proliferate. Climate change, flooding, population growth, urbanization, poverty and agricultural intensification are important drivers of zoonotic

  16. Human Leptospirosis Infection in Fiji: An Eco-epidemiological Approach to Identifying Risk Factors and Environmental Drivers for Transmission.

    PubMed

    Lau, Colleen L; Watson, Conall H; Lowry, John H; David, Michael C; Craig, Scott B; Wynwood, Sarah J; Kama, Mike; Nilles, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease in the Pacific Islands. In Fiji, two successive cyclones and severe flooding in 2012 resulted in outbreaks with 576 reported cases and 7% case-fatality. We conducted a cross-sectional seroprevalence study and used an eco-epidemiological approach to characterize risk factors and drivers for human leptospirosis infection in Fiji, and aimed to provide an evidence base for improving the effectiveness of public health mitigation and intervention strategies. Antibodies indicative of previous or recent infection were found in 19.4% of 2152 participants (81 communities on the 3 main islands). Questionnaires and geographic information systems data were used to assess variables related to demographics, individual behaviour, contact with animals, socioeconomics, living conditions, land use, and the natural environment. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, variables associated with the presence of Leptospira antibodies included male gender (OR 1.55), iTaukei ethnicity (OR 3.51), living in villages (OR 1.64), lack of treated water at home (OR 1.52), working outdoors (1.64), living in rural areas (OR 1.43), high poverty rate (OR 1.74), living <100m from a major river (OR 1.41), pigs in the community (OR 1.54), high cattle density in the district (OR 1.04 per head/sqkm), and high maximum rainfall in the wettest month (OR 1.003 per mm). Risk factors and drivers for human leptospirosis infection in Fiji are complex and multifactorial, with environmental factors playing crucial roles. With global climate change, severe weather events and flooding are expected to intensify in the South Pacific. Population growth could also lead to more intensive livestock farming; and urbanization in developing countries is often associated with urban and peri-urban slums where diseases of poverty proliferate. Climate change, flooding, population growth, urbanization, poverty and agricultural intensification are important drivers of zoonotic

  17. Calcite production by coccolithophores in the south east Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaufort, L.; Couapel, M.; Buchet, N.; Claustre, H.; Goyet, C.

    2008-08-01

    BIOSOPE cruise covered an oceanographic transect through the centre of the South Pacific Gyre (SPG) from the Marquesas archipelago to the Peru-Chile upwelling (PCU). Water samples from 6 depths in the euphotic zone were collected at 20 stations. The concentrations of suspended calcite particles, coccolithophores cells and detached coccoliths were estimated together with size and weight using an automatic polarizing microscope, a digital camera, and a collection of softwares performing morphometry and pattern recognition. Some of these softwares are new and described here for the first time. The coccolithophores standing stocks were usually low and reached maxima west of the PCU. The coccoliths of Emiliania huxleyi, Gephyrocapsa spp. and Crenalithus spp. (Order Isochrysidales) represented more than 30% of all the suspended calcite particles detected in the size range 0.1 46 μm (22% of PIC in term of calcite weight). These species grew preferentially in the Chlorophyll maximum zone. In the SPG their maximum cell concentrations were recorded between depth of 150 and 200 m, which is unusually deep for these taxa. The weight of coccoliths and coccospheres were correlated to their size. Large and heavy coccoliths and coccospheres were found in regions with relatively high fertility in the Marquises Island and in the PCU. Small and light coccoliths and coccospheres were found west of the PCU. This distribution is strongly related to ocean chemistry in particular to alkalinity and to carbonate ions concentration. The biotic (coccolithophores production) influence on calcification is mainly driven at the local scale (depth) whereas the abiotic (carbonate chemistry) plays its most important role at the regional (horizontal) level. Here 94% of the variability of coccolith and coccosphere weight can be explained by a change in 7 environmental variables.

  18. Meiofauna hotspot in the Atacama Trench, eastern South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danovaro, R.; Gambi, C.; Della Croce, N.

    2002-05-01

    Meiofaunal assemblages were investigated (in terms of abundance, biomass, individual size and community structure) at bathyal and hadal depths (from 1050 to 7800 m) in the Atacama Trench in the upwelling sector of the eastern South Pacific Ocean, in relation to the distribution and availability of potential food sources (phytopigments, biochemical compounds and bacterial biomass) in this highly productive region. Meiofaunal density and biomass in the Atacama Trench were one to two orders of magnitude higher than values reported in other "oligotrophic" hadal systems. The Atacama Trench presented very high concentrations of nutritionally rich organic matter at 7800-m depth and displayed characteristics typical of eutrophic systems. Surprisingly, despite a decrease in chlorophyll- a and organic matter concentrations of about 50% from bathyal to hadal depths, meiofaunal abundance in hadal sediments was 10-fold higher than at bathyal depths. As indicated by the higher protein to carbohydrate ratio observed in trench sediments, the extraordinarily high meiofaunal density reported in the Atacama Trench was more dependent upon organic matter quality than on its quantity. The trophic richness of the system was reflected by a shift of the size structure of the benthic organisms. In contrast with typical trends of deep-sea systems, the ratio of bacterial to meiofaunal biomass decreased with increasing depth and, in the Atacama Trench, meiofaunal biomass largely dominated total benthic biomass. Nematodes at 7800-m depth accounted for more than 80% of total density and about 50% of total meiofaunal biomass. In hadal sediments a clear meiofaunal dwarfism was observed: the individual body size of nematodes and other taxa was reduced by 30-40% compared to individuals collected at bathyal depths. The peculiarity of this trophic-rich system allows rejection of previous hypotheses, which explained deep-sea dwarfism by the extremely oligotrophic conditions typical of deep-sea regions.

  19. Heterotrophic organisms dominate nitrogen fixation in the South Pacific Gyre

    PubMed Central

    Halm, Hannah; Lam, Phyllis; Ferdelman, Timothy G; Lavik, Gaute; Dittmar, Thorsten; LaRoche, Julie; D'Hondt, Steven; Kuypers, Marcel MM

    2012-01-01

    Oceanic subtropical gyres are considered biological deserts because of the extremely low availability of nutrients and thus minimum productivities. The major source of nutrient nitrogen in these ecosystems is N2-fixation. The South Pacific Gyre (SPG) is the largest ocean gyre in the world, but measurements of N2-fixation therein, or identification of microorganisms involved, are scarce. In the 2006/2007 austral summer, we investigated nitrogen and carbon assimilation at 11 stations throughout the SPG. In the ultra-oligotrophic waters of the SPG, the chlorophyll maxima reached as deep as 200 m. Surface primary production seemed limited by nitrogen, as dissolved inorganic carbon uptake was stimulated upon additions of 15N-labeled ammonium and leucine in our incubation experiments. N2-fixation was detectable throughout the upper 200 m at most stations, with rates ranging from 0.001 to 0.19 nM N h−1. N2-fixation in the SPG may account for the production of 8–20% of global oceanic new nitrogen. Interestingly, comparable 15N2-fixation rates were measured under light and dark conditions. Meanwhile, phylogenetic analyses for the functional gene biomarker nifH and its transcripts could not detect any common photoautotrophic diazotrophs, such as, Trichodesmium, but a prevalence of γ-proteobacteria and the unicellular photoheterotrophic Group A cyanobacteria. The dominance of these likely heterotrophic diazotrophs was further verified by quantitative PCR. Hence, our combined results show that the ultra-oligotrophic SPG harbors a hitherto unknown heterotrophic diazotrophic community, clearly distinct from other oceanic gyres previously visited. PMID:22170429

  20. Radiocarbon Signature and Cycling of Dissolved Organic Carbon in the South Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druffel, E. R.; Griffin, S.

    2010-12-01

    The average radiocarbon (Delta14C) measurements of bulk dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the deep ocean range from -390 per mil in the deep Sargasso Sea to -550 per mil in the deep Northeast Pacific. The data set used to estimate this range is based on only four sites in the world ocean. We participated in the P-6 Repeat Hydrography cruise in January to February 2010 along 30-32°S in the South Pacific and collected samples from four depth profiles. High-precision Delta14C measurements of bulk DOC are ongoing using AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) techniques at the Keck Carbon Cycle AMS Laboratory. We will report completed Delta14C measurements from these South Pacific sites and compare them to those available from two other sites in the North Pacific and one in the Southern Ocean. It is anticipated that Delta14C values of deep South Pacific DOC are intermediate between those in the Southern Ocean (Delta14C = -500‰) and those in the North central Pacific (-525‰). These DOC Delta14C values will be used to assess the residence time and overall cycling of bulk DOC in deep waters of the Pacific.

  1. Digital Divide within Society: An Account of Poverty, Community and E-Governance in Fiji

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Mohammad Habibur; Naz, Rafia

    2006-01-01

    The importance and potential of information and communication technologies (ICTs) to develop economies has been demonstrated through various studies around the globe. For the Pacific, especially Fiji, where development is hampered by dispersed populations, small sizes and vast ocean distances, ICT can help overcome these restrictive circumstances,…

  2. Nitrate in the atmospheric boundary layer of the tropical South Pacific - Implications regarding sources and transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savoie, Dennis L.; Prospero, Joseph M.; Merrill, John T.; Uematsu, Mitsuo

    1989-01-01

    Weekly bulk aerosol samples collected at three sites in the tropical South Pacific from 1983 to 1987 are analyzed. The mean nitrate concentrations obtained for the sites range from 0.107 to 0.117 microg/cu m. The results suggest that the region is minimally affected by the transport of soil material and pollutants from the continents. Measurements from sites in the tropical North Pacific show mean nitrate concentrations that are about three times higher than those in the South Pacific, showing that the North Pacific is significantly impacted by the transport of material from Asia and North America. The relationships between the nitrate concentrations to other constituents at American Samoa are discussed, including nonseasalt sulfate, Pb-210, and Be-7.

  3. Horizontal and vertical deformation field in New Caledonia, South West Pacific, derived from more than 20 years of GNSS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballu, V.; Calmant, S.; Valty, P.; Gravelle, M.; Sakic, P.; Aucan, J.; Pelletier, B.

    2015-12-01

    New Caledonia is located in the South West Pacific Ocean, on the Australian Plate just before its subduction under the North Fiji Basin. Because it is on the subducting side of the plate interface, New Caledonia is considered to be stable to first order and not to undergo rapid deformation. However, moderate seismicity is recorded close to the plate interface, in the southern part of the main land and along the Loyalty ridge. In addition, the main island and Loyalty ridge are subjected to long-term vertical deformation due to the flexure of the plate entering subduction. A geodetic network was installed since the early days of GPS (~1990) and has been further developed and occasionally measured since. Due to the low number of global GNSS recording stations in the early 1990s, the positioning accuracy that can be achieved with these data is poor compared to present-day standards, and expected movements are slow (possibly less than 1 mm/yr). However, the >20 year length of the time series may allow us to determine the current deformation field in New Caledonia and Loyalty Ridge. We pay special care in using older GNSS data for characterizing ground motions, reprocessing all available data using a range of different processing strategies and products. We calculated daily positions from double-differenced ionosphere-free carrier phase data in a global network using the GAMIT software and combined and aligned the results on the ITRF2008 using the CATREF software, according to the processing strategy developed as part of the current ULR6 (www.sonel.org) reprocessing campaign for IGS. We compare the double difference results with those obtained in PPP mode using JPL GIPSY software as well as CNES GINS software and different products (MIT, JPL and GRG orbits and clocks provided in the framework of the IGS2 reprocessing campaign). We present both the results for New Caledonia and an analysis of the applicability of these different processing strategies to older GNSS

  4. Palaeotectonic implications of increased late Eocene-early Oligocene volcanism from South Pacific DSDP sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennett, J.P.; Von Der Borch, C.; Baker, P.A.; Barton, C.E.; Boersma, A.; Cauler, J.P.; Dudley, W.C., Jr.; Gardner, J.V.; Jenkins, D.G.; Lohman, W.H.; Martini, E.; Merrill, R.B.; Morin, R.; Nelson, Campbell S.; Robert, C.; Srinivasan, M.S.; Stein, R.; Takeuchi, A.; Murphy, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    Late Eocene-early Oligocene (42-35 Myr) sediments cored at two DSDP sites in the south-west Pacific contain evidence of a pronounced increase in local volcanic activity, particularly in close association with the Eocene-Oligocene boundary. This pulse of volcanism is coeval with that in New Zealand and resulted from the development of an Indo- Australian / Pacific Plate boundary through the region during the late Eocene. The late Eocene / earliest Oligocene was marked by widespread volcanism and tectonism throughout the Pacific and elsewhere, and by one of the most important episodes of Cenozoic climatic cooling. ?? 1985 Nature Publishing Group.

  5. Impacts of tropical cyclones on Fiji and Samoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuleshov, Yuriy; Prakash, Bipendra; Atalifo, Terry; Waqaicelua, Alipate; Seuseu, Sunny; Ausetalia Titimaea, Mulipola

    2013-04-01

    Weather and climate hazards have significant impacts on Pacific Island Countries. Costs of hazards such as tropical cyclones can be astronomical making enormous negative economic impacts on developing countries. We highlight examples of extreme weather events which have occurred in Fiji and Samoa in the last few decades and have caused major economic and social disruption in the countries. Destructive winds and torrential rain associated with tropical cyclones can bring the most damaging weather conditions to the region causing economic and social hardship, affecting agricultural productivity, infrastructure and economic development which can persist for many years after the initial impact. Analysing historical data, we describe the impacts of tropical cyclones Bebe and Kina on Fiji. Cyclone Bebe (October 1972) affected the whole Fiji especially the Yasawa Islands, Viti Levu and Kadavu where hurricane force winds have been recorded. Nineteen deaths were reported and damage costs caused by cyclone Bebe were estimated as exceeding F20 million (F 1972). Tropical cyclone Kina passed between Fiji's two main islands of Viti Levu and Vanua Levu, and directly over Levuka on the night of 2 January 1993 with hurricane force winds causing extensive damage. Twenty three deaths have been reported making Kina one of the deadliest hurricanes in Fiji's recent history. Severe flooding on Viti Levu, combined with high tide and heavy seas led to destruction of the Sigatoka and Ba bridges, as well as almost complete loss of crops in Sigatoka and Navua deltas. Overall, damage caused by cyclone Kina was estimated as F170 million. In Samoa, we describe devastation to the country caused by tropical cyclones Ofa (February 1990) and Val (December 1991) which were considered to be the worst cyclones to affect the Samoan islands since the 1889 Apia cyclone. In Samoa, seven people were killed due to cyclone Ofa, thousands of people were left homeless and entire villages were destroyed. Damage

  6. Connection of sea level height between Western Pacific and South Indian Ocean in recent decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DU, Y.; Wang, T.; Zhuang, W.; Wang, J.

    2014-12-01

    Based on merged altimetry data and in site observations from tide gauges, we analyzed the fast increasing trend of sea surface height (SSH) in the recent two decades in the tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean. The results of analysis indicated a dynamic connection of SSH between the tropical western Pacific and the southeastern Indian Ocean. The low-frequency variations of SSH propagate westward in the tropical Pacific, enter the Indonesian Seas through the waveguide, and influence the southeastern India Ocean with the Kelvin-Rossby wave transformation. The thermal structure of upper ocean reveals the above adjustment mainly occur in the thermocline. However, the impacts from the Pacific are limited in the southeast Indian Ocean. In the central and west of the south Indian Ocean, local wind dominates the SSH changes in the last two decades. By lead-lag statistic analyses, we identified the cause of interdecadal from the interannual SSH variations. The interannual SSH variations is dominated by ENSO, forced by the anomalous wind along the equatorial Pacific. Whereas, the interdecadal SSH variations results from the off-equatorial wind stress curl, which is closely related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. The dynamic connections between the western Pacific and the south Indian Ocean were tested in the baroclinic Rossby wave solution and the numerical experiments based on the nonlinear reduced-gravity dynamics model.

  7. Assessment of South Pacific albacore stock ( Thunnus alalunga) by improved Schaefer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chien-Hsiung; Wang, Shyh-Bin

    2006-04-01

    Based on catch and effort data of tuna longline fishery operating in the South Pacific Ocean, the South Pacific albacore stock was assessed by an improved Schaefer model. The results revealed that the intrinsic growth rate was about 1.283 74 and carrying capacities vareied in the range from 73 734 to 266 732 metric tons. The growth ability of this species is remarkable. Stock dynamics mainly depends on environmental conditions. The stock is still in good condition. However, the continuous decreasing of biomass in recent years should be noticed.

  8. Wave Upon Wave: Fiji's Experiments in Decentralizing Its Health Care System.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Jalal; Ashton, Toni; North, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    Decentralization in the health sector has been widely implemented since the 1970s as a reform mechanism with mixed results. This study describes Fiji's 2 attempts at decentralizing its health sector and examines the implications they have had for the functions of planning, financing, and delivery of health services. The first wave attempted a major restructure by devolving Fiji's health system. Political instability, along with a lack of acceptance, stalled its implementation resulting in a delegated system. While the functions of planning and financing remained centralized, the function of delivery was delegated to geographic regions. The second wave was a more focused effort that targeted the deconcentration of outpatient services in one division. This attempt also decentralized the delivery function while keeping the other 2 functions centralized. Fiji's incremental approach to decentralization could provide lessons for Asia-Pacific countries that have had failed attempts in large scale decentralization efforts. PMID:26969639

  9. South Pacific hydrologic and cyclone variability during the last 3000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toomey, Michael R.; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Tierney, Jessica E.

    2016-04-01

    Major excursions in the position of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) and/or changes in its intensity are thought to drive tropical cyclone (TC) and precipitation variability across much of the central South Pacific. A lack of conventional sites typically used for multimillennial proxy reconstructions has limited efforts to extend observational rainfall/TC data sets and our ability to fully assess the risks posed to central Pacific islands by future changes in fresh water availability or the frequency of storm landfalls. Here we use the sedimentary record of Apu Bay, offshore the island of Tahaa, French Polynesia, to explore the relationship between SPCZ position/intensity and tropical cyclone overwash, resolved at decadal time scales, since 3200 years B.P. Changes in orbital precession and Pacific sea surface temperatures best explain evidence for a coordinated pattern of rainfall variability at Tahaa and across the Pacific over the late Holocene. Our companion record of tropical cyclone activity from Tahaa suggests major storm activity was higher between 2600-1500 years B.P., when decadal scale SPCZ variability may also have been stronger. A transition to lower storm frequency and a shift or expansion of the SPCZ toward French Polynesia around 1000 years B.P. may have prompted Polynesian migration into the central Pacific.

  10. Race and Racism in the South Pacific: An Exploration of the Fourth World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Robert

    1983-01-01

    Examines attitudes toward Blacks in South Pacific countries and describes the author's own experiences with Australian Aborigines. Discusses adverse situations, low status, and racial discrimination experienced by Australian Aborigines, New Zealand Maori, and American Blacks as members of the Fourth World (minority groups living in developed…

  11. Long-term trend of Pacific South Equatorial Current bifurcation over 1950-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Fangguo; Hu, Dunxin; Wang, Qingye; Wang, Fujun

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates the long-term change of the Pacific South Equatorial Current (SEC) bifurcation latitude (SBL) over 1950-2010 with Simple Ocean Data Assimilation version 2.2.4. Results indicate that the SBL averaged within upper 200 m has migrated southward at 0.020°S yr-1, comparable in magnitude with -0.024°N yr-1 for the North Equatorial Current bifurcation latitude (NBL). The SEC transport into the Coral Sea has increased. Due to the southward SBL migration, most of the increased SEC water was transported equatorward, contributing to the Equatorial Undercurrent intensification. Experiments with a nonlinear 1.5 layer reduced gravity model indicate that the southward migration of SBL is mainly caused by positive Ekman flux divergence trend in the eastern tropical South Pacific, while that of NBL is caused by negative Ekman flux divergence trend in the western tropical North Pacific.

  12. Distance Education Regulatory Frameworks: Readiness for Openness in Southwest Pacific/South East Asia Region Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tynan, Belinda; James, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports in brief the pilot study, Distance Education Regulatory Frameworks, undertaken by the International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE) in 2010-2012 and the implications for openness for higher education in Southwest Pacific/South East Asia region nations. The project developed a methodological approach to…

  13. Challenges in Services to the South Pacific Region for International Nongovernmental Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdsworth, J. K.; Winkley, B.

    1990-01-01

    Establishing community-based rehabilitation projects for visually impaired populations in developing countries in the South Pacific presents challenges in communication, logistics, security, and other factors. Program development must consider differences in geography, population distribution, resources, cultural and religious values, and needs.…

  14. Communities Around the World. Manus Community of the South Pacific. Teacher's Resource Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    This is a resource guide for one of a series of units prepared for grade 3 on the theme Communities Around the World. Objectives of this study of a South Pacific island community are explained relating to concepts of: 1) culture, 2) social organization, 3) social processes, 4) language and communication, 5) diveristy, 6) location, 7)…

  15. Down's Syndrome in Fiji and Tonga.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, John

    1979-01-01

    The article reports results of a survey of 42 Down's syndrome individuals in Fiji and Tonga. Considered are physical characteristics including complications, chromosome analysis (in most cases), and, in Fiji only, an examination of the social consequences for the family. (Author/SBH)

  16. Population forecasts for South Pacific nations using autoregressive models, 1985-2000.

    PubMed

    Ahlburg, D A

    1987-11-01

    "This paper uses an autoregressive statistical model to forecast population for Fiji, Western Samoa, Tonga, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu and compares these forecasts with those obtained from other methods. The growth rate of population is predicted to continue to fall in Fiji and Tonga, rise a little for Western Samoa, and rise considerably in Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands. The implications of the forecasts for recent government development plans are also discussed." PMID:12314995

  17. Location of South Georgia and potential impact on early Pacific-Atlantic through flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, A.; Curtis, M.

    2013-12-01

    One of the most significant Cenozoic reconfigurations of global ocean circulation involved the initiation of Pacific to Atlantic exchange that led to the isolation of Antarctica by the Antarctica Circumpolar Current though the separation of South America and Antarctica and the opening of the Scotia Sea and Drake Passage. Whether significant Pacific to Atlantic through-flow was possible in the early Cenozoic has remained unclear because it is not certain where continental fragments such as South Georgia, a potential barrier, were located before seafloor spreading created the Scotia Sea. Establishing where South Georgia was located is also critical to reconstructing the Scotia arc and understanding its evolution. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology and apatite thermochronometry are used to constrain the pre-drift location of South Georgia. Data from Cretaceous turbidites exposed on South Georgia are consistent with a former connection to the Rocas Verdes back-arc basin giving support to models that have argued for a pre- tectonic translation location southeast of Tierra del Fuego. Following an early phase of rock uplift, thermal history models of the apatite chronometry data indicate that the South Georgia continental fragment underwent burial related heating and was therefore not a significant topographic feature until it emerged c. 10-7 Ma coeval with the cessation of spreading at the West Scotia Ridge and collision between the South Georgia continental block and the Northeast Georgia Rise.

  18. Are South Texas Streamflow Variations Influenced by Sea Surface Temperature Changes in Pacific and Atlantic Oceans?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murgulet, V.; Hay, R.; Ard, R.

    2013-12-01

    The impact of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans on several major river basins in the continental U. S. has recently become well documented. Clear relationships have been identified between El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and continental U. S. streamflow. Because these relationships can be potentially used to predict streamflow variability, it would also be of great importance to evaluate whether these climate phenomena affect river basins at the sub-regional and/or local scale, objectives that are not usually addressed in previous studies. Therefore, this study is focused on the basin river system of South Texas, an area that encompasses approximately 30,000 km2 and is climatologically defined as subtropical subhumid. Streamflow data (1940-2011) from sixteen unimpaired U.S. Geological Survey gage stations were normalized into a South Texas streamflow data set and evaluated with respect to ENSO, PDO and AMO index time series. The comparison of South Texas annual streamflow with Pacific Decadal Oscillation and El Niño Southern Oscillation Indices shows that the warm phases of ENSO and PDO are generally associated with increased streamflow, whereas cold phases of ENSO and PDO result in lower streamflow volumes. In addition, cross-correlation analyses show a 7-8 month delayed streamflow response to sea surface temperature signals. Furthermore, annual streamflow variability in the South Texas river basins can be also due to sea surface temperature anomalies in the Atlantic Ocean. Higher streamflow values are shown during the cold phase of AMO, while relatively low streamflow values are illustrated during the warm phase of AMO. Thus, preliminary results show that SST anomalies in both Pacific and Atlantic Oceans influence the streamflow variability in the South Texas area. Current research is also focused on evaluating if these climate phenomena

  19. Petroleum geology of Pacific margin of Central America and northern South America, from Guatemala to Ecuador

    SciTech Connect

    Scrutton, M.E.; Escalante, G.F.

    1986-07-01

    Exploration for hydrocarbons along the Pacific margin of Central America and northern South America has been limited and spasmodic. Less than 100 exploration wells have been drilled, with nearly 50 of these being in the Santa Elena, Progreso, and Guayas basins in Ecuador. Shows have been reported in some wells, and a few oil seeps are known. The only commercial production established to date has been from the Santa Elena Peninsula in Ecuador in the extreme south of the study area. Understanding of the geology in this part of the continental margin is incomplete at best. This paper reviews present-day knowledge in an attempt to define the sedimentary basins better, to characterize their structure and stratigraphy, and to assess their petroleum prospects. The area of continental margin reviewed is to the north, located northwest of the trench system where oceanic crust of the Cocos plate subducts under the Caribbean plate, and to the south, where the northern part of the Nazca plate collides with the South American plate. This plate tectonic setting forms the framework on which local structural and sedimentary events have created a series of relatively small trench-slope and forearc basins in what is now the coastal plain and adjacent offshore area of Central and South America, south or west of a line of mountain ranges with active volcanism. Sedimentary fill is generally of Tertiary age. The basins and subbasins recognized and described include: in Ecuador - Guayas, Santa Elena, Progreso, Valdivia, Bajo Grande, Manta, Muisne-Esmeraldas, and Borbon; in Colombia - Choco-Pacific; in Panama - Gulf of Panama basin complex (Santiago, Tonosi, Sambu), and Burica-Chiriqui; in Costa Rica - Terraba and Coronado/Tempisque; in Nicaragua - San Juan del Sur; and in the Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala - the Pacific coastal basin.

  20. Hazardous Metal Pollution in the Republic of Fiji and the Need to Elicit Human Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun-Kee; Choi, Hyun-Ju; Wilson, Colleen Turaga; Ueno, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    The fact that hazardous metals do not bio-degrade or bio-deteriorate translates to long-lasting environmental effects. In the context of evidently rapid global industrialization, this ought to warrant serious caution, particularly in developing countries. In the Republic of Fiji, a developing country in the South Pacific, several different environmental studies over the past 20 years have shown levels of lead, copper, zinc and iron in sediments of the Suva Harbor to be 6.2, 3.9, 3.3 and 2.1 times more than the accepted background reference levels, respectively. High levels of mercury have also been reported in lagoon shellfish. These data inevitably warrant thorough assessment of the waste practices of industries located upstream from the estuaries, but in addition, an exposure and health impact assessment has never been conducted. Relevant government departments are duty-bound, at least to the general public that reside in and consume seafood from the vicinities of the Suva Harbor, to investigate possible human effects of the elevated hazardous metal concentrations found consistently in 20 years of surface sediment analysis. Furthermore, pollution of the intermediate food web with hazardous metals should be investigated, regardless of whether human effects are eventually confirmed present or not. PMID:24498594

  1. Hazardous metal pollution in the republic of fiji and the need to elicit human exposure.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Kee; Wilson, Donald; Choi, Hyun-Ju; Wilson, Colleen Turaga; Ueno, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    The fact that hazardous metals do not bio-degrade or bio-deteriorate translates to long-lasting environmental effects. In the context of evidently rapid global industrialization, this ought to warrant serious caution, particularly in developing countries. In the Republic of Fiji, a developing country in the South Pacific, several different environmental studies over the past 20 years have shown levels of lead, copper, zinc and iron in sediments of the Suva Harbor to be 6.2, 3.9, 3.3 and 2.1 times more than the accepted background reference levels, respectively. High levels of mercury have also been reported in lagoon shellfish. These data inevitably warrant thorough assessment of the waste practices of industries located upstream from the estuaries, but in addition, an exposure and health impact assessment has never been conducted. Relevant government departments are duty-bound, at least to the general public that reside in and consume seafood from the vicinities of the Suva Harbor, to investigate possible human effects of the elevated hazardous metal concentrations found consistently in 20 years of surface sediment analysis. Furthermore, pollution of the intermediate food web with hazardous metals should be investigated, regardless of whether human effects are eventually confirmed present or not. PMID:24498594

  2. Temporal Variability of Tropical Cyclogenesis: A Climatology of the South Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, Andrew D.; Verdon-Kidd, Danielle C.; Kiem, Anthony S.

    2015-04-01

    The total number of tropical cyclones (TCs) occurring across the South Pacific each year traditionally exhibits significant temporal variability. For example, in 1998, 24 TCs were recorded, whilst in 1988, only eight TCs were recorded. Socially, this temporal variability results in increased vulnerability for the 15 island nations of the South Pacific. Therefore understanding what causes this year to year variability is particularly important in combatting this issue. In this study, the South Pacific Basin is analysed in its entirety and across a series of zones over a 67-year period (1945-2011) using the Joint Typhoon Warning Centre (JTWC) Best-Track Dataset. Based on the Overall Mean Centre of Cyclogenesis (OMCC) (15oS, 167.5oE), the Basin was zoned by drawing axis based on the four cardinal directions from the OMCC, creating four quadrants; north-east, south-east, south-west and north-west. Trend analysis was then completed to establish if the number of TCs have changed over time over the entire Basin and within these quadrants. It is shown that, Basin-wide, the number of TCs has decreased over time, a result consistent with many studies. However, when the same analysis was completed for each of the four quadrants, two were actually shown to have increasing TC activity over the same time period, (the north-east and south-east quadrants). Interannual variability was also particularly evident across all four quadrants. The attribution of climate driver induced variability on the frequency of TCs is also explored. The various phases of Pacific and Indian Ocean climate drivers (positive, negative, neutral) are used in this study, including; El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), ENSO Modoki (EMI), Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO), Southern Annular Mode (SAM), Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and Indonesian SST variability (II). In comparison with the overall mean of 11.2 TCs per year, TCs that occurred during a positive IOD and negative IPO saw the two most

  3. Diglossia and Its Practice in Multilingual Fiji.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Margaret Kamla

    2001-01-01

    Explores the notion of diglossia in the three main languages of Fiji--Bauab Fijian, Shudh Hindi, and English. Discussion focuses on situating the languages both historically and socially in a multilingual context. (Author/VWL)

  4. Historic accounts of Mansonella parasitaemias in the South Pacific and their relevance to lymphatic filariasis elimination efforts today.

    PubMed

    Crainey, J Lee; Ribeiro da Silva, Túllio Romão; Luz, Sérgio Luiz Bessa

    2016-03-01

    There are two species of filarial parasites with sheathless microfilariae known to commonly cause parasitaemias in humans: Mansonella perstans and Mansonella ozzardi. In most contemporary accounts of the distribution of these parasites, neither is usually considered to occur anywhere in the Eastern Hemisphere. However, Sir Patrick Manson, who first described both parasite species, recorded the existence of sheathless sharp-tailed Mansonella ozzardi-like parasites occurring in the blood of natives from New Guinea in each and every version of his manual for tropical disease that he wrote before his death in 1922. Manson's reports were based on his own identifications and were made from at least two independent blood sample collections that were taken from the island. Pacific region Mansonella perstans parasitaemias were also later (in 1923) reported to occur in New Guinea and once before this (in 1905) in Fiji. Although Mansonella-parasitaemias are generally regarded as benign, they are thought to be of public health importance because they can affect the epidemiological monitoring of other filarial diseases. In this article, we reviewed the historic literature concerning Pacific-origin Mansonella-parasitaemias in an attempt to explain how, despite repeated reports of Pacific-region Mansonella-parasitaemias, by as early as the 1970s, the WHO had arrived at the present-day view that Wuchereria bancrofti is the only cause of filarial parasitaemias in Papua New Guinea. We have also evaluated the evidence supporting the contemporary existence of Pacific-area parasitaemia-causing Mansonella parasites and assessed the relevance such parasites could have for present-day lymphatic filariasis elimination efforts in the region. PMID:26972389

  5. Relationship Between Intraseasonal Oscillation and Subtropical Wind Maxima Over the South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, Dayton G.; Hurrell, James W.; Speth, P.; Sperling, T.; Funk, A.; Zube, S.

    1991-01-01

    The significance of tropical heat sources on higher latitude jet streams has been examined by numerous investigators. Hurrell and Vincent (1990) provide a summary of many of these investigations in their observational case study of the relationship between tropical heating and subtropical wind maxima in the Southern Hemisphere during SOP-1, FGGE. They showed that the divergent outflow from tropical heating associated with the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ), acted on by the coriolis force, was an important factor in maintaining the subtropical jet on the poleward side of the SPCZ during the period, 6-20 January 1979. They found a similar, but weaker relationship, over the southern Indian Ocean from 3-17 February 1979, a period when the SPCZ heating was greatly reduced and the jet was essentially non-existent. Since their findings were based on a case study and involved the use of the highly-specialized FGGE data set, the natural questions which arose were: (1) Is this relationship a regular feature of the circulation over the South Pacific? and, (2) If so, can it be detected with a routine data set? Another question posed by Hurrell and Vincent in their papers was:(3) How important was the intraseasonal oscillation in causing the enhanced heating and divergent outflow in the Pacific Ocean in January and southern Indian Ocean in February? The purpose of the present paper is to address the answer to these three questions. To accomplish this, some circulation features for an entire warm season in the Southern Hemisphere were examined. The year selected was 1984-85, and the warm season consisted of the 6-month period, 1 November 1984 - 30 April 1985. This period was chosen because there were numerous cases of the westerly wind maxima over the South Pacific and the intraseasonal oscillation was well documented.

  6. Fiji

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed ... June 12, 2001 - The green archipelago with many plant species. project:  MISR category:  ...

  7. Dynamics and mechanisms of decadal variability of the Pacific-South America mode over the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Ma, Hao; Wu, Lixin

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, decadal variability of the Pacific-South America (PSA) mode is examined from year 1871 to 2008 based on the newly developed ocean and atmosphere reanalysis products. The PSA mode, mirroring the Pacific-North America mode in the Northern Hemisphere, emerges as the second EOF mode of 500 mb geopotential height anomalies. The mode displays substantial interannual-decadal variability with distinct timescales between 3-8 and 10-18 years, respectively. The decadal variability of the PSA mode is found to be associated with the coupled ocean-atmosphere interaction over the subtropical South and tropical Pacific. The subduction of the subtropical temperature anomalies in the South Pacific in conjunction with the tropical-subtropical atmospheric teleconnection plays important role in the decadal variability of the PSA mode.

  8. Dynamics and mechanisms of decadal variability of the Pacific-South America mode over the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Ma, Hao; Wu, Lixin

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, decadal variability of the Pacific-South America (PSA) mode is examined from year 1871 to 2008 based on the newly developed ocean and atmosphere reanalysis products. The PSA mode, mirroring the Pacific-North America mode in the Northern Hemisphere, emerges as the second EOF mode of 500 mb geopotential height anomalies. The mode displays substantial interannual-decadal variability with distinct timescales between 3-8 and 10-18 years, respectively. The decadal variability of the PSA mode is found to be associated with the coupled ocean-atmosphere interaction over the subtropical South and tropical Pacific. The subduction of the subtropical temperature anomalies in the South Pacific in conjunction with the tropical-subtropical atmospheric teleconnection plays important role in the decadal variability of the PSA mode.

  9. Secondary Hotspots in the South Pacific as a Result of Mantle Plumelets and Lithospheric Extension?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppers, A.; Staudigel, H.; Wijbrans, J.; Pringle, M.

    2003-12-01

    By far the largest number of secondary hotspots (cf. Courtillet et al., 2003) can be found in the "South Pacific Thermal and Isotopic Anomaly" (SOPITA) or "Superswell" region. Its Cretaceous counterpart is preserved in a large range of seamounts and guyots found in the "West Pacific Seamount Province" (WPSP). The seamounts in these regions display very distinct and long-lived isotopic signatures (Staudigel et al., 1991; Koppers et al., 2003) that can be used to combine source region chemistry and seamount geochronology to map out mantle melting anomalies over geological time. These mappings may resolve many important questions regarding the stationary character, continuity and longevity of the melting anomalies in the South Pacific mantle - and its secondary hotspots. Of all secondary hotspots that are currently active in the SOPITA we could identify only two hotspots that appear to be long-lived and that have Cretaceous counterparts in the WPSP. Plate reconstructions show that the "HIMU-type" Southern Wake seamounts may have originated from the Mangaia-Rurutu "hotline" in the Cook-Austral Islands, whereas the "EMI-type" Magellan seamounts may have originated from the Rarotonga hotspot. All other hotspots in the SOPITA and WPSP are short-lived (or intermittently active) as evidenced by the presence of numerous seamount trail "segments" representing no more than 10-40 Myr of volcanism. Our observations violate one or more assumptions of the classical Wilson-Morgan hotspot hypothesis: (1) none of the South Pacific hotspots are continuously active, (2) most are short-lived, (3) some show evidence of hotspot motion, and (4) most of them have poor linear age progressions, if any at all. On top of this we have evidence for volcanism along "hotlines" and the "superposition" of hotspots. The simple and elegant "hotspot" model, therefore, seems insufficient to explain the age distribution and source region characteristics of intra-plate volcanoes in the South Pacific. This

  10. Radiocarbon constraints on the extent and evolution of the South Pacific glacial carbon pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronge, T. A.; Tiedemann, R.; Lamy, F.; Köhler, P.; Alloway, B. V.; de Pol-Holz, R.; Pahnke, K.; Southon, J.; Wacker, L.

    2016-05-01

    During the last deglaciation, the opposing patterns of atmospheric CO2 and radiocarbon activities (Δ14C) suggest the release of 14C-depleted CO2 from old carbon reservoirs. Although evidences point to the deep Pacific as a major reservoir of this 14C-depleted carbon, its extent and evolution still need to be constrained. Here we use sediment cores retrieved along a South Pacific transect to reconstruct the spatio-temporal evolution of Δ14C over the last 30,000 years. In ~2,500-3,600 m water depth, we find 14C-depleted deep waters with a maximum glacial offset to atmospheric 14C (ΔΔ14C=-1,000‰). Using a box model, we test the hypothesis that these low values might have been caused by an interaction of aging and hydrothermal CO2 influx. We observe a rejuvenation of circumpolar deep waters synchronous and potentially contributing to the initial deglacial rise in atmospheric CO2. These findings constrain parts of the glacial carbon pool to the deep South Pacific.

  11. Radiocarbon constraints on the extent and evolution of the South Pacific glacial carbon pool.

    PubMed

    Ronge, T A; Tiedemann, R; Lamy, F; Köhler, P; Alloway, B V; De Pol-Holz, R; Pahnke, K; Southon, J; Wacker, L

    2016-01-01

    During the last deglaciation, the opposing patterns of atmospheric CO2 and radiocarbon activities (Δ(14)C) suggest the release of (14)C-depleted CO2 from old carbon reservoirs. Although evidences point to the deep Pacific as a major reservoir of this (14)C-depleted carbon, its extent and evolution still need to be constrained. Here we use sediment cores retrieved along a South Pacific transect to reconstruct the spatio-temporal evolution of Δ(14)C over the last 30,000 years. In ∼2,500-3,600 m water depth, we find (14)C-depleted deep waters with a maximum glacial offset to atmospheric (14)C (ΔΔ(14)C=-1,000‰). Using a box model, we test the hypothesis that these low values might have been caused by an interaction of aging and hydrothermal CO2 influx. We observe a rejuvenation of circumpolar deep waters synchronous and potentially contributing to the initial deglacial rise in atmospheric CO2. These findings constrain parts of the glacial carbon pool to the deep South Pacific. PMID:27157845

  12. Radiocarbon constraints on the extent and evolution of the South Pacific glacial carbon pool

    PubMed Central

    Ronge, T. A.; Tiedemann, R.; Lamy, F.; Köhler, P.; Alloway, B. V.; De Pol-Holz, R.; Pahnke, K.; Southon, J.; Wacker, L.

    2016-01-01

    During the last deglaciation, the opposing patterns of atmospheric CO2 and radiocarbon activities (Δ14C) suggest the release of 14C-depleted CO2 from old carbon reservoirs. Although evidences point to the deep Pacific as a major reservoir of this 14C-depleted carbon, its extent and evolution still need to be constrained. Here we use sediment cores retrieved along a South Pacific transect to reconstruct the spatio-temporal evolution of Δ14C over the last 30,000 years. In ∼2,500–3,600 m water depth, we find 14C-depleted deep waters with a maximum glacial offset to atmospheric 14C (ΔΔ14C=−1,000‰). Using a box model, we test the hypothesis that these low values might have been caused by an interaction of aging and hydrothermal CO2 influx. We observe a rejuvenation of circumpolar deep waters synchronous and potentially contributing to the initial deglacial rise in atmospheric CO2. These findings constrain parts of the glacial carbon pool to the deep South Pacific. PMID:27157845

  13. The Impact of Bilateral Aid on Educational Development: The Case of Australia and the South Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maglen, Leo R.

    1990-01-01

    Describes Australian financial aid for education to Fiji, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Western Samoa, Tonga, Kiribati, Tuvalu, and Nauru, and its impact on access to education, higher education options, "nationalization" of education, and educational quality. Concludes that Australian aid serves Australian interests and does not address crucial…

  14. First record of the genus Wilkinsonellus (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from Fiji with description of three new species

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Penna, Diana Carolina; Zhang, Yali; Whitfield, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Wilkinsonellus Mason is a relatively small Pantropical genus of braconid parasitoid wasps within the subfamily Microgastrinae. Most of the currently described species are from the Palaeotropics; however, previous records were absent from Fiji. Here, the first three Wilkinsonellus species from Fiji are described: Wilkinsonellus corpustriacolor sp. n., Wilkinsonellus fijienis sp. n. and Wilkinsonellus nescalpura sp. n. The material was collected by Malaise traps set up in a quite variety of ecosystems (wet zone, dry zone and coastal forests) throughout the archipelago. With these records, Fiji represents the easternmost known distribution of the genus in the Indo-Pacific Region. A key to all of the currently known Wilkinsonellus species is included to facilitate species identification. PMID:24715796

  15. South Pacific influence on the termination of El Niño in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Imada, Yukiko; Tatebe, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Masahiro; Ishii, Masayoshi; Kimoto, Masahide

    2016-01-01

    The El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the dominant mode of climate variability affecting worldwide extreme weather events; therefore, improving ENSO prediction is an important issue. In this regard, a peculiar time evolution of ENSO in 2014 posed a challenge to the climate science community. Despite the observance of several precursors for a strong El Niño to develop during the summer and autumn, cold sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies appeared unexpectedly to the south of the equatorial cold tongue, which prevented development of an El Niño event in the late summer. Several hypotheses have been raised to explain the unmaterialized El Niño in 2014, but complete understanding of processes responsible for terminating this event has not yet been obtained. Here we show, using observations and extended seasonal prediction experiments with a climate model, that cold off-equatorial subsurface water in the South Pacific Ocean penetrated into the equatorial region along the slanted isopycnal surface via the mean advection, and it prevented the El Niño evolution in 2014. The negative subsurface temperature anomalies in the off-equatorial South Pacific Ocean were persistent throughout the last decade, and additional numerical simulations indicated that they contributed to the suppression of El Niño events during the 2000s. PMID:27464581

  16. South Pacific influence on the termination of El Niño in 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imada, Yukiko; Tatebe, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Masahiro; Ishii, Masayoshi; Kimoto, Masahide

    2016-07-01

    The El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the dominant mode of climate variability affecting worldwide extreme weather events; therefore, improving ENSO prediction is an important issue. In this regard, a peculiar time evolution of ENSO in 2014 posed a challenge to the climate science community. Despite the observance of several precursors for a strong El Niño to develop during the summer and autumn, cold sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies appeared unexpectedly to the south of the equatorial cold tongue, which prevented development of an El Niño event in the late summer. Several hypotheses have been raised to explain the unmaterialized El Niño in 2014, but complete understanding of processes responsible for terminating this event has not yet been obtained. Here we show, using observations and extended seasonal prediction experiments with a climate model, that cold off-equatorial subsurface water in the South Pacific Ocean penetrated into the equatorial region along the slanted isopycnal surface via the mean advection, and it prevented the El Niño evolution in 2014. The negative subsurface temperature anomalies in the off-equatorial South Pacific Ocean were persistent throughout the last decade, and additional numerical simulations indicated that they contributed to the suppression of El Niño events during the 2000s.

  17. South Pacific influence on the termination of El Niño in 2014.

    PubMed

    Imada, Yukiko; Tatebe, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Masahiro; Ishii, Masayoshi; Kimoto, Masahide

    2016-01-01

    The El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the dominant mode of climate variability affecting worldwide extreme weather events; therefore, improving ENSO prediction is an important issue. In this regard, a peculiar time evolution of ENSO in 2014 posed a challenge to the climate science community. Despite the observance of several precursors for a strong El Niño to develop during the summer and autumn, cold sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies appeared unexpectedly to the south of the equatorial cold tongue, which prevented development of an El Niño event in the late summer. Several hypotheses have been raised to explain the unmaterialized El Niño in 2014, but complete understanding of processes responsible for terminating this event has not yet been obtained. Here we show, using observations and extended seasonal prediction experiments with a climate model, that cold off-equatorial subsurface water in the South Pacific Ocean penetrated into the equatorial region along the slanted isopycnal surface via the mean advection, and it prevented the El Niño evolution in 2014. The negative subsurface temperature anomalies in the off-equatorial South Pacific Ocean were persistent throughout the last decade, and additional numerical simulations indicated that they contributed to the suppression of El Niño events during the 2000s. PMID:27464581

  18. Uppermost mantle anisotropy beneath south and northwest Pacific by ambient noise interferometry analysis of OBS records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeo, A.; Forsyth, D. W.; Weeraratne, D. S.; Nishida, K.; Isse, T.; Kawakatsu, H.; Shiobara, H.; Sugioka, H.; Suetsugu, D.; Ito, A.; Kanazawa, T.

    2012-12-01

    For obtaining shear-wave anisotropy at depths shallower than 50 km in the oceanic area, we apply ambient noise interferometry to two array datasets of ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) and differential pressure gauges (DPGs). The first array includes 9 OBSs deployed in south Pacific (French Polynesia region) by TIARES project. The second array includes 9 OBSs and 12 DPGs deployed in northwest Pacific by PLATE project. For each dataset, we first calculate cross correlation functions (CCFs) between every pair of stations. The calculated CCFs show the propagations of the fundamental mode of Love wave, the fundamental, first higher and second higher modes of Rayleigh waves at periods of about 2-40 s. For each array and each mode, we then measure average phase velocities by waveform fitting based on Aki (1957) (c.f. Takeo, 2011 master's thesis; 2012 in preparation). In the final step, we measure phase velocity anomalies for each CCFs. The obtained anomalies show azimuthal dependence for the fundamental mode of Rayleigh wave at periods of about 15-30 s. For the south Pacific, the peak-to-peak intensity of 2theta azimuthal variation is 2-3% and the fastest direction is N48-62E, which is consistent with the recent plate motion, N70W. Those for the northwest Pacific are 4-6% and N36-44W, which is consistent with the seafloor spreading direction, N35W. These results roughly reflect shear-wave anisotropy at depths shallower than 50 km. For more detailed discussion, we will estimate the shear-wave anisotropy using these phase-velocity anomalies.

  19. Typhoid fever in Fiji: a reversible plague?

    PubMed

    Thompson, Corinne N; Kama, Mike; Acharya, Shrish; Bera, Una; Clemens, John; Crump, John A; Dawainavesi, Aggie; Dougan, Gordon; Edmunds, W John; Fox, Kimberley; Jenkins, Kylie; Khan, M Imran; Koroivueta, Josefa; Levine, Myron M; Martin, Laura B; Nilles, Eric; Pitzer, Virginia E; Singh, Shalini; Raiwalu, Ratu Vereniki; Baker, Stephen; Mulholland, Kim

    2014-10-01

    The country of Fiji, with a population of approximately 870 000 people, faces a growing burden of several communicable diseases including the bacterial infection typhoid fever. Surveillance data suggest that typhoid has become increasingly common in rural areas of Fiji and is more frequent amongst young adults. Transmission of the organisms that cause typhoid is facilitated by faecal contamination of food or water and may be influenced by local behavioural practices in Fiji. The Fijian Ministry of Health, with support from Australian Aid, hosted a meeting in August 2012 to develop comprehensive control and prevention strategies for typhoid fever in Fiji. International and local specialists were invited to share relevant data and discuss typhoid control options. The resultant recommendations focused on generating a clearer sense of the epidemiology of typhoid in Fiji and exploring the contribution of potential transmission pathways. Additionally, the panel suggested steps such as ensuring that recommended ciprofloxacin doses are appropriate to reduce the potential for relapse and reinfection in clinical cases, encouraging proper hand hygiene of food and drink handlers, working with water and sanitation agencies to review current sanitation practices and considering a vaccination policy targeting epidemiologically relevant populations. PMID:25066005

  20. Reduced admixture of North Atlantic Deep Water to the deep central South Pacific during the last two glacial periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Kescher, Mario; Frank, Martin; Tapia, Raúl; Ronge, Thomas A.; Nürnberg, Dirk; Tiedemann, Ralf

    2016-06-01

    The South Pacific is a sensitive location for the variability of the global oceanic thermohaline circulation given that deep waters from the Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and the Pacific Basin are exchanged. Here we reconstruct the deep water circulation of the central South Pacific for the last two glacial cycles (from 240,000 years ago to the Holocene) based on radiogenic neodymium (Nd) and lead (Pb) isotope records complemented by benthic stable carbon data obtained from two sediment cores located on the flanks of the East Pacific Rise. The records show small but consistent glacial/interglacial changes in all three isotopic systems with interglacial average values of -5.8 and 18.757 for ɛNd and 206Pb/204Pb, respectively, whereas glacial averages are -5.3 and 18.744. Comparison of this variability of Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) to previously published records along the pathway of the global thermohaline circulation is consistent with reduced admixture of North Atlantic Deep Water to CDW during cold stages. The absolute values and amplitudes of the benthic δ13C variations are essentially indistinguishable from other records of the Southern Hemisphere and confirm that the low central South Pacific sedimentation rates did not result in a significant reduction of the amplitude of any of the measured proxies. In addition, the combined detrital Nd and strontium (87Sr/86Sr) isotope signatures imply that Australian and New Zealand dust has remained the principal contributor of lithogenic material to the central South Pacific.

  1. Nitrogen isotope ratios of nitrate and N* anomalies in the subtropical South Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Chisato; Makabe, Akiko; Shiozaki, Takuhei; Toyoda, Sakae; Yoshida, Osamu; Furuya, Ken; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2015-05-01

    Nitrogen isotopic ratios of nitrate (δ15N-NO3-) were analyzed above 1000 m water depth along 17°S in the subtropical South Pacific during the revisit WOCE P21 cruise in 2009. The δ15N-NO3- and N* values were as high as 17‰ and as low as -18 μmol N L-1, respectively, at depths around 250 m east of 115°W, but were as low as 5‰ and as high as +1 μmol N L-1, respectively, in subsurface waters west of 170°W. The relationships among NO3- concentrations, N* values, δ15N-NO3- values, and oxygen and nitrite concentrations suggest that a few samples east of 90°W were from suboxic and nitrite-accumulated conditions and were possibly affected by in situ water column denitrification. Most of the high-δ15N-NO3- and negative-N* waters were probably generated by mixing between Subantarctic Mode Water from the Southern Ocean and Oxygen Deficit Zone Water from the eastern tropical South Pacific, with remineralization of organic matter occurring during transportation. Moreover, the relationship between δ15N-NO3- and N* values, as well as Trichodesmium abundances and size-specific nitrogen fixation rates at the surface, suggest that the low-δ15N-NO3- and positive-N* subsurface waters between 160°E and 170°W were generated by the input of remineralized particles created by in situ nitrogen fixation, mainly by Trichodesmium spp. Therefore, the δ15N values of sediments in this region are expected to reveal past changes in nitrogen fixation or denitrification rates in the subtropical South Pacific. The copyright line for this article was changed on 5 JUN 2015 after original online publication.

  2. Economic valuation of ecosystem services from coral reefs in the South Pacific: taking stock of recent experience.

    PubMed

    Laurans, Yann; Pascal, Nicolas; Binet, Thomas; Brander, Luke; Clua, Eric; David, Gilbert; Rojat, Dominique; Seidl, Andrew

    2013-02-15

    The economic valuation of coral reefs ecosystem services is currently seen as a promising approach to demonstrate the benefits of sustainable management of coral ecosystems to policymakers and to provide useful information for improved decisions. Most coral reefs economic studies have been conducted in the United States, Southeast Asia and the Caribbean, and only a few have covered the South Pacific region. In this region, coral reefs are essential assets for small island developing states as well as for developed countries. Accordingly, a series of ecosystem services valuations has been carried out recently in the South Pacific, to try and supply decision-makers with new information. Applying ecosystem services valuation to the specific ecological, social, economic and cultural contexts of the South Pacific is however not straightforward. This paper analyses how extant valuations address the various management challenges of coral reef regions in general and more specifically for the South Pacific. Bearing in mind that economic valuation has to match policy-making contexts, we emphasize a series of specific considerations when conducting and applying ecosystem services valuation in South Pacific ecological and social contexts. Finally, the paper examines the decision-making situations in which extant valuations took place. We conclude that, although ecosystem valuations have been effectively used as a means to raise awareness with respect to coral reef conservation, methodologies will have to be further developed, with multidisciplinary inputs, if they are to provide valuable inputs in local and technical decision-making. PMID:23295680

  3. Relative paleointensity from Oligocene-Miocene equatorial Pacific and South Atlantic sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Channell, J. E.; Lanci, L.

    2013-12-01

    We compare three 9-Myr-long records of relative paleointensity (RPI) for the Late Oligocene to Early Miocene from the equatorial Pacific (IODP Site U1334 and ODP Site 1218) and South Atlantic (ODP Site 1090). The three records are compared with published RPI records for the same time interval from IODP Site U1333 (equatorial Pacific) and DSDP Site 522 (South Atlantic). Age models at all sites are constrained by magnetic polarity stratigraphy through correlation to a common geomagnetic polarity timescale. The RPI records do not contain significant power at specific (orbital) frequencies, and hence there is no significant coherency between RPI proxies and the normalizers used to construct the proxies, although ~400 kyr eccentricity power is significant in some of the normalizers. There is no obvious control on RPI proxies from mean sedimentation rate within polarity chrons, magnetic grain size proxies or magnetic concentration parameters. The salient test is whether the equatorial Pacific records can be correlated one to another, and to the records from the South Atlantic. All records are dominated by RPI minima at polarity reversals, as expected, although the comparison within polarity chrons is compelling enough to conclude that the intensity of the Earth's axial dipole is being recorded. This is supported by the fit of RPI data after refined correlation of Sites U1334 and 1218 using core-scanning data, rather than polarity reversals alone. We do not see a consistent relationship between polarity-chron duration and mean RPI, and no consistent skewness ('sawtooth' pattern) for RPI within polarity chrons. Stacks of RPI records for 17.5 Ma to 26.5 Ma are similar whether 3, 4 or 5 RPI records are incorporated into the stack. Long-term changes in RPI on Myr timescales are apparent, attributed to core-mantle boundary heat-flow variations, and superimposed on a pacing that that resembles RPI records for the Quaternary where minima are associated with polarity reversals

  4. Computers in Education. Inventory of Training Institutions, Publications, Societies in Asia and the Pacific: Australia, Bangladesh, China, Fiji, Hong Kong, India, Malaysia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    This directory provides a listing of computer training institutions, computer associations, and computer publications in 14 nations of Asia and the Pacific Region. The listing of 70 training institutions provides contact information and details on programs, research, and major innovations for each institution. The listing of 15 computer…

  5. Late Paleozoic to Early Mesozoic provenance record of Paleo-Pacific subduction beneath South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lisha; Cawood, Peter A.; Du, Yuansheng; Yang, Jianghai; Jiao, Liangxuan

    2015-05-01

    Northeast trending Yong'an Basin, southeast South China Craton, preserves a Permian-Jurassic, marine to continental, siliciclastic-dominated, retroarc foreland basin succession. Modal and detrital zircon data, along with published paleocurrent data, sedimentary facies, and euhedral to subhedral detrital zircon shapes, indicate derivation from multicomponent, nearby sources with input from both the interior of the craton to the northwest and from an inferred arc accretionary complex to the southeast. The detrital zircon U-Pb age spectra range in age from Archean to early Mesozoic, with major age groups at 2000-1700 Ma, 1200-900 Ma, 400-340 Ma, and 300-240 Ma. In addition, Early Jurassic strata include zircon detritus with ages of 200-170 Ma. Regional geological relations suggest that Precambrian and Early Paleozoic detritus was derived from the inland Wuyi Mountain region and Yunkai Massif of the South China Craton. Sources for Middle Paleozoic to early Mesozoic detrital zircons include input from beyond the currently exposed China mainland. Paleogeographic reconstruction in East Asia suggests derivation from an active convergent plate margin along the southeastern rim of the craton that incorporated part of Southwest Japan and is related to the subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Ocean. Integration of the geologic and provenance records of the Yong'an Basin with the time equivalent Yongjiang and Shiwandashan basins that lie to the southwest and south, respectively, provides an integrated record of the subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Ocean along the southeast margin of the South China Craton and termination of subduction of the Paleo-Tethys beneath its southwest margin in Permo-Triassic.

  6. Interdecadal change in the lagged relationship between the Pacific-South American pattern and ENSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Ruiqiang; Li, Jianping; Tseng, Yu-heng; Ha, Kyung-Ja; Zhao, Sen; Lee, June-Yi

    2016-01-01

    A significant interdecadal change in the lagged relationship between the austral summer Pacific-South American (PSA) pattern and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the following austral summer (the PSA serving as a precursor signature to ENSO events) has been detected by analysis of a 91-year historical record. Strong correlations between the PSA and ENSO occurred during the periods 1956-1975 and 1990-2004 [referred to as the high correlation (HC) periods], but the correlations were weak for the periods 1928-1956 and 1975-1990 [referred to as the low correlation (LC) periods]. Both the processes of surface air-sea coupling in the extratropical/tropical Pacific, and subsurface ocean temperature evolution along the equator associated with the PSA, were found to be stronger during the HC periods than during the LC periods, thereby resulting in a stronger influence of the PSA on the subsequent ENSO during the HC periods. Changes in the PSA-ENSO relationship can be attributed mainly to interdecadal changes in the intensity of the austral summer PSA. The latter was found to have contributions from both the modulation of the Pacific decadal oscillation and long-term variations in the Southern Annular Mode.

  7. Long-lived but Discontinuous Hotspot Volcanism of the South Pacific Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppers, A.; Staudigel, H.; Wijbrans, J.; Pringle, M.

    2001-12-01

    Hotspots of the South Pacific have been operating since the Early Cretaceous. We present evidence that their heterogeneous geochemical character and, hence, their respective HIMU-EMI-EMII mantle sources, can be traced back into the West Pacific Seamount Province (WPSP) using plate tectonic reconstructions. This implies that the HIMU, EMI and EMII mantle components are enduring features within the Earth's mantle, at least, for the last 140 Myr. These correlations are eminent on the scale of the WPSP and the South Pacific Thermal and Isotopic Anomaly (SOPITA) although the evolution of individual hotspots emerges notably more complicated. Hotspots in the WPSP and SOPITA mantle regions typically display intermittent volcanic activity, longevities shorter than 70 Myr, superposition of hotspot volcanism, and indirectly the motion of their mantle plumes through time. In our plate tectonic reconstructions, we use 40Ar/39Ar seamount ages and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic signatures to map out Cretaceous hotspot volcanism in the WPSP and to characterize its evolution with respect to the currently active hotspots in the SOPITA region. EM-type Magellan, Anewetak, Ralik and Ratak seamount trails can be traced back to the magmatic activity of the Macdonald, Rurutu and Rarotonga hotspots during the Cretaceous; the HIMU-type seamounts within the Southern Wake seamount trail (97-120 Ma) most likely originated from the Mangaia-Rurutu "hot-line" in the Cook-Austral Islands. The Typhoon and Japanese guyots terminated their volcanism during the Early Cretaceous and have no presently active hot spot. However, the currently active Samoan, Society, Pitcairn and Marquesas hotspots may be traced back only to about 30-70 Myr and lack long-lived counterparts in the WPSP. These hotspots may have become active over the last 30-70 Myr only. All in all hotspot volcanism in the South Pacific seems to be controlled by a "superplume" type of mantle convection giving rise to multiple weak mantle plumes, each

  8. Nitrogen cycling driven by organic matter export in the South Pacific oxygen minimum zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Lam, Phyllis; Contreras, Sergio; Arteaga, Lionel; Löscher, Carolin R.; Oschlies, Andreas; Paulmier, Aurélien; Stramma, Lothar; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.

    2013-03-01

    Oxygen minimum zones are expanding globally, and at present account for around 20-40% of oceanic nitrogen loss. Heterotrophic denitrification and anammox--anaerobic ammonium oxidation with nitrite--are responsible for most nitrogen loss in these low-oxygen waters. Anammox is particularly significant in the eastern tropical South Pacific, one of the largest oxygen minimum zones globally. However, the factors that regulate anammox-driven nitrogen loss have remained unclear. Here, we present a comprehensive nitrogen budget for the eastern tropical South Pacific oxygen minimum zone, using measurements of nutrient concentrations, experimentally determined rates of nitrogen transformation and a numerical model of export production. Anammox was the dominant mode of nitrogen loss at the time of sampling. Rates of anammox, and related nitrogen transformations, were greatest in the productive shelf waters, and tailed off with distance from the coast. Within the shelf region, anammox activity peaked in both upper and bottom waters. Overall, rates of nitrogen transformation, including anammox, were strongly correlated with the export of organic matter. We suggest that the sinking of organic matter, and thus the release of ammonium into the water column, together with benthic ammonium release, fuel nitrogen loss from oxygen minimum zones.

  9. Spherical Cap Harmonic Modelling of 400 Years of Secular Variation in the South-west Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingham, M.; Alfheid, M.; Ingham, E. M.; Turner, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    Historical magnetic data recorded in ship's logs on voyages of exploration and trade in the south-west Pacific have been used as a basis for constructing a model of secular variation in the region using spherical cap harmonic (SCH) analysis. The spherical cap used is centred on colatitude 115° and longitude 160° and has a radius of 50°, thus covering New Zealand, Australia and parts of Antarctica. Gaps in the observational data have been filled by an iterative procedure started by using IGRF field values to obtain SCH models for 2000, 1950 and 1900 and assuming that the spherical cap coefficients have a linear variation in time over the 400 year time period of the model, as is observed to a first approximation for Gauss coefficients calculated from a global spherical harmonic analysis. The resulting field models have generally smooth spatial and temporal variations in declination, inclination and intensity which show some differences from the variations calculated using the global spherical harmonic model gufm1. The technique clearly shows promise for producing more refined models of secular variation in the south-west Pacific when the historical data are supplemented by archeomagnetic and paleomagnetic data.

  10. Gliders Measure Western Boundary Current Transport from the South Pacific to the Equator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, R. E.; Kessler, W. S.; Sherman, J. T.

    2011-12-01

    Since 2007, the Consortium on the Ocean's Role in Climate (CORC) has used repeated glider transects across the southern Solomon Sea to measure the previously nearly unsampled mass and heat transport from the South Pacific to the equatorial zone. Mean transport is dominated by the New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent (NGCUC). This low-latitude western boundary current is a major element of the shallow meridional overturning circulation, returning water from the subtropical South Pacific to the Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) where it upwells. We find the mean NGCUC to be a jet less than 100 km wide, centered near 300 m depth, with equatorward velocities reaching 35 cm/s and salinity anomalies on isopycnals up to 0.05. Weaker poleward flow is found near the surface in the eastern basin. Equatorward transport above 700 m is typically 20 Sv, but nearly vanished during two La Niñas and reached 25 Sv during an El Niño. Within these events the seasonal cycle cannot yet be defined. Transport variability is strongest outside the boundary current and appears to consist of two independently moving layers with a boundary near 250 m. ENSO variability is predominantly in the upper layer. The relation of Solomon Sea mass and heat transport with ENSO indicators will be discussed The ability to initiate and maintain measurements that support such quantitative analyses with a small effort in a remote site far from research institutions demonstrates that gliders can be a productive part of the global ocean observing system.

  11. Analogous nutrient limitations in unicellular diazotrophs and Prochlorococcus in the South Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Moisander, Pia H; Zhang, Ruifeng; Boyle, Edward A; Hewson, Ian; Montoya, Joseph P; Zehr, Jonathan P

    2012-04-01

    Growth limitation of phytoplankton and unicellular nitrogen (N(2)) fixers (diazotrophs) were investigated in the oligotrophic Western South Pacific Ocean. Based on change in abundances of nifH or 23S rRNA gene copies during nutrient-enrichment experiments, the factors limiting net growth of the unicellular diazotrophs UCYN-A (Group A), Crocosphaera watsonii, γ-Proteobacterium 24774A11, and the non-diazotrophic picocyanobacterium Prochlorococcus, varied within the region. At the westernmost stations, numbers were enhanced by organic carbon added as simple sugars, a combination of iron and an organic chelator, or iron added with phosphate. At stations nearest the equator, the nutrient-limiting growth was not apparent. Maximum net growth rates for UCYN-A, C. watsonii and γ-24774A11 were 0.19, 0.61 and 0.52 d(-1), respectively, which are the first known empirical growth rates reported for the uncultivated UCYN-A and the γ-24774A11. The addition of N enhanced total phytoplankton biomass up to 5-fold, and the non-N(2)-fixing Synechococcus was among the groups that responded favorably to N addition. Nitrogen was the major nutrient-limiting phytoplankton biomass in the Western South Pacific Ocean, while availability of organic carbon or iron and organic chelator appear to limit abundances of unicellular diazotrophs. Lack of phytoplankton response to nutrient additions in the Pacific warm pool waters suggests diazotroph growth in this area is controlled by different factors than in the higher latitudes, which may partially explain previously observed variability in community composition in the region. PMID:22094348

  12. Circulation, eddies, oxygen, and nutrient changes in the eastern tropical South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czeschel, R.; Stramma, L.; Weller, R. A.; Fischer, T.

    2015-06-01

    A large subsurface oxygen deficiency zone is located in the eastern tropical South Pacific Ocean (ETSP). The large-scale circulation in the eastern equatorial Pacific and off the coast of Peru in November/December 2012 shows the influence of the equatorial current system, the eastern boundary currents, and the northern reaches of the subtropical gyre. In November 2012 the equatorial undercurrent (EUC) is centered at 250 m depth, deeper than in earlier observations. In December 2012, the equatorial water is transported southeastward near the shelf in the Peru-Chile undercurrent (PCUC) with a mean transport of 1.4 Sv. In the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), the flow is overlaid with strong eddy activity on the poleward side of the OMZ. Floats with parking depth at 400 m show fast westward flow in the mid-depth equatorial channel and sluggish flow in the OMZ. Floats with oxygen sensors clearly show the passage of eddies with oxygen anomalies. The long-term float observations in the upper ocean lead to a net community production estimate at about 18° S of up to 16.7 mmol C m-3 yr-1 extrapolated to an annual rate and 7.7 mmol C m-3 yr-1 for the time period below the mixed layer. Oxygen differences between repeated ship sections are influenced by the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO), by the phase of El Niño, by seasonal changes, and by eddies, and hence have to be interpreted with care. At and south of the Equator the decrease in oxygen in the upper ocean since 1976 is related to an increase in nitrate, phosphate, and in part silicate.

  13. More extreme swings of the South Pacific convergence zone due to greenhouse warming.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wenju; Lengaigne, Matthieu; Borlace, Simon; Collins, Matthew; Cowan, Tim; McPhaden, Michael J; Timmermann, Axel; Power, Scott; Brown, Josephine; Menkes, Christophe; Ngari, Arona; Vincent, Emmanuel M; Widlansky, Matthew J

    2012-08-16

    The South Pacific convergence zone (SPCZ) is the Southern Hemisphere's most expansive and persistent rain band, extending from the equatorial western Pacific Ocean southeastward towards French Polynesia. Owing to its strong rainfall gradient, a small displacement in the position of the SPCZ causes drastic changes to hydroclimatic conditions and the frequency of extreme weather events--such as droughts, floods and tropical cyclones--experienced by vulnerable island countries in the region. The SPCZ position varies from its climatological mean location with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), moving a few degrees northward during moderate El Niño events and southward during La Niña events. During strong El Niño events, however, the SPCZ undergoes an extreme swing--by up to ten degrees of latitude toward the Equator--and collapses to a more zonally oriented structure with commensurately severe weather impacts. Understanding changes in the characteristics of the SPCZ in a changing climate is therefore of broad scientific and socioeconomic interest. Here we present climate modelling evidence for a near doubling in the occurrences of zonal SPCZ events between the periods 1891-1990 and 1991-2090 in response to greenhouse warming, even in the absence of a consensus on how ENSO will change. We estimate the increase in zonal SPCZ events from an aggregation of the climate models in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phases 3 and 5 (CMIP3 and CMIP5) multi-model database that are able to simulate such events. The change is caused by a projected enhanced equatorial warming in the Pacific and may lead to more frequent occurrences of extreme events across the Pacific island nations most affected by zonal SPCZ events. PMID:22895343

  14. Lead isotopes in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific record Quaternary migration of the South Westerlies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichat, Sylvain; Abouchami, Wafa; Galer, Stephen J. G.

    2014-02-01

    The influence of atmospheric dust on climate and biogeochemical cycles in the oceans is well understood but poorly quantified. Glacial atmospheric dust loads were generally greater than those during the Holocene, as shown, for example, by the covariation of dust fluxes in the Equatorial Pacific and Antarctic ice cores. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether these increases in dust flux were associated with changes in sources of dust, which would in turn suggest variations in wind patterns, climate or paleo-environment. Such questions can be answered using radiogenic isotope tracers of dust provenance. Here, we present a 160-kyr high-precision lead isotope time-series of dust input to the Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP) from core ODP Leg 138, Site 849 (0°11.59‧ N, 110°31.18‧ W). The Pb isotope record, combined with Nd isotope data, rules out contributions from Northern Hemisphere dust sources, north of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, such as Asia or North Africa/Sahara; similarly, eolian sources in Australia, Central America, the Northern Andes and Patagonia appear insignificant based upon the radiogenic isotope data. Fluctuations in Pb isotope ratios throughout the last 160 kyr show, instead, that South America remained the prevailing source of dusts to the EEP. There are two distinct South American Pb isotope end-members, constrained to be located in the south Central Volcanic Zone (CVZ, 22° S - 27.5° S) and the South Volcanic Zone (SVZ, 33° S - 43° S), with the former most likely originating in the Atacama Desert. Dust availability in the SVZ appears to be related to the weathering of volcanic deposits and the development of ash-derived Andosols, and influenced by local factors that might include vegetation cover. Variations in the dust fluxes from the two sources are in phase with both the dust flux and temperature records from Antarctican ice cores. We show that the forcing of dust provenance over time in the EEP overall is influenced by high

  15. Circulation, eddies and oxygen changes in the Oxygen Minimum Zone of the Eastern Tropical South Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czeschel, Rena; Stramma, Lothar; Weller, Robert; Fischer, Tim

    2016-04-01

    A large, subsurface oxygen deficiency zone is located in the Eastern Tropical South Pacific (ETSP) revealing a decrease in oxygen over the past decades. Oxygen time series from historical measurements augmented with float data reveal a significant negative trend between 50 to 300 m depth since 1976, averaged in the region of the westward flowing South Equatorial Current and the South Equatorial Intermediate Current between 2-5°S, 84-87°W. This long-term trend, which is related to increasing nutrients might be modified by climate signals such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. To understand the ongoing changes in the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) it is necessary to understand the circulation in the ETSP and its variability, which is still not well described. In the frame of the research initiative 'Climate-Biogeochemistry Interactions in the Tropical Ocean' hydrographic data from an open ocean and a near shelf cruise leg in November and December 2012 and from floats are used to investigate the large-scale circulation in subsurface layers of the ETSP showing the influence of the equatorial current system, the eastern boundary, and the northern reaches of the subtropical gyre. On the poleward side of the OMZ the mean flow is overlaid with strong eddy activity. Coherent/isolated mesoscale eddies can exist over periods of several months propagating westwards after formation in the coastal regions. Float data as well as data from the Stratus mooring (~86°W, 20°S) are used to describe the passage of eddies by anomalies in oxygen and hydrographic data.

  16. Multilingual Proficiency in Fiji Primary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shameem, Nikhat

    2002-01-01

    Determined language proficiency among multilingual Indo-Fijian primary school children who have the languages, Fiji-Hindi, Standard Hindi, Urdu, English, Fijian, and Fijian English in their speech repertoire. Identifies the variables that affect multilingual proficiency in this group and determines whether classroom practice reflects educational…

  17. Situation Report [--Fiji, Indonesia, Israel, and Philippines].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    This is a series of four situation reports prepared by the International Planned Parenthood Federation for informational and consultative purposes. The countries reported on are Fiji, Indonesia, Israel, and the Philippines. Some of the latest statistical figures for each country are listed. They are area, population and growth rate, birth, death,…

  18. Education and the New Technologies. Report of the WCOTP Asian and South Pacific Regional Conference (10th, Seoul, South Korea, August 7-13, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Confederation of Organizations of the Teaching Profession, Morges (Switzerland).

    This report on the 1985 Asian and South Pacific Regional Conference of the World Confederation of Organizations of the Teaching Profession (WCOTP) presents the full text of three addresses presented during the opening ceremony, as well as four major presentations by invited speakers and three addresses from the closing ceremony. A day of…

  19. Distribution and bacterial availability of dissolved neutral sugars in the South East Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sempéré, R.; Tedetti, M.; Panagiotopoulos, C.; Charrière, B.; van Wambeke, F.

    2008-02-01

    The distribution and bacterial availability of dissolved neutral sugars were studied in the South East Pacific from October to December 2004 during the BIOSOPE cruise. Four contrasted sites were investigated: Marquesas Islands (MAR), the hyper-oligotrophic South Pacific Gyre (GYR), the eastern part of the Gyre (EGY), and the coastal waters associated to upwelling of Chile (UPW). Total (free and combined) dissolved neutral sugar (TDNS) concentrations were higher in UPW (149-329 nM) and MAR (111-540 nM), than in GYR (79-390 nM) and EGY (58-492 nM). Nevertheless, their contribution to dissolved organic carbon (TDNS-C/DOC%) was generally low for all sites varying from 0.5% to 4% indicating that our South East Pacific surface waters were relatively poor in neutral sugars. Free dissolved neutral sugar (FDNS; e.g. sugars analyzed without hydrolysis) concentrations were very low within the detection of our method (5-10 nM) accounting <5% of the TDNS. In general, the predominant sugars within the TDNS pool were glucose, xylose, arabinose, and galactose while in the FDNS pool only glucose was present. TDNS stock to bacterial production ratios (integrated values from the surface to the deep chlorophyll maximum) were relatively high in GYR with respect to the low primary production, whereas the opposite trend was observed in the highly productive area of UPW. Intermediate situations were observed for MAR and EGY. Bioavailability of dissolved organic matter (DOM) exposed to natural solar radiation was also experimentally studied and compared to dark treatments. Our results showed no or little detectable effect of sunlight on DOM bacterial assimilation in UPW and in GYR while a significant stimulation was found in MAR and EGY. The overall results clearly suggest the semi-labile character of DOM in GYR compared to the labile of UPW and are consistent with dissolved organic carbon accumulation and the elevated C/N ratios reported by Raimbault et al. (2007).

  20. Distribution and bacterial availability of dissolved neutral sugars in the South East Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sempéré, R.; Tedetti, M.; Panagiotopoulos, C.; Charrière, B.; van Wambeke, F.

    2008-08-01

    The distribution and bacterial availability of dissolved neutral sugars were studied in the South East Pacific from October to December 2004 during the BIOSOPE cruise. Four contrasting stations were investigated: Marquesas Islands (MAR), the hyper-oligotrophic South Pacific Gyre (GYR), the eastern part of the Gyre (EGY), and the coastal waters associated to the upwelling area off Chile (UPW). Total (free and combined) dissolved neutral sugar (TDNS) concentrations were in the same order of magnitude at MAR (387±293 nM), GYR (206±107 nM), EGY (269±175 nM), and UPW (231±73 nM), with the highest and lowest concentrations found at MAR (30 m, 890 nM) and EGY (250 m, 58 nM), respectively. Their contribution to dissolved organic carbon (TDNS-C×DOC-1%) was generally low for all sites varying from 0.4% to 6.7% indicating that South East Pacific surface waters were relatively poor in neutral sugars. Free dissolved neutral sugar (FDNS; e.g. sugars analyzed without hydrolysis) concentrations were very low within the detection limit of our method (5 10 nM) accounting for <5% of the TDNS. In general, the predominant sugars within the TDNS pool were glucose, xylose, arabinose, and galactose, while in the FDNS pool only glucose was present. TDNS stock to bacterial production ratios (integrated values from the surface to the deep chlorophyll maximum) were high at GYR with respect to the low primary production, whereas the opposite trend was observed in the highly productive area of UPW. Intermediate situations were observed for MAR and EGY. Bioavailability of dissolved organic matter (DOM) exposed to natural solar radiation was also experimentally studied and compared to dark treatments. Our results showed no or little detectable effect of sunlight on DOM bacterial assimilation in surface waters of UPW and GYR, while a significant stimulation was found in MAR and EGY. The overall results clearly suggest that DOM is less labile at GYR compared to UPW, which is consistent with

  1. Forest Plant and Bird Communities in the Lau Group, Fiji

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Janet; Steadman, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Background We examined species composition of forest and bird communities in relation to environmental and human disturbance gradients on Lakeba (55.9 km2), Nayau (18.4 km2), and Aiwa Levu (1.2 km2), islands in the Lau Group of Fiji, West Polynesia. The unique avifauna of West Polynesia (Fiji, Tonga, Samoa) has been subjected to prehistoric human-caused extinctions but little was previously known about this topic in the Lau Group. We expected that the degree of human disturbance would be a strong determinant of tree species composition and habitat quality for surviving landbirds, while island area would be unrelated to bird diversity. Methodology/Principal Findings All trees >5 cm diameter were measured and identified in 23 forest plots of 500 m2 each. We recognized four forest species assemblages differentiated by composition and structure: coastal forest, dominated by widely distributed species, and three forest types with differences related more to disturbance history (stages of secondary succession following clearing or selective logging) than to environmental gradients (elevation, slope, rockiness). Our point counts (73 locations in 1 or 2 seasons) recorded 18 of the 24 species of landbirds that exist on the three islands. The relative abundance and species richness of birds were greatest in the forested habitats least disturbed by people. These differences were due mostly to increased numbers of columbid frugivores and passerine insectivores in forests on Lakeba and Aiwa Levu. Considering only forested habitats, the relative abundance and species richness of birds were greater on the small but completely forested (and uninhabited) island of Aiwa Levu than on the much larger island of Lakeba. Conclusions/Significance Forest disturbance history is more important than island area in structuring both tree and landbird communities on remote Pacific islands. Even very small islands may be suitable for conservation reserves if they are protected from human

  2. Solomon Islands: Summary Report. Educational Experience Survey: Education, Language and Literacy Experience. Asia-South Pacific Education Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guzman, Sylvia

    2007-01-01

    The Education Watch initiative is being implemented in the Solomon Islands by the Coalition on Education Solomon Islands (COESI) in partnership with Asian South Pacific Bureau of Adult Education (ASPBAE). COESI aims to generate a reliable body of information that will: (1) Accurately explain how much the national government has done and can do to…

  3. Neothalassius, a new genus of Parathalassiinae (Diptera: Dolichopodidae s.lat.) from the Pacific coast of South America.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Scott E; Cumming, Jeffrey M

    2016-01-01

    A new genus, Neothalassius gen. nov., and two new species, Neothalassius triton sp. nov. and Neothalassius villosus sp. nov., are described from rocky shorelines along the Pacific seacoast of South America. The phylogenetic placement of Neothalassius within the subfamily Parathalassiinae is discussed. PMID:27395554

  4. Inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene in the South Pacific: how might it be impacting children?

    PubMed

    Barrington, Dani J

    2016-03-01

    It is detrimental to anyone's health to live with conditions of inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH). Research suggests that the impact is greatest on children, and that poor WaSH conditions during the formative years can lead to decreased physical, mental and social well-being throughout one's life. Little research has investigated how such poor WaSH conditions are negatively impacting children in the South Pacific region, and hence contributing to disease and social burden. To increase children's opportunities to develop physically and intellectually in a healthy and sustained manner, it is important that practitioners take a holistic approach to improving WaSH by acknowledging it as a core component of environmental health. PMID:26812758

  5. Comparison of synoptic and climatologically mapped sections in the south Pacific ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Bindoff, N.L.; Wunsch, C. )

    1992-06-01

    To understand the extent to which oceanic climate shifts could be detected, a South Pacific climatology has been used to create pseudosections of temperature, salinity, and other tracers along a zonal and meridional lines at 15[degrees]S and 90[degrees]W, respectively. Interpolations from the climatology were made using combined empirical orthogonal functions and objective mapping. Comparisons are made with independent measurements, taken in 1987, of temperature and salinity at 15[degrees]S. Temperature and salinity fields between the surface and 300 db along the 15[degrees]S section are predicted with an uncertainty sufficiently small to display significant differences in temperature and salinity related to El Nino of 1987. The 90[degrees]W pseudosection is a forecast of a synoptic section to be obtained as part of WOCE in 1992. Explicit values for the smallest temperature shift with depth that could be detected are produced. 17 refs., 10 figs.

  6. A structural outline of the Yenkahe volcanic resurgent dome (Tanna Island, Vanuatu Arc, South Pacific)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merle, O.; Brothelande, E.; Lénat, J.-F.; Bachèlery, P.; Garaébiti, E.

    2013-12-01

    A structural study has been conducted on the resurgent Yenkahe dome (5 km long by 3 km wide) located in the heart of the Siwi caldera of Tanna Island (Vanuatu arc, south Pacific). This spectacular resurgent dome hosts a small caldera and a very active strombolian cinder cone - the Yasur volcano - in the west and exhibits an intriguing graben in its central part. Detailed mapping and structural observations make it possible to unravel the volcano-tectonic history of the dome. It is shown that, following the early formation of a resurgent dome in the west, a complex collapse (caldera plus graben) occurred and this was associated with the recent uplift of the eastern part of the present dome. Eastward migration of the underlying magma related to regional tectonics is proposed to explain this evolution.

  7. Litter and seabirds found across a longitudinal gradient in the South Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Urbina, Diego; Thiel, Martin; Luna-Jorquera, Guillermo

    2015-07-15

    Abundances and composition of marine litter and seabirds were estimated in the central South Pacific (SP) Ocean between the Chilean continental coast and the Easter Island Ecoregion. Litter was dominated by plastics throughout the study area, but the proportion of plastics was higher at sea and on the oceanic islands than in coastal waters and on continental beaches. Litter densities were higher close to the center of the SP subtropical gyre compared to the continental coast. The seabird assemblage was diverse (28 species), and several endemic species were recorded. Seabird abundances were higher in the coastal waters and around Juan Fernández Islands off the continental coast than in the Oceanic and Polynesian sectors. Endangered species breeding on Salas & Gómez Island were observed in the Polynesian sector, which suggests a high potential for negative interactions between seabirds and floating litter, both occurring in high densities in this sector. PMID:25998727

  8. Preferences for female body size in Britain and the South Pacific.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Knight, Daniel; Tovée, Martin J; Davies, Patrick; Furnham, Adrian

    2007-06-01

    To assess current attitudes to body weight and shape in the South Pacific, a region characterised by relatively high levels of obesity and traditionally positive views of large bodies, 38 high socio-economic status (SES) adolescent males and 38 low SES adolescent males in Independent Samoa were asked to rate a set of images of real women for physical attractiveness. Participants in both SES settings preferred women with a slender figure, as did a comparison group in Britain, suggesting that the traditional veneration of large bodies is no longer apparent in Samoa. However, the results also showed that low SES adolescents were more likely to view overweight figures as attractive, which suggests that the veneration of slim figures may be associated with increasing SES. Implications of this finding are discussed in conclusion. PMID:18089268

  9. A Record-High Ocean Bottom Pressure in the South Pacific Observed by GRACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boening, Carmen; Lee, Tong; Zlotnicki, Victor

    2011-01-01

    In late 2009 to early 2010, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite pair observed a record increase in ocean bottom pressure (OBP) over a large mid-latitude region of the South East Pacific. Its magnitude is substantially larger than other oceanic events in the Southern Hemisphere found in the entire GRACE data records (2003-2010) on multi-month time scales. The OBP data help to understand the nature of a similar signal in sea surface height (SSH) anomaly observed by altimetry: the SSH increase is mainly due to mass convergence. Analysis of the barotropic vorticity equation using scatterometer data, atmospheric reanalysis product, and GRACE and altimeter an atmospheric reanalysis product observations suggests that the observed OBP/SSH signal was primarily caused by wind stress curl associated with a strong and persistent anticyclone in late 2009 in combination with effects of planetary vorticity gradient, bottom topography, and friction

  10. Multifractal analysis of seismicity observed in the Mexican South Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Marquez, Leticia; Ramírez Rojas, Alejandro

    2014-05-01

    We investigated the multifractal properties of seismicity monitored on the Mexican Pacific south Coast. Some authors in several seismic regions around the world have investigated multifractality in earthquakes, reveling scaling regimes: non homogeneous and multifraltals at small scales, monofractals and close to Poissonian at large scales. Our analysis consider that the different subduction features, due to the interactions between the La Rivera and Cocos plates with the North America plate is able to describe local particular dynamical properties. The multifractal spectrum, f(α), calculated for four seismic subregions displays specific properties suggesting that such singularities spectrum contains local dynamical information which is able to contribute in the knowledge of the tectonics dynamics in subduction phenomena, in particular the four studied regions show multifractality behavior.

  11. Basin-scale transport of hydrothermal dissolved metals across the South Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Resing, Joseph A; Sedwick, Peter N; German, Christopher R; Jenkins, William J; Moffett, James W; Sohst, Bettina M; Tagliabue, Alessandro

    2015-07-01

    Hydrothermal venting along mid-ocean ridges exerts an important control on the chemical composition of sea water by serving as a major source or sink for a number of trace elements in the ocean. Of these, iron has received considerable attention because of its role as an essential and often limiting nutrient for primary production in regions of the ocean that are of critical importance for the global carbon cycle. It has been thought that most of the dissolved iron discharged by hydrothermal vents is lost from solution close to ridge-axis sources and is thus of limited importance for ocean biogeochemistry. This long-standing view is challenged by recent studies which suggest that stabilization of hydrothermal dissolved iron may facilitate its long-range oceanic transport. Such transport has been subsequently inferred from spatially limited oceanographic observations. Here we report data from the US GEOTRACES Eastern Pacific Zonal Transect (EPZT) that demonstrate lateral transport of hydrothermal dissolved iron, manganese, and aluminium from the southern East Pacific Rise (SEPR) several thousand kilometres westward across the South Pacific Ocean. Dissolved iron exhibits nearly conservative (that is, no loss from solution during transport and mixing) behaviour in this hydrothermal plume, implying a greater longevity in the deep ocean than previously assumed. Based on our observations, we estimate a global hydrothermal dissolved iron input of three to four gigamoles per year to the ocean interior, which is more than fourfold higher than previous estimates. Complementary simulations with a global-scale ocean biogeochemical model suggest that the observed transport of hydrothermal dissolved iron requires some means of physicochemical stabilization and indicate that hydrothermally derived iron sustains a large fraction of Southern Ocean export production. PMID:26156374

  12. Basin-scale transport of hydrothermal dissolved metals across the South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resing, Joseph A.; Sedwick, Peter N.; German, Christopher R.; Jenkins, William J.; Moffett, James W.; Sohst, Bettina M.; Tagliabue, Alessandro

    2015-07-01

    Hydrothermal venting along mid-ocean ridges exerts an important control on the chemical composition of sea water by serving as a major source or sink for a number of trace elements in the ocean. Of these, iron has received considerable attention because of its role as an essential and often limiting nutrient for primary production in regions of the ocean that are of critical importance for the global carbon cycle. It has been thought that most of the dissolved iron discharged by hydrothermal vents is lost from solution close to ridge-axis sources and is thus of limited importance for ocean biogeochemistry. This long-standing view is challenged by recent studies which suggest that stabilization of hydrothermal dissolved iron may facilitate its long-range oceanic transport. Such transport has been subsequently inferred from spatially limited oceanographic observations. Here we report data from the US GEOTRACES Eastern Pacific Zonal Transect (EPZT) that demonstrate lateral transport of hydrothermal dissolved iron, manganese, and aluminium from the southern East Pacific Rise (SEPR) several thousand kilometres westward across the South Pacific Ocean. Dissolved iron exhibits nearly conservative (that is, no loss from solution during transport and mixing) behaviour in this hydrothermal plume, implying a greater longevity in the deep ocean than previously assumed. Based on our observations, we estimate a global hydrothermal dissolved iron input of three to four gigamoles per year to the ocean interior, which is more than fourfold higher than previous estimates. Complementary simulations with a global-scale ocean biogeochemical model suggest that the observed transport of hydrothermal dissolved iron requires some means of physicochemical stabilization and indicate that hydrothermally derived iron sustains a large fraction of Southern Ocean export production.

  13. Characterization of the variability of the South Pacific Convergence Zone using satellite and reanalysis wind products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidwell, Autumn; Lee, Tong; Jo, Young-Heon; Yan, Xiao-hai

    2016-04-01

    The South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ), the largest rain band worldwide during austral summer, is important to atmospheric circulation (including cyclone genesis) and ocean circulation. Previous studies of the SPCZ have focused on parameters such as outgoing longwave radiation or precipitation. However, wind convergence is fundamental causing the variations of these parameters. In this study, the SPCZ variability is examined using ocean surface wind products derived from NASA's QuickSCAT (1999-2009) and ESA's ASCAT (2007 onward) satellite scatterometers and ERA-Interim atmospheric reanalysis (1981 onward). From these products, indices were developed to characterize the SPCZ strength, area, and centroid location. Excellent agreement is found in terms of the temporal variations of the indices derived from the satellites and reanalysis wind products, despite some small differences in the time-mean SPCZ strength. The SPCZ strength, area, and centroid latitude have a dominant seasonal cycle. In contrast, the SPCZ centroid longitude is dominated by intraseasonal variability due to the influence by the Madden-Julian Oscillation. The SPCZ indices are all correlated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation indices. Interannual and intraseasonal variations of SPCZ strength during strong El Niño are approximately twice as large as the respective seasonal variations. SPCZ strength depends more on the intensity of El Niño rather than the central- vs. eastern-Pacific type. The longer ERA-Interim product is also used to examine decadal variations of the SPCZ indices. The change from positive to negative Pacific Decadal Oscillation phase around 1999 resulted in a westward shift of the SPCZ centroid longitude, much smaller interannual swing in centroid latitude, and a decrease in SPCZ area. This study improves the understanding of the variations of the SPCZ on multiple time scales and reveals the variations of SPCZ strength not reported previously. The diagnostics analyses can be

  14. A new deep-water goatfish of the genus Upeneus (Mullidae) from Vanuatu, South Pacific.

    PubMed

    Uiblein, Franz; Causse, Romain

    2013-01-01

    A new goatfish, Upeneus vanuatu (Mullidae), is described based on five specimens collected off two islands of Vanuatu (South Pacific), at depths of 191-321 m, and compared with five closely related species: Upeneus davidaroni (Red Sea), U. mascareinsis (Western Indian Ocean), U. stenopsis (northern Australia, Philippines, 127-275 m), and the more shallow-occurring Indo-West Pacific species U. subvittatus (26-120 m) and U. vittatus (

  15. Interdecadal variation in the extent of South Pacific tropical waters during the Younger Dryas event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrège, Thierry; Gagan, Michael K.; Beck, J. Warren; Burr, George S.; Cabioch, Guy; Le Cornec, Florence

    2004-04-01

    During the Younger Dryas event, about 12,000 years ago, the Northern Hemisphere cooled by between 2 and 10°C (refs 1, 2) whereas East Antarctica experienced warming. But the spatial signature of the event in the southern mid-latitudes and tropics is less well known, as records are sparse and inconclusive. Here we present high-resolution analyses of skeletal Sr/Ca and 18O/16O ratios for a giant fossil Diploastrea heliopora coral that was preserved in growth position on the raised reef terraces of Espiritu Santo Island, Vanuatu, in the southwestern tropical Pacific Ocean. Our data indicate that sea surface temperatures in Vanuatu were on average 4.5 +/- 1.3°C cooler during the Younger Dryas event than today, with a significant interdecadal modulation. The amplified annual cycle of sea surface temperatures, relative to today, indicates that cooling was caused by the compression of tropical waters towards the Equator. The positive correlation in our record between the oxygen isotope ratios of sea water and sea surface temperatures suggests that the South Pacific convergence zone, which brings 18O-depleted precipitation to the area today, was not active during the Younger Dryas period.

  16. Shallow genetic and morphological divergence among seaperches in the South Pacific (family Scorpaenidae; genus Helicolenus).

    PubMed

    Smith, P J; Struthers, C D; Paulin, C D; McVeagh, S M; Daley, R K

    2009-04-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among populations of seaperch, Helicolenus spp., in the south-west Pacific were examined with mtDNA markers. Parts of the cytochrome b gene [459 base pair (bp)] and the control region (448 bp) were sequenced in 58 specimens from the south-west Pacific and four specimens of Helicolenus lengerichi from Chile. Only one clade was recognized in New Zealand coastal waters, despite a wide range of colour morphs. This clade also occurred in the mid Tasman Sea on the Norfolk Ridge and around Tasmania and Victoria. A second sympatric clade was identified around Tasmania and Victoria and to the west of New Zealand. A third allopatric clade was identified to the north of New Zealand and in deep water on the Chatham Rise and a fourth clade on the Foundation Seamounts and the Louisville Ridge. Helicolenus lengerichi from Chile formed a fifth clade. Assuming a molecular clock, the clades were estimated to have diverged c. 0.7-2.6 million years ago. Only two clades, around Tasmania and Victoria, were separated using morphology, colour (in live) and dorsal-fin soft ray counts and were confirmed as Helicolenus percoides and Helicolenus barathri. Two characters, orbit diameter and colour variation, previously used to identify two species in New Zealand waters were unreliable characters for species discrimination. Principle component analyses of 11 morphological measures from 67 individuals did not delineate the clades. A canonical discriminant analysis was able to separate four of the five clades, but mean discriminate probabilities were low (77.6%), except for the five Chilean specimens of H. lengerichi (100%). PMID:20735622

  17. Reproductive Dynamics and Potential Annual Fecundity of South Pacific Albacore Tuna (Thunnus alalunga)

    PubMed Central

    Farley, Jessica H.; Williams, Ashley J.; Hoyle, Simon D.; Davies, Campbell R.; Nicol, Simon J.

    2013-01-01

    The reproductive biology of albacore tuna, Thunnus alalunga, in the South Pacific Ocean was investigated with samples collected during broad-scale sampling between 2006 and 2011. Histology was done in a single laboratory according to standard protocols and the data analysed using generalized linear mixed-effects models. The sex ratio of albacore was female biased for fish smaller than approximately 60 cm FL and between 85 and 95 cm, and progressively more male biased above 95 cm FL. Spawning activity was synchronised across the region between 10°S and 25°S during the austral spring and summer where sea surface temperatures were ≥24 °C. The average gonad index varied among regions, with fish in easterly longitudes having heavier gonads for their size than fish in westerly longitudes. Albacore, while capable of spawning daily, on average spawn every 1.3 days during the peak spawning months of October to December. Spawning occurs around midnight and the early hours of the morning. Regional variation in spawning frequency and batch fecundity were not significant. The proportion of active females and the spawning fraction increased with length and age, and mature small and young fish were less active at either end of the spawning season than larger, older fish. Batch fecundity estimates ranged from 0.26 to 2.83 million oocytes with a mean relative batch fecundity of 64.4 oocytes per gram of body weight. Predicted batch fecundity and potential annual fecundity increased with both length and age. This extensive set of reproductive parameter estimates provides many of the first quantitative estimates for this population and will substantially improve the quality of biological inputs to the stock assessment for South Pacific albacore. PMID:23565258

  18. Tropospheric reactive odd nitrogen over the South Pacific in austral springtime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbot, R. W.; Dibb, J. E.; Scheuer, E. M.; Bradshaw, J. D.; Sandholm, S. T.; Singh, H. B.; Blake, D. R.; Blake, N. J.; Atlas, E.; Flocke, F.

    2000-03-01

    The distribution of reactive nitrogen species over the South Pacific during austral springtime appears to be dominated by biomass burning emissions and possibly lightning and stratospheric inputs. The absence of robust correlations of reactive nitrogen species with source-specific tracers (e.g., C2H2 [combustion], CH3Cl [biomass burning], C2Cl4 [industrial], 210Pb [continental], and 7Be [stratospheric]) suggests significant aging and processing of the sampled air parcels due to losses by surface deposition, OH attack, and dilution processes. Classification of the air parcels based on CO enhancements indicates that the greatest influence was found in plumes at 3-8 km altitude in the distributions of HNO3 and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN). Here mixing ratios of these species reached 600 parts per trillion by volume (pptv), values surprisingly large for a location several thousand kilometers removed from the nearest continental areas. The mixing ratio of total reactive nitrogen (the NOy sum), operationally defined in this paper as measured (NO + HNO3 + PAN + CH3ONO2 + C2H5ONO2) + modeled (NO2), had a median value of 285 pptv within these plumes compared with 120 pptv in nonplume air parcels. Particle NO-3 was not included in this analysis of the NOy sum due to its 10- to 15-min sampling time resolution, but, in general, it was <10% of the NOy sum. Comparison of the two air parcel classifications for NOy and alkyl nitrate distributions showed no perceivable plume influence, but recycling of reactive nitrogen may have masked this direct effect. In the marine boundary layer, the NOy sum averaged 50 pptv in both air parcel classifications, being somewhat isolated from the polluted conditions above it by the trade wind inversion. In this region, however, alkyl nitrates appear to have an important marine source where they comprise 20-80% of the NOy sum in equatorial and high-latitude regions over the South Pacific.

  19. Reproductive dynamics and potential annual fecundity of South Pacific albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga).

    PubMed

    Farley, Jessica H; Williams, Ashley J; Hoyle, Simon D; Davies, Campbell R; Nicol, Simon J

    2013-01-01

    The reproductive biology of albacore tuna, Thunnus alalunga, in the South Pacific Ocean was investigated with samples collected during broad-scale sampling between 2006 and 2011. Histology was done in a single laboratory according to standard protocols and the data analysed using generalized linear mixed-effects models. The sex ratio of albacore was female biased for fish smaller than approximately 60 cm FL and between 85 and 95 cm, and progressively more male biased above 95 cm FL. Spawning activity was synchronised across the region between 10°S and 25°S during the austral spring and summer where sea surface temperatures were ≥24 °C. The average gonad index varied among regions, with fish in easterly longitudes having heavier gonads for their size than fish in westerly longitudes. Albacore, while capable of spawning daily, on average spawn every 1.3 days during the peak spawning months of October to December. Spawning occurs around midnight and the early hours of the morning. Regional variation in spawning frequency and batch fecundity were not significant. The proportion of active females and the spawning fraction increased with length and age, and mature small and young fish were less active at either end of the spawning season than larger, older fish. Batch fecundity estimates ranged from 0.26 to 2.83 million oocytes with a mean relative batch fecundity of 64.4 oocytes per gram of body weight. Predicted batch fecundity and potential annual fecundity increased with both length and age. This extensive set of reproductive parameter estimates provides many of the first quantitative estimates for this population and will substantially improve the quality of biological inputs to the stock assessment for South Pacific albacore. PMID:23565258

  20. Accounting for health in climate change policies: a case study of Fiji

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Georgina; Bowen, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Background Climate change is expected to affect the health of most populations in the coming decades, having the greatest impact on the poorest and most disadvantaged people in the world. The Pacific islands, including Fiji, are particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Objective The three major health impacts of climate change in Fiji explored in this study were dengue fever, diarrhoeal disease, and malnutrition, as they each pose a significant threat to human health. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent the Fiji National Climate Change Policy, and a selection of relevant sectoral policies, account for these human health effects of climate change. Design The study employed a three-pronged policy analysis to evaluate: 1) the content of the Fijian National Climate Change Policy and to what extent health was incorporated within this; 2) the context within which the policy was developed; 3) the relevant processes; and 4) the actors involved. A selection of relevant sectoral policies were also analysed to assess the extent to which these included climate change and health considerations. Results The policy analysis showed that these three health impacts of climate change were only considered to a minor extent, and often indirectly, in both the Fiji National Climate Change Policy and the corresponding National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy, as well as the Public Health Act. Furthermore, supporting documents in relevant sectors including water and agriculture made no mention of climate change and health impacts. Conclusions The projected health impacts of climate change should be considered as part of reviewing the Fiji National Climate Change Policy and National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy, and the Public Health Act. In the interest of public health, this should include strategies for combating dengue fever, malnutrition, and water-borne disease. Related sectoral policies in water and agriculture should also be revised to

  1. Fiji - an Open Source platform for biological image analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schindelin, Johannes; Arganda-Carreras, Ignacio; Frise, Erwin; Kaynig, Verena; Longair, Mark; Pietzsch, Tobias; Preibisch, Stephan; Rueden, Curtis; Saalfeld, Stephan; Schmid, Benjamin; Tinevez, Jean-Yves; White, Daniel James; Hartenstein, Volker; Eliceiri, Kevin; Tomancak, Pavel; Cardona, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Fiji is a distribution of the popular Open Source software ImageJ focused on biological image analysis. Fiji uses modern software engineering practices to combine powerful software libraries with a broad range of scripting languages to enable rapid prototyping of image processing algorithms. Fiji facilitates the transformation of novel algorithms into ImageJ plugins that can be shared with end users through an integrated update system. We propose Fiji as a platform for productive collaboration between computer science and biology research communities. PMID:22743772

  2. A climatological interpretation of the circulation in the western South Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, T.; Lindstrom, E. J.

    2002-05-01

    Time-averaged circulation is examined using historical hydrographic data near the Australia and Papua New Guinea coast in the Pacific. By averaging the data along isopycnal surfaces in a 0.5øby 0.5ø grid, we are able to show many detailed phenomena associated with the narrow western boundary currents, including the vertical structure of the bifurcation latitude of the South Equatorial Current (SEC) and the connection between the Solomon and Coral Seas. The bifurcation latitude of the SEC is found to move southward from about 15øS near the surface to south of 22øS in the intermediate layers. The origin of the Great Barrier Reef Undercurrent (GBRUC) is identified to be at about 22øS. Farther to the north, the GBRUC intensifies underlying the surface East Australian Current, and merges with the North Queensland Current (NQC) at about 15øS. The NQC turns eastward to flow along the Papua New Guinea coast and feeds into the New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent (NGCUC) through the Louisiade Archipelago. Further analysis shows that there is a strong water property connection between the Coral and Solomon Seas, confirming the earlier speculation on the water-mass origins of the NGCUC.

  3. Applications of SEASAT altimeter data in seismotectonic studies of the South-Central Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Sailor, R.V.; Okal, E.A.

    1983-02-28

    Individual tracks of SEASAT altimeter data can be used effectively to identify significant bathymetric features in remote and unsurveyed ocean areas. It is especially important, for studies of oceanic seismicity, to identify correlation (or lack of correlation) between seismicity and bathymetric features. However, in many seismically active regions, bathymetric data are sparse or nonexistent. A typical example is the south-central Pacific, an area studied by Okal et al. (1980), who identified several sites of active intraplate seismicity. The purpose of the present paper is to demonstrate how SEASAT data can be used to aid in bathymetric and seismotectonic interpretation of this remote ocean area. We present two illustrations: (1) SEASAT observations of Macdonald seamount, a volcanically active seamount representing the youngest member in the Austral Island chain, and (2) SEASAT observation of a previously undiscovered fracture zone located at approximately 21.4 /sup 0/S and trending east-west between 232 /sup 0/E and 236 /sup 0/E. This fracture zone is located approximately 70 km to the south of a small region of active seismicity (96 events of magnitude greater than 2.7 from 1976 to 1980). On the basis of the demonstrated ability to observe active seamounts such as Macdonald and small fracture zones, we conclude that the observed seismicity in the region near 21 /sup 0/S, 233 /sup 0/E is due to intraplate stresses but is not associated with large-scale volcanism or with an active or fossil fracture zone.

  4. Distinct patterns of marine bacterial communities in the South and North Pacific Oceans.

    PubMed

    Suh, Sung-Suk; Park, Mirye; Hwang, Jinik; Lee, Sukchan; Chung, Youngjae; Lee, Taek-Kyun

    2014-10-01

    The study of oceanic microbial communities is crucial for our understanding of the role of microbes in terms of biomass, diversity and ecosystem function. In this study, 16S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing was used to investigate change in bacterial community structure between summer and winter water masses from Gosung Bay in the South Sea of Korea and Chuuk in Micronesia, located in the North and South Pacific Oceans, respectively. Summer and winter sampling from each water mass revealed highly diverse bacterial communities, containing ~900 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). The microbial distribution and highly heterogeneous composition observed at both sampling sites were different from those of most macroorganisms. The bacterial communities in the seawater at both sites were most abundant in Proteobacteria during the summer in Gosung and in Bacterioidetes during the winter. The proportion of Cyanobacteria was higher in summer than in winter in Chuuk and similar in Gosung. Additionally, the microbial community during summer in Gosung was significantly different from other communities observed based on the unweighted UniFrac distance. These data suggest that in both oceanic areas sampled, the bacterial communities had distinct distribution patterns with spatially- and temporally-heterogeneous distributions. PMID:25269604

  5. Concentrations, isotopic compositions, and sources of lead in the surface waters of the Eastern Tropical South Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Till, R.; Zurbrick, C. M.; Flegal, A. R., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    Lead concentrations and isotopic compositions were measured in surface and subsurface waters across the Eastern Tropical South Pacific as part of the 2013 US GEOTRACES Zonal Transect from Peru to Tahiti. Surface waters were collected throughout the transect, and subsurface waters were collected to a depth of 1,000 m at 36 vertical profile stations. Aliquots of some of those samples, as well as samples from greater depths, were used in intercalibrations with Ed Boyle's group, which focused on lead fluxes from hydrothermal vents and at the benthic boundary layer. In contrast, our group focused on aeolian lead fluxes to surface waters from natural and industrial sources. Preliminary data indicate that lead concentrations in those South Pacific surface waters are low compared to the more contaminated North Pacific. Moreover, complementary lead isotopic compositions indicate distinguishing between natural and industrial lead fluxes in the South Pacific will be more difficult now that the use of gasoline with lead alkyls from Australia have been eliminated.

  6. The bladed Bangiales (Rhodophyta) of the South Eastern Pacific: Molecular species delimitation reveals extensive diversity.

    PubMed

    Guillemin, Marie-Laure; Contreras-Porcia, Loretto; Ramírez, María Eliana; Macaya, Erasmo C; Contador, Cristian Bulboa; Woods, Helen; Wyatt, Christopher; Brodie, Juliet

    2016-01-01

    A molecular taxonomic study of the bladed Bangiales of the South Eastern Pacific (coast of Chile) was undertaken based on sequence data of the mitochondrial COI and chloroplast rbcL for 193 specimens collected from Arica (18°S) in the north to South Patagonia (53°S) in the south. The results revealed for the first time that four genera, Porphyra, Pyropia, Fuscifolium and Wildemania were present in the region. Species delimitation was determined based on a combination of a General Mixed Yule Coalescence model (GMYC) and Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) coupled with detection of monophyly in tree reconstruction. The overall incongruence between the species delimitation methods within each gene was 29%. The GMYC method led to over-splitting groups, whereas the ABGD method had a tendency to lump groups. Taking a conservative approach to the number of putative species, at least 18 were recognized and, with the exception of the recently described Pyropia orbicularis, all were new to the Chilean flora. Porphyra and Pyropia were the most diverse genera with eight 'species' each, whereas only a 'single' species each was found for Fuscifolium and Wildemania. There was also evidence of recently diverging groups: Wildemania sp. was distinct but very closely related to W. amplissima from the Northern Hemisphere and raises questions in relation to such disjunct distributions. Pyropia orbicularis was very closely related to two other species, making species delimitation very difficult but provides evidence of an incipient speciation. The difference between the 'species' discovered and those previously reported for the region is discussed in relation to the difficulty of distinguishing species based on morphological identification. PMID:26484942

  7. Reviewing the circulation and mixing of Antarctic Intermediate Water in the South Pacific using evidence from geochemical tracers and Argo float trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostock, Helen C.; Sutton, Phil J.; Williams, Michael J. M.; Opdyke, Bradley N.

    2013-03-01

    Evidence from physical and geochemical tracers measured during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) shows that there are four sub-types of Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) in the South Pacific. The main formation region of AAIW is the southeast Pacific, where fresh, cold, high oxygen, low nutrient, intermediate waters are created. This AAIW is transported north and mixes with Equatorial Pacific Intermediate Waters (EqPIW), themselves a combination of AAIW and nutrient rich, old North Pacific deep waters. 'Tasman' AAIW found in the Coral and Tasman Seas is more saline and warmer than the main subtropical gyre, and appears to have formed from mixing of AAIW with thermocline waters in the Tasman Gyre. Tasman AAIW leaks out of the Tasman basin to the north of New Zealand and along Chatham Rise, and also in the South Tasman Sea via the Tasman Leakage. Another source of relatively fresh, high oxygen, low nutrient, young AAIW comes directly from the Southern Ocean, flowing into the southwest and central South Pacific Basin, west of the East Pacific Rise. This 'Southern Ocean' (SO) AAIW is most likely a mixture of AAIW formed locally at the Subantarctic Front (SAF), and AAIW formed along the SAF in the southeast Pacific or Indian oceans and transported by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). Interpreting physical and geochemical tracers, combined with velocity estimates from Argo floats, and previous research, has allowed us to refine the detailed circulation pattern of AAIW in the South Pacific, especially in the topographically complex southwest Pacific.

  8. Anomalous South Pacific lithosphere dynamics derived from new total sediment thickness estimates off the West Antarctic margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wobbe, Florian; Lindeque, Ansa; Gohl, Karsten

    2014-12-01

    Paleotopographic models of the West Antarctic margin, which are essential for robust simulations of paleoclimate scenarios, lack information on sediment thickness and geodynamic conditions, resulting in large uncertainties. A new total sediment thickness grid spanning the Ross Sea-Amundsen Sea-Bellingshausen Sea basins is presented and is based on all the available seismic reflection, borehole, and gravity modeling data offshore West Antarctica. This grid was combined with NGDC's global 5 arc minute grid of ocean sediment thickness (Whittaker et al., 2013) and extends the NGDC grid further to the south. Sediment thickness along the West Antarctic margin tends to be 3-4 km larger than previously assumed. The sediment volume in the Bellingshausen, Amundsen, and Ross Sea basins amounts to 3.61, 3.58, and 2.78 million km3, respectively. The residual basement topography of the South Pacific has been revised and the new data show an asymmetric trend over the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge. Values are anomalously high south of the spreading ridge and in the Ross Sea area, where the topography seems to be affected by persistent mantle processes. In contrast, the basement topography offshore Marie Byrd Land cannot be attributed to dynamic topography, but rather to crustal thickening due to intraplate volcanism. Present-day dynamic topography models disagree with the presented revised basement topography of the South Pacific, rendering paleotopographic reconstructions with such a limited dataset still fairly uncertain.

  9. A magneto- and chemostratigraphically calibrated dinoflagellate cyst zonation of the early Palaeogene South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijl, Peter K.; Sluijs, Appy; Brinkhuis, Henk

    2013-09-01

    Investigation of the early Palaeogene palaeoecological and palaeoclimatological evolution of the Polar Regions is hindered by the absence of calcite microfossils in sedimentary archives, which are conventionally the main dating tool. To overcome this problem, we have generated large datasets of organic dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) assemblages from Southern Ocean shelf sediments over the past decade, and we here calibrate these to the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS) using magnetostratigraphy and stable isotope stratigraphy. This now for the first time allows a high-resolution Southern Pacific Ocean dinocyst zonation for the late Palaeocene to late Eocene (58-36 million years ago; Ma). We compile published dinocyst chronologies from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 1171D on the South Tasman Rise, Hole 1172A/D on the East Tasman Plateau and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Hole U1356A on the Wilkes Land margin. Correlation to dinocyst zonations from New Zealand lead to revisions of the magnetostratigraphic age model at Holes 1171D and 1172A/D. Stable carbon and oxygen isotope records reveal the stratigraphic location of the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (~ 56 Ma) and the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (~ 40 Ma), respectively. The resulting zonation consists of thirteen dinocyst zones, calibrated to the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS) of Vandenberghe et al. (2012), which can likely be applied to the entire Southern Ocean. Finally, we apply the revised stratigraphy to all published TEX86 data, a biomarker-based proxy for sea surface temperature (SST), from ODP Site 1172 to assess long-term climate evolution. This shows that Southwest Pacific SST trends mimic the global compilation of benthic foraminiferal oxygen isotopes even better than previously appreciated.

  10. Ocean response to typhoon Nuri (2008) in western Pacific and South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jingru; Oey, Lie-Yauw; Chang, Roger; Xu, Fanghua; Huang, Shih-Ming

    2015-05-01

    Typhoon Nuri formed on 18 August 2008 in the western North Pacific east of the Philippines and traversed northwestward over the Kuroshio in the Luzon Strait where it intensified to a category 3 typhoon. The storm weakened as it passed over South China Sea (SCS) and made landfall in Hong Kong as a category 1 typhoon on 22 August. Despite the storm's modest strength, the change in typhoon Nuri's intensity was unique in that it strongly depended on the upper ocean. This study examines the ocean response to typhoon Nuri using the Princeton Ocean Model. An ocean state accounting for the sea-surface temperature (SST) and mesoscale eddy field prior to Nuri was constructed by assimilating satellite SST and altimetry data 12 days before the storm. The simulation then continued without further data assimilation, so that the ocean response to the strong wind can be used to understand processes. It is found that the SST cooling was biased to the right of the storm's track due to inertial currents that rotated in the same sense as the wind vector, as has previously been found in the literature. However, despite the comparable wind speeds while the storm was in western Pacific and SCS, the SST cooling was much more intense in SCS. The reason was because in SCS, the surface layer was thinner, the vorticity field of the Kuroshio was cyclonic, and moreover a combination of larger Coriolis frequency as the storm moved northward and the typhoon's slower translational speed produced a stronger resonance between wind and current, resulting in strong shears and entrainment of cool subsurface waters in the upper ocean.

  11. Oxygen distribution and aerobic respiration in the north and south eastern tropical Pacific oxygen minimum zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiano, Laura; Garcia-Robledo, Emilio; Dalsgaard, Tage; Devol, Allan H.; Ward, Bess B.; Ulloa, Osvaldo; Canfield, Donald E.; Peter Revsbech, Niels

    2014-12-01

    Highly sensitive STOX O2 sensors were used for determination of in situ O2 distribution in the eastern tropical north and south Pacific oxygen minimum zones (ETN/SP OMZs), as well as for laboratory determination of O2 uptake rates of water masses at various depths within these OMZs. Oxygen was generally below the detection limit (few nmol L-1) in the core of both OMZs, suggesting the presence of vast volumes of functionally anoxic waters in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Oxygen was often not detectable in the deep secondary chlorophyll maximum found at some locations, but other secondary maxima contained up to ~0.4 μmol L-1. Directly measured respiration rates were high in surface and subsurface oxic layers of the coastal waters, reaching values up to 85 nmol L-1 O2 h-1. Substantially lower values were found at the depths of the upper oxycline, where values varied from 2 to 33 nmol L-1 O2 h-1. Where secondary chlorophyll maxima were found the rates were higher than in the oxic water just above. Incubation times longer than 20 h, in the all-glass containers, resulted in highly increased respiration rates. Addition of amino acids to the water from the upper oxycline did not lead to a significant initial rise in respiration rate within the first 20 h, indicating that the measurement of respiration rates in oligotrophic Ocean water may not be severely affected by low levels of organic contamination during sampling. Our measurements indicate that aerobic metabolism proceeds efficiently at extremely low oxygen concentrations with apparent half-saturation concentrations (Km values) ranging from about 10 to about 200 nmol L-1.

  12. Evidence for Topographic Swells Beneath Gravity Lineations in the South Pacific.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, N.; Forsyth, D. W.; Scheirer, D.

    2004-12-01

    The Gravity Lineations Intraplate Melting Petrologic and Seismologic Expedition (GLIMPSE) experiment is investigating the origins of the gravity lineations in the South Pacific and their relationship to intraplate volcanism at the Sojourn and Hotu Matua ridge systems. Using the satellite free air gravity anomaly and high quality shipboard bathymetry in the GLIMPSE study region, we have calculated the Mantle Bouguer Anomaly (MBA) and the residual Mantle Bouguer Anomaly (rMBA). In the MBA, we see strong negative anomalies (~20-40 mGals) beneath the Sojourn and Brown Ridges as well as beneath the Hotu Matua volcanic complex, indicating low-density material beneath the ridge systems in the form of thickened crust or lower density mantle material. We subtract the effects of surface loading of an elastic plate by the volcanic ridges to find the residual topography and the residual MBA. The residual seafloor topography shows a systematic ~200 km wavelength undulation in the seafloor with a strike roughly parallel to the spreading direction, producing residual bathymetric highs of 100-300 m beneath the Sojourn and Hotu Matua ridge systems. There are broad (100 km wide) negative anomaly bands in the rMBA of ~10-40 mGals beneath the entire length of the Sojourn Ridge to the East Pacific Rise and discontinuously from west of Hotu Matua to the EPR. Similar features are found in the extension of the Puka Puka ridge into the Rano Rahi seamount field. The swells beneath the intraplate volcanism and the gravity lineations require a contribution from subsurface positively buoyant low-density material. The seismic refraction and Rayleigh wave dispersion experiments corroborate the existence of anomalies at depth. The swells contradict lithospheric cracking models of the formation of the gravity lineations that predict the gravity lineations should be located over bathymetric troughs, and favor dynamic models such as small-scale convection.

  13. Blue whale population structure along the eastern South Pacific Ocean: evidence of more than one population.

    PubMed

    Torres-Florez, J P; Hucke-Gaete, R; LeDuc, R; Lang, A; Taylor, B; Pimper, L E; Bedriñana-Romano, L; Rosenbaum, H C; Figueroa, C C

    2014-12-01

    Blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) were among the most intensively exploited species of whales in the world. As a consequence of this intense exploitation, blue whale sightings off the coast of Chile were uncommon by the end of the 20th century. In 2004, a feeding and nursing ground was reported in southern Chile (SCh). With the aim to investigate the genetic identity and relationship of these Chilean blue whales to those in other Southern Hemisphere areas, 60 biopsy samples were collected from blue whales in SCh between 2003 and 2009. These samples were genotyped at seven microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial control region was sequenced, allowing us to identify 52 individuals. To investigate the genetic identity of this suspected remnant population, we compared these 52 individuals to blue whales from Antarctica (ANT, n = 96), Northern Chile (NCh, n = 19) and the eastern tropical Pacific (ETP, n = 31). No significant differentiation in haplotype frequencies (mtDNA) or among genotypes (nDNA) was found between SCh, NCh and ETP, while significant differences were found between those three areas and Antarctica for both the mitochondrial and microsatellite analyses. Our results suggest at least two breeding population units or subspecies exist, which is also supported by other lines of evidence such as morphometrics and acoustics. The lack of differences detected between SCh/NCh/ETP areas supports the hypothesis that eastern South Pacific blue whales are using the ETP area as a possible breeding area. Considering the small population sizes previously reported for the SCh area, additional conservation measures and monitoring of this population should be developed and prioritized. PMID:25492593

  14. A Coupled GCM Intercomparison Study of the South Pacific Convergence Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behera, S. K.; Luo, J.; Takahashi, K.; Yamagata, T.

    2007-12-01

    The South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) is an important component of seasonal climate variations in the Southern Hemisphere. Though several associated processes are already discussed using observational data, the SPCZ is yet to be resolved properly in global general circulation models (GCMs). Particularly, the ocean- atmosphere coupled GCMs often fail to simulate the correct orientation and the zonal extent of the SPCZ. Most of these models replicate an east-west zonally oriented ITCZ similar to that in the Northern Hemisphere giving rise to the so-called double ITCZ problem. In this study simulation results from a variety of models are used to understand model biases in resolving the temporal and spatial distribution of the SPCZ. These models range from standalone atmospheric GCMs to the state of the art ocean-atmosphere coupled GCMs. It is found that the seasonal SPCZ in standalone atmospheric GCM results is better represented than that in the coupled GCM with an identical atmospheric component and a spatial resolution of about 100 km. The dry zone to the east of the SPCZ is not well-formed in coupled GCMs, particularly in austral summer when the SPCZ is pronounced. This is related to the model biases of the sea surface temperature, which is warmer in eastern Pacific in coupled GCM than the observation. The bias is not as clearly manifested in a spatially higher resolution coupled GCM in which the eastern Pacific SST is better simulated. The increase in model horizontal resolution helps in resolving the local air-sea interactions, the cross- equatorial winds and the local circulation cells. The dry zone is also improved in another experiment in which the improvement in model coupling physics improved the bias in equatorial cold tongue. It is also found that the SPCZ simulation is not improved by just increasing the vertical resolution in coupled GCM. This also imply that a proper representation of the boundary layer and the associated physics is more important

  15. The joint impact of ocean circulation and plate tectonics on the glacial South Pacific carbon pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronge, T.; Tiedemann, R.; Lamy, F.; Köhler, P.; Alloway, B.; De Pol-Holz, R.; Pahnke, K.; Southon, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    To understand the whereabouts of CO2 during glacials and its pathways during deglacial transitions is one of the main priorities in paleoclimate research. The opposing patterns of atmospheric CO2 and Δ14C suggest that the bulk of CO2 was released from an old and therefore 14C-depleted carbon reservoir. As the modern deep ocean, below ~2000 m, stores up to 60-times more carbon than the entire atmosphere, it is considered to be a major driver of the atmospheric CO2 pattern, storing CO2 during glacials, releasing it during deglacial transitions. We use a South Pacific transect of sediment cores, covering the Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW), the Upper Circumpolar Deep Water (UCDW) and the Lower Circumpolar Deep Water (LCDW), to reconstruct the spatio-temporal evolution of oceanic Δ14C over the last 30,000 years. During the last glacial, we find significantly 14C-depleted waters between 2000 and 4300 m water depth, indicating a strong stratification and the storage of carbon in these water masses. However, two sediment cores from 2500 m and 3600 m water depth reveal an extreme glacial atmosphere-to-deep-water Δ14C offset of up to -1000‰ and ventilation ages (deep-water to atmosphere 14C-age difference) of ~8000 years. Such old water masses are expected to be anoxic, yet there is no evidence of anoxia in the glacial S-Pacific. Recent studies showed an increase of Mid Ocean Ridge (MOR) volcanism during glacials due to the low stand of global sea level. For this reason, we hypothesize that the admixture of 14C-dead carbon via tectonic activity along MORs might have contributed to these extremely low radiocarbon values. With a simple 1-box model, we calculated if the admixture of hydrothermal CO2 has the potential to lower the deep Pacific Δ14C signal. We show that if the oceanic turnover time is at least 2700 years, an increased hydrothermal flux of 1.2 μmol kg-1 yr-1 has the potential to reproduce the extreme radiocarbon values observed in our records.

  16. The Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory's 25th Anniversary Expedition to the South Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. R.; Wiltshire, J. C.; Malahoff, A.

    2005-12-01

    The Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory (HURL) was established by NOAA at the University of Hawaii 25 years ago as part of its National Undersea Research Program. HURL's mission is to study deep water marine processes in the Pacific Ocean through a competitive proposal and review process. The dual Pisces IV and Pisces V 2000-meter manned submersibles, an RCV-150 1000-meter ROV, and multibeam equipped support ship R/V Ka'imikai-o-Kanaloa ( KoK) were largely acquired from the petroleum industry then adapted and upgraded to carry out cutting edge scientific expeditions. These studies range from active submarine volcanoes, delicate precious coral gardens, endangered marine mammal and fisheries management, to engineering surveys and deployment of observatory systems. HURL successfully completed a major 5-month expedition to the South Pacific during March-August 2005, working in the waters of New Zealand, Tonga, American Samoa, and the U.S. Line Islands covering a distance of nearly 14,500 nautical miles. This mission was significant in both the scientific merit and scope of operations, consisting of 8 different cruise legs at 21 study sites, with 12 chief and co-chief scientists, 58 total science team participants, and completing 61 out of 56 scheduled Pisces science dives, 17 ROV dives, 5 multibeam survey areas, 6 CTD rosette deployments, and 7 instrument mooring recoveries. The $3.5 million expedition was funded by an international partnership with New Zealand agencies (GNS & NIWA) and the University of Kiel in Germany along with the NOAA Office of Exploration and National Undersea Research Program. While most of the individual cruise legs focused on active submarine volcanoes of the Tonga-Kermadec Islands Arc and the Samoan hot spot chain with their hydrothermal systems and associated biological communities, others concentrated on marine protected areas including those of American Samoa and the remote atolls of the Line Islands of the Central Pacific. These studies

  17. Offshore Teaching Practice in the Australia-Pacific Technical College: A Case Study in the South Pacific

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates teaching practices at the Australia-Pacific Technical College (APTC), which comprise a unique official development assistance (ODA) program funded by the Government of Australia (GoA) and managed through the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAid) with the aim of training and equipping workers from the…

  18. Seasonal oceanography from physics to micronekton in the south-west Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menkes, C. E.; Allain, V.; Rodier, M.; Gallois, F.; Lebourges-Dhaussy, A.; Hunt, B. P. V.; Smeti, H.; Pagano, M.; Josse, E.; Daroux, A.; Lehodey, P.; Senina, I.; Kestenare, E.; Lorrain, A.; Nicol, S.

    2015-03-01

    Tuna catches represent a major economic and food source in the Pacific Ocean, yet are highly variable. This variability in tuna catches remains poorly explained. The relationships between the distributions of tuna and their forage (micronekton) have been mostly derived from model estimates. Observations of micronekton and other mid-trophic level organisms, and their link to regional oceanography, however are scarce and constitute an important gap in our knowledge and understanding of the dynamics of pelagic ecosystems. To fill this gap, we conducted two multidisciplinary cruises (Nectalis1 and Nectalis2) in the New Caledonian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) at the southeastern edge the Coral Sea, in 2011 to characterize the oceanography of the region during the cool (August) and the hot (December) seasons. The physical and biological environments were described by hydrology, nutrients and phytoplankton size structure and biomass. Zooplankton biomass was estimated from net sampling and acoustics and micronecton was estimated from net sampling, the SEAPODYM ecosystem model, a dedicated echosounder and non-dedicated acoustics. Results demonstrated that New Caledonia is located in an oligotrophic area characterized by low nutrient and low primary production which is dominated by a high percentage of picoplankton cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus (>90%). The area exhibits a large-scale north-south temperature and salinity gradient. The northern area is influenced by the equatorial Warm Pool and the South Pacific Convergence Zone and is characterized by higher temperature, lower salinity, lower primary production and micronekton biomass. The southern area is influenced by the Tasman Sea and is characterized by cooler temperature, higher salinity, higher primary production and micronekton biomass. The dynamic oceanography and the complex topography create a myriad of mesoscale features including eddies, inducing patchy structures in the ecosystem. During the cool season, a

  19. Modelling the impact of climate change on South Pacific albacore tuna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehodey, Patrick; Senina, Inna; Nicol, Simon; Hampton, John

    2015-03-01

    The potential impact of climate change under the IPCC AR4-A2 scenario (close to the AR5-RCP8.5 scenario) on south Pacific albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) is simulated with the Spatial Ecosystem And Population Dynamics Model (SEAPODYM) and environmental forcing variables provided by the Earth Climate model IPSL-CM4. Parameters controlling the habitat and dynamics of the population were optimized by fitting the model, using maximum likelihood, to a complete fishing data set for the historical fishing period since 1950. Albacore undertake clear seasonal migrations between feeding and spawning grounds, as evidenced by seasonal catch and size composition changes. This seasonality was well predicted by the SEAPODYM albacore simulations. The total biomass estimate of south Pacific albacore was predicted to have decreased from ~1.8 million tonnes (Mt) at the beginning of industrial fisheries in 1950 to 1.25 Mt in 2006, in good agreement with an independent estimate from stock assessment analysis. A simulation without fishing indicated an equivalent contribution of environmental variability and fishing to the historical decrease of the stock biomass. The parameterized SEAPODYM model was used to project the dynamics of the population until the end of the 21st century with an average fishing effort based on recent years. Under this fishing and climate change scenario, the population was predicted to decrease and to stabilize after 2035 just below 0.8 Mt, i.e., 55% below the initial biomass of 1960. After 2080 however, the trend was reversed when a new spawning ground emerged in the north Tasman Sea. A test simulation highlighted the sensitivity of the model results to projected dissolved oxygen concentration for which there is large uncertainty in the tropical region. A second test simulation showed that genetic selection favouring albacore with preferences for higher optimal ambient spawning temperature would maintain a reduced level of spawning in current tropical spawning

  20. Title: Biogenic Magnetite Prevails in Oxic Pelagic Red Clay Core in the South Pacific Gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimono, T.; Yamazaki, T.

    2012-12-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria have been observed in wide variety of environments, including soils, freshwater lakes, and marine sediments, since Blakemore (1975) first described in 1975. Magnetotactic bacteria, which most commonly live within the oxic-anoxic transition zone (OATZ) of aquatic environments, produce intracellular crystals of magnetic minerals, specifically magnetite or greigite. It is considered that the magnetite/greigite crystals facilitate the bacteria's search for optimal conditions within the sharp chemical gradients of the OATZ. Petermann and Bleil (1993) reported living magnetotactic bacteria in pelagic and hemipelagic sediments near OATZ in the eastern South Atlantic at water depths to about 3,000 m, but they couldn't find actively swimming magnetotactic bacteria in sediments of deeper water depths. The South Pacific Gyre (SPG) is far from continents and the lowest productivity region on Earth. IODP site U1365 (water depth ~5,700 m) cored pelagic red clay of 75.5 m thick above ~100 Ma basement (except for the chart layer from ~42 to 63.5 m) in the western edge of the SPG. The core mainly consists of iron rich clay. The color is dark reddish and/or dark brown throughout the core. We conducted a paleomagnetic and environmental rock magnetic study of the pelagic clay core. The magnetostratigraphy revealed the top 5 m sediments cover the last 5 My, and sedimentation rate decreases downward from 1.7 to 0.6 m/m.y. Geochemical measurements of pore water indicate that dissolved oxygen was present throughout the core (>50 μM). Thus oxygen penetrates through the entire sediment column to the sediment/basalt interface, and there is no OATZ. Magnetic mineral assemblage of this core is dominated by biogenic magnetite despite no OATZ. First-order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams of all specimens have a narrow central ridge along the Hc axis with very small vertical spread. This indicates very weak magnetostatic interaction (Roberts et al., 2000), and is the

  1. Biogeochemical characteristics of a long-lived anticyclonic eddy in the eastern South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornejo, M.; Bravo, L.; Ramos, M.; Pizarro, O.; Karstensen, J.; Gallegos, M.; Correa-Ramirez, M.; Silva, N.; Farias, L.; Karp-Boss, L.

    2015-09-01

    Eastern boundary upwelling systems are characterized by high productivity that often leads to subsurface hypoxia on the shelf. Mesoscale eddies are important, frequent, and persistent features of circulation in these regions, transporting physical, chemical and biological properties from shelves to the open ocean. In austral fall of 2011, during the Tara Oceans expedition, a subsurface layer (200-400 m) in which the concentration of oxygen was very low (< 2 μmol kg-1 of O2) was observed in the eastern South Pacific, ~ 900 km offshore (30° S, 81° W). Satellite altimetry combined with CTD observations associated the local oxygen anomaly with an intrathermocline, anticyclonic, mesoscale eddy with a diameter of about 150 km. The eddy contained Equatorial Subsurface Water (ESSW) that at this latitude is normally restricted near the coast. Undersaturation (44 %) of nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitrite accumulation (> 0.5 μM) gave evidence for denitrification in this water mass. Based on satellite altimetry, we tracked the eddy back to its region of formation on the coast of central Chile (36.1° S, 74.6° W). We estimate that the eddy formed in April 2010. Field studies conducted on the Chilean shelf in June 2010 provided approximate information on initial O2 and N2O concentrations of "source water" in the region at the time of eddy formation. Concentrations of both O2 and N2O in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the offshore eddy were lower than its surroundings or "source water" on the shelf, suggesting that these chemical species were consumed as the eddy moved offshore. Estimates of apparent oxygen utilization rates at the OMZ of the eddy ranged from 0.29 to 44 nmol L-1 d-1 and the rate of N2O consumption was 3.92 nmol L-1 d-1. Our results show that mesoscale eddies in the ESP not only transport physical properties of the ESSW from the coast to the ocean interior, but also export and transform biogeochemical properties, creating suboxic environments in the oligotrophic

  2. Review of solutions for 3D hydrodynamic modeling applied to aquaculture in South Pacific atoll lagoons.

    PubMed

    Andréfouët, S; Ouillon, S; Brinkman, R; Falter, J; Douillet, P; Wolk, F; Smith, R; Garen, P; Martinez, E; Laurent, V; Lo, C; Remoissenet, G; Scourzic, B; Gilbert, A; Deleersnijder, E; Steinberg, C; Choukroun, S; Buestel, D

    2006-10-01

    A workshop organized in French Polynesia in November 2004 allowed reviewing the current methods to model the three-dimensional hydrodynamic circulation in semi-enclosed atoll lagoons for aquaculture applications. Mollusk (e.g. pearl oyster, clam) aquaculture is a major source of income for South Pacific countries such as French Polynesia or Cook Islands. This aquaculture now requires a better understanding of circulation patterns to improve the spatial use of the lagoons, especially to define the best area to set larvae collectors. The pelagic larval duration of the relevant species (<20 days) and the size of the semi-closed lagoons (few hundreds of km2) drive the specifications of the model in terms of the spatial and temporal scale. It is considered that, in contrast with fish, mollusk larvae movements are limited and that their cycle occurs completely in the lagoon, without an oceanic stage. Atolls where aquaculture is productive are generally well-bounded, or semi-closed, without significant large and deep openings to the ocean. Nevertheless part of the lagoon circulation is driven by oceanic water inputs through the rim, ocean swells, tides and winds. Therefore, boundary conditions of the lagoon system are defined by the spatial structure of a very shallow rim (exposition and number of hoas), the deep ocean swell climate, tides and wind regimes. To obtain a realistic 3D numerical model of lagoon circulation with adequate forcing, it is thus necessary to connect in an interdisciplinary way a variety of methods (models, remote sensing and in situ data collection) to accurately represent the different components of the lagoon system and its specific boundary conditions. We review here the current methods and tools used to address these different components for a hypothetical atoll of the Tuamotu Archipelago (French Polynesia), representative of the semi-closed lagoons of the South Pacific Ocean. We hope this paper will serve as a guide for similar studies

  3. Language Education Needs for Multilingualism in Fiji Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shameem, Nikhat

    2007-01-01

    This paper looks at current practice in teaching multilingual Indo-Fijian children in eight Fiji primary schools. Indo-Fijians speak Fiji Hindi (FH) as their mother tongue, learn Shudh Hindi (SH) or Urdu, and English for formal and literacy purposes and use English and Fijian for interethnic communication. The current education policy states that…

  4. Student Expectations of Tertiary Institutions: A Case Study of the Fiji National University (FNU)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Shana Nigar

    2012-01-01

    Education is a human right and Fiji's tertiary education board recently declared that all tertiary institutions in Fiji must abide by the framework in order to meet student-customers' needs. The Fiji National University's (FNU's) destiny to be Fiji's leading higher education provider could be a reality if students and staff's expectations are…

  5. A novel clade of Prochlorococcus found in high nutrient low chlorophyll waters in the South and Equatorial Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    West, Nyree J; Lebaron, Philippe; Strutton, Pete G; Suzuki, Marcelino T

    2011-01-01

    A novel high-light (HL)-adapted Prochlorococcus clade was discovered in high nutrient and low chlorophyll (HNLC) waters in the South Pacific Ocean by phylogenetic analyses of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and 16S–23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. This clade, named HNLC fell within the HL-adapted Prochlorococcus clade with sequences above 99% similarity to one another, and was divided into two subclades, HNLC1 and HNLC2. The distribution of the whole HNLC clade in a northwest to southeast transect in the South Pacific (HNLC-to-gyre) and two 8°N to 8°S transects in the Equatorial Pacific was determined by quantitative PCR using specific primers targeting ITS regions. HNLC was the dominant HL Prochlorococcus clade (2–9% of bacterial 16S rRNA genes) at the three westernmost stations in the South Pacific but decreased to less than 0.1% at the other stations being replaced by the eMIT9312 ecotype in the hyperoligotrophic gyre. The highest contributions of HNLC Prochlorococcus in both Equatorial Pacific transects along the latitudinal lines of 170°W and 155°W were observed at the southernmost stations, reaching 16 and 6% of bacterial 16S rRNA genes, respectively, whereas eMIT9312 dominated near the Equator. Spearman Rank Order correlation analysis indicated that although both the HNLC clade and eMIT9312 were correlated with temperature, they showed different correlations with regard to nutrients. HNLC only showed significant correlations to ammonium uptake and regeneration rates, whereas eMIT9312 was negatively correlated with inorganic nutrients. PMID:21124492

  6. IODP Expedition 329: Life and Habitability Beneath the Seafloor of the South Pacific Gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Hondt, S.; Inagaki, F.; Alvarez Zarikian, C.; IODP Expedition 329 Scientific Party, the

    2013-03-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 329 made major strides toward fulfilling its objectives. Shipboard studies documented (1) fundamental aspects of habitability and life in this very low activity subseafloor sedimentary ecosystem and (2) first-order patterns of habitability within the igneous basement. A broad range of postexpedition studies will complete the expedition objectives. Throughout the South Pacific Gyre (SPG; Sites U1365-U1370), dissolved oxygen and nitrate are present throughout the entire sediment sequence, and sedimentary microbial cell counts are lower than at all previously drilled IODP/ Ocean Drilling Program (ODP)/Deep Sea Drilling Program (DSDP) sites. In contrast, at Site U1371 in the upwelling zone just south of the gyre, detectable oxygen and nitrate are limited to the top and bottom of the sediment column, manganese reduction is a prominent electron-accepting process, and cell concentrations are higher than at the same depths in the SPG sites throughout the sediment column. Geographic variation in subseafloor profiles of dissolved and solid-phase chemicals are consistent with the magnitude of organic-fueled subseafloor respiration declining from outside the gyre to the gyre center. Chemical profiles in the sedimentary pore water and secondary mineral distributions in the basaltic basement indicate that basement alteration continues on the timescale of formation fluid replacement, even at the sites with the oldest basement (84-120 Ma at Sites U1365 and U1366). doi:10.2204/iodp.sd.15.01.2013

  7. A comparative study of Taiwan's short-term medical missions to the South Pacific and Central America

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Taiwan has been dispatching an increasing number of short-term medical missions (STMMs) to its allied nations to provide humanitarian health care; however, overall evaluations to help policy makers strengthen the impact of such missions are lacking. Our primary objective is to identify useful strategies by comparing STMMs to the South Pacific and Central America. Methods The data for the evaluation come from two main sources: the official reports of 46 missions to 11 countries in Central America and 25 missions to 8 countries in the South Pacific, and questionnaires completed by health professionals who had participated in the above missions. In Central America, STMMs were staffed by volunteer health professionals from multiple institutions. In the South Pacific, STMMs were staffed by volunteer health professionals from single institutions. Results In comparison to STMMs to Central America, STMMs to the South Pacific accomplished more educational training for local health providers, including providing heath-care knowledge and skills (p<0.05), and training in equipment administration (p<0.001) and drug administration (p<0.005). In addition, language constraints were more common among missions to Central America (p<0.001). There was no significant difference in the performance of clinical service between the two regions. Conclusions Health-care services provided by personnel from multiple institutions are as efficient as those from single institutions. Proficiency in the native language and provision of education for local health-care workers are essential for conducting a successful STMM. Our data provide implications for integrating evidence into the deployment of STMMs. PMID:23270459

  8. The Asia Pacific Academic Consortium for Global Public Health and medicine: stabilizing south-south academic collaboration.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Walter K

    2011-09-01

    Developmental strategies over the last 4 decades have generally tended to transfer knowledge and technology along north-south axes as trickle-down theories in development, especially in health knowledge transfers, prevailed. Limited efforts in development assistance for health (DAH) were made to promote south-south cooperation for basic health needs. Globalization with increased educational networks and development health assistance has enhanced the potential for more effective south-south partnerships for health. The stages of development in a consortium and key catalysts in the metamorphosis to a south-south partnership are identified: leadership, resources, expertise, visibility participation, and dynamism of a critical mass of young professionals. PMID:21896357

  9. Calcite production by Coccolithophores in the South East Pacific Ocean: from desert to jungle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaufort, L.; Couapel, M.; Buchet, N.; Claustre, H.

    2007-09-01

    BIOSOPE cruise achieved an oceanographic transect from the Marquise Islands to the Peru-Chili upwelling (PCU) via the centre of the South Pacific Gyre (SPG). Water samples from 6 depths in the euphotic zone were collected at 20 stations. The concentrations of suspended calcite particles, coccolithophores cells and detached coccoliths were estimated together with size and weight using an automatic polarizing microscope, a digital camera, and a collection of softwares performing morphometry and pattern recognition. Some of these softwares are new and described here for the first time. The coccolithophores standing stocks are usually low and reach maxima west of the PCU. The coccoliths of Emiliania huxleyi, Gephyrocapsa spp. and Crenalithus spp. (Order Isochrysidales) represent 50% of all the suspended calcite particles detected in the size range 0.1-46 μm (21% of PIC in term of the calcite weight). The latter species are found to grow preferentially in the Chlorophyll maximum zone. In the SPG their maximum concentrations was found to occur between 150 and 200 m, which is very deep for these taxa. The weight and size of coccoliths and coccospheres are correlated. Large and heavy coccoliths and coccospheres are found in the regions with relative higher fertility in the Marquises Island and in the PCU. Small and light coccoliths and coccospheres are found west of the PCU. This distribution may correspond to that of the concentration of calcium and carbonate ions.

  10. Nitrous oxide production by nitrification and denitrification in the Eastern Tropical South Pacific oxygen minimum zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Qixing; Babbin, Andrew R.; Jayakumar, Amal; Oleynik, Sergey; Ward, Bess B.

    2015-12-01

    The Eastern Tropical South Pacific oxygen minimum zone (ETSP-OMZ) is a site of intense nitrous oxide (N2O) flux to the atmosphere. This flux results from production of N2O by nitrification and denitrification, but the contribution of the two processes is unknown. The rates of these pathways and their distributions were measured directly using 15N tracers. The highest N2O production rates occurred at the depth of peak N2O concentrations at the oxic-anoxic interface above the oxygen deficient zone (ODZ) because slightly oxygenated waters allowed (1) N2O production from both nitrification and denitrification and (2) higher nitrous oxide production yields from nitrification. Within the ODZ proper (i.e., anoxia), the only source of N2O was denitrification (i.e., nitrite and nitrate reduction), the rates of which were reflected in the abundance of nirS genes (encoding nitrite reductase). Overall, denitrification was the dominant pathway contributing the N2O production in the ETSP-OMZ.

  11. A Large Plasmodium vivax Reservoir and Little Population Structure in the South Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Koepfli, Cristian; Timinao, Lincoln; Antao, Tiago; Barry, Alyssa E.; Siba, Peter; Mueller, Ivo; Felger, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The importance of Plasmodium vivax in malaria elimination is increasingly being recognized, yet little is known about its population size and population genetic structure in the South Pacific, an area that is the focus of intensified malaria control. Methods We have genotyped 13 microsatellite markers in 295 P. vivax isolates from four geographically distinct sites in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and one site from Solomon Islands, representing different transmission intensities. Results Diversity was very high with expected heterozygosity values ranging from 0.62 to 0.98 for the different markers. Effective population size was high (12′872 to 19′533 per site). In PNG population structuring was limited with moderate levels of genetic differentiation. FST values (adjusted for high diversity of markers) were 0.14–0.15. Slightly higher levels were observed between PNG populations and Solomon Islands (FST = 0.16). Conclusions Low levels of population structure despite geographical barriers to transmission are in sharp contrast to results from regions of low P. vivax endemicity. Prior to intensification of malaria control programs in the study area, parasite diversity and effective population size remained high. PMID:23823758

  12. Measurements of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and NO2 at the South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeon, J.; Song, D.; Lee, J. S.; Rhee, T. S.; Park, K.; Lee, G.

    2014-12-01

    We measured peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and NO2 in remote marine boundary area during the SHIPPO (Shipborne Pole to Pole Observation). The measurements were made on the R/V Araon from Christ church, New Zealand to Gwangyang, South Korea along the western Pacific Ocean from March 30th to April 25th, 2014. Both PAN and NO2 were analyzed every 2 minute by a fast chromatograph with luminol-based chemiluminescence detection. In order to improve their detection limits, random noise from PMT has been successfully reduced by ensembled chromatograms with every 30 samples. Additionally, we replaced Nylon membrane surface with reflective aluminum surface and applied the new Luminol solution, which enhanced the signals significantly with detection limits of 6 pptv and 40 ppbv for PAN and NO2, respectively. Average concentrations of PAN and NO2 were 8 pptv for PAN and 80 pptv for NO2 during the experiment. The back trajectory analysis showed that the directly influenced air masses from anthropogenic activities were rare except the latitudes higher than 20°N. Relatively good correlations between PAN and NO2 were consistently observed, while PAN and O3 were not clearly correlated except in the air masses recently originated from land masses.

  13. Impact of vertical and horizontal advection on nutrient distribution in the South East Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barceló-Llull, B.; Mason, E.; Pascual, A.

    2015-09-01

    An innovative approach is used to analyse the impact of vertical velocities associated with quasi-geostrophic (QG) dynamics on the distribution of a passive nutrient tracer (nitrate) in the South East Pacific. Twelve years of vertical and horizontal currents are derived from an observation-based estimate of the ocean state. Horizontal velocities are obtained through application of thermal wind balance to weekly temperature and salinity fields. Vertical velocities are estimated by integration of the QG Omega equation. Seasonal variability of the synthetic vertical velocity and kinetic energy associated with the horizontal currents are coincident, with peaks in austral summer (November-December) in accord with published observations. Two ensembles of Lagrangian particle tracking experiments that differ according to vertical forcing (w = wQG vs. w = 0) enable a quantitative analysis of the impact of the vertical velocity. From identical initial distributions of nitrate-tagged particles, the Lagrangian results show that the impact of vertical advection on nutrient distribution is 30 % of the contribution of horizontal advection. Despite being weaker by a factor of up to 10-4 than the horizontal currents, vertical velocity is demonstrated to make an important contribution to nutrient distributions in the region of study.

  14. Dolomitization of atolls by sea water convection flow: test of a hypothesis at Niue, South Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Aharon, P.; Socki, R.A.; Chan, L.

    1987-03-01

    The core of the former atoll on Niue Island, South Pacific, is extensively dolomitized. A detailed stable isotope study reveals that the dolomites are uniformly enriched in /sup 18/O and /sup 13/C(delta /sup 18/O = 2.8 per thousand +/- 0.5; delta /sup 13/C = 2.0 per thousand +/- 0.3) relative to their carbonate precursor. The Sr isotope ratios are equally constant with depth yielding /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr values between 0.70912 and 0.70916. The observed isotopic compositions point to sea water as the dominant dolomitizing fluid. The Sr age of the dolomites is younger than the biostratigraphic age (Mid to Late Miocene) placing the dolomitization event at Plio-Pleistocene time. A model of sea water convection is proposed for atoll dolomitization on the basis of a thermal gradient between the atoll and the ambient ocean water. Sea water is drawn through the atoll margin and transferred upward by convective flow delivering Mg to the sites of dolomite precipitation. Transported with the sea water are volcano-derived metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn) as evidenced by the chemical gradient in the dolomite unit. It is suggested that the thermal convection model can find general application in atolls and other carbonate platforms containing dolomite where thermal instability exists. 70 references.

  15. Environmental rock-magnetism of Cenozoic red clay in the South Pacific Gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimono, Takaya; Yamazaki, Toshitsugu

    2016-04-01

    Nonfossiliferous red clay can be used for elucidating long-range environmental changes, although such studies were limited so far because of the difficulty in precise age estimation and extremely low sedimentation rates. We conducted an environmental rock-magnetic study of Cenozoic red clay at the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site U1365 in the South Pacific Gyre. Magnetostratigraphy could be established only above ˜6 m below the seafloor (mbsf) (˜5 Ma). Below ˜6 mbsf, the ages of the cores were transferred from the published ages of nearby Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 596, which is based mainly on a constant Cobalt flux model, by intercore correlation using magnetic susceptibility and rare earth element content variation patterns. Rock-magnetic analyses including first-order reversal curve diagrams, the ratio of anhysteretic remanent magnetization susceptibility to saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM), and IRM component analyses revealed that magnetic minerals consist mainly of biogenic magnetite and terrigenous maghemite, and that the proportion of the terrigenous component increased since ˜23 Ma. We consider that the increase reflects a growth of eolian dust flux associated with a northward shift of Australia and the site to an arid region of the middle latitudes. The increase of the terrigenous component accelerated after ˜5 Ma, which may be associated with a further growth of the Antarctic glaciation at that time. This is coeval with the onset of the preservation of magnetostratigraphy, suggesting that the primary remanent magnetization is carried by the terrigenous component.

  16. Dissolved organic carbon in the South China Sea and its exchange with the Western Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kai; Dai, Minhan; Chen, Junhui; Meng, Feifei; Li, Xiaolin; Liu, Zhiyu; Du, Chuanjun; Gan, Jianping

    2015-12-01

    Based on a large and high quality dataset of total organic carbon (TOC, an approximation of dissolved organic carbon) collected from three cruises in spring, fall and winter in 2009-2011, we examined the distribution of TOC and its seasonality in the oligotrophic regime of the Northern South China Sea (NSCS) as well as its exchanges with the West Philippine Sea (WPS) in the Northwest Pacific Ocean through the Luzon Strait, the only deep channel linking the South China Sea (SCS) and the Pacific Ocean. Surface TOC concentration in the slope and basin areas of the NSCS varied from 65 to 75 μmol L-1 with relatively high values in the northeast part (southwest of Taiwan Island) in spring, and in the eastern parts of the NSCS during fall and winter. The TOC inventory in the upper 100 m of the water column ranged from 6.0-7.5 mol m-2 with a similar distribution pattern as the surface TOC concentration. There were two most significant differences in the TOC profiles between the SCS and the WPS. One was in the upper 200 m, where more TOC was accumulated in the WPS; the other was in the intermediate layer at ~1000-1500 m, where the gradient of TOC concentration was still persistent below 1000 m in the SCS, a feature which did not exist in the WPS. At this intermediate layer, there also appeared an excess of TOC in the SCS as compared with that in the WPS. The TOC concentration below 2000 m in the SCS was identical to that in the Northwestern Pacific, both of which were ~40 μmol L-1 without significant difference among stations and seasons, suggesting that this deep water TOC was homogeneously distributed in the deep SCS basin owing to the fast replenishment of the deep water from the WPS. We adopted an isopycnal mixing model to derive the water proportion contributed respectively from the SCS and Kuroshio along individual isopycnal plane and examined the impact of the Kuroshio intrusion on the TOC in the NSCS. The upper 100 m TOC inventory in the NSCS was overall

  17. Spatial and Sex-Specific Variation in Growth of Albacore Tuna (Thunnus alalunga) across the South Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Ashley J.; Farley, Jessica H.; Hoyle, Simon D.; Davies, Campbell R.; Nicol, Simon J.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial variation in growth is a common feature of demersal fish populations which often exist as discrete adult sub-populations linked by a pelagic larval stage. However, it remains unclear whether variation in growth occurs at similar spatial scales for populations of highly migratory pelagic species, such as tuna. We examined spatial variation in growth of albacore Thunnus alalunga across 90° of longitude in the South Pacific Ocean from the east coast of Australia to the Pitcairn Islands. Using length-at-age data from a validated ageing method we found evidence for significant variation in length-at-age and growth parameters (L∞ and k) between sexes and across longitudes. Growth trajectories were similar between sexes up until four years of age, after which the length-at-age for males was, on average, greater than that for females. Males reached an average maximum size more than 8 cm larger than females. Length-at-age and growth parameters were consistently greater at more easterly longitudes than at westerly longitudes for both females and males. Our results provide strong evidence that finer spatial structure exists within the South Pacific albacore stock and raises the question of whether the scale of their “highly migratory” nature should be re-assessed. Future stock assessment models for South Pacific albacore should consider sex-specific growth curves and spatial variation in growth within the stock. PMID:22723993

  18. The non-stationary influence of the Atlantic and Pacific Niños on North Eastern South American rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torralba, Verónica; Rodríguez-Fonseca, Belén; Mohino, Elsa; Losada, Teresa

    2015-09-01

    Rainfall variability over the tropical Atlantic region is dominated by changes in the surface temperature of the surrounding oceans. In particular, the oceanic forcing over Northeast of South America is dominated by the Atlantic interhemispheric temperature gradient, which leads its predictability. Nevertheless, in recent decades, the SST influence on rainfall variability in some tropical Atlantic regions has been found to be non-stationary, with important changes of the Atlantic and Pacific influence on Sahelian rainfall which appear to be modulated at multidecadal timescales. In this work, we revisit the SST influence over Northeast of South America including the analysis of the stationarity of this relationship at interannual timescales. Principal Component Analysis has been applied to the interannual component of rainfall during the March-April-May season. Results show how the SST forcing on the first mode of rainfall variability, which is a dipole-like pattern generated by the changes in the seasonal migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, is different depending of the considered period. The response to the SST anomalies in the Pacific basin is opposite to the Atlantic one and affects different areas. The Atlantic Niño influences rainfall variability at the beginning of the XX century and after 1970, while the Pacific Niño plays a major role in the variability of the rainfall in the Northeast of South America from 1970 onwards. The combined effect of both basins after the 1970s amplifies the anomalous rainfall response.

  19. Spatial and sex-specific variation in growth of albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) across the South Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ashley J; Farley, Jessica H; Hoyle, Simon D; Davies, Campbell R; Nicol, Simon J

    2012-01-01

    Spatial variation in growth is a common feature of demersal fish populations which often exist as discrete adult sub-populations linked by a pelagic larval stage. However, it remains unclear whether variation in growth occurs at similar spatial scales for populations of highly migratory pelagic species, such as tuna. We examined spatial variation in growth of albacore Thunnus alalunga across 90° of longitude in the South Pacific Ocean from the east coast of Australia to the Pitcairn Islands. Using length-at-age data from a validated ageing method we found evidence for significant variation in length-at-age and growth parameters (L(∞) and k) between sexes and across longitudes. Growth trajectories were similar between sexes up until four years of age, after which the length-at-age for males was, on average, greater than that for females. Males reached an average maximum size more than 8 cm larger than females. Length-at-age and growth parameters were consistently greater at more easterly longitudes than at westerly longitudes for both females and males. Our results provide strong evidence that finer spatial structure exists within the South Pacific albacore stock and raises the question of whether the scale of their "highly migratory" nature should be re-assessed. Future stock assessment models for South Pacific albacore should consider sex-specific growth curves and spatial variation in growth within the stock. PMID:22723993

  20. Asia and the Pacific: Issues of Educational Policy, Curriculum, and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Donald C., Ed.; And Others

    The Pacific region is growing in worldwide importance in terms of politics, economics, and culture. The emergence of this area of the world provides an opportunity for new directions in social studies education. This book addresses the Pacific Rim issues from the viewpoints of educators from 9 Pacific nations: Australia, Canada, Fiji, Japan,…

  1. A 173 year stable isotope record from a tropical south pacific coral 0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Terrence M.; Taylor, Frederick W.; Crowley, Thomas J.

    We have generated a 173 year-long time series (A.D. 1806 to 1979) of changes in the δ 18O and δ 13C composition of a coral head ( Platygyra lamellina) to investigate environmental change in the climatologically sensitive region of the tropical South Pacific. Little is known about decadal- and centennial-scale climate change at sea level in this region. Our coral is from near the south coast of Espiritu Santo Island (15°S, 167°E), Republic of Vanuatu. The stable isotope record from this coral is consistent with meteorological and oceanographic records during the period of overlap in the records (1964-1978): δ 18O values positively correlate with SST ( r=0.77) and δ 13C values are highly coherent with rainfall ( r=0.82) at the annual cycle. These relations suggest that the δ 18O signal in this coral is a function of variations in SST and rainfall-induced changes in SSS, whereas the δ 13C signal may be related to rainfall and cloud cover modulation of photosynthesis in the coral. δ 18O and δ 13C values are positively correlated over the entire length of the record ( r=0.65), a relation that is even stronger between 1806 and 1866 ( r=0.81), i.e. prior to the time of possible anthropogenic influence on the δ 13C record. Because of the positive correlation between temperature and rainfall in this region, we interpret the long-term record of δ 18O in terms of joint variations of these two variables. The most significant cool/dry excursion in the Santo record occurs during the nineteenth century (˜1832-1866) and ends abruptly in 1866 with a change to modern values. Superimposed on this pattern is a slight (0.2%.), cooling/drying toward the end of the twentieth century. Cross-spectral analysis of the δ 18O and δ 13C records indicates a strong concentration of variance at the quasi-biennial (˜2 years) and El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) (˜4-5 years) frequency bands, in addition to a ˜15 year peak found also in global temperature records. Cross

  2. Fiji's largest marine reserve benefits reef sharks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetze, J. S.; Fullwood, L. A. F.

    2013-03-01

    To provide more information about whether sharks benefit from no-take marine reserves, we quantified the relative abundance and biomass of reef sharks inside and outside of Namena, Fiji's largest reserve (60.6 km2). Using stereo baited remote underwater video systems (stereo-BRUVs), we found that the abundance and biomass of sharks was approximately two and four times greater in shallow and deep locations, respectively, within the Namena reserve compared to adjacent fished areas. The greater abundance and biomass of reef sharks inside Namena is likely a result of greater prey availability rather than protection from fishing. This study demonstrates that marine reserves can benefit sharks.

  3. ANALYSIS OF GENETIC DIVERSITY AND POPULATION STRUCTURE WITHIN FLORIDA COCONUT (COCOS NUCIFERA L.) GERMPLASM USING MICROSATELLITE DNA, WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON THE FIJI DWARF CULTIVAR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using fifteen simple sequence repeat (SSR) microsatellite DNA loci, we analyzed genetic variation within Cocos nucifera germplasm collections at two locations in south Florida, representing eight cultivars. The loci were also used in a parentage analysis of progeny of the 'Fiji Dwarf' variety at bo...

  4. Investigating ENSO Variability in the mid-Holocene using a Fossil Coral from the South Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vara, M. A.; Quinn, T. M.; Taylor, F. W.; Partin, J. W.; Gorman, M. K.; Maupin, C. R.; Edwards, R.; Cheng, H.; Inoue, M.; Nakedau, D.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate mid-Holocene variability in the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) system using geochemical variations in a well-preserved fossil Porites lutea coral collected in 2005 at Araki Island, Vanuatu (15.62°S 166.95°E). Surface-ocean conditions (temperature and salinity) at Vanuatu respond to ENSO-related changes in the West Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) and the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). The coral core is ~1.64 m in length and has been U-Th dated to 7,230 × 440 y B.P. Skeletal extension rate averages 1.5 cm per year based on analysis of X-radiographic images, which document the presence of well-defined density bands. The coral was sampled for geochemical analysis every 0.125 cm, which is approximately one sample per month. The full coral record will be approximately 90 continuous years in length once all sampling and analyses have been completed. Thus far, we have generated monthly resolved, 50-year coral δ18O and Sr/Ca records. The coral δ18O record has a mean δ18O value of -4.75 ‰ and an annual-cycle amplitude that averages 0.35 ‰. The fossil coral δ18O record contains patterns of isotopic variation that match patterns recognized as El Niño and La Niña events in modern coral δ18O records from this region. The fossil coral Sr/Ca record yields temperature estimates at ~7.2 ka that are similar to modern values. Future work will focus in three areas: 1) extending the length of the fossil coral record to more fully explore the nature of interannual variability recorded in the present fossil coral sample; 2) generating an additional fossil coral record using another coral collected from the same reef terrace to assess reproducibility of the records; and 3) extend the assessment of past ENSO variability using paleorecords generated from fossil corals of similar age from a different location in Vanuatu.

  5. Microbial Cells and Aerobic Respiration from Seafloor to Basement in the South Pacific Gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Hondt, S.; Inagaki, F.; Alvarez Zarikian, C. A.; Morono, Y.; Pockalny, R. A.; Sauvage, J.; Spivack, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The seafloor is broadly divided into two regions (Emerson et al., 1985): one where sedimentary microbial respiration is high and oxygen (O2) penetrates only millimeters to centimeters into the sediment (Revsbech et al., 1980), and another where sedimentary respiration is low and O2 penetrates much deeper (Murray& Grundmanis, 1980; D'Hondt et al., 2011; Røy et al, 2012; Orcutt et al., 2013). Active anaerobic microbial communities persist for hundreds of meters or more in subseafloor sediment of the high-respiration region. In the low-respiration region, the existence of microbial communities is previously unknown throughout most of the sedimentary sequence (Morita & Zobell, 1955; D'Hondt et al., 2009; Røy et al., 2012). Here we show that microbial cells and aerobic respiration persist through the entire sediment sequence (to depths of at least 75 m below seafloor) throughout the vast expanse of the oligotrophic South Pacific Gyre. This sediment and underlying basalt may be continuously exposed to O2 for its entire history (up to 120 myrs at our sites). Redfield stoichiometry of dissolved O2 and nitrate indicates that net sedimentary O2 reduction is coupled to oxidation of marine organic matter. Oxygen and aerobic communities may occur throughout the entire sediment sequence in 15-44% of the Pacific and 9-37% of the global ocean. This result has major implications for the nature and distribution of subseafloor life. It may ultimately affect the chemical evolution of Earth's mantle and subduction-related volcanic systems. References D'Hondt, S., et al., 2009. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106, 11651-11656, doi:10.1073/pnas.0811793106. D'Hondt, S., et al., 2011. Proc. IODP 329, doi:10.2204/ iodp.proc.329.2011. Emerson, S., et al., 1985. Deep-Sea Research 32, 1-21. Morita, R.Y. & Zobell, C.E., 1955. Deep-Sea Research 3, 66-73.Murray, J.W. & Grundmanis, V., 1980. Science 209, 1527-1530. Orcutt, B.N., et al., 2013. Nature Communications 4, 2539, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms3539

  6. Magmatic evolution of the Easter microplate-Crough Seamount region (South East Pacific)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hekinian, R.; Stoffers, P.; Akermand, D.; Binard, N.; Francheteau, Jean; Devey, C.; Garbe-Schonberg, D.

    1995-01-01

    The Easter microplate-Crough Seamount region located between 25?? S-116?? W and 25?? S-122?? W consists of a chain of seamounts forming isolated volcanoes and elongated (100-200 km in length) en echelon volcanic ridges oriented obliquely NE (N 065??), to the present day general spreading direction (N 100??) of the Pacific-Nazca plates. The extension of this seamount chain into the southwestern edge of the Easter microplate near 26??30??? S-115?? W was surveyed and sampled. The southern boundary including the Orongo fracture zone and other shallow ridges ( 0.25) MORBs which are similar in composition to other more recent basalts from the Southwest and East Rifts spreading axes of the Easter microplate. Incompatible element ratios normalized to chondrite values [(Ce/Yb)N = 1-2.5}, {(La/Sm)N = 0.4-1.2} and {(Zr/Y)N = 0.7-2.5} of the basalts are also similar to present day volcanism found in the Easter microplate. The volcanics from the Easter microplate-Crough region are unrelated to other known South Pacific intraplate magmatism (i.e. Society, Pitcairn, and Salas y Gomez Islands). Instead their range in incompatible element ratios is comparable to the submarine basalts from the recently investigated Ahu and Umu volcanic field (Easter hotspot) (Scientific Party SO80, 1993) and centered at about 80 km west of Easter Island. The oblique ridges and their associated seamounts are likely to represent ancient leaky transform faults created during the initial stage of the Easter microplate formation (??? 5 Ma). It appears that volcanic activity on seamounts overlying the oblique volcanic ridges has continued during their westward drift from the microplate as shown by the presence of relatively fresh lava observed on one of these structures, namely the first Oblique Volcanic Ridge near 25?? S-118?? W at about 160 km west of the Easter microplate West Rift. Based on a reconstruction of the Easter microplate, it is suggested that the Crough seamount (< 800 m depth) was formed

  7. Deep Circulation in the Lau Basin of the South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speer, K.; Thurnherr, A.

    2006-12-01

    The Lau Basin is a semi-enclosed basin in the tropical South Pacific, located approximately 1500 km north of New Zealand. Below 1000m it is largely closed to the east, south and west by the Lau and the Tonga Ridges, respectively. The Zephyr Shoal at 15S blocks the northern edge of the Lau Basin below 2000m almost completely. The East Lau Spreading Center (ELSC), which form the "bull's eye" of the Lau Basin Integrated Study Sites (ISS), runs approximately parallel to the Tonga Ridge in the Lau Basin between 19S and 23S. Its depth is shallowest (2000m) near its southern end and deepens northward to about 2800m. There are currently 11 neutrally buoyant floats drifting in the Lau Basin at 1700m, near the depth of the hydrothermal plumes known at the time of deployment. The floats, which were deployed during three R2K cruises in 2004/05, return to the surface every 3 4 weeks in order to transmit their positions and temperature data back to shore via a network of satellites. The data are made available in near real-time on the web. In contrast to current-meter data, which become available only after mooring recovery and which, because of their Eulerian nature, are not very well suited for studying dispersal near topography, the float data yield timely, cost-effective and directly usable information about dispersal in the deep ocean. The available float data currently span 261 drift cycles and cover a good portion of the Lau Basin. Between April 2004 and June 2006, the mean meridional velocity at 1700m was 3.2 ± 1.1 mm/s to the north, while the zonal flow was indistinguishable from zero. Individual float-cycle-averaged velocities, on the other hand, are randomly distributed and associated with speeds up to 9 cm/s. These observations imply that on timescales of months to years horizontal dispersal in the deep interior of the Lau Basin is primarily eddy diffusive, while the observed northward mean flow becomes important on longer timescales. As a consequence, larval

  8. Japanese submersible explores the North Fiji Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipboard Scientific Party; Auzende, J.-M.; Urabe, T.; Tanahashi, M.; Ruellan, E.

    1992-03-01

    Since 1987, Japanese and French geologists, geophysicists, and biologists have been studying the North Fiji Basin Ridge within the framework of a joint project named STARMER (Science and Technology Agency of Japan—IFREMER of France). This ridge was first geologically, geophysically, and geochemically surveyed during the 1985 SEAPSO 3 cruise of the R/V Jean Charcot [Auzende et al., 1988]. At that time, water sampling and morphotectonic analysis indicated that the North Fiji Basin Ridge was technically and hydrothermally active. Within the STARMER project, four surface ship cruises have been conducted {Kaiyo 87-88-89 and Yokosuka 90).One significant result of these surveys is the complete mapping of the entire ridge between 14°S and 22°S (Figure 1), an area approximately 900 km long and more than 50 km wide (Sea Beam and Furuno multibeam swath-mapping systems were used). During the Kaiyo 87 cruise, the presence of active hydrothermalism (sulfide deposits, chimneys expelling shimmering water, and associated living animal colonies) was discovered through water sampling and video deep towing.

  9. A Sea-Surface Radiation Data Set for Climate Applications in the Tropical Western Pacific and South China Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Ming-Dah; Chan, Pui-King; Yan, Michael M.-H.

    2000-01-01

    The sea-surface shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes have been retrieved from the radiances measured by Japan's Geostationary Meteorological Satellite 5. The surface radiation data set covers the domain 40S-40N and 90E-170W. The temporal resolution is 1 day, and the spatial resolution is 0.5 deg x 0.5 deg latitude-longitude. The retrieved surface radiation have been validated with the radiometric measurements at the Atmospheric Radiation Measuring (ARM) site on Manus island in the equatorial western Pacific for a period of 15 months. It has also been validated with the measurements at the radiation site on Dungsha island in the South China Sea during the South China Sea Monsoon Experiment (SCSMEX) Intensive Observing Period (May and June 1998). The data set is used to study the effect of El Nino and East Asian Summer monsoon on the heating of the ocean in the tropical western Pacific and the South China Sea. Interannual variations of clouds associated with El Nino and the East Asian Summer monsoon have a large impact on the radiative heating of the ocean. It has been found that the magnitude of the interannual variation of the seasonal mean surface radiative heating exceeds 40 W/sq m over large areas. Together with the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) shortwave fluxes at top of the atmosphere and the radiative transfer calculations of clear-sky fluxes, this surface radiation data set is also used to study the impact of clouds on the solar heating of the atmosphere. It is found that clouds enhance the atmospheric solar heating by approx. 20 W/sq m in the tropical western Pacific and the South China Sea. This result is important for evaluating the accuracy of solar flux calculations in clear and cloudy atmospheres.

  10. Evaluating the Influence of Solar Radiation, Coral Extension Rate and Anthropogenic CO2 on Skeletal δ13C in a Network of Fiji and Tonga Porites Corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dassie, E. P.; Lemley, G. M.; Linsley, B. K.; Howe, S. S.

    2011-12-01

    While stable oxygen isotope signatures in coral reefs have proven to be reliable recorders of temperature and salinity, it is difficult to interpret their skeletal 13C/12C signatures. Various studies have suggested that coral skeletal δ13C is primarily controlled by complex physiological mechanisms. However, it has also been proposed that δ13C variations in coral skeletons are related to more apparent factors such as solar radiation, skeletal extension rate, and the anthropogenic addition of 13C-depleted CO2 into the atmosphere and surface ocean ("Suess Effect"). We will present time-series variations of δ13C in six coral cores from Fiji and Tonga (South Pacific Ocean). On seasonal timescales, increases in solar radiation are correlated to increases in skeletal δ13C and visa-versa. Annually averaged data shows a correlation between increased coral δ13C and reduced coral extension rate, while a decrease in δ13C is associated with an increased extension rate. In the most recent portion of four of the coral δ13C records (from around 1900 to the core top), the value progressively decreases - a trend that is not present in either the skeletal extension rate or solar radiation data. We conclude that this decreasing δ13C trend is a consequence of the Suess Effect, as reported in other coral δ13C records. However, two of the six corals do not show this decreasing trend, which may be a result of their residence in especially shallow water (sub-tidal environments). The onset of the Suess effect in the four corals may help constrain the timing of the uptake of anthropogenic carbon by the western South Pacific Ocean. Although all factors controlling δ13C variation in corals are not completely understood, this study works towards an understanding of their relative contribution to δ13C variation.