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Sample records for filamin cooperatively enhance

  1. Filamin A Regulates Caveolae Internalization and Trafficking in Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sverdlov, Maria; Shinin, Vasily; Place, Aaron T.; Castellon, Maricela

    2009-01-01

    Transcytosis via caveolae is critical for maintaining vascular homeostasis by regulating the tissue delivery of macromolecules, hormones, and lipids. In the present study, we test the hypothesis that interactions between F-actin cross-linking protein filamin A and caveolin-1 facilitate the internalization and trafficking of caveolae. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of filamin A, but not filamin B, reduced the uptake and transcytosis of albumin by ∼35 and 60%, respectively, without altering the actin cytoskeletal structure or cell–cell adherens junctions. Mobility of both intracellular caveolin-1–green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled vesicles measured by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and membrane-associated vesicles measured by total internal reflection-fluorescence microscopy was decreased in cells with reduced filamin A expression. In addition, in melanoma cells that lack filamin A (M2 cells), the majority of caveolin-1-GFP was localized on the plasma membrane, whereas in cells in which filamin A expression was reconstituted (A7 cells and M2 cells transfected with filamin A-RFP), caveolin-1-GFP was concentrated in intracellular vesicles. Filamin A association with caveolin-1 in endothelial cells was confirmed by cofractionation of these proteins in density gradients, as well as by coimmunoprecipitation. Moreover, this interaction was enhanced by Src activation, associated with increased caveolin-1 phosphorylation, and blocked by Src inhibition. Taken together, these data suggest that filamin A association with caveolin-1 promotes caveolae-mediated transport by regulating vesicle internalization, clustering, and trafficking. PMID:19759182

  2. Does Facial Resemblance Enhance Cooperation?

    PubMed Central

    Giang, Trang; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces). A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system. PMID:23094095

  3. G Protein-Coupled Receptors Directly Bind Filamin A with High Affinity and Promote Filamin Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Although interaction of a few G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with Filamin A, a key actin cross-linking and biomechanical signal transducer protein, has been observed, a comprehensive structure–function analysis of this interaction is lacking. Through a systematic sequence-based analysis, we found that a conserved filamin binding motif is present in the cytoplasmic domains of >20% of the 824 GPCRs encoded in the human genome. Direct high-affinity interaction of filamin binding motif peptides of select GPCRs with the Ig domain of Filamin A was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetric experiments. Engagement of the filamin binding motif with the Filamin A Ig domain induced the phosphorylation of filamin by protein kinase A in vitro. In transfected cells, agonist activation as well as constitutive activation of representative GPCRs dramatically elicited recruitment and phosphorylation of cellular Filamin A, a phenomenon long known to be crucial for regulating the structure and dynamics of the cytoskeleton. Our data suggest a molecular mechanism for direct GPCR–cytoskeleton coupling via filamin. Until now, GPCR signaling to the cytoskeleton was predominantly thought to be indirect, through canonical G protein-mediated signaling cascades involving GTPases, adenylyl cyclases, phospholipases, ion channels, and protein kinases. We propose that the GPCR-induced filamin phosphorylation pathway is a conserved, novel biochemical signaling paradigm. PMID:26460884

  4. Enhancing Thinking through Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Neil, Ed.; Worsham, Toni, Ed.

    This collection of papers provides a theoretical foundation on current practice in cooperative thinking. The papers offer many practical methods that can be applied to a full range of classroom settings. After an introduction, "HOTSICLE: Higher Order Thinking Skills in Cooperative Learning Environments" (Neil Davidson and Toni Worsham), there are…

  5. The increased risk of predation enhances cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Krams, Indrikis; Bērziņš, Arnis; Krama, Tatjana; Wheatcroft, David; Igaune, Kristīne; Rantala, Markus J.

    2010-01-01

    Theory predicts that animals in adverse conditions can decrease individual risks and increase long-term benefits by cooperating with neighbours. However, some empirical studies suggest that animals often focus on short-term benefits, which can reduce the likelihood that they will cooperate with others. In this experimental study, we tested between these two alternatives by evaluating whether increased predation risk (as a correlate of environmental adversity) enhances or diminishes the occurrence of cooperation in mobbing, a common anti-predator behaviour, among breeding pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca. We tested whether birds would join their mobbing neighbours more often and harass a stuffed predator placed near their neighbours' nests more intensely in areas with a higher perceived risk of predation. Our results show that birds attended mobs initiated by their neighbours more often, approached the stuffed predator significantly more closely, and mobbed it at a higher intensity in areas where the perceived risk of predation was experimentally increased. In such high-risk areas, birds also were more often involved in between-pair cooperation. This study demonstrates the positive impact of predation risk on cooperation in breeding songbirds, which might help in explaining the emergence and evolution of cooperation. PMID:19846454

  6. Enhancing regional security agreements through cooperative monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Pregenzer, A.L.

    1995-05-01

    This paper proposes that strengthening regional capabilities for formulating and implementing arms control and confidence-building measures is a tangible method of enhancing regional security. It discusses the importance of developing a regional infrastructure for arms control and confidence building and elucidates the role of technology in facilitating regional arms control and confidence-building agreements. In addition, it identifies numerous applications for regional cooperative monitoring in the areas of arms control, resource management, international commerce and disaster response. The Cooperative Monitoring Center at Sandia National Laboratories, whose aim is to help individual countries and regions acquire the tools they need to develop their own solutions to regional problems, is discussed briefly. The paper ends with recommendations for establishing regional cooperative monitoring centers.

  7. Phosphorylation of filamin A by Cdk1 regulates filamin A localization and daughter cell separation.

    PubMed

    Szeto, Sandy G Y; Williams, Elizabeth C; Rudner, Adam D; Lee, Jonathan M

    2015-01-15

    In cell culture, many adherent mammalian cells undergo substantial actin cytoskeleton rearrangement prior to mitosis as they detach from the extracellular matrix and become spherical. At the end of mitosis, the actin cytoskeleton is required for cytokinesis and the reassembly of interphase structures as cells spread and reattach to substrate. To understand the processes regulating mitotic cytoskeletal remodeling, we studied how mitotic phosphorylation regulates filamin A (FLNa). FLNa is an actin-crosslinking protein that was previously identified as a cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) binding partner and substrate in vitro. Using quantitative label-based mass spectrometry, we find that FLNa serines 1084, 1459 and 1533 are phosphorylated in mitotic HeLa cells and all three sites match the phosphorylation consensus sequence of Cdk1. To investigate the functional role of mitotic FLNa phosphorylation, we mutated serines 1084, 1459 and 1533 to nonphosphorylatable alanine residues and expressed GFP-tagged FLNa(S1084A,S1459A,S1533A) (FLNa-AAA GFP) in a FLNa-deficient human melanoma cell line called M2. M2 cells expressing FLNa-AAA GFP have enhanced FLNa-AAA GFP and actin localization at sites of contact between daughter cells, impaired post-mitotic daughter cell separation and defects in cell migration. Therefore, mitotic phosphorylation of FLNa is important for successful cell division and interphase cell behavior. PMID:25445790

  8. Structural Interaction and Functional Regulation of Polycystin-2 by Filamin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian; Dai, Xiao-Qing; Li, Qiang; Wang, Zuocheng; Cantero, María del Rocío; Li, Shu; Shen, Ji; Tu, Jian-Cheng; Cantiello, Horacio; Chen, Xing-Zhen

    2012-01-01

    Filamins are important actin cross-linking proteins implicated in scaffolding, membrane stabilization and signal transduction, through interaction with ion channels, receptors and signaling proteins. Here we report the physical and functional interaction between filamins and polycystin-2, a TRP-type cation channel mutated in 10–15% patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Yeast two-hybrid and GST pull-down experiments demonstrated that the C-termini of filamin isoforms A, B and C directly bind to both the intracellular N- and C-termini of polycystin-2. Reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed that endogenous polycystin-2 and filamins are in the same complexes in renal epithelial cells and human melanoma A7 cells. We then examined the effect of filamin on polycystin-2 channel function by electrophysiology studies with a lipid bilayer reconstitution system and found that filamin-A substantially inhibits polycystin-2 channel activity. Our study indicates that filamins are important regulators of polycystin-2 channel function, and further links actin cytoskeletal dynamics to the regulation of this channel protein. PMID:22802962

  9. Enhancing Adult Learning through Cooperative Small Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millis, Barbara J.

    1991-01-01

    Cooperative learning is a structured form of small group work based on interdependence, accountability, group processing, and social skills. In continuing education, cooperative learning can positively affect achievement, multiethnic relationships, self-esteem, retention, and attitudes. (SK)

  10. A meckelin-filamin A interaction mediates ciliogenesis.

    PubMed

    Adams, Matthew; Simms, Roslyn J; Abdelhamed, Zakia; Dawe, Helen R; Szymanska, Katarzyna; Logan, Clare V; Wheway, Gabrielle; Pitt, Eva; Gull, Keith; Knowles, Margaret A; Blair, Edward; Cross, Sally H; Sayer, John A; Johnson, Colin A

    2012-03-15

    MKS3, encoding the transmembrane receptor meckelin, is mutated in Meckel-Gruber syndrome (MKS), an autosomal-recessive ciliopathy. Meckelin localizes to the primary cilium, basal body and elsewhere within the cell. Here, we found that the cytoplasmic domain of meckelin directly interacts with the actin-binding protein filamin A, potentially at the apical cell surface associated with the basal body. Mutations in FLNA, the gene for filamin A, cause periventricular heterotopias. We identified a single consanguineous patient with an MKS-like ciliopathy that presented with both MKS and cerebellar heterotopia, caused by an unusual in-frame deletion mutation in the meckelin C-terminus at the region of interaction with filamin A. We modelled this mutation and found it to abrogate the meckelin-filamin A interaction. Furthermore, we found that loss of filamin A by siRNA knockdown, in patient cells, and in tissues from Flna(Dilp2) null mouse embryos results in cellular phenotypes identical to those caused by meckelin loss, namely basal body positioning and ciliogenesis defects. In addition, morpholino knockdown of flna in zebrafish embryos significantly increases the frequency of dysmorphology and severity of ciliopathy developmental defects caused by mks3 knockdown. Our results suggest that meckelin forms a functional complex with filamin A that is disrupted in MKS and causes defects in neuronal migration and Wnt signalling. Furthermore, filamin A has a crucial role in the normal processes of ciliogenesis and basal body positioning. Concurrent with these processes, the meckelin-filamin A signalling axis may be a key regulator in maintaining correct, normal levels of Wnt signalling. PMID:22121117

  11. ASB2 targets filamins A and B to proteasomal degradation

    PubMed Central

    Heuzé, Mélina L.; Lamsoul, Isabelle; Baldassarre, Massimiliano; Lad, Yatish; Lévêque, Sophie; Razinia, Ziba; Moog-Lutz, Christel; Calderwood, David A.

    2008-01-01

    The ordered series of proliferation and differentiation from hematopoietic progenitor cells is disrupted in leukemia, resulting in arrest of differentiation at immature proliferative stages. Characterizing the molecular basis of hematopoietic differentiation is therefore important for understanding and treating disease. Retinoic acid induces expression of ankyrin repeat-containing protein with a suppressor of cytokine signaling box 2 (ASB2) in acute promyelocytic leukemia cells, and ASB2 expression inhibits growth and promotes commitment, recapitulating an early step critical for differentiation. ASB2 is the specificity subunit of an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex and is proposed to exert its effects by regulating the turnover of specific proteins; however, no ASB2 substrates had been identified. Here, we report that ASB2 targets the actin-binding proteins filamin A and B for proteasomal degradation. Knockdown of endogenous ASB2 in leukemia cells delays retinoic acid-induced differentiation and filamin degradation; conversely, ASB2 expression in leukemia cells induces filamin degradation. ASB2 expression inhibits cell spreading, and this effect is recapitulated by knocking down both filamin A and filamin B. Thus, we suggest that ASB2 may regulate hematopoietic cell differentiation by modulating cell spreading and actin remodeling through targeting of filamins for degradation. PMID:18799729

  12. Cooperative synchronized assemblies enhance orientation discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Samonds, Jason M.; Allison, John D.; Brown, Heather A.; Bonds, A. B.

    2004-01-01

    There is no clear link between the broad tuning of single neurons and the fine behavioral capabilities of orientation discrimination. We recorded from populations of cells in the cat visual cortex (area 17) to examine whether the joint activity of cells can support finer discrimination than found in individual responses. Analysis of joint firing yields a substantial advantage (i.e., cooperation) in fine-angle discrimination. This cooperation increases to more considerable levels as the population of an assembly is increased. The cooperation in a population of six cells provides encoding of orientation with an information advantage that is at least 2-fold in terms of requiring either fewer cells or less time than independent coding. This cooperation suggests that correlated or synchronized activity can increase information. PMID:15096595

  13. Teaching Cooperation to Enhance Creativity--Theoretical Rationale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrick, James; Herrick, Penny

    The paper discusses the major components of creativity, the relationship of competition and cooperation to creativity, and a model for teaching cooperation to enhance creativity. Creative behavior is directed toward the imaginative construction of what is desired and its eventual actualization in everyday life. Components of creativity include…

  14. Ureaplasma parvum infection alters filamin a dynamics in host cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ureaplasmas are among the most common bacteria isolated from the human urogenital tract. Ureaplasmas can produce asymptomatic infections or disease characterized by an exaggerated inflammatory response. Most investigations have focused on elucidating the pathogenic potential of Ureaplasma species, but little attention has been paid to understanding the mechanisms by which these organisms are capable of establishing asymptomatic infection. Methods We employed differential proteome profiling of bladder tissues from rats experimentally infected with U. parvum in order to identify host cell processes perturbed by colonization with the microbe. Tissues were grouped into four categories: sham inoculated controls, animals that spontaneously cleared infection, asymptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI), and complicated UTI. One protein that was perturbed by infection (filamin A) was used to further elucidate the mechanism of U. parvum-induced disruption in human benign prostate cells (BPH-1). BPH-1 cells were evaluated by confocal microscopy, immunoblotting and ELISA. Results Bladder tissue from animals actively colonized with U. parvum displayed significant alterations in actin binding proteins (profilin 1, vinculin, α actinin, and filamin A) that regulate both actin polymerization and cell cytoskeletal function pertaining to focal adhesion formation and signal transduction (Fisher's exact test, P < 0.004; ANOVA, P < 0.02). This phenomenon was independent of clinical profile (asymptomatic vs. complicated UTI). We selected filamin A as a target for additional studies. In the BPH-1 model, we confirmed that U. parvum perturbed the regulation of filamin A. Specifically, infected BPH-1 cells exhibited a significant increase in filamin A phosphorylated at serine2152 (P ≤ 0.01), which correlated with impaired proteolysis of the protein and its normal intracellular distribution. Conclusion Filamin A dynamics were perturbed in both models of infection

  15. Peer pressure: Enhancement of cooperation through mutual punishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Rong, Zhihai; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-02-01

    An open problem in evolutionary game dynamics is to understand the effect of peer pressure on cooperation in a quantitative manner. Peer pressure can be modeled by punishment, which has been proved to be an effective mechanism to sustain cooperation among selfish individuals. We investigate a symmetric punishment strategy, in which an individual will punish each neighbor if their strategies are different, and vice versa. Because of the symmetry in imposing the punishment, one might intuitively expect the strategy to have little effect on cooperation. Utilizing the prisoner's dilemma game as a prototypical model of interactions at the individual level, we find, through simulation and theoretical analysis, that proper punishment, when even symmetrically imposed on individuals, can enhance cooperation. Also, we find that the initial density of cooperators plays an important role in the evolution of cooperation driven by mutual punishment.

  16. Peer pressure: enhancement of cooperation through mutual punishment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Rong, Zhihai; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-02-01

    An open problem in evolutionary game dynamics is to understand the effect of peer pressure on cooperation in a quantitative manner. Peer pressure can be modeled by punishment, which has been proved to be an effective mechanism to sustain cooperation among selfish individuals. We investigate a symmetric punishment strategy, in which an individual will punish each neighbor if their strategies are different, and vice versa. Because of the symmetry in imposing the punishment, one might intuitively expect the strategy to have little effect on cooperation. Utilizing the prisoner's dilemma game as a prototypical model of interactions at the individual level, we find, through simulation and theoretical analysis, that proper punishment, when even symmetrically imposed on individuals, can enhance cooperation. Also, we find that the initial density of cooperators plays an important role in the evolution of cooperation driven by mutual punishment. PMID:25768472

  17. Enhancing Global Understanding: A Call for Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, David T.

    Social studies education will improve if educators favoring global education and law-related education replace counterproductive competition with mutual respect and cooperation. As two of the many curricular approaches clamoring for a just share of elementary and secondary school social studies programs, global education and law-related education…

  18. Enhancing Cooperative Learning in TESOL Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DelliCarpini, Margo Delli

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses how a TESOL teacher educator took reflective action in an ESL methods class with the goal of increasing pre-service and in-service teachers' use of cooperative learning (CL) activities in their own ESL classrooms. CL has been at the forefront of educational research and is a frequent topic in methodology textbooks, teacher…

  19. Evidence for the mechanosensor function of filamin in tissue development.

    PubMed

    Huelsmann, Sven; Rintanen, Nina; Sethi, Ritika; Brown, Nicholas H; Ylänne, Jari

    2016-01-01

    Cells integrate mechanical properties of their surroundings to form multicellular, three-dimensional tissues of appropriate size and spatial organisation. Actin cytoskeleton-linked proteins such as talin, vinculin and filamin function as mechanosensors in cells, but it has yet to be tested whether the mechanosensitivity is important for their function in intact tissues. Here we tested, how filamin mechanosensing contributes to oogenesis in Drosophila. Mutations that require more or less force to open the mechanosensor region demonstrate that filamin mechanosensitivity is important for the maturation of actin-rich ring canals that are essential for Drosophila egg development. The open mutant was more tightly bound to the ring canal structure while the closed mutant dissociated more frequently. Thus, our results show that an appropriate level of mechanical sensitivity is required for filamins' function and dynamics during Drosophila egg growth and support the structure-based model in which the opening and closing of the mechanosensor region regulates filamin binding to cellular components. PMID:27597179

  20. Identification of a filamin docking site on PTP-PEST.

    PubMed

    Playford, Martin P; Lyons, Patrick D; Sastry, Sarita K; Schaller, Michael D

    2006-11-10

    PTP-PEST is a cytoplasmic protein-tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) implicated in the regulation of biological processes such as cell motility, cytokinesis, focal adhesion disassembly, and lymphocyte activation. Using a proteomics approach, filamin-A was identified as a novel interacting protein that bound to GST-PTP-PEST. This interaction was confirmed in vitro and in cells by coimmunoprecipitation. The site of filamin interaction on PTP-PEST was mapped to the fourth proline-rich region (Pro4). PTP-PEST has previously been implicated in the regulation of cytokinesis. In further support of this finding, expression of PTP-PEST in HeLa cells resulted in the formation of multinucleated cells. A PTP-PEST mutant lacking Pro4 and unable to bind filamin-A failed to induce the multinucleated phenotype. Further, depletion of filamin-A in HeLa cells was found to reduce the PTP-PEST-dependent multinucleation phenotype. Hence, we conclude that the interaction of PTP-PEST with filamin-A may function in the control of cytokinesis in mammalian cells. PMID:16973606

  1. Filamin-A and Rheological Properties of Cultured Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Mark F.; Puig-de-Morales, Marina; Bursac, Predrag; Mellema, Matthew; Millet, Emil; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.

    2006-01-01

    Here we report the rheological properties of cultured hsFLNa (filamin-A)-expressing (FIL+) and hsFLNa-deficient (FIL−) melanoma cells. Using magnetic twisting cytometry over a wide range of probing frequencies, and targeting either cortical or deeper cytoskeletal structures, we found that differences in stiffness of FIL+ versus FIL− cells were remarkably small. When probed through deep cytoskeletal structures, FIL+ cells were, at most, 30% stiffer than FIL− cells, whereas when probed through more peripheral cytoskeletal structures FIL− cells were not different except at very high frequencies. The loss tangent, expressed as an effective cytoskeletal temperature, was systematically greater in FIL− than FIL+ cells, but these differences were small and showed that the FIL+ cells were only slightly closer to a solidlike state. To quantify cytoskeletal remodeling, we measured spontaneous motions of beads bound to cortical cytoskeletal structures and found no difference in FIL+ versus FIL− cells. Although mechanical differences between FIL+ and FIL− cells were evident both in cortical and deeper structures, these differences were far smaller than expected based on measurements of the rheology of purified actin-filamin solutions. These findings do not rule out an important contribution of filamin to the mechanical properties of the cortical cytoskeleton, but suggest that effects of filamin in the cortex are not exerted on the length scale of the probe used here. These findings would appear to rule out any important contribution of filamin to the bulk mechanical properties of the cytoplasm, however. Although filamin is present in the cytoplasm, it may be inactive, its mechanical effects may be small compared with other crosslinkers, or mechanical properties of the matrix may be dominated by an overriding role of cytoskeletal prestress. PMID:16387775

  2. Evidence for the mechanosensor function of filamin in tissue development

    PubMed Central

    Huelsmann, Sven; Rintanen, Nina; Sethi, Ritika; Brown, Nicholas H.; Ylänne, Jari

    2016-01-01

    Cells integrate mechanical properties of their surroundings to form multicellular, three-dimensional tissues of appropriate size and spatial organisation. Actin cytoskeleton-linked proteins such as talin, vinculin and filamin function as mechanosensors in cells, but it has yet to be tested whether the mechanosensitivity is important for their function in intact tissues. Here we tested, how filamin mechanosensing contributes to oogenesis in Drosophila. Mutations that require more or less force to open the mechanosensor region demonstrate that filamin mechanosensitivity is important for the maturation of actin-rich ring canals that are essential for Drosophila egg development. The open mutant was more tightly bound to the ring canal structure while the closed mutant dissociated more frequently. Thus, our results show that an appropriate level of mechanical sensitivity is required for filamins’ function and dynamics during Drosophila egg growth and support the structure-based model in which the opening and closing of the mechanosensor region regulates filamin binding to cellular components. PMID:27597179

  3. Enhancing Instruction through Constructivism, Cooperative Learning, and Cloud Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing technologies, such as Google Docs and Microsoft Office Live, have the potential to enhance instructional methods predicated on constructivism and cooperative learning. Cloud-based application features like file sharing and online publishing are prompting departments of education across the nation to adopt these technologies.…

  4. New role for space station—Enhanced cooperation with Russia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leath, Audrey T.

    The Clinton administration's recent discussions with Russia on enhanced space cooperation and a possible joint space station prompted a two-part hearing by the House Science Subcommittee on Space, held on October 6 and 14. Subcommittee members, citing rumors and news stories about a joint station, questioned Presidential Science Advisor Jack Gibbons and NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin on the status of the proposed cooperation and heard from additional witnesses regarding the feasibility of and support for the concept.Gibbons reassured subcommittee members that no decision has yet been made on Russian cooperation, and that Congress would be consulted in the process. He explained that, after the Vancouver Summit, establishment of a Joint Commission headed by Vice President Gore and Russian Prime Minister Chernomyrdin provided an opportunity for enhanced cooperation in space, as well as in such other areas as energy, nuclear safety, the environment, business development, science and technology, and defense diversification. Gibbons testified that the study of a cooperative station program took place concurrently with NASA's work on defining the redesigned U.S. space station, now being referred to as “Alpha.” He affirmed that while Alpha's modular design made it adaptable to a joint effort, it could “be built independent of any Russian participation.”

  5. Mutations in the N-terminal actin-binding domain of filamin C cause a distal myopathy.

    PubMed

    Duff, Rachael M; Tay, Valerie; Hackman, Peter; Ravenscroft, Gianina; McLean, Catriona; Kennedy, Paul; Steinbach, Alina; Schöffler, Wiebke; van der Ven, Peter F M; Fürst, Dieter O; Song, Jaeguen; Djinović-Carugo, Kristina; Penttilä, Sini; Raheem, Olayinka; Reardon, Katrina; Malandrini, Alessandro; Gambelli, Simona; Villanova, Marcello; Nowak, Kristen J; Williams, David R; Landers, John E; Brown, Robert H; Udd, Bjarne; Laing, Nigel G

    2011-06-10

    Linkage analysis of the dominant distal myopathy we previously identified in a large Australian family demonstrated one significant linkage region located on chromosome 7 and encompassing 18.6 Mbp and 151 genes. The strongest candidate gene was FLNC because filamin C, the encoded protein, is muscle-specific and associated with myofibrillar myopathy. Sequencing of FLNC cDNA identified a c.752T>C (p.Met251Thr) mutation in the N-terminal actin-binding domain (ABD); this mutation segregated with the disease and was absent in 200 controls. We identified an Italian family with the same phenotype and found a c.577G>A (p.Ala193Thr) filamin C ABD mutation that segregated with the disease. Filamin C ABD mutations have not been described, although filamin A and filamin B ABD mutations cause multiple musculoskeletal disorders. The distal myopathy phenotype and muscle pathology in the two families differ from myofibrillar myopathies caused by filamin C rod and dimerization domain mutations because of the distinct involvement of hand muscles and lack of pathological protein aggregation. Thus, like the position of FLNA and B mutations, the position of the FLNC mutation determines disease phenotype. The two filamin C ABD mutations increase actin-binding affinity in a manner similar to filamin A and filamin B ABD mutations. Cell-culture expression of the c.752T>C (p.Met251)Thr mutant filamin C ABD demonstrated reduced nuclear localization as did mutant filamin A and filamin B ABDs. Expression of both filamin C ABD mutants as full-length proteins induced increased aggregation of filamin. We conclude filamin C ABD mutations cause a recognizable distal myopathy, most likely through increased actin affinity, similar to the pathological mechanism of filamin A and filamin B ABD mutations. PMID:21620354

  6. Mutations in the N-terminal Actin-Binding Domain of Filamin C Cause a Distal Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Duff, Rachael M.; Tay, Valerie; Hackman, Peter; Ravenscroft, Gianina; McLean, Catriona; Kennedy, Paul; Steinbach, Alina; Schöffler, Wiebke; van der Ven, Peter F.M.; Fürst, Dieter O.; Song, Jaeguen; Djinović-Carugo, Kristina; Penttilä, Sini; Raheem, Olayinka; Reardon, Katrina; Malandrini, Alessandro; Gambelli, Simona; Villanova, Marcello; Nowak, Kristen J.; Williams, David R.; Landers, John E.; Brown, Robert H.; Udd, Bjarne; Laing, Nigel G.

    2011-01-01

    Linkage analysis of the dominant distal myopathy we previously identified in a large Australian family demonstrated one significant linkage region located on chromosome 7 and encompassing 18.6 Mbp and 151 genes. The strongest candidate gene was FLNC because filamin C, the encoded protein, is muscle-specific and associated with myofibrillar myopathy. Sequencing of FLNC cDNA identified a c.752T>C (p.Met251Thr) mutation in the N-terminal actin-binding domain (ABD); this mutation segregated with the disease and was absent in 200 controls. We identified an Italian family with the same phenotype and found a c.577G>A (p.Ala193Thr) filamin C ABD mutation that segregated with the disease. Filamin C ABD mutations have not been described, although filamin A and filamin B ABD mutations cause multiple musculoskeletal disorders. The distal myopathy phenotype and muscle pathology in the two families differ from myofibrillar myopathies caused by filamin C rod and dimerization domain mutations because of the distinct involvement of hand muscles and lack of pathological protein aggregation. Thus, like the position of FLNA and B mutations, the position of the FLNC mutation determines disease phenotype. The two filamin C ABD mutations increase actin-binding affinity in a manner similar to filamin A and filamin B ABD mutations. Cell-culture expression of the c.752T>C (p.Met251)Thr mutant filamin C ABD demonstrated reduced nuclear localization as did mutant filamin A and filamin B ABDs. Expression of both filamin C ABD mutants as full-length proteins induced increased aggregation of filamin. We conclude filamin C ABD mutations cause a recognizable distal myopathy, most likely through increased actin affinity, similar to the pathological mechanism of filamin A and filamin B ABD mutations. PMID:21620354

  7. Cooperation enhanced by moderate tolerance ranges in myopically selective interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaojie; Wang, Long

    2009-10-01

    We present a mode of myopically selective interaction to study the evolutionary prisoner’s dilemma game in scale-free networks. Each individual has a reputation-based tolerance range and only tends to interact with the neighbors whose reputation is within its tolerance range. Moreover, its reputation is assessed in response to the interactions in the neighborhood. Interestingly, we show that moderate values of tolerance range can result in the best promotion of cooperation due to the emergence of group selection mechanism. Furthermore, we study the effects of weighting factor in the assessment rule of reputation on the evolution of cooperation. We also show how cooperation evolves in some extended situations, where an interaction stimulus payment is considered for individuals, and where the strategy and reputation of individuals can spread simultaneously. Our results may enhance the understanding of evolutionary dynamics in graph-structured populations where individuals conditionally play with their neighbors according to some myopic selection criteria.

  8. Local and nonlocal conductance enhancement due to Cooper pair splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jian; Chandrasekhar, V.

    2012-12-01

    Enhanced local conductance due to Andreev reflection is well known for high transparency Normal metal-Superconductor (NS) interface. For low transparency NS junctions, observation of two-electron tunneling contribution (enhanced Andreev reflection) to current was also reported previously. In our recent work [J Wei and V Chandrasekhar, Nat. Phys. 6, 494 (2010)], for a three-terminal Cooper pair splitter geometry, i.e., with two closely placed NS junctions sharing the same S terminal, we were able do a 2D scan of both local and nonlocal differential resistance, since for our ideal tunneling junctions there is little current redistribution (flow from one normal-metal lead to the other via the superconducting lead). In contrast to previous 1D nonlocal resistance measurements, 2D scans clearly show regime with pronounced contribution of the nonlocal processes to both local and nonlocal conductance enhancement. The enhanced local conductance and negative nonlocal resistance are consistent with enhanced Cooper pair splitting, and dynamical Coulomb blockade could be the origin of this enhancement.

  9. Documentation and localization of force-mediated filamin A domain perturbations in moving cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Fumihiko; Song, Mia; Hartwig, John H.; Stossel, Thomas P.

    2014-08-01

    Endogenously and externally generated mechanical forces influence diverse cellular activities, a phenomenon defined as mechanotransduction. Deformation of protein domains by application of stress, previously documented to alter macromolecular interactions in vitro, could mediate these effects. We engineered a photon-emitting system responsive to unfolding of two repeat domains of the actin filament (F-actin) crosslinker protein filamin A (FLNA) that binds multiple partners involved in cell signalling reactions and validated the system using F-actin networks subjected to myosin-based contraction. Expressed in cultured cells, the sensor-containing FLNA construct reproducibly reported FLNA domain unfolding strikingly localized to dynamic, actively protruding, leading cell edges. The unfolding signal depends upon coherence of F-actin-FLNA networks and is enhanced by stimulating cell contractility. The results establish protein domain distortion as a bona fide mechanism for mechanotransduction in vivo.

  10. Nonequilibrium enhancement of Cooper pairing in cold fermion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Andrew; Galitski, Victor M.

    2009-12-15

    Nonequilibrium stimulation of superfluidity in trapped Fermi gases is discussed by analogy to the work of Eliashberg [Nonequilibrium Superconductivity, edited by D. N. Langenberg and A. I. Larkin (North-Holland, New York, 1986)] on the microwave enhancement of superconductivity. Optical excitation of the fermions balanced by heat loss due to thermal contact with a boson bath and/or evaporative cooling enables stationary nonequilibrium states to exist. Such a state manifests as a shift of the quasiparticle spectrum to higher energies and this effectively raises the pairing transition temperature. As an illustration, we calculate the effective enhancement of Cooper pairing and superfluidity in both the normal and superfluid phases for a mixture of {sup 87}Rb and {sup 6}Li in the limit of small departure from equilibrium. It is argued that in experiment the desirable effect is not limited to such small perturbations and the effective enhancement of the pairing temperature may be quite large.

  11. Does copy-resistance enhance cooperation in spatial prisoner's dilemma?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigaki, K.; Kokubo, S.; Tanimoto, J.; Hagishima, A.; Ikegaya, N.

    2012-05-01

    We propose a novel idea for the so-called pairwise-Fermi process by considering copy-resistance when an agent copies a neighbor's strategy, which implies that the focal agent with relatively affluent payoff vis-à-vis social average might be negative to copy her neighbor's strategy even if her payoff is less than the neighbor's payoff. Simulation results reveal that this idea with a revised strategy adaptation process significantly enhances cooperation for prisoner's dilemma games played on time-constant networks.

  12. 75 FR 77821 - Agricultural Water Enhancement Program and Cooperative Conservation Partnership Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation Agricultural Water Enhancement Program and Cooperative... agreements with the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) through either the Agricultural Water... Agricultural Water Enhancement Program Legislative Authority The Agricultural Water Enhancement Program...

  13. DNA supercoiling enhances cooperativity and efficiency of an epigenetic switch

    PubMed Central

    Norregaard, Kamilla; Andersson, Magnus; Sneppen, Kim; Nielsen, Peter Eigil; Brown, Stanley; Oddershede, Lene B.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteriophage λ stably maintains its dormant prophage state but efficiently enters lytic development in response to DNA damage. The mediator of these processes is the λ repressor protein, CI, and its interactions with λ operator DNA. This λ switch is a model on the basis of which epigenetic switch regulation is understood. Using single molecule analysis, we directly examined the stability of the CI-operator structure in its natural, supercoiled state. We marked positions adjacent to the λ operators with peptide nucleic acids and monitored their movement by tethered particle tracking. Compared with relaxed DNA, the presence of supercoils greatly enhances juxtaposition probability. Also, the efficiency and cooperativity of the λ switch is significantly increased in the supercoiled system compared with a linear assay, increasing the Hill coefficient. PMID:24101469

  14. DNA supercoiling enhances cooperativity and efficiency of an epigenetic switch.

    PubMed

    Norregaard, Kamilla; Andersson, Magnus; Sneppen, Kim; Nielsen, Peter Eigil; Brown, Stanley; Oddershede, Lene B

    2013-10-22

    Bacteriophage λ stably maintains its dormant prophage state but efficiently enters lytic development in response to DNA damage. The mediator of these processes is the λ repressor protein, CI, and its interactions with λ operator DNA. This λ switch is a model on the basis of which epigenetic switch regulation is understood. Using single molecule analysis, we directly examined the stability of the CI-operator structure in its natural, supercoiled state. We marked positions adjacent to the λ operators with peptide nucleic acids and monitored their movement by tethered particle tracking. Compared with relaxed DNA, the presence of supercoils greatly enhances juxtaposition probability. Also, the efficiency and cooperativity of the λ switch is significantly increased in the supercoiled system compared with a linear assay, increasing the Hill coefficient. PMID:24101469

  15. Cooperative Learning and Enhanced Communication: Effects on Student Performance, Retention, and Attitudes in General Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, R. C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines the effects of cooperative learning and enhanced communication on student performance, retention, and attitudes in general chemistry. Results indicate that cooperative homework, cooperative quizzes, electronic-mail communication, and open office hours were associated with significantly higher student retention and higher performance on…

  16. Enhancing Student Performance through Cooperative Learning in Physical Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Madan L.

    2004-01-01

    Students in a physical sciences course were introduced to cooperative learning at the University of Queensland, Gatton Campus. Groups of four to five students worked together in tutorial and practical sessions. Mid-term and practical examinations were abolished and 40% of total marks were allocated to the cooperative learning activities. A peer-…

  17. Filamin Interacts with Epithelial Sodium Channel and Inhibits Its Channel Function*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian; Dai, Xiao-Qing; Li, Qiang; Tuli, Jagdeep; Liang, Gengqing; Li, Shayla S.; Chen, Xing-Zhen

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in the kidneys is critical for Na+ balance, extracellular volume, and blood pressure. Altered ENaC function is associated with respiratory disorders, pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1, and Liddle syndrome. ENaC is known to interact with components of the cytoskeleton, but the functional roles remain largely unclear. Here, we examined the interaction between ENaC and filamins, important actin filament components. We first discovered by yeast two-hybrid screening that the C termini of ENaC α and β subunits bind filamin A, B, and C, and we then confirmed the binding by in vitro biochemical assays. We demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation that ENaC, either overexpressed in HEK, HeLa, and melanoma A7 cells or natively expressed in LLC-PK1 and IMCD cells, is in the same complex with native filamin. Furthermore, the biotinylation and co-immunoprecipitation combined assays showed the ENaC-filamin interaction on the cell surface. Using Xenopus oocyte expression and two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology, we found that co-expression of an ENaC-binding domain of filamin substantially reduces ENaC channel function. Western blot and immunohistochemistry experiments revealed that the filamin A C terminus (FLNAC) modestly reduces the expression of the ENaC α subunit in oocytes and A7 cells. After normalizing the current by plasma membrane expression, we found that FLNAC results in ∼50% reduction in the ENaC channel activity. The inhibitory effect of FLNAC was confirmed by lipid bilayer electrophysiology experiments using purified ENaC and FLNAC proteins, which showed that FLNAC substantially reduces ENaC single channel open probability. Taken together, our study demonstrated that filamin reduces ENaC channel function through direct interaction on the cell surface. PMID:23161538

  18. Filamin C: a novel component of the KCNE2 interactome during hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Neethling, Annika; Mouton, Jomien; Corfield, Valerie; de Villiers, Carin; Kinnear, Craig; Loos, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Summary Aim KCNE2 encodes for the potassium voltage-gated channel, KCNE2. Mutations in KCNE2 have been associated with long-QT syndrome (LQTS). While KCNE2 has been extensively studied, the functions of its C-terminal domain remain inadequately described. Here, we aimed to elucidate the functions of this domain by identifying its protein interactors using yeast two-hybrid analysis. Methods The C-terminal domain of KCNE2 was used as bait to screen a human cardiac cDNA library for putative interacting proteins. Co-localisation and co-immunoprecipitation analyses were used for verification. Results Filamin C (FLNC) was identified as a putative interactor with KCNE2. FLNC and KCNE2 co-localised within the cell, however, a physical interaction was only observed under hypoxic conditions. Conclusion The identification of FLNC as a novel KCNE2 ligand not only enhances current understanding of ion channel function and regulation, but also provides valuable information about possible pathways likely to be involved in LQTS pathogenesis. PMID:26956495

  19. Hypoxia-induced and calpain-dependent cleavage of filamin A regulates the hypoxic response.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaowei; Zhou, Alex-Xianghua; Rouhi, Pegah; Uramoto, Hidetaka; Borén, Jan; Cao, Yihai; Pereira, Teresa; Akyürek, Levent M; Poellinger, Lorenz

    2014-02-18

    The cellular response to hypoxia is regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and -2α (HIF-1α and -2α). We have discovered that filamin A (FLNA), a large cytoskeletal actin-binding protein, physically interacts with HIF-1α and promotes tumor growth and angiogenesis. Hypoxia induces a calpain-dependent cleavage of FLNA to generate a naturally occurring C-terminal fragment that accumulates in the cell nucleus. This fragment interacts with the N-terminal portion of HIF-1α spanning amino acid residues 1-390 but not with HIF-2α. In hypoxia this fragment facilitates the nuclear localization of HIF-1α, is recruited to HIF-1α target gene promoters, and enhances HIF-1α function, resulting in up-regulation of HIF-1α target gene expression in a hypoxia-dependent fashion. These results unravel an important mechanism that selectively regulates the nuclear accumulation and function of HIF-1α and potentiates angiogenesis and tumor progression. PMID:24550283

  20. Filamin A Protein Interacts with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Gag Protein and Contributes to Productive Particle Assembly*

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, JoAnn; Liu, Ling; Woodruff, Elvin A.; Taylor, Harry E.; Goodwin, J. Shawn; D'Aquila, Richard T.; Spearman, Paul; Hildreth, James E. K.; Dong, Xinhong

    2011-01-01

    HIV-1 Gag precursor directs virus particle assembly and release. In a search for Gag-interacting proteins that are involved in late stages of the HIV-1 replication cycle, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening against a human cDNA library and identified the non-muscle actin filament cross-linking protein filamin A as a novel Gag binding partner. The 280-kDa filamin A regulates cortical actin network dynamics and participates in the anchoring of membrane proteins to the actin cytoskeleton. Recent studies have shown that filamin A facilitates HIV-1 cell-to-cell transmission by binding to HIV receptors and coreceptors and regulating their clustering on the target cell surface. Here we report a novel role for filamin A in HIV-1 Gag intracellular trafficking. We demonstrate that filamin A interacts with the capsid domain of HIV-1 Gag and that this interaction is involved in particle release in a productive manner. Disruption of this interaction eliminated Gag localization at the plasma membrane and induced Gag accumulation within internal compartments. Moreover, blocking clathrin-dependent endocytic pathways did not relieve the restriction to particle release induced by filamin A depletion. These results suggest that filamin A is involved in the distinct step of the Gag trafficking pathway. The discovery of the Gag-filamin A interaction may provide a new therapeutic target for the treatment of HIV infection. PMID:21705339

  1. Using Technology-Enhanced, Cooperative, Group-Project Learning for Student Comprehension and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tlhoaele, Malefyane; Suhre, Cor; Hofman, Adriaan

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative learning may improve students' motivation, understanding of course concepts, and academic performance. This study therefore enhanced a cooperative, group-project learning technique with technology resources to determine whether doing so improved students' deep learning and performance. A sample of 118 engineering students, randomly…

  2. An Enhanced Genetic Approach to Composing Cooperative Learning Groups for Multiple Grouping Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Yin, Peng-Yeng; Hwang, Chi-Wei; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative learning is known to be an effective educational strategy in enhancing the learning performance of students. The goal of a cooperative learning group is to maximize all members' learning efficacy. This is accomplished via promoting each other's success, through assisting, sharing, mentoring, explaining, and encouragement. To achieve…

  3. Kids Working with Nature: A Cooperative Wildlife Habitat Enhancement Project in the Connelly Creek Nature Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherrer, Wendy Wollam

    1988-01-01

    Describes a project in the Bellingham Cooperative School (Washington) in which teachers and students, along with parents and community volunteers, are involved in a 24-acre wildlife enhancement effort. (TW)

  4. 77 FR 73 - Cooperative Conservation Partnership Initiative and Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Natural Resources Conservation Service Commodity Credit Corporation Cooperative Conservation Partnership Initiative and Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program AGENCY: Natural Resources...). SUMMARY: The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) announces the availability of...

  5. Filamin A and Big2: a shared endocytic pathway.

    PubMed

    Sheen, Volney L

    2014-01-01

    Neural proliferation, migration and differentiation require reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and regulation of vesicle trafficking to provide stability in maintaining cell adhesions, allow for changes in cell shape, and establishing cell polarity. Human disorders involving the actin-binding Filamin A (FLNA) and vesicle trafficking Brefeldin-associated guanine exchange factor 2 (BIG2 is encoded by the ARFGEF2 gene) proteins are implicated in these various developmental processes, resulting in a malformation of cortical development called periventricular heterotopia (nodules along the ventricular lining) and microcephaly (small brain). Here we discuss several recent reports from our laboratory that demonstrate a shared role for both proteins in actin-associated vesicle trafficking, which is required to maintain the expression and stability of cell adhesion and cell cycle associated molecules during cortical development. While changes in FLNA and BIG2 have first been linked to disorders involving the central nervous system, increasing reports suggest they are associated with aberrant development of various other organ systems in the body. These studies suggest that vesicle trafficking defects in FLN-GEF dependent pathways may contribute to a much broader phenotype than previously realized. PMID:24709996

  6. Arterial Myogenic Activation through Smooth Muscle Filamin A.

    PubMed

    Retailleau, Kevin; Arhatte, Malika; Demolombe, Sophie; Peyronnet, Rémi; Baudrie, Véronique; Jodar, Martine; Bourreau, Jennifer; Henrion, Daniel; Offermanns, Stefan; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Feng, Yuanyi; Patel, Amanda; Duprat, Fabrice; Honoré, Eric

    2016-03-01

    Mutations in the filamin A (FlnA) gene are frequently associated with severe arterial abnormalities, although the physiological role for this cytoskeletal element remains poorly understood in vascular cells. We used a conditional mouse model to selectively delete FlnA in smooth muscle (sm) cells at the adult stage, thus avoiding the developmental effects of the knockout. Basal blood pressure was significantly reduced in conscious smFlnA knockout mice. Remarkably, pressure-dependent tone of the resistance caudal artery was lost, whereas reactivity to vasoconstrictors was preserved. Impairment of the myogenic behavior was correlated with a lack of calcium influx in arterial myocytes upon an increase in intraluminal pressure. Notably, the stretch activation of CaV1.2 was blunted in the absence of smFlnA. In conclusion, FlnA is a critical upstream element of the signaling cascade underlying the myogenic tone. These findings allow a better understanding of the molecular basis of arterial autoregulation and associated disease states. PMID:26923587

  7. Cooperative Clustering Digitizes Biochemical Signaling and Enhances its Fidelity.

    PubMed

    Roob, Edward; Trendel, Nicola; Rein Ten Wolde, Pieter; Mugler, Andrew

    2016-04-12

    Many membrane-bound molecules in cells form small clusters. It has been hypothesized that these clusters convert an analog extracellular signal into a digital intracellular signal and that this conversion increases signaling fidelity. However, the mechanism by which clusters digitize a signal and the subsequent effects on fidelity remain poorly understood. Here we demonstrate using a stochastic model of cooperative cluster formation that sufficient cooperation leads to digital signaling. We show that despite reducing the number of output states, which decreases fidelity, digitization also reduces noise in the system, which increases fidelity. The tradeoff between these effects leads to an optimal cluster size that agrees with experimental measurements. PMID:27074690

  8. Expression, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic data analysis of filamin A repeats 14–16

    SciTech Connect

    Aguda, Adeleke Halilu; Sakwe, Amos Malle; Rask, Lars; Robinson, Robert Charles

    2007-04-01

    The crystallization and crystallographic data analysis of filamin repeats 14–16 are reported. Human filamin A is a 280 kDa protein involved in actin-filament cross-linking. It is structurally divided into an actin-binding headpiece (ABD) and a rod domain containing 24 immunoglobulin-like (Ig) repeats. A fragment of human filamin A (Ig repeats 14–16) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and the purified protein was crystallized in 1.6 M ammonium sulfate, 2% PEG 1000 and 100 mM HEPES pH 7.5. The crystals diffracted to 1.95 Å and belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 50.63, b = 52.10, c = 98.46 Å, α = β = γ = 90°.

  9. Filamin A negatively regulates the transcriptional activity of p73{alpha} in the cytoplasm

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Eun-Joo; Park, Jong-Sup; Um, Soo-Jong

    2007-11-03

    The transcription regulator p73{alpha} is structurally different from p53 in that it possesses a unique C-terminal domain, which has been implicated in transcriptional repression. To dissect the mechanism of repression by this domain, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen of a HeLa cDNA library using residues 487-636 of p73{alpha} as bait and isolated a cDNA clone encoding the C-terminal portion (residues 2210-2647) of filamin A, a 280-kDa actin-binding protein. Additional yeast two-hybrid assays indicated that filamin A specifically interacts with the p73{alpha} C-terminus, which is lacking in p53 and p73{beta}. The interaction was confirmed by GST pull-down assays in vitro and by immunoprecipitation analysis in vivo. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that p73{alpha} remained in the cytoplasm in A7 melanoma cells stably expressing filamin A, whereas it was localized in the nucleus of filamin A-deficient M2 cells. Deletion of the C-terminus of p73{alpha} (residues 487-636) resulted in nuclear localization in both cell types. Consistent with our interaction data, transient co-expression of filamin A resulted in the down-regulation of p73{alpha}, but not of p53, transcriptional activity on various p53-responsive promoters. Taken together, our data suggest that p73{alpha} is sequestered in the cytoplasm by filamin A, thereby inhibiting its transcriptional activity.

  10. Enhancing US-Japan Cooperation to Combat Antimicrobial Resistance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) is aimed at preventing, detecting, and responding to infectious disease threats. To move toward these goals, the United States has committed to partner with at least 30 countries around the world. One of the objectives of the GHSA includes “[p]reventing the emergence and spread of antimicrobial drug resistant organisms.” Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become a growing global health security problem, with inappropriate use of antimicrobial medications in humans and animals and a lack of new antimicrobial medications contributing to this problem. While AMR is a growing global concern, working on it regionally can make this multifaceted problem more manageable. The United States and Japan, both world leaders in the life sciences, are close allies that have established cooperative programs in medical research and global health that can be used to work on combating AMR and advance the GHSA. Although the United States and Japan have cooperated on health issues in the past, their cooperation on the growing problem of AMR has been limited. Their existing networks, cooperative programs, and close relationships can and should be used to work on combating this expanding problem. PMID:25470465

  11. Enhancing US-Japan cooperation to combat antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Gerbin, C Sachi

    2014-01-01

    The Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) is aimed at preventing, detecting, and responding to infectious disease threats. To move toward these goals, the United States has committed to partner with at least 30 countries around the world. One of the objectives of the GHSA includes "[p]reventing the emergence and spread of antimicrobial drug resistant organisms." Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become a growing global health security problem, with inappropriate use of antimicrobial medications in humans and animals and a lack of new antimicrobial medications contributing to this problem. While AMR is a growing global concern, working on it regionally can make this multifaceted problem more manageable. The United States and Japan, both world leaders in the life sciences, are close allies that have established cooperative programs in medical research and global health that can be used to work on combating AMR and advance the GHSA. Although the United States and Japan have cooperated on health issues in the past, their cooperation on the growing problem of AMR has been limited. Their existing networks, cooperative programs, and close relationships can and should be used to work on combating this expanding problem. PMID:25470465

  12. Using technology-enhanced, cooperative, group-project learning for student comprehension and academic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tlhoaele, Malefyane; Suhre, Cor; Hofman, Adriaan

    2016-05-01

    Cooperative learning may improve students' motivation, understanding of course concepts, and academic performance. This study therefore enhanced a cooperative, group-project learning technique with technology resources to determine whether doing so improved students' deep learning and performance. A sample of 118 engineering students, randomly divided into two groups, participated in this study and provided data through questionnaires issued before and after the experiment. The results, obtained through analyses of variance and structural equation modelling, reveal that technology-enhanced, cooperative, group-project learning improves students' comprehension and academic performance.

  13. Cooperative MPC&A Enhancements at Russian Navy Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, N N; O'Shell, P; Hendrickson, S; Sukhoruchkin, V; Antipov, S; Melkhov, E; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N; Yurasov, N

    2001-05-30

    U.S. MPC&A cooperation with the Russian Federation (RF) Navy is based on a Joint Statement signed in 1996 to protect Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) fresh fuel used for nuclear propulsion. The Russian Federation Navy is the largest owner in Russia of highly enriched uranium, both in the form of fresh nuclear fuel, and in the form of slightly irradiated fuel with a long cooling time after irradiation. As a result of this agreement, projects began at the Northern Fleet Fresh Fuel Storage Facility (Site 49) and Refueling Ship PM-63. Initial projects provided upgrades for RF Navy HEU fresh fuel storage facilities, beginning with a land-based facility near Murmansk and later adding other land-based and ship-based fresh fuel storage facilities. Additional protocols (December 1997, January 1999, and March 2000) significantly expanded cooperation to include all HEU fuel under RF Navy control. To date, it is estimated that tens of metric tons of HEU have been secured - enough to construct hundreds of nuclear devices. It was determined that the cooperation would be coordinated by the Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute. This paper describes the history of the Program development, its stages, current status, scale of the work and prospects.

  14. Regulation of AQP0 water permeability is enhanced by cooperativity.

    PubMed

    Németh-Cahalan, Karin L; Clemens, Daniel M; Hall, James E

    2013-03-01

    Aquaporin 0 (AQP0), essential for lens clarity, is a tetrameric protein composed of four identical monomers, each of which has its own water pore. The water permeability of AQP0 expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes can be approximately doubled by changes in calcium concentration or pH. Although each monomer pore functions as a water channel, under certain conditions the pores act cooperatively. In other words, the tetramer is the functional unit. In this paper, we show that changes in external pH and calcium can induce an increase in water permeability that exhibits either a positive cooperativity switch-like increase in water permeability or an increase in water permeability in which each monomer acts independently and additively. Because the concentrations of calcium and hydrogen ions increase toward the center of the lens, a concentration signal could trigger a regulatory change in AQP0 water permeability. It thus seems plausible that the cooperative modes of water permeability regulation by AQP0 tetramers mediated by decreased pH and elevated calcium are the physiologically important ones in the living lens. PMID:23440275

  15. Filamin C-related myopathies: pathology and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Fürst, Dieter O; Goldfarb, Lev G; Kley, Rudolf A; Vorgerd, Matthias; Olivé, Montse; van der Ven, Peter F M

    2013-01-01

    The term filaminopathy was introduced after a truncating mutation in the dimerization domain of filamin C (FLNc) was shown to be responsible for a devastating muscle disease. Subsequently, the same mutation was found in patients from diverse ethnical origins, indicating that this specific alteration is a mutational hot spot. Patients initially present with proximal muscle weakness, while distal and respiratory muscles become affected with disease progression. Muscle biopsies of these patients show typical signs of myofibrillar myopathy, including disintegration of myofibrils and aggregation of several proteins into distinct intracellular deposits. Highly similar phenotypes were observed in patients with other mutations in Ig-like domains of FLNc that result in expression of a noxious protein. Biochemical and biophysical studies showed that the mutated domains acquire an abnormal structure causing decreased stability and eventually becoming a seed for abnormal aggregation with other proteins. The disease usually presents only after the fourth decade of life possibly as a result of ageing-related impairments in the machinery that is responsible for disposal of damaged proteins. This is confirmed by mutations in components of this machinery that cause a highly similar phenotype. Transfection studies of cultured muscle cells reflect the events observed in patient muscles and, therefore, may provide a helpful model for testing future dedicated therapeutic strategies. More recently, FLNC mutations were also found in families with a distal myopathy phenotype, caused either by mutations in the actin-binding domain of FLNc that result in increased actin-binding and non-specific myopathic abnormalities without myofibrillar myopathy pathology, or a nonsense mutation in the rod domain that leads to RNA instability, haploinsufficiency with decreased expression levels of FLNc in the muscle fibers and myofibrillar abnormalities, but not to the formation of desmin-positive protein

  16. Filamin A-Hinge Region 1-EGFP: A Novel Tool for Tracking the Cellular Functions of Filamin A in Real-Time

    PubMed Central

    Pons, Mónica; Myhren, Lene; Garrido, Georgina; Aragay, Anna M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Filamin A (FLNa) is an actin-crosslinking protein necessary for stabilizing the cell surface, organizing protrusive activity and for promoting efficient cellular translocation. Recently, our group demonstrated the requirement of FLNa for the internalization of the chemokine receptor CCR2B. Methodology and Principal Findings In order to study the role of FLNa in vitro and in real-time, we have developed a fluorescent FLNa-EGFP construct. In this novel imaging tool, we introduced the EGFP-tag inside the flexible hinge 1 region of FLNa between two calpain cleavage sites. Our findings indicate that the FLNa-EGFP construct was correctly expressed, cleaved by calpain and colocalized with actin filaments as shown by immunostaining experiments in the human melanoma cell lines A7 (FLNa-repleted) and M2 (FLNa-deficient). In addition, scanning-electron microscopy (SEM) and micropatterning studies also provided clear evidence that the cell rigidity was restored. FLNa-EGFP allowed us to demonstrate the interaction of FLNa with the chemokine receptor CCR2B in endocytic vesicles after CCL2 ligand stimulation. Through live-cell imaging studies we show that the CCR2B receptor in Rab5-positive vesicles moves along filamin A-positive fibers. Significance Taken together, these results outline the functionality of the FLNa-EGFP and the importance of filamin A for receptor internalization and movement into endocytic vesicles. PMID:22870205

  17. Helping enhances productivity in campo flicker (Colaptes campestris) cooperative groups.

    PubMed

    Dias, Raphael Igor; Webster, Michael S; Macedo, Regina H

    2015-06-01

    Reproductive adults in many bird species are assisted by non-breeding auxiliary helpers at the nest, yet the impact of auxiliaries on reproduction is variable and not always obvious. In this study, we tested Hamilton's rule and evaluated the effect of auxiliaries on productivity in the facultative cooperative breeder campo flicker (Colaptes campestris campestris). Campo flickers have a variable mating system, with some groups having auxiliaries and others lacking them (i.e., unassisted pairs). Most auxiliaries are closely related to the breeding pair (primary auxiliaries), but some auxiliaries (secondary auxiliaries) are unrelated females that joined established groups. We found no effect of breeder quality (body condition) or territory quality (food availability) on group productivity, but the presence of auxiliaries increased the number of fledglings produced relative to unassisted pairs. Nonetheless, the indirect benefit of helping was small and did not outweigh the costs of delayed breeding and so seemed insufficient to explain the evolution of cooperative breeding in campo flickers. We concluded that some ecological constraints must limit dispersal or independent breeding, making staying in the group a "best-of-a-bad-job" situation for auxiliaries. PMID:26004264

  18. Helping enhances productivity in campo flicker ( Colaptes campestris) cooperative groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Raphael Igor; Webster, Michael S.; Macedo, Regina H.

    2015-06-01

    Reproductive adults in many bird species are assisted by non-breeding auxiliary helpers at the nest, yet the impact of auxiliaries on reproduction is variable and not always obvious. In this study, we tested Hamilton's rule and evaluated the effect of auxiliaries on productivity in the facultative cooperative breeder campo flicker ( Colaptes campestris campestris). Campo flickers have a variable mating system, with some groups having auxiliaries and others lacking them (i.e., unassisted pairs). Most auxiliaries are closely related to the breeding pair (primary auxiliaries), but some auxiliaries (secondary auxiliaries) are unrelated females that joined established groups. We found no effect of breeder quality (body condition) or territory quality (food availability) on group productivity, but the presence of auxiliaries increased the number of fledglings produced relative to unassisted pairs. Nonetheless, the indirect benefit of helping was small and did not outweigh the costs of delayed breeding and so seemed insufficient to explain the evolution of cooperative breeding in campo flickers. We concluded that some ecological constraints must limit dispersal or independent breeding, making staying in the group a "best-of-a-bad-job" situation for auxiliaries.

  19. Drosophila Ten-m and Filamin Affect Motor Neuron Growth Cone Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Lihua; Michelson, Yehudit; Freger, Vita; Avraham, Ziva; Venken, Koen J. T.; Bellen, Hugo J.; Justice, Monica J.; Wides, Ron

    2011-01-01

    The Drosophila Ten-m (also called Tenascin-major, or odd Oz (odz)) gene has been associated with a pair-rule phenotype. We identified and characterized new alleles of Drosophila Ten-m to establish that this gene is not responsible for segmentation defects but rather causes defects in motor neuron axon routing. In Ten-m mutants the inter-segmental nerve (ISN) often crosses segment boundaries and fasciculates with the ISN in the adjacent segment. Ten-m is expressed in the central nervous system and epidermal stripes during the stages when the growth cones of the neurons that form the ISN navigate to their targets. Over-expression of Ten-m in epidermal cells also leads to ISN misrouting. We also found that Filamin, an actin binding protein, physically interacts with the Ten-m protein. Mutations in cheerio, which encodes Filamin, cause defects in motor neuron axon routing like those of Ten-m. During embryonic development, the expression of Filamin and Ten-m partially overlap in ectodermal cells. These results suggest that Ten-m and Filamin in epidermal cells might together influence growth cone progression. PMID:21857973

  20. In Silico Modeling of Human α2C-Adrenoreceptor Interaction with Filamin-2

    PubMed Central

    Pawlowski, Marcin; Saraswathi, Saras; Motawea, Hanaa K. B.; Chotani, Maqsood A.; Kloczkowski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle α2C-adrenoceptors (α2C-ARs) mediate vasoconstriction of small blood vessels, especially arterioles. Studies of endogenous receptors in human arteriolar smooth muscle cells (referred to as microVSM) and transiently transfected receptors in heterologous HEK293 cells show that the α2C-ARs are perinuclear receptors that translocate to the cell surface under cellular stress and elicit a biological response. Recent studies in microVSM unraveled a crucial role of Rap1A-Rho-ROCK-F-actin pathways in receptor translocation, and identified protein-protein interaction of α2C-ARs with the actin binding protein filamin-2 as an essential step in the process. To better understand the molecular nature and specificity of this interaction, in this study, we constructed comparative models of human α2C-AR and human filamin-2 proteins. Finally, we performed in silico protein-protein docking to provide a structural platform for the investigation of human α2C-AR and filamin-2 interactions. We found that electrostatic interactions seem to play a key role in this complex formation which manifests in interactions between the C-terminal arginines of α2C-ARs (particularly R454 and R456) and negatively charged residues from filamin-2 region between residues 1979 and 2206. Phylogenetic and sequence analysis showed that these interactions have evolved in warm-blooded animals. PMID:25110951

  1. RNase L Interacts with Filamin A To Regulate Actin Dynamics and Barrier Function for Viral Entry

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Mohammad Adnan; Dayal, Shubham; Naji, Merna; Ezelle, Heather J.; Zeng, Chun; Zhou, Aimin; Hassel, Bret A.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The actin cytoskeleton and its network of associated proteins constitute a physical barrier that viruses must circumvent to gain entry into cells for productive infection. The mechanisms by which the physical signals of infection are sensed by the host to activate an innate immune response are not well understood. The antiviral endoribonuclease RNase L is ubiquitously expressed in a latent form and activated upon binding 2-5A, a unique oligoadenylate produced during viral infections. We provide evidence that RNase L in its inactive form interacts with the actin-binding protein Filamin A to modulate the actin cytoskeleton and inhibit virus entry. Cells lacking either RNase L or Filamin A displayed increased virus entry which was exacerbated in cells lacking both proteins. RNase L deletion mutants that reduced Filamin A interaction displayed a compromised ability to restrict virus entry, supporting the idea of an important role for the RNase L-Filamin A complex in barrier function. Remarkably, both the wild type and a catalytically inactive RNase L mutant were competent to reduce virus entry when transfected into RNase L-deficient cells, indicating that this novel function of RNase L is independent of its enzymatic activity. Virus infection and RNase L activation disrupt its association with Filamin A and release RNase L to mediate its canonical nuclease-dependent antiviral activities. The dual functions of RNase L as a constitutive component of the actin cytoskeleton and as an induced mediator of antiviral signaling and effector functions provide insights into its mechanisms of antiviral activity and opportunities for the development of novel antiviral agents. PMID:25352621

  2. Model of a six immunoglobulin-like domain fragment of filamin A (16-21) built using residual dipolar couplings.

    PubMed

    Tossavainen, Helena; Koskela, Outi; Jiang, Pengju; Ylänne, Jari; Campbell, Iain D; Kilpeläinen, Ilkka; Permi, Perttu

    2012-04-18

    Filamins are actin-binding proteins that participate in a wide range of cell functions, including cell morphology, locomotion, membrane protein localization, and intracellular signaling. The three filamin isoforms found in humans, filamins A, B, and C, are highly homologous, and their roles are partly complementary. In addition to actin, filamins interact with dozens of other proteins that have roles as membrane receptors and channels, enzymes, signaling intermediates, and transcription factors. Filamins are composed of an N-terminal actin-binding domain and 24 filamin-type immunoglobulin-like domains (FLN) that form tail-to-tail dimers with their C-terminal FLN domain. Many of the filamin interactions including those for glycoprotein Ibα and integrins have been mapped to the region comprising FLN domains 16-21. Traditionally, FLN domains have been viewed as independent folding units, arranged in a linear chain joined with flexible linkers. Recent structural findings have shown that consecutive FLNs form more intricate superstructures. The crystal structure of filamin A domains 19-21 (FLNa19-21) revealed that domains 20 and 21 fold together and that the domain interaction can be autoregulatory. The solution structure of domains 18-19 showed a similar domain interaction, whereas domain pair 16-17 has a completely different domain packing mode. In this study, we characterize the domain organization of the FLNa domain sextet 16-21 using NMR spectroscopy. A structure model of this 60-kDa protein has been built using residual dipolar coupling restraints. RDCs and (15)N relaxation data have been used to characterize interdomain motions. PMID:22452512

  3. Enhancing the Performance of Medical Implant Communication Systems through Cooperative Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Hegyi, Barnabás; Levendovszky, János

    2010-01-01

    Battery-operated medical implants—such as pacemakers or cardioverter-defibrillators—have already been widely used in practical telemedicine and telecare applications. However, no solution has yet been found to mitigate the effect of the fading that the in-body to off-body communication channel is subject to. In this paper, we reveal and assess the potential of cooperative diversity to combat fading—hence to improve system performance—in medical implant communication systems. In the particular cooperative communication scenario we consider, multiple cooperating receiver units are installed across the room accommodating the patient with a medical implant inside his/her body. Our investigations have shown that the application of cooperative diversity is a promising approach to enhance the performance of medical implant communication systems in various aspects such as implant lifetime and communication link reliability. PMID:20379346

  4. Mobility enhances cooperation in the presence of decision-making mistakes on complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wenjian

    2011-02-01

    Human migration has profound effects on social change. The introduction of success-driven migration to selfish individuals has revealed significant effects on the promotion of cooperation in spatial evolutionary games. In this study, we generalize the interaction structure from a spatial lattice to complex networks, such as Erdős-Renyi random networks and Barabási-Albert scale-free networks. Keeping the topology of networks, we investigate the robustness of cooperation when individuals can make decision errors. Numerical simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of success-driven migration on the enhancement of cooperation confronted with individual decision-making mistakes. In contrast, even a very low probability of decision errors can decrease the level of cooperation without mobility. Statistical analysis further exhibits the relation between network topology and migratory behavior.

  5. Velocity-enhanced cooperation of moving agents playing public goods games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardillo, Alessio; Meloni, Sandro; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Moreno, Yamir

    2012-06-01

    In this paper we study the evolutionary dynamics of the public goods game in a population of mobile agents embedded in a two-dimensional space. In this framework, the backbone of interactions between agents changes in time, allowing us to study the impact that mobility has on the emergence of cooperation in structured populations. Our results point out that a low degree of mobility enhances cooperation in the system. In addition, we study the impact of the size of the groups in which games are played on cooperation. Again we find a rise and fall of cooperation related to the percolation point of the instant interaction networks created by the set of mobile agents.

  6. Enhancing the performance of cooperative face detector by NFGS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesugade, Snehal; Dave, Palak; Srivastava, Srinkhala; Das, Apurba

    2015-07-01

    Computerized human face detection is an important task of deformable pattern recognition in today's world. Especially in cooperative authentication scenarios like ATM fraud detection, attendance recording, video tracking and video surveillance, the accuracy of the face detection engine in terms of accuracy, memory utilization and speed have been active areas of research for the last decade. The Haar based face detection or SIFT and EBGM based face recognition systems are fairly reliable in this regard. But, there the features are extracted in terms of gray textures. When the input is a high resolution online video with a fairly large viewing area, Haar needs to search for face everywhere (say 352×250 pixels) and every time (e.g., 30 FPS capture all the time). In the current paper we have proposed to address both the aforementioned scenarios by a neuro-visually inspired method of figure-ground segregation (NFGS) [5] to result in a two-dimensional binary array from gray face image. The NFGS would identify the reference video frame in a low sampling rate and updates the same with significant change of environment like illumination. The proposed algorithm would trigger the face detector only when appearance of a new entity is encountered into the viewing area. To address the detection accuracy, classical face detector would be enabled only in a narrowed down region of interest (RoI) as fed by the NFGS. The act of updating the RoI would be done in each frame online with respect to the moving entity which in turn would improve both FR (False Rejection) and FA (False Acceptance) of the face detection system.

  7. Using the Microcomputer to Enhance Language Experiences and the Development of Cooperative Play among Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhlstein, Eleanor A.; Croft, Doreen J.

    Current interest and controversy about the use of microcomputers with young children led to a study of 13 3- to 5-year-old girls and boys enrolled at the De Anza College Child Development Center in Cupertino, California. Designed to determine the effectiveness of the computer in enhancing language experiences and development of cooperative play…

  8. The Role of Structured Cooperative Learning Groups for Enhancing Chinese Primary Students' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Yin-Kum

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effectiveness of two types of cooperative learning groups used in reciprocal teaching (RT) classes (i.e. high-structured vs. low-structured groups) for enhancing students' reading comprehension. The participants were 235 Hong Kong Chinese Grade 6 students in nine classes. Reading comprehension tests and…

  9. Project CREATE Final Report. Cooperative Resources To Enhance Access to Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampden County Employment and Training Consortium, Springfield, MA.

    These materials have been developed by Project CREATE (Cooperative Resources to Enhance Access to Jobs through Technical Education), a demonstration program designed to develop a network, specific activities, and resources that would provide education and support services to a wide audience. A 13-page final report describes the hands-on training…

  10. Grade/Study-Performance Contracts, Enhanced Communication, Cooperative Learning, and Student Performance in Undergraduate Organic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Ralph C.

    1997-01-01

    Describes and evaluates a teaching strategy, designed to increase student retention while maintaining academic performance levels in undergraduate organic chemistry, that uses grade/study-performance contracts, enhanced communication using electronic mail, and cooperative learning. Concludes that a series of interventions can substantially…

  11. Payoff-related migration enhances cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hongyan; Dai, Qionglin; Li, Haihong; Zhu, Yun; Zhang, Mei; Yang, Junzhong

    2011-04-01

    In reality, migration of an individual usually correlates with the individual's financial or social status. Here, we consider the situation where migration of a player depends on the player's payoff to an evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game. When the mobility of a player is positively correlated with the player's normalized payoff, Pi, where the mobility of player i is defined as μi=Piα, we found that cooperation could be promoted strongly in the case of a high density of players because of the introduction of this kind of migration. Moreover, the system could reach a state of complete cooperation in a large region on the given parameter space. Interestingly, enhancement of cooperation shows a non-monotonic behavior with an increase in α. We also found that the positive effects of this kind of migration on cooperation are robust in the face of changes to the network structure and the strategy-updating rule. In addition, we consider another situation where the mobility of a player is anti-correlated with the player's normalized payoff, and we observe that cooperation enhancement still exists.

  12. Prestressed F-actin networks cross-linked by hinged filamins replicate mechanical properties of cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardel, M. L.; Nakamura, F.; Hartwig, J. H.; Crocker, J. C.; Stossel, T. P.; Weitz, D. A.

    2006-02-01

    We show that actin filaments, shortened to physiological lengths by gelsolin and cross-linked with recombinant human filamins (FLNs), exhibit dynamic elastic properties similar to those reported for live cells. To achieve elasticity values of comparable magnitude to those of cells, the in vitro network must be subjected to external prestress, which directly controls network elasticity. A molecular requirement for the strain-related behavior at physiological conditionsis a flexible hinge found in FLNa and some FLNb molecules. Basic physical properties of the in vitro filamin-F-actin network replicate the essential mechanical properties of living cells. This physical behavior could accommodate passive deformation and internal organelle trafficking at low strains yet resist externally or internally generated high shear forces. cytoskeleton | cell mechanics | nonlinear rheology

  13. Smooth muscle filamin A is a major determinant of conduit artery structure and function at the adult stage.

    PubMed

    Retailleau, Kevin; Arhatte, Malika; Demolombe, Sophie; Jodar, Martine; Baudrie, Véronique; Offermanns, Stefan; Feng, Yuanyi; Patel, Amanda; Honoré, Eric; Duprat, Fabrice

    2016-07-01

    Human mutations in the X-linked FLNA gene are associated with a remarkably diverse phenotype, including severe arterial morphological anomalies. However, the role for filamin A (FlnA) in vascular cells remains partially understood. We used a smooth muscle (sm)-specific conditional mouse model to delete FlnA at the adult stage, thus avoiding the developmental effects of the knock-out. Inactivation of smFlnA in adult mice significantly lowered blood pressure, together with a decrease in pulse pressure. However, both the aorta and carotid arteries showed a major outward hypertrophic remodeling, resistant to losartan, and normally occurring in hypertensive conditions. Notably, arterial compliance was significantly enhanced in the absence of smFlnA. Moreover, reactivity of thoracic aorta rings to a variety of vasoconstrictors was elevated, while basal contractility in response to KCl depolarization was reduced. Enhanced reactivity to the thromboxane A2 receptor agonist U46619 was fully reversed by the ROCK inhibitor Y27632. We discuss the possibility that a reduction in arterial stiffness upon smFlnA inactivation might cause a compensatory increase in conduit artery diameter for normalization of parietal tension, independently of the ROCK pathway. In conclusion, deletion of smFlnA in adult mice recapitulates the vascular phenotype of human bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia, culminating in aortic dilatation. PMID:27023351

  14. Filamin-A Increases the Stability and Plasma Membrane Expression of Polycystin-2

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian; Zheng, Wang; Wang, Zuocheng; Yang, JungWoo; Hussein, Shaimaa; Tang, Jingfeng; Chen, Xing-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Polycystin-2 (PC2), encoded by the PKD2 gene, is mutated in ~15% of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Filamins are actin-binding proteins implicated in scaffolding and membrane stabilization. Here we studied the effects of filamin on PC2 stability using filamin-deficient human melanoma M2, filamin-A (FLNA)-replete A7, HEK293 and IMCD cells together with FLNA siRNA/shRNA knockdown (KD). We found that the presence of FLNA is associated with higher total and plasma membrane PC2 protein expression. Western blotting analysis in combination with FLNA KD showed that FLNA in A7 cells represses PC2 degradation, prolonging the half-life from 2.3 to 4.4 hours. By co-immunoprecipitation and Far Western blotting we found that the FLNA C-terminus (FLNAC) reduces the FLNA-PC2 binding and PC2 expression, presumably through competing with FLNA for binding PC2. We further found that FLNA mediates PC2 binding with actin through forming complex PC2-FLNA-actin. FLNAC acted as a blocking peptide and disrupted the link of PC2 with actin through disrupting the PC2-FLNA-actin complex. Finally, we demonstrated that the physical interaction of PC2-FLNA is Ca-dependent. Taken together, our current study indicates that FLNA anchors PC2 to the actin cytoskeleton through complex PC2-FLNA-actin to reduce degradation and increase stability, and possibly regulate PC2 function in a Ca-dependent manner. PMID:25861040

  15. Filamin-a increases the stability and plasma membrane expression of polycystin-2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Zheng, Wang; Wang, Zuocheng; Yang, JungWoo; Hussein, Shaimaa; Tang, Jingfeng; Chen, Xing-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Polycystin-2 (PC2), encoded by the PKD2 gene, is mutated in ~15% of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Filamins are actin-binding proteins implicated in scaffolding and membrane stabilization. Here we studied the effects of filamin on PC2 stability using filamin-deficient human melanoma M2, filamin-A (FLNA)-replete A7, HEK293 and IMCD cells together with FLNA siRNA/shRNA knockdown (KD). We found that the presence of FLNA is associated with higher total and plasma membrane PC2 protein expression. Western blotting analysis in combination with FLNA KD showed that FLNA in A7 cells represses PC2 degradation, prolonging the half-life from 2.3 to 4.4 hours. By co-immunoprecipitation and Far Western blotting we found that the FLNA C-terminus (FLNAC) reduces the FLNA-PC2 binding and PC2 expression, presumably through competing with FLNA for binding PC2. We further found that FLNA mediates PC2 binding with actin through forming complex PC2-FLNA-actin. FLNAC acted as a blocking peptide and disrupted the link of PC2 with actin through disrupting the PC2-FLNA-actin complex. Finally, we demonstrated that the physical interaction of PC2-FLNA is Ca-dependent. Taken together, our current study indicates that FLNA anchors PC2 to the actin cytoskeleton through complex PC2-FLNA-actin to reduce degradation and increase stability, and possibly regulate PC2 function in a Ca-dependent manner. PMID:25861040

  16. Grb7 and Filamin-a associate and are colocalized to cell membrane ruffles upon EGF stimulation.

    PubMed

    Paudyal, Prakash; Shrestha, Sanjay; Madanayake, Thushara; Shuster, Charles B; Rohrschneider, Larry R; Rowland, Aaron; Lyons, Barbara A

    2013-11-01

    Grb7 is an adaptor molecule mediating signal transduction from multiple cell surface receptors to diverse downstream pathways. Grb7, along with Grb10 and Grb14, make up the Grb7 protein family. This protein family has been shown to be overexpressed in certain cancers and cancer cell lines. Grb7 and a receptor tyrosine kinase, ErbB2, are overexpressed in 20-30% of breast cancers. Grb7 overexpression has been linked to enhanced cell migration and metastasis, although the participants in these pathways have not been fully determined. In this study, we report the Grb7 protein interacts with Filamin-a, an actin-crosslinking component of the cell cytoskeleton. Additionally, we have demonstrated the interaction between Grb7 and Flna is specific to the RA-PH domains of Grb7, and the immunoglobulin-like repeat 16-19 domains of Flna. We demonstrate that full-length Grb7 and Flna interact in the mammalian cellular environment, as well as in vitro. Immunofluorescent microscopy shows potential co-localization of Grb7 and Flna in membrane ruffles upon epidermal growth factor stimulation. These studies are amongst the first to establish a clear connection between Grb7 signaling and cytoskeletal remodeling. PMID:24089360

  17. Grb7 and Filamin-a associate and are colocalized to cell membrane ruffles upon EGF stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Paudyal, Prakash; Shrestha, Sanjay; Madanayake, Thushara; Shuster, Charles B.; Rohrschneider, Larry R.; Rowland, Aaron; Lyons, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Grb7 is an adaptor molecule mediating signal transduction from multiple cell surface receptors to diverse downstream pathways. Grb7, along with Grb10 and Grb14, make up the Grb7 protein family. This protein family has been shown to be overexpressed in certain cancers and cancer cell lines. Grb7 and a receptor tyrosine kinase, ErbB2, are overexpressed in 20–30% of breast cancers. Grb7 overexpression has been linked to enhanced cell migration and metastasis, although the participants in these pathways have not been fully determined. In this study, we report the Grb7 protein interacts with Filamin-a, an actin-crosslinking component of the cell cytoskeleton. Additionally, we have demonstrated the interaction between Grb7 and Flna is specific to the RA-PH domains of Grb7, and the immunoglobulin-like repeat 16–19 domains of Flna. We demonstrate that full-length Grb7 and Flna interact in the mammalian cellular environment, as well as in vitro. Immunofluorescent microscopy shows potential co-localization of Grb7 and Flna in membrane ruffles upon epidermal growth factor stimulation. These studies are amongst the first to establish a clear connection between Grb7 signaling and cytoskeletal remodeling. PMID:24089360

  18. Filamin A (FLNA) modulates chemosensitivity to docetaxel in triple-negative breast cancer through the MAPK/ERK pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Pengxin; Ma, Weiyuan; Hu, Zhigang; Zang, Leilei; Tian, Zhisheng; Zhang, Kaili

    2016-04-01

    A previous RNA interference (RNAi) screen identified filamin A (FLNA) as a potential biomarker to predict chemosensitivity in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). However, its ability to modulate chemosensitivity and the underlying mechanism has not been investigated. Genetic manipulation of FLNA expression has been performed in an immortalized noncancerous human mammary epithelial cell line and four TNBC cell lines to investigate its effect on chemosensitivity. Western blot analysis was performed to identify the potential signaling pathway involved. Xenograft mouse model was used to examine the in vivo role of FLNA in modulating chemosensitivity. Overexpression of FLNA conferred chemoresistance to docetaxel in noncancerous human mammary epithelial cells. Knockdown of FLNA sensitized four TNBC cell lines, MDA-MB-231, HCC38, Htb126, and HCC1937 to docetaxel which was reversed by reconstituted FLNA expression. Decreased FLNA expression correlated with decreased activation of ERK. Constitutive activation of ERK2 reversed siFLNA-induced chemosensitization. Inhibition of MEK1 recapitulates the effect of FLNA knockdown. MDA-MB-231 xenograft with FLNA knockdown showed enhanced response to docetaxel compared with control xenograft with increased apoptosis. FLNA can function as a modulator of chemosensitivity to docetaxel in TNBC cells through regulation of the MAPK/ERK pathway both in vitro and in vivo. FLNA may serve as a novel therapeutic target for improvement of chemotherapy efficacy in TNBC. PMID:26546439

  19. Highly Enhanced Cooperative Upconversion Luminescence through Energy Transfer Optimization and Quenching Protection.

    PubMed

    Xue, Meng; Zhu, Xingjun; Qiu, Xiaochen; Gu, Yuyang; Feng, Wei; Li, Fuyou

    2016-07-20

    Upconversion luminescence nanomaterials have shown great potential in biological and physical applications because of their unique properties. However, limited research exists on the cooperative sensitization upconversion emission in Tb(3+) ions over Er(3+) ions and Tm(3+) ions because of its low efficiency. Herein, by optimizing the doping ratio of sensitizer and activator to maximize the utilization of the photon energy and introducing the CaF2 inert shell to shield sensitizer from quenchers, we synthesize ultrasmall NaYbF4:Tb@CaF2 nanoparticles with a significant enhancement (690-fold) in cooperative sensitization upconversion emission intensity, compared with the parent NaYbF4:Tb. The lifetime of Tb(3+) emission in NaYbF4:Tb@CaF2 nanoparticles is prolonged extensively to ∼3.5 ms. Furthermore, NaYbF4:Tb@CaF2 was applied in in vitro and in vivo bioimaging. The presented luminescence enhancement strategy provides cooperative sensitization upconversion with new opportunities for bioapplication. PMID:27347810

  20. Terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary defects (TODPD) due to a recurrent filamin A (FLNA) mutation

    PubMed Central

    Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Torrado, Maria; Fernandez, Maria del Carmen; Tello, Ana Maria; Arberas, Claudia L; Cardinale, Antonella; Piccolo, Pasquale; Bacino, Carlos A

    2014-01-01

    Terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary defects (TODPD) is an X-linked dominant syndrome with distal limb anomalies, pigmentary skin defects, digital fibromas, and generalized bone involvement due to a recurrent mutation in the filamin A (FLNA) gene. We here report the mutation c.5217G>A in FLNA in three families with TODPD and we found possible germline and somatic mosaicism in two out of the three families. The occurrence of somatic and germline mosaicism for TODPD indicates that caution should be taken in counseling recurrence risks for these conditions upon presentation of an isolated case. PMID:25614868

  1. Terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary defects (TODPD) due to a recurrent filamin A (FLNA) mutation.

    PubMed

    Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Torrado, Maria; Fernandez, Maria Del Carmen; Tello, Ana Maria; Arberas, Claudia L; Cardinale, Antonella; Piccolo, Pasquale; Bacino, Carlos A

    2014-11-01

    Terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary defects (TODPD) is an X-linked dominant syndrome with distal limb anomalies, pigmentary skin defects, digital fibromas, and generalized bone involvement due to a recurrent mutation in the filamin A (FLNA) gene. We here report the mutation c.5217G>A in FLNA in three families with TODPD and we found possible germline and somatic mosaicism in two out of the three families. The occurrence of somatic and germline mosaicism for TODPD indicates that caution should be taken in counseling recurrence risks for these conditions upon presentation of an isolated case. PMID:25614868

  2. Partially Redundant Enhancers Cooperatively Maintain Mammalian Pomc Expression Above a Critical Functional Threshold

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Daniel D.; de Souza, Flavio S. J.; Nasif, Sofia; Yamashita, Miho; López-Leal, Rodrigo; Meece, Kana; Sampath, Harini; Mercer, Aaron J.; Wardlaw, Sharon L.

    2015-01-01

    Cell-specific expression of many genes is conveyed by multiple enhancers, with each individual enhancer controlling a particular expression domain. In contrast, multiple enhancers drive similar expression patterns of some genes involved in embryonic development, suggesting regulatory redundancy. Work in Drosophila has indicated that functionally overlapping enhancers canalize development by buffering gene expression against environmental and genetic disturbances. However, little is known about regulatory redundancy in vertebrates and in genes mainly expressed during adulthood. Here we study nPE1 and nPE2, two phylogenetically conserved mammalian enhancers that drive expression of the proopiomelanocortin gene (Pomc) to the same set of hypothalamic neurons. The simultaneous deletion of both enhancers abolished Pomc expression at all ages and induced a profound metabolic dysfunction including early-onset extreme obesity. Targeted inactivation of either nPE1 or nPE2 led to very low levels of Pomc expression during early embryonic development indicating that both enhancers function synergistically. In adult mice, however, Pomc expression is controlled additively by both enhancers, with nPE1 being responsible for ∼80% and nPE2 for ∼20% of Pomc transcription. Consequently, nPE1 knockout mice exhibit mild obesity whereas nPE2-deficient mice maintain a normal body weight. These results suggest that nPE2-driven Pomc expression is compensated by nPE1 at later stages of development, essentially rescuing the earlier phenotype of nPE2 deficiency. Together, these results reveal that cooperative interactions between the enhancers confer robustness of Pomc expression against gene regulatory disturbances and preclude deleterious metabolic phenotypes caused by Pomc deficiency in adulthood. Thus, our study demonstrates that enhancer redundancy can be used by genes that control adult physiology in mammals and underlines the potential significance of regulatory sequence mutations in

  3. Filamin A regulates neuronal migration through brefeldin A-inhibited guanine exchange factor 2-dependent Arf1 activation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingping; Neal, Jason; Lian, Gewei; Hu, Jianjun; Lu, Jie; Sheen, Volney

    2013-10-01

    Periventricular heterotopias is a malformation of cortical development, characterized by ectopic neuronal nodules around ventricle lining and caused by an initial migration defect during early brain development. Human mutations in the Filamin A (FLNA) and ADP-ribosylation factor guanine exchange factor 2 [ARFGEF2; encoding brefeldin-A-inhibited guanine exchange factor-2 (BIG2)] genes give rise to this disorder. Previously, we have reported that Big2 inhibition impairs neuronal migration and binds to FlnA, and its loss promotes FlnA phosphorylation. FlnA phosphorylation dictates FlnA-actin binding affinity and consequently alters focal adhesion size and number to effect neuronal migration. Here we show that FlnA loss similarly impairs migration, reciprocally enhances Big2 expression, but also alters Big2 subcellular localization in both null and conditional FlnA mice. FlnA phosphorylation promotes relocalization of Big2 from the Golgi toward the lipid ruffles, thereby activating Big2-dependent Arf1 at the cell membrane. Loss of FlnA phosphorylation or Big2 function impairs Arf1-dependent vesicle trafficking at the periphery, and Arf1 is required for maintenance of cell-cell junction connectivity and focal adhesion assembly. Loss of Arf1 activity disrupts neuronal migration and cell adhesion. Collectively, these studies demonstrate a potential mechanism whereby coordinated interactions between actin (through FlnA) and vesicle trafficking (through Big2-Arf) direct the assembly and disassembly of membrane protein complexes required for neuronal migration and neuroependymal integrity. PMID:24089482

  4. How actin crosslinking and bundling proteins cooperate to generate an enhanced cell mechanical response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, Yiider; Kole, Thomas P.; Lee, Jerry S H.; Fedorov, Elena; Almo, Steven C.; Schafer, Benjamin W.; Wirtz, Denis

    2005-01-01

    Actin-crosslinking proteins organize actin filaments into dynamic and complex subcellular scaffolds that orchestrate important mechanical functions, including cell motility and adhesion. Recent mutation studies have shown that individual crosslinking proteins often play seemingly non-essential roles, leading to the hypothesis that they have considerable redundancy in function. We report live-cell, in vitro, and theoretical studies testing the mechanical role of the two ubiquitous actin-crosslinking proteins, alpha-actinin and fascin, which co-localize to stress fibers and the basis of filopodia. Using live-cell particle tracking microrheology, we show that the addition of alpha-actinin and fascin elicits a cell mechanical response that is significantly greater than that originated by alpha-actinin or fascin alone. These live-cell measurements are supported by quantitative rheological measurements with reconstituted actin filament networks containing pure proteins that show that alpha-actinin and fascin can work in concert to generate enhanced cell stiffness. Computational simulations using finite element modeling qualitatively reproduce and explain the functional synergy of alpha-actinin and fascin. These findings highlight the cooperative activity of fascin and alpha-actinin and provide a strong rationale that an evolutionary advantage might be conferred by the cooperative action of multiple actin-crosslinking proteins with overlapping but non-identical biochemical properties. Thus the combination of structural proteins with similar function can provide the cell with unique properties that are required for biologically optimal responses.

  5. Grade/Performance Contracts, Enhanced Communication, Cooperative Learning and Student Performance in Undergraduate Organic Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, Ralph C.

    1997-06-01

    This paper describes a grade/study-performance contract that was designed to increase student retention while maintaining academic performance levels in undergraduate organic chemistry. The experimental course included enhanced communication using electronic mail, and cooperative learning in addition to grade/study-performance contracts. The objective of the grade/study-performance contract was the development of learning skills with creation of a basis for unobtrusive auditing of performance. The retention rate in the experimental course was 0.82 for the first term and 0.93 for the second term. The overall retention was 0.76. This value was 3.8 times the average retention for the same sequence in the previous five years at the same institution. It was seven standard deviations away from the previous mean. The ACS Organic Chemistry Examination percentile score for the control section was 46+25 (n=117). The corresponding data for the experimental section was 53+23 (n=143). When the course was offered with the same instructor, cooperative learning, e-mail, but no grade/study-performance contract the ACS Exam percentile average 37+29. This represents a drop of 9.9 standard deviations for comparison of the means. We conclude that grade/study-performance contracts can be effective in increasing both student performance and retention in undergraduate organic chemistry.

  6. A Tool to Enhance Cooperation and Knowledge Transfer among Software Developers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydin, Seçil; Mishra, Deepti

    Software developers have been successfully tailoring software development methods according to the project situation and more so in small scale software development organizations. There is a need to share this knowledge with other developers who may be facing the same project situation so that they can benefit from other people experiences. In this paper, an approach to enhance cooperation among software developers, in terms of sharing the knowledge that was used successfully in past projects, is proposed. A web-based tool is developed that can assist in creation, storage and extraction of methods related with requirement elicitation phase. These methods are categorized according to certain criteria which helps in searching a method that will be most appropriate in a given project situation. This approach and tool can also be used for other software development activities.

  7. Hydrophobic/Hydrophilic Cooperative Janus System for Enhancement of Fog Collection.

    PubMed

    Cao, Moyuan; Xiao, Jiasheng; Yu, Cunming; Li, Kan; Jiang, Lei

    2015-09-01

    Harvesting micro-droplets from fog is a promising method for solving global freshwater crisis. Different types of fog collectors have been extensively reported during the last decade. The improvement of fog collection can be attributed to the immediate transportation of harvested water, the effective regeneration of the fog gathering surface, etc. Through learning from the nature's strategy for water preservation, the hydrophobic/hydrophilic cooperative Janus system that achieved reinforced fog collection ability is reported here. Directional delivery of the surface water, decreased re-evaporation rate of the harvested water, and thinner boundary layer of the collecting surface contribute to the enhancement of collection efficiency. Further designed cylinder Janus collector can facilely achieve a continuous process of efficient collection, directional transportation, and spontaneous preservation of fog water. This Janus fog harvesting system should improve the understanding of micro-droplet collection system and offer ideas to solve water resource crisis. PMID:26088210

  8. Coevolutionary, coexisting learning and teaching agents model for prisoner’s dilemma games enhancing cooperation with assortative heterogeneous networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, Jun

    2013-07-01

    Unlike other natural network systems, assortativity can be observed in most human social networks, although it has been reported that a social dilemma situation represented by the prisoner’s dilemma favors dissortativity to enhance cooperation. We established a new coevolutionary model for both agents’ strategy and network topology, where teaching and learning agents coexist. Remarkably, this model enables agents’ enhancing cooperation more than a learners-only model on a time-frozen scale-free network and produces an underlying assortative network with a fair degree of power-law distribution. The model may imply how and why assortative networks are adaptive in human society.

  9. Filamin A mutation may be associated with diffuse lung disease mimicking bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature newborns.

    PubMed

    Lord, Amanda; Shapiro, Adam J; Saint-Martin, Christine; Claveau, Martine; Melançon, Serge; Wintermark, Pia

    2014-11-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a common long-term complication in premature newborns requiring ventilatory support and is the most common cause of chronic diffuse lung disease in this population. We present the clinical course of a premature newborn with a complicated neonatal respiratory course that was initially thought to be related to BPD, but it did not respond to the typical therapies for this condition. Due to the findings of periventricular nodular heterotopia, the diagnosis of a filamin A gene mutation was eventually made, which explained the respiratory pathology of this patient. When time of onset and clinical course do not correlate with typical BPD, one should consider alternative diagnoses in premature infants, including neonatal diffuse lung disease. PMID:25053830

  10. The Oxygen Sensor PHD2 Controls Dendritic Spines and Synapses via Modification of Filamin A

    PubMed Central

    Segura, Inmaculada; Lange, Christian; Knevels, Ellen; Moskalyuk, Anastasiya; Pulizzi, Rocco; Eelen, Guy; Chaze, Thibault; Tudor, Cicerone; Boulegue, Cyril; Holt, Matthew; Daelemans, Dirk; Matondo, Mariette; Ghesquière, Bart; Giugliano, Michele; Ruiz de Almodovar, Carmen; Dewerchin, Mieke; Carmeliet, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Summary Neuronal function is highly sensitive to changes in oxygen levels, but how hypoxia affects dendritic spine formation and synaptogenesis is unknown. Here we report that hypoxia, chemical inhibition of the oxygen-sensing prolyl hydroxylase domain proteins (PHDs), and silencing of Phd2 induce immature filopodium-like dendritic protrusions, promote spine regression, reduce synaptic density, and decrease the frequency of spontaneous action potentials independently of HIF signaling. We identified the actin cross-linker filamin A (FLNA) as a target of PHD2 mediating these effects. In normoxia, PHD2 hydroxylates the proline residues P2309 and P2316 in FLNA, leading to von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)-mediated ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. In hypoxia, PHD2 inactivation rapidly upregulates FLNA protein levels because of blockage of its proteasomal degradation. FLNA upregulation induces more immature spines, whereas Flna silencing rescues the immature spine phenotype induced by PHD2 inhibition. PMID:26972007

  11. The Oxygen Sensor PHD2 Controls Dendritic Spines and Synapses via Modification of Filamin A.

    PubMed

    Segura, Inmaculada; Lange, Christian; Knevels, Ellen; Moskalyuk, Anastasiya; Pulizzi, Rocco; Eelen, Guy; Chaze, Thibault; Tudor, Cicerone; Boulegue, Cyril; Holt, Matthew; Daelemans, Dirk; Matondo, Mariette; Ghesquière, Bart; Giugliano, Michele; Ruiz de Almodovar, Carmen; Dewerchin, Mieke; Carmeliet, Peter

    2016-03-22

    Neuronal function is highly sensitive to changes in oxygen levels, but how hypoxia affects dendritic spine formation and synaptogenesis is unknown. Here we report that hypoxia, chemical inhibition of the oxygen-sensing prolyl hydroxylase domain proteins (PHDs), and silencing of Phd2 induce immature filopodium-like dendritic protrusions, promote spine regression, reduce synaptic density, and decrease the frequency of spontaneous action potentials independently of HIF signaling. We identified the actin cross-linker filamin A (FLNA) as a target of PHD2 mediating these effects. In normoxia, PHD2 hydroxylates the proline residues P2309 and P2316 in FLNA, leading to von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)-mediated ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. In hypoxia, PHD2 inactivation rapidly upregulates FLNA protein levels because of blockage of its proteasomal degradation. FLNA upregulation induces more immature spines, whereas Flna silencing rescues the immature spine phenotype induced by PHD2 inhibition. PMID:26972007

  12. Filamin and Phospholipase C-ε Are Required for Calcium Signaling in the Caenorhabditis elegans Spermatheca

    PubMed Central

    Kovacevic, Ismar; Orozco, Jose M.; Cram, Erin J.

    2013-01-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans spermatheca is a myoepithelial tube that stores sperm and undergoes cycles of stretching and constriction as oocytes enter, are fertilized, and exit into the uterus. FLN-1/filamin, a stretch-sensitive structural and signaling scaffold, and PLC-1/phospholipase C-ε, an enzyme that generates the second messenger IP3, are required for embryos to exit normally after fertilization. Using GCaMP, a genetically encoded calcium indicator, we show that entry of an oocyte into the spermatheca initiates a distinctive series of IP3-dependent calcium oscillations that propagate across the tissue via gap junctions and lead to constriction of the spermatheca. PLC-1 is required for the calcium release mechanism triggered by oocyte entry, and FLN-1 is required for timely initiation of the calcium oscillations. INX-12, a gap junction subunit, coordinates propagation of the calcium transients across the spermatheca. Gain-of-function mutations in ITR-1/IP3R, an IP3-dependent calcium channel, and loss-of-function mutations in LFE-2, a negative regulator of IP3 signaling, increase calcium release and suppress the exit defect in filamin-deficient animals. We further demonstrate that a regulatory cassette consisting of MEL-11/myosin phosphatase and NMY-1/non-muscle myosin is required for coordinated contraction of the spermatheca. In summary, this study answers long-standing questions concerning calcium signaling dynamics in the C. elegans spermatheca and suggests FLN-1 is needed in response to oocyte entry to trigger calcium release and coordinated contraction of the spermathecal tissue. PMID:23671426

  13. Enhancing Learning--and More!--Through Cooperative Learning. IDEA Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millis, Barbara J.

    This paper describes cooperative learning, an instructional approach designed to promote deep learning, encourage self-esteem and the acceptance of others, and improve interpersonal effectiveness. Cooperative learning entails small groups working on specific tasks, carefully structured. The premises underlying cooperative learning and the theory…

  14. Enhancement of environment and resources engineering studies through an international cooperation network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporali, E.; Tuneski, A.

    2012-12-01

    Higher education plays a very important role in the modern societies development, enhancing social, cultural and economic development for a sustainable growth, environment respectful. In this framework, the European Commission promotes the TEMPUS-Trans European Mobility Programme for University Studies. Curricula harmonization and lifelong learning programme development in higher education are among the focused aspects of the TEMPUS programme. The DEREL-Development of Environment and Resources Engineering Learning, is a three years TEMPUS project coordinated by the University of Firenze, in cooperation with colleagues of the Ss Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje financed and activated since October 2010. The DEREL Project Consortium consists of 4 EU Universities (from Italy, Greece, Germany and Austria), 7 Partner Countries (PC) Universities (from FYR of Macedonia, Serbia and Albania), and 1 PC Ministry, 4 PC National Agencies, 1 PC non governmental organization and 1 PC enterprise. In cooperation with the same 4 EU Universities and the same Macedonian Institutions, in the period 2005-2008 also a TEMPUS JEP entitled DEREC-Development of Environmental and Resources Engineering Curriculum, was also carried out by the University of Firenze in cooperation with colleagues of the Ss Cyril and Methodius University. Within DEREC a new three-years first cycle curriculum in Environmental and Resources Engineering was opened at the University Ss Cyril and Methodius, Skopje, and the necessary conditions for offering a Joint Degree Title, on the basis of an agreement between the Ss. Cyril and Methodius University and the University of Firenze, were fulfilled. The running DEREL project, as a continuation of DEREC, is aimed to introduce a new, up-to-date, postgraduate second cycle curriculum in Environment and Resources Engineering at the Ss Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, FYR of Macedonia, University of Novi Sad, Serbia and Polytechnic University of Tirana, Albania

  15. U.S./Russian cooperative efforts to enhance nuclear MPC&A at VNIITF, (Chelyabinsk-70)

    SciTech Connect

    Abramson, B; Apt, K; Blasy, J; Bukin, D; Churikov, Y; Eras, A; Magda, E; Neymotin, L; Schultz, F; Slankas, T; Tsygankov, G; Zuev, V

    1998-09-01

    The All Russian Scientific Research Institute of Technical Physics (VNIITF) is one of the major sites in the nuclear weapons complex in Russia. The site contains a number of research facilities which use nuclear material as well as assembly, disassembly, and testing of prototypes (pilot samples) of nuclear weapons. VNIITF also has ties to the major nuclear materials production facilities in the Urals region of Russia. The objective of the U.S./Russian Materials Protection Control and Accounting (MPC&A) cooperative program between the US Department of Energy and Russia's Ministry of Atomic Eneryy, at VNIITF is to improve the protection and accountability of nuclear material at VNIITF. Enhanced safeguards systems have been implemented at a reactor test area called the Pulse Research Reactor Facility (PRR) in Area 20. The area contains three pulse reactors with associated storage areas. The integrated MPC&A system at the PRR was demonstrated to US and Russian audiences in May, 1998. Expansion of work into several new facilities is underway both in Area 20 and at other locations. These include processing and production facilities some of which are considered sensitive facilities, by the Russian side. Methods have been developed to assure that work is done as agreed without actually having access to the buildings. C-70 has developed an extensive computerized system which integrates the physical security alarm station with elements of the nuclear material control system. Under the MPC&A program, the existing systems have been augmented with Russian and US technologies. This paper will describe the work completed at the PRR, and the on-going activities and cooperative effort between the Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, Sandia, Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, and Brookhaven US Department of Energy National Laboratories in support of VNIITF.

  16. Enhanced Old-New Recognition and Source Memory for Faces of Cooperators and Defectors in a Social-Dilemma Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel; Musch, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    A popular assumption in evolutionary psychology is that the human mind comprises specialized cognitive modules for social exchange, including a module that serves to enhance memory for faces of cheaters. In the present study, participants played a trust game with computerized opponents, who either defected or cooperated. In a control condition, no…

  17. Longitudinal Echocardiographic Evaluation of an Unusual Presentation of X-Linked Myxomatous Valvular Dystrophy Caused by Filamin A Mutation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Peter H; Sachdeva, Ritu; Wilson, Elizabeth C; Guzzetta, Nina A

    2016-09-01

    Polyvalvar myxomatous valve degeneration is a clinical pathology rarely encountered during cardiac anesthesia, but, when present, most commonly occurs in the context of a connective tissue disorder. Filamin A mutations have begun to be recognized as a source of progressive myxomatous mitral and tricuspid valve degeneration. These lesions can be diagnosed by echo, but their clinical presentation can be equivocal. We present a patient with significant echocardiographic findings of mitral and tricuspid valvar regurgitation, aortic dilatation, and intraoperative findings of aortic ectasia. In our case, a detailed family history led to a preoperative echocardiogram revealing myxomatous mitral and tricuspid valve degeneration with significant regurgitation and aortic dilatation. Genetic evaluation led to the diagnosis of a Filamin A mutation. Pre- and postrepair echocardiographic assessments of valvar function played a key role in the management of this patient. Continued surveillance of his aortic dilation and evaluation of postrepair valve function warrants close follow-up with a high likelihood for further surgical intervention. PMID:27004951

  18. Positive cooperativity between the thrombin and bradykinin B2 receptors enhances arachidonic acid release

    PubMed Central

    Hecquet, Claudie; Biyashev, Dauren; Tan, Fulong; Erdös, Ervin G.

    2006-01-01

    Bradykinin (BK) or kallikreins activate B2 receptors (R) which couple Gαi and Gαq proteins to release arachidonic acid (AA) and elevate [Ca2+]i. Thrombin cleaves the protease-activated-receptor-1 (PAR1) that couples Gαi, Gαq and Gα12/13 proteins. In CHO cells stably transfected with human B2R, thrombin liberated little AA, but it significantly potentiated AA release by B2R agonists. We explored mechanisms of cooperativity between constitutively expressed PAR1 and B2R. We also examined human endothelial cells expressing both Rs constitutively. The PAR1 agonist hexapeptide (TRAP) was as effective as thrombin. Inhibitors of components of Gαi, Gαq and Gα12/13 signaling pathways, and a PKCα inhibitor, Gö6976 blocked potentiation while phorbol, an activator, enhanced it. Several inhibitors, including a RhoA kinase inhibitor, a [Ca2+]i antagonist, and an inositol-(1,3,4)-trisphosphate R antagonist, reduced mobilization of [Ca2+]i by thrombin and blocked potentiation of AA release by B2R agonists. Because either a non-selective inhibitor (isotetrandrine) of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) or a Ca2+-dependent PLA2 inhibitor abolished potentiation of AA release by thrombin, while a Ca2+-independent PLA2 inhibitor did not, we concluded that the mechanism involves Ca2+-dependent PLA2 activation. Both thrombin and TRAP modified activation and phosphorylation of the B2R induced by BK. In lower concentrations they enhanced it, while higher concentrations inhibited phosphorylation and diminished B2R activation. Protection of the N-terminal Ser1-Phe2 bond of TRAP by an aminopeptidase inhibitor made this peptide much more active than the unprotected agonist. Thus, PAR1 activation enhances AA release by B2R agonists through signal transduction pathway. PMID:16183725

  19. Filamin-interacting proteins, Cfm1 and Cfm2, are essential for the formation of cartilaginous skeletal elements.

    PubMed

    Mizuhashi, Koji; Kanamoto, Takashi; Moriishi, Takeshi; Muranishi, Yuki; Miyazaki, Toshihiro; Terada, Koji; Omori, Yoshihiro; Ito, Masako; Komori, Toshihisa; Furukawa, Takahisa

    2014-06-01

    Mutations of Filamin genes, which encode actin-binding proteins, cause a wide range of congenital developmental malformations in humans, mainly skeletal abnormalities. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying Filamin functions in skeletal system formation remain elusive. In our screen to identify skeletal development molecules, we found that Cfm (Fam101) genes, Cfm1 (Fam101b) and Cfm2 (Fam101a), are predominantly co-expressed in developing cartilage and intervertebral discs (IVDs). To investigate the functional role of Cfm genes in skeletal development, we generated single knockout mice for Cfm1 and Cfm2, as well as Cfm1/Cfm2 double-knockout (Cfm DKO) mice, by targeted gene disruption. Mice with loss of a single Cfm gene displayed no overt phenotype, whereas Cfm DKO mice showed skeletal malformations including spinal curvatures, vertebral fusions and impairment of bone growth, showing that the phenotypes of Cfm DKO mice resemble those of Filamin B (Flnb)-deficient mice. The number of cartilaginous cells in IVDs is remarkably reduced, and chondrocytes are moderately reduced in Cfm DKO mice. We observed increased apoptosis and decreased proliferation in Cfm DKO cartilaginous cells. In addition to direct interaction between Cfm and Filamin proteins in developing chondrocytes, we showed that Cfm is required for the interaction between Flnb and Smad3, which was reported to regulate Runx2 expression. Furthermore, we found that Cfm DKO primary chondrocytes showed decreased cellular size and fewer actin bundles compared with those of wild-type chondrocytes. These results suggest that Cfms are essential partner molecules of Flnb in regulating differentiation and proliferation of chondryocytes and actin dynamics. PMID:24436304

  20. Active and inactive enhancers co-operate to exert localized and long-range control of gene regulation

    PubMed Central

    Proudhon, Charlotte; Snetkova, Valentina; Raviram, Ramya; Lobry, Camille; Badri, Sana; Jiang, Tingting; Hao, Bingtao; Trimarchi, Thomas; Kluger, Yuval; Aifantis, Iannis; Bonneau, Richard; Skok, Jane A

    2016-01-01

    V(D)J recombination relies on the presence of proximal enhancers that activate the antigen receptor (AgR) loci in a lineage and stage specific manner. Unexpectedly we find that both active and inactive AgR enhancers co-operate to disseminate their effects in a localized and long-range manner. Here we demonstrate the importance of short-range contacts between active enhancers that constitute an Igk super-enhancer in B cells. Deletion of one element reduces the interaction frequency between other enhancers in the hub, which compromises the transcriptional output of each component. We further establish that in T cells long-range contact and co-operation between the inactive Igk enhancer, MiEκ and the active Tcrb enhancer, Eβ, alters enrichment of CBFβ binding in a manner that impacts Tcrb recombination. These findings underline the complexities of enhancer regulation and point to a role for localized and long-range enhancer-sharing between active and inactive elements in lineage and stage specific control. PMID:27239026

  1. Cooperative antiproliferative and differentiation-enhancing activity of medicinal plant extracts in acute myeloid leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Zhamanbayeva, Gulzhan T; Aralbayeva, Araylim N; Murzakhmetova, Maira K; Tuleukhanov, Sultan T; Danilenko, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive hematopoietic malignancy with poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) berries, dog rose (Rosa canina) rosehips, and garden sage (Salvia officinalis) and oregano (Origanum vulgare) aerial parts are widely used in traditional medicine and exhibit antitumor effects in preclinical models. However, these plants remain scarcely tested for antileukemic activity. Here, we show that their water-ethanol leaf extracts reduced the growth and viability of AML cells and, at non-cytotoxic doses, potentiated cell differentiation induced by a low concentration of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, the hormonal form of vitamin D, in a cell type-dependent manner. The latter effect was accompanied by upregulation of the vitamin D receptor protein components and its transcriptional activity. Furthermore, at minimally effective doses the extracts cooperated with one another to produce marked cytostatic effects associated with a partial S-phase arrest and a modest induction of apoptosis. In contrast, these combinations only slightly affected the growth and viability of proliferating normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In addition, the extracts strongly inhibited microsomal lipid peroxidation and protected normal erythrocytes against hypoosmotic shock. Our results suggest that further exploration of the enhanced antileukemic effects of the combinations tested here may lead to the development of alternative therapeutic and preventive approaches against AML. PMID:27470342

  2. Tryptophan enhancement/depletion and reactions to failure on a cooperative computer game.

    PubMed

    Wingrove, J; Bond, A J; Cleare, A J

    1999-12-01

    Twenty-eight high trait hostility male volunteers played a "cooperative" computer game 4.5 hours after an amino acid drink enhanced with, or depleted of, tryptophan. Each trial involved steering a tank through minefields following directions from an unknown "partner." Failure was experienced when the tank hit a mine or when time ran out. Subjects' moods, verbal aggression, attributions of blame, vocal acoustics, and blood pressure were assessed. Differences between tryptophan groups were not significant for primary measures of anger and verbal aggression. However, depleted subjects reported greater increases in feelings of restlessness and incompetence, were less successful in avoiding mines and showed greater increases in blood pressure during the game. Subjects in both groups sent more negative ratings when they lost the game by virtue of hitting a mine rather than losing by running out of time. However, ratings of the depleted group were less influenced by the reason for losing the game. Also, vocal acoustics showed a group X reason-for-losing interaction in the high-frequency band. Tryptophan-depleted subjects with high scores on Behavioral-Activation-System-Drive were most likely to send negative ratings and those scoring high on Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory Assault and Guilt to report increased anger after the game. PMID:10633481

  3. The Effect of Using Cooperative and Individual Weblog to Enhance Writing Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karsak, H. Gulhan Orhan; Fer, Seval; Orhan, Feza

    2014-01-01

    Academic writing, whether individual or cooperative, is an essential skill for today's graduates. However, motivating and helping students to learn to write effectively, either in cooperative or individual scenarios, poses many challenges, many of which can be overcome by technical means. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of…

  4. Implementing Strategies of Cooperation for Enhancing Intrinsic Motivation towards English Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapata, Julian Esteban

    2007-01-01

    This action research paper dealt with how to increase motivation towards English language learning through cooperative work in a public school in Medellín, Colombia. It was necessary to explore the concepts of teachers' beliefs, social teaching, collaborative and cooperative learning, to understand the conditions and activities that favored…

  5. Enhancing Outcomes in School Science for Pupils during Transition from Elementary School Using Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurston, Allen; Christie, Donald; Karagiannidou, Eleni; Murray, Pauline; Tolmie, Andrew; Topping, Keith

    2010-01-01

    This article reports data from a 2-year longitudinal study on cooperative learning in school science. The study reported the effects of cooperative learning in science on science attainment, effective development and social connectedness, and interactions during transition from elementary to high school in rural and urban school settings. The…

  6. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/12: ENTNEA: A Concept for Enhancing Nuclear Transparency for Confidence Building in Northeast Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Nam, Man-Kwon; Shin, Sung-Tack

    1999-06-01

    Nuclear energy continues to be a strong and growing component of economic development in Northeast Asia. A broad range of nuclear energy systems already exists across the region and vigorous growth is projected. Associated with these capabilities and plans are various concerns about operational safety, environmental protection, and accumulation of spent fuel and other nuclear materials. We consider cooperative measures that might address these concerns. The confidence building measures suggested here center on the sharing of information to lessen concerns about nuclear activities or to solve technical problems. These activities are encompassed by an Enhanced Nuclear Transparency in Northeast Asia (ENTNEA) concept that would be composed of near-term, information-sharing activities and an eventual regional institution. The near-term activities would address specific concerns and build a tradition of cooperation; examples include radiation measurements for public safety and emergency response, demonstration of safe operations at facilities and in transportation, and material security in the back end of the fuel cycle. Linkages to existing efforts and organizations would be sought to maximize the benefits of cooperation. In the longer term, the new cooperative tradition might evolve into an ENTNEA institution. In institutional form, ENTNEA could combine the near-term activities and new cooperative activities, which might require an institutional basis, for the mutual benefit and security of regional parties.

  7. Filamin A regulates monocyte migration through Rho small GTPases during osteoclastogenesis.

    PubMed

    Leung, Roland; Wang, Yongqiang; Cuddy, Karl; Sun, Chunxiang; Magalhaes, Joyce; Grynpas, Marc; Glogauer, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Osteoclastogenesis (OCG) results from the fusion of monocytes after stimulation with macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL). Migration of monocytes into close proximity precedes critical fusion events that are required for osteoclast formation. Cellular migration requires leading-edge actin cytoskeleton assembly that drives cellular locomotion. Filamin A (FLNa) cross-links F-actin filaments in the leading edge of migrating cells and also has been shown to regulate signal transduction during cell migration. However, little is known about the possible role of FLNa in osteoclastogenesis. Our objective in this study was to investigate the role of FLNa in osteoclastogenesis. Bone marrow monocytes isolated from the tibiae and femora of wild type (WT) and Flna-null mice were cultured for 6 days with M-CSF and RANKL, and osteoclasts were identified by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP) staining. The Flna-null mouse skeletal phenotype was characterized using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to analyze the skeleton, as well as tests on blood chemistry. Osteoclast levels in vivo were quantified by counting of TRACP-stained histologic sections of distal femora. To elucidate the mechanisms by which Flna regulates osteoclastogenesis, migration, actin polymerization, and activation of Rho GTPases, Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA were assessed in monocytes during in vitro OCG. Deficiencies in migration were rescued using constitutively active Rac1 and Cdc42 TAT fusion proteins. The RANKL signaling pathway was evaluated for activation by monitoring nuclear translocation of NF kappaB and c-jun and expression of key osteoclast genes using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Our results show that Flna-null monocytes formed fewer osteoclasts in vitro, and those that were formed were smaller with fewer nuclei. Decreased OCG was reflected in vivo in TRACP-stained histologic bone sections. Flna

  8. Comparative study of an externship program versus a corporate-academic cooperation program for enhancing nursing competence of graduating students

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background New graduates report intense stress during the transition from school to their first work settings. Managing this transition is important to reduce turnover rates. This study compared the effects of an externship program and a corporate-academic cooperation program on enhancing junior college students’ nursing competence and retention rates in the first 3 months and 1 year of initial employment. Methods This two-phase study adopted a pretest and posttest quasi-experimental design. All participants were graduating students drawn from a 5-year junior nursing college in Taiwan. There were 19 and 24 students who participated in the phase I externship program and phase II corporate-academic cooperation program, respectively. The nursing competence of the students had to be evaluated by mentors within 48 hours of practicum training and after practicum training. The retention rate was also surveyed at 3 months and 1 year after beginning employment. Results Students who participated in the corporate-academic cooperation program achieved a statistically significant improvement in nursing competence and retention rates relative to those who participated in the externship program (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). Conclusions The corporate-academic cooperation program facilitates the transition of junior college nursing students into independent staff nurses, enhances their nursing competence, and boosts retention rates. PMID:23945287

  9. Cooperative integrin/ITAM signaling in platelets enhances thrombus formation in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zhi, Huiying; Rauova, Lubica; Hayes, Vincent; Gao, Cunji; Boylan, Brian; Newman, Debra K.; McKenzie, Steven E.; Cooley, Brian C.; Poncz, Mortimer; Newman, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    The integrin family is composed of a series of 24 αβ heterodimer transmembrane adhesion receptors that mediate cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Adaptor molecules bearing immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) have recently been shown to cooperate with specific integrins to increase the efficiency of transmitting ligand-binding–induced signals into cells. In human platelets, Fc receptor γ-chain IIa (FcγRIIa) has been identified as an ITAM-bearing transmembrane receptor responsible for mediating “outside-in” signaling through αIIbβ3, the major adhesion receptor on the platelet surface. To explore the importance of FcγRIIa in thrombosis and hemostasis, we subjected FcγRIIa-negative and FcγRIIa-positive murine platelets to a number of well-accepted models of platelet function. Compared with their FcγRIIa-negative counterparts, FcγRIIa-positive platelets exhibited increased tyrosine phosphorylation of Syk and phospholipase Cγ2 and increased spreading upon interaction with immobilized fibrinogen, retracted a fibrin clot faster, and showed markedly enhanced thrombus formation when perfused over a collagen-coated flow chamber under conditions of arterial and venous shear. They also displayed increased thrombus formation and fibrin deposition in in vivo models of vascular injury. Taken together, these data establish FcγRIIa as a physiologically important functional conduit for αIIbβ3-mediated outside-in signaling, and suggest that modulating the activity of this novel integrin/ITAM pair might be effective in controlling thrombosis. PMID:23264598

  10. [Enhancement of quality by employing qualification-oriented staff and team-oriented cooperation].

    PubMed

    Meyenburg-Altwarg, Iris; Tecklenburg, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Taking three practical examples from a university hospital the present article describes how quality can be improved by linking deployment of qualification-oriented staff with team-oriented cooperation, especially with regard to the professional groups of physicians and nurses. In the first example, a cross-professional work group defined tasks which--in a legally acceptable manner--allow selected activities to be transferred from physicians to nurses, improving the work processes of all persons concerned. Work and duty profiles, training and modified work processes were created and implemented according to the PDCA circle-based process. The first evaluation took place after nine months using interviews, questionnaires (patients, physicians, and nurses) as well as CIRS. In the second example, emphasis was placed on offers of supplementary services for private patients resulting in a lightening of the workload on the nursing staff. These supplementary services are intended to enhance the wellbeing of the patients. Special external-service staff provide high standard hotel services. These services consistently receive high ratings from the patients. The methods used for introduction and evaluation are analogous to those used in the first example. The third example is concerned with the extension of nursing care and patient empowerment beyond the boundaries of ward and hospital. The guidelines were the implementation of the national expert standard for discharge management according to the DNQP. The methods of introduction were analogous to those used in example 1. For the evaluation interviews were conducted with all participating groups. In all examples actual quantitative measures (key ratios) are not yet available; however, the data collected from the interviews and questionnaires of all the participants are promising. PMID:20369442

  11. Thrombocytopenia resulting from mutations in filamin A can be expressed as an isolated syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nurden, Paquita; Debili, Najet; Coupry, Isabelle; Bryckaert, Marijke; Youlyouz-Marfak, Ibtissam; Solé, Guilhem; Pons, Anne-Cécile; Berrou, Eliane; Adam, Frédéric; Kauskot, Alexandre; Lamazière, Jean-Marie Daniel; Rameau, Philippe; Fergelot, Patricia; Rooryck, Caroline; Cailley, Dorothée; Arveiler, Benoît; Lacombe, Didier; Vainchenker, William; Nurden, Alan; Goizet, Cyril

    2011-11-24

    Filaminopathies A caused by mutations in the X-linked FLNA gene are responsible for a wide spectrum of rare diseases including 2 main phenotypes, the X-linked dominant form of periventricular nodular heterotopia (FLNA-PVNH) and the otopalatodigital syndrome spectrum of disorders. In platelets, filamin A (FLNa) tethers the principal receptors ensuring the platelet-vessel wall interaction, glycoprotein Ibα and integrin αIIbβ3, to the underlying cytoskeleton. Hemorrhage, coagulopathy, and thrombocytopenia are mentioned in several reports on patients with FLNA-PVNH. Abnormal platelet morphology in 2 patients with FLNA-PVNH prompted us to examine a third patient with similar platelet morphology previously diagnosed with immunologic thrombocytopenic purpura. Her enlarged platelets showed signs of FLNa degradation in Western blotting, and a heterozygous missense mutation in FLNA was detected. An irregular distribution of FLNa within the total platelet population was shown by confocal microscopy for all 3 patients. In vitro megakaryocyte cultures showed an abnormal differentiation, including an irregular distribution of FLNa with a frayed aspect, the presence of enlarged α-granules, and an abnormal fragmentation of the cytoplasm. Mutations in FLNA may represent an unrecognized cause of macrothrombocytopenia with an altered platelet production and a modified platelet-vessel wall interaction. PMID:21960593

  12. Cytoskeletal protein filamin A is a nucleolar protein that suppresses ribosomal RNA gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wensheng; Lopez-Camacho, Cesar; Tang, Jen-Yang; Mendoza-Villanueva, Daniel; Maya-Mendoza, Apolinar; Jackson, Dean A; Shore, Paul

    2012-01-31

    Filamin A (FLNA) is an actin-binding protein with a well-established role in the cytoskeleton, where it determines cell shape and locomotion by cross-linking actin filaments. Mutations in FLNA are associated with a wide range of genetic disorders. Here we demonstrate a unique role for FLNA as a nucleolar protein that associates with the RNA polymerase I (Pol I) transcription machinery to suppress rRNA gene transcription. We show that depletion of FLNA by siRNAs increased rRNA expression, rDNA promoter activity and cell proliferation. Immunodepletion of FLNA from nuclear extracts resulted in a decrease in rDNA promoter-driven transcription in vitro. FLNA coimmunoprecipitated with the Pol I components actin, TIF-IA, and RPA40, and their occupancy of the rDNA promoter was increased in the absence of FLNA in vivo. The FLNA actin-binding domain is essential for the suppression of rRNA expression and for inhibiting recruitment of the Pol I machinery to the rDNA promoter. These findings reveal an additional role for FLNA as a regulator of rRNA gene expression and have important implications for our understanding of the role of FLNA in human disease. PMID:22307607

  13. Filamin A mutation associated with normal reading skills and dyslexia in a family with periventricular heterotopia.

    PubMed

    Reinstein, Eyal; Chang, Bernard S; Robertson, Stephen P; Rimoin, David L; Katzir, Tami

    2012-08-01

    Periventricular heterotopia (PH) is a disorder of neuronal migration during fetal development that is characterized by morphologically normal neurons being located in an anatomically abnormal position in the mature brain. PH is usually diagnosed in patients presenting with a seizure disorder, when neuroimaging demonstrates the ectopically placed nodules of neurons. PH is a genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous disorder. The most commonly identified genetic cause is the X-linked dominant inheritance of mutations in the Filamin A (FLNA) gene. Multiple lines of evidence support the contribution of genetic factors in dyslexia. As dyslexia does not show a single-gene pattern of inheritance, it is classified as a complex genetic disorder. We have recently identified a specific reading fluency deficit in a variable group of patients with PH, in the context of normal intelligence. Here, we present a study of a mother-daughter pair who share bilateral widespread gray matter heterotopia caused by a novel mutation in FLNA and the same pattern of X-chromosome inactivation but who exhibit divergent reading and cognitive profiles. This novel observation highlights the uncertainty of using heterotopia anatomy in clinical practice to predict behavioral outcome. PMID:22740120

  14. Platelet functional alterations in a Bernard-Soulier syndrome patient with filamin A mutation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiaming; Dai, KeSheng; Wang, Zhaoyue; Cao, Lijuan; Bai, Xia; Ruan, Changgeng

    2015-01-01

    Defects in filamin A (FLNA) gene could lead to low platelet counts and decreased surface expression of glycoprotein (GP) Ibα. Here, we report and investigate the FLNA genomic alteration of a case with Bernard-Soulier syndrome (BSS), a rare hereditary bleeding disorder caused by quantitative or qualitative abnormalities in the GP Ib-IX-V receptor. DNA sequencing analysis reveals the presence of a GP Ibα c.987G > A mutation and a FLNA c.1582 G > A mutation in this patient. Transient transfection studies show that GP Ibα c.987G > A mutation abolishes the surface expression of GP Ibα on the transfected CHO cells. On the other hand, abnormal responses to collagen, including the platelet aggregation, secretion, and GP VI signaling pathways, are associated with FLNA c.1582G > A mutation. Our findings confirm a central role for FLNA in platelet-adhesive functions. The interaction between FLNA and GP Ibα in platelets deserves to be investigated. PMID:26133172

  15. Brefeldin A-inhibited guanine exchange factor 2 regulates filamin A phosphorylation and neuronal migration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingping; Neal, Jason; Lian, Gewei; Shi, Bingxing; Ferland, Russell J; Sheen, Volney

    2012-09-01

    Periventricular heterotopia (PH) is a human malformation of cortical development associated with gene mutations in ADP-ribosylation factor guanine exchange factor 2 (ARFGEF2 encodes for Big2 protein) and Filamin A (FLNA). PH is thought to derive from neuroependymal disruption, but the extent to which neuronal migration contributes to this phenotype is unknown. Here, we show that Arfgef2 null mice develop PH and exhibit impaired neural migration with increased protein expression for both FlnA and phosphoFlnA at Ser2152. Big2 physically interacts with FlnA and overexpression of phosphomimetic Ser2512 FLNA impairs neuronal migration. FlnA phosphorylation directs FlnA localization toward the cell cytoplasm, diminishes its binding affinity to actin skeleton, and alters the number and size of paxillin focal adhesions. Collectively, our results demonstrate a molecular mechanism whereby Big2 inhibition promotes phosphoFlnA (Ser2152) expression, and increased phosphoFlnA impairs its actin binding affinity and the distribution of focal adhesions, thereby disrupting cell intrinsic neuronal migration. PMID:22956851

  16. Filamin depletion blocks endoplasmic spreading and destabilizes force-bearing adhesions.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Christopher D; Gauthier, Nils C; Biais, Nicolas; Lazar, Andre M; Roca-Cusachs, Pere; Yu, Cheng-Han; Sheetz, Michael P

    2011-04-15

    Cell motility is an essential process that depends on a coherent, cross-linked actin cytoskeleton that physically coordinates the actions of numerous structural and signaling molecules. The actin cross-linking protein, filamin (Fln), has been implicated in the support of three-dimensional cortical actin networks capable of both maintaining cellular integrity and withstanding large forces. Although numerous studies have examined cells lacking one of the multiple Fln isoforms, compensatory mechanisms can mask novel phenotypes only observable by further Fln depletion. Indeed, shRNA-mediated knockdown of FlnA in FlnB(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) causes a novel endoplasmic spreading deficiency as detected by endoplasmic reticulum markers. Microtubule (MT) extension rates are also decreased but not by peripheral actin flow, because this is also decreased in the Fln-depleted system. Additionally, Fln-depleted MEFs exhibit decreased adhesion stability that appears in increased ruffling of the cell edge, reduced adhesion size, transient traction forces, and decreased stress fibers. FlnA(-/-) MEFs, but not FlnB(-/-) MEFs, also show a moderate defect in endoplasm spreading, characterized by initial extension followed by abrupt retractions and stress fiber fracture. FlnA localizes to actin linkages surrounding the endoplasm, adhesions, and stress fibers. Thus we suggest that Flns have a major role in the maintenance of actin-based mechanical linkages that enable endoplasmic spreading and MT extension as well as sustained traction forces and mature focal adhesions. PMID:21325628

  17. An adventitious interaction of filamin A with RhoGDI2(Tyr153Glu).

    PubMed

    Song, Mia; He, Qianjing; Berk, Benjamin-Andreas; Hartwig, John H; Stossel, Thomas P; Nakamura, Fumihiko

    2016-01-15

    Filamin A (FLNA) is an actin filament crosslinking protein with multiple intracellular binding partners. Mechanical force exposes cryptic FLNA binding sites for some of these ligands. To identify new force-dependent binding interactions, we used a fusion construct composed of two FLNA domains, one of which was previously identified as containing a force-dependent binding site as a bait in a yeast two-hybrid system and identified the Rho dissociation inhibitor 2 (RhoGDI2) as a potential interacting partner. A RhoGDI2 truncate with 81 N-terminal amino acid residues and a phosphomimetic mutant, RhoGDI(Tyr153Glu) interacted with the FLNA construct. However, neither wild-type or full-length RhoGDI2 phosphorylated at Y153 interacted with FLNA. Our interpretation of these contradictions is that truncation and/or mutation of RhoGDI2 perturbs its conformation to expose a site that adventitiously binds FLNA and is not a bona-fide interaction. Therefore, previous studies reporting that a RhoGDI(Y153E) mutant suppresses the metastasis of human bladder cancer cells must be reinvestigated in light of artificial interaction of this point mutant with FLNA. PMID:26707877

  18. Enhancing efficiency and power of quantum-dots resonant tunneling thermoelectrics in three-terminal geometry by cooperative effects

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Jian-Hua

    2014-11-21

    We propose a scheme of multilayer thermoelectric engine where one electric current is coupled to two temperature gradients in three-terminal geometry. This is realized by resonant tunneling through quantum dots embedded in two thermal and electrical resisting polymer matrix layers between highly conducting semiconductor layers. There are two thermoelectric effects, one of which is pertaining to inelastic transport processes (if energies of quantum dots in the two layers are different), while the other exists also for elastic transport processes. These two correspond to the transverse and longitudinal thermoelectric effects, respectively, and are associated with different temperature gradients. We show that cooperation between the two thermoelectric effects leads to markedly improved figure of merit and power factor, which is confirmed by numerical calculation using material parameters. Such enhancement is robust against phonon heat conduction and energy level broadening. Therefore, we demonstrated cooperative effect as an additional way to effectively improve performance of thermoelectrics in three-terminal geometry.

  19. China-Japan enhance joint research cooperation for drug discoveries and development: News from CJMWDDT 2007 in Jinan, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, X Y; Qu, X J; Tang, W

    2007-08-01

    Viral hepatitis is currently a major global cause of morbidity and mortality. In some Asian countries like China and Japan, Hepatitis B and C in particular are the most common extremely infectious diseases and are likely to develop into liver cirrhosis. Furthermore, statistics indicate that patients with liver cirrhosis resulting from hepatitis B and C have an increased risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Scientists have worked tirelessly to find curative therapeutic strategies to control chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis, accompanied by improvements in public health and living conditions. China's Shandong University and the University of Tokyo in Japan previously established a longterm cooperative relationship. Cooperative programs include co-training of postgraduates, exchanges of visiting scholars, academic symposia, and a bilateral international joint research program. Some substantive progress has been made as a result of bilateral endeavors. For instance, the Shandong University China-Japan Cooperation Center for Drug Discovery & Screening (SDU-DDSC) has enhanced to serve as an important platform for further close cooperation. At the same time, the International Advancement Center for Medicine & Health Research (IACMHR) - "Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics" and International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement (IRCA-BSSA) - "BioScience Trends" were established (Visit http://www.ddtjournal.com and http://www.biosciencetrends.com ). The first China-Japan conference on new drug discoveries and therapeutics (CJMWDDT 2007) was recently held in Jinan, China May 27-29, 2007, which provided opportunities for further communication and cooperation and increased knowledge of new drug research and clinical cures for hepatitis. Financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), the conference covered a wide range of topics in

  20. Filamin A mediated Big2 dependent endocytosis: From apical abscission to periventricular heterotopia.

    PubMed

    Sheen, Volney L

    2014-01-01

    Periventricular heterotopia (PH) is one of the most common malformations of cortical development (MCD). Nodules along the lateral ventricles of the brain, disruption of the ventricular lining, and a reduced brain size are hallmarks of this disorder. PH results in a disruption of the neuroependyma, inhibition of neural proliferation and differentiation, and altered neuronal migration. Human mutations in the genes encoding the actin-binding Filamin A (FLNA) and the vesicle trafficking Brefeldin A-associated guanine exchange factor 2 (BIG2 is encoded by the ARFGEF2 gene) proteins are implicated in PH formation. Recent studies have shown that the transition from proliferating neural progenitors to post-mitotic neurons relies on apical abscission along the neuroepithelium. This mechanism involves an actin dependent contraction of the apical portion of a neural progenitor along the ventricular lining to complete abscission. Actin also maintains stability of various cell adhesion molecules along the neuroependyma. Loss of cadherin directs disassembly of the primary cilium, which transduces sonic-hedgehog (Shh) signaling. Shh signaling is required for continued proliferation. In this context, apical abscission regulates neuronal progenitor exit and migration from the ventricular zone by detachment from the neuroependyma, relies on adhesion molecules that maintain the integrity of the neuroepithelial lining, and directs neural proliferation. Each of these processes is disrupted in PH, suggesting that genes causal for this MCD, may fundamentally mediate apical abscission in cortical development. Here we discuss several recent reports that demonstrate a coordinated role for actin and vesicle trafficking in modulating neural development along the neurepithelium, and potentially the neural stem cell to neuronal transition. PMID:25097827

  1. Filamin a regulates neural progenitor proliferation and cortical size through Wee1-dependent Cdk1 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Lian, Gewei; Lu, Jie; Hu, Jianjun; Zhang, Jingping; Cross, Sally H; Ferland, Russell J; Sheen, Volney L

    2012-05-30

    Cytoskeleton-associated proteins play key roles not only in regulating cell morphology and migration but also in proliferation. Mutations in the cytoskeleton-associated gene filamin A (FlnA) cause the human disorder periventricular heterotopia (PH). PH is a disorder of neural stem cell development that is characterized by disruption of progenitors along the ventricular epithelium and subsequent formation of ectopic neuronal nodules. FlnA-dependent regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics is thought to direct neural progenitor migration and proliferation. Here we show that embryonic FlnA-null mice exhibited a reduction in brain size and decline in neural progenitor numbers over time. The drop in the progenitor population was not attributable to cell death or changes in premature differentiation, but to prolonged cell cycle duration. Suppression of FlnA led to prolongation of the entire cell cycle length, principally in M phase. FlnA loss impaired degradation of cyclin B1-related proteins, thereby delaying the onset and progression through mitosis. We found that the cdk1 kinase Wee1 bound FlnA, demonstrated increased expression levels after loss of FlnA function, and was associated with increased phosphorylation of cdk1. Phosphorylation of cdk1 inhibited activation of the anaphase promoting complex degradation system, which was responsible for cyclin B1 degradation and progression through mitosis. Collectively, our results demonstrate a molecular mechanism whereby FlnA loss impaired G2 to M phase entry, leading to cell cycle prolongation, compromised neural progenitor proliferation, and reduced brain size. PMID:22649246

  2. A glial origin for periventricular nodular heterotopia caused by impaired expression of Filamin-A.

    PubMed

    Carabalona, Aurelie; Beguin, Shirley; Pallesi-Pocachard, Emilie; Buhler, Emmanuelle; Pellegrino, Christophe; Arnaud, Karen; Hubert, Philippe; Oualha, Mehdi; Siffroi, Jean Pierre; Khantane, Sabrina; Coupry, Isabelle; Goizet, Cyril; Gelot, Antoinette Bernabe; Represa, Alfonso; Cardoso, Carlos

    2012-03-01

    Periventricular nodular heterotopia (PH) is a human brain malformation caused by defective neuronal migration that results in ectopic neuronal nodules lining the lateral ventricles beneath a normal appearing cortex. Most affected patients have seizures and their cognitive level varies from normal to severely impaired. Mutations in the Filamin-A (or FLNA) gene are the main cause of PH, but the underlying pathological mechanism remains unknown. Although two FlnA knockout mouse strains have been generated, none of them showed the presence of ectopic nodules. To recapitulate the loss of FlnA function in the developing rat brain, we used an in utero RNA interference-mediated knockdown approach and successfully reproduced a PH phenotype in rats comparable with that observed in human patients. In FlnA-knockdown rats, we report that PH results from a disruption of the polarized radial glial scaffold in the ventricular zone altering progression of neural progenitors through the cell cycle and impairing migration of neurons into the cortical plate. Similar alterations of radial glia are observed in human PH brains of a 35-week fetus and a 3-month-old child, harboring distinct FLNA mutations not previously reported. Finally, juvenile FlnA-knockdown rats are highly susceptible to seizures, confirming the reliability of this novel animal model of PH. Our findings suggest that the disorganization of radial glia is the leading cause of PH pathogenesis associated with FLNA mutations. Rattus norvegicus FlnA mRNA (GenBank accession number FJ416060). PMID:22076441

  3. R-Ras interacts with filamin a to maintain endothelial barrier function.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, G S; Grundl, M; Allen, J S; Matter, M L

    2011-09-01

    The molecular mechanisms regulating vascular barrier integrity remain incompletely elucidated. We have previously reported an association between the GTPase R-Ras and repeat 3 of Filamin A (FLNa). Loss of FLNa has been linked to increased vascular permeability. We sought to determine whether FLNa's association with R-Ras affects endothelial barrier function. We report that in endothelial cells endogenous R-Ras interacts with endogenous FLNa as determined by co-immunoprecipitations and pulldowns with the FLNa-GST fusion protein repeats 1-10. Deletion of FLNa repeat 3 (FLNaΔ3) abrogated this interaction. In these cells FLNa and R-Ras co-localize at the plasma membrane. Knockdown of R-Ras and/or FLNa by siRNA promotes vascular permeability, as determined by TransEndothelial Electrical Resistance and FITC-dextran transwell assays. Re-expression of FLNa restored endothelial barrier function in cells lacking FLNa whereas re-expression of FLNaΔ3 did not. Immunostaining for VE-Cadherin in cells with knocked down R-Ras and FLNa demonstrated a disorganization of VE-Cadherin at adherens junctions. Loss of R-Ras and FLNa or blocking R-Ras function via GGTI-2133, a selective R-Ras inhibitor, induced vascular permeability and increased phosphorylation of VE-Cadherin (Y731) and Src (Y416). Expression of dominant negative R-Ras promoted vascular permeability that was blocked by the Src inhibitor PP2. These findings demonstrate that maintaining endothelial barrier function is dependent upon active R-Ras and association between R-Ras and FLNa and that loss of this interaction promotes VE-Cadherin phosphorylation and changes in downstream effectors that lead to endothelial leakiness. PMID:21660952

  4. MVP-Associated Filamin A Mutations Affect FlnA-PTPN12 (PTP-PEST) Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Duval, Damien; Labbé, Pauline; Bureau, Léa; Le Tourneau, Thierry; Norris, Russell A.; Markwald, Roger R.; Levine, Robert; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Mérot, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Although the genetic basis of mitral valve prolapse (MVP) has now been clearly established, the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the pathological processes associated to a specific mutation often remain to be determined. The FLNA gene (encoding Filamin A; FlnA) was the first gene associated to non-syndromic X-linked myxomatous valvular dystrophy, but the impacts of the mutations on its function remain un-elucidated. Here, using the first repeats (1–8) of FlnA as a bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified the tyrosine phosphatase PTPN12 (PTP-PEST) as a specific binding partner of this region of FlnA protein. In addition, using yeast two-hybrid trap assay pull down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments, we showed that the MVP-associated FlnA mutations (G288R, P637Q, H743P) abolished FlnA/PTPN12 interactions. PTPN12 is a key regulator of signaling pathways involved in cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) crosstalk, cellular responses to mechanical stress that involve integrins, focal adhesion transduction pathways, and actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Interestingly, we showed that the FlnA mutations impair the activation status of two PTPN12 substrates, the focal adhesion associated kinase Src, and the RhoA specific activating protein p190RhoGAP. Together, these data point to PTPN12/FlnA interaction and its weakening by FlnA mutations as a mechanism potentially involved in the physiopathology of FlnA-associated MVP. PMID:26594644

  5. Filamin-A is required to mediate SST2 effects in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours.

    PubMed

    Vitali, Eleonora; Cambiaghi, Valeria; Zerbi, Alessandro; Carnaghi, Carlo; Colombo, Piergiuseppe; Peverelli, Erika; Spada, Anna; Mantovani, Giovanna; Lania, Andrea G

    2016-03-01

    Somatostatin receptor type 2 (SST2) is the main pharmacological target of somatostatin (SS) analogues widely used in patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (P-NETs), this treatment being ineffective in a subset of patients. Since it has been demonstrated that Filamin A (FLNA) is involved in mediating GPCR expression, membrane anchoring and signalling, we investigated the role of this cytoskeleton protein in SST2 expression and signalling, angiogenesis, cell adhesion and cell migration in human P-NETs and in QGP1 cell line. We demonstrated that FLNA silencing was not able to affect SST2 expression in P-NET cells in basal conditions. Conversely, a significant reduction in SST2 expression (-43 ± 21%, P < 0.05 vs untreated cells) was observed in FLNA silenced QGP1 cells after long term SST2 activation with BIM23120. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of BIM23120 on cyclin D1 expression (-46 ± 18%, P < 0.05 vs untreated cells), P-ERK1/2 levels (-42 ± 14%; P < 0.05 vs untreated cells), cAMP accumulation (-24 ± 3%, P < 0.05 vs untreated cells), VEGF expression (-31 ± 5%, P < 0.01 vs untreated cells) and in vitro release (-40 ± 24%, P < 0.05 vs untreated cells) was completely lost after FLNA silencing. Interestingly, BIM23120 promoted cell adhesion (+86 ± 45%, P < 0.05 vs untreated cells) and inhibited cell migration (-24 ± 2%, P < 0.00001 vs untreated cells) in P-NETs cells and these effects were abolished in FLNA silenced cells. In conclusion, we demonstrated that FLNA plays a crucial role in SST2 expression and signalling, angiogenesis, cell adhesion and cell migration in P-NETs and in QGP1 cell line, suggesting a possible role of FLNA in determining the different responsiveness to SS analogues observed in P-NET patients. PMID:26733502

  6. Binding of pro-prion to filamin A: by design or an unfortunate blunder

    PubMed Central

    Li, C; Xin, W; Sy, M-S

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decades, cancer research has focused on tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes. Genes in other cellular pathways has received less attention. Between 0.5% to 1% of the mammalian genome encodes for proteins that are tethered on the cell membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor. The GPI modification pathway is complex and not completely understood. Prion (PrP), a GPI-anchored protein, is infamous for being the only normal protein that when misfolded can cause and transmit a deadly disease. Though widely expressed and highly conserved, little is known about the functions of PrP. Pancreatic cancer and melanoma cell lines express PrP. However, in these cell lines the PrP exists as a pro-PrP as defined by retaining its GPI anchor peptide signal sequence (GPI-PSS). Unexpectedly, the GPI-PSS of PrP has a filamin A (FLNA) binding motif and binds FLNA. FLNA is a cytolinker protein, and an integrator of cell mechanics and signaling. Binding of pro-PrP to FLNA disrupts the normal FLNA functions. Although normal pancreatic ductal cells lack PrP, about 40% of patients with pancreatic ductal cell adenocarcinoma express PrP in their cancers. These patients have significantly shorter survival time compared with patients whose cancers lack PrP. Pro-PrP is also detected in melanoma in situ but is undetectable in normal melanocyte, and invasive melanoma expresses more pro-PrP. In this review, we will discuss the underlying mechanisms by which binding of pro-PrP to FLNA disrupts normal cellular physiology and contributes to tumorigenesis, and the potential mechanisms that cause the accumulation of pro-PrP in cancer cells. PMID:20697352

  7. A sequential-move game for enhancing safety and security cooperation within chemical clusters.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Yulia; Reniers, Genserik

    2011-02-15

    The present paper provides a game theoretic analysis of strategic cooperation on safety and security among chemical companies within a chemical industrial cluster. We suggest a two-stage sequential move game between adjacent chemical plants and the so-called Multi-Plant Council (MPC). The MPC is considered in the game as a leader player who makes the first move, and the individual chemical companies are the followers. The MPC's objective is to achieve full cooperation among players through establishing a subsidy system at minimum expense. The rest of the players rationally react to the subsidies proposed by the MPC and play Nash equilibrium. We show that such a case of conflict between safety and security, and social cooperation, belongs to the 'coordination with assurance' class of games, and we explore the role of cluster governance (fulfilled by the MPC) in achieving a full cooperative outcome in domino effects prevention negotiations. The paper proposes an algorithm that can be used by the MPC to develop the subsidy system. Furthermore, a stepwise plan to improve cross-company safety and security management in a chemical industrial cluster is suggested and an illustrative example is provided. PMID:21146296

  8. Using Strategy Cards to Enhance Cooperative Learning for Students with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goor, Mark; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The classroom technique of using strategy cards in cooperative learning situations for students with learning disabilities is explained. Guidelines and a script on how to instruct students to use the cards are provided. An example of a strategy card is illustrated. (CR)

  9. 78 FR 35323 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-Gender-Informed Research (Women): Enhanced Approaches to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... National Institute of Corrections Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement--Gender-Informed Research (Women... gender-informed knowledge specific to women that will both inform a future research agenda and define a... specific to justice-involved women and the most significant innovation in policy, practice, and...

  10. Generative Teaching: An Enhancement Strategy for the Learning of Economics in Cooperative Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kourilsky, Marilyn; Wittrock, Merlin C.

    1992-01-01

    Increasing the learning of economics among 76 public high school seniors from lower socioeconomic levels by teaching them to use generative comprehension procedures in cooperative learning groups was attempted. Comparison with 66 controls indicated facilitative effects of generative teaching in increasing confidence in correctness of answers and…

  11. Building Workplace Learning with Polytechnics in Finland: Multiple Goals and Cooperation in Enhancing Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virolainen, M.; Stenström, M.-L.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the goals of employers when they organise work placements for students. It explores how far, in cooperating with polytechnics, employers adhere to a connective model of students' work experiences within their organisations. The paper makes use of a quantitative study based on employers' responses to a questionnaire…

  12. Computer-Supported Cooperative Prewriting for Enhancing Young EFL Learners' Writing Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lan, Yu-Ju; Sung, Yao-Ting; Cheng, Chia-Chun; Chang, Kuo-En

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of different computer-supported cooperative prewriting strategies (text-based brainstorming, drawing, and mind mapping) on the writing performance of elementary-school EFL (English as a foreign language) learners in Taiwan. Three intact classes of fifth graders (N = 81 students; 27 per prewriting strategy…

  13. Enhanced DSSCs efficiency via Cooperate co-absorbance (CdS QDs) and plasmonic core-shell nanoparticle (Ag@PVP)

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Omid; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Bagheri, Samira; Yousefi, Amin Termeh

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes cooperate the co-absorbance (CdS QDs) and the plasmonic core-shell nanoparticles (Ag@PVP) of dye synthesized solar cells in which CdS QDs and Ag@PVP are incorporated into the TiO2 layer. Cooperative nanoparticles show superior behavior on enhancing light absorption in comparison with reference cells. Cooperated DSSC exhibits the best performance with the power conversion efficiency of 7.64% which is superior to that of the free–modified DSSC with the PCE of 5%. Detailed studies offer an effective approach to enhance the efficiency of dye synthesized solar cells. PMID:27143126

  14. Enhanced DSSCs efficiency via Cooperate co-absorbance (CdS QDs) and plasmonic core-shell nanoparticle (Ag@PVP).

    PubMed

    Amiri, Omid; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Bagheri, Samira; Yousefi, Amin Termeh

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes cooperate the co-absorbance (CdS QDs) and the plasmonic core-shell nanoparticles (Ag@PVP) of dye synthesized solar cells in which CdS QDs and Ag@PVP are incorporated into the TiO2 layer. Cooperative nanoparticles show superior behavior on enhancing light absorption in comparison with reference cells. Cooperated DSSC exhibits the best performance with the power conversion efficiency of 7.64% which is superior to that of the free-modified DSSC with the PCE of 5%. Detailed studies offer an effective approach to enhance the efficiency of dye synthesized solar cells. PMID:27143126

  15. Enhanced DSSCs efficiency via Cooperate co-absorbance (CdS QDs) and plasmonic core-shell nanoparticle (Ag@PVP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiri, Omid; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Bagheri, Samira; Yousefi, Amin Termeh

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes cooperate the co-absorbance (CdS QDs) and the plasmonic core-shell nanoparticles (Ag@PVP) of dye synthesized solar cells in which CdS QDs and Ag@PVP are incorporated into the TiO2 layer. Cooperative nanoparticles show superior behavior on enhancing light absorption in comparison with reference cells. Cooperated DSSC exhibits the best performance with the power conversion efficiency of 7.64% which is superior to that of the free–modified DSSC with the PCE of 5%. Detailed studies offer an effective approach to enhance the efficiency of dye synthesized solar cells.

  16. 75 FR 73027 - Cooperative Conservation Partnership Initiative and Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation and Natural Resources... Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program (WREP) through the Mississippi River Basin Healthy Watersheds... watersheds of the Mississippi River Basin, as well as improve wildlife habitat and restore wetlands....

  17. A reduced propensity to cooperate under enhanced exploitation risk in a social mammal.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Manuela; Lindholm, Anna K; König, Barbara

    2016-05-11

    Conditional adjustment of cooperativeness to the expected pay-off might be a useful strategy to avoid being exploited in public good situations. Parental care provided towards all offspring in a communal nest (containing offspring of several females) resembles a public good. Females indiscriminately caring for all young share the costs equally, but the pay-off may vary depending on their contribution to the joint nest (number of own offspring). Females with fewer offspring in the joint nest will be exploited and overinvest relative to their contribution. We experimentally created a situation of high conflict in communally nursing house mice, by using a genetic tool to create a difference in birth litter sizes. Females in the high conflict situation (unequal litter sizes at birth) showed a reduced propensity to give birth as part of a communal nest, therefore adjusting their cooperativeness to the circumstances. PMID:27170710

  18. Cooperation enhanced by the difference between interaction and learning neighborhoods for evolutionary spatial prisoner's dilemma games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhi-Xi; Wang, Ying-Hai

    2007-04-01

    We study an evolutionary prisoner’s dilemma game with two layered graphs, where the lower layer is the physical infrastructure on which the interactions are taking place and the upper layer represents the connections for the strategy adoption (learning) mechanism. This system is investigated by means of Monte Carlo simulations and an extended pair-approximation method. We consider the average density of cooperators in the stationary state for a fixed interaction graph, while varying the number of edges in the learning graph. According to the Monte Carlo simulations, the cooperation is modified substantially in a way resembling a coherence-resonance-like behavior when the number of learning edges is increased. This behavior is reproduced by the analytical results.

  19. Enhancement of beta-sheet assembly by cooperative hydrogen bonds potential

    PubMed Central

    Levy-Moonshine, Ami; Amir, El-ad David; Keasar, Chen

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: The roughness of energy landscapes is a major obstacle to protein structure prediction, since it forces conformational searches to spend much time struggling to escape numerous traps. Specifically, beta-sheet formation is prone to stray, since many possible combinations of hydrogen bonds are dead ends in terms of beta-sheet assembly. It has been shown that cooperative terms for backbone hydrogen bonds ease this problem by augmenting hydrogen bond patterns that are consistent with beta sheets. Here, we present a novel cooperative hydrogen-bond term that is both effective in promoting beta sheets and computationally efficient. In addition, the new term is differentiable and operates on all-atom protein models. Results: Energy optimization of poly-alanine chains under the new term led to significantly more beta-sheet content than optimization under a non-cooperative term. Furthermore, the optimized structure included very few non-native patterns. Availability: The new term is implemented within the MESHI package and is freely available at http://cs.bgu.ac.il/∼meshi. Contact: chen.keasar@gmail.com Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:19628506

  20. Cooperative Enhancement of Cost Threshold in the Spatial N-Person Snowdrift Game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Dong-Liang; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Ge, Juan; Xu, Chen

    2012-08-01

    We study the cooperative behaviour of the N-person snowdrift game on a square lattice with different neighbourhoods and the cost threshold M for the cooperators. We apply the imitation mechanism for the players and find that there is an optimal frequency of cooperation fC as M varies in the game and the peak of fC shifts to higher M when more neighbours on the lattice are involved in the game. For a given cost-to-benefit ratio r, the system shows discontinuous phase transitions and the behaviour of fC vs M shows step-like structures. We construct payoff level structures and find that the above features can be understood by analyzing the transition behaviour between the payoff levels. The variations of r and M are equivalent to tune the payoff level structures. The plateaus in the step-like structure have similar payoff level structures and the discontinuous jumps correspond to different payoff level structures.

  1. Filamin A Expression Negatively Regulates Sphingosine-1-Phosphate-Induced NF-κB Activation in Melanoma Cells by Inhibition of Akt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Ludmila S.; Rodriguez, Yamila I.; Leopoldino, Andreia M.; Hait, Nitai C.; Lopez Bergami, Pablo; Castro, Melina G.; Sanchez, Emilse S.; Maceyka, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lipid mediator that regulates many processes in inflammation and cancer. S1P is a ligand for five G-protein-coupled receptors, S1PR1 to -5, and also has important intracellular actions. Previously, we showed that intracellular S1P is involved in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF)-induced NF-κB activation in melanoma cell lines that express filamin A (FLNA). Here, we show that extracellular S1P activates NF-κB only in melanoma cells that lack FLNA. In these cells, S1P, but not TNF, promotes IκB kinase (IKK) and p65 phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, p65 nuclear translocation, and NF-κB reporter activity. NF-κB activation induced by S1P was mediated via S1PR1 and S1PR2. Exogenous S1P enhanced the phosphorylation of protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ), and its downregulation reduced S1P-induced the phosphorylation of IKK and p65. In addition, silencing of Bcl10 also inhibited S1P-induced IKK phosphorylation. Surprisingly, S1P reduced Akt activation in melanoma cells that express FLNA, whereas in the absence of FLNA, high phosphorylation levels of Akt were maintained, enabling S1P-mediated NF-κB signaling. In accord, inhibition of Akt suppressed S1P-mediated IKK and p65 phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. Hence, these results support a negative role of FLNA in S1P-mediated NF-κB activation in melanoma cells through modulation of Akt. PMID:26552704

  2. Filamin A Expression Negatively Regulates Sphingosine-1-Phosphate-Induced NF-κB Activation in Melanoma Cells by Inhibition of Akt Signaling.

    PubMed

    Campos, Ludmila S; Rodriguez, Yamila I; Leopoldino, Andreia M; Hait, Nitai C; Lopez Bergami, Pablo; Castro, Melina G; Sanchez, Emilse S; Maceyka, Michael; Spiegel, Sarah; Alvarez, Sergio E

    2015-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lipid mediator that regulates many processes in inflammation and cancer. S1P is a ligand for five G-protein-coupled receptors, S1PR1 to -5, and also has important intracellular actions. Previously, we showed that intracellular S1P is involved in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF)-induced NF-κB activation in melanoma cell lines that express filamin A (FLNA). Here, we show that extracellular S1P activates NF-κB only in melanoma cells that lack FLNA. In these cells, S1P, but not TNF, promotes IκB kinase (IKK) and p65 phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, p65 nuclear translocation, and NF-κB reporter activity. NF-κB activation induced by S1P was mediated via S1PR1 and S1PR2. Exogenous S1P enhanced the phosphorylation of protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ), and its downregulation reduced S1P-induced the phosphorylation of IKK and p65. In addition, silencing of Bcl10 also inhibited S1P-induced IKK phosphorylation. Surprisingly, S1P reduced Akt activation in melanoma cells that express FLNA, whereas in the absence of FLNA, high phosphorylation levels of Akt were maintained, enabling S1P-mediated NF-κB signaling. In accord, inhibition of Akt suppressed S1P-mediated IKK and p65 phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. Hence, these results support a negative role of FLNA in S1P-mediated NF-κB activation in melanoma cells through modulation of Akt. PMID:26552704

  3. Testosterone is associated with cooperation during intergroup competition by enhancing parochial altruism.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Luise; Diekhof, Esther K

    2015-01-01

    The steroid hormone testosterone is widely associated with negative behavioral effects, such as aggression or dominance. However, recent studies applying economic exchange tasks revealed conflicting results. While some point to a prosocial effect of testosterone by increasing altruistic behavior, others report that testosterone promotes antisocial tendencies. Taking into account additional factors such as parochial altruism (i.e., ingroup favoritism and outgroup hostility) might help to explain this contradiction. First evidence for a link between testosterone and parochial altruism comes from recently reported data of male soccer fans playing the ultimatum game. In this study high levels of endogenous testosterone predicted increased altruistic punishment during outgroup interactions and at the same time heightened ingroup generosity. Here, we report findings of another experimental task, the prisoner's dilemma, applied in the same context to examine the role of testosterone on parochial tendencies in terms of cooperation. In this task, 50 male soccer fans were asked to decide whether or not they wanted to cooperate with partners marked as either fans of the subject's own favorite team (ingroup) or fans of other teams (outgroups). Our results show that high testosterone levels were associated with increased ingroup cooperation during intergroup competition. In addition, subjects displaying a high degree of parochialism during intergroup competition had significantly higher levels of testosterone than subjects who did not differentiate much between the different groups. In sum, the present data demonstrate that the behavioral effects of testosterone are not limited to aggressive and selfish tendencies but may imply prosocial aspects depending on the context. By this means, our results support the previously reported findings on testosterone-dependent intergroup bias and indicate that this social hormone might be an important factor driving parochial altruism. PMID

  4. Testosterone is associated with cooperation during intergroup competition by enhancing parochial altruism

    PubMed Central

    Reimers, Luise; Diekhof, Esther K.

    2015-01-01

    The steroid hormone testosterone is widely associated with negative behavioral effects, such as aggression or dominance. However, recent studies applying economic exchange tasks revealed conflicting results. While some point to a prosocial effect of testosterone by increasing altruistic behavior, others report that testosterone promotes antisocial tendencies. Taking into account additional factors such as parochial altruism (i.e., ingroup favoritism and outgroup hostility) might help to explain this contradiction. First evidence for a link between testosterone and parochial altruism comes from recently reported data of male soccer fans playing the ultimatum game. In this study high levels of endogenous testosterone predicted increased altruistic punishment during outgroup interactions and at the same time heightened ingroup generosity. Here, we report findings of another experimental task, the prisoner's dilemma, applied in the same context to examine the role of testosterone on parochial tendencies in terms of cooperation. In this task, 50 male soccer fans were asked to decide whether or not they wanted to cooperate with partners marked as either fans of the subject's own favorite team (ingroup) or fans of other teams (outgroups). Our results show that high testosterone levels were associated with increased ingroup cooperation during intergroup competition. In addition, subjects displaying a high degree of parochialism during intergroup competition had significantly higher levels of testosterone than subjects who did not differentiate much between the different groups. In sum, the present data demonstrate that the behavioral effects of testosterone are not limited to aggressive and selfish tendencies but may imply prosocial aspects depending on the context. By this means, our results support the previously reported findings on testosterone-dependent intergroup bias and indicate that this social hormone might be an important factor driving parochial altruism. PMID

  5. Human endothelial actin-binding protein (ABP-280, nonmuscle filamin): a molecular leaf spring

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Actin-binding protein (ABP-280, nonmuscle filamin) is a ubiquitous dimeric actin cross-linking phosphoprotein of peripheral cytoplasm, where it promotes orthogonal branching of actin filaments and links actin filaments to membrane glycoproteins. The complete nucleotide sequence of human endothelial cell ABP cDNA predicts a polypeptide subunit chain of 2,647 amino acids, corresponding to 280 kD, also the mass derived from physical measurements of the native protein. The actin-binding domain is near the amino-terminus of the subunit where the amino acid sequence is similar to other actin filament binding proteins, including alpha-actinin, beta-spectrin, dystrophin, and Dictyostelium abp-120. The remaining 90% of the sequence comprises 24 repeats, each approximately 96 residues long, predicted to have stretches of beta-sheet secondary structure interspersed with turns. The first 15 repeats may have substantial intrachain hydrophobic interactions and overlap in a staggered fashion to yield a backbone with mechanical resilience. Sequence insertions immediately before repeats 16 and 24 predict two hinges in the molecule near points where rotary-shadowed molecules appear to swivel in electron micrographs. Both putative hinge regions are susceptible to cleavage by proteases and the second also contains the site that binds the platelet glycoprotein Ib/IX complex. Phosphorylation consensus sequences are also located in the hinges or near them. Degeneracy within every even- numbered repeat between 16 and 24 and the insertion before repeat 24 may convert interactions within chains to interactions between chains to account for dimer formation within a domain of 7 kD at the carboxy- terminus. The structure of ABP dimers resembles a leaf spring. Interchain interactions hold the leaves firmly together at one end, whereas intrachain hydrophobic bonds reinforce the arms of the spring where the leaves diverge, making it sufficiently stiff to promote high- angle branching of actin

  6. Human endothelial actin-binding protein (ABP-280, nonmuscle filamin): a molecular leaf spring.

    PubMed

    Gorlin, J B; Yamin, R; Egan, S; Stewart, M; Stossel, T P; Kwiatkowski, D J; Hartwig, J H

    1990-09-01

    Actin-binding protein (ABP-280, nonmuscle filamin) is a ubiquitous dimeric actin cross-linking phosphoprotein of peripheral cytoplasm, where it promotes orthogonal branching of actin filaments and links actin filaments to membrane glycoproteins. The complete nucleotide sequence of human endothelial cell ABP cDNA predicts a polypeptide subunit chain of 2,647 amino acids, corresponding to 280 kD, also the mass derived from physical measurements of the native protein. The actin-binding domain is near the amino-terminus of the subunit where the amino acid sequence is similar to other actin filament binding proteins, including alpha-actinin, beta-spectrin, dystrophin, and Dictyostelium abp-120. The remaining 90% of the sequence comprises 24 repeats, each approximately 96 residues long, predicted to have stretches of beta-sheet secondary structure interspersed with turns. The first 15 repeats may have substantial intrachain hydrophobic interactions and overlap in a staggered fashion to yield a backbone with mechanical resilience. Sequence insertions immediately before repeats 16 and 24 predict two hinges in the molecule near points where rotary-shadowed molecules appear to swivel in electron micrographs. Both putative hinge regions are susceptible to cleavage by proteases and the second also contains the site that binds the platelet glycoprotein Ib/IX complex. Phosphorylation consensus sequences are also located in the hinges or near them. Degeneracy within every even-numbered repeat between 16 and 24 and the insertion before repeat 24 may convert interactions within chains to interactions between chains to account for dimer formation within a domain of 7 kD at the carboxy-terminus. The structure of ABP dimers resembles a leaf spring. Interchain interactions hold the leaves firmly together at one end, whereas intrachain hydrophobic bonds reinforce the arms of the spring where the leaves diverge, making it sufficiently stiff to promote high-angle branching of actin

  7. Cooperation between two ClpB isoforms enhances the recovery of the recombinant {beta}-galactosidase from inclusion bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, Izabela; Zolkiewski, Michal; Kedzierska-Mieszkowska, Sabina

    2012-10-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An important role of synergistic cooperation between the two ClpB isoforms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both ClpB isoforms are associated with IBs of {beta}-galactosidase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ClpB is a key chaperone in IB protein release. -- Abstract: Bacterial ClpB is a molecular chaperone that solubilizes and reactivates aggregated proteins in cooperation with the DnaK chaperone system. The mechanism of protein disaggregation mediated by ClpB is linked to translocation of substrates through the central channel within the ring-hexameric structure of ClpB. Two isoforms of ClpB are produced in vivo: the full-length ClpB95 and the truncated ClpB80 (ClpB{Delta}N), which does not contain the N-terminal domain. The functional specificity of the two ClpB isoforms and the biological role of the N-terminal domain are still not fully understood. Recently, it has been demonstrated that ClpB may achieve its full potential as an aggregate-reactivating chaperone through the functional interaction and synergistic cooperation of its two isoforms. It has been found that the most efficient resolubilization and reactivation of stress-aggregated proteins occurred in the presence of both ClpB95 and ClpB80. In this work, we asked if the two ClpB isoforms functionally cooperate in the solubilization and reactivation of proteins from insoluble inclusion bodies (IBs) in Escherichia coli cells. Using the model {beta}-galactosidase fusion protein (VP1LAC), we found that solubilization and reactivation of enzymes entrapped in IBs occurred more efficiently in the presence of ClpB95 with ClpB80 than with either ClpB95 or ClpB80 alone. The two isoforms of ClpB chaperone acting together enhanced the solubility and enzymatic activity of {beta}-galactosidase sequestered into IBs. Both ClpB isoforms were associated with IBs of {beta}-galactosidase, what demonstrates their affinity to this type of aggregates. These results demonstrate a synergistic

  8. Dielectric permittivity enhancement in hydroxyl functionalized polyolefins via cooperative interactions with water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. C.; Pilania, G.; Ramprasad, R.; Agarwal, Manish; Misra, Mayank; Kumar, Sanat; Yuan, Xuepei; Mike Chung, T. C.

    2013-04-01

    Recent experiments have shown that polypropylene (PP) with a small fraction of hydroxyl (-OH) side groups displays a two-fold increase in the dielectric permittivity. It has been suggested that both the -OH groups and trapped water molecules may contribute to the dielectric constant increase. In this first principles computational study, using short polyolefin chains as models of PP, we shed light on the role played by -OH functional groups and the trapped moisture. Our results reveal that the trapped water molecules will inevitably accompany -OH incorporation (due to hydrogen bonding) and that both the -OH groups and water molecules will contribute cooperatively to the increase of the PP dielectric constant. These findings also provide insights into the effects of moisture on other molecularly functionalized materials systems.

  9. U.S./Russian cooperative efforts to enhance nuclear MPC&A at VNIITF, (Chelyabinsk-70)

    SciTech Connect

    Abramson, B; Apt, K; Blasy, J; Bukin, D; Churikov, Y; Curtis, D; Eras, A; Magda, E; Neymotin, L; Shultz, F; Slankas, T; Tittemore, G; Tsygankov, G; Zuev, V

    1999-04-20

    The work described here is part of an effort called the Nuclear Materials Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) Program, a cooperative program between the US Department of Eenrgy (DOE) and Russia's Ministry of Atomic Energy (MinAtom). The objective of the program is to reduce the risk of nuclear proliferation by strengthening MPC&A systems at Russian nuclear Facilities. This paper describes that portion of the MPC&A program that is directed specifically to the needs of the All Russian Scientific Research Institute of Technical Physics (VNIITF), also called Chelyabinsk-70. A major MPC&A milestone was met at VNIITF when the MPC&A improvements were commissioned at the Pulse Research Reactor Facility in May of this year.

  10. Thiochrome enhances acetylcholine affinity at muscarinic M4 receptors: receptor subtype selectivity via cooperativity rather than affinity.

    PubMed

    Lazareno, S; Dolezal, V; Popham, A; Birdsall, N J M

    2004-01-01

    Thiochrome (2,7-dimethyl-5H-thiachromine-8-ethanol), an oxidation product and metabolite of thiamine, has little effect on the equilibrium binding of l-[3H]N-methyl scopolamine ([3H]NMS) to the five human muscarinic receptor subtypes (M1-M5) at concentrations up to 0.3 mM. In contrast, it inhibits [3H]NMS dissociation from M1 to M4 receptors at submillimolar concentrations and from M5 receptors at 1 mM. These results suggest that thiochrome binds allosterically to muscarinic receptors and has approximately neutral cooperativity with [3H]NMS at M1 to M4 and possibly M5 receptors. Thiochrome increases the affinity of acetylcholine (ACh) 3- to 5-fold for inhibiting [3H]NMS binding to M4 receptors but has no effect on ACh affinity at M1 to M3 or M5 receptors. Thiochrome (0.1 mM) also increases the direct binding of [3H]ACh to M4 receptors but decreases it slightly at M2 receptors. In agreement with the binding data, thiochrome does not affect the potency of ACh for stimulating the binding of guanosine 5'-O-(3-[35S]thiotriphosphate) ([35S]GTPgammaS) to membranes containing M1 to M3 receptors, but it increases ACh potency 3.5-fold at M4 receptors. It also selectively reduces the release of [3H]ACh from potassium-stimulated slices of rat striatum, which contain autoinhibitory presynaptic M4 receptors, but not from hippocampal slices, which contain presynaptic M2 receptors. We conclude that thiochrome is a selective M4 muscarinic receptor enhancer of ACh affinity and has neutral cooperativity with ACh at M1 to M3 receptors; it therefore demonstrates a powerful new form of selectivity, "absolute subtype selectivity", which is derived from cooperativity rather than from affinity. PMID:14722259

  11. Hairy/Enhancer-of-Split MEGANE and Proneural MASH1 Factors Cooperate Synergistically in Midbrain GABAergic Neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wende, Clara-Zoe; Zoubaa, Saida; Blak, Alexandra; Echevarria, Diego; Martinez, Salvador; Guillemot, François; Wurst, Wolfgang; Guimera, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    GABAergic neurons are the primary inhibitory cell type in the mature brain and their dysfunction is associated with important neurological conditions like schizophrenia and anxiety. We aimed to discover the underlying mechanisms for dorsal/ventral midbrain GABAergic neurogenesis. Previous work by us and others has provided crucial insights into the key function of Mgn and Mash1 genes in determining GABAergic neurotransmitter fate. Induction of dorsal midbrain GABAergic neurons does not take place at any time during development in either of the single mutant mice. However, GABAergic neurons in the ventral midbrain remained unchanged. Thus, the similarities in MB-GABAergic phenotype observed in the Mgn and Mash1 single mutants suggest the existence of other factors that take over the function of MGN and MASH1 in the ventral midbrain or the existence of different molecular mechanisms. We show that this process essentially depends on heterodimers and homodimers formed by MGN and MASH1 and deciphered the in vivo relevance of the interaction by phenotypic analysis of Mgn/Mash1 double knockout and compound mice. Furthermore, the combination of gain- and loss-of-function experiments in the developing midbrain showed co-operative roles for Mgn and Mash1 genes in determining GABAergic identity. Transcription factors belonging to the Enhancer-of-split-related and proneural families have long been believed to counterpart each other's function. This work uncovers a synergistic cooperation between these two families, and provides a novel paradigm for how these two families cooperate for the acquisition of MB-GABAergic neuronal identity. Understanding their molecular mechanisms is essential for cell therapy strategies to amend GABAergic deficits. PMID:25993409

  12. Hairy/Enhancer-of-Split MEGANE and Proneural MASH1 Factors Cooperate Synergistically in Midbrain GABAergic Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wende, Clara-Zoe; Zoubaa, Saida; Blak, Alexandra; Echevarria, Diego; Martinez, Salvador; Guillemot, François; Wurst, Wolfgang; Guimera, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    GABAergic neurons are the primary inhibitory cell type in the mature brain and their dysfunction is associated with important neurological conditions like schizophrenia and anxiety. We aimed to discover the underlying mechanisms for dorsal/ventral midbrain GABAergic neurogenesis. Previous work by us and others has provided crucial insights into the key function of Mgn and Mash1 genes in determining GABAergic neurotransmitter fate. Induction of dorsal midbrain GABAergic neurons does not take place at any time during development in either of the single mutant mice. However, GABAergic neurons in the ventral midbrain remained unchanged. Thus, the similarities in MB-GABAergic phenotype observed in the Mgn and Mash1 single mutants suggest the existence of other factors that take over the function of MGN and MASH1 in the ventral midbrain or the existence of different molecular mechanisms. We show that this process essentially depends on heterodimers and homodimers formed by MGN and MASH1 and deciphered the in vivo relevance of the interaction by phenotypic analysis of Mgn/Mash1 double knockout and compound mice. Furthermore, the combination of gain- and loss-of-function experiments in the developing midbrain showed co-operative roles for Mgn and Mash1 genes in determining GABAergic identity. Transcription factors belonging to the Enhancer-of-split-related and proneural families have long been believed to counterpart each other’s function. This work uncovers a synergistic cooperation between these two families, and provides a novel paradigm for how these two families cooperate for the acquisition of MB-GABAergic neuronal identity. Understanding their molecular mechanisms is essential for cell therapy strategies to amend GABAergic deficits. PMID:25993409

  13. Cyclic AMP-Rap1A signaling mediates cell surface translocation of microvascular smooth muscle α2C-adrenoceptors through the actin-binding protein filamin-2

    PubMed Central

    Motawea, Hanaa K. B.; Jeyaraj, Selvi C.; Eid, Ali H.; Mitra, Srabani; Unger, Nicholas T.; Ahmed, Amany A. E.; Flavahan, Nicholas A.

    2013-01-01

    The second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP) plays a vital role in vascular physiology, including vasodilation of large blood vessels. We recently demonstrated cAMP activation of Epac-Rap1A and RhoA-Rho-associated kinase (ROCK)-F-actin signaling in arteriolar-derived smooth muscle cells increases expression and cell surface translocation of functional α2C-adrenoceptors (α2C-ARs) that mediate vasoconstriction in small blood vessels (arterioles). The Ras-related small GTPAse Rap1A increased expression of α2C-ARs and also increased translocation of perinuclear α2C-ARs to intracellular F-actin and to the plasma membrane. This study examined the mechanism of translocation to better understand the role of these newly discovered mediators of blood flow control, potentially activated in peripheral vascular disorders. We utilized a yeast two-hybrid screen with human microvascular smooth muscle cells (microVSM) cDNA library and the α2C-AR COOH terminus to identify a novel interaction with the actin cross-linker filamin-2. Yeast α-galactosidase assays, site-directed mutagenesis, and coimmunoprecipitation experiments in heterologous human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells and in human microVSM demonstrated that α2C-ARs, but not α2A-AR subtype, interacted with filamin. In Rap1-stimulated human microVSM, α2C-ARs colocalized with filamin on intracellular filaments and at the plasma membrane. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of filamin-2 inhibited Rap1-induced redistribution of α2C-ARs to the cell surface and inhibited receptor function. The studies suggest that cAMP-Rap1-Rho-ROCK signaling facilitates receptor translocation and function via phosphorylation of filamin-2 Ser2113. Together, these studies extend our previous findings to show that functional rescue of α2C-ARs is mediated through Rap1-filamin signaling. Perturbation of this signaling pathway may lead to alterations in α2C-AR trafficking and physiological function. PMID:23864608

  14. Force-dependent isomerization kinetics of a highly conserved proline switch modulates the mechanosensing region of filamin

    PubMed Central

    Rognoni, Lorenz; Möst, Tobias; Žoldák, Gabriel; Rief, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Proline switches, controlled by cis–trans isomerization, have emerged as a particularly effective regulatory mechanism in a wide range of biological processes. In this study, we use single-molecule mechanical measurements to develop a full kinetic and energetic description of a highly conserved proline switch in the force-sensing domain 20 of human filamin and how prolyl isomerization modulates the force-sensing mechanism. Proline isomerization toggles domain 20 between two conformations. A stable cis conformation with slow unfolding, favoring the autoinhibited closed conformation of filamin’s force-sensing domain pair 20–21, and a less stable, uninhibited conformation promoted by the trans form. The data provide detailed insight into the folding mechanisms that underpin the functionality of this binary switch and elucidate its remarkable efficiency in modulating force-sensing, thus combining two previously unconnected regulatory mechanisms, proline switches and mechanosensing. PMID:24706888

  15. Enhanced bandwidth of a microstrip antenna using a parasitic mushroom-like metamaterial structure for multi-robot cooperative navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cherl-Hee; Lee, Jonghun; Kim, Yoon-Gu; An, Jinung

    2015-01-01

    The broadband design of a microstrip patch antenna is presented and experimentally studied for multi-robot cooperation. A parasitic mushroom-like metamaterial (MTM) patch close to a microstrip top patch is excited through gap-coupling, thereby producing a resonance frequency. Because of the design, the resonance frequency of the parasitic MTM patch is adjacent to that of the main patch, and the presented antenna can achieve an enhanced bandwidth of 450 MHz, which is about two times the bandwidth of a conventional patch antenna without the MTM parasitic patch. The error rate of packet transmissions for measuring the distance between a leader robot and a follower robot was also improved by almost two-fold.

  16. Chicken stem cell factor enhances primordial germ cell proliferation cooperatively with fibroblast growth factor 2

    PubMed Central

    MIYAHARA, Daichi; OISHI, Isao; MAKINO, Ryuichi; KURUMISAWA, Nozomi; NAKAYA, Ryuma; ONO, Tamao; KAGAMI, Hiroshi; TAGAMI, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    An in vitro culture system of chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) has been recently developed, but the growth factor involved in the proliferation of PGCs is largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the growth effects of chicken stem cell factor (chSCF) on the in vitro proliferation of chicken PGCs. We established two feeder cell lines (buffalo rat liver cells; BRL cells) that stably express the putative secreted form of chSCF (chSCF1-BRL) and membrane bound form of chSCF (chSCF2-BRL). Cultured PGC lines were incubated on chSCF1 or chSCF2-BRL feeder cells with fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), and growth effects of each chSCF isoform were investigated. The in vitro proliferation rate of the PGCs cultured on chSCF2-BRL at 20 days of culture was more than threefold higher than those cultured on chSCF1-BRL cells and more than fivefold higher than those cultured on normal BRL cells. Thus, use of chSCF2-BRL feeder layer was effective for in vitro proliferation of chicken PGCs. However, the acceleration of PGC proliferation on chSCF2-BRL was not observed without FGF2, suggesting that chSCF2 would act as a proliferation co-factor of FGF2. We transferred the PGCs cultured on chSCF2-BRL cells to recipient embryos, generated germline chimeric chickens and assessed the germline competency of cultured PGCs by progeny test. Donor-derived progenies were obtained, and the frequency of germline transmission was 3.39%. The results of this study demonstrate that chSCF2 induces hyperproliferation of chicken PGCs retaining germline competency in vitro in cooperation with FGF2. PMID:26727404

  17. The Effects of Cooperative Learning on Enhancing Hong Kong Fifth Graders' Achievement Goals, Autonomous Motivation and Reading Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Yin-Kum

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates that cooperative learning with teacher-guided instruction is more effective in helping young children to learn than cooperative learning with minimal guidance. In the present study, two different cooperative learning activities (jigsaw and drama) and a control condition (a traditional teacher-led approach) were compared. The…

  18. Twisted Thiophene-Based Chromophores with Enhanced Intramolecular Charge Transfer for Cooperative Amplification of Third-Order Optical Nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Teran, Natasha B; He, Guang S; Baev, Alexander; Shi, Yanrong; Swihart, Mark T; Prasad, Paras N; Marks, Tobin J; Reynolds, John R

    2016-06-01

    Exploiting synergistic cooperation between multiple sources of optical nonlinearity, we report the design, synthesis, and nonlinear optical properties of a series of electron-rich thiophene-containing donor-acceptor chromophores with condensed π-systems and sterically regulated inter-aryl twist angles. These structures couple two key mechanisms underlying optical nonlinearity, namely, (i) intramolecular charge transfer, greatly enhanced by increased electron density and reduced aromaticity at chromophore thiophene rings and (ii) a twisted chromophore geometry, producing a manifold of close-lying excited states and dipole moment changes between ground and excited states that are nearly twice that of untwisted systems. Spectroscopic, electrochemical, and nonlinear Z-scan measurements, combined with quantum chemical calculations, illuminate relationships between molecular structure and mechanisms of enhancement of the nonlinear refractive index. Experiment and calculations together reveal ground-state structures that are strongly responsive to the solvent polarity, leading to substantial negative solvatochromism (Δλ ≈ 10(2) nm) and prevailing zwitterionic/aromatic structures in the solid state and in polar solvents. Ground-to-excited-state energy gaps below 2.0 eV are obtained in condensed π-systems, with lower energy gaps for twisted versus untwisted systems. The real part of the second hyperpolarizability in the twisted structures is much greater than the imaginary part, with the highest twist angle chromophore giving |Re(γ)/Im(γ)| ≈ 100, making such chromophores very promising for all-optical-switching applications. PMID:27232098

  19. Hindsight regulates photoreceptor axon targeting through transcriptional control of jitterbug/Filamin and multiple genes involved in axon guidance in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Carlos; Molina-Fernandez, Claudia; Maureira, Miguel; Candia, Noemi; López, Estefanía; Hassan, Bassem; Aerts, Stein; Cánovas, José; Olguín, Patricio; Sierralta, Jimena

    2015-09-01

    During axon targeting, a stereotyped pattern of connectivity is achieved by the integration of intrinsic genetic programs and the response to extrinsic long and short-range directional cues. How this coordination occurs is the subject of intense study. Transcription factors play a central role due to their ability to regulate the expression of multiple genes required to sense and respond to these cues during development. Here we show that the transcription factor HNT regulates layer-specific photoreceptor axon targeting in Drosophila through transcriptional control of jbug/Filamin and multiple genes involved in axon guidance and cytoskeleton organization.Using a microarray analysis we identified 235 genes whose expression levels were changed by HNT overexpression in the eye primordia. We analyzed nine candidate genes involved in cytoskeleton regulation and axon guidance, six of which displayed significantly altered gene expression levels in hnt mutant retinas. Functional analysis confirmed the role of OTK/PTK7 in photoreceptor axon targeting and uncovered Tiggrin, an integrin ligand, and Jbug/Filamin, a conserved actin- binding protein, as new factors that participate of photoreceptor axon targeting. Moreover, we provided in silico and molecular evidence that supports jbug/Filamin as a direct transcriptional target of HNT and that HNT acts partially through Jbug/Filamin in vivo to regulate axon guidance. Our work broadens the understanding of how HNT regulates the coordinated expression of a group of genes to achieve the correct connectivity pattern in the Drosophila visual system. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 75: 1018-1032, 2015. PMID:25652545

  20. Cooperative Effect of Monopodal Silica-Supported Niobium Complex Pairs Enhancing Catalytic Cyclic Carbonate Production.

    PubMed

    D'Elia, Valerio; Dong, Hailin; Rossini, Aaron J; Widdifield, Cory M; Vummaleti, Sai V C; Minenkov, Yury; Poater, Albert; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Pelletier, Jérémie D A; Cavallo, Luigi; Emsley, Lyndon; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2015-06-24

    Recent discoveries highlighted the activity and the intriguing mechanistic features of NbCl5 as a molecular catalyst for the cycloaddition of CO2 and epoxides under ambient conditions. This has inspired the preparation of novel silica-supported Nb species by reacting a molecular niobium precursor, [NbCl5·OEt2], with silica dehydroxylated at 700 °C (SiO(2-700)) or at 200 °C (SiO(2-200)) to generate diverse surface complexes. The product of the reaction between SiO(2-700) and [NbCl5·OEt2] was identified as a monopodal supported surface species, [≡SiONbCl4·OEt2] (1a). The reactions of SiO(2-200) with the niobium precursor, according to two different protocols, generated surface complexes 2a and 3a, presenting significant, but different, populations of the monopodal surface complex along with bipodal [(≡SiO)2NbCl3·OEt2]. (93)Nb solid-state NMR spectra of 1a-3a and (31)P solid-state NMR on their PMe3 derivatives 1b-3b led to the unambiguous assignment of 1a as a single-site monopodal Nb species, while 2a and 3a were found to present two distinct surface-supported components, with 2a being mostly monopodal [≡SiONbCl4·OEt2] and 3a being mostly bipodal [(≡SiO)2NbCl3·OEt2]. A double-quantum/single-quantum (31)P NMR correlation experiment carried out on 2b supported the existence of vicinal Nb centers on the silica surface for this species. 1a-3a were active heterogeneous catalysts for the synthesis of propylene carbonate from CO2 and propylene oxide under mild catalytic conditions; the performance of 2a was found to significantly surpass that of 1a and 3a. With the support of a systematic DFT study carried out on model silica surfaces, the observed differences in catalytic efficiency were correlated with an unprecedented cooperative effect between two neighboring Nb centers on the surface of 2a. This is in an excellent agreement with our previous discoveries regarding the mechanism of NbCl5-catalyzed cycloaddition in the homogeneous phase. PMID:25950495

  1. PPARδ Activation Acts Cooperatively with 3-Phosphoinositide-Dependent Protein Kinase-1 to Enhance Mammary Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Claire B.; Yin, Yuzhi; Yuan, Hongyan; Zeng, Xiao; King, Sruthi; Li, Xin; Kopelovich, Levy; Albanese, Chris; Glazer, Robert I.

    2011-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorδ (PPARδ) is a transcription factor that is associated with metabolic gene regulation and inflammation. It has been implicated in tumor promotion and in the regulation of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1). PDK1 is a key regulator of the AGC protein kinase family, which includes the proto-oncogene AKT/PKB implicated in several malignancies, including breast cancer. To assess the role of PDK1 in mammary tumorigenesis and its interaction with PPARδ, transgenic mice were generated in which PDK1 was expressed in mammary epithelium under the control of the MMTV enhancer/promoter region. Transgene expression increased pT308AKT and pS9GSK3β, but did not alter phosphorylation of mTOR, 4EBP1, ribosomal protein S6 and PKCα. The transgenic mammary gland also expressed higher levels of PPARδ and a gene expression profile resembling wild-type mice maintained on a diet containing the PPARδ agonist, GW501516. Both wild-type and transgenic mice treated with GW501516 exhibited accelerated rates of tumor formation that were more pronounced in transgenic animals. GW501516 treatment was accompanied by a distinct metabolic gene expression and metabolomic signature that was not present in untreated animals. GW501516-treated transgenic mice expressed higher levels of fatty acid and phospholipid metabolites than treated wild-type mice, suggesting the involvement of PDK1 in enhancing PPARδ-driven energy metabolism. These results reveal that PPARδ activation elicits a distinct metabolic and metabolomic profile in tumors that is in part related to PDK1 and AKT signaling. PMID:21297860

  2. Plasma Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition of Cooper Seed Layers at Low Process Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Jiajun

    In conventional Cu interconnect fabrication, a sputtered copper seed layer is deposited before the electrochemically deposited (ECD) copper plating step. However, as interconnect dimensions scale down, non-conformal seed layer growth and subsequent voiding of metallized structures is becoming a critical issue. With its established excellent thickness controllability and film conformality, atomic layer deposition (ALD) is becoming an attractive deposition approach for the sub-24nm fabrication regime. However, in order to achieve a smooth and continuous seed layer deposition, a low process temperature (below 100°C) is needed, given the tendency of Cu agglomeration at elevated temperature. In this research, plasma enhanced ALD (PEALD) Cu processes at low process temperature are developed using two novel precursors: Cuprum and AbaCus. The volatility and thermal stability of these two precursors are presented. Self-limiting nature of the PEALD processes are demonstrated. Key film properties including purity, resistivity, conformality, adhesion and platability are evaluated using multiple characterization techniques. In addition, film nucleation and growth of PEALD Cu at room temperature on different liner materials are studied. Via structures are employed for the investigation of film continuity on side walls. It is also shown that film conformality and platability can be improved by over saturating the plasma reactions.

  3. A cooperative interaction between NF-kappa B and Sp1 is required for HIV-1 enhancer activation.

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, N D; Edwards, N L; Duckett, C S; Agranoff, A B; Schmid, R M; Nabel, G J

    1993-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) long terminal repeat (LTR) contains two binding sites for NF-kappa B in close proximity to three binding sites for the constitutive transcription factor, Sp1. Previously, stimulation of the HIV enhancer in response to mitogens has been attributed to the binding of NF-kappa B to the viral enhancer. In this report, we show that the binding of NF-kappa B is not by itself sufficient to induce HIV gene expression. Instead, a protein-protein interaction must occur between NF-kappa B and Sp1 bound to an adjacent site. Cooperativity both in DNA binding and in transcriptional activation of NF-kappa B and Sp1 was confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift gel analysis, DNase footprinting, chemical cross-linking and transfection studies in vivo. With a heterologous promoter, we find that the interaction of NF-kappa B with Sp1 is dependent on orientation and position, and is not observed with other elements, including GATA, CCAAT or octamer. An increase in the spacing between the kappa B and Sp1 elements virtually abolishes this functional interaction, which is not restored when these sites are brought back into the same helical position. Several other promoters regulated by NF-kappa B also contain kappa B in proximity to Sp1 binding sites. These findings suggest that an interaction between NF-kappa B and Sp1 is required for inducible HIV-1 gene expression and may serve as a regulatory mechanism to activate specific viral and cellular genes. Images PMID:8253080

  4. S6K is a morphogenic protein with a mechanism involving Filamin-A phosphorylation and phosphatidic acid binding

    PubMed Central

    Henkels, Karen M.; Mallets, Elizabeth R.; Dennis, Patrick B.; Gomez-Cambronero, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Change of cell shape in vivo plays many roles that are central to life itself, such as embryonic development, inflammation, wound healing, and pathologic processes such as cancer metastasis. Nonetheless, the spatiotemporal mechanisms that control the concerted regulation of cell shape remain understudied. Here, we show that ribosomal S6K, which is normally considered a protein involved in protein translation, is a morphogenic protein. Its presence in cells alters the overall organization of the cell surface and cell circularity [(4π × area)/(perimeter)2] from 0.47 ± 0.06 units in mock-treated cells to 0.09 ± 0.03 units in S6K-overexpressing macrophages causing stellation and arborization of cell shape. This effect was partially reversed in cells expressing a kinase-inactive S6K mutant and was fully reversed in cells silenced with small interference RNA. Equally important is that S6K is itself regulated by phospholipids, specifically phosphatidic acid, whereby 300 nM 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate (DOPA), but not the control 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC), binds directly to S6K and causes an ∼2.9-fold increase in S6K catalytic activity. This was followed by an increase in Filamin A (FLNA) functionality as measured by phospho-FLNA (S2152) expression and by a subsequent elevation of actin nucleation. This reliance of S6K on phosphatidic acid (PA), a curvature-inducing phospholipid, explained the extra-large perimeter of cells that overexpressed S6K. Furthermore, the diversity of the response to S6K in several unrelated cell types (fibroblasts, leukocytes, and invasive cancer cells) that we report here indicates the existence of an underlying common mechanism in mammalian cells. This new signaling set, PA-S6K-FLNA-actin, sheds light for the first time into the morphogenic pathway of cytoskeletal structures that are crucial for adhesion and cell locomotion during inflammation and metastasis.—Henkels, K. M., Mallets, E. R., Dennis, P. B

  5. TGFβ and BMP Dependent Cell Fate Changes Due to Loss of Filamin B Produces Disc Degeneration and Progressive Vertebral Fusions.

    PubMed

    Zieba, Jennifer; Forlenza, Kimberly Nicole; Khatra, Jagteshwar Singh; Sarukhanov, Anna; Duran, Ivan; Rigueur, Diana; Lyons, Karen M; Cohn, Daniel H; Merrill, Amy E; Krakow, Deborah

    2016-03-01

    Spondylocarpotarsal synostosis (SCT) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by progressive vertebral fusions and caused by loss of function mutations in Filamin B (FLNB). FLNB acts as a signaling scaffold by linking the actin cytoskleteon to signal transduction systems, yet the disease mechanisms for SCT remain unclear. Employing a Flnb knockout mouse, we found morphologic and molecular evidence that the intervertebral discs (IVDs) of Flnb-/-mice undergo rapid and progressive degeneration during postnatal development as a result of abnormal cell fate changes in the IVD, particularly the annulus fibrosus (AF). In Flnb-/-mice, the AF cells lose their typical fibroblast-like characteristics and acquire the molecular and phenotypic signature of hypertrophic chondrocytes. This change is characterized by hallmarks of endochondral-like ossification including alterations in collagen matrix, expression of Collagen X, increased apoptosis, and inappropriate ossification of the disc tissue. We show that conversion of the AF cells into chondrocytes is coincident with upregulated TGFβ signaling via Smad2/3 and BMP induced p38 signaling as well as sustained activation of canonical and noncanonical target genes p21 and Ctgf. These findings indicate that FLNB is involved in attenuation of TGFβ/BMP signaling and influences AF cell fate. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the IVD disruptions in Flnb-/-mice resemble aging degenerative discs and reveal new insights into the molecular causes of vertebral fusions and disc degeneration. PMID:27019229

  6. RACK1 interacts with filamin-A to regulate plasma membrane levels of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator.

    PubMed

    Smith, Laura; Litman, Paul; Kohli, Ekta; Amick, Joseph; Page, Richard C; Misra, Saurav; Liedtke, Carole M

    2013-07-01

    Mutations in cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), a chloride channel in the apical membranes of secretory epithelial cells, underlie the fatal genetic disorder cystic fibrosis. Certain CFTR mutations, including the common mutation ΔF508-CFTR, result in greatly decreased levels of active CFTR at the apical membrane. Direct interactions between CFTR and the cytoskeletal adaptors filamin-A (FlnA) and Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulatory factor 1 (NHERF1) stabilize the expression and localization of CFTR at the plasma membrane. The scaffold protein receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1) also stabilizes CFTR surface expression; however, RACK1 does not interact directly with CFTR and its mechanism of action is unknown. In the present study, we report that RACK1 interacts directly with FlnA in vitro and in a Calu-3 airway epithelial cell line. We mapped the interaction between RACK1 and FlnA to the WD4 and WD6 repeats of RACK1 and to a segment of the large rod domain of FlnA, consisting of immunoglobulin-like repeats 8-15. Disruption of the RACK1-FlnA interaction causes a reduction in CFTR surface levels. Our results suggest that a novel RACK1-FlnA interaction is an important regulator of CFTR surface localization. PMID:23636454

  7. Cross-talk between androgen receptor/filamin A and TrkA regulates neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells

    PubMed Central

    Di Donato, Marzia; Bilancio, Antonio; D'Amato, Loredana; Claudiani, Pamela; Oliviero, Maria Antonietta; Barone, Maria Vittoria; Auricchio, Alberto; Appella, Ettore; Migliaccio, Antimo; Auricchio, Ferdinando; Castoria, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Steroids and growth factors control neuronal development through their receptors under physiological and pathological conditions. We show that PC12 cells harbor endogenous androgen receptor (AR), whose inhibition or silencing strongly interferes with neuritogenesis stimulated by the nonaromatizable synthetic androgen R1881 or NGF. This implies a role for AR not only in androgen signaling, but also in NGF signaling. In turn, a pharmacological TrkA inhibitor interferes with NGF- or androgen-induced neuritogenesis. In addition, androgen or NGF triggers AR association with TrkA, TrkA interaction with PI3-K δ, and downstream activation of PI3-K δ and Rac in PC12 cells. Once associated with AR, filamin A (FlnA) contributes to androgen or NGF neuritogenesis, likely through its interaction with signaling effectors, such as Rac. This study thus identifies a previously unrecognized reciprocal cross-talk between AR and TrkA, which is controlled by β1 integrin. The contribution of FlnA/AR complex and PI3-K δ to neuronal differentiation by androgens and NGF is also novel. This is the first description of AR function in PC12 cells. PMID:26063730

  8. Filamin A Mediates Wound Closure by Promoting Elastic Deformation and Maintenance of Tension in the Collagen Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Hamid; Pinto, Vanessa I.; Wang, Yongqiang; Hinz, Boris; Janmey, Paul A.; McCulloch, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Cell-mediated remodeling and wound closure are critical for efficient wound healing, but the contribution of actin-binding proteins to contraction of the extracellular matrix is not defined. We examined the role of filamin A (FLNa), an actin filament cross-linking protein, in wound contraction and maintenance of matrix tension. Conditional deletion of FLNa in fibroblasts in mice was associated with ~ 4 day delay of full-thickness skin wound contraction compared with wild-type (WT) mice. We modeled the healing wound matrix using cultured fibroblasts plated on grid-supported collagen gels that create lateral boundaries, which are analogues to wound margins. In contrast to WT cells, FLNa knockdown (KD) cells could not completely maintain tension when matrix compaction was resisted by boundaries, which manifested as relaxed matrix tension. Similarly, WT cells on cross-linked collagen, which requires higher levels of sustained tension, exhibited approximately fivefold larger deformation fields and approximately twofold greater fiber alignment compared with FLNa KD cells. Maintenance of boundary-resisted tension markedly influenced the elongation of cell extensions: in WT cells, the number (~50%) and length (~300%) of cell extensions were greater than FLNa KD cells. We conclude that FLNa is required for wound contraction, in part by enabling elastic deformation and maintenance of tension in the matrix. PMID:26134946

  9. TGFβ and BMP Dependent Cell Fate Changes Due to Loss of Filamin B Produces Disc Degeneration and Progressive Vertebral Fusions

    PubMed Central

    Zieba, Jennifer; Forlenza, Kimberly Nicole; Khatra, Jagteshwar Singh; Sarukhanov, Anna; Duran, Ivan; Rigueur, Diana; Lyons, Karen M.; Cohn, Daniel H.; Merrill, Amy E.; Krakow, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Spondylocarpotarsal synostosis (SCT) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by progressive vertebral fusions and caused by loss of function mutations in Filamin B (FLNB). FLNB acts as a signaling scaffold by linking the actin cytoskleteon to signal transduction systems, yet the disease mechanisms for SCT remain unclear. Employing a Flnb knockout mouse, we found morphologic and molecular evidence that the intervertebral discs (IVDs) of Flnb–/–mice undergo rapid and progressive degeneration during postnatal development as a result of abnormal cell fate changes in the IVD, particularly the annulus fibrosus (AF). In Flnb–/–mice, the AF cells lose their typical fibroblast-like characteristics and acquire the molecular and phenotypic signature of hypertrophic chondrocytes. This change is characterized by hallmarks of endochondral-like ossification including alterations in collagen matrix, expression of Collagen X, increased apoptosis, and inappropriate ossification of the disc tissue. We show that conversion of the AF cells into chondrocytes is coincident with upregulated TGFβ signaling via Smad2/3 and BMP induced p38 signaling as well as sustained activation of canonical and noncanonical target genes p21 and Ctgf. These findings indicate that FLNB is involved in attenuation of TGFβ/BMP signaling and influences AF cell fate. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the IVD disruptions in Flnb–/–mice resemble aging degenerative discs and reveal new insights into the molecular causes of vertebral fusions and disc degeneration. PMID:27019229

  10. Vascular and connective tissue anomalies associated with X-linked periventricular heterotopia due to mutations in Filamin A.

    PubMed

    Reinstein, Eyal; Frentz, Sophia; Morgan, Tim; García-Miñaúr, Sixto; Leventer, Richard J; McGillivray, George; Pariani, Mitchel; van der Steen, Anthony; Pope, Michael; Holder-Espinasse, Muriel; Scott, Richard; Thompson, Elizabeth M; Robertson, Terry; Coppin, Brian; Siegel, Robert; Bret Zurita, Montserrat; Rodríguez, Jose I; Morales, Carmen; Rodrigues, Yuri; Arcas, Joaquín; Saggar, Anand; Horton, Margaret; Zackai, Elaine; Graham, John M; Rimoin, David L; Robertson, Stephen P

    2013-05-01

    Mutations conferring loss of function at the FLNA (encoding filamin A) locus lead to X-linked periventricular nodular heterotopia (XL-PH), with seizures constituting the most common clinical manifestation of this disorder in female heterozygotes. Vascular dilatation (mainly the aorta), joint hypermobility and variable skin findings are also associated anomalies, with some reports suggesting that this might represents a separate syndrome allelic to XL-PH, termed as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome-periventricular heterotopia variant (EDS-PH). Here, we report a cohort of 11 males and females with both hypomorphic and null mutations in FLNA that manifest a wide spectrum of connective tissue and vascular anomalies. The spectrum of cutaneous defects was broader than previously described and is inconsistent with a specific type of EDS. We also extend the range of vascular anomalies associated with XL-PH to included peripheral arterial dilatation and atresia. Based on these observations, we suggest that there is little molecular or clinical justification for considering EDS-PH as a separate entity from XL-PH, but instead propose that there is a spectrum of vascular and connective tissues anomalies associated with this condition for which all individuals with loss-of-function mutations in FLNA should be evaluated. In addition, since some patients with XL-PH can present primarily with a joint hypermobility syndrome, we propose that screening for cardiovascular manifestations should be offered to those patients when there are associated seizures or an X-linked pattern of inheritance. PMID:23032111

  11. Interaction and cooperation of the CCAAT-box enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) with the homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (Hipk2).

    PubMed

    Steinmann, Simone; Coulibaly, Anna; Ohnheiser, Johanna; Jakobs, Anke; Klempnauer, Karl-Heinz

    2013-08-01

    CCAAT box/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) is a bZip transcription factor that plays crucial roles in important cellular processes such as differentiation and proliferation of specific cell types. Previously, we showed that C/EBPβ cooperates with the coactivator p300 through a novel mechanism that involves the C/EBPβ-induced phosphorylation of multiple sites in the carboxyl-terminal domain of p300 by protein kinase Hipk2. We have now examined the interaction and cooperation of C/EBPβ, p300, and Hipk2 in more detail. We show that Hipk2 and C/EBPβ are direct physical binding partners whose interaction is mediated by sequences located in the amino-terminal and central domains of Hipk2 and the amino-terminal part of C/EBPβ. In addition to phosphorylating p300 recruited to C/EBPβ, Hipk2 also phosphorylates C/EBPβ at sites that have previously been shown to plays key roles in the regulation of C/EBPβ activity. Silencing of Hipk2 expression disrupts adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells, a physiological C/EBPβ-dependent differentiation process indicating that the cooperation of C/EBPβ and Hipk2 is functionally relevant. Finally, we demonstrate that C/EBPα, a related C/EBP family member whose amino-terminal sequences differ significantly from that of C/EBPβ, is unable to interact and cooperate with Hipk2. Instead, our data suggest that C/EBPα cooperates with the protein kinase Jnk to induce phosphorylation of p300. Overall, our data identify Hipk2 as a novel regulator of C/EBPβ and implicate different protein kinases in the cooperation of p300 with C/EBPβ and C/EBPα. PMID:23782693

  12. The calcium-sensing receptor-dependent regulation of cell-cell adhesion and keratinocyte differentiation requires Rho and filamin A.

    PubMed

    Tu, Chia-Ling; Chang, Wenhan; Bikle, Daniel D

    2011-05-01

    Extracellular Ca(2+) (Ca(2+)(o)) functioning through the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) induces E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion and cellular signals mediating cell differentiation in epidermal keratinocytes. Previous studies indicate that CaR regulates cell-cell adhesion through Fyn/Src tyrosine kinases. In this study, we investigate whether Rho GTPase is a part of the CaR-mediated signaling cascade regulating cell adhesion and differentiation. Suppressing endogenous Rho A expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated gene silencing blocked the Ca(2+)(o)-induced association of Fyn with E-cadherin and suppressed the Ca(2+)(o)-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of β-, γ-, and p120-catenin and formation of intercellular adherens junctions. Rho A silencing also decreased the Ca(2+)(o)-stimulated expression of terminal differentiation markers. Elevating the Ca(2+)(o) level induced interactions among CaR, Rho A, E-cadherin, and the scaffolding protein filamin A at the cell membrane. Inactivation of CaR expression by adenoviral expression of a CaR antisense complementary DNA inhibited Ca(2+)(o)-induced activation of endogenous Rho. Ca(2+)(o) activation of Rho required a direct interaction between CaR and filamin A. Interference of CaR-filamin interaction inhibited Ca(2+)(o)-induced Rho activation and the formation of cell-cell junctions. These results indicate that Rho is a downstream mediator of CaR in the regulation of Ca(2+)(o)-induced E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion and keratinocyte differentiation. PMID:21209619

  13. Transcription of Nrdp1 by the androgen receptor is regulated by nuclear filamin A in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Savoy, Rosalinda M; Chen, Liqun; Siddiqui, Salma; Melgoza, Frank U; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe; Drake, Christiana; Jathal, Maitreyee K; Bose, Swagata; Steele, Thomas M; Mooso, Benjamin A; D'Abronzo, Leandro S; Fry, William H; Carraway, Kermit L; Mudryj, Maria; Ghosh, Paramita M

    2015-06-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) progression is regulated by the androgen receptor (AR); however, patients undergoing androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) for disseminated PCa eventually develop castration-resistant PCa (CRPC). Results of previous studies indicated that AR, a transcription factor, occupies distinct genomic loci in CRPC compared with hormone-naïve PCa; however, the cause of this distinction was unknown. The E3 ubiquitin ligase Nrdp1 is a model AR target modulated by androgens in hormone-naïve PCa but not in CRPC. Using Nrdp1, we investigated how AR switches transcription programs during CRPC progression. The proximal Nrdp1 promoter contains an androgen response element (ARE); we demonstrated AR binding to this ARE in androgen-sensitive PCa. Analysis of hormone-naive human prostatectomy specimens revealed correlation between Nrdp1 and AR expression, supporting AR regulation of NRDP1 levels in androgen-sensitive tissue. However, despite sustained AR levels, AR binding to the Nrdp1 promoter and Nrdp1 expression were suppressed in CRPC. Elucidation of the suppression mechanism demonstrated correlation of NRDP1 levels with nuclear localization of the scaffolding protein filamin A (FLNA) which, as we previously showed, is itself repressed following ADT in many CRPC tumors. Restoration of nuclear FLNA in CRPC stimulated AR binding to Nrdp1 ARE, increased its transcription, and augmented NRDP1 protein expression and responsiveness to ADT, indicating that nuclear FLNA controls AR-mediated androgen-sensitive Nrdp1 transcription. Expression of other AR-regulated genes lost in CRPC was also re-established by nuclear FLNA. Thus, our results indicate that nuclear FLNA promotes androgen-dependent AR-regulated transcription in PCa, while loss of nuclear FLNA in CRPC alters the AR-regulated transcription program. PMID:25759396

  14. Filamin A interacts with the coactivator MKL1 to promote the activity of the transcription factor SRF and cell migration.

    PubMed

    Kircher, Philipp; Hermanns, Constanze; Nossek, Maximilian; Drexler, Maria Katharina; Grosse, Robert; Fischer, Maximilian; Sarikas, Antonio; Penkava, Josef; Lewis, Thera; Prywes, Ron; Gudermann, Thomas; Muehlich, Susanne

    2015-11-10

    Megakaryoblastic leukemia 1 (MKL1) is a coactivator of serum response factor (SRF) that promotes the expression of genes associated with cell proliferation, motility, adhesion, and differentiation-processes that also involve dynamic cytoskeletal changes in the cell. MKL1 is inactive when bound to monomeric globular actin (G-actin), but signals that activate the small guanosine triphosphatase RhoA cause actin polymerization and MKL1 dissociation from G-actin. We found a new mechanism of MKL1 activation that is mediated through its binding to filamin A (FLNA), a protein that binds filamentous actin (F-actin). The interaction of FLNA and MKL1 was required for the expression of MKL1 target genes in primary fibroblasts, melanoma, mammary and hepatocellular carcinoma cells. We identified the regions of interaction between MKL1 and FLNA, and cells expressing an MKL1 mutant that was unable to bind FLNA exhibited impaired cell migration and reduced expression of MKL1-SRF target genes. Induction and repression of MKL1-SRF target genes correlated with increased or decreased MKL1-FLNA interaction, respectively. Lysophosphatidic acid-induced RhoA activation in primary human fibroblasts promoted the association of endogenous MKL1 with FLNA, whereas exposure to an actin polymerization inhibitor dissociated MKL1 from FLNA and decreased MKL1-SRF target gene expression in melanoma cells. Thus, FLNA functions as a positive cellular transducer linking actin polymerization to MKL1-SRF activity, counteracting the known repressive complex of MKL1 and monomeric G-actin. PMID:26554816

  15. Enhancing Students' Attitude towards Nigerian Senior Secondary School Physics through the Use of Cooperative, Competitive and Individualistic Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinbobola, Akinyemi Olufunminiyi

    2009-01-01

    The study was conducted to find out the attitude of students towards the use of cooperative, competitive and individualistic learning strategies in Nigerian senior secondary school physics. The design selected for this study was quasi-experimental. A total of 140 students took part in the study and they were selected by a random sampling…

  16. Enlightening Advantages of Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faryadi, Qais

    2007-01-01

    This appraisal discusses the notion that cooperative learning enhances learners' emotional and social performance. It also observes the perception that cooperative learning dramatically improves students' academic accomplishment. This review also examines the definition of cooperative learning and attempts to define it through the lens of renowned…

  17. The Effectiveness of an Intervention to Enhance Cooperation Between Sick-Listed Employees and Their Supervisors (COSS).

    PubMed

    Hoefsmit, Nicole; Houkes, Inge; Boumans, Nicolle; Noben, Cindy; Winkens, Bjorn; Nijhuis, Frans J N

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Early return-to-work (RTW) after sick leave is considered to support employees' quality of life. Successful RTW requires adequate cooperation between absent employees and their supervisors. This study assesses the effectiveness of an intervention for COoperation regarding RTW between Sick-listed employees and their Supervisors (COSS; i.e. 'conversation roadmap', monitoring of cooperation and, if necessary, extra occupational physician support). Methods In this field study, employees on sick leave for 2-10 weeks, aged 18 up to and including 60, and performing paid labour for at least 12 h per week were included. Terminally ill were excluded. Multivariate regression (correcting for baseline quality of life) was used to compare 6-months follow up data regarding quality of life between the groups. Using Cox regression analyses, time until first-, full-, and sustainable RTW was compared between groups. Results In total 64 employees received COSS or common practice. No significant group differences were found regarding all study outcomes. The COSS group had a higher chance of work resumption than the common practice group. The hazard ratio was 1.39 for first RTW (95 % CI 0.81-2.37), 1.12 for full RTW (95 % CI 0.65-1.93) and 1.10 for sustainable RTW (95 % CI 0.63-1.95). Conclusions COSS has no significant effects. Yet, the results regarding work resumption show a tendency towards effectiveness. Therefore, COSS can be further developed and applied in practice. Researchers should try to prevent some limitations of the present study in future research, for instance by finding a more common research setting. PMID:26386993

  18. The transcription factors SOX9 and SOX5/SOX6 cooperate genome-wide through super-enhancers to drive chondrogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chia-Feng; Lefebvre, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    SOX9 is a transcriptional activator required for chondrogenesis, and SOX5 and SOX6 are closely related DNA-binding proteins that critically enhance its function. We use here genome-wide approaches to gain novel insights into the full spectrum of the target genes and modes of action of this chondrogenic trio. Using the RCS cell line as a faithful model for proliferating/early prehypertrophic growth plate chondrocytes, we uncover that SOX6 and SOX9 bind thousands of genomic sites, frequently and most efficiently near each other. SOX9 recognizes pairs of inverted SOX motifs, whereas SOX6 favors pairs of tandem SOX motifs. The SOX proteins primarily target enhancers. While binding to a small fraction of typical enhancers, they bind multiple sites on almost all super-enhancers (SEs) present in RCS cells. These SEs are predominantly linked to cartilage-specific genes. The SOX proteins effectively work together to activate these SEs and are required for in vivo expression of their associated genes. These genes encode key regulatory factors, including the SOX trio proteins, and all essential cartilage extracellular matrix components. Chst11, Fgfr3, Runx2 and Runx3 are among many other newly identified SOX trio targets. SOX9 and SOX5/SOX6 thus cooperate genome-wide, primarily through SEs, to implement the growth plate chondrocyte differentiation program. PMID:26150426

  19. Novel interactions of ankyrins-G at the costameres: The muscle-specific Obscurin/Titin-Binding-related Domain (OTBD) binds plectin and filamin C

    SciTech Connect

    Maiweilidan, Yimingjiang; Klauza, Izabela; Kordeli, Ekaterini

    2011-04-01

    Ankyrins, the adapters of the spectrin skeleton, are involved in local accumulation and stabilization of integral proteins to the appropriate membrane domains. In striated muscle, tissue-dependent alternative splicing generates unique Ank3 gene products (ankyrins-G); they share the Obscurin/Titin-Binding-related Domain (OTBD), a muscle-specific insert of the C-terminal domain which is highly conserved among ankyrin genes, and binds obscurin and titin to Ank1 gene products. We previously proposed that OTBD sequences constitute a novel domain of protein-protein interactions which confers ankyrins with specific cellular functions in muscle. Here we searched for muscle proteins binding to ankyrin-G OTBD by yeast two hybrid assay, and we found plectin and filamin C, two organizing elements of the cytoskeleton with essential roles in myogenesis, muscle cell cytoarchitecture, and muscle disease. The three proteins coimmunoprecipitate from skeletal muscle extracts and colocalize at costameres in adult muscle fibers. During in vitro myogenesis, muscle ankyrins-G are first expressed in postmitotic myocytes undergoing fusion to myotubes. In western blots of subcellular fractions from C2C12 cells, the majority of muscle ankyrins-G appear associated with membrane compartments. Occasional but not extensive co-localization at nascent costameres suggested that ankyrin-G interactions with plectin and filamin C are not involved in costamere assembly; they would rather reinforce stability and/or modulate molecular interactions in sarcolemma microdomains by establishing novel links between muscle-specific ankyrins-G and the two costameric dystrophin-associated glycoprotein and integrin-based protein complexes. These results report the first protein-protein interactions involving the ankyrin-G OTBD domain and support the hypothesis that OTBD sequences confer ankyrins with a gain of function in vertebrates, bringing further consolidation and resilience of the linkage between sarcomeres

  20. Banana fruit NAC transcription factor MaNAC5 cooperates with MaWRKYs to enhance the expression of pathogenesis-related genes against Colletotrichum musae.

    PubMed

    Shan, Wei; Chen, Jian-Ye; Kuang, Jian-Fei; Lu, Wang-Jin

    2016-04-01

    Plants respond to pathogen attack by the modulation of a large set of genes, which are regulated by different types of transcription factor (TF). NAC (NAM/ATAF/CUC) and WRKY are plant-specific families of TFs, and have received much attention as transcriptional regulators in plant pathogen defence. However, the cooperation between NAC and WRKY TFs in the disease response remains largely unknown. Our previous study has revealed that two banana fruit WRKY TFs, MaWRKY1 and MaWRKY2, are involved in salicylic acid (SA)- and methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-induced resistance against Colletotrichum musae via binding to promoters of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. Here, we found that MaNAC1, MaNAC2 and MaNAC5 were up-regulated after C. musae infection, and were also significantly enhanced by SA and MeJA treatment. Protein-protein interaction analysis showed that MaNAC5 physically interacted with MaWRKY1 and MaWRKY2. More importantly, dual-luciferase reporter (DLR) assay revealed that MaNAC5, MaWRKY1 and MaWRKY2 were transcriptional activators, and individually or cooperatively activated the transcriptional activities of MaPR1-1, MaPR2, MaPR10c and MaCHIL1 genes. Collectively, our results indicate that MaNAC5 cooperates with MaWRKY1 and MaWRKY2 to regulate the expression of a specific set of PR genes in the disease response, and to contribute at least partially to SA- and MeJA-induced pathogen resistance. PMID:26033522

  1. Cooperative Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Pam

    1989-01-01

    Describes "cooperative poetry," a group poetry-writing exercise combining brainstorming, rehearsing, choral reading, assisted reading, memorization, sequencing, and vocabulary development, as well as providing an opportunity for group cooperation. (MM)

  2. Cooperative redox-active additives of anthraquinone-2,7-disulphonate and K4Fe(CN)6 for enhanced performance of active carbon-based capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Ying; Liu, Ming; Che, Ruxing; Xue, Rong; Huang, Liping

    2016-08-01

    Two redox additives of anthraquinone-2,7-disulphonate (AQDS) and K4Fe(CN)6 are introduced into the neutral medium of KNO3 for enhanced performance of active carbon-based (AC) capacitor. The Faradaic redox reactions of AQ/H2AQ and Fe(CN)63-/Fe(CN)64- are diffusion-controlled and occurred on the negative electrode and the positive electrode respectively and simultaneously, resulting in the enhancement of specific capacitance, power density and energy density of 240 F g-1, 527 W kg-1 and 26.3 Wh kg-1, respectively at a current density of 1.0 A g-1 for a symmetric AC capacitor in the electrolyte of 1 M KNO3-0.017 M K4Fe(CN)6-0.017 M AQDS. These values are much higher than those in the controls of either 1 M KNO3-0.017 M K4Fe(CN)6 or 1 M KNO3-0.017 M AQDS with only one pair of redox additives. These results demonstrate the cooperative K4Fe(CN)6 and AQDS for enhanced performance of AC capacitor, and thus provide an alternative approach for efficient capacitors.

  3. Social penalty promotes cooperation in a cooperative society

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiromu; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Why cooperation is well developed in human society is an unsolved question in biological and human sciences. Vast studies in game theory have revealed that in non-cooperative games selfish behavior generally dominates over cooperation and cooperation can be evolved only under very limited conditions. These studies ask the origin of cooperation; whether cooperation can evolve in a group of selfish individuals. In this paper, instead of asking the origin of cooperation, we consider the enhancement of cooperation in a small already cooperative society. We ask whether cooperative behavior is further promoted in a small cooperative society in which social penalty is devised. We analyze hawk-dove game and prisoner’s dilemma introducing social penalty. We then expand it for non-cooperative games in general. The results indicate that cooperation is universally favored if penalty is further imposed. We discuss the current result in terms of the moral, laws, rules and regulations in a society, e.g., criminology and traffic violation. PMID:26238521

  4. Social penalty promotes cooperation in a cooperative society.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiromu; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Why cooperation is well developed in human society is an unsolved question in biological and human sciences. Vast studies in game theory have revealed that in non-cooperative games selfish behavior generally dominates over cooperation and cooperation can be evolved only under very limited conditions. These studies ask the origin of cooperation; whether cooperation can evolve in a group of selfish individuals. In this paper, instead of asking the origin of cooperation, we consider the enhancement of cooperation in a small already cooperative society. We ask whether cooperative behavior is further promoted in a small cooperative society in which social penalty is devised. We analyze hawk-dove game and prisoner's dilemma introducing social penalty. We then expand it for non-cooperative games in general. The results indicate that cooperation is universally favored if penalty is further imposed. We discuss the current result in terms of the moral, laws, rules and regulations in a society, e.g., criminology and traffic violation. PMID:26238521

  5. Cooperation of ETV6/RUNX1 and BCL2 enhances immunoglobulin production and accelerates glomerulonephritis in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Eva; Schlederer, Michaela; Scheicher, Ruth; Horvath, Jaqueline; Aigner, Petra; Schiefer, Ana-Iris; Kain, Renate; Regele, Heinz; Hoermann, Gregor; Steiner, Günter; Kenner, Lukas; Sexl, Veronika; Villunger, Andreas; Moriggl, Richard; Stoiber, Dagmar

    2016-03-15

    The t(12;21) translocation generating the ETV6/RUNX1 fusion gene represents the most frequent chromosomal rearrangement in childhood leukemia. Presence of ETV6/RUNX1 alone is usually not sufficient for leukemia onset, and additional genetic alterations have to occur in ETV6/RUNX1-positive cells to cause transformation. We have previously generated an ETV6/RUNX1 transgenic mouse model where the expression of the fusion gene is restricted to CD19-positive B cells. Since BCL2 family members have been proposed to play a role in leukemogenesis, we investigated combined effects of ETV6/RUNX1 with exogenous expression of the antiapoptotic protein BCL2 by crossing ETV6/RUNX1 transgenic animals with Vav-BCL2 transgenic mice. Strikingly, co-expression of ETV6/RUNX1 and BCL2 resulted in significantly shorter disease latency in mice, indicating oncogene cooperativity. This was associated with faster development of follicular B cell lymphoma and exacerbated immune complex glomerulonephritis. ETV6/RUNX1-BCL2 double transgenic animals displayed increased B cell numbers and immunoglobulin titers compared to Vav-BCL2 transgenic mice. This led to pronounced deposition of immune complexes in glomeruli followed by accelerated development of immune complex glomerulonephritis. Thus, our study reveals a previously unrecognized synergism between ETV6/RUNX1 and BCL2 impacting on malignant disease and autoimmunity. PMID:26919255

  6. Cooperation of ETV6/RUNX1 and BCL2 enhances immunoglobulin production and accelerates glomerulonephritis in transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Eva; Schlederer, Michaela; Scheicher, Ruth; Horvath, Jaqueline; Aigner, Petra; Schiefer, Ana-Iris; Kain, Renate; Regele, Heinz; Hoermann, Gregor; Steiner, Günter; Kenner, Lukas; Sexl, Veronika; Villunger, Andreas; Moriggl, Richard; Stoiber, Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    The t(12;21) translocation generating the ETV6/RUNX1 fusion gene represents the most frequent chromosomal rearrangement in childhood leukemia. Presence of ETV6/RUNX1 alone is usually not sufficient for leukemia onset, and additional genetic alterations have to occur in ETV6/RUNX1-positive cells to cause transformation. We have previously generated an ETV6/RUNX1 transgenic mouse model where the expression of the fusion gene is restricted to CD19-positive B cells. Since BCL2 family members have been proposed to play a role in leukemogenesis, we investigated combined effects of ETV6/RUNX1 with exogenous expression of the antiapoptotic protein BCL2 by crossing ETV6/RUNX1 transgenic animals with Vav-BCL2 transgenic mice. Strikingly, co-expression of ETV6/RUNX1 and BCL2 resulted in significantly shorter disease latency in mice, indicating oncogene cooperativity. This was associated with faster development of follicular B cell lymphoma and exacerbated immune complex glomerulonephritis. ETV6/RUNX1-BCL2 double transgenic animals displayed increased B cell numbers and immunoglobulin titers compared to Vav-BCL2 transgenic mice. This led to pronounced deposition of immune complexes in glomeruli followed by accelerated development of immune complex glomerulonephritis. Thus, our study reveals a previously unrecognized synergism between ETV6/RUNX1 and BCL2 impacting on malignant disease and autoimmunity. PMID:26919255

  7. Cooperative enhancement versus additivity of two-photon-absorption cross sections in linear and branched squaraine superchromophores.

    PubMed

    Ceymann, Harald; Rosspeintner, Arnulf; Schreck, Maximilian H; Mützel, Carina; Stoy, Andreas; Vauthey, Eric; Lambert, Christoph

    2016-06-28

    The linear and nonlinear optical properties of a series of oligomeric squaraine dyes were investigated by one-photon absorption spectroscopy (1PA) and two-photon absorption (2PA) induced fluorescence spectroscopy. The superchromophores are based on two indolenine squaraine dyes with transoid (SQA) and cisoid configuration (SQB). Using these monomers, linear dimers and trimers as well as star-shaped trimers and hexamers with benzene or triphenylamine cores were synthesised and investigated. The red-shifted and intensified 1PA spectra of all superchromophores could well be explained by exciton coupling theory. In the linear chromophore arrangements we also found superradiance of fluorescence but not in the branched systems. Furthermore, the 2PA showed enhanced cross sections for the linear oligomers but only additivity for the branched systems. This emphasizes that the enhancement of the 2PA cross section in the linear arrangements is probably caused by orbital interactions of higher excited configurations. PMID:27264847

  8. ALK(R1275Q) perturbs extracellular matrix, enhances cell invasion and leads to the development of neuroblastoma in cooperation with MYCN.

    PubMed

    Ueda, T; Nakata, Y; Yamasaki, N; Oda, H; Sentani, K; Kanai, A; Onishi, N; Ikeda, K; Sera, Y; Honda, Z-I; Tanaka, K; Sata, M; Ogawa, S; Yasui, W; Saya, H; Takita, J; Honda, H

    2016-08-25

    Overexpression of MYCN is a hallmark of neuroblastoma (NB). ALK(R1275Q), an activating mutation of ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase), has been found in sporadic and familial NB patients. In this report, we demonstrated that ALK(R1275Q) knock-in, MYCN transgenic compound mice developed NB with complete penetrance. Transcriptome analysis revealed that ALK(R1275Q) globally downregulated the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM)- and basement membrane (BM)-associated genes in both primary neuronal cells and NB tumors. Accordingly, ALK(R1275Q)/MYCN tumors exhibited reduced expression of ECM/BM-related proteins as compared with MYCN tumors. In addition, on MYCN transduction, ALK(R1275Q)-expressing neuronal cells exhibited increased migratory and invasive activities. Consistently, enhanced invasion and metastasis were demonstrated in ALK(R1275Q)/MYCN mice. These results collectively indicate that ALK(R1275Q) confers a malignant potential on neuronal cells that overexpress MYCN by impairing normal ECM/BM integrity and enhancing tumor growth and dissemination. Moreover, we found that crizotinib, an ALK inhibitor, almost completely inhibited the growth of ALK(R1275Q)/MYCN tumors in an allograft model. Our findings provided insights into the cooperative mechanism of the mutated ALK and overexpressed MYCN in the pathogenesis of NB and demonstrated the effectiveness of crizotinib on ALK(R1275Q)-positive tumors. PMID:26829053

  9. Declaration of the European Ministers of Vocational Education and Training, and the European Commission, Convened in Copenhagen on 29 and 30 November 2002, on Enhanced European Cooperation in Vocational Education and Training. "The Copenhagen Declaration."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Commission, Brussels (Belgium).

    Enhanced cooperation in vocational education and training (VET) will be an important contribution toward ensuring a successful enlargement of the European Union. The social partners play an indispensable role in development, validation, and recognition of vocational competencies and qualifications at all levels and are partners in promotion of…

  10. COOPERATION MAINTAINED BY FITNESS ADJUSTMENT

    PubMed Central

    TAYLOR, CHRISTINE; CHEN, JANET; IWASA, YOH

    2008-01-01

    Questions Whether or not cooperation can be enhanced if players with a performance higher than the mean are forced to pay an additional cost in each generation? Mathematical Methods Analysis of replicator dynamics with mutation. The ESS distribution of cooperation level is obtained. Key Assumptions Players engage in cooperative dilemma game, and at the end of each generation, those with higher performance than the mean are forced to pay additional cost. Conclusions Without mutation, the entire population eventually conforms to a single cooperation level determined by the initial composition of the population. With mutation, there is an equilibrium distribution of cooperation level, which has a peak at an intermediate level of cooperation. Whether it is institutionalized such as tax or just a social custom, fitness adjustment based ultimately on people’s emtion of “envy” is able to maintain cooperation. PMID:19079742

  11. Genome Wide Mapping of NR4A Binding Reveals Cooperativity with ETS Factors to Promote Epigenetic Activation of Distal Enhancers in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Duren, Ryan P.; Boudreaux, Seth P.; Conneely, Orla M.

    2016-01-01

    Members of the NR4A subfamily of orphan nuclear receptors regulate cell fate decisions via both genomic and non-genomic mechanisms in a cell and tissue selective manner. NR4As play a key role in maintenance of hematopoietic stem cell homeostasis and are critical tumor suppressors of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Expression of NR4As is broadly silenced in leukemia initiating cell enriched populations from human patients relative to normal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Rescue of NR4A expression in human AML cells inhibits proliferation and reprograms AML gene signatures via transcriptional mechanisms that remain to be elucidated. By intersecting an acutely regulated NR4A1 dependent transcriptional profile with genome wide NR4A binding distribution, we now identify an NR4A targetome of 685 genes that are directly regulated by NR4A1. We show that NR4As regulate gene transcription primarily through interaction with distal enhancers that are co-enriched for NR4A1 and ETS transcription factor motifs. Using a subset of NR4A activated genes, we demonstrate that the ETS factors ERG and FLI-1 are required for activation of NR4A bound enhancers and NR4A target gene induction. NR4A1 dependent recruitment of ERG and FLI-1 promotes binding of p300 histone acetyltransferase to epigenetically activate NR4A bound enhancers via acetylation at histone H3K27. These findings disclose novel epigenetic mechanisms by which NR4As and ETS factors cooperate to drive NR4A dependent gene transcription in human AML cells. PMID:26938745

  12. Cooperation between catalytic and DNA binding domains enhances thermostability and supports DNA synthesis at higher temperatures by thermostable DNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, Andrey R; Pavlova, Nadejda V; Kozyavkin, Sergei A; Slesarev, Alexei I

    2012-03-13

    We have previously introduced a general kinetic approach for comparative study of processivity, thermostability, and resistance to inhibitors of DNA polymerases [Pavlov, A. R., et al. (2002) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.99, 13510-13515]. The proposed method was successfully applied to characterize hybrid DNA polymerases created by fusing catalytic DNA polymerase domains with various sequence-nonspecific DNA binding domains. Here we use the developed kinetic analysis to assess basic parameters of DNA elongation by DNA polymerases and to further study the interdomain interactions in both previously constructed and new chimeric DNA polymerases. We show that connecting helix-hairpin-helix (HhH) domains to catalytic polymerase domains can increase thermostability, not only of DNA polymerases from extremely thermophilic species but also of the enzyme from a faculatative thermophilic bacterium Bacillus stearothermophilus. We also demonstrate that addition of Topo V HhH domains extends efficient DNA synthesis by chimerical polymerases up to 105 °C by maintaining processivity of DNA synthesis at high temperatures. We found that reversible high-temperature structural transitions in DNA polymerases decrease the rates of binding of these enzymes to the templates. Furthermore, activation energies and pre-exponential factors of the Arrhenius equation suggest that the mechanism of electrostatic enhancement of diffusion-controlled association plays a minor role in binding of templates to DNA polymerases. PMID:22320201

  13. Cooperative Enhancement of Second-Harmonic Generation from a Single CdS Nanobelt-Hybrid Plasmonic Structure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinfeng; Zhang, Qing; Chong, Wee Kiang; Yip, Jing Ngei; Wen, Xinglin; Li, Zhenpeng; Wei, Fengxia; Yu, Guannan; Xiong, Qihua; Sum, Tze Chien

    2015-05-26

    Semiconductor nanostructures (e.g., nanowires and nanobelts) hold great promise as subwavelength coherent light sources, nonlinear optical frequency converters, and all-optical signal processors for optoelectronic applications. However, at such small scales, optical second-harmonic generation (SHG) is generally inefficient. Herein, we report on a straightforward strategy using a thin Au layer to enhance the SHG from a single CdS nanobelt by 3 orders of magnitude. Through detailed experimental and theoretical analysis, we validate that the augmented SHG originates from the mutual intensification of the local fields induced by the plasmonic nanocavity and by the reflections within the CdS Fabry-Pérot resonant cavity in this hybrid semiconductor-metal system. Polarization-dependent SHG measurements can be employed to determine and distinguish the contributions of SH signals from the CdS nanobelt and gold film, respectively. When the thickness of gold film becomes comparable to the skin depth, SHG from the gold film can be clearly observed. Our work demonstrates a facile approach for tuning the nonlinear optical properties of mesoscopic, nanostructured, and layered semiconductor materials. PMID:25905978

  14. Operation Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohl, K. Robert

    The needs of teachers for high-demand and seasonal films have been met by a cooperative effort of the Berks County Educational Television Committee, local school districts, the Berks and Suburban TV cable companies and the Berks County Intermediate Unit in a project called Operation Cooperation. Regionalization of the instructional media services…

  15. Library Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Patricia; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes nine articles that discuss cooperative library networking in Illinois. Highlights include library systems as cooperative agencies; PALI (Private Academic Libraries of Illinois); rural school and public library development; systemwide users; regional medical libraries; virtual libraries and the Coalition for Networked Information; a…

  16. Cooperative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Cooperative education programs, a nontraditional blending of practice and theory, have become an important feature of current higher education. Some educators estimate that by 1984 half of the higher education institutions in the United States will have developed some form of cooperative education. The Federal government's recent involvement in…

  17. Cooperative effect of BI-69A11 and celecoxib enhances radiosensitization by modulating DNA damage repair in colon carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pal, Ipsita; Dey, Kaushik Kumar; Chaurasia, Madhuri; Parida, Sheetal; Das, Subhayan; Rajesh, Y; Sharma, Kulbhushan; Chowdhury, Tamohan; Mandal, Mahitosh

    2016-05-01

    Amplification of PI3K-Akt pathway promotes radioresistance in various cancers including colorectal carcinoma. Local recurrence in colon cancer causes poor prognosis affecting overall survival of cancer-affected patient population. To avoid local recurrence, pre-operative or post-operative additional radiotherapy is given. However, main concern regarding radiotherapy is to increase the radiosensitivity of malignant cell without hampering the activities of normal cells. In this context, addition of two or more than two chemotherapeutic drugs as a radiosensitizer is a common practice in radiation biology. BI-69A11 earlier showed potential apoptosis-inducing effect in melanoma and colon carcinoma. Celecoxib showed anti-cancer effects in both COX-2 dependent and independent pathways and used to act as a radiosensitizing enhancer. Here, we suggest that the combination of BI-69A11 and celecoxib inhibits the phosphorylation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase and DNA-PK responsible for ionizing radiation (IR)-induced double-strand break (DSB) repair. Moreover, the combinatorial effect of BI-69A11 and celecoxib attenuates the IR-induced G2/M cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, this combination also impairs IR-induced activation of Akt and downstream targets of ATM. This might lead to induced activation of apoptotic pathway after triple therapy treatment modulating pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins. This activation of apoptotic pathway also showed the interdependence of PUMA and BAD in triple combination-treated colon cancer cells in a p53 independent manner. This study reveals the therapeutic potential of the triple combination therapy in prevention of radioresistance. Besides, it also demonstrates the cytotoxic effects of triple combination therapy in colon cancer. This study shows utility and potential implication on safety of the patients undergoing radiation therapy. PMID:26631035

  18. Generation Z, Meet Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igel, Charles; Urquhart, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    Today's Generation Z teens need to develop teamwork and social learning skills to be successful in the 21st century workplace. Teachers can help students develop these skills and enhance academic achievement by implementing cooperative learning strategies. Three key principles for successful cooperative learning are discussed. (Contains 1 figure.)

  19. Cooperative Education in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andy; Flemming, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Cooperative education is a structured experiential education strategy integrating classroom studies with work place learning. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate how a cooperative education model can be included within an outdoor education undergraduate degree to develop reflective practitioners and to enhance graduate capabilities. Document…

  20. Cooperative Learning for Better Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Natale, John J.; Russell, Gordon

    1995-01-01

    Asserts that linking music ensemble programs and cooperative learning strategies often has been overlooked. Describes the benefits of cooperative learning techniques for music performance preparation. Concludes that the small-group approach can enhance traditional music programs by offering students the chance to make their own decisions. (CFR)

  1. Cooperative processes in image segmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, L. S.

    1982-01-01

    Research into the role of cooperative, or relaxation, processes in image segmentation is surveyed. Cooperative processes can be employed at several levels of the segmentation process as a preprocessing enhancement step, during supervised or unsupervised pixel classification and, finally, for the interpretation of image segments based on segment properties and relations.

  2. Cooperative Learning in Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadderman, Margaret

    1992-01-01

    Cooperative learning is being recommended as a solution for numerous education problems, from enhancing disadvantaged children's self-esteem to ensuring academic success for all students. Cooperative learning has great potential as a supplement or alternative to traditional teaching methods when students are adequately socialized and motivated.…

  3. Physical interactions between Ets and NF-kappaB/NFAT proteins play an important role in their cooperative activation of the human immunodeficiency virus enhancer in T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bassuk, A G; Anandappa, R T; Leiden, J M

    1997-01-01

    The transcriptional regulatory elements of many inducible T-cell genes contain adjacent or overlapping binding sites for the Ets and NF-kappaB/NFAT families of transcription factors. Similar arrays of functionally important NF-kappaB/NFAT and Ets binding sites are present in the transcriptional enhancers of human immunodeficiency viruses types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2), suggesting that this pattern of nuclear protein binding sites reflects an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for regulating inducible T-cell gene expression that has been co-opted during HIV evolution. Despite these findings, the molecular mechanisms by which Ets and NF-kappaB/NFAT proteins cooperatively regulate inducible T-cell gene expression remained unknown. In the studies described in this report, we demonstrated a physical interaction between multiple Ets and NF-kappaB/NFAT proteins both in vitro and in activated normal human T cells. This interaction is mediated by the Ets domain of Ets proteins and the C-terminal region of the Rel homology domains of NF-kappaB/NFAT proteins. In addition, the Ets-NF-kappaB/NFAT interaction requires the presence of DNA binding sites for both proteins, as it is abolished by the DNA intercalating agents propidium iodide and ethidium bromide and enhanced by the presence of synthetic oligonucleotides containing binding sites for Ets and NF-kappaB proteins. A dominant-negative mutant of NF-kappaB p50 that binds DNA but fails to interact with Ets proteins inhibits the synergistic activation of the HIV-1 and HIV-2 enhancers by NF-kappaB (p50 + p65) and Ets-1, suggesting that physical interaction between Ets and NF-kappaB proteins is required for the transcriptional activity of the HIV-1 and HIV-2 enhancers. Taken together, these findings suggest that evolutionarily conserved physical interactions between Ets and NF-kappaB/NFAT proteins are important in regulating the inducible expression of T-cell genes and viruses. These interactions represent a potential target

  4. Cooperative cathode electrode and in situ deposited copper for subsequent enhanced Cd(II) removal and hydrogen evolution in bioelectrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Huang, Liping; Pan, Yuzhen; Zhou, Peng; Quan, Xie; Logan, Bruce E; Chen, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) were first operated in microbial fuel cell mode for recovering Cu(II), and then shifted to microbial electrolysis cells for Cd(II) reduction on the same cathodes of titanium sheet (TS), nickel foam (NF) or carbon cloth (CC). Cu(II) reduction was similar to all materials (4.79-4.88mg/Lh) whereas CC exhibited the best Cd(II) reduction (5.86±0.25mg/Lh) and hydrogen evolution (0.35±0.07m(3)/m(3)d), followed by TS (5.27±0.43mg/Lh and 0.15±0.02m(3)/m(3)d) and NF (4.96±0.48mg/Lh and 0.80±0.07m(3)/m(3)d). These values were higher than no copper controls by factors of 2.0 and 5.0 (TS), 4.2 and 2.0 (NF), and 1.8 and 7.0 (CC). These results demonstrated cooperative cathode electrode and in situ deposited copper for subsequent enhanced Cd(II) reduction and hydrogen production in BESs, providing an alternative approach for efficiently remediating Cu(II) and Cd(II) co-contamination with simultaneous hydrogen production. PMID:26528907

  5. Cooperative self-construction and enhanced optical absorption of nanoplates-assembled hierarchical Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} flowers

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Shengwei; Yu Jiaguo

    2008-05-15

    Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} hierarchical multilayered flower-like assemblies are fabricated on a large scale by a simple hydrothermal method in the presence of polymeric poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate). Such 3D Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} assemblies are constructed from orderly arranged 2D layers, which are further composed of a large number of interconnected nanoplates with a mean side length of ca. 50 nm. The bimodal mesopores associated with such hierarchical assembly exhibit peak mesopore size of ca. 4 nm for the voids within a layer, and peak mesopore size of ca. 40 nm corresponding to the interspaces between stacked layers, respectively. The formation process is discussed on the basis of the results of time-dependent experiments, which support a novel 'coupled cooperative assembly and localized ripening' formation mechanism. More interestingly, we have noticed that the collective effect related to such hierarchical assembly induces a significantly enhanced optical absorbance in the UV-visible region. This work may shed some light on the design of complex architectures and exploitation of their potential applications. - Graphical abstract: Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} hierarchical multilayered flower-like assemblies are fabricated on a large scale by a simple hydrothermal method in the presence of polymeric poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)

  6. A distinct X-linked syndrome involving joint contractures, keloids, large optic cup-to-disc ratio, and renal stones results from a filamin A (FLNA) mutation.

    PubMed

    Lah, Melissa; Niranjan, Tejasvi; Srikanth, Sujata; Holloway, Lynda; Schwartz, Charles E; Wang, Tao; Weaver, David D

    2016-04-01

    We further evaluated a previously reported family with an apparently undescribed X-linked syndrome involving joint contractures, keloids, an increased optic cup-to-disc ratio, and renal stones to elucidate the genetic cause. To do this, we obtained medical histories and performed physical examination on 14 individuals in the family, five of whom are affected males and three are obligate carrier females. Linkage analysis was performed on all but one individual and chromosome X-exome sequencing was done on two affected males. The analysis localized the putative gene to Xq27-qter and chromosome X-exome sequencing revealed a mutation in exon 28 (c.4726G>A) of the filamin A (FLNA) gene, predicting that a conserved glycine had been replaced by arginine at amino acid 1576 (p.G1576R). Segregation analysis demonstrated that all known carrier females tested were heterozygous (G/A), all affected males were hemizygous for the mutation (A allele) and all normal males were hemizygous for the normal G allele. The data and the bioinformatic analysis indicate that the G1576R mutation in the FLNA gene is very likely pathogenic in this family. The syndrome affecting the family shares phenotypic overlap with other syndromes caused by FLNA mutations, but appears to be a distinct phenotype, likely representing a unique genetic syndrome. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26804200

  7. Filamin A-interacting protein (FILIP) is a region-specific modulator of myosin 2b and controls spine morphology and NMDA receptor accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Yagi, Hideshi; Nagano, Takashi; Xie, Min-Jue; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Kuroda, Kazuki; Komada, Munekazu; Iguchi, Tokuichi; Tariqur, Rahman M.; Morikubo, Soichi; Noguchi, Koichi; Murase, Kazuyuki; Okabe, Masaru; Sato, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Learning and memory depend on morphological and functional changes to neural spines. Non-muscle myosin 2b regulates actin dynamics downstream of long-term potentiation induction. However, the mechanism by which myosin 2b is regulated in the spine has not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that filamin A-interacting protein (FILIP) is involved in the control of neural spine morphology and is limitedly expressed in the brain. FILIP bound near the ATPase domain of non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIb, an essential component of myosin 2b, and modified the function of myosin 2b by interfering with its actin-binding activity. In addition, FILIP altered the subcellular distribution of myosin 2b in spines. Moreover, subunits of the NMDA receptor were differently distributed in FILIP-expressing neurons, and excitation propagation was altered in FILIP-knockout mice. These results indicate that FILIP is a novel, region-specific modulator of myosin 2b. PMID:25220605

  8. Filamin A-interacting protein (FILIP) is a region-specific modulator of myosin 2b and controls spine morphology and NMDA receptor accumulation.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Hideshi; Nagano, Takashi; Xie, Min-Jue; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Kuroda, Kazuki; Komada, Munekazu; Iguchi, Tokuichi; Tariqur, Rahman M; Morikubo, Soichi; Noguchi, Koichi; Murase, Kazuyuki; Okabe, Masaru; Sato, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Learning and memory depend on morphological and functional changes to neural spines. Non-muscle myosin 2b regulates actin dynamics downstream of long-term potentiation induction. However, the mechanism by which myosin 2b is regulated in the spine has not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that filamin A-interacting protein (FILIP) is involved in the control of neural spine morphology and is limitedly expressed in the brain. FILIP bound near the ATPase domain of non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIb, an essential component of myosin 2b, and modified the function of myosin 2b by interfering with its actin-binding activity. In addition, FILIP altered the subcellular distribution of myosin 2b in spines. Moreover, subunits of the NMDA receptor were differently distributed in FILIP-expressing neurons, and excitation propagation was altered in FILIP-knockout mice. These results indicate that FILIP is a novel, region-specific modulator of myosin 2b. PMID:25220605

  9. HCF1 and OCT2 Cooperate with EBNA1 To Enhance OriP-Dependent Transcription and Episome Maintenance of Latent Epstein-Barr Virus

    PubMed Central

    Dheekollu, Jayaraju; Wiedmer, Andreas; Sentana-Lledo, Daniel; Cassel, Joel; Messick, Troy

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) establishes latent infections as multicopy episomes with complex patterns of viral gene transcription and chromatin structure. The EBV origin of plasmid replication (OriP) has been implicated as a critical control element for viral transcription, as well as viral DNA replication and episome maintenance. Here, we examine cellular factors that bind OriP and regulate histone modification, transcription regulation, and episome maintenance. We found that OriP is enriched for histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methylation in multiple cell types and latency types. Host cell factor 1 (HCF1), a component of the mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) histone methyltransferase complex, and transcription factor OCT2 (octamer-binding transcription factor 2) bound cooperatively with EBNA1 (Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1) at OriP. Depletion of OCT2 or HCF1 deregulated latency transcription and histone modifications at OriP, as well as the OriP-regulated latency type-dependent C promoter (Cp) and Q promoter (Qp). HCF1 depletion led to a loss of histone H3K4me3 (trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 4) and H3 acetylation at Cp in type III latency and Qp in type I latency, as well as an increase in heterochromatic H3K9me3 at these sites. HCF1 depletion resulted in the loss of EBV episomes from Burkitt's lymphoma cells with type I latency and reactivation from lymphoblastoid cells (LCLs) with type III latency. These findings indicate that HCF1 and OCT2 function at OriP to regulate viral transcription, histone modifications, and episome maintenance. As HCF1 is best known for its function in herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) immediate early gene transcription, our findings suggest that EBV latency transcription shares unexpected features with HSV gene regulation. IMPORTANCE EBV latency is associated with several human cancers. Viral latent cycle gene expression is regulated by the epigenetic control of the OriP enhancer region. Here, we show that cellular factors

  10. FOSTERING MULTI-LATERAL COOPERATION BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENTS OF DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, COLOMBIA, AND THE UNITED STATES TO ENHANCE THE PROTECTION OF HIGH-ACTIVITY RADIOACTIVE SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, Nicholas; McCaw, Erica E.; Wright, Kyle A.; Medina, Maximo

    2009-10-06

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) reduces and protects vulnerable nuclear and radiological material located at civilian sites worldwide from sabotage, theft or diversion. The GTRI has worked successfully with foreign countries to remove and protect nuclear and radioactive materials including high-activity sources used in medical, commercial, and research applications. There are many barriers to successful bilateral cooperation that must be overcome including language, preconceived perceptions, long distances, and different views on the threat and protection requirements. Successful cooperation is often based on relationships and building trusting relationships takes time. In the case of Dominican Republic, the GTRI first received contact in 2008 from the Government of Dominican Republic. They requested cooperation that was similar to the tri-partite cooperation between Colombia, Mexico and the United States. Throughout the region it was widely known that the GTRI’s cooperation with the Government of Colombia was a resounding success resulting in the securing of forty sites; the consolidation of numerous disused/orphan sources at a secure national storage facility; and, the development of a comprehensive approach to security including, inter alia, training and sustainability. The Government of Colombia also showcased this comprehensive approach to thirteen Central American and Caribbean countries at a GTRI regional security conference held in Panama in October 2004. In 2007, Colombia was an integral component of GTRI multi-lateral cooperation initiation in Mexico. As a result, twenty two of Mexico’s largest radioactive sites have been upgraded in the past eighteen months. These two endeavors served as catalysts for cooperation opportunities in the Dominican Republic. Representatives from the Colombian government were aware of GTRI’s interest in initiating cooperation with the Government of Dominican Republic and to facilitate this cooperation, they

  11. FOSTERING MULTI-LATERAL COOPERATION BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENTS OF MEXICO, COLOMBIA, AND THE UNITED STATES TO ENHANCE THE PROTECTION OF HIGH-ACTIVITY RADIOACTIVE SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, Nicholas; Watson, Erica E.; Wright, Kyle A.

    2009-10-07

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) reduces and protects vulnerable nuclear and radiological material located at civilian sites worldwide from sabotage, theft or diversion. The GTRI program has worked successfully with foreign countries to remove and protect nuclear and radioactive materials including high-activity sources used in medical, commercial, and research applications. There are many barriers to successful bilateral cooperation that must be overcome including language, preconceived perceptions, long distances, and different views on the threat and protection requirements. Successful cooperation is often based on relationships and building trusting relationships takes time. In the case of Mexico, GTRI first made contact in 2005. The project then lost momentum and stalled. At the same time, GTRI’s cooperation with the Republic of Colombia was a resounding success resulting in the securing of forty sites; the consolidation of numerous disused/orphan sources at a secure national storage facility; and, the development of a comprehensive approach to security including, inter alia, training and sustainability. The government of Colombia also showcased this comprehensive approach to thirteen Central American and Caribbean countries at a GTRI regional security conference held in Panama in October 2004. Representatives from the Colombian government were aware of GTRI’s interest in initiating cooperation with the Government of Mexico and to facilitate this cooperation, they offered to invite their Mexican counterparts to Colombia to observe its successful cooperation with GTRI. Shortly after that visit, the Government of Mexico agreed to move forward and requested that the cooperative efforts in Mexico be performed in a tripartite manner, leveraging the skills, experience, and resources of the Colombians. As a result, 22 of Mexico’s largest radioactive sites have had security upgrades in place within 18 months of cooperation.

  12. Teacher Cooperatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Beth

    2009-01-01

    Twenty years ago, when the late Albert Shanker endorsed the notion of innovative schools operating outside conventional district bureaucracies, his aim was to put teachers at the helm. Today there are nearly 80 teacher-governed charter schools around the country. Although most are legally constituted as worker cooperatives, they better resemble…

  13. Enhanced deodorization and sludge reduction in situ by a humus soil cooperated anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A2O) wastewater treatment system.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xing; Li, Biqing; Lei, Fang; Feng, Xin; Pang, Bo

    2016-08-01

    Simultaneous sludge reduction and malodor abatement in humus soil cooperated an anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A2O) wastewater treatment were investigated in this study. The HSR-A2O was composed of a humus soil reactor (HSR) and a conventional A2O (designated as C-A2O).The results showed that adding HSR did not deteriorate the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, while total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiency in HSR-A2O was improved by 18 % in comparison with that in the C-A2O. Both processes had good performance on total nitrogen (TN) removal, and there was no significant difference between them (76.8 and 77.1 %, respectively). However, NH4 (+)-N and NO3 (-)-N were reduced to 0.3 and 6.7 mg/L in HSR-A2O compared to 1.5 and 4.5 mg/L. Moreover, adding HSR induced the sludge reduction, and the sludge production rate was lower than that in the C-A2O. The observed sludge yield was estimated to be 0.32 kg MLSS/day in HSR-A2O, which represent a 33.5 % reduction compared to a C-A2O process. Activated sludge underwent humification and produced more humic acid in HSR-A2O, which is beneficial to sludge reduction. Odor abatement was achieved in HSR-A2O, ammonium (NH3), and sulfuretted hydrogen (H2S) emission decreased from 1.34 and 1.33 to 0.06 mg/m(3), 0.025 mg/m(3) in anaerobic area, with the corresponding reduction efficiency of 95.5 and 98.1 %. Microbial community analysis revealed that the relevant microorganism enrichment explained the reduction effect of humus soil on NH3 and H2S emission. The whole study demonstrated that humus soil enhanced odor abatement and sludge reduction in situ. PMID:27146529

  14. Cooperation and age structure in spatial games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen; Wang, Zhen; Zhu, Xiaodan; Arenzon, Jeferson J.

    2012-01-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in evolutionary spatial games when the payoff correlates with the increasing age of players (the level of correlation is set through a single parameter, α). The demographic heterogeneous age distribution, directly affecting the outcome of the game, is thus shown to be responsible for enhancing the cooperative behavior in the population. In particular, moderate values of α allow cooperators not only to survive but to outcompete defectors, even when the temptation to defect is large and the ageless, standard α=0 model does not sustain cooperation. The interplay between age structure and noise is also considered, and we obtain the conditions for optimal levels of cooperation.

  15. Assessment in the Cooperative Classroom: Using an Action Research Enhanced Version of the Train the Trainer In-service Model To Impact Teacher Attitudes and Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolheiser, Carol; Ross, John A.; Hogaboam-Gray, Anne

    This research investigated the impact of combining two approaches to inservice teacher education (action research and train the trainer) on teacher attitudes and practices. The inservice developed assessment approaches aligned with cooperative learning instructional approaches. Teachers were introduced to a model of collaborative assessment aimed…

  16. The Effectiveness of the Consistency Management & Cooperative Discipline (CMCD) Model as a Student Empowerment and Achievement Enhancer: The Experiences of Two K-12 Inner-City School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opuni, Kwame A.

    2006-01-01

    Consistency Management and Cooperative Discipline (CMCD) is a research-based K-12 discipline management program that builds on shared responsibility for learning and classroom organization through the cultivation of democratic and participatory practices that are fair, inclusive, and caring. CMCD seeks to provide a stable and orderly learning…

  17. Investigating the role of filamin C in Belgian patients with frontotemporal dementia linked to GRN deficiency in FTLD-TDP brains.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Jonathan; Philtjens, Stéphanie; Kleinberger, Gernot; Van Mossevelde, Sara; van der Zee, Julie; Cacace, Rita; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Sieben, Anne; Banzhaf-Strathmann, Julia; Dillen, Lubina; Merlin, Céline; Cuijt, Ivy; Robberecht, Caroline; Schmid, Bettina; Santens, Patrick; Ivanoiu, Adrian; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Vandenberghe, Rik; Cras, Patrick; De Deyn, Peter P; Martin, Jean-Jacques; Maudsley, Stuart; Haass, Christian; Cruts, Marc; Van Broeckhoven, Christine

    2015-01-01

    TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) inclusions are pathological hallmarks of patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Loss of TDP-43 in zebrafish engenders a severe muscle and vascular phenotype with a concomitant elevation of filamin C (FLNC) levels, an observation confirmed in the frontal cortex of FTLD-TDP patients. Here, we aimed to further assess the contribution of FLNC to frontotemporal dementia (FTD) etiology. We conducted a mutational screening of FLNC in a cohort of 529 unrelated Belgian FTD and FTD-ALS patients, and a control cohort of 920 unrelated and age-matched individuals. Additionally we performed an in-depth characterization of FLNC expression levels in FTD patients and a murine FTD model.In total 68 missense variants were identified of which 19 (MAF < 1%) were patient-only. Gene burden analysis demonstrated a significant association between the presence of rare variants in FLNC and disease (P = 0.0349, RR = 1.46 [95% CI 1.03-2.07]). Furthermore, elevated FLNC expression levels, observed previously in FTLD-TDP patients, were mainly attributable to FTD patients with the progranulin (GRN) p.0(IVS1 + 5G > C) loss-of-function mutation. Increased FLNC levels were, to a lesser extent, also identified in a FLNC p.V831I variant carrier and in FTD patients with the p.R159H mutation in valosin-containing protein (VCP). The GRN-associated increase of FLNC was confirmed in the frontal cortex of aged Grn knockout mice starting at 16-18 months of age. Combined quantitative proteomic and bioinformatic analyses of the frontal cortex of FTD patients possessing elevated FLNC levels, identified multiple altered protein factors involved in accelerated aging, neurodegeneration and synaptogenesis.Our findings further support the involvement of aberrant FLNC expression levels in FTD pathogenesis. Identification of increased FLNC levels in aged Grn mice and impaired pathways related to aging and

  18. An Overview of the Cooperative Effort between the United States Department of Energy and the China Atomic Energy Authority to Enhance MPC&A Inspections for Civil Nuclear Facilities in China

    SciTech Connect

    Ahern, Keith; Daming, Liu; Hanley, Tim; Livingston, Linwood; McAninch, Connie; McGinnis, Brent R; Ning, Shen; Qun, Yang; Roback, Jason William; Tuttle, Glenn; Xuemei, Gao; Galer, Regina; Peterson, Nancy; Jia, Jinlie

    2011-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) and the China Atomic Energy Authority (CAEA) are cooperating to enhance the domestic regulatory inspections capacity for special nuclear material protection, control and accounting (MPC&A) requirements for civil nuclear facilities in China. This cooperation is conducted under the auspices of the Agreement between the Department of Energy of the United States of America and the State Development and Planning Commission of the People s Republic of China on Cooperation Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Technology. This initial successful effort was conducted in three phases. Phase I focused on introducing CAEA personnel to DOE and U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission inspection methods for U. S. facilities. This phase was completed in January 2008 during meetings in Beijing. Phase II focused on developing physical protection and material control and accounting inspection exercises that enforced U. S. inspection methods identified during Phase 1. Hands on inspection activities were conducted in the United States over a two week period in July 2009. Simulated deficiencies were integrated into the inspection exercises. The U. S. and Chinese participants actively identified and discussed deficiencies noted during the two week training course. The material control and accounting inspection exercises were conducted at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, KY. The physical protection inspection exercises were conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, TN. Phase III leveraged information provided under Phase I and experience gained under Phase II to develop a formal inspection guide that incorporates a systematic approach to training for Chinese MPC&A field inspectors. Additional hands on exercises that are applicable to Chinese regulations were incorporated into the Phase III training material. Phase III was completed in May 2010 at the China

  19. 76 FR 78290 - Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Usage of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Within Marine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... Register (73 FR 3316). Cooperative Research and Development Agreements Cooperative Research and Development... SECURITY Coast Guard Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Usage of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Within... technology enhancements, performance, costs, and other issues associated with using biodiesel fuel blends...

  20. Co-Operative Education or Co-Operative Placement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, C. R.

    The Co-operative Education Department at Mohawk College is designed to extend the academic learning process into the workplace through on-the-job learning experiences which enhance the students' vocational maturation and personal development, and are integrated with the learning objectives of the program. The department offers paid, supervised…

  1. Cooperation: the foundation of improvement.

    PubMed

    Clemmer, T P; Spuhler, V J; Berwick, D M; Nolan, T W

    1998-06-15

    Cooperation--working together to produce mutual benefit or attain a common purpose--is almost inseparable from the quest for improvement. Although the case for cooperation can be made on ethical grounds, neither the motivation for nor the effects of cooperation need to be interpreted solely in terms of altruism. Cooperation can be a shrewd and pragmatic strategy for accomplishing personal goals in an interdependent system. Earlier papers in this series have explored the conceptual roots of modern approaches to improvement, which lie in systems theory. To improve systems, we must usually attend first and foremost to interactions. Among humans, "better interaction" is almost synonymous with "better cooperation." Physicians have ample opportunities and, indeed, an obligation to cooperate with other physicians in the same or different specialties, with nurses and other clinical workers, with administrators, and with patients and families. Many intellectual disciplines have made cooperation an object of study. These include anthropology; social psychology; genetics; biology; mathematics; game theory; linguistics; operations research; economics; and, of course, moral and rational philosophy. Scientifically grounded methods to enhance cooperation include developing a shared purpose; creating an open, safe environment; including all who share a common purpose and encouraging diverse viewpoints; negotiating agreement; and insisting on fairness and equity in the application of rules. These methods apply at the organizational level and at the level of the individual physician. This paper describes the application of these methods at the organizational level and focuses on one especially successful example of system-level cooperation in a care delivery site where interactions matter a great deal: the modern intensive care unit. PMID:9625663

  2. Role of Cooperative Learning in Comprehensive Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, D. Kim

    1989-01-01

    Cooperative learning arrangements for students with learning disabilities are discussed. Cooperative learning appears to be as effective as teacher-led instruction because it replicates natural learning contexts, enhances self-efficacy, provides level-appropriate information processing models, and addresses the specific needs of such students.…

  3. Using Cooperative Structures to Promote Deep Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millis, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    The author explores concrete ways to help students learn more and have fun doing it while they support each other's learning. The article specifically shows the relationships between cooperative learning and deep learning. Readers will become familiar with the tenets of cooperative learning and its power to enhance learning--even more so when…

  4. Cooperative Education. Information Series No. 253.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humbert, Jack T.; Woloszyk, Carl A.

    Cooperative education programs aid students in making the transition from school to work. Other benefits include enhanced employability and earning power. Employers benefit through the ability of cooperative education programs to adapt to labor market needs, through reduced recruitment and training problems, and through the satisfaction gained…

  5. Hypoxic induction of the human erythropoietin gene: cooperation between the promoter and enhancer, each of which contains steroid receptor response elements.

    PubMed Central

    Blanchard, K L; Acquaviva, A M; Galson, D L; Bunn, H F

    1992-01-01

    Transcription of the human erythropoietin (Epo) gene is stimulated by exposure to hypoxia and/or cobalt in whole animals and in Hep3B cells. We have systematically investigated the promoter and 3' enhancer elements necessary for this induction by transient transfection of Hep3B cells. We define a promoter region of 53 bp and an enhancer region of 43 bp that confer hypoxia and cobalt inducibility. Each element gives rise to a 6- to 10-fold induction alone. In combination they produce a 50-fold induction after stimulation, similar to the 50- to 100-fold induction of the endogenous Epo gene. Two areas of DNA sequence homology are present in these regions. We demonstrate specific DNA-protein interactions in the enhancer and the ability of the promoter element to compete with these interactions in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. DNase I footprinting and methylation interference data further refine the cis-acting element in the 43-bp enhancer to a short region containing a direct repeat of a steroid/thyroid hormone receptor response element half-site separated by a 2-bp gap. Two half-site consensus sequences are also present in the 53-bp promoter. Site-specific mutation of the half-site sequences in the enhancer destroys the functional activity of the enhancer. Images PMID:1448072

  6. Arsenic Trioxide (ATO) cooperates with All Trans Retinoic Acid (ATRA) to enhance MAPK activation and differentiation in Human Myeloblastic Leukemia (HL-60) cells

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Satyaprakash; Shen, Miaoqing; Varner, Jeffrey D.; Yen, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) synergistically promotes retinoic acid (RA)-induced differentiation of HL-60 myeloblastic leukemia cells, a PML-RARα negative cell line. In PML-RARα positive myeloid leukemia cells, ATO is known to cause degradation of PML-RARα with subsequent induced myeloid differentiation. We find now that ATO by itself does not cause differentiation of the PML-RARα negative HL-60 cells, but enhances RA’s capability to cause differentiation. RA-induced differentiation of HL-60 cells is known to be propelled by an induced hyperactive/persistent MAPK signal. ATO augmented RA induced RAF/MEK/ERK axis signaling and expression of CD11b, an integrin receptor that is a myeloid differentiation marker. p47PHOX, a component of the respiratory burst machinery and inducible oxidative metabolism, functional differentiation marker were also enhanced. However, ATO did not enhance RA-induced CD38 expression, an early cell surface differentiation marker. ATO enhanced RA-induced population growth retardation without evidence of apoptosis or an enhanced G1/0 growth arrest. But compared to RA, ATO plus RA showed reduced pAKT, suggesting that an overall biosynthetic/metabolic retardation was seminal to the apparent enhanced growth retardation due to ATO. In sum, our results indicate that ATO can augment action of RA in causing differentiation of myeloid leukemia cells through promoting MAPK signaling and independent of PML-RARα. PMID:20615082

  7. Plant cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    The study of plant behaviour will be aided by conceptual approaches and terminology for cooperation, altruism and helping. The plant literature has a rich discussion of helping between species while the animal literature has an extensive and somewhat contentious discussion of within-species helping. Here, I identify and synthesize concepts, terminology and some practical methodology for speaking about helping in plant populations and measuring the costs and benefits. I use Lehmann and Keller's (2006) classification scheme for animal helping and McIntire and Fajardo's (2014) synthesis of facilitation to provide starting points for classifying the mechanisms of how and why organisms help each other. Contextual theory is discussed as a mechanism for understanding and measuring the fitness consequences of helping. I synthesize helping into four categories. The act of helping can be costly to the helper. If the helper gains indirect fitness by helping relatives but loses direct fitness, this is altruism, and it only occurs within species. Helpers can exchange costly help, which is called mutualism when between species, and reciprocation when within a species. The act of helping can directly benefit the helper as well as the recipient, either as an epiphenomenon resulting from behaviours under natural selection for other reasons, or because the helper is creating a mutual benefit, such as satiating predators or supporting a mutualism. Facilitation between species by stress amelioration, creation of novel ecosystems and habitat complexity often meets the definition of epiphenomenon helping. Within species, this kind of helping is called by-product mutualism. If the helping is under selection to create a mutual benefit shared by others, between species this is facilitation with service sharing or access to resources and within species, direct benefits by mutual benefits. These classifications provide a clear starting point for addressing the subject of helping behaviours

  8. Plant cooperation.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Susan A

    2015-01-01

    The study of plant behaviour will be aided by conceptual approaches and terminology for cooperation, altruism and helping. The plant literature has a rich discussion of helping between species while the animal literature has an extensive and somewhat contentious discussion of within-species helping. Here, I identify and synthesize concepts, terminology and some practical methodology for speaking about helping in plant populations and measuring the costs and benefits. I use Lehmann and Keller's (2006) classification scheme for animal helping and McIntire and Fajardo's (2014) synthesis of facilitation to provide starting points for classifying the mechanisms of how and why organisms help each other. Contextual theory is discussed as a mechanism for understanding and measuring the fitness consequences of helping. I synthesize helping into four categories. The act of helping can be costly to the helper. If the helper gains indirect fitness by helping relatives but loses direct fitness, this is altruism, and it only occurs within species. Helpers can exchange costly help, which is called mutualism when between species, and reciprocation when within a species. The act of helping can directly benefit the helper as well as the recipient, either as an epiphenomenon resulting from behaviours under natural selection for other reasons, or because the helper is creating a mutual benefit, such as satiating predators or supporting a mutualism. Facilitation between species by stress amelioration, creation of novel ecosystems and habitat complexity often meets the definition of epiphenomenon helping. Within species, this kind of helping is called by-product mutualism. If the helping is under selection to create a mutual benefit shared by others, between species this is facilitation with service sharing or access to resources and within species, direct benefits by mutual benefits. These classifications provide a clear starting point for addressing the subject of helping behaviours

  9. A universal cooperative assembly-directed method for coating of mesoporous TiO(2) nanoshells with enhanced lithium storage properties.

    PubMed

    Guan, Bu Yuan; Yu, Le; Li, Ju; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2016-03-01

    TiO2 is exceptionally useful, but it remains a great challenge to develop a universal method to coat TiO2 nanoshells on different functional materials. We report a one-pot, low-temperature, and facile method that can rapidly form mesoporous TiO2 shells on various inorganic, organic, and inorganic-organic composite materials, including silica-based, metal, metal oxide, organic polymer, carbon-based, and metal-organic framework nanomaterials via a cooperative assembly-directed strategy. In constructing hollow, core-shell, and yolk-shell geometries, both amorphous and crystalline TiO2 nanoshells are demonstrated with excellent control. When used as electrode materials for lithium ion batteries, these crystalline TiO2 nanoshells composed of very small nanocrystals exhibit remarkably long-term cycling stability over 1000 cycles. The electrochemical properties demonstrate that these TiO2 nanoshells are promising anode materials. PMID:26973879

  10. A universal cooperative assembly-directed method for coating of mesoporous TiO2 nanoshells with enhanced lithium storage properties

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Bu Yuan; Yu, Le; Li, Ju; Lou, Xiong Wen (David)

    2016-01-01

    TiO2 is exceptionally useful, but it remains a great challenge to develop a universal method to coat TiO2 nanoshells on different functional materials. We report a one-pot, low-temperature, and facile method that can rapidly form mesoporous TiO2 shells on various inorganic, organic, and inorganic-organic composite materials, including silica-based, metal, metal oxide, organic polymer, carbon-based, and metal-organic framework nanomaterials via a cooperative assembly-directed strategy. In constructing hollow, core-shell, and yolk-shell geometries, both amorphous and crystalline TiO2 nanoshells are demonstrated with excellent control. When used as electrode materials for lithium ion batteries, these crystalline TiO2 nanoshells composed of very small nanocrystals exhibit remarkably long-term cycling stability over 1000 cycles. The electrochemical properties demonstrate that these TiO2 nanoshells are promising anode materials. PMID:26973879

  11. PREFACE: Cooperative dynamics Cooperative dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gov, Nir

    2011-09-01

    The dynamics within living cells are dominated by non-equilibrium processes that consume chemical energy (usually in the form of ATP, adenosine triphosphate) and convert it into mechanical forces and motion. The mechanisms that allow this conversion process are mostly driven by the components of the cytoskeleton: (i) directed (polar) polymerization of filaments (either actin or microtubules) and (ii) molecular motors. The forces and motions produced by these two components of the cytoskeleton give rise to the formation of cellular shapes, and drive the intracellular transport and organization. It is clear that these systems present a multi-scale challenge, from the physics of the molecular processes to the organization of many interacting units. Understanding the physical nature of these systems will have a large impact on many fundamental problems in biology and break new grounds in the field of non-equilibrium physics. This field of research has seen a rapid development over the last ten years. Activities in this area range from theoretical and experimental work on the underlying fundamental (bio)physics at the single-molecule level, to investigations (in vivo and in vitro) of the dynamics and patterns of macroscopic pieces of 'living matter'. In this special issue we have gathered contributions that span the whole spectrum of length- and complexity-scales in this field. Some of the works demonstrate how active forces self-organize within the polymerizing cytoskeleton, on the level of cooperative cargo transport via motors or due to active fluxes at the cell membrane. On a larger scale, it is shown that polar filaments coupled to molecular motors give rise to a huge variety of surprising dynamics and patterns: spontaneously looping rings of gliding microtubules, and emergent phases of self-organized filaments and motors in different geometries. All of these articles share the common feature of being out-of-equilibrium, driven by metabolism. As demonstrated here

  12. Comparison of the Effectiveness of Two Forms of the Enhancing Relationships in School Communities Project for Promoting Cooperative Conflict Resolution Education in Australian Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinder, Margot; Wertheim, Eleanor H.; Freeman, Elizabeth; Sanson, Ann; Richardson, Shanel; Hunt, Sue

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the Enhancing Relationships in School Communities (ERIS) Project which aimed to promote constructive conflict resolution (CR) in Australian primary school communities through professional development for core teams of three-five staff (n = 33 teachers). Twelve schools were randomly assigned to a full intervention (FI) group or…

  13. The Globalization of Cooperative Groups.

    PubMed

    Valdivieso, Manuel; Corn, Benjamin W; Dancey, Janet E; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Horvath, L Elise; Perez, Edith A; Urton, Alison; Cronin, Walter M; Field, Erica; Lackey, Evonne; Blanke, Charles D

    2015-10-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-supported adult cooperative oncology research groups (now officially Network groups) have a longstanding history of participating in international collaborations throughout the world. Most frequently, the US-based cooperative groups work reciprocally with the Canadian national adult cancer clinical trial group, NCIC CTG (previously the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group). Thus, Canada is the largest contributor to cooperative groups based in the United States, and vice versa. Although international collaborations have many benefits, they are most frequently utilized to enhance patient accrual to large phase III trials originating in the United States or Canada. Within the cooperative group setting, adequate attention has not been given to the study of cancers that are unique to countries outside the United States and Canada, such as those frequently associated with infections in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Global collaborations are limited by a number of barriers, some of which are unique to the countries involved, while others are related to financial support and to US policies that restrict drug distribution outside the United States. This article serves to detail the cooperative group experience in international research and describe how international collaboration in cancer clinical trials is a promising and important area that requires greater consideration in the future. PMID:26433551

  14. Tubular g-C3 N4 Isotype Heterojunction: Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity through Cooperative Manipulation of Oriented Electron and Hole Transfer.

    PubMed

    Tong, Zhenwei; Yang, Dong; Sun, Yuanyuan; Nan, Yanhu; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2016-08-01

    A tubular g-C3 N4 isotype heterojunction (TCNH) photocatalyst was designed for cooperative manipulation of the oriented transfer of photogenerated electrons and holes to pursue high catalytic performance. The adduct of cyanuric acid and melamine (CA·M) is first hydrothermally treated to assemble into hexagonal prism crystals; then the hybrid precursors of urea and CA·M crystals are calcined to form tubular g-C3 N4 isotype heterojunctions. Upon visible-light irradiation, the photogenerated electrons transfer from g-C3 N4 (CA·M) to g-C3 N4 (urea) driven by the conduction band offset of 0.05 eV, while the photogenerated holes transfer from g-C3 N4 (urea) to g-C3 N4 (CA·M) driven by the valence band offset of 0.18 eV, which renders oriented transfer of the charge carriers across the heterojunction interface. Meanwhile, the tubular structure of TCNH is favorable for oriented electron transfer along the longitudinal dimension, which greatly decreases the chance of charge carrier recombination. Consequently, TCNH exhibits a high hydrogen evolution rate of 63 μmol h(-1) (0.04 g, λ > 420 nm), which is nearly five times of the pristine g-C3 N4 and higher than most of the existing g-C3 N4 photocatalysts. This study demonstrates that isotype heterojunction structure and tubular structure can jointly manipulate the oriented transfer of electrons and holes, thus facilitating the visible-light photocatalysis. PMID:27348710

  15. Telemedical work and cooperation.

    PubMed

    Aas, I H

    2001-01-01

    In telemedicine, cooperation occurs via telecommunication. This represents a new situation for medical cooperation. Whether such cooperation works poorly or well will be important with an increasing volume of telemedicine. When personnel are involved in external cooperation, as in telemedicine, the question of cooperation within one's own organization also arises. To investigate these matters, qualitative interviews were performed with 30 persons working in teledermatology, telepsychiatry, a telepathology frozen-section service and tele-otolaryngology. The results showed that cooperating by telecommunication mainly worked well. The cooperation may be influenced by factors such as personality, knowing each other personally, preparation and experience. Telemedical teamwork may be improved by factors like experience and education. Working with telemedicine did not reduce the personnel's cooperation within their own organizations, but rather improved it, although this effect was slight and most commonly involved improved knowledge of others. In general, the findings concerning cooperation and telemedicine were positive. PMID:11506756

  16. Social Environment Shapes the Speed of Cooperation.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Akihiro; Christakis, Nicholas A; Evans, Anthony M; O'Malley, A James; Rand, David G

    2016-01-01

    Are cooperative decisions typically made more quickly or slowly than non-cooperative decisions? While this question has attracted considerable attention in recent years, most research has focused on one-shot interactions. Yet it is repeated interactions that characterize most important real-world social interactions. In repeated interactions, the cooperativeness of one's interaction partners (the "social environment") should affect the speed of cooperation. Specifically, we propose that reciprocal decisions (choices that mirror behavior observed in the social environment), rather than cooperative decisions per se, occur more quickly. We test this hypothesis by examining four independent decision time datasets with a total of 2,088 subjects making 55,968 decisions. We show that reciprocal decisions are consistently faster than non-reciprocal decisions: cooperation is faster than defection in cooperative environments, while defection is faster than cooperation in non-cooperative environments. These differences are further enhanced by subjects' previous behavior - reciprocal decisions are faster when they are consistent with the subject's previous choices. Finally, mediation analyses of a fifth dataset suggest that the speed of reciprocal decisions is explained, in part, by feelings of conflict - reciprocal decisions are less conflicted than non-reciprocal decisions, and less decision conflict appears to lead to shorter decision times. PMID:27435940

  17. Social Environment Shapes the Speed of Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Nishi, Akihiro; Christakis, Nicholas A.; Evans, Anthony M.; O’Malley, A. James; Rand, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Are cooperative decisions typically made more quickly or slowly than non-cooperative decisions? While this question has attracted considerable attention in recent years, most research has focused on one-shot interactions. Yet it is repeated interactions that characterize most important real-world social interactions. In repeated interactions, the cooperativeness of one’s interaction partners (the “social environment”) should affect the speed of cooperation. Specifically, we propose that reciprocal decisions (choices that mirror behavior observed in the social environment), rather than cooperative decisions per se, occur more quickly. We test this hypothesis by examining four independent decision time datasets with a total of 2,088 subjects making 55,968 decisions. We show that reciprocal decisions are consistently faster than non-reciprocal decisions: cooperation is faster than defection in cooperative environments, while defection is faster than cooperation in non-cooperative environments. These differences are further enhanced by subjects’ previous behavior – reciprocal decisions are faster when they are consistent with the subject’s previous choices. Finally, mediation analyses of a fifth dataset suggest that the speed of reciprocal decisions is explained, in part, by feelings of conflict – reciprocal decisions are less conflicted than non-reciprocal decisions, and less decision conflict appears to lead to shorter decision times. PMID:27435940

  18. Improving the payoffs of cooperators in three-player cooperative game using weak measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Xiang-Ping; Ding, Xiang-Zhuo; Fang, Mao-Fa

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, an efficient method is proposed to improve the payoffs of cooperators in cooperative three-player quantum game under the action of amplitude damping, bit flip and depolarizing channels using weak measurements. It is shown that the payoffs of cooperators can be enhanced to a great extent in the case of amplitude damping channel, and the payoff sudden death can be avoided in the case of bit flip and depolarizing channels. Moreover, the payoffs of cooperators tend to a constant by changing weak measurement strength in spite of sufficiently strong decoherence.

  19. Cooperative Learning: Professional's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grisham, Dana L.; Molinelli, Paul M.

    Noting that since the 1970s cooperative learning has been widely investigated regarding its implementation and efficacy, this booklet is designed to introduce the teaching strategy of cooperative learning to classroom teachers. The booklet first provides an overview and supplies a context for cooperative learning and then defines cooperative…

  20. Cooperative Education Coordinator's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worley, Tom

    Designed to serve as a guide for teacher-coordinators, counselors, administrators, and the employing community, this handbook is a performance-oriented desk reference that provides a base for cooperative education program operations. Chapter 1 overviews cooperative education, contrasts cooperative training and work experience programs, and…

  1. Learning to Learn Cooperatively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Anne Hammond

    2009-01-01

    Cooperative learning, put quite simply, is a type of instruction whereby students work together in small groups to achieve a common goal. Cooperative learning has become increasingly popular as a feature of Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) with benefits that include increased student interest due to the quick pace of cooperative tasks,…

  2. Cooperative Agreements Study Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawton, R. E.; Magruder, D.

    During the 1983 meeting of the Florida Legislature, action was taken to begin a systematic study of the level of cooperation between the Florida public schools K-12 program and the community and junior colleges. The goals and objectives of the Cooperative Agreements Study were to review and compile a list of the cooperative agreements and identify…

  3. Cooperation of multifunction composite structures and fluorescein for photovoltaic performance-enhanced ZnO-based dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chunyang; Xie, Yahong; Bai, Te; Hu, Jing; Wang, Jide

    2015-11-01

    In this study, ZnO nanoparticles (NPs), ZnO nanorods (NRs) and ZnO nanosheet-based hierarchical structures (NSHSs) were rapidly synthesized using three simple approaches at relatively low temperatures and without any organic surfactants. Based on their structural advantages in light absorption, reflection and electron transfer, an NP/NSHS/NR hybrid structure was fabricated and used as a photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The photoanode was treated in fluorescein acetonitrile solution (down-conversion materials) to enhance the photovoltaic efficiency, as well as in ascorbic acid ethanol solution to inhibit fluorescence quenching, which is caused by the I3-/I- electrolyte. Results showed that the NP/NSHS/NR hybrid structure plus fluorescein treatment was highly effective in improving the light harvesting capacity via an efficient electron transfer path and a down-conversion luminescence process, and the light-to-electric energy conversion efficiency of the DSSCs reached 6.54%, which increased by 34% compared with that of the ZnO NP-based DSSCs.

  4. The Δ14 Mutation of Human Cardiac Troponin T Enhances ATPase Activity and Alters the Cooperative Binding of S1-ADP to Regulated Actin†

    PubMed Central

    Gafurov, Boris; Fredricksen, Scott; Cai, Anmei; Brenner, Bernhard; Chase, P. Bryant; Chalovich, Joseph M.

    2005-01-01

    The complex of tropomyosin and troponin binds to actin and inhibits activation of myosin ATPase activity and force production of striated muscles at low free Ca2+ concentrations. Ca2+ stimulates ATP activity, and at subsaturating actin concentrations, the binding of NEM-modified S1 to actin–tropomyosin–troponin increases the rate of ATP hydrolysis even further. We show here that the Δ14 mutation of troponin T, associated with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, results in an increase in ATPase rate like that seen with wild-type troponin in the presence of NEM-S1. The enhanced ATPase activity was not due to a decreased incorporation of mutant troponin T with troponin I and troponin C to form an active troponin complex. The activating effect was more prominent with a hybrid troponin (skeletal TnI, TnC, and cardiac TnT) than with all cardiac troponin. Thus it appears that changes in the troponin–troponin contacts that result from mutations or from forming hybrids stabilize a more active state of regulated actin. An analysis of the effect of the Δ14 mutation on the equilibrium binding of S1-ADP to actin was consistent with stabilization of an active state of actin. This change in activation may be important in the development of cardiac disease. PMID:15568820

  5. Adjusting learning motivation to promote cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haifeng; Small, Michael; Yang, Hanxin; Wang, Binghong

    2010-11-01

    An evolutionary prisoner’s dilemma game with players adjusting their learning motivation is studied. At each time step, each player can adjust his/her learning motivation according to the difference between the current payoff and payoff aspiration. Greater payoff aspiration means stronger learning motivation, and vice versa. We find that the density of cooperation in a spatial prisoner’s dilemma game is enhanced when the learning motivation mechanism is considered. Meanwhile, we show that proper noise can not only induce the highest cooperation level but also can maintain the cooperation phenomenon even though there is more temptation to defect.

  6. Pre-B cell colony enhancing factor (PBEF/NAMPT/Visfatin) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) cooperate to increase the permeability of the human placental amnion

    PubMed Central

    Astern, J.M.; Collier, A.C.; Kendal-Wright, C.E.

    2012-01-01

    Fluid efflux across the region of the amnion overlying the placenta is an essential component of the intramembranous absorption pathway that maintains amniotic fluid volume homeostasis. Dysregulation of this pathway may result in adverse pregnancy outcomes, however the factors controlling amnion permeability are unknown. Here, we report a novel mechanism that increases placental amnion permeability. Pre-B Cell Colony Enhancing Factor (PBEF) is a stress-responsive cytokine expressed by the human amnion, and is known to induce Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) production by other cell types. Interestingly, VEGF is up-regulated in the ovine amnion when intramembranous absorption is augmented. In this study, we show that PBEF induced VEGF secretion by primary human amniotic epithelial cells (AEC) derived from the placental amnion, as well as from the reflected amnion that lines the remainder of the gestational sac. Further, PBEF treatment led to the increased expression of VEGFR2 in placental AEC, but not reflected AEC. To test the hypothesis that PBEF and VEGF increase placental amnion permeability, we monitored the transfer of 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein (DCF) from the fetal to the maternal side of human amnion explants. A treatment regimen including both PBEF and VEGF increased the rate of DCF transfer across the placental amnion, but not the reflected amnion. In summary, our results suggest that by augmenting VEGFR2 expression in the placental amnion, PBEF primes the tissue for a VEGF-mediated increase in permeability. This mechanism may have important implications in amniotic fluid volume control throughout gestation. PMID:23151382

  7. Cooperative surmounting of bottlenecks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig, D.; Mulhern, C.; Schimansky-Geier, L.; Tsironis, G. P.; Hänggi, P.

    2015-07-01

    The physics of activated escape of objects out of a metastable state plays a key role in diverse scientific areas involving chemical kinetics, diffusion and dislocation motion in solids, nucleation, electrical transport, motion of flux lines superconductors, charge density waves, and transport processes of macromolecules and astrophysics, to name but a few. The underlying activated processes present the multidimensional extension of the Kramers problem of a single Brownian particle. In comparison to the latter case, however, the dynamics ensuing from the interactions of many coupled units can lead to intriguing novel phenomena that are not present when only a single degree of freedom is involved. In this review we report on a variety of such phenomena that are exhibited by systems consisting of chains of interacting units in the presence of potential barriers. In the first part we consider recent developments in the case of a deterministic dynamics driving cooperative escape processes of coupled nonlinear units out of metastable states. The ability of chains of coupled units to undergo spontaneous conformational transitions can lead to a self-organised escape. The mechanism at work is that the energies of the units become re-arranged, while keeping the total energy conserved, in forming localised energy modes that in turn trigger the cooperative escape. We present scenarios of significantly enhanced noise-free escape rates if compared to the noise-assisted case. The second part of the review deals with the collective directed transport of systems of interacting particles overcoming energetic barriers in periodic potential landscapes. Escape processes in both time-homogeneous and time-dependent driven systems are considered for the emergence of directed motion. It is shown that ballistic channels immersed in the associated mixed high-dimensional phase space are at the source for the directed long-range transport. Open problems and future directions are discussed in

  8. Genetic information transfer promotes cooperation in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dimitriu, Tatiana; Lotton, Chantal; Bénard-Capelle, Julien; Misevic, Dusan; Brown, Sam P; Lindner, Ariel B; Taddei, François

    2014-07-29

    Many bacterial species are social, producing costly secreted "public good" molecules that enhance the growth of neighboring cells. The genes coding for these cooperative traits are often propagated via mobile genetic elements and can be virulence factors from a biomedical perspective. Here, we present an experimental framework that links genetic information exchange and the selection of cooperative traits. Using simulations and experiments based on a synthetic bacterial system to control public good secretion and plasmid conjugation, we demonstrate that horizontal gene transfer can favor cooperation. In a well-mixed environment, horizontal transfer brings a direct infectious advantage to any gene, regardless of its cooperation properties. However, in a structured population transfer selects specifically for cooperation by increasing the assortment among cooperative alleles. Conjugation allows cooperative alleles to overcome rarity thresholds and invade bacterial populations structured purely by stochastic dilution effects. Our results provide an explanation for the prevalence of cooperative genes on mobile elements, and suggest a previously unidentified benefit of horizontal gene transfer for bacteria. PMID:25024219

  9. Genetic information transfer promotes cooperation in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Dimitriu, Tatiana; Lotton, Chantal; Bénard-Capelle, Julien; Misevic, Dusan; Brown, Sam P.; Lindner, Ariel B.; Taddei, François

    2014-01-01

    Many bacterial species are social, producing costly secreted “public good” molecules that enhance the growth of neighboring cells. The genes coding for these cooperative traits are often propagated via mobile genetic elements and can be virulence factors from a biomedical perspective. Here, we present an experimental framework that links genetic information exchange and the selection of cooperative traits. Using simulations and experiments based on a synthetic bacterial system to control public good secretion and plasmid conjugation, we demonstrate that horizontal gene transfer can favor cooperation. In a well-mixed environment, horizontal transfer brings a direct infectious advantage to any gene, regardless of its cooperation properties. However, in a structured population transfer selects specifically for cooperation by increasing the assortment among cooperative alleles. Conjugation allows cooperative alleles to overcome rarity thresholds and invade bacterial populations structured purely by stochastic dilution effects. Our results provide an explanation for the prevalence of cooperative genes on mobile elements, and suggest a previously unidentified benefit of horizontal gene transfer for bacteria. PMID:25024219

  10. Futures for energy cooperatives

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    A listing of Federal agencies and programs with potential funding for community-scale cooperatives using conservation measures and solar technologies is presented in Section 1. Section 2 presents profiles of existing community energy cooperatives describing their location, history, membership, services, sources of finance and technical assistance. A condensed summary from a recent conference on Energy Cooperatives featuring notes on co-op members' experiences, problems, and opportunities is presented in Section 3. Section 4 lists contacts for additional information. A National Consumer Cooperative Bank Load Application is shown in the appendix.

  11. Synthetic Yeast Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shou, Wenying; Burton, Justin

    2010-03-01

    Cooperation is wide-spread and has been postulated to drive major transitions in evolution. However, Darwinian selection favors ``cheaters'' that consume benefits without paying a fair cost. How did cooperation evolve against the threat of cheaters? To investigate the evolutionary trajectories of cooperation, we created a genetically tractable system that can be observed as it evolves from inception. The system consists of two engineered yeast strains -- a red-fluorescent strain that requires adenine and releases lysine and a yellow-fluorescent strain that requires lysine and releases adenine. Cells that consume but not supply metabolites would be cheaters. From the properties of two cooperating strains, we calculated and experimentally verified the minimal initial cell densities required for the viability of the cooperative system in the absence of exogenously added adenine and lysine. Strikingly, evolved cooperative systems were viable at 100-fold lower initial cell densities than their ancestors. We are investigating the nature and diversity of pro-cooperation changes, the dynamics of cooperator-cheater cocultures, and the effects of spatial environment on cooperation and cheating.

  12. Cooperativity: over the Hill.

    PubMed

    Forsén, S; Linse, S

    1995-12-01

    Cooperativity, the ability of ligand binding at one site on a macromolecule to influence ligand binding at a different site on the same macromolecule, is a fascinating biological property that is often poorly explained in textbooks. The Hill coefficient is commonly used in biophysical studies of cooperative systems although it is not a quantitative measure of cooperativity. The free energy of interaction between binding sites (delta delta G) is a more stringent definition of cooperativity and provides a direct quantitative measure of how the binding of ligand at one site affects the ligand affinity of another site. PMID:8571449

  13. Costly advertising and the evolution of cooperation.

    PubMed

    Brede, Markus

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I investigate the co-evolution of fast and slow strategy spread and game strategies in populations of spatially distributed agents engaged in a one off evolutionary dilemma game. Agents are characterized by a pair of traits, a game strategy (cooperate or defect) and a binary 'advertising' strategy (advertise or don't advertise). Advertising, which comes at a cost [Formula: see text], allows investment into faster propagation of the agents' traits to adjacent individuals. Importantly, game strategy and advertising strategy are subject to the same evolutionary mechanism. Via analytical reasoning and numerical simulations I demonstrate that a range of advertising costs exists, such that the prevalence of cooperation is significantly enhanced through co-evolution. Linking costly replication to the success of cooperators exposes a novel co-evolutionary mechanism that might contribute towards a better understanding of the origins of cooperation-supporting heterogeneity in agent populations. PMID:23861752

  14. Loss of cooperativity of secreted CD40L and increased dose-response to IL4 on CLL cell viability correlates with enhanced activation of NF-kB and STAT6.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Nupur; Reichenzeller, Michaela; Caudron-Herger, Maiwen; Haebe, Sarah; Brady, Nathan; Diener, Susanne; Nothing, Maria; Döhner, Hartmut; Stilgenbauer, Stephan; Rippe, Karsten; Mertens, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells fail to enter apoptosis in vivo as opposed to their non-malignant B-lymphocyte counterparts. The ability of CLL cells to escape apoptosis is highly dependent on their microenvironment. Compared to non-malignant B cells, CLL cells are more responsive to complex stimuli that can be reproduced in vitro by the addition of cytokines. To understand the molecular mechanism of the environment-dependent anti-apoptotic signaling circuitry of CLL cells, we quantified the effect of the SDF-1, BAFF, APRIL, anti-IgM, interleukin-4 (IL4) and secreted CD40L (sCD40L) on the survival of in vitro cultured CLL cells and found IL4 and sCD40L to be most efficient in rescuing CLL cells from apoptosis. In quantitative dose-response experiments using cell survival as readout, the binding affinity of IL4 to its receptor was similar between malignant and non-malignant cells. However, the downstream signaling in terms of the amount of STAT6 and its degree of phosphorylation was highly stimulated in CLL cells. In contrast, the response to sCD40L showed a loss of cooperative binding in CLL cells but displayed a largely increased ligand binding affinity. Although a high-throughput microscopy analysis did not reveal a significant difference in the spatial CD40 receptor organization, the downstream signaling showed an enhanced activation of the NF-kB pathway in the malignant cells. Thus, we propose that the anti-apoptotic phenotype of CLL involves a sensitized response for IL4 dependent STAT6 phosphorylation, and an activation of NF-kB signaling due to an increased affinity of sCD40L to its receptor. PMID:24828787

  15. RalA employs GRK2 and β-arrestins for the filamin A-mediated regulation of trafficking and signaling of dopamine D2 and D3 receptor.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Mei; Zhang, Xiaohan; Sun, NingNing; Min, Chengchun; Zhang, Xiaowei; Kim, Kyeong-Man

    2016-08-01

    Filamin A (FLNA) is known to act as platform for the signaling and intracellular trafficking of various GPCRs including dopamine D2 and D3 receptors (D2R, D3R). To understand molecular mechanisms involved in the FLNA-mediated regulation of D2R and D3R, comparative studies were conducted on the signaling and intracellular trafficking of the D2R and D3R in FLNA-knockdown cells, with a specific focus on the roles of the proteins that interact with FLNA and the D2R and D3R. Lowering the level of cellular FLNA caused an elevation in RalA activity and resulted in selective interference with the normal intracellular trafficking and signaling of the D2R and D3R, through GRK2 and β-arrestins, respectively. Knockdown of FLNA or coexpression of active RalA interfered with the recycling of the internalized D2R and resulted in the development of receptor tolerance. Active RalA was found to interact with GRK2 to sequester it from D2R. Knockdown of FLNA or coexpression of active RalA prevented D3R from coupling with G protein. The selective involvement of GRK2- and β-arrestins in the RalA-mediated cellular processes of the D2R and D3R was achieved via their different modes of interactions with the receptor and their distinct functional roles in receptor regulation. Our results show that FLNA is a multi-functional protein that acts as a platform on which D2R and D3R can interact with various proteins, through which selective regulation of these receptors occurs in combination with GRK2 and β-arrestins. PMID:27188791

  16. Making Cooperative Learning Powerful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Just about everyone loves the "idea" of cooperative learning, children working productively and excitedly in groups, everyone getting along and enthusiastically helping one another learn. This article presents five strategies that teachers can use to get the greatest benefit possible from cooperative learning and ensure that…

  17. Educational Cooperatives. PREP-23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Educational Communication (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.

    Dr. Larry W. Hughes and Dr. C. M. Achilles of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, conducted a national survey for the Office of Education on educational cooperatives--studying and reporting on the nature and kind of cooperative endeavors, their organization, governance, financial arrangements, services, and personnel. Their study focused upon…

  18. Distinguished Cooperating Teacher Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago State Univ., IL.

    The Distinguished Cooperating Teacher Program at Chicago State University was developed to train cooperating teachers to supervise student teachers. The program departs from traditional practice by changing the roles of the classroom teacher and the university field supervisor. The supervisor's role becomes that of coordinator while the teacher…

  19. Cooperative Science Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooperative Learning, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Offers several elementary level cooperative science lesson plans. The article includes a recipe for cooperative class learning, instructions for making a compost pile, directions for finding evidence of energy, experiments in math and science using oranges to test density, and discussions of buoyancy using eggs. (SM)

  20. Testimony: Writing Cooperatively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasser, Linda; Cromwell, Carole

    A lesson plan and supportive materials for an exercise in reading comprehension and cooperative writing are presented. The exercise is based on a story entitled "Testimony," in which a writer expresses feelings about a boxing match. The lesson plan outlines procedures for presentation of the exercise to the class, for the cooperative teams to…

  1. Renovating Cooperative Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rheams, Patricia A.; Saint, Fred

    1991-01-01

    Identifies work force development needs that can be met by community colleges through the use of cooperative education programs. Suggests modifications to current cooperative education programs to achieve desired work force and economic outcomes (e.g., employee recruitment, retention, and technical training). (DMM)

  2. Interpersonal Skills for Cooperative Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David W.

    Cooperation among individuals depends upon both the goal structure of the situation and the cooperative skills of the individuals. Since cooperation is probably the most important and basic form of human interaction, the skills of cooperation successfully are some of the most important skills a person needs to master. Cooperative skills include…

  3. Culture and cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Gächter, Simon; Herrmann, Benedikt; Thöni, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Does the cultural background influence the success with which genetically unrelated individuals cooperate in social dilemma situations? In this paper, we provide an answer by analysing the data of Herrmann et al. (2008a), who studied cooperation and punishment in 16 subject pools from six different world cultures (as classified by Inglehart & Baker (2000)). We use analysis of variance to disentangle the importance of cultural background relative to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences in cooperation. We find that culture has a substantial influence on the extent of cooperation, in addition to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences identified by previous research. The significance of this result is that cultural background has a substantial influence on cooperation in otherwise identical environments. This is particularly true in the presence of punishment opportunities. PMID:20679109

  4. Cooperative Learning in Vocational Education. Trends and Issues Alerts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lankard, Bettina A.

    Cooperative learning is gaining the attention of vocational educators who must prepare students for employment in a workplace increasingly focused on teamwork. It is a model that provides opportunities for students to explore concepts and develop interpersonal skills that enhance their learning. Research shows that cooperative learning promotes…

  5. An Investigative, Cooperative Learning Approach to the General Microbiology Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifert, Kyle; Fenster, Amy; Dilts, Judith A.; Temple, Louise

    2009-01-01

    Investigative- and cooperative-based learning strategies have been used effectively in a variety of classrooms to enhance student learning and engagement. In the General Microbiology laboratory for juniors and seniors at James Madison University, these strategies were combined to make a semester-long, investigative, cooperative learning experience…

  6. Social Networks-Based Adaptive Pairing Strategy for Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuang, Po-Jen; Chiang, Ming-Chao; Yang, Chu-Sing; Tsai, Chun-Wei

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a grouping strategy to enhance the learning and testing results of students, called Pairing Strategy (PS). The proposed method stems from the need of interactivity and the desire of cooperation in cooperative learning. Based on the social networks of students, PS provides members of the groups to learn from or mimic…

  7. Cooperative Learning for Educational Reform in Armenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovhannisyan, Aleksan; Sahlberg, Pasi

    2010-01-01

    Armenia is in the midst of major educational reforms in which teacher professional development is a key component. Much of the energy devoted to developing education in Armenia is targeted towards enhancing student-centred teaching, especially cooperative learning. This has become a significant challenge for many schools and teachers as they cope…

  8. Enhancing Access to Space Science Literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigwood, D. P.

    2006-03-01

    By participating in the Name Authority Program Component and Subject Authority Cooperative Program of the Program for Cooperative Cataloging of the Library of Congress even the smallest libraries can enhance access to the space science literature.

  9. Exploring cooperation and competition using agent-based modeling

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Euel; Kiel, L. Douglas

    2002-01-01

    Agent-based modeling enhances our capacity to model competitive and cooperative behaviors at both the individual and group levels of analysis. Models presented in these proceedings produce consistent results regarding the relative fragility of cooperative regimes among agents operating under diverse rules. These studies also show how competition and cooperation may generate change at both the group and societal level. Agent-based simulation of competitive and cooperative behaviors may reveal the greatest payoff to social science research of all agent-based modeling efforts because of the need to better understand the dynamics of these behaviors in an increasingly interconnected world. PMID:12011396

  10. Cooperative Learning Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    Describes the effectiveness of cooperative learning on discipline problems, interdependence between students, and teacher-student interactions. Explains how to group students and introduces a laboratory activity on covalent and ionic bonds. (YDS)

  11. How Myxobacteria Cooperate.

    PubMed

    Cao, Pengbo; Dey, Arup; Vassallo, Christopher N; Wall, Daniel

    2015-11-20

    Prokaryotes often reside in groups where a high degree of relatedness has allowed the evolution of cooperative behaviors. However, very few bacteria or archaea have made the successful transition from unicellular to obligate multicellular life. A notable exception is the myxobacteria, in which cells cooperate to perform group functions highlighted by fruiting body development, an obligate multicellular function. Like all multicellular organisms, myxobacteria face challenges in how to organize and maintain multicellularity. These challenges include maintaining population homeostasis, carrying out tissue repair and regulating the behavior of non-cooperators. Here, we describe the major cooperative behaviors that myxobacteria use: motility, predation and development. In addition, this review emphasizes recent discoveries in the social behavior of outer membrane exchange, wherein kin share outer membrane contents. Finally, we review evidence that outer membrane exchange may be involved in regulating population homeostasis, thus serving as a social tool for myxobacteria to make the cyclic transitions from unicellular to multicellular states. PMID:26254571

  12. Cooperative Learning in Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Carolyn M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Formal use of cooperative learning techniques proved effective in improving student performance and retention in a freshman level statistics course. Lectures interspersed with group activities proved effective in increasing conceptual understanding and overall class performance. (11 references) (Author)

  13. Cooperative Education: Industry Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Geoffrey; McClelland, Alan L.

    1980-01-01

    Contains information from three large chemical companies having a long-standing interest in cooperative education with chemistry students. Questions and answers are provided for specific information regarding DuPont, 3M, and Dow Chemical. (CS)

  14. Cooperation and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    M'Bow, Amadou-Mahtar

    1976-01-01

    International economic relations are discussed in terms of cultural, educational, and communications development globally. It is emphasized that global cooperation and development are necessary for development of people and societies. (ND)

  15. Cooperative processing data bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasta, Juzar

    1991-01-01

    Cooperative processing for the 1990's using client-server technology is addressed. The main theme is concepts of downsizing from mainframes and minicomputers to workstations on a local area network (LAN). This document is presented in view graph form.

  16. Conditional imitation might promote cooperation under high temptations to defect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Qionglin; Li, Haihong; Cheng, Hongyan; Qian, Xiaolan; Zhang, Mei; Yang, Junzhong

    2012-07-01

    In this paper we introduce a conditional imitation rule into an evolutionary game, in which the imitation probabilities of individuals are determined by a function of payoff difference and two crucial parameters μ and σ. The parameter μ characterizes the most adequate goal for individuals and the parameter σ characterizes the tolerance of individuals. By using the pair approximation method and numerical simulations, we find an anomalous cooperation enhancement in which the cooperation level shows a nonmonotonic variation with the increase of temptation. The parameter μ affects the regime of the payoff parameter which supports the anomalous cooperation enhancement, whereas the parameter σ plays a decisive role on the appearance of the nonmonotonic variation of the cooperation level. Furthermore, to give explicit implications for the parameters μ and σ we present an alterative form of the conditional imitation rule based on the benefit and the cost incurred to individuals during strategy updates. In this way, we also provide a phenomenological interpretation for the nonmonotonic behavior of cooperation with the increase of temptation. The results give a clue that a higher cooperation level could be obtained under adverse environments for cooperation by applying the conditional imitation rule, which is possible to be manipulated in real life. More generally, the results in this work might point out an efficient way to maintain cooperation in the risky environments to cooperators.

  17. Cooperative spreading processes in multiplex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiang; Chen, Shihua; Wu, Xiaoqun; Ning, Di; Lu, Jun-an

    2016-06-01

    This study is concerned with the dynamic behaviors of epidemic spreading in multiplex networks. A model composed of two interacting complex networks is proposed to describe cooperative spreading processes, wherein the virus spreading in one layer can penetrate into the other to promote the spreading process. The global epidemic threshold of the model is smaller than the epidemic thresholds of the corresponding isolated networks. Thus, global epidemic onset arises in the interacting networks even though an epidemic onset does not arise in each isolated network. Simulations verify the analysis results and indicate that cooperative spreading processes in multiplex networks enhance the final infection fraction.

  18. Cooperating mobile robots

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, John J.; Eskridge, Steven E.; Hurtado, John E.; Byrne, Raymond H.

    2004-02-03

    A miniature mobile robot provides a relatively inexpensive mobile robot. A mobile robot for searching an area provides a way for multiple mobile robots in cooperating teams. A robotic system with a team of mobile robots communicating information among each other provides a way to locate a source in cooperation. A mobile robot with a sensor, a communication system, and a processor, provides a way to execute a strategy for searching an area.

  19. Expectation and cooperation in prisoner's dilemmas: The moderating role of game riskiness.

    PubMed

    Ng, Gary Ting Tat; Au, Wing Tung

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigated the effect of risk orientation, game riskiness, and expectation of cooperation on cooperation in one-shot prisoner's dilemmas (PD). Participants in pairs played PD games that varied on game riskiness such that for half of the games cooperation was more risky than defection (more risky games) while for another half cooperation was less risky (less risky games). They estimated how likely it was that the other player was going to cooperate (expectation of cooperation) before they made their cooperation/defection decision on each game. Supporting the Goal/Expectation Hypothesis, we replicated the effect that expectation of cooperation enhanced cooperation. We also found that risk-seeking individuals cooperated more in more risky games whereas risk-averse individuals cooperated more in less risky games. More importantly, we found that game riskiness moderated the effect of expectation of cooperation on cooperation. The positive effect of expectation of cooperation on cooperation was stronger for more risky games than for less risky games. Our results illustrated how the relation between expectation and cooperation as stipulated by the Goal/Expectation Hypothesis was moderated by riskiness of the situations. PMID:26231694

  20. Reward and cooperation in the spatial public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, A.; Perc, M.

    2010-11-01

    The promise of punishment and reward in promoting public cooperation is debatable. While punishment is traditionally considered more successful than reward, the fact that the cost of punishment frequently fails to offset gains from enhanced cooperation has lead some to reconsider reward as the main catalyst behind collaborative efforts. Here we elaborate on the "stick vs. carrot" dilemma by studying the evolution of cooperation in the spatial public goods game, where besides the traditional cooperators and defectors, rewarding cooperators supplement the array of possible strategies. The latter are willing to reward cooperative actions at a personal cost, thus effectively downgrading pure cooperators to second-order free-riders due to their unwillingness to bear these additional costs. Consequently, we find that defection remains viable, especially if the rewarding is costly. Rewards, however, can promote cooperation, especially if the synergetic effects of cooperation are low. Surprisingly, moderate rewards may promote cooperation better than high rewards, which is due to the spontaneous emergence of cyclic dominance between the three strategies.

  1. The evolution of cooperation by the Hankshaw effect.

    PubMed

    Hammarlund, Sarah P; Connelly, Brian D; Dickinson, Katherine J; Kerr, Benjamin

    2016-06-01

    The evolution of cooperation-costly behavior that benefits others-faces one clear obstacle. Namely, cooperators are always at a competitive disadvantage relative to defectors, individuals that reap the benefits, but evade the cost of cooperation. One solution to this problem involves genetic hitchhiking, where the allele encoding cooperation becomes linked to a beneficial mutation, allowing cooperation to rise in abundance. Here, we explore hitchhiking in the context of adaptation to a stressful environment by cooperators and defectors with spatially limited dispersal. Under such conditions, clustered cooperators reach higher local densities, thereby experiencing more mutational opportunities than defectors. Thus, the allele encoding cooperation has a greater probability of hitchhiking with alleles conferring stress adaptation. We label this probabilistic enhancement the "Hankshaw effect" after the character Sissy Hankshaw, whose anomalously large thumbs made her a singularly effective hitchhiker. Using an agent-based model, we reveal a broad set of conditions that allow the evolution of cooperation through this effect. Additionally, we show that spite, a costly behavior that harms others, can evolve by the Hankshaw effect. While in an unchanging environment these costly social behaviors have transient success, in a dynamic environment, cooperation and spite can persist indefinitely. PMID:27110846

  2. Cooperative Interaction Within RNA Virus Mutant Spectra.

    PubMed

    Shirogane, Yuta; Watanabe, Shumpei; Yanagi, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    RNA viruses usually consist of mutant spectra because of high error rates of viral RNA polymerases. Growth competition occurs among different viral variants, and the fittest clones predominate under given conditions. Individual variants, however, may not be entirely independent of each other, and internal interactions within mutant spectra can occur. Examples of cooperative and interfering interactions that exert enhancing and suppressing effects on replication of the wild-type virus, respectively, have been described, but their underlying mechanisms have not been well defined. It was recently found that the cooperation between wild-type and variant measles virus genomes produces a new phenotype through the heterooligomer formation of a viral protein. This observation provides a molecular mechanism underlying cooperative interactions within mutant spectra. Careful attention to individual sequences, in addition to consensus sequences, may disclose further examples of internal interactions within mutant spectra. PMID:26162566

  3. International cooperation in water resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, J.R.; Beall, R.M.; Giusti, E.V.

    1979-01-01

    Advancements in hydrology proceeded slowly until the late 1800's when new ventures created a surge of interest and accomplishment. Progress waned again until the middle 20th century when an International Hydrological Decade was conceived, eventually receiving wide multinational support from governmental agencies and nongovernmental institutions. Organized by UNESCO, the Decade program was launched January 1, 1965. Participation included 107 nations, six United Nations agencies, and more than a dozen international scientific organizations. The initial program emphasized scientific research, and international cooperation; the second half of the Decade, emphasized technical assistance and technology transfer, largerly through education, training and demonstration. The success of the Decade led to the establishment of the International Hydrological Program, again under the aegis of UNESCO, to continue the work of the Decade indefinitely. The five major program activities, now involving about 90 countries and several international organizations, include: the scientific program, the promotion of education and training, the enhancement of information exchange, support of technical assistance, and the enlargement of regional cooperation. A significant amount of activity related to hydrological data networks and forecasting is carried on in an Operational Hydrology Programme by the WMO, chiefly through its Commission for Hydrology. Other international governmental organizations with a strong interest in water include the UN, the UN Development Programme, the FAO, the WHO, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the UN Environment Programme, the International Standardization Organization, and developmental institutions such as the World Bank. The specialized interests of researchers outside of the governmental structure, are met through association in various scientific and technical organizations which are world wide in scope and membership. Notwithstanding a sometimes

  4. Principles of cooperation across systems: from human sharing to multicellularity and cancer.

    PubMed

    Aktipis, Athena

    2016-01-01

    From cells to societies, several general principles arise again and again that facilitate cooperation and suppress conflict. In this study, I describe three general principles of cooperation and how they operate across systems including human sharing, cooperation in animal and insect societies and the massively large-scale cooperation that occurs in our multicellular bodies. The first principle is that of Walk Away: that cooperation is enhanced when individuals can leave uncooperative partners. The second principle is that resource sharing is often based on the need of the recipient (i.e., need-based transfers) rather than on strict account-keeping. And the last principle is that effective scaling up of cooperation requires increasingly sophisticated and costly cheater suppression mechanisms. By comparing how these principles operate across systems, we can better understand the constraints on cooperation. This can facilitate the discovery of novel ways to enhance cooperation and suppress cheating in its many forms, from social exploitation to cancer. PMID:27087837

  5. International Cooperation at NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawney, Timothy; Feldstein, Karen

    International cooperation is a cornerstone principle of NASA’s activities, especially within the activities of the Science Mission Directorate. Nearly two thirds of the flight missions in which NASA leads or participates involve international cooperation. Numerous ground based activities also rely on international cooperation, whether because of unique expertise, unique geography, or the need for a global response. Going forward, in an era of tighter budgets and a more integrated global perspective, NASA and the rest of the space agencies around the world will be forced to work more closely together, in a broader array of activities than ever before, in order to be able to afford to push the boundaries of space exploration. The goal of this presentation is to provide an overview of NASA’s current international science cooperative activities. It will include a discussion of why NASA conducts international cooperation and look at the mechanisms through which international cooperation can occur at NASA, including peer-to-peer development of relationships. It will also discuss some of the limiting factors of international cooperation, such as export control, and ways in which to manage those constraints. Finally, the presentation would look at some of the present examples where NASA is working to increase international cooperation and improve coordination. Case studies will be used to demonstrate these mechanisms and concepts. For example, NASA continues to participate in international coordination groups such as the International Mars Exploration Working Group (IMEWG) and International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG), but is expanding into new areas as well. NASA is one of the leaders in expanding and improving international coordination in the area of Near-Earth Object detection, characterization, and mitigation. Having participated in the first meetings of such groups as the International Asteroid Warning Network (IAWN) and Space Missions Planning

  6. Cooper Pair Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valles, James

    One of the recent advances in the field of the Superconductor to Insulator Transition (SIT) has been the discovery and characterization of the Cooper Pair Insulator phase. This bosonic insulator, which consists of localized Cooper pairs, exhibits activated transport and a giant magneto-resistance peak. These features differ markedly from the weakly localized transport that emerges as pairs break at a ``fermionic'' SIT. I will describe how our experiments on films nano-patterned with a nearly triangular array of holes have enabled us to 1) distinguish bosonic insulators from fermionic insulators, 2) show that Cooper pairs, rather than quasi-particles dominate the transport in the Cooper Pair insulator phase, 3) demonstrate that very weak, sub nano-meter thickness inhomogeneities control whether a bosonic or fermionic insulator forms at an SIT and 4) reveal that Cooper pairs disintegrate rather than becoming more tightly bound deep in the localized phase. We have also developed a method, using a magnetic field, to tune flux disorder reversibly in these films. I will present our latest results on the influence of magnetic flux disorder and random gauge fields on phenomena near bosonic SITs. This work was performed in collaboration with M. D. Stewart, Jr., Hung Q. Nguyen, Shawna M. Hollen, Jimmy Joy, Xue Zhang, Gustavo Fernandez, Jeffrey Shainline and Jimmy Xu. It was supported by NSF Grants DMR 1307290 and DMR-0907357.

  7. Cooperative particle motion in complex (dusty) plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, Sergey; Morfill, Gregor

    2014-05-01

    Strongly coupled complex (dusty) plasmas give us a unique opportunity to go beyond the limits of continuous media and study various generic processes occurring in liquids or solids at the kinetic level. A particularly interesting and challenging topic is to study dynamic cooperativity at local and intermediate scales. As an important element of self-organization, cooperative particle motion is present in many physical, astrophysical and biological systems. As a rule, cooperative dynamics, bringing to life 'abnormal' effects like enhanced diffusion, self-dragging, or self-propelling of particles, hold aspects of 'strange' kinetics. The synergy effects are also important. Such kind of cooperative behavior was evidenced for string-like formations of colloidal rods, dynamics of mono- and di-vacancies in 2d colloidal crystals. Externally manipulated 'dust molecules' and self-assembled strings in driven 3d particle clusters were other noticeable examples. There is a certain advantage to experiment with complex plasmas merely because these systems are easy to manipulate in a controllable way. We report on the first direct observation of microparticle cooperative movements occurring under natural conditions in a 2d complex plasma.

  8. 75 FR 69917 - New NOAA Cooperative Institutes (CIs): (1) A Cooperative Institute To Improve Mesoscale and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... contained in the Federal Register notice of February 11, 2008 (73 FR 7696), are applicable to this... Institute To Improve Mesoscale and Stormscale High Impact Weather Forecasts, Watches, and Warnings Through the Use of, and Enhancement of, Weather Radar and (2) A Cooperative Institute To Support...

  9. Problems and Countermeasures of Zhejiang High-Tech Enterprises Industry-University-Institute Cooperation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qing; Mao, Chong-Feng; Hou, Lin

    Industry-university-institute cooperation is an important means to accelerate technical development and achievements for high-tech enterprises. Considering that Zhejiang high-tech enterprises existed some problems which included low cooperative level, single distribution, weak secondary R&D ability, obvious risk and so on, government should play an guiding role on improving information service system, enhancing cooperative level, promoting scientific intermediary service organization system construction, and building better environment for Industry-university-institute cooperation.

  10. Synchrony and cooperation.

    PubMed

    Wiltermuth, Scott S; Heath, Chip

    2009-01-01

    Armies, churches, organizations, and communities often engage in activities-for example, marching, singing, and dancing-that lead group members to act in synchrony with each other. Anthropologists and sociologists have speculated that rituals involving synchronous activity may produce positive emotions that weaken the psychological boundaries between the self and the group. This article explores whether synchronous activity may serve as a partial solution to the free-rider problem facing groups that need to motivate their members to contribute toward the collective good. Across three experiments, people acting in synchrony with others cooperated more in subsequent group economic exercises, even in situations requiring personal sacrifice. Our results also showed that positive emotions need not be generated for synchrony to foster cooperation. In total, the results suggest that acting in synchrony with others can increase cooperation by strengthening social attachment among group members. PMID:19152536

  11. Cooper Pairs in Insulators?!

    ScienceCinema

    James Valles

    2010-01-08

    Nearly 50 years elapsed between the discovery of superconductivity and the emergence of the microscopic theory describing this zero resistance state. The explanation required a novel phase of matter in which conduction electrons joined in weakly bound pairs and condensed with other pairs into a single quantum state. Surprisingly, this Cooper pair formation has also been invoked to account for recently uncovered high-resistance or insulating phases of matter. To address this possibility, we have used nanotechnology to create an insulating system that we can probe directly for Cooper pairs. I will present the evidence that Cooper pairs exist and dominate the electrical transport in these insulators and I will discuss how these findings provide new insight into superconductor to insulator quantum phase transitions. 

  12. Heterogeneous Link Weight Promotes the Cooperation in Spatial Prisoner's Dilemma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhi-Qin; Xia, Cheng-Yi; Sun, Shi-Wen; Wang, Li; Wang, Huai-Bin; Wang, Juan

    The spatial structure has often been identified as a prominent mechanism that substantially promotes the cooperation level in prisoner's dilemma game. In this paper we introduce a weighting mechanism into the spatial prisoner's dilemma game to explore the cooperative behaviors on the square lattice. Here, three types of weight distributions: exponential, power-law and uniform distributions are considered, and the weight is assigned to links between players. Through large-scale numerical simulations we find, compared with the traditional spatial game, that this mechanism can largely enhance the frequency of cooperators. For most ranges of b, we find that the power-law distribution enables the highest promotion of cooperation and the uniform one leads to the lowest enhancement, whereas the exponential one lies often between them. The great improvement of cooperation can be caused by the fact that the distributional link weight yields inhomogeneous interaction strength among individuals, which can facilitate the formation of cooperative clusters to resist the defector's invasion. In addition, the impact of amplitude of the undulation of weight distribution and noise strength on cooperation is also investigated for three kinds of weight distribution. Current researches can aid in the further understanding of evolutionary cooperation in biological and social science.

  13. Collective-Goal Ascription Increases Cooperation in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Mitkidis, Panagiotis; Sørensen, Jesper; Nielbo, Kristoffer L.; Andersen, Marc; Lienard, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Background Cooperation is necessary in many types of human joint activity and relations. Evidence suggests that cooperation has direct and indirect benefits for the cooperators. Given how beneficial cooperation is overall, it seems relevant to investigate the various ways of enhancing individuals' willingness to invest in cooperative endeavors. We studied whether ascription of a transparent collective goal in a joint action promotes cooperation in a group. Methods A total of 48 participants were assigned in teams of 4 individuals to either a “transparent goal-ascription” or an “opaque goal-ascription” condition. After the manipulation, the participants played an anonymous public goods game with another member of their team. We measured the willingness of participants to cooperate and their expectations about the other player's contribution. Results Between subjects analyses showed that transparent goal ascription impacts participants' likelihood to cooperate with each other in the future, thereby greatly increasing the benefits from social interactions. Further analysis showed that this could be explained with a change in expectations about the partner's behavior and by an emotional alignment of the participants. Conclusion The study found that a transparent goal ascription is associated with an increase of cooperation. We propose several high-level mechanisms that could explain the observed effect: general affect modulation, trust, expectation and perception of collective efficacy. PMID:23705011

  14. Cooperative control of visual displays for telemanipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Won S.; Stark, Lawrence W.

    1989-01-01

    Two cooperative control schemes for telerobot visual displays are addressed. In the first scheme, on-the-screen visual enhancements such as reference lines indicating the vertical height of the robot hand, a stick figure model of the robot hand, and its projection on the horizontal grid plane are constructed by the interactive cooperation between the human operator and the telerobotic system, and then superimposed on the video screen. Experimental results with a five-degree-of-freedom robot and a frame grabber indicate that superimposition of visual enhancements on the video screen greatly improves telemanipulation task performance. In the second scheme, the position and orientation of an object on video screens are determined interactively; these then assist the telerobotic system in executing the human operator's task-level commands autonomously.

  15. Negative cooperativity in regulatory enzymes.

    PubMed

    Levitzki, A; Koshland, D E

    1969-04-01

    Negative cooperativity has been observed in CTP synthetase, an allosteric enzyme which contains a regulatory site. Thus, the same enzyme exhibits negative cooperativity for GTP (an effector) and glutamine (a substrate) and positive cooperativity for ATP and UTP (both substrates). In the process of the delineation of these phenomena, diagnostic procedures for negative cooperativity were developed. Application of these procedures to other enzymes indicates that negative cooperativity is a characteristic of many of them. These findings add strong support for the sequential model of subunit interactions which postulates that ligand-induced conformational changes are responsible for regulatory and cooperative phenomena in enzymes. PMID:5256410

  16. Cooperative Learning and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, G. M.; Kimura, H.

    2013-01-01

    In and out of the classroom, life would be unthinkable without interacting with fellow humans. This book urges more cooperative and group activities in the English language classroom for all the advantages: students use the target language more, help each other with comprehension, receive attention from peers as well as the teacher, are motivated…

  17. Cooperative Mobile Sensing Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R S; Kent, C A; Jones, E D; Cunningham, C T; Armstrong, G W

    2003-02-10

    A cooperative control architecture is presented that allows a fleet of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) to collect data in a parallel, coordinated and optimal manner. The architecture is designed to react to a set of unpredictable events thereby allowing data collection to continue in an optimal manner.

  18. Cooperating with the future.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Oliver P; Rand, David G; Peysakhovich, Alexander; Nowak, Martin A

    2014-07-10

    Overexploitation of renewable resources today has a high cost on the welfare of future generations. Unlike in other public goods games, however, future generations cannot reciprocate actions made today. What mechanisms can maintain cooperation with the future? To answer this question, we devise a new experimental paradigm, the 'Intergenerational Goods Game'. A line-up of successive groups (generations) can each either extract a resource to exhaustion or leave something for the next group. Exhausting the resource maximizes the payoff for the present generation, but leaves all future generations empty-handed. Here we show that the resource is almost always destroyed if extraction decisions are made individually. This failure to cooperate with the future is driven primarily by a minority of individuals who extract far more than what is sustainable. In contrast, when extractions are democratically decided by vote, the resource is consistently sustained. Voting is effective for two reasons. First, it allows a majority of cooperators to restrain defectors. Second, it reassures conditional cooperators that their efforts are not futile. Voting, however, only promotes sustainability if it is binding for all involved. Our results have implications for policy interventions designed to sustain intergenerational public goods. PMID:25008530

  19. Cooperating with the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauser, Oliver P.; Rand, David G.; Peysakhovich, Alexander; Nowak, Martin A.

    2014-07-01

    Overexploitation of renewable resources today has a high cost on the welfare of future generations. Unlike in other public goods games, however, future generations cannot reciprocate actions made today. What mechanisms can maintain cooperation with the future? To answer this question, we devise a new experimental paradigm, the `Intergenerational Goods Game'. A line-up of successive groups (generations) can each either extract a resource to exhaustion or leave something for the next group. Exhausting the resource maximizes the payoff for the present generation, but leaves all future generations empty-handed. Here we show that the resource is almost always destroyed if extraction decisions are made individually. This failure to cooperate with the future is driven primarily by a minority of individuals who extract far more than what is sustainable. In contrast, when extractions are democratically decided by vote, the resource is consistently sustained. Voting is effective for two reasons. First, it allows a majority of cooperators to restrain defectors. Second, it reassures conditional cooperators that their efforts are not futile. Voting, however, only promotes sustainability if it is binding for all involved. Our results have implications for policy interventions designed to sustain intergenerational public goods.

  20. Cooperative Education. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stauber, Dick T.

    In order to investigate the feasibility of adding a cooperative education option to the curricular offerings of Moraine Park Technical Institute (MPTI), interviews were conducted with randomly selected representatives of 12 industries and 17 employers in the marketing and merchandising businesses located in the MPTI service area. In addition,…

  1. Predicting Human Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Nay, John J.; Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy

    2016-01-01

    The Prisoner’s Dilemma has been a subject of extensive research due to its importance in understanding the ever-present tension between individual self-interest and social benefit. A strictly dominant strategy in a Prisoner’s Dilemma (defection), when played by both players, is mutually harmful. Repetition of the Prisoner’s Dilemma can give rise to cooperation as an equilibrium, but defection is as well, and this ambiguity is difficult to resolve. The numerous behavioral experiments investigating the Prisoner’s Dilemma highlight that players often cooperate, but the level of cooperation varies significantly with the specifics of the experimental predicament. We present the first computational model of human behavior in repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma games that unifies the diversity of experimental observations in a systematic and quantitatively reliable manner. Our model relies on data we integrated from many experiments, comprising 168,386 individual decisions. The model is composed of two pieces: the first predicts the first-period action using solely the structural game parameters, while the second predicts dynamic actions using both game parameters and history of play. Our model is successful not merely at fitting the data, but in predicting behavior at multiple scales in experimental designs not used for calibration, using only information about the game structure. We demonstrate the power of our approach through a simulation analysis revealing how to best promote human cooperation. PMID:27171417

  2. Foundations of Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, George M.

    Five cooperative learning methods are described with the theories that support them. The five methods are: (1) Group Investigation (GI), developed by S. Sharan and others; (2) Jigsaw, developed by E. Aronson and others; (3) Student Teams Achievement Divisions (STAD), developed by R. E. Slavin and others; (4) Learning Together, developed by D. W.…

  3. Cooperative Office Education Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This manual, intended for inexperienced and experienced coordinators, school administrators, and guidance personnel, is designed to provide practical suggestions for initiating, developing, operating, coordinating, improving, and evaluating cooperative office education programs. Major content is presented primarily in outline form under the…

  4. The Power of Cooperation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevin, John A.

    2010-01-01

    In "The Power of Cooperation," Tony Nevin tells how the townspeople of Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts, are attempting to replicate a successful alternative-energy project in Samso, Denmark, where thinking about ways to reduce fossil-fuel use "became a kind of sport." Nevin says that thinking and acting locally helps people to identify and pursue…

  5. Combat or Cooperation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Thomas F.; Copas, Randall L.

    2010-01-01

    The best intentioned efforts of adults are often sabotaged by coercive climates of bullying among peers and conflict with adults. The solution is to create cultures where youth cooperate with authority and treat one another with respect. In this article, the authors stress the task of the staff to create a condition in which students see more…

  6. The Cooperative Extension Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, H. C., Ed.

    Designed to stimulate and support training for Extension work and to orient new employees, this book covers the Cooperative Extension Service (CES) and its methods of operation. It begins by describing the status of rural extension in the United States and abroad; the history of the CES and its antecendents; the legal basis, scope, functions, and…

  7. Predicting Human Cooperation.

    PubMed

    Nay, John J; Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy

    2016-01-01

    The Prisoner's Dilemma has been a subject of extensive research due to its importance in understanding the ever-present tension between individual self-interest and social benefit. A strictly dominant strategy in a Prisoner's Dilemma (defection), when played by both players, is mutually harmful. Repetition of the Prisoner's Dilemma can give rise to cooperation as an equilibrium, but defection is as well, and this ambiguity is difficult to resolve. The numerous behavioral experiments investigating the Prisoner's Dilemma highlight that players often cooperate, but the level of cooperation varies significantly with the specifics of the experimental predicament. We present the first computational model of human behavior in repeated Prisoner's Dilemma games that unifies the diversity of experimental observations in a systematic and quantitatively reliable manner. Our model relies on data we integrated from many experiments, comprising 168,386 individual decisions. The model is composed of two pieces: the first predicts the first-period action using solely the structural game parameters, while the second predicts dynamic actions using both game parameters and history of play. Our model is successful not merely at fitting the data, but in predicting behavior at multiple scales in experimental designs not used for calibration, using only information about the game structure. We demonstrate the power of our approach through a simulation analysis revealing how to best promote human cooperation. PMID:27171417

  8. Innovation, Translation, and Cooperation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-03-01

    The 9th Wound Healing and Tissue Repair and Regeneration Annual Meeting of Chinese Tissue Repair Society was hold in Wuhan, China. This meeting was focused on the innovation, translation application, and cooperation in wound care both in China and other countries. More than 400 delegates took part in this meeting and communicated successfully. PMID:25515372

  9. Quantum cooperative games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, A.; Toor, A. H.

    2002-01-01

    We study two forms of a symmetric cooperative game played by three players, one classical and other quantum. In its classical form making a coalition gives advantage to players and they are motivated to do so. However, in its quantum form the advantage is lost and players are left with no motivation to make a coalition.

  10. International Cooperative Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoppe, Christine

    The book "Of Play and Playfulness" (Eastern Cooperative Recreation School, 1990) is recommended as a source of ideas for second language learning games. It describes folk dances, ideas for crafts, puppetry, games, and a variety of other activities from many countries. Several games from the book, easy to teach in a foreign language or…

  11. [Cooperative Teacher Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams State Coll. of Colorado, Alamosa.

    The Adams State College Teacher Education Center at Los Alamos was established cooperatively by the College and the Los Alamos Public Schools. The center provides students in the elementary education program, over a span of two consecutive college quarters, the opportunity to complete the equivalent of 30-36 quarter hours of work in professional…

  12. The Case for Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Robert G.

    1993-01-01

    A number of factors keep college alumni staff and development officers from forging cooperative relationships, and campus and graduates suffer as a result. These factors include competition for resources and professional opportunities and stereotypes of administrator roles and characteristics. Successful partnerships require shared values and…

  13. To Cooperate or Not to Cooperate: Why Behavioural Mechanisms Matter.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Arthur; André, Jean-Baptiste; Bredeche, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    Mutualistic cooperation often requires multiple individuals to behave in a coordinated fashion. Hence, while the evolutionary stability of mutualistic cooperation poses no particular theoretical difficulty, its evolutionary emergence faces a chicken and egg problem: an individual cannot benefit from cooperating unless other individuals already do so. Here, we use evolutionary robotic simulations to study the consequences of this problem for the evolution of cooperation. In contrast with standard game-theoretic results, we find that the transition from solitary to cooperative strategies is very unlikely, whether interacting individuals are genetically related (cooperation evolves in 20% of all simulations) or unrelated (only 3% of all simulations). We also observe that successful cooperation between individuals requires the evolution of a specific and rather complex behaviour. This behavioural complexity creates a large fitness valley between solitary and cooperative strategies, making the evolutionary transition difficult. These results reveal the need for research on biological mechanisms which may facilitate this transition. PMID:27148874

  14. To Cooperate or Not to Cooperate: Why Behavioural Mechanisms Matter

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Mutualistic cooperation often requires multiple individuals to behave in a coordinated fashion. Hence, while the evolutionary stability of mutualistic cooperation poses no particular theoretical difficulty, its evolutionary emergence faces a chicken and egg problem: an individual cannot benefit from cooperating unless other individuals already do so. Here, we use evolutionary robotic simulations to study the consequences of this problem for the evolution of cooperation. In contrast with standard game-theoretic results, we find that the transition from solitary to cooperative strategies is very unlikely, whether interacting individuals are genetically related (cooperation evolves in 20% of all simulations) or unrelated (only 3% of all simulations). We also observe that successful cooperation between individuals requires the evolution of a specific and rather complex behaviour. This behavioural complexity creates a large fitness valley between solitary and cooperative strategies, making the evolutionary transition difficult. These results reveal the need for research on biological mechanisms which may facilitate this transition. PMID:27148874

  15. We can work it out: an enactive look at cooperation.

    PubMed

    Fantasia, Valentina; De Jaegher, Hanne; Fasulo, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    The past years have seen an increasing debate on cooperation and its unique human character. Philosophers and psychologists have proposed that cooperative activities are characterized by shared goals to which participants are committed through the ability to understand each other's intentions. Despite its popularity, some serious issues arise with this approach to cooperation. First, one may challenge the assumption that high-level mental processes are necessary for engaging in acting cooperatively. If they are, then how do agents that do not possess such ability (preverbal children, or children with autism who are often claimed to be mind-blind) engage in cooperative exchanges, as the evidence suggests? Secondly, to define cooperation as the result of two de-contextualized minds reading each other's intentions may fail to fully acknowledge the complexity of situated, interactional dynamics and the interplay of variables such as the participants' relational and personal history and experience. In this paper we challenge such accounts of cooperation, calling for an embodied approach that sees cooperation not only as an individual attitude toward the other, but also as a property of interaction processes. Taking an enactive perspective, we argue that cooperation is an intrinsic part of any interaction, and that there can be cooperative interaction before complex communicative abilities are achieved. The issue then is not whether one is able or not to read the other's intentions, but what it takes to participate in joint action. From this basic account, it should be possible to build up more complex forms of cooperation as needed. Addressing the study of cooperation in these terms may enhance our understanding of human social development, and foster our knowledge of different ways of engaging with others, as in the case of autism. PMID:25152745

  16. We can work it out: an enactive look at cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Fantasia, Valentina; De Jaegher, Hanne; Fasulo, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    The past years have seen an increasing debate on cooperation and its unique human character. Philosophers and psychologists have proposed that cooperative activities are characterized by shared goals to which participants are committed through the ability to understand each other’s intentions. Despite its popularity, some serious issues arise with this approach to cooperation. First, one may challenge the assumption that high-level mental processes are necessary for engaging in acting cooperatively. If they are, then how do agents that do not possess such ability (preverbal children, or children with autism who are often claimed to be mind-blind) engage in cooperative exchanges, as the evidence suggests? Secondly, to define cooperation as the result of two de-contextualized minds reading each other’s intentions may fail to fully acknowledge the complexity of situated, interactional dynamics and the interplay of variables such as the participants’ relational and personal history and experience. In this paper we challenge such accounts of cooperation, calling for an embodied approach that sees cooperation not only as an individual attitude toward the other, but also as a property of interaction processes. Taking an enactive perspective, we argue that cooperation is an intrinsic part of any interaction, and that there can be cooperative interaction before complex communicative abilities are achieved. The issue then is not whether one is able or not to read the other’s intentions, but what it takes to participate in joint action. From this basic account, it should be possible to build up more complex forms of cooperation as needed. Addressing the study of cooperation in these terms may enhance our understanding of human social development, and foster our knowledge of different ways of engaging with others, as in the case of autism. PMID:25152745

  17. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    PubMed

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  18. A Course of Study in Cooperation and Cooperatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjoraker, Walter T., Ed.

    Designed for teachers with limited experience in cooperatives, this course of study was prepared by seminar students for use in high school or adult education programs, and emphasizes the principles of cooperation, the operation and management of cooperatives, and the communication required for their effective functioning. Units requiring a total…

  19. Cooperative Reference: Hazards, Rewards, Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Candace D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the problems, benefits, and future of cooperative library reference services in five separate papers: (1) keynote address; (2) interlibrary reference communication; (3) quality control; (4) computerized cooperative reference; and (5) national reference service. (JD)

  20. Cooperation and cheating in microbes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gore, Jeff

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the cooperative and competitive dynamics within and between species is a central challenge in evolutionary biology. Microbial model systems represent a unique opportunity to experimentally test fundamental theories regarding the evolution of cooperative behaviors. In this talk I will describe our experiments probing cooperation in microbes. In particular, I will compare the cooperative growth of yeast in sucrose and the cooperative inactivation of antibiotics by bacteria. In both cases we find that cheater strains---which don't contribute to the public welfare---are able to take advantage of the cooperator strains. However, this ability of cheaters to out-compete cooperators occurs only when cheaters are present at low frequency, thus leading to steady-state coexistence. These microbial experiments provide fresh insight into the evolutionary origin of cooperation.

  1. Cooperative Learning for LEP Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon, Margarita

    1989-01-01

    Substantial evidence suggests that students working together in small cooperative groups can master material better than students working on their own, and that cooperative learning structures higher self-esteem and learning motivation. Cooperative learning (CL) has been proposed for use with language minority children, as well as with other…

  2. Cooperative Learning. JALT Applied Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluge, David, Ed.; McGuire, Steve, Ed.; Johnson, David, Ed.

    This volume is a collection of papers focused on a single theme, cooperative learning, written by classroom teachers of varying experience levels. This book introduces cooperative learning and gives examples of cooperative learning activities, units, and systems created by teachers in Japan, The United States, and Canada, who are currently using…

  3. Cooperative Learning in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, James C.; Ratliffe, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    A methodology that has not received as much attention in the physical education setting as in other subject areas is cooperative learning. Cooperative learning has been used for many years in math, science, and history, but not until recently has the concept been applied to physical education. Research conducted on cooperative learning has shown…

  4. An Odyssey into Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemke, Thomas L.; Basile, Carole

    1997-01-01

    An experiment using cooperative learning in a introductory pharmacy course in medicinal chemistry revealed general acceptance of the cooperative learning approach by students, and some perceived advantages for both students and teachers. Although quantitative evidence supporting superiority of the cooperative learning approach was not found,…

  5. Communication in Cooperative Learning Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalkowski, Page

    This study explores aspects of the hypothesis that communication in cooperative learning groups mediates effects of cooperative learning. The study develops a taxonomy of the cooperative communications of groups of predominantly Anglo and Hispanic elementary school students attending a public school where teachers were being trained to implement…

  6. Cooperative Learning in Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative learning refers to instructional methods in which students work in small groups to help each other learn. Although cooperative learning methods are used for different age groups, they are particularly popular in elementary (primary) schools. This article discusses methods and theoretical perspectives on cooperative learning for the…

  7. Confrontational scavenging as a possible source for language and cooperation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of language and the high degree of cooperation found among humans seems to require more than a straightforward enhancement of primate traits. Some triggering episode unique to human ancestors was likely necessary. Here it is argued that confrontational scavenging was such an episode. Arguments for and against an established confrontational scavenging niche are discussed, as well as the probable effects of such a niche on language and co-operation. Finally, several possible directions for future research are suggested. PMID:21933413

  8. Better Together: Outcomes of Cooperation Versus Competition in Social Exergaming.

    PubMed

    Marker, Arwen M; Staiano, Amanda E

    2015-02-01

    Children and adolescents most often play active videogames, or exergames, in a social environment. Social play may enhance the potential benefits of an exergaming experience, much like group exercise and team sports are observed to improve physical activity-related outcomes above those of solitary exercise. Two ubiquitous elements of exergames are cooperation and competition. Previous literature suggests that cooperative and competitive aspects of exergames may affect physiological and psychosocial changes. Competitive play has been found to increase energy expenditure and aggression in short bouts of exergaming. Cooperative exergaming has been found to increase motivation, promote continued play, enhance self-efficacy, and increase pro-social behaviors. In one study, a cooperative exergaming condition also resulted in significant weight loss for overweight and obese adolescents. Individual player differences such as individual preferences, competitiveness, weight status, age, gender, and ethnicity may moderate effects. Although the current volume of literature on competition and cooperation in exergaming is small, social exergames hold promise as an engaging alternative to traditional physical activity interventions and may promote a broad range of positive outcomes for children and adolescents. Principles of cooperation and competition are applicable for developers of health-promoting games. Future research is needed to further understand the mechanisms of how competition and cooperation in social exergaming impact physiological and psychosocial outcomes. PMID:26181677

  9. Antisocial pool rewarding does not deter public cooperation.

    PubMed

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-10-01

    Rewarding cooperation is in many ways expected behaviour from social players. However, strategies that promote antisocial behaviour are also surprisingly common, not just in human societies, but also among eusocial insects and bacteria. Examples include sanctioning of individuals who behave prosocially, or rewarding of free-riders who do not contribute to collective enterprises. We therefore study the public goods game with antisocial and prosocial pool rewarding in order to determine the potential negative consequences on the effectiveness of positive incentives to promote cooperation. Contrary to a naive expectation, we show that the ability of defectors to distribute rewards to their like does not deter public cooperation as long as cooperators are able to do the same. Even in the presence of antisocial rewarding, the spatial selection for cooperation in evolutionary social dilemmas is enhanced. Since the administration of rewards to either strategy requires a considerable degree of aggregation, cooperators can enjoy the benefits of their prosocial contributions as well as the corresponding rewards. Defectors when aggregated, on the other hand, can enjoy antisocial rewards, but due to their lack of contributions to the public good they ultimately succumb to their inherent inability to secure a sustainable future. Strategies that facilitate the aggregation of akin players, even if they seek to promote antisocial behaviour, thus always enhance the long-term benefits of cooperation. PMID:26400746

  10. Better Together: Outcomes of Cooperation Versus Competition in Social Exergaming

    PubMed Central

    Marker, Arwen M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Children and adolescents most often play active videogames, or exergames, in a social environment. Social play may enhance the potential benefits of an exergaming experience, much like group exercise and team sports are observed to improve physical activity–related outcomes above those of solitary exercise. Two ubiquitous elements of exergames are cooperation and competition. Previous literature suggests that cooperative and competitive aspects of exergames may affect physiological and psychosocial changes. Competitive play has been found to increase energy expenditure and aggression in short bouts of exergaming. Cooperative exergaming has been found to increase motivation, promote continued play, enhance self-efficacy, and increase pro-social behaviors. In one study, a cooperative exergaming condition also resulted in significant weight loss for overweight and obese adolescents. Individual player differences such as individual preferences, competitiveness, weight status, age, gender, and ethnicity may moderate effects. Although the current volume of literature on competition and cooperation in exergaming is small, social exergames hold promise as an engaging alternative to traditional physical activity interventions and may promote a broad range of positive outcomes for children and adolescents. Principles of cooperation and competition are applicable for developers of health-promoting games. Future research is needed to further understand the mechanisms of how competition and cooperation in social exergaming impact physiological and psychosocial outcomes. PMID:26181677

  11. The emergence of cooperation from a single cooperative mutant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremer, Jonas; Melbinger, Anna; Frey, Erwin

    2012-02-01

    Population structure is one central condition which promotes the stability of cooperation: If cooperators more likely interact with other cooperators (positive assortment), they keep most of their benefit for themselves and are less exploited by non-cooperators. However, positive assortment can only act successfully if cooperation is already well established in the population such that cooperative individuals can successfully assort. But how can cooperation emerge when starting with a single cooperative mutant? Here we study this issue for a generic situation of microbial systems where microbes regularly form new colonies and show strong population growth. We show how and when the dynamical interplay between colony formation, population growth and evolution within colonies can provoke the emergence of cooperation. In particular, the probability for a single cooperative mutant to succeed is robustly large when colony-formation is fast or comparable to the time-scale of growth within colonies; growth supports cooperation.[4pt] [1] A. Melbinger, J. Cremer, and E. Frey, Evolutionary game theory in growing populations, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 178101 (2010)[0pt] [2] J. Cremer, A. Melbinger, and E. Frey, Evolutionary and population dynamics: a coupled approach, arXiv:1108.2604

  12. Metal-ligand cooperation.

    PubMed

    Khusnutdinova, Julia R; Milstein, David

    2015-10-12

    Metal-ligand cooperation (MLC) has become an important concept in catalysis by transition metal complexes both in synthetic and biological systems. MLC implies that both the metal and the ligand are directly involved in bond activation processes, by contrast to "classical" transition metal catalysis where the ligand (e.g. phosphine) acts as a spectator, while all key transformations occur at the metal center. In this Review, we will discuss examples of MLC in which 1) both the metal and the ligand are chemically modified during bond activation and 2) bond activation results in immediate changes in the 1st coordination sphere involving the cooperating ligand, even if the reactive center at the ligand is not directly bound to the metal (e.g. via tautomerization). The role of MLC in enabling effective catalysis as well as in catalyst deactivation reactions will be discussed. PMID:26436516

  13. Cooperative photoredox catalysis.

    PubMed

    Lang, Xianjun; Zhao, Jincai; Chen, Xiaodong

    2016-05-31

    Visible-light photoredox catalysis has been experiencing a renaissance in response to topical interest in renewable energy and green chemistry. The latest progress in this area indicates that cooperation between photoredox catalysis and other domains of catalysis could provide effective results. Thus, we advance the concept of cooperative photoredox catalysis for organic transformations. It is important to note that this concept can bridge the gap between visible-light photoredox catalysis and other types of redox catalysis such as transition-metal catalysis, biocatalysis or electrocatalysis. In doing so, one can take advantage of the best of both worlds in establishing organic synthesis with visible-light-induced redox reaction as a crucial step. PMID:27094803

  14. Cooperative disease management programs.

    PubMed

    Jedrey, C M; Chaurette, K A; Winn, L B

    2001-01-01

    Cooperative disease management programs sponsored by pharmaceutical companies and managed care organizations or health care providers can offer significant benefits to patients. They can be structured so as to comply with applicable OIG, FDA, and IRS regulations. Such programs must be structured for the benefit of patients, and not to require the use of or otherwise directly promote the selection of the sponsoring pharmaceutical company's products. PMID:11189793

  15. Automated Cooperative Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curt; Pahle, Joseph; Brown, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    This presentation is an overview of the Automated Cooperative Trajectories project. An introduction to the phenomena of wake vortices is given, along with a summary of past research into the possibility of extracting energy from the wake by flying close parallel trajectories. Challenges and barriers to adoption of civilian automatic wake surfing technology are identified. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation is described that will support future research. Finally, a roadmap for future research and technology transition is proposed.

  16. Post-Synthetic Modification of Porphyrin-Encapsulating Metal-Organic Materials by Cooperative Addition of Inorganic Salts to Enhance CO2/CH4 Selectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhenjie; Gao, Wen-Yang; Wojtas, Lukasz; Ma, Shengqian; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Zaworotko, Michael J

    2012-11-26

    Keeping MOM: Reaction of biphenyl-3,4',5-tricarboxylate and Cd(NO3)2 in the presence of meso-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine tetratosylate afforded porph@MOM-11, a microporous metal–organic material (MOM) that encapsulates cationic porphyrins and solvent in alternating open channels. Porph@MOM-11 has cation and anion binding sites that facilitate cooperative addition of inorganic salts (such as M+Cl-) in a stoichiometric fashion.

  17. Cooperativity in Tetrel Bonds.

    PubMed

    Marín-Luna, Marta; Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José

    2016-02-01

    A theoretical study of the cooperativity in linear chains of (H3SiCN)n and (H3SiNC)n complexes connected by tetrel bonds has been carried out by means of MP2 and CCSD(T) computational methods. In all cases, a favorable cooperativity is observed, especially in some of the largest linear chains of (H3SiNC)n, where the effect is so large that the SiH3 group is almost equidistant to the two surrounding CN groups and it becomes planar. In addition, the combination of tetrel bonds with other weak interactions (halogen, chalcogen, pnicogen, triel, beryllium, lithium, and hydrogen bond) has been explored using ternary complexes, (H3SiCN)2:XY and (H3SiNC)2:XY. In all cases, positive cooperativity is obtained, especially in the (H3SiNC)2:ClF and (H3SiNC)2:SHF ternary complexes, where, respectively, halogen and chalcogen shared complexes are formed. PMID:26756083

  18. Understanding cooperative behavior in structurally disordered populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C.; Zhang, W.; Du, P.; Choi, C. W.; Hui, P. M.

    2016-06-01

    The effects of an inhomogeneous competing environment on the extent of cooperation are studied within the context of a site-diluted evolutionary snowdrift game on a square lattice, with the occupied sites representing the players, both numerically and analytically. The frequency of cooperation ℱC generally shows a non-monotonic dependence on the fraction of occupied sites ρ, for different values of the payoff parameter r. Slightly diluting a lattice leads to a lower cooperation for small and high values of r. For a range of r, however, dilution leads to an enhanced cooperation. An analytic treatment is developed for ℱCI + ℱCII, with ℱCI emphasizing the importance of the small clusters of players especially for ℱCII from the other players is shown to be inadequate. A local configuration approximation (LCA) that treats the local competing configurations as the variables and amounts to include spatial correlation up to the neighborhood of a player's neighbors is developed. Results of ℱC (ρ) and the number of different local configurations from LCA are in good agreement with simulation results. A transparent physical picture of the dynamics stemming from LCA is also presented. The theoretical approach provides a framework that can be readily applied to competing agent-based models in structurally ordered and disordered populations.

  19. Interpreted Cooper-Harper for broader use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, David L.; Andrews, Hal; Gallagher, Donald W.

    1993-01-01

    The current aircraft assessment process typically makes extensive use of operational personnel during simulations and operational evaluations, with increased emphasis on evaluating the many pilot and/or operator/aircraft control loops. The need for a crew assessment in this broader arena has produced a variety of rating scales. The Cooper-Harper Rating Scale is frequently misused and routinely overlooked in the process, for these applications often extend the scale's use beyond its originally intended application. This paper agrees with the broader application of the Cooper-Harper Rating Scale and presents a concept for the development of a 'use unique' Interpreted Cooper-Harper Scale to help achieve this objective. This interpreted scale concept was conceived during efforts to support an FAA evaluation of a night vision enhancement system. It includes descriptive extensions, which are faithful to the intent of the current Cooper-Harper Scale and should provide the kind of detail that has historically been provided by trained test pilots in their explanatory comments.

  20. Understanding cooperative behavior in structurally disordered populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C.; Zhang, W.; Du, P.; Choi, C. W.; Hui, P. M.

    2016-06-01

    The effects of an inhomogeneous competing environment on the extent of cooperation are studied within the context of a site-diluted evolutionary snowdrift game on a square lattice, with the occupied sites representing the players, both numerically and analytically. The frequency of cooperation ℱ C generally shows a non-monotonic dependence on the fraction of occupied sites ρ, for different values of the payoff parameter r. Slightly diluting a lattice leads to a lower cooperation for small and high values of r. For a range of r, however, dilution leads to an enhanced cooperation. An analytic treatment is developed for ℱC I + ℱC II, with ℱC I emphasizing the importance of the small clusters of players especially for ℱC II from the other players is shown to be inadequate. A local configuration approximation (LCA) that treats the local competing configurations as the variables and amounts to include spatial correlation up to the neighborhood of a player's neighbors is developed. Results of ℱ C ( ρ) and the number of different local configurations from LCA are in good agreement with simulation results. A transparent physical picture of the dynamics stemming from LCA is also presented. The theoretical approach provides a framework that can be readily applied to competing agent-based models in structurally ordered and disordered populations.

  1. Cooperativeness and competitiveness as two distinct constructs: validating the Cooperative and Competitive Personality Scale in a social dilemma context.

    PubMed

    Lu, Su; Au, Wing-Tung; Jiang, Feng; Xie, Xiaofei; Yam, Paton

    2013-01-01

    The present research validated the construct and criterion validities of the Cooperative and Competitive Personality Scale (CCPS) in a social dilemma context. The results from three studies supported the notion that cooperativeness and competitiveness are two independent dimensions, challenging the traditional view that they are two ends of a single continuum. First, confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a two-factor structure fit the data significantly better than a one-factor structure. Moreover, cooperativeness and competitiveness were either not significantly correlated (Studies 1 and 3) or only moderately positively correlated (Study 2). Second, cooperativeness and competitiveness were differentially associated with Schwartz's Personal Values. These results further supported the idea that cooperativeness and competitiveness are two distinct constructs. Specifically, the individuals who were highly cooperative emphasized self-transcendent values (i.e., universalism and benevolence) more, whereas the individuals who were highly competitive emphasized self-enhancement values (i.e., power and achievement) more. Finally, the CCPS, which adheres to the trait perspective of personality, was found to be a useful supplement to more prevalent social motive measures (i.e., social value orientation) in predicting cooperative behaviors. Specifically, in Study 2, when social value orientation was controlled for, the CCPS significantly predicted cooperative behaviors in a public goods dilemma (individuals who score higher on cooperativeness scale contributed more to the public goods). In Study 3, when social value orientation was controlled for, the CCPS significantly predicted cooperative behaviors in commons dilemmas (individuals who score higher on cooperativeness scale requested fewer resources from the common resource pool). The practical implications of the CCPS in conflict resolution, as well as in recruitment and selection settings, are discussed. PMID:23145818

  2. The Effect of Geographical Proximity on Scientific Cooperation among Chinese Cities from 1990 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Haitao; Fang, Chuanglin; Pang, Bo; Li, Guangdong

    2014-01-01

    Background The relations between geographical proximity and spatial distance constitute a popular topic of concern. Thus, how geographical proximity affects scientific cooperation, and whether geographically proximate scientific cooperation activities in fact exhibit geographic scale features should be investigated. Methodology Selected statistics from the ISI database on cooperatively authored papers, the authors of which resided in 60 typical cites in China, and which were published in the years 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010, were used to establish matrices of geographic distance and cooperation levels between cities. By constructing a distance-cooperation model, the degree of scientific cooperation based on spatial distance was calculated. The relationship between geographical proximity and scientific cooperation, as well as changes in that relationship, was explored using the fitting function. Result (1) Instead of declining, the role of geographical proximity in inter-city scientific cooperation has increased gradually but significantly with the popularization of telecommunication technologies; (2) the relationship between geographical proximity and scientific cooperation has not followed a perfect declining curve, and at certain spatial scales, the distance-decay regularity does not work; (3) the Chinese scientific cooperation network gathers around different regional center cities, showing a trend towards a regional network; within this cooperation network the amount of inter-city cooperation occurring at close range increased greatly. Conclusion The relationship between inter-city geographical distance and scientific cooperation has been enhanced and strengthened over time. PMID:25365449

  3. Extended cooperative control synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B.; Schmidt, David K.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports on research for extending the Cooperative Control Synthesis methodology to include a more accurate modeling of the pilot's controller dynamics. Cooperative Control Synthesis (CCS) is a methodology that addresses the problem of how to design control laws for piloted, high-order, multivariate systems and/or non-conventional dynamic configurations in the absence of flying qualities specifications. This is accomplished by emphasizing the parallel structure inherent in any pilot-controlled, augmented vehicle. The original CCS methodology is extended to include the Modified Optimal Control Model (MOCM), which is based upon the optimal control model of the human operator developed by Kleinman, Baron, and Levison in 1970. This model provides a modeling of the pilot's compensation dynamics that is more accurate than the simplified pilot dynamic representation currently in the CCS methodology. Inclusion of the MOCM into the CCS also enables the modeling of pilot-observation perception thresholds and pilot-observation attention allocation affects. This Extended Cooperative Control Synthesis (ECCS) allows for the direct calculation of pilot and system open- and closed-loop transfer functions in pole/zero form and is readily implemented in current software capable of analysis and design for dynamic systems. Example results based upon synthesizing an augmentation control law for an acceleration command system in a compensatory tracking task using the ECCS are compared with a similar synthesis performed by using the original CCS methodology. The ECCS is shown to provide augmentation control laws that yield more favorable, predicted closed-loop flying qualities and tracking performance than those synthesized using the original CCS methodology.

  4. Cooperative water resource technology transfer program

    SciTech Connect

    D'itri, F.M.

    1982-06-01

    This cooperative water resource technology transfer program sought to develop/present educational programs (conferences/seminars/workshops) and technology transfer brochures to enhance public awareness/appreciation of state water quality problems and to stress economic tradeoffs needed to resolve given problems. Accomplishments of this program for the different conferences held 1979-1981 are described (inland lake eutrophication: causes, effects, and remedies; contamination of groundwater supplies by toxic chemicals: causes, effects, and prevention; supplemental irrigation; stormwater management; cooperative research needs for renovation and reuse of municipal water in agriculture; selection and management of vegetation for slow rate and overland flow land application systems to treat municipal wastewater; effects of acid precipitation on ecological systems: Great Lakes region; water competition in Michigan; Michigan natural resources outlook.

  5. Optimal cooperative control synthesis of active displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, S.; Schmidt, D. K.

    1986-01-01

    The utility of augmenting displays to aid the human operator in controlling high order complex systems is well known. Analytical evaluation of various display designs for a simple k/s sup 2 plant in a compensatory tracking task using an optimal Control Model (OCM) of human behavior is carried out. This analysis reveals that significant improvement in performance should be obtained by skillful integration of key information into the display dynamics. The cooperative control synthesis technique previously developed to design pilot-optimal control augmentation is extended to incorporate the simultaneous design of performance enhancing augmented displays. The application of the cooperative control synthesis technique to the design of augmented displays is discussed for the simple k/s sup 2 plant. This technique is intended to provide a systematic approach to design optimally augmented displays tailored for specific tasks.

  6. Optimal cooperative control synthesis of active displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, S.; Schmidt, D. K.

    1985-01-01

    The utility of augmenting displays to aid the human operator in controlling high order complex systems is well known. Analytical evaluations of various display designs for a simple k/s-squared plant in a compensatory tracking task using an Optimal Control Model (OCM) of human behavior is carried out. This analysis reveals that significant improvement in performance should be obtained by skillful integration of key information into the display dynamics. The cooperative control synthesis technique previously developed to design pilot-optimal control augmentation is extended to incorporate the simultaneous design of performance enhancing augmented displays. The application of the cooperative control synthesis technique to the design of augmented displays is discussed for the simple k/s-squared plant. This technique is intended to provide a systematic approach to design optimally augmented displays tailored for specific tasks.

  7. How is human cooperation different?

    PubMed Central

    Melis, Alicia P.; Semmann, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Although cooperation is a widespread phenomenon in nature, human cooperation exceeds that of all other species with regard to the scale and range of cooperative activities. Here we review and discuss differences between humans and non-humans in the strategies employed to maintain cooperation and control free-riders. We distinguish forms of cooperative behaviour based on their influence on the immediate payoffs of actor and recipient. If the actor has immediate costs and only the recipient obtains immediate benefits, we term this investment. If the behaviour has immediate positive effects for both actor and recipient, we call this a self-serving mutually beneficial behaviour or mutual cooperation. We argue that humans, in contrast to all other species, employ a wider range of enforcement mechanisms, which allow higher levels of cooperation to evolve and stabilize among unrelated individuals and in large groups. We also discuss proximate mechanisms underlying cooperative behaviour and focus on our experimental work with humans and our closest primate relatives. Differences in the proximate mechanisms also seem to contribute to explaining humans' greater ability to cooperate and enforce cooperation. PMID:20679110

  8. Cooperative Learning that Includes Students with Disabilities: An Effective Teaching Strategy, Cooperative Learning Promotes Student Interaction, Benefiting Students with and without Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenier, Michelle; Dyson, Ben; Yeaton, Pat

    2005-01-01

    In this article, cooperative learning is discussed as an instructional strategy that encourages students to work together and that enhances motivation for learning (Johnson & Johnson, 1989; Polloway, Patton, & Serna, 2001). Cooperative learning is presented through the depiction of a scenario inspired by observations made during a research study,…

  9. Mir Cooperative Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skor, Mike; Hoffman, Dave J.

    1997-01-01

    The Mir Cooperative Solar Array (MCSA), produced jointly by the United States and Russia, was deployed on the Mir Russian space station on May 25, 1996. The MCSA is a photovoltaic electrical power system that can generate up to 6 kW. The power from the MCSA is needed to extend Mir's lifetime and to support experiments conducted there by visiting U.S. astronauts. The MCSA was brought to Mir via the Space Shuttle Atlantis on the STS-74 mission, launched November 12, 1995. This cooperative venture combined the best technology of both countries: the United States provided high-efficiency, lightweight photovoltaic panel modules, whereas Russia provided the array structure and deployment mechanism. Technology developed in the Space Station Freedom Program, and now being used in the International Space Station, was used to develop MCSA's photovoltaic panel. Performance data obtained from MCSA operation on Mir will help engineers better understand the performance of the photovoltaic panel modules in orbit. This information will be used to more accurately predict the performance of the International Space Station solar arrays. Managed by the NASA Lewis Research Center for NASA's International Space Station Program Office in Houston, Texas, the MCSA Project was completed on time and under budget despite a very aggressive schedule.

  10. Cooperative nonproliferation activities

    SciTech Connect

    Ystesund, K.; Furaus, J.; Lucero, R.

    1997-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) under DOE sponsorship is engaged in nuclear nonproliferation activities with the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan. From 1995 to the present SNL and PNC have been participating in a cooperative project to implement and assess the use of remote monitoring to achieve nuclear nonproliferation objectives. Implementation of remote monitoring at the PNC Joyo facility took place during 1996 and continues to date. An International Fellowship began in the Fall of 1995 and has complemented the nonproliferation study. Plans are underway to extend the Fellowship and to upgrade the existing Remote Monitoring System to include another area at the Joyo facility. SNL and PNC are currently exploring the possibility of exchanging experts with the objective of promoting regional confidence building in Northeast Asia, possibly using some of the same remote monitoring technologies. This paper will provide an overview of these activities and report on the status of cooperative nonproliferation activities being conducted by PNC and SNL.

  11. Financial problems and cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Izquierdo, J.

    1994-12-31

    For a Bank, an usual way to attract new clients is by offering better interest rates depending on the amount of money that the client deposits in an account: {open_quotes}The more money you have the higher interest rate you get{close_quotes}. For a company is also a common practice to offer their clients discounts connected with the number of units of the product they order: {open_quotes}The more you order, the lower price per unit you pay{close_quotes}. From these situations arises the possibility to take profit if the clients cooperate and join their money or their orders. Hence, we define a new class of cooperative games called Financial Games. We study basic properties and necessary conditions for a game to belong to this class of games and we define the concept of duality for Financial games. The core is always non-empty and, moreover, Financial games are always totally balanced. We look at some special amputations lying in the Core and we study the reduced game on the j{sup th} player at {rvec x} where x{sub j} = b{sub j} = v(N) {minus} v(N {minus} j).

  12. Resource heterogeneity can facilitate cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Kun, Ádám; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Although social structure is known to promote cooperation, by locally exposing selfish agents to their own deeds, studies to date assumed that all agents have access to the same level of resources. This is clearly unrealistic. Here we find that cooperation can be maintained when some agents have access to more resources than others. Cooperation can then emerge even in populations in which the temptation to defect is so strong that players would act fully selfishly if their resources were distributed uniformly. Resource heterogeneity can thus be crucial for the emergence and maintenance of cooperation. We also show that resource heterogeneity can hinder cooperation once the temptation to defect is significantly lowered. In all cases, the level of cooperation can be maximized by managing resource heterogeneity. PMID:24088665

  13. Cooperative distributed architecture for mashups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Haj Hassan, Osama Mohammad; Ramaswamy, Lakshmish; Hamad, Fadi; Abu Taleb, Anas

    2014-05-01

    Since the advent of Web 2.0, personalised applications such as mashups have become widely popular. Mashups enable end-users to fetch data from distributed data sources, and refine it based on their personal needs. This high degree of personalisation that mashups offer comes at the expense of performance and scalability. These scalability challenges are exacerbated by the centralised architectures of current mashup platforms. In this paper, we address the performance and scalability issues by designing CoMaP - a distributed mashup platform. CoMaP's architecture comprises of several cooperative mashup processing nodes distributed over the Internet upon which mashups can, fully or partially, be executed. CoMaP incorporates a dynamic and efficient scheme for deploying mashups on the processing nodes. Our scheme considers a number of parameters such as variations in link delays and bandwidths, and loads on mashup processing nodes. CoMaP includes effective and low-cost mechanisms for balancing loads on the processing nodes as well for handling node failures. Furthermore, we propose novel techniques that leverage keyword synonyms, ontologies and caching to enhance end-user experience. This paper reports several experiments to comprehensively study CoMaP's performance. The results demonstrate CoMaP's benefits as a scalable distributed mashup platform.

  14. Friendship-based partner switching promotes cooperation in heterogeneous populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Wu, Te; Li, Zhiwu; Wang, Long

    2016-02-01

    The forming of human social ties tends to be with similar individuals. This study concentrates on the emergence of cooperation among heterogeneous populations. A simple model is proposed by considering the impact of interplay between the evolution of strategies and that of social partnerships on cooperation dynamics. Whenever two individuals acquire the rewards by playing prisoner's dilemma game with each other, the friendship (friendship is quantified as the weight of a link) between the two individuals deepens. Individuals can switch off the social ties with the partners who are unfriendly and rewire to similar new ones. Under this partner switching mechanism, population structure is divided into several groups and cooperation can prevail. It is observed that the frequent tendency of partner switching can lead to the enhancement of cooperative behavior under the enormous temptation to defect. Moreover, the influence of discounting the relationship between different individuals is also investigated. Meanwhile, the cooperation prevails when the adjustment of friendships mainly depends on the incomes of selected individuals rather than that of their partners. Finally, it is found that too similar population fail to maximize the cooperation and there exists a moderate similarity that can optimize cooperation.

  15. Mechanisms for similarity based cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traulsen, A.

    2008-06-01

    Cooperation based on similarity has been discussed since Richard Dawkins introduced the term “green beard” effect. In these models, individuals cooperate based on an aribtrary signal (or tag) such as the famous green beard. Here, two different models for such tag based cooperation are analysed. As neutral drift is important in both models, a finite population framework is applied. The first model, which we term “cooperative tags” considers a situation in which groups of cooperators are formed by some joint signal. Defectors adopting the signal and exploiting the group can lead to a breakdown of cooperation. In this case, conditions are derived under which the average abundance of the more cooperative strategy exceeds 50%. The second model considers a situation in which individuals start defecting towards others that are not similar to them. This situation is termed “defective tags”. It is shown that in this case, individuals using tags to cooperate exclusively with their own kind dominate over unconditional cooperators.

  16. Counterterrorism and Potential Constructive Cooperation Between China and the United States

    SciTech Connect

    LE,RONGRONG

    2003-02-01

    Terrorism is a scourge common to the international community and its threat to world peace and stability is severe and imminent. This paper evaluates the campaign against terrorism and the possible modalities of constructive cooperation between China and the United States in this fight. Technical cooperation can enhance Sino-U.S. security capabilities for dealing with the terrorist threat. This paper identifies specific bilateral cooperative activities that may benefit common interests. Focusing on protecting people, facilities, and infrastructure, Sino-U.S. cooperation may introduce protective technologies and training, including means of boosting port and border security, and detecting explosives or nuclear materials. Cooperation will not only enhance the global counterterrorism campaign, but also form a sound foundation for constructive and cooperative relations between the two countries.

  17. Impact of Social Punishment on Cooperative Behavior in Complex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhen; Xia, Cheng-Yi; Meloni, Sandro; Zhou, Chang-Song; Moreno, Yamir

    2013-01-01

    Social punishment is a mechanism by which cooperative individuals spend part of their resources to penalize defectors. In this paper, we study the evolution of cooperation in 2-person evolutionary games on networks when a mechanism for social punishment is introduced. Specifically, we introduce a new kind of role, punisher, which is aimed at reducing the earnings of defectors by applying to them a social fee. Results from numerical simulations show that different equilibria allowing the three strategies to coexist are possible as well as that social punishment further enhance the robustness of cooperation. Our results are confirmed for different network topologies and two evolutionary games. In addition, we analyze the microscopic mechanisms that give rise to the observed macroscopic behaviors in both homogeneous and heterogeneous networks. Our conclusions might provide additional insights for understanding the roots of cooperation in social systems. PMID:24162105

  18. Diversified Cooperative Training. Diversified Cooperative Health Occupations. Manual of Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Vocational and Adult Education.

    This manual is designed to assist school personnel, employers, parents/guardians, and students in understanding the policies and procedures required to operate effective diversified cooperative training (DCT) and diversified cooperative health occupations (DCHO) programs. Chapter I describes DCT/DCHO programs, their structure, types of program…

  19. Cooperative Cataloging: LC Promotes Cooperation at Asian Materials Seminar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fineberg, Gail

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the Asian Materials Cataloging Seminar that the Library of Congress sponsored to promote the benefits of cooperative cataloging. Highlights include the Program for Cooperative Cataloging (PCC); high-quality, standardized, core-level cataloging records for Asian materials; name authority and subject authority programs; and the CONSER…

  20. Cooperative phenomena in swarms

    SciTech Connect

    Millonas, M.M.

    1992-12-01

    A model of the cooperative behavior of a large number of locally acting organisms is proposed. The space in which the organisms move is discretized, and is modeled by a lattice of nodes, or cells. Each cell has a specified volume, and is connected to other cells in the space in a definite way. Organisms move probabilistically between local cells in this space, but with weights dependent on local morphogenic substances, or morphogens. The morphogens are in turn are effected by the passage of an organism. The evolution of the morphogens, and the corresponding flow of the organisms constitutes the collective behavior of the group. The generic properties of such systems are analyzed, and a number of results are obtained. The model has various types of phase transitions and self-organizing properties controlled both by the level of the noise, and other parameters.

  1. Cooperative phenomena in swarms

    SciTech Connect

    Millonas, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    A model of the cooperative behavior of a large number of locally acting organisms is proposed. The space in which the organisms move is discretized, and is modeled by a lattice of nodes, or cells. Each cell has a specified volume, and is connected to other cells in the space in a definite way. Organisms move probabilistically between local cells in this space, but with weights dependent on local morphogenic substances, or morphogens. The morphogens are in turn are effected by the passage of an organism. The evolution of the morphogens, and the corresponding flow of the organisms constitutes the collective behavior of the group. The generic properties of such systems are analyzed, and a number of results are obtained. The model has various types of phase transitions and self-organizing properties controlled both by the level of the noise, and other parameters.

  2. Allostery and cooperativity revisited

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Qiang; Karplus, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Although phenomenlogical models that account for cooperativity in allosteric systems date back to the early and mid-60's (e.g., the KNF and MWC models), there is resurgent interest in the topic due to the recent experimental and computational studies that attempted to reveal, at an atomistic level, how allostery actually works. In this review, using systems for which atomistic simulations have been carried out in our groups as examples, we describe the current understanding of allostery, how the mechanisms go beyond the classical MWC/Pauling-KNF descriptions, and point out that the “new view” of allostery, emphasizing “population shifts,” is, in fact, an “old view.” The presentation offers not only an up-to-date description of allostery from a theoretical/computational perspective, but also helps to resolve several outstanding issues concerning allostery. PMID:18560010

  3. Automated Cooperative Trajectories for a More Efficient and Responsive Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curt

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Automated Cooperative Trajectories project is developing a prototype avionics system that enables multi-vehicle cooperative control by integrating 1090 MHz ES ADS-B digital communications with onboard autopilot systems. This cooperative control capability will enable meta-aircraft operations for enhanced airspace utilization, as well as improved vehicle efficiency through wake surfing. This briefing describes the objectives and approach to a flight evaluation of this system planned for 2016.

  4. The CSCE forum for security cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Borawski, J.; George, B.

    1993-10-01

    What are the next steps for arms control in Europe, given the tectonic changes that have shaken the continent over the past four years? Negotiators in Europe, who labored for nearly two decades on the details of conventional force reductions and confidence-building measures, are grappling with that question. On September 22, 1992, a fresh, if perhaps belated, attempt to adapt to the new conditions of the post-Cold War era began in Vienna with the creation of the 54-member Forum for Security Cooperation (FSC). The FSC is the security component of the multifaceted Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCEO), which deals with a range of issues, including human rights, in addition to the various items on the security agenda. The forum is facing a task unprecedented in the scope of the CSCE: it is simultaneously trying to address arms control negotiations, security enhancement and cooperation, and conflict prevention. The primary objective of the forum will be to adapt the traditional tools of arms control, including those applied to military activity, to the contemporary {open_quotes}security parlance{close_quotes} of preventive diplomacy, peacemaking, peacekeeping, peace enforcement and peace building.

  5. Cooperative Learning in Communication Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Patricia L.; And Others

    This paper presents 14 cooperative learning lesson plans and related handouts suitable for use in communication courses. The paper begins with 8 handouts that deal with objectives; criteria; differences between the old paradigm and the new paradigm based on cooperative learning; positive interdependences; group differences between cooperative…

  6. Cooperative answers in database systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaasterland, Terry; Godfrey, Parke; Minker, Jack; Novik, Lev

    1993-01-01

    A major concern of researchers who seek to improve human-computer communication involves how to move beyond literal interpretations of queries to a level of responsiveness that takes the user's misconceptions, expectations, desires, and interests into consideration. At Maryland, we are investigating how to better meet a user's needs within the framework of the cooperative answering system of Gal and Minker. We have been exploring how to use semantic information about the database to formulate coherent and informative answers. The work has two main thrusts: (1) the construction of a logic formula which embodies the content of a cooperative answer; and (2) the presentation of the logic formula to the user in a natural language form. The information that is available in a deductive database system for building cooperative answers includes integrity constraints, user constraints, the search tree for answers to the query, and false presuppositions that are present in the query. The basic cooperative answering theory of Gal and Minker forms the foundation of a cooperative answering system that integrates the new construction and presentation methods. This paper provides an overview of the cooperative answering strategies used in the CARMIN cooperative answering system, an ongoing research effort at Maryland. Section 2 gives some useful background definitions. Section 3 describes techniques for collecting cooperative logical formulae. Section 4 discusses which natural language generation techniques are useful for presenting the logic formula in natural language text. Section 5 presents a diagram of the system.

  7. Teaching Geography Using Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Larry

    Cooperative learning is a teaching strategy that promotes the positive interaction of children in small, heterogeneous groups. Each group contain three or four students of varying achievement levels, backgrounds, socio-economic status, and sex. Cooperative learning processes promote student motivation, build group skills, foster social and…

  8. Teaching Cooperative Skills through Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glakas, Barbara A.

    1991-01-01

    Through cooperative games and play, children learn to share, empathize with others' feelings, and get along better. The article makes suggestions to physical educators on how to design games to teach students cooperative behaviors and how to incorporate them into class, noting four important game-design principles. (SM)

  9. International Cooperation in Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Magnus

    This paper addresses some of the general issues of international cooperation within the context of distance education. Examples of the types of international cooperation are introduced in order to explain some of the pitfalls that can occur when coordinating organizations on an international level. Extensive discussion is undertaken concerning…

  10. Cooperative Education for Graduate Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sylvia J.; Whitten, Cynthia Jahn

    Recent development and implementation of cooperative education on the graduate level in the U.S. and Canada is examined in this study. Several questions are addressed: How and why did graduate cooperative education programs begin? How was the program received on campus? What are the major program characteristics? What problems or issues are…

  11. The hard problem of cooperation.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Kimmo; Strimling, Pontus

    2012-01-01

    Based on individual variation in cooperative inclinations, we define the "hard problem of cooperation" as that of achieving high levels of cooperation in a group of non-cooperative types. Can the hard problem be solved by institutions with monitoring and sanctions? In a laboratory experiment we find that the answer is affirmative if the institution is imposed on the group but negative if development of the institution is left to the group to vote on. In the experiment, participants were divided into groups of either cooperative types or non-cooperative types depending on their behavior in a public goods game. In these homogeneous groups they repeatedly played a public goods game regulated by an institution that incorporated several of the key properties identified by Ostrom: operational rules, monitoring, rewards, punishments, and (in one condition) change of rules. When change of rules was not possible and punishments were set to be high, groups of both types generally abided by operational rules demanding high contributions to the common good, and thereby achieved high levels of payoffs. Under less severe rules, both types of groups did worse but non-cooperative types did worst. Thus, non-cooperative groups profited the most from being governed by an institution demanding high contributions and employing high punishments. Nevertheless, in a condition where change of rules through voting was made possible, development of the institution in this direction was more often voted down in groups of non-cooperative types. We discuss the relevance of the hard problem and fit our results into a bigger picture of institutional and individual determinants of cooperative behavior. PMID:22792282

  12. Using Weblog in Cooperative Learning to Improve the Achievement of History Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leng, Lim Hooi; Leng, Chin Hai; Abedalaziz, Nabeel

    2013-01-01

    This research investigates the use of Weblog in Cooperative Learning to enhance students' learning of History. The main issues of this study were the lack of interest and low achievement scores in History learning. The objectives of this study are to explore the incorporation of Weblog in Cooperative Learning within the teaching and learning…

  13. The Cooperative Learning Effects on English Reading Comprehension and Learning Motivation of EFL Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Ching-Ying; Wu, Hui-Yi

    2013-01-01

    This experimental study aims to investigate the effects of using cooperative learning to enhance the English reading comprehension and learning motivation of EFL freshmen by comparing the cooperative learning instruction and traditional lecture instruction. This experiment was implemented in a Freshman English Reading course, a two credit course,…

  14. Divorcing the puzzles: When group identities foster in-group cooperation.

    PubMed

    Seewald, Daniel; Hechler, Stefanie; Kessler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We argue that general social psychological mechanisms (e.g., common group identity) can account for prosocial behavior and cooperative norms without the need for punishing Big Gods. Moreover, prosocial religions often do not prevent conflict within their religious groups. Hence, we doubt whether Big Gods and prosocial religions are more effective than alternative identities in enhancing high-level cooperation. PMID:26948741

  15. Cooperative Learning and Literacy: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puzio, Kelly; Colby, Glenn T.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis on the effectiveness of cooperative and collaborative learning to support enhanced literacy outcomes. Interventions considered were provided in regular education settings (i.e., not pull-out instruction) with students from Grades 2 through 12. Reviewing more than 30 years of literacy research, we located 18…

  16. Cooperative Education: Characteristics and Effectiveness. ERIC Digest No. 91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerka, Sandra

    Cooperative education can enhance classroom instruction by providing practical work experience that is relevant to students' career goals. Among co-op's benefits to students are increased relevance of learning and motivation for study; improved self-reliance, self-confidence, and responsibility; contacts with potential employers; and higher…

  17. Beyond TQM: Competition and Cooperation Create the Agile Institution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godbey, Galen

    1993-01-01

    The market environment for higher education is being shaped by developments in technology, business practices, partnerships between education and industry, and adoption of Total Quality Management principles. Shrewd college administrators will combine competitiveness and cooperation to maintain or enhance their institutions' distinctiveness in the…

  18. Networked Experiments and Scientific Resource Sharing in Cooperative Knowledge Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cikic, Sabine; Jeschke, Sabina; Ludwig, Nadine; Sinha, Uwe; Thomsen, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Cooperative knowledge spaces create new potentials for the experimental fields in natural sciences and engineering because they enhance the accessibility of experimental setups through virtual laboratories and remote technology, opening them for collaborative and distributed usage. A concept for extending existing virtual knowledge spaces for the…

  19. Council for Cultural Cooperation and Cultural Fund. Annual Report 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).

    This report summarizes programs, studies, and symposia conducted by the Council for Cultural Cooperation (CCC) to enhance communication and interaction on educational and cultural matters between the members of the Council of Europe. The first section describes activities undertaken to promote European interaction. These include (1) exchange…

  20. Designing a Social Environment for Human-Robot Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amram, Fred M.

    Noting that work is partly a social activity, and that workers' psychological and emotional needs influence their productivity, this paper explores avenues for improving human-robot cooperation and for enhancing worker satisfaction in the environment of flexible automation. The first section of the paper offers a brief overview of the…

  1. Intercommunity Cooperation: How Iowa Towns Band Together for Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Betty; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Community clusters allow small towns to combine their efforts to enhance economic development, promote tourism, or share public services. Two successful clusters of communities in Iowa are the Area Community Commonwealth and the North Iowa Rural Area Development. Both clusters participated in Iowa State University's Cooperative Extension Service…

  2. Using SimCPU in Cooperative Learning Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Janet Mei-Chuen; Wu, Cheng-Chih; Liu, Hsi-Jen

    1999-01-01

    Reports research findings of an experimental design in which cooperative-learning strategies were applied to closed-lab instruction of computing concepts. SimCPU, a software package specially designed for closed-lab usage was used by 171 high school students of four classes. Results showed that collaboration enhanced learning and that blending…

  3. Exploring Technology Supported Collaborative and Cooperative Group Formation Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carapina, Mia; Boticki, Ivica

    2015-01-01

    This paper reflects on the systematic literature review paper (in progress), which analyzes technology enhanced collaborative and cooperative learning in elementary education worldwide from 2004 to 2015, focusing on the exploration of technology mediated group formation. The review paper reports on only a few cases of technology supported methods…

  4. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    SciTech Connect

    William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey

    2003-06-30

    described as Human Machine Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR). The HMCTR combines the telerobot with robotic control techniques to improve the system efficiency and reliability in teleoperation mode. In this topical report, the control strategy, configuration and experimental results of Human Machines Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR), which modifies and limits the commands of human operator to follow the predefined constraints in the teleoperation mode, is described. The current implementation is a laboratory-scale system that will be incorporated into an engineering-scale system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the future.

  5. 7 CFR 1000.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.18 Cooperative association. Cooperative association means any cooperative...

  6. Insulation of Enhancer-Promoter Communication by a Gypsy Transposon Insert in the Drosophila cut Gene: Cooperation between Suppressor of Hairy-wing and Modifier of mdg4 Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Gause, Maria; Morcillo, Patrick; Dorsett, Dale

    2001-01-01

    The Drosophila mod(mdg4) gene products counteract heterochromatin-mediated silencing of the white gene and help activate genes of the bithorax complex. They also regulate the insulator activity of the gypsy transposon when gypsy inserts between an enhancer and promoter. The Su(Hw) protein is required for gypsy-mediated insulation, and the Mod(mdg4)-67.2 protein binds to Su(Hw). The aim of this study was to determine whether Mod(mdg4)-67.2 is a coinsulator that helps Su(Hw) block enhancers or a facilitator of activation that is inhibited by Su(Hw). Here we provide evidence that Mod(mdg4)-67.2 acts as a coinsulator by showing that some loss-of-function mod(mdg4) mutations decrease enhancer blocking by a gypsy insert in the cut gene. We find that the C terminus of Mod(mdg4)-67.2 binds in vitro to a region of Su(Hw) that is required for insulation, while the N terminus mediates self-association. The N terminus of Mod(mdg4)-67.2 also interacts with the Chip protein, which facilitates activation of cut. Mod(mdg4)-67.2 truncated in the C terminus interferes in a dominant-negative fashion with insulation in cut but does not significantly affect heterochromatin-mediated silencing of white. We infer that multiple contacts between Su(Hw) and a Mod(mdg4)-67.2 multimer are required for insulation. We theorize that Mod(mdg4)-67.2 usually aids gene activation but can also act as a coinsulator by helping Su(Hw) trap facilitators of activation, such as the Chip protein. PMID:11416154

  7. The Hard Problem of Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Kimmo; Strimling, Pontus

    2012-01-01

    Based on individual variation in cooperative inclinations, we define the “hard problem of cooperation” as that of achieving high levels of cooperation in a group of non-cooperative types. Can the hard problem be solved by institutions with monitoring and sanctions? In a laboratory experiment we find that the answer is affirmative if the institution is imposed on the group but negative if development of the institution is left to the group to vote on. In the experiment, participants were divided into groups of either cooperative types or non-cooperative types depending on their behavior in a public goods game. In these homogeneous groups they repeatedly played a public goods game regulated by an institution that incorporated several of the key properties identified by Ostrom: operational rules, monitoring, rewards, punishments, and (in one condition) change of rules. When change of rules was not possible and punishments were set to be high, groups of both types generally abided by operational rules demanding high contributions to the common good, and thereby achieved high levels of payoffs. Under less severe rules, both types of groups did worse but non-cooperative types did worst. Thus, non-cooperative groups profited the most from being governed by an institution demanding high contributions and employing high punishments. Nevertheless, in a condition where change of rules through voting was made possible, development of the institution in this direction was more often voted down in groups of non-cooperative types. We discuss the relevance of the hard problem and fit our results into a bigger picture of institutional and individual determinants of cooperative behavior. PMID:22792282

  8. Cooperation, conformity, and the coevolutionary problem of trait associations.

    PubMed

    Van Cleve, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    In large scale social systems, coordinated or cooperative outcomes become difficult because encounters between kin or repeated encounters between friends are infrequent. Even punishment of noncooperators does not entirely alleviate the dilemma. One important mechanism for achieving cooperative outcomes in such social systems is conformist bias where individuals copy the behavior performed by the majority of their group mates. Conformist bias enhances group competition by both stabilizing behaviors within groups and increasing variance between groups. Due to this group competition effect, conformist bias is thought to have been an important driver of human social complexity and cultural diversity. However, conformist bias only evolves indirectly through associations with other traits, and I show that such associations are more difficult to obtain than previously expected. Specifically, I show that initial measures of population structure must be strong in order for a strong association between conformist bias and cooperative behaviors (cooperation and costly punishment) to evolve and for these traits to reach high frequencies. Additionally, the required initial level of association does not evolve de novo in simulations run over long timescales. This suggests that the coevolution of cooperative behaviors and conformist bias alone may not explain the high levels of cooperation within human groups, though conformist bias may still play an important role in combination with other social and demographic forces. PMID:26907203

  9. Network Modularity is essential for evolution of cooperation under uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Gianetto, David A.; Heydari, Babak

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative behavior, which pervades nature, can be significantly enhanced when agents interact in a structured rather than random way; however, the key structural factors that affect cooperation are not well understood. Moreover, the role structure plays with cooperation has largely been studied through observing overall cooperation rather than the underlying components that together shape cooperative behavior. In this paper we address these two problems by first applying evolutionary games to a wide range of networks, where agents play the Prisoner's Dilemma with a three-component stochastic strategy, and then analyzing agent-based simulation results using principal component analysis. With these methods we study the evolution of trust, reciprocity and forgiveness as a function of several structural parameters. This work demonstrates that community structure, represented by network modularity, among all the tested structural parameters, has the most significant impact on the emergence of cooperative behavior, with forgiveness showing the largest sensitivity to community structure. We also show that increased community structure reduces the dispersion of trust and forgiveness, thereby reducing the network-level uncertainties for these two components; graph transitivity and degree also significantly influence the evolutionary dynamics of the population and the diversity of strategies at equilibrium. PMID:25849737

  10. Network Modularity is essential for evolution of cooperation under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianetto, David A.; Heydari, Babak

    2015-04-01

    Cooperative behavior, which pervades nature, can be significantly enhanced when agents interact in a structured rather than random way; however, the key structural factors that affect cooperation are not well understood. Moreover, the role structure plays with cooperation has largely been studied through observing overall cooperation rather than the underlying components that together shape cooperative behavior. In this paper we address these two problems by first applying evolutionary games to a wide range of networks, where agents play the Prisoner's Dilemma with a three-component stochastic strategy, and then analyzing agent-based simulation results using principal component analysis. With these methods we study the evolution of trust, reciprocity and forgiveness as a function of several structural parameters. This work demonstrates that community structure, represented by network modularity, among all the tested structural parameters, has the most significant impact on the emergence of cooperative behavior, with forgiveness showing the largest sensitivity to community structure. We also show that increased community structure reduces the dispersion of trust and forgiveness, thereby reducing the network-level uncertainties for these two components; graph transitivity and degree also significantly influence the evolutionary dynamics of the population and the diversity of strategies at equilibrium.

  11. Network Modularity is essential for evolution of cooperation under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Gianetto, David A; Heydari, Babak

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative behavior, which pervades nature, can be significantly enhanced when agents interact in a structured rather than random way; however, the key structural factors that affect cooperation are not well understood. Moreover, the role structure plays with cooperation has largely been studied through observing overall cooperation rather than the underlying components that together shape cooperative behavior. In this paper we address these two problems by first applying evolutionary games to a wide range of networks, where agents play the Prisoner's Dilemma with a three-component stochastic strategy, and then analyzing agent-based simulation results using principal component analysis. With these methods we study the evolution of trust, reciprocity and forgiveness as a function of several structural parameters. This work demonstrates that community structure, represented by network modularity, among all the tested structural parameters, has the most significant impact on the emergence of cooperative behavior, with forgiveness showing the largest sensitivity to community structure. We also show that increased community structure reduces the dispersion of trust and forgiveness, thereby reducing the network-level uncertainties for these two components; graph transitivity and degree also significantly influence the evolutionary dynamics of the population and the diversity of strategies at equilibrium. PMID:25849737

  12. Promoting cooperation in social dilemmas via simple coevolutionary rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, A.; Perc, M.

    2009-02-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in structured populations within popular models of social dilemmas, whereby simple coevolutionary rules are introduced that may enhance players abilities to enforce their strategy on the opponent. Coevolution thus here refers to an evolutionary process affecting the teaching activity of players that accompanies the evolution of their strategies. Particularly, we increase the teaching activity of a player after it has successfully reproduced, yet we do so depending on the disseminated strategy. We separately consider coevolution affecting either only the cooperators or only the defectors, and show that both options promote cooperation irrespective of the applied game. Opposite to intuitive reasoning, however, we reveal that the coevolutionary promotion of players spreading defection is, in the long run, more beneficial for cooperation than the likewise promotion of cooperators. We explain the contradictive impact of the two considered coevolutionary rules by examining the differences between resulting heterogeneities that segregate participating players, and furthermore, demonstrate that the influential individuals completely determine the final outcome of the games. Our findings are immune to changes defining the type of considered social dilemmas and highlight that the heterogeneity of players, resulting in a positive feedback mechanism, is a fundamental property promoting cooperation in groups of selfish individuals.

  13. Cooperative robotic sentry vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feddema, John T.; Lewis, Christopher L.; Klarer, Paul; Eisler, G. R.; Caprihan, Rahul

    1999-08-01

    As part of a project for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Sandia National Laboratories' Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center is developing and testing the feasibility of a cooperative team of robotic sentry vehicles to guard a perimeter and to perform a surround task. This paper describes on-going activities in the development of these robotic sentry vehicles. To date, we have developed a robotic perimeter detection system which consists of eight 'Roving All Terrain Lunar Explorer Rovers' (RATLER), a laptop-based base-station, and several Miniature Intrusion Detection Sensors (MIDS). A radio frequency receiver on each of the RATLER vehicles alerts the sentry vehicles of alarms from the hidden MIDS. When an alarm is received, each vehicle decides whether it should investigate the alarm based on the proximity of itself and the other vehicles to the alarm. As one vehicle attends an alarm, the other vehicles adjust their position around the perimeter to better prepare for another alarm. For the surround task, both potential field and A* search path planners have been added to the base-station and vehicles. At the base-station, the operator specifies goal and exclusion regions on a GIS map. The path planner generates vehicles paths that are previewed by the operator. Once the operator has validated the path, the appropriate information is downloaded t the vehicles. For the potential field path planner, the polygons and line segments that represent the obstacles and goals are downloaded to the vehicles, instead of the simulated paths. On board the vehicles, the same potential field path planner generates the path except that it uses the true location of itself and the nearest neighboring vehicle. For the A* path planner, the actual path is downloaded to the vehicles because of limited on-board computational power.

  14. [Aware and cooperative reduction].

    PubMed

    Tambone, V; Ghilardi, G

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to address the question of reduction in the scientific method, to evaluate its legitimacy as well as its pro and contra from an epistemological point of view. In the first paragraph we classify some kinds of reductionism, analysing their presuppositions and epistemological status and showing some examples of scientific reduction. The presentation includes a classificatory table that shows some of the different forms of biological reductionism. In the second paragraph we study the epistemology of science starting from its modern beginning: the Vienna Circle, focusing on the meaning of methodological reductionism. What did it mean for science to define itself mainly as method, which effects did this new concept of science have on methodology and what kind of problems did this movement bring about. In the third paragraph we examine the reactions triggered by methodological reductionism, we analyze the theoretical consistency of these answers, trying to offer a balanced view. We show how complexity can be seen as a paradigm of the anti-reductionism effort, and we study its epistemological basis. In the fourth paragraph we outline our operative proposal: the reduction that is both aware and cooperative. We point out the main reasons why science cannot avoid being reductive in some way, and therefore how we need to deal with this feature in order to prevent it to degenerate into reductionism. We show some examples of this new proposal taken from the practical realm and from literature, where it is possible to discern the spirit of this alternative methodology. PMID:22964706

  15. Regional Renewable Energy Cooperatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Byrne, J. M.; Harrison, T.; Mueller, R.; Peacock, K.; Usher, J.; Yalamova, R.; Kroebel, R.; Larsen, J.; McNaughton, R.

    2014-12-01

    We are building a multidisciplinary research program linking researchers in agriculture, business, earth science, engineering, humanities and social science. Our goal is to match renewable energy supply and reformed energy demands. The program will be focused on (i) understanding and modifying energy demand, (ii) design and implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Geomatics technology will be used to map existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation (ridges, rooftops, valley walls) will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids and transportation. Design of networks for utilization of waste streams of heat, water, animal and human waste for energy production will be investigated. Agriculture, cities and industry produce many waste streams that are not well utilized. Therefore, establishing a renewable energy resource mapping and planning program for electrical generation, waste heat and energy recovery, biomass collection, and biochar, biodiesel and syngas production is critical to regional energy optimization. Electrical storage and demand management are two priorities that will be investigated. Regional scale cooperatives may use electric vehicle batteries and innovations such as pump storage and concentrated solar molten salt heat storage for steam turbine electrical generation. Energy demand management is poorly explored in Canada and elsewhere - our homes and businesses operate on an unrestricted demand. Simple monitoring and energy demand-ranking software can easily reduce peaks demands and move lower ranked uses to non-peak periods, thereby reducing the grid size needed to meet peak demands. Peak demand strains the current energy grid capacity and often requires demand balancing projects and

  16. Cooperation Among Theorem Provers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldinger, Richard J.

    1998-01-01

    This is a final report, which supports NASA's PECSEE (Persistent Cognizant Software Engineering Environment) effort and complements the Kestrel Institute project "Inference System Integration via Logic Morphism". The ultimate purpose of the project is to develop a superior logical inference mechanism by combining the diverse abilities of multiple cooperating theorem provers. In many years of research, a number of powerful theorem-proving systems have arisen with differing capabilities and strengths. Resolution theorem provers (such as Kestrel's KITP or SRI's, SNARK) deal with first-order logic with equality but not the principle of mathematical induction. The Boyer-Moore theorem prover excels at proof by induction but cannot deal with full first-order logic. Both are highly automated but cannot accept user guidance easily. The PVS system (from SRI) in only automatic within decidable theories, but it has well-designed interactive capabilities: furthermore, it includes higher-order logic, not just first-order logic. The NuPRL system from Cornell University and the STeP system from Stanford University have facilities for constructive logic and temporal logic, respectively - both are interactive. It is often suggested - for example, in the anonymous "QED Manifesto"-that we should pool the resources of all these theorem provers into a single system, so that the strengths of one can compensate for the weaknesses of others, and so that effort will not be duplicated. However, there is no straightforward way of doing this, because each system relies on its own language and logic for its success. Thus. SNARK uses ordinary first-order logic with equality, PVS uses higher-order logic. and NuPRL uses constructive logic. The purpose of this project, and the companion project at Kestrel, has been to use the category-theoretic notion of logic morphism to combine systems with different logics and languages. Kestrel's SPECWARE system has been the vehicle for the implementation.

  17. Organizational choices for international cooperation: East-West European cooperation on regional environmental problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, Barbara Mary

    This dissertation applies theoretical insights from transaction cost economics to explain and predict the organizational form of cooperative agreements between Eastern and Western Europe in areas of regional environmental and political concern. It examines five contracting problems related to nuclear power safety and acid rain, and describes the history of international negotiations to manage these problems. It argues that the level of interdependence in a given issue area, or costly effects experienced in one state due to activities and decisions of other states, along with the level of transactional vulnerability, or sunk costs invested in support of a particular contractual relationship among these states, are key determinants of the governance structures states choose to facilitate cooperation in that issue area. Empirically, the dissertation traces the evolution of three sets of institutional arrangements related to nuclear safety: governance for western nuclear safety assistance to Eastern Europe, negotiations of a global convention on safety standards for nuclear power plants, and contracts among utilities and multilateral banks to build new nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe. Next it studies European acid rain, chronicling the history of international acid rain controls within the UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) and the European Union, and finally examining institutional arrangements for burden-sharing to promote European bargains on emissions reduction, including bilateral aid transfers and proposals for multilateral burden sharing. Political actors have a wide range of choice among institutional arrangements to facilitate international cooperation, from simple market-type exchanges, to arbitration-type regimes that provide information and enhance reputation effects, to self-enforcing agreements such as issue-linkage, to supranational governance. The governance structures states devise to manage their cooperative

  18. Cooperative strings and glassy interfaces.

    PubMed

    Salez, Thomas; Salez, Justin; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari; Raphaël, Elie; Forrest, James A

    2015-07-01

    We introduce a minimal theory of glass formation based on the ideas of molecular crowding and resultant string-like cooperative rearrangement, and address the effects of free interfaces. In the bulk case, we obtain a scaling expression for the number of particles taking part in cooperative strings, and we recover the Adam-Gibbs description of glassy dynamics. Then, by including thermal dilatation, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann relation is derived. Moreover, the random and string-like characters of the cooperative rearrangement allow us to predict a temperature-dependent expression for the cooperative length ξ of bulk relaxation. Finally, we explore the influence of sample boundaries when the system size becomes comparable to ξ. The theory is in agreement with measurements of the glass-transition temperature of thin polymer films, and allows quantification of the temperature-dependent thickness hm of the interfacial mobile layer. PMID:26100908

  19. Interorganizational Cooperation: Why and How?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beder, Hal

    1984-01-01

    Describes characteristics of continuing education agencies (resource and organizational insecurity, need for flexibility, autonomy), type of cooperation (cosponsorship, referral, donation, coordination), essential resources (money, learners, staff, information, domain, power), hidden costs (time, dislocation, goal dislocation, goal displacement,…

  20. Combining Cooperative Education and Placement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lentz, Glenda F.

    1984-01-01

    Suggests that placement, like cooperative education, can function better in academic affairs rather than student affairs. Describes the combination of the two departments at the University of South Florida and discusses advantages and disadvantages of a combined program. (JAC)

  1. The Paradoxes of Library Cooperation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Richard M.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Besides the main article by Richard Dougherty, this mini-symposium on library cooperation contains commentaries by Ralph Blasingame, Thomas J. Galvin, Ellsworth Mason, John F. Anderson and Robert S. Ake. (18 references) (NH)

  2. Planning and Implementing Cooperative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sylvia J.

    1978-01-01

    Implementing cooperative education requires careful planning, institutional support, and competent staffing. Suggestions for planning, setting objectives, recruiting students, job development, student counseling and placement, liaison with other colleges offices, and institutionalization are described. (Author/LBH)

  3. Cooperative strings and glassy interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Salez, Thomas; Salez, Justin; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari; Raphaël, Elie; Forrest, James A.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a minimal theory of glass formation based on the ideas of molecular crowding and resultant string-like cooperative rearrangement, and address the effects of free interfaces. In the bulk case, we obtain a scaling expression for the number of particles taking part in cooperative strings, and we recover the Adam–Gibbs description of glassy dynamics. Then, by including thermal dilatation, the Vogel–Fulcher–Tammann relation is derived. Moreover, the random and string-like characters of the cooperative rearrangement allow us to predict a temperature-dependent expression for the cooperative length ξ of bulk relaxation. Finally, we explore the influence of sample boundaries when the system size becomes comparable to ξ. The theory is in agreement with measurements of the glass-transition temperature of thin polymer films, and allows quantification of the temperature-dependent thickness hm of the interfacial mobile layer. PMID:26100908

  4. Maintenance of cooperation induced by punishment in public goods games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen; Xu, Zhao-Jin; Huang, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Lian-Zhong

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we study the public goods games with punishment by adopting the well-known approximate best response dynamics. It shows that the evolution of cooperation is affected by two aspects when other parameters are fixed. One is the punishment mechanism which can avoid the dilemma of lacking investment, and the other is the degree of rationality. Theoretical analysis and numerical results indicate that the existence of punishment mechanism and distribution of rationality are the keys to the enhancement of cooperation level. We also testify that they can heavily influence the payoffs of system as well. The findings in this paper may provide a deeper understanding of some social dilemmas.

  5. Cooperative binding: a multiple personality.

    PubMed

    Martini, Johannes W R; Diambra, Luis; Habeck, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Cooperative binding has been described in many publications and has been related to or defined by several different properties of the binding behavior of the ligand to the target molecule. In addition to the commonly used Hill coefficient, other characteristics such as a sigmoidal shape of the overall titration curve in a linear plot, a change of ligand affinity of the other binding sites when a site of the target molecule becomes occupied, or complex roots of the binding polynomial have been used to define or to quantify cooperative binding. In this work, we analyze how the different properties are related in the most general model for binding curves based on the grand canonical partition function and present several examples which highlight differences between the cooperativity characterizing properties which are discussed. Our results mainly show that among the presented definitions there are not two which fully coincide. Moreover, this work poses the question whether it can make sense to distinguish between positive and negative cooperativity based on the macroscopic binding isotherm only. This article shall emphasize that scientists who investigate cooperative effects in biological systems could help avoiding misunderstandings by stating clearly which kind of cooperativity they discuss. PMID:26319983

  6. Hormonal mechanisms of cooperative behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Marta C.; Bshary, Redouan; Fusani, Leonida; Goymann, Wolfgang; Hau, Michaela; Hirschenhauser, Katharina; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2010-01-01

    Research on the diversity, evolution and stability of cooperative behaviour has generated a considerable body of work. As concepts simplify the real world, theoretical solutions are typically also simple. Real behaviour, in contrast, is often much more diverse. Such diversity, which is increasingly acknowledged to help in stabilizing cooperative outcomes, warrants detailed research about the proximate mechanisms underlying decision-making. Our aim here is to focus on the potential role of neuroendocrine mechanisms on the regulation of the expression of cooperative behaviour in vertebrates. We first provide a brief introduction into the neuroendocrine basis of social behaviour. We then evaluate how hormones may influence known cognitive modules that are involved in decision-making processes that may lead to cooperative behaviour. Based on this evaluation, we will discuss specific examples of how hormones may contribute to the variability of cooperative behaviour at three different levels: (i) within an individual; (ii) between individuals and (iii) between species. We hope that these ideas spur increased research on the behavioural endocrinology of cooperation. PMID:20679116

  7. Diverse roles of the reduced learning ability of players in the evolution of cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhi-Xi; Rong, Zhihai; Chen, Michael Z. Q.

    2015-05-01

    Individual heterogeneity in the reproductive rate is found to play an important role in the emergence and persistence of cooperation. Most of the existing literature focused mainly on the enhancement of cooperation by the introduction of inhomogeneous teaching capability of the individuals. It is far from clear how the heterogeneous learning ability of the individuals affects the evolution of cooperation. To fill this research gap, we make comparative studies of the evolutionary spatial prisoner's dilemma game with reduced learning or teaching ability of the players, under both synchronous and asynchronous strategy updating schemes. By carrying out extensive computer simulations, we show that cooperation can always be facilitated if the inhomogeneous teaching ability of the players is considered, irrespectively of the strategy updating manner. By contrast, cooperation is promoted (inhibited) in the case of synchronous (asynchronous) strategy updating, if heterogeneous learning ability is considered, which is attributed to the reduced ability of cooperators to expand their domains.

  8. Time-resolved measurements of Cooper-pair radiative recombination in InAs quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Mou, S. S.; Nakajima, H.; Kumano, H.; Suemune, I.; Irie, H.; Asano, Y.; Akahane, K.; Sasaki, M.; Murayama, A.

    2015-08-21

    We studied InAs quantum dots (QDs) where electron Cooper pairs penetrate from an adjacent niobium (Nb) superconductor with the proximity effect. With time-resolved luminescence measurements at the wavelength around 1550 nm, we observed luminescence enhancement and reduction of luminescence decay time constants at temperature below the superconducting critical temperature (T{sub C}) of Nb. On the basis of these measurements, we propose a method to determine the contribution of Cooper-pair recombination in InAs QDs. We show that the luminescence enhancement measured below T{sub C} is well explained with our theory including Cooper-pair recombination.

  9. Heterogeneity of inferring reputation probability in cooperative behaviors for the spatial prisoners' dilemma game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Peng; Wang, Fang

    2015-09-01

    As an important mechanism designed to counteract temptation and promote cooperation, reputation is widely investigated in the spatial Prisoners' dilemma game. Existing research assumes that each agent imitates the neighbor that has the highest reputation with an inferring reputation probability pi, which is heterogeneous and enhances cooperation to some extent. So far the effect of heterogeneity has not been adequately revealed. Therefore, we will inspect the heterogeneity effect on a square lattice where agents play the prisoners' dilemma game. It is assumed that the inferring reputation probability is normally distributed, and its mean p and standard deviation sd represent its mean effect and heterogeneity effect on cooperation. Simulation results demonstrate that the mean or overall effect on cooperation fits a nonlinear relationship. It promotes cooperation substantially as the mean is smaller (p < 0.5), it stabilizes cooperation at a stable state as the mean is in the middle range, and it undermines cooperation while p is larger (p > 0.8). The heterogeneity effect varies with p as well: In the whole range of p, sd neither promotes nor reduces cooperation. However, heterogeneity reduces cooperation when p is smaller (p < 0.5) , but turns to increasing cooperation when it grows larger (p ⩾ 0.5) .

  10. Harvest-Then-Cooperate: Wireless-Powered Cooperative Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, He; Li, Yonghui; Luiz Rebelatto, Joao; Uchoa-Filho, Bartolomeu F.; Vucetic, Branka

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we consider a wireless-powered cooperative communication network consisting of one hybrid access-point (AP), one source, and one relay. In contrast to conventional cooperative networks, the source and relay in the considered network have no embedded energy supply. They need to rely on the energy harvested from the signals broadcasted by the AP for their cooperative information transmission. Based on this three-node reference model, we propose a harvest-then-cooperate (HTC) protocol, in which the source and relay harvest energy from the AP in the downlink and work cooperatively in the uplink for the source's information transmission. Considering a delay-limited transmission mode, the approximate closed-form expression for the average throughput of the proposed protocol is derived over Rayleigh fading channels. Subsequently, this analysis is extended to the multi-relay scenario, where the approximate throughput of the HTC protocol with two popular relay selection schemes is derived. The asymptotic analyses for the throughput performance of the considered schemes at high signal-to-noise radio are also provided. All theoretical results are validated by numerical simulations. The impacts of the system parameters, such as time allocation, relay number, and relay position, on the throughput performance are extensively investigated.

  11. 7 CFR 1150.119 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative association. 1150.119 Section 1150.119... Order Definitions § 1150.119 Cooperative association. Cooperative association means any cooperative marketing association of producers which is organized under the provisions of the Act of Congress...

  12. 7 CFR 1000.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative association. 1000.18 Section 1000.18... Definitions § 1000.18 Cooperative association. Cooperative association means any cooperative marketing association of producers which the Secretary determines is qualified under the provisions of the...

  13. 16 CFR 1028.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 1028.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1028.114 Section...

  14. 32 CFR 219.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are... cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare of... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative research. 219.114 Section...

  15. 14 CFR 1230.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 1230.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1230.114 Section...

  16. 16 CFR 1028.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 1028.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1028.114 Section...

  17. 40 CFR 26.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.114 Section...

  18. 15 CFR 27.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 27.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooperative research. 27.114...

  19. 28 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section...

  20. 28 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section...

  1. 28 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section...

  2. 14 CFR 1230.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 1230.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1230.114 Section...

  3. 14 CFR 1230.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 1230.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1230.114 Section...

  4. 15 CFR 27.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 27.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 27.114...

  5. 16 CFR 1028.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 1028.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1028.114 Section...

  6. 28 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section...

  7. 15 CFR 27.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 27.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooperative research. 27.114...

  8. 32 CFR 219.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are... cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare of... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperative research. 219.114 Section...

  9. 15 CFR 27.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 27.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative research. 27.114...

  10. 32 CFR 219.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are... cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare of... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 219.114 Section...

  11. 32 CFR 219.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are... cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare of... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative research. 219.114 Section...

  12. 32 CFR 219.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are... cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare of... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperative research. 219.114 Section...

  13. 40 CFR 26.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.114 Section...

  14. 14 CFR 1230.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 1230.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Cooperative research. 1230.114 Section...

  15. 28 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section...

  16. 40 CFR 26.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.114 Section...

  17. 16 CFR 1028.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 1028.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1028.114 Section...

  18. 16 CFR 1028.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 1028.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1028.114 Section...

  19. 40 CFR 26.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.114 Section...

  20. 36 CFR 212.3 - Cooperative work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative work. 212.3... MANAGEMENT Administration of the Forest Transportation System § 212.3 Cooperative work. (a) Cooperative... for expenditure from the appropriation “Cooperative Work, Forest Service.” If a State, county or...

  1. 36 CFR 212.3 - Cooperative work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative work. 212.3... MANAGEMENT Administration of the Forest Transportation System § 212.3 Cooperative work. (a) Cooperative... for expenditure from the appropriation “Cooperative Work, Forest Service.” If a State, county or...

  2. 36 CFR 212.3 - Cooperative work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperative work. 212.3... MANAGEMENT Administration of the Forest Transportation System § 212.3 Cooperative work. (a) Cooperative... for expenditure from the appropriation “Cooperative Work, Forest Service.” If a State, county or...

  3. 36 CFR 212.3 - Cooperative work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative work. 212.3... MANAGEMENT Administration of the Forest Transportation System § 212.3 Cooperative work. (a) Cooperative... for expenditure from the appropriation “Cooperative Work, Forest Service.” If a State, county or...

  4. 36 CFR 212.3 - Cooperative work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperative work. 212.3... MANAGEMENT Administration of the Forest Transportation System § 212.3 Cooperative work. (a) Cooperative... for expenditure from the appropriation “Cooperative Work, Forest Service.” If a State, county or...

  5. Astronaut Gordon Cooper during flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper, prime pilot for the Mercury-Atlas 9 mission, relaxes while waiting for weight and balance tests to begin (03974); Cooper prior to entering the Mercury Spacecraft for a series of simulated flight tests. During these tests NASA doctors, engineers and technicians monitor Cooper's performance (03975); Cooper undergoing suit pressurization tests (03976).

  6. Pre-B cell colony enhancing factor (PBEF/NAMPT/Visfatin) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) cooperate to increase the permeability of the human placental amnion.

    PubMed

    Astern, J M; Collier, A C; Kendal-Wright, C E

    2013-01-01

    Fluid efflux across the region of the amnion overlying the placenta is an essential component of the intramembranous absorption pathway that maintains amniotic fluid volume homeostasis. Dysregulation of this pathway may result in adverse pregnancy outcomes, however the factors controlling amnion permeability are unknown. Here, we report a novel mechanism that increases placental amnion permeability. Pre-B Cell Colony Enhancing Factor (PBEF) is a stress-responsive cytokine expressed by the human amnion, and is known to induce Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) production by other cell types. Interestingly, VEGF is up-regulated in the ovine amnion when intramembranous absorption is augmented. In this study, we show that PBEF induced VEGF secretion by primary human amniotic epithelial cells (AEC) derived from the placental amnion, as well as from the reflected amnion that lines the remainder of the gestational sac. Further, PBEF treatment led to the increased expression of VEGFR2 in placental AEC, but not reflected AEC. To test the hypothesis that PBEF and VEGF increase placental amnion permeability, we monitored the transfer of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCF) from the fetal to the maternal side of human amnion explants. A treatment regimen including both PBEF and VEGF increased the rate of DCF transfer across the placental amnion, but not the reflected amnion. In summary, our results suggest that by augmenting VEGFR2 expression in the placental amnion, PBEF primes the tissue for a VEGF-mediated increase in permeability. This mechanism may have important implications in amniotic fluid volume control throughout gestation. PMID:23151382

  7. p300/cAMP-response-element-binding-protein ('CREB')-binding protein (CBP) modulates co-operation between myocyte enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A) and thyroid hormone receptor-retinoid X receptor.

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Antonio; Severino, Anna; De Paolis, Paola; Cottone, Giuliano; De Luca, Luca; De Falco, Maria; Porcellini, Antonio; Volpe, Massimo; Condorelli, Gianluigi

    2003-01-01

    Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) and members of the myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) family are involved in the regulation of muscle-specific gene expression during myogenesis. Physical interaction between these two factors is required to synergistically activate gene transcription. p300/cAMP-response-element-binding-protein ('CREB')-binding protein (CBP) interacting with transcription factors is able to increase their activity on target gene promoters. We investigated the role of p300 in regulating the TR-MEF2A complex. To this end, we mapped the regions of these proteins involved in physical interactions and we evaluated the expression of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene in U2OS cells under control of the alpha-myosin heavy chain promoter containing the thyroid hormone response element (TRE). Our results suggested a role of p300/CBP in mediating the transactivation effects of the TR-retenoid X receptor (RxR)-MEF2A complex. Our findings showed that the same C-terminal portion of p300 binds the N-terminal domains of both TR and MEF2A, and our in vivo studies demonstrated that TR, MEF2A and p300 form a ternary complex. Moreover, by the use of CAT assays, we demonstrated that adenovirus E1A inhibits activation of transcription by TR-RxR-MEF2A-p300 but not by TR-RxR-MEF2A. Our data suggested that p300 can bind and modulate the activity of TR-RxR-MEF2A at TRE. In addition, it is speculated that p300 might modulate the activity of the TR-RxR-MEF2A complex by recruiting a hypothetical endogenous inhibitor which may act like adenovirus E1A. PMID:12371907

  8. Industrial ecology: A basis for sustainable relations and cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Blades, K.

    1996-07-19

    The Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) seeks to address, in a cooperative manner, the environmental issues affecting the North American region and understand the linkages between environment and economy. Broadly, the goal of the CEC can be thought of as an attempt to achieve a sustainable economy concomitantly with continued economic, cultural, and technological evolution. The emerging field of industrial ecology provides a useful means for balancing the environmental and economical objectives of NAFTA. As NAFTA stimulates economic cooperation and growth, we must collectively develop mechanisms that enhance the environmental quality of the region. LLNL`s effort in industrial ecology provides the scientific basis and innovative use of technology to reconcile environmental and economic concerns. Nevertheless, these are not issues which can be resolved by a single institution. Efficient use of the linkages established by NAFTA is necessary to nurture our regional partnership which forms the basis for a sustainable environment, economy and relationship.

  9. Cooperative optical trapping in asymmetric plasmon nanocavity arrays.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ling; Sun, Zhijun

    2015-11-30

    We propose a scheme using cooperative interaction of antiphase resonance modes to enhance optical trapping in plasmonic nanostructures. This is implemented with a subwavelength array of asymmetric binary nanogrooves (e.g. different depths) in metal. When damping and inter-coupling of antiphase fields in the nanogrooves are mediated satisfying a critical condition, light can be cooperatively trapped in the nanogrooves, demonstrating perfect absorption at nearly the intrinsic resonance frequency of the deeper nanogrooves. A harmonic oscillator model is developed to interpret the cooperative interaction processes. The phenomenon has been also implemented in asymmetric ternary nanogroove arrays. In terms of compositions and intra-coupling mechanisms, the asymmetric binary/ternary plasmonic nanostructure arrays are crystalline molecular-metamaterials, analogous to electronic crystals composed of covalence-bond molecules. PMID:26698759

  10. Spatial organization of cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desprat, Nicolas

    The structure of the environment spatially confines bacteria inside groups where they live and evolve with their siblings. This population structure may not only select for individual abilities but also for group properties that would eventually enhance the fitness of the colony. In poor media, we might think that maximizing the contact with the environment would maximize the fitness of individual cells. However, we will show that the microcolony of P. aeruginosa adapts its morphogenesis to maximize cell-cell contacts rather than cell-environment interactions when iron becomes scarce in the environment. In this case, reducing the surface of exchange with the environment allows to limit the loss of secreted molecules required to efficiently fetch extracelllular iron at very low concentration.

  11. Limited cooperativity in protein folding.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Victor; Campos, Luis A; Sadqi, Mourad

    2016-02-01

    Theory and simulations predict that the structural concert of protein folding reactions is relatively low. Experimentally, folding cooperativity has been difficult to study, but in recent years we have witnessed major advances. New analytical procedures in terms of conformational ensembles rather than discrete states, experimental techniques with improved time, structural, or single-molecule resolution, and combined thermodynamic and kinetic analysis of fast folding have contributed to demonstrate a general scenario of limited cooperativity in folding. Gradual structural disorder is already apparent on the unfolded and native states of slow, two-state folding proteins, and it greatly increases in magnitude for fast folding domains. These results demonstrate a direct link between how fast a single-domain protein folds and unfolds, and how cooperative (or structurally diverse) is its equilibrium unfolding process. Reducing cooperativity also destabilizes the native structure because it affects unfolding more than folding. We can thus define a continuous cooperativity scale that goes from the 'pliable' two-state character of slow folders to the gradual unfolding of one-state downhill, and eventually to intrinsically disordered proteins. The connection between gradual unfolding and intrinsic disorder is appealing because it suggests a conformational rheostat mechanism to explain the allosteric effects of folding coupled to binding. PMID:26845039

  12. Graphical interfaces for cooperative planning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Philip J.; Layton, Chuck; Mccoy, C. Elaine

    1990-01-01

    Based on a cognitive task analysis of 5 airline flight crews in a simulator study, researchers have designed a testbed for studying computer aids for en route flight path planning. This testbed runs on a Mac II controlling three color monitors, and is being used to study the design of aids for both dispatchers and flight crews. Specifically, the research focuses on design concepts for developing cooperative problem-solving systems. We use en route flight planning (selecting alternate routes or destinations due to unanticipated weather, traffic, malfunctions, etc.) as the context for studying the design of such systems. Researchers are currently exploring three questions in this test environment: (1) When interacting with a flight planning aid, how does the role of the pilot influence overall system performance; (2) Can the architecture for a cooperative planning system be built around Sacerdoti's (1983) concept of an abstraction hierarchy, where the pilot can interact with the system at many different levels of detail (but where the computer aid by default handles lower level details that the pilot has chosen not to deat with); and (3) Can graphical displays and direct manipulation of these displays provide perceptual enhancements (Larkin and Simon, 1987) of the pilot's problem-solving activities. Information is given in viewgraph form.

  13. Cooperative field test program for wind systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bollmeier, W.S. II; Dodge, D.M.

    1992-03-01

    The objectives of the Federal Wind Energy Program, managed by the US Department of Energy (DOE), are (1) to assist industry and utilities in achieving a multi-regional US market penetration of wind systems, and (2) to establish the United States as the world leader in the development of advanced wind turbine technology. In 1984, the program conducted a series of planning workshops with representatives from the wind energy industry to obtain input on the Five-Year Research Plan then being prepared by DOE. One specific suggestion that came out of these meetings was that the federal program should conduct cooperative research tests with industry to enhance the technology transfer process. It was also felt that the active involvement of industry in DOE-funded research would improve the state of the art of wind turbine technology. DOE established the Cooperative Field Test Program (CFTP) in response to that suggestion. This program was one of the first in DOE to feature joint industry-government research test teams working toward common objectives.

  14. Cooperation and conflict in the evolution of multicellularity.

    PubMed

    Michod, R E; Roze, D

    2001-01-01

    Multicellular organisms probably originated as groups of cells formed in several ways, including cell proliferation from a group of founder cells and aggregation. Cooperation among cells benefits the group, but may be costly (altruistic) or beneficial (synergistic) to individual cooperating cells. In this paper, we study conflict mediation, the process by which genetic modifiers evolve that enhance cooperation by altering the parameters of development or rules of formation of cell groups. We are particularly interested in the conditions under which these modifiers lead to a new higher-level unit of selection with increased cooperation among group members and heritable variation in fitness at the group level. By sculpting the fitness variation and opportunity for selection at the two levels, conflict modifiers create new functions at the organism level. An organism is more than a group of cooperating cells related by common descent; organisms require adaptations that regulate conflict within. Otherwise their continued evolution is frustrated by the creation of within-organism variation and conflict between levels of selection. The evolution of conflict modifiers is a necessary prerequisite to the emergence of individuality and the continued well being of the organism. Conflict leads--through the evolution of adaptations that reduce i--to greater individuality and harmony for the organism. PMID:11298810

  15. Investment and Return in International Space Life Sciences Research Cooperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPhee, Jancy C.; White, Ronald J.

    2007-01-01

    Today, a worldwide community of life scientists interested in space research is attempting to improve the understanding of general biological processes, aid the development of procedures to reduce the biomedically-related risks of space flight, and/or directly support the health care of people who fly in space. Unfortunately, limited resource and subject availability and the technical challenges of performing space experiments have all hampered the full growth and development of space life sciences research. For many years, international cooperation in this field has been considered an attractive approach towards overcoming some of these difficulties, since pooling resources and sharing results would enhance the knowledge of all cooperating partners. International cooperative activities, however, require an investment by each partner and, just as in many other endeavors, the research gain can be directly related to the investment made. In this paper, the authors will discuss three possible levels of cooperation: sharing of data from independent investigations, harmonious integration of pre-designed independent investigations, and de novo design of an integrated suite of investigations using a joint investigator team. The degree of investment and potential return for each level of cooperation will be described.

  16. Group preferential selection promotes cooperation in spatial public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong-Bin; Wang, Hong

    2014-04-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in public goods games on the square lattice, focusing on the co-player learning mechanism based on the preferential selection that are brought about by wealthy information of groups where participants collect and search for potential imitators from those groups. We find that co-player learning mechanism based on the choice of weighted group can lead to the promotion of public cooperation by means of the information of wealthy groups that is obtained by participants, and after that the partial choice of public goods groups is enhanced with the tunable preferential parameter. Our results highlight that the learning interactions is not solely confined to the restricted connection among players, but co-players of wealthy groups have the opportunity to be as a role model in the promotion of cooperative evolution. Moreover, we also find the size of learning affects the choice of distant players, cooperators (defectors) having more paths to exploit the phalanx of opponents to survive when the value of preferential parameter is small. Besides, the extinction thresholds of cooperators and defectors for different values of noise are also investigated.

  17. Expectation-driven migration promotes cooperation by group interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Te; Fu, Feng; Zhang, Yanling; Wang, Long

    2012-06-01

    “Voting with feet” describes the prominent social phenomenon that people tend to move away from deteriorating neighborhoods and search for and join prosperous groups. To quantify the role this kind of expectation-driven migration plays in the evolution of cooperation, here we study a simple yet effective model of cooperation based on spatial public goods games. The population structure is characterized by a square lattice with some nodes being left empty. Individuals have expectations toward their current habitats. Dissatisfied players, whose expectation is not met after interacting with all directly connected neighbors, tend to abstain from the groups of low quality by moving away and explore the physical niches of avail. How fast interaction happens relatively to selection is regulated by the time-scale ratio of game interaction to natural selection. Under strong selection, simulation results show that cooperation is greatly improved for either low, moderate, or high expectations compared to whenever the expectation-driven migration is absent. Further explorations reveal that neither too high nor too low but rather a combination of moderate expectations and rapid interaction establishes cooperation for a moderate public goods enhancement factor. There exists an optimal interval of expectation level most favoring the evolution of cooperation as the required time-scale ratio is minimized.

  18. Cooperative program for Asian pediatricians.

    PubMed

    Sakakihara, Y; Nakamura, Y

    1993-12-01

    The Cooperative Program for Asian Pediatricians (CPAP) is a non-government organization established in 1989 to promote mutual understanding and friendship among young pediatricians in Asian countries. Unlike other government programs and non-government organizations, CPAP is solely facilitating mutual relationships among young inexperienced pediatricians who would otherwise have no chance to travel overseas. It has been funded by donations from members of the alumni association of the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Tokyo and many private companies and individuals. The Cooperative Program for Asian Pediatricians has so far invited 36 Asian pediatricians from 11 countries. By constructing a human network among Asian pediatricians, it is hoped that CPAP will contribute to making international cooperation in the Asian region easier and smoother. PMID:8109248

  19. Dark matters: exploitation as cooperation.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Partha

    2012-04-21

    The empirical literature on human cooperation contains studies of communitarian institutions that govern the provision of public goods and management of common property resources in poor countries. Scholars studying those institutions have frequently used the Prisoners' Dilemma game as their theoretical tool-kit. But neither the provision of local public goods nor the management of local common property resources involves the Prisoners' Dilemma. That has implications for our reading of communitarian institutions. By applying a fundamental result in the theory of repeated games to a model of local common property resources, it is shown that communitarian institutions can harbour exploitation of fellow members, something that would not be possible in societies where cooperation amounts to overcoming the Prisoners' Dilemma. The conclusion we should draw is that exploitation can masquerade as cooperation. PMID:21549130

  20. Fashion, Cooperation, and Social Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhigang; Gao, Haoyu; Qu, Xinglong; Yang, Mingmin; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2013-01-01

    Fashion plays such a crucial rule in the evolution of culture and society that it is regarded as a second nature to the human being. Also, its impact on economy is quite nontrivial. On what is fashionable, interestingly, there are two viewpoints that are both extremely widespread but almost opposite: conformists think that what is popular is fashionable, while rebels believe that being different is the essence. Fashion color is fashionable in the first sense, and Lady Gaga in the second. We investigate a model where the population consists of the afore-mentioned two groups of people that are located on social networks (a spatial cellular automata network and small-world networks). This model captures two fundamental kinds of social interactions (coordination and anti-coordination) simultaneously, and also has its own interest to game theory: it is a hybrid model of pure competition and pure cooperation. This is true because when a conformist meets a rebel, they play the zero sum matching pennies game, which is pure competition. When two conformists (rebels) meet, they play the (anti-) coordination game, which is pure cooperation. Simulation shows that simple social interactions greatly promote cooperation: in most cases people can reach an extraordinarily high level of cooperation, through a selfish, myopic, naive, and local interacting dynamic (the best response dynamic). We find that degree of synchronization also plays a critical role, but mostly on the negative side. Four indices, namely cooperation degree, average satisfaction degree, equilibrium ratio and complete ratio, are defined and applied to measure people’s cooperation levels from various angles. Phase transition, as well as emergence of many interesting geographic patterns in the cellular automata network, is also observed. PMID:23382799

  1. Fashion, cooperation, and social interactions.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhigang; Gao, Haoyu; Qu, Xinglong; Yang, Mingmin; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2013-01-01

    Fashion plays such a crucial rule in the evolution of culture and society that it is regarded as a second nature to the human being. Also, its impact on economy is quite nontrivial. On what is fashionable, interestingly, there are two viewpoints that are both extremely widespread but almost opposite: conformists think that what is popular is fashionable, while rebels believe that being different is the essence. Fashion color is fashionable in the first sense, and Lady Gaga in the second. We investigate a model where the population consists of the afore-mentioned two groups of people that are located on social networks (a spatial cellular automata network and small-world networks). This model captures two fundamental kinds of social interactions (coordination and anti-coordination) simultaneously, and also has its own interest to game theory: it is a hybrid model of pure competition and pure cooperation. This is true because when a conformist meets a rebel, they play the zero sum matching pennies game, which is pure competition. When two conformists (rebels) meet, they play the (anti-) coordination game, which is pure cooperation. Simulation shows that simple social interactions greatly promote cooperation: in most cases people can reach an extraordinarily high level of cooperation, through a selfish, myopic, naive, and local interacting dynamic (the best response dynamic). We find that degree of synchronization also plays a critical role, but mostly on the negative side. Four indices, namely cooperation degree, average satisfaction degree, equilibrium ratio and complete ratio, are defined and applied to measure people's cooperation levels from various angles. Phase transition, as well as emergence of many interesting geographic patterns in the cellular automata network, is also observed. PMID:23382799

  2. Optimal cooperative control synthesis of active displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, S.; Schmidt, D. K.

    1985-01-01

    A technique is developed that is intended to provide a systematic approach to synthesizing display augmentation for optimal manual control in complex, closed-loop tasks. A cooperative control synthesis technique, previously developed to design pilot-optimal control augmentation for the plant, is extended to incorporate the simultaneous design of performance enhancing displays. The technique utilizes an optimal control model of the man in the loop. It is applied to the design of a quickening control law for a display and a simple K/s(2) plant, and then to an F-15 type aircraft in a multi-channel task. Utilizing the closed loop modeling and analysis procedures, the results from the display design algorithm are evaluated and an analytical validation is performed. Experimental validation is recommended for future efforts.

  3. Optimal cooperative control synthesis of active displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, Sanjay; Schmidt, David K.

    1987-01-01

    A technique is developed that is intended to provide a systematic approach to synthesizing display augmentation for optimal manual control in complex, closed-loop tasks. A cooperative control synthesis technique, previously developed to design pilot-optimal control augmentation for the plant, is extended to incorporate the simultaneous design of performance enhancing displays. The technique utilizes an optimal control model of the man in the loop. It is applied to the design of a quickening control law for a display and a simple K/(s squared) plant, and then to an F-15 type aircraft in a multichannel task. Utilizing the closed-loop modeling and analysis procedures, the results from the display design algorithm are evaluated and an analytical validation is performed. Experimental validation is recommended for future efforts.

  4. Cooperative assembly in targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auguste, Debra

    2012-02-01

    Described as cell analogues, liposomes are self-assembled lipid bilayer spheres that encapsulate aqueous volumes. Liposomes offer several drug delivery advantages due to their structural versatility related to size, composition, bilayer fluidity, and ability to encapsulate a large variety of compounds non-covalently. However, liposomes lack the structural information embedded within cell membranes. Partitioning of unsaturated and saturated lipids into liquid crystalline (Lα) and gel phase (Lβ) domains, respectively, affects local molecular diffusion and elasticity. Liposome microdomains may be used to pattern molecules, such as antibodies, on the liposome surface to create concentrated, segregated binding regions. We have synthesized, characterized, and evaluated a series of homogeneous and heterogeneous liposomal vehicles that target inflamed endothelium. These drug delivery vehicles are designed to complement the heterogeneous presentation of lipids and receptors on endothelial cells (ECs). EC surfaces are dynamic; they segregate receptors within saturated lipid microdomains on the cell surface to regulate binding and signaling events. We have demonstrated that cooperative binding of two antibodies enhances targeting by multiple fold. Further, we have shown that organization of these antibodies on the surface can further enhance cell uptake. The data suggest that EC targeting may be enhanced by designing liposomes that mirror the segregated structure of lipid and receptor molecules involved in neutrophil-EC adhesion. This strategy is employed in an atherosclerotic mouse model in vivo.

  5. International cooperation in space transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    International cooperation in the field of Space Transportation has become an accepted norm as companies and countries have come to understand the necessity of lower costs for launch services. Many different approaches have been attempted, some of which are more successful than others. This paper discusses the history of McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (MDA) launch vehicle cooperation with Japan, as well as how MDA developed Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) as a supplier for the Delta III program, and how MDA became a supplier for the Japanese H-2 vehicle. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. [Cooperation between medicine and education].

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Toshiaki; Koeda, Tatsuya

    2004-05-01

    In cooperation between medicine and education, a reciprocal understanding is important. For this reason, we researched the needs of medical and educational professionals by questionnaires. Many child neurology specialists agreed that their medical profiled are unveiled in public about attending developmental disabilities. Some educational professionals felt it necessary to be given to offer medical informations of students such as treatments and/or diagnosis of their disease, to attend to seminars and lectures on developmental disabilities, and to obtain consultations of doctor more easily. From the above results, we propose an ideal cooperation between medicine and education. PMID:15176589

  7. Bridging the Gap: Teachers Cooperating Together to Implement Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolliffe, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative learning (CL), in spite of extensive research and documented benefits, is not widely used in England. A review of the literature shows that it requires a staged and sustained approach to implementation, which has led to a gap between its potential and actual use. The case study cited here provides one example of bridging that gap…

  8. Boards of Cooperative Services: Cooperative Education Programs in Colorado 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailey, Carolyn J.; Hinkle, Betty

    This booklet presents descriptive and statistical information on the 17 Boards of Cooperative Services (BOCES) serving Colorado school districts as of February 1978. Section 1 presents a brief introduction and overview of the Colorado BOCES, briefly describing their function and historical development. Section 2 presents individual profiles on…

  9. Cooperation Among Research Libraries: The Committee on Institutional Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Thomas W.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a background on the Committee on Institutional Cooperation (CIC) partnership with the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) and notes its achievements. Discusses the CIC Center for Library Initiatives; leveraging investments in libraries; maximizing use of information resources; improving delivery of information/library services; the…

  10. Eco-Evolutionary Feedback and the Invasion of Cooperation in Prisoner's Dilemma Games

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Hui, Cang

    2011-01-01

    Unveiling the origin and forms of cooperation in nature poses profound challenges in evolutionary ecology. The prisoner's dilemma game is an important metaphor for studying the evolution of cooperation. We here classified potential mechanisms for cooperation evolution into schemes of frequency- and density-dependent selection, and focused on the density-dependent selection in the ecological prisoner's dilemma games. We found that, although assortative encounter is still the necessary condition in ecological games for cooperation evolution, a harsh environment, indicated by a high mortality, can foster the invasion of cooperation. The Hamilton rule provides a fundamental condition for the evolution of cooperation by ensuring an enhanced relatedness between players in low-density populations. Incorporating ecological dynamics into evolutionary games opens up a much wider window for the evolution of cooperation, and exhibits a variety of complex behaviors of dynamics, such as limit and heteroclinic cycles. An alternative evolutionary, or rather succession, sequence was proposed that cooperation first appears in harsh environments, followed by the invasion of defection, which leads to a common catastrophe. The rise of cooperation (and altruism), thus, could be much easier in the density-dependent ecological games than in the classic frequency-dependent evolutionary games. PMID:22125615

  11. Heritability promotes cooperation in spatial public goods games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Run-Ran; Jia, Chun-Xiao; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2010-12-01

    Heritability is ubiquitous within most real biological or social systems. A heritable trait is most simply an offspring’s trait that resembles the parent’s corresponding trait, which can be fitness, strategy, or the way of strategy adoption for evolutionary games. Here we study the effects of heritability on the evolution of spatial public goods games. In our model, the fitness of players is determined by the payoffs from the current interactions and their history. Based on extensive simulations, we find that the density of cooperators is enhanced by increasing the heritability of players over a wide range of the multiplication factor. We attribute the enhancement of cooperation to the inherited fitness that stabilizes the fitness of players, and thus prevents the expansion of defectors effectively.

  12. LIGNITE FUEL ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Bullinger

    2004-10-29

    This 1st quarterly Technical Progress Report for the Lignite Fuel Enhancement Project explains what has transpired since Great River Energy was selected to negotiate the Cooperative agreement in February of 2003. The report will summarize Pre-award activities and any other activity since signature of the contract on July 9th of this year. It also summarizes the subsequent purchasing activity and final dryer/process design up to September 30th of 2004.

  13. The Rhetorical Arts of Cooperation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahnestock, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Human social evolution depends in part on using language persuasively to secure cooperation. Rhetoric emerged in the West over two thousand years ago as a deliberate cultural construction. Though often misunderstood today, rhetoric is fundamental in general education programs that teach students how knowledge is forged in agreement and applied.…

  14. Cooperative Learning and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    Research evidence shows that cooperative learning strategies are not equally effective, though most positively affect self-esteem, intergroup relations, and the ability to work with others. To produce achievement gains, these methods must include both a group goal and individual accountability. Includes 19 references. (MLH)

  15. Multisensor tracking by cooperative processors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallaina, Eduardo F.; Cernuschi Frias, Bruno

    2004-02-01

    Exploiting a new distributed cooperative processing scheme where multiple processors cooperate in finding a global minimum, we have developed a new efficient maximum likelihood (ML) based calculation method for multitarget motion analysis under a fixed networked multisensor environment. The Track estimation of targets from sensor is a crucial issue in active dynamic scene understanding. Multitarget motion analysis, where there are multiple moving targets and multiple fixed sensors which only measure bearings of the targets, is to associate targets and sensor data, and estimate target tracks based on that association. This is NP-hard problem to obtain the optimal solution, as the method easily gets trapped in one of local optima. We applied the decentralized cooperative search technique to this problem, and proved our method effective. The method uses more than one processor, each of which has its own partial search space, searching multiple possibilities in parallel. This paper shows the current status of our research, and presents two prototypes of cooperative multi-agent systems for extended multi-target motion analysis.

  16. Interlibrary Cooperation and Resource Sharing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittel, Dorothy

    Based on fiscal year 1986 annual reports from 48 states, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, this report describes interlibrary cooperation and resource sharing activities supported by the Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA), Title III, funds. In response to the 1984 amendment to Title III (which required each state to include in…

  17. Interlibrary Cooperation and Resource Sharing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittel, Dorothy

    Based on fiscal year 1985 annual reports from 48 states, this report describes interlibrary cooperation and resource-sharing activities supported by Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA), Title III, funds during 1985. A summary of types of activities reported includes the establishment, maintenance, and expansion of communication networks…

  18. Diversified Cooperative Training. A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Instructional Development and Services.

    This bibliography describes 52 materials available for use in cooperative education classes and career and guidance counseling. The materials include books, pamphlets, and brochures, films, curriculum guides, study guides, and workbooks. A few are suited for use with special needs students. Materials for inclusion in the bibliography were located…

  19. Ability Grouping and Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1994

    This collection of articles is intended to demonstrate that there is solid research to justify both ability grouping and cooperative learning with gifted students and that each approach should be used judiciously to address particular student needs. Introductory material describes the philosophy and program policy of the Center for Talented Youth…

  20. Education Cooperation for Tangible Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritzen, Jozef M.

    2003-01-01

    Describes how development cooperation can help achieve developmental education goals, noting the impact of education on cultural, social, and material prosperity in later life, and discussing how quality education is the gateway to participation in society and better wages. The article examines challenges to quality education in developing…

  1. Astronaut Gordon Cooper After Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Astronaut Gordon Cooper leaves the Faith 7 (MA-9) spacecraft after a successful recovery operation. The MA-9 mission, the last flight of the Mercury Project, was launched on May 15, 1963, orbited the Earth 22 times, and lasted for 1-1/2 days.

  2. What Makes Cooperative Learning Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.

    This paper gives an introduction to cooperative learning (CL), providing a definition of what it is and is not (pseudo-learning groups, traditional classroom learning groups), discussing basic principles, describing two basic types of CL (formal and informal), and listing the benefits of CL suggested by previous research. In order to understand…

  3. Marketing Cooperative Education. A Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosser, John W.; Rea, Peter J.

    This document is a guide for a workshop on marketing college cooperative education programs. The guide takes the reader/workshop participant through the marketing process, from defining needs and resources to planning a marketing campaign, implementing it, and evaluating its success. Samples and sources also are provided. Topics covered in the…

  4. Competitive Cooperation: The Iceberg Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Jerry L.

    Competitive athletes' scores on the Profile of Mood States (POMS) test create an iceberg-like pattern known as the "Iceberg Profile." Their scores for tension, depression, anger, fatigue, and confusion are low while their scores on vigor juts upward creating the "Iceberg Profile." Persons in a cooperative relationship are often competing against…

  5. Cooperative Education: Training Health Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, William N.

    Health administration students attending a college or university in Los Angeles, California, participated in a study of the effect of cooperative education. Three groups of students were selected. Group 1 consisted of undergraduate minority students--five males and five females (19-28 years old) with no prior health related work experience. Groups…

  6. Invitational Education at Cooper Elementary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalec, Ann W.

    2004-01-01

    In the summer of 1998, this author was appointed Principal at Cooper Elementary, one of 21 elementary schools in the Livonia Public Schools' district, the 5th largest district in the state of Michigan. Like many first-year principals, she was full of fresh ideas, lofty goals and endless enthusiasm to inspire students, staff and parents. Her…

  7. College/Labor Union Cooperation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, William

    1977-01-01

    A survey of 1,054 institutions by the AACJC Service Center for Community College-Labor Union Cooperation concluded that while substantial joint undertakings exist between unions and community colleges, in many cases labor and community colleges are waiting for the other party to make the first move. (JG)

  8. Facilitating Inter-District Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Gene L.

    After an introductory section which points out that the responsibility of small and rural schools is to provide all children with a quality education, and that Boards of Education must decide what is best for all children in the community, the paper briefly describes 16 exemplary programs involving cooperation between school districts. The…

  9. Defectors Can Create Conditions That Rescue Cooperation.

    PubMed

    Waite, Adam James; Cannistra, Caroline; Shou, Wenying

    2015-12-01

    Cooperation based on the production of costly common goods is observed throughout nature. This is puzzling, as cooperation is vulnerable to exploitation by defectors which enjoy a fitness advantage by consuming the common good without contributing fairly. Depletion of the common good can lead to population collapse and the destruction of cooperation. However, population collapse implies small population size, which, in a structured population, is known to favor cooperation. This happens because small population size increases variability in cooperator frequency across different locations. Since individuals in cooperator-dominated locations (which are most likely cooperators) will grow more than those in defector-dominated locations (which are most likely defectors), cooperators can outgrow defectors globally despite defectors outgrowing cooperators in each location. This raises the possibility that defectors can lead to conditions that sometimes rescue cooperation from defector-induced destruction. We demonstrate multiple mechanisms through which this can occur, using an individual-based approach to model stochastic birth, death, migration, and mutation events. First, during defector-induced population collapse, defectors occasionally go extinct before cooperators by chance, which allows cooperators to grow. Second, empty locations, either preexisting or created by defector-induced population extinction, can favor cooperation because they allow cooperator but not defector migrants to grow. These factors lead to the counterintuitive result that the initial presence of defectors sometimes allows better survival of cooperation compared to when defectors are initially absent. Finally, we find that resource limitation, inducible by defectors, can select for mutations adaptive to resource limitation. When these mutations are initially present at low levels or continuously generated at a moderate rate, they can favor cooperation by further reducing local population size

  10. Defectors Can Create Conditions That Rescue Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Waite, Adam James; Cannistra, Caroline; Shou, Wenying

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation based on the production of costly common goods is observed throughout nature. This is puzzling, as cooperation is vulnerable to exploitation by defectors which enjoy a fitness advantage by consuming the common good without contributing fairly. Depletion of the common good can lead to population collapse and the destruction of cooperation. However, population collapse implies small population size, which, in a structured population, is known to favor cooperation. This happens because small population size increases variability in cooperator frequency across different locations. Since individuals in cooperator-dominated locations (which are most likely cooperators) will grow more than those in defector-dominated locations (which are most likely defectors), cooperators can outgrow defectors globally despite defectors outgrowing cooperators in each location. This raises the possibility that defectors can lead to conditions that sometimes rescue cooperation from defector-induced destruction. We demonstrate multiple mechanisms through which this can occur, using an individual-based approach to model stochastic birth, death, migration, and mutation events. First, during defector-induced population collapse, defectors occasionally go extinct before cooperators by chance, which allows cooperators to grow. Second, empty locations, either preexisting or created by defector-induced population extinction, can favor cooperation because they allow cooperator but not defector migrants to grow. These factors lead to the counterintuitive result that the initial presence of defectors sometimes allows better survival of cooperation compared to when defectors are initially absent. Finally, we find that resource limitation, inducible by defectors, can select for mutations adaptive to resource limitation. When these mutations are initially present at low levels or continuously generated at a moderate rate, they can favor cooperation by further reducing local population size

  11. Using Cooperative Learning to Enhance Performance in General

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogut, Leonard S.

    1997-06-01

    This paper describes a successful application of mandatory collaborative learning to a General Chemistry course for students with poor academic preparation. The paper describes the characteristics of the students, the nature of the course, and methodology of the collaborative learning. All learning teams had 4 to 6 members, met outside of class, and worked on both normal homework problems and critical thinking assignments. The paper also describes both qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the project. Student performance in this course exceeded that of better prepared students in a typical General Chemistry course at the same campus during the same semester. One factor which seems linked to student success is that collaborative learning in this course increased the time on task (study-time) of the students involved as well as the effectiveness of that study time.

  12. United States-Israel Enhanced Security Cooperation Act of 2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Cantor, Eric [R-VA-7

    2012-03-05

    05/10/2012 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see S.2165, which became Public Law 112-150 on 7/27/2012. Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Cooperative effects enhance the transport properties of molecular spider teams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rank, Matthias; Reese, Louis; Frey, Erwin

    2013-03-01

    Molecular spiders are synthetic molecular motors based on DNA nanotechnology. While natural molecular motors have evolved towards very high efficiency, it remains a major challenge to develop efficient designs for man-made molecular motors. Inspired by biological motor proteins such as kinesin and myosin, molecular spiders comprise a body and several legs. The legs walk on a lattice that is coated with substrate which can be cleaved catalytically. We propose a molecular spider design in which n spiders form a team. Our theoretical considerations show that coupling several spiders together alters the dynamics of the resulting team significantly. Although spiders operate at a scale where diffusion is dominant, spider teams can be tuned to behave nearly ballistic, which results in fast and predictable motion. Based on the separation of time scales of substrate and product dwell times, we develop a theory which utilizes equivalence classes to coarse-grain the microstate space. In addition, we calculate diffusion coefficients of the spider teams, employing a mapping of an n-spider team to an n-dimensional random walker on a confined lattice. We validate these results with Monte Carlo simulations and predict optimal parameters of the molecular spider team architecture which makes their motion most directed and maximally predictable.

  14. Enhancing Both Cooperative Extension and National Environmental Education Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Martha C.

    2012-01-01

    State Extension programs can contribute to the successful adoption of national environmental education programs by making locally relevant resources available, creating reference materials to bridge between 4-H project books and other resources, and developing companion materials that supplement national materials with local issues and resources.…

  15. 7 CFR 1220.107 - Cooperator organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.107 Cooperator organization. The term Cooperator Organization means the American Soybean Association, or any successor...

  16. 7 CFR 1220.107 - Cooperator organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.107 Cooperator organization. The term Cooperator Organization means the American Soybean Association, or any successor...

  17. 7 CFR 1220.107 - Cooperator organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.107 Cooperator organization. The term Cooperator Organization means the American Soybean Association, or any successor...

  18. 7 CFR 1220.107 - Cooperator organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.107 Cooperator organization. The term Cooperator Organization means the American Soybean Association, or any successor...

  19. 7 CFR 1220.107 - Cooperator organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.107 Cooperator organization. The term Cooperator Organization means the American Soybean Association, or any successor...

  20. Cooperative or Anticooperative: How Noncovalent Interactions Influence Each Other.

    PubMed

    Saha, Soumen; Sastry, G Narahari

    2015-08-27

    This computational study examines the key factors that control the structures and energetics of the coexistence of multiple noncovalent interactions. 4-Amino-2-iodophenol is taken as a model that exhibits nine different kinds of noncovalent interactions, viz., cation-π (CP), hydrogen bond (HB) through O (OHB), HB through N (NHB), halogen bond (XB), π-π (PP), metal ion-lone pair (ML) through O (OML), ML through N (NML), charge assisted hydrogen bond (CHB) through O (OCHB), and CHB through N (NCHB). Through all possible combinations of these noncovalent interactions, based on energy, geometry, charge, and atoms in molecules (AIM) analysis, we have systematically analyzed the cooperativity among 40 ternary systems and 105 quaternary systems. We have observed that CP-HB, CP-XB, CP-PP, HB-HB, HB-XB, HB-PP, HB-ML, HB-CHB, XB-PP, XB-ML, XB-CHB, PP-ML, and PP-OCHB can form cooperative ternary systems. While studying the quaternary systems, we have observed that HB, XB, and PP work together by enhancing each other's strength. The study highlights that the positively charged species enhances HB-HB and HB-PP interactions and forms cooperative HB-HB-CHB, HB-HB-ML, HB-PP-ML, and HB-PP-CHB systems. Surprisingly, OHB-OML-NML, OHB-OML-OCHB, OHB-OML-NCHB, OHB-NML-OCHB, NHB-OML-NML, NHB-OML-NCHB, and NHB-NML-OCHB are also cooperative in nature despite the electrostatic repulsion between two positive charge species. The current study shows the widespread presence of cooperativity as well as anticooperativity in supramolecular assembles. PMID:25938813