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Sample records for filariasis

  1. Lymphatic Filariasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Parasites - Lymphatic Filariasis Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... this? Submit Button Information For: Travelers Related Links Parasites A-Z Index Parasites Glossary Neglected Tropical Diseases ...

  2. MDA—Lymphatic Filariasis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is one of the neglected tropical diseases. It is estimated that 120 million people are currently infected in 73 countries where filariasis is endemic. Lymphatic filariasis is a leading cause of chronic disability worldwide, including of 15 million people who have lymphoedema (elephantiasis) and 25 million men who have hydrocoele. PMID:25425947

  3. Giant penoscrotal filariasis.

    PubMed

    Gafur, M A; Bhuiyan, J H; Zaman, T; Shamsuzzaman, A B; Islam, S M

    2008-07-01

    A 42 year old male individual having a hugely distended scrotum and barely perceptible penis, unable to maintain his livelihood on account of his handicap and socially withdrawn for the fear of humiliation, got admitted into the Surgery department of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital in August 5, 2007. The person had been carrying the so called curse for the last four years. On the basis of clinical, serological and haematological examinations, diagnosis was established as lymphatic filariasis causing elephantiasis of the scrotum. After assessment for operative feasibility, the patient underwent an operation in August 20, 2007 during which, ligation of both the spermatic cords, excision of the scrotum along with the testicles and reposition of the penile shaft into the anterior pelvic wall in the subcutaneous plane (Fleying procedure) was performed. The scrotum measured about 36 inches in diameter and weighed 40 kgs after excision. Histopathological examination of the scrotal skin confirmed the diagnosis. The patient was released without any complication, on the 11th post operative day after removal of stitches, with indwelling urethral catheter. He was prescribed Doxicycline for the next 8 weeks, a drug which has been found to be effective in treating filariasis in a number of studies, and acts by killing a symbiotic bacteria necessary for the survival of the worm. Follow up after 3 months was uneventful. PMID:18626459

  4. Immunology of lymphatic filariasis

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Subash; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2013-01-01

    The immune responses to filarial parasites encompass a complex network of innate and adaptive cells whose interaction with the parasite underlies a spectrum of clinical manifestations. The predominant immunological feature of lymphatic filariasis is an antigen - specific Th2 response and an expansion of IL-10 producing CD4+ T cells that is accompanied by a muted Th1 response. This antigen specific T cell hypo-responsiveness appears to be crucial for the maintenance of the sustained, long-standing infection often with high parasite densities. While the correlates of protective immunity to lymphatic filariasis are still incompletely understood, primarily due to the lack of suitable animal models to study susceptibility, it is clear that T cells and to a certain extent B cells are required for protective immunity. Host immune responses, especially CD4+ T cell responses clearly play a role in mediating pathological manifestations of LF, including lymphedema, hydrocele and elephantiasis. The main underlying defect in the development of clinical pathology appears to be a failure to induce T cell hypo-responsiveness in the face of antigenic stimulation. Finally, another intriguing feature of filarial infections is their propensity to induce bystander effects on a variety of immune responses, including responses to vaccinations, allergens and to other infectious agents. The complexity of the immune response to filarial infection therefore provides an important gateway to understanding the regulation of immune responses to chronic infections, in general. PMID:24134686

  5. Epidemiology of filariasis in India

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, N. G. S.

    1957-01-01

    The author reviews the history of filarial infections in India and discusses factors affecting the filariae, their vectors, and the human reservoir of infection. A detailed description is given of techniques for determining the degree of infection, disease and endemicity of filariasis in a community, and aspects which require further study are indicated. PMID:13472411

  6. Lymphatic Filariasis: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a parasitic disease caused by microscopic, thread-like worms. The adult worms only live in the human lymph system. The ... South America. You cannot get infected with the worms in the United States. How is lymphatic filariasis ...

  7. Lymphatic filariasis: A view at pathological diversity

    PubMed Central

    Mahalingashetti, Prashant Basavaraj; Subramanian, Ramaswamy Anikode; Jayker, Sushan Shweta; Vijay, A

    2014-01-01

    Filariasis is traditionally diagnosed following screening of peripheral smear for microfilaria. Clinically lymphatic filariasis mimics the common local diseases. Thus, it is plausible to observe this parasitic infection in histological sections. We encountered three such cases, which displayed diverse patterns of immune response. Presence of both dead and viable worm at the same foci suggests that such immune response could be the result of parasitic death. Histological features such as endothelial injury and granulomatous response attests to the role of Wolbachia bacteria in influencing tissue response. PMID:25250237

  8. Lymphatic Filariasis Disseminating to the Upper Extremity

    PubMed Central

    Maldjian, Catherine; Khanna, Vineet; Tandon, Bevan; Then, Matthew; Yassin, Mohamed; Adam, Richard; Klein, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is the most common cause of acquired lymphedema worldwide (Szuba and Rockson, 1998). It is endemic to tropical and subtropical regions, and its effects are devastating. With over 100 million infected persons, it ranks second only to leprosy as the leading cause of permanent and long-term disability. Wuchereria bancrofti is the etiologic agent in 90% of cases. There is a dearth of published MRI findings with pathologically proven active infections, making this entity even more of a diagnostic dilemma. Imaging may provide the first clue that one is dealing with a parasite and may facilitate proper treatment and containment of this disease. This is the first report of pathologic correlation with MRI findings in the extremity in active filariasis. The magnetic resonance images demonstrate an enhancing, infiltrative, mass-like appearance with partial encasement of vasculature that has not been previously described in filariasis. Low signal strands in T2-hyperintense dilated lymphatic channels are seen and may depict live adult worms. We hypothesize that the low signal strands correspond to the collagen rich acellular cuticle. This, in combination with the surrounding hyperintense T2 signal, corresponding to a dilated lymphatic channel, may provide more specific MRI findings for active nematodal infection, which can prompt early biopsy, pathological correlation, and diagnosis. PMID:24707427

  9. Ocular Filariasis in US Residents, Returning Travelers, and Expatriates.

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H

    2015-01-01

    Several factors acting in concert now place US residents, returning travelers, and expatriates at risks of contracting ocular filariasis including increasing seroprevalence rates of zoonotic filariasis, international travel bringing tourists to and expatriates from filariasis-endemic regions, and warming temperatures extending distribution ranges of arthropod vectors. To describe the epidemiology and outcomes of ocular filariasis and to recommend strategies for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of ocular filariasis, internet search engines were queried with the key words in order to examine case reports and series of ocular filariasis in the US and elsewhere. Descriptive epidemiological, morphological, and molecular evidence now support increasing cases of ocular filariasis in domestic and wild animals and humans, with most cases caused by filarial worms including Dirofilaria repens and other zoonotic Dirofilaria species and Onchocerca lupi and other zoonotic Onchocerca species. Clinicians should maintain early suspicion of ocular filariasis in US residents, returning travelers, and expatriates who complain of combinations of red eye, eye pain, foreign body sensation, reduced visual acuity, and migrating ocular worms, even without significant peripheral eosinophilia or microfilaremia. Microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and O. volvulus may traverse the eye, but can usually be treated medically. Mobile adult worms trapped in the subconjunctiva or anterior chamber should be removed by ophthalmologists to permit species identification, prevent posterior uveitis and iritis, and stop worm migration into the posterior chamber which could require lens removal and vitrectomy for worm extraction causing further eye damage. PMID:27159510

  10. Successful control of lymphatic filariasis in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Cheun, Hyeng-Il; Kong, Yoon; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Jong-Soo; Chai, Jong-Yil; Lee, Joo-Shil; Lee, Jong-Koo; Kim, Tong-Soo

    2009-12-01

    A successful experience of lymphatic filariasis control in the Republic of Korea is briefly reviewed. Filariasis in the Republic of Korea was exclusively caused by infection with Brugia malayi. Over the past several decades from the 1950s to 2006, many investigators exerted their efforts to detection, treatment, and follow-up of filariasis patients in endemic areas, and to control filariasis. Mass, combined with selective, treatments with diethylcarbamazine to microfilaria positive persons had been made them free from microfilaremia and contributed to significant decrease of the microfilarial density in previously endemic areas. Significant decrease of microfilaria positive cases in an area influenced eventually to the endemicity of filariasis in the relevant locality. Together with remarkable economic growth followed by improvement of environmental and personal hygiene and living standards, the factors stated above have contributed to blocking the transmission cycle of B. malayi and led to disappearance of this mosquito-borne ancient disease in the Republic of Korea. PMID:19967079

  11. DNA-based diagnosis of lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed

    Nuchprayoon, Surang

    2009-09-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is still a major public health problem. The disease is ranked by the World Health Organization (WHO) as the second leading cause of permanent and long-term disability, and has been targeted for elimination by 2020. Effective diagnosis LF is required for treatment of infected individuals, for epidemiological assessment and for monitoring of the control program. Conventional diagnosis of LF depends on detection of microfilariae (Mf) in blood specimens, which has low sensitivity and specificity. Detection of specific circulating filarial antigens is regarded by WHO as the 'gold standard' for diagnosis of LF. However, the limitations of the antigen tests are cost and inconsistent availability. Although anti-filarial IgG4 antibody levels are associated with active LF infections, however, cross-reactivity with other filarial parasites is common. Not as sensitive as antigen tests, DNA-based techniques have been developed to diagnose and differentiate filarial parasites in humans, animal reservoir hosts, and mosquito vectors. These include DNA hybridization, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification using specific primers (eg Ssp I repeat, pWb12 repeat, pWb-35 repeat, and LDR repeat for Wuchereria bancrofti and Hha I repeat, glutathione peroxidase gene, mitochondrial DNA for Brugia malayi), and universal primers, multiplex-PCR, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), PCR-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA), as well as quantitative PCR. Furthermore, because bancroftian filariasis is endemic on the Thai-Myanmar border, the potential now exists for a re-emergence of bancroftian filariasis in Thailand, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis has proved effective to differentiate Thai and Myanmar strains of W. bancrofti. PMID:19842372

  12. Lymphatic Filariasis in Children in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Sharon K; Collins, Shonta D

    2015-01-01

    Using available evidence and astute assessment skills, nurses and advanced practice nurses, as members of an inter-professional team, were able to assess, diagnose, and initiate treatment for a child with lymphatic filariasis within a global health practice setting. The lessons learned during health outreach trips to an underserved commune of Port-au-Prince, Haiti can promote an understanding of appropriate nursing practice related to this parasitic infection. They can also assist nursing students, nurse practitioner students, and faculties as members of a medical outreach team to promote sustainability which is a benchmark of nursing leadership in global health. PMID:26121754

  13. Breast filariasis or inflammatory breast carcinoma? Reaching a diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Panda, Dwijesh Kumar; Mohapatra, Devi Prasad; Mohapatra, Madhusmita Mohanty

    2015-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by the parasite Wuchereria bancrofti. Involvement of the breast is relatively uncommon and may affect only 10% of individuals with lymphatic filariasis. We present a case of an elderly woman with breast pathology. The condition clinically appeared as a malignancy. Routine diagnostic tests including tissue histopathological studies failed to clinch a diagnosis. However, a serological test helped in identifying the pathology, which turned out to be a manifestation of breast filariasis, and aided in instituting appropriate therapy for this condition. PMID:26567240

  14. A Rare Case of Ovarian Filariasis in Abidjan.

    PubMed

    Brahima, Doukouré; Alain Didier, Abouna; Gonat Serge Pacôme, Dou; Nguiessan Alphonse, Aman; Abdoul, Koffi; Jean-Marie, Diomandé Mohenou Isidore

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian filariasis is an exceptional disease and displays a major diagnostic problem even in endemic areas. We reported the case of a 19-year-old patient who had ovarian cyst which was revealed by chronic pelvic pain. The histological examination of oophorectomy specimen led to the Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis of the ovary. The anatomopathologic examination is required for the diagnosis of this disease. PMID:27313932

  15. A Rare Case of Ovarian Filariasis in Abidjan

    PubMed Central

    Brahima, Doukouré; Alain Didier, Abouna; Gonat Serge Pacôme, Dou; Nguiessan Alphonse, Aman; Abdoul, Koffi; Jean-Marie, Diomandé Mohenou Isidore

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian filariasis is an exceptional disease and displays a major diagnostic problem even in endemic areas. We reported the case of a 19-year-old patient who had ovarian cyst which was revealed by chronic pelvic pain. The histological examination of oophorectomy specimen led to the Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis of the ovary. The anatomopathologic examination is required for the diagnosis of this disease. PMID:27313932

  16. Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis in The Gambia

    PubMed Central

    Rebollo, Maria P.; Sambou, Sana Malang; Thomas, Brent; Biritwum, Nana-Kwadwo; Jaye, Momodou C.; Kelly-Hope, Louise; Escalada, Alba Gonzalez; Molyneux, David H.; Bockarie, Moses J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of Wuchereria bancrofti, which causes lymphatic filariasis (LF) in The Gambia was among the highest in Africa in the 1950s. However, surveys conducted in 1975 and 1976 revealed a dramatic decline in LF endemicity in the absence of mass drug administration (MDA). The decline in prevalence was partly attributed to a significant reduction in mosquito density through the widespread use of insecticidal nets. Based on findings elsewhere that vector control alone can interrupt LF, we asked the question in 2013 whether the rapid scale up in the use of insecticidal nets in The Gambia had interrupted LF transmission. Methodology/Principal Finding We present here the results of three independently designed filariasis surveys conducted over a period of 17 years (1997–2013), and involving over 6000 subjects in 21 districts across all administrative divisions in The Gambia. An immunochromatographic (ICT) test was used to detect W. bancrofti antigen during all three surveys. In 2001, tests performed on stored samples collected between 1997 and 2000, in three divisions, failed to show positive individuals from two divisions that were previously highly endemic for LF, suggesting a decline towards extinction in some areas. Results of the second survey conducted in 2003 showed that LF was no longer endemic in 16 of 21 districts surveyed. The 2013 survey used a WHO recommended LF transmission verification tool involving 3180 6–7 year-olds attending 60 schools across the country. We demonstrated that transmission of W. bancrofti has been interrupted in all 21 districts. Conclusions We conclude that LF transmission may have been interrupted in The Gambia through the extensive use of insecticidal nets for malaria control for decades. The growing evidence for the impact of malaria vector control activities on parasite transmission has been endorsed by WHO through a position statement in 2011 on integrated vector management to control malaria and LF. PMID

  17. Unusual presentation of filariasis as an abscess: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, Mukta; Pruthi, Sonam Kumar; Gupta, Renu; Khare, Pratima

    2016-01-01

    Bancroftian filariasis, a tropical and subtropical disease caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, is transmitted by the culex mosquito. The disease is conventionally diagnosed by the demonstration of microfilaria in peripheral blood smear. Microfilaria and adult filarial worms have been incidentally detected in fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in various locations. The disease may be missed if one is not aware of the possibility, particularly in cases where eosinophilia is absent. Therefore, clinicians and pathologists need to be more vigilant in the endemic zones for early diagnosis and the treatment of filariasis. We report here an unusual case of filariasis in a 17-year-old female with a swelling in the lower part of the left arm on the flexor surface. This highlights the chances of finding microfilaria in cytology of an unsuspected case at an unusual site. This case, in addition, stresses the fact that microfilaria may be associated with an abscess even in the absence of eosinophilia. PMID:27011444

  18. Unusual presentation of filariasis as an abscess: A case report.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Mukta; Pruthi, Sonam Kumar; Gupta, Renu; Khare, Pratima

    2016-01-01

    Bancroftian filariasis, a tropical and subtropical disease caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, is transmitted by the culex mosquito. The disease is conventionally diagnosed by the demonstration of microfilaria in peripheral blood smear. Microfilaria and adult filarial worms have been incidentally detected in fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in various locations. The disease may be missed if one is not aware of the possibility, particularly in cases where eosinophilia is absent. Therefore, clinicians and pathologists need to be more vigilant in the endemic zones for early diagnosis and the treatment of filariasis. We report here an unusual case of filariasis in a 17-year-old female with a swelling in the lower part of the left arm on the flexor surface. This highlights the chances of finding microfilaria in cytology of an unsuspected case at an unusual site. This case, in addition, stresses the fact that microfilaria may be associated with an abscess even in the absence of eosinophilia. PMID:27011444

  19. Mathematical models and lymphatic filariasis control: endpoints and optimal interventions.

    PubMed

    Michael, Edwin; Malecela-Lazaro, Mwele N; Kabali, Conrad; Snow, Lucy C; Kazura, James W

    2006-05-01

    The current global initiative to eliminate lymphatic filariasis is a major renewed commitment to reduce or eliminate the burden of one of the major helminth infections from resource-poor communities of the world. Mathematical models of filariasis transmission can serve as an effective tool for guiding the scientific development and management of successful community-level intervention programmes by acting as analytical frameworks for integrating knowledge regarding parasite transmission dynamics with programmatic factors. However, the power of these tools for supporting control interventions will be realized fully only if researchers address the current uncertainties and gaps in data and knowledge of filarial population dynamics and the effectiveness of currently proposed filariasis intervention options. PMID:16564745

  20. Lymphatic filariasis in Brazil: epidemiological situation and outlook for elimination.

    PubMed

    Fontes, Gilberto; Leite, Anderson Brandão; de Lima, Ana Rachel Vasconcelos; Freitas, Helen; Ehrenberg, John Patrick; da Rocha, Eliana Maria Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    Since the World Health Assembly's (Resolution WHA 50.29, 1997) call for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis by the year 2020, most of the endemic countries identified have established programmes to meet this objective. In 1997, a National Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Plan was drawn up by the Ministry of Health of Brazil, creating local programs for the elimination of Bancroftian filariasis in areas with active transmission. Based on a comprehensive bibliographic search for available studies and reports of filariasis epidemiology in Brazil, current status of this parasitic infection and the outlook for its elimination in the country were analysed. From 1951 to 1958 a nationwide epidemiological study conducted in Brazil confirmed autochthonous transmission of Bancroftian filariasis in 11 cities of the country. Control measures led to a decline in parasite rates, and in the 1980s only the cities of Belém in the Amazonian region (Northern region) and Recife (Northeastern region) were considered to be endemic. In the 1990s, foci of active transmission of LF were also described in the cities of Maceió, Olinda, Jaboatão dos Guararapes, and Paulista, all in the Northeastern coast of Brazil. Data provide evidence for the absence of microfilaremic subjects and infected mosquitoes in Belém, Salvador and Maceió in the past few years, attesting to the effectiveness of the measures adopted in these cities. Currently, lymphatic filariasis is a public health problem in Brazil only in four cities of the metropolitan Recife region (Northeastern coast). Efforts are being concentrated in these areas, with a view to eliminating the disease in the country. PMID:23181663

  1. Lymphatic filariasis in Brazil: epidemiological situation and outlook for elimination

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Since the World Health Assembly’s (Resolution WHA 50.29, 1997) call for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis by the year 2020, most of the endemic countries identified have established programmes to meet this objective. In 1997, a National Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Plan was drawn up by the Ministry of Health of Brazil, creating local programs for the elimination of Bancroftian filariasis in areas with active transmission. Based on a comprehensive bibliographic search for available studies and reports of filariasis epidemiology in Brazil, current status of this parasitic infection and the outlook for its elimination in the country were analysed. From 1951 to 1958 a nationwide epidemiological study conducted in Brazil confirmed autochthonous transmission of Bancroftian filariasis in 11 cities of the country. Control measures led to a decline in parasite rates, and in the 1980s only the cities of Belém in the Amazonian region (Northern region) and Recife (Northeastern region) were considered to be endemic. In the 1990s, foci of active transmission of LF were also described in the cities of Maceió, Olinda, Jaboatão dos Guararapes, and Paulista, all in the Northeastern coast of Brazil. Data provide evidence for the absence of microfilaremic subjects and infected mosquitoes in Belém, Salvador and Maceió in the past few years, attesting to the effectiveness of the measures adopted in these cities. Currently, lymphatic filariasis is a public health problem in Brazil only in four cities of the metropolitan Recife region (Northeastern coast). Efforts are being concentrated in these areas, with a view to eliminating the disease in the country. PMID:23181663

  2. Immunoadjuvant effect of diethylcarbamazine in experimental filariasis.

    PubMed

    Parasurama Jawaharlal, Jeya Prita; Rajaiah Prabhu, Prince; Gandhirajan, Anugraha; Krishnan, Nithya; Perumal, Kaliraj

    2015-02-01

    Lymphatic filariasis caused by tissue dwelling nematodes is endemic in 73 countries and drugs have been administered to control or stop the infection. Resurgence of the infection after mass drug administration necessitates the study of several parasite antigens or adjuvants for vaccine developments. In this study, diethylcarbamazine (DEC) was evaluated for its efficacy as adjuvant against the filarial parasite; Brugia malayi microfilariae (mf) by combining with the Escherichia coli expressed recombinant BmShp-1 protein. Shp-1 is one of the sheath proteins expressed by adult female and microfilarial stage of the filarial parasite. Hence, immunoprophylactic efficacy of Shp-1 using DEC and alum adjuvants was compared in BALB/c mice model by an in situ micropore chamber method. Shp-1 antibody titre was high when the mice were immunized with Shp-1 along with DEC and they exhibited balanced Th1/Th2 profile. DEC also induced significantly high T-cell proliferation (P<0.001) when stimulated with Shp-1 compared to alum. Significantly high percentage protection against B. malayi microfilariae was observed in Shp-1+DEC immunized mice groups (P<0.05) and hence it is concluded that the need of repeated drug administration can be controlled when there is a possibility of developing protective immunity in the host against mf by vaccination. PMID:25576657

  3. The Socioeconomic Impact of Lymphatic Filariasis in Tropical Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwoke, Bertram Ekejiuba Bright; Nwoke, Eunice Anyalewechi; Dozie, Ikechukwu Nosike Simplicius

    2007-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is an endemic parasitic disease and a major cause of acute and chronic morbidity and incapacitation with devastating public health and socio-economic consequences. It exacerbates poor conditions of afflicted persons and endemic communities through reduced or lost labour supply and productivity. Stigmatisation and…

  4. Lymphatic filariasis in Papua New Guinea: prospects for elimination.

    PubMed

    Bockarie, Moses J; Kazura, James W

    2003-02-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is a significant public health problem in several Pacific island countries. Papua New Guinea is one of the most populous countries in this region, and 39% of its residents are estimated to be infected with Wuchereria bancrofti. The Ministries of Health of the 22 islands and territories in the Pacific region are committed to taking action against lymphatic filariasis. Accordingly, a regional collaborative effort aimed at the control of filariasis has been organized under the auspices of a program referred to as PacELF. The main objective of PacELF is to eliminate filariasis as public health problem in the Pacific region by the year 2010, 10 years before global elimination of this infectious disease has been targeted. This contribution describes the epidemiology and ecological features of filariasis and prospects for its elimination in Papua New Guinea. The frequencies of microfilaremia, chronic lymphatic disease, and acute filarial morbidity in Papua New Guinea are higher than in many other endemic countries of the Pacific, Africa, and South America. All possible combinations of these three manifestations of filariasis exist. They occur independently of each other, and there is no association between chronic lymphatic disease and microfilarial status. Anopheles punctulatus mosquitoes are the main vectors throughout the country. Transmission intensity is heterogeneous and a major determinant of local patent infection and morbidity rates. Annual transmission potential and annual infective biting rates are positively associated with the village-specific microfilarial rate, mean intensity of microfilaremia, and prevalence of leg edema. Children and adults have similar worm burdens, assessed by circulating filarial antigen levels, in areas of high transmission, whereas worm burdens increase with age in areas of lower transmission. Intensity of exposure to infective third-stage larvae (L3) is significantly correlated with filarial antigen

  5. Incidentally Detected Lymphatic Filariasis in a Renal Allograft Recipient

    PubMed Central

    Vanikar, A. V.; Suthar, K. S.; Kute, V. B.; Rizvi, S. J.; Trivedi, H. L.

    2013-01-01

    Post-transplntation lymphocele is a well known complication, and lymphatic filariasis (LF) has occasionally been found to present as post-transplantation lymphocele. However, incidentally detected LF during transplantation surgery has not been reported. We present an incidentally detected LF presenting as enlarged lymph node in the right iliac fossa of a recipient during transplantation of donor kidney. He was subsequently treated after transplantation and had stable graft function without any complications after 8 months of follow-up. PMID:25013664

  6. Setaria digitata in advancing our knowledge of human lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed

    Perumal, A N I; Gunawardene, Y I N S; Dassanayake, R S

    2016-03-01

    Setaria digitata is a filarial parasite that causes fatal cerebrospinal nematodiasis in goats, sheep and horses, resulting in substantial economic losses in animal husbandry in the tropics. Due to its close resemblance to Wuchereria bancrofti, this nematode is also frequently used as a model organism to study human lymphatic filariasis. This review highlights numerous insights into the morphological, histological, biochemical, immunological and genetic aspects of S. digitata that have broadened our understanding towards the control and eradication of filarial diseases. PMID:25924635

  7. Imported lymphatic filariasis in an Indian immigrant to iran.

    PubMed

    Kia, Eshrat Beigom; Sharifdini, Meysam; Hajjaran, Homa; Shahbazi, Ali Ehsan; Sayyad Talaie, Zahra

    2014-03-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF), a nematode disease transmitted by arthropod vectors, is repeatedly reported in immigrant population. This disease is not endemic in Iran; however, different species of mosquitoes, capable of transmission of parasite microfilaria, are distributed in the country. Hereby, incidental detection of an imported case of LF due to Wuchereria bancrofti in an Indian worker in Iran is reported. Identification of the case was performed based on morphological and morphometrical characteristics of microfilaria and PCR sequencing. PMID:25642273

  8. FOXC2 and FLT4 Gene Variants in Lymphatic Filariasis.

    PubMed

    Sheik, Yasmeen; Qureshi, Sameera Fatima; Mohhammed, Basheeruddin; Nallari, Pratibha

    2015-06-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is the leading cause of secondary lymphedema wherein lymph transport is impaired due to lymphatic damage. FLT4 signaling and transcription factors such as FOXC2 play an important role in this type of lymphangiogenesis process induced by filarial parasites. The present study aims to assess the association of FLT4 and FOXC2 genes in lymphatic development/remodeling in lymphatic filariasis. A total of 118 lymphatic filariasis patients and 100 non-endemic and 50 endemic healthy subjects were enrolled for the present study. Allele-specific PCR and PCR-RFLP were adopted for the genotyping, and screening of FLT4 and FOXC2 genes was carried out by PCR-SSCP, followed by in-silico and statistical analysis. A novel variation (G357A SNP) was identified on FOXC2 gene screening that may have an effect on codon usage frequency during translational process. In FLT4, A3123G mutation was found in 3.39% of the case subjects but the functional role of this mutation, along with subject's clinical presentations and patient's age, emphasize its pathogenic role in lymphedema development. Two of the subjects exhibit compound heterozygosity (A3123G FLT4 mutation and G357A SNP of FOXC2 gene). As these two genes share a common pathway, we hypothesise a synergistic interaction of these two SNPs in inhibiting the downstream signaling resulting in lymphedema progression. PMID:26091406

  9. Chimeric Epitope Vaccine from Multistage Antigens for Lymphatic Filariasis.

    PubMed

    Anugraha, G; Madhumathi, J; Prince, P R; Prita, P J Jeya; Khatri, V K; Amdare, N P; Reddy, M V R; Kaliraj, P

    2015-10-01

    Lymphatic filariasis, a mosquito-borne parasitic disease, affects more than 120 million people worldwide. Vaccination for filariasis by targeting different stages of the parasite will be a boon to the existing MDA efforts of WHO which required repeated administration of the drug to reduce the infection level and sustained transmission. Onset of a filaria-specific immune response achieved through antigen vaccines can act synergistically with these drugs to enhance the parasite killing. Multi-epitope vaccine approach has been proved to be successful against several parasitic diseases as it overcomes the limitations associated with the whole antigen vaccines. Earlier results from our group suggested the protective efficacy of multi-epitope vaccine comprising two immunodominant epitopes from Brugia malayi antioxidant thioredoxin (TRX), several epitopes from transglutaminase (TGA) and abundant larval transcript-2 (ALT-2). In this study, the prophylactic efficacy of the filarial epitope protein (FEP), a chimera of selective epitopes identified from our earlier study, was tested in a murine model (jird) of filariasis with L3 larvae. FEP conferred a significantly (P < 0.0001) high protection (69.5%) over the control in jirds. We also observed that the multi-epitope recombinant construct (FEP) induces multiple types of protective immune responses, thus ensuring the successful elimination of the parasite; this poses FEP as a potential vaccine candidate. PMID:26179420

  10. Prevalence of filariasis in symptomatic patients in Moyen Chari district, south of Chad.

    PubMed

    Bregani, Enrico Rino; Balzarini, Laura; Mbaïdoum, Narassem; Rovellini, Angelo

    2007-07-01

    Filarial parasites infect an estimated 140 million people worldwide. Wuchereria bancrofti, Onchocerca volvulus, Loa loa and Mansonella perstans are responsible for most filarial infections in sub-Saharan Africa. We describe the prevalence and the clinical characteristics of filariasis in symptomatic patients in Goundi Sanitary district:167 patients were enrolled (99 men, 68 women). M. perstans microfilariae were isolated in peripheral blood in 164 cases, while Loa loa and Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis were diagnosed in only six and three cases, respectively. The most frequent filariasis observed in our study were due to M. perstans and L. loa, while the few cases of W. bancrofti filariasis seem to have been acquired abroad. No cases of O. volvulus were observed. Microfilarial burden was not related to symptoms, but a correlation between eosinophilia and pruritus was evident. No relationship was observed between eosinophils and symptoms. The prevalence observed in symptomatic patients could reflect the real prevalence of filariasis. PMID:17716512

  11. IgA immunoassay for the diagnosis of bancroftian filariasis.

    PubMed

    Chanteau, S; Cartel, J L; Martin, P M

    1992-06-01

    In some parasitic infection such as toxoplasmosis, specific IgA is a highly reliable marker of active infection. In bancroftian filariasis, only 10 of 20 (50%) and 3 of 20 (15%) of the microfilaremic patients were positive for IgA anti-Brugia malayi using respectively indirect ELISA and immunocapture ELISA tests. As regard to these low sensitivities, the detection of specific IgA is unlikely to be a useful test for the diagnosis of active Wuchereria bancrofti infection. PMID:1519028

  12. Mathematical models and lymphatic filariasis control: monitoring and evaluating interventions.

    PubMed

    Michael, Edwin; Malecela-Lazaro, Mwele N; Maegga, Bertha T A; Fischer, Peter; Kazura, James W

    2006-11-01

    Monitoring and evaluation are crucially important to the scientific management of any mass parasite control programme. Monitoring enables the effectiveness of implemented actions to be assessed and necessary adaptations to be identified; it also determines when management objectives are achieved. Parasite transmission models can provide a scientific template for informing the optimal design of such monitoring programmes. Here, we illustrate the usefulness of using a model-based approach for monitoring and evaluating anti-parasite interventions and discuss issues that need addressing. We focus on the use of such an approach for the control and/or elimination of the vector-borne parasitic disease, lymphatic filariasis. PMID:16971182

  13. The Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis: A Strategy for Poverty Alleviation and Sustainable Development - Perspectives from the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Galvez Tan, Jaime Z

    2003-07-21

    BACKGROUND: Within the Philippines areas endemic for lymphatic filariasis are in regions with the highest incidence of poverty. Out of a total of 79 provinces, 39 have a higher poverty incidence than the national average and 30 of these 39 provinces are endemic for lymphatic filariasis. DISCUSSION: Recognizing that provinces endemic for lymphatic filariasis (LF) are also the poorest provinces, the elimination of lymphatic filariasis in these areas presents significant opportunities to reduce poverty and inequalities in health. The implementation of an effective national programme for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis will provide means for sustainable development at national, local and community levels. SUMMARY: The elimination of lymphatic filariasis as a public health problem is a 20-year strategic plan for the world community, with the vision of all endemic communities free of transmission of lymphatic filariasis by 2020 and with the commitment to ensure the delivery of quality technologies and human services to eliminate lymphatic filariasis worldwide through a multi-stakeholder global alliance of all endemic countries. This global goal of elimination of lymphatic filariasis is a significant opportunity for partnerships - a world with less poverty through sustainable development and free from the scourge of lymphatic filariasis. PMID:12914666

  14. The geographical distribution of lymphatic filariasis infection in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Ngwira, Bagrey Mm; Tambala, Phillimon; Perez, A Maria; Bowie, Cameron; Molyneux, David H

    2007-01-01

    Mapping distribution of lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a prerequisite for planning national elimination programmes. Results from a nation wide mapping survey for lymphatic filariasis (LF) in Malawi are presented. Thirty-five villages were sampled from 23 districts excluding three districts (Karonga, Chikwawa and Nsanje) that had already been mapped and Likoma, an Island, where access was not possible in the time frame of the survey. Antigenaemia prevalence [based on immunochromatographic card tests (ICT)] ranged from 0% to 35.9%. Villages from the western side of the country and distant from the lake tended to be of lower prevalence. The exception was a village in Mchinji district on the Malawi-Zambia border where a prevalence of 18.2% was found. In contrast villages from lake shore districts [Salima, Mangochi, Balaka and Ntcheu (Bwanje valley)] and Phalombe had prevalences of over 20%.A national map is developed which incorporates data from surveys in Karonga, Chikwawa and Nsanje districts, carried out in 2000. There is a marked decline in prevalence with increasing altitude. Further analysis revealed a strong negative correlation (R2 = 0.7 p < 0.001) between altitude and prevalence. These results suggest that the lake shore, Phalombe plain and the lower Shire valley will be priority areas for the Malawi LF elimination programme. Implications of these findings as regards implementing a national LF elimination programme in Malawi are discussed. PMID:18047646

  15. An unusual presentation of filariasis in a nonendemic country

    PubMed Central

    Kandalam, Parampil Thulasidharan Shibu; Parampath, Arif Nelliyulla; Farghaly, Hanan Ibrahim; Salah, Salem Abo; Kayakkool, Muhammed Kunhi; Mathew, Joe Varghese; Radhakrishnan, Pradeep; Al Badawi, Ibrahim; Farook, Saleena

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Filariasis is an endemic disease with worldwide distribution in tropical and subtropical regions. It is uncommon in Qatar. The conventional diagnostic procedure is the demonstration of microfilaria in blood smears. Even with its high incidence, it is unusual to detect microfilaria in fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) smears. Although the ‘filarial dance sign’ is rarely documented, it remains a classical ultrasonographic sign in lymphatic filariasis. Case presentation: We present a case of a 38-year-old male patient with fever, chills, shortness of breath and a tender warm swelling on his right thigh. Ultrasound of the thigh lesion showed the classical filarial dance sign. Subsequently FNAC from the lesion documented microfilaria in spite of absent peripheral blood eosinophilia and microfilaria. The patient underwent an incision and drainage of the thigh lesion and was treated with ivermectin and diethylcarbamazine. He was subsequently admitted to the medical ward and discharged home after two weeks in a stable condition. Conclusion: This case report illustrates the importance of diagnostic tools like ultrasound and FNAC along with a high index of clinical suspicion while evaluating patients presenting with unusual signs and symptoms. We would like to highlight the rarity of filarial presentation in a nonendemic country like Qatar. This case is unique since microfilaria was demonstrated in the pus aspirated from the thigh abscess and showed the filarial dance sign by ultrasound along with involvement of the pleura and pericardium. PMID:26865993

  16. Surveillance of lymphatic filariasis 5 years after stopping mass drug administration in Menoufiya Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, M A; Thabet, H S; Saad, G A; El-Setouhy, M; Mehrez, M; Hamdy, D M

    2014-05-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that before lymphatic filariasis elimination in an area can be confirmed, an additional survey should be performed at least 5 years after stopping mass drug administration. The current study aimed to determine the status of lymphatic filariasis 5 years after cessation ofthe mass drug administration in 3 sentinel Egyptian villages in Menoufiya Governorate. The rapid immunochromatographic card test (ICT) and a new commercial antibody detection kit (CELISA®) were used. All 1321 primary-school children aged 6-7 years old were ICT negative but 27 children were antibody positive. All households surveyed in one village with the highest antibody prevalence were ICT negative, indicating an absence of lymphatic filariasis. The CELISA antibody kit needs more standardization and development to be useful under field conditions. We conclude that lymphatic filariasis is no longer a public health problem in these villages and other villages with similar epidemiological conditions. PMID:24952286

  17. Insights into the Pathogenesis of Disease in Human Lymphatic Filariasis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Although two thirds of the 120 million people infected with lymph-dwelling filarial parasites have subclinical infections, ∼40 million have lymphedema and/or other pathologic manifestations including hydroceles (and other forms of urogenital disease), episodic adenolymphangitis, lymphedema, and (in its most severe form) elephantiasis. Adult filarial worms reside in the lymphatics and lymph nodes and induce lymphatic dilatation. Progressive lymphatic damage and pathology results primarily from the host inflammatory response to the parasites but also perhaps from the host inflammatory response to the parasite's Wolbachia endosymbiont and as a consequence of superimposed bacterial or fungal infections. This review will attempt to shed light on disease pathogenesis in lymphatic filariasis. PMID:24044755

  18. The history of the elimination of lymphatic filariasis in China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    China used to be one of the most heavily endemic countries for lymphatic filariasis (LF) in the world. There were 864 endemic counties/cities in 16 provinces/autonomous regions/municipalities (P/A/M) with a total population of 330 million at risk of infection. Since the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, the Chinese Government has designated the control of the disease to be a top priority. Due to decades of sustained efforts, close cooperation related to LF control among government departments, and active participation of endemic populations, an all-round campaign for prevention and control has been carried out vigorously and successfully. Over many years, great achievements have been made through persistent endeavors of Chinese scientists and disease control workers. The ultimate goal to eliminate LF in the country was achieved in 2006. PMID:24289733

  19. Low-density microfilaraemia in subperiodic bancroftian filariasis in Samoa*

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, E.; Penaia, L.; Samarawickrema, W. A.; Spears, G. F. S.

    1985-01-01

    Among microfilaria (mf) carriers of subperiodic bancroftian filariasis in Samoa, the low-density level of microfilaraemia was defined as 1-20 mf/ml, and the occurrence of low-density carriers (90 in the present study) was analysed by age, sex, and village in relation to the microfilarial prevalence rate. The low-density carriers were more numerous among those under 20 years and over 60 years old than in other age groups. The ratio of low-density carriers to the total of mf-positive subjects in a village decreased as the prevalence rate of Wuchereria bancrofti in the village increased. The epidemiological significance of low-density carriers was assessed in connection with the infectivity of vector mosquitos (Aedes polynesiensis) produced by them, the possible change of these carriers to carriers of a higher density, and the production of new low-density carriers by diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC-C) treatment. The mosquito infectivity produced by the low-density carriers accounted for only 2.16% of the total infectivity produced by all the carriers, suggesting that these carriers are of minor importance in the transmission of filariasis. The change of microfilarial count over time among untreated mf-positive subjects was not remarkable during a 60-252-day observation period. However, the low-density carrier group showed a mean increase of 36%, the younger such carriers (under 30 years old) showing a 132% increase. The production of low-density carriers by DEC-C single-dose treatment (6 mg/kg body weight) was not as great as expected. PMID:3914924

  20. Community-directed treatment of lymphatic filariasis in Kenya and its role in the national programmes for elimination of lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed

    Wamae, Njeri; Njenga, Sammy M; Kisingu, Wilfred M; Muthigani, Pauline W; Kiiru, Karanja

    2006-01-01

    We conducted a prospective, cross-sectional study to examine and compare treatment coverage of lymphatic filariasis by the health system (HST) and a health system implemented, community-directed treatment for the control of lymphatic filariasis (ComDT / HS) in 44 randomly selected villages in coastal Kenya. Demographic information on the villages and peripheral health facilities to guide design and implementation was obtained from a situation analysis phase of this study. A series of interactive training sessions on basic biology of lymphatic filariasis, concept and philosophy of ComDT / HS were given to members of the District Health Management Team (DHMT), peripheral health staff, community leaders and community drug distributors (CDDs) prior to ivermectin distribution. An intensive sensitization process of the community by the trained peripheral health staff and community leaders followed before selection of the CDDs. Quantitative and qualitative data for evaluation of the study were collected by coverage surveys of randomly selected households, focus group discussions and interviews, immediately after the drug distribution. Treatment coverage of all eligible persons was 46.5 and 88 % in HST and ComDT/HS villages, respectively, P < 0.001. In comparing treatment coverage by the two study arms in relationship to the distance from a health facility, coverage among HST and not ComDT / HS villages was influenced by distance. In Kenya, ComDT / HS can effectively be implemented by the regular health system and can attain coverage levels compatible with the global filariasis elimination goal. PMID:17348745

  1. Modelling lymphatic filariasis transmission and control: modelling frameworks, lessons learned and future directions.

    PubMed

    Stolk, Wilma A; Stone, Chris; de Vlas, Sake J

    2015-03-01

    Mathematical modelling provides a useful tool for policy making and planning in lymphatic filariasis control programmes, by providing trend forecasts based on sound scientific knowledge and principles. This is now especially true, in view of the ambitious target to eliminate lymphatic filariasis as a public health problem globally by the year 2020 and the short remaining timeline to achieve this. To meet this target, elimination programmes need to be accelerated, requiring further optimization of strategies and tailoring to local circumstances. Insights from epidemiological transmission models provide a useful basis. Two general models of lymphatic filariasis transmission and control are nowadays in use to support decision-making, namely a population-based deterministic model (EPIFIL) and an individual-based stochastic model (LYMFASIM). Model predictions confirm that lymphatic filariasis transmission can be interrupted by annual mass drug administration (MDA), but this may need to be continued much longer than the initially suggested 4-6 years in areas with high transmission intensity or poor treatment coverage. However, the models have not been validated against longitudinal data describing the impact of MDA programmes. Some critical issues remain to be incorporated in one or both of the models to make predictions on elimination more realistic, including the possible occurrence of systematic noncompliance, the risk of emerging parasite resistance to anthelmintic drugs, and spatial heterogeneities. Rapid advances are needed to maximize the utility of models in decision-making for the ongoing ambitious lymphatic filariasis elimination programmes. PMID:25765197

  2. Pilot experiments in the control of bancroftian filariasis in Japan and Ryukyu*

    PubMed Central

    Sasa, Manabu

    1963-01-01

    In this paper the author reviews the literature on the distribution and epidemiology of filariasis in Japan and discusses the extensive programme of research on the disease that is at present being carried out there. As part of this programme, comparative pilot experiments were started in 1958, in several areas of differing filariasis endemicity, with the object of determining the most effective and economical methods for preventing and treating the disease. The results so far obtained from these pilot experiments, which are still in progress, suggest that a close approach to the eradication of filariasis from the endemic areas could be reached through the administration of diethylcarbamazine at a suitable dosage to microfilaria carriers and the simultaneous application of control measures against the vector mosquitos. PMID:13986607

  3. Are we nearly there yet? Coverage and compliance of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis elimination.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Neal D E

    2015-03-01

    Lymphatic filariasis has been targeted for elimination by 2020, and a threshold of 65% coverage of mass drug administration (MDA) has been adopted by the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF). A recent review by Babu and Babu of 36 studies of MDA for lymphatic filariasis in India found that coverage, defined as receipt of tablets, ranged from 48.8 to 98.8%, while compliance, defined as actual ingestion of tablets, was 22% lower on average. Moreover, the denominator for these coverage figures is the eligible, rather than total, population. By contrast, the 65% threshold, in the original modelling study, refers to ingestion of tablets in the total population. This corresponds to GPELF's use of 'epidemiological drug coverage' as a trigger for the Transmission Assessment Surveys (TAS), which indicate whether to proceed to post-MDA surveillance. The existence of less strict definitions of 'coverage' should not lead to premature TAS that could impair MDA's sustainability. PMID:25575555

  4. [Serpiginous calcifications in breast filariasis: A descriptor not included in the BI-RADS classification system].

    PubMed

    Mora-Encinas, J P; Martín-Martín, B; Martín-Martín, L; Mora-Monago, R

    2015-01-01

    Filariasis is a parasitic disease with a benign course caused by nematodes. Filariasis is endemic in some tropical regions, and immigration has made it increasingly common in some centers in Spain. The death of the parasites can lead to calcifications that are visible in mammograms; these calcifications have specific characteristics and should not be confused with those arising in other diseases. However, the appearance of calcifications due to filariasis is not included in the most common systems used for the classification of calcifications on mammograms (BI-RADS), and this can lead to confusion. In this article, we discuss the need to update classification systems and warn radiologists about the appearance of these calcifications to ensure their correct diagnosis and avoid confusion with other diseases. PMID:25682995

  5. The NIH-NIAID Filariasis Research Reagent Resource Center

    PubMed Central

    Michalski, Michelle L.; Griffiths, Kathryn G.; Williams, Steven A.; Kaplan, Ray M.; Moorhead, Andrew R.

    2011-01-01

    Filarial worms cause a variety of tropical diseases in humans; however, they are difficult to study because they have complex life cycles that require arthropod intermediate hosts and mammalian definitive hosts. Research efforts in industrialized countries are further complicated by the fact that some filarial nematodes that cause disease in humans are restricted in host specificity to humans alone. This potentially makes the commitment to research difficult, expensive, and restrictive. Over 40 years ago, the United States National Institutes of Health–National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIH-NIAID) established a resource from which investigators could obtain various filarial parasite species and life cycle stages without having to expend the effort and funds necessary to maintain the entire life cycles in their own laboratories. This centralized resource (The Filariasis Research Reagent Resource Center, or FR3) translated into cost savings to both NIH-NIAID and to principal investigators by freeing up personnel costs on grants and allowing investigators to divert more funds to targeted research goals. Many investigators, especially those new to the field of tropical medicine, are unaware of the scope of materials and support provided by the FR3. This review is intended to provide a short history of the contract, brief descriptions of the fiilarial species and molecular resources provided, and an estimate of the impact the resource has had on the research community, and describes some new additions and potential benefits the resource center might have for the ever-changing research interests of investigators. PMID:22140585

  6. Filariasis in Africa--treatment challenges and prospects.

    PubMed

    Hoerauf, A; Pfarr, K; Mand, S; Debrah, A Y; Specht, S

    2011-07-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) and onchocerciasis are parasitic nematode infections that are responsible for a major disease burden in the African continent. Disease symptoms are induced by the immune reactions of the host, with lymphoedema and hydrocoele in LF, and dermatitis and ocular inflammation in onchocerciasis. Wuchereria bancrofti and Onchocerca volvulus, the species causing LF and onchocerciasis in Africa, live in mutual symbiosis with Wolbachia endobacteria, which cause a major part of the inflammation leading to symptoms and are antibiotic targets for treatment. The standard microfilaricidal drugs ivermectin and albendazole are used in mass drug administration programmes, with the aim of interrupting transmission, with a consequent reduction in the burden of infection and, in some situations, leading to regional elimination of LF and onchocerciasis. Co-endemicity of Loa loa with W. bancrofti or O. volvulus is an impediment to mass drug administration with ivermectin and albendazole, owing to the risk of encephalopathy being encountered upon administration of ivermectin. Research into new treatment options is exploring several improved delivery strategies for the classic drugs or new antibiotic treatment regimens for anti-wolbachial chemotherapy. PMID:21722251

  7. Future prospects and challenges of vaccines against filariasis.

    PubMed

    Babayan, Simon A; Allen, J E; Taylor, D W

    2012-05-01

    Filarial infections remain a major public health and socio-economic problem across the tropics, despite considerable effort to reduce disease burden or regionally eliminate the infection with mass drug administration programmes. The sustainability of these programmes is now open to question owing to a range of issues, not least of which is emerging evidence for drug resistance. Vaccination, if developed appropriately, remains the most cost-effective means of long-term disease control. The rationale for the feasibility of vaccination against filarial parasites including onchocerciasis (river blindness, Onchocerca volvulus) and lymphatic filariasis (Wuchereria bancrofti or Brugia malayi) is founded on evidence from both humans and animal models for the development of protective immunity. Nonetheless, enormous challenges need to be faced in terms of overcoming parasite-induced suppression without inducing pathology as well as the need to both recognize and tackle evolutionary and ecological obstacles to successful vaccine development. Nonetheless, new technological advances in addition to systems biology approaches offer hope that optimal immune responses can be induced that will prevent infection, disease and/or transmission. PMID:22150082

  8. Diagnosis of brugian filariasis by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Poole, Catherine B; Tanner, Nathan A; Zhang, Yinhua; Evans, Thomas C; Carlow, Clotilde K S

    2012-01-01

    In this study we developed and evaluated a Brugia Hha I repeat loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the rapid detection of Brugia genomic DNA. Amplification was detected using turbidity or fluorescence as readouts. Reactions generated a turbidity threshold value or a clear visual positive within 30 minutes using purified genomic DNA equivalent to one microfilaria. Similar results were obtained using DNA isolated from blood samples containing B. malayi microfilariae. Amplification was specific to B. malayi and B. timori, as no turbidity was observed using DNA from the related filarial parasites Wuchereria bancrofti, Onchocerca volvulus or Dirofilaria immitis, or from human or mosquito. Furthermore, the assay was most robust using a new strand-displacing DNA polymerase termed Bst 2.0 compared to wild-type Bst DNA polymerase, large fragment. The results indicate that the Brugia Hha I repeat LAMP assay is rapid, sensitive and Brugia-specific with the potential to be developed further as a field tool for diagnosis and mapping of brugian filariasis. PMID:23272258

  9. Tandem antioxidant enzymes confer synergistic protective responses in experimental filariasis.

    PubMed

    Prince, P R; Madhumathi, J; Anugraha, G; Jeyaprita, P J; Reddy, M V R; Kaliraj, P

    2014-12-01

    Helminth parasites use antioxidant defence strategies for survival during oxidative stress due to free radicals in the host. Accordingly, tissue-dwelling filarial parasites counteract host responses by releasing a number of antioxidants. Targeting these redox regulation proteins together, would facilitate effective parasite clearance. Here, we report the combined effect of protective immune responses trigged by recombinant Wuchereria bancrofti thioredoxin (WbTRX) and thioredoxin peroxidase (WbTPX) in an experimental filarial model. The expression of WbTRX and WbTPX in different stages of the parasite and their cross-reactivity were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The immunogenicity of recombinant proteins and their protective efficacy were studied in animal models when immunized in single or cocktail mode. The antigens showed cross-reactive epitopes and induced high humoral and cellular immune responses in mice. Further, parasite challenge against Brugia malayi L3 larvae in Mastomys coucha conferred significant protection of 57% and 62% against WbTRX and WbTPX respectively. The efficacy of L3 clearance was significantly higher (71%) (P <  0.001) when the antigens were immunized together, showing a synergistic effect in multiple-mode vaccination. Hence, the study suggests WbTRX and WbTPX to be attractive vaccine candidates when immunized together and provides a tandem block for parasite elimination in the control of lymphatic filariasis. PMID:23676147

  10. Diagnosis of Brugian Filariasis by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Catherine B.; Tanner, Nathan A.; Zhang, Yinhua; Evans, Thomas C.; Carlow, Clotilde K. S.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we developed and evaluated a Brugia Hha I repeat loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the rapid detection of Brugia genomic DNA. Amplification was detected using turbidity or fluorescence as readouts. Reactions generated a turbidity threshold value or a clear visual positive within 30 minutes using purified genomic DNA equivalent to one microfilaria. Similar results were obtained using DNA isolated from blood samples containing B. malayi microfilariae. Amplification was specific to B. malayi and B. timori, as no turbidity was observed using DNA from the related filarial parasites Wuchereria bancrofti, Onchocerca volvulus or Dirofilaria immitis, or from human or mosquito. Furthermore, the assay was most robust using a new strand-displacing DNA polymerase termed Bst 2.0 compared to wild-type Bst DNA polymerase, large fragment. The results indicate that the Brugia Hha I repeat LAMP assay is rapid, sensitive and Brugia-specific with the potential to be developed further as a field tool for diagnosis and mapping of brugian filariasis. PMID:23272258

  11. Lymphatic filariasis in Papua New Guinea: interdisciplinary research on a national health problem.

    PubMed

    Kazura, James W; Bockarie, Moses J

    2003-06-01

    Bancroftian filariasis is a major public health problem in Papua New Guinea, where the level of transmission by the mosquito vector, human infection rates and clinical morbidity are among the highest in the world. Coordinated research efforts within the country, involving the disciplines of epidemiology, vector biology, immunology and genetics, have led to new insights into the ecology and pathogenesis of human lymphatic filariasis. Recent work using this knowledge base should be helpful in assessing local and global strategies aimed at eliminating Wuchereria bancrofti and in guiding research that will facilitate achievement of this goal. PMID:12798083

  12. Relationship between malaria and filariasis transmission indices in an endemic area along the Kenyan Coast

    PubMed Central

    Muturi, Ephantus J.; Mbogo, Charles M.; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah W.; Kabiru, Ephantus W.; Mwandawiro, Charles; Novak, Robert J.; Beier, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Background & objectives: An entomological survey was conducted to determine the relationship between malaria and lymphatic filariasis transmission by Anopheles gambiae s.l. and An. funestus in two inland villages along the Kenyan coast. Methods: Mosquitoes were sampled inside houses by pyrethrum spray sheet collection (PSC). In the laboratory, the mosquitoes were sorted to species, dissected for examination of filarial infection and the anophelines later tested for Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite proteins by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: From a total of 2,032 female mosquitoes collected indoors, An. gambiae s.l constituted 94.4% while the remaining 5.6% comprised of An. funestus and Culex quinquefasciatus. None of the Cx. quinquefasciatus was positive for filarial worms. P. falciparum sporozoite rate for An. gambiae s.l. from both villages was significantly higher than Wuchereria bancrofti infectivity rate. Similarly, the entomological inoculation rate for An. gambiae s.l. was significantly higher than the corresponding W. bancrofti infective biting rate and transmission potential for both the villages. Mass treatment of people with filaricidal drugs in Shakahola in the ongoing global elimination of lymphatic filariasis campaign seemed to have reduced the indices of filariasis transmission but had no effect on malaria transmission. Interpretation & conclusion: These results indicate the intensity of malaria transmission by anophelines to be much higher than that of lymphatic filariasis in areas where both diseases co-exist and re-emphasise the need to integrate the control of the two diseases in such areas. PMID:16967820

  13. Modelling of filariasis in East Java with Poisson regression and generalized Poisson regression models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darnah

    2016-04-01

    Poisson regression has been used if the response variable is count data that based on the Poisson distribution. The Poisson distribution assumed equal dispersion. In fact, a situation where count data are over dispersion or under dispersion so that Poisson regression inappropriate because it may underestimate the standard errors and overstate the significance of the regression parameters, and consequently, giving misleading inference about the regression parameters. This paper suggests the generalized Poisson regression model to handling over dispersion and under dispersion on the Poisson regression model. The Poisson regression model and generalized Poisson regression model will be applied the number of filariasis cases in East Java. Based regression Poisson model the factors influence of filariasis are the percentage of families who don't behave clean and healthy living and the percentage of families who don't have a healthy house. The Poisson regression model occurs over dispersion so that we using generalized Poisson regression. The best generalized Poisson regression model showing the factor influence of filariasis is percentage of families who don't have healthy house. Interpretation of result the model is each additional 1 percentage of families who don't have healthy house will add 1 people filariasis patient.

  14. Mapping the Geographical Distribution of Lymphatic Filariasis in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Mwase, Enala T.; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Nsakashalo-Senkwe, Mutale; Mubila, Likezo; Mwansa, James; Songolo, Peter; Shawa, Sheila T.; Simonsen, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Past case reports have indicated that lymphatic filariasis (LF) occurs in Zambia, but knowledge about its geographical distribution and prevalence pattern, and the underlying potential environmental drivers, has been limited. As a background for planning and implementation of control, a country-wide mapping survey was undertaken between 2003 and 2011. Here the mapping activities are outlined, the findings across the numerous survey sites are presented, and the ecological requirements of the LF distribution are explored. Methodology/Principal findings Approximately 10,000 adult volunteers from 108 geo-referenced survey sites across Zambia were examined for circulating filarial antigens (CFA) with rapid format ICT cards, and a map indicating the distribution of CFA prevalences in Zambia was prepared. 78% of survey sites had CFA positive cases, with prevalences ranging between 1% and 54%. Most positive survey sites had low prevalence, but six foci with more than 15% prevalence were identified. The observed geographical variation in prevalence pattern was examined in more detail using a species distribution modeling approach to explore environmental requirements for parasite presence, and to predict potential suitable habitats over unsurveyed areas. Of note, areas associated with human modification of the landscape appeared to play an important role for the general presence of LF, whereas temperature (measured as averaged seasonal land surface temperature) seemed to be an important determinant of medium-high prevalence levels. Conclusions/significance LF was found to be surprisingly widespread in Zambia, although in most places with low prevalence. The produced maps and the identified environmental correlates of LF infection will provide useful guidance for planning and start-up of geographically targeted and cost-effective LF control in Zambia. PMID:24587466

  15. National Mass Drug Administration Costs for Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Ann S.; Guisinger, Victoria H.; Aikins, Moses; Amarillo, Maria Lourdes E.; Belizario, Vicente Y.; Garshong, Bertha; Gyapong, John; Kabali, Conrad; Kamal, Hussein A.; Kanjilal, Sanjat; Kyelem, Dominique; Lizardo, Jefrey; Malecela, Mwele; Mubyazi, Godfrey; Nitièma, P. Abdoulaye; Ramzy, Reda M. R.; Streit, Thomas G.; Wallace, Aaron; Brady, Molly A.; Rheingans, Richard; Ottesen, Eric A.; Haddix, Anne C.

    2007-01-01

    Background Because lymphatic filariasis (LF) elimination efforts are hampered by a dearth of economic information about the cost of mass drug administration (MDA) programs (using either albendazole with diethylcarbamazine [DEC] or albendazole with ivermectin), a multicenter study was undertaken to determine the costs of MDA programs to interrupt transmission of infection with LF. Such results are particularly important because LF programs have the necessary diagnostic and treatment tools to eliminate the disease as a public health problem globally, and already by 2006, the Global Programme to Eliminate LF had initiated treatment programs covering over 400 million of the 1.3 billion people at risk. Methodology/Principal Findings To obtain annual costs to carry out the MDA strategy, researchers from seven countries developed and followed a common cost analysis protocol designed to estimate 1) the total annual cost of the LF program, 2) the average cost per person treated, and 3) the relative contributions of the endemic countries and the external partners. Costs per person treated ranged from $0.06 to $2.23. Principal reasons for the variation were 1) the age (newness) of the MDA program, 2) the use of volunteers, and 3) the size of the population treated. Substantial contributions by governments were documented – generally 60%–90% of program operation costs, excluding costs of donated medications. Conclusions/Significance MDA for LF elimination is comparatively inexpensive in relation to most other public health programs. Governments and communities make the predominant financial contributions to actual MDA implementation, not counting the cost of the drugs themselves. The results highlight the impact of the use of volunteers on program costs and provide specific cost data for 7 different countries that can be used as a basis both for modifying current programs and for developing new ones. PMID:17989784

  16. Complex Ecological Dynamics and Eradicability of the Vector Borne Macroparasitic Disease, Lymphatic Filariasis

    PubMed Central

    Gambhir, Manoj; Michael, Edwin

    2008-01-01

    Background The current global efforts to control the morbidity and mortality caused by infectious diseases affecting developing countries—such as HIV/AIDS, polio, tuberculosis, malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs)—have led to an increasing focus on the biological controllability or eradicability of disease transmission by management action. Here, we use an age-structured dynamical model of lymphatic filariasis transmission to show how a quantitative understanding of the dynamic processes underlying infection persistence and extinction is key to evaluating the eradicability of this macroparasitic disease. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the persistence and extinction dynamics of lymphatic filariasis by undertaking a numerical equilibrium analysis of a deterministic model of parasite transmission, based on varying values of the initial L3 larval density in the system. The results highlighted the likely occurrence of complex dynamics in parasite transmission with three major outcomes for the eradicability of filariasis. First, both vector biting and worm breakpoint thresholds are shown to be complex dynamic entities with values dependent on the nature and magnitude of vector-and host specific density-dependent processes and the degree of host infection aggregation prevailing in endemic communities. Second, these thresholds as well as the potential size of the attractor domains and hence system resilience are strongly dependent on peculiarities of infection dynamics in different vector species. Finally, the existence of multiple stable states indicates the presence of hysteresis nonlinearity in the filariasis system dynamics in which infection thresholds for infection invasion are lower but occur at higher biting rates than do the corresponding thresholds for parasite elimination. Conclusions/Significance The variable dynamic nature of thresholds and parasite system resilience reflecting both initial conditions and vector species

  17. Cytological diagnosis of bancroftian filariasis presented as a subcutaneous swelling in the cubital fossa: an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Pinki; Dixit, Alok; Chandra, Subrat; Tanwar, Aparna

    2015-04-01

    Filariasis is a disabling parasitic disease and the prevalence of lymphatic filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti is quite high in India. However, W. bancrofti presenting as a subcutaneous swelling and a demonstration of microfilariae in cytological smears from upper extremity lesions is extremely rare. We report a case of 20-year-old male who presented with a small subcutaneous swelling near medial aspect of the left cubital fossa. The wet mount preparation showed many motile microfilariae. Cytology smears revealed a large number of sheathed microfilariae with the tail tip free of nucleus, identified as W. bancrofti without significant inflammatory cell infiltrate. Indirect ELISA was highly positive for specific recombinant W. bancrofti filarial antigen (WL-L2). The role of cytology cannot be underestimated in clinically unanticipated cases of bancroftian filariasis, especially with the amicrofilaremic state. Filariasis should always be considered in the differential diagnosis during cytological evaluation of any swelling, especially in endemic areas. PMID:26634138

  18. Seventh meeting of the Global Alliance to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis: reaching the vision by scaling up, scaling down, and reaching out.

    PubMed

    Brady, Molly

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes the 7th meeting of the Global Alliance to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GAELF), Washington DC, November 18-19, 2012. The theme, "A Future Free of Lymphatic Filariasis: Reaching the Vision by Scaling Up, Scaling Down and Reaching Out", emphasized new strategies and partnerships necessary to reach the 2020 goal of elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF) as a public-health problem. PMID:24450283

  19. Seventh meeting of the Global Alliance to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis: reaching the vision by scaling up, scaling down, and reaching out

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes the 7th meeting of the Global Alliance to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GAELF), Washington DC, November 18–19, 2012. The theme, “A Future Free of Lymphatic Filariasis: Reaching the Vision by Scaling Up, Scaling Down and Reaching Out”, emphasized new strategies and partnerships necessary to reach the 2020 goal of elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF) as a public-health problem. PMID:24450283

  20. Mapping of Bancroftian Filariasis in Cameroon: Prospects for Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Nana-Djeunga, Hugues C.; Tchatchueng-Mbougua, Jules B.; Bopda, Jean; Mbickmen-Tchana, Steve; Elong-Kana, Nathalie; Nnomzo’o, Etienne; Akame, Julie; Tarini, Ann; Zhang, Yaobi; Njiokou, Flobert; Kamgno, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is one of the most debilitating neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). It still presents as an important public health problem in many countries in the tropics. In Cameroon, where many NTDs are endemic, only scant data describing the situation regarding LF epidemiology was available. The aim of this study was to describe the current situation regarding LF infection in Cameroon, and to map this infection and accurately delineate areas where mass drug administration (MDA) was required. Methodology The endemicity status and distribution of LF was assessed in eight of the ten Regions of Cameroon by a rapid-format card test for detection of W. bancrofti antigen (immunochromatographic test, ICT). The baseline data required to monitor the effectiveness of MDA was collected by assessing microfilariaemia in nocturnal calibrated thick blood smears in sentinel sites selected in the health districts where ICT positivity rate was ≥ 1%. Principal findings Among the 120 health districts visited in the eight Regions during ICT survey, 106 (88.3%) were found to be endemic for LF (i.e. had ICT positivity rate ≥ 1%), with infection rate from 1.0% (95% CI: 0.2–5.5) to 20.0% (95% CI: 10–30). The overall infection rate during the night blood survey was 0.11% (95% CI: 0.08–0.16) in 11 health districts out of the 106 surveyed; the arithmetic mean for microfilaria density was 1.19 mf/ml (95% CI: 0.13–2.26) for the total population examined. Conclusion/significance ICT card test results showed that LF was endemic in all the Regions and in about 90% of the health districts surveyed. All of these health districts qualified for MDA (i.e. ICT positivity rate ≥ 1%). Microfilariaemia data collected as part of this study provided the national program with baseline data (sentinel sites) necessary to measure the impact of MDA on the endemicity level and transmission of LF important for the 2020 deadline for global elimination. PMID:26353087

  1. A Comprehensive, Model-Based Review of Vaccine and Repeat Infection Trials for Filariasis

    PubMed Central

    Morris, C. Paul; Evans, Holly; Larsen, Sasha E.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Filarial worms cause highly morbid diseases such as elephantiasis and river blindness. Since the 1940s, researchers have conducted vaccine trials in 27 different animal models of filariasis. Although no vaccine trial in a permissive model of filariasis has provided sterilizing immunity, great strides have been made toward developing vaccines that could block transmission, decrease pathological sequelae, or decrease susceptibility to infection. In this review, we have organized, to the best of our ability, all published filaria vaccine trials and reviewed them in the context of the animal models used. Additionally, we provide information on the life cycle, disease phenotype, concomitant immunity, and natural immunity during primary and secondary infections for 24 different filaria models. PMID:23824365

  2. Comparison of Three Quality of Life Instruments in Lymphatic Filariasis: DLQI, WHODAS 2.0, and LFSQQ

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Cristina; Narahari, Saravu R.; Bose, Kuthaje S.; Vivekananda, Kuthaje; Nwe, Steven; West, Dennis P.; Kwasny, Mary; Kundu, Roopal V.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis aims to interrupt transmission of lymphatic filariasis and manage morbidity in people currently living with the disease. A component of morbidity management is improving health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients. Measurement of HRQoL in current management programs is varied because of the lack of a standard HRQoL tool for use in the lymphatic filariasis population. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, the psychometric properties of three health status measures were compared when used in a group of lymphatic filariasis patients and healthy controls. The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0), the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), and the Lymphatic Filariasis Quality of Life Questionnaire (LFSQQ) were administered to 36 stage II and stage III lymphatic filariasis subjects and 36 age and sex matched controls in Kerala, India. All three tools yielded missing value rates lower than 10%, suggesting high feasibility. Highest internal consistency was seen in the LFSQQ (α = 0.97). Discriminant validity analysis demonstrated that HRQoL was significantly lower in the LF group than in controls for the WHODAS 2.0, DLQI, and LFSQQ, but total HRQoL scores did not differ between stage II and stage III lymphedema subjects. The LFSQQ total score correlated most strongly with the WHODAS 2.0 (r = 0.91, p<0.001) and DLQI (r = 0.81, p<0.001). Conclusions/Significance The WHODAS 2.0, DLQI, and LFSQQ demonstrate acceptable feasibility, internal consistency, discriminate validity, and construct validity. Based on our psychometric analyses, the LFSQQ performs the best and is recommended for use in the lymphatic filariasis population. PMID:24587467

  3. Identification of immunodiagnostic antigens for cerebrospinal filariasis in horses by western blot analysis

    PubMed Central

    TAKESUE, Masataka; OSAKA, Yuki; MURANAKA, Masanori; KATAYAMA, Yoshinari; IKADAI, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the present study, the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of horses diagnosed with Setaria digitata cerebrospinal filariasis were analyzed by western blot. The results revealed S. digitata protein bands measuring 65, 34, 22, and 18 kDa in molecular weight. In particular, the 18 kDa band is a possible candidate for clinical immunodiagnosis on the basis of western blot findings. PMID:27073332

  4. Inter and intra-specific diversity of parasites that cause lymphatic filariasis

    PubMed Central

    McNulty, Samantha N.; Mitreva, Makedonka; Weil, Gary J.; Fischer, Peter U.

    2013-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is caused by three closely related nematode parasites: Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori. These species have many ecological variants that differ in several aspects of their biology such as mosquito vector species, host range, periodicity, and morphology. Although the genome of B. malayi (the first genome sequenced from a parasitic nematode) has been available for more than five years, very little is known about genetic variability among the lymphatic dwelling filariae. The genetic diversity among these worms is not only interesting from a biological perspective, but it may have important practical implications for the Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis, as the parasites may respond differently to diagnostic tests and/or medical interventions. Therefore, better information on their genetic variability is urgently needed. With improved methods for nucleic acid extraction and recent advances in sequencing chemistry and instrumentation, this gap can be filled relatively inexpensively. Improved information on filarial genetic diversity may increase the chances of success for lymphatic filariasis elimination programs. PMID:23201850

  5. Are we nearly there yet? Coverage and compliance of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis elimination

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Neal D. E.

    2015-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis has been targeted for elimination by 2020, and a threshold of 65% coverage of mass drug administration (MDA) has been adopted by the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF). A recent review by Babu and Babu of 36 studies of MDA for lymphatic filariasis in India found that coverage, defined as receipt of tablets, ranged from 48.8 to 98.8%, while compliance, defined as actual ingestion of tablets, was 22% lower on average. Moreover, the denominator for these coverage figures is the eligible, rather than total, population. By contrast, the 65% threshold, in the original modelling study, refers to ingestion of tablets in the total population. This corresponds to GPELF's use of ‘epidemiological drug coverage’ as a trigger for the Transmission Assessment Surveys (TAS), which indicate whether to proceed to post-MDA surveillance. The existence of less strict definitions of ‘coverage’ should not lead to premature TAS that could impair MDA's sustainability. PMID:25575555

  6. Challenges in mass drug administration for treating lymphatic filariasis in Papua, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis relies on mass drug administration (MDA) of two drugs annually for 4 to 6 years. The goal is to reduce the reservoir of microfilariae in the blood to a level insufficient to maintain transmission by the mosquito vector. In 2008, the international medical aid organization Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) performed the first round of a MDA in the high-burden area of Asmat district, in Papua, Indonesia. We report the challenges faced in this MDA on a remote Indonesian island and propose solutions to overcome these hurdles in similar future contexts. Results During the MDA, we encountered difficult challenges in accessing as well as persuading the patient population to take the antifilarial drugs. Health promotion activities supporting treatment need to be adapted and repetitive, with adequate time and resources allocated for accessing and communicating with local, seminomadic populations. Distribution of bednets resulted in an increase in MDA coverage, but it was still below the 80-85% target. Conclusions MDA for lymphatic filariasis is how the WHO has planned to eliminate the disease from endemic areas. Our programmatic experience will hopefully help inform future campaign planning in difficult-to-access, high-burden areas of the world to achieve target MDA coverage for elimination of lymphatic filariasis. PMID:20701744

  7. In search of a potential diagnostic tool for molecular characterization of lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Mohd; Adnan, Mohd; Khan, Saif; Al-Shammari, Eyad; Mustafa, Huma

    2016-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a chronic disease and is caused by the parasites Wuchereria bancrofti (W. bancrofti), Brugia malayi (B. malayi) and Brugia timori (B. timori). In the present study, Setaria cervi (S. cervi), a bovine filarial parasite has been used. Previously, it has been reported that the S. cervi shares some common proteins and antigenic determinants with that of human filarial parasite. The larval stages of filarial species usually cannot be identified by classical morphology. Hence, molecular characterization allows the identification of the parasites throughout all their developmental stages. The genomic DNA of S. cervi adult were isolated and estimated spectrophotometrically for the quantitative presence of DNA content. Screening of DNA sequences from filarial DNA GenBank and Expressed Sequence Tags (EST's) were performed for homologous sequences and then multiple sequence alignment was executed. The conserved sequences from multiple sequence alignment were used for In Silico primer designing. The successfully designed primers were used further in PCR amplifications. Therefore, in search of a promising diagnostic tool few genes were identified to be conserved in the human and bovine filariasis and these novel primers deigned may help to develop a promising diagnostic tool for identification of lymphatic filariasis. PMID:26751881

  8. A multicenter evaluation of a new antibody test kit for lymphatic filariasis employing recombinant Brugia malayi antigen Bm-14.

    PubMed

    Weil, Gary J; Curtis, Kurt C; Fischer, Peter U; Won, Kimberly Y; Lammie, Patrick J; Joseph, Hayley; Melrose, Wayne D; Brattig, Norbert W

    2011-09-01

    Antibody tests are useful for mapping the distribution of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in countries and regions and for monitoring progress in elimination programs based on mass drug administration (MDA). Prior antibody tests have suffered from poor sensitivity and/or specificity or from a lack of standardization. We conducted a multicenter evaluation of a new commercial ELISA that detects IgG4 antibodies to the recombinant filarial antigen Bm14. Four laboratories tested a shared panel of coded serum or plasma samples that included 55 samples from people with microfilaremic Wuchereria bancrofti or Brugia infections and 26 control samples. Qualitative results were identical in all four test sites. In addition, each laboratory tested samples from their own serum banks. The test detected antibodies in 32 of 36 samples (91%) from people with Brugian filariasis and in 96 of 98 samples (98%) from people with Bancroftian filariasis. Specificity testing showed that many serum or plasma samples from patients with other filarial infections such as onchocerciasis had positive antibody tests. Specificity was otherwise excellent, although 3 of 30 samples from patients with ascariasis and 4 of 51 with strongyloidiasis had positive antibody tests; it is likely that some or all of these people had previously lived in filariasis-endemic areas. Antibody test results obtained with eluates from blood dried on filter paper were similar to those obtained with plasma tested at the same dilution. This test may be helpful for diagnosing LF in patients with clinical signs of filariasis. It may also be a useful tool for use in LF endemic countries to monitor the progress of filariasis elimination programs and for post-MDA surveillance. PMID:20430004

  9. Lymphatic Filariasis Transmission Risk Map of India, Based on a Geo-Environmental Risk Model

    PubMed Central

    Sabesan, Shanmugavelu; Raju, Konuganti Hari Kishan; Srivastava, Pradeep Kumar; Jambulingam, Purushothaman

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The strategy adopted by a global program to interrupt transmission of lymphatic filariasis (LF) is mass drug administration (MDA) using chemotherapy. India also followed this strategy by introducing MDA in the historically known endemic areas. All other areas, which remained unsurveyed, were presumed to be nonendemic and left without any intervention. Therefore, identification of LF transmission risk areas in the entire country has become essential so that they can be targeted for intervention. A geo-environmental risk model (GERM) developed earlier was used to create a filariasis transmission risk map for India. In this model, a Standardized Filariasis Transmission Risk Index (SFTRI, based on geo-environmental risk variables) was used as a predictor of transmission risk. The relationship between SFTRI and endemicity (historically known) of an area was quantified by logistic regression analysis. The quantified relationship was validated by assessing the filarial antigenemia status of children living in the unsurveyed areas through a ground truth study. A significant positive relationship was observed between SFTRI and the endemicity of an area. Overall, the model prediction of filarial endemic status of districts was found to be correct in 92.8% of the total observations. Thus, among the 190 districts hitherto unsurveyed, as many as 113 districts were predicted to be at risk, and the remaining at no risk. The GERM developed on geographic information system (GIS) platform is useful for LF spatial delimitation on a macrogeographic/regional scale. Furthermore, the risk map developed will be useful for the national LF elimination program by identifying areas at risk for intervention and for undertaking surveillance in no-risk areas. PMID:23808973

  10. Diurnally subperiodic filariasis among the Nicobarese of Nicobar district - epidemiology, vector dynamics & prospects of elimination

    PubMed Central

    Shriram, A.N.; Krishnamoorthy, K.; Vijayachari, P.

    2015-01-01

    In India diurnally subperiodic filariasis (DspWB) is prevalent only in the Nicobar district of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Studies undertaken at different points of time indicate that this form of filariasis is restricted to a small region in Nancowry group of islands where it is transmitted by mosquito Downsiomyia nivea, a day biting mosquito. Studies on prevalence, distribution, and assessment of endemicity status, vector incrimination, bioecology, host seeking behaviour, population dynamics of the vector, transmission dynamics and clinical epidemiology indicate the prevalence and persistence of this infection in the Nancowry group of islands with perennial transmission. There was no control programme in these islands, until the National programme to eliminate filariasis was launched in 2004. Eight rounds of annual mass drug administration (MDA) with diethyl carbamazine (DEC) + albendazole have been completed. Despite this, microfilaria prevalence remains at above one per cent, the level identified for initiating transmission assessment survey to decide on continuation of MDA further. This necessitates adjunct measures to the ongoing MDA programme in these islands. The vector control options could be an adjunct measure, but the vector is a forest dweller with a unique bio-ecology, therefore, not a technically feasible option. Use of DEC fortified salt for six months to one year could hasten the process of elimination. Although administration of DEC-fortified salt is simple, rapid, safe, and cost-effective, challenges are to be tackled for evolving operationally realistic strategy. Such a strategy requires commitment of all sections of the society, a distribution mechanism that ensures the use of DEC-fortified salt in the Nancowry islands. Here we discuss the plan of action to serve the indigenous communities and operationalizing DEC fortified salt strategy through an inter-sectoral approach involving multiple stakeholders. PMID:26139777

  11. Diurnally subperiodic filariasis among the Nicobarese of Nicobar district - epidemiology, vector dynamics & prospects of elimination.

    PubMed

    Shriram, A N; Krishnamoorthy, K; Vijayachari, P

    2015-05-01

    In India diurnally subperiodic filariasis (DspWB) is prevalent only in the Nicobar district of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Studies undertaken at different points of time indicate that this form of filariasis is restricted to a small region in Nancowry group of islands where it is transmitted by mosquito Downsiomyia nivea, a day biting mosquito. Studies on prevalence, distribution, and assessment of endemicity status, vector incrimination, bioecology, host seeking behaviour, population dynamics of the vector, transmission dynamics and clinical epidemiology indicate the prevalence and persistence of this infection in the Nancowry group of islands with perennial transmission. There was no control programme in these islands, until the National programme to eliminate filariasis was launched in 2004. Eight rounds of annual mass drug administration (MDA) with diethyl carbamazine (DEC) + albendazole have been completed. Despite this, microfilaria prevalence remains at above one per cent, the level identified for initiating transmission assessment survey to decide on continuation of MDA further. This necessitates adjunct measures to the ongoing MDA programme in these islands. The vector control options could be an adjunct measure, but the vector is a forest dweller with a unique bio-ecology, therefore, not a technically feasible option. Use of DEC fortified salt for six months to one year could hasten the process of elimination. Although administration of DEC-fortified salt is simple, rapid, safe, and cost-effective, challenges are to be tackled for evolving operationally realistic strategy. Such a strategy requires commitment of all sections of the society, a distribution mechanism that ensures the use of DEC-fortified salt in the Nancowry islands. Here we discuss the plan of action to serve the indigenous communities and operationalizing DEC fortified salt strategy through an inter-sectoral approach involving multiple stakeholders. PMID:26139777

  12. A review of the present status of lymphatic filariasis in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Meyrowitsch, D W; Nguyen, D T; Hoang, T H; Nguyen, T D; Michael, E

    1998-07-30

    Establishing the current status of an infectious disease forms the starting point of any attempt at parasite control. Although data on the prevalence and distribution of lymphatic filariasis exist for Vietnam from the early 1900s, the present situation regarding the disease is less well-known. Here, we review the results of recent surveys conducted by the Institute of Malariology, Parasitology and Entomology, Hanoi, to update the existing information on filariasis epidemiology and distribution for this country. The present results are from surveys carried out on some 135,000 individuals in 24 provinces of Vietnam. The highest prevalences of microfilaraemia (primarily Brugia malayi ) are observed in lowland areas of the Red River Delta and in Quang-binh Province where the survey results show microfilaraemia (mf) prevalences in the range of 0.9-5.5%. The most common type of chronic clinical manifestation is shown to be leg elephantiasis. A significant finding is that an overall decrease in mf prevalence was observed to occur in five communities which were surveyed twice over an 11-21-year period, even though no interventions were carried out between the two surveys. The changes are probably caused by environmental changes, such as increased standards of housing and drainage. Studies on the effect of selective chemotherapy and mass chemotherapy using diethylcarbamazine showed reductions in community mf prevalences of 69 and 72-88%, respectively. Furthermore, cats do not appear to represent significant reservoirs of infection. These findings of geographical restriction of infection, effective and well-tolerated drug therapy, low significance of animal reservoirs, together with the existence of an effective national health network, suggest a good prognosis for the control of filariasis in this country. PMID:9777718

  13. Breast Filariasis Diagnosed by Real Time Sonographic Imaging: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sherwani, Poonam; Singhal, Shweta; Kumar, Nidhi; Narula, Mahender Kaur; Anand, Rama; Pathania, Om Prakash

    2016-01-01

    A 30-year-old woman presented with a palpable subcutaneous nodule in the areolar region of the left breast. Sonomammographic examination revealed 2 cystic lesions showing typical “filarial dance” as vigorous twirling movement of multiple curvilinear echoes with mixed red blue color Doppler signals that was non-rhythmic, nonpulsatile, and the characteristic pulse Doppler trace due to irregular worm movement. Real time sonographic demonstration of these typical features is pathognomonic for filariasis, especially in endemic areas and treatment should be initiated without delay on the basis of ultrasound. PMID:27110331

  14. Assessing numbers and faces: a prerequisite for improving access to lymphatic filariasis morbidity care.

    PubMed

    Becker, Sören L; Fürst, Thomas; Addiss, David G; Utzinger, Jürg

    2015-06-01

    Concerted efforts to eliminate lymphatic filariasis worldwide have registered success; multiple rounds of mass drug administration have led to the interruption of transmission in many previously endemic areas. However, the management of patients with established clinical disease (e.g., lymphoedema, hydrocoele and acute dermatolymphangioadenitis) has not been addressed sufficiently. Two recent studies from Malawi underscore the need for accurate epidemiological and clinical data, and comprehensive morbidity assessments across various domains of daily life. Addressing these issues will guide the implementation of programmes to improve access to treatment and disability prevention for affected individuals in Malawi and beyond. PMID:25778735

  15. Breast Filariasis Diagnosed by Real Time Sonographic Imaging: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sherwani, Poonam; Singhal, Shweta; Kumar, Nidhi; Narula, Mahender Kaur; Anand, Rama; Pathania, Om Prakash

    2016-01-01

    A 30-year-old woman presented with a palpable subcutaneous nodule in the areolar region of the left breast. Sonomammographic examination revealed 2 cystic lesions showing typical "filarial dance" as vigorous twirling movement of multiple curvilinear echoes with mixed red blue color Doppler signals that was non-rhythmic, nonpulsatile, and the characteristic pulse Doppler trace due to irregular worm movement. Real time sonographic demonstration of these typical features is pathognomonic for filariasis, especially in endemic areas and treatment should be initiated without delay on the basis of ultrasound. PMID:27110331

  16. A geostatistical analysis of the geographic distribution of lymphatic filariasis prevalence in southern India.

    PubMed

    Srividya, A; Michael, E; Palaniyandi, M; Pani, S P; Das, P K

    2002-11-01

    Gaining a better understanding of the spatial population structure of infectious agents is increasingly recognized as being key to their more effective mapping and to improving knowledge of their overall population dynamics and control. Here, we investigate the spatial structure of bancroftian filariasis distribution using geostatistical methods in an endemic region in Southern India. Analysis of a parasite antigenemia prevalence dataset assembled by sampling 79 villages selected using a World Health Organization (WHO) proposed 25 x 25 km grid sampling procedure in a 225 x 225 km area within this region was compared with that of a corresponding microfilaraemia prevalence dataset assembled by sampling 119 randomly selected villages from a smaller subregion located within the main study area. A major finding from the analysis was that once large-scale spatial trends were removed, the antigenemia data did not show evidence for the existence of any small-scale dependency at the study sampling interval of 25 km. By contrast, analysis of the randomly sampled microfilaraemia data indicated strong spatial contagion in prevalence up to a distance of approximately 6.6 kms, suggesting the likely existence of small spatial patches or foci of transmission in the study area occurring below the sampling scale used for sampling the antigenemia data. While this could indicate differences in parasite spatial population dynamics based on antigenemia versus microfilaraemia data, the result may also suggest that the WHO recommended 25 x 25 km sampling grid for rapid filariasis mapping could have been too coarse a scale to capture and describe the likely local variation in filariasis infection in this endemic location and highlights the need for caution when applying uniform sampling schemes in diverse endemic regions for investigating the spatial pattern of this parasitic infection. The present results, on the other hand, imply that both small-scale spatial processes and large

  17. Lymphatic filariasis baseline survey in two sentinel sites of Ogun state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Okorie, Patricia Nkem; Davies, Emmanuel; Ogunmola, Olushola Omoniyi; Ojurongbe, Olusola; Saka, Yisa; Okoeguale, Bridget; Braide, Ekanem Ikpi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In preparation for Mass Drug Administration by National Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Programme, a baseline epidemiological investigation on lymphatic filariasis (LF) was conducted in two sentinel sites of Ogun State, Nigeria. The study was carried out in Ado-Odo Ota and Abeokuta South Local Government Areas (LGAs) to determine LF prevalence, microfilarial density and the abundance of Wucheraria bancrofti in the mosquito vectors. Methods Microscopic examination of thick blood smears of 299 and 288 participants from Ado-Odo Ota and Abeokuta South LGAs was conducted. Visual observations of clinical manifestations of chronic infection and questionnaire administration were also conducted. Indoor resting mosquitoes were collected using the pyrethrum spray technique and CDC light traps and mosquitoes were dissected for filarial larvae. Results Microfilaria prevalences were 4.0% and 2.4% in Ado-odo Ota and Abeokuta South LGAs. The microflarial density (mfd) was 30.6mf/ml and 23.9 mf/ml in the same areas. No clinical manifestations of the infection were found at both sites. Knowledge of LF by inhabitants was very low in the two areas. Anopheles gambiae s.l and Culex species mosquitoes were collected but none was found positive for stage L3 infective larvae. Conclusion Mass awareness campaigns on the goal of mass drug administration, cause of LF, mode of transmission, the relationship between infection and clinical signs/symptoms is advocated so as to increase acceptance and support of the control programme by the community. PMID:26185587

  18. Shrinking the lymphatic filariasis map: update on diagnostic tools for mapping and transmission monitoring.

    PubMed

    Rebollo, Maria P; Bockarie, Moses John

    2014-12-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF), which is highly endemic in 73 countries worldwide, is targeted for elimination by 2020. The strategy for achieving this goal is based on 4 sequential programmatic steps: mapping, Mass drug administration (MDA) implementation, post-MDA surveillance and verification of LF elimination. All 4 stages of the implementation process are dependent on the availability of user friendly and highly sensitive rapid diagnostic tools. By the end of 2012, 59 countries had completed mapping for LF and Eritrea was the only country yet to start the process. Rolling out new diagnostic tools to facilitate the mapping process will enable an accelerated shrinking of the LF map to zero endemic countries by 2020. When the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis was launched in 2000, diagnostic tools for LF were limited to clinical examination, detection of microfilaria (MF) by microscopy in night blood samples and detection of antibodies to native-antigen preparations. There has been a significant improvement in the traditional LF diagnostic methods in recent years and some new tools are now available. This paper provides an update on the human diagnostic tests available for LF and their current applications as tools in mapping and transmission monitoring. The values of entomological indicators and parasite detection and speciation methods applied to vector populations are also discussed. PMID:25225828

  19. Lymphatic filariasis among the Ezza people of Ebonyi State, eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Anosike, Jude C; Nwoke, Bertram E; Ajayi, Ezekiel G; Onwuliri, Celestine O; Okoro, Onuabuchi U; Oku, Ene E; Asor, Joe E; Amajuoyi, Oliver U; Ikpeama, Chidinma A; Ogbusu, Fidelia I; Meribe, Chidozie O

    2005-01-01

    A total of 1,243 Ezza people living in 10 communities of Ebonyi State, eastern Nigeria were examined between July 2002-January 2003 for lymphatic filariasis. This is the first time a filariasis survey due to Wuchereria bancrofti has been carried out in this state. Of the 1,243 persons examined, 210 (16.9 %) had W. bancrofti microfilariae. Infection varied significantly among communities and ages (p < 0.05) but not sex-related (p > 0.05). The Ezza people are predominantly farmers and professional hired labourers. There was a close association between microfilaria rate and microfilaria -density in various age groups (r = 0.812; p < 0.01). Microfilaria density is an important measure in the epidemiology, treatment and control of human filarisis in this endemic foci. Clinical signs and symptoms of the disease include elephantiasis, hydrocoele, dermatitis and periodic fever. Clinical symptoms without microfilaraemia and microfilaraemia without clinical symptoms were also observed. Of 1,603 mosquitoes dissected, Anopheles gambiae, An. funestus and Culex quinquefasciatus showed infectivity rates of 6.3 %, 5.1 % and 6.0 % respectively. The affected persons and other key informants are unaware of the cause of the disease and attributed it to witchcraft, violation of taboo, bad water and food. Intervention strategies to be integrated into the on-going Community-Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI) project are discussed. PMID:16457471

  20. Comparison of Methods for Xenomonitoring in Vectors of Lymphatic Filariasis in Northeastern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Irish, Seth R; Stevens, William M B; Derua, Yahya A; Walker, Thomas; Cameron, Mary M

    2015-11-01

    Monitoring Wuchereria bancrofti infection in mosquitoes (xenomonitoring) can play an important role in determining when lymphatic filariasis has been eliminated, or in focusing control efforts. As mosquito infection rates can be low, a method for collecting large numbers of mosquitoes is necessary. Gravid traps collected large numbers of Culex quinquefasciatus in Tanzania, and a collection method that targets mosquitoes that have already fed could result in increased sensitivity in detecting W. bancrofti-infected mosquitoes. The aim of this experiment was to test this hypothesis by comparing U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps with CDC gravid traps in northeastern Tanzania, where Cx. quinquefasciatus is a vector of lymphatic filariasis. After an initial study where small numbers of mosquitoes were collected, a second study collected 16,316 Cx. quinquefasciatus in 60 gravid trap-nights and 240 light trap-nights. Mosquitoes were pooled and tested for presence of W. bancrofti DNA. Light and gravid traps collected similar numbers of mosquitoes per trap-night, but the physiological status of the mosquitoes was different. The estimated infection rate in mosquitoes collected in light traps was considerably higher than in mosquitoes collected in gravid traps, so light traps can be a useful tool for xenomonitoring work in Tanzania. PMID:26350454

  1. Can vector control play a useful supplementary role against bancroftian filariasis?

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, C. A.; Mohammed, K.; Kisumku, U.; Curtis, C. F.

    1999-01-01

    A single campaign of mass treatment for bancroftian filariasis with diethylcarbamazine (DEC) in Makunduchi, a town in Zanzibar, United Republic of Tanzania, combined with elimination of mosquito breeding in pit latrines with polystyrene beads was followed by a progressive decline over a 5-year period in the microfilarial rate from 49% to 3%. Evidence that vector control had contributed to this long-term decline was obtained by comparison with another town, Moga, where a DEC campaign was used without vector control and where resurgence of microfilariae could be observed 3-6 years after the campaign. In Zanzibar town, treatment of 3844 wet pit latrines and cesspits with polystyrene beads reduced the adult mosquito population in houses by about 65%. Supplementary treatment of open drains and marshes with Bacillus sphaericus produced little or no additional reduction compared to a sector of the town where only pit treatment with polystyrene was carried out. The cost and effort of achieving the 65% reduction in mosquito population could hardly be justified for its impact on filariasis alone, but its noticeable impact on biting nuisance might help to gain community support for an integrated programme. PMID:10083712

  2. Lymphatic filariasis in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: current status and prospects for elimination.

    PubMed

    El Setouhy, M; Ramzy, R M R

    2003-07-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) represents a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The disease is endemic or suspected in several countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Recent advances in diagnosis and therapy led the World Health Assembly to pass a resolution in 1997 calling for "the elimination of lymphatic filariasis as a public health problem." The elimination strategy is based on rounds of mass drug administration of an annual single-dose of combined drug regimens for 5-6 consecutive years. Subsequent steps included formation of a Regional Programme Review Group to orient national LF control programmes towards the concept of elimination, provide advice, review each national plan of action and review annual reports. To date, Egypt and the Republic of Yemen have active national LF elimination programmes, however, elimination activities in the Republic of Yemen are still restricted to certain identified endemic regions. Other countries in the Region are on their way to verifying the situation and if LF is proved to be endemic, will start mapping endemic localities. This review sheds light on the status of LF elimination activities in the Region and highlights some of the major accomplishments. PMID:15748050

  3. Diurnally subperiodic filariasis in India-prospects of elimination: precept to action?

    PubMed

    Shriram, A N; Krishnamoorthy, K; Saha, B P; Roy, Avijit; Kumaraswami, V; Shah, W A; Jambulingam, P; Vijayachari, P

    2011-07-01

    The elimination of lymphatic filariasis in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands provides unique opportunities and challenges at the same time. Since these islands are remote, are sparsely populated, and have poor transport networks, mass drug administration programs are likely to be difficult to implement. Diurnally subperiodic Wuchereria bancrofti vectored by Downsiomyia nivea was considered for the scope of vector control options. Considering the bioecology of this mosquito, vector control including personal protection measures may not be feasible. However, since these islands are covered by separate administrative machinery which also plays an important role in regulating the food supply, the use of diethylcarbamazine (DEC)-fortified salt as a tool for the interruption of transmission is appealing. DEC-fortified salt has been successfully pilot tested in India and elsewhere, operationally used by China for eliminating lymphatic filariasis. Administration of DEC-fortified salt though simple, rapid, safe, and cost-effective, challenges are to be tackled for translating this precept into action by evolving operationally feasible strategy. Although the use of DEC-fortified salt is conceptually simple, it requires commitment of all sections of the society, an elaborate distribution mechanism that ensures the use of DEC-fortified salt only in the endemic communities, and a vigorous monitoring mechanism. Here, we examine the inbuilt administrative mechanisms to serve the tribal people, health infrastructure, and public distribution system and discuss the prospects of putting in place an operationally feasible strategy for its elimination. PMID:21286754

  4. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Dengue and Lymphatic Filariasis Vectors along an Altitudinal Transect in Central Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Dhimal, Meghnath; Gautam, Ishan; Kreß, Aljoscha; Müller, Ruth; Kuch, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapidly increasing temperatures in the mountain region of Nepal and recent reports of dengue fever and lymphatic filariasis cases from mountainous areas of central Nepal prompted us to study the spatio-temporal distribution of the vectors of these two diseases along an altitudinal transect in central Nepal. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a longitudinal study in four distinct physiographical regions of central Nepal from September 2011 to February 2012. We used BG-Sentinel and CDC light traps to capture adult mosquitoes. We found the geographical distribution of the dengue virus vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus along our study transect to extend up to 1,310 m altitude in the Middle Mountain region (Kathmandu). The distribution of the lymphatic filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus extended up to at least 2,100 m in the High Mountain region (Dhunche). Statistical analysis showed a significant effect of the physiographical region and month of collection on the abundance of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus only. BG-Sentinel traps captured significantly higher numbers of A. aegypti than CDC light traps. The meteorological factors temperature, rainfall and relative humidity had significant effects on the mean number of A. aegypti per BG-Sentinel trap. Temperature and relative humidity were significant predictors of the number of C. quinquefasciatus per CDC light trap. Dengue fever and lymphatic filariasis cases had previously been reported from all vector positive areas except Dhunche which was free of known lymphatic filariasis cases. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that dengue virus vectors have already established stable populations up to the Middle Mountains of Nepal, supporting previous studies, and report for the first time the distribution of lymphatic filariasis vectors up to the High Mountain region of this country. The findings of our study should contribute to a better planning and scaling-up of mosquito

  5. Genetic determinism of parasitic circadian periodicity and subperiodicity in human lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed

    Pichon, Gaston; Treuil, Jean-Pierre

    2004-12-01

    The larval parasites of the pantropical lymphatic filariasis exhibit two types of circadian behaviour. Typically, they only appear in the human bloodstream at nighttime, synchronised with their mosquito vectors. In Polynesia and parts of Southeast Asia, free of nocturnal vectors, they are found at all hours, and each population biorhythm differs. Through a geometrical approach, we explain this circadian diversity by a single, dominant mutation: the clocks of individual parasites are set at midnight (ubiquitous) or at 2 p.m. Compared to other circadian genes, this mutation must be very old, as it is shared by four biologically remote genera of parasites. This seniority sheds new light on several theoretical and practical aspects of vector-parasite temporal relations. PMID:15656351

  6. Control of bancroftian filariasis in an endemic area of Polynesia by ivermectin 400 micrograms/kg.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, N L; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Cartel, J L

    1996-01-01

    Community treatment with ivermectin was implemented in Opoa, French Polynesia from April 1991 to October 1993. All consenting inhabitants aged 3 years or more were treated with twice-yearly single doses of ivermectin, pregnant women excepted. A dosage of 100 microgram/kg was used for the 3 first treatments and then abandoned because it did not reduce the prevalence of microfilariae (mf) carriers. With a dosage of 400 micrograms/kg dosage, this prevalence decreased dramatically from 21% to 7%, and the mf level in carriers dropped to only 0.5% of its initial value after 3 treatments. The 400 micrograms/kg dosage was well tolerated and compliance was excellent. The twice-yearly single dose strategy with ivermectin at 400 micrograms/kg is safe and highly effective for filariasis control in an endemic area. PMID:9015520

  7. Evaluation of larvicidal activity of biogenic nanoparticles against filariasis causing Culex mosquito vector

    PubMed Central

    Dhanasekaran, Dharumadurai; Thangaraj, Ramasamy

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the larvicidal activity of biogenic nanoparticles against filariasis causing Culex mosquito vector. Methods The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis. spectrum, Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous extract of synthesized AgNPs for 10 min. The different concentrations of 5, 2.5, 1.25, 0.625 and 0.312 mg/L silver nanoparticles were tested against the Culex larvae. Results The mortality rate of Agaricus bisporus biogenic nanoparticles against Culex larvae are 5 mg/L (100%), 2.5 mg/L (81%), 1.25 mg/L (62%), 0.625 mg/L (28%) and 0.312 mg/L (11%). Conclusions These results suggest that the synthesized biogenic AgNPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for controlling Culex larvae.

  8. Ongoing Surveillance for Lymphatic Filariasis in Togo: Assessment of Alternatives and Nationwide Reassessment of Transmission Status

    PubMed Central

    Budge, Philip J.; Dorkenoo, Ameyo M.; Sodahlon, Yao K.; Fasuyi, Omofolarin B.; Mathieu, Els

    2014-01-01

    Tremendous progress has been made towards the goal of global elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF) transmission by 2020. The number of endemic countries reducing LF transmission through mass drug administration continues to increase, and therefore, the need for effective post-intervention surveillance also continues to increase. Togo is the first sub-Saharan African country to implement LF surveillance, and it has 6 years of experience with this passive surveillance system. We herein report the results of a recent evaluation of the Togolese LF surveillance system, including an evaluation of blood donors as a surveillance population, and provide updated results of ongoing surveillance, including expansion in remote areas. Since implementation of LF surveillance in 2006, only three cases of positive Wuchereria bancrofti filaremia have been detected, suggesting that interruption of transmission has been sustained. Given the impracticality of validating the surveillance system in the absence of ongoing transmission, we confirmed the lack of transmission through a nationwide reassessment survey. PMID:24189363

  9. Investing in justice: ethics, evidence, and the eradication investment cases for lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Theodore C; Merritt, Maria W; Tediosi, Fabrizio

    2015-04-01

    It has been suggested that initiatives to eradicate specific communicable diseases need to be informed by eradication investment cases to assess the feasibility, costs, and consequences of eradication compared with elimination or control. A methodological challenge of eradication investment cases is how to account for the ethical importance of the benefits, burdens, and distributions thereof that are salient in people's experiences of the diseases and related interventions but are not assessed in traditional approaches to health and economic evaluation. We have offered a method of ethical analysis grounded in theories of social justice. We have described the method and its philosophical rationale and illustrated its use in application to eradication investment cases for lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, 2 neglected tropical diseases that are candidates for eradication. PMID:25713967

  10. An investigation of the disparity in estimates of microfilaraemia and antigenaemia in lymphatic filariasis surveys

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Jorge; Moraga, Paula; Nikolay, Birgit; Rebollo, Maria P.; Okorie, Patricia N.; Davies, Emmanuel; Njenga, Sammy M.; Bockarie, Moses J.; Brooker, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of lymphatic filariasis (LF) is based typically on either microfilaraemia as assessed by microscopy or filarial antigenaemia using an immuno-chromatographic test. While it is known that estimates of antigenaemia are generally higher than estimates of microfilaraemia, the extent of the difference is not known. Methods This paper presents the results of an extensive literature search for surveys that estimated both microfilaraemia and antigenaemia in order to better understand the disparity between the two measures. Results and Conclusions In some settings there was a very large disparity, up to 40–70%, between estimates of microfilaraemia and antigenaemia. Regression analysis was unable to identify any predictable relationship between the two measures. The implications of findings for risk mapping and surveillance of LF are discussed. PMID:26101292

  11. Toxicity of some plant extracts against vector of lymphatic filariasis, Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Hasaballah, Ahmed I

    2015-04-01

    Many insecticides are generally used as larvicides to control Culex pipiens, vector of lymphatic filariasis. This study was undertaken to evaluate the larvicidal activity of some potential larvicidal plants extracts against C. pipiens larvae. The toxic effects of both ethanolic and petroleum ether plant extracts were evaluated under laboratory conditions against 3rd instar larvae of C. pipiens. Forty ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts of 10 plants namely Echinochloa stagninum, Phragmites australis, Eichhornia crassipes, Rhizophora mucronata, Cichorium intybus, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum majorana, Azadirachta indica, Rosmarinus officinalis and Nigella sativa. On the basis of LC50, the toxic effect of the plant extracts tested varied depending on the plant species, part, solvent used in extraction and the extract concentrations. The petroleum ether extraction was more effective against mosquito as compared with ethanolic extraction. The most effective plant extract was A. indica followed by Ph. australis, N. sativa, C. intybus, R. officinalis, O. basilicum, O. majorana, E. stagninum, Rh. Mucronata and E. crassipes. PMID:26012233

  12. Investing in Justice: Ethics, Evidence, and the Eradication Investment Cases for Lymphatic Filariasis and Onchocerciasis

    PubMed Central

    Merritt, Maria W.; Tediosi, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that initiatives to eradicate specific communicable diseases need to be informed by eradication investment cases to assess the feasibility, costs, and consequences of eradication compared with elimination or control. A methodological challenge of eradication investment cases is how to account for the ethical importance of the benefits, burdens, and distributions thereof that are salient in people’s experiences of the diseases and related interventions but are not assessed in traditional approaches to health and economic evaluation. We have offered a method of ethical analysis grounded in theories of social justice. We have described the method and its philosophical rationale and illustrated its use in application to eradication investment cases for lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, 2 neglected tropical diseases that are candidates for eradication. PMID:25713967

  13. Recurrent Hemorrhagic Pericardial Effusion and Tamponade due to Filariasis Successfully Treated with Ivermectin and Albendazole.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Santosh Kumar; Goel, Amit; Sachan, Mohit; Saraf, Sameer; Verma, Chandra Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Filariasis presenting with pericardial effusion with tamponade is rare. We report a case of a 30-year-old female who was admitted with severe dyspnea and chest pain since 2 days. Echocardiogram showed massive pericardial effusion with tamponade. Pericardial fluid aspiration drained 1.2 L of hemorrhagic fluid. Cytology examination revealed microfilaria of Wuchereria bancrofti. She was treated with diethyl carbamazine and discharged. Six weeks later, she presented again with massive pericardial effusion with cardiac tamponade. Pericardiocentesis was done. Cytology examination revealed microfilaria of W. bancrofti. This time she was treated with ivermectin and albendazole and cured. Hemorrhagic effusion resolved completely. Though relatively uncommon, tropical diseases must always be considered in the etiological diagnosis of recurrent pericardial effusion. PMID:26240733

  14. IgG subclass responses to proinflammatory fraction of Brugia malayi in human filariasis

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, S.K.; Verma, S.K.; Sahoo, M.K.; Sharma, A.; Srivastava, M.; Reddy, M.V.R.; Murthy, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Earlier we demonstrated that immunization with F6, a proinflammatory molecular fraction isolated from the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi, protected the host and eliminated the infection in Mastomys coucha by a Th1/Th2 response including IgG2a antibody response. Whether F6 molecules become accessible to human host during natural course of infection and elicit similar response is not known. The present study was undertaken to determine the profile of IgG subclasses specifically reactive to F6 in different categories of bancroftian filariasis cases to infer any relationship between the levels of a particular F6-specific IgG subclass and the infection or disease status. Methods: Serum samples of normal individuals from filariasis non-endemic regions of India like Jammu & Kashmir, Uttarakhand, and Chandigarh [(NEN-W; n=10), healthy subjects from USA (NEN-U; n=10) and three categories of bancroftian filariasis cases from endemic areas: endemic normals (EN; n=10) with no symptoms and no microfilariae, asymptomatic microfilaremics (ASM; n=10) and chronic symptomatic amicrofilaremics (CL; n=10) were assayed for F6-specific IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 by ELISA using SDS-PAGE-isolated F6 fraction of B. malayi adult worms. Results: Significantly high levels of F6-specific IgG1, IgG2 and IgG3 were found in CL (P<0.001) and EN (P<0.01-0.001) bancroftian filariasis cases compared to NEN-U. Significant levels of F6-specific IgG1 (P<0.01) and IgG2 (P<0.01) but not IgG3 were found in ASM cases compared to NEN-U. The most abundant was IgG2 which when compared to NEN-U, was significantly high in CL (P<0.001) and EN cases (P<0.001), followed by ASM (P<0.01). F6-specific IgG4 response in EN, ASM and CL subjects was not significantly different from the levels of NEN-U. Among the non-endemic normals, the NEN-W subjects showed significant reactivity with IgG2 (P<0.001) but not with IgG1, IgG3 and IgG4 as compared to NEN-U subjects. IgG subclass levels were

  15. Biology and control of Taeniorhynchus (Mansonioides) uniformis Theobald, the chief vector of rural filariasis in Ceylon

    PubMed Central

    Antonipulle, P.; David, H. V.; Karunaratne, M. D. R.

    1958-01-01

    Residual spraying of DDT for the control of Taeniorhynchus (Mansonioides) uniformis, the mosquito vector of rural filariasis in Ceylon, was carried out in Induruwa, a village on the west coast of the island. The results showed that the insecticide retained its effectiveness for a period of 4-6 months. During the course of this investigation, various observations were made on the behaviour of T. (M.) uniformis. Its host plants, day-time resting-places, feeding habits, and response to light—particularly moonlight—were recorded. An increase in T. (M.) uniformis prevalence was observed to coincide with the onset of the north-east and south-west monsoons, when the paddy-fields are inundated and become overgrown with Isachne australis, the most common aquatic plant in the area and a favourite breeding-place of this mosquito species. PMID:13585075

  16. Bancroftian filariasis in a Philippine village: clinical, parasitological, immunological, and social aspects.

    PubMed

    Grove, D I; Valeza, F S; Cabrera, B D

    1978-01-01

    The distribution and effects of Bancroftian filariasis in 535 inhabitants of a Philippine village were investigated. Clinical, parasitiological, immunological, and socioeconomic assessments were made. A history of acute lymphatic inflammation and the presence of inguinal lymphadenopathy were common. Lymphatic obstructive disease, defined as leg edema, hydrocele, or an epididymal cyst, was more common in men than women and increased progressively with age. The prevalence and intensity of microfilaremia rose with age in males, whereas the prevalence but not the intensity of infection increased with age in females. The prevalence of immunological responsiveness, as assessed by skin reactivity to microfilarial antigen and serum antibodies to adult filarial worms, increased with age in both males and females. There was no relationship between either microfilaremia or obstructive disease and the ability to work or have children, but both were more common in heads of households with the lowest socioeconomic scores. Epidemiological factors which may have contributed to these findings are discussed. (author's modified) PMID:367626

  17. An ELISA kit with two detection modes for the diagnosis of lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed

    Wongkamchai, S; Satimai, W; Loymek, S; Nochot, H; Boitano, J J

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a low-cost antifilarial immunoglobulin (Ig) G4 detection kit for the diagnosis of lymphatic filariasis. The kit was designed to be used by minimally trained personnel without the constraints of expensive laboratory equipment. We provide a description of the development and validation of a single-serum-dilution based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit with ready-to-use reagents for measuring antifilarial IgG4 antibodies. The kit was tested on residents in Brugia malayi-endemic areas in southern Thailand. Detection was performed by naked-eye observation of the resultant colour of the immunological reactivity. The coefficient of variation (CV) was used to assess the reproducibility of the results. Long-term stability was measured over a 6-month period. Sensitivity of the test kit was 97% when compared with microfilariae detection in thick blood smears. Specificity was 98.7% based on the sera of 57 patients living outside the endemic areas who were infected with other parasites and 100 parasite-free subjects. All positive CVs were < 10%. The test kit was remarkably stable over 6 months. Field validation was performed by the detection of antifilarial IgG4 in 4365 serum samples collected from residents of brugian filariasis-endemic areas and compared with outcome colours of the test samples by the naked eye. Subsequent ELISA evaluation of these results using an ELISA reader indicated high agreement by the kappa statistic. These results demonstrate that the test kit is efficient and useful for public health laboratories as an alternative tool for the diagnosis of lymphatic filarial infection. PMID:24916386

  18. Maternal Infection Is a Risk Factor for Early Childhood Infection in Filariasis

    PubMed Central

    Bal, Madhusmita; Sahu, Prakash K.; Mandal, Nityananda; Satapathy, Ashok K.; Ranjit, Manoranjan; Kar, Shatanu K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) launched by WHO aims to eliminate the disease by 2020. To achieve the goal annual mass drug administration (MDA) with diethylcarbamazine (DEC) plus albendazole (ABZ) has been introduced in all endemic countries. The current policy however excludes pregnant mothers and children below two years of age from MDA. Since pregnancy and early childhood are critical periods in determining the disease outcome in older age, the present study was undertaken to find out the influence of maternal filarial infection at the time of pregnancy on the susceptibility outcome of children born in a community after implementation of MDA for the first time. Methodology and Principal Findings The participants in this cohort consists of pregnant mothers and their subsequently born children living in eight adjacent villages endemic for filarial infections, in Khurda District, Odisha, India, where MDA has reduced microfilariae (Mf) rate from 12% to 0.34%. Infection status of mother and their children were assessed by detection of Mf as well as circulating filarial antigen (CFA) assay. The present study reveals a high rate of acquiring filarial infection by the children born to infected mother than uninfected mothers even though Mf rate has come down to < 1% after implementation of ten rounds of MDA. Significance To attain the target of eliminating lymphatic filariasis the current MDA programme should give emphasis on covering the women of child bearing age. Our study recommends incorporating supervised MDA to Adolescent Reproductive and Sexual Health Programme (ARSH) to make the adolescent girls free from infection by the time of pregnancy so as to achieve the goal. PMID:26225417

  19. Burden of lymphatic filariasis morbidity in an area of low endemicity in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Netto, Maria José; Bonfim, Cristine; Brandão, Eduardo; Aguiar-Santos, Ana Maria; Medeiros, Zulma

    2016-11-01

    The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis has two main components: interrupting transmission of lymphatic filariasis (LF) and managing morbidity and preventing disability. However, interventions to prevent and manage LF-related disabilities in endemic communities have been of limited extent. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of morbidity and its correlation with filarial infection, thereby filling a gap that existed regarding the data on morbidity in Brazil. Presence of Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaria was investigated using the thick smear technique. Information on parasitosis-related clinical manifestations was obtained using a questionnaire applied by community health agents with previous training and capacitation to know about and identify the disease. To analyze correlations, Pearson's correlation coefficient was used with the corresponding statistical significance test. 23,673 individuals were investigated: 323 presented microfilaremia (1.36%) and 741 (3.13%) had clinical complaints that were attributable to LF. Acute dermatolymphangioadenitis (ADLA) was the most prevalent condition (2.2%). Lymphedema, ADLA and chyluria were more commonly reported among female patients. There were positive associations between all the clinical complaints reported and filarial infection. Hydrocele presented the most strongly positive association (r=0.699; p<0.001). The present study showed that there is an association between clinical condition reported and the rate of infection among people living in an area of low endemicity for LF. It contributes data that might provide support for healthcare systems and thus optimize disease management, through incorporating surveillance measures directed towards preventing disability and reducing the psychosocial and economic impact of the disease on poor populations living in areas endemic for LF. PMID:27427218

  20. Og4C3 circulating antigen: a marker of infection and adult worm burden in Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis.

    PubMed

    Chanteau, S; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Glaziou, P; Nguyen, N L; Luquiaud, P; Plichart, C; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L

    1994-07-01

    Og4C3 circulating filarial antigen was detected in the sera of 94.5% (259/274) of microfilaremic patients, 32% (239/751) of persons with presumption of filariasis, and 23% (11/48) of chronic filariasis patients. The antigen level was correlated with the microfilariae (Mf) density and patient age (P < .01). It remained stable in patients treated with microfilaricidal drugs. Og4C3 antigen, undetectable in Mf culture media, was demonstrated to be a rare somatic Mf antigen. It appears to be an excreted or secreted antigen from adult filaria. It could be used as a marker of infection and an indicator of adult worm burden. PMID:8014511

  1. EPIFIL: the development of an age-structured model for describing the transmission dynamics and control of lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed Central

    Norman, R. A.; Chan, M. S.; Srividya, A.; Pani, S. P.; Ramaiah, K. D.; Vanamail, P.; Michael, E.; Das, P. K.; Bundy, D. A.

    2000-01-01

    Mathematical models of transmission dynamics of infectious diseases provide a useful tool for investigating the impact of community based control measures. Previously, we used a dynamic (constant force-of-infection) model for lymphatic filariasis to describe observed patterns of infection and disease in endemic communities. In this paper, we expand the model to examine the effects of control options against filariasis by incorporating the impact of age structure of the human community and by addressing explicitly the dynamics of parasite transmission from and to the vector population. This model is tested using data for Wuchereria bancrofti transmitted by Culex quinquefasciatus in Pondicherry, South India. The results show that chemotherapy has a larger short-term impact than vector control but that the effects of vector control can last beyond the treatment period. In addition we compare rates of recrudescence for drugs with different macrofilaricidal effects. PMID:10982078

  2. A review of the role of mosquitos in the transmission of malayan and bancroftian filariasis in Japan*

    PubMed Central

    Omori, Nanzaburo

    1962-01-01

    Malayan filariasis is found in Japan only on the small island of Hachijo-koshima and is transmitted there by Aëdes togoi and probably by Culex pipiens pallens. Bancroftian filariasis is widely distributed in the three main islands, and is of particularly high endemicity in the south. Of the ten mosquito species proved experimentally susceptible to Wuchereria bancrofti, only Aëdes togoi and Culex p. pallens seem to be responsible for transmission of the disease. The former species is of importance only in fishing villages situated on a rocky seashore with many tidal pools or in villages engaged in the processing of dried sardines. Culex p. pallens is domestic in habit, highly anthropophilic and highly susceptible to W. bancrofti infection, and must be considered the most important vector of this disease in Japan. PMID:13940117

  3. A Comprehensive Assessment of Lymphatic Filariasis in Sri Lanka Six Years after Cessation of Mass Drug Administration

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Ramakrishna U.; Nagodavithana, Kumara C.; Samarasekera, Sandhya D.; Wijegunawardana, Asha D.; Premakumara, Welmillage D. Y.; Perera, Samudrika N.; Settinayake, Sunil; Miller, J. Phillip; Weil, Gary J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Sri Lankan Anti-Filariasis Campaign conducted 5 rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) with diethycarbamazine plus albendazole between 2002 and 2006. We now report results of a comprehensive surveillance program that assessed the lymphatic filariasis (LF) situation in Sri Lanka 6 years after cessation of MDA. Methodology and Principal Findings Transmission assessment surveys (TAS) were performed per WHO guidelines in primary school children in 11 evaluation units (EUs) in all 8 formerly endemic districts. All EUs easily satisfied WHO criteria for stopping MDA. Comprehensive surveillance was performed in 19 Public Health Inspector (PHI) areas (subdistrict health administrative units). The surveillance package included cross-sectional community surveys for microfilaremia (Mf) and circulating filarial antigenemia (CFA), school surveys for CFA and anti-filarial antibodies, and collection of Culex mosquitoes with gravid traps for detection of filarial DNA (molecular xenomonitoring, MX). Provisional target rates for interruption of LF transmission were community CFA <2%, antibody in school children <2%, and filarial DNA in mosquitoes <0.25%. Community Mf and CFA prevalence rates ranged from 0–0.9% and 0–3.4%, respectively. Infection rates were significantly higher in males and lower in people who denied prior treatment. Antibody rates in school children exceeded 2% in 10 study sites; the area that had the highest community and school CFA rates also had the highest school antibody rate (6.9%). Filarial DNA rates in mosquitoes exceeded 0.25% in 10 PHI areas. Conclusions Comprehensive surveillance is feasible for some national filariasis elimination programs. Low-level persistence of LF was present in all study sites; several sites failed to meet provisional endpoint criteria for LF elimination, and follow-up testing will be needed in these areas. TAS was not sensitive for detecting low-level persistence of filariasis in Sri Lanka. We recommend use of

  4. Data reporting constraints for the lymphatic filariasis mass drug administration activities in two districts in Ghana: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Aryeetey, Richmond; Boateng, Richard; Anto, Francis; Aikins, Moses; Gyapong, Margaret; Gyapong, John

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Timely and accurate health data are important for objective decision making and policy formulation. However, little evidence exists to explain why poor quality routine health data persist. This study examined the constraints to data reporting for the lymphatic filariasis mass drug administration programme in two districts in Ghana. This qualitative study focused on timeliness and accuracy of mass drug administration reports submitted by community health volunteers. Methods: The study is nested within a larger study focusing on the feasibility of mobile phone technology for the lymphatic filariasis programme. Using an exploratory study design, data were obtained through in-depth interviews (n = 7) with programme supervisors and focus group discussions (n = 4) with community health volunteers. Results were analysed using thematic content analysis. Results: Reasons for delays in reporting were attributed to poor numeracy skills among community health volunteers, difficult physical access to communities, high supervisor workload, poor adherence reporting deadlines, difficulty in reaching communities within allocated time and untimely release of programme funds. Poor accuracy of data was mainly attributed to inadequate motivation for community health volunteers and difficulty calculating summaries. Conclusion: This study has shown that there are relevant issues that need to be addressed in order to improve the quality of lymphatic filariasis treatment coverage reports. Some of the factors identified are problems within the health system; others are specific to the community health volunteers and the lymphatic filariasis programme. Steps such as training on data reporting should be intensified for community health volunteers, allowances for community health volunteers should be re-evaluated and other non-monetary incentives should be provided for community health volunteers. PMID:26770791

  5. Lymphangiosarcoma arising after 33 years within a background of chronic filariasis: a case report with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Naveen; Viswanathan, Seethalakshmi; Rekhi, Bharat; Jambhekar, Nirmala A

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous angiosarcoma or lymphangiosarcoma represents an uncommon aggressive tumor known to arise on a background of chronic lymphedema secondary to various etiologies, principally following surgery or irradiation. There have been rarely reported cases of angiosarcoma following infective conditions that eventuate with lymphatic stasis. We report a case of angiosarcoma arising after 33 years within a background of filariasis. Awareness of this association can lead to early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of this potentially fatal malignant tumor. PMID:22211335

  6. Insecticide susceptibility status of Culex quinquefasciatus Say, the vector of bancroftian filariasis against temephos in Delhi and National Capital Region.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Thekkevilayil George; Prakash, Ved; Singh, Sukhvir; Mandal, Ashish Kumar; Chauhan, Lakhbir Singh

    2013-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is the second leading cause of long-term disability in the world. In India, filariasis is endemic in 250 districts in 20 states and union territories with about 553 million people at risk of infection. Temephos is being used as a larvicide to control the population of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito, the vector of bancroftian filariasis. The susceptibility status of Cx. quinquefasciatus to temephos in various urban zones of Delhi and the national capital region (NCR) was evaluated using the WHO standard susceptibility test kit. Results of the test revealed that the larval mortality in urban zones ranged from 2.8 to 56.5%, while that in rural zones ranged from 45.0 to 71.0%. Among the urban zones, the lowest larval mortality was recorded from Karol Bagh zone (2.8%) and highest mortality was recorded from Shahdara South zone (56.5%). In the NCR, the larvae were collected from the areas surrounding Delhi, and the larval mortality ranged from 75.0 to 87.5%. The present study indicates the possible development of resistance against temephos in the larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in some urban areas. PMID:23698487

  7. High prevalence of bancroftian filariasis in Myanmar-migrant workers: a study in Mae Sot district, Tak province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Triteeraprapab, S; Songtrus, J

    1999-07-01

    Although the prevalence of lymphatic filariasis in the Thai population is low, migration of Myanmar labor into Thailand may increase the incidence of bancroftian filariasis. Epidemiology of filariasis in Myanmars has not been precisely determined. By using microscopic examination, we found that the microfilarial rate in 654 Myanmar migrants working in Mae Sot, Tak province, was 4.4 per cent. The highest microfilarial rate was found in males aged 21-30 years (6.8%). History of mosquito bites was significantly correlated with microfilaremia. The majority of Myanmar migrants (55.5%) have been staying in Thailand 1-6 years; most (82.0%) have never been back to Myanmar. Seventy-nine per cent of infected Myanmars were from Moulmein (Maulamyine) city. Since these migrants carry the parasite with high infected rate and the mosquito vector Culex quinquefasciatus is also prevalent in Thailand, Thai people are at high risk of acquiring this disease if good control and prevention strategies are not implemented. PMID:10511777

  8. Comparative assessment of an Og4C3 ELISA and an ICT filariasis test: a study of Myanmar migrants in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nuchprayoon, Surang; Porksakorn, Chantima; Junpee, Alisa; Sanprasert, Vivornpun; Poovorawan, Yong

    2003-12-01

    Detection of circulating filarial antigen has now emerged as an alternative method for the diagnosis of bancroftian filariasis. We compared two antigen detection assays, an Og4C3 ELISA and an ICT (immunochromatography) Filariasis test, for the diagnosis of Wuchereria bancrofti infections in migrant Myanmar workers in Tak province, Western Thailand. A total of 337 Myanmars participated in this study. The microfilarial rate was 3.3%. The Og4C3 ELISA could detect 19.1% of bancroftian filariasis while the ICT test detected 12.7%. Both antigen assays could detect all microfilaremics. The Og4C3 ELISA detected 14.8% of amicrofilaremics while the ICT test identified 8.1%. Those who were positive for the ICT test were also positive by the Og4C3 ELISA. Those Og4C3 positive cases, that were ICT negative (ICT-ve/Og4C3+ve) had statistically significant (p < 0.05, unpaired t-test) lower Og4C3 antigen levels (409.5 units, range 117-2,389) than those that were ICT positive (ICT+ve/Og4C3+ve) (5,252.0 units, range 130-28,062). Our results emphasize the problem of bancroftian filariasis in Myanmar migrants working in Thailand. Close monitoring and control of this disease in Myanmar migrants are of public health importance. Antigen detection systems are promising tools for the surveillance of bancroftian filariasis. PMID:15198343

  9. Large extracellular loop of tetraspanin as a potential vaccine candidate for filariasis.

    PubMed

    Dakshinamoorthy, Gajalakshmi; Munirathinam, Gnanasekar; Stoicescu, Kristen; Reddy, Maryada Venkatarami; Kalyanasundaram, Ramaswamy

    2013-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis affects nearly 120 million people worldwide and mass preventive chemotherapy is currently used as a strategy to control this infection. This has substantially reduced the incidence of the infection in several parts of the world. However, a prophylactic vaccine would be more effective in preventing future infections and will supplement the mass chemotherapy efforts. Unfortunately, there is no licensed vaccine available currently to prevent this infection. Molecules expressed on the surface of the parasite are potential candidates for vaccine development as they are exposed to the host immune system. In this study we show that the large extracellular loop of tetraspanin (TSP LEL), a protein expressed on the cuticle of Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti is a potential vaccine candidate. Our results showed that BmTSP LEL is expressed on the surface of B. malayi infective third stage larvae (L3) and sera from human subjects who are putatively immune to lymphatic filariasis carry high titer of IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies against BmTSP LEL and WbTSP LEL. We also showed that these antibodies in the sera of human subjects can participate in the killing of B. malayi L3 in an antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity mechanism. Vaccination trials in mice showed that close to 64% protection were achieved against challenge infections with B. malayi L3. Immunized animals showed high titer of anti-WbTSP LEL IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b antibodies in the sera and IFN-γ secreting cells in the spleen. Onchocerca volvulus another filarial parasite also expresses TSP LEL. Cross-reactivity studies showed that IgG1 antibody in the sera of endemic normal subjects, recognize OvTSP LEL. Similarly, anti-OvTSP LEL antibodies in the sera of subjects who are immune to O. volvulus were also shown to cross-react with rWbTSP LEL and rBmTSP LEL. These findings thus suggested that rTSP LEL can be developed as a potential vaccine candidate against multiple filarial infections

  10. Effect of Kuberaksha Patra Churna, Vriddhadaru Mula Churna and Kandughna Taila in Shlipada (Manifested filariasis)

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Goli Penchala; Naidu, M. L.

    2012-01-01

    At present there are effective drugs in eradicating microfilariae but treatments to control the progression of manifested filariasis, periodic adenolymphangitis (ADL) and lymphedema are not available in conventional system of medicine. So far National Ayurveda Research Institute for Vector-borne diseases, Vijayawada, has conducted many clinical trails on manifested filariasis patients with the classical Ayurvedic herbal, herbo-mineral drugs and found significant results on ADL, lymphedema and other acute and chronic clinical manifestations. An effort has been made to find the effect of Kuberaksha Patra Churna [Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb.], Vriddhadaru Mula Churna [Argyreia nervosa (Burm.f.) Boj.] and Kandughna Taila (oil prepared from 10 Ayurvedic drugs) in manifested filarial patients. Based on inclusion criteria 133 patients were included in three groups (45 in Gr.I, 45 in Gr.II and 43 in Gr.III) and 120 patients completed the study (40 in each group). In Gr. I Argyreia nervosa (Burm.f.) Boj. root powder, Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. leaf powder mixed equally was given in the dose of 5 g twice a day for 30 days. In Gr.II along with Gr. I internal drugs Kandughna Taila was applied externally in sufficient quantity once a day for 30 days. Gr. III is a control study with Ayurvedic established drug ‘Nityananda Rasa’ 1 tablet thrice daily for 30 days. Group I and II drugs showed highly significant effect on lymphedema, lymphadenitis, lymphangitis, pain, tenderness, heaviness, deformity, fever and rigors (P<0.0001). Group III drug showed highly significant (P<0.0001) effect on lymphedema, deformity and heaviness; statistically significant (P=0.0018) on pain and tenderness; Significant effect on fever (P=0.0290), rigor (P=0.0290) and in lymphangitis (P=0.0384) and non-significant effect on lymphadenitis (P=0.1033). On statistical analysis effect of treatment on Hb and eosinophil count was found non-significant in three groups. On ESR, effect of treatment was

  11. Application of a biochemical key to study transmission of malaria and Bancroftian filariasis in sibling species of the Anopheles gambiae complex in north-eastern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mnzava, A E; Kilama, W L; Kasigwa, P F

    1989-10-01

    A biochemical key was applied in order to study transmission of malaria and Bancroftian filariasis in Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, An. arabiensis and An. merus in different localities in north-eastern Tanzania. The technique was found to be a useful additional taxonomic tool for field entomologists. Significant differences between species in the rate of infection with Bancroftian filariasis were obtained between An. gambiae s.s. and An. funestus (P less than 0.005) and between An. funestus and An. arabiensis (P less than 0.0001). There were also significant differences between most of the investigated localities in the rate of filarial infection. However, there were no significant differences between the three species or between localities with respect to malaria sporozoite rates. Possible reasons for the observed variation between species and localities with respect to vectorial activity for Bancroftian filariasis are discussed. PMID:2575868

  12. Single doses of ivermectin 400 micrograms/kg-1: the most effective dosage in bancroftian filariasis.

    PubMed

    Moulia-Pelat, J P; Glaziou, P; Nguyen, L N; Cartel, J L

    1995-03-01

    Forty-three Wuchereria bancrofti carriers were given four successive semi-annual single doses of ivermectin 100 micrograms.kg-1 (IVER 100). The geometric mean microfilaremia (mf) recurrence percentage as compared to the pre-initial treatment mf level was 35%, 21%, 17% and 17% at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months, respectively. However, the recurrence of mf 6 months after the fourth treatment remained high in several individuals: 15 have been considered as 'bad responders' and 28 as 'good responders' individuals. At month 24 (M 24), they were randomly allocated into 2 groups. A first group was treated with a fifty and a sixth dose of IVER 100, at M24 and M30, respectively; the second one was treated, at the same time, with single doses of IVER 400 micrograms.kg-1 (IVER 400). At M 36, the mf recurrence percentage (mf M36/mf M0) was significantly higher in patients treated with IVER 100 than IVER 400 (11% vs 1%, p < 10(-4). From the group IVER 100, 6 out of the 8 'bad responders' remained 'bad responders' whereas there were none of the 7 in the group IVER 400. Moreover, there were only 2 more patients in the group IVER 100 showing sustained complete zero mf, whereas they were 13 in the group IVER 400. Single doses of IVER 400 were effective on 'bad responders'; IVER 400 must be recommended for semi-annual mass treatment in bancroftian filariasis. PMID:8525398

  13. Toward the elimination of lymphatic filariasis by 2020: treatment update and impact assessment for the endgame.

    PubMed

    Rebollo, Maria P; Bockarie, Moses J

    2013-07-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is an important public health problem endemic in 73 countries, where it is a major cause of acute and chronic morbidity and a significant impediment to socioeconomic development. It is targeted for elimination by 2020, through preventive chemotherapy using albendazole in combination with either ivermectin or diethylcarbamazine citrate. Preventive chemotherapy enables the regular and coordinated administration of safe, single-dose medications delivered through mass drug administration (MDA). Many countries are now scaling down MDA activities after achieving 100% geographic coverage and instituting monitoring and evaluation procedures to establish the impact of several consecutive rounds of MDA and determine if transmission has been interrupted. At the same time, countries yet to initiate MDA for elimination of LF will adopt improved mapping and coverage assessment protocols to accelerate the efforts for achieving global elimination by 2020. This review provides an update on treatment for LF and describes the current global status of the elimination efforts, transmission control processes and strategies for measuring impact and continuing surveillance after MDA has ceased. PMID:23879610

  14. Larvicidal Activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the Larvae of Bancroftian Filariasis Vector Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deepak; Chawla, Rakesh; Dhamodaram, P.; Balakrishnan, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objectives. The plan of this work was to study the larvicidal activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. These larvae are the most significant vectors. They transmit the parasites and pathogens which cause a deadly disease like filariasis, dengue, yellow fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya, and so forth, which are considered harmful towards the population in tropic and subtropical regions. Methods. The preliminary laboratory trail was undertaken to determine the efficacy of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of dried whole plant of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) belonging to the family Caesalpiniaceae at various concentrations against the late third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus by following the WHO guidelines. Results. The results suggest that 100% mortality effect of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) was observed at 200 and 300 ppm (parts per million). The results obviously showed use of plants in insect control as an alternative method for minimizing the noxious effect of some pesticide compounds on the environment. Thus the extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) is claimed as more selective and biodegradable agent. Conclusion. This study justified that plant Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) has a realistic mortality result for larvae of filarial vector. This is safe to individual and communities against mosquitoes. It is a natural weapon for mosquito control. PMID:24688786

  15. Cessation of Mass Drug Administration for Lymphatic Filariasis in Zanzibar in 2006: Was Transmission Interrupted?

    PubMed Central

    Rebollo, Maria P.; Mohammed, Khalfan A.; Thomas, Brent; Ame, Shaali; Ali, Said Mohammed; Cano, Jorge; Escalada, Alba Gonzalez; Bockarie, Moses J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is targeted for elimination through annual mass drug administration (MDA) for 4–6 years. In 2006, Zanzibar stopped MDA against LF after five rounds of MDA revealed no microfilaraemic individuals during surveys at selected sentinel sites. We asked the question if LF transmission was truly interrupted in 2006 when MDA was stopped. Methodology/Principal Findings In line with ongoing efforts to shrink the LF map, we performed the WHO recommended transmission assessment surveys (TAS) in January 2012 to verify the absence of LF transmission on the main Zanzibar islands of Unguja and Pemba. Altogether, 3275 children were tested on both islands and 89 were found to be CFA positive; 70 in Pemba and 19 in Unguja. The distribution of schools with positive children was heterogeneous with pronounced spatial variation on both islands. Based on the calculated TAS cut-offs of 18 and 20 CFA positive children for Pemba and Unguja respectively, we demonstrated that transmission was still ongoing in Pemba where the cut-off was exceeded. Conclusions Our findings indicated ongoing transmission of LF on Pemba in 2012. Moreover, we presented evidence from previous studies that LF transmission was also active on Unguja shortly after stopping MDA in 2006. Based on these observations the government of Zanzibar decided to resume MDA against LF on both islands in 2013. PMID:25816287

  16. Lymphoedema: Pathophysiology and management in resource-poor settings - relevance for lymphatic filariasis control programmes

    PubMed Central

    Vaqas, Babar; Ryan, Terence J

    2003-01-01

    Low cost reduction of morbidity in lymphoedema is an essential goal in the management of lymphatic filariasis. This review emphasises the role of movement and elevation, and refers to the literature on the effects of these on the venous and lymphatic system. The patient with lymphoedema becomes increasingly immobile and the affected limb is often in a permanently dependent position causing venous hypertension and resultant overloading of the failing lymphatics. The evidence that breathing exercises are important for reducing venous hypertension and inducing lymphatic flow is discussed. The contribution of a damaged epidermis to lymphatic failure is emphasised. Loss of barrier function encourages penetration of bacteria and stimulates repair mechanisms that generate cytokines, which, in turn lead to inflammation. Management programmes that improve the health of the epidermis play a part in reducing lymphatic load. In taking morbidity management of lymphoedema into the general health services there are benefits in promoting skin hygiene and self-help regimes that can ameliorate many diseases along with lymphoedema. PMID:12685942

  17. Understanding the relationship between prevalence of microfilariae and antigenaemia using a model of lymphatic filariasis infection

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Michael A.; Njenga, Sammy M.; Gunawardena, Shamini; Njeri Wamae, Claire; Cano, Jorge; Brooker, Simon J.; Deirdre Hollingsworth, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis is a debilitating neglected tropical disease that affects impoverished communities. Rapid diagnostic tests of antigenaemia are a practical alternative to parasitological tests of microfilaraemia for mapping and surveillance. However the relationship between these two methods of measuring burden has previously been difficult to interpret. Methods A statistical model of the distribution of worm burden and microfilariae (mf) and resulting antigenaemic and mf prevalence was developed and fitted to surveys of two contrasting sentinel sites undergoing interventions. The fitted model was then used to explore the relationship in various pre- and post-intervention scenarios. Results The model had good quantitative agreement with the data and provided estimates of the reduction in mf output due to treatment. When extrapolating the results to a range of prevalences there was good qualitative agreement with published data. Conclusions The observed relationship between antigenamic and mf prevalence is a natural consequence of the relationship between prevalence and intensity of adult worms and mf production. The method described here allows the estimation of key epidemiological parameters and consequently gives insight into the efficacy of an intervention programme. PMID:26822604

  18. Dirofilaria immitis: performance and standardization of specific antibody immunoassays for filariasis.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, R G; Scott, A L; D'Antonio, R; Levy, D A; Adkinson, N F

    1983-12-01

    The factors associated with the development, optimization, and validation of immunoassays for the detection of parasite-specific antibody in filariasis infections were investigated using the dog heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis as a model. We examined two assays, the Protein A solid-phase radioimmunoassay (SPRIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), for quantitation of specific antibody to the parasite in canine serum. Precision, reproducibility, and parallelism were examined using response-error relationships and precision profile analyses. A staphylococcal Protein A saturation analysis was applied to the standardization of IgG anti-parasite antibody reference sera in weight per volume units (microgram/ml). Using the mean minimal detectable dose + 3 SD and an intraassay precision profile less than 10% coefficient of variation (CV) as criteria for assay sensitivity, the SPRIA and ELISA displayed comparable positive thresholds of 1 microgram/ml IgG anti-parasite antibody/ml of serum. Both assays demonstrated good reproducibility (less than 15% interassay CV) and parallelism (less than 20% interdilutional CV) over their working ranges (SPRIA: 1-40 micrograms/ml; ELISA: 1-5 micrograms/ml). Specificity of each assay was enhanced by preadsorption of cross-reacting antibodies in canine serum (i.e., specific for Toxocara canis antigens) with solid-phase antigen prior to assay. Methods for comparing different immunoassay designs are considered in relation to the variables that influence the assays' performance characteristics. PMID:6357832

  19. Stigma reduction and improved knowledge and attitudes towards filariasis using a comic book for children.

    PubMed

    el-Setouhy, Maged A; Rio, Francisco

    2003-04-01

    WHO has initiated a global program for lymphatic filariasis (LF) elimination by year 2020. A comic book was designed to improve knowledge and attitudes of Egyptian school children, which included messages on the acceptability of Mass Drug Administration (MDA) and stigma reduction. Comic book administration significantly reduced the fear of the studied children from LF as a killer disease. It helped in positively changing the attitudes of the children towards Elephantiasis patients (p-value <.001). The comic book also reduced the number of children who had earlier stated that they would avoid someone with LF. Knowledge about the ability of treating and preventing LF was also significantly increased among the children after reading the comic book. Moreover, comic book reading helped in raising the awareness towards MDA as the method of choice in preventing LF. Most of the children liked the comic book and its contents. Importantly, 96.2% found this book easy to understand. Many of relatives and friends read the comic book within 2 weeks after distribution. A well-accepted comic book for children is a proven way to reduce stigma and increase knowledge about disease prevention and treatment. PMID:12739801

  20. Epidemiological screening of lymphatic filariasis among immigrants using dipstick colloidal dye immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Wan Omar, A; Sulaiman, O; Yusof, S; Ismail, G; Fatmah, M S; Rahmah, N; Khairul, A A

    2001-07-01

    We have recently reported that a dipstick colloidal dye immunoassay (DIA) that detect parasite antigens in human serum is sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of active infection of lymphatic filariasis. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies (RbBmCAg) labelled with a commercial dye, palanil navy blue was used to detect filarial antigenemia among Indonesian and Bangladeshi immigrant workers (N= 630) at oil palm estates at Hulu Trengganu District, Peninsular Malaysia. Microfilaremia with Brugia malayi were detected in 51 (8.10 %) individuals, of which 42 (6.67 %) were among the Indonesians and 9 (1.98 %) among the Bangladeshis. Microfilaremia with Wuchereria bancrofti were detected in 33 (5.24 %) individuals of which 15 (2.38 %) were among the Indonesians and 18 (2.86 %) among the Bangladeshis workers. The DIA detected 96 (15.24 %) antigenemic cases which comprise of all the microfilaremic cases and 15 (2.38 %) amicrofilaremic cases. The amicrofilaremic cases with filarial antigenemia consisted of 9 (1. 43 %) Indonesians and 6 (0.95%) Bangladeshis. We have used 6 ul of the RbBmCAg and diluted (1:10) patients' sera per dipstick which make the DIA reagent conservative. The DIA is a rapid test and can be read in approximate 2 hours.. Additionally, coloured dots developed in the DIA can be qualitatively assessed visually for intensity. The DIA does not require sophisticated equipment or radioactivity, and therefore suitable for field application. PMID:22893756

  1. Epidemiological Screening of Lymphatic Filariasis Among Immigrants Using Dipstick Colloidal Dye Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Wan Omar, A; Sulaiman, O; Yusof, S; Ismail, G; Fatmah, M.S; Rahmah, N; Khairul, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    We have recently reported that a dipstick colloidal dye immunoassay (DIA) that detect parasite antigens in human serum is sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of active infection of lymphatic filariasis. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies (RbBmCAg) labelled with a commercial dye, palanil navy blue was used to detect filarial antigenemia among Indonesian and Bangladeshi immigrant workers (N= 630) at oil palm estates at Hulu Trengganu District, Peninsular Malaysia. Microfilaremia with Brugia malayi were detected in 51 (8.10 %) individuals, of which 42 (6.67 %) were among the Indonesians and 9 (1.98 %) among the Bangladeshis. Microfilaremia with Wuchereria bancrofti were detected in 33 (5.24 %) individuals of which 15 (2.38 %) were among the Indonesians and 18 (2.86 %) among the Bangladeshis workers. The DIA detected 96 (15.24 %) antigenemic cases which comprise of all the microfilaremic cases and 15 (2.38 %) amicrofilaremic cases. The amicrofilaremic cases with filarial antigenemia consisted of 9 (1. 43 %) Indonesians and 6 (0.95%) Bangladeshis. We have used 6 ul of the RbBmCAg and diluted (1:10) patients’ sera per dipstick which make the DIA reagent conservative. The DIA is a rapid test and can be read in approximate 2 hours.. Additionally, coloured dots developed in the DIA can be qualitatively assessed visually for intensity. The DIA does not require sophisticated equipment or radioactivity, and therefore suitable for field application. PMID:22893756

  2. Imported bancroftian filariasis: diethylcarbamazine response and benzimidazole susceptibility of Wuchereria bancrofti in dynamic cross-border migrant population targeted by the National Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis in South Thailand.

    PubMed

    Bhumiratana, A; Pechgit, P; Koyadun, S; Siriaut, C; Yongyuth, P

    2010-02-01

    The implementation on the Thailand-Myanmar border of annual mass drug administration (MDA) of a single 6 mg/kg dose of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) plus 400mg albendazole, part of the National Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (PELF), has been challenging. In particular, chain migration of cross-border Myanmar workers at risk for nocturnally periodic Wuchereria bancrofti infection can lead to imported bancroftian filariasis (IBF) in Thailand. IBF is targeted for multiple-dose MDA with 300 mg DEC, in addition to what is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). The dynamic Myanmar migrants in Phang-nga, southern Thailand were sampled to test whether the responsible W. bancrofti has a genetic predisposition of benzimidazole exposure, and IBF exhibits DEC susceptibility. The long-term migrants had more access to DEC. IBF in W. bancrofti antigenemic (microfilaremic vs. amicrofilaremic) short-term migrants exhibited susceptibility to a 300-mg single-dose DEC treatment. During the course of a 3-month follow-up, antigenemia was significantly reduced, but microfilaremia was fluctuated. Surprisingly, a newly recognized Mansonella infection co-existing among W. bancrofti-affected Myanmar migrants elicited microfilaremia clearance within a month after treatment. As a result of the presence of genetically stable W. bancrofti beta-tubulin (Wbtubb) gene responsible for benzimidazole susceptibility, IBF did not possess a genetic predisposition for benzimidazole exposure. Point mutations at positions Phe167Tyr and Phe200Tyr were not detected by Wbtubb locus-specific nested PCR and sequencing. This study has the potential to help guide not only the Thai/Myanmar PELF surveillance and monitoring of mass treatment impacts on W. bancrofti, but also the other endemic countries allied with the Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF). PMID:19835831

  3. How Effective is Integrated Vector Management Against Malaria and Lymphatic Filariasis Where the Diseases Are Transmitted by the Same Vector?

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Christopher M.; Lindsay, Steve W.; Chitnis, Nakul

    2014-01-01

    Background The opportunity to integrate vector management across multiple vector-borne diseases is particularly plausible for malaria and lymphatic filariasis (LF) control where both diseases are transmitted by the same vector. To date most examples of integrated control targeting these diseases have been unanticipated consequences of malaria vector control, rather than planned strategies that aim to maximize the efficacy and take the complex ecological and biological interactions between the two diseases into account. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed a general model of malaria and LF transmission and derived expressions for the basic reproductive number (R0) for each disease. Transmission of both diseases was most sensitive to vector mortality and biting rate. Simulating different levels of coverage of long lasting-insecticidal nets (LLINs) and larval control confirms the effectiveness of these interventions for the control of both diseases. When LF was maintained near the critical density of mosquitoes, minor levels of vector control (8% coverage of LLINs or treatment of 20% of larval sites) were sufficient to eliminate the disease. Malaria had a far greater R0 and required a 90% population coverage of LLINs in order to eliminate it. When the mosquito density was doubled, 36% and 58% coverage of LLINs and larval control, respectively, were required for LF elimination; and malaria elimination was possible with a combined coverage of 78% of LLINs and larval control. Conclusions/Significance Despite the low level of vector control required to eliminate LF, simulations suggest that prevalence of LF will decrease at a slower rate than malaria, even at high levels of coverage. If representative of field situations, integrated management should take into account not only how malaria control can facilitate filariasis elimination, but strike a balance between the high levels of coverage of (multiple) interventions required for malaria with the long duration

  4. Repurposing of approved drugs from the human pharmacopoeia to target Wolbachia endosymbionts of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Kelly L; Ford, Louise; Umareddy, Indira; Townson, Simon; Specht, Sabine; Pfarr, Kenneth; Hoerauf, Achim; Altmeyer, Ralf; Taylor, Mark J

    2014-12-01

    Lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis are debilitating diseases caused by parasitic filarial nematodes infecting around 150 million people throughout the tropics with more than 1.5 billion at risk. As with other neglected tropical diseases, classical drug-discovery and development is lacking and a 50 year programme of macrofilaricidal discovery failed to deliver a drug which can be used as a public health tool. Recently, antibiotic targeting of filarial Wolbachia, an essential bacterial symbiont, has provided a novel drug treatment for filariasis with macrofilaricidal activity, although the current gold-standard, doxycycline, is unsuitable for use in mass drug administration (MDA). The anti-Wolbachia (A·WOL) Consortium aims to identify novel anti-Wolbachia drugs, compounds or combinations that are suitable for use in MDA. Development of a Wolbachia cell-based assay has enabled the screening of the approved human drug-pharmacopoeia (∼2600 drugs) for a potential repurposing. This screening strategy has revealed that approved drugs from various classes show significant bacterial load reduction equal to or superior to the gold-standard doxycycline, with 69 orally available hits from different drug categories being identified. Based on our defined hit criteria, 15 compounds were then selectively screened in a Litomosoides sigmodontis mouse model, 4 of which were active. These came from the tetracycline, fluoroquinolone and rifamycin classes. This strategy of repurposing approved drugs is a promising development in the goal of finding a novel treatment against filariasis and could also be a strategy applicable for other neglected tropical diseases. PMID:25516838

  5. Repurposing of approved drugs from the human pharmacopoeia to target Wolbachia endosymbionts of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Kelly L.; Ford, Louise; Umareddy, Indira; Townson, Simon; Specht, Sabine; Pfarr, Kenneth; Hoerauf, Achim; Altmeyer, Ralf; Taylor, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis are debilitating diseases caused by parasitic filarial nematodes infecting around 150 million people throughout the tropics with more than 1.5 billion at risk. As with other neglected tropical diseases, classical drug-discovery and development is lacking and a 50 year programme of macrofilaricidal discovery failed to deliver a drug which can be used as a public health tool. Recently, antibiotic targeting of filarial Wolbachia, an essential bacterial symbiont, has provided a novel drug treatment for filariasis with macrofilaricidal activity, although the current gold-standard, doxycycline, is unsuitable for use in mass drug administration (MDA). The anti-Wolbachia (A·WOL) Consortium aims to identify novel anti-Wolbachia drugs, compounds or combinations that are suitable for use in MDA. Development of a Wolbachia cell-based assay has enabled the screening of the approved human drug-pharmacopoeia (∼2600 drugs) for a potential repurposing. This screening strategy has revealed that approved drugs from various classes show significant bacterial load reduction equal to or superior to the gold-standard doxycycline, with 69 orally available hits from different drug categories being identified. Based on our defined hit criteria, 15 compounds were then selectively screened in a Litomosoides sigmodontis mouse model, 4 of which were active. These came from the tetracycline, fluoroquinolone and rifamycin classes. This strategy of repurposing approved drugs is a promising development in the goal of finding a novel treatment against filariasis and could also be a strategy applicable for other neglected tropical diseases. PMID:25516838

  6. COMMUNITY MEMBERS' PERCEPTIONS OF MASS DRUG ADMINISTRATION FOR CONTROL OF LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS IN RURAL AND URBAN TANZANIA.

    PubMed

    Kisoka, William J; Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowsky; Meyrowitsch, Dan W; Simonsen, Paul E; Mushi, Declare L

    2016-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is one of several neglected tropical diseases with severely disabling and stigmatizing manifestations that are referred to as 'neglected diseases of poverty'. It is a mosquito-borne disease found endemically and exclusively in low-income contexts where, concomitantly, general public health care is often deeply troubled and fails to meet the basic health needs of impoverished populations. This presents particular challenges for the implementation of mass drug administration (MDA), which currently is the principal means of control and eventual elimination. Several MDA programmes face the dilemma that they are unable to attain and maintain the required drug coverage across target groups. In recognition of this, a qualitative study was conducted in the Morogoro and Lindi regions of Tanzania to gain an understanding of community experiences with, and perceptions of, the MDA campaign implemented in 2011 by the National Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Programme. The study revealed a wide variation of perceptions and experiences regarding the aim, rationale and justification of MDA. There were positive sentiments about the usefulness of the drugs, but many study participants were sceptical about the manner in which MDA is implemented. People were particularly disappointed with the limited attempts by implementers to share information and mobilize residents. In addition, negative sentiments towards MDA for lymphatic filariasis reflected a general feeling of desertion and marginalization by the health care system and political authorities. However, the results suggest that if the communities are brought on board with genuine respect for their integrity and informed self-determination, there is scope for major improvements in community support for MDA-based control activities. PMID:25790081

  7. A rare case of reversible acquired AA-type renal amyloidosis in a chronic filariasis patient receiving antifilarial therapy.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Hemanta Kumar; Daga, Mradul Kumar; Garg, Sandeep kumar; Sinha, Nitin kumar; Kumar, Rakshit; Mohanty, Pankaj Kumar; Pandey, Binay Kumar

    2011-08-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is a major health problem in India with a large number of patients tending to be asymptomatic. In the Southeast and South Asian regions, Wuchereria bancrofti is the most prevalent parasite, causing filariasis in 99.4% of cases. While kidney involvement is a rare event in chronic filariasis, this case is unique because AA-type renal amyloidosis occurs in chronic W. bancrofti infection. We present here a unique case of lymphatic filariasis. The patient, a 25-year-old male who was previously diagnosed with right lower limb filarial lymphedema and had undergone lymphovenous anastomosis, was admitted for evaluation of persistent nephrotic-range proteinuria. Autoimmune markers in the form of anti-nuclear antibodies, anti-double-stranded DNA and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody were negative; C3 was normal. Urine analysis revealed inactive sediment with moderate proteinuria. Both serum and urine electrophoresis were negative for paraproteins and bone marrow aspirate and biopsy were normal. Evidence of active filarial infection was established on the basis of microfilariae in the peripheral smear and a positive W. bancrofti antigen test. Kidney biopsy revealed renal amyloidosis when stained with Congo red and anti-AA immunostain. The patient's proteinuria improved on conservative management with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and a course of antifilarial drugs. His proteinuria returned to <1 g/24 h with normalization of renal function and no significant proteinuria on periodic follow-up at 6-month and 1-year intervals. Repeat kidney biopsy after 1.5 years showed regression of amyloidosis. Repeat demonstration of filarial antigen and microfilariae in the peripheral smear were negative on multiple occasions during the follow-up period. Although various chronic infections can lead to secondary renal amyloidosis, this is the first case reported in world literature where secondary amyloidosis developed as a complication of chronic filarial

  8. Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets Are Synergistic with Mass Drug Administration for Interruption of Lymphatic Filariasis Transmission in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Eigege, Abel; Miri, Emmanuel; Sallau, Adamu; Umaru, John; Mafuyai, Hayward; Chuwang, Yohanna S.; Danjuma, Goshit; Danboyi, Jacob; Adelamo, Solomon E.; Mancha, Bulus S.; Okoeguale, Bridget; Patterson, Amy E.; Rakers, Lindsay; Richards, Frank O.

    2013-01-01

    In central Nigeria Anopheles mosquitoes transmit malaria and lymphatic filariasis (LF). The strategy used for interrupting LF transmission in this area is annual mass drug administration (MDA) with albendazole and ivermectin, but after 8 years of MDA, entomological evaluations in sentinel villages showed continued low-grade mosquito infection rates of 0.32%. After long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) distribution by the national malaria program in late 2010, however, we were no longer able to detect infected vectors over a 24-month period. This is evidence that LLINs are synergistic with MDA in interrupting LF transmission. PMID:24205421

  9. Impact of Education Campaign on Community-Based Vector Control in Hastening the Process of Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis in Tamil Nadu, South India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nandha, B.; Krishnamoorthy, K.

    2012-01-01

    Globally mosquito-borne lymphatic filariasis (LF) is targeted for elimination by 2020. Towards this goal, the scope of community-based vector control as a supplementary strategy to mass drug administration (MDA) was assessed through an intensive education campaign and evaluated using pre- and post-educational surveys in an intervention and…

  10. Larvicidal activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles using Eclipta prostrata leaf extract against filariasis and malaria vectors.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, G; Abdul Rahuman, A

    2011-06-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of synthesized natural products for vector control have been a priority in this area. In this study, larvicidal activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) utilizing aqueous extract from Eclipta prostrata, a member of the Asteraceae was investigated against fourth instar larvae of filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus say and malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). The synthesized AgNPs characterized by UV-vis spectrum, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). SEM analyses of the synthesized AgNPs were clearly distinguishable measured 35-60 nm in size. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous extract of synthesized AgNPs for 24h. The maximum efficacy was observed in crude aqueous, and synthesized AgNPs against C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50)=27.49 and 4.56 mg/L; LC(90)=70.38 and 13.14 mg/L), and against A. subpictus (LC(50)=27.85 and 5.14 mg/L; LC(90)=71.45 and 25.68 mg/L) respectively. The chi-square value were significant at p<0.05 level. These results suggest that the synthesized AgNPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the Culex tritaeniorhynchus and A. subpictus. This method is considered as a new approach to control vectors. Therefore, this study provides first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of synthesized AgNPs against vectors. PMID:21419749

  11. Repurposing Auranofin as a Lead Candidate for Treatment of Lymphatic Filariasis and Onchocerciasis

    PubMed Central

    Bulman, Christina A.; Bidlow, Chelsea M.; Lustigman, Sara; Cho-Ngwa, Fidelis; Williams, David; Rascón, Jr, Alberto A.; Tricoche, Nancy; Samje, Moses; Bell, Aaron; Suzuki, Brian; Lim, K. C.; Supakorndej, Nonglak; Supakorndej, Prasit; Wolfe, Alan R.; Knudsen, Giselle M.; Chen, Steven; Wilson, Chris; Ang, Kean-Hooi; Arkin, Michelle; Gut, Jiri; Franklin, Chris; Marcellino, Chris; McKerrow, James H.; Debnath, Anjan; Sakanari, Judy A.

    2015-01-01

    Two major human diseases caused by filariid nematodes are onchocerciasis, or river blindness, and lymphatic filariasis, which can lead to elephantiasis. The drugs ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine (DEC), and albendazole are used in control programs for these diseases, but are mainly effective against the microfilarial stage and have minimal or no effect on adult worms. Adult Onchocerca volvulus and Brugia malayi worms (macrofilariae) can live for up to 15 years, reproducing and allowing the infection to persist in a population. Therefore, to support control or elimination of these two diseases, effective macrofilaricidal drugs are necessary, in addition to current drugs. In an effort to identify macrofilaricidal drugs, we screened an FDA-approved library with adult worms of Brugia spp. and Onchocerca ochengi, third-stage larvae (L3s) of Onchocerca volvulus, and the microfilariae of both O. ochengi and Loa loa. We found that auranofin, a gold-containing drug used for rheumatoid arthritis, was effective in vitro in killing both Brugia spp. and O. ochengi adult worms and in inhibiting the molting of L3s of O. volvulus with IC50 values in the low micromolar to nanomolar range. Auranofin had an approximately 43-fold higher IC50 against the microfilariae of L. loa compared with the IC50 for adult female O. ochengi, which may be beneficial if used in areas where Onchocerca and Brugia are co-endemic with L. loa, to prevent severe adverse reactions to the drug-induced death of L. loa microfilariae. Further testing indicated that auranofin is also effective in reducing Brugia adult worm burden in infected gerbils and that auranofin may be targeting the thioredoxin reductase in this nematode. PMID:25700363

  12. Repurposing auranofin as a lead candidate for treatment of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis.

    PubMed

    Bulman, Christina A; Bidlow, Chelsea M; Lustigman, Sara; Cho-Ngwa, Fidelis; Williams, David; Rascón, Alberto A; Tricoche, Nancy; Samje, Moses; Bell, Aaron; Suzuki, Brian; Lim, K C; Supakorndej, Nonglak; Supakorndej, Prasit; Wolfe, Alan R; Knudsen, Giselle M; Chen, Steven; Wilson, Chris; Ang, Kean-Hooi; Arkin, Michelle; Gut, Jiri; Franklin, Chris; Marcellino, Chris; McKerrow, James H; Debnath, Anjan; Sakanari, Judy A

    2015-02-01

    Two major human diseases caused by filariid nematodes are onchocerciasis, or river blindness, and lymphatic filariasis, which can lead to elephantiasis. The drugs ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine (DEC), and albendazole are used in control programs for these diseases, but are mainly effective against the microfilarial stage and have minimal or no effect on adult worms. Adult Onchocerca volvulus and Brugia malayi worms (macrofilariae) can live for up to 15 years, reproducing and allowing the infection to persist in a population. Therefore, to support control or elimination of these two diseases, effective macrofilaricidal drugs are necessary, in addition to current drugs. In an effort to identify macrofilaricidal drugs, we screened an FDA-approved library with adult worms of Brugia spp. and Onchocerca ochengi, third-stage larvae (L3s) of Onchocerca volvulus, and the microfilariae of both O. ochengi and Loa loa. We found that auranofin, a gold-containing drug used for rheumatoid arthritis, was effective in vitro in killing both Brugia spp. and O. ochengi adult worms and in inhibiting the molting of L3s of O. volvulus with IC50 values in the low micromolar to nanomolar range. Auranofin had an approximately 43-fold higher IC50 against the microfilariae of L. loa compared with the IC50 for adult female O. ochengi, which may be beneficial if used in areas where Onchocerca and Brugia are co-endemic with L. loa, to prevent severe adverse reactions to the drug-induced death of L. loa microfilariae. Further testing indicated that auranofin is also effective in reducing Brugia adult worm burden in infected gerbils and that auranofin may be targeting the thioredoxin reductase in this nematode. PMID:25700363

  13. Surgical Treatment of Genital Manifestations of Lymphatic Filariasis: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kah Heng Alexander; Speare, Rick; Thomas, Gail; Graves, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    Genital manifestations of lymphatic filariasis (genital LF) are a significant cause of disfigurement and disability in the developing world. Surgery is the standard treatment; however, definitive publications are lacking and best practice remains unclear. An exhaustive search strategy using keyword and subject headings was applied to Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Scopus. Additionally citation lists, Google and Google Scholar, archives of relevant journals and websites were searched systematically. Studies with data on one or more human patient(s) who underwent surgery for genital LF were included. Articles were screened and data extracted by the first author with data verification by the second author. Fifty-seven studies were included: 18 series of ablative surgery, four series of non-ablative surgery and 35 case reports. Poor study quality, heterogeneous case definitions, lack of severity grading and limited follow-up precluded meta-analysis. Two series of simple hydrocelectomies performed in resource-limited settings reported early complication rates of 3.0-3.5 % using eversion and 5-7 % using excision, with recurrence of 7 % and 3-5 %, respectively. Complications were minimal for single-surgeon series and greater (12-18 %) when scrotal reconstruction was performed. There is little useful evidence for lymphatic bypass procedures in genital LF. Under-recognition of atypical manifestation of genital LF leads to potentially unnecessary surgeries. Surgery for genital LF is safe in resource-limited settings; however, more well-designed studies with better follow-up are needed. Research priorities include validation of case definitions and severity grading systems, and solutions to improve post-operative follow-up in resource-limited settings. PMID:26319260

  14. Shrinking the Lymphatic Filariasis Map of Ethiopia: Reassessing the Population at Risk through Nationwide Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Assefa, Ashenafi; Cano, Jorge; Deribe, Kebede; Gonzalez-Escalada, Alba; Shafi, Oumer; Davey, Gail; Brooker, Simon J.; Kebede, Amha; Bockarie, Moses J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mapping of lymphatic filariasis (LF) is essential for the delineation of endemic implementation units and determining the population at risk that will be targeted for mass drug administration (MDA). Prior to the current study, only 116 of the 832 woredas (districts) in Ethiopia had been mapped for LF. The aim of this study was to perform a nationwide mapping exercise to determine the number of people that should be targeted for MDA in 2016 when national coverage was anticipated. Methodology/Principal Finding A two-stage cluster purposive sampling was used to conduct a community-based cross-sectional survey for an integrated mapping of LF and podoconiosis, in seven regional states and two city administrations. Two communities in each woreda were purposely selected using the World Health Organization (WHO) mapping strategy for LF based on sampling 100 individuals per community and two purposely selected communities per woreda. Overall, 130 166 people were examined in 1315 communities in 658 woredas. In total, 140 people were found to be positive for circulating LF antigen by immunochromatographic card test (ICT) in 89 communities. Based on WHO guidelines, 75 of the 658 woredas surveyed in the nine regions were found to be endemic for LF with a 2016 projected population of 9 267 410 residing in areas of active disease transmission. Combining these results with other data it is estimated that 11 580 010 people in 112 woredas will be exposed to infection in 2016. Conclusions We have conducted nationwide mapping of LF in Ethiopia and demonstrated that the number of people living in LF endemic areas is 60% lower than current estimates. We also showed that integrated mapping of multiple NTDs is feasible and cost effective and if properly planned, can be quickly achieved at national scale. PMID:26539700

  15. Factors associated with participation in a campaign of mass treatment against lymphatic filariasis, in Leogane, Haiti.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, E; Lammie, P J; Radday, J; Beach, M J; Streit, T; Wendt, J; Addiss, D G

    2004-10-01

    In October 2000, to interrupt transmission of Wuchereria bancrofti, an intense health-education campaign followed by a mass drug administration (MDA) with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole was undertaken in Leogane, Haiti. Three months after the MDA, which was the first in the study area, a knowledge-attitude-practice (KAP) survey, with a cluster-sample design and probability sampling, was undertaken, to determine the existing knowledge of the local residents, their attitudes toward the MDA, and the possible reasons for non-compliance. Questionnaire-based interviews were used to explore the KAP of 304 subjects (one randomly chosen resident aged > 14 years from each selected household) in 33 communities. Most (93%) of the interviewees were aware of filariasis and 72% knew at least one clinical sign of the disease. Awareness of the MDA was high (91%). The most frequently mentioned sources of information were other people (56%) and radio announcements (33%). More than 80% of the respondents encouraged other people to take the drugs distributed in the MDA and 63% had been treated. The primary reasons given for failing to take the drugs were absenteeism during the distribution (17%), use of contraceptive drugs (12%) and pregnancy (11%). In a multivariate analysis, being male [odds ratio (OR) = 3.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.5-7.4], knowing that a mosquito transmits the disease (OR = 2.6; CI = 1.2-5.4), and having learned about the MDA through posters and banners (OR = 2.9; CI = 1.2-7.5) were found to be positively associated with taking the drugs. Information from such post-treatment surveys should be useful in developing better health communication for subsequent MDA. PMID:15509424

  16. A role for Mansonia uniformis mosquitoes in the transmission of lymphatic filariasis in Uganda?

    PubMed

    Onapa, Ambrose W; Pedersen, Erling M; Reimert, Claus M; Simonsen, Paul E

    2007-02-01

    The possible role of Mansonia uniformis mosquitoes in the transmission of lymphatic filariasis was assessed in an endemic area of Uganda, by examining their diurnal biting cycle, host preference and ability to support the development of experimental and natural Wuchereria bancrofti infections. Anopheles gambiae s.l. served as controls. Human landing catches revealed that outdoor biting peaked early in the evening (19:00-20:00h), while indoor biting peaked around midnight (23:00-24:00h). By far the majority of indoor collected M. uniformis had derived their blood meals from humans. Both biting and feeding behaviour were therefore compatible with a potential for transmission. In experimentally fed M. uniformis (total of 1915), the microfilariae were seen to ex-sheath and to start migration, but the L1s accumulated in the thorax and only few developed further. In dissections from Day 11 onwards, 4.6% (43/932) of M. uniformis had L2 larvae and 0.7% (7/932) had L3 larvae of W. bancrofti. The corresponding figures for An. gambiae s.l. were 13.4% and 4.6%, respectively. Dissection of wild caught M. uniformis (total of 6823) did not reveal any natural infections with W. bancrofti infective larvae, whereas wild caught An. gambiae s.l. had an infective rate of 1.3%. Other filarial species, and mermithids, were common in M. uniformis. It is concluded that M. uniformis has a limited potential to support development of W. bancrofti to the infective stage, and it does not appear to play a role as a vector under natural conditions. PMID:17316535

  17. Transmission Assessment Surveys (TAS) to Define Endpoints for Lymphatic Filariasis Mass Drug Administration: A Multicenter Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Brian K.; Deming, Michael; Biritwum, Nana-Kwadwo; Bougma, Windtaré R.; Dorkenoo, Améyo M.; El-Setouhy, Maged; Fischer, Peter U.; Gass, Katherine; Gonzalez de Peña, Manuel; Mercado-Hernandez, Leda; Kyelem, Dominique; Lammie, Patrick J.; Flueckiger, Rebecca M.; Mwingira, Upendo J.; Noordin, Rahmah; Offei Owusu, Irene; Ottesen, Eric A.; Pavluck, Alexandre; Pilotte, Nils; Rao, Ramakrishna U.; Samarasekera, Dilhani; Schmaedick, Mark A.; Settinayake, Sunil; Simonsen, Paul E.; Supali, Taniawati; Taleo, Fasihah; Torres, Melissa; Weil, Gary J.; Won, Kimberly Y.

    2013-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is targeted for global elimination through treatment of entire at-risk populations with repeated annual mass drug administration (MDA). Essential for program success is defining and confirming the appropriate endpoint for MDA when transmission is presumed to have reached a level low enough that it cannot be sustained even in the absence of drug intervention. Guidelines advanced by WHO call for a transmission assessment survey (TAS) to determine if MDA can be stopped within an LF evaluation unit (EU) after at least five effective rounds of annual treatment. To test the value and practicality of these guidelines, a multicenter operational research trial was undertaken in 11 countries covering various geographic and epidemiological settings. Methodology The TAS was conducted twice in each EU with TAS-1 and TAS-2 approximately 24 months apart. Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) formed the basis of the TAS survey design but specific EU characteristics defined the survey site (school or community), eligible population (6–7 year olds or 1st–2nd graders), survey type (systematic or cluster-sampling), target sample size, and critical cutoff (a statistically powered threshold below which transmission is expected to be no longer sustainable). The primary diagnostic tools were the immunochromatographic (ICT) test for W. bancrofti EUs and the BmR1 test (Brugia Rapid or PanLF) for Brugia spp. EUs. Principal Findings/Conclusions In 10 of 11 EUs, the number of TAS-1 positive cases was below the critical cutoff, indicating that MDA could be stopped. The same results were found in the follow-up TAS-2, therefore, confirming the previous decision outcome. Sample sizes were highly sex and age-representative and closely matched the target value after factoring in estimates of non-participation. The TAS was determined to be a practical and effective evaluation tool for stopping MDA although its validity for longer-term post-MDA surveillance

  18. Lymphatic filariasis: a method to identify subclinical lower limb change in PNG adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Susan; Melrose, Wayne; Warner, Jeffrey; Buttner, Petra; Ward, Leigh

    2011-07-01

    Lymphedema related to lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a disabling condition that commonly manifests in adolescence. Fifty-three adolescents, 25 LF infected and 28 LF non-infected, in age and sex-matched groups, using the Binax ICT rapid card test for filarial antigen were recruited to the study. None of the participants had overt signs of lymphedema. Lymphedema assessment measures were used to assess lower limb tissue compressibility (tonometry), limb circumference (tape measure), intra- and extra-cellular fluid distribution (bioimpedance) and joint range of motion (goniometry). The mean tonometric measurements from the left, right, and dominant posterior thighs were significantly larger in participants with LF compared to participants who had tested negative for LF (p = 0.005, p = 0.004, and p = 0.003, respectively) indicating increased tissue compressibility in those adolescents with LF. ROC curve analysis to define optimal cut-off of the tonometry measurements indicated that at 3.5, sensitivity of this potential screening test is 100% (95%-CI = 86.3%, 100%) and specificity is 21.4% (95%-CI = 8.3%, 41.0%). It is proposed that this cut-off can be used to indicate tissue change characteristic of LF in an at-risk population of PNG adolescents. Further longitudinal research is required to establish if all those with tissue change subsequently develop lymphedema. However, thigh tonometry to identify early tissue change in LF positive adolescents may enable early intervention to minimize progression of lymphedema and prioritization of limited resources to those at greatest risk of developing lifetime morbidity. PMID:21811644

  19. Prevalence of Lymphatic Filariasis and Treatment Effectiveness of Albendazole/ Ivermectin in Individuals with HIV Co-infection in Southwest-Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Maganga, Lucas; Clowes, Petra; Maboko, Leonard; Hoerauf, Achim; Makunde, Williams H.; Haule, Antelmo; Mviombo, Prisca; Pitter, Bettina; Mgeni, Neema; Mabuye, Joseph; Kowuor, Dickens; Mwingira, Upendo; Malecela, Mwelecele N.; Löscher, Thomas; Hoelscher, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Annual mass treatment with ivermectin and albendazole is used to treat lymphatic filariasis in many African countries, including Tanzania. In areas where both diseases occur, it is unclear whether HIV co-infection reduces treatment success. Methodology In a general population study in Southwest Tanzania, individuals were tested for HIV and circulating filarial antigen, an indicator of Wuchereria bancrofti adult worm burden, before the first and after 2 consecutive rounds of anti-filarial mass drug administration. Principle Findings Testing of 2104 individuals aged 0–94 years before anti-filarial treatment revealed a prevalence of 24.8% for lymphatic filariasis and an HIV-prevalence of 8.9%. Lymphatic filariasis was rare in children, but prevalence increased in individuals above 10 years, whereas a strong increase in HIV was only seen above 18 years of age. The prevalence of lymphatic filariasis in adults above 18 years was 42.6% and 41.7% (p = 0.834) in HIV-negatives and–positives, respectively. Similarly, the HIV prevalence in the lymphatic filariasis infected (16.6%) and uninfected adult population (17.1%) was nearly the same. Of the above 2104 individuals 798 were re-tested after 2 rounds of antifilarial treatment. A significant reduction in the prevalence of circulating filarial antigen from 21.6% to 19.7% was found after treatment (relative drop of 8.8%, McNemar´s exact p = 0.036). Furthermore, the post-treatment reduction of CFA positivity was (non-significantly) larger in HIV-positives than in HIV-negatives (univariable linear regression p = 0.154). Conclusion/Significance In an area with a high prevalence for both diseases, no difference was found between HIV-infected and uninfected individuals regarding the initial prevalence of lymphatic filariasis. A moderate but significant reduction in lymphatic filariasis prevalence and worm burden was demonstrated after two rounds of treatment with albendazole and ivermectin. Treatment effects were

  20. Assessing Progress in Reducing the At-Risk Population after 13 Years of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Pamela J.; Chu, Brian K.; Mikhailov, Alexei; Ottesen, Eric A.; Bradley, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Background In 1997, the World Health Assembly adopted Resolution 50.29, committing to the elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF) as a public health problem, subsequently targeted for 2020. The initial estimates were that 1.2 billion people were at-risk for LF infection globally. Now, 13 years after the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) began implementing mass drug administration (MDA) against LF in 2000—during which over 4.4 billion treatments have been distributed in 56 endemic countries—it is most appropriate to estimate the impact that the MDA has had on reducing the population at risk of LF. Methodology/Principal Findings To assess GPELF progress in reducing the population at-risk for LF, we developed a model based on defining reductions in risk of infection among cohorts of treated populations following each round of MDA. The model estimates that the number of people currently at risk of infection decreased by 46% to 789 million through 2012. Conclusions/Significance Important progress has been made in the global efforts to eliminate LF, but significant scale-up is required over the next 8 years to reach the 2020 elimination goal. PMID:25411843

  1. Assessing density dependence in the transmission of lymphatic filariasis: uptake and development of Wuchereria bancrofti microfilariae in the vector mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Stolk, W A; Van Oortmarssen, G J; Subramanian, S; Das, P K; Borsboom, G J J M; Habbema, J D F; de Vlas, S J

    2004-03-01

    Understanding density dependence in the transmission of lymphatic filariasis is essential for assessing the prospects of elimination. This study seeks to quantify the relationship between microfilaria (Mf) density in human blood and the number of third stage (L3) larvae developing in the mosquito vectors Aedes polynesiensis Marks and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) after blood-feeding. Two types of curves are fitted to previously published data. Fitting a linearized power curve through the data allows for correction for measurement error in human Mf counts. Ignoring measurement error leads to overestimation of the strength of density dependence; the degree of overestimation depends on the accuracy of measurement of Mf density. For use in mathematical models of transmission of lymphatic filariasis, a hyperbolic saturating function is preferable. This curve explicitly estimates the Mf uptake and development at lowest Mf densities and the average maximum number of L3 that can develop in mosquitoes. This maximum was estimated at 23 and 4 for Ae. polynesiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. PMID:15009446

  2. Coverage of, and compliance with, mass drug administration under the programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis in India: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Babu, Bontha V; Babu, Gopalan R

    2014-09-01

    India's mass drug administration (MDA) programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (PELF) covers all 250 endemic districts, but compliance with treatment is not adequate for the programme to succeed in eradicating this neglected tropical disease. The objective of our study was to systematically review published studies on the coverage of and compliance with MDA under the PELF in India. We searched several databases-PubMed/Medline, Google Scholar, CINAHL/EBSCO, Web of Knowledge (including Web of Science) and OVID-and by applying selection criteria identified a total of 36 papers to include in the review. Overall MDA coverage rates varied between 48.8% and 98.8%, while compliance rates ranged from 20.8% to 93.7%. The coverage-compliance gap is large in many MDA programmes. The effective level of compliance, ≥65%, was reported in only 10 of a total of 31 MDAs (5 of 20 MDAs in rural areas and 2 of 12 MDAs in urban areas). The review has identified a gap between coverage and compliance, and potentially correctable causes of this gap. These causes need to be addressed if the Indian programme is to advance towards elimination of lymphatic filariasis. PMID:24728444

  3. MOSQUITO IDENTIFICATION AND MOLECULAR XENOMONITORING OF LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS IN SELECTED ENDEMIC AREAS IN GIZA AND QUALIOUBIYA GOVERNORATES, EGYPT.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Shafi, Iman R; Shoeib, Eman Y; Attia, Samar S; Rubio, José M; Edmardash, Yusuf; El-Badry, Ayman A

    2016-04-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is a vector-borne health problem that has been focally endemic in Egypt for centuries. The chief vectors of transmission are Culicinae species. Control measures in the form of mass drug administration of DEC citrate treatment have been implemented in Nile delta for almost a decade. This study aimed to identify the prevalent mosquito species in endemic areas in Giza and Qualioubiya governorates and to monitor Wuchereria bancrofti infection by detecting the parasite DNA in collected mosquitoes. Adult mosquitoes were collected using light traps hung indoors. Microscopic examination was performed to identify and examine the morphologic characters of mosquitoes. Female Culex mosquitoes were subjected to semi-nested PCR to detect filarial DNA targeting repetitive DNA sequences (pWbl2 repetitive region) specific for W. bancrofti. The results revealed 3 species of mosquitoes Culex pipiens, Culex pusillus and Culex quinquefasciatus with the predominance of Culex pipiens (85.7%). Wuchereria bancrofti DNA was not detected in any of the collected mosquito pools. With progress of elimination programme in Nile Delta, follow up studies with larger sample size are recommended as the predominance of Culex pipiens the main lymphatic filariasis vector remains a risk of transmission in such areas. PMID:27363044

  4. A qualitative study on the feasibility and benefits of foot hygiene measures practiced by patients with brugian filariasis.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, R K; Suma, T K; Kumaraswami, V

    2003-03-01

    Disability alleviation is an important component of 'Global Programme for Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis'. In Brugia malayi infection the disability is largely due to acute attacks of adenolymphangitis (ADL), which frequently prevent patients from attending their normal activities, causing much suffering and economic loss. The foot care programme has been shown to reduce the frequency and severity of these episodes. In the present study we used semi-structured interviews to evaluate the impact of the foot care in 127 patients with brugian filariasis. They were previously trained in this procedure and were advised to practice it regularly, unsupervised. All except one could recollect the various components of foot hygiene and were practicing it regularly. They were aware of the factors causing ADL attacks and were able to avoid them. Majority (95.2%) expressed their happiness with the relief provided by foot care, which prevented or reduced the ADL episodes. The motivation was such that they transmitted this knowledge to others suffering in the community and even physically helped them to carry out foot care. This study fully endorses the advocacy of foot care programme as an easy to carry out, effective, sustainable and economically feasible procedure to prevent acute ADL attacks. PMID:15239299

  5. Maintaining effective mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis through in-process monitoring in Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Since 2007 Sierra Leone has conducted mass drug administration (MDA) for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF) implemented by unpaid community health volunteers (CHVs). Other health campaigns such as Mother and Child Health Weeks (MCHW) pay for services to be implemented at community level and these persons are then known as community health workers (CHWs). In 2010, the LF MDA in the 12 districts of the Southern, Northern and Eastern Provinces un-expectantly coincided with universal distribution of Long Lasting Insecticide Treated Nets (LLITNs) during the MCHW. In-process monitoring of LF MDA was performed to ensure effective coverage was attained in hard to reach sites (HTR) in both urban and rural locations where vulnerable populations reside. Methods Independent monitors interviewed individuals eligible for LF MDA and tallied those who recalled having taken ivermectin and albendazole, calculated program coverage and reported results daily by phone. Monitoring of coverage in HTR sites in the 4 most rapidly urbanizing towns was performed after 4 weeks of LF MDA and again after 8 weeks throughout all 12 districts. End process monitoring was performed in randomly selected HTR sites not previously sampled throughout all 12 districts and compared to coverage calculated from the pre-MDA census and reported treatments. Results Only one town had reached effective program coverage (≥80%) after 4 weeks following which CHWs were recruited for LF MDA in all district headquarter towns. After 8 weeks only 4 of 12 districts had reached effective coverage so LF MDA was extended for a further month in all districts. By 12 weeks effective program coverage had been reached in all districts except Port Loko and there was no significant difference between those interviewed in communities versus households or by sex. Effective epidemiological coverage (≥65%) was reported in all districts and overall was significantly higher in males versus females. Conclusions

  6. Urban lymphatic filariasis in the metropolis of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The last decades have seen a considerable increase in urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa, and it is estimated that over 50% of the population will live in urban areas by 2040. Rapid growth of cities combined with limited economic resources often result in informal settlements and slums with favorable conditions for proliferation of vectors of lymphatic filariasis (LF). In Dar es Salaam, which has grown more than 30 times in population during the past 55 years (4.4 million inhabitants in 2012), previous surveys have indicated high prevalences of LF. This study investigated epidemiological aspects of LF in Dar es Salaam, as a background for planning and implementation of control. Methods Six sites with varying distance from the city center (3–30 km) and covering different population densities, socioeconomic characteristics, and water, sewerage and sanitary facilities were selected for the study. Pupils from one public primary school at each site were screened for circulating filarial antigen (CFA; marker of adult worm infection) and antibodies to Bm14 (marker of exposure to transmission). Community members were examined for CFA, microfilariae and chronic manifestations. Structured questionnaires were administered to pupils and heads of community households, and vector surveys were carried out in selected households. Results The study indicated that a tremendous decrease in the burden of LF infection had occurred, despite haphazard urbanisation. Contributing factors may be urban malaria control targeting Anopheles vectors, short survival time of the numerous Culex quinquefasciatus vectors in the urban environment, widespread use of bed nets and other mosquito proofing measures, and mass drug administration (MDA) in 2006 and 2007. Although the level of ongoing transmission was low, the burden of chronic LF disease was still high. Conclusions The development has so far been promising, but continued efforts are necessary to ensure elimination of LF as a

  7. A case study of risk factors for lymphatic filariasis in the Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding risk factors for lymphatic filariasis (LF) in Central Africa. We studied the epidemiology of LF in an endemic village in the Republic of Congo. Methods Dependent variables were Wuchereria bancrofti antigenemia (ICT card test) and microfilaremia (night blood smears). The following factors were investigated: sex, age, bed net, latrines, source of water, uptake of anthelmintic drugs, hunting/fishing activities, and occasionally sleeping in the bush. Mixed multivariate logistic regression models were used. Results 134 of 774 subjects aged ≥ 5 years (17.3%) had W. bancrofti antigenemia and 41 (5.3%) had microfilaremia (mf). Infection rates increased with age up to roughly 20 years and remained stable thereafter. Multivariate analysis of antigenemia demonstrated an increased risk for males (OR = 2.0 [1.3-3.0]) and for people who hunt or fish (OR = 1.5 [1.0-2.4]) and a protective effect of latrines (OR = 0.5 [0.4-0.8]). Among males, those hunting or fishing at night had an increased risk for antigenemia (OR = 1.9 [1.1-3.5]), and use of latrines was protective (OR = 0.5 [0.3-0.9]). For females, bed nets were protective (OR = 0.4 [0.1-0.9]), and there was a strong household effect (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]: 0.24). When mf was used as the dependent variable, males had a higher risk for infection (OR = 5.4 [2.1-13.4]), latrines had a protective effect (OR = 0.4 [0.1-0.9]) and there was a marked household effect (ICC = 0.49). Conclusions Age, sex, and occupation-dependent exposure to mosquitoes were important risk factors for infection with W. bancrofti in this study. It is likely that men often acquire infection in high transmission areas outside of the village, while children and women are infected in areas with lower transmission inside or near the village. Additional studies are needed to determine whether these findings apply to other areas in Central Africa. PMID:24984769

  8. Evaluation of a Multivalent Vaccine against Lymphatic Filariasis in Rhesus macaque Model

    PubMed Central

    Dakshinamoorthy, Gajalakshmi; von Gegerfelt, Agneta; Andersen, Hanne; Lewis, Mark; Kalyanasundaram, Ramaswamy

    2014-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis affects 120 million people worldwide and another 1.2 billion people are at risk of acquiring the infection. Chemotherapy with mass drug administration is substantially reducing the incidence of the infection. Nevertheless, an effective vaccine is needed to prevent the infection and eradicate the disease. Previously we reported that a multivalent fusion protein vaccine (rBmHAT) composed of small heat shock proteins 12.6 (HSP12.6), abundant larval transcript-2 (ALT-2) and large extracellular domain of tetraspanin (TSP LEL) could confer >95% protection against the challenge infection with Brugia malayi infective larvae (L3) in mouse and gerbil models. In this study we evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of rBmHAT fusion protein vaccine in a rhesus macaque model. Our results show that rBmHAT is highly immunogenic in rhesus macaques. All the vaccinated monkeys developed significant titers of antigen-specific IgG antibodies against each of the component antigens (16,000 for rBmHSP12.6), (24,000 for rBmALT-2) and (16,000 for rBmTSP-LEL). An in vitro antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) assay performed using the sera samples from vaccinated monkeys showed that the anti-rBmHAT antibodies are functional with 35% killing of B. malayi L3s. Vaccinated monkeys also had antigen responding cells in the peripheral blood. Vaccine-induced protection was determined after challenging the monkeys with 500 B. malayi L3. Following challenge infection, 3 out of 5 vaccinated macaques failed to develop the infection. These three protected macaques had high titers of IgG1 antibodies and their PBMC secreted significantly high levels of IFN-γ in response to the vaccine antigens. The two vaccinated macaques that picked the infection had slightly low titers of antibodies and their PBMC secreted high levels of IL-10. Based on these findings we conclude that the rBmHAT vaccine is highly immunogenic and safe and can confer significant protection against

  9. Seroprevalence and Spatial Epidemiology of Lymphatic Filariasis in American Samoa after Successful Mass Drug Administration

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Colleen L.; Won, Kimberly Y.; Becker, Luke; Soares Magalhaes, Ricardo J.; Fuimaono, Saipale; Melrose, Wayne; Lammie, Patrick J.; Graves, Patricia M.

    2014-01-01

    Background As part of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (LF), American Samoa conducted mass drug administration (MDA) from 2000–2006, and passed transmission assessment surveys in 2011–2012. We examined the seroprevalence and spatial epidemiology of LF post-MDA to inform strategies for ongoing surveillance and to reduce resurgence risk. Methods ELISA for LF antigen (Og4C3) and antibodies (Wb123, Bm14) were performed on a geo-referenced serum bank of 807 adults collected in 2010. Risk factors assessed for association with sero-positivity included age, sex, years lived in American Samoa, and occupation. Geographic clustering of serological indicators was investigated to identify spatial dependence and household-level clustering. Results Og4C3 antigen of >128 units (positive) were found in 0.75% (95% CI 0.3–1.6%) of participants, and >32 units (equivocal plus positive) in 3.2% (95% CI 0.6–4.7%). Seroprevalence of Wb123 and Bm14 antibodies were 8.1% (95% CI 6.3–10.2%) and 17.9% (95% CI 15.3–20.7%) respectively. Antigen-positive individuals were identified in all ages, and antibody prevalence higher in older ages. Prevalence was higher in males, and inversely associated with years lived in American Samoa. Spatial distribution of individuals varied significantly with positive and equivocal levels of Og4C3 antigen, but not with antibodies. Using Og4C3 cutoff points of >128 units and >32 units, average cluster sizes were 1,242 m and 1,498 m, and geographical proximity of households explained 85% and 62% of the spatial variation respectively. Conclusions High-risk populations for LF in American Samoa include adult males and recent migrants. We identified locations and estimated the size of possible residual foci of antigen-positive adults, demonstrating the value of spatial analysis in post-MDA surveillance. Strategies to monitor cluster residents and high-risk groups are needed to reduce resurgence risk. Further research is required to

  10. Molecular Xenomonitoring Using Mosquitoes to Map Lymphatic Filariasis after Mass Drug Administration in American Samoa

    PubMed Central

    Schmaedick, Mark A.; Koppel, Amanda L.; Pilotte, Nils; Torres, Melissa; Williams, Steven A.; Dobson, Stephen L.; Lammie, Patrick J.; Won, Kimberly Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background Mass drug administration (MDA) programs have dramatically reduced lymphatic filariasis (LF) incidence in many areas around the globe, including American Samoa. As infection rates decline and MDA programs end, efficient and sensitive methods for detecting infections are needed to monitor for recrudescence. Molecular methods, collectively termed ‘molecular xenomonitoring,’ can identify parasite DNA or RNA in human blood-feeding mosquitoes. We tested mosquitoes trapped throughout the inhabited islands of American Samoa to identify areas of possible continuing LF transmission after completion of MDA. Methodology/Principle Findings Mosquitoes were collected using BG Sentinel traps from most of the villages on American Samoa's largest island, Tutuila, and all major villages on the smaller islands of Aunu'u, Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u. Real-time PCR was used to detect Wuchereria bancrofti DNA in pools of ≤20 mosquitoes, and PoolScreen software was used to infer territory-wide prevalences of W. bancrofti DNA in the mosquitoes. Wuchereria bancrofti DNA was found in mosquitoes from 16 out of the 27 village areas sampled on Tutuila and Aunu'u islands but none of the five villages on the Manu'a islands of Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u. The overall 95% confidence interval estimate for W. bancrofti DNA prevalence in the LF vector Ae. polynesiensis was 0.20–0.39%, and parasite DNA was also detected in pools of Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Aedes (Finlaya) spp. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest low but widespread prevalence of LF on Tutuila and Aunu'u where 98% of the population resides, but not Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u islands. Molecular xenomonitoring can help identify areas of possible LF transmission, but its use in the LF elimination program in American Samoa is limited by the need for more efficient mosquito collection methods and a better understanding of the relationship between prevalence of W. bancrofti DNA in mosquitoes and infection and

  11. Inadvertent exposure of pregnant women to ivermectin and albendazole during mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed

    Gyapong, John O; Chinbuah, Margaret A; Gyapong, Margaret

    2003-12-01

    The current strategy for the interruption of transmission of lymphatic filariasis in areas where the disease is co-endemic with onchocerciasis is repeated annual mass treatment of endemic communities with ivermectin and albendazole. These drugs are not recommended for use in pregnancy. Pregnant women are excluded on the basis of their last menses. This exclusion criterion based on recall carries some inherent errors, leading sometimes to inadvertent exposure of foetuses to these drugs. This study set out to document the extent of inadvertent exposure of pregnant women to albendazole and ivermectin and assess the relative risk of congenital malformations because of inadvertent treatment with these drugs in early pregnancy. The study was conducted in the Ahanta West District of Ghana. Local pregnancy revelation norms were studied, followed by a household survey of women aged 15-45 years to assess drug administration coverage. All infants born within 42 weeks of the mass drug treatment were examined to document any congenital malformations. Mothers who had lost any such infants responded to a verbal autopsy to ascertain the probable cause of death. Health facilities and local Traditional Birth Attendants were also visited to review maternity records. Of 2985 women of childbearing age (15-49 years) who were interviewed, 343 were pregnant during the mass drug administration. The sensitivity of the last menstrual period in detecting pregnancy and thus being excluded from treatment was 0.854 (293 of 343). Some pregnant women 50 of 343 (14.6%) had thus been inadvertently treated. This represents 1.7% of women in fertile age group (15-49 years). Of the six children found with some congenital malformations in these communities, one had been exposed to the drugs in-utero. The relative risk for congenital malformation after exposure was 1.05 (P=1.0). Two of nine reported spontaneous abortions had been exposed to the drugs (P=0.62). We conclude that the local mode of excluding

  12. Neglected Patients with a Neglected Disease? A Qualitative Study of Lymphatic Filariasis

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Myrtle; Whitehead, Margaret; Molyneux, David; Weerasooriya, Mirani; Gunatilleke, Godfrey

    2007-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a so-called neglected tropical disease, currently overshadowed by higher-profile efforts to address malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS. Despite recent successes in arresting transmission, some 40 million people who already have the disease have been largely neglected. This study aims to increase understanding of how this vulnerable, neglected group can be helped. Methods We used purposive sampling to select 60 men and women with filarial lymphoedema (45 with filarial elephantiasis and 15 men with filarial hydrocoele) from the south of Sri Lanka in 2004–2005. Participants were selected to give a balance of men and women and poor and nonpoor, and a range of stages of the disease. Participants' experiences and the consequences of their disease for the household were explored with in-depth qualitative, semistructured interviews. Findings LF was extremely debilitating to participants over long periods of time. The stigma attached to the condition caused social isolation and emotional distress, and delayed diagnosis and treatment, resulting in undue advancement of the disease. Free treatment services at government clinics were avoided because the participants' condition would be identifiable in public. Loss of income due to the condition was reported by all households in the sample, not just the poorest. Households that were already on low incomes were pushed into near destitution, from which it was almost impossible to escape. Affected members of low-income households also had less opportunity to obtain appropriate treatment from distant clinics, and had living and working conditions that made hygiene and compliance difficult. Significance This highly vulnerable category of patients has low visibility, thus becoming marginalized and forgotten. With an estimated 300,000 total cases of elephantiasis and/or oedema in Sri Lanka, and around 300,000 men with filarial hydrocoele, the affected households will need help and support for

  13. Impact of polystyrene beads as a mosquito control measure to supplement lymphatic filariasis elimination activities in Socotra Island, Yemen.

    PubMed

    Al-Kubati, A S; Al Qubati, Y; Ismail, W; Laney, S J; El-Setouhy, M; Gad, A M; Ramzy, R M R

    2011-07-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is targeted for worldwide elimination. In Yemen, all mainland implementation units met the WHO criteria for stopping mass drug administration (MDA) after 5 rounds. However, in Socotra Island these criteria were not met. Our study evaluated the efficacy of applying expanded polystyrene beads (EPBs) on the Culex population and the effect on LF transmission. Human and mosquito surveys were conducted in 40 randomly selected households in Hadibo (capital of Socotra) before and after application of EPBs. The EPBs intervention resulted in a reduction in mosquito density of 80% and a 64.3% reduction in microfilaria prevalence. The majority of interviewed households (98%) thought EPBs considerably reduced the mosquito population. After the intervention all collected pools tested negative. Application of EPBs is an effective supplement to MDA for achieving the goal of LF elimination. PMID:21972477

  14. Community-wide distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets can halt transmission of lymphatic filariasis in southeastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Richards, Frank O; Emukah, Emmanuel; Graves, Patricia M; Nkwocha, Omeni; Nwankwo, Lawrence; Rakers, Lindsay; Mosher, Aryc; Patterson, Amy; Ozaki, Masayo; Nwoke, Bertram E B; Ukaga, Chinyere N; Njoku, Chidiebere; Nwodu, Kenrick; Obasi, Andrew; Miri, Emmanuel S

    2013-09-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) in rural southeastern Nigeria is transmitted mainly by Anopheles spp. mosquitoes. Potential coinfection with Loa loa in this area has prevented use of ivermectin in the mass drug administration (MDA) strategy for LF elimination because of potential severe adverse L. loa-related reactions. This study determined if long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) distribution programs for malaria would interrupt LF transmission in such areas, without need for MDA. Monthly entomologic monitoring was conducted in sentinel villages before and after LLIN distribution to all households and all age groups (full coverage) in two districts, and to pregnant women and children less than five years of age in the other two districts. No change in human LF microfilaremia prevalence was observed, but mosquito studies showed a statistically significant decrease in LF infection and infectivity with full-coverage LLIN distribution. We conclude that LF transmission can be halted in southeastern Nigeria by full-coverage LLIN distribution, without MDA. PMID:23939708

  15. Community-Wide Distribution of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets Can Halt Transmission of Lymphatic Filariasis in Southeastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Frank O.; Emukah, Emmanuel; Graves, Patricia M.; Nkwocha, Omeni; Nwankwo, Lawrence; Rakers, Lindsay; Mosher, Aryc; Patterson, Amy; Ozaki, Masayo; Nwoke, Bertram E. B.; Ukaga, Chinyere N.; Njoku, Chidiebere; Nwodu, Kenrick; Obasi, Andrew; Miri, Emmanuel S.

    2013-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) in rural southeastern Nigeria is transmitted mainly by Anopheles spp. mosquitoes. Potential coinfection with Loa loa in this area has prevented use of ivermectin in the mass drug administration (MDA) strategy for LF elimination because of potential severe adverse L. loa-related reactions. This study determined if long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) distribution programs for malaria would interrupt LF transmission in such areas, without need for MDA. Monthly entomologic monitoring was conducted in sentinel villages before and after LLIN distribution to all households and all age groups (full coverage) in two districts, and to pregnant women and children less than five years of age in the other two districts. No change in human LF microfilaremia prevalence was observed, but mosquito studies showed a statistically significant decrease in LF infection and infectivity with full-coverage LLIN distribution. We conclude that LF transmission can be halted in southeastern Nigeria by full-coverage LLIN distribution, without MDA. PMID:23939708

  16. Dry Season Production of Filariasis and Dengue Vectors in American Samoa and Comparison with Wet Season Production

    PubMed Central

    Lambdin, Barrot H.; Schmaedick, Mark A.; McClintock, Shannon; Roberts, Jacqueline; Gurr, Neil E.; Marcos, Kenneth; Waller, Lance; Burkot, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Aedes polynesiensis and Ae. aegypti breeding site productivity in two American Samoa villages were analyzed during a dry season survey and compared with a wet season survey. Both surveys identified similar container types producing greater numbers of pupae, with buckets, drums, and tires responsible for > 50% of Aedes pupae during the dry season. The prevalence of containers with Ae. polynesiensis and the density of Ae. polynesiensis in discarded appliances, drums, and discarded plastic ice cream containers were significantly greater during the dry season. Aedes aegypti pupal densities were significantly greater in the dry season in ice cream containers and tires. Significant clustering of the most productive container types by household was only found for appliances. The high productivity for Ae. polynesiensis and Ae. aegypti pupae during the wet and dry seasons suggests that dengue and lymphatic filariasis transmission can occur throughout the year, consistent with the reporting of dengue cases. PMID:19996430

  17. Malathion Resistance Status and Mutations in Acetylcholinesterase Gene (Ace) in Japanese Encephalitis and Filariasis Vectors from Endemic Area in India.

    PubMed

    Misra, Brij Ranjan; Gore, Milind

    2015-05-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) and lymphatic filariasis (LF) are endemic in estern part of Uttar Pradesh in India and transmitted by Culex mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). JE vaccination and mass drug administration for JE and LF management is being undertaken respectively. In addition to this, indoor residual spraying and fogging are used for the control of mosquito vectors. Organophosphate resistance in mosquito is dependent on alteration in acetylcholinesterase (Ace) gene. Hence, it is important to evaluate organophosphate resistance in Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (JE vector) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (LF vector). The current study showed the presence of resistant populations and F331W mutation in Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and G119S mutation in Cx. quinquefasciatus insensitive Ace genes. Resistant populations of these two vectors increase the chances of spreading of resistance in the natural population and may cause failure of intervention programs that include organophosphates against these two vectors in future. PMID:26334819

  18. Screening Mosquito House Entry Points as a Potential Method for Integrated Control of Endophagic Filariasis, Arbovirus and Malaria Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Ogoma, Sheila B.; Lweitoijera, Dickson W.; Ngonyani, Hassan; Furer, Benjamin; Russell, Tanya L.; Mukabana, Wolfgang R.; Killeen, Gerry F.; Moore, Sarah J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Partial mosquito-proofing of houses with screens and ceilings has the potential to reduce indoor densities of malaria mosquitoes. We wish to measure whether it will also reduce indoor densities of vectors of neglected tropical diseases. Methodology The main house entry points preferred by anopheline and culicine vectors were determined through controlled experiments using specially designed experimental huts and village houses in Lupiro village, southern Tanzania. The benefit of screening different entry points (eaves, windows and doors) using PVC-coated fibre glass netting material in terms of reduced indoor densities of mosquitoes was evaluated compared to the control. Findings 23,027 mosquitoes were caught with CDC light traps; 77.9% (17,929) were Anopheles gambiae sensu lato, of which 66.2% were An. arabiensis and 33.8% An. gambiae sensu stricto. The remainder comprised 0.2% (50) An. funestus, 10.2% (2359) Culex spp. and 11.6% (2664) Mansonia spp. Screening eaves reduced densities of Anopheles gambiae s. l. (Relative ratio (RR)  = 0.91; 95% CI = 0.84, 0.98; P = 0.01); Mansonia africana (RR = 0.43; 95% CI = 0.26, 0.76; P<0.001) and Mansonia uniformis (RR = 0.37; 95% CI = 0.25, 0.56; P<0.001) but not Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. univittatus or Cx. theileri. Numbers of these species were reduced by screening windows and doors but this was not significant. Significance This study confirms that across Africa, screening eaves protects households against important mosquito vectors of filariasis, Rift Valley Fever and O'Nyong nyong as well as malaria. While full house screening is required to exclude Culex species mosquitoes, screening of eaves alone or fitting ceilings has considerable potential for integrated control of other vectors of filariasis, arbovirus and malaria. PMID:20689815

  19. Surgical management of morbidity due to lymphatic filariasis: the usefulness of a standardized international clinical classification of hydroceles.

    PubMed

    Capuano, G P; Capuano, C

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the usefulness of a standardized clinical classification of hydroceles in lymphatic filariasis endemic countries to guide their surgical management. 64 patients with hydroceles were operated in 2009-2010, in Level II hospitals (WHO classification), during two visits to Fiji, by the same mobile surgical team. The number of hydroceles treated was 83. We developed and evaluated a much needed clinical classification of hydroceles based on four criteria: Type (uni/bilateral); Side (left/right); Stage of enlargement of the scrotum rated from I to VI; Grade of burial of the penis rated from 0 to 4. It lead to the conclusion that 1) A Stage I or II hydrocele, associated with Grade 0 or 1 penis burial could be considered a "Simple Hydrocele". The surgical treatment is simple with no anticipated early complication. WHO Level II of health care structure seems adapted. 2) A Stage III or IV hydrocele associated with Grade 2, 3 or 4 penis burial could be considered a "Complicated Hydrocele". The operation is longer, more complicated and the possibility of occurrence of complications seems greater. A level III health care facility would be more adapted under the normal functioning of the health system. We conclude that a standardized clinical classification of hydroceles based on the Stage of enlargement of the scrotum and the Grade of burial of the penis appears to be a useful tool to guide the decision about the level of care and the surgical technique required. We use the same classification for penoscrotal lymphoedema. A decision tree is presented for the management of hydroceles in lymphatic filariasis endemic countries which could usefully complement the "Algorithm for management of scrotal swelling" proposed by WHO in 2002. An international classification system of hydroceles would also allow standardization and facilitate study design and comparisons of their results. PMID:22543600

  20. Long-term efficacy of single-dose treatment with 400 micrograms.kg-1 of ivermectin in bancroftian filariasis: results at one year.

    PubMed

    Moulia-Pelat, J P; Glaziou, P; Nguyen, L N; Chanteau, S; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L

    1993-12-01

    In April 1992, a safety trial was performed with a single dose of ivermectin 400 micrograms.kg-1 (IVER 400). In 37 bancroftian filariasis carriers, 6 and 12 months after IVER 400 treatment, the microfilaremia recurrences were 3.2% and 13.5%, respectively. As compared to results from other studies with diethylcarbamazine and IVER at different dosages and periodicities, the dosage of IVER 400 seems the most effective; but a yearly intake might not be sufficient. PMID:8134778

  1. Delineation of BmSXP antibody V-gene usage from a lymphatic filariasis based immune scFv antibody library.

    PubMed

    Rahumatullah, Anizah; Ahmad, Azimah; Noordin, Rahmah; Lim, Theam Soon

    2015-10-01

    Phage display technology is an important tool for antibody generation or selection. This study describes the development of a scFv library and the subsequent analysis of identified monoclonal antibodies against BmSXP, a recombinant antigen for lymphatic filariasis. The immune library was generated from blood of lymphatic filariasis infected individuals. A TA based intermediary cloning approach was used to increase cloning efficiency for the library construction process. A diverse immune scFv library of 10(8) was generated. Six unique monoclonal antibodies were identified from the 50 isolated clones against BmSXP. Analysis of the clones showed a bias for the IgHV3 and Vκ1 (45.5%) and IgHV2 and Vκ3 (27.3%) gene family. The most favored J segment for light chain is IgKJ1 (45.5%). The most favored D and J segment for heavy chain are IgHD6-13 (75%) and IgHJ3 (47.7%). The information may suggest a predisposition of certain V genes in antibody responses against lymphatic filariasis. PMID:26277276

  2. An application of remotely derived climatological fields for risk assessment of vector-borne diseases : a spatial study of filariasis prevalence in the Nile Delta, Egypt.

    SciTech Connect

    Crombie, M. K.; Gillies, R. R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Brookmeyer, P.; Weil, G. J.; Sultan, M.; Harb, M.; Environmental Research; Washington Univ.; Utah State Univ.; Egyptian Ministry of Health

    1999-12-01

    This paper applies a relatively straightforward remote sensing method that is commonly used to derive climatological variables. Measurements of surface reflectance and surface radiant temperature derived from Landsat Thematic Mapper data were used to create maps of fractional vegetation and surface soil moisture availability for the southern Nile delta in Egypt. These climatological variables were subsequently used to investigate the spatial distribution of the vector borne disease Bancroftian filariasis in the Nile delta where it is focally endemic and a growing problem. Averaged surface soil moisture values, computed for a 5-km border area around affected villages, were compared to filariasis prevalence rates. Prevalence rates were found to be negligible below a critical soil moisture value of 0.2, presumably because of a lack of appropriate breeding sites for the Culex Pipiens mosquito species. With appropriate modifications to account for local conditions and vector species, this approach should be useful as a means to map, predict, and control insect vector-borne diseases that critically depend on wet areas for propagation. This type of analysis may help governments and health agencies that are involved in filariasis control to better focus limited resources to identifiable high-risk areas.

  3. A qualitative study of the perceptions, practices and socio-psychological suffering related to chronic brugian filariasis in Kerala, southern India.

    PubMed

    Suma, T K; Shenoy, R K; Kumaraswami, V

    2003-12-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is a major health problem in many parts of the tropical world. Although the disease itself is rarely fatal, the disability caused by the swollen extremities, the acute attacks of adenolymphangitis and the consequent sufferings of those afflicted are considerable. The economic burden imposed by lymphatic filariasis is not fully quantified and information on the social and psychological problems caused by the disease is scanty. Semi-structured interviews were therefore used, in southern India, to assess the perceptions, practices and socio-psychological problems of 127 patients with brugian filariasis. The patients were aware of the causative factors and the precautions to be taken to prevent progression of the disease. However, depression and loss of job opportunities were common in the study population. Patients also complained that the disease eroded their standing in the community and diminished their prospects of marriage. Awareness of these factors will be of help in planning suitable disability-management packages, including the rehabilitation of those who find it difficult to carry on with their existing jobs because of the severity of their disease. PMID:14754496

  4. Spatial analysis of lymphatic filariasis distribution in the Nile Delta in relation to some environmental variables using geographic information system technology.

    PubMed

    Hassan, A N; Dister, S; Beck, L

    1998-04-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) was used to analyze the spatial distribution of filariasis in the Nile Delta. The study involved 201 villages belonging to Giza, Qalubiya, Monoufiya, Gharbiya, and Dakahliya governorates. Villages with similar microfilarial (mf) prevalence rates were observed to cluster within 1-2 km distance, then, clustering started to decrease significantly with distance up to 5 km (Pearson correlation coefficient = -0.98). the likelihood of negative and high prevalence villages being contiguous was very low (approximately 1.8%, n = 612 village-pairs) indicating homogeneity in disease processes within the defined spatial scales. Of the villages located within 2 km from the main Nile branches (n = 46), 95% exhibited low prevalence. In addition, the spatial pattern of mf prevalence was shown to be negatively associated with annual rainfall and relative humidity, while it was positively associated with annual daily temperature. Average mf prevalence in warmer, relatively drier areas receiving 25 mm of rain was significantly higher (3.9%) than that in less warmer but more humid areas receiving 50 mm of rain (1.6%) (P < 0.0001). Based on the results of the present study, GIS was used to generate a "filariasis risk map" that could be used by health authorities to efficiently direct surveillance and control efforts. This investigation identified some of the factors underlying filariasis spatial pattern, quantified clustering and demonstrated the potential of GIS application in vector-borne disease epidemiology. PMID:9617048

  5. The 6th Meeting of the Global Alliance to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis: A half-time review of lymphatic filariasis elimination and its integration with the control of other neglected tropical diseases

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The 6th Meeting of the Global Alliance to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GAELF6) was held 1-3 June, 2010 in Seoul, Korea, with 150 participants from 38 countries. The year 2010 marks the midpoint between the first GAELF meeting, in 2000, and the World Health Organization (WHO) 2020 goal of global elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF) as a public health problem. The theme of the meeting, "Half-time in LF Elimination: Teaming Up with Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs)," reflected significant integration of LF elimination programmes into a comprehensive initiative to control NTDs. Presentations on LF epidemiology, treatment, research, and programmes highlighted both accomplishments and remaining challenges. The WHO strategy to interrupt LF transmission is based on annual mass drug administration (MDA) using two-drug combinations. After mapping the geographic distribution of LF, MDA is implemented for ≥ 5 years, followed by a period of post-MDA surveillance, and, ultimately, verification of LF elimination. Morbidity management further reduces disease burden. Of 81 countries considered LF-endemic in 2000, 52 (64.2%) have begun MDA; 10 (12.3%) others with low-level transmission are unlikely to require MDA. In 2008, ~695 million people were offered treatment (51.7% of the at-risk population); ~496 million participated. Approximately 22 million people have been protected from LF infection and disease, with savings of ~US $24.2 billion. Morbidity management programmes have been implemented in 27 (33.3%) countries. Significant challenges to LF elimination remain. These include: initiating MDA in the remaining 19 countries that require it; achieving full geographic coverage in countries where MDA has started; finding alternative strategies to address the problem of Loa loa co-endemicity in Central Africa; developing strategies to treat urban populations; initiating and sustaining MDA in settings of armed conflict; developing refined guidelines and procedures for

  6. A practical strategy for responding to a case of lymphatic filariasis post-elimination in Pacific Islands

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF) due to Wuchereria bancrofti is being eliminated from Oceania under the Pacific Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis Programme. LF was endemic in Solomon Islands but in the 2010-2020 Strategic Plan of the Global Programme to Eliminate LF, Solomon Islands was listed as non-endemic for LF. In countries now declared free of LF an important question is what monitoring strategy should be used to detect any residual foci of LF? This paper describes how a new case of elephantiasis in a post-elimination setting may be used as a trigger to initiate a local survey for LF. Methods The index case, a 44 year old male, presented to Atoifi Adventist Hospital, Malaita, Solomon Islands in April 2011 with elephantiasis of the lower leg. Persistent swelling had commenced 16 months previously. He was negative for antigen by TropBio Og4C3 ELISA and for microfilaria. A week later a survey of 197 people aged from 1 year to 68 years was conducted at Alasi, the index case’s village, by a research team from Atoifi Adventist Hospital and Atoifi College of Nursing. This represented 66.3% of the village population. Blood was collected between 22:00 and 03:00 by finger-prick and made into thick smears to detect microfilaria and collected onto filter paper for W. bancrofti antigen tests. A second group of 110 specimens was similarly collected from residents of the Hospital campus and inpatients. W. bancrofti antigen was tested for using the Trop-Bio Og4C3 test. Results One sample (1/307) from an 18 year old male from Alsai was positive for W. bancrofti antigen. No samples were positive for microfilaria. Although antigen-positivity indicated a live worm, the case was regarded as having been acquired some years previously. Conclusions We propose that when LF has been eliminated from a country, a case of elephantiasis should be a trigger to conduct a survey of the case’s community using a decision pathway. W. bancrofti antigen should be tested for with

  7. The Economic Benefits Resulting from the First 8 Years of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (2000–2007)

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Brian K.; Hooper, Pamela J.; Bradley, Mark H.; McFarland, Deborah A.; Ottesen, Eric A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Between 2000–2007, the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) delivered more than 1.9 billion treatments to nearly 600 million individuals via annual mass drug administration (MDA) of anti-filarial drugs (albendazole, ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine) to all at-risk for 4–6 years. Quantifying the resulting economic benefits of this significant achievement is important not only to justify the resources invested in the GPELF but also to more fully understand the Programme's overall impact on some of the poorest endemic populations. Methodology To calculate the economic benefits, the number of clinical manifestations averted was first quantified and the savings associated with this disease prevention then analyzed in the context of direct treatment costs, indirect costs of lost-labor, and costs to the health system to care for affected individuals. Multiple data sources were reviewed, including published literature and databases from the World Health Organization, International Monetary Fund, and International Labour Organization Principal Findings An estimated US$21.8 billion of direct economic benefits will be gained over the lifetime of 31.4 million individuals treated during the first 8 years of the GPELF. Of this total, over US$2.3 billion is realized by the protection of nearly 3 million newborns and other individuals from acquiring lymphatic filariasis as a result of their being born into areas freed of LF transmission. Similarly, more than 28 million individuals already infected with LF benefit from GPELF's halting the progression of their disease, which results in an associated lifetime economic benefit of approximately US$19.5 billion. In addition to these economic benefits to at-risk individuals, decreased patient services associated with reduced LF morbidity saves the health systems of endemic countries approximately US$2.2 billion. Conclusions/Significance MDA for LF offers significant economic benefits. Moreover, with

  8. Lymphatic filariasis in Papua New Guinea: distribution at district level and impact of mass drug administration, 1980 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF) caused by Wuchereria bancrofti is present at high prevalence in some parts of Papua New Guinea. However, there has been no rigorous data-based representative assessment of nationwide prevalence of LF. The LF programme has been daunted by the scope of the problem, and progress on mass drug administration (MDA) has been slow and lacking in resources. Methods A systematic literature review identified LF surveys in Papua New Guinea between 1980 and 2011. Results were extracted by location, time period and test used (blood slide, immunochromatographic test (ICT) or Og4C3 ELISA) and combined by district. Three criteria schemes based on the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis guidelines, with modifications, were developed to classify and prioritize districts by prevalence level. Results of repeated surveys in the same sites were used to investigate the impact of MDA on LF prevalence over the time period. Results There were 312 distinct survey sites identified in 80 of the 89 districts over the 31-year period. The overall LF prevalence in the sites tested was estimated at 18.5 to 27.5% by blood slide for microfilariae (Mf), 10.1% to 12.9% by ICT and 45.4% to 48.8% by Og4C3. Biases in site selection towards areas with LF, and change in type of assay used, affected the prevalence estimates, but overall decline in prevalence over the time period was observed. Depending on the criteria used, 34 to 36 districts (population 2.7 to 2.9 million) were classed as high endemic (≥5% prevalence), 15 to 25 districts (1.7 to 1.9 million) as low endemic (<5%) and 20 to 31 (1.3 to 2.2 million) as non-endemic. Nine districts (0.7 million) had no information. The strong impact of MDA, especially on microfilaria (Mf) prevalence, was noted in sites with repeat surveys. Conclusions This analytical review of past surveys of LF in Papua New Guinea enables better estimation of the national burden, identifies gaps in knowledge, quantifies and

  9. Annual single-dose diethylcarbamazine plus ivermectin for control of bancroftian filariasis: comparative efficacy with and without vector control.

    PubMed

    Reuben, R; Rajendran, R; Sunish, I P; Mani, T R; Tewari, S C; Hiriyan, J; Gajanana, A

    2001-06-01

    Two intervention strategies for the control of bancroftian filariasis were compared in rural villages of southern India: annual mass treatment with single-dose diethylcarbamazine plus ivermectin, either on its own or combined with vector control. Vector control, based on the use of polystyrene beads and larvivorous fishes in the major breeding sites of Culex quinquefasciatus, brought about a drastic and sustained reduction in vector density and man-biting rates. After the first round of treatment, chemotherapy alone brought about a 60% drop in the annual transmission potential (ATP) whereas the integrated strategy reduced ATP by 96% (P < 0.05). After two annual rounds of treatment, the reduction in ATP was similar for both strategies (91%-96%), with the prevalences of microfilaraemia reduced by 88%-92%. However, when drug pressure was removed in the third and final year of the study, transmission was resumed in the absence of vector control whereas no infective female mosquitoes were detected in the villages with vector control. Vector control, though obviously not cost-effective in the short term, could play an important role in an integrated programme, by preventing re-establishment of transmission after chemotherapy is completed. PMID:11454246

  10. Rural-urban population movement, community context and impact on DEC fortified salt program to eliminate lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed

    Nandha, B; Krishnamoorthy, K

    2011-06-01

    Diethylcarbamazinecitrate (DEC) salt in conjunction with annual single-dose mass drug administration (MDA) with DEC tablets can be considered as potential option to hasten the process of Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) elimination. Consumption of DEC tablet/salt by at least 80% of the endemic population is crucial in achieving elimination in five years. This study examines the determinants of rural-urban population movement and its implication on DEC fortified salt program to control LF. Data was collected through questionnaire from 150 each movers and non-movers from 10 randomly selected villages and also using Key informant (KI) interviews in Villupuram district in Tamil Nadu. Households with at least one family member engaged in movement at any point of time in the previous year, range from 24 - 43% in different villages. Knowledge on cause, control, ongoing LF elimination programs and compliance with DEC tablets (28.7%) and salt (30%) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) among non-movers than movers (4.7% and 3.3% respectively). In order to achieve the goal of elimination of LF by 2020, measures need to be undertaken to ensure that the social mobilization activities and LF intervention programs need to cover the 24-43% of mobile population. PMID:23785866

  11. Integrated school-based surveillance for soil-transmitted helminth infections and lymphatic filariasis in Gampaha district, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Gunawardena, Sharmini; Gunawardena, Nipul K; Kahathuduwa, Ganga; Karunaweera, Nadira D; de Silva, Nilanthi R; Ranasinghe, Udaya B; Samarasekara, Sandhya D; Nagodavithana, Kumara C; Rao, Ramakrishna U; Rebollo, Maria P; Weil, Gary J

    2014-04-01

    We explored the practicality of integrating surveillance for soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH, assessed by Kato-Katz) with transmission assessment surveys for lymphatic filariasis (LF) in two evaluation units (EUs) in Gampaha district, Sri Lanka (population 2.3 million). The surveys were performed 6 years after five annual rounds of mass drug administration with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole. Each transmission assessment survey tested children (N = 1,462 inland EU; 1,642 coastal EU) sampled from 30 primary schools. Low filarial antigenemia rates (0% and 0.1% for the inland and coastal EUs) suggest that LF transmission is very low in this district. The STH rates and stool sample participation rates were 0.8% and 61% (inland) and 2.8% and 58% (coastal). Most STH detected were low or moderate intensity Trichuris trichiura infections. The added cost of including STH testing was ∼$5,000 per EU. These results suggest that it is feasible to integrate school-based surveillance for STH and LF. PMID:24493672

  12. Multidimensional complexities of filariasis control in an era of large-scale mass drug administration programmes: a can of worms.

    PubMed

    Molyneux, David H; Hopkins, Adrian; Bradley, Mark H; Kelly-Hope, Louise A

    2014-01-01

    The impact of control and elimination programmes by mass drug administration (MDA) targeting onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) in sub-Saharan Africa over the last two decades has resulted in significantly reduced prevalence and intensity of infection, with some areas interrupting transmission. However, given that these infections are often co-endemic and the drugs (either ivermectin alone or combined with albendazole) also impact on soil transmitted helminths (STH), the importance of this, in terms of reaching the global goals has not been assessed. The additional problem posed by Loa loa, where ivermectin cannot be safely administered due to the risk of serious adverse events compounds this situation and has left populations drug naïve and an alternative strategy to eliminate LF is yet to be initiated at scale. Here, we present a series of operational research questions, which must be addressed if the effectiveness of integrated control of filarial and helminth infections is to be understood for the endgame. This is particularly important in the diverse and dynamic epidemiological landscape, which has emerged as a result of the long-term large-scale mass drug administration (or not). There is a need for a more holistic approach to address these questions. Different programmes should examine this increased complexity, given that MDA has multiple impacts, drugs are given over different periods, and programmes have different individual targets. PMID:25128408

  13. PREVALENCE OF LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS, MALARIA AND SOIL TRANSMITTED HELMINTHIASIS IN A COMMUNITY OF BARDIYA DISTRICT, WESTERN NEPAL.

    PubMed

    Ranjitkar, Samir; Alifrangis, Michael; Adhikari, Madhav; Olsen, Annette; Simonsen, Paul E; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf

    2014-11-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF), malaria and soil transmitted helminthiasis (STH) cause major health problems in Nepal, but in spite of this very few stud- ies have been carried out on these parasitic infections in Nepal. A cross sectional survey of all three categories of parasitic infections was carried out in Deuda- kala Village of Bardiya District, western Nepal. A total of 510 individuals aged 5 years and above were examined from finger prick blood for circulating filarial antigen (CFA), malaria antigen using a rapid diagnostic test (RDT), and malaria DNA using a PCR-based assay. In addition, 317 individuals were examined for soil-transmitted helminth (STH) eggs by the Kato-Katz technique. Prevalence of LF, malaria (antigen) and STH infection was 25.1%, 0.6% and 18.3%, respectively. PCR analysis did not detect any additional malaria cases. The prevalence of LF and STH infections differ significantly among different age groups and ethnic communities. The high prevalence of LF in the community studied indicates an immediate need for implementing a mass drug administration program for its control in this particular geographical area of Nepal. PMID:26466410

  14. The epidemiology of lymphatic filariasis in Ghana, explained by the possible existence of two strains of Wuchereria bancrofti

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Dziedzom Komi; Osei-Poku, Jewelna; Blum, Julia; Baidoo, Helena; Brown, Charles Addoquaye; Lawson, Bernard Walter; Wilson, Michael David; Bockarie, Moses John; Boakye, Daniel Adjei

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Lymphatic filariasis is a debilitating disease caused by the filarial worm Wuchereria bancrofti. It is earmarked for elimination by the year 2020 through the Global Program for the Elimination of LF (GPELF). In Ghana, mass treatment has been on-going since the year 2000. Earlier studies have revealed differing epidemiology of LF in the North and South of Ghana. This study was therefore aimed at understanding the possible impacts of W. bancrofti diversity on the epidemiology and control of LF in Ghana. Methods The Mitochondrial, Cytochrome C Oxidase I gene of W. bancrofti samples was sequenced and analyzed. The test sequences were grouped into infrapopulations, and pairwise differences (π) and mutation rates (θ) were computed. The amount of variance within and among populations was also computed using the AMOVA. The evolutionary history was inferred using the Maximum Parsimony method. Results Seven samples from the South and 15 samples from the North were sequenced, and submitted to GenBank with accession numbers GQ479497- GQ479518. The results revealed higher mutation frequencies in the southern population, compared to the northern population. Haplotype analyses revealed a total of 11 haplotypes (Hap) in all the 22 DNA sequences, with high genetic variation and polymorphisms within the southern samples. Conclusion This study showed that there is considerable genetic variability within W. bancrofti populations in Ghana, differences that might explain the observed epidemiology of LF. Further studies are however required for an in-depth understanding of LF epidemiology and control. PMID:25374638

  15. Integrated School-Based Surveillance for Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections and Lymphatic Filariasis in Gampaha District, Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Gunawardena, Sharmini; Gunawardena, Nipul K.; Kahathuduwa, Ganga; Karunaweera, Nadira D.; de Silva, Nilanthi R.; Ranasinghe, Udaya B.; Samarasekara, Sandhya D.; Nagodavithana, Kumara C.; Rao, Ramakrishna U.; Rebollo, Maria P.; Weil, Gary J.

    2014-01-01

    We explored the practicality of integrating surveillance for soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH, assessed by Kato-Katz) with transmission assessment surveys for lymphatic filariasis (LF) in two evaluation units (EUs) in Gampaha district, Sri Lanka (population 2.3 million). The surveys were performed 6 years after five annual rounds of mass drug administration with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole. Each transmission assessment survey tested children (N = 1,462 inland EU; 1,642 coastal EU) sampled from 30 primary schools. Low filarial antigenemia rates (0% and 0.1% for the inland and coastal EUs) suggest that LF transmission is very low in this district. The STH rates and stool sample participation rates were 0.8% and 61% (inland) and 2.8% and 58% (coastal). Most STH detected were low or moderate intensity Trichuris trichiura infections. The added cost of including STH testing was ∼$5,000 per EU. These results suggest that it is feasible to integrate school-based surveillance for STH and LF. PMID:24493672

  16. Filarial antigenemia and Loa loa night blood microfilaremia in an area without bancroftian filariasis in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Bakajika, Didier K; Nigo, Maurice M; Lotsima, Jean Pierre; Masikini, Germain A; Fischer, Kerstin; Lloyd, Melanie M; Weil, Gary J; Fischer, Peter U

    2014-12-01

    Implementation of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis (LF) has been delayed in central Africa because of incomplete mapping and coendemic loiasis. We mapped two regions in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo that were suspected to have LF. Night blood samples were collected from 2,724 subjects in 30 villages. Filarial antigenemia rates by card test exceeded 1% in 28 villages (range = 0-14%). Prevalence rates for large sheathed microfilariae (Mf) ranged from 4% to 40%; Mansonella perstans rates ranged from 22% to 98%. Large Mf were exclusively Loa loa by microscopy, and only 1 of 337 samples tested by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was positive for Wuchereria bancrofti DNA. Filarial antigen positivity was strongly associated with high L. loa Mf counts. Periodicity studies revealed atypical patterns, with no significant diurnal periodicity in some individuals. Thus, methods routinely used for LF mapping may not be reliable in areas in central Africa that are highly endemic for loiasis. PMID:25223938

  17. A mathematical model for long-term effect of diethylcarbamazine-albendazole mass drug administration on lymphatic filariasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasman, H.; Supali, T.; Supriatna, A. K.; Nuraini, N.; Soewono, E.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we discuss a mathematical model for the transmission of lymphatic filariasis disease. The human population is divided into susceptible, latent, acute and chronic subpopulations. Treatment is carried out within the scheme of mass drug administration (MDA) by giving the diethylcarbamazine (DEC) and albendazole (ALB) to all individuals. In the model, we assume that the treatments have direct killing effect to microfilariae, increase of immune-mediated effect. The treated individuals are assumed to remain susceptible to the disease. This is due to the fact that the treatment is only partially effective against macrofilaria. Simulations of the model reveals that DEC-ALB treatment does give significant reduction of acute and chronic compartments at the end of the treatment period and slow down the growth after the treatment before eventually tend to the endemic state. It showed that repeated treatment during MDA is effective to decrease the transmission. This suggests that terminating MDA program after a long period of its application may still effective in controlling the disease.

  18. Prospects, drawbacks and future needs of xenomonitoring for the endpoint evaluation of lymphatic filariasis elimination programs in Africa.

    PubMed

    Okorie, Patricia N; de Souza, Dziedzom K

    2016-02-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a debilitating disease caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and B. timori parasitic worms and transmitted by Culex, Anopheles, Aedes and Mansonia mosquitoes. Mass drug administration (MDA) to reduce the infection levels in the human population is the key component of LF elimination programs. However, the potential of the use of vector control is gaining recognition as a tool that can complement MDA. The method of monitoring the parasites in mosquito vectors is known as xenomonitoring. Monitoring of vectors for filarial larvae is an important assessment tool for LF elimination programs. Xenomonitoring has the advantage of giving a real-time estimate of disease, because the pre-patent period may take months after infection in humans. It is a non-invasive sensitive tool for assessing the presence of LF in endemic areas. The aim of this review is to discuss the prospects, challenges and needs of xenomonitoring as a public health tool, in the post-MDA evaluation activities of national LF elimination programs. PMID:26822601

  19. On the Thermal Stability of the Diethylcarbamazine-Fortified Table Salt Used in the Control of Lymphatic Filariasis.

    PubMed

    Honorato, Sara B; da Silva, Cecília C P; de Oliveira, Yara S; Mendonça, Jorge S; Boechat, Nubia; Ellena, Javier; Ayala, Alejandro P

    2016-08-01

    Diethylcarbamazine, administered as a water-soluble citrate salt, has been used for more than 50 years as the first-line drug in the treatment of lymphatic filariasis. Mass drug administration programs have been successful in reducing microfilaremia and providing important collateral deworming benefits. One of these initiatives is based on the addition of diethylcarbamazine citrate to table salt. The fortified salt retaining the efficacy of the drug in reducing microfilaremia, but there is little information about its behavior above room temperature. In this study, the thermal stability of diethylcarbamazine, as a free base and a citrate salt, was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry under different conditions. Diethylcarbamazine does not release hazardous degradation substances above its melting point. It was also confirmed that this drug is stable at normal cooking temperatures, even when dry heat cooking methods, such as baking or grilling, are considered. However, if the drug is formulated as a salt, as in the case of the citrate, special attention needs to be given to the degradation substances of the counter ion. PMID:27397435

  20. Mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis elimination in a coastal state of India: a study on barriers to coverage and compliance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis is targeted for elimination in India through mass drug administration (MDA) with diethylcarbamazine (DEC) combined with albendazole (ABZ). For the strategy to be effective, >65% of those living in endemic areas must be covered by and compliant to MDA. Post the MDA 2011 campaign in the endemic district of Odisha, we conducted a survey to assess: (i) the filariasis knowledge in the community, (ii) the coverage and compliance of MDA from the community perspective, and (iii) factors affecting compliance, as well as the operational issues involved in carrying out MDA activities from the drug distributor’s perspective. Methods A sample of 691 participants – both male and female, aged two years or above – were selected through multistage stratified sampling and interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Additionally, drug distributors and the medical officers in charge of the MDA were also interviewed to understand some of the operational issues encountered during MDA. Results Ninety-nine percent of the study participants received DEC and ABZ tablets during MDA, of which only just above a quarter actually consumed the drugs. The cause of non-compliance was mostly due to fear of side effects, lack of awareness of the benefits of MDA, and non-attendance of health staff in the villages. Lack of adequate training of drug distributors and poor health communication activities before the MDA campaign commenced and the absence of follow-up by health workers following MDA were a few of the operational difficulties encountered during the MDA campaign. Conclusion Currently MDA is restricted to the distribution of drugs only and the key issues of implementation in compliance, health education, managing side effects, and logistics are not given enough attention. It is therefore essential to address the issues linked to low compliance to make the program more efficient and achieve the goal of filariasis elimination. PMID:25237478

  1. The effects of size and synthesis methods of gold nanoparticle-conjugated MαHIgG4 for use in an immunochromatographic strip test to detect brugian filariasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabizah Makhsin, Siti; Razak, Khairunisak Abdul; Noordin, Rahmah; Dyana Zakaria, Nor; Chun, Tan Soo

    2012-12-01

    This study describes the properties of colloidal gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with sizes of 20, 30 and 40 nm, which were synthesized using citrate reduction or seeding-growth methods. Likewise, the conjugation of these AuNPs to mouse anti-human IgG4 (MαHIgG4) was evaluated for an immunochromatographic (ICG) strip test to detect brugian filariasis. The morphology of the AuNPs was studied based on the degree of ellipticity (G) of the transmission electron microscopy images. The AuNPs produced using the seeding-growth method showed lower ellipticity (G ≤ 1.11) as compared with the AuNPs synthesized using the citrate reduction method (G ≤ 1.18). Zetasizer analysis showed that the AuNPs that were synthesized using the seeding-growth method were almost monodispersed with a lower polydispersity index (PDI; PDI≤0.079), as compared with the AuNPs synthesized using the citrate reduction method (PDI≤0.177). UV-visible spectroscopic analysis showed a red-shift of the absorbance spectra after the reaction with MαHIgG4, which indicated that the AuNPs were successfully conjugated. The optimum concentration of the BmR1 recombinant antigen that was immobilized on the surface of the ICG strip on the test line was 1.0 mg ml-1. When used with the ICG test strip assay and brugian filariasis serum samples, the conjugated AuNPs-MαHIgG4 synthesized using the seeding-growth method had faster detection times, as compared with the AuNPs synthesized using the citrate reduction method. The 30 nm AuNPs-MαHIgG4, with an optical density of 4 from the seeding-growth method, demonstrated the best performance for labelling ICG strips because it displayed the best sensitivity and the highest specificity when tested with serum samples from brugian filariasis patients and controls.

  2. The sharp end - experiences from the Tanzanian programme for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis: notes from the end of the road.

    PubMed

    Malecela, M N; Mwingira, U; Mwakitalu, M E; Kabali, C; Michael, E; Mackenzie, C D

    2009-10-01

    The Tanzania Lymphatic Filariasis Programme, which was launched in 2000, is, in terms of geographical coverage, among the largest disease-control programmes in Tanzania's history, currently reaching 9.4 million people in 34 districts. The issues associated with this programme's implementation are reviewed here, in the context of the various players/stakeholders involved. This article provides an insight of how the programme began and discusses key areas in the programme's design. Mainly, however, it gives some impressions of how the programme is perceived by, and how it affects, village healthworkers, patients and politicians - the people who contribute to the implementation of the programme at various levels. PMID:19843398

  3. A community-based study of factors associated with continuing transmission of lymphatic filariasis in Leogane, Haiti.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Alexis; Won, Kimberly Y; McClintock, Shannon K; Donovan, Catherine V; Laney, Sandra J; Williams, Steven A; Pilotte, Nils; Streit, Thomas G; Beau de Rochars, Madsen V E; Lammie, Patrick J

    2010-01-01

    Seven rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) have been administered in Leogane, Haiti, an area hyperendemic for lymphatic filariasis (LF). Sentinel site surveys showed that the prevalence of microfilaremia was reduced to <1% from levels as high as 15.5%, suggesting that transmission had been reduced. A separate 30-cluster survey of 2- to 4-year-old children was conducted to determine if MDA interrupted transmission. Antigen and antifilarial antibody prevalence were 14.3% and 19.7%, respectively. Follow-up surveys were done in 6 villages, including those selected for the cluster survey, to assess risk factors related to continued LF transmission and to pinpoint hotspots of transmission. One hundred houses were mapped in each village using GPS-enabled PDAs, and then 30 houses and 10 alternates were chosen for testing. All individuals in selected houses were asked to participate in a short survey about participation in MDA, history of residence in Leogane and general knowledge of LF. Survey teams returned to the houses at night to collect blood for antigen testing, microfilaremia and Bm14 antibody testing and collected mosquitoes from these communities in parallel. Antigen prevalence was highly variable among the 6 villages, with the highest being 38.2% (Dampus) and the lowest being 2.9% (Corail Lemaire); overall antigen prevalence was 18.5%. Initial cluster surveys of 2- to 4-year-old children were not related to community antigen prevalence. Nearest neighbor analysis found evidence of clustering of infection suggesting that LF infection was focal in distribution. Antigen prevalence among individuals who were systematically noncompliant with the MDAs, i.e. they had never participated, was significantly higher than among compliant individuals (p<0.05). A logistic regression model found that of the factors examined for association with infection, only noncompliance was significantly associated with infection. Thus, continuing transmission of LF seems to be linked to

  4. A Review of Factors That Influence Individual Compliance with Mass Drug Administration for Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis

    PubMed Central

    Krentel, Alison; Fischer, Peter U.; Weil, Gary J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The success of programs to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF) depends in large part on their ability to achieve and sustain high levels of compliance with mass drug administration (MDA). This paper reports results from a comprehensive review of factors that affect compliance with MDA. Methodology/Principal Findings Papers published between 2000 and 2012 were considered, and 79 publications were included in the final dataset for analysis after two rounds of selection. While results varied in different settings, some common features were associated with successful programs and with compliance by individuals. Training and motivation of drug distributors is critically important, because these people directly interact with target populations, and their actions can affect MDA compliance decisions by families and individuals. Other important programmatic issues include thorough preparation of personnel, supplies, and logistics for implementation and preparation of the population for MDA. Demographic factors (age, sex, income level, and area of residence) are often associated with compliance by individuals, but compliance decisions are also affected by perceptions of the potential benefits of participation versus the risk of adverse events. Trust and information can sometimes offset fear of the unknown. While no single formula can ensure success MDA in all settings, five key ingredients were identified: engender trust, tailor programs to local conditions, take actions to minimize the impact of adverse events, promote the broader benefits of the MDA program, and directly address the issue of systematic non-compliance, which harms communities by prolonging their exposure to LF. Conclusions/Significance This review has identified factors that promote coverage and compliance with MDA for LF elimination across countries. This information may be helpful for explaining results that do not meet expectations and for developing remedies for ailing MDA programs. Our

  5. Factors Influencing Drug Uptake during Mass Drug Administration for Control of Lymphatic Filariasis in Rural and Urban Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kisoka, William J.; Simonsen, Paul E.; Malecela, Mwelecele N.; Tersbøl, Britt P.; Mushi, Declare L.; Meyrowitsch, Dan W.

    2014-01-01

    Background In most countries of Sub-Saharan Africa, control of lymphatic filariasis (LF) is based on annual mass drug administration (MDA) with a combination of ivermectin and albendazole. Treatment coverages are however often suboptimal for programmes to reach the goal of transmission interruption within reasonable time. The present study aimed to identify predictors and barriers to individual drug uptake during MDA implementation by the National LF Elimination Programme in Tanzania. Methods A questionnaire based cross sectional household survey was carried out in two rural and two urban districts in Lindi and Morogoro regions shortly after the 2011 MDA. 3279 adults (≥15 years) were interviewed about personal characteristics, socio-economic status, MDA drug uptake among themselves and their children, reasons for taking/not taking drugs, and participation in previous MDA activities for LF control. Findings The overall drug uptake rate was 55.1% (range of 44.5–75.6% between districts). There was no overall major difference between children (54.8%) and adults (55.2%) or between females (54.9%) and males (55.8%), but the role of these and other predictors varied to some extent between study sites. Major overall predictors of drug uptake among the interviewed adults were increasing age and history of previous drug uptake. Being absent from home during drug distribution was the main reason for not taking the drugs (50.2%) followed by clinical contraindications to treatment (10.8%), missing household visits of drug distributors (10.6%), and households not being informed about the distribution (9.0%). Conclusion Drug uptake relied more on easily modifiable provider-related factors than on individual perceptions and practices in the target population. Limited investments in appropriate timing, dissemination of accurate timing information to recipients and motivation of drug distributors to visit all households (repeatedly when residents are absent) are likely to have

  6. Awareness and coverage of mass drug administration for elimination of lymphatic filariasis: a community based cross sectional study in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Ram Kumar; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Ranabhat, Kamal; Wagle, Rajendra Raj

    2015-02-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is among the major public health problems in Nepal. The disease is a major cause of morbidities primarily, lymphedema of legs and hydrocele and it impedes socio economic development in many endemic areas of the country. This study is aimed at exploring the understanding of people about mass drug administration (MDA) of the said disease and the status of compliance of MDA in Nepal. This study is a cross sectional study carried out among 894 household samples in three of the sixty LF endemic districts. The selected districts were Dhading, Kapilvastu and Kailali. The sentinel surveillance of sites in three districts constituted the sampling frame at the first stage. The peripheral health care centers in the sentinel sites constituted the sampling frame at the second stage of sampling. The coverage of MDA was 95.5 %. However, the compliance was less. Only 71.6 % of the respondents who took the drugs from health workers swallowed the diethyl carbamazine (DEC) completely, other did not swallow. In the present study, majority of respondents reported that they had heard or seen persons with side effects of DEC in their community. A total of 20 % of respondents reported that they had side effects after having DEC and only 3.9 % of these side effects were treated. The Female Community Health volunteers (FCHVs), health workers and radio/Television (TV) were the chief sources of MDA related information. This study recommends for a concerted public health action combining effective drug delivery mechanism and sound public awareness campaigns. The community people need to be made aware beforehand about the location, time of drug distribution. Also public awareness of the DEC should be conducted so that people would trust it and comply with the drug regime. Along with the health workers and radio/TV that has been used traditionally, we recommend mobilization of FCHVs in the public awareness campaigns the MDA campaigns. PMID:24996654

  7. Synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Gmelina asiatica leaf extract against filariasis, dengue, and malaria vector mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Hoti, S L

    2015-05-01

    Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects and serve as the most important vectors for spreading human diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and filariasis. The continued use of synthetic insecticides has resulted in resistance in mosquitoes. Synthetic insecticides are toxic and affect the environment by contaminating soil, water, and air, and then natural products may be an alternative to synthetic insecticides because they are effective, biodegradable, eco-friendly, and safe to environment. Botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The present study was carried out to establish the larvicidal potential of leaf extracts of Gmelina asiatica and synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract against late third instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of plant extracts and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. The results were recorded from UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis support the biosynthesis and characterization of AgNPs. The maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized AgNPs against the larvae of An. stephensi (lethal dose (LC₅₀) = 22.44 μg/mL; LC₉₀ 40.65 μg/mL), Ae. aegypti (LC₅₀ = 25.77 μg/mL; LC₉₀ 45.98 μg/mL), and C. quinquefasciatus (LC₅₀ = 27.83 μg/mL; LC₉₀ 48.92 μg/mL), respectively. No mortality was observed in the control. This is the first report on mosquito larvicidal activity of plant-synthesized nanoparticles. Thus, the use of G. asiatica to synthesize silver nanoparticles is a rapid, eco-friendly, and a single-step approach and the AgNps formed can be potential mosquito larvicidal agents. PMID:25666372

  8. Impact of Six Rounds of Mass Drug Administration on Brugian Filariasis and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections in Eastern Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Supali, Taniawati; Djuardi, Yenny; Bradley, Mark; Noordin, Rahmah; Rückert, Paul; Fischer, Peter U.

    2013-01-01

    Background The lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia timori occurs only in eastern Indonesia where it causes high morbidity. The absence of an animal reservoir, the inefficient transmission by Anopheles mosquitoes and the high sensitivity to DEC/albendazole treatment make this species a prime candidate for elimination by mass drug administration (MDA). Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the effect of MDA using DEC and albendazole on B. timori and soil transmitted helminths (STH) in a cross-sectional study of a sentinel village on Alor Island annually over a period of 10 years. Pre-MDA the microfilaria (MF) prevalence was 26% and 80% of the residents had filaria-specific IgG4 antibodies. In 2010, 34 months after the 6th round of MDA, MF and antibody rates were only 0.17% and 6.4%, respectively. The MDA campaign had also a beneficial effect on STH. Baseline prevalence rates for Ascaris, hookworm and Trichuris were 34%, 28%, and 11%, respectively; these rates were reduced to 27%, 4%, and 2% one year after the 5th round of MDA. Unfortunately, STH rates rebounded 34 months after cessation of MDA and approached pre-MDA rates. However, the intensity of STH infection in 2009 was still reduced, and no heavy infections were detected. Conclusions/Significance MDA with DEC/albendazole has had a major impact on B. timori MF and IgG4 antibody rates, providing a proof of principle that elimination is feasible. We also documented the value of annual DEC/albendazole as a mass de-worming intervention and the importance of continuing some form of STH control after cessation of MDA for filariasis. PMID:24349595

  9. Historic accounts of Mansonella parasitaemias in the South Pacific and their relevance to lymphatic filariasis elimination efforts today.

    PubMed

    Crainey, J Lee; Ribeiro da Silva, Túllio Romão; Luz, Sérgio Luiz Bessa

    2016-03-01

    There are two species of filarial parasites with sheathless microfilariae known to commonly cause parasitaemias in humans: Mansonella perstans and Mansonella ozzardi. In most contemporary accounts of the distribution of these parasites, neither is usually considered to occur anywhere in the Eastern Hemisphere. However, Sir Patrick Manson, who first described both parasite species, recorded the existence of sheathless sharp-tailed Mansonella ozzardi-like parasites occurring in the blood of natives from New Guinea in each and every version of his manual for tropical disease that he wrote before his death in 1922. Manson's reports were based on his own identifications and were made from at least two independent blood sample collections that were taken from the island. Pacific region Mansonella perstans parasitaemias were also later (in 1923) reported to occur in New Guinea and once before this (in 1905) in Fiji. Although Mansonella-parasitaemias are generally regarded as benign, they are thought to be of public health importance because they can affect the epidemiological monitoring of other filarial diseases. In this article, we reviewed the historic literature concerning Pacific-origin Mansonella-parasitaemias in an attempt to explain how, despite repeated reports of Pacific-region Mansonella-parasitaemias, by as early as the 1970s, the WHO had arrived at the present-day view that Wuchereria bancrofti is the only cause of filarial parasitaemias in Papua New Guinea. We have also evaluated the evidence supporting the contemporary existence of Pacific-area parasitaemia-causing Mansonella parasites and assessed the relevance such parasites could have for present-day lymphatic filariasis elimination efforts in the region. PMID:26972389

  10. Evaluating the Burden of Lymphedema Due to Lymphatic Filariasis in 2005 in Khurda District, Odisha State, India

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Victoria; Little, Kristen; Wiegand, Ryan; Rout, Jonathan; Fox, LeAnne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Over 1.1 billion people worldwide are at risk for lymphatic filariasis (LF), and the global burden of LF-associated lymphedema is estimated at 16 million affected people, yet country-specific estimates are poor. Methodology/Principal Findings A house-to-house morbidity census was conducted to assess the burden and severity of lymphedema in a population of 1,298,576 persons living in the LF-endemic district of Khurda in Odisha State, India. The burden of lymphedema in Khurda is widespread geographically, and 1.3% (17,036) of the total population report lymphedema. 51.3% of the patients reporting lymphedema were female, mean age 49.4 years (1–99). Early lymphedema (Dreyer stages 1 & 2) was reported in two-thirds of the patients. Poisson regression analysis was conducted in order to determine risk factors for advanced lymphedema (Dreyer stages 4–7). Increasing age was significantly associated with advanced lymphedema, and persons 70 years and older had a prevalence three times greater than individuals ages 15–29 (aPR: 3.21, 95% CI 2.45, 4.21). The number of adenolymphangitis (ADL) episodes reported in the previous year was also significantly associated with advanced lymphedema (aPR 4.65, 95% CI 2.97–7.30). This analysis is one of the first to look at potential risk factors for advanced lymphedema using morbidity census data from an entire district in Odisha State, India. Significance These data highlight the magnitude of lymphedema in LF-endemic areas and emphasize the need to develop robust estimates of numbers of individuals with lymphedema in order to identify the extent of lymphedema management services needed in these regions. PMID:27548382

  11. Predicting the Current and Future Potential Distributions of Lymphatic Filariasis in Africa Using Maximum Entropy Ecological Niche Modelling

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Hannah; Michael, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    Modelling the spatial distributions of human parasite species is crucial to understanding the environmental determinants of infection as well as for guiding the planning of control programmes. Here, we use ecological niche modelling to map the current potential distribution of the macroparasitic disease, lymphatic filariasis (LF), in Africa, and to estimate how future changes in climate and population could affect its spread and burden across the continent. We used 508 community-specific infection presence data collated from the published literature in conjunction with five predictive environmental/climatic and demographic variables, and a maximum entropy niche modelling method to construct the first ecological niche maps describing potential distribution and burden of LF in Africa. We also ran the best-fit model against climate projections made by the HADCM3 and CCCMA models for 2050 under A2a and B2a scenarios to simulate the likely distribution of LF under future climate and population changes. We predict a broad geographic distribution of LF in Africa extending from the west to the east across the middle region of the continent, with high probabilities of occurrence in the Western Africa compared to large areas of medium probability interspersed with smaller areas of high probability in Central and Eastern Africa and in Madagascar. We uncovered complex relationships between predictor ecological niche variables and the probability of LF occurrence. We show for the first time that predicted climate change and population growth will expand both the range and risk of LF infection (and ultimately disease) in an endemic region. We estimate that populations at risk to LF may range from 543 and 804 million currently, and that this could rise to between 1.65 to 1.86 billion in the future depending on the climate scenario used and thresholds applied to signify infection presence. PMID:22359670

  12. Secondary mapping of lymphatic filariasis in Haiti-definition of transmission foci in low-prevalence settings.

    PubMed

    Drexler, Naomi; Washington, Charles H; Lovegrove, Maribeth; Grady, Caroline; Milord, Marie Denise; Streit, Thomas; Lammie, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    To eliminate Lymphatic filariasis (LF) as a public health problem, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that any area with infection prevalence greater than or equal to 1% (denoted by presence of microfilaremia or antigenemia) should receive mass drug administration (MDA) of antifilarial drugs for at least five consecutive rounds. Areas of low-antigen prevalence (< 1%) are thought to pose little risk for continued transmission of LF. Five low-antigen prevalence communes in Haiti, characterized as part of a national survey, were further assessed for transmission in this study. An initial evaluation of schoolchildren was performed in each commune to identify antigen-positive children who served as index cases for subsequent community surveys conducted among households neighboring the index cases. Global positioning system (GPS) coordinates and immunochromatographic tests (ICT) for filarial antigenemia were collected on approximately 1,600 persons of all ages in the five communes. The relationship between antigen-positive cases in the community and distance from index cases was evaluated using multivariate regression techniques and analyses of spatial clustering. Community surveys demonstrated higher antigen prevalence in three of the five communes than was observed in the original mapping survey; autochthonous cases were found in the same three communes. Regression techniques identified a significantly increased likelihood of being antigen-positive when living within 20 meters of index cases when controlling for age, gender, and commune. Spatial clustering of antigen-positive cases was observed in some, but not all communes. Our results suggest that localized transmission was present even in low-prevalence settings and suggest that better surveillance methods may be needed to detect microfoci of LF transmission. PMID:23071849

  13. Essential proteins and possible therapeutic targets of Wolbachia endosymbiont and development of FiloBase--a comprehensive drug target database for Lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Om Prakash; Kumar, Muthuvel Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (Lf) is one of the oldest and most debilitating tropical diseases. Millions of people are suffering from this prevalent disease. It is estimated to infect over 120 million people in at least 80 nations of the world through the tropical and subtropical regions. More than one billion people are in danger of getting affected with this life-threatening disease. Several studies were suggested its emerging limitations and resistance towards the available drugs and therapeutic targets for Lf. Therefore, better medicine and drug targets are in demand. We took an initiative to identify the essential proteins of Wolbachia endosymbiont of Brugia malayi, which are indispensable for their survival and non-homologous to human host proteins. In this current study, we have used proteome subtractive approach to screen the possible therapeutic targets for wBm. In addition, numerous literatures were mined in the hunt for potential drug targets, drugs, epitopes, crystal structures, and expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences for filarial causing nematodes. Data obtained from our study were presented in a user friendly database named FiloBase. We hope that information stored in this database may be used for further research and drug development process against filariasis. URL: http://filobase.bicpu.edu.in. PMID:26806463

  14. Minocycline as a re-purposed anti-Wolbachia macrofilaricide: superiority compared with doxycycline regimens in a murine infection model of human lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Raman; Al Jayoussi, Ghaith; Tyrer, Hayley E; Gamble, Joanne; Hayward, Laura; Guimaraes, Ana F; Davies, Jill; Waterhouse, David; Cook, Darren A N; Myhill, Laura J; Clare, Rachel H; Cassidy, Andrew; Steven, Andrew; Johnston, Kelly L; Ford, Louise; Turner, Joseph D; Ward, Stephen A; Taylor, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis are parasitic helminth diseases, which cause severe morbidities such as elephantiasis, skin disease and blindness, presenting a major public health burden in endemic communities. The anti-Wolbachia consortium (A·WOL: http://www.a-wol.com/) has identified a number of registered antibiotics that target the endosymbiotic bacterium, Wolbachia, delivering macrofilaricidal activity. Here we use pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) analysis to rationally develop an anti-Wolbachia chemotherapy by linking drug exposure to pharmacological effect. We compare the pharmacokinetics and anti-Wolbachia efficacy in a murine Brugia malayi model of minocycline versus doxycycline. Doxycycline exhibits superior PK in comparison to minocycline resulting in a 3-fold greater exposure in SCID mice. Monte-Carlo simulations confirmed that a bi-daily 25-40 mg/Kg regimen is bioequivalent to a clinically effective 100-200 mg/day dose for these tetracyclines. Pharmacodynamic studies showed that minocycline depletes Wolbachia more effectively than doxycycline (99.51% vs. 90.35%) after 28 day 25 mg/Kg bid regimens with a more potent block in microfilarial production. PK/PD analysis predicts that minocycline would be expected to be 1.7 fold more effective than doxycycline in man despite lower exposure in our infection models. Our findings warrant onward clinical investigations to examine the clinical efficacy of minocycline treatment regimens against lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis. PMID:26996237

  15. Chemical composition, toxicity and non-target effects of Pinus kesiya essential oil: An eco-friendly and novel larvicide against malaria, dengue and lymphatic filariasis mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are vectors of important parasites and pathogens causing death, poverty and social disability worldwide, with special reference to tropical and subtropical countries. The overuse of synthetic insecticides to control mosquito vectors lead to resistance, adverse environmental effects and high operational costs. Therefore, the development of eco-friendly control tools is an important public health challenge. In this study, the mosquito larvicidal activity of Pinus kesiya leaf essential oil (EO) was evaluated against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi, the dengue vector Aedes aegypti and the lymphatic filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The chemical composition of the EO was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. GC-MS revealed that the P. kesiya EO contained 18 compounds. Major constituents were α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene and germacrene D. In acute toxicity assays, the EO showed significant toxicity against early third-stage larvae of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus, with LC50 values of 52, 57, and 62µg/ml, respectively. Notably, the EO was safer towards several aquatic non-target organisms Anisops bouvieri, Diplonychus indicus and Gambusia affinis, with LC50 values ranging from 4135 to 8390µg/ml. Overall, this research adds basic knowledge to develop newer and safer natural larvicides from Pinaceae plants against malaria, dengue and filariasis mosquito vectors. PMID:26995063

  16. Development and validation of a high-throughput anti-Wolbachia whole-cell screen: a route to macrofilaricidal drugs against onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed

    Clare, Rachel H; Cook, Darren A N; Johnston, Kelly L; Ford, Louise; Ward, Stephen A; Taylor, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop new, safe, and affordable macrofilaricidal drugs for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis treatment and control. The Anti-Wolbachia Consortium (A·WOL) aims to provide a novel treatment with macrofilaricidal activity by targeting the essential bacterial symbiont Wolbachia. The consortium is currently screening a diverse range of compounds to find new chemical space to drive this drug discovery initiative and address this unmet demand. To increase the throughput and capacity of the A·WOL cell-based screen, we have developed a 384-well format assay using a high-content imaging system (Operetta) in conjunction with optimized Wolbachia growth dynamics in the C6/36 Aedes albopictus mosquito cell line. This assay uses texture analysis of cells stained with SYTO 11 as a direct measure of bacterial load. This validated assay has dramatically increased the capacity and throughput of the A·WOL compound library screening program 25-fold, enriching the number of new anti-Wolbachia hits identified for further development as potential macrofilaricides for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. PMID:25278497

  17. Minocycline as a re-purposed anti-Wolbachia macrofilaricide: superiority compared with doxycycline regimens in a murine infection model of human lymphatic filariasis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Raman; Jayoussi, Ghaith Al; Tyrer, Hayley E.; Gamble, Joanne; Hayward, Laura; Guimaraes, Ana F.; Davies, Jill; Waterhouse, David; Cook, Darren A. N.; Myhill, Laura J.; Clare, Rachel H.; Cassidy, Andrew; Steven, Andrew; Johnston, Kelly L.; Ford, Louise; Turner, Joseph D.; Ward, Stephen A.; Taylor, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis are parasitic helminth diseases, which cause severe morbidities such as elephantiasis, skin disease and blindness, presenting a major public health burden in endemic communities. The anti-Wolbachia consortium (A·WOL: http://www.a-wol.com/) has identified a number of registered antibiotics that target the endosymbiotic bacterium, Wolbachia, delivering macrofilaricidal activity. Here we use pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) analysis to rationally develop an anti-Wolbachia chemotherapy by linking drug exposure to pharmacological effect. We compare the pharmacokinetics and anti-Wolbachia efficacy in a murine Brugia malayi model of minocycline versus doxycycline. Doxycycline exhibits superior PK in comparison to minocycline resulting in a 3-fold greater exposure in SCID mice. Monte-Carlo simulations confirmed that a bi-daily 25–40 mg/Kg regimen is bioequivalent to a clinically effective 100–200 mg/day dose for these tetracyclines. Pharmacodynamic studies showed that minocycline depletes Wolbachia more effectively than doxycycline (99.51% vs. 90.35%) after 28 day 25 mg/Kg bid regimens with a more potent block in microfilarial production. PK/PD analysis predicts that minocycline would be expected to be 1.7 fold more effective than doxycycline in man despite lower exposure in our infection models. Our findings warrant onward clinical investigations to examine the clinical efficacy of minocycline treatment regimens against lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis. PMID:26996237

  18. Essential proteins and possible therapeutic targets of Wolbachia endosymbiont and development of FiloBase-a comprehensive drug target database for Lymphatic filariasis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Om Prakash; Kumar, Muthuvel Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (Lf) is one of the oldest and most debilitating tropical diseases. Millions of people are suffering from this prevalent disease. It is estimated to infect over 120 million people in at least 80 nations of the world through the tropical and subtropical regions. More than one billion people are in danger of getting affected with this life-threatening disease. Several studies were suggested its emerging limitations and resistance towards the available drugs and therapeutic targets for Lf. Therefore, better medicine and drug targets are in demand. We took an initiative to identify the essential proteins of Wolbachia endosymbiont of Brugia malayi, which are indispensable for their survival and non-homologous to human host proteins. In this current study, we have used proteome subtractive approach to screen the possible therapeutic targets for wBm. In addition, numerous literatures were mined in the hunt for potential drug targets, drugs, epitopes, crystal structures, and expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences for filarial causing nematodes. Data obtained from our study were presented in a user friendly database named FiloBase. We hope that information stored in this database may be used for further research and drug development process against filariasis. URL: http://filobase.bicpu.edu.in. PMID:26806463

  19. Can malaria vector control accelerate the interruption of lymphatic filariasis transmission in Africa; capturing a window of opportunity?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) was launched in 2000, and nearly all endemic countries in the Americas, Eastern Mediterranean and Asia-Pacific regions have now initiated the WHO recommended mass drug administration (MDA) campaign to interrupt transmission of the parasite. However, nearly 50% of the LF endemic countries in Africa are yet to implement the GPELF MDA strategy, which does not include vector control. Nevertheless, the recent scale up in insecticide treated /long lasting nets (ITNs/LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) for malaria control in Africa may significantly impact LF transmission because the parasite is transmitted mainly by Anopheles mosquitoes. This study examined the magnitude, geographical extent and potential impact of vector control in the 17 African countries that are yet to or have only recently started MDA. Methods National data on mosquito bed nets, ITNs/LLINs and IRS were obtained from published literature, national reports, surveys and datasets from public sources such as Demographic Health Surveys, Malaria Indicator Surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, Malaria Report, Roll Back Malaria and President’s Malaria Initiative websites. The type, number and distribution of interventions were summarised and mapped at sub-national level. and compared with known or potential LF distributions, and those which may be co-endemic with Loa loa and MDA is contraindicated. Results Analyses found that vector control activities had increased significantly since 2005, with a three-fold increase in ITN ownership and IRS coverage. However, coverage varied dramatically across the 17 countries; some regions reported >70% ITNs ownership and regular IRS activity, while others had no coverage in remote rural populations where the risk of LF was potentially high and co-endemic with high risk L.loa. Conclusions Despite many African countries being slow to initiate MDA for LF, the continued commitment and

  20. Increasing Coverage in Mass Drug Administration for Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination in an Urban Setting: a Study of Malindi Town, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Njomo, Doris W.; Mukoko, Dunstan A.; Nyamongo, Nipher K.; Karanja, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Implementation of Mass Drug Administration (MDA) in urban settings is an obstacle to Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) elimination. No urban-specific guidelines on MDA in urban areas exist. Malindi district urban area had received 4 MDA rounds by the time the current study was implemented. Programme data showed average treatment coverage of 28.4% (2011 MDA), far below recommended minimum of 65–80%. Methods To identify, design and test strategies for increased treatment coverage in urban areas, a quasi-experimental study was conducted in Malindi urban area. Three sub-locations with lowest treatment coverage in 2011 MDA were purposively selected. In the pre-test phase, 947 household heads sampled using systematic random method were interviewed for quantitative data. For qualitative data, 12 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with single sex adult and youth male and female groups and 3 with community drug distributors (CDDs) were conducted. Forty in-depth interviews with opinion leaders and self-administered questionnaires with District Public Health officers purposively selected were carried out. The quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and statistical significance assessed by χ2 test.The qualitative data were analyzed manually according to study's themes. Results and Discussion The identified strategies were implemented prior to and during 2012 MDA in two sub-locations (experimental) while in the third (control), usual MDA strategies were applied. In the post-test phase, 2012 MDA coverage in experimental and control sub-locations was comparatively assessed for effect of the newly designed strategies on urban MDA. Results indicated improved treatment coverage in experimental sub-locations, 77.1% in Shella and 66.0% in Barani. Central (control) sub-location also attained high coverage, 70.4% indicating average treatment coverage of 71%. Conclusion The identified strategies contributed to increased treatment coverage in experimental sites and

  1. Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Antiretroviral Therapy and Markers of Lymphatic Filariasis Infection: A Cross-sectional Study in Rural Northern Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Tafatatha, Terence; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Ngwira, Bagrey; Phiri, Amos; Kondowe, Mariot; Piston, Wilson; Molesworth, Anna; Kayuni, Ndoliwe; Koole, Olivier; Crampin, Amelia; Horton, John; French, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are major public health problems. Individuals may be co-infected, raising the possibility of important interactions between these two pathogens with consequences for LF elimination through annual mass drug administration (MDA). Methodology and Principal Findings We analysed circulating filarial antigenaemia (CFA) by HIV infection status among adults in two sites in northern Malawi, a region endemic for both LF and HIV. Stored blood samples and data from two geographically separate studies were used: one a recruitment phase of a clinical trial of anti-filarial agent dosing regimens, and the other a whole population annual HIV sero-survey. In study one, 1,851 consecutive adult volunteers were screened for HIV and LF infection. CFA prevalence was 25.4% (43/169) in HIV-positive and 23.6% (351/1487) in HIV-negative participants (p=0.57). Geometric mean CFA concentrations were 859 and 1660 antigen units per ml of blood (Ag/ml) respectively, geometric mean ratio (GMR) 0.85, 95%CI 0.49-1.50. In 7,863 adults in study two, CFA prevalence was 20.9% (86/411) in HIV-positive and 24.0% (1789/7452) in HIV–negative participants (p=0.15). Geometric mean CFA concentrations were 630 and 839 Ag/ml respectively (GMR 0.75, 95%CI 0.60-0.94). In the HIV-positive group, antiretroviral therapy (ART) use was associated with a lower CFA prevalence, 12.7% (18/142) vs. 25.3% (67/265), (OR 0.43, 95%CI 0.24-0.76). Prevalence of CFA decreased with duration of ART use, 15.2% 0-1 year (n=59), 13.6% >1-2 years (n=44), 10.0% >2-3 years (n=30) and 0% >3-4 years treatment (n=9), p<0.01 χ2 for linear trend. Conclusions/Significance In this large cross-sectional study of two distinct LF-exposed populations, there is no evidence that HIV infection has an impact on LF epidemiology that will interfere with LF control measures. A significant association of ART use with lower CFA prevalence merits further investigation to understand

  2. Programmatic Use of Molecular Xenomonitoring at the Level of Evaluation Units to Assess Persistence of Lymphatic Filariasis in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Ramakrishna U.; Samarasekera, Sandhya D.; Nagodavithana, Kumara C.; Punchihewa, Manjula W.; Dassanayaka, Tharanga D. M.; P. K. D, Gamini; Ford, Ethan; Ranasinghe, Udaya S. B.; Henderson, Ralph H.; Weil, Gary J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sri Lanka’s Anti Filariasis Campaign distributed 5 rounds of mass drug administration (MDA with DEC plus albendazole) to all endemic regions in the country from 2002–2006. Post-MDA surveillance results have generally been encouraging. However, recent studies have documented low level persistence of Wuchereria bancrofti in Galle district based on comprehensive surveys that include molecular xenomonitoring (MX, detection of filarial DNA in mosquitoes) results. The purposes of this study were to demonstrate the use of MX in large evaluation units (EUs) and to field test different mosquito sampling schemes. Methodology/Principal Findings Galle district (population 1.1 million) was divided into two EUs. These included a coastal EU with known persistent LF and an inland EU with little persistent LF. Mosquitoes were systematically sampled from ~300 trap locations in 30 randomly selected clusters (health administrative units) per EU. Approximately 28,000 Culex quinquefasciatus were collected with gravid traps and tested for filarial DNA by qPCR. 92/625 pools (14.7%) from the coastal EU and 8/583 pools (1.4%) from the inland EU were positive for filarial DNA. Maximum likelihood estimates (MLE) for filarial DNA rates were essentially the same when the same number of mosquito pools were collected and tested from 75, 150, or 300 trap sites (range 0.61–0.78% for the coastal EU and 0.04–0.07% for the inland EU). The ability to use a smaller number of trap sites reduces the cost and time required for mosquito sampling. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest there is widespread persistence of W. bancrofti infection in the coastal Galle EU 8 years after the last round of MDA in 2006, and this is consistent with other data from the district. This study has shown that MX can be used by national programs to assess and map the persistence of W. bancrofti at the level of large EUs in areas with Culex transmission. PMID:27196431

  3. Decline in lymphatic filariasis transmission with annual mass drug administration using DEC with and without albendazole over a 10year period in India.

    PubMed

    Sunish, I P; Kalimuthu, M; Rajendran, R; Munirathinam, A; Ashok Kumar, V; Nagaraj, J; Tyagi, B K

    2015-02-01

    The National Programme for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis is underway in the endemic districts of Tamil Nadu State, South India, since 2001. Annual mass drug administration (MDA) was carried out by the state health department to all eligible individuals. The impact of MDAs on transmission parameters was evaluated in 2 revenue blocks, viz, one with DEC alone and the other with a combination of albendazole. After 10 years with 6 annual MDAs, the transmission indices reached low levels in both treatment arms, but still persisted. However, the DEC alone arm showed higher transmission rates, compared to the DEC+ALB arm. Few villages which demonstrated persistent transmission need to be targeted with an additional control measure viz, vector control, to achieve LF elimination. It is evident from the 10 year period of the study that inclusion of albendazole along with DEC has significantly reduced the transmission indices to almost nil level, as compared to DEC alone. PMID:25205435

  4. Parasite antigen-specific, IL-4-, TGFβ- and IL-1- dependent expansion of Th9 cells is associated with clinical pathology in human lymphatic filariasis

    PubMed Central

    Anuradha, Rajamanickam; George, Parakkal Jovvian; Hanna, Luke E.; Chandrasekaran, Vedachalam; Kumaran, Paul; Nutman, Thomas B.; Babu, Subash

    2013-01-01

    Th9 cells are a subset of CD4+ T cells, shown to be important in allergy, autoimmunity and anti-tumor responses. However, their role in human infectious diseases has not been explored in detail. We identified a population of IL-9 and IL-10 co-expressing cells (lacking IL-4 expression) in normal individuals that respond to antigenic and mitogenic stimulation but are distinct from IL-9+ Th2 cells. We also demonstrate that these Th9 cells exhibit antigen –specific expansion in a chronic helminth infection (lymphatic filariasis). Comparison of Th9 responses reveals that individuals with pathology associated with filarial infection exhibit significantly expanded frequencies of filarial antigen induced Th9 cells but not of IL9+Th2 cells in comparison to filarial-infected individuals without associated disease. Moreover, the per cell production of IL-9 is significantly higher in Th9 cells compared to IL9+Th2 cells, indicating that the Th9 cells are the predominant CD4+ T cell subset producing IL-9 in the context of human infection. This expansion was reflected in elevated antigen stimulated IL-9 cytokine levels in whole blood culture supernatants. Finally, the frequencies of Th9 cells correlated positively with the severity of lymphedema (and presumed inflammation) in filarial diseased individuals. This expansion of Th9 cells was dependent on IL-4, TGFβ and IL-1 in vitro. We have therefore a identified an important human CD4+ T cell subpopulation co – expressing IL-9 and IL-10 but not IL-4 that is whose expansion is associated with disease in chronic lymphatic filariasis and could potentially play an important role in the pathogenesis of other inflammatory disorders. PMID:23913964

  5. Larvicidal and repellent potential of Zingiber nimmonii (J. Graham) Dalzell (Zingiberaceae) essential oil: an eco-friendly tool against malaria, dengue, and lymphatic filariasis mosquito vectors?

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Arivoli, Subramanian; Tennyson, Samuel; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-05-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are important vectors of terms of public health relevance, especially in tropical and sub-tropical regions. The continuous and indiscriminate use of conventional pesticides for the control of mosquito vectors has resulted in the development of resistance and negative impacts on non-target organisms and the environment. Therefore, there is a need for development of effective mosquito control tools. In this study, the larvicidal and repellent activity of Zingiber nimmonii rhizome essential oil (EO) was evaluated against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi, the dengue vector Aedes aegypti, and the lymphatic filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The chemical composition of the EO was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). GC-MS revealed that the Z. nimmonii EO contained at least 33 compounds. Major constituents were myrcene, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, and α-cadinol. In acute toxicity assays, the EO showed significant toxicity against early third-stage larvae of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and Cx. quinquefasciatus, with LC50 values of 41.19, 44.46, and 48.26 μg/ml, respectively. Repellency bioassays at 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 mg/cm(2) of Z. nimmonii EO gave 100 % protection up to 120, 150, and 180 min. against An. stephensi, followed by Ae. aegypti (90, 120, and 150 min) and Cx. quinquefasciatus (60, 90, and 120 min). Furthermore, the EO was safer towards two non-target aquatic organisms, Diplonychus indicus and Gambusia affinis, with LC50 values of 3241.53 and 9250.12 μg/ml, respectively. Overall, this research adds basic knowledge to develop newer and safer natural larvicides and repellent from Zingiberaceae plants against malaria, dengue, and filariasis mosquito vectors. PMID:26792432

  6. Rapid Wuchereria bancrofti-Specific Antigen Wb123-Based IgG4 Immunoassays as Tools for Surveillance following Mass Drug Administration Programs on Lymphatic Filariasis

    PubMed Central

    Steel, Cathy; Golden, Allison; Kubofcik, Joseph; LaRue, Nicole; de los Santos, Tala; Domingo, Gonzalo J.

    2013-01-01

    The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis has an urgent need for rapid assays to detect ongoing transmission of lymphatic filariasis (LF) following multiple rounds of mass drug administration (MDA). Current WHO guidelines support using the antigen card immunochromatographic test (ICT), which detects active filarial infection but does not detect early exposure to LF. Recent studies found that antibody-based assays better serve this function. In the present study, two tests, a rapid IgG4 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a lateral-flow strip immunoassay, were developed based on the highly sensitive and specific Wuchereria bancrofti antigen Wb123. A comparison of W. bancrofti-infected and -uninfected patients (with or without other helminth infections) demonstrated that both tests had high sensitivities and specificities (93 and 97% [ELISA] and 92 and 96% [strips], respectively). When the W. bancrofti-uninfected group was separated into those with other filarial/helminth infections (i.e., onchocerciasis, loiasis, and strongyloidiasis) and those who were parasite uninfected, the specificities of the assays varied between 91 and 100%. In addition, the geometric mean response by ELISA of W. bancrofti-infected patients was significantly higher than the response of those without W. bancrofti infection (P < 0.0001). Furthermore, the Wb123 ELISA and the lateral-flow strips had high positive and negative predictive values, giving valuable information on the size of survey population needed to be reasonably certain whether or not transmission is ongoing. These highly sensitive and specific IgG4 tests to the W. bancrofti Wb123 protein give every indication that they will serve as useful tools for post-MDA monitoring. PMID:23740923

  7. Lymphatic Filariasis in Nigeria; Micro-stratification Overlap Mapping (MOM) as a Prerequisite for Cost-Effective Resource Utilization in Control and Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Okorie, Patricia N.; Ademowo, George O.; Saka, Yisa; Davies, Emmanuel; Okoronkwo, Chukwu; Bockarie, Moses J.; Molyneux, David H.; Kelly-Hope, Louise A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Nigeria has a significant burden of lymphatic filariasis (LF) caused by the parasite Wuchereria bancrofti. A major concern to the expansion of the LF elimination programme is the risk of serious adverse events (SAEs) associated with the use of ivermectin in areas co-endemic with Loa filariasis. To better understand this, as well as other factors that may impact on LF elimination, we used Micro-stratification Overlap Mapping (MOM) to highlight the distribution and potential impact of multiple disease interventions that geographically coincide in LF endemic areas and which will impact on LF and vice versa. Methodology/Principal findings LF data from the literature and Federal Ministry of Health (FMoH) were collated into a database. LF prevalence distributions; predicted prevalence of loiasis; ongoing onchocerciasis community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTi); and long-lasting insecticidal mosquito net (LLIN) distributions for malaria were incorporated into overlay maps using geographical information system (GIS) software. LF was prevalent across most regions of the country. The mean prevalence determined by circulating filarial antigen (CFA) was 14.0% (n = 134 locations), and by microfilaria (Mf) was 8.2% (n = 162 locations). Overall, LF endemic areas geographically coincided with CDTi priority areas, however, LLIN coverage was generally low (<50%) in areas where LF prevalence was high or co-endemic with L. loa. Conclusions/Significance The extensive database and series of maps produced in this study provide an important overview for the LF Programme and will assist to maximize existing interventions, ensuring cost effective use of resources as the programme scales up. Such information is a prerequisite for the LF programme, and will allow for other factors to be included into planning, as well as monitoring and evaluation activities given the broad spectrum impact of the drugs used. PMID:24040432

  8. Biosynthesis, mosquitocidal and antibacterial properties of Toddalia asiatica-synthesized silver nanoparticles: do they impact predation of guppy Poecilia reticulata against the filariasis mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus?

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Venus, Joseph Selvaraj Eugine; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Bedini, Stefano; Conti, Barbara; Nicoletti, Marcello; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. Furthermore, pathogens and parasites polluting water also constitute a severe plague for populations of developing countries. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgN) were biosynthesized a cheap aqueous extract of T. asiatica leaves as reducing and stabilizing agent. The formation of nanoparticle was confirmed by surface Plasmon resonance band illustrated in UV-vis spectrophotometer. AgN were characterized by FTIR, SEM, EDX, and XRD analyses. AgN were mostly spherical in shape, crystalline in nature, with face-centered cubic geometry, and their mean size was 25-30 nm. T. asiatica aqueous extract and green-synthesized AgN showed excellent larvicidal and pupicidal toxicity against the filariasis vector Culex quinqufasciatus, both in laboratory and field experiments. AgN LC50 ranged from 16.48 (I instar larvae) to 31.83 ppm (pupae). T. asiatica-synthesized were also highly effective in inhibiting growth of Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella typhi using the agar disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration protocol. Lastly, we evaluated if sublethal doses of nanoparticles affect predation rates of fishes, Poecilia reticulata, against C. quinquefasciatus. In AgN-contaminated environment, predation of guppies against mosquito larvae was slightly higher over normal laboratory conditions. Overall, this study highlighted that T. asiatica-synthesized AgN are easy to produce, stable over time, and may be employed at low dosages to reduce populations of filariasis vectors, without detrimental effects on predation rates of mosquito natural enemies. PMID:26122577

  9. The Importance of Drains for the Larval Development of Lymphatic Filariasis and Malaria Vectors in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Marcia C.; Kanamori, Shogo; Kannady, Khadija; Mkude, Sigsbert; Killeen, Gerry F.; Fillinger, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Background Dar es Salaam has an extensive drain network, mostly with inadequate water flow, blocked by waste, causing flooding after rainfall. The presence of Anopheles and Culex larvae is common, which is likely to impact the transmission of lymphatic filariasis and malaria by the resulting adult mosquito populations. However, the importance of drains as larval habitats remains unknown. Methodology Data on mosquito larval habitats routinely collected by the Urban Malaria Control Program (UMCP) and a special drain survey conducted in 2006 were used to obtain a typology of habitats. Focusing on drains, logistic regression was used to evaluate potential factors impacting the presence of mosquito larvae. Spatial variation in the proportion of habitats that contained larvae was assessed through the local Moran's I indicator of spatial association. Principal Findings More than 70% of larval habitats in Dar es Salaam were human-made. Aquatic habitats associated with agriculture had the highest proportion of Anopheles larvae presence and the second highest of Culex larvae presence. However, the majority of aquatic habitats were drains (42%), and therefore, 43% (1,364/3,149) of all culicine and 33% (320/976) of all anopheline positive habitats were drains. Compared with drains where water was flowing at normal velocity, the odds of finding Anopheles and Culex larvae were 8.8 and 6.3 (p<0.001) times larger, respectively, in drains with stagnant water. There was a positive association between vegetation and the presence of mosquito larvae (p<0.001). The proportion of habitats with mosquito larvae was spatially correlated. Conclusion Restoring and maintaining drains in Dar es Salaam has the potential to eliminate more than 40% of all potential mosquito larval habitats that are currently treated with larvicides by the UMCP. The importance of human-made larval habitats for both lymphatic filariasis and malaria vectors underscores the need for a synergy between on-going control

  10. Carbon and silver nanoparticles in the fight against the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus: genotoxicity and impact on behavioral traits of non-target aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Nataraj, Devaraj; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Sujitha, Vasu; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Dinesh, Devakumar; Chandirasekar, Ramachandran; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Suresh, Udaiyan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Paulpandi, Manickam; Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Wei, Hui; Syuhei, Ban; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. The Culex genus, with special reference to Culex quinquefasciatus, comprises the most common vectors of filariasis across urban and semi-urban areas of Asia. In recent years, important efforts have been conducted to propose green-synthesized nanoparticles as a valuable alternative to synthetic insecticides. However, the mosquitocidal potential of carbon nanoparticles has been scarcely investigated. In this study, the larvicidal and pupicidal activity of carbon nanoparticle (CNP) and silver nanoparticle (AgNP) was tested against Cx. quinquefasciatus. UV-Vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and Raman analysis confirmed the rapid and cheap synthesis of carbon and silver nanoparticles. In laboratory assays, LC50 (lethal concentration that kills 50 % of the exposed organisms) values ranged from 8.752 ppm (first-instar larvae) to 18.676 ppm (pupae) for silver nanoparticles and from 6.373 ppm (first-instar larvae) to 14.849 ppm (pupae) for carbon nanoparticles. The predation efficiency of the water bug Lethocerus indicus after a single treatment with low doses of silver and carbon nanoparticles was not reduced. Moderate evidence of genotoxic effects induced by exposure to carbon nanoparticles was found on non-target goldfish, Carassius auratus. Lastly, the plant extract used for silver nanosynthesis was tested for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activity. Overall, our results pointed out that AgNP and CNP can be a candidate for effective tools to reduce larval and pupal populations of filariasis vectors, with reduced genotoxicity and impact on behavioral traits of other aquatic organisms sharing the same ecological

  11. The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis: History and achievements with special reference to annual single-dose treatment with diethylcarbamazine in Samoa and Fiji.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Eisaku

    2011-03-01

    Diethylcarbamazine (DEC), first introduced in 1947, was shown to have strong efficacy and safety for treatment of human lymphatic filariasis, which is caused mostly by a species Wuchereria bancrofti. Many studies to optimize the dosage and treatment schedule of DEC followed, and, based on the results, control programs with various regimens were implemented in different endemic areas/countries. By the mid 1970s, with endorsement by the WHO Expert Committee on Filariasis (3rd report, 1974), the standard DEC regimen for W. bancrofti infection in mass treatment had been established in principle: a total dose of 72 mg/kg of body weight given in 12 divided doses, once weekly or monthly, at 6 mg/kg each. Not long after the committee report, the efficacy of annual single-dose treatment at 6 mg/kg, which is only one twelfth of the WHO-recommended dose in a year, was reported effective in French Polynesia (study period: 1973-78), and later in Samoa (study period: 1979-81). These results were published between 1978 and 1985 in the Bulletin of WHO but received little attention. In the mid 1980s, the efficacy of ivermectin, the first-choice drug for onchocerciasis, against lymphatic filariae came to light. Since the effect at a single dose was remarkable, and often better than DEC, it was predicted that the newly introduced drug would replace DEC. Treatment experiments with ivermectin increased quickly in number. Meanwhile, annual single-dose mass drug administration (MDA) with DEC at 6 mg/kg was under scrutiny in Samoa and Fiji. In the early 1990s, the Samoan study, which covered the entire population of 160,000 with 3 annual MDAs, reported a significant reduction in microfilaria (mf) prevalence and mean mf density, while in Fiji, the efficacy of 5 rounds of annual MDA (total dose, 30 mg/kg) was shown to be as effective as 28 multi-dose MDA spread over 2 years (6 weekly plus 22 monthly treatments at 5 mg/kg; total dose, 140 mg/kg). Several additional studies carried out in

  12. India tackles lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed

    Bagcchi, Sanjeet

    2015-04-01

    The Indian Government has instigated an ambitious plan to tackle this disabling disease with a combination of a high-profile campaign and mass drug administration. Sanjeet Bagcchi reports. PMID:25809895

  13. Filariasis in the Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, R.

    1957-01-01

    The author summarizes the available information on Loa loa, Acanthocheilonema perstans and Wuchereria bancrofti infections in the Sudan, with special reference to the prevalence and distribution of the vectors. PMID:13472413

  14. Lymphedema secondary to filariasis

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J.C.; Humphrey, G.B.; Basmadjian, G.

    1985-03-01

    A 1-year-old immunodeficient boy developed brawny edema of the left foot. Lymphoscintigraphy revealed no evidence of left inguinal activity following pedal injection of Tc-99m-Sn phosphate. Over the next two months, the patient developed lymphedema on the right and repeat scintigraphy demonstrated no movement of isotope from the dorsum of either foot. Subsequent studies identified microfilaria in a nocturnal blood smear, which were thought to represent Brugia beaveri acquired by mosquito transmission in Oklahoma.

  15. The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis: History and achievements with special reference to annual single-dose treatment with diethylcarbamazine in Samoa and Fiji

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Eisaku

    2011-01-01

    Diethylcarbamazine (DEC), first introduced in 1947, was shown to have strong efficacy and safety for treatment of human lymphatic filariasis, which is caused mostly by a species Wuchereria bancrofti. Many studies to optimize the dosage and treatment schedule of DEC followed, and, based on the results, control programs with various regimens were implemented in different endemic areas/countries. By the mid 1970s, with endorsement by the WHO Expert Committee on Filariasis (3rd report, 1974), the standard DEC regimen for W. bancrofti infection in mass treatment had been established in principle: a total dose of 72 mg/kg of body weight given in 12 divided doses, once weekly or monthly, at 6 mg/kg each. Not long after the committee report, the efficacy of annual single-dose treatment at 6 mg/kg, which is only one twelfth of the WHO-recommended dose in a year, was reported effective in French Polynesia (study period: 1973-78), and later in Samoa (study period: 1979-81). These results were published between 1978 and 1985 in the Bulletin of WHO but received little attention. In the mid 1980s, the efficacy of ivermectin, the first-choice drug for onchocerciasis, against lymphatic filariae came to light. Since the effect at a single dose was remarkable, and often better than DEC, it was predicted that the newly introduced drug would replace DEC. Treatment experiments with ivermectin increased quickly in number. Meanwhile, annual single-dose mass drug administration (MDA) with DEC at 6 mg/kg was under scrutiny in Samoa and Fiji. In the early 1990s, the Samoan study, which covered the entire population of 160,000 with 3 annual MDAs, reported a significant reduction in microfilaria (mf) prevalence and mean mf density, while in Fiji, the efficacy of 5 rounds of annual MDA (total dose, 30 mg/kg) was shown to be as effective as 28 multi-dose MDA spread over 2 years (6 weekly plus 22 monthly treatments at 5 mg/kg; total dose, 140 mg/kg). Several additional studies carried out in

  16. [Lymphatic filariasis transmission assessment survey in schools three years after stopping mass drug treatment with albendazole and ivermectin in the 7 endemic districts in Togo].

    PubMed

    Dorkenoo, A M; Sodahlon, Y K; Bronzan, R N; Yakpa, K; Sossou, E; Ouro-Medeli, A; Teko, M; Seim, A; Mathieu, E

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to verify the level of transmission of lymphatic filariasis three years after stopping mass drug treatment in the 7 endemic districts in Togo. The survey was conducted in 2012 in Togo's 7 endemic districts grouped into four evaluation units (EU) using the WHO-recommended transmission assessment survey (TAS) protocol. Children aged 6-7 years were screened for Wuchereria bancofti antigen using the immunochromatographic card (ICT) method. A cluster sampling method was used to select eligible children in schools as the net primary-school enrolment ratio is greater than or equal to 75% in each of the four EUs. The number of children and schools to be selected in each EU, the randomization list for the selection of these children and the critical cut-off number of positive cases not to exceed were automatically generated using the Survey Sample Builder (SSB) tool, (NTD Support Center, Atlanta, Ga, USA). For confirmation, positive cases were subsequently tested for microfilaremia using nocturnal thick blood smear and for filarial antigen using Og4C3 antigen ELISA (TropBio ELISA Kit®, Townsville, Queensland, Australia). An EU is considered to have passed the test successfully (it is assumed that transmission can no longer be sustained), when the number of positive cases is below the critical cut-off number set by the SSB, which is roughly equivalent to 2% prevalence. Of the 1 706 children surveyed in Kpendjal-Tone's EU, 1 549 in Binah-Doufelgou's EU, 1 550 in Kozah's EU and the 1 575 in Amou-Haho's EU, 8 (0.46%), 1 (0.08%), 0 (0.00%) and 4 (0.25%) ICT positive cases respectively were detected. The number of positive ICT tests was well below 18, the critical cut number for each of the 4 EUs. All 13 ICT positive cases tested negative for nocturnal microfilaremia and Og4C3 ELISA. We conclude that all four EU passed the TAS with success, and the transmission of Wuchereria bancrofti is no longer likely to be sustained in the 7 endemic districts in Togo

  17. Lymphatic filariasis control in Tanzania: effect of six rounds of mass drug administration with ivermectin and albendazole on infection and transmission

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Control of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in most countries of sub-Saharan Africa is based on annual mass drug administration (MDA) with a combination of ivermectin and albendazole, in order to interrupt transmission. We present findings from a detailed study on the effect of six rounds of MDA with this drug combination as implemented by the National Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Programme (NLFEP) in a highly endemic rural area of north-eastern Tanzania. Methods The effect of treatment on transmission and human infection was monitored in a community- and a school-based study during an 8-year period (one pre-intervention and 7 post-intervention years) from 2003 to 2011. Results Before intervention, 24.5% of the community population had microfilariae (mf) in the blood, 53.3% had circulating filarial antigens (CFA) and 78.9% had specific antibodies to the recombinant filarial antigen Bm14. One year after the sixth MDA, these values had decreased considerably to 2.7%, 19.6% and 27.5%, respectively. During the same period, the CFA prevalence among new intakes of Standard 1 pupils in 10 primary schools decreased from 25.2% to 5.6%. In line with this, transmission by the three vectors (Anopheles gambiae, An. funestus and Culex quinquefasciatus) as determined by dissection declined sharply (overall vector infectivity rate by 99.3% and mean monthly transmission potential by 99.2% between pre-intervention and fifth post-intervention period). A major shift in vector species composition, from predominantly anopheline to almost exclusively culicine was observed over the years. This may be largely unrelated to the MDAs but may have important implications for the epidemiology of LF in the area. Conclusions Six MDAs caused considerable decrease in all the measured indices for transmission and human infection. In spite of this, indices were still relatively high in the late period of the study, and it may take a long time to reach the recommended cut-off levels for

  18. The Effect of Hygiene-Based Lymphedema Management in Lymphatic Filariasis-Endemic Areas: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Stocks, Meredith E.; Freeman, Matthew C.; Addiss, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lymphedema of the leg and its advanced form, known as elephantiasis, are significant causes of disability and morbidity in areas endemic for lymphatic filariasis (LF), with an estimated 14 million persons affected worldwide. The twin goals of the World Health Organization’s Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis include interrupting transmission of the parasitic worms that cause LF and providing care to persons who suffer from its clinical manifestations, including lymphedema—so-called morbidity management and disability prevention (MMDP). Scaling up of MMDP has been slow, in part because of a lack of consensus about the effectiveness of recommended hygiene-based interventions for clinical lymphedema. Methods and Findings We conducted a systemic review and meta-analyses to estimate the effectiveness of hygiene-based interventions on LF-related lymphedema. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, ISI Web of Knowledge, MedCarib, Lilacs, REPIDISCA, DESASTRES, and African Index Medicus databases through March 23, 2015 with no restriction on year of publication. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they (1) were conducted in an area endemic for LF, (2) involved hygiene-based interventions to manage lymphedema, and (3) assessed lymphedema-related morbidity. For clinical outcomes for which three or more studies assessed comparable interventions for lymphedema, we conducted random-effects meta-analyses. Twenty-two studies met the inclusion criteria and two meta-analyses were possible. To evaluate study quality, we developed a set of criteria derived from the GRADE methodology. Publication bias was assessed using funnel plots. Participation in hygiene-based lymphedema management was associated with a lower incidence of acute dermatolymphagioadenitis (ADLA), (Odds Ratio 0.32, 95% CI 0.25–0.40), as well as with a decreased percentage of patients reporting at least one episode of ADLA during follow-up (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.12–0.47). Limitations

  19. The Impact of Two Semiannual Treatments with Albendazole Alone on Lymphatic Filariasis and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections: A Community-Based Study in the Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Pion, Sébastien D. S.; Chesnais, Cédric B.; Bopda, Jean; Louya, Frédéric; Fischer, Peter U.; Majewski, Andrew C.; Weil, Gary J.; Boussinesq, Michel; Missamou, François

    2015-01-01

    Implementation of mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin plus albendazole (ALB) for lymphatic filariasis (LF) has been delayed in central Africa because of the risk of serious adverse events in subjects with high Loa loa microfilaremia. We conducted a community trial to assess the impact of semiannual MDA with ALB (400 mg) alone on LF and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in the Republic of Congo. Evaluation at 12 months showed that ALB MDA had not significantly reduced Wuchereria bancrofti antigenemia or microfilaria (mf) rates in the community (from 17.3% to 16.6% and from 5.3% to 4.2%, respectively). However, the geometric mean mf count in mf-positive subjects was reduced from 202.2 to 80.9 mf/mL (60% reduction, P = 0.01). The effect of ALB was impressive in 38 subjects who were mf-positive at baseline and retested at 12 months: 37% had total mf clearance, and individual mf densities were reduced by 73.0%. MDA also dramatically reduced the hookworm infection rate in the community from 6.5% to 0.6% (91% reduction), with less impressive effects on Ascaris and Trichuris. These preliminary results suggest that semiannual community MDA with ALB is a promising strategy for controlling LF and STH in areas with coendemic loiasis. PMID:25758650

  20. Factors associated with the performance and cost-effectiveness of using lymphatic filariasis transmission assessment surveys for monitoring soil-transmitted helminths: a case study in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jennifer L; Sturrock, Hugh J W; Assefa, Liya; Nikolay, Birgit; Njenga, Sammy M; Kihara, Jimmy; Mwandawiro, Charles S; Brooker, Simon J

    2015-02-01

    Transmission assessment surveys (TAS) for lymphatic filariasis have been proposed as a platform to assess the impact of mass drug administration (MDA) on soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). This study used computer simulation and field data from pre- and post-MDA settings across Kenya to evaluate the performance and cost-effectiveness of the TAS design for STH assessment compared with alternative survey designs. Variations in the TAS design and different sample sizes and diagnostic methods were also evaluated. The district-level TAS design correctly classified more districts compared with standard STH designs in pre-MDA settings. Aggregating districts into larger evaluation units in a TAS design decreased performance, whereas age group sampled and sample size had minimal impact. The low diagnostic sensitivity of Kato-Katz and mini-FLOTAC methods was found to increase misclassification. We recommend using a district-level TAS among children 8-10 years of age to assess STH but suggest that key consideration is given to evaluation unit size. PMID:25487730

  1. Post-Mass Drug Administration Transmission Assessment Survey for Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis in La Ciénaga, Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Noland, Gregory S; Blount, Stephen; Gonzalez, Manuel

    2015-12-01

    The Dominican Republic is one of four remaining countries in the Americas with lymphatic filariasis (LF). Annual mass drug administration (MDA) with albendazole and diethylcarbamazine was conducted in La Ciénaga, an impoverished urban barrio in Santo Domingo, from 2004 to 2006. Eight years after the last MDA, a transmission assessment survey (TAS) was conducted in November-December 2014 to determine if LF transmission remains absent. Of 815 first and second grade primary school students (mean age: 6.51 years; range 5-9) tested by immunochromatographic test (ICT), zero (0.0%) were positive. This is below the TAS critical cutoff of nine, indicating that the area "passed" TAS and that transmission remains interrupted in La Ciénaga. Importantly, this also provides evidence that three rounds of effective (> 65% coverage) MDA, likely aided by environmental improvements and periodic school-based albendazole monotherapy MDA, achieved interruption of LF transmission from a relatively low-transmission setting. PMID:26503279

  2. Factors Associated with the Performance and Cost-Effectiveness of Using Lymphatic Filariasis Transmission Assessment Surveys for Monitoring Soil-Transmitted Helminths: A Case Study in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jennifer L.; Sturrock, Hugh J. W.; Assefa, Liya; Nikolay, Birgit; Njenga, Sammy M.; Kihara, Jimmy; Mwandawiro, Charles S.; Brooker, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Transmission assessment surveys (TAS) for lymphatic filariasis have been proposed as a platform to assess the impact of mass drug administration (MDA) on soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). This study used computer simulation and field data from pre- and post-MDA settings across Kenya to evaluate the performance and cost-effectiveness of the TAS design for STH assessment compared with alternative survey designs. Variations in the TAS design and different sample sizes and diagnostic methods were also evaluated. The district-level TAS design correctly classified more districts compared with standard STH designs in pre-MDA settings. Aggregating districts into larger evaluation units in a TAS design decreased performance, whereas age group sampled and sample size had minimal impact. The low diagnostic sensitivity of Kato-Katz and mini-FLOTAC methods was found to increase misclassification. We recommend using a district-level TAS among children 8–10 years of age to assess STH but suggest that key consideration is given to evaluation unit size. PMID:25487730

  3. Environmental factors associated with the distribution of Anopheles gambiae s.s in Ghana; an important vector of lymphatic filariasis and malaria.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Dziedzom; Kelly-Hope, Louise; Lawson, Bernard; Wilson, Michael; Boakye, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae s.s mosquitoes are important vectors of lymphatic filariasis (LF) and malaria in Ghana. To better understand their ecological aspects and influence on disease transmission, we examined the spatial distribution of the An. gambiae (M and S) molecular forms and associated environmental factors, and determined their relationship with disease prevalence. Published and current data available on the An. gambiae species in Ghana were collected in a database for analysis, and the study sites were georeferenced and mapped. Using the An. gambiae s.s sites, environmental data were derived from climate, vegetation and remote-sensed satellite sources, and disease prevalence data from existing LF and malaria maps in the literature. The data showed that An. gambiae M and S forms were sympatric in most locations. However, the S form predominated in the central region, while the M form predominated in the northern and coastal savanna regions. Bivariate and multiple regression analyses identified temperature as a key factor distinguishing their distributions. An. gambiae M was significantly correlated with LF, and 2.5 to 3 times more prevalent in the high LF zone than low to medium zones. There were no significant associations between high prevalence An. gambiae s.s locations and malaria. The distribution of the An. gambiae M and S forms and the diseases they transmit in Ghana appear to be distinct, driven by different environmental factors. This study provides useful baseline information for disease control, and future work on the An. gambiae s.s in Ghana. PMID:20360950

  4. The impact of two semiannual treatments with albendazole alone on lymphatic filariasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections: a community-based study in the Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Pion, Sébastien D S; Chesnais, Cédric B; Bopda, Jean; Louya, Frédéric; Fischer, Peter U; Majewski, Andrew C; Weil, Gary J; Boussinesq, Michel; Missamou, François

    2015-05-01

    Implementation of mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin plus albendazole (ALB) for lymphatic filariasis (LF) has been delayed in central Africa because of the risk of serious adverse events in subjects with high Loa loa microfilaremia. We conducted a community trial to assess the impact of semiannual MDA with ALB (400 mg) alone on LF and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in the Republic of Congo. Evaluation at 12 months showed that ALB MDA had not significantly reduced Wuchereria bancrofti antigenemia or microfilaria (mf) rates in the community (from 17.3% to 16.6% and from 5.3% to 4.2%, respectively). However, the geometric mean mf count in mf-positive subjects was reduced from 202.2 to 80.9 mf/mL (60% reduction, P = 0.01). The effect of ALB was impressive in 38 subjects who were mf-positive at baseline and retested at 12 months: 37% had total mf clearance, and individual mf densities were reduced by 73.0%. MDA also dramatically reduced the hookworm infection rate in the community from 6.5% to 0.6% (91% reduction), with less impressive effects on Ascaris and Trichuris. These preliminary results suggest that semiannual community MDA with ALB is a promising strategy for controlling LF and STH in areas with coendemic loiasis. PMID:25758650

  5. Construction and bacterial expression of a recombinant single-chain antibody fragment against Wuchereria bancrofti SXP-1 antigen for the diagnosis of lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed

    Kamatchi, R; Charumathi, J; Ravishankaran, R; Kaliraj, P; Meenakshisundaram, S

    2016-01-01

    Global programmes to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (GPELF) require mapping, monitoring and evaluation using filarial antigen diagnostic kits. To meet this objective, a functional single-chain fragment variable (ScFv) specific for filarial Wuchereria bancrofti SXP-1 (Wb-SXP-1) antigen was constructed for the diagnosis of active filarial infection, an alternative to the production of complete antibodies using hybridomas. The variable heavy chain (VH) and the variable light chain (kappa) (Vκ) genes were amplified from the mouse hybridoma cell line and were linked together with a flexible linker by overlap extension polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The ScFv construct (Vκ-Linker-VH) was expressed as a fusion protein with N-terminal His tag in Escherichia coli and purified using immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) without the addition of reducing agents. Immunoblotting and sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to analyse the antigen binding affinity of purified ScFv. The purified ScFv was found to recognize recombinant and native Wb-SXP-1 antigen in microfilariae (Mf)-positive patient sera. The affinity of ScFv was comparable with that of the monoclonal antibody. The development of recombinant ScFv to replace monoclonal antibody for detection of filarial antigen was achieved. The recombinant ScFv was purified, on-column refolded and its detection ability validated using field samples. PMID:26693887

  6. Impact of education campaign on community-based vector control in hastening the process of elimination of lymphatic filariasis in Tamil Nadu, South India.

    PubMed

    Nandha, B; Krishnamoorthy, K

    2012-08-01

    Globally mosquito-borne lymphatic filariasis (LF) is targeted for elimination by 2020. Towards this goal, the scope of community-based vector control as a supplementary strategy to mass drug administration (MDA) was assessed through an intensive education campaign and evaluated using pre- and post-educational surveys in an intervention and comparison village in Tamil Nadu, South India. Environmental and entomological indicators for breeding sites and mosquito density were examined before and after the intervention. Significant (P < 0.05) increase in knowledge was observed in intervention area with regard to transmission and control of LF. Relative change between intervention and comparison villages before and after intervention was also significant (z = >1.96). Multiple mosquito control and personal protection methods were in use during the post-intervention assessment and was evident from the significantly (P < 0.05) higher average score. Breeding sources declined significantly (P < 0.05) in the intervention village with a significant relative change (z = 4.32). Significant reduction in per man-hour indoor resting density of mosquitoes was observed in the intervention area compared to baseline. The per capita cost for reducing 87% of the mosquito density was $ 0.32 indicating the effectiveness of community-based approach. The usefulness of this strategy in the elimination of LF is discussed. PMID:21724963

  7. Advantages of ivermectin at a single dose of 400 micrograms/kg compared with 100 micrograms/kg for community treatment of lymphatic filariasis in Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, N L; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Glaziou, P; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L

    1994-01-01

    In April and October in 1991-1993, 5 supervised single doses of ivermectin were given to inhabitants aged > or = 3 years in a Polynesian district: the first 3 treatments were with 100 micrograms/kg and the 2 latter with 400 micrograms/kg. At each treatment, about 97% of the eligible population (899) were treated and blood samples were collected just before treatment from 96% of the 613 inhabitants aged > or = 15 years. Following the 5 successive treatments, adverse reactions were observed in, respectively, 23.8, 13, 6.2, 13.6 and 7.9% of the microfilariae (mf) carriers, and in less than 1% of amicrofilaraemic subjects. Neither the frequency nor the intensity of adverse reactions was significantly different between single doses of 100 micrograms/kg and 400 micrograms/kg. Although the geometric mean microfilaraemia (GMM) was reduced, the mf carrier prevalence remained unchanged before and after 3 mass treatments with 100 micrograms/kg (21.4 and 20.7% respectively), and the mf recurrence rate 6 months after each dose of 100 micrograms/kg was roughly stable (respectively, 34.3%, 21.6% and 31.2% of the initial GMM). In contrast, after one dose round of 400 micrograms/kg, the mf carrier prevalence decreased significantly to 14.9% (P < 10(-6)), and the mf recurrence rate dropped to 9.9% (P < 10(-3)) of the initial GMM. These results confirm the safety and the effectiveness of 400 micrograms/kg of ivermectin for lymphatic filariasis control. PMID:7570845

  8. Mass chemoprophylaxis of lymphatic filariasis with a single dose of ivermectin in a Polynesian community with a high Wuchereria bancrofti infection rate.

    PubMed

    Cartel, J L; Nguyen, N L; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Plichart, R; Martin, P M; Spiegel, A

    1992-01-01

    In April 1991 supervised mass prophylaxis of lymphatic filariasis with a single dose of ivermectin, 100 micrograms/kg, was carried out in a Polynesian village with a high infection rate of Wuchereria bancrofti in humans and active transmission by the vector mosquito, Aedes polynesiensis. Of 876 inhabitants aged 3 years or more (pregnant women excluded), 864 (98.6%) were treated. Simultaneously, venous blood samples were collected from 577 (97.5%) of the 595 inhabitants aged 15 years or more, of whom 122 (21.4%) were found to be microfilaria (mf) carriers (86 males and 36 females). The geometric mean microfilariae (GMM) count was 358.7 mf/ml for the whole group, 387 mf/ml for males (range 1-8160 mf/ml) and 280 mf/ml for females (range 1-7769 mf/ml). Following treatment, 33 (3.8%) of the 864 persons treated experienced some adverse reactions (21 with grade 1 and 12 with grade 2). Of the 33 with reactions, 29 were among the 122 (23.8%) mf carriers and 4 among the 831 (0.5%) non-microfilaraemic persons. Six months later, 123 (21.1%) of 584 inhabitants sampled were microfilaraemic: the GMM count for the whole group was 106 mf/ml (1-8177), with 29 mf/ml (1-3740) in 35 female and 177 mf/ml (1-8177) in 88 male carriers. Of these 123, 15 (whose GMM count was 4.5 mf/ml; range 1-204) were amicrofilaraemic 6 months before, and 19 had a microfilaraemia level higher than that 6 months earlier, before treatment. 117 of the 122 carriers identified in April were resampled: comparison of their GMM counts before and 6 months after mass treatment indicated that treatment with a single dose of 100 micrograms/kg ivermectin resulted in a reduction of microfilaraemia by 69%. PMID:1475825

  9. DNA vaccine encoding the moonlighting protein Onchocerca volvulus glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Ov-GAPDH) leads to partial protection in a mouse model of human filariasis.

    PubMed

    Steisslinger, Vera; Korten, Simone; Brattig, Norbert W; Erttmann, Klaus D

    2015-10-26

    River blindness, caused by the filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus, is a major socio-economic and public health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa. In January 2015, The Onchocerciasis Vaccine for Africa (TOVA) Initiative has been launched with the aim of providing new tools to complement mass drug administration (MDA) of ivermectin, thereby promoting elimination of onchocerciasis in Africa. In this context we here present Onchocerca volvulus glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Ov-GAPDH) as a possible DNA vaccine candidate. We report that in a laboratory model for filariasis, immunization with Ov-GAPDH led to a significant reduction of adult worm load and microfilaraemia in BALB/c mice after challenge infection with the filarial parasite Litomosoides sigmodontis. Mice were either vaccinated with Ov-GAPDH.DNA plasmid (Ov-pGAPDH.DNA) alone or in combination with recombinantly expressed Ov-GAPDH protein (Ov-rGAPDH). During the following challenge infection of immunized and control mice with L. sigmodontis, those formulations which included the DNA plasmid, led to a significant reduction of adult worm loads (up to 57% median reduction) and microfilaraemia (up to 94% reduction) in immunized animals. In a further experiment, immunization with a mixture of four overlapping, synthetic Ov-GAPDH peptides (Ov-GAPDHpept), with alum as adjuvant, did not significantly reduce worm loads. Our results indicate that DNA vaccination with Ov-GAPDH has protective potential against filarial challenge infection in the mouse model. This suggests a transfer of the approach into the cattle Onchocerca ochengi model, where it is possible to investigate the effects of this vaccination in the context of a natural host-parasite relationship. PMID:26320419

  10. Progress and Impact of 13 Years of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis on Reducing the Burden of Filarial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ramaiah, K. D.; Ottesen, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Background A Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis was launched in 2000, with mass drug administration (MDA) as the core strategy of the programme. After completing 13 years of operations through 2012 and with MDA in place in 55 of 73 endemic countries, the impact of the MDA programme on microfilaraemia, hydrocele and lymphedema is in need of being assessed. Methodology/Principal findings During 2000–2012, the MDA programme made remarkable achievements – a total of 6.37 billion treatments were offered and an estimated 4.45 billion treatments were consumed by the population living in endemic areas. Using a model based on empirical observations of the effects of treatment on clinical manifestations, it is estimated that 96.71 million LF cases, including 79.20 million microfilaria carriers, 18.73 million hydrocele cases and a minimum of 5.49 million lymphedema cases have been prevented or cured during this period. Consequently, the global prevalence of LF is calculated to have fallen by 59%, from 3.55% to 1.47%. The fall was highest for microfilaraemia prevalence (68%), followed by 49% in hydrocele prevalence and 25% in lymphedema prevalence. It is estimated that, currently, i.e. after 13 years of the MDA programme, there are still an estimated 67.88 million LF cases that include 36.45 million microfilaria carriers, 19.43 million hydrocele cases and 16.68 million lymphedema cases. Conclusions/Significance The MDA programme has resulted in significant reduction of the LF burden. Extension of MDA to all at-risk countries and to all regions within those countries where MDA has not yet reached 100% geographic coverage is imperative to further reduce the number of microfilaraemia and chronic disease cases and to reach the global target of interrupting transmission of LF by 2020. PMID:25412180

  11. Interleukin-10- and Transforming Growth Factor β-Independent Regulation of CD8+ T Cells Expressing Type 1 and Type 2 Cytokines in Human Lymphatic Filariasis

    PubMed Central

    Anuradha, Rajamanickam; George, Parakkal Jovvian; Kumaran, Paul; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is known to be associated with diminished CD4+ Th1 and elevated CD4+ Th2 responses to parasite-specific antigens. The roles of cytokine-expressing CD8+ T cells in immune responses to filarial infections are not well defined. To study the roles of CD8+ T cells expressing type 1, type 2, and type 17 cytokines in filarial infections, we examined the frequencies of these cells in clinically asymptomatic, patently infected (INF) individuals, directly ex vivo and in response to parasite or nonparasite antigens; these frequencies were compared with the results for individuals with filarial lymphedema (i.e., clinical pathology [CP]) and those without active infection or pathology (i.e., endemic normal [EN]). INF individuals exhibited significant decreases in the frequencies of CD8+ T cells expressing tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and interleukin-22 (IL-22) at baseline and/or in response to filarial antigens, compared with CP and EN individuals. In contrast, the same individuals exhibited significant increases in the frequencies of CD8+ T cells expressing IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-13, and IL-21, compared with CP and/or EN individuals. Curative treatment resulted in significantly increased frequencies of CD8+ T cells expressing IL-2 and significantly decreased frequencies of CD8+ T cells expressing type 2 cytokines. Finally, the regulation of these responses appears to be independent of IL-10 and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), since blockade of IL-10 or TGF-β signaling did not significantly alter the frequencies of type 1 or type 2 cytokine-expressing CD8+ T cells. Our findings suggest that alterations in the frequencies of cytokine-expressing CD8+ T cells are characteristic features of lymphatic filarial infections. PMID:25253667

  12. Parasite-Antigen Driven Expansion of IL-5− and IL-5+ Th2 Human Subpopulations in Lymphatic Filariasis and Their Differential Dependence on IL-10 and TGFβ

    PubMed Central

    Anuradha, Rajamanickam; George, Parakkal Jovvian; Hanna, Luke E.; Chandrasekaran, Vedachalam; Kumaran, P. Paul; Nutman, Thomas B.; Babu, Subash

    2014-01-01

    Background Two different Th2 subsets have been defined recently on the basis of IL-5 expression – an IL-5+Th2 subset and an IL-5−Th2 subset in the setting of allergy. However, the role of these newly described CD4+ T cells subpopulations has not been explored in other contexts. Methods To study the role of the Th2 subpopulation in a chronic, tissue invasive parasitic infection (lymphatic filariasis), we examined the frequency of IL-5+IL-4+IL-13+ CD4+ T cells and IL-5−IL-4 IL-13+ CD4+ T cells in asymptomatic, infected individuals (INF) and compared them to frequencies (Fo) in filarial-uninfected (UN) individuals and to those with filarial lymphedema (CP). Results INF individuals exhibited a significant increase in the spontaneously expressed and antigen-induced Fo of both Th2 subpopulations compared to the UN and CP. Interestingly, there was a positive correlation between the Fo of IL-5+Th2 cells and the absolute eosinophil and neutrophil counts; in addition there was a positive correlation between the frequency of the CD4+IL-5−Th2 subpopulation and the levels of parasite antigen – specific IgE and IgG4 in INF individuals. Moreover, blockade of IL-10 and/or TGFβ demonstrated that each of these 2 regulatory cytokines exert opposite effects on the different Th2 subsets. Finally, in those INF individuals cured of infection by anti-filarial therapy, there was a significantly decreased Fo of both Th2 subsets. Conclusions Our findings suggest that both IL-5+ and IL-5−Th2 cells play an important role in the regulation of immune responses in filarial infection and that these two Th2 subpopulations may be regulated by different cytokine-receptor mediated processes. PMID:24498448

  13. Evaluating the efficacy of rBmHATαc as a multivalent vaccine against lymphatic filariasis in experimental animals and optimizing the adjuvant formulation

    PubMed Central

    Dakshinamoorthy, Gajalakshmi; Kalyanasundaram, Ramaswamy

    2013-01-01

    Developing an effective vaccine against lymphatic filariasis will complement the WHO's effort to eradicate the infection from endemic areas. Currently 83 different countries are endemic for this infection and over 1 billion people are at risk. An effective vaccine coupled with mass drug administration will reduce the morbidity and social stigma associated with this gruesome disease. Several potential vaccine candidates that can confer partial protection in experimental animals have been reported from different laboratories. However, no licensed vaccines are currently available for this disease. Among the several vaccine antigens identified from our laboratory, three most promising antigens; rBmHSPαc (α crystalline domain and c-terminal extension of Heat Shock Protein 12.6), rBmALT-2 (Abundant larval transcript) and rBmTSP LEL (Tetraspanin large extracellular loop) was further developed as a recombinant fusion protein vaccine (rBmHATαc). In a mouse model this fusion protein vaccine gave close to 68% protection following a challenge infection. To improve the vaccine efficiency of rBmHATαc, in this study we evaluated various preparations of alum (AL007, AL019, Alhydrogel and Imject® Alum) as adjuvants. Our results show that mice immunized with rBmHATαc formulated in AL007 (alum from IDRI) and/or AL019 (alum plus TLR-4 agonist from IDRI) gave the highest IgG antibody titer compared to other groups. Subsequent in vivo challenge experiments confirmed that >95% protection can be achieved when AL007 or AL019 was used as the adjuvant. However, when Imject® Alum or alhydrogel was used as the adjuvant only 76% and 72% protection respectively could be achieved. These results show that AL007 or AL019 (IDRI) is an excellent choice of adjuvant for the rBmHATαc vaccine against B. malayi L3 in mice. PMID:24211167

  14. No Evidence for Lymphatic Filariasis Transmission in Big Cities Affected by Conflict Related Rural-Urban Migration in Sierra Leone and Liberia

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Dziedzom K.; Sesay, Santigie; Moore, Marnijina G.; Ansumana, Rashid; Narh, Charles A.; Kollie, Karsor; Rebollo, Maria P.; Koudou, Benjamin G.; Koroma, Joseph B.; Bolay, Fatorma K.; Boakye, Daniel A.; Bockarie, Moses J.

    2014-01-01

    Background In West Africa, the principal vectors of lymphatic filariasis (LF) are Anopheles species with Culex species playing only a minor role in transmission, if any. Being a predominantly rural disease, the question remains whether conflict-related migration of rural populations into urban areas would be sufficient for active transmission of the parasite. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined LF transmission in urban areas in post-conflict Sierra Leone and Liberia that experienced significant rural-urban migration. Mosquitoes from Freetown and Monrovia, were analyzed for infection with Wuchereria bancrofti. We also undertook a transmission assessment survey (TAS) in Bo and Pujehun districts in Sierra Leone. The majority of the mosquitoes collected were Culex species, while Anopheles species were present in low numbers. The mosquitoes were analyzed in pools, with a maximum of 20 mosquitoes per pool. In both countries, a total of 1731 An. gambiae and 14342 Culex were analyzed for W. bancrofti, using the PCR. Two pools of Culex mosquitoes and 1 pool of An. gambiae were found infected from one community in Freetown. Pool screening analysis indicated a maximum likelihood of infection of 0.004 (95% CI of 0.00012–0.021) and 0.015 (95% CI of 0.0018–0.052) for the An. gambiae and Culex respectively. The results indicate that An. gambiae is present in low numbers, with a microfilaria prevalence breaking threshold value not sufficient to maintain transmission. The results of the TAS in Bo and Pujehun also indicated an antigen prevalence of 0.19% and 0.67% in children, respectively. This is well below the recommended 2% level for stopping MDA in Anopheles transmission areas, according to WHO guidelines. Conclusions We found no evidence for active transmission of LF in cities, where internally displaced persons from rural areas lived for many years during the more than 10 years conflict in Sierra Leone and Liberia. PMID:24516686

  15. Regulatory T-cell neutralization in mice during filariasis helps in parasite clearance by enhancing T helper type 17-mediated pro-inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Manisha; Sharma, Pankaj; Sharma, Aditi; Verma, Meenakshi; Srivastava, Mrigank; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja

    2016-02-01

    Lymphatic filariasis leads to profound impairment of parasite-specific T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 immune responses and significantly increases the expression of regulatory networks and regulatory effectors like transforming growth factor-β, CD25, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4, glucocorticoid-induced tumour necrosis factor receptor (GITR) and regulatory T (Treg) cells, which together play an important role in immunosuppression. While Treg cells suppress the activity of effector cells, monocyte dysfunction, characterized by an alternatively activated immunoregulatory phenotype, is one hypothesis that explains the lack of an antigen-specific T-cell response in infected individuals. In the present study, we administered neutralizing antibodies against the Treg cell-associated markers CD25 and GITR and observed its effects on filaria-induced immunosuppression. Our results show that administration of anti-CD25 and anti-GITR in infected animals not only arrested the accumulation of Treg cells and reduced arginase activity, but also led to an increase in the percentages of Th17 cells in the secondary lymphoid organs of mice. Elevated levels of interferon-γ and decreased levels of interleukin-10 were also noted in the culture supernatants of mouse splenocytes that were treated with neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, treatment with neutralizing antibodies enhanced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase on host macrophages and CD40 on host dendritic cells with concomitant decreased expression of alternative activation markers Arg1, Ym1 and Fizz1, which together lead to reduced parasite burden in treated animals. In summary, administration of neutralizing antibodies helps in breaking the regulatory network in mice and limits parasite-induced immunosuppression at the earliest host-parasite interface. PMID:26501838

  16. Evaluation of a PCR-ELISA to detect Wuchereria bancrofti in Culex pipiens from an Egyptian village with a low prevalence of filariasis.

    PubMed

    Kamal, I H; Fischer, P; Adly, M; El Sayed, A S; Morsy, Z S; Ramzy, R M

    2001-12-01

    The programmes for the elimination of bancroftian filariasis that have been implemented in the Nile delta of Egypt are expected to lead to substantial reductions in filarial loads in the treated populations. Better methods than those currently available are needed for monitoring the efficacy of these and similar efforts at intervention. A PCR-ELISA was therefore evaluated as an epidemiological tool for the detection of the Wuchereria-bancrofti-specific SspI repeat in pools of Culex pipiens collected in a village with a low prevalence of filarial infection in its human residents (2.1%). Indoor-resting mosquitoes were collected by aspiration from 114 randomly selected houses (during one to nine visits/house) and separated into 673 pools, each of which held the mosquitoes collected during one night from one house. Although 18 (2.7%) of the pools showed PCR inhibition and had to be excluded, filarial DNA was detected, using the PCR-ELISA, in 91 (13.9%) of the 655 remaining mosquito pools. The minimum prevalence of W. bancrofti infection in the mosquitoes caught (assuming one infected mosquito/positive pool) was 2.8%. The mean (S.D.) number of mosquitoes/pool did not vary significantly between positive [5.5 (3.4)] and negative [4.9 (3.5)] pools. The assay detected parasite DNA in mosquitoes from 19.3% of 114 houses when only the first visit was considered and from 73.9% of the 88 houses visited more than once. The PCR-ELISA yielded results comparable with those of the regular PCR-SspI assay. The latter assay is recommended for the routine examination, in laboratories in endemic areas, of mosquito pools from randomly selected houses, as the ELISA component of the PCR-ELISA is exceedingly time-consuming, expensive and requires special equipment. PMID:11784438

  17. Assessing Lymphatic Filariasis Data Quality in Endemic Communities in Ghana, Using the Neglected Tropical Diseases Data Quality Assessment Tool for Preventive Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Dziedzom K.; Yirenkyi, Eric; Otchere, Joseph; Biritwum, Nana-Kwadwo; Ameme, Donne K.; Sackey, Samuel; Ahorlu, Collins; Wilson, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Background The activities of the Global Programme for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis have been in operation since the year 2000, with Mass Drug Administration (MDA) undertaken yearly in disease endemic communities. Information collected during MDA–such as population demographics, age, sex, drugs used and remaining, and therapeutic and geographic coverage–can be used to assess the quality of the data reported. To assist country programmes in evaluating the information reported, the WHO, in collaboration with NTD partners, including ENVISION/RTI, developed an NTD Data Quality Assessment (DQA) tool, for use by programmes. This study was undertaken to evaluate the tool and assess the quality of data reported in some endemic communities in Ghana. Methods A cross sectional study, involving review of data registers and interview of drug distributors, disease control officers, and health information officers using the NTD DQA tool, was carried out in selected communities in three LF endemic Districts in Ghana. Data registers for service delivery points were obtained from District health office for assessment. The assessment verified reported results in comparison with recounted values for five indicators: number of tablets received, number of tablets used, number of tablets remaining, MDA coverage, and population treated. Furthermore, drug distributors, disease control officers, and health information officers (at the first data aggregation level), were interviewed, using the DQA tool, to determine the performance of the functional areas of the data management system. Findings The results showed that over 60% of the data reported were inaccurate, and exposed the challenges and limitations of the data management system. The DQA tool is a very useful monitoring and evaluation (M&E) tool that can be used to elucidate and address data quality issues in various NTD control programmes. PMID:27028010

  18. What Is Needed to Eradicate Lymphatic Filariasis? A Model-Based Assessment on the Impact of Scaling Up Mass Drug Administration Programs

    PubMed Central

    Kastner, Randee J.; Stone, Christopher M.; Steinmann, Peter; Tanner, Marcel; Tediosi, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a neglected tropical disease for which more than a billion people in 73 countries are thought to be at-risk. At a global level, the efforts against LF are designed as an elimination program. However, current efforts appear to aim for elimination in some but not all endemic areas. With the 2020 goal of elimination looming, we set out to develop plausible scale-up scenarios to reach global elimination and eradication. We predict the duration of mass drug administration (MDA) necessary to reach local elimination for a variety of transmission archetypes using an existing model of LF transmission, estimate the number of treatments required for each scenario, and consider implications of rapid scale-up. Methodology We have defined four scenarios that differ in their geographic coverage and rate of scale-up. For each scenario, country-specific simulations and calculations were performed that took into account the pre-intervention transmission intensity, the different vector genera, drug regimen, achieved level of population coverage, previous progress toward elimination, and potential programmatic delays due to mapping, operations, and administration. Principal Findings Our results indicate that eliminating LF by 2020 is unlikely. If MDA programs are drastically scaled up and expanded, the final round of MDA for LF eradication could be delivered in 2028 after 4,159 million treatments. However, if the current rate of scale-up is maintained, the final round of MDA to eradicate LF may not occur until 2050. Conclusions/Significance Rapid scale-up of MDA will decrease the amount of time and treatments required to reach LF eradication. It may also propel the program towards success, as the risk of failure is likely to increase with extended program duration. PMID:26451729

  19. Self care integrative treatment demonstrated in rural community setting improves health related quality of life of lymphatic filariasis patients in endemic villages.

    PubMed

    Aggithaya, Madhur Guruprasad; Narahari, Saravu R; Vayalil, Sudha; Shefuvan, Mohammed; Jacob, Neethu K; Sushma, Kandathu Valappil

    2013-06-01

    This study assessed impact of community based self care integrative treatment provided through mass camps in villages of three districts of Kerala, India endemic for lymphatic filariasis (LF). Two most endemic Primary Health centres (PHCs) were selected from each of the three districts, where maximum concentration of LF patients is recorded. Fourteen one day LF camps, each attended by 30-40 patients were conducted. Trained Accredited Social Health Activists encouraged LF patients to attend camps. Skin wash and drying, care of bacterial entry points using dermatology drugs, and simple yoga and breathing exercises were demonstrated in these camps. Patients were advised to continue these self care activities daily at home for six months. The quality of life (QoL) of LF patients was determined for Indian life style domains using validated and pretested specific questionnaire (LF-specific QoL questionnaire-LFSQQ). It addressed conditions and state of individuals with reference to LF. The questionnaire had 7 domains and each domain consisted of a series of questions with likert scale (no problem, mild, moderate, severe, most severe). 446 patients attended one day camps to get training on integrative self care treatment. 425 patients (95.3%) were followed up after six months and QoL was reassessed. Each patient's QoL in mobility, self care, usual activity, pain and discomfort and social relationship significantly improved (P value <0.01). Psychological health showed no significant change. The disease burden, for the purpose of the study was measured by asking questions about history of painful redness, swelling and cellulitis of legs (filarial fever), foul smell (odor), itching (eczema/discharge from limb), wound (non healing ulcer) and weight/size of the limb. The difference in disease burden as recorded during the sixth month follow up was measured using dependent t test, reduced significantly (P value <0.01) in 409 (96.2%) patients. 103 (24.2%) patients experienced

  20. Successful Control of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis in School Age Children in Burkina Faso and an Example of Community-Based Assessment via Lymphatic Filariasis Transmission Assessment Survey

    PubMed Central

    Drabo, François; Ouedraogo, Hamado; Bougma, Roland; Bougouma, Clarisse; Bamba, Issouf; Zongo, Dramane; Bagayan, Mohamed; Barrett, Laura; Yago-Wienne, Fanny; Palmer, Stephanie; Chu, Brian; Toubali, Emily; Zhang, Yaobi

    2016-01-01

    Background Burkina Faso is endemic with soil-transmitted helminth infections. Over a decade of preventive chemotherapy has been implemented through annual lymphatic filariasis (LF) mass drug administration (MDA) for population aged five years and over, biennial treatment of school age children with albendazole together with schistosomiasis MDA and biannual treatment of pre-school age children through Child Health Days. Assessments were conducted to evaluate the current situation and to determine the treatment strategy for the future. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional assessment was conducted in 22 sentinel sites across the country in 2013. In total, 3,514 school age children (1,748 boys and 1,766 girls) were examined by the Kato-Katz method. Overall, soil-transmitted helminth prevalence was 1.3% (95% CI: 1.0–1.8%) in children examined. Hookworm was the main species detected, with prevalence of 1.2% (95% CI: 0.9–1.6%) and mean egg counts of 2.1 epg (95% CI: 0–4.2 epg). Among regions, the Centre Ouest region had the highest hookworm prevalence of 3.4% (95% CI: 1.9–6.1%) and mean egg counts of 14.9 epg (95% CI: 3.3–26.6 epg). A separate assessment was conducted in the Centre Nord region in 2014 using community-based cluster survey design during an LF transmission assessment survey (TAS). In this assessment, 351 children aged 6–7 years and 345 children aged 10–14 years were examined, with two cases (0.6% (95% CI: 0.2–2.1%)) and seven cases (2.0% (95% CI: 1.0–4.1%)) of hookworm infection was identified respectively. The results using both age groups categorized the region to be 2% to <10% in STH prevalence according to the pre-defined cut-off values. Conclusions/Significance Through large-scale preventive chemotherapy, Burkina Faso has effectively controlled STH in school age children in the country. Research should be conducted on future strategies to consolidate the gain and to interrupt STH transmission in Burkina Faso. It is also

  1. Change in composition of the Anopheles gambiae complex and its possible implications for the transmission of malaria and lymphatic filariasis in north-eastern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    for An. gambiae s.s., and least for An. arabiensis, leading to current predominance of the latter. Due to differences in biology and vectorial capacity of the An. gambiae s.l. complex the change in sibling species composition will have important implications for the epidemiology and control of malaria and lymphatic filariasis in the study area. PMID:22681999

  2. Molecular characterization and evaluation of Onchocerca volvulus-secreted larval acidic protein 1 (SLAP1) as a putative vaccine candidate on endemic population of lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed

    Mahalakshmi, Natarajan; Aparnaa, Ramanathan; Ansel Vishal, Lawrance; Kaliraj, Perumal

    2013-09-01

    Filarial parasites infected nearly 160 million of the global population with onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis, and further, a billion of people are estimated to be at risk of infection, rendering them among the most prevalent infectious agents in the world today. Given the complexity of their life cycle and the immune evasion mechanisms of these organisms, development of a vaccine remains to be a long-term challenge. Though a number of immunodominant antigens have been characterized, the presence of homologous proteins in humans or the allelic variants are some of the major drawbacks. One of the extensively studied vaccine candidates is abundant larval transcripts (ALT) family of proteins for the following properties: highly regulated expression, abundance, excreted-secreted product of infective stage larvae, and essentially for parasite establishment and survival in the host. In the present study, stage-specific expression of secreted larval acidic protein 1 (SLAP1) was identified; an ALT orthologue from Onchocerca volvulus was cloned, expressed, and purified as a recombinant protein. Immunogenicity of OvSLAP1 was demonstrated with sera and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from endemic regions of Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti. OvSLAP1 antibodies were predominated by IgG1 and IgG2 in endemic normal (EN) and chronic pathology (CP) subjects. It has also induced marked cellular response as observed by lymphoproliferation assay. The study revealed that OvSLAP1 can segregate humoral (EN mean optical density (OD) = 0.87 ± 0.035, CP mean OD = 0.59 ± 0.029) and cellular (EN mean stimulation index (SI) = 5.87 ± 0.167, CP mean SI = 3.5 ± 0.134) immune responses between EN and CP individuals (P < 0.001), signifying its prophylactic ability and vitality for protection from filarial infections in endemic population. PMID:23828189

  3. Expansion of Parasite-Specific CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells Expressing IL-10 Superfamily Cytokine Members and Their Regulation in Human Lymphatic Filariasis

    PubMed Central

    Anuradha, Rajamanickam; George, Parakkal Jovvian; Hanna, Luke E.; Kumaran, Paul; Chandrasekaran, Vedachalam; Nutman, Thomas B.; Babu, Subash

    2014-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is known to be associated with an increased production of IL-10. The role of the other IL-10 family members in the pathogenesis of infection and/or disease is not known. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined the expression patterns of IL-10 family members – IL-19, IL-24 and IL-26 in LF. We demonstrate that both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells express IL-19, IL-24 and IL-26 and that the frequency of CD4+ T cells expressing IL-19 and IL-24 (as well as IL-10) is significantly increased at baseline and following filarial antigen stimulation in patients with LF in comparison to individuals with filarial lymphedema and uninfected individuals. This CD4+ T cell expression pattern was associated with increased production of IL-19 and IL-24 by filarial – antigen stimulated PBMC. Moreover, the frequency of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressing IL-26 was significantly increased following filarial antigen stimulation in filarial lymphedema individuals. Interestingly, IL-10 blockade resulted in diminished frequencies of IL-19+ and IL-24+ T cells, whereas the addition of recombinant IL-10 resulted in significantly increased frequency of IL-19+ and IL-24+ T cells as well as significantly up regulated IL-19 and IL-24 gene expression, suggesting that IL-10 regulates IL-19 and IL-24 expression in T cells. In addition, IL-1β and IL-23 blockade also induced a diminution in the frequency of IL-19+ and IL-24+ T cells, indicating a novel role for these cytokines in the induction of IL-19 and IL-24 expressing T cells. Finally, elimination of infection resulted in significantly decreased frequencies of antigen – specific CD4+ T cells expressing IL-10, IL-19 and IL-24. Conclusions Our findings, therefore, suggest that IL-19 and IL-24 are associated with the regulation of immune responses in active filarial infection and potentially with protection against development of pathology, while IL-26 is predominantly associated with pathology in LF. PMID:24699268

  4. Pilot Assessment of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis in the Context of Transmission Assessment Surveys for Lymphatic Filariasis in Benin and Tonga

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Brian K.; Gass, Katherine; Batcho, Wilfrid; 'Ake, Malakai; Dorkenoo, Améyo M.; Adjinacou, Elvire; Mafi, 'Eva; Addiss, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Mass drug administration (MDA) for lymphatic filariasis (LF) programs has delivered more than 2 billion treatments of albendazole, in combination with either ivermectin or diethylcarbamazine, to communities co-endemic for soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH), reducing the prevalence of both diseases. A transmission assessment survey (TAS) is recommended to determine if MDA for LF can be stopped within an evaluation unit (EU) after at least five rounds of annual treatment. The TAS also provides an opportunity to simultaneously assess the impact of these MDAs on STH and to determine the frequency of school-based MDA for STH after community-wide MDA is no longer needed for LF. Methodology/Principal Findings Pilot studies conducted in Benin and Tonga assessed the feasibility of a coordinated approach. Of the schools (clusters) selected for a TAS in each EU, a subset of 5 schools per STH ecological zone was randomly selected, according to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, for the coordinated survey. In Benin, 519 children were sampled in 5 schools and 22 (4.2%) had STH infection (A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, or hookworm) detected using the Kato-Katz method. All infections were classified as light intensity under WHO criteria. In Tonga, 10 schools were chosen for the coordinated TAS and STH survey covering two ecological zones; 32 of 232 (13.8%) children were infected in Tongatapu and 82 of 320 (25.6%) in Vava'u and Ha'apai. All infections were light-intensity with the exception of one with moderate-intensity T. trichiura. Conclusions Synchronous assessment of STH with TAS is feasible and provides a well-timed evaluation of infection prevalence to guide ongoing treatment decisions at a time when MDA for LF may be stopped. The coordinated field experiences in both countries also suggest potential time and cost savings. Refinement of a coordinated TAS and STH sampling methodology should be pursued, along with further validation of alternative

  5. A Cluster Randomized Study of The Safety of Integrated Treatment of Trachoma and Lymphatic Filariasis in Children and Adults in Sikasso, Mali

    PubMed Central

    Coulibaly, Yaya Ibrahim; Dicko, Ilo; Keita, Modibo; Keita, Mahamadou Minamba; Doumbia, Moussa; Daou, Adama; Haidara, Fadima Cheick; Sankare, Moussa Hama; Horton, John; Whately-Smith, Caroline; Sow, Samba Ousmane

    2013-01-01

    Background Neglected tropical diseases are co-endemic in many areas of the world, including sub Saharan Africa. Currently lymphatic filariasis (albendazole/ivermectin) and trachoma (azithromycin) are treated separately. Consequently, financial and logistical benefit can be gained from integration of preventive chemotherapy programs in such areas. Methodology/Findings 4 villages in two co-endemic districts (Kolondièba and Bougouni) of Sikasso, Mali, were randomly assigned to coadministered treatment (ivermectin/albendazole/azithromycin) or standard therapy (ivermectin/albendazole with azithromycin 1 week later). These villages had previously undergone 4 annual MDA campaigns with ivermectin/albendazole and 2 with azithromycin. One village was randomly assigned to each treatment arm in each district. There were 7515 eligible individuals in the 4 villages, 3011(40.1%) of whom participated in the study. No serious adverse events occurred, and the majority of adverse events were mild in intensity (mainly headache, abdominal pain, diarrhoea and “other signs/symptoms”). The median time to the onset of the first event, of any type, was later (8 days) in the two standard treatment villages than in the co-administration villages. Overall the number of subjects reporting any event was similar in the co-administration group compared to the standard treatment group [18.7% (281/1501) vs. 15.8% (239/1510)]. However, the event frequency was higher in the coadministration group (30.4%) than in the standard treatment group (11.0%) in Kolondièba, while the opposite was observed in Bougouni (7.1% and 20.9% respectively). Additionally, the overall frequency of adverse events in the co-administration group (18.7%) was comparable to or lower than published frequencies for ivermectin+albendazole alone. Conclusions These data suggest that co-administration of ivermectin+albendazole and azithromycin is safe; however the small number of villages studied and the large differences between

  6. Geographical factors affecting bed net ownership, a tool for the elimination of Anopheles-transmitted lymphatic filariasis in hard-to-reach communities.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Michelle C; Bockarie, Moses J; Kelly-Hope, Louise A

    2013-01-01

    Vector control, including the use of bed nets, is recommended as a possible strategy for eliminating lymphatic filariasis (LF) in post-conflict countries such as the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). This study examined the geographical factors that influence bed net ownership in DRC in order to identify hard-to-reach communities that need to be better targeted. In particular, urban/rural differences and the influence of population density, proximity to cities and health facilities, plus access to major transport networks were investigated. Demographic and Health Survey geo-referenced cluster level data were used to map bed net coverage (proportion of households with at least one of any type of bed net or at least one insecticide-treated net (ITN)), and ITN density (ITNs per person) for 260 clusters. Bivariate and multiple logistic or Poisson regression analyses were used to determine significant relationships. Overall, bed net (30%) and ITN (9%) coverage were very low with significant differences found between urban and rural clusters. In rural clusters, ITN coverage/density was positively correlated with population density (r = 0.25, 0.27 respectively, p<0.01), and negatively with the distance to the two largest cities, Kinshasa or Lubumbashi (r = -0.28, -0.30 respectively, p<0.0001). Further, ownership was significantly negatively correlated with distance to primary national roads and railways (all three measures), distance to main rivers (any bed net only) and distance to the nearest health facility (ITNs only). Logistic and Poisson regression models fitted to the rural cluster data indicated that, after controlling for measured covariates, ownership levels in the Bas-Congo province close to Kinshasa were much larger than that of other provinces. This was most noticeable when considering ITN coverage (odds ratio: 5.3, 95% CI: 3.67-7.70). This analysis provides key insights into the barriers of bed net ownership, which will help inform both LF and

  7. Geographical Factors Affecting Bed Net Ownership, a Tool for the Elimination of Anopheles-Transmitted Lymphatic Filariasis in Hard-to-Reach Communities

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Michelle C.; Bockarie, Moses J.; Kelly-Hope, Louise A.

    2013-01-01

    Vector control, including the use of bed nets, is recommended as a possible strategy for eliminating lymphatic filariasis (LF) in post-conflict countries such as the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). This study examined the geographical factors that influence bed net ownership in DRC in order to identify hard-to-reach communities that need to be better targeted. In particular, urban/rural differences and the influence of population density, proximity to cities and health facilities, plus access to major transport networks were investigated. Demographic and Health Survey geo-referenced cluster level data were used to map bed net coverage (proportion of households with at least one of any type of bed net or at least one insecticide-treated net (ITN)), and ITN density (ITNs per person) for 260 clusters. Bivariate and multiple logistic or Poisson regression analyses were used to determine significant relationships. Overall, bed net (30%) and ITN (9%) coverage were very low with significant differences found between urban and rural clusters. In rural clusters, ITN coverage/density was positively correlated with population density (r = 0.25, 0.27 respectively, p<0.01), and negatively with the distance to the two largest cities, Kinshasa or Lubumbashi (r = −0.28, −0.30 respectively, p<0.0001). Further, ownership was significantly negatively correlated with distance to primary national roads and railways (all three measures), distance to main rivers (any bed net only) and distance to the nearest health facility (ITNs only). Logistic and Poisson regression models fitted to the rural cluster data indicated that, after controlling for measured covariates, ownership levels in the Bas-Congo province close to Kinshasa were much larger than that of other provinces. This was most noticeable when considering ITN coverage (odds ratio: 5.3, 95% CI: 3.67–7.70). This analysis provides key insights into the barriers of bed net ownership, which will help inform both LF

  8. Lymphatic filariasis in the Democratic Republic of Congo; micro-stratification overlap mapping (MOM) as a prerequisite for control and surveillance

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has a significant burden of lymphatic filariasis (LF) caused by the parasite Wuchereria bancrofti. A major impediment to the expansion of the LF elimination programme is the risk of serious adverse events (SAEs) associated with the use of ivermectin in areas co-endemic for onchocerciasis and loiasis. It is important to analyse these and other factors, such as soil transmitted helminths (STH) and malaria co-endemicity, which will impact on LF elimination. Results We analysed maps of onchocerciasis community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTi) from the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC); maps of predicted prevalence of Loa loa; planned STH control maps of albendazole (and mebendazole) from the Global Atlas of Helminth Infections (GAHI); and bed nets and insecticide treated nets (ITNs) distribution from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) as well as published historic data which were incorporated into overlay maps. We developed an approach we designate as micro-stratification overlap mapping (MOM) to identify areas that will assist the implementation of LF elimination in the DRC. The historic data on LF was found through an extensive review of the literature as no recently published information was available. Conclusions This paper identifies an approach that takes account of the various factors that will influence not only country strategies, but suggests that country plans will require a finer resolution mapping than usual, before implementation of LF activities can be efficiently deployed. This is because 1) distribution of ivermectin through APOC projects will already have had an impact of LF intensity and prevalence 2) DRC has been up scaling bed net distribution which will impact over time on transmission of W. bancrofti and 3) recently available predictive maps of L. loa allow higher risk areas to be identified, which allow LF implementation to be initiated with reduced risk where L. loa

  9. Rapid community identification, pain and distress associated with lymphoedema and adenolymphangitis due to lymphatic filariasis in resource-limited communities of North-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akogun, O B; Akogun, M K; Apake, E; Kale, O O

    2011-09-01

    Identification of communities with people that could benefit from adenolymphangitis (ADL) and lymphoedema morbidity management within Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Programmes (NLFEP) in many African countries is a major challenge to programme managers. Another challenge is advocating for proportionate allocation of funds to alleviating the suffering that afflicted people bear. In this study we developed a rapid qualitative technique of identifying communities where morbidity management programme could be situated and documenting the pain and distress that afflicted persons endure. Estimates given by health personnel and by community resource persons were compared with systematic household surveys for the number of persons with lymphoedema of the lower limb. Communities in Northeastern Nigeria, with the largest number of lymphoedema cases were selected and a study of local knowledge, physical, psychosocial burden and intervention-seeking activities associated with the disease documented using an array of techniques (including household surveys, key informant interviews, group discussions and informal conversations). Health personnel gave a more accurate estimate of the number of lymphoedema patients in their communities than either the community leader or the community directed ivermectin distributor (CDD). Community members with lymphoedema preferred to confide in health personnel from other communities. The people had a well developed local vocabulary for lymphoedema and are well aware of the indigenous transmission theories. Although the people associated the episodic ADL attacks with the rains which were more frequent at that period they did not associate the episodes with gross lymphoedema. There were diverse theories about lymphoedema causation with heredity, accidental stepping on charmed objects and organisms, breaking taboos. The most popular belief about causation, however, is witchcraft (60.9%). The episodic attacks are dreaded by the afflicted, since

  10. Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis in French Polynesia: age-specific patterns of microfilaremia, circulating antigen, and specific IgG and IgG4 responses according to transmission level.

    PubMed

    Chanteau, S; Glaziou, P; Plichart, C; Luquiaud, P; Moulia-Pelat, J P; N'Guyen, L; Cartel, J L

    1995-01-01

    The age-specific patterns of microfilaremia, Og4C3 antigenemia, anti-Brugia malayi IgG and IgG4 were assessed in 3 villages of low, medium and high transmission level for Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis. The prevalence rates for each of the 4 markers were clearly age dependent and their patterns strongly associated with the transmission level. The antigenemia prevalence rate was consistently higher than the microfilaremia prevalence rate, in all age groups. The prevalences of anti-B. malayi IgG and IgG4 responses were very similar and much higher than those of microfilaremia or antigenemia. Antibody responses reached the plateau at an earlier age and at a higher prevalence with increased intensity of transmission. For all the markers, the prevalence rates were significantly higher in males than in females. PMID:7797377

  11. Experiences of a Community-Based Lymphedema Management Program for Lymphatic Filariasis in Odisha State, India: An Analysis of Focus Group Discussions with Patients, Families, Community Members and Program Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Tali; Worrell, Caitlin M.; Little, Kristen; Prakash, Aishya; Patra, Inakhi; Rout, Jonathan; Fox, LeAnne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally 68 million people are infected with lymphatic filariasis (LF), 17 million of whom have lymphedema. This study explores the effects of a lymphedema management program in Odisha State, India on morbidity and psychosocial effects associated with lymphedema. Methodology/Principal Findings Focus groups were held with patients (eight groups, separated by gender), their family members (eight groups), community members (four groups) and program volunteers (four groups) who had participated in a lymphedema management program for the past three years. Significant social, physical, and economic difficulties were described by patients and family members, including marriageability, social stigma, and lost workdays. However, the positive impact of the lymphedema management program was also emphasized, and many family and community members indicated that community members were accepting of patients and had some improved understanding of the etiology of the disease. Program volunteers and community members stressed the role that the program had played in educating people, though interestingly, local explanations and treatments appear to coexist with knowledge of biomedical treatments and the mosquito vector. Conclusions/Significance Local and biomedical understandings of disease can co-exist and do not preclude individuals from participating in biomedical interventions, specifically lymphedema management for those with lymphatic filariasis. There is a continued need for gender-specific psychosocial support groups to address issues particular to men and women as well as a continued need for improved economic opportunities for LF-affected patients. There is an urgent need to scale up LF-related morbidity management programs to reduce the suffering of people affected by LF. PMID:26849126

  12. Double-blind controlled trial of a single dose of the combination ivermectin 400 micrograms/kg plus diethylcarbamazine 6 mg/kg for the treatment of bancroftian filariasis: results at six months.

    PubMed

    Glaziou, P; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Nguyen, L N; Chanteau, S; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L

    1994-01-01

    In 1993, a three-arm double-blind controlled trial was implemented in French Polynesia to compare the tolerance and efficacy of a single dose of the combination ivermectin (IVR) 400 micrograms/kg plus diethylcarbamazine (DEC) 6 mg/kg vs. IVR 400 micrograms/kg alone vs. DEC 6 mg/kg alone, for treatment of Wuchereria bancrofti carriers. Of the 57 treated male patients in whom microfilaria (mf) densities ranged from 22 to 4709 mg/mL, 3 groups of 19 were randomly selected and allocated to one of the 3 treatments. Side effects were experienced by 34 patients (60%), but none suffered a severe reaction. Grade of reaction did not differ between treatment group, but was significantly correlated with the pretreatment mf density. Six months after treatment, 26%, 32% and 53% of patients were amicrofilaraemic in the DEC, IVR and IVR+DEC groups, respectively. Mf levels were 6.3%, and 3.1% and 1.0% of the pretreatment level, respectively, significantly lower in the IVR+DEC group than in both the IVR and DEC comparison groups. The combination IVR+DEC showed promise in term of sustained mf decrease, and could be an effective alternative for lymphatic filariasis control programmes. PMID:7886781

  13. Status of Onchocerciasis Transmission after More Than a Decade of Mass Drug Administration for Onchocerciasis and Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination in Central Nigeria: Challenges in Coordinating the Stop MDA Decision

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Darin S.; Alphonsus, Kal; Umaru, Jon; Eigege, Abel; Miri, Emmanuel; Mafuyai, Hayward; Gonzales-Peralta, Carlos; Adamani, William; Pede, Elias; Umbugadu, Christopher; Saka, Yisa; Okoeguale, Bridget; Richards, Frank O.

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was undertaken in five onchocerciasis/lymphatic filariasis (LF) co-endemic local government areas (LGAs) in Plateau and Nasarawa, Nigeria. Annual MDA with ivermectin had been given for 17 years, 8 of which were in combination with albendazole. In 2008, assessments indicated that LF transmission was interrupted, but that the MDA had to continue due to the uncertain status of onchocerciasis transmission. Accordingly, assessments to determine if ivermectin MDA for onchocerciasis could be stopped were conducted in 2009. Methods We evaluated nodule, microfilarial (mf) skin snip, and antibody (IgG4 response to OV16) prevalence in adults and children in six sentinel sites where baseline data from the 1990s were available. We applied the 2001 WHO criteria for elimination of onchocerciasis that defined transmission interruption as an infection rate of <0.1% in children (using both skin snip and OV16 antibody) and a rate of infective (L3) blackflies of <0.05%. Results Among adult residents in sentinel sites, mean mf prevalence decreased by 99.37% from the 1991–1993 baseline of 42.95% (64/149) to 0.27% (2/739) in 2009 (p<0.001). The OV16 seropositivity of 3.52% (26/739) among this same group was over ten times the mf rate. No mf or nodules were detected in 4,451 children in sentinel sites and ‘spot check’ villages, allowing the exclusion of 0.1% infection rate with 95% confidence. Seven OV16 seropositives were detected, yielding a seroprevalence of 0.16% (0.32% upper 95%CI). No infections were detected in PCR testing of 1,568 Simulium damnosum s.l. flies obtained from capture sites around the six sentinel sites. Conclusion Interruption of transmission of onchocerciasis in these five LGAs is highly likely, although the number of flies caught was insufficient to exclude 0.05% with 95% confidence (upper CI 0.23%). We suggest that ivermectin MDA could be stopped in these LGAs if similar results are seen in neighboring districts. PMID:25233351

  14. Interleukin-10- and transforming growth factor β-independent regulation of CD8⁺ T cells expressing type 1 and type 2 cytokines in human lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed

    Anuradha, Rajamanickam; George, Parakkal Jovvian; Kumaran, Paul; Nutman, Thomas B; Babu, Subash

    2014-12-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is known to be associated with diminished CD4⁺ Th1 and elevated CD4⁺ Th2 responses to parasite-specific antigens. The roles of cytokine-expressing CD8⁺ T cells in immune responses to filarial infections are not well defined. To study the roles of CD8⁺ T cells expressing type 1, type 2, and type 17 cytokines in filarial infections, we examined the frequencies of these cells in clinically asymptomatic, patently infected (INF) individuals, directly ex vivo and in response to parasite or nonparasite antigens; these frequencies were compared with the results for individuals with filarial lymphedema (i.e., clinical pathology [CP]) and those without active infection or pathology (i.e., endemic normal [EN]). INF individuals exhibited significant decreases in the frequencies of CD8⁺ T cells expressing tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and interleukin-22 (IL-22) at baseline and/or in response to filarial antigens, compared with CP and EN individuals. In contrast, the same individuals exhibited significant increases in the frequencies of CD8⁺ T cells expressing IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-13, and IL-21, compared with CP and/or EN individuals. Curative treatment resulted in significantly increased frequencies of CD8⁺ T cells expressing IL-2 and significantly decreased frequencies of CD8⁺ T cells expressing type 2 cytokines. Finally, the regulation of these responses appears to be independent of IL-10 and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), since blockade of IL-10 or TGF-β signaling did not significantly alter the frequencies of type 1 or type 2 cytokine-expressing CD8⁺ T cells. Our findings suggest that alterations in the frequencies of cytokine-expressing CD8⁺ T cells are characteristic features of lymphatic filarial infections. PMID:25253667

  15. Differential antibody isotype reactivity to specific antigens in human lymphatic filariasis: gp15/400 preferentially induces immunoglobulin E (IgE), IgG4, and IgG2.

    PubMed Central

    Yazdanbakhsh, M; Paxton, W A; Brandenburg, A; Van Ree, R; Lens, M; Partono, F; Maizels, R M; Selkirk, M E

    1995-01-01

    Lymphatic filarial infection in humans is associated with a strong skewing of the immune response towards the TH2 arm, with prominent interleukin 4-producing cells and elevated levels of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) and IgE antibodies in peripheral blood. To determine how such a generalized TH2 imbalance governs responses to individual parasite antigens, the profiles of isotypes of antibodies to two recombinant proteins of Brugia spp. were studied. One molecule was the C-terminal portion of the filarial heat shock protein 70 (Bpa-26), representative of a cytoplasmic protein, and the second antigen was a single unit of the tandem repeats of a Brugia polypeptide (BpL-4), a secreted product which is prominently exposed to the immune system. Serum samples from 146 individuals resident in areas in which brugian filariasis is endemic were used, and it was found that whereas the levels of IgG1 and IgG3 responses to both Bpa-26 and BpL-4 were high, IgG4 and IgE antibodies to only BpL-4, not to Bpa-26, were prominent. Thus, an antigen which is chronically exposed to the immune system elicited a TH2-dependent isotype switch, as manifested by increased IgG4 and IgE responses. Moreover, IgG4 and IgE responses to BpL-4 showed a strong negative association, suggesting that mediators other than interleukin 4 must be responsible for such differential regulation of these two isotypes. When the data were analyzed as a function of clinical status, a striking association between elevated levels of IgG3 antibodies to Bpa-26 and manifestation of chronic obstructive disease was found; elephantiasis patients showed significantly higher levels of IgG3 antibodies to Bpa-26 than microfilaremics and asymptomatic amicrofilaremics. This indicates that an imbalance of isotypes of antibodies to particular filarial antigens might play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic disease. PMID:7558279

  16. Studies on the impact of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in relation to malaria and filariasis vector control against Anopheles stephensi Liston and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Subarani, Selladurai; Sabhanayakam, Selvi; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal

    2013-02-01

    Biosynthesized nanoparticles have been achieved using environmentally acceptable plant extract and eco-friendly reducing and capping agents. The present study was based on assessments of the larvicidal activities to determine the efficacies of synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous leaf extract of Vinca rosea (L.) (Apocynaceae) against the larvae of malaria vector Anopheles stephensi Liston and filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous extract of V. rosea and synthesized AgNPs for 24, 48, and 72 h. AgNPs were rapidly synthesized using the leaf extract of V. rosea, and the formation of nanoparticles was observed within 15 min. The results recorded from UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) support the biosynthesis and characterization of AgNPs. The formation of the AgNPs synthesized from the XRD spectrum compared with the Bragg reflections at 2θ = 29.36, 38.26, 44.51, 63.54, and 77.13° which can be indexed to the (121), (111), (200), (220), and (311) orientations, respectively, confirmed the presence of AgNPs. The FTIR spectra of AgNPs exhibited prominent peaks at the spectra showed sharp and strong absorption band at 3,406.71 to 3,431.90 cm(-1) double in case of NH(2) group of a primary amine (N-H stretch). The presence of the sharp peak at 2,926.54 to 2,925.80 cm(-1) very broad often looks like distorted baseline (O-H carboxylic acids). The band 1,633.26 to 1,625.81 cm(-1) was assigned to C = C alkenes, aromatic ring stretching vibration, respectively. SEM analysis of the synthesized AgNPs clearly showed the clustered and irregular shapes, mostly aggregated and having the size of 120 nm. TEM reveals spherical shape of synthesized AgNPs. Particle size analysis revealed that the size of particles ranges from 25 to 47 nm with average size of 34.61 nm

  17. Cross-Reactivity of Filariais ICT Cards in Areas of Contrasting Endemicity of Loa loa and Mansonella perstans in Cameroon: Implications for Shrinking of the Lymphatic Filariasis Map in the Central African Region

    PubMed Central

    Wanji, Samuel; Koudou, Benjamin; Chounna Ndongmo, Patrick W.; Kengne-Ouafo, Jonas A.; Datchoua-Poutcheu, Fabrice R.; Fovennso, Bridget Adzemye; Tayong, Dizzle Bita; Fombad, Fanny Fri; Fischer, Peter U.; Enyong, Peter I.; Bockarie, Moses

    2015-01-01

    Background Immunochromatographic card test (ICT) is a tool to map the distribution of Wuchereria bancrofti. In areas highly endemic for loaisis in DRC and Cameroon, a relationship has been envisaged between high L. loa microfilaria (Mf) loads and ICT positivity. However, similar associations have not been demonstrated from other areas with contrasting levels of L. loa endemicity. This study investigated the cross-reactivity of ICT when mapping lymphatic filariasis (LF) in areas with contrasting endemicity levels of loiasis and mansonellosis in Cameroon. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence and intensity of W. bancrofti, L. loa and M. perstans was carried out in 42 villages across three regions (East, North-west and South-west) of the Cameroon rainforest domain. Diurnal blood was collected from participants for the detection of circulating filarial antigen (CFA) by ICT and assessment of Mf using a thick blood smear. Clinical manifestations of LF were also assessed. ICT positives and patients clinically diagnosed with lymphoedema were further subjected to night blood collection for the detection of W. bancrofti Mf. Overall, 2190 individuals took part in the study. Overall, 24 individuals residing in 14 communities were tested positive by ICT, with prevalence rates ranging from 0% in the South-west to 2.1% in the North-west. Lymphoedema were diagnosed in 20 individuals with the majority of cases found in the North-west (11/20), and none of them were tested positive by ICT. No Mf of W. bancrofti were found in the night blood of any individual with a positive ICT result or clinical lymphoedema. Positive ICT results were strongly associated with high L. loa Mf intensity with 21 subjects having more than 8,000 L. loa Mf ml/blood (Odds ratio = 15.4; 95%CI: 6.1–39.0; p < 0.001). Similarly, a strong positive association (Spearman’s rho = 0.900; p = 0.037) was observed between the prevalence of L. loa and ICT positivity by area

  18. Retroperitoneal Cyst: An Uncommon Presentation of Filariasis

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, Senthil; Galodha, Saurabh; Saxena, Rajan

    2015-01-01

    Primary retroperitoneal parasitic cysts are rare. Here we report about a middle aged male patient from rural north India with a recent onset of central abdominal retroperitoneal lump, pain, and fever. After surgical resection due to diagnostic uncertainty, at histopathology, it turned out be a filarial cyst. After receiving a course of diethylcarbamazine, the patient is asymptomatic at 4 months' follow-up. PMID:26664759

  19. Periodicity of Wuchereria bancrofti var. pacifica filariasis in French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Moulia-Pelat, J P; Glaziou, P; Chanteau, S; Nguyen-Ngoc, L; Marcet, Y; Gardines, R; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L

    1993-06-01

    In 1992, a study on microfilaremia periodicity was carried out on 12 Wuchereria bancrofti carriers in the Marquesas islands. Blood samples were collected simultaneously every 4 hours during a 48 hour period by finger-prick and venipuncture for determination of microfilaremia by both blood film and membrane filtration technique methods, and for determination of antigenemia. The membrane filtration results showed no significant nycthemeral variations between the microfilaria densities at hours 16:00, 20:00, 24:00, 04:00, 08:00 and 12:00. Conversely, the blood film method showed a significant difference between the microfilaria densities: the microfilaremia was higher during the day (12:00-20:00 hours) than during the night (24:00-08:00 hours). As for antigenemia, using Og 4 C3 monoclonal antibody, there was no significant fluctuation during 48 hours. These results confirm that W. bancrofti var. pacifica is subperiodic and diurnal in French Polynesia. In particular, they substantiate the validity of examining venous blood by the membrane filtration technique as the judgment criterion of choice in therapeutic trials and of examining capillary blood during peak hours by the blood film method for evaluating the endemic level in a population. PMID:8367671

  20. High Prevalence of Mansonella perstans Filariasis in Rural Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Bassene, Hubert; Sambou, Masse; Fenollar, Florence; Clarke, Siân; Djiba, Sawdiatou; Mourembou, Gaël; L. Y., Alioune Badara; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    Large parts of African and American countries are colonized by Mansonella, a very common but poorly described filarial nematode. Bloodsucking flies of the genus Culicoides are suspected to be the vector of Mansonella perstans, but no study in Senegal has confirmed that Culicoides can transmit the parasite. Designed specific real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) can be used to identify microfilaria in stained blood smears. This study was performed in July and December 2010 in the southeastern Senegal, which is known to be endemic for M. perstans. We analyzed 297 blood smears from febrile and afebrile resident people by qPCR. The global prevalence of M. perstans was approximately 14.5% in both febrile and afebrile individuals. The age group of > 30 years had the highest prevalence (22.0%). No Culicoides among 1,159 studied specimens was positive for M. perstans and its vector in Senegal still requires identification. PMID:26078318

  1. Wolbachia and its implications for the immunopathology of filariasis.

    PubMed

    Genchi, Claudio; Kramer, Laura H; Sassera, Davide; Bandi, Claudio

    2012-03-01

    Filarial infections are characterized by immunopathological phenomena, that are responsible for the onset of often dramatic pathological outcomes, such as blindness (Onchocerca volvulus) and elephantiasis (W. bancrofti). In addition, the long-term survival (as long as 10 years) of these parasites in otherwise immunocompetent hosts indicates that these nematodes are capable of manipulating the host immune response. The ground-breaking discovery of the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia, which resides in most filarial nematodes causing disease, has led to increasing interest in the role it may play in immuno-modulation, pro-inflammatory pathology and other aspects of filarial infection. Indeed, Wolbachia has been shown to be responsible for exacerbating inflammation (as in river blindness), while at the same time blocking efficient elimination of parasites through the host immune response (Onchocerca ochengi). While studies aimed at identifying Wolbachia as a potential target for anti-filarial therapy are at the forefront of current research, understanding its role in the immunology of filarial infection is a fascinating field that has yet to uncover many secrets. PMID:22214329

  2. Lymphatic filariasis in Luangwa District, South-East Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Past case reports and recent data from LF mapping surveys indicate that LF occurs in Zambia, but no studies have been carried out to document its epidemiology and health implications. The present study assessed infection, disease, transmission and human perception aspects of LF in an endemic area of Luangwa District, South-East Zambia, as a background for planning and implementation of control. Methods Two neighbouring rural communities were registered and a questionnaire survey undertaken. Clinical examination, and sampling of blood for circulating filarial antigens (CFA; marker of adult worm infection) and antibodies to Bm14 antigen (marker of exposure to transmission), were carried out during the daytime. Blood from CFA positive individuals was examined for microfilariae (mf) at night. Vector surveys were carried out in selected households, using light traps. Results 985 individuals aged ≥ 1 year were registered. The CFA prevalence increased with age from 1.2% in age group 1–14 years to 20.6% in age group 50+ years (overall 8.6%). Wuchereria bancrofti mf were identified in 10.9% of CFA positive individuals (corresponding to a community prevalence of 0.9%). Prevalence and intensity of Bm14 antibodies were much higher in individuals ≥ 30 years than in younger individuals (57.2 vs. 19.3%; 0.594 vs. 0.241 OD-values). Elephantiasis and hydrocele were well known clinical manifestations in the area, but only one case of hydrocele was detected in the study population. Identified potential vectors were Anopheles funestus and An. gambiae. Conclusion The study confirmed that LF was endemic in the study communities, but infection and disease prevalence was low. Several indications, including a marked recent decline in CFA prevalence, suggest that transmission in the area is on the decrease, perhaps because of intensive application of malaria control measures targeting the Anopheles vectors. It is recommended that mass drug administration is initiated to accelerate this positive trend of decline in LF transmission in the area. PMID:24499525

  3. An Extremely Rare Situation - Subcutaneously Filariasis Presented at ED Craiova

    PubMed Central

    ROTARU, LUCIANA; ȘERBAN, C,

    2014-01-01

    A 32 year old male patient presented to the ED Craiova with migratory, burning pain, to the right cervical and left upper eyelid. Sudden, transient, bilateral knee swelling six months ago. An inflammatory trace and a renitent cord can feel at this level, with spontaneous mobility. A microfilaraemic parasite was surgically extracted from upper eyelid. Mobility of the parasite was the key element of an extremely quick and easy diagnosis for a very rare disease but the specific circumstances of the contamination remains unclear. Even uncommon, multiple determinations are possible requiring systematic and long term investigation and medical surveillance. PMID:25729596

  4. [Ivermectin or diethylcarbamazine in spaced dosages in Bancroft's filariasis: which protocol?].

    PubMed

    Cartel, J L; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Nguyen, L N; Martin, P M; Roux, J F; Spiegel, A

    1992-06-01

    58 apparently healthy Polynesian Wuchereria bancrofti carriers were randomly allocated to 5 treatment groups: 1) two annual doses of ivermectin 100 mcg/kg, 2) three semi-annual doses of ivermectin 100 mcg/kg, 3) two annual doses of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) 3 mg/kg, 4) semi-annual doses of DEC 3 mg/kg, 5) two annual doses of DEC 6 mg/kg. Results observed during the 12-month period which followed last treatment have confirmed that efficacy of ivermectin is higher than that of DEC in terms of immediate clearance or complete negativation of microfilaremia, but not in terms of sustained reduction and that efficacy of repeated single doses of either DEC 3 mg/kg or ivermectin 100 mcg/kg is much higher when given semi-annually than annually. They also have indicated that (i) 6 months after last treatment: 3 semi-annual doses of 100 mcg/kg of ivermectin have resulted in high reduction of microfilaremia (85%) and, 2 annual doses of 6 mg/kg and 3 semi-annual doses of 3 mg/kg of DEC have resulted in even greater reduction (96 and 98% respectively) and (ii): 12 months after last treatment, the greatest reductions of microfilaremia (95 and 92%) have been observed in carriers treated, respectively, with 3 semi-annual doses of 3 mg/kg or with 2 annual doses of 6 mg/kg of DEC.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1417159

  5. Ivermectin 400 micrograms/kg: long-term suppression of microfilariae in Bancroftian filariasis.

    PubMed

    Moulia-Pelat, J P; Glaziou, P; Nguyen, L N; Chanteau, S; Plichart, R; Beylier, I; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L

    1994-01-01

    Forty-three Wuchereria bancrofti carriers were given 4 successive semi-annual single doses of ivermectin 100 micrograms/kg (IVER 100). The geometric mean microfilaremia (mf) recurrence percentages, compared to the pre-initial treatment mf level, were 35%, 21%, 17% and 17% at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months respectively. However, the recurrence of mf 6 months after the fourth treatment remained high in 15 individuals, considered as 'bad responders'. At month 24, the subjects were randomly allocated into 2 groups: the first group was treated with a fifth dose of IVER 100 and the second with a first, single dose of 400 micrograms/kg of ivermectin (IVER 400). At month 30, the mf recurrence percentage was significantly higher in patients treated with IVER 100 than in those receiving IVER 400 (61% vs. 8%, P < 0.05). In the IVER 100 group, 6 of the 8 'bad responders' remained 'bad responders', whereas only 2 of 7 did so in the IVER 400 group. Only 3 additional patients in the IVER 100 group became consistently amicrofilaraemic, whereas 9 did so in the IVER 400 group. Two 'good responders' in the IVER 100 group became 'bad responders'. A single dose of 400 micrograms/kg of ivermectin has been demonstrated to be efficient for the treatment of carriers refractory to repeated doses of 100 micrograms/kg and to result in better long-term mf suppression. These results suggest a possible effect of 400 micrograms/kg of ivermectin on macrofilaria. PMID:8153984

  6. A comparative study of detection methods for evaluation of microfilaremia in lymphatic filariasis control programmes.

    PubMed

    Moulia-Pelat, J P; Glaziou, P; Nguyen-Ngoc, L; Cardines, D; Spiegel, A; Cartel, J L

    1992-09-01

    The evaluation of microfilaremia (mf) was performed in 96% of the population aged 15 years or more in a village of Moorea, one of the Society Islands in French Polynesia. Finger-prick and venous blood samples were collected simultaneously from 782 individuals in order to compare the results obtained by the standard blood film method and the membrane filtration technique. Of the 782 blood-sampled inhabitants 69 (8.8%) were found mf positive. 39 (5%) were mf positive by both methods and 30 were mf positive by the membrane filtration technique only. In these latter 30 carriers the geometric mean mf count was 19.7 mf/ml, significantly lower than that of 651.1 mf/ml in the 39 carriers positive by both techniques. Using the membrane filtration technique, the mf carrier prevalence rate increased from 1.9% in the youngest age group (15-19 years) to 16.9% in the oldest (< or = 60 years) while using the blood film method, it increased from 1.3% to 12.7%. Roughly, when using the membrane filtration technique, the mf carrier prevalence rate was 1.77 higher than that found using the blood film method, considering either the whole population or successive age-groups. Moreover, when using the blood film method in the 40 years and more age group, the mf carrier prevalence rate was 10%, a proportion similar to the 8.8% prevalence rate determined by the membrane filtration technique in the whole population. Further studies are planned to assess whether the last finding may be confirmed in other Polynesian populations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1470830

  7. Mosquito ovicidal properties of Ageratina adenophora (Family: Asteraceae) against filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosquito-borne diseases with an economic impact create loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates. Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Extracts from plants may be alternativ...

  8. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles for the control of mosquito vectors of malaria, filariasis, and dengue.

    PubMed

    Arjunan, Naresh Kumar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Rejeeth, Chandrababu; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Barnard, Donald R

    2012-03-01

    A biological method was used to synthesize stable silver nanoparticles that were tested as mosquito larvicides against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Annona squamosa leaf broth (5%) reduced aqueous 1 mM AgNO₃ to stable silver nanoparticles with an average size of 450 nm. The structure and percentage of synthesized nanoparticles was characterized by using ultraviolet spectrophotometry, X-Ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy methods. The median lethal concentrations (LC₅₀) of silver nanoparticles that killed fourth instars of Ae. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and An. stephensi were 0.30, 0.41, and 2.12 ppm, respectively. Adult longevity (days) in male and female mosquitoes exposed as larvae to 0.1 ppm silver nanoparticles was reduced by ~30% (p<0.05), whereas the number of eggs laid by females exposed as larvae to 0.1 ppm silver nanoparticles decreased by 36% (p<0.05). PMID:22022807

  9. Pedilanthus tithymaloides (Euphorbiaceae) leaf extract phytochemicals: Toxicity to the filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanolic extract of Pedilanthus tithymaloides (Euphorbiaceae) leaves was tested for biological activiity against the eggs, larvae, and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus. Significant (P <0.0001) mortality effects were observed in each life stage. In eggs, these effects ranged from 7 to 14% at the 2 ...

  10. Type 2 lepra reaction in an immunocompromised patient precipitated by filariasis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Satyendra Kumar; Sharma, Taniya; Rai, Tulika; Prabhu, Anand

    2014-01-01

    Though patients affected with both acquired immuno deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and leprosy commonly present with type 1 lepra reaction, there are few isolated reports of type 2 lepra reaction in retropositive patients affected with leprosy. We are presenting a case report of 35-year-old male affected with AIDS, tubercular lymphadenitis, and lepromatous leprosy with recurrent episodes of type 2 lepra reaction manifesting as erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL). Dipstick enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for filarial antigen was also positive. The patient was treated with 100 mg thalidomide daily, 300 mg diethylcarbamazine, and modified multidrug therapy (MDT) for leprosy. He responded well and has not had any further reaction in the last 6 months. PMID:24958985

  11. Anti-Wolbachia drug discovery and development: safe macrofilaricides for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark J; Hoerauf, Achim; Townson, Simon; Slatko, Barton E; Ward, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    Anti-Wolbachia therapy delivers safe macrofilaricidal activity with superior therapeutic outcomes compared to all standard anti-filarial treatments, with the added benefit of substantial improvements in clinical pathology. These outcomes can be achieved, in principle, with existing registered drugs, e.g. doxycycline, that are affordable, available to endemic communities and have well known, albeit population-limiting, safety profiles. The key barriers to using doxycycline as an mass drug administration (MDA) strategy for widespread community-based control are the logistics of a relatively lengthy course of treatment (4-6 weeks) and contraindications in children under eight years and pregnancy. Therefore, the primary goal of the anti-Wolbachia (A·WOL) consortium is to find drugs and regimens that reduce the period of treatment from weeks to days (7 days or less), and to find drugs which would be safe in excluded target populations (pregnancy and children). A secondary goal is to refine regimens of existing antibiotics suitable for a more restricted use, prior to the availability of a regimen that is compatible with MDA usage. For example, for use in the event of the emergence of drug-resistance, in individuals with high loiasis co-infection and at risk of severe adverse events (SAE) to ivermectin, or in post-MDA 'endgame scenarios', where test and treat strategies become more cost effective and deliverable. PMID:23866958

  12. Testicular Swelling Due to Lymphatic Filariasis after Brief Travel to Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Marcos, Luis A.; Shapley, Nathan P.; Eberhard, Mark; Epstein, Jonathan I.; Fox, LeAnne M.; Magill, Alan; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    After 6 months of a trip to Haiti, a 25-year-old healthy man presented with a 6-week history of a very slow progressive intermittent bilateral testicular pain and swelling. The biopsies in both testicles revealed the presence of a dead filarial parasite. Polymerase chain reaction products of the DNA from the biopsy were shown to have a 100% identity to Wuchereria bancrofti. Despite being uncommon in travelers, this presentation of W. bancrofti highlights the possibility of acquiring W. bancrofti during short-term trips to highly endemic regions of the world (i.e., Haiti). PMID:24865674

  13. Mapping, Bayesian Geostatistical Analysis and Spatial Prediction of Lymphatic Filariasis Prevalence in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Hannah; Michael, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing interest to control or eradicate the major neglected tropical diseases. Accurate modelling of the geographic distributions of parasitic infections will be crucial to this endeavour. We used 664 community level infection prevalence data collated from the published literature in conjunction with eight environmental variables, altitude and population density, and a multivariate Bayesian generalized linear spatial model that allows explicit accounting for spatial autocorrelation and incorporation of uncertainty in input data and model parameters, to construct the first spatially-explicit map describing LF prevalence distribution in Africa. We also ran the best-fit model against predictions made by the HADCM3 and CCCMA climate models for 2050 to predict the likely distributions of LF under future climate and population changes. We show that LF prevalence is strongly influenced by spatial autocorrelation between locations but is only weakly associated with environmental covariates. Infection prevalence, however, is found to be related to variations in population density. All associations with key environmental/demographic variables appear to be complex and non-linear. LF prevalence is predicted to be highly heterogenous across Africa, with high prevalences (>20%) estimated to occur primarily along coastal West and East Africa, and lowest prevalences predicted for the central part of the continent. Error maps, however, indicate a need for further surveys to overcome problems with data scarcity in the latter and other regions. Analysis of future changes in prevalence indicates that population growth rather than climate change per se will represent the dominant factor in the predicted increase/decrease and spread of LF on the continent. We indicate that these results could play an important role in aiding the development of strategies that are best able to achieve the goals of parasite elimination locally and globally in a manner that may also account for the effects of future climate change on parasitic infection. PMID:23951194

  14. Human ocular filariasis: further evidence on the zoonotic role of Onchocerca lupi

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Among ocular vector-borne pathogens, Onchocerca volvulus, the agent of the so-called “river blindness”, affects about 37 million people globally. Other Onchocerca spp. have been sporadically reported as zoonotic agents. Cases of canine onchocerciasis caused by Onchocerca lupi are on the rise in the United States and Europe. Its zoonotic role has been suspected but only recently ascertained in a single case from Turkey. The present study provides further evidence on the occurrence of O. lupi infesting human eyes in two patients from Turkey (case 1) and Tunisia (case 2). The importance of obtaining a correct sample collection and preparation of nematodes infesting human eyes is highlighted. Methods In both cases the parasites were identified with morpho-anatomical characters at the gross examination, histological analysis and anatomical description and also molecularly in case 1. Results The nematode from the first case was obviously O. lupi based on their morphology at the gross examination, histological analysis and anatomical description. In the second case, although the diagnostic cuticular characters were not completely developed, other features were congruent with the identification of O. lupi. Furthermore, the morphological identification was also molecularly confirmed in the Turkish case. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that O. lupi infestation is not an occasional finding but it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of other zoonotic helminths causing eye infestation in humans (e.g., D. immitis and Dirofilaria repens). Both cases came from areas where no cases of canine onchocerciasis were previously reported in the literature, suggesting that an in depth appraisal of the infestation in canine populations is necessary. Physicians and ophthalmologists are advised on how to preserve nematode samples recovered surgically, to allow a definitive, correct etiological diagnosis. PMID:22541132

  15. Immune response studies with Wuchereria bancrofti vespid allergen homologue (WbVAH) in human lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed

    Anand, Setty Balakrishnan; Gnanasekar, Munirathinam; Thangadurai, Mani; Prabhu, Prince R; Kaliraj, Perumal; Ramaswamy, Kalyanasundaram

    2007-09-01

    A homologue of Brugia malayi venom allergen (BmVAH) was cloned from the infective stages (L3) of Wuchereria bancrofti. Sequence analysis showed 90% sequence identity between WbVAH and BmVAH. Recombinant WbVAH was then expressed and purified. VAH from other nematode parasites is being evaluated as potential vaccine candidates. Because W. bancrofti infections are more prevalent than B. malayi, it will significantly benefit using W. bancrofti antigens for vaccine development. In this study, we have evaluated the human immune responses to rWbVAH in putatively immune individuals who live in the endemic regions (endemic normal, EN) to determine the vaccine potential of WbVAH. These responses were then compared to those in infected individuals (microfilaraemic, MF and chronic pathology, CP). Results show that EN subjects carry WbVAH-specific IgG1, IgG2, and IgG3 circulating antibodies. It is interesting to note that CP patients also carried antibodies against WbVAH that was mainly of the IgG3 isotype. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from EN individuals responded strongly to rWbVAH by proliferating and secreting IFN-gamma. PBMC from MF patients also proliferated in response to rWbVAH but secreted mainly IL-10. Thus, there was a clear dichotomy in the cytokine production by infected patients vs individuals who are putatively immune (EN). Although vaccine potential of WbVAH has not been established yet, our findings suggest that WbVAH mediated immune responses in EN individuals is primarily Th1-biased. Further vaccination studies are underway in animal models to determine the role of WbVAH in protective immunity against W. bancrofti and B. malayi infections. PMID:17558521

  16. Epidemiology of subperiodic bancroftian filariasis in Samoa 8 years after control by mass treatment with diethylcarbamazine*

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, E.; Penaia, L.; Spears, G. F. S.

    1985-01-01

    In 1979, a microfilarial prevalence study was conducted in a population of 8385 persons inhabiting 28 villages in Samoa using both the nuclepore filtration (NP) method (with 1 ml blood) and the fingerprick (FP) method (with 60 mm3 blood). The overall prevalence rate was 4.5% by the NP method and 3.8% by the FP method. The average microfilarial prevalence in males was 2.3 times higher than in females, and the rate among males aged 30 years and over was as high as 20%. The positive cases were found to be concentrated in certain households. The median microfilarial density (MfD-50) for the whole of Samoa was 18.6 using 60-mm3 blood samples (males, 21.4; females 14.2). While the MfD-50 of any village has a positive association with the microfilarial prevalence rate of that village, a relatively high MfD-50 was noticed among young people under 20 years of age together with low prevalence rates. The negative binomial distribution was fitted to the data on the distribution of microfilarial counts in Samoa and gave a better fit than the log-normal distribution. The data having been fitted to the negative binomial, the number of false negatives could be determined as 9% of the estimated number of positives in the survey population when the NP method was employed and about 25% with the FP method. Further studies revealed that 15.1% of the microfilaria carriers presented some clinical manifestation, the most common being an attack of filarial fever (13.1%). The average duration of a fever attack was 3.5 days and the total period with fever/person/year averaged 27.1 days. PMID:3912078

  17. Independent assessment of Mass Drug Administration in filariasis affected Surat city.

    PubMed

    Vaishnav, K G; Patel, I C

    2006-03-01

    The Mass Drug Administration (MDA) done in Surat city (Gujarat) during 2005, revealed good impact on infection and infectivity in mosquitoes and also on microfilaria rate & mean infection density. The overall impact seen was 23% on mf rate, 28% on mean mf density, 65% on infection rate and 50% on infectivity rate in vectors. Indigenous population contribution to microfilaria cases was 9.7%, whereas migratory population contributed 72.2%; predominant 51.9% from Orissa and 20.3% from U.P. Of the total 3640 persons interviewed for MDA compliance in seven zones of the Surat city revealed that actual drug consumption was 76.7% (2792/3640). Another 11.9% although took the drug but did not consume and 11.4% refused. Important reasons for consuming was fear to get the disease (40.7%) and for not consuming; 'will consume after meal' (6.9%), too many tablets (1.7%), seek consent from doctor (1.5%), lack of awareness (1.4%) etc. Refusal was mainly due to the reason as respondents felt apparently healthy. Assessment of IEC activities suggested that main awareness was created by media (local or national TV, banners or handbills, local news papers or mike announcement) alongwith some impact made through NGO's. These observations clearly indicated the utility of effective health education for optimum community participation and shown that it was crucial for successful community based elimination campaign. However some gray areas also suggest the scope for further improvements. PMID:17370677

  18. Zoonotic filariasis caused by Onchocerca dewittei japonica in a resident of Hiroshima Prefecture, Honshu, Japan.

    PubMed

    Uni, Shigehiko; Boda, Tomoyuki; Daisaku, Koichi; Ikura, Yoshihiro; Maruyama, Haruhiko; Hasegawa, Hideo; Fukuda, Masako; Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Bain, Odile

    2010-09-01

    A female of Onchocerca sp. was found to be the probable causative agent of a subcutaneous nodule in the left knee of a 70-year-old man in a rural area of Hiroshima Prefecture, Honshu, the main island of Japan. We compared the characteristics of the agent with the features of the four previously suspected species found in cattle and horses in various parts of the world, as well as O. lupi and O. jakutensis that were suspected or proved, respectively, in zoonotic cases in Europe. In addition, the morphologic characteristics of this parasite were compared with those of the four Onchocerca species found in wild animals in Japan. Based on such characteristics as the large triangle ridges, the considerable distance between any two adjacent ridges, and the absence of inner cuticular striae in the longitudinal sections, we found the causative agent in the present case to be identical to the female of Onchocerca dewittei japonica. All five previous cases of zoonotic onchocerciasis in Japan had been found in Oita, Kyushu, the main southern island. This human case caused by O. dewittei japonica suggests that zoonotic onchocerciasis is liable to occur in rural areas in Japan where wild boar, Simulium vectors, and humans overlap. PMID:20561913

  19. Laboratory evaluation of Indian medicinal plants as repellents against malaria, dengue, and filariasis vector mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan

    2015-02-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases have an economic impact, including loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates; however, no part of the world is free from vector-borne diseases. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus, and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticides, in the present study, the repellent activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform, and methanol extracts of leaf of Erythrina indica and root of Asparagus racemosus were assayed for their repellency against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The crude extract was applied on a membrane used for membrane feeding of unfed mosquitoes in a 1-ft cage. About 50 unfed 3-4-day-old laboratory-reared pathogen-free strains of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus were introduced in a 1-ft cage fitted with a membrane with blood for feeding with temperature maintained at 37 °C through circulating water bath maintained at 40-45 °C. Three concentrations (1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 mg/cm(2)) of the crude extracts were evaluated. Repellents in E. indica afforded longer protection time against A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus than those in A. racemosus at 5.0 mg/cm(2) concentration, and the mean complete protection time ranged from 120 to 210 min with the different extracts tested. In this observation, these two plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites; also, the repellent activity is dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. These results suggest that the leaf extract of E. indica and root extract of A. racemosus have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. This is the first report on the mosquito repellent activity of the reported A. racemosus and E. indica plants. PMID:25399815

  20. Management of adenolymphangitis and lymphoedema due to lymphatic filariasis in resource-limited North-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akogun, O B; Badaki, J A

    2011-09-01

    Procedures for health facility-based management of lymphoedema and adenolymphangitis (ADL) have proved very effective in some countries. Unfortunately, in resource-poor communities of Africa where health facilities are few, overburdened and inaccessible, an alternative approach is required. Community-based care (CC), patient care (PC) and health facility care (HC) approaches were compared. In the CC arm, communities were required to select one of their members for care-giving to its affected members, while in the PC, participants were allocated to groups under a leader with responsibility for care giving to group members. In HC, care was given by the nearest health facility. Caregivers from the three arms were trained and supplies were kept at the local government health office. At the sixth month of intervention, 325 lymphoedema and adenolymphangitis patients had been recruited into the study as participants. Within 12 months, compliance with hygiene practices increased from 29.4% to 62.6% and ADL episodes declined from 43.1% to 4.4% in the community designs arm and the cost on the health system was minimal. However, in the patient and health care arms, compliance and accessibility to supplies was severely affected by poor coordination, delay in resource collection leading to very minimal effect on lesions, odour, ADL frequency and duration. Participants abandoned the health facilities after the second visit. Community care approach was more culturally acceptable and effective for the management lymphoedema and ADL than other approaches. PMID:20974106

  1. [Serum filariasis due to Loa loa and Mansonella perstans in the continental area of equatorial Guinea. Preliminary results].

    PubMed

    Vila Montlleo, R

    1990-01-01

    For the first time, a parasitologic survey has been carried out in the Niefang District (continental area of equatorial Guinea) within a sample of 829 people aged of more than 10 years. Parasitologic incidence was 27.1 p.c. for Loa-Loa and 66.3 p.c. for Mansonella perstans. Significant differences were noted in the prevalence and in the mean density of microfilariae of both species according to the altitude of the villages surveyed. PMID:2077317

  2. Adulticidal properties of synthesized silver nanoparticles using leaf extracts of Feronia elephantum (Rutaceae) against filariasis, malaria, and dengue vector mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu

    2014-11-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases with an economic impact create loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates. Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Extracts from plants may be alternative sources of mosquito control agents because they constitute a rich source of bioactive compounds that are biodegradable into nontoxic products and potentially suitable for use to control mosquitoes. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, in the present study, the adulticidal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Feronia elephantum plant leaf extract against adults of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus was determined. The range of concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (8, 16, 24, 32, and 40 μg mL(-1)) and aqueous leaf extract (40, 80, 120, 160, and 200 μg mL(-1)) were tested against the adults of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. Adults were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous crude extract and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. Considerable mortality was evident after the treatment of F. elephantum for all three important vector mosquitoes. The synthesized AgNPs from F. elephantum were highly toxic than crude leaf aqueous extract to three important vector mosquito species. The results were recorded from UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Synthesized AgNPs against the vector mosquitoes A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus had the following lethal dose (LD)₅₀ and LD₉₀ values: A. stephensi had LD₅₀ and LD₉₀ values of 18.041 and 32.575 μg mL(-1); A. aegypti had LD₅₀ and LD₉₀ values of 20.399 and 37.534 μg mL(-1); and C. quinquefasciatus had LD₅₀ and LD₉₀ values of 21.798 and 39.596 μg mL(-1). No mortality was observed in the control. These results suggest that the leaf aqueous extracts of F. elephantum and green synthesis of AgNPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. This is the first report on the adulticidal activity of the plant extracts and AgNPs. PMID:25146645

  3. Annona muricata leaf extract-mediated silver nanoparticles synthesis and its larvicidal potential against dengue, malaria and filariasis vector.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, S B; Yuvarajan, R; Natarajan, D

    2015-08-01

    Mosquitoes transmit several diseases which cause millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic insecticides to control mosquitoes caused diverse effects to the environment, mammals, and high manufacturing cost. The present study was aimed to test the larvicidal activity of green synthesized silver nanoparticles using Annona muricata plant leaf extract against third instar larvae of three medically important mosquitoes, i.e., Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The different concentrations of green synthesized Ag Nanoparticles (AgNPs; 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 μg mL(-1)) and aqueous crude leaf extract (30, 60, 90, 120, 150 μg mL(-1)) were tested against the larvae for 24 h. Significant larval mortality was observed after the treatment of A. muricata for all mosquitoes with lowest LC50 and LC90 values, viz., A. aegypti (LC50 and LC90 values of 12.58 and 26.46 μg mL(-1)), A. stephensi (LC50 and LC90 values of 15.28 and 31.91 μg mL(-1)) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50 and LC90 values of 18.77 and 35.72 μg mL(-1)), respectively. The synthesized AgNPs from A. muricata were highly toxic than aqueous crude extract. The nanoparticle characterization was done using spectral and microscopic analysis, namely UV-visible spectroscopy which showed a sharp peak at 420 nm of aqueous medium containing AgNPs, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the average crystalline size of synthesized AgNPs (approximately 45 nm), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study exhibited prominent peaks 3381.28, 2921.03, 1640.17, 1384.58, 1075.83, and 610.77 cm(-1). Particle size analysis (PSA) showed the size and distribution of AgNPs (103 nm); field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) analysis showed a spherical shape, size range from 20 to 53 nm; and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) reflects the chemical composition of synthesized AgNPs. Heat stability of the AgNPs was confirmed between the temperatures 20 to 70 °C. The result suggests that green synthesized AgNPs from A. muricata has the potential to be used as a low-cost and eco-friendly approach for the control of selected mosquitoes. PMID:26002825

  4. Safety trial of single-dose treatments with a combination of ivermectin and diethylcarbamazine in bancroftian filariasis.

    PubMed

    Moulia-Pelat, J P; Nguyen, L N; Glaziou, P; Chanteau, S; Gay, V M; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L

    1993-06-01

    A supervised safety trial of the treatment with a combination of ivermectin 400 micrograms.kg-1 (IVER 400) plus increasing doses of diethylcarbamazine (DEC), given simultaneously in single dose, was performed on five groups of Polynesian Wuchereria bancrofti carriers, 49 males aged 25 to 73 years, in whom microfilaremia ranged from 1 to 6,137 mf/ml. The trial was hospital-based, open, dose-escalating (1 group per week). Safety of an unchanging dose of IVER 400 and ascending doses of DEC were studied in the 5 following groups: group 1- IVER 400 plus DEC 1 mg.kg-1, 12 patients; group 2- IVER 400 plus DEC 3 mg.kg-1, 17 patients; group 3- IVER 400 plus DEC 6 mg.kg-1, 10 patients. Two control groups were included in the study, group 4- DEC 6 mg.kg-1 alone, 5 patients; group 5-: IVER 400 alone, 5 patients. Carriers were examined and questioned regarding their experience of adverse reactions, which were graded 0 to 3 according to severity, at 6, 12 and 24 hours and at 4 days after treatment. Biological examination was performed 4 days before and 4 days after treatment and included determination of microfilaremia, complete blood count, liver function tests and assessment of creatinine and urea levels. Adverse reactions were observed in 51% of 49 carriers (15 of grade 1, 8 of grade 2, 2 of grade 3). None was considered serious and they all disappeared in 2 days. The main symptoms were fever > or = 37.5 degrees C, myalgia, arthralgia, headache, asthenia, anorexia, vertigo and chills. Adverse reactions of patients were not significantly different between the five groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8367670

  5. Results of a safety trial on single-dose treatments with 400 mcg/kg of ivermectin in bancroftian filariasis.

    PubMed

    Cartel, J L; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Glaziou, P; Nguyen, L N; Chanteau, S; Roux, J F

    1992-12-01

    Two groups of Polynesian Wuchereria bancrofti carriers, 17 females aged 21 to 84 years and 20 males aged 26 to 57 years, in whom microfilaraemia ranged from 1 to 10,121 mf/ml and from 1 to 6,484 mf/ml, respectively, were given a supervised singledose treatment with 400 mcg/kg of ivermectin. Carriers were examined and questioned regarding their experience of adverse reactions, which were graded 0 to 3 according to severity, at 6, 12 and 24 hours and at 4 days after treatment. Biological examinations which included determination of microfilaraemia, complete blood count, liver function tests and assessment of creatinine and urea levels were performed at 4 days before and 4 days after treatment. Adverse reactions were observed in 65% of female and in 70% of male carriers; they were of grade > or = 2 in 35% of carriers in both groups. None as considered serious; they all disappeared in 24-48 hours. The main symptoms were headache, fever > or = 37.5 degrees C and myalgia in females. One male vomited 3 hours after treatment; as a result the drug was not ingested and no decrease of microfilaraemia was noted. Twelve days afterwards, he was given a second 400 mcg/kg dose, he experienced again a grade 1 reaction and his microfilaraemia fell to zero. The 37 carriers in the present study were matched with 37 other Polynesian carriers treated with a 100 mcg/kg single dose of ivermectin in previous trials for pretreatment mf density and sex: no significant difference could be found in adverse reactions between the 2 treatment groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1293733

  6. In utero sensitization modulates IgG isotype, IFN-γ and IL-10 responses of neonates in bancroftian filariasis.

    PubMed

    Achary, K G; Mandal, N N; Mishra, S; Mishra, R; Sarangi, S S; Satapathy, A K; Kar, S K; Bal, M S

    2014-10-01

    In utero exposure has been considered as a risk factor for filarial infection. To evaluate the influence of maternal infection on filarial-specific IgG subclass response in neonates and their correlation with plasma levels IL-10 and interferon-γ, 145 pairs of mothers and their respective cord bloods were examined. Transplacental transfer of circulating filarial antigen (CFA) was observed in 34·8% cord bloods from CFA positive mothers. Filarial-specific IgG1, IgG2 and IgG4 responses of cord bloods were found to be positively correlated with CFA of mothers. In contrast, IgG3 responses negatively correlated with CFA of mothers. The % of similarity of recognition pattern in the cord blood with maternal blood was high for IgG3 response than IgG4 in all three groups. An increased levels of IL-10 and decreased levels of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) were observed in cord blood of infected mothers. Interferon gamma was positively correlated with IgG3 and negatively correlated with IgG4 level. On the other hand, IL-10 was positively correlated with IgG4 and CFA, indicating that cytokines may play a role in modulating the immune responses in cord bloods of sensitized foetus. The findings of the study reveal that in utero tolerance or sensitization may influence the filarial-specific immunity to infection in neonates. PMID:24902619

  7. Biolarvicidal compound gymnemagenol isolated from leaf extract of miracle fruit plant, Gymnema sylvestre (Retz) Schult against malaria and filariasis vectors.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Venkatesan Gopiesh; Kannabiran, Krishnan; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu

    2011-11-01

    Owing to the fact that the application of synthetic larvicide has envenomed the surroundings as well as non-target organisms, natural products of plant origin with insecticidal properties have been tried as an indigenous method for the control of a variety of insect pests and vectors in the recent past. Insecticides of plant origin have been extensively used on agricultural pests and, to a very limited extent, against insect vectors of public health importance, which deserve careful and thorough screening. The use of plant extracts for insect control has several appealing features as these are generally more biodegradable, less hazardous and a rich storehouse of chemicals of diverse biological activities. Moreover, herbal sources give a lead for discovering new insecticides. Therefore, biologically active plant materials have attracted considerable interest in mosquito control study in recent times. The crude leaf extracts of Gymnema sylvestre (Retz) Schult (Asclepiadaceae) and purified gymnemagenol compound were studied against the early fourth-instar larvae of Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of petroleum ether leaf extract of G. sylvestre led to the separation and identification of gymnemagenol as a potential new antiparasitic compound. Phytochemical analysis of G. sylvestre leaves revealed the presence of active constituents such as carbohydrates, saponins, phytosterols, phenols, flavonoids and tannins. However, cardiac glycosides and phlobatannins are absent in the plant extracts. Quantitative analysis results suggested that saponin (5%) was present in a high concentration followed by tannins (1.0%). The 50 g powder was loaded on silica gel column and eluted with chloroform-methanol-water as eluents. From that, 16 mg pure saponin compound was isolated and analysed by thin layer chromatography using chloroform and methanol as the solvent systems. The structure of the purified triterpenoid fraction was established from infrared (IR), ultraviolet (UV), (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), (13)C NMR and mass spectral data. The carbon skeleton of the compound was obtained by (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The chemical shift assignments obtained for gymnemagenol from (1)H NMR correspond to the molecular formula C(30)H(50)O(4). The compound was identified as 3β, 16β, 28, 29-tetrahydroxyolean-12-ene (gymnemagenol sapogenin). Parasite larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of purified compound gymnemagenol for 24 h. The results suggested that the larval mortality effects of the compound were 28%, 69%, 100% and 31%, 63%, 100% at 6, 12 and 24 h against A. subpictus and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. In the present study, the per cent mortality were 100, 86, 67, 36, 21 and 100, 78, 59, 38 and 19 observed in the concentrations of 1,000, 500, 250, 125 and 62.75 ppm against the fourth-instar larvae of A. subpitcus and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The purified compound gymnemagenol was tested in concentrations of 80, 40, 20, 10 and 5 ppm, and the per cent mortality were 100, 72, 53, 30 and 15 against A. subpitcus and 100, 89, 61, 42 and 30 against C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The larvicidal crude leaf extract of G. sylvestre showed the highest mortality in the concentration of 1,000 ppm against the larvae of A. subpictus (LC(50) = 166.28 ppm, r (2) = 0.807) and against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50) = 186.55 ppm, r (2) = 0.884), respectively. The maximum efficacy was observed in gymnemagenol compound with LC(50) and r (2) values against the larvae of A. subpictus (22.99 ppm, 0.922) and against C. quinquefasciatus (15.92 ppm, 0.854), respectively. The control (distilled water) showed nil mortality in the concurrent assay. PMID:21537987

  8. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Nelumbo nucifera leaf extract and its larvicidal activity against malaria and filariasis vectors.

    PubMed

    Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Marimuthu, Sampath; Bagavan, Asokan; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Elango, Gandhi; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the larvicidal potential of the hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol, and aqueous leaf extracts of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (Nymphaeaceae) and synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract against fourth instar larvae of Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Nanoparticles are being used in many commercial applications. It was found that aqueous silver ions can be reduced by aqueous extract of plant parts to generate extremely stable silver nanoparticles in water. The results recorded from UV-vis spectrum, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared support the biosynthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of plant extracts and synthesized silver nanoparticles for 24 h. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the maximum efficacy was observed in crude methanol, aqueous, and synthesized silver nanoparticles against the larvae of A. subpictus (LC(50) = 8.89, 11.82, and 0.69 ppm; LC(90) = 28.65, 36.06, and 2.15 ppm) and against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50) = 9.51, 13.65, and 1.10 ppm; LC(90) = 28.13, 35.83, and 3.59 ppm), respectively. These results suggest that the leaf methanol, aqueous extracts of N. nucifera, and green synthesis of silver nanoparticles have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the A. subpictus and C. quinquefasciatus. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of the plant extracts and synthesized nanoparticles. PMID:20978795

  9. Accuracy of Coverage Survey Recall following an Integrated Mass Drug Administration for Lymphatic Filariasis, Schistosomiasis, and Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis

    PubMed Central

    Budge, Philip J.; Sognikin, Edmond; Akosa, Amanda; Mathieu, Els M.; Deming, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Achieving target coverage levels for mass drug administration (MDA) is essential to elimination and control efforts for several neglected tropical diseases (NTD). To ensure program goals are met, coverage reported by drug distributors may be validated through household coverage surveys that rely on respondent recall. This is the first study to assess accuracy in such surveys. Methodology/Principal Findings Recall accuracy was tested in a series of coverage surveys conducted at 1, 6, and 12 months after an integrated MDA in Togo during which three drugs (albendazole, ivermectin, and praziquantel) were distributed. Drug distribution was observed during the MDA to ensure accurate recording of persons treated during the MDA. Information was obtained for 506, 1131, and 947 persons surveyed at 1, 6, and 12 months, respectively. Coverage (defined as the percentage of persons taking at least one of the MDA medications) within these groups was respectively 88.3%, 87.4%, and 80.0%, according to the treatment registers; it was 87.9%, 91.4% and 89.4%, according to survey responses. Concordance between respondents and registers on swallowing at least one pill was >95% at 1 month and >86% at 12 months; the lower concordance at 12 months was more likely due to difficulty matching survey respondents with the year-old treatment register rather than inaccurate responses. Respondents generally distinguished between pills similar in appearance; concordance for recall of which pills were taken was over 80% in each survey. Significance In this population, coverage surveys provided remarkably consistent coverage estimates for up to one year following an integrated MDA. It is not clear if similar consistency will be seen in other settings, however, these data suggest that in some settings coverage surveys might be conducted as much as one year following an MDA without compromising results. This might enable integration of post-MDA coverage measurement into large, multipurpose, periodic surveys, thereby conserving resources. PMID:26766287

  10. Ecological Drivers of Mansonella perstans Infection in Uganda and Patterns of Co-endemicity with Lymphatic Filariasis and Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Vounatsou, Penelope; Onapa, Ambrose W.; Utzinger, Jürg; Pedersen, Erling M.; Kristensen, Thomas K.; Simonsen, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Mansonella perstans is a widespread, but relatively unknown human filarial parasite transmitted by Culicoides biting midges. Although it is found in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, only few studies have been carried out to deepen the understanding of its ecology, epidemiology, and health consequences. Hence, knowledge about ecological drivers of the vector and parasite distribution, integral to develop spatially explicit models for disease prevention, control, and elimination strategies, is limited. Methodology We analyzed data from a comprehensive nationwide survey of M. perstans infection conducted in 76 schools across Uganda in 2000–2003, to identify environmental drivers. A suite of Bayesian geostatistical regression models was fitted, and the best fitting model based on the deviance information criterion was utilized to predict M. perstans infection risk for all of Uganda. Additionally, we investigated co-infection rates and co-distribution with Wuchereria bancrofti and Plasmodium spp. infections observed at the same survey by mapping geographically overlapping areas. Principal Findings Several bioclimatic factors were significantly associated with M. perstans infection levels. A spatial Bayesian regression model showed the best fit, with diurnal temperature range, normalized difference vegetation index, and cattle densities identified as significant covariates. This model was employed to predict M. perstans infection risk at non-sampled locations. The level of co-infection with W. bancrofti was low (0.3%), due to limited geographic overlap. However, where the two infections did overlap geographically, a positive association was found. Conclusions/Significance This study presents the first geostatistical risk map for M. perstans in Uganda. We confirmed a widespread distribution of M. perstans, and identified important potential drivers of risk. The results provide new insight about the ecologic preferences of this otherwise poorly known filarial parasite and its Culicoides vector species in Uganda, which might be relevant for other settings in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:26793972

  11. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of plant extracts from Clausena dentata (Willd) (Rutaceae) against dengue, malaria, and filariasis vectors.

    PubMed

    Manjari, Murugesan Susitra; Karthi, Sengodan; Ramkumar, Govindaraju; Muthusamy, Ranganathan; Natarajan, Devarajan; Shivakumar, Muthugoundar Subramanian

    2014-07-01

    Mosquitoes in the larval stage are attractive targets for pesticides because mosquitoes breed in water, and thus, it is easy to deal with them in this habitat. The use of conventional pesticides in the water sources, however, introduces many risks to people and/or the environment. Natural pesticides, especially those derived from plants, are more promising in this aspect. Aromatic plants and their essential oils are very important sources of many compounds that are used in different respects. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative to chemical insecticides. Acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and petroleum benzine leaf extracts of Clausena dentata were tested against the fourth instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The highest larval mortality was found in acetone leaf extract, C. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 0.150278 mg/ml; LC90 = 7.302613 mg/ml), A. aegypti (LC50 = 0.169495 mg/ml; LC90 = 1.10034 mg/ml), and A. stephensi (LC50 = 0.045684 mg/ml; LC90 = 0.045684 mg/ml). GC-MS analysis of plant extracts of acetone solvent revealed 16 compounds, of which the major compounds were benzene,1,2,3-trimethoxy-5-(2-propenyl) (14.97%), Z,Z-6,28-heptatriactontadien-2-one (6.81%), 2-allyl-4-methylphenol (28.14%), 2-allyl-4-methylphenol (17.34%), and 2,6,10,14,18,22-tetracosahexaene, 2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyl (10.35%). Our result shows acetone leaf extracts of C. dentata have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for mosquito control. PMID:24802866

  12. Forced egg retention and oviposition behavior of malaria, dengue and filariasis vectors to a topical repellent diethyl-phenylacetamide.

    PubMed

    Seenivasagan, T; Iqbal, S Thanvir; Guha, Lopamudra

    2015-07-01

    Egg retention and oviposition behavior of four species of mosquito vectors viz., Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus to a topical insect repellent diethyl-phenylacetamide (DEPA) at 0.1-1000 mg/L was investigated under laboratory conditions. Based on oviposition activity indices, DEPA demonstrated concentration dependent oviposition deterrent effect to A. stephensi (-0.18 to -0.97), A. aegypti (-0.18 to -0.91) and A. albopictus (-0.50 to -0.98) females. In contrast, positive oviposition response by C. quinquefasciatus (+0.39 and +0.70) was observed respectively at 0.1 and 1 ppm, while 10 ppm of DEPA on water received 50% lesser egg rafts than control. Gravid Culex females laid no egg rafts at 100 and 1000 ppm DEPA treated bowls effecting 100% oviposition deterrence. Test mosquito females deposited most of their eggs (> 90%) in the absence of repellent odour, while DEPA odour on water surface forced them to retain huge numbers of eggs. Females of A. aegypti, A. albopictus and A. stephensi retained 49, 67 and 50% of total eggs, respectively throughout the experiment. Egg retention by Culex females due to DEPA on the water surface was ca. 65%, equivalent to 4 egg rafts. Therefore, DEPA at lower concentrations could effectively disturb the oviposition by these vectors. Application of repellents in small water bodies would help in reducing the population build up of mosquitoes near human households and could be useful in the integrated management of mosquito vectors. PMID:26245028

  13. Prolonged clearance of microfilaraemia in patients with bancroftian filariasis after multiple high doses of ivermectin or diethylcarbamazine.

    PubMed

    Ismail, M M; Weil, G J; Jayasinghe, K S; Premaratne, U N; Abeyewickreme, W; Rajaratnam, H N; Sheriff, M H; Perera, C S; Dissanaike, A S

    1996-01-01

    In a double-blind trial on 37 asymptomatic microfilaraemic subjects (minimum 400 microfilariae [mf] per mL) with Wuchereria bancrofti infection, the safety, tolerability and macrofilaricidal efficacy of 12 fortnightly doses of ivermectin, 400 micrograms/kg (ivermectin group), was compared with 12 fortnightly doses of diethylcarbamazine (DEC), 10 mg/kg (DEC group), over a period of 129 weeks after treatment. A control group (LDIC group) was treated with low dose ivermectin to clear microfilaraemia, for ethical reasons. Both ivermectin and DEC in high multiple doses were well tolerated and clinically safe. Macrofilaricidal efficacy was assessed by prolonged clearance of microfilaraemia, appearance of local lesions, and reduction of circulating W. bancrofti adult antigen detected by an antigen capture enzyme-linked immunoassay based on the monoclonal antibody AD12. Mf counts fell more rapidly after ivermectin than after DEC, but low residual mf levels were equivalent in these groups after week 4. Conversely, filarial antigen levels fell more rapidly after DEC than after ivermectin, but low residual antigen levels in these groups were statistically equivalent at all times beyond 12 weeks. Mild, self-limited systemic reactions to therapy were observed in all 3 treatment groups. Local reactions, such as development of scrotal nodules, were observed in several subjects in the DEC and ivermectin groups. These results suggested that high dose ivermectin and DEC both had significant macrofilaricidal activity against W. bancrofti, but neither of these intensive therapeutic regimens consistently produced complete cures. Thus, new drugs or dosing schedules are needed to achieve the goal of killing all filarial parasites in the majority of patients. PMID:9015519

  14. Efficacy of three formulations of diflubenzuron, an insect growth regulator, against Culex quinquefasciatus Say, the vector of Bancroftian filariasis in India

    PubMed Central

    Sadanandane, C.; Doss, P. S. Boopathi; Jambulingam, P.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Insect growth regulators (IGRs) offer alternatives to conventional chemical larvicides that pose problem of resistance and environmental safety. However, only a limited number of IGRs have been approved for use in mosquito control. In the present study, two new formulations of the IGR diflubenzuron, 2 per cent granular (GR) and 2 per cent tablet (DT) were tested for its efficacy against Culex quinquefasciatus, in comparison to its 25 per cent wettable powder (WP) formulation. Methods: The WP, GR and DT formulations were tested in cesspits, street drains and abandoned wells each at four dosages, 25, 50, 75 and 100 g ai/ha. Additionally, the DT formulation was tested at a higher dosage of 1 tablet/m2 (equal to 400 g ai/ha). Results: The WP and GR formulations yielded >80 per cent inhibition of adult emergence (IE) for 7-10 days in cesspits, 4-7 days in street drains and 7-21 days in abandoned wells at all dosages tested. The DT formulation was effective only at higher dosage 100 g ai/ha and or 1 tablet/m2 for 7-15 days at all habitats. Interpretation & conclusions: The trial showed that the dosage 25 g ai/ha of 25 per cent WP could be the field dosage for cesspits and wells, and 50 g ai/ha for drains, to be applied at weekly intervals. The dosages 25, 50 and 100 g ai/ha of 2 per cent GR could be the field dosages for application in cesspits at weekly intervals, in abandoned wells every three weeks and in drains at weekly intervals, respectively. Diflubenzuron 25 per cent WP and 2 per cent GR could be used for larval control of Cx. quinquefasciatus under integrated vector management programme. PMID:23287125

  15. Compared efficacy of repeated annual and semi-annual doses of ivermectin and diethylcarbamazine for prevention of Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis in French Polynesia. Final evaluation.

    PubMed

    Cartel, J L; Spiegel, A; Nguyen Ngnoc, L; Cardines, R; Plichart, R; Martin, P M; Roux, J F; Moulia-Pelat, J P

    1992-06-01

    In October 1989, 58 apparently healthy Polynesian Wuchereria bancrofti carriers, in whom microfilarial (mf) density was greater than or equal to 100 mf/ml, were randomly allocated to treatment groups receiving single doses of either ivermectin at 100 mcg/kg or diethylcarbamazine (DEC) at 3 and 6 mg/kg. Six months later, half of the carriers initially treated with ivermectin 100 mcg/kg or DEC 3 mg/kg were given a second similar dose while the rest were given a placebo. Six months later again, all of the carriers received a last treatment dose similar to the initial one. The results observed during the 12-month period which followed this last treatment have confirmed that (i) in terms of immediate clearance or complete negativation of microfilaremia, the efficacy of ivermectin is higher than that of DEC (at dosage of 3 or 6 mg/kg), (ii) DEC is more effective than ivermectin in sustaining the reduction of microfilaremia over a longer period of time and (iii) the efficacy of repeated single doses of either DEC 3 mg/kg or ivermectin 100 mcg/kg is much higher when given semi-annually than annually.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1519031

  16. Macrofilaricidal activity and amelioration of lymphatic pathology in bancroftian filariasis after 3 weeks of doxycycline followed by single-dose diethylcarbamazine.

    PubMed

    Mand, Sabine; Pfarr, Kenneth; Sahoo, Prakash K; Satapathy, Ashok K; Specht, Sabine; Klarmann, Ute; Debrah, Alexander Y; Ravindran, Balachandran; Hoerauf, Achim

    2009-10-01

    In a placebo controlled trial, the effects of 21- and 10-day doxycycline treatments (200 mg/day) followed by single dose diethylcarbamazine (administered 4 months post treatment) on depletion of Wolbachia endobacteria from Wuchereria bancrofti, filaricidal activity, and amerlioration of scrotal lymph vessel dilation were studied in 57 men from Orissa, India. The 21-day doxycycline course reduced Wolbachia in W. bancrofti by 94% before diethylcarbamazine administration. After 12 months, all patients with this treatment were amicrofilaremic and different from the 10-day doxycycline (42.9%) and placebo (37.5%) groups, and significantly fewer were positive for scrotal worm nests (6.7%) compared with 10-day doxycycline (60%) and placebo (66.7%). Average scrotal lymph vessel diameters were reduced from 0.7 cm pre-treatment to 0.02 cm in patients after 21 days of treatment, while no significant changes were seen in the other groups. This latter feature confirms the beneficial effects of doxycycline on lymphatic dilation and thus adds to the existing evidence that doxycycline, in addition to being macrofilaricidal, may be used to prevent or reverse lymphatic pathology. PMID:19815891

  17. Larvicidal and ovideterrent properties of neem oil and fractions against the filariasis vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae): a bioactivity survey across production sites.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Bedini, Stefano; Cosci, Francesca; Toniolo, Chiara; Conti, Barbara; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Neem seed oil (NSO) of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) contains more than 100 determined biologically active compounds, and many formulations deriving from them showed toxicity, antifeedancy and repellence against a number of arthropod pests. However, it is widely known that botanical products can differ in their chemical composition and bioactivity, as function of the production site and production process. We used high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) to investigate differences in chemical constituents of NSOs from three production sites. HPTLC analyses showed several differences in chemical abundance and diversity among NSOs, with special reference to limonoids. Furthermore, the three NSOs and their fractions of increasing polarities [i.e. ethyl acetate (EA) fraction and butanol (BU) fraction] were evaluated for larvicidal toxicity and field oviposition deterrence against the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, currently the most invasive mosquito worldwide. Results from bioactivity experiments showed good toxicity of NSOs and EA fractions against A. albopictus fourth instar larvae (with LC50 values ranging from 142.28 to 209.73 ppm), while little toxicity was exerted by BU fractions. A significant effect of the production site and dosage was also found and is probably linked to differences in abundance of constituents among samples, as highlighted by HPTLC analyses. NSOs and EAs were also able to deter A. albopictus oviposition in the field (effective repellence values ranging from 98.55 to 70.10%), while little effectiveness of BU fractions was found. Concerning ovideterrent activity, no difference due to the production site was found. This is the first report concerning larvicidal toxicity of NSO against A. albopictus and ovideterrence against Culicidae in the field. The chance to use chemicals from the NSO EA fraction seems promising, since they are effective at lower doses, if compared to synthetic products currently marketed, and could be an advantageous alternative to build newer and safer mosquito control tools. PMID:25327954

  18. Laboratory observations on the larvicidal efficacy of three plant species against mosquito vectors of malaria, dengue/dengue hemorrhagic fever (DF/DHF) and lymphatic filariasis in the semi-arid desert.

    PubMed

    Bansal, S K; Singh, Karam V; Sharma, Sapna; Sherwani, M R K

    2012-05-01

    Comparative larvicidal efficacy of aqueous and organic solvent extracts from seeds, leaves and flowers of three desert plants viz. Calotropis procera (Aiton), Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers. and Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. was evaluated against Anopheles stephensi (Liston), Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say). For this purpose larvae of all the three mosquito species were reared in the laboratory and studies carried out on late 3rd or early 4th instars using standard WHO technique. Based on concentration mortality data 24 and 48 hr LC50and LC90 values along with their 95% fiducial limits, regression equation, chi-square (chi2)/ heterogeneity of the response were determined by log probit regression analysis. Experiments were carried out with different solvent extracts of seeds of C. procera which revealed that methanol (24 hr LC50: 127.2, 194.8, 361.0) and acetone (229.9, 368.1,193.0 mg l(-1)) extracts were more effective with the three mosquito species, respectively. Petroleum ether extract was effective only on An. stephensi while aqueous extracts were not effective at all with any of the mosquito species (mortality < 10-30%). Tests carried out with methanol extracts of fresh leaves (24 hr LC50: 89.2, 171.2, 369.7) and flowers (24 hr LC50: 94.7,617.3, 1384.0 mg l-(-1)) of Calotropis showed that preparations from fresh parts were 2-3 times more effective as compared to the stored plant parts. Efficacy was less than 10-30% with both An. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus while An. stephensi was still susceptible to extracts from both leaves and flowers even after two years of storage. The 24 hr LC50 values as observed for methanol extracts of seeds of T. purpurea and leaves of P. juliflora were 74.9, 63.2 and 47.0 and 96.2,128.1 and 118.8 mg l(-1) for the above three mosquito species, respectively. Experiments carried out up to 500 mg l-(1) with leaves (T. purpurea) and seeds (P. juliflora) extracts show only up to 10-30% mortality indicating that active larvicidal principle may be present only in the seeds of Tephrosia and leaves of Prosopis. In general, anophelines were found more susceptible than the culicines to the plant derived derivatives. More studies are being carried outon some other desert plants found in this arid region. The study would be of great importance while formulating vector control strategy based on alternative plant based insecticides in this semi-arid region. PMID:23029912

  19. Nature limits filarial transmission

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Goutam

    2008-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis, caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and B. timori is a public health problem of considerable magnitude of the tropics and subtropics. Presently 1.3 billion people are at risk of lymphatic filariasis (LF) infection and about 120 million people are affected in 83 countries. In this context it is worth mentioning that 'nature' itself limits filarial transmission to a great extent in a number of ways such as by reducing vector populations, parasitic load and many other bearings. Possibilities to utilize these bearings of natural control of filariasis should be searched and if manipulations on nature, like indiscriminate urbanization and deforestation, creating sites favourable for the breeding of filarial vectors and unsanitary conditions, water pollution with organic matters etc., are reduced below the threshold level, we will be highly benefited. Understandings of the factors related to natural phenomena of control of filariasis narrated in this article may help to adopt effective control strategies. PMID:18500974

  20. Travel/Travelers and Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Taenia infection fascioliasis Vector-borne Transmission More Common malaria leishmaniasis Less Common Chagas disease lymphatic filariasis African ... source: Global Health - Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria Notice: Linking to a non-federal site does ...

  1. The Impact of Cultural Behaviours, Local Beliefs, and Practices on Emerging Parasitic Diseases in Tropical Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuliri, Celestine O. E.; Anosike, Jude C.; Oguoma, Chibuzor; Onwuliri, Viola A.; Nwoke, Betram E. B.; Dozie, Ikechukwu, N. S.; Iwuala, Moses O. E.

    2005-01-01

    The scourge of emerging parasitic diseases (e.g., urinary schistosomiasis, ascariasis, malaria, chagas disease, leishmaniasis, trachoma, trichiuriasis, taeniasis, dracunculiasis, sleeping sickness, filariasis) causes tremendous pain, suffering, and eventually death in tropical African communities. Patterns of transmission of these emerging…

  2. Insights into host-finding by Culex mosquitoes: New tools for surveillance?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Culex mosquitoes are important vectors of pathogens and parasites causing diseases such as West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis and bancroftian filariasis. Surveillance of these species is based on traps using conventional mosquito attractan...

  3. Measurement of Circulating Filarial Antigen Levels in Human Blood with a Point-of-Care Test Strip and a Portable Spectrodensitometer.

    PubMed

    Chesnais, Cédric B; Vlaminck, Johnny; Kunyu-Shako, Billy; Pion, Sébastien D; Awaca-Uvon, Naomi-Pitchouna; Weil, Gary J; Mumba, Dieudonné; Boussinesq, Michel

    2016-06-01

    The Alere Filariasis Test Strip (FTS) is a qualitative, point-of-care diagnostic tool that detects Wuchereria bancrofti circulating filarial antigen (CFA) in human blood, serum, or plasma. The Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis employs the FTS for mapping filariasis-endemic areas and assessing the success of elimination efforts. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between the intensity of positive test lines obtained by FTS with CFA levels as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with blood and plasma samples from 188 individuals who live in a filariasis-endemic area. The intensity of the FTS test line was assessed visually to provide a semiquantitative score (visual Filariasis Test Strip [vFTS]), and line intensity was measured with a portable spectrodensitometer (quantitative Filariasis Test Strip [qFTS]). These results were compared with antigen levels measured by ELISA in plasma from the same subjects. qFTS measurements were highly correlated with vFTS scores (ρ = 0.94; P < 0.001) and with plasma CFA levels (ρ = 0.91; P < 0.001). Thus, qFTS assessment is a convenient method for quantifying W. bancrofti CFA levels in human blood, which are correlated with adult worm burdens. This tool may be useful for assessing the impact of treatment on adult filarial worms in individuals and communities. PMID:27114288

  4. Measurement of Circulating Filarial Antigen Levels in Human Blood with a Point-of-Care Test Strip and a Portable Spectrodensitometer

    PubMed Central

    Chesnais, Cédric B.; Vlaminck, Johnny; Kunyu-Shako, Billy; Pion, Sébastien D.; Awaca-Uvon, Naomi-Pitchouna; Weil, Gary J.; Mumba, Dieudonné; Boussinesq, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The Alere Filariasis Test Strip (FTS) is a qualitative, point-of-care diagnostic tool that detects Wuchereria bancrofti circulating filarial antigen (CFA) in human blood, serum, or plasma. The Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis employs the FTS for mapping filariasis-endemic areas and assessing the success of elimination efforts. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between the intensity of positive test lines obtained by FTS with CFA levels as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with blood and plasma samples from 188 individuals who live in a filariasis-endemic area. The intensity of the FTS test line was assessed visually to provide a semiquantitative score (visual Filariasis Test Strip [vFTS]), and line intensity was measured with a portable spectrodensitometer (quantitative Filariasis Test Strip [qFTS]). These results were compared with antigen levels measured by ELISA in plasma from the same subjects. qFTS measurements were highly correlated with vFTS scores (ρ = 0.94; P < 0.001) and with plasma CFA levels (ρ = 0.91; P < 0.001). Thus, qFTS assessment is a convenient method for quantifying W. bancrofti CFA levels in human blood, which are correlated with adult worm burdens. This tool may be useful for assessing the impact of treatment on adult filarial worms in individuals and communities. PMID:27114288

  5. Blastic Phase of CML with Microfilaria: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Pahwa, Suniti; Saksena, Annapurna; Singh, Ashu; Daga, M K; Singh, Tejinder

    2015-01-01

    Filariasis is a major public health concern in tropical and subtropical countries including India. There have been very few case reports of incidental filariasis in the bone marrow aspirate smears in patients with hematological malignancies. We present a case of blastic phase of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) with associated filariasis with monocytosis. Such an association, to the best of our knowledge, is hitherto unreported. Moreover, eosinophilia was not a feature in our case. A 37-year-old male, diagnosed case of CML, presented with low grade fever, weight loss and abdominal distension for one month. Physical examination revealed massive splenomegaly and hepatomegaly. However, there was no lymphadenopathy. His hemoglobin was 10.5 g/dl, total leukocyte count was 52.31x 109 / L with platelet count of 30x 109/L .Differential leukocyte count on peripheral smear showed 21% blasts, 30% polymorphs, 16% lymphocytes, 1% myelocyte, 1%metamyelocyte, 30%monocytoid cells and 1% eosinophils. Bone marrow aspirate smears were diluted with peripheral blood and showed blasts and monocytoid cells constituting 25% and 15% of marrow nucleated cells respectively. In addition, occasional microfilaria of Wuchereria bancrofti were also seen both in the peripheral blood and aspirate smears. Based on the above findings, a diagnosis of blastic phase of CML with monocytosis with microfilaria of W.bancrofti. Hence this was an unusual case of CML blastic phase which was associated with filariasis. Moreover, inspite of having filariasis and CML, patient lacked eosinophilia and instead showed monocytosis, which is hitherto unreported. PMID:25737999

  6. Use of Remote Sensing Surveillance to Monitor Environmental Parameters Associated with Mosquito Abundance and Vector-borne Diseases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis persists as a major cause of clinical morbidity and a significant impediment to socioeconomic development in various parts of the world including Egypt. In Egypt, filariasis has been endemic since time immemorial. Early epidemiologic studies identified Culex pipiens L. as the main vector of the disease and also showed that the geographic distribution of the disease is highly focal and concentrated in lower Egypt. Between 1950 and 1965, a large scale filariasis control program was carried out by the Egyptian Ministry of Health (EMOH) in the endemic areas. Control efforts led to a steady decrease of the disease in areas of the country previously identified as endemic. However, spot surveys conducted in various parts of the Nile Delta during the 1970's and 1980's revealed that the downward trend of the disease had stopped and that the prevalence and intensity of microfilaraemia had increased.

  7. A Step Toward Eradication of Human Filariases in Areas Where Loa Is Endemic.

    PubMed

    Geary, Timothy G

    2016-01-01

    Mass drug administration (MDA) programs have achieved remarkable success in limiting the pathology and transmission of the human parasitic infections onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. The full implementation of MDA campaigns for filariasis elimination has been stymied by the unacceptable incidence of severe adverse events observed following drug treatment of a subset of individuals who harbor high loads of Loa loa microfilaria. Extending MDA strategies to regions where loiasis is coendemic could be done confidently if a simple, inexpensive, and rapid diagnostic method was available that could accurately identify individuals who have L. loa microfilarial loads above the risk threshold and could thus be excluded from treatment. A recent paper in mBio reports the discovery of an antigen unique to L. loa microfilaria that can be detected in blood and urine and may form the basis for such an assay. Further work will reveal whether this discovery will smooth the path to achieve filariasis eradication. PMID:27073095

  8. A Step Toward Eradication of Human Filariases in Areas Where Loa Is Endemic

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mass drug administration (MDA) programs have achieved remarkable success in limiting the pathology and transmission of the human parasitic infections onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. The full implementation of MDA campaigns for filariasis elimination has been stymied by the unacceptable incidence of severe adverse events observed following drug treatment of a subset of individuals who harbor high loads of Loa loa microfilaria. Extending MDA strategies to regions where loiasis is coendemic could be done confidently if a simple, inexpensive, and rapid diagnostic method was available that could accurately identify individuals who have L. loa microfilarial loads above the risk threshold and could thus be excluded from treatment. A recent paper in mBio reports the discovery of an antigen unique to L. loa microfilaria that can be detected in blood and urine and may form the basis for such an assay. Further work will reveal whether this discovery will smooth the path to achieve filariasis eradication. PMID:27073095

  9. Activation and regulation of Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) by helminth parasites

    PubMed Central

    Venugopal, Priyanka Goel; Nutman, Thomas B.; Semnani, Roshanak Tolouei

    2012-01-01

    Helminth (worm) infections are major public health problems that have important socioeconomic consequences for the more than 2 billion infected individuals. Chronicity (their hallmark) can lead to anemia (in hookworm infection), river blindness (onchcerciasis), cirrhosis (schistosomiasis), and elephantiasis (lymphatic filariasis). Although there have been many studies examining innate immune responses (including TLR expression and function) in response to intracellular pathogens, fewer have examined the interaction of the multicellular helminth parasites and the innate immune system. This review will focus on two “systemic” helminth parasitic infections (lymphatic filariasis and schistosomiasis) and the regulation of TLRs that may contribute to infection outcome. PMID:18982454

  10. "Filarial dance sign" real-time ultrasound diagnosis of filarial oophoritis.

    PubMed

    Panditi, Surekha; Shelke, Ashwini G; Thummalakunta, Laxmi Narasimha Praveen

    2016-10-01

    Filariasis is a parasitic disease caused by Filarial nematodes (Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori) that commonly causes lymphatic obstruction resulting in edema and increase in the size of the affected organ. Filariasis is diagnosed by identifying microfilariae on Giemsa stain. The immunochromatographic card test is diagnostic. Ultrasound is the imaging modality of choice for detecting adult filarial worms/microfilaria in the lymphatic system, which are responsible for the classic "filarial dance sign" caused by twirling movements of the microfilariae. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 44:500-501, 2016. PMID:27130361

  11. Microfilariae, a Common Parasite in an Unusual Site: A Case Report with Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Dhanya, C S Rohini; Jayaprakash, H T

    2016-04-01

    Filariasis is common in tropical countries. Wuchereria bancrofti is the most common parasite which causes lymphatic filariasis in India. This paper reports the finding of microfilariae in cervicovaginal smear of a 61-year-old post menopausal woman with a brief review of literature. There are limited numbers of reports describing the presence of microfilariae in the cervicovaginal smears and even rarely as an incidental finding. It is very important to keep in mind and screen for microfilariae in the non-endemic areas also. PMID:27190816

  12. Microfilariae, a Common Parasite in an Unusual Site: A Case Report with Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Jayaprakash, H.T.

    2016-01-01

    Filariasis is common in tropical countries. Wuchereria bancrofti is the most common parasite which causes lymphatic filariasis in India. This paper reports the finding of microfilariae in cervicovaginal smear of a 61-year-old post menopausal woman with a brief review of literature. There are limited numbers of reports describing the presence of microfilariae in the cervicovaginal smears and even rarely as an incidental finding. It is very important to keep in mind and screen for microfilariae in the non-endemic areas also. PMID:27190816

  13. An uncommon infectious cause of pleural effusion.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Amitesh; Rajashekaraiah, Lokesh Champally; Misra, Kiran; Dev, Munish; Sharma, Vishal

    2011-10-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is one of the major public health problems across the globe. Clinical manifestations usually depend on the site of lymphatic involvement. A 21-year-old female resident of a non-endemic filarial region presented with axillary lymphadenopathy, bilateral pleural effusion, ascites and pedal oedema. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of axillary lymph nodes revealed microfilariae. On the administration of diethyl carbamazine, lymph nodes gradually disappeared, the patient improved symptomatically and the filarial antigen test after treatment was negative. We report this case of bilateral axillary lymphadenopathy with pleural effusion and ascites as a rare manifestation of filariasis. PMID:21914673

  14. Opportunities to investigate the effects of ivermectin mass drug administration on scabies.

    PubMed

    Engelman, Daniel; Martin, Diana L; Hay, Roderick J; Chosidow, Olivier; McCarthy, James S; Fuller, L Claire; Steer, Andrew C

    2013-01-01

    The recent article by Mohammed et al. demonstrates an impressive effect of ivermectin mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis on the burden of scabies. Partnering scabies research within the evaluation and monitoring of Neglected Tropical Disease programmes could potentially increase our understanding of the epidemiology and control of scabies and its important bacterial complications. PMID:23594459

  15. Laboratory and field evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, chemical extracts of Jatropha curcas, Hyptis suaveolens, Abutilon indicum, and Leucas aspera were tested for toxicity to larvae of the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. Respective median lethal concentrations (LC50) for hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts...

  16. [Secondary amyloidosis in amebiasis with intrathoracic complications of amebic liver abscess combined with helminthiases and maduromycosis].

    PubMed

    Ermilov, V V

    1991-01-01

    One case of a secondary amyloidosis in amebiasis with intrathoracic complications of amebic liver abscesses in association with strongyloidiasis, enterobiasis, bancroftian filariasis and maduromycosis is described. It's suggested that the progression of secondary amyloidosis was due to the prolonged process of amebiasis in association with helminthiasis and mycosis. PMID:1953364

  17. Efficacy of larvividal and pupicidal properties of Acalypha alnifolia Klen ex Willd. (Euphorbiaceae) leaf extract and Metarhisium anisopilae (Metsch.) against Culex quinquefasciatus Say. (Diptera: Cuclicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was made to determine the lethal effects of Acalypha alnifolia leaf extract and the microbial insecticide Metarizhium anisopliae against larvae and pupae of the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. Methanol extracts of A. alnifolia were most effective in this regard with LC50 values...

  18. Larvicidal and adulticidal activity chroman and chromene analogues against susceptible and permethrin-resistant mosquito strains.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosquitoes play a major role as vectors for the transmission of parasitic and viral diseases such as dengue hemorrhagic fever, filariasis, Japanese encephalitis, malaria, schistosomiasis, and yellow fever worldwide. Mosquito borne diseases are presently among the greatest human health problems in th...

  19. Larvicidal and pupicidal properties of Acalypha alnifolia Klein ex Willd. (Euphorbiaceae) leaf extract and the microbial insecticide Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) against lymphatic filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus..

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was made to determine the mosquitocidal properties of Acalypha alnifolia leaf extract combined with the use of Metarizhium anisopliae spores for control of the lymphatic filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The methanolic leaf extract showed larvicidal and pupicidal effects after 24...

  20. Ovicidal efficacy of Ageratina adenophora (Family: Asteraceae) against Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects and serve as the most important vectors for spreading human diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and filariasis. The continued use of synthetic insecticides has resulted in resistance in mosquitoes. Synthetic insecticides are toxic and affect the...

  1. Anterior Chamber Live Loa loa: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kagmeni, G; Cheuteu, R; Bilong, Y; Wiedemann, P

    2016-01-01

    We reported a case of unusual intraocular Loa loa in a 27-year-old patient who presented with painful red eye. Biomicroscopy revealed a living and active adult worm in the anterior chamber of the right eye. After surgical extraction under local anesthesia, parasitological identification confirmed L. loa filariasis. PMID:27441005

  2. Ivermectin: A Reflection on Simplicity (Nobel Lecture).

    PubMed

    Campbell, William C

    2016-08-22

    Parasitic diseases including river blindness and lymphatic filariasis affect hundreds of millions of people annually. The discovery of the drug ivermectin has provided humankind with a powerful new means to combat these severe diseases. To a very large extent the drug was brought about by "simple" science. PMID:27243156

  3. Helminth-related Eosinophilia in African Immigrants, Gran Canaria

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, Javier; Carranza, Cristina; Muro, Antonio; Angel-Moreno, Alfonso; Martín, Antonio-Manuel; Martín, Teresa; Hernández-Cabrera, Michele

    2006-01-01

    Of 788 recent African adult immigrants to Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 213 (27.0%) had eosinophilia. The most frequent causes were filariasis (29.4%), schistosomiasis (17.2%), and hookworm infection (16.8%). Stool microscopy and filarial and schistosomal serologic tests gave the highest diagnostic yield. Country of origin and eosinophil count were associated with specific diagnoses. PMID:17176579

  4. Chapter 3. Integration of botanicals and microbial pesticides for the control of dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Insecta: Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosquitoes are the single most important group of insects in terms of public health significance and causing diseases such as malaria, filariasis, dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis and other fevers. There has been an outbreak of Chikungunya and dengue all over the India from 2006 – 2009. Aedes ae...

  5. Anterior Chamber Live Loa loa: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kagmeni, G.; Cheuteu, R.; Bilong, Y.; Wiedemann, P.

    2016-01-01

    We reported a case of unusual intraocular Loa loa in a 27-year-old patient who presented with painful red eye. Biomicroscopy revealed a living and active adult worm in the anterior chamber of the right eye. After surgical extraction under local anesthesia, parasitological identification confirmed L. loa filariasis. PMID:27441005

  6. A TaqMan-based multiplex real-time PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi.

    PubMed

    Pilotte, N; Torres, M; Tomaino, F R; Laney, S J; Williams, S A

    2013-05-01

    With the Global Program for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis continuing to make strides towards disease eradication, many locations endemic for the causative parasites of lymphatic filariasis are realizing a substantial decrease in levels of infection and rates of disease transmission. However, with measures of disease continuing to decline, the need for time-saving and economical molecular diagnostic assays capable of detecting low levels of parasite presence is increasing. This need is greatest in locations co-endemic for both Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia parasites because testing for both causative agents individually results in significant increases in labor and reagent costs. Here we describe a multiplex, TaqMan-based, real-time PCR assay capable of simultaneously detecting W. bancrofti and Brugia malayi DNA extracted from human bloodspots or vector mosquito pools. With comparable sensitivity to established singleplex assays, this assay provides significant cost and labor savings for disease monitoring efforts in co-endemic locations. PMID:23669148

  7. The significance of the Culex pipiens fatigans Wiedemann problem in Ceylon*

    PubMed Central

    Abdulcader, M. H. M.

    1967-01-01

    Bancroftian filariasis became a problem in Ceylon after the Second World War. The only vector is Culex pipiens fatigans, which is widely distributed throughout the country and is prevalent throughout the year. It is a domestic mosquito found resting mainly on hangings and household articles. Its biting hours are from dusk to dawn, with peaks around midnight and in the early hours of the morning. So far this mosquito has not been incriminated as either the natural or the laboratory vector of animal filariasis in Ceylon. C. p. fatigans collected from northern, eastern and north-central parts of the country are capable of transmitting bancroftian infection. This mosquito was able to survive after ingesting high numbers of microfilariae. The main larval habitat consists of collections of polluted water. Husk pits, underground drains and receptables around houses constitute special problems. The control results so far obtained are encouraging. PMID:5300061

  8. Lymphedema in China--experiences and prospects.

    PubMed

    Liu, N F

    2007-12-01

    The history of prevention and treatment of lymphedema in China is long. Filarial lymphedema was the most common type of the disease in the past with 5 million patients countrywide in the 1950's. Great efforts have gone into controlling filariasis during the past 50 years, and China now has essentially eliminated filariasis. In contrast to the reduction in filarial lymphedema, there has been a trend of increase in secondary lymphedema cases after malignant tumor surgery. Although there are no precise figures on the incidence of lymphedema nationwide, physicians and therapists are in great clinical demand. Traditional Chinese medicine has shown effectiveness for prevention and treatment of inflammation and alleviating swelling. The combination with Western medicine may offer improved methods for lymphedema treatment. PMID:18365528

  9. Adult filarial worm from the breast aspirate of a young man.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Hilda; Thomas, Beena Mary; Putran, Indira

    2016-06-01

    Microfilariae and adult filarial worm have been incidentally detected in fine needle aspirates of various lesions in clinically unsuspected cases. Here we report a male patient who presented with a tender breast nodule and single enlarged lymph node. Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) yielded 1 ml of yellow coloured fluid and single thread like worm measuring 6 × 0.2 cm. A diagnosis of breast abscess with a worm morphologically consistent with filariasis was offered. A follow up visit after 2 months showed regression of the breast lesion and the lymph node. Filariasis of the breast is an uncommon condition and can cause a diagnostic dilemma at times. FNA cytology appears to be a more convenient and effective diagnostic tool in patients with mass lesions. Demonstration and identification of the parasite in smears helps in avoiding surgical excision and early institution of prompt therapy especially in young patients. PMID:27413335

  10. Medically important mosquitoes in the rubber plantation belt of central Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Jomon K V; Valamparampil T T

    2014-07-01

    Entomological surveys were carried out in the rubber plantation belt of Kerala to record mosquito fauna. Samples were collected from 23 randomly selected localities using standard methods for a period of three years, from Feb- ruary 2008 to January 2011. Thirty-two species belonging to nine genera: Aedes, Anopheles, Armigeres, Coquillettidia, Culex, Heizmannia, Mansonia, Toxorhynchites, and Uranotaenia were recorded. Many of the recorded species were medically im- portant as potential vectors of dengue fever, chikungunya, Japanese encephalitis, malaria and filariasis. PMID:25427346

  11. Medically important mosquitoes in the rubber plantation belt of central Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Jomon K V; Valamparampil T T

    2014-07-01

    Entomological surveys were carried out in the rubber plantation belt of Kerala to record mosquito fauna. Samples were collected from 23 randomly selected localities using standard methods for a period of three years, from Feb- ruary 2008 to January 2011. Thirty-two species belonging to nine genera: Aedes, Anopheles, Armigeres, Coquillettidia, Culex, Heizmannia, Mansonia, Toxorhynchites, and Uranotaenia were recorded. Many of the recorded species were medically im- portant as potential vectors of dengue fever, chikungunya, Japanese encephalitis, malaria and filariasis. PMID:25507596

  12. Multiple Resistances and Complex Mechanisms of Anopheles sinensis Mosquito: A Major Obstacle to Mosquito-Borne Diseases Control and Elimination in China

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Qiang; Hartsel, Joshua; Zhou, Guofa; Shi, Linna; Fang, Fujin; Zhu, Changliang; Yan, Guiyun

    2014-01-01

    Malaria, dengue fever, and filariasis are three of the most common mosquito-borne diseases worldwide. Malaria and lymphatic filariasis can occur as concomitant human infections while also sharing common mosquito vectors. The overall prevalence and health significance of malaria and filariasis have made them top priorities for global elimination and control programmes. Pyrethroid resistance in anopheline mosquito vectors represents a highly significant problem to malaria control worldwide. Several methods have been proposed to mitigate insecticide resistance, including rotational use of insecticides with different modes of action. Anopheles sinensis, an important malaria and filariasis vector in Southeast Asia, represents an interesting mosquito species for examining the consequences of long-term insecticide rotation use on resistance. We examined insecticide resistance in two An. Sinensis populations from central and southern China against pyrethroids, organochlorines, organophosphates, and carbamates, which are the major classes of insecticides recommended for indoor residual spray. We found that the mosquito populations were highly resistant to the four classes of insecticides. High frequency of kdr mutation was revealed in the central population, whereas no kdr mutation was detected in the southern population. The frequency of G119S mutation in the ace-1 gene was moderate in both populations. The classification and regression trees (CART) statistical analysis found that metabolic detoxification was the most important resistance mechanism, whereas target site insensitivity of L1014 kdr mutation played a less important role. Our results indicate that metabolic detoxification was the dominant mechanism of resistance compared to target site insensitivity, and suggests that long-term rotational use of various insecticides has led An. sinensis to evolve a high insecticide resistance. This study highlights the complex network of mechanisms conferring multiple

  13. Parasitic disease screening among HIV patients from endemic countries in a Toronto clinic

    PubMed Central

    Costiniuk, Cecilia T; Cooper, Curtis L; Doucette, Steve; Kovacs, Colin M

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many North American-based HIV patients originate from parasitic disease-endemic regions. Strongyloidiasis, schistosomiasis and filariasis are important due to their wide distribution and potential for severe morbidity. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence, as determined by serological screening, of strongyloidiasis, schistosomiasis and filariasis among patients in an HIV-focused, primary care practice in Toronto, Ontario. A secondary objective was to determine factors associated with positive serological screens. METHODS: A retrospective review of electronic patient records was conducted. Results of serological screens for parasites and relevant laboratory data were collected. RESULTS: Ninety-seven patients were identified. The patients’ mean CD4+ count was 0.45×109/L, median viral load was undetectable and 68% were on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Most originated from Africa (37%) and South America (35%). Of the 97 patients, 10.4% and 8.3% had positive or equivocal screening results for strongyloidiasis, respectively, 7.4% and 4.2% had positive or equivocal screening results for schistosomiasis and 5.5% and 6.8% had positive or equivocal screens for filariasis. Persons with positive parasitic serologies were more often female (28% versus 9%, P=0.03), younger in age (36 versus 43 years of age, P<0.01), had been in Canada for a shorter duration (5 versus 12 years, P<0.0001) and had a higher viral load (10,990 copies/mL versus <50 copies/mL, P <0.001). All patients were asymptomatic. Eosinophilia was not associated with positive screening results. CONCLUSIONS: Using symptoms and eosinophilia to identify parasitic infection was not reliable. Screening for strongyloidiasis and schistosomiasis among patients with HIV from parasite-endemic countries is simple and benign, and may prevent future complications. The clinical benefits of screening for filariasis require further elucidation, but this practice appears to be the least warranted

  14. [Ivermectin use in tropical medicine].

    PubMed

    Dupouy-Camet, J; Yera, H; Tourte-Schaefer, C

    2003-12-01

    Ivermectin is a major breakthrough for the treatment of onchocerciasis, strongyloidosis, scabies and cutaneous larva migrans. Combined with albendazole, ivermectin is highly efficient for treating lymphatic filariasis and intestinal worms. Ivermectin shows very few side-effects but its use in children below 5 and during pregnancy is discussed. Ivermectin tolerance could be related to mdr1 gene expression. Additional studies are needed to assess its efficiency for pediculosis. PMID:15022779

  15. Elimination and Eradication of Neglected Tropical Diseases with Mass Drug Administrations: A Survey of Experts

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Jeremy D.; Hotez, Peter J.; Amza, Abdou; Stoller, Nicole E.; Gaynor, Bruce D.; Porco, Travis C.; Lietman, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminths, and trachoma are the five most prevalent neglected tropical diseases in the world, and each is frequently treated with mass drug administrations. We performed a survey of neglected tropical diseases experts to elicit their opinions on the role of mass drug administrations for the elimination of these infections. Methodology/Principal Findings We sent an online survey to corresponding authors who had published an article about a neglected tropical disease from 2007 to 2011. Of 825 unique authors who were invited to complete the survey, 365 (44.2%) responded, including 234 (28.4%) who answered questions regarding one of the five most prevalent neglected tropical diseases. Respondents had varying opinions about the goals of programmatic activities for their chosen neglected tropical disease, with elimination or eradication identified as the most important goal by 87% of lymphatic filariasis respondents, 66% of onchocerciasis respondents, 55% of trachoma respondents, 24% of schistosomiasis respondents, and 21% of soil-transmitted helminth respondents. Mass drug administrations, other non-medication health measures, and education were generally thought to be more important for elimination than vector control, development of a new tool, or the presence of a secular trend. Drug resistance was thought to be a major limitation of mass drug administrations for all five neglected tropical diseases. Over half of respondents for lymphatic filariasis and trachoma thought that repeated mass drug administrations could eliminate infection within ten years of the initiation of mass treatments. Conclusions/Significance Respondents for lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, and trachoma were more enthusiastic about the prospects of elimination and eradication than were respondents for schistosomiasis or soil-transmitted helminths. Mass drug administrations were generally believed to be among

  16. Plasmodium knowlesi and Wuchereria bancrofti: Their Vectors and Challenges for the Future

    PubMed Central

    Vythilingam, Indra

    2012-01-01

    Malaria and filariasis still continue to pose public health problems in developing countries of the tropics. Although plans are in progress for the elimination of both these parasitic vector borne diseases, we are now faced with a daunting challenge as we have a fifth species, Plasmodium knowlesi a simian malaria parasite affecting humans. Similarly in peninsular Malaysia, filariasis was mainly due to Brugia malayi. However, we now see cases of Wuchereria bancrofti in immigrant workers coming into the country. In order to successfully eliminate both these diseases we need to know the vectors involved and introduce appropriate control measures to prevent the diseases occurring in the future. As for knowlesi malaria it is still uncertain if human to human transmission through mosquito bites is occurring. However, P. knowlesi in human is not a rare occurrence anymore and has all the characteristics of a pathogen spreading due to changes in the ecosystem, international travel, and cross border migration. This has created a more complex situation. In order to overcome these challenges we need to revamp our control measures. This paper reviews the vectors of malaria and filariasis in Southeast Asia with special emphasis on P. knowlesi and W. bancrofti in Malaysia and their control strategies. PMID:22557977

  17. A mass treatment model for endemic reduction of filaria disease with pre-testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuady, A. M.; Soewono, E.; Nuraini, N.; Tasman, H.; Supriatna, A. K.

    2012-05-01

    In 2000 WHO had issued a Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis by 2020. Lymphatic Filariasis is an infectious disease that may cause permanent disability to the infected human. This disease is caused by parasitic worms and transmitted by mosquitoes. In the acute cases, the infected persons will undergo swelling in parts of their body. One of the treatment which has been successfully implemented in some countries is the Diethylcarbamazine (DEC) mass treatment. This treatment, which was implemented every year for the period of few years in some endemic region, is able to kill microfilaria within human body and partially kills the macro filaria. In this paper, a host-vector model for transmission of filariasis is constructed, in which all non-chronic individuals are separated in different compartments. Stability analysis of the disease-free equilibrium and the existence of the endemic equilibria are shown. Numerical analysis and simulation will be conducted to estimate the effectiveness of treatment and to asses the long-term dynamic effect after treatment.

  18. Towards novel antifilarial drugs: challenges and recent developments.

    PubMed

    Singh, Prashant Kumar; Ajay, Arya; Kushwaha, Susheela; Tripathi, Rama Pati; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja

    2010-02-01

    Filariasis is caused by thread-like nematode worms, classified according to their presence in the vertebrate host. The cutaneous group includes Onchocerca volvulus, Loa loa and Mansonella streptocerca; the lymphatic group includes Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori and the body cavity group includes Mansonella perstans and Mansonella ozzardi. Lymphatic filariasis, a mosquito-borne disease, is one of the most prevalent diseases in tropical and subtropical countries and is accompanied by a number of pathological conditions. In recent years, there has been rapid progress in filariasis research, which has provided new insights into the pathogenesis of filarial disease, diagnosis, chemotherapy, the host-parasite relationship and the genomics of the parasite. Together, these insights are assisting the identification of novel drug targets and the discovery of antifilarial agents and candidate vaccine molecules. This review discusses the antifilarial activity of various chemical entities, the merits and demerits of antifilarial drugs currently in use, their mechanisms of action, in addition to antifilarial drug targets and their validation. PMID:21426193

  19. Analysis of Wuchereria bancrofti infections in a village community in northern Nigeria: increased prevalence in individuals infected with Onchocerca volvulus.

    PubMed

    Engelbrecht, Fred; Oettl, Tobias; Herter, Ursula; Link, Claudia; Philipp, Diana; Edeghere, Henry; Kaliraj, P; Enwezor, Felicia

    2003-03-01

    Infections with Wuchereria bancrofti causing lymphatic filariasis still represent one of the major health problems in the tropics, with 120 million people infected and over 750 million exposed to this filarial parasite. We have studied lymphatic filariasis infections as part of a multi-parasite survey in a village community in the savannah of northern Nigeria. We analysed serum samples from 341 individuals aged 5-70 years, detecting a W. bancrofti circulating antigen using the commercially available ICT Filariasis card test. The prevalence of infections was 10% and clearly age-dependent, increasing from below 2% in children to over 20% in subjects older than 40 years. Measuring IgG4 antibodies against the recombinant W. bancrofti antigen SXP1 showed that 36% of all tested individuals had been at least exposed to the parasite. Antibody levels also increased very significantly with age. A further analysis measuring Onchocerca volvulus-specific IgG4 antibodies showed a very significant association between infections with O. volvulus and those with W. bancrofti. Our data show that infections with W. bancrofti in Nigeria are still a frequently occurring health problem, since they are more prevalent than previously reported, and that individuals with an O. volvulus infection are more often infected with W. bancrofti than expected statistically. PMID:12543143

  20. Impact of vectorborne parasitic neglected tropical diseases on child health.

    PubMed

    Barry, Meagan A; Murray, Kristy O; Hotez, Peter J; Jones, Kathryn M

    2016-07-01

    Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis are all vectorborne neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) that are responsible for significant disease burden in impoverished children and adults worldwide. As vectorborne parasitic diseases, they can all be targeted for elimination through vector control strategies. Examples of successful vector control programmes for these diseases over the past two decades have included the Southern Cone Initiative against Chagas disease, the Kala-azar Control Scheme against leishmaniasis, the Onchocerciasis Control Programme and the lymphatic filariasis control programme in The Gambia. A common vector control component in all of these programmes is the use of adulticides including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and newer synthetic pyrethroid insecticides against the insect vectors of disease. Household spraying has been used against Chagas disease and leishmaniasis, and insecticide-treated bed nets have helped prevent leishmaniasis and lymphatic filariasis. Recent trends in vector control focus on collaborations between programmes and sectors to achieve integrated vector management that addresses the holistic vector control needs of a community rather than approaching it on a disease-by-disease basis, with the goals of increased efficacy, sustainability and cost-effectiveness. As evidence of vector resistance to currently used insecticide regimens emerges, research to develop new and improved insecticides and novel control strategies will be critical in reducing disease burden. In the quest to eliminate these vectorborne NTDs, efforts need to be made to continue existing control programmes, further implement integrated vector control strategies and stimulate research into new insecticides and control methods. PMID:26921274

  1. Brugia malayi Microfilariae Induce a Regulatory Monocyte/Macrophage Phenotype That Suppresses Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Venugopal, Gopinath; Rao, Gopala B.; Lucius, Richard; Srikantam, Aparna; Hartmann, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Background Monocytes and macrophages contribute to the dysfunction of immune responses in human filariasis. During patent infection monocytes encounter microfilariae in the blood, an event that occurs in asymptomatically infected filariasis patients that are immunologically hyporeactive. Aim To determine whether blood microfilariae directly act on blood monocytes and in vitro generated macrophages to induce a regulatory phenotype that interferes with innate and adaptive responses. Methodology and principal findings Monocytes and in vitro generated macrophages from filaria non-endemic normal donors were stimulated in vitro with Brugia malayi microfilarial (Mf) lysate. We could show that monocytes stimulated with Mf lysate develop a defined regulatory phenotype, characterised by expression of the immunoregulatory markers IL-10 and PD-L1. Significantly, this regulatory phenotype was recapitulated in monocytes from Wuchereria bancrofti asymptomatically infected patients but not patients with pathology or endemic normals. Monocytes from non-endemic donors stimulated with Mf lysate directly inhibited CD4+ T cell proliferation and cytokine production (IFN-γ, IL-13 and IL-10). IFN-γ responses were restored by neutralising IL-10 or PD-1. Furthermore, macrophages stimulated with Mf lysate expressed high levels of IL-10 and had suppressed phagocytic abilities. Finally Mf lysate applied during the differentiation of macrophages in vitro interfered with macrophage abilities to respond to subsequent LPS stimulation in a selective manner. Conclusions and significance Conclusively, our study demonstrates that Mf lysate stimulation of monocytes from healthy donors in vitro induces a regulatory phenotype, characterized by expression of PD-L1 and IL-10. This phenotype is directly reflected in monocytes from filarial patients with asymptomatic infection but not patients with pathology or endemic normals. We suggest that suppression of T cell functions typically seen in lymphatic

  2. Point-of-care quantification of blood-borne filarial parasites with a mobile phone microscope.

    PubMed

    D'Ambrosio, Michael V; Bakalar, Matthew; Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Reber, Clay; Skandarajah, Arunan; Nilsson, Lina; Switz, Neil; Kamgno, Joseph; Pion, Sébastien; Boussinesq, Michel; Nutman, Thomas B; Fletcher, Daniel A

    2015-05-01

    Parasitic helminths cause debilitating diseases that affect millions of people in primarily low-resource settings. Efforts to eliminate onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis in Central Africa through mass drug administration have been suspended because of ivermectin-associated serious adverse events, including death, in patients infected with the filarial parasite Loa loa. To safely administer ivermectin for onchocerciasis or lymphatic filariasis in regions co-endemic with L. loa, a strategy termed "test and (not) treat" has been proposed whereby those with high levels of L. loa microfilariae (>30,000/ml) that put them at risk for life-threatening serious adverse events are identified and excluded from mass drug administration. To enable this, we developed a mobile phone-based video microscope that automatically quantifies L. loa microfilariae in whole blood loaded directly into a small glass capillary from a fingerprick without the need for conventional sample preparation or staining. This point-of-care device automatically captures and analyzes videos of microfilarial motion in whole blood using motorized sample scanning and onboard motion detection, minimizing input from health care workers and providing a quantification of microfilariae per milliliter of whole blood in under 2 min. To validate performance and usability of the mobile phone microscope, we tested 33 potentially Loa-infected patients in Cameroon and confirmed that automated counts correlated with manual thick smear counts (94% specificity; 100% sensitivity). Use of this technology to exclude patients from ivermectin-based treatment at the point of care in Loa-endemic regions would allow resumption/expansion of mass drug administration programs for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis in Central Africa. PMID:25947164

  3. Mining Predicted Essential Genes of Brugia malayi for Nematode Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjay; Chaudhary, Kshitiz; Foster, Jeremy M.; Novelli, Jacopo F.; Zhang, Yinhua; Wang, Shiliang; Spiro, David; Ghedin, Elodie; Carlow, Clotilde K. S.

    2007-01-01

    We report results from the first genome-wide application of a rational drug target selection methodology to a metazoan pathogen genome, the completed draft sequence of Brugia malayi, a parasitic nematode responsible for human lymphatic filariasis. More than 1.5 billion people worldwide are at risk of contracting lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, a related filarial disease. Drug treatments for filariasis have not changed significantly in over 20 years, and with the risk of resistance rising, there is an urgent need for the development of new anti-filarial drug therapies. The recent publication of the draft genomic sequence for B. malayi enables a genome-wide search for new drug targets. However, there is no functional genomics data in B. malayi to guide the selection of potential drug targets. To circumvent this problem, we have utilized the free-living model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a surrogate for B. malayi. Sequence comparisons between the two genomes allow us to map C. elegans orthologs to B. malayi genes. Using these orthology mappings and by incorporating the extensive genomic and functional genomic data, including genome-wide RNAi screens, that already exist for C. elegans, we identify potentially essential genes in B. malayi. Further incorporation of human host genome sequence data and a custom algorithm for prioritization enables us to collect and rank nearly 600 drug target candidates. Previously identified potential drug targets cluster near the top of our prioritized list, lending credibility to our methodology. Over-represented Gene Ontology terms, predicted InterPro domains, and RNAi phenotypes of C. elegans orthologs associated with the potential target pool are identified. By virtue of the selection procedure, the potential B. malayi drug targets highlight components of key processes in nematode biology such as central metabolism, molting and regulation of gene expression. PMID:18000556

  4. Immunodiagnostic Properties of Wucheraria bancrofti SXP-1, a Potential Filarial Diagnostic Candidate Expressed in Tobacco Plant, Nicotiana tabacum.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, Mathangi; Chakravarthi, M; Charles, S Jason; Harunipriya, P; Jaiganesh, S; Subramonian, N; Kaliraj, P

    2015-08-01

    Transgenic tobacco plants were developed expressing WbSXP-1, a diagnostic antigen isolated from the cDNA library of L3 stage larvae of Wucheraria bancrofti. This antigen produced by recombinant Escherichia coli has been demonstrated by to be successful as potential diagnostic candidate against lymphatic filariasis. A rapid format simple and qualitative flow through immune-filtration diagnostic kit has been developed for the identification of IgG antibodies to the recombinant WbSXP-1 and is being marketed by M/S Span Diagnostics Ltd in India and Africa. Here, we present the results of experiments on the transformation and expression of the same filarial antigen, WbSXP-1, in tobacco plant, Nicotiana tabacum, to produce plant-based diagnostic antigen. It was possible to successfully transform the tobacco plant with WbSXP-1, the integration of the parasite-specific gene in plants was confirmed by PCR amplification and the expression of the filarial protein by Western blotting. The immunoreactivity of the plant-produced WbSXP-1 was assessed based on its reaction with the monoclonal antibodies developed against the E. coli-produced protein. Immunological screening using clinical sera from patients indicates that the plant-produced protein is comparable to E. coli-produced diagnostic antigen. The result demonstrated that plants can be used as suitable expression systems for the production of diagnostic proteins against lymphatic filariasis, a neglected tropical infectious disease which has a negative impact on socioeconomic development. This is the first report of the integration, expression and efficacy of a diagnostic candidate of lymphatic filariasis in plants.Key MessageTransgenic tobacco plants with WbSXP-1, a filarial diagnostic candidate, were developed. The plant-produced protein showed immunoreactivity on par with the E. coli product. PMID:26043851

  5. Epidemiology of elephantiasis with special emphasis on podoconiosis in Ethiopia: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Yimer, Mulat; Hailu, Tadesse; Mulu, Wondemagegn; Abera, Bayeh

    2015-06-01

    Elephantiasis is a symptom of a variety of diseases that is characterized by the thickening of the skin and underlying tissues, especially in the legs, male genitals and female breasts. Some conditions having this symptom include: Elephantiasis nostras, due to longstanding chronic lymphangitis; Elephantiasis tropica or lymphatic filariasis, caused by a number of parasitic worms, particularly Wuchereria bancrofti; non-filarial elephantiasis or podoconiosis, an immune disease caused by heavy metals affecting the lymph vessels; proteus syndrome, the genetic disorder of the so-called Elephant Man, etc. Podoconiosis is a type of lower limb tropical elephantiasis distinct from lymphatic filariasis. Lymphatic filariasis affects all population at risk, whereas podoconiosis predominantly affects barefoot subsistence farmers in areas with red volcanic soil. Ethiopia is one of the countries with the highest number of podoconiosis patients since many people are at risk to red-clay soil exposure in many parts of the country. The aim of this review was to know the current status and impact of podoconiosis and its relevance to elephantiasis in Ethiopia. To know the epidemiology and disease burden, the literatures published by different scholars were systematically reviewed. The distribution of the disease and knowledge about filarial elephantiasis and podoconiosis are not well known in Ethiopia. It is relatively well studied in southern Ethiopia but data from other parts of the country are limited. Moreover, programmes that focus on diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of filarial elephantiasis and podoconiosis are also non-existent even in endemic areas. Furthermore, the disease mapping has not been carried out country-wide. Therefore, in order to address these gaps, Ethiopian Ministry of Health needs to take initiative for undertaking concrete research and mapping of the disease in collaboration with stakeholders. PMID:26119541

  6. Wuchereria bancrofti infection in rural tropical guinea savannah communities: Rapid epidemiological assessment using immunochromatographic card test and prevalence of hydrocoele.

    PubMed

    Ivoke, N; Ezeabikwa, B O; Ivoke, O N; Ekeh, F N; Ezenwaji, N E; Odo, G E; Onoja, U S; Eyo, J E

    2015-06-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) caused by the nematode Wuchereria bancrofti is a major public health concern in endemic communities worldwide. Among tropical diseases it is second to malaria in terms of disability adjusted life years. The Nigerian LF elimination programme has been slated for 2015. Currently, there is paucity of published data on the problem in rural Ebonyi State. This survey was conducted in six rural communities of southwestern Ebonyi State to assess its prevalence among the population and provide baseline data for incorporation into the national LF elimination programme. Immunochromatographic card test (ICT) for detecting circulating filarial antigen (CFA) using whole blood and overt clinical manifestations (lymphoedema and hydrocoele) were used as epidemiological tools. All the studied communities were endemic for active bancroftian filariasis. Of the 600 randomly selected subjects aged ≥10 years, an overall prevalence of 23.50% was established (range, 17.00 - 30.00%). Overall, the antigenaemic prevalence was similar; there was a trend of slightly higher prevalence in males (24.34%) than females (22.39%). The between-gender prevalence difference was not statistically significant (χ² = 8.16, df = 1, p = 0.05) based on CFA positivity. Antigenaemia prevalence was age-dependent, increased exponentially and peaked at 20.57% in subjects in the 40-49 years age category. Lymphoedema and hydrocoele attributable to W. bancrofti were observed in 4.05% of subjects examined. Generally, hydrocoele was observed in 1.69% males, whereas lymphoedema was presented by 2.36% (1.35% females; 1.01% males) of studied population. None of the male subjects had both the two clinical features. Results of this study showed that W. bancrofti infection is widespread in southwestern Ebonyi State, Nigeria, and is a major health issue. There is a need for mass mobilization, mass education and community involvement in sustained intervention programme toward lymphatic filariasis

  7. Copper(II) oxide nanoparticles augment antifilarial activity of Albendazole: In vitro synergistic apoptotic impact against filarial parasite Setaria cervi.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Atif; Ahmad, Irshad; Ahmad, Ajaz; Ahmad, Masood

    2016-03-30

    Mass treatment of lymphatic filariasis with Albendazole (ABZ), a therapeutic benzimidazole, is fraught with serious limitations such as possible drug resistance and poor macrofilaricidal activity. Therefore, we need to develop new ABZ-based formulations to improve its antifilarial effectiveness. CuO nanoparticles were used as an adjuvant with ABZ to form ABZ-CuO nanocomposite, which was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, FT-IR, AFM and SEM. Antifilarial activity of nanocomposite was evaluated using relative motility assay and dye exclusion test in dark and under UV light. ROS generation, antioxidant levels, lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation in nanocomposite treated parasites were estimated. Biophysical techniques were employed to ascertain the mode of binding of nanocomposite to parasitic DNA. Nanocomposite increases parasite mortality as compared to ABZ in dark, and its antifilarial effect was increased further under UV light. Elevated ROS production and decline of parasitic-GST and GSH levels were observed in nanocomposite treated worms in dark, and these effects were pronounced further under UV light. Nanocomposite leads to higher DNA fragmentation as compared to ABZ alone. Further, we found that nanocomposite binds parasitic DNA in an intercalative manner where it generates ROS to induce DNA damage. Thus, oxidative stress production due to ROS generation and consequent DNA fragmentation leads to apoptosis in worms. This is the first report supporting CuO nanoparticles as a potential adjuvant with ABZ against filariasis along with enhanced antifilarial activity of nanocomposite under UV light. These findings, thus, indicate that development of ABZ-loaded nanoparticle compounds may serve as promising leads for filariasis treatment. PMID:26827921

  8. Remote sensing and geochemical investigations of selected surface processes in Egypt and Missouri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crombie, Mary Katherine

    This thesis consists of three studies of surface processes on Earth: 1. Age and isotopic constraints of pluvial episodes in the Western Desert of Egypt. North Africa has undergone drastic climatic change over the past several hundred thousand years. Timing of humid intervals called pluvials was investigated by uranium- series disequilibrium dating of travertines from the Kurkur Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt. Stable oxygen isotopes of the travertines were used in equilibrium oxygen isotope fractionation calculations indicating the Kurkur travertines have δ18O values similar to ancient Western Desert groundwaters (~[- ]11/perthous). The ages of the of the travertines correspond to times of monsoonal maxima, eustatic sea level high stands and interglacial maxima. Increased precipitation, recharge of Western Desert groundwaters, and resultant travertine deposition are interpreted to be consequences of Milankovitch cycle forcing, through enhanced Atlantic and Indian Ocean monsoons during periods of enhanced northern summer insolation. 2. Identification of soil moisture as an environmental risk factor for filariasis in Egypt. Bancroftian filariasis is a deforming illness transmitted by mosquitoes (Culex. pipiens) and caused by the parasite Wuchereria bancrofti (WHO technical report 821; Neva and Brown, 1994). Environmental variables, such as humidity, play an important role in the transmission cycle of filariasis. Landsat Thematic Mapper data were used to model the surface soil moisture conditions of the southern Nile Delta region of Egypt as a proxy for environmental humidity. Filariasis infection rates were found to be negligible for areas with low surface soil moisture availability (>20%). Variable infection rates were observed for regions with higher surface soil moisture content, possibly due to anthropogenic influences such as insect control and the use of anti- filarial drugs. 3. Monitoring of Pb aerosol fallout in the vicinity of the Glover smelter, Southeastern

  9. [Surgical treatment of penile lymphedema associated with hidradenitis suppurativa].

    PubMed

    García-Tutor, E; Botellé del Hierro, J; San Martín Maya, A; Castro García, J; España, A; Fernández Montero, J; Robles García, J E

    2005-05-01

    Penoscrotal lymphedema is a rare disease in the developed countries, although it is relatively frequent in tropical countries. The most common cause is filariasis, although in our practice usually is associate to neoplasic and inflammatory processes, surgery, radiotherapy, hidroelectrolitic disbalances and idiopathic. We present a 22 years old patient with penoscrotal lymphedema due to hidradenitis suppurativa. After unsuccessful medical treatment, was performed a total excision of the penile skin and subcutaneous tissue to Buck's fascia. Split thickness skin grafts were used to cover the defect. Even medical management of penoscrotal lymphedema is not effective for most patients, surgery is a safe and effective procedure that gives excellent functional and cosmetic results. PMID:16013800

  10. Proceedings of a joint meeting between the Norwegian Society of Infectious Diseases and the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Oslo, 20 June 2008.

    PubMed

    Newport, Melanie J; Myrvang, Bjorn

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents the proceedings of a scientific meeting that was held between the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene and the Norwegian Infectious Diseases Society at Ullevål University Hospital, Oslo on 20 June 2008. Seven speakers updated the audience on recent advances in relevant issues, including international maternal and child health, podoconiosis, schistosomiasis and HIV, leprosy in the UK, rapid diagnostic tests for malaria, delayed diagnosis of tuberculosis and the Global Filariasis Programme. The meeting ended with a series of case presentations. PMID:19111872

  11. The solution structure of the forkhead box-O DNA binding domain of Brugia malayi DAF-16a.

    PubMed

    Casper, Sarah K; Schoeller, Scott J; Zgoba, Danielle M; Phillips, Andrew J; Morien, Thomas J; Chaffee, Gary R; Sackett, Peter C; Peterson, Francis C; Crossgrove, Kirsten; Veldkamp, Christopher T

    2014-12-01

    Brugia malayi is a parasitic nematode that causes lymphatic filariasis in humans. Here the solution structure of the forkhead DNA binding domain of Brugia malayi DAF-16a, a putative ortholog of Caenorhabditis elegans DAF-16, is reported. It is believed to be the first structure of a forkhead or winged helix domain from an invertebrate. C. elegans DAF-16 is involved in the insulin/IGF-I signaling pathway and helps control metabolism, longevity, and development. Conservation of sequence and structure with human FOXO proteins suggests that B. malayi DAF-16a is a member of the FOXO family of forkhead proteins. PMID:25297652

  12. Calcification of the breasts due to loiasis.

    PubMed

    Lemmenmeier, Eva; Keller, Nicole; Chuck, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    A 53-year-old HIV-positive female from Cameroon was diagnosed with loiasis in 2013 due to symptoms of polyarthritis and laboratory confirmed eosinophilia. Because of high microfilaremia primary treatment was given with two courses of albendazol and ivermectin and completed with a course of diethylcarbamazine. Therapy was successful as symptoms, eosinophilia and microfilaremia disappeared. In 2015, she had a gynecology check-up where a screening mammography showed several round and linear, meandering calcifications in both breasts, the latter are typically seen in filariasis. PMID:27051574

  13. Giant lymphedema of the penis and scrotum: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Vives, Franklin; Ocampo-Flórez, Ginna Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Lymphedema of the penis and scrotum is a rare entity characterized by enlargement of the skin and subcutaneous tissue of the genital region due to lymphatic drainage impairment. This clinical condition is more frequent in tropical countries due to a higher incidence of filariasis, which, in turn, is the main etiology. We describe the case of a 33-year-old man with large lymphedema of the scrotum and penis due to an acute and chronic inflammatory process, foreign body granuloma, and marked hyalinization. Four consecutive surgical interventions were necessary to remove the great part of the affected tissue, which enabled satisfactory results and improved the patient's quality of life. PMID:27284543

  14. Identification of genes involved in pyrethroid-, propoxur-, and dichlorvos- insecticides resistance in the mosquitoes, Culex pipiens complex (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-xiao; Guo, Xiao-xia; Zhang, Ying-mei; Dong, Yan-de; Xing, Dan; Yan, Ting; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Heng-duan; Zhao, Tong-yan

    2016-05-01

    Culex pipiens pallens and Cx. p. quinquefasciatus are important vectors of many diseases, such as West Nile fever and lymphatic filariasis. The widespread use of insecticides to control these disease vectors and other insect pests has led to insecticide resistance becoming common in these species. In this study, high throughout Illumina sequencing was used to identify hundreds of Cx. p. pallens and Cx. p. quinquefasciatus genes that were differentially expressed in response to insecticide exposure. The identification of these genes is a vital first step for more detailed investigation of the molecular mechanisms involved in insecticide resistance in Culex mosquitoes. PMID:26802491

  15. Identification of antigenic Brugia adult worm proteins by peptide mass fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Weinkopff, Tiffany; Atwood, James A; Punkosdy, George A; Moss, Delynn; Weatherly, D Brent; Orlando, Ron; Lammie, Patrick

    2009-12-01

    With the recent completion of the Brugia malayi genome, proteomics offers a new resource for a deeper understanding of the biology of filarial parasites. We employed 2-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis followed by peptide mass fingerprinting on a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-ToF) mass spectrometer to identify Brugia adult worm proteins and then determined which proteins were recognized by the host humoral immune response. We identified 18 unique proteins, several of which were determined to be antigenic by immunoblot. The proteins identified here may contribute to future studies to analyze the transmission and pathogenesis of lymphatic filariasis. PMID:19537848

  16. The Application of Biomedical Engineering Techniques to the Diagnosis and Management of Tropical Diseases: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Fatimah; Thio, Tzer Hwai Gilbert; Faisal, Tarig; Neuman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews a number of biomedical engineering approaches to help aid in the detection and treatment of tropical diseases such as dengue, malaria, cholera, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, ebola, leprosy, leishmaniasis, and American trypanosomiasis (Chagas). Many different forms of non-invasive approaches such as ultrasound, echocardiography and electrocardiography, bioelectrical impedance, optical detection, simplified and rapid serological tests such as lab-on-chip and micro-/nano-fluidic platforms and medical support systems such as artificial intelligence clinical support systems are discussed. The paper also reviewed the novel clinical diagnosis and management systems using artificial intelligence and bioelectrical impedance techniques for dengue clinical applications. PMID:25806872

  17. Lymphangiosarcoma after filarial infection

    SciTech Connect

    Sordillo, E.M.; Sordillo, P.P.; Hajdu, S.I.; Good, R.A.

    1981-03-01

    A case of lymphangiosarcoma of a lower extremity is described in a patient with chronic lymphedema of that leg from a filarial infection in childhood. Histologically, the neoplasm resembled lymphangiosarcomas that arise in arms that become lymphedematous after mastectomies, but was different in that it also contained areas of calcification consistent with prior filarial infection. Calcifications were also present in muscle uninvolved by the lymphangiosarcoma of this case. The prolonged survival of this patient is unlike that of most patients with lymphangiosarcoma, which is generally shorter. Although lymphedema after filariasis is common, this is the first case of a lymphangiosarcoma arising in chronic lymphedema of filarial origin.

  18. Immune activation by life-shortening Wolbachia and reduced filarial competence in mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Kambris, Zakaria; Cook, Peter E.; Phuc, Hoang K.; Sinkins, Steven P.

    2010-01-01

    Wolbachia strain wMelPop reduces longevity of its Drosophila melanogaster host and halves lifespan when introduced into the mosquito Aedes aegypti. We show that wMelPop induces upregulation of the mosquito innate immune system and that its presence inhibits the development of filarial nematodes in the mosquito. These data suggest that wMelPop could be used in the global effort to eliminate lymphatic filariasis, and possibly the control of other mosquito-borne parasites where immune preactivation inhibits their development. The cost of constitutive immune upregulation may contribute to the life-shortening phenotype. PMID:19797660

  19. Giant lymphedema of the penis and scrotum: a case report.

    PubMed

    Vives, Franklin; García-Perdomo, Herney Andrés; Ocampo-Flórez, Ginna Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Lymphedema of the penis and scrotum is a rare entity characterized by enlargement of the skin and subcutaneous tissue of the genital region due to lymphatic drainage impairment. This clinical condition is more frequent in tropical countries due to a higher incidence of filariasis, which, in turn, is the main etiology. We describe the case of a 33-year-old man with large lymphedema of the scrotum and penis due to an acute and chronic inflammatory process, foreign body granuloma, and marked hyalinization. Four consecutive surgical interventions were necessary to remove the great part of the affected tissue, which enabled satisfactory results and improved the patient's quality of life. PMID:27284543

  20. Applications of remote sensing in public health.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, C. M.; Fuller, C. E.; Schneider, H. J.; Kennedy, E. E.; Jones, H. G.; Morrison, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    Current research concerning the determination of the habitat of mosquito vectors of disease is discussed. It is shown how advanced interpretative processes have enabled recognition of the breeding areas of salt marsh mosquitoes and the breeding sites of the mosquito responsible for the transmission of St. Louis strain of encephalitis and of human filariasis. In addition, remote sensing data have also been useful in the study of the habitat of endemic strains of Venezuelan encephalitis virus in Florida. The beginning of the application of remote sensing to such public health aspects as air, water, and urban degradation is noted.

  1. Oviposition deterrent activity from the ethanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata, Coleus forskohlii, and Datura stramonium leaves against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefaciatus

    PubMed Central

    Swathi, S.; Murugananthan, G.; Ghosh, S. K.

    2010-01-01

    Mosquitoes are responsible for spread of many diseases than any other group of arthropods. Diseases such as malaria, filariasis, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and chikunguinya are real threat to mankind. In the present study, ethanolic extracts of leaves of Pongamia pinnata, Coleus forskohlii, and Datura stramonium were evaluated for oviposition deterrent activity against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The oviposition deterrent tests of ethanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata, Coleus forskohlii, and Datura stramonium leaves reduced egg laying by 97.62%, 77.3%, 100% against Aedes aegypti and 59.10%, 39.22%, 82% against Culex quinquefasciatus at higher concentration (0.1%). PMID:21120036

  2. The application of biomedical engineering techniques to the diagnosis and management of tropical diseases: a review.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Fatimah; Thio, Tzer Hwai Gilbert; Faisal, Tarig; Neuman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews a number of biomedical engineering approaches to help aid in the detection and treatment of tropical diseases such as dengue, malaria, cholera, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, ebola, leprosy, leishmaniasis, and American trypanosomiasis (Chagas). Many different forms of non-invasive approaches such as ultrasound, echocardiography and electrocardiography, bioelectrical impedance, optical detection, simplified and rapid serological tests such as lab-on-chip and micro-/nano-fluidic platforms and medical support systems such as artificial intelligence clinical support systems are discussed. The paper also reviewed the novel clinical diagnosis and management systems using artificial intelligence and bioelectrical impedance techniques for dengue clinical applications. PMID:25806872

  3. RRR for NNN—a rapid research response for the Neglected Tropical Disease NGDO Network: a novel framework to challenges faced by the global programs targeting neglected tropical diseases

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Chelsea E.; Jacobson, Julie; Wainwright, Emily C.; Ottesen, Eric A.; Lammie, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    While global programs targeting the control or elimination of five of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs)—lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis, schistosomiasis and trachoma—are well underway, they still face many operational challenges. Because of the urgency of 2020 program targets, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the U.S. Agency for International Development devised a novel rapid research response (RRR) framework to engage national programs, researchers, implementers and WHO in a Coalition for Operational Research on NTDs. After 2 years, this effort has succeeded as an important basis for the research response to programmatic challenges facing NTD programs. PMID:26940303

  4. Streblus asper Lour. (Shakhotaka): A Review of its Chemical, Pharmacological and Ethnomedicinal Properties

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Subha; Kulshreshtha, Dinesh K.; Rawat, Ajay Kumar Singh

    2006-01-01

    Streblus asper Lour is a small tree found in tropical countries, such as India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand. Various parts of this plant are used in Ayurveda and other folk medicines for the treatment of different ailments such as filariasis, leprosy, toothache, diarrhea, dysentery and cancer. Research carried out using different in vitro and in vivo techniques of biological evaluation support most of these claims. This review presents the botany, chemistry, traditional uses and pharmacology of this medicinal plant. PMID:16786051

  5. The Utility of Blood and Bone Marrow Films and Trephine Biopsy Sections in the Diagnosis of Parasitic Infections

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Clare E.; Bain, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    The laboratory haematologist has a role in the diagnosis of parasitic infections. Peripheral blood examination is critical in the diagnosis of malaria, babesiosis, filariasis and trypanosomiasis. Bone marrow examination is important in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis and occasionally leads to the diagnosis of other parasitic infections. The detection of eosinophilia or iron deficiency anaemia can alert the laboratory haematologist or physician to the possibility of parasitic infection. In addition to morphological skills, an adequate clinical history is important for speedy and accurate diagnosis, particularly in non-endemic areas. PMID:26075046

  6. RRR for NNN-a rapid research response for the Neglected Tropical Disease NGDO Network: a novel framework to challenges faced by the global programs targeting neglected tropical diseases.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Chelsea E; Jacobson, Julie; Wainwright, Emily C; Ottesen, Eric A; Lammie, Patrick J

    2016-03-01

    While global programs targeting the control or elimination of five of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs)-lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis, schistosomiasis and trachoma-are well underway, they still face many operational challenges. Because of the urgency of 2020 program targets, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the U.S. Agency for International Development devised a novel rapid research response (RRR) framework to engage national programs, researchers, implementers and WHO in a Coalition for Operational Research on NTDs. After 2 years, this effort has succeeded as an important basis for the research response to programmatic challenges facing NTD programs. PMID:26940303

  7. Harlequin testicle and other uncommon pathologies masquerading at routine scrotal ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Medverd, Jonathan R; Peguero, Larissa; Patel, Dhairyasheel P

    2015-06-01

    Many scrotal conditions manifest similarly as pain, swelling, a palpable abnormality, or a combination of these symptoms. Most common scrotal pathologies have characteristic accompanying sonographic findings. Less common pathologies can have similar clinical presentations, and imaging with scrotal ultrasound is required to aid in proper diagnosis. This article focuses on several of these less commonly encountered scrotal pathologies--including testicular segmental infarction, scrotal filariasis, scrotal mesothelioma, seminiferous tubule fibrosis, and scrotal leiomyosarcoma--and compares and contrasts them to more routine diagnoses. Familiarity with both typical and atypical scrotal conditions is necessary to make accurate diagnoses at ultrasound to guide appropriate treatment and avoid unnecessary surgery. PMID:25938549

  8. Filarial Lymphatic Pathology Reflects Augmented Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated, Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Mediated Proinflammatory Cytokine Production ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Subash; Anuradha, R.; Kumar, N. Pavan; George, P. Jovvian; Kumaraswami, V.; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2011-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis can be associated with the development of serious pathology in the form of lymphedema, hydrocele, and elephantiasis in a subset of infected patients. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are thought to play a major role in the development of filarial pathology. To elucidate the role of TLRs in the development of lymphatic pathology, we examined cytokine responses to different Toll ligands in patients with chronic lymphatic pathology (CP), infected patients with subclinical pathology (INF), and uninfected, endemic-normal (EN) individuals. TLR2, -7, and -9 ligands induced significantly elevated production of Th1 and other proinflammatory cytokines in CP patients in comparison to both INF and EN patients. TLR adaptor expression was not significantly different among the groups; however, both TLR2 and TLR9 ligands induced significantly higher levels of phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases (MAPK) as well as increased activation of NF-κB in CP individuals. Pharmacologic inhibition of both ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinase pathways resulted in significantly diminished production of proinflammatory cytokines in CP individuals. Our data, therefore, strongly suggest an important role for TLR2- and TLR9-mediated proinflammatory cytokine induction and activation of both the MAPK and NF-κB pathways in the development of pathology in human lymphatic filariasis. PMID:21875961

  9. Flight capacity of adult Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae) in relation to gender and day-age.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jianxin; Li, Shujuan; Zhao, Ping; Zou, Fumin

    2013-09-01

    Culex pipiens pallens (L.) is the most common mosquito in houses of central and northern China. It is the primary vector of lymphatic filariasis and Japanese encephalitis. The flight range of mosquitoes is an important factor predicting the risk area of transmission of mosquito-borne pathogens to vertebrate hosts. The flight performance of Cx. pipiens pallens was measured with a 26-channel computer-monitored flight-mill system. We found that females had longer flight capability than males for total flight distance (TFD) and total flight duration (TFDr), and females flew faster than males based on mean flight velocity. No significant difference in flight capability was found between different age-groups in males. However, certain age-groups of females showed significant differences in TFDr and TFD. Specifically, TFD and TFDr tended to be shortest for 5- and 6-d-old females. These significant differences in flight capability between ages and genders provide insights to determine the size of operational area to achieve effective control of Cx. pipiens pallens and minimize the risk of the related mosquito-borne epidemic diseases of lymphatic filariasis and Japanese encephalitis. PMID:24180110

  10. Relevance of Eosinophilia and Hyper-IgE in Immigrant Children

    PubMed Central

    Belhassen-García, Moncef; Pardo-Lledías, Javier; Pérez del Villar, Luis; Muro, Antonio; Velasco-Tirado, Virginia; Blázquez de Castro, Ana; Vicente, Belen; García García, Mª Inmaculada; Luis Muñoz Bellido, Juan; Cordero-Sánchez, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Immigrants from undeveloped countries are a growing problem in Europe. Spain has become a frequent destination for immigrants (20% of whom are children) because of its geographic location and its historic and cultural links with Africa and Latin America. Eosinophilia is frequent in adult immigrants, travelers and expatriates coming from tropical areas. However, there are few studies that focus on the incidence and causes of tropical eosinophilia and hyper-IgE in immigrant children. We evaluated, prospectively, the prevalence and causes of eosinophilia and hyper-immunoglobulin E (IgE) in 362 immigrant children coming from Sub-Saharan Africa, Northern Africa and Latin America to Salamanca, Spain, between January 2007 and December 2011. Absolute eosinophilia and hyper-IgE were present in 22.9% and 56.8% of the analyzed children, respectively. The most frequent causes of absolute eosinophilia were filariasis (52.6%), strongyloidiasis (46.8%) and schistosomiasis (28.9%). Filariasis (41.9%), strongyloidiasis (29.6%) and schistosomiasis (22.2%) were the most frequent causes of increased levels of IgE. The area under the ROC curve showed similar values between eosinophil count and IgE levels in the diagnosis of helminthiasis (69% [95% confidence interval (CI) 63%–74%] vs 67% [95% CI 60%–72%], P = 0.24). Eosinophilia and hyper-IgE have a high value as biomarkers of helminthiasis in children coming from tropical and subtropical areas. PMID:25058145

  11. Neglected Tropical Diseases of Oceania: Review of Their Prevalence, Distribution, and Opportunities for Control

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Kevin; McCarthy, James S.; Pearson, Mark; Loukas, Alex; Hotez, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Among Oceania's population of 35 million people, the greatest number living in poverty currently live in Papua New Guinea (PNG), Fiji, Vanuatu, and the Solomon Islands. These impoverished populations are at high risk for selected NTDs, including Necator americanus hookworm infection, strongyloidiasis, lymphatic filariasis (LF), balantidiasis, yaws, trachoma, leprosy, and scabies, in addition to outbreaks of dengue and other arboviral infections including Japanese encephalitis virus infection. PNG stands out for having the largest number of cases and highest prevalence for most of these NTDs. However, Australia's Aboriginal population also suffers from a range of significant NTDs. Through the Pacific Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis, enormous strides have been made in eliminating LF in Oceania through programs of mass drug administration (MDA), although LF remains widespread in PNG. There are opportunities to scale up MDA for PNG's major NTDs, which could be accomplished through an integrated package that combines albendazole, ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine, and azithromycin, in a program of national control. Australia's Aboriginal population may benefit from appropriately integrated MDA into primary health care systems. Several emerging viral NTDs remain important threats to the region. PMID:23383349

  12. Differential protein expression in the midgut of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes induced by the insecticide temephos.

    PubMed

    Games, P D; Alves, S N; Katz, B B; Tomich, J M; Serrão, J E

    2016-09-01

    Mosquitoes are vectors for pathogens of malaria, lymphatic filariasis, dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis. Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823 (Diptera: Culicidae) is a known vector of lymphatic filariasis. Its control in Brazil has been managed using the organophosphate temephos. Studies examining the proteins of Cx. quinquefasciatus that are differentially expressed in response to temephos further understanding of the modes of action of the insecticide and may potentially identify resistance factors in the mosquito. In the present study, a comparative proteomic analysis, using 2-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time of flight (TOF)/TOF mass spectrometry, and bioinformatics analyses were performed to identify midgut proteins in Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae that were differentially expressed in response to exposure to temephos relative to those in untreated controls. A total of 91 protein spots were differentially expressed; 40 were upregulated and 51 were downregulated by temephos. A total of 22 proteins, predominantly upregulated, were identified as known to play a role in the immune response, whereas the downregulated proteins were involved in energy and protein catabolism. This is the first proteome study of the midgut of Cx. quinquefasciatus and it provides insights into the molecular mechanisms of insecticide-induced responses in the mosquito. PMID:27072633

  13. Preventive chemotherapy as a strategy for elimination of neglected tropical parasitic diseases: endgame challenges

    PubMed Central

    Bockarie, Moses J.; Kelly-Hope, Louise A.; Rebollo, Maria; Molyneux, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Global efforts to address neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) were stimulated in January 2012 by the London declaration at which 22 partners, including the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, World Bank, World Health Organization (WHO) and major pharmaceutical companies committed to sustaining and expanding NTD programmes to eliminate or eradicate 11 NTDs by 2020 to achieve the goals outlined in the recently published WHO road map. Here, we present the current context of preventive chemotherapy for some NTDs, and discuss the problems faced by programmes as they consider the ‘endgame’, such as difficulties of access to populations in post-conflict settings, limited human and financial resources, and the need to expand access to clean water and improved sanitation for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis. In the case of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis, ivermectin treatment carries a significant risk owing to serious adverse effects in some patients co-infected with the tropical eye worm Loa loa filariasis. We discuss the challenges of managing complex partnerships, and maintain advocacy messages for the continued support for elimination of these preventable diseases. PMID:23798692

  14. [Subconjunctival Loiasis: case reports and review of cases described in Italy].

    PubMed

    Verallo, O; Fragiotta, S; Carnevale, C; De Rosa, V; Vingolo, E M

    2013-01-01

    Filariasis or Loiasis is an eye infection caused by a parasite belonging to the species Loa loa, also known as "African eye worm" since it is present in the rainforests belt of western and central Africa. The purpose of this study is the description of a clinical case presented to our department. A 40-years-old Congolese woman, in the third month of pregnancy, complained a foreign body sensation in the right eye for which she was submitted to complete ophthalmologic examination. Slit-lamp examination revealed, in the infero-temporal subconjunctival space, the presence of a live whitish worm that moved slowly in the thickness of the tissues. Place a clinical suspicion of subconjunctival filariasis, were performed parasitological and serological analysis; laboratory test showed peripheral blood eosinophilia and the blood film examination was negative for the presence of circulating microfilariae. The worm was surgically removed under topical anesthesia and the histological examinations of the parasite confirmed that it was an adult male worm belonging to the species Loa loa. Due to the large increase of migratory flows to Europe, number of reports of loiasis is becoming more frequent; the knowledge of this emerging pathogens is essential for diagnosis and treatment planning. PMID:23698214

  15. Influence of Mansonella perstans microfilaraemia on total IgE levels in Gabonese patients co-infected with Loa loa.

    PubMed

    Bouyou-Akotet, M K; Moussavou Boussougou, M N; Ovono-Abessolo, F; Owono-Medang, M; Kombila, M

    2014-03-01

    Mansonella (M.) perstans filariasis is widely found in Africa, including Gabon where Loa loa is also endemic. This study reports the total IgE titres according to different bioclinical forms of single or co-infection with L. loa and M. perstans in 138 patients and 20 healthy controls. The median parasite density was significantly higher in cases of loiasis. IgE titres were higher in patients with microscopic dual-infection and in the group of patients with occult loiasis plus M. perstans microfilaraemia (8425 [5292-20,679]KUI/L and 6304 [1045-10,326]KUI/L, respectively), compared to individuals with either microfilaraemic Loa loa (3368 [1414-7074]KUI/L) or Mansonella (4370 [1478-7334]KUI/L) single infections (p<0.01). IgE levels were positively correlated with M. perstans microfilaraemia (rho=0.27; p<0.01). Compared to single infections, dual M. perstans-L. loa infection induces very high total IgE titres. Studies correlating IgE titres and clinical symptoms are needed to confirm the involvement of this immunoglobulin in the pathological processes during filariasis. PMID:24280145

  16. Longitudinal Monitoring of the Development of Antifilarial Antibodies and Acquisition of Wuchereria bancrofti in a Highly Endemic Area of Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Hamlin, Katy L.; Moss, Delynn M.; Priest, Jeffrey W.; Roberts, Jacquelin; Kubofcik, Joseph; Gass, Katherine; Streit, Thomas G.; Nutman, Thomas B.; Eberhard, Mark L.; Lammie, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    Antifilarial antibody testing has been established as a sensitive and specific method of diagnosing lymphatic filariasis. However, the development of serological responses to specific filarial antigens and their relationship to acquisition of infection is poorly understood. In order to evaluate whether the development of antigen specific antifilarial antibodies precedes microfilaremia and antigenemia, we compared the antibody responses of serum samples collected between 1990 and 1999 from a cohort of 142 Haitian children followed longitudinally. Antigen status was determined using the Og4C3 ELISA and the presence of microfilaremia was detected using microscopy. Antibody responses to Wb123, a Wuchereria bancrofti L3 antigen, were measured using a Luciferase Immunoprecipitation System (LIPS) assay. Antibody responses to Bm14 and Bm33, Brugia malayi antigens and to a major surface protein (WSP) from Wolbachia were analyzed using a multiplex bead assay. Over follow-up, 80 (56%) of the children became antigen-positive and 30 (21%) developed microfilaremia. Detectable antibody responses to Bm14, Bm33, Wb123, and WSP developed in 95%, 100%, 92%, and 29% of children, respectively. With the exception of WSP, the development of antibody responses generally preceded detection of filarial antigen. Our results show that antifilarial antibody responses can serve as an important epidemiological indicator in a sentinel population of young children and thus, may be valuable as tool for surveillance in the context of lymphatic filariasis elimination programs. PMID:23236534

  17. Anthelmintics. A comparative review of their clinical pharmacology.

    PubMed

    de Silva, N; Guyatt, H; Bundy, D

    1997-05-01

    Virtually all the important helminth infections in humans can be treated with one of 5 anthelmintics currently in use: albendazole, mebendazole, diethylcarbamazine, ivermectin and praziquantel. These drugs are vital not only for the treatment of individual infections, but also useful in controlling transmission of the more common infections. This article reviews briefly the pharmacology of these 5 drugs, and then discusses current issues in the use of anthelmintics in the treatment and/or control of soil-transmitted nematode infections, filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis (and other trematode infections), neurocysticercosis and hydatidosis. Mebendazole and albendazole are most effective against intestinal nematodes, but are contraindicated during the first trimester of pregnancy. The efficacy of prolonged therapy with these 2 drugs for treatment of larval cestode infections has not yet been established. Diethylcarbamazine is widely used to treat and control lymphatic filariasis, but adverse effects related to death of microfilariae or damage to adult worms may be marked. While ivermectin has been used in the treatment of patients with onchocerciasis, it is also undergoing investigation against lymphatic filariae. Praziquantel, used to treat schistosome infections, is also effective in other trematode infections and adult cestode infections. PMID:9129865

  18. Recent advances in tropical diseases research.

    PubMed

    Lucas, A O

    1983-05-15

    The past few years have witnessed renewed effort to develop new tools for the conquest of parasitic and other infectious tropical diseases. The Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases was initiated by the WHO, following a resolution of the World Health Assembly calling for the intensification of research into tropical diseases. The Programme, co-sponsored by UNDP and the World Bank, has developed a network of activities with two inter-related objective: Research and development towards new and improved tools to control six tropical diseases; and Strengthening of national institutions, including training, to increase the research capabilities of the tropical countries effected by the diseases. The six target diseases are: malaria, schistosomiasis, filariasis, trypanosomiasis (both African sleeping sickness and Chagas' disease), leishmaniasis and leprosy. Early scientific results include progress in chemotherapy for malaria, schistosomiasis and filariasis; in the developing and testing of a vaccine against leprosy; in the fundamental knowledge required to develop a vaccine against malaria; and in simple and accurate diagnostic field tests for malaria, leprosy and African trypanosomiasis. In addition, institution strengthening and training support, awarded exclusively to institutions and scientists of developing endemic countries, has increased rapidly. The programme has collaborated with other agencies which are active in this area and with the pharmaceutical industry. Additional scientists and institutions are involved in the planning, implementation and evaluation of the Programme. PMID:6684365

  19. Repurposing drugs for the treatment and control of helminth infections

    PubMed Central

    Panic, Gordana; Duthaler, Urs; Speich, Benjamin; Keiser, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Helminth infections are responsible for a considerable public health burden, yet the current drug armamentarium is small. Given the high cost of drug discovery and development, the high failure rates and the long duration to develop novel treatments, drug repurposing circumvents these obstacles by finding new uses for compounds other than those they were initially intended to treat. In the present review, we summarize in vivo and clinical trial findings testing clinical candidates and marketed drugs against schistosomes, food-borne trematodes, soil-transmitted helminths, Strongyloides stercoralis, the major human filariases lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, taeniasis, neurocysticercosis and echinococcosis. While expanding the applications of broad-spectrum or veterinary anthelmintics continues to fuel alternative treatment options, antimalarials, antibiotics, antiprotozoals and anticancer agents appear to be producing fruitful results as well. The trematodes and nematodes continue to be most investigated, while cestodal drug discovery will need to be accelerated. The most clinically advanced drug candidates include the artemisinins and mefloquine against schistosomiasis, tribendimidine against liver flukes, oxantel pamoate against trichuriasis, and doxycycline against filariasis. Preclinical studies indicate a handful of promising future candidates, and are beginning to elucidate the broad-spectrum activity of some currently used anthelmintics. Challenges and opportunities are further discussed. PMID:25516827

  20. Detection and quantification of Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi DNA in blood samples and mosquitoes using duplex droplet digital polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Jongthawin, Jurairat; Intapan, Pewpan M; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Sanpool, Oranuch; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Sadaow, Lakkhana; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2016-08-01

    Lymphatic filariasis, a mosquito-borne disease, is still a major public health problem in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Effective diagnostic tools are required for identification of infected individuals, for epidemiological assessment, and for monitoring of control programs. A duplex droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) was conducted to differentiate and quantify Wuchereria bancrofti DNA by targeting the long DNA repeat (LDR) element and Brugia malayi DNA by targeting the HhaI element in blood samples and mosquito vectors. The analytical sensitivity and specificity were evaluated. Our results indicated that the duplex ddPCR assay could differentiate and quantify W. bancrofti and B. malayi DNA from blood samples and mosquitoes. DNA from a single larva in 50 μl of a blood sample, or in one mosquito vector, could be detected. The analytical sensitivity and specificity for W. bancrofti are both 100 %. Corresponding values for B. malayi are 100 and 98.3 %, respectively. Therefore, duplex ddPCR is a potential tool for simultaneous diagnosis and monitoring of bancroftian and brugian filariasis in endemic areas. PMID:27085707

  1. Brugia malayi Asparaginyl - tRNA Synthetase Stimulates Endothelial Cell Proliferation, Vasodilation and Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    D, Jeeva Jothi; Dhanraj, Muthu; Solaiappan, Shanmugam; Sivanesan, Sanjana; Kron, Michael; Dhanasekaran, Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark of chronic infection with lymphatic filarial parasites is the development of lymphatic disease which often results in permanent vasodilation and lymphedema, but all of the mechanisms by which filarial parasites induce pathology are not known. Prior work showed that the asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase (BmAsnRS) of Brugia malayi, an etiological agent of lymphatic filariasis, acts as a physiocrine that binds specifically to interleukin-8 (IL-8) chemokine receptors. Endothelial cells are one of the many cell types that express IL-8 receptors. IL-8 also has been reported previously to induce angiogenesis and vasodilation, however, the effect of BmAsnRS on endothelial cells has not been reported. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that BmAsnRS might produce physiological changes in endothelial by studying the in vitro effects of BmAsnRS using a human umbilical vein cell line EA.hy926 and six different endothelial cell assays. Our results demonstrated that BmAsnRS produces consistent and statistically significant effects on endothelial cells that are identical to the effects of VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor. This study supports the idea that new drugs or immunotherapies that counteract the adverse effects of parasite-derived physiocrines may prevent or ameliorate the vascular pathology observed in patients with lymphatic filariasis. PMID:26751209

  2. Insights into the structure-function relationship of Brugia malayi thymidylate kinase (BmTMK).

    PubMed

    Doharey, Pawan Kumar; Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Verma, Pravesh; Verma, Anita; Rathaur, Sushma; Saxena, Jitendra Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is a debilitating disease caused by lymph dwelling nematodal parasites like Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori. Thymidylate kinase of B. malayi is a key enzyme in the de novo and salvage pathways for thymidine 5'-triphosphate (dTTP) synthesis. Therefore, B. malayi thymidylate kinase (BmTMK) is an essential enzyme for DNA biosynthesis and an important drug target to rein in filariasis. In the present study, the structural and functional changes associated with recombinant BmTMK, in the presence of protein denaturant GdnHCl, urea and pH were studied. GdnHCl and urea induced unfolding of BmTMK is non-cooperative and influence the functional property of the enzyme much lower than their Cm values. The study delineate that BmTMK is more prone to ionic perturbation. The dimeric assembly of BmTMK is an absolute requirement for enzymatic acitivity and any subtle change in dimeric conformation due to denaturation leads to loss of enzymatic activity. The pH induced changes on structure and activity suggests that selective modification of active site microenvironment pertains to difference in activity profile. This study also envisages that chemical moieties which acts by modulating oligomeric assembly, could be used for better designing of inhibitors against BmTMK enzyme. PMID:27044348

  3. Prevention and control of neglected tropical diseases: overview of randomized trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Kappagoda, Shanthi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To analyse evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the prevention and control of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) and to identify areas where evidence is lacking. Methods The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and PubMed were searched for RCTs and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and PubMed were searched for meta-analyses and systematic reviews, both from inception to 31 December 2012. Findings Overall, 258 RCTs were found on American trypanosomiasis, Buruli ulcer, dengue, geohelminth infection, leishmaniasis, leprosy, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, rabies, schistosomiasis or trachoma. No RCTs were found on cysticercosis, dracunculiasis, echinococcosis, foodborne trematodes, or human African trypanosomiasis. The most studied diseases were geohelminth infection (51 RCTs) and leishmaniasis (46 RCTs). Vaccines, chemoprophylaxis and interventions targeting insect vectors were evaluated in 113, 99 and 39 RCTs, respectively. Few addressed how best to deliver preventive chemotherapy, such as the choice of dosing interval (10) or target population (4), the population coverage needed to reduce transmission (2) or the method of drug distribution (1). Thirty-one publications containing 32 systematic reviews (16 with and 16 without meta-analyses) were found on American trypanosomiasis, dengue, geohelminths, leishmaniasis, leprosy, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis or trachoma. Together, they included only 79 of the 258 published RCTs (30.6%). Of 36 interventions assessed, 8 were judged effective in more than one review. Conclusion Few RCTs on the prevention or control of the principal NTDs were found. Trials on how best to deliver preventive chemotherapy were particularly rare. PMID:24839325

  4. Detection of Wuchereria bancrofti DNA in paired serum and urine samples using polymerase chain reaction-based systems

    PubMed Central

    Ximenes, Camila; Brandão, Eduardo; Oliveira, Paula; Rocha, Abraham; Rego, Tamisa; Medeiros, Rafael; Aguiar-Santos, Ana; Ferraz, João; Reis, Christian; Araujo, Paulo; Carvalho, Luiz; Melo, Fabio L

    2014-01-01

    The Global Program for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) aims to eliminate this disease by the year 2020. However, the development of more specific and sensitive tests is important for the success of the GPELF. The present study aimed to standardise polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based systems for the diagnosis of filariasis in serum and urine. Twenty paired biological urine and serum samples from individuals already known to be positive for Wuchereria bancrofti were collected during the day. Conventional PCR and semi-nested PCR assays were optimised. The detection limit of the technique for purified W. bancrofti DNA extracted from adult worms was 10 fg for the internal systems (WbF/Wb2) and 0.1 fg by using semi-nested PCR. The specificity of the primers was confirmed experimentally by amplification of 1 ng of purified genomic DNA from other species of parasites. Evaluation of the paired urine and serum samples by the semi-nested PCR technique indicated only two of the 20 tested individuals were positive, whereas the simple internal PCR system (WbF/Wb2), which has highly promising performance, revealed that all the patients were positive using both samples. This study successfully demonstrated the possibility of using the PCR technique on urine for the diagnosis of W. bancrofti infection. PMID:25424447

  5. Preventive chemotherapy as a strategy for elimination of neglected tropical parasitic diseases: endgame challenges.

    PubMed

    Bockarie, Moses J; Kelly-Hope, Louise A; Rebollo, Maria; Molyneux, David H

    2013-08-01

    Global efforts to address neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) were stimulated in January 2012 by the London declaration at which 22 partners, including the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, World Bank, World Health Organization (WHO) and major pharmaceutical companies committed to sustaining and expanding NTD programmes to eliminate or eradicate 11 NTDs by 2020 to achieve the goals outlined in the recently published WHO road map. Here, we present the current context of preventive chemotherapy for some NTDs, and discuss the problems faced by programmes as they consider the 'endgame', such as difficulties of access to populations in post-conflict settings, limited human and financial resources, and the need to expand access to clean water and improved sanitation for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis. In the case of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis, ivermectin treatment carries a significant risk owing to serious adverse effects in some patients co-infected with the tropical eye worm Loa loa filariasis. We discuss the challenges of managing complex partnerships, and maintain advocacy messages for the continued support for elimination of these preventable diseases. PMID:23798692

  6. The invasion of the midgut of the mosquito Culex (Culex) quinquefasciatus Say, 1823 by the helminth Litomosoides chagasfilhoi Moraes Neto, Lanfredi and De Souza, 1997.

    PubMed

    Santos, J N; Lanfredi, R M; Pimenta, P F P

    2006-09-01

    The Litomosoides chagasfilhoi helminth was studied as a model for microfilaria invasion of the midgut of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito, vector of Wuchereria bancrofti helminth, causative agent of the human filariasis. Histology and transmission and scanning electron microscopy were utilized to show the topography of mosquito midgut invasion by the helminth. An analysis of midguts dissected at different time points after a blood meal demonstrated that the microfilariae interacted and crossed the peritrophic matrix and the midgut epithelium of C. quinquefasciatus. The microfilariae invaded preferentially the mosquito abdominal midgut and the invasion process occurred between 2 and 3h after the blood feeding. In some cases, microfilariae caused an opening in the midgut that separated the epithelial cells, while in others cases, the worms caused the detachment of cells from the epithelium. Ultimately, L. chagasfilhoi crossing activity appeared to damage the midgut. It was also observed that the microfilariae lost their sheaths during their passage through the fibrous material of the peritrophic matrix, before they reached the midgut epithelium. Since the exsheathment process is necessary for the continuity of larvae development, it seems that the passage through the peritrophic matrix is an important step for the parasite's life cycle. This experimental model revealed details of the interaction process of helminthes within the vector midgut, contributing to the knowledge of factors involved in the vector competence of C. quinquefasciatus as a vector of filariasis. PMID:16780868

  7. The Neglected Tropical Diseases of Latin America and the Caribbean: A Review of Disease Burden and Distribution and a Roadmap for Control and Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Hotez, Peter J.; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Ault, Steven K.; Periago, Mirta Roses

    2008-01-01

    The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) represent some of the most common infections of the poorest people living in the Latin American and Caribbean region (LAC). Because they primarily afflict the disenfranchised poor as well as selected indigenous populations and people of African descent, the NTDs in LAC are largely forgotten diseases even though their collective disease burden may exceed better known conditions such as of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, or malaria. Based on their prevalence and healthy life years lost from disability, hookworm infection, other soil-transmitted helminth infections, and Chagas disease are the most important NTDs in LAC, followed by dengue, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, trachoma, leprosy, and lymphatic filariasis. On the other hand, for some important NTDs, such as leptospirosis and cysticercosis, complete disease burden estimates are not available. The NTDs in LAC geographically concentrate in 11 different sub-regions, each with a distinctive human and environmental ecology. In the coming years, schistosomiasis could be eliminated in the Caribbean and transmission of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis could be eliminated in Latin America. However, the highest disease burden NTDs, such as Chagas disease, soil-transmitted helminth infections, and hookworm and schistosomiasis co-infections, may first require scale-up of existing resources or the development of new control tools in order to achieve control or elimination. Ultimately, the roadmap for the control and elimination of the more widespread NTDs will require an inter-sectoral approach that bridges public health, social services, and environmental interventions. PMID:18820747

  8. Rapid assessment procedures to detect hidden endemic foci in areas not subjected to mass drug administration in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Yahathugoda, Thishan C; Weerasooriya, Mirani V; Sunahara, Toshihiko; Kimura, Eisaku; Samarawickrema, Wilfred A; Itoh, Makoto

    2014-02-01

    For the declaration of elimination of lymphatic filariasis, reliable epidemiological data in all parts of a country are required. In Sri Lanka, due to social disturbance, there are 3 provinces whose endemicity has been declared unknown. Further, a recent report revealed an endemic pocket, which is on the border with the district that was not covered by the national elimination program. These facts indicate the necessity of more extensive studies to discover hidden endemic foci. To facilitate such studies, we evaluated 2 methods of Rapid Assessment Procedure (RAP) in Hambantota district, where the filariasis endemicity was low: (1) indirect questioning by mailing a questionnaire to each local leader (IndQ), asking about the presence of clinical cases, and (2) focus group discussion (FGD) by villagers. The information given by people was validated with clinical examination by doctors (CE) and IgG4 ELISA using urine samples. In the results: there was a strong positive correlation between CE and ELISA rates. The hydrocele rates obtained by FGD or IndQ were associated significantly with CE rates. The rates by FGD or Cluster-IndQ ('modified' IndQ) were also associated significantly with ELISA rates. The IndQ was most cost-effective. Based on these findings, we have concluded that screening by IndQ and confirmation by the ELISA would be an effective and practical way in Sri Lanka to locate endemic foci in hitherto unsurveyed districts. PMID:24060539

  9. A Cell-Based Screen Reveals that the Albendazole Metabolite, Albendazole Sulfone, Targets Wolbachia

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Walter M.; White, Pamela M.; Ruybal, Jordan; Lokey, R. Scott; Debec, Alain; Sullivan, William

    2012-01-01

    Wolbachia endosymbionts carried by filarial nematodes give rise to the neglected diseases African river blindness and lymphatic filariasis afflicting millions worldwide. Here we identify new Wolbachia-disrupting compounds by conducting high-throughput cell-based chemical screens using a Wolbachia-infected, fluorescently labeled Drosophila cell line. This screen yielded several Wolbachia-disrupting compounds including three that resembled Albendazole, a widely used anthelmintic drug that targets nematode microtubules. Follow-up studies demonstrate that a common Albendazole metabolite, Albendazole sulfone, reduces intracellular Wolbachia titer both in Drosophila melanogaster and Brugia malayi, the nematode responsible for lymphatic filariasis. Significantly, Albendazole sulfone does not disrupt Drosophila microtubule organization, suggesting that this compound reduces titer through direct targeting of Wolbachia. Accordingly, both DNA staining and FtsZ immunofluorescence demonstrates that Albendazole sulfone treatment induces Wolbachia elongation, a phenotype indicative of binary fission defects. This suggests that the efficacy of Albendazole in treating filarial nematode-based diseases is attributable to dual targeting of nematode microtubules and their Wolbachia endosymbionts. PMID:23028321

  10. Detection of Brugia malayi in laboratory and wild-caught Mansonioides mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) using Hha I PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Hoti, S L; Vasuki, V; Lizotte, M W; Patra, K P; Ravi, G; Vanamail, P; Manonmani, A; Sabesan, S; Krishnamoorthy, K; Williams, S A

    2001-04-01

    An Hha 1 based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay developed for the detection of Brugia malayi, the causative agent of Brugian lymphatic filariasis, was evaluated for its sensitivity in the laboratory and for its usefulness in measuring changes in transmission of the disease in the field. Laboratory studies showed that the new assay was highly sensitive in comparison with the standard dissection and microscopy technique. The assay can detect as little as 4 pg of parasite DNA or a single microfilaria in pools of up to 100 mosquitoes. The optimum pool size for convenience was found to be 50 mosquitoes per pool. The efficacy of PCR assay was evaluated in filariasis control programmes in operation in endemic areas of Kerala State, South India. The infection rates obtained by the Hha I PCR assay and the conventional dissection and microscopy technique were 1.2% and 1.7% respectively in operational areas and 8.3% and 4.4% respectively, in check areas, which were not significantly different (P < 0.05). Thus, the Hha I PCR assay was found to be as sensitive as the conventional technique and hence it can be used as a new epidemiological tool for assessing parasite infection in field-collected mosquitoes. PMID:11260722

  11. The global burden of neglected tropical diseases.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, A

    2012-03-01

    The first comprehensive study on the global burden of disease and risk factors was commissioned by the World Bank in 1992. A follow-up study was performed in 2005, and another iteration was commissioned by the World Health Organization in 2010, due for publication in 2011. The author suggests that the global burden of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) has been seriously underestimated. The way forward is the integration of control efforts, with programmes coming together to deliver a package of drugs against NTDs. Barriers to continent-wide coverage of drugs against NTDs are political will (missing in those countries with poor governance), funding (approximately half of the $1.5-2 billion is needed) and human resources. However, if the donors who give so much to malaria, tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus would share just 10% of the amount allocated to the big three, the most common NTDs could become diseases of the past. This could well happen within 7 years, and the targets of GET2020 (Global Elimination of Trachoma by 2020) to eliminate trachoma and GAELF (the Global Alliance to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis) to eliminate lymphatic filariasis by 2020 are achievable. PMID:22325616

  12. A new insight into the pathogenesis of filarial disease.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark J

    2002-05-01

    Filariasis is a major public health problem throughout many regions of the tropics. The disease is caused by several species of filarial nematode including Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi, the agents of lymphatic filariasis, and Onchocerca volvulus, the cause of 'riverblindness'. Disease caused by these worms varies depending on the tissue location of the parasite, and is associated with episodes of acute and chronic inflammation. These pathologies, including elephantiasis and blindness, rank among the most disabling in the world. Studies aimed at characterizing the molecular nature of the inflammatory stimuli derived from filarial nematodes uncovered a long forgotten secret, their symbiont Wolbachia. LPS-like molecules from these intracellular bacteria are responsible for potent inflammatory responses from macrophages and in animal models of filarial disease. Wolbachia has also been associated with severe inflammatory reactions to filarial chemotherapy, being released into the blood following the death of the parasite. Recent studies in animal models even implicate Wolbachia in the onset of lymphodema and blindness. Taken together these studies suggest a major role for Wolbachia in the pathogenesis of filarial disease. It may be possible, through the use of antibiotic therapy, to clear worms of their bacteria, in the hope that this will prevent the onset and development of filarial pathology. PMID:12041732

  13. Can community-based integrated vector control hasten the process of LF elimination?

    PubMed

    Sunish, I P; Kalimuthu, M; Kumar, V Ashok; Munirathinam, A; Nagaraj, J; Tyagi, B K; White, Graham B; Arunachalam, N

    2016-06-01

    Community-based integrated vector control (IVC) using polystyrene beads (EPS) and pyrethroid impregnated curtains (PIC) as an adjunct to mass drug administration (MDA) was implemented for lymphatic filariasis elimination, in the filaria endemic villages of Tirukoilur, south India. In all the villages, MDA was carried out by the state health machinery, as part of the national filariasis elimination programme. Thirty-six difficult-to-control villages were grouped as, viz, MDA alone, MDA + EPS and MDA + EPS + PIC arms. Implementation and monitoring of IVC was carried out by the community. After 3 years of IVC, higher reductions in filariometric indices were observed in both the community and vector population. Decline in antigenaemia prevalence was higher in MDA + IVC as compared to MDA alone arm. Vector density dropped significantly (P < 0.05) in both the IVC arms, and nil transmission was observed during post-IVC period. Almost 53.8 and 75.8 % of the cesspits in MDA + EPS and MDA + EPS + PIC arms were closed by the householders, due to the enhanced awareness on vector breeding. The paper presents the key elements of IVC implementation through social mobilization in a LF prevalent area. Thus, community-based IVC strategy can hasten LF elimination, as it reduced the transmission and filariometric indices significantly. Indices were maintained at low level with nil transmission, by the community through IVC tools. PMID:26969179

  14. Neglected tropical diseases of Oceania: review of their prevalence, distribution, and opportunities for control.

    PubMed

    Kline, Kevin; McCarthy, James S; Pearson, Mark; Loukas, Alex; Hotez, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Among Oceania's population of 35 million people, the greatest number living in poverty currently live in Papua New Guinea (PNG), Fiji, Vanuatu, and the Solomon Islands. These impoverished populations are at high risk for selected NTDs, including Necator americanus hookworm infection, strongyloidiasis, lymphatic filariasis (LF), balantidiasis, yaws, trachoma, leprosy, and scabies, in addition to outbreaks of dengue and other arboviral infections including Japanese encephalitis virus infection. PNG stands out for having the largest number of cases and highest prevalence for most of these NTDs. However, Australia's Aboriginal population also suffers from a range of significant NTDs. Through the Pacific Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis, enormous strides have been made in eliminating LF in Oceania through programs of mass drug administration (MDA), although LF remains widespread in PNG. There are opportunities to scale up MDA for PNG's major NTDs, which could be accomplished through an integrated package that combines albendazole, ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine, and azithromycin, in a program of national control. Australia's Aboriginal population may benefit from appropriately integrated MDA into primary health care systems. Several emerging viral NTDs remain important threats to the region. PMID:23383349

  15. Health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices of Dominican women with lymphoedema of the leg: implications for lymphoedema management programs

    PubMed Central

    Person, Bobbie; Addiss, David G; Bartholomew, L Kay; Meijer, Cecilia; Pou, Victor; van den Borne, Bart

    2006-01-01

    Background In the Dominican Republic, a Latin American country with filariasis-endemic areas, more than 63,000 people have lymphatic filariasis and more than 400,000 people are at risk of future infection. In this paper, we explore the health beliefs, health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices of women with lymphoedema in filariasis-endemic areas to better understand the needs of women when developing lymphoedema morbidity control programs. Methods Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews of 28 women, 3 focus group discussions with 28 women, field notes and photographs. Results Women described exhaustive and expensive attempts at seeking a cure for their lymphoedema. Family members were influential in providing women with initial care seeking referrals to indigenous healers credited with influence over physical, mental, spiritual and supernatural properties of illness. When indigenous treatments proved to be ineffectual, the women sought care from trained healthcare providers. Most healthcare providers incorrectly diagnosed the edema, failed to adequately treat and meet the needs of women and were viewed as expensive. Most women resorted to self-prescribing injectable, oral, or topical antibiotics along with oral analgesics as a standard practice of self-care. Conclusion Healthcare providers must understand a woman's cultural perspectives of illness, her natural networks of support and referral, her behavioural practices of care-seeking and self-care and the financial burden of seeking care. In the culture of the Dominican Republic family members and traditional healthcare providers are influential advisors on initial health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices. For this reason family-oriented interventions, support groups for women and their families, community education and training on simple, low cost lymphoedema management techniques for indigenous healers are viable ways to influence the early detection, diagnosis and

  16. Evaluation of Rapid Blood Sample Collection in the Detection of Circulating Filarial Antigens for Epidemiological Survey by rWbSXP-1 Capture Assay

    PubMed Central

    Ansel Vishal, Lawrence; Nazeer, Y.; Ravishankaran, Rajendran; Mahalakshmi, Natarajan; Kaliraj, Perumal

    2014-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis is a neglected tropical disease leading to profound disfiguring causing socio economic burden in the tropics. Current diagnosis strategies available during field surveys and epidemics are based on traditional microscopic detections and a few antigen/antibody assays. We have compared different sampling methodologies and standardized the highly sensitive and reliable rWbSXP-1 antigen detection assay to our new sampling methodology. Methodology Samples collected as serum, whole blood, whole blood on filter paper and whole blood on microscopic slides from patients belonging to various clinical groups of filariasis [endemic normal(EN), chronic pathology(CP), microfilaraemic(MF) and non-endemic normal(NEN)] were collected and standardized the rWbSXP-1 antigen detection assay using monoclonal antibody raised against rWbSXP-1 protein. The whole blood collected on microscopic slide based sampling method was employed in the field and the presence of circulating filarial antigen (CFA) was assessed using the rWbSXP-1 assay. Principal Findings The sampling methods were compared and no significant difference was observed for the detection of CFA (MF, P = 0.304, EN, P = 0.675, CP, P = 0.5698, NEN, P = 0.4494). Further the optimized sampling method was utilized to collect the 1106 samples from Polur, Tiruvannamalai. The rWbSXP-1 assay gave 98 antigen positive results whereas the microscopic method gave only 17. Conclusions Four sampling methodologies were analyzed and the new sampling methodology of whole blood collected on microscopic slide was found to be convenient for the detection of CFA using rWbSXP-1 antigen detection assay. The 1106 samples from Polur were collected using the new method. The rWbSXP-1 antigen assay perceived a 7.32% increased result which was read as false negatives on the conventional microscopic staining method. This new sampling methodology coupled with the rWbSXP-1 antigen assay can be used in

  17. Mosquito genomics: progress and challenges.

    PubMed

    Severson, David W; Behura, Susanta K

    2012-01-01

    The whole-genome sequencing of mosquitoes has facilitated our understanding of fundamental biological processes at their basic molecular levels and holds potential for application to mosquito control and prevention of mosquito-borne disease transmission. Draft genome sequences are available for Anopheles gambiae, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Collectively, these represent the major vectors of African malaria, dengue fever and yellow fever viruses, and lymphatic filariasis, respectively. Rapid advances in genome technologies have revealed detailed information on genome architecture as well as phenotype-specific transcriptomics and proteomics. These resources allow for detailed comparative analyses within and across populations as well as species. Next-generation sequencing technologies will likely promote a proliferation of genome sequences for additional mosquito species as well as for individual insects. Here we review the current status of genome research in mosquitoes and identify potential areas for further investigations. PMID:21942845

  18. The interaction between filarial parasites and human monocyte/macrophage populations.

    PubMed

    Semnani, Roshanak Tolouei

    2013-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is a mafor tropical disease affecting approximately 120 million people worldwide. Patent infection, by and large, is clinically asymptomatic but is associated with the inability of T cells to proliferate or produce IFN-γ in response to parasite antigen. Monocyte dysfunction is one hypothesis felt to explain the lack of an antigen-specific T cell response. In fact, monocytes from filaria-infected individuals have been shown to be studded with internalized filarial antigens. Understanding how the phenotype and the function of these monocytes are altered through the internalization of these parasite antigens is one of the areas our laboratory has focused on. In fact, the existence and/or function of alternatively activated macrophages in murine models of filarial infections have been extensively studied. Whether this population of macrophages can be induced in human filarial infections is the main focus of this review. PMID:23456837

  19. Low positive predictive value of anti-Brugia malayi IgG and IgG4 serology for the diagnosis of Wuchereria bancrofti.

    PubMed

    Chanteau, S; Glaziou, P; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Plichart, C; Luquiaud, P; Cartel, J L

    1994-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for anti-Brugia malayi immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgG4 were evaluated on sera from 1561 subjects in French Polynesia for the serodiagnosis of Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis, compared with the test for Onchocerca gibsoni circulating antigen (Og4C3) as a 'gold standard'. The sensitivity of the ELISA-IgG and ELISA-IgG4 assays was 90.8% and 94.5%, and the specificity was 45.9% and 50.7%. The positive predictive values were 41% and 45% respectively for an antigen prevalence rate of 30%. Thus antibody prevalences exceeded by two-fold the antigen prevalence, which itself exceeded by two-fold the prevalence of microfilaraemia. PMID:7886763

  20. Nodding Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sejvar, James J.; Riek, Lul; Vandemaele, Katelijn A.H.; Lamunu, Margaret; Kuesel, Annette C.; Schmutzhard, Erich; Matuja, William; Bunga, Sudhir; Foltz, Jennifer; Nutman, Thomas B.; Winkler, Andrea S.; Mbonye, Anthony K.

    2013-01-01

    An epidemic illness characterized by head nodding associated with onchocerciasis has been described in eastern Africa since the early 1960s; we summarize published reports and recent studies. Onset of nodding occurs in previously healthy 5–15-year-old children and is often triggered by eating or cold temperatures and accompanied by cognitive impairment. Its incidence has increased in Uganda and South Sudan over the past 10 years. Four case–control studies identified modest and inconsistent associations. There were nonspecific lesions seen by magnetic resonance imaging, no cerebrospinal fluid inflammation, and markedly abnormal electroencephalography results. Nodding episodes are atonic seizures. Testing has failed to demonstrate associations with trypanosomiasis, cysticercosis, loiasis, lymphatic filariasis, cerebral malaria, measles, prion disease, or novel pathogens; or deficiencies of folate, cobalamin, pyridoxine, retinol, or zinc; or toxicity from mercury, copper, or homocysteine. There is a consistent enigmatic association with onchocerciasis detected by skin snip or serologic analysis. Nodding syndrome is an unexplained epidemic epilepsy. PMID:23965548

  1. Current status and challenge of Human Parasitology teaching in China

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hong-Juan; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Chun-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Guang

    2012-01-01

    Parasitic infection profile in China has been changed greatly with the rapid economic development in China since the 1980s, such as the tremendous decreased infection rate of the soil-borne helminthiasis, the elimination of filariasis, the control of malaria, and the initiation to eradicate malaria in 2020. Some food-borne parasitic infections have increased such as Clonorchiasis, Cysticercosis, and Echinococcosis, probably because of the increased chances of eating out. This trend directly affected the status of Human Parasitology teaching in medical universities, such as the shorten length of this course, re-adjusted contents structure and teaching manners, even the change of the name of this course. In this paper, we analyzed the current status and challenges of Human Parasitology teaching in medical universities, and discussed the requisite contents and manners in course delivery and measures to improve the quality of Human Parasitology teaching in China. PMID:23265609

  2. Modeling mass drug treatment and resistant filaria disease transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuady, A. M.; Nuraini, N.; Soewono, E.; Tasman, H.; Supriatna, A. K.

    2014-03-01

    It has been indicated that a long term application of combined mass drug treatment may contribute to the development of drug resistance in lymphatic filariasis. This phenomenon is not well understood due to the complexity of filaria life cycle. In this paper we formulate a mathematical model for the spread of mass drug resistant in a filaria endemic region. The model is represented in a 13-dimensional Host-Vector system. The basic reproductive ratio of the system which is obtained from the next generation matrix, and analysis of stability of both the disease free equilibrium and the coexistence equilibria are shown. Numerical simulation for long term dynamics for possible field conditions is also shown.

  3. How do the macrocyclic lactones kill filarial nematode larvae?

    PubMed

    Wolstenholme, Adrian J; Maclean, Mary J; Coates, Ruby; McCoy, Ciaran J; Reaves, Barbara J

    2016-09-01

    The macrocyclic lactones (MLs) are one of the few classes of drug used in the control of the human filarial infections, onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis, and the only one used to prevent heartworm disease in dogs and cats. Despite their importance in preventing filarial diseases, the way in which the MLs work against these parasites is unclear. In vitro measurements of nematode motility have revealed a large discrepancy between the maximum plasma concentrations achieved after drug administration and the amounts required to paralyze worms. Recent evidence has shed new light on the likely functions of the ML target, glutamate-gated chloride channels, in filarial nematodes and supports the hypothesis that the rapid clearance of microfilariae that follows treatment involves the host immune system. PMID:27279086

  4. Disorders of the lymphatic system of the abdomen.

    PubMed

    Patil, A R; Nandikoor, S; De Marco, J; Bhat, R; Shivakumar, S; Mallrajapatna, G

    2016-10-01

    The lymphatic system of the abdomen comprises of the cisterna chyli, its major and minor lymphatic tributaries, and lymph nodes. Disorders of the lymphatic system of the abdomen are rarely encountered and consist of primary and secondary types. Abdominal lymphangiomas constitute the majority and have characteristic imaging features. Complicated lymphangiomas may pose a diagnostic dilemma. Generalised systemic lymphangiomatosis is a rare condition and affects major organs with a poor prognosis. Retroperitoneal lymphangiectasia in the appropriate setting might predict underlying infection, such as filariasis. Other acquired conditions include iatrogenic or treatment-induced chylocoele. Chylous ascites can be secondary to multiple causes and can be confirmed by biochemical testing and lymphangiogram in appropriate settings. PMID:27450410

  5. Existence of a True Phosphofructokinase in Bacillus sphaericus: Cloning and Sequencing of the pfk Gene

    PubMed Central

    Alice, Alejandro F.; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Sánchez-Rivas, Carmen

    2002-01-01

    Some strains of Bacillus sphaericus are entomopathogenic to mosquito larvae, which transmit diseases, such as filariasis and malaria, affecting millions of people worldwide. This species is unable to use hexoses and pentoses as unique carbon sources, which was proposed to be due to the lack of glycolytic enzymes, such as 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK). In this study, PFK activity was detected and the pfk gene was cloned and sequenced. Furthermore, this gene was shown to be present in strains belonging to all the homology groups of this heterogeneous species, in which PFK activity was also detected. A careful sequence analysis revealed the conservation of different catalytic and regulatory residues, as well as the enzyme's phylogenetic affiliation with the family of allosteric ATP-PFK enzymes. PMID:12450869

  6. Identification of Brugia malayi in vectors with a species-specific DNA probe.

    PubMed

    Sim, B K; Mak, J W; Cheong, W H; Sutanto, I; Kurniawan, L; Marwoto, H A; Franke, E; Campell, J R; Wirth, D F; Piessens, W F

    1986-05-01

    We evaluated the potential value of a cloned sequence of genomic DNA of Brugia malayi as a species-specific probe. Clone pBm 15 reacted with all stages of 8 different geographic isolates of B. malayi and cross-hybridized with microfilariae of B. timori. It did not hybridize with Wuchereria bancrofti or with B. pahangi, W. kalimantani, Dirofilaria repens, Breinlia booliati or Cardiofilaria species, animal filariids that can be sympatric with B. malayi. P32-labeled clone pBm 15 correctly identified mosquitoes infected even with 1 infective larva of B. malayi. This specific DNA probe should be an invaluable tool to monitor control programs of Brugian filariasis. PMID:3518507

  7. Natural Products as a Source for Treating Neglected Parasitic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ndjonka, Dieudonné; Rapado, Ludmila Nakamura; Silber, Ariel M.; Liebau, Eva; Wrenger, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Infectious diseases caused by parasites are a major threat for the entire mankind, especially in the tropics. More than 1 billion people world-wide are directly exposed to tropical parasites such as the causative agents of trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, which represent a major health problem, particularly in impecunious areas. Unlike most antibiotics, there is no “general” antiparasitic drug available. Here, the selection of antiparasitic drugs varies between different organisms. Some of the currently available drugs are chemically de novo synthesized, however, the majority of drugs are derived from natural sources such as plants which have subsequently been chemically modified to warrant higher potency against these human pathogens. In this review article we will provide an overview of the current status of plant derived pharmaceuticals and their chemical modifications to target parasite-specific peculiarities in order to interfere with their proliferation in the human host. PMID:23389040

  8. Antifilarial and Antibiotic Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Melaleuca cajuputi Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Al-Abd, Nazeh M.; Nor, Zurainee Mohamed; Mansor, Marzida; Hasan, MS; Kassim, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the activity of methanolic extracts of Melaleuca cajuputi flowers against the filarial worm Brugia pahangi and its bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia. Anti-Wolbachia activity was measured in worms and in Aedes albopictus Aa23 cells by PCR, electron microscopy, and other biological assays. In particular, microfilarial release, worm motility, and viability were determined. M. cajuputi flower extracts were found to significantly reduce Wolbachia endosymbionts in Aa23 cells, Wolbachia surface protein, and microfilarial release, as well as the viability and motility of adult worms. Anti-Wolbachia activity was further confirmed by observation of degraded and phagocytized Wolbachia in worms treated with the flower extracts. The data provided in vitro and in vivo evidence that M. cajuputi flower extracts inhibit Wolbachia, an activity that may be exploited as an alternative strategy to treat human lymphatic filariasis. PMID:27417081

  9. Ancient horizontal transfers of retrotransposons between birds and ancestors of human pathogenic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Suh, Alexander; Witt, Christopher C; Menger, Juliana; Sadanandan, Keren R; Podsiadlowski, Lars; Gerth, Michael; Weigert, Anne; McGuire, Jimmy A; Mudge, Joann; Edwards, Scott V; Rheindt, Frank E

    2016-01-01

    Parasite host switches may trigger disease emergence, but prehistoric host ranges are often unknowable. Lymphatic filariasis and loiasis are major human diseases caused by the insect-borne filarial nematodes Brugia, Wuchereria and Loa. Here we show that the genomes of these nematodes and seven tropical bird lineages exclusively share a novel retrotransposon, AviRTE, resulting from horizontal transfer (HT). AviRTE subfamilies exhibit 83-99% nucleotide identity between genomes, and their phylogenetic distribution, paleobiogeography and invasion times suggest that HTs involved filarial nematodes. The HTs between bird and nematode genomes took place in two pantropical waves, >25-22 million years ago (Myr ago) involving the Brugia/Wuchereria lineage and >20-17 Myr ago involving the Loa lineage. Contrary to the expectation from the mammal-dominated host range of filarial nematodes, we hypothesize that these major human pathogens may have independently evolved from bird endoparasites that formerly infected the global breadth of avian biodiversity. PMID:27097561

  10. Analysis of the mdr-1 gene in patients co-infected with Onchocerca volvulus and Loa loa who experienced a post-ivermectin serious adverse event.

    PubMed

    Bourguinat, Catherine; Kamgno, Joseph; Boussinesq, Michel; Mackenzie, Charles D; Prichard, Roger K; Geary, Timothy G

    2010-07-01

    Ivermectin (IVM) is exceptionally safe in humans, and is used for mass treatment of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. However, cases of encephalopathy, sometimes fatal, have been reported in a small number of individuals who harbored large numbers of Loa loa microfilariae (mf). A loss-of-function mutation in the mdr-1 gene in some dog breeds and in mice leads to accumulation of the drug in the brain, causing coma and death. This hypothesis was tested in four individuals from Cameroon who experienced a post-IVM serious adverse event (SAE) and in nine non-SAE matched controls. No loss-of-function mutation was detected in mdr-1 in any subject. However, haplotypes, associated with altered drug disposition, were present as homozygotes in two of the SAE patients (50%), but absent as homozygotes in the controls (0%). An association of high Loa mf load and a genetic predisposition to altered IVM distribution could be involved in IVM SAEs. PMID:20595473

  11. Mucocutaneous manifestations of helminth infections: Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Lupi, Omar; Downing, Christopher; Lee, Michael; Pino, Livia; Bravo, Francisco; Giglio, Patricia; Sethi, Aisha; Klaus, Sidney; Sangueza, Omar P; Fuller, Claire; Mendoza, Natalia; Ladizinski, Barry; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Tyring, Stephen K

    2015-12-01

    In the 21st century, despite increased globalization through international travel for business, medical volunteerism, pleasure, and immigration/refugees into the United States, there is little published in the dermatology literature regarding the cutaneous manifestations of helminth infections. Approximately 17% of travelers seek medical care because of cutaneous disorders, many related to infectious etiologies. This review will focus on the cutaneous manifestations of helminth infections and is divided into 2 parts: part I focuses on nematode infections, and part II focuses on trematode and cestode infections. This review highlights the clinical manifestations, transmission, diagnosis, and treatment of helminth infections. Nematodes are roundworms that cause diseases with cutaneous manifestations, such as cutaneous larval migrans, onchocerciasis, filariasis, gnathostomiasis, loiasis, dracunculiasis, strongyloidiasis, ascariasis, streptocerciasis, dirofilariasis, and trichinosis. Tremadotes, also known as flukes, cause schistosomiasis, paragonimiasis, and fascioliasis. Cestodes (tapeworms) are flat, hermaphroditic parasites that cause diseases such as sparganosis, cysticercosis, and echinococcus. PMID:26568337

  12. Mucocutaneous manifestations of helminth infections: Trematodes and cestodes.

    PubMed

    Lupi, Omar; Downing, Christopher; Lee, Michael; Bravo, Francisco; Giglio, Patricia; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Tyring, Stephen K

    2015-12-01

    In the 21st century, despite increased international travel for vacation, work, and medical missions and immigration into the United States, there is little published in the dermatology literature regarding the cutaneous manifestations of helminth infections. It has been estimated that 20% to 70% of international travelers suffer from some travel-related health problem. Approximately 17% of travelers seek medical care because of cutaneous disorders, many related to infectious etiologies. This review will focus on cutaneous diseases caused by helminth infections. Part I of the review focused on nematode infections; part II will focus on trematode and cestode infections. Nematodes are roundworms that cause diseases with cutaneous manifestations, such as cutaneous larval migrans, onchocerciasis, filariasis, gnathostomiasis, loiasis, dracunculiasis, strongyloidiasis, ascariasis, streptocerciasis, dirofilariasis, and trichinosis. Tremadotes, also known as flukes, cause schistosomiasis, paragonimiasis, and fascioliasis. Cestodes (tapeworms) are flat, hermaphroditic parasites that cause diseases such as sparganosis, cysticercosis, and echinococcus. PMID:26568338

  13. Nodding syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dowell, Scott F; Sejvar, James J; Riek, Lul; Vandemaele, Katelijn A H; Lamunu, Margaret; Kuesel, Annette C; Schmutzhard, Erich; Matuja, William; Bunga, Sudhir; Foltz, Jennifer; Nutman, Thomas B; Winkler, Andrea S; Mbonye, Anthony K

    2013-01-01

    An epidemic illness characterized by head nodding associated with onchocerciasis has been described in eastern Africa since the early 1960s; we summarize published reports and recent studies. Onset of nodding occurs in previously healthy 5-15-year-old children and is often triggered by eating or cold temperatures and accompanied by cognitive impairment. Its incidence has increased in Uganda and South Sudan over the past 10 years. Four case-control studies identified modest and inconsistent associations. There were nonspecific lesions seen by magnetic resonance imaging, no cerebrospinal fluid inflammation, and markedly abnormal electroencephalography results. Nodding episodes are atonic seizures. Testing has failed to demonstrate associations with trypanosomiasis, cysticercosis, loiasis, lymphatic filariasis, cerebral malaria, measles, prion disease, or novel pathogens; or deficiencies of folate, cobalamin, pyridoxine, retinol, or zinc; or toxicity from mercury, copper, or homocysteine. There is a consistent enigmatic association with onchocerciasis detected by skin snip or serologic analysis. Nodding syndrome is an unexplained epidemic epilepsy. PMID:23965548

  14. Cutaneous Manifestations of Selected Parasitic Infections in Western Pacific and Southeast Asian Regions.

    PubMed

    Belizario, Vicente; Delos Trinos, John Paul Caesar; Garcia, Nikko Benjamin; Reyes, Maureen

    2016-09-01

    Cutaneous manifestations of parasitic infections often result in discomfort, debilitation, and even stigmatization. Data on cutaneous manifestations of parasitic infections, however, are limited. This article provides updates on the cutaneous manifestations of parasitic infections which are known to occur in Western Pacific and Southeast Asian regions, such as scabies, pediculosis, cutaneous larva migrans, larva currens, cutaneous schistosomiasis, cutaneous enterobiasis, cutaneous cysticercosis, acute dermatolymphangioadenitis (lymphatic filariasis), and cutaneous amoebiasis. The lack of epidemiological data on these conditions suggests the need for improvements in recording and reporting of cases. Utilization of advance diagnostic modalities and capacity building of health workers are important for proper case management. Cutaneous manifestations of parasitic infections are a topic rarely studied and thus represent an opportunity for further research. PMID:27447892

  15. [Anopheles of Senegal. An annotated and illustrated list].

    PubMed

    Diagne, N; Fontenille, D; Konate, L; Faye, O; Lamizana, M T; Legros, F; Molez, J F; Trape, J F

    1994-01-01

    Twenty species of Anopheles are presently known from Senegal. An. gambiae, An. arabiensis, An. pharoensis, An. rufipes and An. ziemanni have an extensive distribution. Probably because of climatic change, An. funestus is no more found in some areas and An. paludis tend to disappear. An. melas is located in coastal areas. The other species, namely An. coustani, An. brohieri, An. brunnipes, An. domicola, An. flavicosta, An. freetownensis, An. hancocki, An. maculipalpis, An. nili, An. pretoriensis, An. squamosus and An. wellcomei, are mainly found in southern Senegal. Only An. gambiae, An. arabiensis and An. funestus are of epidemiological significance as vectors of malaria and bancroftian filariasis. Twelve arboviruses have been isolated from eight Anopheles species. Each Anopheles species is illustrated and an identification key is given. PMID:7866049

  16. Ancient horizontal transfers of retrotransposons between birds and ancestors of human pathogenic nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Alexander; Witt, Christopher C.; Menger, Juliana; Sadanandan, Keren R.; Podsiadlowski, Lars; Gerth, Michael; Weigert, Anne; McGuire, Jimmy A.; Mudge, Joann; Edwards, Scott V.; Rheindt, Frank E.

    2016-01-01

    Parasite host switches may trigger disease emergence, but prehistoric host ranges are often unknowable. Lymphatic filariasis and loiasis are major human diseases caused by the insect-borne filarial nematodes Brugia, Wuchereria and Loa. Here we show that the genomes of these nematodes and seven tropical bird lineages exclusively share a novel retrotransposon, AviRTE, resulting from horizontal transfer (HT). AviRTE subfamilies exhibit 83–99% nucleotide identity between genomes, and their phylogenetic distribution, paleobiogeography and invasion times suggest that HTs involved filarial nematodes. The HTs between bird and nematode genomes took place in two pantropical waves, >25–22 million years ago (Myr ago) involving the Brugia/Wuchereria lineage and >20–17 Myr ago involving the Loa lineage. Contrary to the expectation from the mammal-dominated host range of filarial nematodes, we hypothesize that these major human pathogens may have independently evolved from bird endoparasites that formerly infected the global breadth of avian biodiversity. PMID:27097561

  17. Comparative fine structure of eggs of autogenous and anautogenous Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Soliman, Belal A; Tewfick, Maha K; Wassim, Nahla M

    2014-12-01

    Culex (Cx.) pipiens is the potential vector human filariasis in Egypt. However, autogenous Cx. pipiens may be less efficient vector of Wuchereria (W.) bancrofti in endemic areas of Egypt compared to anautogenous counterparts. In this study, an attempt was made to differentiate eggs of autogenous and anautogenous Cx. pipiens using scanning electron micrographs. The results indicated that eggs of both species appear to be similar to great extent in surface morphology. Eggs of both forms are black and elongate-oval. Width is greatest at the anterior end. The posterior end is pointed. The micropylar disc is apparent with distinct edge. Exochorionic bridges are angular. Size of both eggs represented by length and width are comparable. In both eggs, length is greater than width. However, eggs of both forms can be distinguished from each other by the exochorionic bridges being longer and thinner in the autogenous eggs than in the anautogenous eggs. PMID:25643517

  18. Severe lymphedema caused by repeated self-injury.

    PubMed

    Mihara, M; Hara, H; Murai, N; Todokoro, T; Iida, T; Narushima, M; Koshima, I

    2011-12-01

    Lymphedema is divided into primary and secondary forms. Primary lymphedema often develops in young people and may be caused by lymphvascular aplasia, hypoplasia, and hyperplasia. The most frequent cause of secondary lymphedema after lymphatic filariasis is regional lymph node dissection for treatment of a malignant tumor, and this complication occurs most frequently in middle aged or older patients. Here, we describe a relatively young patient (27 years old) in whom collecting lymph vessels in the upper limb were disrupted by repeated self-injury, with resultant lymphedema. There have been very few reports on lymphedema caused by self-induced trauma. This case report illustrates that secondary lymphedema should also be considered and evaluated appropriately when diagnosed in a relatively young patient without a history of cancer or infection. PMID:22458120

  19. Antibody determination in the diagnosis of Wuchereria bancrofti infection in man

    PubMed Central

    Dissanayake, S.; Ismail, M. M.

    1981-01-01

    The levels of IgG and IgE antibodies reacting with somatic antigens of adult Setaria digitata and Wuchereria bancrofti microfilariae were determined in sera of 90 patients with Bancroftian filariasis and 379 non-filarial subjects. Antibodies reacting with adult antigens and with soluble microfilarial antigens were seen in both microfilaraemic and amicrofilaraemic patients. Antibodies reacting with surface antigens of W. bancrofti microfilariae were seen only in amicrofilaraemic subjects. IgE antibodies were detected with the adult antigen only in both microfilaraemic and amicrofilaraemic patients. The absolute levels of IgG antibodies were significantly higher than those of IgE antibodies. It is concluded that the determination of serum antibodies reacting with adult antigens is suitable for the diagnosis of both the microfilaraemic and amicrofilaraemic phases of infection, and the determination of antibody to microfilarial surface antigens is applicable in patients with clinically evident disease. PMID:7032737

  20. Repellency effect of forty-one essential oils against Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Amer, Abdelkrim; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2006-09-01

    Since ancient times, plant products were used in various aspects. However, their use against pests decreased when chemical products became developed. Recently, concerns increased with respect to public health and environmental security requiring detection of natural products that may be used against insect pests. In this study, 41 plant extracts and 11 oil mixtures were evaluated against the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus), the malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi (Liston), and the filariasis and encephalitis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae) using the skin of human volunteers to find out the protection time and repellency. The five most effective oils were those of Litsea (Litsea cubeba), Cajeput (Melaleuca leucadendron), Niaouli (Melaleuca quinquenervia), Violet (Viola odorata), and Catnip (Nepeta cataria), which induced a protection time of 8 h at the maximum and a 100% repellency against all three species. This effect needs, however, a peculiar formulation to fix them on the human skin. PMID:16642384

  1. Spatial epidemiology in zoonotic parasitic diseases: insights gained at the 1st International Symposium on Geospatial Health in Lijiang, China, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Lv, Shan; Yang, Guo-Jing; Kristensen, Thomas K; Bergquist, N Robert; Utzinger, Jürg; Malone, John B

    2009-01-01

    The 1st International Symposium on Geospatial Health was convened in Lijiang, Yunnan province, People's Republic of China from 8 to 9 September, 2007. The objective was to review progress made with the application of spatial techniques on zoonotic parasitic diseases, particularly in Southeast Asia. The symposium featured 71 presentations covering soil-transmitted and water-borne helminth infections, as well as arthropod-borne diseases such as leishmaniasis, malaria and lymphatic filariasis. The work made public at this occasion is briefly summarized here to highlight the advances made and to put forth research priorities in this area. Approaches such as geographical information systems (GIS), global positioning systems (GPS) and remote sensing (RS), including spatial statistics, web-based GIS and map visualization of field investigations, figured prominently in the presentation. PMID:19193214

  2. The Culex pipiens fatigans problem in South-East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Singh, D.

    1967-01-01

    In South-East Asia in recent years urbanization has proceeded rapidly. Because of limited financial resources it has seldom been possible to provide sufficient sanitation; this has led to conditions favourable to the breeding of Culex pipiens fatigans. The density of C. p. fatigans is higher in urban areas than in rural ones. Differences in infection and infectivity rates in C. p. fatigans seem to be due to differences in infection rates in the human population rather than to differences in the life-span of the mosquito. Precipitin tests have shown that the species feeds predominantly on man. It breeds in almost any type of stagnant water with organic contamination. Filariasis problems in India have been classified according to the duration of established transmission. PMID:5300060

  3. Parasitic diseases and urban development.

    PubMed Central

    Mott, K. E.; Desjeux, P.; Moncayo, A.; Ranque, P.; de Raadt, P.

    1990-01-01

    The distribution and epidemiology of parasitic diseases in both urban and periurban areas of endemic countries have been changing as development progresses. The following different scenarios involving Chagas disease, lymphatic filariasis, leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis are discussed: (1) infected persons entering nonendemic urban areas without vectors; (2) infected persons entering nonendemic urban areas with vectors; (3) infected persons entering endemic urban areas; (4) non-infected persons entering endemic urban areas; (5) urbanization or domestication of natural zoonotic foci; and (6) vectors entering nonendemic urban areas. Cultural and social habits from the rural areas, such as type of house construction and domestic water usage, are adopted by migrants to urban areas and increase the risk of disease transmission which adversely affects employment in urban populations. As the urban health services must deal with the rise in parasitic diseases, appropriate control strategies for the urban setting must be developed and implemented. PMID:2127380

  4. Honoring antiparasitics: The 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-June

    2016-04-01

    Protozoa and helminths are the two main groups that cause parasitic diseases with a broad spectrum of clinical symptoms. Protozoa are unicellular organisms like the malaria parasite Plasmodium, which is responsible for the majority of deaths associated with parasitic infections. Helminths are alternative parasites that can produce debilitating diseases in hosts, some of which result in chronic infections. The discovery of effective therapeutic drugs is the key to improving health in regions of poverty and poor sanitation where these parasites usually occur. It is very encouraging that the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to Youyou Tu as well as William C. Campbell and Satoshi Õmura for their considerable contributions in discovering artemisinin and avermectin, respectively. Both drugs revolutionized therapies for filariasis and malaria, significantly reducing by large percentages their morbidity and mortality. PMID:27372164

  5. Antifilarial and Antibiotic Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Melaleuca cajuputi Flowers.

    PubMed

    Al-Abd, Nazeh M; Nor, Zurainee Mohamed; Mansor, Marzida; Hasan, M S; Kassim, Mustafa

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the activity of methanolic extracts of Melaleuca cajuputi flowers against the filarial worm Brugia pahangi and its bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia. Anti-Wolbachia activity was measured in worms and in Aedes albopictus Aa23 cells by PCR, electron microscopy, and other biological assays. In particular, microfilarial release, worm motility, and viability were determined. M. cajuputi flower extracts were found to significantly reduce Wolbachia endosymbionts in Aa23 cells, Wolbachia surface protein, and microfilarial release, as well as the viability and motility of adult worms. Anti-Wolbachia activity was further confirmed by observation of degraded and phagocytized Wolbachia in worms treated with the flower extracts. The data provided in vitro and in vivo evidence that M. cajuputi flower extracts inhibit Wolbachia, an activity that may be exploited as an alternative strategy to treat human lymphatic filariasis. PMID:27417081

  6. Evaluation of antibacterial soap in the management of lymphoedema in Leogane, Haiti.

    PubMed

    Addiss, David G; Michel, Marie-Carmel; Michelus, Antoine; Radday, Jeanne; Billhimer, Ward; Louis-Charles, Jacky; Roberts, Jacquelin M; Kramp, Kathy; Dahl, Benjamin A; Keswick, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    In areas endemic for lymphatic filariasis, progression of lymphoedema is associated with recurrent bacterial acute dermatolymphangioadenitis (ADLA). The role of antibacterial soap in preventing ADLA is unknown. In a randomized double-blinded clinical trial in Leogane, Haiti, lymphoedema patients washed affected legs with antibacterial (n = 97) or plain soap (n = 100). Reported ADLA incidence (by recall) before the study was 1.1 episodes per person-year, compared to 0.40 assessed during the 12-month study. ADLA incidence was significantly associated with age, illiteracy and lymphoedema stage, but not with soap type. Washing with soap, regardless of its antibacterial content, can help decrease ADLA incidence. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier number NCT00139100.). PMID:20850849

  7. Complexities of Assessing the Disease Burden Attributable to Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Bern, Caryn; Maguire, James H.; Alvar, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Among parasitic diseases, morbidity and mortality caused by leishmaniasis are surpassed only by malaria and lymphatic filariasis. However, estimation of the leishmaniasis disease burden is challenging, due to clinical and epidemiological diversity, marked geographic clustering, and lack of reliable data on incidence, duration, and impact of the various disease syndromes. Non-health effects such as impoverishment, disfigurement, and stigma add to the burden, and introduce further complexities. Leishmaniasis occurs globally, but has disproportionate impact in the Horn of Africa, South Asia and Brazil (for visceral leishmaniasis), and Latin America, Central Asia, and southwestern Asia (for cutaneous leishmaniasis). Disease characteristics and challenges for control are reviewed for each of these foci. We recommend review of reliable secondary data sources and collection of baseline active survey data to improve current disease burden estimates, plus the improvement or establishment of effective surveillance systems to monitor the impact of control efforts. PMID:18958165

  8. From red to white urine: a patient's nightmare with a rather benign outcome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chyluria is a medical condition with presence of chyle in the urine. The disease is most prevalent in endemic regions of Africa and the Indian subcontinent where it is mostly caused by parasitic infections, particularly lymphatic filariasis due to wucheria bancrofti. Non-parasitic chyluria, however, is a very rare finding. Case Presentation We report the case of a 48 year old woman who developed a lymphorenal fistula with chyluria following ureterrenoscopy with biopsies taken for urological work-up of persistent macrohematuria. Renal biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of benign familial hematuria due to thin basement nephropathy, a condition frequently associated with episodes of macrohematuria. Conclusions This case highlights a rare case of non-parasitic chyluria as a complication of urological work-up for macrohematuria of benign nature. PMID:22296661

  9. Production of (5R,6S)-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide, the mosquito oviposition pheromone, from the seed oil of the summer cypress plant, Kochia scoparia (Chenopodiaceae).

    PubMed

    Olagbemiro, T O; Birkett, M A; Mordue (Luntz), A J; Pickett, J A

    1999-08-01

    The oviposition pheromone for the pathogen-vectoring mosquitoes in the genus Culex (Diptera: Culicidae), that is, (5R, 6S)-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide, is efficiently synthesized, in admixture with the inactive (5S,6R) enantiomer ( approximately 33% w/w), from the fixed oil extracted from the seeds of the summer cypress plant, Kochia scoparia (Chenopodiaceae), cultivated on an industrial scale. Oviposition bioassays using gravid females of Culex quinquefasciatus, a vector of filariasis in human beings, showed that the product was attractive, with activity comparable to that of a pure synthetic sample containing the same amount of the active enantiomer. Production of the pheromone in the form of a biologically active crude material via a cheap and renewable plant suitable for development as a new industrial crop provides the basis for control of Cx. quinquefasciatus and other congeneric vectors of pathogens in resource-poor areas of the world. PMID:10552665

  10. Antigenic composition of Litomosoides carini.

    PubMed

    Enayat, M S

    1976-07-01

    Three different phosphate buffered saline extracts of Litomosoides carini were prepared and examined by gel diffusion, immunoelectrophoresis and disc polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using sera from infected cotton rats and antisera from hyperimmunized rabbits. Using disc polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, up to 22 protein, 6 lipoprotein and 4 glycoprotein bands were identified. A minimum of 8 precipitin lines were detected by gel diffusion and a maximum of 11 precipitin arcs by immunoelectrophoresis when pooled rabbit antiserum was used. Using infected cotton rat sera, fewer number of precipitin lines and arcs were detected. Two precipitin arcs did not have a counterpart on examination against pooled rabbit antiserum. The importance of these two specific antigenic components for use in immunodiagnosis of human filariasis has been discussed. PMID:823514

  11. [Treatment of hydrocele by a general surgeon practicing in a rural resource-poor setting in Africa].

    PubMed

    Chiron, P; Amadane, N; Bonnet, S; Laroche, J; Fournier, R; Savoie, P-H

    2014-01-01

    Hydrocele in adults is a collection of peritesticular fluid between the parietal and visceral layers of the tunica vaginalis testis. An endemic disease in Africa, its cause is either idiopathic or a reaction to filariasis. In the absence of treatment, its volume increases spontaneously. The onset of symptoms justifies treatment. In tropical zones, surgery is the most effective treatment. The technique must be simple to perform, require few resources, and limit the risks of complication. Three surgical techniques should be used. In resource-poor practice conditions, fenestration and, to a lesser extent, plication are the techniques most appropriate when the tunica vaginalis is essentially healthy. Only resection is possible when it is damaged. PMID:24686377

  12. Giant scrotal elephantiasis of inflammatory etiology: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Denzinger, Stefan; Watzlawek, Elke; Burger, Maximilian; Wieland, Wolf F; Otto, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Background Scrotal lymphedema is rare outside endemic filariasis regions in Africa and Asia. It is of variable origin in the western world. Case presentation We present a case of a 40-year-old European man with massive elephantiasis of the scrotum attributed to chronic inflammation of the lower urinary tract caused by urinary outlet obstruction and diabetes mellitus. The patient underwent subtotal scrotectomy saving penis, testes and spermatic cords and followed by scrotal reconstruction with adequate cosmetic and functional outcome. Conclusion In this report we discuss a rare case of scrotal elephantiasis in an European patient, reflect on the etiology and the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Surgery can be successful even in giant scrotal elephantiasis. PMID:17543128

  13. The Effects of Ivermectin on Brugia malayi Females In Vitro: A Transcriptomic Approach

    PubMed Central

    O’Neill, Maeghan; Burkman, Erica; Zaky, Weam I.; Xia, Jianguo; Moorhead, Andrew; Williams, Steven A.; Geary, Timothy G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis are disabling and disfiguring neglected tropical diseases of major importance in developing countries. Ivermectin is the drug of choice for mass drug administration programs for the control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis in areas where the diseases are co-endemic. Although ivermectin paralyzes somatic and pharyngeal muscles in many nematodes, these actions are poorly characterized in adult filariae. We hypothesize that paralysis of pharyngeal pumping by ivermectin in filariae could result in deprivation of essential nutrients, especially iron, inducing a wide range of responses evidenced by altered gene expression, changes in metabolic pathways, and altered developmental states in embryos. Previous studies have shown that ivermectin treatment significantly reduces microfilariae release from females within four days of exposure in vivo, while not markedly affecting adult worms. However, the mechanisms responsible for reduced production of microfilariae are poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed transcriptomic profiles from Brugia malayi adult females, an important model for other filariae, using RNAseq technology after exposure in culture to ivermectin at various concentrations (100 nM, 300 nM and 1 μM) and time points (24, 48, 72 h, and 5 days). Our analysis revealed drug-related changes in expression of genes involved in meiosis, as well as oxidative phosphorylation, which were significantly down-regulated as early as 24 h post-exposure. RNA interference phenotypes of the orthologs of these down-regulated genes in C. elegans include “maternal sterile”, “embryonic lethal”, “larval arrest”, “larval lethal” and “sick”. Conclusion/Significance These changes provide insight into the mechanisms involved in ivermectin-induced reduction in microfilaria output and impaired fertility, embryogenesis, and larval development. PMID:27529747

  14. Concomitant infections of Plasmodium falciparum and Wuchereria bancrofti on the Kenyan coast

    PubMed Central

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Mbogo, Charles M; Mwangangi, Joseph M; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah W; Kabiru, Ephantus W; Mwandawiro, Charles; Beier, John C

    2006-01-01

    Background Anopheles gambiae s.l. and An. funestus are important vectors of malaria and bancroftian filariasis, which occur as co-endemic infections along the Kenyan Coast. However, little is known about the occurrence and prevalence of concomitant infections of the two diseases in mosquito and human populations in these areas. This study reports the prevalence of concomitant infections of Plasmodium falciparum and Wuchereria bancrofti in mosquito and human populations in Jilore and Shakahola villages in Malindi, Kenya. Methods Mosquitoes were sampled inside houses by pyrethrum spray sheet collection (PSC) while blood samples were collected by finger prick technique at the end of entomological survey. Results A total of 1,979 female Anopheles mosquitoes comprising of 1,919 Anopheles gambiae s.l and 60 An. funestus were collected. Concomitant infections of P. falciparum sporozoites and filarial worms occurred in 1.1% and 1.6% of An. gambiae s.l collected in Jilore and Shakahola villages respectively. Wuchereria-infected mosquitoes had higher sporozoite rates compared to non-infected mosquitoes, but multiple infections appeared to reduce mosquito survivorship making transmission of such infections rare. None of the persons examined in Shakahola (n = 107) had coinfections of the two parasites, whereas in Jilore (n = 94), out of the 4.3% of individuals harbouring both parasites, 1.2% had P. falciparum gametocytes and microfilariae and could potentially infect the mosquito with both parasites simultaneously. Conclusion Concerted efforts should be made to integrate the control of malaria and bancroftian filariasis in areas where they co-exist. PMID:16723020

  15. Silver nanoparticles: a possibility for malarial and filarial vector control technology.

    PubMed

    Soni, Namita; Prakash, Soam

    2014-11-01

    Green synthesis technology is one of the rapid, reliable and best routes for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). There are bioactive compounds with enormous potential in Azadirachta indica (Neem). The extraordinary mosquitoes warrant nanotechnology to integrate with novel molecules. This will be sustainable technology for future. Here, we synthesized AgNPs using aqueous extracts of leaves and bark of Az. indica (Neem). We tested AgNPs as larvicides, pupicides and adulticides against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The results were obtained using UV-visible spectrophotometer and the images were recorded with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The efficacy tests were then performed at different concentrations varying many hours by probit analysis. The synthesized AgNPs were spherical in shape and with varied sizes (10.47-nm leaf and 19.22-nm bark). The larvae, pupae and adults of filariasis vector C. quinquefasciatus were found to be more susceptible to our AgNPs than the malaria vector An. stephensi. The first and the second instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus show a mortality rate of 100% after 30 min of exposure. The results against the pupa of C. quinquefasciatus were recorded as LC₅₀ 4 ppm, LC₉₀ 11 ppm and LC₉₉ 13 ppm after 3 h of exposure. In the case of adult mosquitoes, LC₅₀ 1.06 μL/cm(2), LC₉₀ 2.13 μL/cm(2) and LC₉₉ 2.4 μL/cm(2) were obtained after 4 h of exposure. These results suggest that our AgNPs are environment-friendly for controlling malarial and filarial vectors. PMID:25132567

  16. Hyperimmunoglobulinemia E in the absence of atopy and filarial infection: the Huaorani of Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Kron, M A; Ammunariz, M; Pandey, J; Guzman, J R

    2000-01-01

    Hyperimmunoglobulinemia E (HIGE) is associated with various conditions such as atopy, dermatitis, hypersensitivity reactions, and certain parasitic infections. In the course of vaccination initiatives in the province of Napo, eastern Ecuador, blood samples were collected from one of the two remaining rural subgroups of Huaorani Indians who in 1979 were reported to have the world's highest concentrations of IgE. One subgroup of Huaorani, the Dicaron, lives in a protected Amazonian region which has reportedly suffered from extensive pollution after petroleum industry exploration. Plasma was collected from 31 members of the Dicaron (age range 15-75 years), eight non-Dicaron Huaorani, and 16 Quichua Indians from the same province, and tested for IgE, IgG, IgM, IgA, and immunoglobulin allotypes. Subjects were examined for evidence of filariasis, a group of parasitic diseases associated with HIGE. Mean IgE concentration in the Dicaron was measured by CAP ELISA at 11,850 IU/mL (range 5000-33,000) while IgA and IgM concentrations were within normal limits compared to North American controls. IgG levels were slightly elevated and there was no evidence of filariasis. Compared to the Quichua and non-Dicaron Huaorani, two other Amerindian tribes in the Ecuadorian Amazon, the highest concentrations of IgE were recorded from the Dicaron who live within the allegedly polluted section of the Amazon. We conclude that an unexplained HIGE syndrome exists among only one subgroup of Huaorani, the Dicaron. Other eastern Ecuadorian Amerindians, such as the Quichua and resettled Huaorani, have IgE concentrations expected in a population with intestinal helminthiasis. Environmental factors cannot be excluded as the cause of HIGE in the Dicaron. PMID:11191097

  17. Larvicidal potential of carvacrol and terpinen-4-ol from the essential oil of Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceae) against Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles subpictus, Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Hoti, S L; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. However, the use of synthetic insecticides to control Culicidae may lead to resistance, high operational costs and adverse non-target effects. Nowadays, plant-borne mosquitocides may serve as suitable alternative in the fight against mosquito vectors. In this study, the mosquito larvicidal activity of Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceae) leaf essential oil (EO) and its major chemical constituents was evaluated against the malaria vectors Anopheles stephensi and An. subpictus, the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus and the Japanese encephalitis vector Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. The chemical composition of the EO was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. GC-MS revealed that the essential oil of O. vulgare contained 17 compounds. The major chemical components were carvacrol (38.30%) and terpinen-4-ol (28.70%). EO had a significant toxic effect against early third-stage larvae of An. stephensi, An. subpictus, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, with LC50 values of 67.00, 74.14, 80.35 and 84.93 μg/ml. The two major constituents extracted from the O. vulgare EO were tested individually for acute toxicity against larvae of the four mosquito vectors. Carvacrol and terpinen-4-ol appeared to be most effective against An. stephensi (LC50=21.15 and 43.27 μg/ml, respectively) followed by An. subpictus (LC50=24.06 and 47.73 μg/ml), Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50=26.08 and 52.19 μg/ml) and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50=27.95 and 54.87 μg/ml). Overall, this research adds knowledge to develop newer and safer natural larvicides against malaria, filariasis and Japanese encephalitis mosquito vectors. PMID:26850541

  18. Midgut Microbial Community of Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquito Populations from India

    PubMed Central

    Chandel, Kshitij; Mendki, Murlidhar J.; Parikh, Rasesh Y.; Kulkarni, Girish; Tikar, Sachin N.; Sukumaran, Devanathan; Prakash, Shri; Parashar, Brahma D.; Shouche, Yogesh S.; Veer, Vijay

    2013-01-01

    The mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus is a ubiquitous species that serves as a major vector for west nile virus and lymphatic filariasis. Ingestion of bloodmeal by females triggers a series of physiological processes in the midgut and also exposes them to infection by these pathogens. The bacteria normally harbored in the midgut are known to influence physiology and can also alter the response to various pathogens. The midgut bacteria in female Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes collected over a large geographical area from India was studied. Examination of 16S ribosomal DNA amplicons from culturable microflora revealed the presence of 83 bacterial species belonging to 31 bacterial genera. All of these species belong to three phyla i.e. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. Phylum Proteobacteria was the most dominant phylum (37 species), followed by Firmicutes (33 species) and Actinobacteria (13 species). Phylum Proteobacteria, was dominated by members of γ-proteobacteria class. The genus Staphylococcus was the largest genus represented by 11 species whereas Enterobacter was the most prevalent genus and recovered from all the field stations except Leh. Highest bacterial prevalence was observed from Bhuj (22 species) followed by Nagrota (18 species), Masimpur (18 species) and Hathigarh (16 species). Whereas, least species were observed from Leh (8 species). It has been observed that individual mosquito harbor extremely diverse gut bacteria and have very small overlap bacterial taxa in their gut. This variation in midgut microbiota may be one of the factors responsible for variation in disease transmission rates or vector competence within mosquito population. The present data strongly encourage further investigations to verify the potential role of the detected bacteria in mosquito for the transmission of lymphatic filariasis and west nile virus. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study on midgut microbiota of wild Cx. quinquefasciatus from over a

  19. Effect of Two or Six Doses 800 mg of Albendazole Every Two Months on Loa loa Microfilaraemia: A Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kamgno, Joseph; Nguipdop-Djomo, Patrick; Gounoue, Raceline; Téjiokem, Mathurin; Kuesel, Annette C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Loiasis is a parasitic infection endemic in the African rain forest caused by the filarial nematode Loa loa. Loiasis can be co-endemic with onchocerciasis and/or lymphatic filariasis. Ivermectin, the drug used in the control of these diseases, can induce serious adverse reactions in patients with high L loa microfilaraemia (LLM). A drug is needed which can lower LLM below the level that represents a risk so that ivermectin mass treatment to support onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis elimination can be implemented safely. Methodology Sixty men and women from a loiasis endemic area in Cameroon were randomized after stratification by screening LLM (≤30000, 30001–50000, >50000) to three treatment arms: two doses albendazole followed by 4 doses matching placebo (n = 20), six doses albendazole (n = 20) albendazole or 6 doses matching placebo (n = 20) administered every two months. LLM was measured before each treatment and 14, 18, 21 and 24 months after the first treatment. Monitoring for adverse events occurred three and seven days as well as 2 months after each treatment. Principal Findings None of the adverse events recorded were considered treatment related. The percentages of participants with ≥ 50% decrease in LLM from pre-treatment for ≥ 4 months were 53%, 17% and 11% in the 6-dose, 2-dose and placebo treatment arms, respectively. The difference between the 6-dose and the placebo arm was significant (p = 0.01). The percentages of participants with LLM < 8100 mf/ml for ≥4 months were 21%, 11% and 0% in the 6-dose, 2-dose and placebo treatment arms, respectively. Conclusions/ Significance The 6-dose regimen reduced LLM significantly, but the reduction was insufficient to eliminate the risk of severe and/or serious adverse reactions during ivermectin mass drug administration in loiasis co-endemic areas. PMID:26967331

  20. Xenomonitoring of different filarial nematodes using single and multiplex PCR in mosquitoes from Assiut Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Dyab, Ahmed Kamal; Galal, Lamia Ahmed; Mahmoud, Abeer El-Sayed; Mokhtar, Yasser

    2015-02-01

    Wuchereria bancrofti, Dirofilaria immitis, and Dirofilaria repens are filarial nematodes transmitted by mosquitoes belonging to Culex, Aedes, and Anopheles genera. Screening by vector dissection is a tiresome technique. We aimed to screen filarial parasites in their vectors by single and multiplex PCR and evaluate the usefulness of multiplex PCR as a rapid xenomonitoring and simultaneous differentiation tool, in area where 3 filarial parasites are coexisting. Female mosquitoes were collected from 7 localities in Assiut Governorate, were microscopically identified and divided into pools according to their species and collection site. Detection of W. bancrofti, D. immitis, and D. repens using single PCR was reached followed by multiplex PCR. Usefulness of multiplex PCR was evaluated by testing mosquito pools to know which genera and species are used by filarial parasites as a vector. An overall estimated rate of infection (ERI) in mosquitoes was 0.6%; the highest was Culex spp. (0.47%). W. bancrofti, D. immitis, and D. repens could be simultaneously and differentially detected in infected vectors by using multiplex PCR. Out of 100 mosquito pools, 8 were positive for W. bancrofti (ERI of 0.33%) and 3 pools each were positive for D. immitis and D. repens (ERI 0.12%). The technique showed 100% sensitivity and 98% specificity. El-Nikhila, El-Matiaa villages, and Sahel Seleem district in Assiut Governorate, Egypt are still endemic foci for filarial parasites. Multiplex PCR offers a reliable procedure for molecular xenomonitoring of filariasis within their respective vectors in endemic areas. Therefore, it is recommended for evaluation of mosquito infection after lymphatic filariasis eradication programs. PMID:25748712

  1. Promoting Evidence to Policy Link on the Control of Infectious Diseases of Poverty in Nigeria: Outcome of A Multi-Stakeholders Policy Dialogue

    PubMed Central

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ebeh Ezeoha, Abel; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Nigeria, malaria, schistosomiasis and lymphatic filariasis are among infectious diseases of poverty (IDP) with severe health burden and require effective policy strategies for their control. In this study, we investigated the value of policy brief and policy dialogue as excellent policymaking mechanisms that enable policymakers to adapt effective evidence informed policy for IDP control. Methods: A policy brief was developed on the control of malaria, schistosomiasis and lymphatic filariasis and subjected to deliberations in a one-day multi-stakeholder policy dialogue held in Ebonyi State Nigeria. A modified cross sectional intervention study design was used in this investigation. Structured pre-tested questionnaires were used to evaluate the policy brief document and policy dialogue process at the end of the policy dialogue. Results: Forty-seven policymakers participated in the dialogue. An analysis of the response on the policy brief regarding context, different features of the problem; policy options and key implementation considerations indicated the mean ratings (MNRs) mostly ranged from 6.40-6.85 on 7 point scale. The over-all assessment of the policy brief had MNR at 6.54. The analysis of the response on the policy dialogue regarding the level of priority of policy issue, opportunity to discuss different features of the problem and options for addressing the problem, and the MNRs mostly ranged from 6.50-6.82. The overall assessment of the policy dialogue had MNR at 6.72. Conclusion: Policy dialogues can allow research evidence to be considered together with views, experiences and tacit knowledge of policymakers and can enhance evidence-to-policy link. PMID:26290826

  2. The burden of neglected tropical diseases in Ethiopia, and opportunities for integrated control and elimination

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a group of chronic parasitic diseases and related conditions that are the most common diseases among the 2·7 billion people globally living on less than US$2 per day. In response to the growing challenge of NTDs, Ethiopia is preparing to launch a NTD Master Plan. The purpose of this review is to underscore the burden of NTDs in Ethiopia, highlight the state of current interventions, and suggest ways forward. Results This review indicates that NTDs are significant public health problems in Ethiopia. From the analysis reported here, Ethiopia stands out for having the largest number of NTD cases following Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Ethiopia is estimated to have the highest burden of trachoma, podoconiosis and cutaneous leishmaniasis in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the second highest burden in terms of ascariasis, leprosy and visceral leishmaniasis, and the third highest burden of hookworm. Infections such as schistosomiasis, trichuriasis, lymphatic filariasis and rabies are also common. A third of Ethiopians are infected with ascariasis, one quarter is infected with trichuriasis and one in eight Ethiopians lives with hookworm or is infected with trachoma. However, despite these high burdens of infection, the control of most NTDs in Ethiopia is in its infancy. In terms of NTD control achievements, Ethiopia reached the leprosy elimination target of 1 case/10,000 population in 1999. No cases of human African trypanosomiasis have been reported since 1984. Guinea worm eradication is in its final phase. The Onchocerciasis Control Program has been making steady progress since 2001. A national blindness survey was conducted in 2006 and the trachoma program has kicked off in some regions. Lymphatic Filariasis, podoconiosis and rabies mapping are underway. Conclusion Ethiopia bears a significant burden of NTDs compared to other SSA countries. To achieve success in integrated control of NTDs, integrated mapping

  3. Productivity Loss Related to Neglected Tropical Diseases Eligible for Preventive Chemotherapy: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Rijnsburger, Adriana J.; Severens, Johan L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) not only cause health and life expectancy loss, but can also lead to economic consequences including reduced ability to work. This article describes a systematic literature review of the effect on the economic productivity of individuals affected by one of the five worldwide most prevalent NTDs: lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminths (ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm infection) and trachoma. These diseases are eligible to preventive chemotherapy (PCT). Methodology/Principal Findings Eleven bibliographic databases were searched using different names of all NTDs and various keywords relating to productivity. Additional references were identified through reference lists from relevant papers. Of the 5316 unique publications found in the database searches, thirteen papers were identified for lymphatic filariasis, ten for onchocerciasis, eleven for schistosomiasis, six for soil-transmitted helminths and three for trachoma. Besides the scarcity in publications reporting the degree of productivity loss, this review revealed large variation in the estimated productivity loss related to these NTDs. Conclusions It is clear that productivity is affected by NTDs, although the actual impact depends on the type and severity of the NTD as well as on the context where the disease occurs. The largest impact on productivity loss of individuals affected by one of these diseases seems to be due to blindness from onchocerciasis and severe schistosomiasis manifestations; productivity loss due to trachoma-related blindness has never been studied directly. However, productivity loss at an individual level might differ from productivity loss at a population level because of differences in the prevalence of NTDs. Variation in estimated productivity loss between and within diseases is caused by differences in research methods and setting. Publications should provide enough information to enable

  4. Impact on prevalence of intestinal helminth infection in school children administered with seven annual rounds of diethyl carbamazine (DEC) with albendazole

    PubMed Central

    Sunish, I. P.; Rajendran, R.; Munirathinam, A.; Kalimuthu, M.; Kumar, V. Ashok; Nagaraj, J.; Tyagi, B. K.

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: One third of the world's population is infected with one or more of the most common soil-transmitted helminths (STH). Albendazole (ALB) is being administered with diethyl carbamazine (DEC) in filariasis endemic areas to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF) and helminth infections. In this study, the cumulative impact of seven annual rounds of mass drug administrations (MDA) of DEC and ALB on STH infection in school children in selected villages in southern India was determined. Methods: During 2001-2010, seven MDAs were implemented by the Tamil Nadu State Health Department, India. LF and STH infections were monitored in school children from 18 villages of the two treatment arms (viz, DEC alone and DEC+ALB). Kato-Katz cellophane quantitative thick smear technique was employed to estimate STH infections at three weeks, six months and one year post MDA. Results: Prior to treatment, an overall STH prevalence was 60 per cent. After each MDA, infection markedly reduced at three weeks post-treatment in both the arms. The prevalence increased at six months period, which was maintained up to one year. After seven rounds of MDA, the infection reduced from 60.44 to 12.48 per cent in DEC+ALB arm; while the reduction was negligible in DEC alone arm (58.77 to 52.70%). Interpretation & conclusions: Seven rounds of MDA with DEC+ALB reduced the infection load significantly, and further sustained low level of infection for 10 years. However, complete parasite elimination could not be achieved. To curtail STH infection in the community, MDA should be regularized and environmental sanitation measures need to be improved by effective community-based campaigns. PMID:25963494

  5. Differential Evolutionary Selection and Natural Evolvability Observed in ALT Proteins of Human Filarial Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Devoe, Neil C.; Corbett, Ian J.; Barker, Linsey; Chang, Robert; Gudis, Polyxeni; Mullen, Nathan; Perez, Kailey; Raposo, Hugo; Scholz, John; May, Meghan

    2016-01-01

    The abundant larval transcript (ALT-2) protein is present in all members of the Filarioidea, and has been reported as a potential candidate antigen for a subunit vaccine against lymphatic filariasis. To assess the potential for vaccine escape or heterologous protection, we examined the evolutionary selection acting on ALT-2. The ratios of nonsynonymous (K(a)) to synonymous (K(s)) mutation frequencies (ω) were calculated for the alt-2 genes of the lymphatic filariasis agents Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti and the agents of river blindness and African eyeworm disease Onchocerca volvulus and Loa loa. Two distinct Bayesian models of sequence evolution showed that ALT-2 of W. bancrofti and L. loa were under significant (P<0.05; P < 0.001) diversifying selection, while ALT-2 of B. malayi and O. volvulus were under neutral to stabilizing selection. Diversifying selection as measured by ω values was notably strongest on the region of ALT-2 encoding the signal peptide of L. loa and was elevated in the variable acidic domain of L. loa and W. bancrofti. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the ALT-2 consensus sequences formed three clades: the first consisting of B. malayi, the second consisting of W. bancrofti, and the third containing both O. volvulus and L. loa. ALT-2 selection was therefore not predictable by phylogeny or pathology, as the two species parasitizing the eye were selected differently, as were the two species parasitizing the lymphatic system. The most immunogenic regions of L. loa and W. bancrofti ALT-2 sequence as modeled by antigenicity prediction analysis did not correspond with elevated levels of diversifying selection, and were not selected differently than predicted antigenic epitopes in B. malayi and O. volvulus. Measurements of ALT-2 evolvability made by χ2 analysis between alleles that were stable (O. volvulus and B. malayi) and those that were under diversifying selection (W. bancrofti and L. loa) indicated significant (P<0

  6. Yeast-Based High-Throughput Screens to Identify Novel Compounds Active against Brugia malayi

    PubMed Central

    Bilsland, Elizabeth; Bean, Daniel M.; Devaney, Eileen; Oliver, Stephen G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis is caused by the parasitic worms Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi or B. timori, which are transmitted via the bites from infected mosquitoes. Once in the human body, the parasites develop into adult worms in the lymphatic vessels, causing severe damage and swelling of the affected tissues. According to the World Health Organization, over 1.2 billion people in 58 countries are at risk of contracting lymphatic filariasis. Very few drugs are available to treat patients infected with these parasites, and these have low efficacy against the adult stages of the worms, which can live for 7–15 years in the human body. The requirement for annual treatment increases the risk of drug-resistant worms emerging, making it imperative to develop new drugs against these devastating diseases. Methodology/Principal Findings We have developed a yeast-based, high-throughput screening system whereby essential yeast genes are replaced with their filarial or human counterparts. These strains are labeled with different fluorescent proteins to allow the simultaneous monitoring of strains with parasite or human genes in competition, and hence the identification of compounds that inhibit the parasite target without affecting its human ortholog. We constructed yeast strains expressing eight different Brugia malayi drug targets (as well as seven of their human counterparts), and performed medium-throughput drug screens for compounds that specifically inhibit the parasite enzymes. Using the Malaria Box collection (400 compounds), we identified nine filarial specific inhibitors and confirmed the antifilarial activity of five of these using in vitro assays against Brugia pahangi. Conclusions/Significance We were able to functionally complement yeast deletions with eight different Brugia malayi enzymes that represent potential drug targets. We demonstrated that our yeast-based screening platform is efficient in identifying compounds that can discriminate between

  7. Differential Evolutionary Selection and Natural Evolvability Observed in ALT Proteins of Human Filarial Parasites.

    PubMed

    Devoe, Neil C; Corbett, Ian J; Barker, Linsey; Chang, Robert; Gudis, Polyxeni; Mullen, Nathan; Perez, Kailey; Raposo, Hugo; Scholz, John; May, Meghan

    2016-01-01

    The abundant larval transcript (ALT-2) protein is present in all members of the Filarioidea, and has been reported as a potential candidate antigen for a subunit vaccine against lymphatic filariasis. To assess the potential for vaccine escape or heterologous protection, we examined the evolutionary selection acting on ALT-2. The ratios of nonsynonymous (K(a)) to synonymous (K(s)) mutation frequencies (ω) were calculated for the alt-2 genes of the lymphatic filariasis agents Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti and the agents of river blindness and African eyeworm disease Onchocerca volvulus and Loa loa. Two distinct Bayesian models of sequence evolution showed that ALT-2 of W. bancrofti and L. loa were under significant (P<0.05; P < 0.001) diversifying selection, while ALT-2 of B. malayi and O. volvulus were under neutral to stabilizing selection. Diversifying selection as measured by ω values was notably strongest on the region of ALT-2 encoding the signal peptide of L. loa and was elevated in the variable acidic domain of L. loa and W. bancrofti. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the ALT-2 consensus sequences formed three clades: the first consisting of B. malayi, the second consisting of W. bancrofti, and the third containing both O. volvulus and L. loa. ALT-2 selection was therefore not predictable by phylogeny or pathology, as the two species parasitizing the eye were selected differently, as were the two species parasitizing the lymphatic system. The most immunogenic regions of L. loa and W. bancrofti ALT-2 sequence as modeled by antigenicity prediction analysis did not correspond with elevated levels of diversifying selection, and were not selected differently than predicted antigenic epitopes in B. malayi and O. volvulus. Measurements of ALT-2 evolvability made by χ2 analysis between alleles that were stable (O. volvulus and B. malayi) and those that were under diversifying selection (W. bancrofti and L. loa) indicated significant (P<0

  8. Controlling Malaria and Other Diseases Using Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, Richard K.; Wharton, Stephen W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Remote sensing offers the vantage of monitoring a vast area of the Earth continuously. Once developed and launched, a satellite gives years of service in collecting data from the land, the oceans, and the atmosphere. Since the 1980s, attempts have been made to relate disease occurrence with remotely sensed environmental and geophysical parameters, using data from Landsat, SPOT, AVHRR, and other satellites. With higher spatial resolution, the recent satellite sensors provide a new outlook for disease control. At sub-meter to I 10m resolution, surface types associated with disease carriers can be identified more accurately. The Ikonos panchromatic sensor with I m resolution, and the Advanced Land Imager with 1 Om resolution on the newly launched Earth Observing-1, both have displayed remarkable mapping capabilities. In addition, an entire array of geophysical parameters can now be measured or inferred from various satellites. Airborne remote sensing, with less concerns on instrument weight, size, and power consumption, also offers a low-cost alternative for regional applications. NASA/GSFC began to collaborate with the Mahidol University on malaria and filariasis control using remote sensing in late 2000. The objectives are: (1) To map the breeding sites for the major vector species; (2) To identify the potential sites for larvicide and insecticide applications; (3) To explore the linkage of vector population and transmission intensity to environmental variables; (4) To monitor the impact of climate change and human activities on vector population and transmission; and (5) To develop a predictive model for disease distribution. Field studies are being conducted in several provinces in Thailand. Data analyses will soon begin. Malaria data in South Korea are being used as surrogates for developing classification techniques. GIS has been shown to be invaluable in making the voluminous remote sensing data more readily understandable. It will be used throughout this study

  9. Wuchereria bancrofti transmission pattern in southern Mali prior to and following the institution of mass drug administration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) was launched in 2000 with the goal of stopping transmission of lymphatic filariasis (LF) through yearly mass drug administration (MDA). Although preliminary surveys of the human population in Mali suggested that Wuchereria bancrofti infection was highly endemic in the Sikasso district, baseline entomological data were required to confirm high levels of transmission prior to the selection of villages in this region for a study of the impact of MDA on transmission of LF by anopheline vectors. Methods W. bancrofti transmission was assessed in 2001 (pre-MDA) and 2002 (post-MDA) in the Central District of Sikasso in southern Mali by dissection of Anopheles mosquitoes caught using the human landing catch (HLC) method. The relative frequencies and molecular forms of An. gambiae complex were determined. Results The majority (86%) of the anopheline vectors captured were identified as An. gambiae complex, and these accounted for >90% of the entomological inoculation rate (EIR) during both years of the study. There was a dramatic decrease in the number of An. gambiae complex mosquitoes captured and in the An. gambiae complex infectivity rates following MDA, accounting for the observed decrease in EIR in 2002 (from 12.55 to 3.79 infective bites per person during the transmission season). An. funestus complex mosquitoes were responsible for a low level of transmission, which was similar during both years of the study (1.2 infective bites per person during the transmission season in 2001 and 1.03 in 2002). Conclusions Based on the entomological data from this study, the district of Sikasso was confirmed as an area of high W. bancrofti transmission. This led to the selection of this area for a multi-national study on the effects of MDA on LF transmission by anopheline vectors. Comparison of vector transmission parameters prior to and immediately following the first round of MDA demonstrated a significant

  10. Self-Care for Management of Secondary Lymphedema: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Patricia; Gordon, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Background Lymphedema is a debilitating and disfiguring sequela of an overwhelmed lymphatic system. The most common causes of secondary lymphedema are lymphatic filariasis (LF), a vector-borne, parasitic disease endemic in 73 tropical countries, and treatment for cancer in developed countries. Lymphedema is incurable and requires life-long care so identification of effective lymphedema management is imperative to improve quality of life, reduce the burden on family resources and benefit the local community. This review was conducted to evaluate the evidence for effective lymphedema self-care strategies that might be applicable to management of all types of secondary lymphedema. Methodology/Principal Findings Searches were conducted in Medline, CINAHL and Scopus databases in March 2015. Included studies reported before and after measures of lymphedema status or frequency of acute infections. The methodological quality was assessed using the appropriate Critical Appraisal Skills Program checklist. Descriptive synthesis and meta-analysis were used to evaluate effectiveness of the outcomes reported. Twenty-eight papers were included; two RCTs were found to have strong methodology, and overall 57% of studies were rated as methodologically weak. Evidence from filariasis-related lymphedema (FR-LE) studies indicated that hygiene-centred self-care reduced the frequency and duration of acute episodes by 54%, and in cancer-related lymphedema (CR-LE) home-based exercise including deep breathing delivered significant volume reductions over standard self-care alone. Intensity of training in self-care practices and frequency of monitoring improved outcomes. Cultural and economic factors and access to health care services influenced the type of intervention delivered and how outcomes were measured. Conclusions/Significance There is evidence to support the adoption of remedial exercises in the management of FR-LE and for a greater emphasis on self-treatment practices for people

  11. One-pot biogenic fabrication of silver nanocrystals using Quisqualis indica: Effectiveness on malaria and Zika virus mosquito vectors, and impact on non-target aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Vijayan, Periasamy; Kadaikunnan, Shine; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-09-01

    Currently, mosquito vector control is facing a number of key challenges, including the rapid development of resistance to synthetic pesticides and the recent spread of aggressive arbovirus outbreaks. The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is currently considered an environmental friendly alternative to the employ of pyrethroids, carbamates and microbial agents (e.g. Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis), since AgNPs are easy to produce, effective and stable in the aquatic environment. However, their biophysical features showed wide variations according to the botanical agent using for the green synthesis, outlining the importance of screening local floral resources used as reducing and stabilizing agents. In this study, we focused on the biophysical properties and the mosquitocidal action of Quisqualis indica-fabricated AgNPs. AgNPs were characterized using spectroscopic (UV, FTIR, XRD) and microscopic (AFM, SEM, TEM and EDX) techniques. AFM, SEM and TEM confirmed the synthesis of poly-dispersed AgNPs with spherical shape and size ranging from 1 to 30nm. XRD shed light on the crystalline structure of these AgNPs. The acute toxicity of Quisqualis indica extract and AgNPs was evaluated against malaria, arbovirus, and filariasis vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, as well as on three important non-target aquatic organisms. The Q. indica leaf extract showed moderate larvicidal effectiveness on Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50=220.42), Ae. aegypti (LC50=203.63) and An. stephensi (LC50=185.98). Q. indica-fabricated AgNPs showed high toxicity against Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50=14.63), Ae. aegypti (LC50=13.55) and An. stephensi (LC50=12.52), respectively. Notably, Q. indica-synthesized AgNPs were moderately toxic to non-target aquatic mosquito predators Anisops bouvieri (LC50=653.05μg/mL), Diplonychus indicus (LC50=860.94μg/mL) and Gambusia affinis (LC50=2183.16μg/mL), if compared to the targeted mosquitoes. Overall, the

  12. Attenuation of Toll-Like Receptor Expression and Function in Latent Tuberculosis by Coexistent Filarial Infection with Restoration Following Antifilarial Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Subash; Bhat, Sajid Q.; Kumar, N. Pavan; Anuradha, R.; Kumaran, Paul; Gopi, P. G.; Kolappan, C.; Kumaraswami, V.; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and filarial coinfection is highly prevalent, and the presence of filarial infections may regulate the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-dependent immune response needed to control Mtb infection. By analyzing the baseline and mycobacterial antigen–stimulated expression of TLR1, 2, 4, and 9 (in individuals with latent tuberculosis [TB] with or without filarial infection), we were able to demonstrate that filarial infection, coincident with Mtb, significantly diminishes both baseline and Mtb antigen-specific TLR2 and TLR9 expression. In addition, pro-inflammatory cytokine responses to TLR2 and 9 ligands are significantly diminished in filaria/TB-coinfected individuals. Definitive treatment of lymphatic filariasis significantly restores the pro-inflammatory cytokine responses in individuals with latent TB. Coincident filarial infection exerted a profound inhibitory effect on protective mycobacteria-specific TLR-mediated immune responses in latent tuberculosis and suggests a novel mechanism by which concomitant filarial infections predispose to the development of active tuberculosis in humans. PMID:19636364

  13. Toll-Like Receptor- and Filarial Antigen-Mediated, Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase- and NF-κB-Dependent Regulation of Angiogenic Growth Factors in Filarial Lymphatic Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Anuradha, R.; Kumar, N. Pavan; George, P. Jovvian; Kumaraswami, V.; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    Filarial lymphatic pathology is of multifactorial origin, with inflammation, lymphangiogenesis, and innate immune responses all playing important roles. The role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the development of filarial pathology is well characterized. Similarly, the association of pathology with elevated levels of plasma angiogenic factors has also been documented. To examine the association between TLR function and the development of lymphangiogenesis in filarial infections, we examined TLR- and filarial antigen-induced expression and production of various angiogenic growth factors. We demonstrate that TLR ligands (specifically TLR2, -3, and -5 ligands) induce significantly increased expression/production of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of individuals with lymphatic pathology (CP individuals) compared to that in cells of asymptomatic infected (INF) individuals. Similarly, filarial antigens induce significantly enhanced production of VEGF-C in CP compared with INF individuals. TLR2-mediated enhancement of angiogenic growth factor production in CP individuals was shown to be dependent on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and NF-κB signaling, as pharmacologic inhibition of either extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38 MAPK, or NF-κB signaling resulted in significantly diminished production of VEGF-A and Ang-1. Our data therefore strongly suggest an important association between TLR signaling and lymphangiogenesis in the development of pathology in human lymphatic filariasis. PMID:22508858

  14. A comparison of the efficacy of single doses of albendazole, ivermectin, and diethylcarbamazine alone or in combinations against Ascaris and Trichuris spp.

    PubMed Central

    Belizario, V. Y.; Amarillo, M. E.; de Leon, W. U.; de los Reyes, A. E.; Bugayong, M. G.; Macatangay, B. J. C.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of single doses of albendazole, ivermectin and diethylcarbamazine, and of the combinations albendazole + ivermectin and albendazole + diethylcarbamazine against common intestinal helminthiases caused by Ascaris and Trichuris spp. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, infected children were randomly assigned to treatment with albendazole + placebo, ivermectin + placebo, diethylcarbamazine + placebo, albendazole + ivermectin, or albendazole + diethylcarbamazine. The Kato-Katz method was used for qualitative and quantitative parasitological diagnosis. The chi2 test was used to determine the significance of cure rates, repeated measures analysis of variance for the comparison of mean log egg counts, the Newman-Keuls procedure for multiple comparison tests, and logistic regression for the comparison of infection rates at days 180 and 360 after treatment. FINDINGS: Albendazole, ivermectin and the drug combinations gave significantly higher cure and egg reduction rates for ascariasis than diethylcarbamazine. For trichuriasis, albendazole + ivermectin gave significantly higher cure and egg reduction rates than the other treatments: the infection rates were lower 180 and 360 days after treatment. CONCLUSION: Because of the superiority of albendazole + ivermectin against both lymphatic filariasis and trichuriasis, this combination appears to be a suitable tool for the integrated or combined control of both public health problems. PMID:12640474

  15. [Mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) and their medical importance for Portugal: challenges for the 21st century].

    PubMed

    Gouveia de Almeida, A Paulo

    2011-01-01

    Mosquitoes are dipterous insects, responsible for the transmission of several pathogenic agents to humans, causing vector-borne diseases, such as malaria, lymphatic and other filariasis, and several arboviral diseases such as yellow fever and dengue. In this revision, Culicidae or mosquitoes are summarily characterized, as well as their bioecology, internal morphology, digestive and egg maturation physiology, and the main methods for their collection and control. The epidemiology of mosquito-borne diseases depends on parameters such as Vectorial efficiency, Vector competence and Vectorial capacity, the concepts of which are presented. Forty one species of mosquitoes have been detected so far in mainland Portugal. Malaria was endemic till 1959, yellow fever outbreaks were registered in the XIX century, and human cases of dirofilarisis and West Nile fever have been detected. In face of the current climate changes in course and the threat of the (re)-introduction of exotic mosquito species, not only new cases of some of these diseases may occur, increasing their risk, but also other mosquito-borne diseases may be introduced constituting challenges for the XXI century, demanding a continued surveillance in a Public Health perspective. PMID:22713191

  16. No case of Guinea worm. Just because governments like the United States and Japan, private organizations, corporations, and particularly the leaders and the villagers and afflicted countries have cooperated.

    PubMed

    Carter, J

    1998-01-01

    Collaboration among governments, private organizations, the World Bank, UN agencies, corporations, and the leaders and villagers of afflicted countries is producing substantial progress toward global eradication of many parasitic diseases. For example, there are now less than 100,000 cases of Guinea worm in the world--a 98% reduction. Strategies to prevent villagers from drinking infested water have included drilling deep wells, putting a nontoxic larvicide in the water, and straining the water through cloth filters. Both the larvicide and filters were provided free of charge to the eradication effort by US corporations. Similarly, a pharmaceutical company contributed 21.5 million free doses of mectizanr--a drug that prevents river blindness for a year--in the past year. Another pharmaceutical company donated albendazole for the global elimination of lymphatic filariasis. National pledges to a World Bank trust fund cover the costs of distributing donated medicines to the affected villages. The Common Agenda, a collaboration established between the US and Japan by the author, is an example of the potential of partnerships to create global political stability, correct environmental degradation, and promote the advantages of science and technology. PMID:12294064

  17. Proinflammatory Cytokine Gene Expression by Murine Macrophages in Response to Brugia malayi Wolbachia Surface Protein

    PubMed Central

    Porksakorn, Chantima; Nuchprayoon, Surang; Park, Kiwon; Scott, Alan L.

    2007-01-01

    Wolbachia, an endosymbiotic bacterium found in most species of filarial parasites, is thought to play a significant role in inducing innate inflammatory responses in lymphatic filariasis patients. However, the Wolbachia-derived molecules that are recognized by the innate immune system have not yet been identified. In this study, we exposed the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 to a recombinant form of the major Wolbachia surface protein (rWSP) to determine if WSP is capable of innately inducing cytokine transcription. Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) mRNAs were all upregulated by the rWSP stimulation in a dose-dependant manner. TNF transcription peaked at 3 hours, whereas IL-1β and IL-6 transcription peaked at 6 hours post-rWSP exposure. The levels of innate cytokine expression induced by a high-dose (9.0 μg/mL) rWSP in the RAW 264.7 cells were comparable to the levels induced by 0.1 μg/mL E. coli-derived lipopolysaccharides. Pretreatment of the rWSP with proteinase-K drastically reduced IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF transcription. However, the proinflammatory response was not inhibited by polymyxin B treatment. These results strongly suggest that the major Wolbachia surface protein molecule WSP is an important inducer of innate immune responses during filarial infections. PMID:17641731

  18. Epidemiology and individual, household and geographical risk factors of podoconiosis in Ethiopia: results from the first nationwide mapping.

    PubMed

    Deribe, Kebede; Brooker, Simon J; Pullan, Rachel L; Sime, Heven; Gebretsadik, Abeba; Assefa, Ashenafi; Kebede, Amha; Hailu, Asrat; Rebollo, Maria P; Shafi, Oumer; Bockarie, Moses J; Aseffa, Abraham; Reithinger, Richard; Cano, Jorge; Enquselassie, Fikre; Newport, Melanie J; Davey, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Although podoconiosis is one of the major causes of tropical lymphoedema and is endemic in Ethiopia its epidemiology and risk factors are poorly understood. Individual-level data for 129,959 individuals from 1,315 communities in 659 woreda (districts) were collected for a nationwide integrated survey of lymphatic filariasis and podoconiosis. Blood samples were tested for circulating Wuchereria bancrofti antigen using immunochromatographic card tests. A clinical algorithm was used to reach a diagnosis of podoconiosis by excluding other potential causes of lymphoedema of the lower limb. Bayesian multilevel models were used to identify individual and environmental risk factors. Overall, 8,110 of 129,959 (6.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.1-6.4%) surveyed individuals were identified with lymphoedema of the lower limb, of whom 5,253 (4.0%, 95% CI 3.9-4.1%) were confirmed to be podoconiosis cases. In multivariable analysis, being female, older, unmarried, washing the feet less frequently than daily, and being semiskilled or unemployed were significantly associated with increased risk of podoconiosis. Attending formal education and living in a house with a covered floor were associated with decreased risk of podoconiosis. Podoconiosis exhibits marked geographical variation across Ethiopia, with variation in risk associated with variation in rainfall, enhanced vegetation index, and altitude. PMID:25404069

  19. Stage-specific proteomic expression patterns of the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi and its endosymbiont Wolbachia

    PubMed Central

    Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Meng, Zhaojing; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Semnani, Roshanak Tolouei; Ghedin, Elodie; Chan, King; Lucas, David A.; Veenstra, Timothy D.; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2011-01-01

    Global proteomic analyses of pathogens have thus far been limited to unicellular organisms (e.g., protozoa and bacteria). Proteomic analyses of most eukaryotic pathogens (e.g., helminths) have been restricted to specific organs, specific stages, or secretomes. We report here a large-scale proteomic characterization of almost all the major mammalian stages of Brugia malayi, a causative agent of lymphatic filariasis, resulting in the identification of more than 62% of the products predicted from the Bm draft genome. The analysis also yielded much of the proteome of Wolbachia, the obligate endosymbiont of Bm that also expressed proteins in a stage-specific manner. Of the 11,610 predicted Bm gene products, 7,103 were definitively identified from adult male, adult female, blood-borne and uterine microfilariae, and infective L3 larvae. Among the 4,956 gene products (42.5%) inferred from the genome as “hypothetical,” the present study was able to confirm 2,336 (47.1%) as bona fide proteins. Analysis of protein families and domains coupled with stage-specific expression highlight the important pathways that benefit the parasite during its development in the host. Gene set enrichment analysis identified extracellular matrix proteins and those with immunologic effects as enriched in the microfilarial and L3 stages. Parasite sex- and stage-specific protein expression identified those pathways related to parasite differentiation and demonstrates stage-specific expression by the Bm endosymbiont Wolbachia as well. PMID:21606368

  20. Stage-specific proteomic expression patterns of the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi and its endosymbiont Wolbachia.

    PubMed

    Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Meng, Zhaojing; Ribeiro, José M C; Semnani, Roshanak Tolouei; Ghedin, Elodie; Chan, King; Lucas, David A; Veenstra, Timothy D; Nutman, Thomas B

    2011-06-01

    Global proteomic analyses of pathogens have thus far been limited to unicellular organisms (e.g., protozoa and bacteria). Proteomic analyses of most eukaryotic pathogens (e.g., helminths) have been restricted to specific organs, specific stages, or secretomes. We report here a large-scale proteomic characterization of almost all the major mammalian stages of Brugia malayi, a causative agent of lymphatic filariasis, resulting in the identification of more than 62% of the products predicted from the Bm draft genome. The analysis also yielded much of the proteome of Wolbachia, the obligate endosymbiont of Bm that also expressed proteins in a stage-specific manner. Of the 11,610 predicted Bm gene products, 7,103 were definitively identified from adult male, adult female, blood-borne and uterine microfilariae, and infective L3 larvae. Among the 4,956 gene products (42.5%) inferred from the genome as "hypothetical," the present study was able to confirm 2,336 (47.1%) as bona fide proteins. Analysis of protein families and domains coupled with stage-specific expression highlight the important pathways that benefit the parasite during its development in the host. Gene set enrichment analysis identified extracellular matrix proteins and those with immunologic effects as enriched in the microfilarial and L3 stages. Parasite sex- and stage-specific protein expression identified those pathways related to parasite differentiation and demonstrates stage-specific expression by the Bm endosymbiont Wolbachia as well. PMID:21606368

  1. Filarial and Wolbachia genomics.

    PubMed

    Scott, A L; Ghedin, E; Nutman, T B; McReynolds, L A; Poole, C B; Slatko, B E; Foster, J M

    2012-01-01

    Filarial nematode parasites, the causative agents for a spectrum of acute and chronic diseases including lymphatic filariasis and river blindness, threaten the well-being and livelihood of hundreds of millions of people in the developing regions of the world. The 2007 publication on a draft assembly of the 95-Mb genome of the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi- representing the first helminth parasite genome to be sequenced - has been followed in rapid succession by projects that have resulted in the genome sequencing of six additional filarial species, seven nonfilarial nematode parasites of animals and nearly 30 plant parasitic and free-living species. Parallel to the genomic sequencing, transcriptomic and proteomic projects have facilitated genome annotation, expanded our understanding of stage-associated gene expression and provided a first look at the role of epigenetic regulation of filarial genomes through microRNAs. The expansion in filarial genomics will also provide a significant enrichment in our knowledge of the diversity and variability in the genomes of the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia leading to a better understanding of the genetic principles that govern filarial-Wolbachia mutualism. The goal here is to provide an overview of the trends and advances in filarial and Wolbachia genomics. PMID:22098559

  2. Wolbachia filarial interactions.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark J; Voronin, Denis; Johnston, Kelly L; Ford, Louise

    2013-04-01

    Wolbachia pipientis is a widespread intracellular bacterial symbiont of arthropods and is common in insects. One of their more exotic and unexpected hosts is the filarial nematodes, notable for the parasites responsible for onchocerciasis (river blindness), lymphatic filariasis (elephantiasis) and dirofilariasis (heartworm). Wolbachia are only present in a subgroup of the filarial nematodes and do not extend to other groups of nematodes either parasitic or free-living. In the medically and veterinary important species that host Wolbachia, the symbiont has become an essential partner to key biological processes in the life of the nematode to the point where antibiotic elimination of the bacteria leads to a potent and effective anti-filarial drug treatment. We review the cellular and molecular basis of Wolbachia filarial interactions and highlight the key processes provided by the endosymbiont upon which the nematodes have become entirely dependent. This dependency is primarily restricted to periods of the lifecycle with heavy metabolic demands including growth and development of larval stages and embryogenesis in the adult female. Also, the longevity of filarial parasites is compromised following depletion of the symbiont, which for the first time has delivered a safe and effective treatment to kill adult parasites with antibiotics. PMID:23210448

  3. Venom allergen 5 is Associated With Deltamethrin Resistance in Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Yuan; Lei, Zhentao; Hong, Shanchao; Wang, Weijie; Zhang, Donghui; Zhou, Dan; Sun, Yan; Ma, Lei; Shen, Bo; Zhu, Changliang

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito, Culex pipiens pallens (L.), is an important vector of encephalitis and filariasis in northern China. The control of these mosquitoes occurs primarily via the use of pyrethroid insecticides, such as deltamethrin. The widespread and improper application of pyrethroid has resulted in the evolution of pyrethroid resistance amongst many mosquito populations, including Cx. pipiens pallens. Previous studies using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing have identified that the venom allergen 5 gene is differentially expressed between deltamethrin-susceptible and deltamethrin-resistant Cx. pipiens pallens. In this study, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that venom allergen 5 was significantly overexpressed in adult females of both deltamethrin-resistant laboratory populations and two field populations. The transcriptional level of venom allergen 5 in the laboratory populations was elevated as the levels of deltamethrin resistance increased. Full-length cDNAs of the venom allergen 5 gene were cloned from Cx. pipiens pallens, and contained an open reading frame of 765 bp, encoding a protein with 254 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence shared 100% identity with the ortholog in Culex quinquefasciatus Say. The overexpression of venom allergen 5 decreased the susceptibility of mosquito cells to deltamethrin, while knockdown of this gene by RNAi increased the susceptibility of mosquitoes to deltamethrin. This study provides the first evidence of the association between the venom allergen 5 gene and deltamethrin resistance in mosquitoes. PMID:26335474

  4. Control of scabies, skin sores and haematuria in children in the Solomon Islands: another role for ivermectin.

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Gregor; Leafasia, Judson; Sheridan, John; Hills, Susan; Wate, Janet; Wate, Christine; Montgomery, Janet; Pandeya, Nirmala; Purdie, David

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of a 3-year programme aimed at controlling scabies on five small lagoon islands in the Solomon Islands by monitoring scabies, skin sores, streptococcal skin contamination, serology and haematuria in the island children. METHODS: Control was achieved by treating almost all residents of each island once or twice within 2 weeks with ivermectin (160-250 microg/kg), except for children who weighed less than 15 kg and pregnant women, for whom 5% permethrin cream was used. Reintroduction of scabies was controlled by treating returning residents and visitors, whether or not they had evident scabies. FINDINGS: Prevalence of scabies dropped from 25% to less than 1% (P < 0.001); prevalence of sores from 40% to 21% (P < 0.001); streptococcal contamination of the fingers in those with and without sores decreased significantly (P = 0.02 and 0.047, respectively) and anti-DNase B levels decreased (P = 0.002). Both the proportion of children with haematuria and its mean level fell (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001, respectively). No adverse effects of the treatments were seen. CONCLUSION: The results show that ivermectin is an effective and practical agent in the control of scabies and that control reduces the occurrence of streptococcal skin disease and possible signs of renal damage in children. Integrating community-based control of scabies and streptococcal skin disease with planned programmes for controlling filariasis and intestinal nematodes could be both practical and produce great health benefits. PMID:15682247

  5. Green Nanoparticles for Mosquito Control

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Namita; Prakash, Soam

    2014-01-01

    Here, we have used the green method for synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles. In the present study the silver (Ag) and gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by using the aqueous bark extract of Indian spice dalchini (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) (C. zyelanicum or C. verum J. Presl). Additionally, we have used these synthesized nanoparticles for mosquito control. The larvicidal activity has been tested against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The results were obtained using UV-visible spectrophotometer and the images were recorded with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The efficacy tests were then performed at different concentrations and varying numbers of hours by probit analysis. The synthesized AgNPs were in spherical shape and average sizes (11.77 nm AgNPs and 46.48 nm AuNPs). The larvae of An. stephensi were found highly susceptible to the synthesized AgNPs and AuNPs than the Cx. quinquefasciatus. These results suggest that the C. zeylanicum synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of mosquito. PMID:25243210

  6. Green nanoparticles for mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Soni, Namita; Prakash, Soam

    2014-01-01

    Here, we have used the green method for synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles. In the present study the silver (Ag) and gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by using the aqueous bark extract of Indian spice dalchini (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) (C. zyelanicum or C. verum J. Presl). Additionally, we have used these synthesized nanoparticles for mosquito control. The larvicidal activity has been tested against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The results were obtained using UV-visible spectrophotometer and the images were recorded with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The efficacy tests were then performed at different concentrations and varying numbers of hours by probit analysis. The synthesized AgNPs were in spherical shape and average sizes (11.77 nm AgNPs and 46.48 nm AuNPs). The larvae of An. stephensi were found highly susceptible to the synthesized AgNPs and AuNPs than the Cx. quinquefasciatus. These results suggest that the C. zeylanicum synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of mosquito. PMID:25243210

  7. Ethiopia and its steps to mobilize resources to achieve 2020 elimination and control goals for neglected tropical diseases webs joined can tie a lion.

    PubMed

    Mengitsu, Belete; Shafi, Oumer; Kebede, Biruck; Kebede, Fikreab; Worku, Dagemlidet T; Herero, Merce; French, Michael; Kebede, Biruk; Mackenzie, Charles; Martindale, Sarah; Kebede, Zeyede; Hirpa, Tigist; Frawley, Hannah; Crowley, Kathryn; O'Neil, Maggie; McPherson, Scott

    2016-03-01

    In June 2013, at the launch of its National Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) Master Plan, the Ethiopian government pledged to achieve WHO NTD elimination and control targets by 2020. With an estimated 80 million people living in areas where one or more NTDs are endemic, this goal presented an enormous challenge for the Federal Ministry of Health. However, as of September 2015, the Federal Ministry of Health has managed to mobilize support to implement mass drug administration in 84% of the trachoma endemic districts and 100% of the endemic districts for onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, soil-transmitted helminthes and schistosomiasis. The national program still is facing large gaps in its podoconiosis and leishmaniasis programs, and it faces significant other challenges to stay on track for 2020 targets. However, this unprecedented scale-up in support was achieved through significant government investment in NTD interventions and creative coordination between donors and implementing partners, which may provide valuable lessons for other national NTD programs trying to achieve nationwide coverage. PMID:26940308

  8. Cloning and characterization of high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) of Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi.

    PubMed

    Thirugnanam, Sivasakthivel; Munirathinam, Gnanasekar; Veerapathran, Anandharaman; Dakshinamoorthy, Gajalakshmi; Reddy, Maryada V; Ramaswamy, Kalyanasundaram

    2012-08-01

    A human homologue of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein was cloned and characterized from the human filarial parasites Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi. Sequence analysis showed that W. bancrofti HMGB1 (WbHMGB1) and B. malayi HMGB1 (BmHMGB1) proteins share 99 % sequence identity. Filarial HMGB1 showed typical architectural sequence characteristics of HMGB family of proteins and consisted of only a single HMG box domain that had significant sequence similarity to the pro-inflammatory B box domain of human HMGB1. When incubated with mouse peritoneal macrophages and human promyelocytic leukemia cells, rBmHMGB1 induced secretion of significant levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, GM-CSF, and IL-6. Functional analysis also showed that the filarial HMGB1 proteins can bind to supercoiled DNA similar to other HMG family of proteins. BmHMGB1 protein is expressed in the adult and microfilarial stages of the parasite and is found in the excretory secretions of the live parasites. These findings suggest that filarial HMGB1 may have a significant role in lymphatic pathology associated with lymphatic filariasis. PMID:22402610

  9. An insight into the sialome of Simulium guianense (DIPTERA:SIMulIIDAE), the main vector of River Blindness Disease in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Little is known about the composition and function of the saliva in black flies such as Simulium guianense, the main vector of river blindness disease in Brazil. The complex salivary potion of hematophagous arthropods counteracts their host's hemostasis, inflammation, and immunity. Results Transcriptome analysis revealed ubiquitous salivary protein families--such as the Antigen-5, Yellow, Kunitz domain, and serine proteases--in the S. guianense sialotranscriptome. Insect-specific families were also found. About 63.4% of all secreted products revealed protein families found only in Simulium. Additionally, we found a novel peptide similar to kunitoxin with a structure distantly related to serine protease inhibitors. This study revealed a relative increase of transcripts of the SVEP protein family when compared with Simulium vittatum and S. nigrimanum sialotranscriptomes. We were able to extract coding sequences from 164 proteins associated with blood and sugar feeding, the majority of which were confirmed by proteome analysis. Conclusions Our results contribute to understanding the role of Simulium saliva in transmission of Onchocerca volvulus and evolution of salivary proteins in black flies. It also consists of a platform for mining novel anti-hemostatic compounds, vaccine candidates against filariasis, and immuno-epidemiologic markers of vector exposure. PMID:22182526

  10. Synthesis, spectral characterization and larvicidal activity of acridin-1(2H)-one analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subashini, R.; Bharathi, A.; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Rajakumar, G.; Abdul Rahuman, A.; Gullanki, Pavan Kumar

    Acridin-1(2H)-one analogue of 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenyl-2-[(pyridine-2yl) methylene] acridin-1(2H)-one, 5 was prepared by using 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenylacridin-1(2H)-one, 3 and picolinaldehyde, 4 in the presence of KOH at room temperature. These compounds were characterized by analytical and spectral analyses. The purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of larvicidal and repellent activity of synthesized 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenyl-acridin-1(2H)-one analogues such as compounds 3 and 5 against the early fourth instar larvae of filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus and Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex gelidus (Diptera: Culicidae). The compound exhibited high larvicidal effects at 50 mg/L against both the mosquitoes with LC50 values of 25.02 mg/L (r2 = 0.998) and 26.40 mg/L (r2 = 0.988) against C. quinquefasciatus and C. gelidus, respectively. The 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenyl-acridin-1(2H)-one analogues that are reported for the first time to our best of knowledge can be better explored for the control of mosquito population. This is an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of Japanese encephalitis vectors, C. quinquefasciatus and C. gelidus.

  11. Recent Advances on the Use of Biochemical Extracts as Filaricidal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Al-Abd, Nazeh M.; Nor, Zurainee Mohamed; Al-Adhroey, Abdulelah H.; Suhaimi, Anwar; Sivanandam, S.

    2013-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is a parasitic infection that causes a devastating public health and socioeconomic burden with an estimated infection of over 120 million individuals worldwide. The infection is caused by three closely related nematode parasites, namely, Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and B. timori, which are transmitted to human through mosquitoes of Anopheles, Culex, and Aedes genera. The species have many ecological variants and are diversified in terms of their genetic fingerprint. The rapid spread of the disease and the genetic diversification cause the lymphatic filarial parasites to respond differently to diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. This in turn prompts the current challenge encountered in its management. Furthermore, most of the chemical medications used are characterized by adverse side effects. These complications urgently warrant intense prospecting on bio-chemicals that have potent efficacy against either the filarial worms or thier vector. In lieu of this, we presented a review on recent literature that reported the efficacy of filaricidal biochemicals and those employed as vector control agents. In addition, methods used for biochemical extraction, screening procedures, and structure of the bioactive compounds were also presented. PMID:24298292

  12. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental changes affecting circulation of neglected tropical diseases in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abou-El-Naga, Iman F

    2015-11-01

    Egypt has been plagued by many neglected tropical diseases since Pharaonic time. These diseases are Schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis, lymphatic filariasis, leishmaniasis and fascioliasis beside the epidermal parasitic skin diseases. Indeed, theses diseases still persist as public health problem in the country by the influence of demographic, socioeconomic and environmental obstacles. This study seeks for understanding the contribution of each factor in each obstacle in neglected tropical diseases perpetuation which in turn could help the governorate in planning integrated control strategies. It was found that poverty, unregulated urbanization and inadequate sanitation are important socioeconomic factors that have great effect on the transmission dynamics of the diseases. The environmental factors which affect the epidemiology of these diseases in the country are scarcity of water, construction of dams, land reclamation for agriculture beside the climate factors. Unfortunately, the panic increase in the population growth rate minimizes the efforts done by the governorate to elevate the public health services. These conditions also affect the transmission of epidermal parasitic skin diseases including scabies, head lice and hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans. The control programs and the recommendations to combat the diseases were discussed. The present study showed that the ecological factors affecting each neglected tropical disease in Egypt are somewhat similar which makes it worthy to develop an integrated control approaches aiming at improving the leading factors of neglected tropical diseases circulation in the country. PMID:26614986

  13. [Current Trend of Drug Development for Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs)].

    PubMed

    Kita, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    EBOLA hemorrhagic fever, a typical emerging infectious disease, began in December 2013 in the southern part of Guinea, and killed more than 11000 people by the end of June, 2015. In addition to emerging/re-emerging diseases and the 3 major infectious diseases i.e. HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) have recently become important tropical diseases of the poor. It is remarkable that Japan succeeded in the eradication of malaria and other tropical diseases, which include lymphatic filariasis and schistosomiasis. However, despite these achievements, it is important to sustain our efforts when we consider global health. This review highlights the significance of elimination and/or control of NTDs, and then introduces the current situation of drug development activities in Japan, which are aimed towards combating tropical infectious diseases. They include studies on a novel drug target, the "mitochondrial NADH-fumarate reductase system (Fumarate respiration)" composed of complex I, rhodoquinone and complex II, which plays an important role in the anaerobic energy metabolism of many helminths such as Ascaris suum. An additional interesting finding highlighted herein is that ascofuranone, a recently developed anti-African trypanosome drug, shows specific inhibition of fumarate respiration in Echinococcus multilocularis mitochondria. PMID:26831795

  14. Filarial Excretory-Secretory Products Induce Human Monocytes to Produce Lymphangiogenic Mediators

    PubMed Central

    Weinkopff, Tiffany; Mackenzie, Charles; Eversole, Rob; Lammie, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    The nematodes Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia spp. infect over 120 million people worldwide, causing lymphedema, elephantiasis and hydrocele, collectively known as lymphatic filariasis. Most infected individuals appear to be asymptomatic, but many exhibit sub-clinical manifestations including the lymphangiectasia that likely contributes to the development of lymphedema and elephantiasis. As adult worm excretory-secretory products (ES) do not directly activate lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC), we investigated the role of monocyte/macrophage-derived soluble factors in the development of filarial lymphatic pathology. We analyzed the production of IL-8, IL-6 and VEGF-A by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from naïve donors following stimulation with filarial ES products. ES-stimulated PBMCs produced significantly more IL-8, IL-6 and VEGF-A compared to cells cultured in medium alone; CD14+ monocytes appear to be the primary producers of IL-8 and VEGF-A, but not IL-6. Furthermore, IL-8, IL-6 and VEGF-A induced in vitro tubule formation in LEC Matrigel cultures. Matrigel plugs supplemented with IL-8, IL-6, VEGF-A, or with supernatants from ES-stimulated PBMCs and implanted in vivo stimulated lymphangiogenesis. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that monocytes/macrophages exposed to filarial ES products may modulate lymphatic function through the secretion of soluble factors that stimulate the vessel growth associated with the pathogenesis of filarial disease. PMID:25010672

  15. An In Vitro/In Vivo Model to Analyze the Effects of Flubendazole Exposure on Adult Female Brugia malayi

    PubMed Central

    O’Neill, Maeghan; Mansour, Abdelmoneim; DiCosty, Utami; Geary, James; Dzimianski, Michael; McCall, Scott D.; McCall, John W.; Mackenzie, Charles D.; Geary, Timothy G.

    2016-01-01

    Current control strategies for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) rely on prolonged yearly or twice-yearly mass administration of microfilaricidal drugs. Prospects for near-term elimination or eradication of these diseases would be improved by availability of a macrofilaricide that is highly effective in a short regimen. Flubendazole (FLBZ), a benzimidazole anthelmintic registered for control of human gastrointestinal nematode infections, is a potential candidate for this role. FLBZ has profound and potent macrofilaricidal effects in many experimental animal models of filariases and in one human trial for onchocerciasis after parental administration. Unfortunately, the marketed formulation of FLBZ provides very limited oral bioavailability and parenteral administration is required for macrofilaricidal efficacy. A new formulation that provided sufficient oral bioavailability could advance FLBZ as an effective treatment for onchocerciasis and LF. Short-term in vitro culture experiments in adult filariae have shown that FLBZ damages tissues required for reproduction and survival at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. The current study characterized the long-term effects of FLBZ on adult Brugia malayi by maintaining parasites in jirds for up to eight weeks following brief drug exposure (6–24 hr) to pharmacologically relevant concentrations (100 nM—10 μM) in culture. Morphological damage following exposure to FLBZ was observed prominently in developing embryos and was accompanied by a decrease in microfilarial output at 4 weeks post-exposure. Although FLBZ exposure clearly damaged the parasites, exposed worms recovered and were viable 8 weeks after treatment. PMID:27145083

  16. Neurological manifestations of filarial infections.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Devender; Dumas, Michel; Preux, Pierre-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Filarial infections cause a huge public health burden wherever they are endemic. These filaria may locate anywhere in the human body. Their manifestations and pathogenic mechanisms, except the most common ones, are rarely investigated systematically. Their neurological manifestations, however, are being increasingly recognized particularly with onchocerciasis or Loa loa infections, Wuchereria bancrofti, or Mansonella perstans. The risk of developing these manifestations may also increase in cases that harbor multiple filariasis or coinfections, for instance as with Plasmodium. The microfilaria of Onchocerca and Loa loa are seen in cerebrospinal fluid. The pathogenesis of neurological manifestations of these infections is complex; however, pathogenic reactions may be caused by mechanical disruption, e.g., degeneration often followed by granulomas, causing fibrosis or mass effects on other tissues, vascular lesions, e.g., vascular block of cerebral vessels, or disordered inflammatory responses resulting in meningitis, encephalitis or localized inflammatory responses. The chances of having neurological manifestations may also depend upon the frequency and"heaviness"of infection over a lifetime. Hence, this type of infection should no longer be considered a disease of the commonly affected areas but one that may produce systemic effects or other manifestations, and these should be considered in populations where they are endemic. PMID:23829914

  17. Loa loa-does it deserve to be neglected?

    PubMed

    Metzger, Wolfram Gottfried; Mordmüller, Benjamin

    2014-04-01

    More than 10 million people in western and central Africa are estimated to be infected with Loa loa filarial nematodes. Like most other infectious diseases, L loa filariasis (loiasis) covers a wide range of symptoms. Severe complications have been reported; however, most observations are anecdotal, typically in travellers. The widespread use of filaricidal drugs within eradication programmes of Onchocerca volvulus and Wuchereria bancrofti led to the observation that concomitant L loa infection increases the risk of severe treatment-associated, life-threatening complications. Initiatives were therefore launched to map the risk of loiasis. Insight about the epidemiology of L loa has advanced notably; however, its effect on the individual as well as on the community level has not been well studied. In the absence of appropriate studies, L loa is commonly judged a harmless nematode, and loiasis as a separate entity does not belong to the list of neglected tropical diseases to be controlled or eradicated in worldwide campaigns. We advocate reorientation of research efforts towards a patient-centric view of loiasis and, as a first step, to establish the disease burden in disability-adjusted life-years of this chronic infection, and to answer the question of whether loiasis should be included in future control programmes. PMID:24332895

  18. Characterization of cofactor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase isoform-1 (Wb-iPGM) gene: a drug and diagnostic target from human lymphatic filarial parasite, Wuchereria bancrofti.

    PubMed

    Dhamodharan, R; Hoti, S L; Sankari, T

    2012-07-01

    The inter-conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate and 2-phosphoglycerate during glycolysis and gluconeogenesis in filarial nematodes, is catalyzed by a co-factor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase (iPGM). The gene encoding iPGM isoform-1 was amplified from Wuchereria bancrofti, the major causative agent of human lymphatic filariasis. Partial genomic DNA (gDNA) fragment of the gene was also amplified from periodic and sub-periodic forms of W. bancrofti and Brugia malayi and sequenced. The Wb-iPGM isoform-1 gene encodes an ORF of 515 amino acids and is found to share 99.4%, 96.0%, and 64.0% amino acid sequence identity with iPGM of B. malayi, Onchocerca volvulus, and Caenorhabditis elegans, respectively. Serine and all the other 13 amino acid residues involved in the catalytic function of iPGM are highly conserved. Further comparison of iPGM nucleotide and amino acid sequences of Wolbachia of B. malayi with Wb-iPGM showed 41% and 54.4% similarity, respectively. The analysis of partial genomic and amino acid sequences and phylogenetic tree of Wb-iPGM indicated that this gene, apart from being a potential drug target, could provide diagnostic, taxonomical, and evolutionary markers. This is the first report of the characterization of iPGM gene from W. bancrofti. PMID:22386851

  19. History of Human Parasitology

    PubMed Central

    Cox, F. E. G.

    2002-01-01

    Humans are hosts to nearly 300 species of parasitic worms and over 70 species of protozoa, some derived from our primate ancestors and some acquired from the animals we have domesticated or come in contact with during our relatively short history on Earth. Our knowledge of parasitic infections extends into antiquity, and descriptions of parasites and parasitic infections are found in the earliest writings and have been confirmed by the finding of parasites in archaeological material. The systematic study of parasites began with the rejection of the theory of spontaneous generation and the promulgation of the germ theory. Thereafter, the history of human parasitology proceeded along two lines, the discovery of a parasite and its subsequent association with disease and the recognition of a disease and the subsequent discovery that it was caused by a parasite. This review is concerned with the major helminth and protozoan infections of humans: ascariasis, trichinosis, strongyloidiasis, dracunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, loasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, cestodiasis, paragonimiasis, clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis, amoebiasis, giardiasis, African trypanosomiasis, South American trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, malaria, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, cyclosporiasis, and microsporidiosis. PMID:12364371

  20. Displacement and disease: The Shan exodus and infectious disease implications for Thailand.

    PubMed

    Suwanvanichkij, Voravit

    2008-01-01

    Decades of neglect and abuses by the Burmese government have decimated the health of the peoples of Burma, particularly along her eastern frontiers, overwhelmingly populated by ethnic minorities such as the Shan. Vast areas of traditional Shan homelands have been systematically depopulated by the Burmese military regime as part of its counter-insurgency policy, which also employs widespread abuses of civilians by Burmese soldiers, including rape, torture, and extrajudicial executions. These abuses, coupled with Burmese government economic mismanagement which has further entrenched already pervasive poverty in rural Burma, have spawned a humanitarian catastrophe, forcing hundreds of thousands of ethnic Shan villagers to flee their homes for Thailand. In Thailand, they are denied refugee status and its legal protections, living at constant risk for arrest and deportation. Classified as "economic migrants," many are forced to work in exploitative conditions, including in the Thai sex industry, and Shan migrants often lack access to basic health services in Thailand. Available health data on Shan migrants in Thailand already indicates that this population bears a disproportionately high burden of infectious diseases, particularly HIV, tuberculosis, lymphatic filariasis, and some vaccine-preventable illnesses, undermining progress made by Thailand's public health system in controlling such entities. The ongoing failure to address the root political causes of migration and poor health in eastern Burma, coupled with the many barriers to accessing health programs in Thailand by undocumented migrants, particularly the Shan, virtually guarantees Thailand's inability to sustainably control many infectious disease entities, especially along her borders with Burma. PMID:18341695

  1. Recombinant bacteria for mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Federici, B A; Park, H-W; Bideshi, D K; Wirth, M C; Johnson, J J

    2003-11-01

    Bacterial insecticides have been used for the control of nuisance and vector mosquitoes for more than two decades. Nevertheless, due primarily to their high cost and often only moderate efficacy, these insecticides remain of limited use in tropical countries where mosquito-borne diseases are prevalent. Recently, however, recombinant DNA techniques have been used to improve bacterial insecticide efficacy by markedly increasing the synthesis of mosquitocidal proteins and by enabling new endotoxin combinations from different bacteria to be produced within single strains. These new strains combine mosquitocidal Cry and Cyt proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis with the binary toxin of Bacillus sphaericus, improving efficacy against Culex species by 10-fold and greatly reducing the potential for resistance through the presence of Cyt1A. Moreover, although intensive use of B. sphaericus against Culex populations in the field can result in high levels of resistance, most of this can be suppressed by combining this bacterial species with Cyt1A; the latter enables the binary toxin of this species to enter midgut epithelial cells via the microvillar membrane in the absence of a midgut receptor. The availability of these novel strains and newly discovered mosquitocidal proteins, such as the Mtx toxins of B. sphaericus, offers the potential for constructing a range of recombinant bacterial insecticides for more effective control of the mosquito vectors of filariasis, Dengue fever and malaria. PMID:14506223

  2. Evidence-Based Integrative Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Narahari, Saravu R; Prasanna, Kodimoole S; Sushma, Kandathu V

    2013-01-01

    American recognition for medical pluralism arrived in 1991. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine was established under the National Institutes of Health in 1998. Following this, patients and researchers began exploring use of integrative medicine. Terence Ryan with Gerry Bodeker in Europe, Brian Berman in America, and the Indian council of Medical Research advocated traditional medicine and integrative medicine. The Institute of Applied Dermatology (IAD), Kerala has developed integrated allopathic (biomedical) and ayurvedic therapies to treat Lymphatic Filariasis, Lichen planus, and Vitiligo. Studies conducted at the IAD have created a framework for evidence-based and integrative dermatology (ID). This paper gives an overview of advances in ID with an example of Lichen Planus, which was examined jointly by dermatologists and Ayurveda doctors. The clinical presentation in these patients was listed in a vikruthi table of comparable biomedical terms. A vikruthi table was used for drug selection in ayurvedic dermatology. A total of 19 patients were treated with ayurvedic prescriptions to normalize the vatha-kapha for 3 months. All patients responded and no side effects were recorded. In spite of advancing knowledge on ID, several challenges remain for its use on difficult to treat chronic skin diseases. The formation of new integrative groups and financial support are essential for the growth of ID in India. PMID:23716802

  3. More than one rabbit out of the hat: Radiation, transgenic and symbiont-based approaches for sustainable management of mosquito and tsetse fly populations.

    PubMed

    Bourtzis, Kostas; Lees, Rosemary Susan; Hendrichs, Jorge; Vreysen, Marc J B

    2016-05-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) are bloodsucking vectors of human and animal pathogens. Mosquito-borne diseases (malaria, filariasis, dengue, zika, and chikungunya) cause severe mortality and morbidity annually, and tsetse fly-borne diseases (African trypanosomes causing sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in livestock) cost Sub-Saharan Africa an estimated US$ 4750 million annually. Current reliance on insecticides for vector control is unsustainable: due to increasing insecticide resistance and growing concerns about health and environmental impacts of chemical control there is a growing need for novel, effective and safe biologically-based methods that are more sustainable. The integration of the sterile insect technique has proven successful to manage crop pests and disease vectors, particularly tsetse flies, and is likely to prove effective against mosquito vectors, particularly once sex-separation methods are improved. Transgenic and symbiont-based approaches are in development, and more advanced in (particularly Aedes) mosquitoes than in tsetse flies; however, issues around stability, sustainability and biosecurity have to be addressed, especially when considering population replacement approaches. Regulatory issues and those relating to intellectual property and economic cost of application must also be overcome. Standardised methods to assess insect quality are required to compare and predict efficacy of the different approaches. Different combinations of these three approaches could be integrated to maximise their benefits, and all have the potential to be used in tsetse and mosquito area-wide integrated pest management programmes. PMID:26774684

  4. In vitro flubendazole-induced damage to vital tissues in adult females of the filarial nematode Brugia malayi.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Maeghan; Geary, James F; Agnew, Dalen W; Mackenzie, Charles D; Geary, Timothy G

    2015-12-01

    The use of a microfilaricidal drug for the control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis necessitates prolonged yearly dosing. Prospects for elimination or eradication of these diseases would be enhanced by availability of a macrofilaricidal drug. Flubendazole (FLBZ), a benzimidazole anthelmintic, is an appealing candidate macrofilaricide. FLBZ has demonstrated profound and potent macrofilaricidal effects in a number of experimental filarial rodent models and one human trial. Unfortunately, FLBZ was deemed unsatisfactory for use in mass drug administration (MDA) campaigns due to its markedly limited oral bioavailability. However, a new formulation that provided sufficient bioavailability following oral administration could render FLBZ an effective treatment for onchocerciasis and LF. This study characterized the effects of FLBZ and its reduced metabolite (FLBZ-R) on filarial nematodes in vitro to determine the exposure profile which results in demonstrable damage. Adult female Brugia malayi were exposed to varying concentrations of FLBZ or FLBZ-R (100 nM-10 μM) for up to five days, after which worms were fixed for histology. Morphological damage following exposure to FLBZ was observed prominently in the hypodermis and developing embryos at concentrations as low as 100 nM following 24 h exposure. The results indicate that damage to tissues required for reproduction and survival can be achieved at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. PMID:26288741

  5. Identification of QTLs Conferring Resistance to Deltamethrin in Culex pipiens pallens

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Daibin; Shen, Bo; Zhang, Donghui; Guo, Qin; Wang, Weijie; Yu, Jing; Lv, Yuan; Lei, Zhentao; Ma, Kai; Ma, Lei; Zhu, Changliang; Yan, Guiyun

    2015-01-01

    Culex pipiens pallens is the most abundant Culex mosquito species in northern China and is an important vector of bancroftian filariasis and West Nile virus. Deltamethrin is an insecticide that is widely used for mosquito control, however resistance to this and other insecticides has become a major challenge in the control of vector-borne diseases that appear to be inherited quantitatively. Furthermore, the genetic basis of insecticide resistance remains poorly understood. In this study, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of resistance to deltamethrin was conducted in F2 intercross segregation populations using bulked segregation analysis (BSA) and amplified fragment length polymorphism markers (AFLP) in Culex pipiens pallens. A genetic linkage map covering 381 cM was constructed and a total of seven QTL responsible for resistance to deltamethrin were detected by composite interval mapping (CIM), which explained 95% of the phenotypic variance. The major QTL in linkage group 2 accounted for 62% of the variance and is worthy of further study. 12 AFLP markers in the map were cloned and the genomic locations of these marker sequences were determined by applying the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) tool to the genome sequence of the closely related Culex quinquefasciatus. Our results suggest that resistance to deltamethrin is a quantitative trait under the control of a major QTL in Culex pipiens pallens. Cloning of related AFLP markers confirm the potential utility for anchoring the genetic map to the physical map. The results provide insight into the genetic architecture of the trait. PMID:26484540

  6. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases as drug targets in eukaryotic parasites☆

    PubMed Central

    Pham, James S.; Dawson, Karen L.; Jackson, Katherine E.; Lim, Erin E.; Pasaje, Charisse Flerida A.; Turner, Kelsey E.C.; Ralph, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are central enzymes in protein translation, providing the charged tRNAs needed for appropriate construction of peptide chains. These enzymes have long been pursued as drug targets in bacteria and fungi, but the past decade has seen considerable research on aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in eukaryotic parasites. Existing inhibitors of bacterial tRNA synthetases have been adapted for parasite use, novel inhibitors have been developed against parasite enzymes, and tRNA synthetases have been identified as the targets for compounds in use or development as antiparasitic drugs. Crystal structures have now been solved for many parasite tRNA synthetases, and opportunities for selective inhibition are becoming apparent. For different biological reasons, tRNA synthetases appear to be promising drug targets against parasites as diverse as Plasmodium (causative agent of malaria), Brugia (causative agent of lymphatic filariasis), and Trypanosoma (causative agents of Chagas disease and human African trypanosomiasis). Here we review recent developments in drug discovery and target characterisation for parasite aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. PMID:24596663

  7. Survivorship and fecundity of Culex pipiens pallens feeding on flowering plants and seed pods with differential preferences.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bao-Ting; Ding, Yan-Mei; Mo, Xiao-Chang; Liu, Ning; Li, Hong-Jie; Mo, Jian-Chu

    2016-03-01

    Adult mosquitoes rely on ingestion of sugar from plants to survive, swarm and mate. Culex pipiens pallens Coguillett is the primary vector of lymphatic filariasis and epidemic encephalitis. Little is known about the effect of feeding on different sugar sources on the survivorship and fecundity of Cx. pipiens pallens. In the present study, newly emerged mosquitoes were exposed to several flowering plant and seed pod species with different olfactory preferences, and the survival times of mosquitoes exposed to these sugar sources were determined. The proportions of mosquitoes that ingested sugar from host plants were investigated by cold anthrone tests. The numbers of eggs per egg raft laid by mosquitoes were compared when they were provided with different sugar sources and one blood meal. The results revealed that feeding on different kinds of sugar sources significantly affected female and male mosquitoes' survival times. Cold anthrone tests indicated that the proportions of sugar-positive mosquitoes from different nutritional regimes within 24h corresponded to the preference rankings of Cx. pipiens pallens to these sugar sources, and rapid declines in the proportions of surviving individuals might be attributed to their insufficient ingestion of sugar from nutritional regimes. Feeding on different sugar sources strongly affected the proportions of engorged mosquitoes, and females that had fed on their preferred sugar sources laid more eggs than mosquitoes provided with less preferred sugar sources. The results would provide insights in developing mosquito control strategies that target the sugar feeding behavior of mosquitoes. PMID:26739652

  8. Silica nanoparticle: a potential new insecticide for mosquito vector control.

    PubMed

    Barik, Tapan K; Kamaraju, Raghavendra; Gowswami, Arunava

    2012-09-01

    Presently, there is a need for increased efforts to develop newer and effective methods to control mosquito vectors as the existing chemical and biological methods are not as effective as in earlier period owing to different technical and operational reasons. The use of nanomaterial products in various sectors of science including health increased during the last decade. We tested three types of nanosilica, namely lipophilic, hydrophilic and hydrophobic, to assess their larvicidal, pupicidal and growth inhibitor properties and also their influence on oviposition behaviour (attraction/deterrence) of mosquito species that transmit human diseases, namely malaria (Anopheles), yellow fever, chickungunya and dengue (Aedes), lymphatic filariasis and encephalitis (Culex and Aedes). Application of hydrophobic nanosilica at 112.5 ppm was found effective against mosquito species tested. The larvicidal effect of hydrophobic nanosilica on mosquito species tested was in the order of Anopheles stephensi > Aedes aegypti > Culex quinquefasciatus, and the pupicidal effect was in the order of A. stephensi > C. quinquefasciatus > Ae. aegypti. Results of combined treatment of hydrophobic nanosilica with temephos in larvicidal test indicated independent toxic action without any additive effect. This is probably the first report that demonstrated that nanoparticles particularly nanosilica could be used in mosquito vector control. PMID:22565400

  9. The Ecology of Anopheles Mosquitoes under Climate Change: Case Studies from the Effects of Environmental Changes in East Africa Highlands

    PubMed Central

    Afrane, Yaw A.; Githeko, Andrew K.; Yan, Guiyun

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is expected to lead to latitudinal and altitudinal temperature increases. High elevation regions such as the highlands of Africa, and those that have temperate climate are most likely to be affected. The highlands of Africa generally exhibit low ambient temperatures. This restricts the distribution of Anopheles mosquitoes, the vectors of malaria, filariasis and O’nyong’nyong fever. The development and survival of larval and adult mosquitoes are temperature dependent, as are mosquito biting frequency and pathogen development rate. Given that various Anopheles species are adapted to different climatic conditions, changes in the climate could lead to changes in species composition in an area which may change the dynamics of mosquito-borne disease transmission. It is important to consider the effect of climate change on rainfall which is critical to the formation and persistence of mosquito breeding sites. In addition, environmental changes such as deforestation could increase local temperatures in the highlands; this could enhance the vectorial capacity of the Anopheles. This experimental data will be invaluable in facilitating the understanding of the impact of climate change on Anopheles. PMID:22320421

  10. Current status of parasitic infections among Pangkor Island community in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, A F; Ngui, R; Muhammad Aidil, R; Lim, Y A L; Rohela, M

    2014-12-01

    Limited data is available on the prevalence of parasitic infections among the island communities in Malaysia with most studies performed between 1960s-1980s. This study was conducted to determine the current prevalence status of parasitic infections among communities living in Pangkor Island Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 131 stool and 298 serum samples were collected and subjected to microscopic examination for intestinal protozoa and helminths and detection of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies using commercial ELISA kits respectively. In addition, thin and thick peripheral blood films were microscopically screened for the presence of Plasmodium spp. and microfilariae respectively. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among Pangkor Island community was 9.9% (13/131) with T. trichiura (5.3%) being the most common intestinal parasite detected. Toxoplasmosis was reported in almost 60% of the community with the seroprevalence being significantly high among females (64.7%) compared to males (52.8%) (p=0.038). None of those examined samples were infected with intestinal sarcocystosis, malaria and filariasis. This study revealed that the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among Pangkor Island community has been greatly reduced compared to that reported 35 years ago. Massive improvements in the socioeconomic status, personal hygiene, water facilities and sanitation may have contributed to the low prevalence of parasitic infections in this community. Nevertheless, further studies still need to be performed to determine the possible risk factors for the high prevalence of toxoplasmosis in this community. PMID:25776610

  11. Identification and characterization of novel membrane-bound PRL protein tyrosine phosphatases from Setaria cervi, a bovine filarial parasite.

    PubMed

    Singh, Neetu; Yadav, Smita; Rathaur, Sushma

    2015-11-01

    A significant amount of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity was detected in the detergent-soluble membrane-bound fraction of Setaria cervi, a bovine filarial parasite. The membrane-bound PTP activity was significantly inhibited when the adult parasites were exposed to compounds having antifilarial activity like aspirin and SK7 as well as phenylarsine oxide, a specific PTP inhibitor suggesting that this activity is stress regulated. Further, this enzyme was purified as a single protein of apparently 21 kDa using two different chromatographic techniques. The MALDI-MS/MS analysis of its peptides showed closest match with protein tyrosine phosphatase PRL (Aedes aegypti). This purified enzyme (named as PRL) showed maximum activity at pH 5.5/37 °C and hydrolysed para nitro phenyl phosphate (pNPP) at the highest rate followed by O-P-L-tyrosine and O-P-L-threonine. It showed significant inhibition by specific inhibitors of PTP such as sodium orthovanadate, phenylarsine oxide and ammonium molybdate and was activated by dithiothreitol (DTT). The active site modification studies suggested involvement of cysteine, arginine, histidine and aspartic acid in the catalytic activity of PRL. The activity of S. cervi PRL was also found to be resistant towards the external oxidative stress. Thus, S. cervi PRL could be taken as a potential target for the management of human lymphatic filariasis. PMID:26341797

  12. Larvicidal efficacy of five cucurbitaceous plant leaf extracts against mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Rahuman, A Abdul; Venkatesan, P

    2008-06-01

    Larvicidal activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, acetone, and methanol extracts of the leaf of five species of cucurbitaceous plants, Citrullus colocynthis, Coccinia indica, Cucumis sativus, Momordica charantia, and Trichosanthes anguina, were tested against the early fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L. and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in petroleum ether extract of C. colocynthis, methanol extracts of C. indica, C. sativus, M. charantia, and acetone extract of T. anguina against the larvae of A. aegypti (LC50=74.57, 309.46, 492.73, 199.14, and 554.20 ppm) and against C. quinquefasciatus (LC50=88.24, 377.69, 623.80, 207.61, and 842.34 ppm), respectively. The petroleum ether extract of C. colocynthis and methanol extract of M. charantia were more effective than the other extracts. This is an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the dengue vector, A. aegypti, and the lymphatic filariasis vector, C. quinquefasciatus. PMID:18340464

  13. Larvicidal activity of saponin from Achyranthes aspera against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Bagavan, A; Rahuman, A A; Kamaraj, C; Geetha, Kannappan

    2008-06-01

    The acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane and methanol leaf extracts of Acalypha indica, Achyranthes aspera, Leucas aspera, Morinda tinctoria and Ocimum sanctum were studied against the early fourth-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L and Culex quinquefasciatus Say. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in the ethyl acetate extract of A. aspera. In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of A. aspera led to the separation and identification ofa saponin as a potential mosquito larvicidal compound, with LC50 value of 18.20 and 27.24 ppm against A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectral data confirmed the identification of the active compound. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of the saponin from the ethyl acetate extract of A. aspera. This study investigates the potential of crude extracts from commonly used medical herbs in India as an environmentally safe measure to control the vector of dengue and lymphatic filariasis. PMID:18392726