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Sample records for file bl stn

  1. SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL INFORMATION NETWORK (STN INTERNATIONAL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    STN International (the Scientific and Technical Information Network) offers both a fee based online search service that provides accurate, up-to-date, specific information from over 200 scientific, technical, business, and patent databases, and also fee based WWW access to select...

  2. STN1 protects chromosome ends in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiangyu; Leehy, Katherine; Warrington, Ross T.; Lamb, Jonathan C.; Surovtseva, Yulia V.; Shippen, Dorothy E.

    2008-01-01

    Telomeres shield the natural ends of chromosomes from nucleolytic attack, recognition as double-strand breaks, and inappropriate processing by DNA repair machinery. The trimeric Stn1/Ten1/Cdc13 complex is critical for chromosome end protection in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, while vertebrate telomeres are protected by shelterin, a complex of six proteins that does not include STN1 or TEN1. Recent studies demonstrate that Stn1 and Ten1 orthologs in Schizosaccharomyces pombe contribute to telomere integrity in a complex that is distinct from the shelterin components, Pot1 and Tpp1. Thus, chromosome-end protection may be mediated by distinct subcomplexes of telomere proteins. Here we report the identification of a STN1 gene in Arabidopsis that is essential for chromosome-end protection. AtSTN1 encodes an 18-kDa protein bearing a single oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding fold with significant sequence similarity to the yeast Stn1 proteins. Plants null for AtSTN1 display an immediate onset of growth and developmental defects and reduced fertility. These outward phenotypes are accompanied by catastrophic loss of telomeric and subtelomeric DNA, high levels of end-to-end chromosome fusions, increased G-overhang signals, and elevated telomere recombination. Thus, AtSTN1 is a crucial component of the protective telomere cap in Arabidopsis, and likely in other multicellular eukaryotes. PMID:19064932

  3. Comparative phosphoproteome profiling reveals a function of the STN8 kinase in fine-tuning of cyclic electron flow (CEF)

    PubMed Central

    Reiland, Sonja; Finazzi, Giovanni; Endler, Anne; Willig, Adrian; Baerenfaller, Katja; Grossmann, Jonas; Gerrits, Bertran; Rutishauser, Dorothea; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Rochaix, Jean-David; Baginsky, Sacha

    2011-01-01

    Important aspects of photosynthetic electron transport efficiency in chloroplasts are controlled by protein phosphorylation. Two thylakoid-associated kinases, STN7 and STN8, have distinct roles in short- and long-term photosynthetic acclimation to changes in light quality and quantity. Although some substrates of STN7 and STN8 are known, the complexity of this regulatory kinase system implies that currently unknown substrates connect photosynthetic performance with the regulation of metabolic and regulatory functions. We performed an unbiased phosphoproteome-wide screen with Arabidopsis WT and stn8 mutant plants to identify unique STN8 targets. The phosphorylation status of STN7 was not affected in stn8, indicating that kinases other than STN8 phosphorylate STN7 under standard growth conditions. Among several putative STN8 substrates, PGRL1-A is of particular importance because of its possible role in the modulation of cyclic electron transfer. The STN8 phosphorylation site on PGRL1-A is absent in both monocotyledonous plants and algae. In dicots, spectroscopic measurements with Arabidopsis WT, stn7, stn8, and stn7/stn8 double-mutant plants indicate a STN8-mediated slowing down of the transition from cyclic to linear electron flow at the onset of illumination. This finding suggests a possible link between protein phosphorylation by STN8 and fine-tuning of cyclic electron flow during this critical step of photosynthesis, when the carbon assimilation is not commensurate to the electron flow capacity of the chloroplast. PMID:21768351

  4. The Student Telescope Network (STN) experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannahoe, Ryan M.; Stencel, Robert E.; Bisque, Steve; Rice, Mike

    2003-02-01

    support of this effort, and acknowleedge in-kind support from the estate of William Herschel Womble. Details at website www.du.edu/~rstencel/stn.htm.

  5. Stn1-Ten1 is an Rpa2-Rpa3-like complex at telomeres

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jia; Yu, Eun Young; Yang, Yuting; Confer, Laura A; Sun, Steven H; Wan, Ke; Lue, Neal F; Lei, Ming

    2010-09-02

    In budding yeast, Cdc13, Stn1, and Ten1 form a heterotrimeric complex (CST) that is essential for telomere protection and maintenance. Previous bioinformatics analysis revealed a putative oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB) fold at the N terminus of Stn1 (Stn1N) that shows limited sequence similarity to the OB fold of Rpa2, a subunit of the eukaryotic ssDNA-binding protein complex replication protein A (RPA). Here we present functional and structural analyses of Stn1 and Ten1 from multiple budding and fission yeast. The crystal structure of the Candida tropicalis Stn1N complexed with Ten1 demonstrates an Rpa2N-Rpa3-like complex. In both structures, the OB folds of the two components pack against each other through interactions between two C-terminal helices. The structure of the C-terminal domain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Stn1 (Stn1C) was found to comprise two related winged helix-turn-helix (WH) motifs, one of which is most similar to the WH motif at the C terminus of Rpa2, again supporting the notion that Stn1 resembles Rpa2. The crystal structure of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe Stn1N-Ten1 complex exhibits a virtually identical architecture as the C. tropicalis Stn1N-Ten1. Functional analyses of the Candida albicans Stn1 and Ten1 proteins revealed critical roles for these proteins in suppressing aberrant telomerase and recombination activities at telomeres. Mutations that disrupt the Stn1-Ten1 interaction induce telomere uncapping and abolish the telomere localization of Ten1. Collectively, our structural and functional studies illustrate that, instead of being confined to budding yeast telomeres, the CST complex may represent an evolutionarily conserved RPA-like telomeric complex at the 3' overhangs that works in parallel with or instead of the well-characterized POT1-TPP1/TEBP{alpha}-{beta} complex.

  6. Effects of STN DBS on memory guided force control in Parkinson's disease (June 2007).

    PubMed

    Prodoehl, Janey; Corcos, Daniel M; Rothwell, John C; Metman, Leo Verhagen; Bakay, Roy A E; Vaillancourt, David E

    2007-06-01

    This study examined the control of elbow force in nine patients with Parkinson's disease when visual feedback was available and when visual feedback was removed to determine how medication (Meds) and unilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) affect memory guided force control. Patients were examined in each of four treatment conditions: 1) off treatment; 2) Meds; 3) STN DBS; and 4) Meds plus STN DBS. With visual feedback available, there was no difference in force output across treatment conditions. When visual feedback was removed force output drifted under the target in both the off-treatment and the Meds conditions. However, when on STN DBS or Meds plus STN DBS force output drifted above the target. As such, only STN DBS had a significant effect on force output in the vision removed condition. Increased force output when on STN DBS may have occurred due to disruptions in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuitry. We suggest that modulation of output of the internal segment of the globus pallidus by STN DBS may drive the effect of STN DBS on memory guided force control. PMID:17601184

  7. Effects of STN DBS on Memory Guided Force Control in Parkinson’s Disease (June 2007)

    PubMed Central

    Prodoehl, Janey; Corcos, Daniel M.; Rothwell, John C.; Metman, Leo Verhagen; Bakay, Roy A. E.; Vaillancourt, David E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the control of elbow force in nine patients with Parkinson’s disease when visual feedback was available and when visual feedback was removed to determine how medication (Meds) and unilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) affect memory guided force control. Patients were examined in each of four treatment conditions: 1) off treatment; 2) Meds; 3) STN DBS; and 4) Meds plus STN DBS. With visual feedback available, there was no difference in force output across treatment conditions. When visual feedback was removed force output drifted under the target in both the off-treatment and the Meds conditions. However, when on STN DBS or Meds plus STN DBS force output drifted above the target. As such, only STN DBS had a significant effect on force output in the vision removed condition. Increased force output when on STN DBS may have occurred due to disruptions in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuitry. We suggest that modulation of output of the internal segment of the globus pallidus by STN DBS may drive the effect of STN DBS on memory guided force control. PMID:17601184

  8. SOURCE APPORTIONMENT OF SEATTLE PM 2.5: A COMPARISON OF IMPROVE AND ENHANCED STN DATA SETS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seattle, WA, STN and IMPROVE data sets with STN temperature resolved carbon peaks were analyzed with both the PMF and Unmix receptor models. In addition, the IMPROVE trace element data was combined with the major STN species to examine the role of IMPROVE metals. To compare the ...

  9. Stn1 is critical for telomere maintenance and long-term viability of somatic human cells

    PubMed Central

    Boccardi, Virginia; Razdan, Neetu; Kaplunov, Jessica; Mundra, Jyoti J; Kimura, Masayuki; Aviv, Abraham; Herbig, Utz

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of telomere maintenance pathways leads to accelerated entry into cellular senescence, a stable proliferative arrest that promotes aging-associated disorders in some mammals. The budding yeast CST complex, comprising Cdc13, Stn1, and Ctc1, is critical for telomere replication, length regulation, and end protection. Although mammalian homologues of CST have been identified recently, their role and function for telomere maintenance in normal somatic human cells are still incompletely understood. Here, we characterize the function of human Stn1 in cultured human fibroblasts and demonstrate its critical role in telomere replication, length regulation, and function. In the absence of high telomerase activity, shRNA-mediated knockdown of hStn1 resulted in aberrant and fragile telomeric structures, stochastic telomere attrition, increased telomere erosion rates, telomere dysfunction, and consequently accelerated entry into cellular senescence. Oxidative stress augmented the defects caused by Stn1 knockdown leading to almost immediate cessation of cell proliferation. In contrast, overexpression of hTERT suppressed some of the defects caused by hStn1 knockdown suggesting that telomerase can partially compensate for hStn1 loss. Our findings reveal a critical role for human Stn1 in telomere length maintenance and function, supporting the model that efficient replication of telomeric repeats is critical for long-term viability of normal somatic mammalian cells. PMID:25684230

  10. Intermediate BL Lac objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondi, M.; Marchã, M. J. M.; Dallacasa, D.; Stanghellini, C.

    2001-08-01

    The 200-mJy sample, defined by Marchã et al., contains about 60 nearby, northern, flat-spectrum radio sources. In particular, the sample has proved effective at finding nearby radio-selected BL Lac objects with radio luminosities comparable to those of X-ray-selected objects, and low-luminosity flat-spectrum weak emission-line radio galaxies (WLRGs). The 200-mJy sample contains 23 BL Lac objects (including 6 BL Lac candidates) and 19 WLRGs. We will refer to these subsamples as the 200-mJy BL Lac sample and the 200-mJy WLRG sample, respectively. We have started a systematic analysis of the morphological pc-scale properties of the 200-mJy radio sources using VLBI observations. This paper presents VLBI observations at 5 and 1.6GHz of 14 BL Lac objects and WLRGs selected from the 200-mJy sample. The pc-scale morphology of these objects is briefly discussed. We derive the radio beaming parameters of the 200-mJy BL Lac objects and WLRGs and compare them with those of other BL Lac samples and with a sample of FR I radio galaxies. The overall broad-band radio, optical and X-ray properties of the 200-mJy BL Lac sample are discussed and compared with those of other BL Lac samples, radio- and X-ray-selected. We find that the 200-mJy BL Lac objects fill the gap between HBL and LBL objects in the colour-colour plot, and have intermediate αXOX as expected in the spectral energy distribution unification scenario. Finally, we briefly discuss the role of the WLRGs.

  11. Construction and validation of a Sambucus nigra biosensor for cancer-associated STn antigen.

    PubMed

    Silva, M Luísa S; Gutiérrez, Evelin; Rodríguez, José A; Gomes, Catarina; David, Leonor

    2014-07-15

    A label-free electrochemical impedance spectroscopy biosensor for selective detection and discrimination of the cancer-associated sialyl-Tn (STn) antigen was developed by using Sambucus nigra agglutinin type I (SNA-I) as the recognition element. The SNA-I biosensor was constructed by immobilizing the lectin on screen-printed gold electrodes. The formation of a complex between SNA-I and STn-containing glycoproteins (transferrin and bovine submaxillary mucin) was monitored by measuring the impedance increase of the biosensor. The increase in electron transfer resistance was linearly proportional to the concentration of the glycoproteins up to 70 ng of transferrin and 40 ng of bovine submaxillary mucin, with a limit of detection of 20 ng for transferrin. Albumin, the most abundant serum protein, did not interfere in the detection of the STn-glycoproteins up to a concentration of 0.2 mg ml(-1). The developed lectin-based biosensor was used to evaluate the STn-expression in serum samples and discriminate samples from healthy individuals and patients with different types of malignant tumors, mostly carcinomas, where the increased expression of STn aberrant glycans is well established. This work demonstrates the feasibility of employing SNA-I to selectively recognize the STn epitope in glycoproteins and the use of the constructed biosensor was effective in the analysis of serum samples with the ability to discriminate in a fast way between cancer and healthy status. The proposed biosensor could be used for high-throughput, label-free profiling of the cancer-associated STn glycan expression in serum for diagnosis and therapy monitoring. PMID:24594592

  12. Articulatory Changes in Vowel Production following STN DBS and Levodopa Intake in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Martel Sauvageau, Vincent; Roy, Johanna-Pascale; Cantin, Léo; Prud'Homme, Michel; Langlois, Mélanie; Macoir, Joël

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the impact of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) and levodopa intake on vowel articulation in dysarthric speakers with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods. Vowel articulation was assessed in seven Quebec French speakers diagnosed with idiopathic PD who underwent STN DBS. Assessments were conducted on- and off-medication, first prior to surgery and then 1 year later. All recordings were made on-stimulation. Vowel articulation was measured using acoustic vowel space and formant centralization ratio. Results. Compared to the period before surgery, vowel articulation was reduced after surgery when patients were off-medication, while it was better on-medication. The impact of levodopa intake on vowel articulation changed with STN DBS: before surgery, levodopa impaired articulation, while it no longer had a negative effect after surgery. Conclusions. These results indicate that while STN DBS could lead to a direct deterioration in articulation, it may indirectly improve it by reducing the levodopa dose required to manage motor symptoms. These findings suggest that, with respect to speech production, STN DBS and levodopa intake cannot be investigated separately because the two are intrinsically linked. Along with motor symptoms, speech production should be considered when optimizing therapeutic management of patients with PD. PMID:26558134

  13. Methods for Surgical Targeting of the STN in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Camalier, Corrie R; Konrad, Peter E; Gill, Chandler E; Kao, Chris; Remple, Michael R; Nasr, Hana M; Davis, Thomas L; Hedera, Peter; Phibbs, Fenna T; Molinari, Anna L; Neimat, Joseph S; Charles, David

    2014-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience progressive neurological decline, and future interventional therapies are thought to show most promise in early stages of the disease. There is much interest in therapies that target the subthalamic nucleus (STN) with surgical access. While locating STN in advanced disease patients (Hoehn-Yahr Stage III or IV) is well understood and routinely performed at many centers in the context of deep brain stimulation surgery, the ability to identify this nucleus in early-stage patients has not previously been explored in a sizeable cohort. We report surgical methods used to target the STN in 15 patients with early PD (Hoehn-Yahr Stage II), using a combination of image guided surgery, microelectrode recordings, and clinical responses to macrostimulation of the region surrounding the STN. Measures of electrophysiology (firing rates and root mean squared activity) have previously been found to be lower than in later-stage patients, however, the patterns of electrophysiology seen and dopamimetic macrostimulation effects are qualitatively similar to those seen in advanced stages. Our experience with surgical implantation of Parkinson's patients with minimal motor symptoms suggest that it remains possible to accurately target the STN in early-stage PD using traditional methods. PMID:24678307

  14. Effects of STN DBS on Rigidity in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Mark B.; Vaillancourt, David E.; Sturman, Molly M.; Metman, Leo Verhagen; Bakay, Roy A. E.; Corcos, Daniel M.

    2008-01-01

    We quantified the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and medication on Parkinsonian rigidity using an objective measure of work about the elbow joint during a complete cycle of imposed 1-Hz sinusoidal oscillations. Resting and activated rigidity were analyzed in four experimental conditions: 1) off treatment; 2) on DBS; 3) on medication; and 4) on DBS plus medication. Rigidity at the elbow joint was also assessed using the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). We tested ten patients who received STN DBS and ten age-matched neurologically healthy control subjects. The activated rigidity condition increased work in both Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients and control subjects. In PD patients, STN DBS reduced both resting and activated rigidity as indicated by work and the UPDRS rigidity score. This is the first demonstration that STN stimulation reduces rigidity using an objective measure such as work. In contrast, the presurgery dose of antiparkinsonian medication did not significantly improve the UPDRS rigidity score and reduced work only in the activated rigidity condition. Our results suggest that STN DBS may be more effective in alleviating rigidity in the upper limb of PD patients than medications administered at presurgery dosage level. PMID:17601186

  15. Mutations in STN1 cause Coats plus syndrome and are associated with genomic and telomere defects.

    PubMed

    Simon, Amos J; Lev, Atar; Zhang, Yong; Weiss, Batia; Rylova, Anna; Eyal, Eran; Kol, Nitzan; Barel, Ortal; Cesarkas, Keren; Soudack, Michalle; Greenberg-Kushnir, Noa; Rhodes, Michele; Wiest, David L; Schiby, Ginette; Barshack, Iris; Katz, Shulamit; Pras, Elon; Poran, Hana; Reznik-Wolf, Haike; Ribakovsky, Elena; Simon, Carlos; Hazou, Wadi; Sidi, Yechezkel; Lahad, Avishay; Katzir, Hagar; Sagie, Shira; Aqeilan, Haifa A; Glousker, Galina; Amariglio, Ninette; Tzfati, Yehuda; Selig, Sara; Rechavi, Gideon; Somech, Raz

    2016-07-25

    The analysis of individuals with telomere defects may shed light on the delicate interplay of factors controlling genome stability, premature aging, and cancer. We herein describe two Coats plus patients with telomere and genomic defects; both harbor distinct, novel mutations in STN1, a member of the human CTC1-STN1-TEN1 (CST) complex, thus linking this gene for the first time to a human telomeropathy. We characterized the patients' phenotype, recapitulated it in a zebrafish model and rescued cellular and clinical aspects by the ectopic expression of wild-type STN1 or by thalidomide treatment. Interestingly, a significant lengthy control of the gastrointestinal bleeding in one of our patients was achieved by thalidomide treatment, exemplifying a successful bed-to-bench-and-back approach. PMID:27432940

  16. Inhibition of Serratia marcescens Smj-11 biofilm formation by Alcaligenes faecalis STN17 crude extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutfi, Zainal; Usup, Gires; Ahmad, Asmat

    2014-09-01

    Serratia marcescens biofilms are formed when they are bound to surfaces in aqueous environments. S. marcescens utilizes N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) as its quorum sensing signal molecule. The accumulation of AHL indicates the bacteria to produce matrices to form biofilms. Prodigiosin (2-methyl-3-pentyl-6-methoxyprodigiosin), which causes red pigmentation in the colonies, are also produced when the AHL reaches a certain threshold. The Alcaligenes faecalis STN17 crude extract is believed to inhibit quorum sensing in the S. marcescens Smj-11 and, thus, impedes its biofilm formation ability. A. faecalis STN17 was grown in marine broth, and ethyl acetate extraction was carried out. The crude compound of A. faecalis STN17 was diluted at high concentration (0.2-6.4 mg/mL) and was taken to confirm anti-biofilm activity through the crystal violet method in 96-wells plate. Then, the crude extract underwent purification using simple solvents partitioning test to discern the respective compounds that had the anti-biofilm activity under the crystal violet method. The crystal violet test showed that the crude did have anti-biofilm activity on S. marcescens Smj-11, but did not kill the cells. This finding signifies that the suppression of biofilm formation in S. marcescens by A. faecalis STN17 has a strong correlation. The partitioning test showed that A. faecalis STN17 crude extract has several compounds and only the compound(s) in chloroform showed activities. In conclusion, the crude extract of A. faecalis STN17 has the ability to inhibit S. marcescens Smj-11 biofilm formation.

  17. Inhibition of Serratia marcescens Smj-11 biofilm formation by Alcaligenes faecalis STN17 crude extract

    SciTech Connect

    Lutfi, Zainal; Ahmad, Asmat; Usup, Gires

    2014-09-03

    Serratia marcescens biofilms are formed when they are bound to surfaces in aqueous environments. S. marcescens utilizes N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) as its quorum sensing signal molecule. The accumulation of AHL indicates the bacteria to produce matrices to form biofilms. Prodigiosin (2-methyl-3-pentyl-6-methoxyprodigiosin), which causes red pigmentation in the colonies, are also produced when the AHL reaches a certain threshold. The Alcaligenes faecalis STN17 crude extract is believed to inhibit quorum sensing in the S. marcescens Smj-11 and, thus, impedes its biofilm formation ability. A. faecalis STN17 was grown in marine broth, and ethyl acetate extraction was carried out. The crude compound of A. faecalis STN17 was diluted at high concentration (0.2-6.4 mg/mL) and was taken to confirm anti-biofilm activity through the crystal violet method in 96-wells plate. Then, the crude extract underwent purification using simple solvents partitioning test to discern the respective compounds that had the anti-biofilm activity under the crystal violet method. The crystal violet test showed that the crude did have anti-biofilm activity on S. marcescens Smj-11, but did not kill the cells. This finding signifies that the suppression of biofilm formation in S. marcescens by A. faecalis STN17 has a strong correlation. The partitioning test showed that A. faecalis STN17 crude extract has several compounds and only the compound(s) in chloroform showed activities. In conclusion, the crude extract of A. faecalis STN17 has the ability to inhibit S. marcescens Smj-11 biofilm formation.

  18. STN vs. GPi Deep Brain Stimulation: Translating the Rematch into Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Nolan R.; Foote, Kelly D.; Okun, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    When formulating a deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment plan for a patient with Parkinson’s disease (PD), two critical questions should be addressed: 1- Which brain target should be chosen to optimize this patient’s outcome? and 2- Should this patient’s DBS operation be unilateral or bilateral? Over the past two decades, two targets have emerged as leading contenders for PD DBS; the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the globus pallidus internus (GPi). While the GPi target does have a following, most centers have uniformly employed bilateral STN DBS for all Parkinson’s disease cases (Figure 1). This bilateral STN “one-size-fits-all” approach was challenged by an editorial entitled “STN vs. GPi: The Rematch,” which appeared in the Archives of Neurology in 2005. Since 2005, a series of well designed clinical trials and follow-up studies have addressed the question as to whether a more tailored approach to DBS therapy might improve overall outcomes. Such a tailored approach would include the options of targeting the GPi, or choosing a unilateral operation. The results of the STN vs. GPi ‘rematch’ studies support the conclusion that bilateral STN DBS may not be the best option for every Parkinson’s disease surgical patient. Off period motor symptoms and tremor improve in both targets, and with either unilateral or bilateral stimulation. Advantages of the STN target include more medication reduction, less frequent battery changes, and a more favorable economic profile. Advantages of GPi include more robust dyskinesia suppression, easier programming, and greater flexibility in adjusting medications. In cases where unilateral stimulation is anticipated, the data favor GPi DBS. This review summarizes the accumulated evidence regarding the use of bilateral vs. unilateral DBS and the selection of STN vs. GPi DBS, including definite and possible advantages of different targets and approaches. Based on this evidence, a more patient-tailored, symptom specific

  19. STN area detection using K-NN classifiers for MER recordings in Parkinson patients during neurostimulator implant surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiaffino, L.; Rosado Muñoz, A.; Guerrero Martínez, J.; Francés Villora, J.; Gutiérrez, A.; Martínez Torres, I.; Kohan, y. D. R.

    2016-04-01

    Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) applies electric pulses into the subthalamic nucleus (STN) improving tremor and other symptoms associated to Parkinson’s disease. Accurate STN detection for proper location and implant of the stimulating electrodes is a complex task and surgeons are not always certain about final location. Signals from the STN acquired during DBS surgery are obtained with microelectrodes, having specific characteristics differing from other brain areas. Using supervised learning, a trained model based on previous microelectrode recordings (MER) can be obtained, being able to successfully classify the STN area for new MER signals. The K Nearest Neighbours (K-NN) algorithm has been successfully applied to STN detection. However, the use of the fuzzy form of the K-NN algorithm (KNN-F) has not been reported. This work compares the STN detection algorithm of K-NN and KNN-F. Real MER recordings from eight patients where previously classified by neurophysiologists, defining 15 features. Sensitivity and specificity for the classifiers are obtained, Wilcoxon signed rank non-parametric test is used as statistical hypothesis validation. We conclude that the performance of KNN-F classifier is higher than K-NN with p<0.01 in STN specificity.

  20. Synthesis and immunological evaluation of MUC1 glycopeptide conjugates bearing N-acetyl modified STn derivatives as anticancer vaccines.

    PubMed

    Xiao, An; Zheng, Xiu-Jing; Song, Chengcheng; Gui, Yue; Huo, Chang-Xin; Ye, Xin-Shan

    2016-07-26

    Glycoprotein MUC1 is an attractive target for anti-tumor vaccine development. However, the weak immunogenicity of MUC1 remains a significant problem. To solve this problem, several STn derivatives with N-acetyl modifications were synthesized and incorporated into a 20-amino acid MUC1 tandem repeat sequence. The modified STn-MUC1 glycopeptides were further connected to a carrier protein keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). The immunological effects of these synthetic vaccine conjugates were evaluated using the BALB/c mouse model. The results showed that vaccine V2 elicited higher titers of antibodies which cross-reacted with the native STn-MUC1 antigen. Moreover, the elicited antisera reacted with the STn-MUC1 antigen-positive tumor cells, indicating that the carbohydrate antigen modification strategy may hold potential to overcome the weak immunogenicity of natural MUC1 glycopeptides. PMID:27380866

  1. STN-DBS Reduces Saccadic Hypometria but Not Visuospatial Bias in Parkinson's Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Petra; Ossandón, José P; Keyser, Johannes; Gulberti, Alessandro; Wilming, Niklas; Hamel, Wolfgang; Köppen, Johannes; Buhmann, Carsten; Westphal, Manfred; Gerloff, Christian; Moll, Christian K E; Engel, Andreas K; König, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to its well-established role in alleviating skeleto-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease, little is known about the impact of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) on oculomotor control and attention. Eye-tracking data of 17 patients with left-hemibody symptom onset was compared with 17 age-matched control subjects. Free-viewing of natural images was assessed without stimulation as baseline and during bilateral DBS. To examine the involvement of ventral STN territories in oculomotion and spatial attention, we employed unilateral stimulation via the left and right ventralmost contacts respectively. When DBS was off, patients showed shorter saccades and a rightward viewing bias compared with controls. Bilateral stimulation in therapeutic settings improved saccadic hypometria but not the visuospatial bias. At a group level, unilateral ventral stimulation yielded no consistent effects. However, the evaluation of electrode position within normalized MNI coordinate space revealed that the extent of early exploration bias correlated with the precise stimulation site within the left subthalamic area. These results suggest that oculomotor impairments "but not higher-level exploration patterns" are effectively ameliorable by DBS in therapeutic settings. Our findings highlight the relevance of the STN topography in selecting contacts for chronic stimulation especially upon appearance of visuospatial attention deficits. PMID:27199693

  2. Coordinated reset stimulation in a large-scale model of the STN-GPe circuit

    PubMed Central

    Ebert, Martin; Hauptmann, Christian; Tass, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Synchronization of populations of neurons is a hallmark of several brain diseases. Coordinated reset (CR) stimulation is a model-based stimulation technique which specifically counteracts abnormal synchrony by desynchronization. Electrical CR stimulation, e.g., for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), is administered via depth electrodes. In order to get a deeper understanding of this technique, we extended the top-down approach of previous studies and constructed a large-scale computational model of the respective brain areas. Furthermore, we took into account the spatial anatomical properties of the simulated brain structures and incorporated a detailed numerical representation of 2 · 104 simulated neurons. We simulated the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the globus pallidus externus (GPe). Connections within the STN were governed by spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP). In this way, we modeled the physiological and pathological activity of the considered brain structures. In particular, we investigated how plasticity could be exploited and how the model could be shifted from strongly synchronized (pathological) activity to strongly desynchronized (healthy) activity of the neuronal populations via CR stimulation of the STN neurons. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of specific stimulation parameters especially the electrode position on the stimulation outcome. Our model provides a step forward toward a biophysically realistic model of the brain areas relevant to the emergence of pathological neuronal activity in PD. Furthermore, our model constitutes a test bench for the optimization of both stimulation parameters and novel electrode geometries for efficient CR stimulation. PMID:25505882

  3. STN-DBS Reduces Saccadic Hypometria but Not Visuospatial Bias in Parkinson's Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Petra; Ossandón, José P.; Keyser, Johannes; Gulberti, Alessandro; Wilming, Niklas; Hamel, Wolfgang; Köppen, Johannes; Buhmann, Carsten; Westphal, Manfred; Gerloff, Christian; Moll, Christian K. E.; Engel, Andreas K.; König, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to its well-established role in alleviating skeleto-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease, little is known about the impact of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) on oculomotor control and attention. Eye-tracking data of 17 patients with left-hemibody symptom onset was compared with 17 age-matched control subjects. Free-viewing of natural images was assessed without stimulation as baseline and during bilateral DBS. To examine the involvement of ventral STN territories in oculomotion and spatial attention, we employed unilateral stimulation via the left and right ventralmost contacts respectively. When DBS was off, patients showed shorter saccades and a rightward viewing bias compared with controls. Bilateral stimulation in therapeutic settings improved saccadic hypometria but not the visuospatial bias. At a group level, unilateral ventral stimulation yielded no consistent effects. However, the evaluation of electrode position within normalized MNI coordinate space revealed that the extent of early exploration bias correlated with the precise stimulation site within the left subthalamic area. These results suggest that oculomotor impairments “but not higher-level exploration patterns” are effectively ameliorable by DBS in therapeutic settings. Our findings highlight the relevance of the STN topography in selecting contacts for chronic stimulation especially upon appearance of visuospatial attention deficits. PMID:27199693

  4. Suppression of STN1 enhances the cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agents in cancer cells by elevating DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qing; Chai, Weihang

    2016-01-01

    DNA damage-inducing agents are among the most effective treatment regimens in clinical chemotherapy. However, drug resistance and severe side effects caused by these agents greatly limit their efficacy. Sensitizing malignant cells to chemotherapeutic agents has long been a goal of chemotherapy. In the present study, suppression of STN1, a gene important for safeguarding genome stability, potentiated the anticancer effect of chemotherapeutic agents in tumor cells. Using multiple cancer cells from a variety of origins, it was observed that downregulation of STN1 resulted in a significant decrease in the half maximal inhibitory concentration values of several conventional anticancer agents. When cells are treated with anticancer agents, STN1 suppression leads to a decline in colony formation and diminished anchorage-independent growth. Furthermore, it was additionally observed that STN1 knockdown augmented the levels of DNA damage caused by damage-inducing agents. The present study concluded that suppression of STN1 enhances the cytotoxicity of damage-inducing chemotherapeutic agents by increasing DNA damage in cancer cells. PMID:27446354

  5. Prediction of STN-DBS Electrode Implantation Track in Parkinson's Disease by Using Local Field Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Telkes, Ilknur; Jimenez-Shahed, Joohi; Viswanathan, Ashwin; Abosch, Aviva; Ince, Nuri F.

    2016-01-01

    Optimal electrophysiological placement of the DBS electrode may lead to better long term clinical outcomes. Inter-subject anatomical variability and limitations in stereotaxic neuroimaging increase the complexity of physiological mapping performed in the operating room. Microelectrode single unit neuronal recording remains the most common intraoperative mapping technique, but requires significant expertise and is fraught by potential technical difficulties including robust measurement of the signal. In contrast, local field potentials (LFPs), owing to their oscillatory and robust nature and being more correlated with the disease symptoms, can overcome these technical issues. Therefore, we hypothesized that multiple spectral features extracted from microelectrode-recorded LFPs could be used to automate the identification of the optimal track and the STN localization. In this regard, we recorded LFPs from microelectrodes in three tracks from 22 patients during DBS electrode implantation surgery at different depths and aimed to predict the track selected by the neurosurgeon based on the interpretation of single unit recordings. A least mean square (LMS) algorithm was used to de-correlate LFPs in each track, in order to remove common activity between channels and increase their spatial specificity. Subband power in the beta band (11–32 Hz) and high frequency range (200–450 Hz) were extracted from the de-correlated LFP data and used as features. A linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method was applied both for the localization of the dorsal border of STN and the prediction of the optimal track. By fusing the information from these low and high frequency bands, the dorsal border of STN was localized with a root mean square (RMS) error of 1.22 mm. The prediction accuracy for the optimal track was 80%. Individual beta band (11–32 Hz) and the range of high frequency oscillations (200–450 Hz) provided prediction accuracies of 72 and 68% respectively. The best

  6. Prediction of STN-DBS Electrode Implantation Track in Parkinson's Disease by Using Local Field Potentials.

    PubMed

    Telkes, Ilknur; Jimenez-Shahed, Joohi; Viswanathan, Ashwin; Abosch, Aviva; Ince, Nuri F

    2016-01-01

    Optimal electrophysiological placement of the DBS electrode may lead to better long term clinical outcomes. Inter-subject anatomical variability and limitations in stereotaxic neuroimaging increase the complexity of physiological mapping performed in the operating room. Microelectrode single unit neuronal recording remains the most common intraoperative mapping technique, but requires significant expertise and is fraught by potential technical difficulties including robust measurement of the signal. In contrast, local field potentials (LFPs), owing to their oscillatory and robust nature and being more correlated with the disease symptoms, can overcome these technical issues. Therefore, we hypothesized that multiple spectral features extracted from microelectrode-recorded LFPs could be used to automate the identification of the optimal track and the STN localization. In this regard, we recorded LFPs from microelectrodes in three tracks from 22 patients during DBS electrode implantation surgery at different depths and aimed to predict the track selected by the neurosurgeon based on the interpretation of single unit recordings. A least mean square (LMS) algorithm was used to de-correlate LFPs in each track, in order to remove common activity between channels and increase their spatial specificity. Subband power in the beta band (11-32 Hz) and high frequency range (200-450 Hz) were extracted from the de-correlated LFP data and used as features. A linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method was applied both for the localization of the dorsal border of STN and the prediction of the optimal track. By fusing the information from these low and high frequency bands, the dorsal border of STN was localized with a root mean square (RMS) error of 1.22 mm. The prediction accuracy for the optimal track was 80%. Individual beta band (11-32 Hz) and the range of high frequency oscillations (200-450 Hz) provided prediction accuracies of 72 and 68% respectively. The best prediction

  7. The noise of BL Lacertae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. L.; Angel, J. R. P.; Duerr, R.; Lebofsky, M. J.; Wisniewski, W. Z.; Rieke, G. H.; Axon, D. J.; Bailey, J.; Hough, J. M.; Mcgraw, J. T.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented from an intensive optical and IR monitoring program of the flux and polarization characteristics of BL Lac. It is found that the polarization variations increase in amplitude with increasing time interval, and that the path traced out by the polarization vector in the Q-U plane is a random walk. In view of earlier measurements of BL Lac, the polarization fluctuations can be represented at low frequencies by the flat power spectrum of white noise, up to a frequency of 0.05 cycles/day. Above this frequency, the spectrum steepens to that of a random walk. A model for BL Lac suggested by the polarimetric noise can be constructed from independent sources of light with randomly oriented, strong polarization. Small random differences in spectral index from source to source could also explain the variable wavelength dependence of polarization.

  8. Distinct effects of dopamine vs STN stimulation therapies in associative learning and retention in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Ventre-Dominey, Jocelyne; Mollion, Hélène; Thobois, Stephane; Broussolle, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    Evidence has been provided in Parkinson's disease patients of cognitive impairments including visual memory and learning which can be partially compensated by dopamine medication or subthalamic nucleus stimulation. The effects of these two therapies can differ according to the learning processes involving the dorsal vs ventral part of the striatum. Here we aimed to investigate and compare the outcomes of dopamine vs stimulation treatment in Parkinson patient's ability to acquire and maintain over successive days their performance in visual working memory. Parkinson patients performed conditional associative learning embedded in visual (spatial and non spatial) working memory tasks over two consecutive days either ON or OFF dopaminergic drugs or STN stimulation depending on the group of patients studied. While Parkinson patients were more accurate and faster in memory tasks ON vs OFF stimulation independent of the day of testing, performance in medicated patients differed depending on the medication status during the initial task acquisition. Patients who learnt the task ON medication the first day were able to maintain or even improve their memory performance both OFF and ON medication on the second day after consolidation. These effects were observed only in patients with dopamine replacement with or without motor fluctuations. This enhancement in memory performance after having learnt under dopamine medication and not under STN stimulation was mostly significant in visuo-spatial working memory tasks suggesting that dopamine replacement in the depleted dorsal striatum is essential for retention and consolidation of learnt skill. PMID:26778783

  9. Optical activity of BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larionov, V.; Blinov, D.; Konstantinova, T.

    2012-04-01

    We perform optical photometric and R-band polarimetric monitoring of BL Lac using 70-cm AZT-8 (CrAO, Ukraine) and 0.4-m LX-200 (St.Petersburg, Russia) telescopes, as a part of GASP project. As reported in Atel#4028, this blazar was found by Fermi LAT in active state on 2012 April 9. Our data show that a sharp optical maximum was reached on the date 2012-04-08UT02:20, R=13.10, while on 2012-04-11UT01:30 R=13.40.

  10. Efficient and Specific Detection of Salmonella in Food Samples Using a stn-Based Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Method

    PubMed Central

    Srisawat, Mevaree; Panbangred, Watanalai

    2015-01-01

    The Salmonella enterotoxin (stn) gene exhibits high homology among S. enterica serovars and S. bongori. A set of 6 specific primers targeting the stn gene were designed for detection of Salmonella spp. using the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method. The primers amplified target sequences in all 102 strains of 87 serovars of Salmonella tested and no products were detected in 57 non-Salmonella strains. The detection limit in pure cultures was 5 fg DNA/reaction when amplified at 65°C for 25 min. The LAMP assay could detect Salmonella in artificially contaminated food samples as low as 220 cells/g of food without a preenrichment step. However, the sensitivity was increased 100-fold (~2 cells/g) following 5 hr preenrichment at 35°C. The LAMP technique, with a preenrichment step for 5 and 16 hr, was shown to give 100% specificity with food samples compared to the reference culture method in which 67 out of 90 food samples gave positive results. Different food matrixes did not interfere with LAMP detection which employed a simple boiling method for DNA template preparation. The results indicate that the LAMP method, targeting the stn gene, has great potential for detection of Salmonella in food samples with both high specificity and high sensitivity. PMID:26543859

  11. Radio outburst of BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buemi, C. S.; Leto, P.; Trigilio, C.; Umana, G.; Giroletti, M.; Orienti, M.; Raiteri, C. M.; Villata, M.; Bach, U.

    2013-04-01

    We report on extremely high radio flux of BL Lacertae at 43 and 8 GHz. Observations at 43 GHz with the 32 m radio telescope in Noto (Italy) revealed a flux density of 10.5 +/- 0.2 Jy on 2013 April 10.65, while observations at 8 GHz with the 32 m radio telescope in Medicina (Italy) detected a flux density of 8.2 +/- 0.7 Jy on April 12.22. These extremely high radio fluxes show that the radio activity likely correlated to the strong optical, near-infrared, and gamma-ray activity of 2011-2012 (see ATels #4028, #4031, #4155, #4271, #4277, #4349, #4565, #4600), and X-ray activity of late 2012 (ATels #4557, #4627), is far to be exhausted.

  12. Cognitive and Psychiatric Effects of STN versus GPi Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Yun-Peng; Li, Ji-Ping; Li, Yong-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of either the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or the globus pallidus interna (GPi) can reduce motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and improve their quality of life. However, the effects of STN DBS and GPi DBS on cognitive functions and their psychiatric effects remain controversial. The present meta-analysis was therefore performed to clarify these issues. Methods We searched the PUBMED, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases. Other sources, including internet-based clinical trial registries and grey literature sources, were also searched. After searching the literature, two investigators independently performed literature screens to assess the quality of the included trials and to extract the data. The outcomes included the effects of STN DBS and GPi DBS on multiple cognitive domains, depression, anxiety, and quality of life. Results Seven articles related to four randomized controlled trials that included 521 participants were incorporated into the present meta-analysis. Compared with GPi DBS, STN DBS was associated with declines in selected cognitive domains after surgery, including attention, working memory and processing speed, phonemic fluency, learning and memory, and global cognition. However, there were no significant differences in terms of quality of life or psychiatric effects, such as depression and anxiety, between the two groups. Conclusions A selective decline in frontal-subcortical cognitive functions is observed after STN DBS in comparison with GPi DBS, which should not be ignored in the target selection for DBS treatment in PD patients. In addition, compared to GPi DBS, STN DBS does not affect depression, anxiety, and quality of life. PMID:27248139

  13. BL Lac Objects at the highest redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajello, Marco

    2013-10-01

    For a long time high-redshift BL Lac objects were deemed not to exist. Fermi showed us that there is relevant population of BL Lacs with redshift beyond 1.0. Some of them belong to the high-synchrotron peaked (HSP) class and are among the hardest gamma-ray sources detected by Fermi showing emission up and beyond 100 GeV. This makes them the most luminous BL Lacs ever detected and rates them among the most powerful accelerators in the Universe. We plan to observe 3 extreme BL Lacs simultaneously with XMM-Newton, GROND and Swift. This will provide unprecedented coverage of the synchrotron peak from IR to hard X-ray allowing us: to understand the nature and the energetic of these objects, to answer long-standing questions on the blazar sequence and to use them as probes of the EBL.

  14. Activation of the Stt7/STN7 Kinase through Dynamic Interactions with the Cytochrome b6f Complex1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Shapiguzov, Alexey; Chai, Xin; Fucile, Geoffrey; Longoni, Paolo; Zhang, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms have the ability to adapt to changes in light quality by readjusting the cross sections of the light-harvesting systems of photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI). This process, called state transitions, maintains the redox poise of the photosynthetic electron transfer chain and ensures a high photosynthetic yield when light is limiting. It is mediated by the Stt7/STN7 protein kinase, which is activated through the cytochrome b6f complex upon reduction of the plastoquinone pool. Its probable major substrate, the light-harvesting complex of PSII, once phosphorylated, dissociates from PSII and docks to PSI, thereby restoring the balance of absorbed light excitation energy between the two photosystems. Although the kinase is known to be inactivated under high-light intensities, the molecular mechanisms governing its regulation remain unknown. In this study we monitored the redox state of a conserved and essential Cys pair of the Stt7/STN7 kinase and show that it forms a disulfide bridge. We could not detect any change in the redox state of these Cys during state transitions and high-light treatment. It is only after prolonged anaerobiosis that this disulfide bridge is reduced. It is likely to be mainly intramolecular, although kinase activation may involve a transient covalently linked kinase dimer with two intermolecular disulfide bonds. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we have mapped one interaction site of the kinase on the Rieske protein of the cytochrome b6f complex. PMID:26941194

  15. Loss-of-function of OsSTN8 suppresses the photosystem II core protein phosphorylation and interferes with the photosystem II repair mechanism in rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Nath, Krishna; Poudyal, Roshan Sharma; Eom, Joon-Seob; Park, Yu Shin; Zulfugarov, Ismayil S; Mishra, Sujata R; Tovuu, Altanzaya; Ryoo, Nayeoon; Yoon, Ho-Sung; Nam, Hong Gil; An, Gynheung; Jeon, Jong-Seong; Lee, Choon-Hwan

    2013-11-01

    STN8 kinase is involved in photosystem II (PSII) core protein phosphorylation (PCPP). To examine the role of PCPP in PSII repair during high light (HL) illumination, we characterized a T-DNA insertional knockout mutant of the rice (Oryza sativa) STN8 gene. In this osstn8 mutant, PCPP was significantly suppressed, and the grana were thin and elongated. Upon HL illumination, PSII was strongly inactivated in the mutants, but the D1 protein was degraded more slowly than in wild-type, and mobilization of the PSII supercomplexes from the grana to the stromal lamellae for repair was also suppressed. In addition, higher accumulation of reactive oxygen species and preferential oxidation of PSII reaction center core proteins in thylakoid membranes were observed in the mutants during HL illumination. Taken together, our current data show that the absence of STN8 is sufficient to abolish PCPP in osstn8 mutants and to produce all of the phenotypes observed in the double mutant of Arabidopsis, indicating the essential role of STN8-mediated PCPP in PSII repair. PMID:24103067

  16. Multiband Microvariability of BL Lac During Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, S. D.; Carini, M. T.; Noble, J. C.

    1998-01-01

    The blazar BL Lac recently underwent a major outburst. A search for microvariability was made with the 0.76 m telescope at the University of Florida's Rosemary Hill Observatory. Nearly 300 CCD observations in V and R were made over ten nights in July. During that time, BL Lac varied by more than 1.5 magnitudes and exhibited substantial microvariability. In fact, it exhibited microvariability each of the eight nights multiple exposures were made, being most active when brightest on July 29. On this night, four mini-flares were seen within 7 hours. During one of these flares, BL Lac brightened by more than 0.5 magnitude in less than 2.5 hours. The variations in V and R were simultaneous within the limits of the observations. However, the V and R magnitudes did not always change at the same rate. On July 3, BL Lac brightened in R faster than in V. Then on July 4, it dimmed in V faster than in R. Yet over the ten nights observed, BL Lac became bluer as it brightened. Another interesting difference between the V and R data was seen on July 4 when a mini-flare was seen in V but not in R. Clearly, while the V and R variations are highly correlated, there are compelling differences. Here we present these observations and discuss them in relation to models intended to explain microvariability. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of NASA grant NCC5-228.

  17. Closed-loop stimulation of a delayed neural fields model of parkinsonian STN-GPe network: a theoretical and computational study

    PubMed Central

    Detorakis, Georgios Is.; Chaillet, Antoine; Palfi, Stéphane; Senova, Suhan

    2015-01-01

    Several disorders are related to pathological brain oscillations. In the case of Parkinson's disease, sustained low-frequency oscillations (especially in the β-band, 13–30 Hz) correlate with motor symptoms. It is still under debate whether these oscillations are the cause of parkinsonian motor symptoms. The development of techniques enabling selective disruption of these β-oscillations could contribute to the understanding of the underlying mechanisms, and could be exploited for treatments. A particularly appealing technique is Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS). With clinical electrical DBS, electrical currents are delivered at high frequency to a region made of potentially heterogeneous neurons (the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in the case of Parkinson's disease). Even more appealing is DBS with optogenetics, which is until now a preclinical method using both gene transfer and deep brain light delivery and enabling neuromodulation at the scale of one given neural network. In this work, we rely on delayed neural fields models of STN and the external Globus Pallidus (GPe) to develop, theoretically validate and test in silico a closed-loop stimulation strategy to disrupt these sustained oscillations with optogenetics. First, we rely on tools from control theory to provide theoretical conditions under which sustained oscillations can be attenuated by a closed-loop stimulation proportional to the measured activity of STN. Second, based on this theoretical framework, we show numerically that the proposed closed-loop stimulation efficiently attenuates sustained oscillations, even in the case when the photosensitization effectively affects only 50% of STN neurons. We also show through simulations that oscillations disruption can be achieved when the same light source is used for the whole STN population. We finally test the robustness of the proposed strategy to possible acquisition and processing delays, as well as parameters uncertainty. PMID:26217171

  18. XML Files

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/xml.html MedlinePlus XML Files To use the sharing features on this page, ... information on all English and Spanish topic groups. Files generated on July 09, 2016 MedlinePlus Health Topic ...

  19. On fuzzy ideals of BL-algebras.

    PubMed

    Meng, Biao Long; Xin, Xiao Long

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate further properties of fuzzy ideals of a BL-algebra. The notions of fuzzy prime ideals, fuzzy irreducible ideals, and fuzzy Gödel ideals of a BL-algebra are introduced and their several properties are investigated. We give a procedure to generate a fuzzy ideal by a fuzzy set. We prove that every fuzzy irreducible ideal is a fuzzy prime ideal but a fuzzy prime ideal may not be a fuzzy irreducible ideal and prove that a fuzzy prime ideal ω is a fuzzy irreducible ideal if and only if ω(0) = 1 and |Im(ω)| = 2. We give the Krull-Stone representation theorem of fuzzy ideals in BL-algebras. Furthermore, we prove that the lattice of all fuzzy ideals of a BL-algebra is a complete distributive lattice. Finally, it is proved that every fuzzy Boolean ideal is a fuzzy Gödel ideal, but the converse implication is not true. PMID:24892085

  20. B-L mediated SUSY breaking with radiative B-L symmetry breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuchi, Tatsuru; Kubo, Takayuki

    2008-11-23

    We explore a mechanism of radiative B-L symmetry breaking in analogous to the radiative electroweak symmetry breaking. The breaking scale of B-L symmetry is related to the neutrino masses through the see-saw mechanism. Once we incorporate the U(1){sub B-L} gauge symmetry in SUSY models, the U(1){sub B-L} gaugino, Z-tilde{sub B-L} appears, and it can mediate the SUSY breaking (Z-prime mediated SUSY breaking) at around the scale of 10{sup 6} GeV. Then we find a links between the neutrino mass (more precisly the see-saw or B-L scale of order 10{sup 6} GeV) and the Z-prime mediated SUSY breaking scale. It is also very interesting that the gluino at the weak scale becomes relatively light, and almost compressed mass spectra for the gaugino sector can be realized in this scenario, which is very interesting in scope of the LHC.

  1. Subaru Telescope Network III (STN-III): more effective, more operation-oriented, and more inexpensive solutions for the observatory's needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noumaru, Junichi; Kawai, Jun A.; Schubert, Kiaina; Yagi, Masafumi; Takata, Tadafumi; Winegar, Tom; Scanlon, Tim; Nishida, Takuhiro; Fox, Camron; Hayasaka, James; Forester, Jason; Uchida, Kenji; Nakamura, Isamu; Tom, Richard; Koura, Norikazu; Yamamoto, Tadahiro; Tanoue, Toshiya; Yamada, Toru

    2008-07-01

    Subaru Telescope has recently replaced most equipment of Subaru Telescope Network II with the new equipment which includes 124TB of RAID system for data archive. Switching the data storage from tape to RAID enables users to access the data faster. The STN-III dropped some important components of STN-II, such as supercomputers, development & testing subsystem for Subaru Observation Control System, or data processing subsystem. On the other hand, we invested more computers to the remote operation system. Thanks to IT innovations, our LAN as well as the network between Hilo and summit were upgraded to gigabit network at the similar or even reduced cost from the previous system. As the result of the redesigning of the computer system by more focusing on the observatory operation, we greatly reduced the total cost for computer rental, purchase and maintenance.

  2. Optical and radio brightening of BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehgamberdiev, Sh. A.; Mirzaqulov, D. O.; Buemi, C. S.; Leto, P.; Trigilio, C.; Umana, G.; Raiteri, C. M.; Villata, M.; Bach, U.

    2012-07-01

    Optical observations at the Mount Maidanak Observatory in the framework of the GLAST-AGILE Support Program (GASP) of the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT) reveal a rapid optical brightening of BL Lacertae. This is one of the 28 blazars for which the GASP performs a long-term, multiwavelength monitoring. The source brightness has recently increased from R = 13.66 +/- 0.01 on July 19.82 to R = 12.60 +/- 0.01 on July 22.97.

  3. Design of Beamline BL9 at Saga Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Tooru; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Kamada, Masao; Nishio, Mitsuhiro; Guo, Qixin; Masuda, Masataka; Motooka, Teruaki; Kondo, Yuzi; Hayashida, Kazuki; Yoshimura, Daisuke; Setoyama, Hiroyuki; Okajima, Toshihiro

    2007-01-19

    Saga Light Source (SAGA-LS), which has been constructed at Tosu city in Saga prefecture, is a compact synchrotron light source with storage electron energy of 1.4 GeV. A new beamline for the development of advanced materials and processing has been designed, and is now under construction at BL9 of SAGA-LS. This beamline is one of the three bending magnet beamlines (BL9, BL12, and BL15) constructed by Saga Prefectural Government. In this paper, we describe the design and the expected optical performance of the beamline BL9 at SAGA-LS.

  4. The gBL transport equations

    SciTech Connect

    Mynick, H.E.

    1989-05-01

    The transport equations arising from the ''generalized Balescu- Lenard'' (gBL) collision operator are obtained, and some of their properties examined. The equations contain neoclassical and turbulent transport as two special cases, having the same structure. The resultant theory offers potential explanation for a number of results not well understood, including the anomalous pinch, observed ratios of Q/GAMMAT on TFTR, and numerical reproduction of ASDEX profiles by a model for turbulent transport invoked without derivation, but by analogy to neoclassical theory. The general equations are specialized to consideration of a number of particular transport mechanisms of interest. 10 refs.

  5. The fraction of BL Lacertae objects in groups of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muriel, H.

    2016-06-01

    Context. BL Lac objects are a rare class of active galactic nuclei that typically show featureless optical spectra that make it difficult to estimate the redshift. A novel method for estimating the redshift of BL Lac objects has recently been proposed which assumes that these objects typically reside in groups of galaxies. Aims: The aim of this work is to estimate the fraction of BL Lac objects that reside in groups of galaxies. Methods: We use a sample of groups (M12 catalogue) selected by applying a friends-of-friends algorithm in the SDSS DR12. Galaxies in the M12 sample were cross-correlated with the sample of blazars in the BZCAT. We found that 121 galaxies in the M12 catalogue are blazars in the BZCAT sample, all but one are BL Lac objects, and a large fraction are classified as BL Lac-galaxy dominated. Results: Analysing the fraction of galaxies in groups as a function of redshift we have estimated a correction factor that takes into account the typical incompleteness of the catalogues based on the friends-of-friends algorithm. Once this factor was applied to the sample of BL Lac objects with a counterpart in the M12 catalogue, we found that the percentage of BL Lac objects in groups is ≳ 67 ± 8%. Conclusions: The high rate of BL Lac objects in groups found in this work strongly supports a recent method that has successfully estimated the redshift of BL Lac objects with featureless spectra.

  6. Optical and radio variability of BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaur, H.; Gupta, A. C.; Bachev, R.; Strigachev, A.; Semkov, E.; Wiita, P. J.; Volvach, A. E.; Gu, M. F.; Agarwal, A.; Agudo, I.; Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D.; Kurtanidze, O. M.; Kurtanidze, S. O.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Peneva, S.; Nikolashvili, M. G.; Sigua, L. A.; Tornikoski, M.; Volvach, L. N.

    2015-10-01

    Context. We extensively observed the prototype blazar, BL Lacertae, in optical and radio bands during an active phase in the period 2010-2013 when the source showed several prominent outbursts. We searched for possible correlations and time lags between the optical and radio band flux variations using multi-frequency data to learn about the mechanisms producing variability. Aims: During an active phase of BL Lacertae, we searched for possible correlations and time lags between multi-frequency light curves of several optical and radio bands. We tried to estimate any possible variability timescales and inter-band lags in these bands. Methods: We performed optical observations in B, V, R, and I-bands from seven telescopes in Bulgaria, Georgia, Greece, and India and obtained radio data at 36.8, 22.2, 14.5, 8, and 4.8 GHz frequencies from three telescopes in Crimea, Finland, and USA. Results: Significant cross-correlations between optical and radio bands are found in our observations with a delay of cm-fluxes with respect to optical bands of ~250 days. The optical and radio light curves do not show any significant timescales of variability. BL Lacertae showed many optical "mini-flares" on short timescales. Variations on longer term timescales are mildly chromatic with the superposition of many strong optical outbursts. In radio bands, the amplitude of variability is frequency dependent. Flux variations at higher radio frequencies lead the lower frequencies by days or weeks. Conclusions: The optical variations are consistent with being dominated by a geometric scenario where a region of emitting plasma moves along a helical path in a relativistic jet. The frequency dependence of the variability amplitude supports an origin of the observed variations intrinsic to the source. Tables of the light curves are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/582/A103

  7. Motor and non-motor circuitry activation induced by subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) in Parkinson’s disease patients: Intraoperative fMRI for DBS

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Emily J.; Testini, Paola; Min, Hoon-Ki; Gibson, William S.; Gorny, Krzysztof R.; Favazza, Christopher P.; Felmlee, Joel P.; Kim, Inyong; Welker, Kirk M.; Clayton, Daniel A.; Klassen, Bryan T.; Chang, Su-youne; Lee, Kendall H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis suggested by previous studies that subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with PD would affect the activity of both motor and non-motor networks, we applied intraoperative fMRI to patients receiving DBS. Patients and Methods Ten patients receiving STN DBS for PD underwent intraoperative 1.5T fMRI during high frequency stimulation delivered via an external pulse generator. The study was conducted between the dates of January 1, 2013 and September 30, 2014. Results We observed blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal changes (FDR<.001) in the motor circuitry, including primary motor, premotor, and supplementary motor cortices, thalamus, pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), and cerebellum, as well as in the limbic circuitry, including cingulate and insular cortices. Activation of the motor network was observed also after applying a Bonferroni correction (p<.001) to our dataset, suggesting that, across subjects, BOLD changes in the motor circuitry are more consistent compared to those occurring in the non-motor network. Conclusions These findings support the modulatory role of STN DBS on the activity of motor and non-motor networks, and suggest complex mechanisms at the basis of the efficacy of this treatment modality. Furthermore, these results suggest that, across subjects, BOLD changes in the motor circuitry are more consistent compared to those occurring in the non-motor network. With further studies combining the use of real time intraoperative fMRI with clinical outcomes in patients treated with DBS, functional imaging techniques have the potential not only to elucidate the mechanisms of DBS functioning, but also to guide and assist in the surgical treatment of patients affected by movement and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26046412

  8. Photometric monitoring of 12 BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, G. Z.; Zhou, S. B.; Dai, B. Z.; Liang, E. W.; Li, K. H.; Bai, J. M.; Xing, S. Y.; Liu, W. W.

    2002-02-01

    We present the results of our monitoring the flux variability of 12 BL Lac objects, which have variabilities on time-scales ranging from hours to months. Individual sources are discussed in detail. Three of them, OY091, H0548-322 and 0048-097, show significant rapid variation (hours). Two of them, 3C 66A and Mrk 501, exhibit significant variability on time-scales of months. We find that 3C 66A has a variability period of 63+/-5d, supporting the 65-d period obtained by Lainela et al. The periodicity seems to be weak according to the Jurkevich Vm2 test. We also find a correlation between B-V colour index and B magnitude for Mrk 421. We discuss possible physical mechanisms on the basis of these observational phenomena.

  9. Gamma-ray luminosity function of BL Lac objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Houdun; Yan, Dahai; Zhang, Li

    2014-06-01

    The gamma-ray luminosity function (GLF) of BL Lac objects is constructed by using a sample of BL Lac objects with redshifts selected from the Second LAT AGN catalog. The GLFs of BL Lacs in the frame of the pure density evolution (PDE), the pure luminosity evolution (PLE), and the luminosity-dependent density (LDDE) models are determined by using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique, respectively. Our results suggest that the PDE model can give best description for BL Lac GLF based on the combination of constraints of model parameters and good fits to the observed data of Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) BL Lacs, but other two models (PLE and LDDE) cannot be excluded. Based on our constructed GLFs, the contribution to the extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray background (EGRB) from BL Lacs is estimated, and ˜1-5 per cent of the EGRB in the 0.1-100 GeV band is found to come from unresolved BL Lacs (including the cascade emission). In addition, it is found that the BL Lac GLF is very different from flat spectrum radio quasar GLF and then the contribution of blazars to the EGRB should be estimated separately.

  10. Long-term observations of the blazar BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strigunov, K. S.; Zhovtan, A. V.

    In 1998-2011, the BL Lacertae blazar was active in various bands, including TeV energies. During the growth of activity in the gamma band, the spectrum of the object became flat, with the spectral index decreasing. This effect is associated with the conversion mechanism of particle acceleration in the BL Lacertae jet.

  11. 78 FR 49681 - Requirement of a Section 4959 Excise Tax Return and Time for Filing the Return

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... published a notice of proposed rulemaking in the Federal Register (REG-130266-11; 78 FR 20523) containing... 26 CFR Part 53 RIN 1545-BL58 Requirement of a Section 4959 Excise Tax Return and Time for Filing the... the tax ] is due, without regard to extensions of time to file the return. Treas. Reg. Sec. Sec....

  12. No evidence for radio-quiet BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocke, John T.; Morris, Simon L.; Gioia, Isabella; Maccacaro, Tommmaso; Schild, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    Using a large, flux-limited sample of faint X-ray sources, a search has been conducted for radio-quiet BL Lacertae objects. None has been found. Thirty-two X-ray-selected BL Lac objects and BL Lac candidates have been found within the sources of the Einstein Medium Sensitivity Survey (EMSS). Thirty-one of these have been observed with the VLA and all have been detected at 5 GHz. While the optical magnitudes of the EMSS BL Lac objects range from 17 to 20.8, their radio-to-optical spectral indices occupy a very small range. The very bright X-ray-selected BL Lac objects like PKS 2155-304 and Markarian 501 have similar range values. Therefore, unlike the clear dichotomy between radio-loud quasars and radio-quiet QSOs, there is no evidence for two populations of Lacertids distinguished by radio loudness.

  13. Intranight Variability During the 1997 Outburst of BL Lac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, Sandra D.; Carini, Michael T.; Noble, John C.

    1998-02-01

    The blazar BL Lac underwent a major outburst this summer. To search for intranight variability during the outburst, observations of BL Lac were made with the 30 inch telescope at the University of Florida's Rosemary Hill Observatory. During ten nights in July, nearly 300 CCD observations were made. BL Lac was seen to vary by more than 1.5 magnitudes over those ten nights. Substantial intranight variability was also observed. For example, on July 29, BL Lac increased in brightness by more than 0.5 magnitude in less than 2.5 hours. The observations of BL Lac taken in July are reported here and discussed in relation to the models intended to explain intranight variability.

  14. Structure of Yin Yang 1 Oligomers That Cooperate with RuvBL1-RuvBL2 ATPases*

    PubMed Central

    López-Perrote, Andrés; Alatwi, Hanan E.; Torreira, Eva; Ismail, Amani; Ayora, Silvia; Downs, Jessica A.; Llorca, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is a transcription factor regulating proliferation and differentiation and is involved in cancer development. Oligomers of recombinant YY1 have been observed before, but their structure and DNA binding properties are not well understood. Here we find that YY1 assembles several homo-oligomeric species built from the association of a bell-shaped dimer, a process we characterized by electron microscopy. Moreover, we find that YY1 self-association also occurs in vivo using bimolecular fluorescence complementation. Unexpectedly, these oligomers recognize several DNA substrates without the consensus sequence for YY1 in vitro, and DNA binding is enhanced in the presence of RuvBL1-RuvBL2, two essential AAA+ ATPases. YY1 oligomers bind RuvBL1-RuvBL2 hetero-oligomeric complexes, but YY1 interacts preferentially with RuvBL1. Collectively, these findings suggest that YY1-RuvBL1-RuvBL2 complexes could contribute to functions beyond transcription, and we show that YY1 and the ATPase activity of RuvBL2 are required for RAD51 foci formation during homologous recombination. PMID:24990942

  15. SUMOylation regulates telomere length by targeting the shelterin subunit Tpz1(Tpp1) to modulate shelterin-Stn1 interaction in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Miyagawa, Keisuke; Low, Ross S; Santosa, Venny; Tsuji, Hiroki; Moser, Bettina A; Fujisawa, Shiho; Harland, Jennifer L; Raguimova, Olga N; Go, Andrew; Ueno, Masaru; Matsuyama, Akihisa; Yoshida, Minoru; Nakamura, Toru M; Tanaka, Katsunori

    2014-04-22

    Telomeres protect DNA ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes from degradation and fusion, and ensure complete replication of the terminal DNA through recruitment of telomerase. The regulation of telomerase is a critical area of telomere research and includes cis regulation by the shelterin complex in mammals and fission yeast. We have identified a key component of this regulatory pathway as the SUMOylation [the covalent attachment of a small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) to target proteins] of a shelterin subunit in fission yeast. SUMOylation is known to be involved in the negative regulation of telomere extension by telomerase; however, how SUMOylation limits the action of telomerase was unknown until now. We show that SUMOylation of the shelterin subunit TPP1 homolog in Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Tpz1) on lysine 242 is important for telomere length homeostasis. Furthermore, we establish that Tpz1 SUMOylation prevents telomerase accumulation at telomeres by promoting recruitment of Stn1-Ten1 to telomeres. Our findings provide major mechanistic insights into how the SUMOylation pathway collaborates with shelterin and Stn1-Ten1 complexes to regulate telomere length. PMID:24711392

  16. Near-infrared brightening of BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnerero, M. I.; Gonzalez, A. I.; Pulido, J. A. Acosta; Raiteri, C. M.; Villata, M.

    2012-07-01

    Near-infrared observations at the Teide Observatory, in the framework of the GLAST-AGILE Support Program (GASP) of the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT) confirm a rapid brightening of BL Lacertae, as reported by ATel#4271. Here we report on four observations obtained at the Carlos Sanchez Telescope in a week period, according to which the source has increased its brightness by 0.7 mag. On 2012 July 20.14 the source was observed at J=11.25 +/-0.01 (H=10.27+/-0.01 and Ks=9.46+/-0.01), on July 21.15 at J=11.00+/-0.02 (H=10.02+/-0.02, Ks=9.21+/-0,02), on July 24.98 at J=10.72+/-0.01 (H=9.76+/-0.01, Ks=8.94+/-0.01), and on July 26.12 at J=10.57+/-0.01 (H=9.58+/-0.01, Ks=8.77+/-0.01).

  17. On the magnetization of BL Lac jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavecchio, F.; Ghisellini, G.

    2016-03-01

    The current paradigm foresees that relativistic jets are launched as magnetically dominated flows, whose magnetic power is progressively converted to kinetic power of the matter of the jet, until equipartition is reached. Therefore, at the end of the acceleration phase, the jet should still carry a substantial fraction (≈half) of its power in the form of a Poynting flux. It has been also argued that, in these conditions, the best candidate particle acceleration mechanism is efficient reconnection of magnetic field lines, for which it is predicted that magnetic field and accelerated relativistic electron energy densities are in equipartition. Through the modelling of the jet non-thermal emission, we explore if equipartition is indeed possible in BL Lac objects, i.e. low-power blazars with weak or absent broad emission lines. We find that one-zone models (for which only one region is involved in the production of the radiation we observe) the particle energy density is largely dominating (by 1-2 orders of magnitude) over the magnetic one. As a consequence, the jet kinetic power largely exceeds the magnetic power. Instead, if the jet is structured (i.e. made by a fast spine surrounded by a slower layer), the amplification of the inverse Compton emission due to the radiative interplay between the two components allows us to reproduce the emission in equipartition conditions.

  18. Compress Your Files

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branzburg, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    File compression enables data to be squeezed together, greatly reducing file size. Why would someone want to do this? Reducing file size enables the sending and receiving of files over the Internet more quickly, the ability to store more files on the hard drive, and the ability pack many related files into one archive (for example, all files…

  19. The cosmic evolution of Fermi BL Lacertae objects

    SciTech Connect

    Ajello, M.; Romani, R. W.; Shaw, M. S.; Healey, S. E.; Michelson, P. F.; Gasparrini, D.; Bolmer, J.; Cotter, G.; Potter, W. J.; Finke, J.; Greiner, J.; Rau, A.; Schady, P.; King, O.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Richards, J. L. E-mail: rwr@astro.stanford.edu E-mail: gasparrini@asdc.asi.it

    2014-01-01

    Fermi has provided the largest sample of γ-ray-selected blazars to date. In this work we use a uniformly selected set of 211 BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects detected by Fermi during its first year of operation. We obtained redshift constraints for 206 out of the 211 BL Lac objects in our sample, making it the largest and most complete sample of BL Lac objects available in the literature. We use this sample to determine the luminosity function of BL Lac objects and its evolution with cosmic time. We find that for most BL Lac classes the evolution is positive, with a space density peaking at modest redshift (z ≈ 1.2). Low-luminosity, high-synchrotron-peaked (HSP) BL Lac objects are an exception, showing strong negative evolution, with number density increasing for z ≲ 0.5. Since this rise corresponds to a drop-off in the density of flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), a possible interpretation is that these HSPs represent an accretion-starved end state of an earlier merger-driven gas-rich phase. We additionally find that the known BL Lac correlation between luminosity and photon spectral index persists after correction for the substantial observational selection effects with implications for the so-called 'blazar sequence'. Finally, by estimating the beaming corrections to the luminosity function, we find that BL Lac objects have an average Lorentz factor of γ=6.1{sub −0.8}{sup +1.1}, and that most are seen within 10° of the jet axis.

  20. Dark matter in B-L extended MSSM models

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, S.; Okada, H.

    2009-04-15

    We analyze the dark matter problem in the context of the supersymmetric U(1){sub B-L} model. In this model, the lightest neutralino can be the B-L gaugino Z-tilde{sub B-L} or the extra Higgsinos {chi}-tilde{sub 1,2} dominated. We compute the thermal relic abundance of these particles and show that, unlike the lightest neutralino in the MSSM, they can account for the observed relic abundance with no conflict with other phenomenological constraints. The prospects for their direct detection, if they are part of our galactic halo, are also discussed.

  1. The Evolving Radio Jet in BL Lacerta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aller, H. D.; Hughes, P. A.; Aller, M. F.

    1994-05-01

    During the past 15 years, there have been at least ten outbursts at centimeter wavelengths in this extragalactic object. We describe here the flux density and linear polarization variations observed at 4.8, 8.0 and 14.5 GHz with the Michigan 26-meter telescope during the series of outbursts since 1987. The recent bursts are somewhat different from the highly polarized bursts in the early 1980s, which provided a successful quantitative test of a source model based on propagating transverse shocks in a relativistic jet. The most notable change is that the polarization position angle during polarized outbursts has increased by approximately 10 degrees. This is approximately the same shift as found in a comparison of VLBI maps taken during the same time periods by Mutel, Denn and Dryer (1994, NRAO Workshop on Compact Extragalactic Radio Sources, ed. Zensus and Kellermann, p. 191), and supports their conclusion that the orientation of the radio emitting jet in BL Lac has changed over time. Our preliminary analysis further suggests that a simple scaling of the physical parameters which gave quantitatively good fits to both the 1982 and 1983 bursts will not accurately describe the recent, relatively isolated, burst in 1991. We also note that while some bursts (e.g. in 1982, 1983 and 1991) exhibit degrees of linear polarization in excess of ten percent, other bursts (e.g. in 1980 and 1990) exhibit a very low degree of linear polarization. A common characteristic of the low polarization events is that they all exhibit high internal synchrotron self absorption (as indicated by the flux density spectra of the outbursts). This research has been supported in part by NSF grant AST-9120224.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Optically selected BL Lac candidates polarimetry (Heidt+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidt, J.; Nilsson, K.

    2011-03-01

    195 polarimetric measurements of 182 BL Lac candidates from the SDSS taken with 3 different telescopes are presented. For each candidate the J2000 coordinates, its redshift, whether a source is listed in NED, the SDSS r-mag, the telescope for the observations used, the date of the observations, the exposure time for an individual exposure per position angle, the measured degree of polarization, the position angle and references to previous measurements of the sources are given. 13 objects have been observed twice. Here no entry for the coordinates is given. The redshifts, NED-listing and SDSS r-mags have been taken from Collinge et al. (2005, Cat. J/AJ/129/2542). (1 data file).

  3. HYDROGEOLOGIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THE U-3bl COLLAPSE ZONE

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada and National Security Technologies, LLC

    2006-09-01

    The U-3bl collapse crater was formed by an underground nuclear test in August 1962. This crater and the adjoining U-3ax crater were subsequently developed and used as a bulk low-level radioactive waste disposal cell (U-3ax/bl), which is part of the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Various investigations have been conducted to assess the hydrogeologic characteristics and properties in the vicinity of the U-3ax/bl waste disposal cell. This report presents data from one of these investigations, conducted in 1996. Also included in this report is a review of pertinent nuclear testing records, which shows that the testing operations and hydrogeologic setting of the U-3ax/bl site were typical for the period and location of testing.

  4. A comparative phenotypic and genomic analysis of C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The mouse inbred line C57BL/6J is widely used in mouse genetics and its genome has been incorporated into many genetic reference populations. More recently large initiatives such as the International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) are using the C57BL/6N mouse strain to generate null alleles for all mouse genes. Hence both strains are now widely used in mouse genetics studies. Here we perform a comprehensive genomic and phenotypic analysis of the two strains to identify differences that may influence their underlying genetic mechanisms. Results We undertake genome sequence comparisons of C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N to identify SNPs, indels and structural variants, with a focus on identifying all coding variants. We annotate 34 SNPs and 2 indels that distinguish C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N coding sequences, as well as 15 structural variants that overlap a gene. In parallel we assess the comparative phenotypes of the two inbred lines utilizing the EMPReSSslim phenotyping pipeline, a broad based assessment encompassing diverse biological systems. We perform additional secondary phenotyping assessments to explore other phenotype domains and to elaborate phenotype differences identified in the primary assessment. We uncover significant phenotypic differences between the two lines, replicated across multiple centers, in a number of physiological, biochemical and behavioral systems. Conclusions Comparison of C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N demonstrates a range of phenotypic differences that have the potential to impact upon penetrance and expressivity of mutational effects in these strains. Moreover, the sequence variants we identify provide a set of candidate genes for the phenotypic differences observed between the two strains. PMID:23902802

  5. Case File: The Spazzoids

    MedlinePlus

    ... classroom activities. More Related Links Healthy Schools Case file: The Spazzzoids Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... your classroom activities. More Related Links Healthy Schools File Formats Help: How do I view different file ...

  6. Are some BL Lacs artefacts of gravitational lensing?

    PubMed

    Ostriker, J P; Vietri, M

    1990-03-01

    WE suggested in 1985 that a significant fraction of BL Lacertae objects, a kind of lineless quasar, seen in nearby galaxies are in fact images, gravitationally lensed and substantially amplified by stars in the nearby galaxy, of background objects, optically violent variable (OVV) quasars at redshifts z > 1 (ref. 1). This hypothesis was made on the basis of certain general similarities between BL Lacs and O Ws, but for two recently observed BL Lacs(2,3) a strong case can be made that the accompanying elliptical galaxy is a foreground object. In addition, we argue that the distribution of BL Lac redshifts is hard to understand without gravitational lensing, unless we happen to be at a very local maximum of the spatial cosmic distribution of BL Lacs. Our analysis also indicates that the galaxies whose stars are likely to act as microlenses will be found in two peaks, one nearby, with redshift 0.05-0.10, and the other near the distant quasar. PMID:18278021

  7. Statistical Analysis on Temporal Properties of BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yu Cheng; Hu, Shao Ming; Li, Yu Tong; Chen, Xu

    2016-04-01

    A comprehensive temporal analysis has been performed on optical light curves of BL Lacertae in B, V and R bands. The light curves were denoised by Gaussian smoothing and decomposed into individual flares using an exponential profile. Asymmetry, duration, peak flux and equivalent energy output of flares were measured and the frequency distributions are presented. Most optical flares of BL Lacertae are highly symmetric, with a weak tendency towards gradual rises and rapid decays. The distribution of flare durations is not random but consistent with a gamma distribution. Peak fluxes and energy outputs of flares all follow lognormal distribution. A positive correlation is detected between flare durations and peak fluxes. The temporal properties of BL Lacertae provide evidence of the stochastic magnetohydrodynamic process in accretion disk and jet. Results presented here can serve as constraints on physical models attempting to interpreting blazar variations.

  8. New ways to leptogenesis with gauged B-L symmetry

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Babu, K.S.; Meng, Yanzhi; Tavartkiladze, Zurab

    2009-10-01

    We show that in supersymmetric models with gauged B-L symmetry, there is a new source for cosmological lepton asymmetry. The Higgs bosons responsible for B-L gauge symmetry breaking decay dominantly into right-handed sneutrinos N~ and N~* producing an asymmetry in N~ over N~*. This can be fully converted into ordinary lepton asymmetry in the decays of N~. In simple models with gauged B-L symmetry we show that resonant/soft leptogenesis is naturally realized. Supersymmetry guarantees quasi-degenerate scalar states, while soft breaking of SUSY provides the needed CP violation. Acceptable values of baryon asymmetry are obtained without causing serious problems with gravitinomore » abundance.« less

  9. Gamma-ray observations of BL Lac objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanlon, L.; McBreen, B.; OFlaherty, K.; Metcalfe, L.; Hunter, S.; Tashiro, M.; Wagner, S.; Bouchet, P.; Nicolson, G. D.; Smith, N. J.

    1997-01-01

    The results from observations of a sample of BL Lac objects by the Compton telescope (COMPTEL) and energetic gamma ray experiment telescope (EGRET) onboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) are presented. The main targets in the sample were selected on the basis of their X-ray brightness and apparent spectral hardening at hard X-ray energies. One of the targets, PKS 0521-365 was detected by EGRET, and these data are presented together with contemporaneous ground-based radio data. Subsequent X-ray observations of this source with the Advanced Satellite for Cosomology and Astrophysics (ASCA) demonstrated that, although originally classified as a BL Lac object, it is better described as a flat spectrum radio quasar. Upper limits on the gamma ray flux from all the non-detected BL lacs are presented.

  10. Statistical analysis of the temporal properties of BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yu Cheng; Hu, Shao Ming; Li, Yu Tong; Chen, Xu

    2016-08-01

    A comprehensive temporal analysis has been performed on optical light curves of BL Lacertae in the B, V and R bands. The light curves were denoised by Gaussian smoothing and decomposed into individual flares using an exponential profile. The asymmetry, duration, peak flux and equivalent energy output of flares were measured and the frequency distributions presented. Most optical flares of BL Lacertae are highly symmetric, with a weak tendency towards gradual rises and rapid decays. The distribution of flare durations is not random, but consistent with a gamma distribution. Peak fluxes and energy outputs of flares all follow a log-normal distribution. A positive correlation is detected between flare durations and peak fluxes. The temporal properties of BL Lacertae provide evidence of the stochastic magnetohydrodynamic process in the accretion disc and jet.The results presented here can serve as constraints on physical models attempting to interpret blazar variations.

  11. Imaging redshift estimates for Fermi BL Lac objects

    SciTech Connect

    Stadnik, Matt; Romani, Roger W. E-mail: rwr@astro.stanford.edu

    2014-04-01

    We have obtained WIYN and SOAR i' images of BL Lacertae objects and used these to detect or constrain the flux of the host galaxy. Under common standard candle assumptions, these data provide estimates of, or lower bounds on, the redshift. Our targets are a set of flat-spectrum radio counterparts of high flux Fermi Large Area Telescope sources, with sensitive spectral observations showing them to be continuum-dominated BL Lac objects. In this sample, 5 of 11 BL Lac objects yielded significant host detections, with standard candle redshifts z = 0.13-0.58. Our estimates and lower bounds are generally in agreement with other redshifts estimates, although our z = 0.374 estimate for J0543–5532 implies a significantly sub-luminous host.

  12. Accretion disk emission from a BL Lacertae object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urry, C. Megan; Wandel, Amri

    1990-01-01

    The accretion disk is an attractive model for BL Lac objects because of its preferred axis and high efficiency. While the smooth continuum spectra of BL Lacs do not show large UV bumps, in marked contrast to quasars, high quality simultaneous data do reveal deviations from smoothness. Using detailed calculations of cool accretion disk spectra, the best measured ultraviolet and soft x ray spectra of the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304 are fitted. The mass and accretion rate required are determined. A hot disk or corona could comptonize soft photons from the cool disk and produce the observed power law spectrum in the 1 to 10 keV range. The dynamic time scales in the disk regions that contribute most of the observed ultraviolet and soft x ray photons are consistent with the respective time scales for intensity variations. The mass derived from fitting the continuum spectrum is consistent with the limit derived from the fastest hard x ray variability.

  13. 43 CFR 4.1352 - Who may file; where to file; when to file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who may file; where to file; when to file... Indian Lands) § 4.1352 Who may file; where to file; when to file. (a) The applicant or operator may file... to file a timely request constitutes a waiver of the opportunity for a hearing before OSM makes...

  14. Elevated Optical Luminosity for Gamma-ray Blazar BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furniss, A.; Fumagalli, M.; Hogan, M.; Kaplan, K.; Prochaska, P. X.; Williams, D. A.

    2012-06-01

    We report on the increased optical luminosity of BL Lacertae (RA=22h02m43.29s, dec=42d16m39.98s), a low-frequency-peaked gamma-ray emitting blazar at a redshift of 0.068 (3EG J2202+4225, 2FGL J2202.8+4216). We have collected regular R-band exposures for BL Lacertae as part of a larger optical monitoring program of gamma-ray-bright blazars using the Super-LOTIS (Livermore Optical Transient Imaging System) robotic telescope at the Steward Observatory on Kitt Peak, near Tucson Arizona.

  15. Ultraviolet spectra of QSOs, BL Lacertae objects, and Seyfert galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanzetta, Kenneth M.; Turnshek, David A.; Sandoval, Jennifer

    1993-01-01

    Motivated by the possibility of detecting strong absorption features toward extragalactic background objects, we present optimally extracted and co-added IUE spectra of QSOs, BL Lac objects, and Seyfert galaxies. These spectra together with those presented (in a similar work) by Kinney et al. form an essentially complete sample of the SWP, LWP, and LWR observations of QSOs, BL Lac objects, and Seyfert galaxies with redshifts z greater than 0.05 available in the IUE merged observation log as of 1991 December.

  16. Ultraviolet spectra of QSOs, BL Lacertae objects, and Seyfert galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzetta, Kenneth M.; Turnshek, David A.; Sandoval, Jennifer

    1993-02-01

    Motivated by the possibility of detecting strong absorption features toward extragalactic background objects, we present optimally extracted and co-added IUE spectra of QSOs, BL Lac objects, and Seyfert galaxies. These spectra together with those presented (in a similar work) by Kinney et al. form an essentially complete sample of the SWP, LWP, and LWR observations of QSOs, BL Lac objects, and Seyfert galaxies with redshifts z greater than 0.05 available in the IUE merged observation log as of 1991 December.

  17. Common file formats.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Shonda A; Littlejohn, Timothy G; Baxevanis, Andreas D

    2007-01-01

    This appendix discusses a few of the file formats frequently encountered in bioinformatics. Specifically, it reviews the rules for generating FASTA files and provides guidance for interpreting NCBI descriptor lines, commonly found in FASTA files. In addition, it reviews the construction of GenBank, Phylip, MSF and Nexus files. PMID:18428774

  18. Proteomic Analysis on Acetate Metabolism in Citrobacter sp. BL-4

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Man; Lee, Sung-Eun; Park, Byeoung-Soo; Son, Mi-Kyung; Jung, Young-Mi; Yang, Seung-Ok; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Hur, Sung-Ho; Yum, Jong Hwa

    2012-01-01

    Mass production of glucosamine (GlcN) using microbial cells is a worthy approach to increase added values and keep safety problems in GlcN production process. Prior to set up a microbial cellular platform, this study was to assess acetate metabolism in Citrobacter sp. BL-4 (BL-4) which has produced a polyglucosamine PGB-2. The LC-MS analysis was conducted after protein separation on the 1D-PAGE to accomplish the purpose of this study. 280 proteins were totally identified and 188 proteins were separated as acetate-related proteins in BL-4. Acetate was converted to acetyl-CoA by acetyl-CoA synthetase up-regulated in the acetate medium. The glyoxylate bypass in the acetate medium was up-regulated with over-expression of isocitrate lyases and 2D-PAGE confirmed this differential expression. Using 1H-NMR analysis, the product of isocitrate lyases, succinate, increased about 15 times in the acetate medium. During acetate metabolism proteins involved in the lipid metabolism and hexosamine biosynthesis were over-expressed in the acetate medium, while proteins involved in TCA cycle, pentose phosphate cycle and purine metabolism were down-regulated. Taken together, the results from the proteomic analysis can be applied to improve GlcN production and to develop metabolic engineering in BL-4. PMID:22211106

  19. IDV Observations of BL 0716+714 at 5 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, H.-G.; Liu, X.; Liu, J.; Marchili, N.; Krichbaum, T. P.

    2011-06-01

    A selected sample of intra-day variable AGN had been observed for 3-4 days per month at the Urumqi Observatory. The sample includes 7 target sources and 7 calibrators. The BL Lac object B0716+ 714 shows prominent intraday and long term variations.

  20. The gravitational wave spectrum from cosmological B-L breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Buchmüller, W.; Domcke, V.; Kamada, K.; Schmitz, K. E-mail: valerie.domcke@desy.de E-mail: kai.schmitz@ipmu.jp

    2013-10-01

    Cosmological B-L breaking is a natural and testable mechanism to generate the initial conditions of the hot early universe. If B-L is broken at the grand unification scale, the false vacuum phase drives hybrid inflation, ending in tachyonic preheating. The decays of heavy B-L Higgs bosons and heavy neutrinos generate entropy, baryon asymmetry and dark matter and also control the reheating temperature. The different phases in the transition from inflation to the radiation dominated phase produce a characteristic spectrum of gravitational waves. We calculate the complete gravitational wave spectrum due to inflation, preheating and cosmic strings, which turns out to have several features. The production of gravitational waves from cosmic strings has large uncertainties, with lower and upper bounds provided by Abelian Higgs strings and Nambu-Goto strings, implying Ω{sub GW}h{sup 2} ∼ 10{sup −13}–10{sup −8}, much larger than the spectral amplitude predicted by inflation. Forthcoming gravitational wave detectors such as eLISA, advanced LIGO, ET, BBO and DECIGO will reach the sensitivity needed to test the predictions from cosmological B-L breaking.

  1. Scalar dark matter in the B-L model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodejohann, Werner; Yaguna, Carlos E.

    2015-12-01

    The U(1)B-L extension of the Standard Model requires the existence of right-handed neutrinos and naturally realizes the seesaw mechanism of neutrino mass generation. We study the possibility of explaining the dark matter in this model with an additional scalar field, phiDM, that is a singlet of the Standard Model but charged under U(1)B-L. An advantage of this scenario is that the stability of phiDM can be guaranteed by appropriately choosing its B-L charge, without the need of an extra ad hoc discrete symmetry. We investigate in detail the dark matter phenomenology of this model. We show that the observed dark matter density can be obtained via gauge or scalar interactions, and that semi-annihilations could play an important role in the latter case. The regions consistent with the dark matter density are determined in each instance and the prospects for detection in future experiments are analyzed. If dark matter annihilations are controlled by the B-L gauge interaction, the mass of the dark matter particle should lie below 5 TeV and its direct detection cross section can be easily probed by XENON1T; if instead they are controlled by scalar interactions, the dark matter mass can be much larger and the detection prospects are less certain. Finally, we show that this scenario can be readily extended to accommodate multiple dark matter particles.

  2. Properties of optically selected BL Lacertae candidates from the SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kügler, S. D.; Nilsson, K.; Heidt, J.; Esser, J.; Schultz, T.

    2014-09-01

    Context. Deep optical surveys open the avenue for finding large numbers of BL Lac objects that are hard to identify because they lack the unique properties classifying them as such. While radio or X-ray surveys typically reveal dozens of sources, recent compilations based on optical criteria alone have increased the number of BL Lac candidates considerably. However, these compilations are subject to biases and may contain a substantial number of contaminating sources. Aims: In this paper we extend our analysis of 182 optically selected BL Lac object candidates from the SDSS with respect to an earlier study. The main goal is to determine the number of bona fide BL Lac objects in this sample. Methods: We examine their variability characteristics, determine their broad-band radio-UV spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and search for the presence of a host galaxy. In addition we present new optical spectra for 27 targets with improved signal-to-noise ratio with respect to the SDSS spectra. Results: At least 59% of our targets have shown variability between SDSS DR2 and our observations by more than 0.1-0.27 mag depending on the telescope used. A host galaxy was detected in 36% of our targets. The host galaxy type and luminosities are consistent with earlier studies of BL Lac host galaxies. Simple fits to broad-band SEDs for 104 targets of our sample derived synchrotron peak frequencies between 13.5 ≤ log 10(νpeak) ≤ 16 with a peak at log 10 ~ 14.5. Our new optical spectra do not reveal any new redshift for any of our objects. Thus the sample contains a large number of bona fide BL Lac objects and seems to contain a substantial fraction of intermediate-frequency peaked BL Lacs. Based on observations collected with the NTT on La Silla (Chile) operated by the European Southern Observatory under proposal 082.B-0133.Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA), operated jointly by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie and the

  3. X-ray spectroscopy of five BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urry, C. M.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Holt, S. S.

    1986-01-01

    Five X-ray bright BL Lacertae objects were observed in the energy range 0.6-4.5 keV with the solid state spectrometer (SSS) of the Einstein Observatory. The 14 SSS spectra obtained represent most of the X-ray spectra of BL Lac objects with resolution better than approximately 3. These data do not reveal the presence of large amounts of thermal gas, with upper limits for the equivalent width of individual spectral features typically less that about 100 eV. However, the SSS spectra are the first set of X-ray data to indicate low-energy absorption in excess of that caused by the cold interstellar matter in the Galaxy. Comparison with contemporaneous, lower energy X-ray data implies that this absorption does not arise in cold neutral material, but in hotter, highly ionized material, probably intrinsic to the source. All five BL Lac objects have X-ray continua that are well fitted by power-law models, with power-law energy indices usually greater than about 1. In a few cases, a flattening at higher energies is observed; these and other data suggest that two-component X-ray spectra, steep at low energies and flat at high energies, are a common feature of BL Lac objects. Three of the five sources clearly vary between SSS observations, with time scales ranging from days to years. A historical synopsis of the X-ray spectral data confirms the tendency for BL Lacertae objects to be highly variable in the X-ray band but reveals no correlation between spectral and intensity changes.

  4. VLBI observations of seven BL Lacertae objects from RGB sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhongzu; Jiang, D. R.; Gu, Minfeng; Liu, Yi

    2007-04-01

    We present EVN observations of seven BL Lac objects selected from the RGB sample. To investigate the intrinsic radiation property of BL Lac objects, we estimated the Doppler factor with the VLA or MERLIN core and the total 408 MHz luminosity for a sample of 170 BL Lac objects. The intrinsic (comoving) synchrotron peak frequency was then calculated by using the estimated Doppler factor. Assuming a Lorentz factor of 5, the viewing angle of jets was constrained. The high-resolution VLBI images of seven sources all show a core-jet structure. We estimated the proper motions of three sources with the VLBI archive data, and find that the apparent speed increases with the distance of components to the core for all of them. In our BL Lacs sample, the Doppler factor of LBLs is systematically larger than that of IBLs and HBLs. We find a significant anti-correlation between the total 408 MHz luminosity and the intrinsic synchrotron peak frequency. However, the scatter is much larger than for the blazar sequence. Moreover, we find a significant positive correlation between the viewing angle and the intrinsic synchrotron peak frequency. The BL Lac objects show a continuous distribution on the viewing angle. While LBLs have a smaller viewing angle than that of IBLs and HBLs, IBLs are comparable to HBLs. We conclude that the intrinsic synchrotron peak frequency is not only related to the intrinsic radio power (though with a large scatter), but also to the viewing angle for the present sample. Tables 1-4 are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Lactobacillus casei Strain BL23▿

    PubMed Central

    Mazé, Alain; Boël, Grégory; Zúñiga, Manuel; Bourand, Alexa; Loux, Valentin; Yebra, Maria Jesus; Monedero, Vicente; Correia, Karine; Jacques, Noémie; Beaufils, Sophie; Poncet, Sandrine; Joyet, Philippe; Milohanic, Eliane; Casarégola, Serge; Auffray, Yanick; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Gibrat, Jean-François; Zagorec, Monique; Francke, Christof; Hartke, Axel; Deutscher, Josef

    2010-01-01

    The entire genome of Lactobacillus casei BL23, a strain with probiotic properties, has been sequenced. The genomes of BL23 and the industrially used probiotic strain Shirota YIT 9029 (Yakult) seem to be very similar. PMID:20348264

  6. Complete genome sequence of the probiotic Lactobacillus casei strain BL23.

    PubMed

    Mazé, Alain; Boël, Grégory; Zúñiga, Manuel; Bourand, Alexa; Loux, Valentin; Yebra, Maria Jesus; Monedero, Vicente; Correia, Karine; Jacques, Noémie; Beaufils, Sophie; Poncet, Sandrine; Joyet, Philippe; Milohanic, Eliane; Casarégola, Serge; Auffray, Yanick; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Gibrat, Jean-François; Zagorec, Monique; Francke, Christof; Hartke, Axel; Deutscher, Josef

    2010-05-01

    The entire genome of Lactobacillus casei BL23, a strain with probiotic properties, has been sequenced. The genomes of BL23 and the industrially used probiotic strain Shirota YIT 9029 (Yakult) seem to be very similar. PMID:20348264

  7. A Catalogue of XMM-Newton BL Lacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racero, E.; De la Calle, I.; Rouco Escorial, A.

    2015-05-01

    A catalogue of XMM-Newton BL Lac is presented based on a cross-correlation with the 1374 BL Lac objects listed in the 13th edition of the Veron-Cetty and Veron (2010) catalogue. X-ray counterparts were searched for in the field of view of more than 10000 pointed observations available in the XMM-Newton Archive (XSA) that were public before June 2012. The cross-correlation yielded around 250 XMM-Newton observations, which correspond to 162 different sources. X-ray data from the three EPIC cameras and Optical Monitor data were uniformly analyzed using the latest XMM-Newton Science Analysis System (SAS) version. The catalogue collects X-ray spectral properties, including flux variability, of the sample in the 0.2--10 KeV energy band. All the catalogue products will be made publicly available to the scientific community.

  8. A Catalogue of XMM-Newton BL Lacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouco Escorial, A.; de la Calle, I.; Held, J.; Racero, E.

    2014-07-01

    A catalogue of XMM-Newton BL Lac is presented based on a cross-correlation with the 1374 BL Lac objects listed in the 13th edition of the Veron-Cetty and Veron (2010) catalogue. X-ray counterparts were searched for in the field of view of more than 10000 pointed observations available in the XMM-Newton Archive (XSA) that were public before June 2012. The cross-correlation yielded around 250 XMM-Newton observations, which correspond to 162 different sources. X-ray data from the three EPIC cameras and Optical Monitor data were uniformly analyzed using the latest XMMNewton Science Analysis System (SAS) version. The catalogue collects X-ray spectral properties, including flux variability, of the sample in the 0.2 - 10 keV energy band.

  9. Galactic membership of BL Her type variable stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurkovic, M. I.; Stojanovic, M.; Ninkovic, S.

    2016-05-01

    As the RR Lyrae stars evolve on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram they are believed to become short period Type II Cepheids, known as BL Her type (with a pulsation period from 1 to 3-8 days). Assuming that their mass is around 0.5-0.6M_Sol, and that they are low metallicity objects, they were thought to belong to the halo of the Milky Way. We investigated seven Galactic short period Type II Cepheids (BL Her, SW Tau, V553 Cen, DQ And, BD Cas, V383 Cyg, and KT Com) in order to establish their membership within the Galactic structure using the kinematic approach. Gaia should provide us with more data needed to conduct the study of the whole sample.

  10. WOLF: FITS file processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamir, Lior

    2012-12-01

    WOLF processes FITS files and generates photometry files, annotated JPGs, opacity maps, background, transient detection and luminance changes detection. This software was used to process data for the Night Sky Live project.

  11. Spectroscopy of BL Lacertae objects of extraordinary luminosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landoni, M.; Falomo, R.; Treves, A.; Sbarufatti, B.

    2014-10-01

    Aims: We aim to determine the redshift (or stringent lower limits) of a number of bright BL Lacs objects. Methods: We secured optical and near-infrared medium-resolution spectra of four bright BL Lac objects of unknown redshift using the spectrograph X-Shooter at the ESO-VLT. Results: In spite of the high quality of the spectra and the extended spectral range of the observations, we have not detected intrisic spectral features for these sources. However, we are able to provide strigent lower limits to their redshift. In particular, for the two TeV sources PG 1553+113 and H 1722+119, we infer z> 0.30 and z> 0.35 respectively. We also detect an intervening Ca II absorption doublet in the spectrum of MH 2136-428 that is ascribed to the halo of a nearby giant elliptical galaxy at a projected distance of ~100 kpc. Conclusions: Under the hypothesis that all BL Lacs are hosted by a luminous bulge-dominated galaxies, the spectroscopic observations of bright BL Lacs presently indicate that these objects are likely sources with extremely beamed nuclear emission. We present simulations to show under which circumstances it is possible to probe this hypothesis from the detection of very weak absorptions using the next generation of extremely large optical telescopes. Figures 6-17 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgThe full spectra are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/570/A126

  12. Looking for the least luminous BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capetti, A.; Raiteri, C. M.

    2015-08-01

    Among active galactic nuclei, BL Lac objects show extreme properties that have been interpreted as the effect of relativistic beaming on the emission from a plasma jet oriented close to the line of sight. The Doppler amplification of the jet emission makes them ideal targets for studying jet physics. In particular, low-power BL Lacs (LPBL) are very interesting because they probe the jet formation and emission processes at the lowest levels of accretion. However, they are difficult to identify since their emission is swamped by the radiation from the host galaxy in most observing bands. In this paper we propose a new LPBL selection method based on the mid-infrared emission, in addition to the traditional optical indices. We considered the radio-selected sample of Best & Heckman (2012, MNRAS, 421, 1569) and cross-matched it with the WISE all-sky survey. In a new diagnostic plane including the W2-W3 color and the Dn(4000) index, LPBL are located in a region scarcely populated by other sources. By filtering objects with small emission line equivalent width, we isolated 36 LPBL candidates up to redshift 0.15. Their radio luminosity at 1.4 GHz spans the range log Lr = 39.2-41.5 [erg s-1]. Considering the completeness of our sample, we analyzed the BL Lac luminosity function (RLF), finding a dramatic paucity of LPBL with respect to the extrapolation of the RLF toward low power. This requires a break in the RLF located at log Lr ~ 40.6 [erg s-1]. The consequent peak in the BL Lacs number density is possibly the manifestation of a minimum power required to launch a relativistic jet.

  13. Standard interface file handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.; Huria, H.C. )

    1992-10-01

    This handbook documents many of the standard interface file formats that have been adopted by the US Department of Energy to facilitate communications between and portability of, various large reactor physics and radiation transport software packages. The emphasis is on those files needed for use of the VENTURE/PC diffusion-depletion code system. File structures, contents and some practical advice on use of the various files are provided.

  14. Text File Display Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vavrus, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    LOOK program permits user to examine text file in pseudorandom access manner. Program provides user with way of rapidly examining contents of ASCII text file. LOOK opens text file for input only and accesses it in blockwise fashion. Handles text formatting and displays text lines on screen. User moves forward or backward in file by any number of lines or blocks. Provides ability to "scroll" text at various speeds in forward or backward directions.

  15. Long-term optical and radio variability of BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Y. C.; Hu, S. M.; Xu, C.; Liu, C. Y.; Chen, X.; Guo, D. F.; Meng, F. Y.; Xu, M. T.; Xu, J. Q.

    2015-04-01

    Well-sampled optical and radio light curves of BL Lacertae in B, V, R, I bands and 4.8, 8.0, 14.5 GHz from 1968 to 2014 were presented in this paper. A possible 1.26 ± 0.05 yr period in optical bands and a 7.50 ± 0.15 yr period in radio bands were detected based on discrete correlation function, structure function as well as Jurkevich method. Correlations among different bands were also analyzed and no reliable time delay was found between optical bands. Very weak correlations were detected between V band and radio bands. However, in radio bands the variation at low frequency lagged that at high frequency obviously. The spectrum of BL Lacertae turned mildly bluer when the object turned brighter, and stronger bluer-when-brighter trends were found for short flares. A scenario including a precessing helical jet and periodic shocks was put forward to interpret the variation characteristics of BL Lacertae.

  16. BL Herculis stars - Theoretical models for field variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, R.; Stothers, R.

    1982-01-01

    Type II Cepheids with periods between 1 and 3 days, commonly designated as Bl Herculis stars, have been modeled here with the aim of interpreting the wide variety of light curves observed among the field variables. Previously modeled globular cluster members are used as standard calibration objects. The major finding is that only a small range of luminosities is capable of generating a large variety of light curve types at a given period. For a mass of approximately 0.60 solar mass, the models are able to reproduce the observed mean luminosities, dispersion of mean luminosities, periods, light amplitudes, light asymmetries, and phases of secondary features in the light curves of known BL Her stars. It is possible that the metal-rich variables (which are found only in the field) have luminosities lower than those of most metal-poor variables. The present revised mass for BL Her, a metal-rich object, is not significantly different from the mean mass of the metal-poor variables.

  17. Text File Comparator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotler, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    File Comparator program IFCOMP, is text file comparator for IBM OS/VScompatable systems. IFCOMP accepts as input two text files and produces listing of differences in pseudo-update form. IFCOMP is very useful in monitoring changes made to software at the source code level.

  18. 78 FR 49700 - Requirement of a Section 4959 Excise Tax Return and Time for Filing the Return

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... 26 CFR Part 53 RIN 1545-BL57 Requirement of a Section 4959 Excise Tax Return and Time for Filing the... burden in time or expense. The liability for the section 4959 excise tax is imposed by statute, and not..., notice of the date, time, and place for the public hearing will be published in the Federal...

  19. Hydrogeologic Characterization of the U-3bl Collapse Zone

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Geotechnical Services

    2006-09-01

    The U-3bl collapse crater was formed by an underground nuclear test in August 1962. This crater and the adjoining U-3ax crater were subsequently developed and used as a bulk low-level radioactive waste disposal cell (U-3ax/bl), which is part of the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Various investigations have been conducted to assess the hydrogeologic characteristics and properties in the vicinity of the U-3ax/bl waste disposal cell. This report presents data from one of these investigations, conducted in 1996. Also included in this report is a review of pertinent nuclear testing records, which shows that the testing operations and hydrogeologic setting of the U-3ax/bl site were typical for the period and location of testing. Borehole U-3bl-D2 is a 45-degree-angle hole drilled from the edge of the crater under the waste cell to intercept the U-3bl collapse zone, the disturbed alluvium between the crater (surface collapse sink) and the nuclear test cavity. A casing-advance system with an air percussion hammer was used to drill the borehole, and air was used as the drilling fluid. Properties of the U-3bl crater collapse zone were determined from cores collected within the interval, 42.1 to 96.6 meters (138 to 317 feet) below the ground surface. Selected core samples were analyzed for particle density, particle size, bulk density, water retention, hydraulic conductivity, water content, water potential, chloride, carbonate, stable isotopes, and tritium. Physical and hydraulic properties were typical of alluvial valley sediments at the NTS. No visual evidence of preferential pathways for water transport was observed in the core samples. Soil parameters showed no trends with depth. Volumetric water content values ranged from 0.08 to 0.20 cubic meters per cubic meter, and tended to increase with depth. Water-retention relations were typical for soils of similar texture. Water potentials ranged from -1.9 MegaPascals at a depth of 42

  20. 43 CFR 4.1381 - Who may file; when to file; where to file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... may file; when to file; where to file. (a) Any person who receives a written decision issued by OSM under 30 CFR 773.28 on a challenge to an ownership or control listing or finding may file a request for... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who may file; when to file; where to...

  1. Production of superoxide from photosystem II-light harvesting complex II supercomplex in STN8 kinase knock-out rice mutants under photoinhibitory illumination.

    PubMed

    Poudyal, Roshan Sharma; Nath, Krishna; Zulfugarov, Ismayil S; Lee, Choon-Hwan

    2016-09-01

    When phosphorylation of Photosystem (PS) II core proteins is blocked in STN8 knock-out mutants of rice (Oryza sativa) under photoinhibitory illumination, the mobilization of PSII supercomplex is prevented. We have previously proposed that more superoxide (O2(-)) is produced from PSII in the mutant (Nath et al., 2013, Plant J. 76, 675-686). Here, we clarify the type and site for the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Using both histochemical and fluorescence probes, we observed that, compared with wild-type (WT) leaves, levels of ROS, including O2(-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), were increased when leaves from mutant plants were illuminated with excess light. However, singlet oxygen production was not enhanced under such conditions. When superoxide dismutase was inhibited, O2(-) production was increased, indicating that it is the initial event prior to H2O2 production. In thylakoids isolated from WT leaves, kinase was active in the presence of ATP, and spectrophotometric analysis of nitrobluetetrazolium absorbance for O2(-) confirmed that PSII-driven superoxide production was greater in the mutant thylakoids than in the WT. This contrast in levels of PSII-driven superoxide production between the mutants and the WT plants was confirmed by conducting protein oxidation assays of PSII particles from osstn8 leaves under strong illumination. Those assays also demonstrated that PSII-LHCII supercomplex proteins were oxidized more in the mutant, thereby implying that PSII particles incur greater damage even though D1 degradation during PSII-supercomplex mobilization is partially blocked in the mutant. These results suggest that O2(-) is the major form of ROS produced in the mutant, and that the damaged PSII in the supercomplex is the primary source of O2(-). PMID:27390892

  2. Understanding BL Lacertae objects. Structural and kinematic mode changes in the BL Lac object PKS 0735+178

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britzen, S.; Witzel, A.; Gong, B. P.; Zhang, J. W.; Gopal-Krishna; Goyal, A.; Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D.; Zensus, J. A.

    2010-06-01

    Context. We present evidence that parsec-scale jets in BL Lac objects may be significantly distinct in kinematics from their counterparts in quasars. We argued this previously for the BL lac sources 1803+784 and 0716+714 and report here a similar pattern for another well-known BL Lac object, PKS 0735+178, whose nuclear jet is found to exhibit kinematics atypical of quasars. Aims: By analyzing the pc-scale jet morphology and its changes in 0735+178 we seek to understand the emission processes in BL Lac objects and to decipher their differences from quasars. A detailed study of the jet components' motion reveals that the standard AGN paradigm of apparent superluminal motion does not always describe the kinematics in BL Lac objects. We study 0735+178 here to augment and improve the understanding of the peculiar motions in the jets of BL Lac objects as a class. Methods: We analyzed 15 GHz VLBA (Very Long Baseline Array) observations (2 cm/MOJAVE survey) performed at 23 epochs between 1995.27 and 2008.91. Multiple Gaussians were fitted to the derived VLBA data, to trace the kinematical and flux density evolution of the individual VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) components in the nuclear jet. We then compared the jet kinematics with the optical and radio light curves available for this BL Lac object and point out some striking correlations between the properties of the radio knots and the features in the light curves. Results: We found a drastic structural mode change in the VLBI jet of 0735+178, between 2000.4 and 2001.8 when its twice sharply bent trajectory turned into a linear shape. We further found that this jet had undergone a similar transition sometime between December 1981 and June 1983. A mode change, occurring in the reverse direction (between mid-1992 and mid-1995) has already been reported in the literature. These structural mode changes are found to be reflected in changed kinematical behavior of the nuclear jet, manifested as an apparent

  3. Functional Analysis of the Lactobacillus casei BL23 Sortases

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Provencio, Diego; Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús; Collado, María Carmen; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G.

    2012-01-01

    Sortases are a class of enzymes that anchor surface proteins to the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria. Lactobacillus casei BL23 harbors four sortase genes, two belonging to class A (srtA1 and srtA2) and two belonging to class C (srtC1 and srtC2). Class C sortases were clustered with genes encoding their putative substrates that were homologous to the SpaEFG and SpaCBA proteins that encode mucus adhesive pili in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Twenty-three genes encoding putative sortase substrates were identified in the L. casei BL23 genome with unknown (35%), enzymatic (30%), or adhesion-related (35%) functions. Strains disrupted in srtA1, srtA2, srtC1, and srtC2 and an srtA1 srtA2 double mutant were constructed. The transcription of all four sortase encoding genes was detected, but only the mutation of srtA1 resulted in a decrease in bacterial surface hydrophobicity. The β-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase and cell wall proteinase activities of whole cells diminished in the srtA1 mutant and, to a greater extent, in the srtA1 srtA2 double mutant. Cell wall anchoring of the staphylococcal NucA reporter protein fused to a cell wall sorting sequence was also affected in the srtA mutants, and the percentages of adhesion to Caco-2 and HT-29 intestinal epithelial cells were reduced for the srtA1 srtA2 strain. Mutations in srtC1 or srtC2 result in an undetectable phenotype. Together, these results suggest that SrtA1 is the housekeeping sortase in L. casei BL23 and SrtA2 would carry out redundant or complementary functions that become evident when SrtA1 activity is absent. PMID:23042174

  4. Local environments of SNe Ic and Ic-BL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selsing, Jonatan; Christensen, Lise; Thöne, Christina; Modjaz, Maryam

    2015-08-01

    In this project we have observed the local explosion environments of a sample Type Ic and Type Ic-BL Supernove (SNe) selected from both targeted and non-targeted surveys using VLT/VIMOS in IFU-mode. It is believed that by probing the local surroundings of the parent stellar populations of these types of SNe, valuable information can be gained about the physical conditions, which affect the type of SNe produced. The different kinds of SNe produced are determined by the initial mass and metallicity of the stellar progenitor, as well as by the metallicity-dependent mass loss in the stellar winds at the end phase of their evolution and the interaction with a sufficiently close companion star. At the redshift of the galaxies we have selected, we spatially resolve regions ~250 pc across, comparable to the size of HII regions in local galaxies and using strong nebular emission lines as a proxy for the metal content of the stellar population, we can investigate if the conditions for the two types of SNe differ. The connection between long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and broad-lined SNe Ic and the existence of SNe Ic-bl without observed GRBs raises the question of what distinguishes a GRB progenitor from that of an ordinary SN Ic-bl without a GRB and this project will help with the elucidation of this. Moreover, from the HII region ages and stellar mass estimates, we examine the two suggested progenitor models for stripped SNe: single massive Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars with main-sequence masses of >30M⊙ that have experienced mass loss during the main sequence and WR stages, vs. binaries from lower-mass He stars.

  5. Functional analysis of the Lactobacillus casei BL23 sortases.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Provencio, Diego; Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús; Collado, María Carmen; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Monedero, Vicente

    2012-12-01

    Sortases are a class of enzymes that anchor surface proteins to the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria. Lactobacillus casei BL23 harbors four sortase genes, two belonging to class A (srtA1 and srtA2) and two belonging to class C (srtC1 and srtC2). Class C sortases were clustered with genes encoding their putative substrates that were homologous to the SpaEFG and SpaCBA proteins that encode mucus adhesive pili in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Twenty-three genes encoding putative sortase substrates were identified in the L. casei BL23 genome with unknown (35%), enzymatic (30%), or adhesion-related (35%) functions. Strains disrupted in srtA1, srtA2, srtC1, and srtC2 and an srtA1 srtA2 double mutant were constructed. The transcription of all four sortase encoding genes was detected, but only the mutation of srtA1 resulted in a decrease in bacterial surface hydrophobicity. The β-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase and cell wall proteinase activities of whole cells diminished in the srtA1 mutant and, to a greater extent, in the srtA1 srtA2 double mutant. Cell wall anchoring of the staphylococcal NucA reporter protein fused to a cell wall sorting sequence was also affected in the srtA mutants, and the percentages of adhesion to Caco-2 and HT-29 intestinal epithelial cells were reduced for the srtA1 srtA2 strain. Mutations in srtC1 or srtC2 result in an undetectable phenotype. Together, these results suggest that SrtA1 is the housekeeping sortase in L. casei BL23 and SrtA2 would carry out redundant or complementary functions that become evident when SrtA1 activity is absent. PMID:23042174

  6. EPA FACILITY POINT LOCATION FILES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data includes locations of facilities from which pollutants are discharged. The epapoints.tar.gz file is a gzipped tar file of 14 Arc/Info export files and text documents. The .txt files define the attributes located in the INFO point coverage files. Projections are defined in...

  7. Semishifted hybrid inflation with B-L cosmic strings

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarides, George; Peddie, Iain N. R.; Vamvasakis, Achilleas

    2008-08-15

    We discuss a new inflationary scenario that is realized within the extended supersymmetric Pati-Salam model which yields an acceptable b-quark mass for universal boundary conditions and {mu}>0 by modestly violating Yukawa unification and leads to new shifted, new smooth, or standard-smooth hybrid inflation. Inflation takes place along a ''semishifted'' classically flat direction on which the U(1){sub B-L} gauge group remains unbroken. After the end of inflation, U(1){sub B-L} breaks spontaneously and a network of local cosmic strings, which contribute a small amount to the curvature perturbation, is produced. We show that, in minimal supergravity, this semishifted inflationary scenario is compatible with a recent fit to data which uses field-theory simulations of a local string network. Taking into account the requirement of gauge unification, we find that, for spectral index n{sub s}=1, the predicted fractional contribution of strings to the temperature power spectrum at multipole l=10 is f{sub 10}{approx_equal}0.039. Also, for f{sub 10}=0.10, which is the best-fit value, we obtain n{sub s}{approx_equal}1.0254. Spectral indices lower than about 0.98 are excluded and blue spectra are slightly favored. Magnetic monopoles are not formed at the end of semishifted hybrid inflation.

  8. Simultaneous observations of the BL Lacertae object I Zw 187

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bregman, J. N.; Glassgold, A. E.; Huggins, P. J.; Pollock, J. T.; Pica, A. J.; Smith, A. G.; Webb, J. R.; Ku, W. H.-M.; Rudy, R. J.; Levan, P. D.

    1982-01-01

    Two sets of simultaneous spectra consisting of data obtained with radio, IR, optical, UV and X-ray telescopes were obtained 10 months apart for the X-ray bright BL Lac object IZw 187. In addition, nonsimultaneous observations were made in several of the aforementioned observing bands in order to detect flux variations and galactic light contamination was removed from all observations. The BL Lac component is found to have a weak 3000 A bump superposed on an IR-optical-UV spectrum of slope 0.9. Consistent with the arising of the IR-through-X-ray continuum from a single synchrotron source, the X-ray data fall on or near an extrapolation of this power law. No flux variations have been detected in the flat radio spectrum. Optical and X-ray fluxes are observed to vary by a factor not greater than three, and the shortest variability time scales in these bands are comparable at about one week.

  9. Accretion disk emission from a BL Lacertae object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandel, Amri; Urry, C. Megan

    1991-01-01

    It is suggested here that the UV and X-ray emission of BL Lac objects may originate in an accretion disk. Using detailed calculations of accretion disk spectra, the best-measured ultraviolet and soft X-ray spectra of the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304 are fitted, and the mass and accretion rate required is determined. The ultraviolet through soft X-ray continuum is well fitted by the spectrum of an accretion disk, but near-Eddington accretion rates are required to produce the soft X-ray excess. A hot disk or corona could Comptonize soft photons from the cool disk and produce the observed power-law spectrum in the 1-10 keV range. The dynamic time scale in the disk regions that contribute most of the observed ultraviolet and soft X-ray photons are consistent with the respective time scales for intensity variations observed in these two wave bands; the mass derived from fitting the continuum spectrum is consistent with the limit derived from the fastest hard X-ray variability.

  10. Rapid Tev Gamma-ray Variability Of Bl Lac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Qi

    2011-09-01

    Recent VERITAS observations of BL Lacertae revealed rapid gamma-ray flaring of the object at TeV energies (Ong, 2011, ATel #3459). Here, we present preliminary results from the observations. The flaring activity was observed during a 20-minute exposure, when the flux above 200 GeV reached a peak of about 3x10^-6 m^-2s^-1 (roughly one and a half times the Crab Nebula flux). The light curve shows that the observations missed the rising phase of the flare but covered the decaying phase almost in its entirety. The decay time of the flare is about 4 minutes, making it one of the most rapid gamma-ray flares seen for any TeV blazars. Compared to several other blazars that are known to produce gamma-ray flares on a timescale of minutes, BL Lacertae produces the bulk of its radiation at much lower frequencies. The measured gamma-ray spectrum appears to be as soft as that of the non-flaring state, when compared with the published MAGIC spectrum of the source. We will discuss the implications of the results. VERITAS research is supported by grants from the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. National Science Foundation, the Smithsonian Institution, by NSERC in Canada, by STFC in the U.K. and by Science Foundation Ireland.

  11. Medical image file formats.

    PubMed

    Larobina, Michele; Murino, Loredana

    2014-04-01

    Image file format is often a confusing aspect for someone wishing to process medical images. This article presents a demystifying overview of the major file formats currently used in medical imaging: Analyze, Neuroimaging Informatics Technology Initiative (Nifti), Minc, and Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (Dicom). Concepts common to all file formats, such as pixel depth, photometric interpretation, metadata, and pixel data, are first presented. Then, the characteristics and strengths of the various formats are discussed. The review concludes with some predictive considerations about the future trends in medical image file formats. PMID:24338090

  12. Deep brain stimulation induces BOLD activation in motor and non-motor networks: An fMRI comparison study of STN and EN/GPi DBS in large animals

    PubMed Central

    Min, Hoon-Ki; Hwang, Sun-Chul; Marsh, Michael P.; Kim, Inyong; Knight, Emily; Striemer, Bryan; Felmlee, Joel P.; Welker, Kirk M.; Blaha, Charles D.; Chang, Su-Youne; Bennet, Kevin E.; Lee, Kendall H.

    2012-01-01

    The combination of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and functional MRI (fMRI) is a powerful means of tracing brain circuitry and testing the modulatory effects of electrical stimulation on a neuronal network in vivo. The goal of this study was to trace DBS-induced global neuronal network activation in a large animal model by monitoring the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) response on fMRI. We conducted DBS in normal anesthetized pigs, targeting the subthalamic nucleus (STN) (n=7) and the entopeduncular nucleus (EN), the non-primate analogue of the primate globus pallidus interna (n=4). Using a normalized functional activation map for group analysis and the application of general linear modeling across subjects, we found that both STN and EN DBS significantly increased BOLD activation in the ipsilateral sensorimotor network (FDR < 0.001). In addition, we found differential, target-specific, non-motor network effects. In each group the activated brain areas showed a distinctive correlation pattern forming a group of network connections. Results suggest that the scope of DBS extends beyond an ablation-like effect and that it may have modulatory effects not only on circuits that facilitate motor function but also on those involved in higher cognitive and emotional processing. Taken together, our results show that the swine model for DBS fMRI, which conforms to human implanted DBS electrode configurations and human neuroanatomy, may be a useful platform for translational studies investigating the global neuromodulatory effects of DBS. PMID:22967832

  13. 11 CFR 100.19 - File, filed or filing (2 U.S.C. 434(a)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... file electronically under 11 CFR 104.18, may file 24-hour reports using the Commission's website's on... to be filed under 11 CFR parts 101, 102, 104, 105, 107, 108, and 109, and any modifications or... required by 11 CFR part 105, by the close of business on the prescribed filing date. (b) Timely filed....

  14. 11 CFR 100.19 - File, filed or filing (2 U.S.C. 434(a)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... file electronically under 11 CFR 104.18, may file 24-hour reports using the Commission's website's on... to be filed under 11 CFR parts 101, 102, 104, 105, 107, 108, and 109, and any modifications or... required by 11 CFR part 105, by the close of business on the prescribed filing date. (b) Timely filed....

  15. 75 FR 30017 - Electronic Tariff Filings; Notice of Posting Regarding Filing Procedures for Electronically Filed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Electronic Tariff Filings; Notice of Posting Regarding Filing Procedures for Electronically Filed Tariffs May 21, 2010. Take Notice that the attached document ``Filing Procedures For Electronically Filed Tariffs, Rate Schedules And Jurisdictional Agreements'' has been posted on the eTariff...

  16. Dark Matter in Supersymmetric U(1){sub B-L} Model

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, S.; Okada, H.

    2009-04-17

    We analyze the dark matter problem in the context of supersymmetric, U(1){sub B-L} model. In this model, the lightest neutalino can be B-L gaugino Z-tilde{sub B-L} or Higgsinos {chi}-tilde{sub 1,2} dominated. We examine the thermal relic abundance of these particles and discuss the prospects for their direct detection if they form part of our galactic halo.

  17. Agouti C57BL/6N embryonic stem cells for mouse genetic resources

    PubMed Central

    Pettitt, Stephen J.; Liang, Qi; Rairdan, Xin Y.; Moran, Jennifer L.; Prosser, Haydn M.; Beier, David R.; Lloyd, Kent; Bradley, Allan; Skarnes, William C.

    2010-01-01

    We report the characterization of a highly germline competent C57BL/6N mouse embryonic stem cell line, JM8. To simplify breeding schemes, the dominant Agouti coat color gene was restored in JM8 cells by targeted repair of the C57BL/6 nonagouti mutation. These cells provide a robust foundation for large-scale mouse knockout programs that aim to provide a public resource of targeted mutations in the C57BL/6 genetic background. PMID:19525957

  18. High-resolution imaging of EINSTEIN Slew Survey BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidt, Jochen

    High-resolution images of 7 newly identified BL Lac objects (among them one BL Lac candidate) at z <= 0.2 from the Einstein Slew Survey are presented for the first time. In all cases we were able to resolve the host galaxy. Our 2-dimensional analysis of the host galaxies shows that all these BL Lac objects are embedded in elliptical galaxies with an average M_r = -23.1 and r_e = 10 kpc. One BL Lac might have both an bulge and an underlying disk. These results are similar to those obtained for the hosts of other BL Lac objects. The environments of the BL Lac objects are spectacular. In at least two (perhaps three) cases we found clear evidence for interaction. All BL Lac objects (except one) have at least 2 companions, some of which are bright, within a projected distance of 60 kpc from the BL Lac. In two cases we found 5 companions within 50 kpc. This implies that interaction is more related to the BL Lac phenomenon than previously assumed. One possible test for this scenario is briefly discussed.

  19. Hopper File Management Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Long, J W; O'Neill, N J; Smith, N G; Springmeyer, R R; Remmele, S; Richards, D A; Southon, J

    2004-11-15

    Hopper is a powerful interactive tool that allows users to transfer and manipulate files and directories by means of a graphical user interface. Users can connect to and manage resources using the major file transfer protocols. Implemented in Java, Hopper can be run almost anywhere: from an individual's desktop machine to large production machines. In a high-performance computing environment, managing files can become a difficult and time-consuming task that distracts from scientific work. Users must deal with multiple file transfer protocols, transferring enormous amounts of files between computer platforms, repeated authentication, organizing massive amounts of data, and other detailed but necessary tasks. This is often accomplished with a set of several different tools, each with its own interface and idiosyncrasies. Our goal is to develop tools for a more automated approach to file management that substantially improves users' ability to transfer, organize, search, and operate on collections of files. This paper describes the Hopper tool for advanced file management, including the software architecture, the functionality, and the user interface.

  20. JENDL Dosimetry File 99.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2001-01-22

    Version 00 JENDL/D-99 contains information for 47 nuclides and 67 reactions in the SAND-II group structure (although it was observed by RSICC that not all of the processed files are in the SAND-II group structure) and as 0K preprocessed pointwise files.

  1. NASA Uniform Files Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This handbook is a guide for the use of all personnel engaged in handling NASA files. It is issued in accordance with the regulations of the National Archives and Records Administration, in the Code of Federal Regulations Title 36, Part 1224, Files Management; and the Federal Information Resources Management Regulation, Subpart 201-45.108, Files Management. It is intended to provide a standardized classification and filing scheme to achieve maximum uniformity and ease in maintaining and using agency records. It is a framework for consistent organization of information in an arrangement that will be useful to current and future researchers. The NASA Uniform Files Index coding structure is composed of the subject classification table used for NASA management directives and the subject groups in the NASA scientific and technical information system. It is designed to correlate files throughout NASA and it is anticipated that it may be useful with automated filing systems. It is expected that in the conversion of current files to this arrangement it will be necessary to add tertiary subjects and make further subdivisions under the existing categories. Established primary and secondary subject categories may not be changed arbitrarily. Proposals for additional subject categories of NASA-wide applicability, and suggestions for improvement in this handbook, should be addressed to the Records Program Manager at the pertinent installation who will forward it to the NASA Records Management Office, Code NTR, for approval. This handbook is issued in loose-leaf form and will be revised by page changes.

  2. Register file soft error recovery

    DOEpatents

    Fleischer, Bruce M.; Fox, Thomas W.; Wait, Charles D.; Muff, Adam J.; Watson, III, Alfred T.

    2013-10-15

    Register file soft error recovery including a system that includes a first register file and a second register file that mirrors the first register file. The system also includes an arithmetic pipeline for receiving data read from the first register file, and error detection circuitry to detect whether the data read from the first register file includes corrupted data. The system further includes error recovery circuitry to insert an error recovery instruction into the arithmetic pipeline in response to detecting the corrupted data. The inserted error recovery instruction replaces the corrupted data in the first register file with a copy of the data from the second register file.

  3. Coordinated observations of X-ray bright BL lacertae objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urry, C. M.

    1985-01-01

    Simultaneous multifrequency observations of the BL Lac object Mkn421 covering radio through X-ray wavelengths were performed. Composite multifrequency spectra of the central nonthermal component were obtained at the two epochs after subtracting the optical and infrared light of the underlying galaxy. Physical parameters of Mkn421 are discussed in terms of the synchrotron self-Compton model. Taking the spectral turnover between infrared and radio for synchrotrom self absorption, the radio emmision originates in a more extended region than the infrared to X-ray emission, the source size of which should be less than .01 milliarcseconds. Relativistic beaming is required if the angular size is smaller than a few times .001 milliarcseconds. A possible explanation of the spectral change during the two epochs is also discussed.

  4. C57BL/6 Neuromuscular Healthspan Scoring System

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Developing a scoring system based on physiological and functional measurements is critical to test the efficacy of potential interventions for sarcopenia and frailty in aging animal models; therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a neuromuscular healthspan scoring system (NMHSS). We examined three ages of male C57BL/6 mice: adults (6–7 months old, 100% survival), old (24–26 months old, 75% survival), and elderly group (>28 months old, ≤50% survival)—as well as mice along this age continuum. Functional performance (as determined by the rotarod and inverted-cling grip test) and in vitro muscle contractility were the determinants. A raw score was derived for each determinant, and the NMHSS was then derived as the sum of the individual determinant scores. In comparison with individual determinants, the NMHSS reduced the effect of individual variability within age groups, thus potentially providing an enhanced ability to detect treatment effects in future studies. PMID:23585418

  5. The 1987 outburst of the BL Lacertid AO 0235 + 164

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, J. R.; Smith, A. G.

    1989-08-01

    The violently variable BL Lacertid AO 0235 + 164 displayed a 3.24 magnitude outburst in early 1987. This outburst was observed intensively from Rosemary Hill Observatory in three colors. Long term monitoring observations made at Rosemary Hill are examined in an effort to find any recurring timescales associated with this outburst and previous large amplitude outbursts. The energetics of the 1987 outburst are analyzed in terms of the Shields and Wheeler model of a magnetized accretion disk. The timescales identified in the power spectrum (2.8 and 1.6 yr) are input into the model as the storage timescales. Since the emitted energy calculated from the optical burst cannot be stored in a magnetized disk at an allowable radius, it is concluded that either the storage timescales are longer than those identified in the power spectrum, or relativistic beaming effects must be considered, with a Doppler factor of 1.3 to 1.6.

  6. Genetic variation in C57BL/6 ES cell lines and genetic instability in the Bruce4 C57BL/6 ES cell line.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Elizabeth D; Qu, Yun Yan; Genik, Suzanne J; Lyons, Robert H; Pacheco, Christopher D; Lieberman, Andrew P; Samuelson, Linda C; Nasonkin, Igor O; Camper, Sally A; Van Keuren, Margaret L; Saunders, Thomas L

    2007-08-01

    Genetically modified mouse strains derived from embryonic stem (ES) cells are powerful tools for gene function analysis. ES cells from the C57BL/6 mouse strain are not widely used to generate mouse models despite the advantage of a defined genetic background. We assessed genetic variation in six such ES cell lines with 275 SSLP markers. Compared to C57BL/6, Bruce4 differed at 34 SSLP markers and had significant heterozygosity on three chromosomes. BL/6#3 and Dale1 ES cell lines differed at only 3 SSLP makers. The C2 and WB6d ES cell lines differed at 6 SSLP markers. It is important to compare the efficiency of producing mouse models with available C57BL/6 ES cells relative to standard 129 mouse strain ES cells. We assessed genetic stability (the tendency of cells to become aneuploid) in 110 gene-targeted ES cell clones from the most widely used C57BL/6 ES cell line, Bruce4, and 710 targeted 129 ES cell clones. Bruce4 clones were more likely to be aneuploid and unsuitable for ES cell-mouse chimera production. Despite their tendency to aneuploidy and consequent inefficiency, use of Bruce4 ES cells can be valuable for models requiring behavioral studies and other mouse models that benefit from a defined C57BL/6 background. PMID:17828574

  7. Thirteen new BL Lacertae objects discovered by an efficient x ray/radio/optical technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schachter, Jonathan F.; Stocke, John T.; Perlman, Eric; Elvis, Martin S.; Luu, Jane; Huchra, John P.; Humphreys, Roberta; Remillard, Ron; Wallin, John

    1992-01-01

    The discovery of 13 serendipitous BL Lac objects in the Einstein IPC Slew Survey by means of x ray/radio vs. x ray/optical color-color diagrams and confirmation by optical spectroscopy are reported. These 13 BL Lacs were discovered using a technique which exploits the characteristic broad band spectra of BL Lacs. New VLA detections provide accurate fluxes (f(6 cm) is approximately 0.5 mJy) and 2 in. positions, facilitating the determination of an optical counterpart. All 13 new BL Lacs show essentially featureless optical spectra. Nine of these lie within the range of colors of known x ray selected BL Lacs. Of the remaining four, one is apparently x ray louder (by a factor of 1.5) or optically quieter (by 0.8 mags); and three are optically louder (by 1-1.3 mags) than x ray selected BL Lacs. Approximately 50 new BL Lacs in total are expected from VLA work and upcoming Australia Telescope observations, yielding a complete Slew Survey sample of approximately 90 BL Lacs.

  8. Gene expression profiling in response to the histone deacetylase inhibitor BL1521 in neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ruijter, Annemieke J.M. de; Kemp, Stephan . E-mail: a.b.vankuilenburg@amc.uva.nl

    2005-10-01

    Neuroblastoma is a childhood tumor with a poor survival in advanced stage disease despite intensive chemotherapeutic regimes. The new histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor BL1521 has shown promising results in neuroblastoma. Inhibition of HDAC resulted in a decrease in proliferation and metabolic activity, induction of apoptosis and differentiation of neuroblastoma cells. In order to elucidate the mechanism mediating the effects of BL1521 on neuroblastoma cells, we investigated the gene expression profile of an MYCN single copy (SKNAS) and an MYCN amplified (IMR32) neuroblastoma cell line after treatment with BL1521 using the Affymetrix oligonucleotide array U133A. An altered expression of 255 genes was observed in both neuroblastoma cell lines. The majority of these genes were involved in gene expression, cellular metabolism, and cell signaling. We observed changes in the expression of vital genes belonging to the cell cycle (cyclin D1 and CDK4) and apoptosis (BNIP3, BID, and BCL2) pathway in response to BL1521. The expression of 37 genes was altered by both BL1521 and Trichostatin A, which could indicate a common gene set regulated by different HDAC inhibitors. BL1521 treatment changed the expression of a number of MYCN-associated genes. Several genes in the Wnt and the Delta/Notch pathways were changed in response to BL1521 treatment, suggesting that BL1521 is able to induce the differentiation of neuroblastoma cells into a more mature phenotype.

  9. The environment of x ray selected BL Lacs: Host galaxies and galaxy clustering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurtz, Ron; Stocke, John T.; Ellingson, Erica; Yee, Howard K. C.

    1993-01-01

    Using the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, we have imaged a complete, flux-limited sample of Einstein Medium Sensitivity Survey BL Lacertae objects in order to study the properties of BL Lac host galaxies and to use quantitative methods to determine the richness of their galaxy cluster environments.

  10. Registered File Support for Critical Operations Files at SIRTF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turek, G.; Handley, T.; Jacobson, J.; Rector, J.

    The SIRTF Science Center's (SSC) Science Operations System (SOS) has to contend with nearly one hundred critical operations files via comprehensive file management services. The management is accomplished via the registered file system (otherwise known as TFS) which manages these files in a registered file repository composed of a virtual file system accessible via a TFS server and a file registration database. The TFS server provides controlled, reliable, and secure file transfer and storage by registering all file transactions and meta-data in the file registration database. An API is provided for application programs to communicate with TFS servers and the repository. A command line client implementing this API has been developed as a client tool. This paper describes the architecture, current implementation, and more importantly, the evolution of these services based on evolving community use cases and emerging information system technology.

  11. The Lack of Torus Emission from BL Lacertae Objects: An Infrared View of Unification with WISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotkin, Richard M.; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W. N.; Markoff, Sera; Shemmer, Ohad; Wu, Jianfeng

    2012-02-01

    We use data from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) to perform a statistical study on the mid-infrared (IR) properties of a large number (~102) of BL Lac objects—low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with a jet beamed toward the Earth. As expected, many BL Lac objects are so highly beamed that their jet synchrotron emission dominates their IR spectral energy distributions. In other BL Lac objects, however, the jet is not strong enough to completely dilute the rest of the AGN emission. We do not see observational signatures of the dusty torus from these weakly beamed BL Lac objects. The lack of observable torus emission is consistent with suggestions that BL Lac objects are fed by radiatively inefficient accretion disks. Implications for the "nature versus nurture" debate for FR I and FR II radio galaxies are briefly discussed. Our study supports the notion that, beyond orientation, accretion rate plays an important role in AGN unification.

  12. Sperm Freezing and In Vitro Fertilization in Three Substrains of C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ling; Nutter, Lauryl M J; Law, Napoleon; McKerlie, Colin

    2009-01-01

    Traditional protocols for sperm recovery, cryopreservation, and in vitro fertilization (IVF) have been considerably less efficient for inbred mouse strains, including C57BL/6, than for hybrid and outbred strains. We report here that 3 changes to published and widely used protocols markedly improved fertilization rates for both fresh and frozen–thawed sperm in 3 substrains of C57BL/6 mice (C57BL/6J, C57BL/6NCrl, and C57BL/6NTac). First, the traditional cyroprotective agent was modified by adding amino acids. Second, preincubation of sperm in a preincubation medium containing methyl-β-cyclodextrin and polyvinyl alcohol enabled collection of progressively motile sperm for IVF. Third, we evaluated 3 media for IVF: human tubal fluid (HTF), modified Krebs–Ringer bicarbonate medium (TYH), and minimal essential medium (MEM). HTF and TYH were modified by adding minimal essential amino acids. The methodology reported here increased the IVF rate of both fresh and frozen–thawed sperm and enabled efficient isolation of capacitated viable sperm. Fertilization rates greater than 65% and 40% were obtained with the 3 tested substrains when fresh and frozen–thawed sperm, respectively, were used for IVF. Higher fertilization rates were seen with frozen–thawed sperm from C57BL/6NCrl and C57BL/6NTac mice than from C57BL/6J mice. Among all strains, fresh sperm from C57BL/6NTac mice gave the highest fertilization rate. Of 190 two-cell embryos, 63 (33.2%) developed to term after transfer to pseudopregnant recipient mice. The protocol we detail here provides reliable cryopreservation and recovery of live mice in 3 substrains of C57BL/6, making sperm cryopreservation and IVF a viable choice for preservation and distribution of mouse lines. PMID:19245749

  13. MAWST file generator (MFG)

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, P.W.; Hurdle, S.; Hafer, J.F.

    1993-12-01

    The software program MAWST was developed as a tool to deal with common materials accounting problems. The key to successful usage of this program is in the generation of input files for measurement values, measurement errors, and measurement methods. The program MFG was developed as an aid to creating input files for MAWST. MFG contains three commonly used measurements -- nondestructive assay, (G-T)*C, and V*C -- and a GENERIC measurement as models for data entry for the measurement value file. Sufficient data is collected from the user to produce the measurement error and measurement method files. This report is written as a tutorial presenting and explaining all the options available in MFG by giving examples of execution and the resulting screens that MFG produces.

  14. 11 CFR 100.19 - File, filed or filing (2 U.S.C. 434(a)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... file electronically under 11 CFR 104.18, may file 24-hour reports using the Commission's website's on... to be filed under 11 CFR parts 101, 102, 104, 105, 107, 108, and 109, and any modifications or...., Washington, DC 20510 as required by 11 CFR part 105, by the close of business on the prescribed filing...

  15. Converting CSV Files to RKSML Files

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Liebersbach, Robert

    2009-01-01

    A computer program converts, into a format suitable for processing on Earth, files of downlinked telemetric data pertaining to the operation of the Instrument Deployment Device (IDD), which is a robot arm on either of the Mars Explorer Rovers (MERs). The raw downlinked data files are in comma-separated- value (CSV) format. The present program converts the files into Rover Kinematics State Markup Language (RKSML), which is an Extensible Markup Language (XML) format that facilitates representation of operations of the IDD and enables analysis of the operations by means of the Rover Sequencing Validation Program (RSVP), which is used to build sequences of commanded operations for the MERs. After conversion by means of the present program, the downlinked data can be processed by RSVP, enabling the MER downlink operations team to play back the actual IDD activity represented by the telemetric data against the planned IDD activity. Thus, the present program enhances the diagnosis of anomalies that manifest themselves as differences between actual and planned IDD activities.

  16. The optical-gamma correlation in BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raiteri, Claudia M.; Villata, Massimo; D'Ammando, Filippo; Larionov, Valeri M.; Gurwell, Mark A.; Mirzaqulov, Davron O.; Smith, Paul S.; Carnerero, Maria Isabel

    2013-12-01

    We present multifrequency light curves of BL Lacertae from February 2008 to October 2012. Lowenergy data (optical and millimetre) were acquired in the framework of a GASP-WEBT project. High-energy data (ultraviolet, X-ray, and γ-ray) come from observations of the Swift, RXTE, and Fermi satellites. After a period of moderate activity, in May 2011 the source suddenly started to flare at γ and optical-UV frequencies. Activity at millimetre wavelengths and X rays began 3-4 months later. This behaviour offered a good opportunity to study the correlation among flux variability in different bands, in particular between the best-sampled optical and γ-ray light curves. However, even in this fortuitous case, we can only define a general correlation with likely no time lag, but with a lag uncertainty of ±1 day. Indeed, the data reveal a complex relationship between the γ and optical fluxes, which cannot be unveiled because of the small gaps in the sampling of this extremely variable source.

  17. Observational learning in C57BL/6j mice.

    PubMed

    Carlier, Pascal; Jamon, Marc

    2006-11-01

    The ability of mice to solve a complex task by observational learning was investigated with C57BL/6j mice. Four female demonstrators were trained to reliably perform a sequence that consisted in pushing a piece of food into a tube attached to the side of a puzzle box, and recovering it by opening a drawer in front of the box. They then performed this sequence in front of naive mice assigned to individual cubicles in a box with a wire mesh front arranged in a row facing the demonstrators. A total of 25 naive mice (13 males and 12 females) were used. Fifteen mice observed 14 demonstrations a day for 5 days; 10 control mice were placed in similar cubicles, but behind a plastic screen which prevented them from observing the demonstrators. The mice were post-tested in the demonstrator situation, and 6 of 15 observers immediately reproduced the complete task successfully, but none of the naive or control mice were able to solve the task. The observers and controls were then subjected to a five level individual learning schedule. Observers learned the individual task significantly faster than the controls. No sex difference was found. These results suggest that observational learning processes at work were based on stimulus enhancement and observational conditioning. PMID:16939695

  18. On the hadronic cascade scenario for extreme BL Lacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavecchio, Fabrizio

    2014-03-01

    The peculiar high-energy emission spectrum of the so-called extreme BL Lacs (EHBL) challenges the standard emission models of blazars. Among the possible solutions, the so-called hadronic cascade scenario assumes that the observed high-energy radiation is produced in the intergalactic space through photo-hadronic reactions by ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) with energies up to 1019-20 eV beamed by the blazar jet. Under the assumption - implicit in this model - that the intrinsic high-energy synchrotron self-Compton emission of the blazar does not substantially contribute to the observed γ-ray spectrum, we derive constraints to the basic physical quantities of the jet and we compare them with the requirements of the hadronic cascade scenario. We found that, for a plausible range of relativistic jet Doppler factors (δ = 10-50), the maximum achievable energy of the accelerated protons can exceed 2 × 1019 eV with jet powers of the order of ≈1044 erg s-1, parameters compatible with the requests of the hadronic scenario even if EHBL are embedded in magnetic fields of cosmic filaments. We also discuss the consequences of our results for the possibility that local EHBL contribute to the observed UHECR.

  19. 76 FR 62798 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... filing per 154.402: GSS LSS SS-2 S-2 2011 TGPL ACA Tracker Filing to be effective 10/1/2011. Filed Date... Tracker Filing to be effective 11/1/ 2011. Filed Date: 09/30/2011. Accession Number: 20110930-5048.... Description: Texas Gas Transmission, LLC submits tariff filing per 154.403(d)(2): 2011 Fuel Tracker Filing...

  20. The Discovery and Characterization of ML218: A Novel, Centrally Active T-Type Calcium Channel Inhibitor with Robust Effects in STN Neurons and in a Rodent Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    T-Type Ca2+ channel inhibitors hold tremendous therapeutic potential for the treatment of pain, epilepsy, sleep disorders, essential tremor, and other neurological disorders; however, a lack of truly selective tools has hindered basic research, and selective tools from the pharmaceutical industry are potentially burdened with intellectual property (IP) constraints. Thus, an MLPCN high-throughput screen (HTS) was conducted to identify novel T-type Ca2+ channel inhibitors free from IP constraints, and freely available through the MLPCN, for use by the biomedical community to study T-type Ca2+ channels. While the HTS provided numerous hits, these compounds could not be optimized to the required level of potency to be appropriate tool compounds. Therefore, a scaffold hopping approach, guided by SurflexSim, ultimately afforded ML218 (CID 45115620), a selective T-type Ca2+ (Cav3.1, Cav3.2, Cav3.3) inhibitor (Cav3.2, IC50 = 150 nM in Ca2+ flux; Cav3.2 IC50 = 310 nM; and Cav3.3 IC50 = 270 nM, respectively in patch clamp electrophysiology) with good DMPK properties, acceptable in vivo rat PK, and excellent brain levels. Electrophysiology studies in subthalamic nucleus (STN) neurons demonstrated robust effects of ML218 on the inhibition of T-type calcium current, inhibition of low threshold spike, and rebound burst activity. Based on the basal ganglia circuitry in Parkinson’s disease (PD), the effects of ML218 in STN neurons suggest a therapeutic role for T-type Ca2+ channel inhibitors, and ML218 was found to be orally efficacious in haloperidol-induced catalepsy, a preclinical PD model, with comparable efficacy to an A2A antagonist, a clinically validated PD target. ML218 proves to be a powerful new probe to study T-type Ca2+ function in vitro and in vivo, and freely available. PMID:22368764

  1. The androgen receptor controls expression of the cancer-associated sTn antigen and cell adhesion through induction of ST6GalNAc1 in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Munkley, Jennifer; Oltean, Sebastian; Vodák, Daniel; Wilson, Brian T.; Livermore, Karen E.; Zhou, Yan; Star, Eleanor; Floros, Vasileios I.; Johannessen, Bjarne; Knight, Bridget; McCullagh, Paul; McGrath, John; Crundwell, Malcolm; Skotheim, Rolf I.; Robson, Craig N.; Leung, Hing Y.; Harries, Lorna W.; Rajan, Prabhakar; Mills, Ian G.; Elliott, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of glycosylation are important in cancer, but the molecular mechanisms that drive changes are often poorly understood. The androgen receptor drives prostate cancer (PCa) development and progression to lethal metastatic castration-resistant disease. Here we used RNA-Seq coupled with bioinformatic analyses of androgen-receptor (AR) binding sites and clinical PCa expression array data to identify ST6GalNAc1 as a direct and rapidly activated target gene of the AR in PCa cells. ST6GalNAc1 encodes a sialytransferase that catalyses formation of the cancer-associated sialyl-Tn antigen (sTn), which we find is also induced by androgen exposure. Androgens induce expression of a novel splice variant of the ST6GalNAc1 protein in PCa cells. This splice variant encodes a shorter protein isoform that is still fully functional as a sialyltransferase and able to induce expression of the sTn-antigen. Surprisingly, given its high expression in tumours, stable expression of ST6GalNAc1 in PCa cells reduced formation of stable tumours in mice, reduced cell adhesion and induced a switch towards a more mesenchymal-like cell phenotype in vitro. ST6GalNAc1 has a dynamic expression pattern in clinical datasets, being significantly up-regulated in primary prostate carcinoma but relatively down-regulated in established metastatic tissue. ST6GalNAc1 is frequently upregulated concurrently with another important glycosylation enzyme GCNT1 previously associated with prostate cancer progression and implicated in Sialyl Lewis X antigen synthesis. Together our data establishes an androgen-dependent mechanism for sTn antigen expression in PCa, and are consistent with a general role for the androgen receptor in driving important coordinate changes to the glycoproteome during PCa progression. PMID:26452038

  2. The new BL Lacertae objects discovered by an efficient X-ray/radio/optical technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schachter, Jonathan F.; Stocke, John T.; Perlman, Eric; Elvis, Martin; Remillard, Ron; Granados, Arno; Luu, Jane; Huchra, John P.; Humphreys, Roberta; Urry, C. M.

    1993-01-01

    We report the recent discovery of ten BL Lac objects in the Einstein IPC Slew Survey by means of X-ray/radio versus X-ray/optical color-color diagrams and confirming optical spectroscopy. These ten BL Lac objects were discovered using a technique proposed by Stocke et al. (1989) which exploits the characteristic broad-band spectra of BL Lac objects. New VLA detections provide accurate fluxes (limiting f(6 cm) about 0.5 mJy) and about 1 arcsec positions, facilitating the determination of an optical counterpart. All ten new BL Lac objects show essentially featureless optical spectra and lie within the range of radio/X-ray/optical colors of known X-ray-selected BL Lac objects, when about 1 mag optical variability is included. We expect about 50 new BL Lac objects in total, from complete optical follow-up of our now completed VLA work and recent Australia Telescope observations, yielding a complete Slew Survey sample of about 90 BL Lac objects.

  3. The Spectroscopic Properties of a New Uniform Sample of BL Lacertae Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rector, Travis A.; Laurent-Muehleisen, Sally; Stocke, John

    1999-02-01

    We propose to study spectroscopically the new ROSAT-Green Bank (RGB) sample of BL Lacertae objects. Prior X-ray and radio surveys have discovered only the most extreme BL Lacs (i.e., the most radio or X-ray bright), causing an artificial separation of BL Lacs into two classes, radio loud and X-ray loud BL Lacs (RBLs and XBLs respectively). Not suprisingly then, efforts to understand the relationship between RBLs and XBLs have not been successful. However, the RGB survey has discovered BL Lacs intermediate to XBLs and RBLs (i.e., ``optically- peaked" BL Lacs); and as a whole the RGB is the only sample which spans the entire observed range of broadband spectral energy distributions. However, redshifts are known for only half of the RGB, making the overall intrinsic properties of the sample highly uncertain. We therefore propose to obtain high-SNR spectra of RGB BL Lacs without redshifts to determine redshifts and spectral line properties. The multiwavelength luminosity functions as well as the distribution of redshifts, emission-line luminosities, V/V_max, MgII absorption systems and starlight fractions will be used to determine the relationship between XBLs, RBLs and quasars. This data will also be used in a research-based science education program (RBSE) operated by NOAO, wherein middle- and high-school science students learn astronomy and inquiry-based learning skills via research.

  4. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF METHANOL: PATHOGENESIS IN CD-1 AND C57BL/6J MICE EXPOSED IN WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Methanol causes axial skeleton and craniofacial defects in both CD-1 and C57BL/6J mice during gastrulation, but C57BL/6J embryos are more severely affected. We evaluated methanol-induced pathogenesis in CD-1 and C57BL/6J embryos exposed during gastrulation in whole em...

  5. Determination of RBC Survival in C57BL/6 and C57BL/6-Tg(UBC–GFP) Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dholakia, Urshulaa; Bandyopadhyay, Sheila; Hod, Eldad A; Prestia, Kevin A

    2015-01-01

    Although several methods for determining erythrocyte lifespan are used in research studies that involve mice, all involve the alteration of RBC to allow for its tracking over time, which may affect overall RBC survival. The aims of this study were to determine 1) whether sex affects RBC survival; 2) whether RBC survival differs between the biotin method and an alternative method that uses GFP; and 3) whether repeat exposure of mice to biotin results in an antibiotin antibody response or decreased RBC survival. The results suggest no difference in the RBC half-life between male and female C57BL/6 mice (22.9 ± 1.2 and 22.4 ± 0.9 d, respectively). In addition, RBC half-life did not differ between the biotin- and GFP-based methods (20.5 ± 2.1 d and 22.7 ± 2.1 d, respectively). Finally, retransfusion of mice 90 d after an initial transfusion with biotin-labeled RBC did not induce detectable antibiotin antibodies nor alter the half-life of transfused biotin-labeled RBC (initial transfusion, 22.0 ± 1.2 d; subsequent transfusion, 23.4 ± 1.4 d, respectively). PMID:26141444

  6. SPring-8 BL36XU: Catalytic Reaction Dynamics for Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekizawa, O.; Uruga, T.; Takagi, Y.; Nitta, K.; Kato, K.; Tanida, H.; Uesugi, K.; Hoshino, M.; Ikenaga, E.; Takeshita, K.; Takahashi, S.; Sano, M.; Aoyagi, H.; Watanabe, A.; Nariyama, N.; Ohashi, H.; Yumoto, H.; Koyama, T.; Senba, Y.; Takeuchi, T.; Furukawa, Y.; Ohata, T.; Matsushita, T.; Ishizawa, Y.; Kudo, T.; Kimura, H.; Yamazaki, H.; Tanaka, T.; Bizen, T.; Seike, T.; Goto, S.; Ohno, H.; Takata, M.; Kitamura, H.; Ishikawa, T.; Tada, M.; Yokoyama, T.; Iwasawa, Y.

    2016-05-01

    A tapered undulator beamline BL36XU was constructed at SPring-8 to conduct structural and electronic analysis of dynamic events on polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) cathode catalysts for the development of next-generation PEFCs. BL36XU provides various time and spatially resolved XAFS techniques in an energy range from 4.5 to 35 keV for investigating PEFCs under the operating conditions. In addition, we developed in-situ complementary measurement systems, such as in-situ time-resolved XAFS/XRD and ambient pressure HAXPES systems. This report describes the performance and present status of the BL36XU.

  7. X ray constraints on the beaming hypothesis for BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padovani, P.; Urry, C. M.

    1989-01-01

    BL Lacertae objects may be Fanaroff-Riley type I (FR I) galaxies with a relativistic jet roughly parallel to the line of sight. The ratio of parent objects (FR Is) to beamed objects (BL Lacs) depends only on the jet velocity. Recently this ratio become observable. X-ray-flux-limited samples are used to demonstrate the viability of the beaming hypothesis. In the process, the X-ray luminosity functions of FR I galaxies and BL Lac objects are derived. Their respective contributions to the cosmic X-ray background radiation are calculated.

  8. File Management In Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Critchfield, Anna R.; Zepp, Robert H.

    2000-01-01

    We propose that the user interact with the spacecraft as if the spacecraft were a file server, so that the user can select and receive data as files in standard formats (e.g., tables or images, such as jpeg) via the Internet. Internet technology will be used end-to-end from the spacecraft to authorized users, such as the flight operation team, and project scientists. The proposed solution includes a ground system and spacecraft architecture, mission operations scenarios, and an implementation roadmap showing migration from current practice to the future, where distributed users request and receive files of spacecraft data from archives or spacecraft with equal ease. This solution will provide ground support personnel and scientists easy, direct, secure access to their authorized data without cumbersome processing, and can be extended to support autonomous communications with the spacecraft.

  9. A discussion of Bl conservation on a two dimensional magnetic field plane in watt balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shisong; Zhao, Wei; Huang, Songling

    2016-05-01

    The watt balance is an experiment being pursued in national metrology institutes for precision determination of the Planck constant h. In watt balances, the 1/r magnetic field, expected to generate a geometrical factor Bl independent to any coil horizontal displacement, can be created by a strict two dimensional, symmetric (horizontal r and vertical z) construction of the magnet system. In this paper, we present an analytical understanding of magnetic field distribution when the r symmetry of the magnet is broken and the establishment of the Bl conservation is shown. By using either Gauss’s law on magnetism with monopoles or conformal transformations, we extend the Bl conservation to arbitrary two dimensional magnetic planes where the vertical magnetic field component equals zero. The generalized Bl conservation allows a relaxed physical alignment criteria for watt balance magnet systems.

  10. Dirac or inverse seesaw neutrino masses from gauged B-L symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ernest; Srivastava, Rahul

    2015-08-01

    The gauged B-L symmetry is one of the simplest and well-studied extension of Standard Model. In the conventional case, addition of three singlet right-handed neutrinos each transforming as - 1 under the B-L symmetry renders it anomaly-free. It is usually assumed that the B-L symmetry is spontaneously broken by a singlet scalar having two units of B-L charge, resulting in a natural implementation of Majorana seesaw mechanism for neutrinos. However, as we discuss here, there is another simple anomaly-free solution which leads to Dirac or inverse seesaw masses for neutrinos. These new possibilities are explored along with an application to neutrino mixing with S3 flavor symmetry.

  11. PATHOGENESIS OF METHANOL-INDUCED CRANIOFACIAL DEFECTS IN C57BL/6J MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Methanol administered to C57BL/6J mice during gastrulation causes severe craniofacial dysmorphology. We describe dysmorphogenesis, cell death, cell cycle assessment, and effects on development of cranial ganglia and nerves observed following administration of methanol...

  12. 76 FR 68436 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... tariff filing per 154.204: 2011 SoCal Nonconforming Agreement Vintage to be effective 11/1/2011. Filed...://www.ferc.gov/docs-filing/efiling/filing-req.pdf . For other information, call (866) 208-3676...

  13. NASA Thesaurus Data File

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Thesaurus contains the authorized NASA subject terms used to index and retrieve materials in the NASA Aeronautics and Space Database (NA&SD) and NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS). The scope of this controlled vocabulary includes not only aerospace engineering, but all supporting areas of engineering and physics, the natural space sciences (astronomy, astrophysics, planetary science), Earth sciences, and the biological sciences. The NASA Thesaurus Data File contains all valid terms and hierarchical relationships, USE references, and related terms in machine-readable form. The Data File is available in the following formats: RDF/SKOS, RDF/OWL, ZThes-1.0, and CSV/TXT.

  14. Rapid millimeter and centimeter band flux density increase in the gamma-ray blazar BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovatta, Talvikki; Richards, Joseph L.; Max-Moerbeck, Walter; Pearson, Timothy J.; Readhead, Anthony C. S.

    2012-11-01

    We have observed a rapid flux density increase of BL Lacertae (2200+420) at 15 GHz (2 cm) and 95 GHz (3 mm) following the report on highest millimeter flux density ever observed at the SMA (ATel #4557). Since 2009, BL Lacertae has been observed approximately twice per week at 15 GHz with the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) 40m Telescope as part of our gamma-ray blazar monitoring program (Richards et al....

  15. XML Files: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/xml.html MedlinePlus XML Files To use the sharing features on this page, ... information on all English and Spanish topic groups. Files generated on September 15, 2016 MedlinePlus Health Topic ...

  16. Finding the rarest objects in the universe: A new, efficient method for discovering BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocke, John; Perlman, Eric; Granados, Arno; Schachter, Jonathan; Elvis, Martin; Urry, Meg; Impey, Chris; Smith, Paul

    1993-01-01

    We present a new, efficient method for discovering new BL Lac Objects based upon the results of the Einstein Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey (EMSS). We have found that all x-ray selected BL Lacs are radio emitters, and further, that in a 'color-color' diagram (radio/optical and optical/x-ray) the BL Lac Objects occupy an area distinct from both radio loud quasars and the radio quiet QSOs and Seyferts which dominate x-ray selected samples. After obtaining radio counterparts via VLA 'snapshot' observations of a large sample of unidentified x-ray sources, the list of candidates is reduced. These candidates then can be confirmed with optical spectroscopy and/or polarimetry. Since greater than 70 percent of these sources are expected to be BL Lacs, the optical observations are very efficient. We have tested this method using unidentified sources found in the Einstein Slew Survey. The 162 Slew Survey x-ray source positions were observed with the VLA in a mixed B/C configuration at 6 cm resulting in 60 detections within 1.5 position error circle radii. These x-ray/optical/radio sources were then plotted, and 40 BL Lac candidates were identified. To date, 10 candidates have been spectroscopically observed resulting in 10 new BL Lac objects! Radio flux, optical magnitude, and polarization statistics (obtained in white light with the Steward Observatory 2.3 m CCD polarimeter) for each are given.

  17. Radio constraints on the nature of BL Lacertae objects and their parent population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kollgaard, R. I.; Wardle, J. F. C.; Roberts, D. H.; Gabuzda, D. C.

    1992-01-01

    5 GHz VLA observations of 17 BL Lac objects with bright radio cores at both high and low resolution are reported. Extended emission is detected around most objects. None of the sources observed at low resolution show evidence of giant halos on the scale of tens of arcmin. In general, the sources with the most luminous extended emission exhibit FR II characteristics in both morphology and polarization, and less luminous sources exhibit FR I characteristics. Thus, the parent population of the BL Lac objects contains both FR I and FR II radio sources. No BL Lac objects are found that clearly exhibit quasarlike polarization at milliarcsec resolution. This argues against the view that the more luminous BL Lac objects are simply an extension of the quasar/OVV population, or that most BL Lac objects are gravitationally microlensed images of distant quasars. Other properties are generally consistent with the view the BL Lac objects are normal radio galaxies whose jets make a small angle to the line of sight.

  18. 76 FR 50210 - Combined Notice of Filings #

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... 35.13(a)(2)(iii: Filing of Notice of Succession to be effective 10/5/2011. Filed Date: 08/05/2011....13(a)(2)(iii: Filing of Notice of Succession to be effective 10/5/2011. Filed Date: 08/05/2011....13(a)(2)(iii: Filing of Notice of Succession to be effective 10/5/2011. Filed Date:...

  19. 76 FR 348 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... Transmission, LLC submits tariff filing per 154.204: AGT Modifications for Bobcat's Link Implementation Filing... Transmission, L.L.C. submits tariff filing per 154.204: Modifications for Bobcat's LINK Implementation Filing... Transmission, LP submits tariff filing per 154.204: TETLP Filing for Bobcat's Link Implementation to...

  20. Clinical Chemistry Reference Intervals for C57BL/6J, C57BL/6N, and C3HeB/FeJ Mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Otto, Gordon P; Rathkolb, Birgit; Oestereicher, Manuela A; Lengger, Christoph J; Moerth, Corinna; Micklich, Kateryna; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Wolf, Eckhard; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Although various mouse inbred strains are widely used to investigate disease mechanisms and to establish new therapeutic strategies, sex-specific reference intervals for laboratory diagnostic analytes that are generated from large numbers of animals have been unavailable. In this retrospective study, we screened data from more than 12,000 mice phenotyped in the German Mouse Clinic from January 2006 through June 2014 and selected animals with the genetic background of C57BL/6J, C57BL/6N, or C3HeB/FeJ. In addition, we distinguished between the C57BL/6NTac substrain and C57BL/6N mice received from other vendors. The corresponding data sets of electrolytes (sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, inorganic phosphate), lipids (cholesterol, triglyceride), and enzyme activities (ALT, AST, ALP, α-amylase) and urea, albumin, and total protein levels were analyzed. Significant effects of age and sex on these analytes were identified, and strain- or substrain- and sex-specific reference intervals for 90- to 135-d-old mice were calculated. In addition, we include an overview of the literature that reports clinical chemistry values for wild-type mice of different strains. Our results support researchers interpreting clinical chemistry values from various mouse mutants and corresponding wild-type controls based on the examined strains and substrains. PMID:27423143

  1. "The Bean Files."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haq, Krystyna; Longnecker, Nancy; Hickey, Ruth

    1999-01-01

    Describes classroom use and effectiveness of "The Bean Files," an internet package that uses humorous stories to introduce students to life on a wheat-sheep farm in the Mediterranean climate areas of Australia. The focus of the program is on the role of legume-cereal rotations in the farming system and the science underpinning this agricultural…

  2. The New Resource File

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luck, Donald D.

    2011-01-01

    The development of the resource file is a common experience in teacher preparation programs. The author examines strategies for transforming what has been a project composed of physical resources to one emphasizing digital resources. Methods for finding, tagging, storing and retrieving resources are explored.

  3. Illegal File Sharing 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wada, Kent

    2008-01-01

    Much of higher education's unease arises from the cost of dealing with illegal file sharing. Illinois State University, for example, calculated a cost of $76 to process a first claim of copyright infringement and $146 for a second. Responses range from simply passing along claims to elaborate programs architected with specific goals in mind.…

  4. MPI File Tree Walk

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-04-30

    MPI-FTW is a scalable MPI based software application that navigates a directory tree by dynamically allocating processes to navigate sub-directories found. Upon completion, MPI-FTW provides statistics on the number of directories found, files found, and time to complete. Inaddition, commands can be executed at each directory level.

  5. The Global File System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soltis, Steven R.; Ruwart, Thomas M.; OKeefe, Matthew T.

    1996-01-01

    The global file system (GFS) is a prototype design for a distributed file system in which cluster nodes physically share storage devices connected via a network-like fiber channel. Networks and network-attached storage devices have advanced to a level of performance and extensibility so that the previous disadvantages of shared disk architectures are no longer valid. This shared storage architecture attempts to exploit the sophistication of storage device technologies whereas a server architecture diminishes a device's role to that of a simple component. GFS distributes the file system responsibilities across processing nodes, storage across the devices, and file system resources across the entire storage pool. GFS caches data on the storage devices instead of the main memories of the machines. Consistency is established by using a locking mechanism maintained by the storage devices to facilitate atomic read-modify-write operations. The locking mechanism is being prototyped in the Silicon Graphics IRIX operating system and is accessed using standard Unix commands and modules.

  6. Career Education Product File.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Education, Lansing. Office of Career Education.

    Designed for school staffs and others looking for effective career education programs, this resource file contains descriptions of 150 career education programs and products. It provides an overview of the types of research and development-based career education programs currently available to school districts across the United States. The file…

  7. Accessing files in an internet - The Jade file system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Herman C.; Peterson, Larry L.

    1993-01-01

    Jade is a new distribution file system that provides a uniform way to name and access files in an internet environment. It makes two important contributions. First, Jade is a logical system that integrates a heterogeneous collection of existing file systems, where heterogeneous means that the underlying file systems support different file access protocols. Jade is designed under the restriction that the underlying file system may not be modified. Second, rather than providing a global name space, Jade permits each user to define a private name space. These private name spaces support two novel features: they allow multiple file systems to be mounted under one directory, and they allow one logical name space to mount other logical name spaces. A prototype of the Jade File System was implemented on Sun Workstations running Unix. It consists of interfaces to the Unix file system, the Sun Network File System, the Andrew File System, and FTP. This paper motivates Jade's design, highlights several aspects of its implementation, and illustrates applications that can take advantage of its features.

  8. Accessing files in an Internet: The Jade file system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Larry L.; Rao, Herman C.

    1991-01-01

    Jade is a new distribution file system that provides a uniform way to name and access files in an internet environment. It makes two important contributions. First, Jade is a logical system that integrates a heterogeneous collection of existing file systems, where heterogeneous means that the underlying file systems support different file access protocols. Jade is designed under the restriction that the underlying file system may not be modified. Second, rather than providing a global name space, Jade permits each user to define a private name space. These private name spaces support two novel features: they allow multiple file systems to be mounted under one directory, and they allow one logical name space to mount other logical name spaces. A prototype of the Jade File System was implemented on Sun Workstations running Unix. It consists of interfaces to the Unix file system, the Sun Network File System, the Andrew File System, and FTP. This paper motivates Jade's design, highlights several aspects of its implementation, and illustrates applications that can take advantage of its features.

  9. 43 CFR 4.1371 - Who may file, where to file, when to file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of proposed suspension or rescission under 30 CFR 773.22 or a notice of suspension or rescission under 30 CFR 773.23 may file a request for review with the Hearings Division, Office of Hearings and... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who may file, where to file, when to...

  10. 11 CFR 100.19 - File, filed or filing (2 U.S.C. 434(a)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to be filed under 11 CFR parts 101, 102, 104, 105, 107, 108, and 109, and any modifications or... required by 11 CFR part 105, by the close of business on the prescribed filing date. (b) Timely filed. (1... and in 11 CFR 104.5, (i) Overnight delivery service means a private delivery service business...

  11. 11 CFR 100.19 - File, filed or filing (2 U.S.C. 434(a)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to be filed under 11 CFR parts 101, 102, 104, 105, 107, 108, and 109, and any modifications or... required by 11 CFR part 105, by the close of business on the prescribed filing date. (b) Timely filed. (1... and in 11 CFR 104.5, (i) Overnight delivery service means a private delivery service business...

  12. Optically Selected BL Lacertae Candidates from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Seven

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotkin, Richard M.; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W. N.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan, Xiaohui; Hall, Patrick B.; Kimball, Amy E.; Richmond, Michael W.; Schneider, Donald P.; Shemmer, Ohad; Voges, Wolfgang; York, Donald G.; Bahcall, Neta A.; Snedden, Stephanie; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Malanushenko, Viktor; Malanushenko, Elena; Oravetz, Dan; Pan, Kaike; Simmons, Audrey

    2010-02-01

    We present a sample of 723 optically selected BL Lac candidates from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS DR7) spectroscopic database encompassing 8250 deg2 of sky; our sample constitutes one of the largest uniform BL Lac samples yet derived. Each BL Lac candidate has a high-quality SDSS spectrum from which we determine spectroscopic redshifts for ~60% of the objects. Redshift lower limits are estimated for the remaining objects utilizing the lack of host galaxy flux contamination in their optical spectra; we find that objects lacking spectroscopic redshifts are likely at systematically higher redshifts. Approximately 80% of our BL Lac candidates match to a radio source in FIRST/NVSS, and ~40% match to a ROSAT X-ray source. The homogeneous multiwavelength coverage allows subdivision of the sample into 637 radio-loud BL Lac candidates and 86 weak-featured radio-quiet objects. The radio-loud objects broadly support the standard paradigm unifying BL Lac objects with beamed radio galaxies. We propose that the majority of the radio-quiet objects may be lower-redshift (z < 2.2) analogs to high-redshift weak line quasars (i.e., active galactic nucleus with unusually anemic broad emission line regions). These would constitute the largest sample of such objects, being of similar size and complementary in redshift to the samples of high-redshift weak line quasars previously discovered by the SDSS. However, some fraction of the weak-featured radio-quiet objects may instead populate a rare and extreme radio-weak tail of the much larger radio-loud BL Lac population. Serendipitous discoveries of unusual white dwarfs, high-redshift weak line quasars, and broad absorption line quasars with extreme continuum dropoffs blueward of rest-frame 2800 Å are also briefly described.

  13. Testing the blazar sequence with the least luminous BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raiteri, C. M.; Capetti, A.

    2016-03-01

    In a previous paper, we proposed a new method to select low-power BL Lacs (LPBLs) based on mid-infrared emission and flux contrast through the Ca II spectral break; that study led to the selection of a complete sample formed by 34 LPBLs with 0.05 BL Lacs. We find that the ratios between the X-ray and radio luminosities range from ~20 to ~30 000 and that the synchrotron peak frequencies span a wide energy interval, from log νpeak ~ 13.5 to ~20 [Hz]. This indicates a broad variety of SED shapes and a mixture of BL Lac flavors. Indeed, although the majority of our LPBLs are high-energy peaked BL Lacs (HBLs), we find that a quarter of them are low-energy peaked BL Lacs (LBLs), despite the fact that the sample is biased against the selection of LBLs. The analysis of the median LPBL SED confirms disagreement with the blazar sequence at low radio luminosities. Furthermore, if we limit the sample to the LBLs subsample, we find that their median SED shape is essentially indistinguishable from that of the most luminous BL Lacs. We conclude that the observed radio power is not the main driving parameter of the multiwavelength properties of BL Lacs.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Multiwavelength obs. of BL Lac in 2012-2013 (Wehrle+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehrle, A. E.; Grupe, D.; Jorstad, S. G.; Marscher, A. P.; Gurwell, M.; Balokovic, M.; Hovatta, T.; Madejski, G. M.; Harrison, F. H.; Stern, D.

    2016-03-01

    Our Herschel target of opportunity observations began on 2012 October 29 (MJD 56229) and continued for the three-month visibility window. We arranged for daily Swift pointings starting on 2012 October 27 through 2013 February 1. We also arranged for two intense periods of every-orbit Swift monitoring on 2012 December 11-12 and 2013 January 11-12. We obtained target of opportunity observations with NuSTAR on 2012 December 11-12. Observations of BL Lac every two to four days were carried out at the SMA on Mauna Kea, HI during the Herschel observation window, and intermittently thereafter. Monitoring observations with CARMA at 3mm were already underway. VLBA monitoring continued throughout the time range reported here as part of the ongoing Boston University (BU) γ-ray blazar monitoring program. Observations at other wavebands were already underway by other collaborations, e.g., the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope. In addition, roughly weekly Swift observations have been carried out for several years by A. Falcone and M. Stroh (Stroh & Falcone 2013ApJS..207...28S). Herschel SPIRE and PACS FIR observations of BL Lac are presented in table 1 and sections 2.2 and 2.5. SMA millimeter and submillimeter observations are presented in tables 1, 2 and 3 and sections 2.3 and 2.5. Millimeter observations with CARMA are presented in table 4 and sections 2.4 and 2.5. Swift optical, UV and X-ray observations are presented in tables 5 and 6 and section 2.6. Hard X-ray observations with NuSTAR are presented in section 2.7. γ-ray observations with Fermi are presented in section 2.8. The 7mm band observations are presented in section 2.9. The BU group obtained 2.4-10keV X-ray fluxes with the RXTE PCA three times per week from 2005 March 3 to 2011 December 31; see table 10 and Appendix. (7 data files).

  15. Characterization of the Ethanol Deprivation Effect in Substrains of C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Khisti, Rahul T.; Wolstenholme, Jennifer; Shelton, Keith L.; Miles, Michael F.

    2007-01-01

    Ethanol craving plays a major role in relapse drinking behavior. Relapse and ethanol craving are an important focus for the treatment of alcoholism. The ethanol deprivation effect (EDE) is a widely used animal model of alcohol craving. While the EDE is widely studied in rats, the molecular mechanisms underlying EDE are not clearly understood. The C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is widely used for behavioral and molecular analyses of ethanol drinking but studies on the EDE have not been reported in this strain. In the present study, we characterized a simple behavioral protocol that rapidly and reliably induced EDE in C57BL/6 mice. Briefly, single-housed adult male C57BL/6NCrl and C57BL/6J mice were presented at the beginning of dark phase with two-bottle choice drinking containing either 10 % w/v ethanol or tap water for 18-hrs/day, as well as food ad libitum. Following ethanol drinking for 4 days or 14-days, mice were deprived of ethanol for a period of 4 days. To study EDE, mice were reinstated with two-bottles containing either ethanol (10 % w/v) or water. Mice were exposed to single or multiple ethanol deprivation cycles. Ethanol consumption (g/kg/18-hrs) and percent ethanol preference (% preference/18-hrs) was recorded for individual mice. C57BL/6NCrl mice consumed moderate amounts (4.78 ± 0.63 g/kg) of ethanol but showed robust EDE after ethanol drinking episodes (4 days or 14 days) as evidenced by increased ethanol consumption and ethanol preference following re-instatement of ethanol. While repeated ethanol deprivation in C57BL/6NCrl mice transiently increased ethanol consumption and ethanol preference, the magnitude of these behaviors was reduced as compared to the first deprivation cycle. In contrast, the C57BL/6J substrain consumed substantially higher levels (9.65 ± 0.90 g/kg) of ethanol but did not show a clear EDE after single or multiple ethanol deprivation cycles. In conclusion, we established a simple and reliable behavioral model to study EDE in C57

  16. JENDL Photonuclear Data File

    SciTech Connect

    Kishida, Norio; Murata, Toru; Asami, Tetsuo; Kosako, Kazuaki; Maki, Kouichi; Harada, Hideo; Lee, Young-Ouk; Chang, Jonghwa; Chiba, Satoshi; Fukahori, Tokio

    2005-05-24

    JENDL Photonuclear Data File 2004 was released in March 2004 and contains the photonuclear data for 68 nuclides from 2H to 237Np. We were proceeding on the evaluation work with the help of theoretical calculations based on statistical nuclear reaction models. The photonuclear cross sections that are to be contained in the file are as follows: photoabsorption cross sections, yield cross sections, and double-differential cross sections for photoneutrons, photoprotons, photodeuterons, phototritons, photo-3He-particles and photoalpha-particles, and isotope production cross sections. For the actinide nuclides, physical quantities related to photofission reactions are also included. The maximum energy of incident photons is 140 MeV, which is the energy at which the pion production channel opens.

  17. Discovery of quasi-periodic oscillations in the AM Herculis object BL Hydri

    SciTech Connect

    Middleditch, J.; Imamura, J.N.; Steiman-Cameron, T.Y.

    1997-11-01

    We obtained high-speed optical photometry of the AM Her object BL Hyi at the Las Campanas Observatory and the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory during 1989{endash}1996. BL Hyi was in its faint-luminosity state in 1989; it subsequently brightened and was in its high-luminosity state for our 1994{endash}1996 observations. We discovered broad, 0.2{endash}0.8 Hz quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) and narrower QPOs superposed on the broad QPOs when BL Hyi was in its high-luminosity state. The broad QPOs had widths of {Delta}f/f{sub p}{approximately}0.5{endash}1 and runs pulsed amplitudes of {approximately}1{percent}{minus}4{percent}, where f{sub p} is the frequency of the QPO peak. The narrow QPOs had widths of {Delta}f/f{sub p}{lt}0.1{endash}1 and rms pulsed amplitudes of less than 1{percent}. BL Hyi showed stronger QPOs and was slightly brighter in 1994 than in 1995{endash}1996. The amplitudes of the broad and narrow QPOs were modulated on the orbital period of the system; they were strongest during the bright orbital phase. BL Hyi is the fifth AM Her system to show the short-period QPOs discovered by Middleditch. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  18. THE LACK OF TORUS EMISSION FROM BL LACERTAE OBJECTS: AN INFRARED VIEW OF UNIFICATION WITH WISE

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, Richard M.; Markoff, Sera; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W. N.; Wu Jianfeng; Shemmer, Ohad

    2012-02-15

    We use data from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) to perform a statistical study on the mid-infrared (IR) properties of a large number ({approx}10{sup 2}) of BL Lac objects-low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with a jet beamed toward the Earth. As expected, many BL Lac objects are so highly beamed that their jet synchrotron emission dominates their IR spectral energy distributions. In other BL Lac objects, however, the jet is not strong enough to completely dilute the rest of the AGN emission. We do not see observational signatures of the dusty torus from these weakly beamed BL Lac objects. The lack of observable torus emission is consistent with suggestions that BL Lac objects are fed by radiatively inefficient accretion disks. Implications for the 'nature versus nurture' debate for FR I and FR II radio galaxies are briefly discussed. Our study supports the notion that, beyond orientation, accretion rate plays an important role in AGN unification.

  19. Does black hole spin play a key role in the FSRQ/BL Lac dichotomy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Debbijoy; Sreekumar, Parameswaran; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata; Tomar, Ishan

    2016-04-01

    Blazars are characterized by large intensity and spectral variations across the electromagnetic spectrum It is believed that jets emerging from them are almost aligned with the line-of-sight. The majority of identified extragalactic sources in γ-ray catalogs of EGRET and Fermi are blazars. Observationally, blazars can be divided into two classes: flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and BL Lacs. BL Lacs usually exhibit lower γ-ray luminosity and harder power law spectra at γ-ray energies than FSRQs. We attempt to explain the high energy properties of FSRQs and BL Lacs from Fermi γ-ray space telescope observations. It was argued previously that the difference in accretion rates is mainly responsible for the large mismatch in observed luminosity in γ-ray. However, when intrinsic luminosities are derived by correcting for beaming effects, this difference in γ-ray luminosity between the two classes is significantly reduced. In order to explain this difference in intrinsic luminosities, we propose that spin plays an important role in the luminosity distribution dichotomy of BL Lacs and FSRQs. As the outflow power of a blazar increases with increasing spin of a central black hole, we suggest that the spin plays a crucial role in making BL Lac sources low luminous and slow rotators compared to FSRQ sources.

  20. U(1)B-L symmetry restoration and effective neutrino species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2014-06-01

    The U(1)B-L symmetry could be restored during inflation, since the BICEP2 results suggest a GUT-scale inflation with the Hubble parameter, Hinf≃1014 GeV, close to the U(1)B-L breaking scale. We consider a scenario in which the B-L Higgs field dominates the Universe after inflation, and mainly decays into the U(1)B-L gauge bosons, whose subsequent decays reheat the Universe. Interestingly, if one of the right-handed neutrinos is extremely light and behaves as dark radiation or hot dark matter, its abundance is determined by the B-L charge assignment and the relativistic degree of freedom in plasma. We find that ΔNeff takes discrete values between 0.188 and 0.220 in the standard model plus three right-handed neutrinos, depending on whether the decay into heavier right-handed neutrinos is kinematically accessible or not. In the fiveness U(1)5 case, we find that ΔNeff takes discrete values between 0.313 and 0.423. The tension between BICEP2 and Planck can be partially relaxed by dark radiation.

  1. Hypolipidemic effect of young persimmon fruit in C57BL/6.KOR-ApoEshl mice.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kenji; Yokoyama, Shin-ichiro; Gato, Nobuki

    2008-10-01

    We investigated the hypolipidemic effects of young persimmon fruit (YP) on apolipoprotein E-deficient C57BL/6.KOR-ApoEshl mice. These mice exhibited higher plasma cholesterols, except for high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and lower plasma HDL cholesterol than C57BL/6.Cr mice that had the same genetic background as the C57BL/6.KOR-ApoEshl mice. Male C57BL/6.KOR-ApoEshl mice (n=5) were fed a diet supplemented with dry YP, Hachiya-kaki, at a concentration of 5% (w/w) for 10 weeks. YP treatment significantly lowered plasma chylomicron, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterols, and triglyceride, and this response was accompanied by an elevation of fecal bile acid excretion. In the liver, sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 gene expression was significantly higher in mice fed YP, while the mRNA and protein levels of the LDL receptor did not change. These results indicate that acceleration of fecal bile acid excretion is a major mechanism of the hypolipidemic effect induced by YP in C57BL/6.KOR-ApoEshl mice. PMID:18838807

  2. MERRA-2: File Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, M. G.; Lucchesi, R.; Suarez, M.

    2015-01-01

    The second Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA-2) is a NASA atmospheric reanalysis that begins in 1980. It replaces the original MERRA reanalysis (Rienecker et al., 2011) using an upgraded version of the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GEOS-5) data assimilation system. The file collections for MERRA-2 are described in detail in this document, including some important changes from those of the MERRA dataset (Lucchesi, 2012).

  3. Ageing single file motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzler, R.; Sanders, L.; Lomholt, M. A.; Lizana, L.; Fogelmark, K.; Ambjörnsson, Tobias

    2014-12-01

    The mean squared displacement of a tracer particle in a single file of identical particles with excluded volume interactions shows the famed Harris scaling ≃ K1/2t1/2 as function of time. Here we study what happens to this law when each particle of the single file interacts with the environment such that it is transiently immobilised for times τ with a power-law distribution ψ(τ) ≃ (τ★)α, and different ranges of the exponent α are considered. We find a dramatic slow-down of the motion of a tracer particle from Harris' law to an ultraslow, logarithmic time evolution ≃ K0 log 1/2(t) when 0 < α < 1. In the intermediate case 1 < α < 2, we observe a power-law form for the mean squared displacement, with a modified scaling exponent as compared to Harris' law. Once α is larger than two, the Brownian single file behaviour and thus Harris' law are restored. We also point out that this process is weakly non-ergodic in the sense that the time and ensemble averaged mean squared displacements are disparate.

  4. Spectroscopy of optically selected BL Lac objects and their γ-ray emission

    SciTech Connect

    Sandrinelli, A.; Treves, A.; Farina, E. P.; Landoni, M.; Falomo, R.; Foschini, L.; Sbarufatti, B.

    2013-12-01

    We present Very Large Telescope optical spectroscopy of nine BL Lac objects of unknown redshift belonging to the list of optically selected radio-loud BL Lac candidates. We explore their spectroscopic properties and possible link with gamma-ray emission. From the new observations we determine the redshifts of four objects from faint emission lines or from absorption features of their host galaxies. In three cases we find narrow intervening absorptions from which a lower limit to the redshift is inferred. For the remaining two featureless sources, lower limits to the redshift are deduced from the absence of spectral lines. A search for γ counterpart emission shows that six out of the nine candidates are Fermi γ-ray emitters and we find two new detections. Our analysis suggests that most of the BL Lac objects still lacking redshift information are most likely located at high redshifts.

  5. INFRARED SPECTRAL OBSERVATION OF EIGHT BL LAC OBJECTS FROM THE SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P. S.; Shan, H. G.

    2011-05-01

    The Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) low-resolution spectra for eight BL Lac objects are presented in this paper. It can be seen that the infrared spectrum of S5 0716+714 shows in the IRS region many emission features that would be from a nearby galaxy. It is also shown that, except for the silicate absorptions around 10 {mu}m for some sources, emission lines in the infrared spectra for the other seven BL Lac objects are indeed very weak or absent. In addition, ignoring the silicate feature, all spectra can be well fitted by a power-law distribution indicative of the emission mechanism of the synchrotron radiation for these BL Lac objects in the IRS region.

  6. Bovine leucosis virus challenge infection of calves following application of BL-3 cells.

    PubMed

    Ristau, E; Wittmann, W; Starick, E; Kluge, K H

    1989-01-01

    8 calves were vaccinated 3 times with 1.5.10(7) BL-3 cells. 2 and 6 weeks, respectively, after the 3rd vaccination each 4 calves were subjected to a challenge infection with 2.5.10(5) blood lymphocytes of a BLV-infected cow. For control a challenge infection was performed on 3 non-vaccinated calves. The vaccination caused in all calves the appearance of complement-dependent cytotoxic antibodies against BL-3 cells but not of antibodies against BLV-gp51. After the challenge infection there occurred in the sera of all vaccinated calves and of all non-vaccinated control animals antibodies against gp51, and BLV could be demonstrated in the cultivated blood lymphocytes of all animals. Consequently, the application of BL-3 cells had no protective effect against the BLV infection. PMID:2549903

  7. A survey of the milliarcsecond polarization properties of BL Lacertae objects at 5 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabuzda, D. C.; Cawthorne, T. V.; Roberts, D. H.; Wardle, J. F. C.

    1992-01-01

    Consideration is given to millarcsecond-resolution total-intensity and linear polarization maps at 5 GHz presented for 11 BL Lacertae objects. In every BL Lacertae object in which polarization structure was detected, the polarization position angle of the knots is nearly parallel to the VLBI structural axis. The direction of the polarization in the cores of these sources appears to be random. The preferred polarization direction in the jets is explained by the fact that plane perpendicular shock waves are common in these sources; the origin of the absence of the preferred polarization direction in the core components is unclear. These results support an early conclusion that it cannot be the case that a significant number of BL Lacertae objects are gravitationally microlensed images of more distant quasars, since the characteristic VLBI polarization structures observed in these two types of objects are very different.

  8. Computing the period of light variability in BL Lac objects using the Jurkevich method.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiong; Xie, Guangzhong; Bai, Jinming

    1998-07-01

    The authors present a method for finding the period of light variation in BL Lac objects. They find the long periods light variability in the BL Lac objects OJ 287, ON 231 and Mrk 421. Analysis and computing have shown that the data sample should span a very long time interval (about 100 years), covering at least six times the length of the periodicity being claimed, the possible period should refer to large amplitude variations and thus directly visible in the light curve. When the amplitude is low, far more than six times of the period length will be necessary to demonstrate its reality. The authors conclude that the method is the best way for period search in BL Lac objects.

  9. Postnatal Hematopoiesis and Gut Microbiota in NOD Mice Deviate from C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Damlund, Dina Silke Malling; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Hasselby, Jane Preuss; Wiese, Maria; Lundsager, Mia; Buschard, Karsten Stig; Hansen, Axel Kornerup; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal studies in different mouse strains reveal that early life colonization affects the development of adaptive immunity in mice. The nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse spontaneously develops autoimmune diabetes, but neonatal studies of NOD mice are lacking. We hypothesized that NOD mice deviate from another much used mouse strain, C57BL/6, with respect to postnatal microbiota and/or hematopoiesis and compared this in newborn mice of dams housed under the same conditions. A distinct bacteria profile rich in staphylococci was found at postnatal days (PND) 1–4 in NOD mice. Furthermore, a distinct splenic cell profile high in a granulocytic phenotype was evident in the neonatal NOD mice whereas neonatal C57BL/6 mice showed a profile rich in monocytes. Neonatal expression of Reg3g and Muc2 in the gut was deviating in NOD mice and coincided with fewer bacteria attaching to the Mucosal surface in NOD compared to C57BL/6 mice. PMID:26783537

  10. Minimal gauged U(1) B-L model with spontaneous R parity violation.

    PubMed

    Barger, Vernon; Pérez, Pavel Fileviez; Spinner, Sogee

    2009-05-01

    We study the minimal gauged U(1) B-L supersymmetric model and show that it provides an attractive theory for spontaneous R-parity violation. Both U(1) B-L and R parity are broken by the vacuum expectation value of the right-handed sneutrino (proportional to the soft supersymmetry masses), thereby linking the B-L and soft SUSY scales. In this context we find a consistent mechanism for generating neutrino masses and a realistic mass spectrum, all without extending the Higgs sector of the minimal supersymmetry standard model. We discuss the most relevant collider signals and the connection between the Z' gauge boson and R-parity violation. PMID:19518859

  11. Permanent-File-Validation Utility Computer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derry, Stephen D.

    1988-01-01

    Errors in files detected and corrected during operation. Permanent File Validation (PFVAL) utility computer program provides CDC CYBER NOS sites with mechanism to verify integrity of permanent file base. Locates and identifies permanent file errors in Mass Storage Table (MST) and Track Reservation Table (TRT), in permanent file catalog entries (PFC's) in permit sectors, and in disk sector linkage. All detected errors written to listing file and system and job day files. Program operates by reading system tables , catalog track, permit sectors, and disk linkage bytes to vaidate expected and actual file linkages. Used extensively to identify and locate errors in permanent files and enable online correction, reducing computer-system downtime.

  12. The Goddard VLBI SINEX Files

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Chopo; Petrov, Leonid

    2002-01-01

    The Goddard VLBI group generates SINEX files for individual 24-hr sessions and multiyear TRF solutions. Each 24-hr file includes the reduced normal matrix for the station positions, EOP, and EOP rates. A global Terrestrial Reference Frame (TRF) SINEX file has the reduced normal matrix for station positions and velocities but no EOP parameters. Both types of normal matrix are free from any datum constraints and are designed for combination solutions that will later apply the necessary datum constraints. The SINEX files also contain blocks that provide the constraints and covariance of well-defined 24-hr or global TRF solutions. These blocks are not yet part of the SINEX 2.0 specification. For the TRF solutions the Goddard VLBI group also generates the corresponding EOP time series. SINEX files and EOP time series are distributed through the IVS. The algorithms for generating the various blocks and the proper use of such SINEX files will be discussed.

  13. The Galley Parallel File System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieuwejaar, Nils; Kotz, David

    1996-01-01

    As the I/O needs of parallel scientific applications increase, file systems for multiprocessors are being designed to provide applications with parallel access to multiple disks. Many parallel file systems present applications with a conventional Unix-like interface that allows the application to access multiple disks transparently. The interface conceals the parallelism within the file system, which increases the ease of programmability, but makes it difficult or impossible for sophisticated programmers and libraries to use knowledge about their I/O needs to exploit that parallelism. Furthermore, most current parallel file systems are optimized for a different workload than they are being asked to support. We introduce Galley, a new parallel file system that is intended to efficiently support realistic parallel workloads. We discuss Galley's file structure and application interface, as well as an application that has been implemented using that interface.

  14. The Galley Parallel File System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieuwejaar, Nils; Kotz, David

    1996-01-01

    Most current multiprocessor file systems are designed to use multiple disks in parallel, using the high aggregate bandwidth to meet the growing I/0 requirements of parallel scientific applications. Many multiprocessor file systems provide applications with a conventional Unix-like interface, allowing the application to access multiple disks transparently. This interface conceals the parallelism within the file system, increasing the ease of programmability, but making it difficult or impossible for sophisticated programmers and libraries to use knowledge about their I/O needs to exploit that parallelism. In addition to providing an insufficient interface, most current multiprocessor file systems are optimized for a different workload than they are being asked to support. We introduce Galley, a new parallel file system that is intended to efficiently support realistic scientific multiprocessor workloads. We discuss Galley's file structure and application interface, as well as the performance advantages offered by that interface.

  15. Immune responses associated with susceptibility of C57BL/10 mice to Leishmania amazonensis.

    PubMed Central

    Afonso, L C; Scott, P

    1993-01-01

    Leishmaniae are protozoans which, depending upon both the host and parasite species, can cause either a healing or nonhealing infection. While C57BL/10 mice are able to heal following infection with Leishmania major, they fail to heal following infection with Leishmania amazonensis. In order to address the role of Th1 and Th2 cell responses in the outcome of these infections in C57BL/10 mice, gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) production was assessed. While cells from L. major-infected C57BL/10 mice produced high levels of IFN-gamma, cells from L. amazonensis-infected animals produced little or no IFN-gamma. On the other hand, IL-4 was produced only by cells from L. amazonensis-infected C57BL/10 mice, but this production was restricted to the first few weeks of infection. Later in infection, when lesions were evident, no IL-4 was detected. Treatment of BALB/c mice with a monoclonal antibody (11B11) directed against IL-4 induced a dramatic reduction in L. amazonensis lesions. This reduction was associated with a decrease in IL-4 levels and an increase in IFN-gamma production. However, only a slight reduction in lesion sizes and parasite numbers was observed when anti-IL-4-treated C57BL/10 mice were infected with L. amazonensis. These results suggest that IL-4 may have an important role in mediating susceptibility to L. amazonensis in BALB/c mice, as previously demonstrated for L. major. More importantly, however, the data suggest that susceptibility to L. amazonensis in C57BL/10 mice is due to the absence of a Th1 cell response, rather than to the presence of a Th2 cell response. PMID:8514400

  16. RATAN-600 multi-frequency data for the BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingaliev, M. G.; Sotnikova, Yu. V.; Udovitskiy, R. Yu.; Mufakharov, T. V.; Nieppola, E.; Erkenov, A. K.

    2014-12-01

    Aims: We present a new catalogue of the RATAN-600 multi-frequency measurements for BL Lac objects. The purpose of this catalogue is to compile the BL Lac multi-frequency data that is acquired with the RATAN-600 simultaneously at several frequencies. The BL Lac objects emit a strongly variable and polarized non-thermal radiation across the entire electromagnetic spectrum from radio to γ rays and represent about 1% of known AGNs. They belong to the blazar population and differ from other blazars' featureless optical spectrum, which sometimes have absorption lines, or have weak and narrow emission lines. One of the most effective ways of studying the physics of BL Lacs is the use of simultaneous multi-frequency data. Methods: The multi-frequency broadband radio spectrum was obtained simultaneously with an accuracy of up to 1-2 min for four to six frequencies: 1.1, 2.3, 4.8, 7.7, 11.2, and 21.7 GHz. The catalogue is based on the RATAN-600 observations and on the data from: equatorial coordinate and redshift, R-band magnitude, synchrotron peak frequency, SED classes, and object type literature. Results: The present version of the catalogue contains RATAN-600 flux densities measurements over nine years (2006-2014), radio spectra at different epochs, and their parameters of the catalogue for more than 300 BL Lacs objects and candidates. The BL Lacs list is constantly updated with new observational data of RATAN-600. The catalogue is presented in interactive form and available at Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences website http://www.sao.ru/blcat/

  17. 75 FR 61730 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings September 21, 2010. Take notice that the... filing per 154.203: Cotton Valley--Baseline eTariff Filing to be effective 9/21/2010. Filed Date: 09/21... . To facilitate electronic service, persons with Internet access who will eFile a document and/or...

  18. 12 CFR 5.4 - Filing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CORPORATE ACTIVITIES Rules of General Applicability § 5.4 Filing required. (a) Filing. A depository institution shall file an application or notice with the OCC to engage in corporate activities and... advise an applicant through a pre-filing communication to send the filing or submission directly to...

  19. 76 FR 61685 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... Supply Corporation submits tariff filing per 154.204: Rate Schedule PTR to be effective 10/27/2011. Filed... Negotiated Rate Agreement Filing to be effective 10/1/2011. Filed Date: 09/28/2011. Accession Number... effective 10/1/2011. Filed Date: 09/28/2011. Accession Number: 20110928-5034. Comment Date: 5 p.m....

  20. 78 FR 16491 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    .... Description: Housekeeping tariff filing to be effective 4/4/2013. Filed Date: 3/5/13. Accession Number... Numbers: RP13-673-000. Applicants: B-R Pipeline Company. Description: Housekeeping tariff filing to be... Housekeeping Filing to be effective 4/8/2013. Filed Date: 3/6/13. Accession Number: 20130306-5067. Comments...

  1. 29 CFR 2200.8 - Filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... document shall be filed. (e) Filing date. (1) Except for the documents listed in paragraph (e)(2) of this... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filing. 2200.8 Section 2200.8 Labor Regulations Relating to... § 2200.8 Filing. (a) What to file. All papers required to be served on a party or intervenor, except...

  2. Synchrotron total reflection X-ray fluorescence at BL-16 microfocus beamline of Indus-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, M. K.; Singh, A. K.; Das, Gangadhar; Chowdhury, Anupam; Lodha, G. S.

    2014-04-01

    Determination of ultra trace elements is important in many disciplines both in basic and applied sciences. Numerous applications show their importance in medical science, environmental science, materials science, food processing and semiconductor industries and in maintaining the quality control of ultra pure chemicals and reagents. We report commissioning of a synchrotron based total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) facility on the BL-16 microfocus beamline of Indus-2. This paper describes the performance of the BL-16 TXRF spectrometer and the detailed description of its capabilities through examples of measured results.

  3. Marrow-thymus interactions during radiation leukemogenesis in C57BL/Ka mice

    SciTech Connect

    Boniver, J.; Decl'eve, A.; Lieberman, M.; Honsik, C.; Travis, M.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1981-02-01

    Transplantation of thymus and bone marrow cells from irradiated C57BL/Ka mice demonstrated the presence of potentially neoplastic cells in the thymus at 30 to 60 days postirradiation. During the same interval, no such cells could be detected in the bone marow; moreover, the capacity of bone marrow cells to repopulate the thymus was impaired severely. These observations suggest that the primary site of neoplastic transformation in irradiated C57BL/Ka mice is the thymus rather than the bone marrow and that impaired thymic regeneration is a critical step in radiation leukemogenesis in mice.

  4. High-energy cosmic neutrinos from spine-sheath BL Lac jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavecchio, F.; Ghisellini, G.

    2015-08-01

    We recently proposed that structured (spine-sheath) jets associated with BL Lac objects could offer a suitable environment for the production of the extragalactic high-energy (E > 100 TeV) neutrino recently revealed by IceCube. Our previous analysis was limited to low-power BL Lac objects. We extend our preliminary study to the entire BL Lac population, assuming that the entire diffuse emission is accounted for by these sources. The neutrino output from a single source depends on a relatively large number of parameters. However, for several of them we have constraints coming from observations and previous application of the structured jet model to blazar and radiogalaxy emission. The observed neutrino spectrum then fixes the remaining free parameters. We assume that the power of cosmic rays as well as the radiative luminosity of the sheath depends linearly on the jet power. In turn, we assume that the latter is well traced by the γ-ray luminosity. We exploit the BL Lac γ-ray luminosity function and its cosmic evolution as recently inferred from Fermi-LAT data to derive the expected neutrino cumulative intensity from the entire BL Lac population. When considering only the low-power BL Lacs, a large cosmic ray power for each source is required to account for the neutrino flux. Instead, if BL Lacs of all powers produce neutrinos, the power demand decreases, and the required cosmic ray power becomes of the same order of the radiative jet power. In our scheme, the maximum energy of cosmic rays is constrained to be ≲ few PeV by the lack of events above few PeV. Although such a value is obtained through a fine-tuning with the data, we show that it could be possibly related to the equilibrium between cooling and acceleration processes for high-energy cosmic rays. We also discuss the prospects for the direct association of IceCube events with BL Lacs, providing an estimate of the expected counts for the most promising sources.

  5. TeV-scale gauged B-L symmetry with inverse seesaw mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, Shaaban

    2010-10-01

    We propose a modified version of the TeV-scale B-L extension of the standard model, where neutrino masses are generated through the inverse seesaw mechanism. We show that heavy neutrinos in this model can be accessible via clean signals at the LHC. The search for the extra gauge boson Z{sub B-L}{sup '} through the decay into dileptons or two dileptons plus missing energy is studied. We also show that the B-L extra Higgs boson can be directly probed at the LHC via a clean dilepton and missing energy signal.

  6. Are BL Lac-type objects nearby black holes. [gas accretion model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, S. L.; Elliot, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    It is pointed out that isolated black holes accreting interstellar gas can account for the characteristic properties of the Lacertids. Emission spectra for various interstellar gas densities and black hole masses are compared with the data plotted by Strittmatter et al. (1972) for the BL Lac-type objects. Rough estimates indicate that there may indeed be a finite number of stellar-mass black holes close to the earth as required by the theory. If it is determined that the BL Lac-type objects lie outside of the galactic disk a black hole accretion model may still apply if certain conditions are satisfied.

  7. Synchrotron total reflection X-ray fluorescence at BL-16 microfocus beamline of Indus-2

    SciTech Connect

    Tiwari, M. K. Singh, A. K. Das, Gangadhar Chowdhury, Anupam Lodha, G. S.

    2014-04-24

    Determination of ultra trace elements is important in many disciplines both in basic and applied sciences. Numerous applications show their importance in medical science, environmental science, materials science, food processing and semiconductor industries and in maintaining the quality control of ultra pure chemicals and reagents. We report commissioning of a synchrotron based total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) facility on the BL-16 microfocus beamline of Indus-2. This paper describes the performance of the BL-16 TXRF spectrometer and the detailed description of its capabilities through examples of measured results.

  8. Far-infrared photometry of compact extragalactic sources: OJ 187 and BL Lac

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, P. M.; Joy, M.; Lester, D. F.; Wilking, B. A.

    1984-01-01

    The 50 and 100 micron emissions of OJ 287 were detected and upper limits for BL Lac were obtained. These first measurements of two BL Lac objects in the far-infrared show them to be similar to the few quasars previously observed in the far-infrared. In particular, there is no evidence for significant dust emission, and the lambda approximately 100 micron flux density fits on a smooth line joining the near-infrared and millimeter continuum fluxes. The implications of the results for models of the sources are discussed briefly.

  9. 43 CFR 4.1362 - Where to file; when to file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Where to file; when to file. 4.1362... file; when to file. (a) The request for review shall be filed with the Hearings Division, Office of... bear the expense for this service. (b) Failure to file a request for review within the time...

  10. The DNA Files

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-09

    The DNA Files is a radio documentary which disseminates genetics information over public radio. The documentaries explore subjects which include the following: How genetics affects society. How human life began and how it evolved. Could new prenatal genetic tests hold the key to disease prevention later in life? Would a national genetic data base sacrifice individual privacy? and Should genes that may lead to the cure for cancer be privately owned? This report serves as a project update for the second quarter of 1998. It includes the spring/summer 1998 newsletter, the winter 1998 newsletter, the program clock, and the latest flyer.

  11. Converting Inhouse Subject Card Files to Electronic Keyword Files.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culmer, Carita M.

    The library at Phoenix College developed the Controversial Issues Files (CIF), a "home made" card file containing references pertinent to specific ongoing assignments. Although the CIF had proven itself to be an excellent resource tool for beginning researchers, it was cumbersome to maintain in the card format, and was limited to very general…

  12. 78 FR 76293 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ...: RP14-274-000. Applicants: NGO Transmission, Inc. Description: NGO Transmission, Inc. submits tariff filing per 154.204: NGO Transmission, Inc.--Negotiated Rate Filing to be effective 1/1/2014. Filed...

  13. 78 FR 69408 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... Pipeline LLC. Description: Northwest Pipeline LLC submits tariff filing per 154.204: NWP 2013 Housekeeping...: National Grid LNG, LLC submits tariff filing per 154.204: Housekeeping Filing to be effective...

  14. 78 FR 65636 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ...: Cheniere Creole Trail Pipeline, L.P. Description: Compliance Filing to be effective 11/1/2013. Filed Date... Supply Corporation. Description: Amendment-Appalachian Pooling Filing (RP13-1348) to be effective...

  15. 75 FR 67357 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    .... Applicants: ETC Tiger Pipeline, LLC. Description: ETC Tiger Pipeline, LLC submits tariff filing per 154.203: Tiger FTSA Non-Conforming Agreement Filing to be effective 12/ 1/2010. Filed Date: 10/25/2010....

  16. 76 FR 39863 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ..., July 11, 2011. Docket Numbers: RP11-2219-000. Applicants: Gulf South Pipeline Company, LP. Description... Negotiated Rate Agreement Filing to be effective 7/1/2011 under RP11-2219 Filing Type: 570 Filed Date:...

  17. Swarming Behavior of and Hemolysin BL Secretion by Bacillus cereus▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Ghelardi, Emilia; Celandroni, Francesco; Salvetti, Sara; Ceragioli, Mara; Beecher, Douglas J.; Senesi, Sonia; Wong, Amy C. L.

    2007-01-01

    An association between swarming and hemolysin BL secretion was observed in a collection of 42 Bacillus cereus isolates (P = 0.029). The highest levels of toxin were detected in swarmers along with swarm cell differentiation (P = 0.021), suggesting that swarming B. cereus strains may have a higher virulence potential than nonswarming strains. PMID:17449693

  18. The inhibitory efficacy of methylseleninic acid against colon cancer xenografts in C57BL/6 mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data indicate that methylselenol is a critical selenium (Se) metabolite for anticancer activity in vivo. We tested the hypoththesis that oral dosing methylseleninic acid (MSeA), a methylselenol precursor, inhibits the growth of colon cancer xenografts in C57BL/6 mice fed a Se adequate diet. In this...

  19. Unification and mass spectrum in a B-L extended MSSM

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez-Pinto, R. J.; Perez-Lorenzana, A.

    2009-04-20

    The simplest B-L extension of the minimum supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) may change some of the conceptions about the path for gauge unification as well as to affect the predicted spectrum of the supersymmetric particles at low energy. We present our results for the running of gauge coupling constants and mass parameter in this context.

  20. CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENITE IN DRINKING WATER IMPAIRS GLUCOSE TOLERANCE IN C57BL/6 MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic exposures to inorganic arsenic (iAs) have been associated with increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study examines in vivo diabetogenic effects of iAs in an animal model. Here, weanling male C57BL/6 mice received deionized water containing iAs(III) (25 ...

  1. Veritas Observations of Relativistic Outflows in - and Intermediate-Frequency BL Lac Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokoph, Heike

    2014-03-01

    The majority of blazars detected at very high energies (VHE; E > 100 GeV) are high-frequency-peaked BL Lac objects (HBLs). Low- and intermediate-frequency-peaked BL Lacs (LBLs/IBLs with synchrotron-peak frequencies in the infrared and optical regime) are generally more powerful, more luminous, and have a richer jet environment than HBLs. However, only a handful of these IBL and LBLs have been detected by ground-based gamma-ray telescopes, typically during high-flux states. The VERITAS array has been monitoring five known VHE LBLs/IBLs since 2009: 3C 66A, W Comae, PKS 1424+240, S5 0716+714 and BL Lacertae, with typical exposures of 5-10 hours per year. The results of these long-term observations are presented, including a bright, subhour-scale VHE flare of BL Lacertae in June 2011, the first low-state detections of 3C 66A and W Comae, and the detection and characterization of the IBL B2 1215+30.

  2. SPECTROSCOPY OF THE LARGEST EVER {gamma}-RAY-SELECTED BL LAC SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, Michael S.; Romani, Roger W.; Healey, Stephen E.; Michelson, Peter F.; Readhead, Anthony C. S.; Richards, Joseph L.; Max-Moerbeck, Walter; King, Oliver G.

    2013-02-20

    We report on spectroscopic observations covering most of the 475 BL Lacs in the second Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) catalog of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Including archival measurements (correcting several erroneous literature values) we now have spectroscopic redshifts for 44% of the BL Lacs. We establish firm lower redshift limits via intervening absorption systems and statistical lower limits via searches for host galaxies for an additional 51% of the sample leaving only 5% of the BL Lacs unconstrained. The new redshifts raise the median spectroscopic z-tilde from 0.23 to 0.33 and include redshifts as large as z = 2.471. Spectroscopic redshift minima from intervening absorbers have z-tilde = 0.70, showing a substantial fraction at large z and arguing against strong negative evolution. We find that detected BL Lac hosts are bright ellipticals with black hole masses M {sub .} {approx} 10{sup 8.5} - 10{sup 9}, substantially larger than the mean of optical AGNs and LAT Flat Spectrum Radio Quasar samples. A slow increase in M {sub .} with z may be due to selection bias. We find that the power-law dominance of the optical spectrum extends to extreme values, but this does not strongly correlate with the {gamma}-ray properties, suggesting that strong beaming is the primary cause of the range in continuum dominance.

  3. CYTOGENETIC STUDIES OF ETHYL ACRYLATE USING C57BL/6 MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The clastogenicity of ethyl acrylate (EA) was examined in vivo by injecting i.p. 5 male C57BL/6 mice per dose group with either 125, 250, 500, 1000 mg/kg EA dissolved in saline. wenty-four hours after injection, the animals were anesthetized, the spleens aseptically removed, and ...

  4. Immunotoxin BL22 induces apoptosis in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) cells dependent on Bcl-2 expression.

    PubMed

    Bogner, Christian; Dechow, Tobias; Ringshausen, Ingo; Wagner, Michaela; Oelsner, Madlen; Lutzny, Gloria; Licht, Thomas; Peschel, Christian; Pastan, Ira; Kreitman, Robert J; Decker, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an incurable mature B cell proliferation, combining the unfavourable clinical features of aggressive and indolent lymphomas. The blastic variant of MCL has an even worse prognosis and new treatment options are clearly needed. We analysed the effects of BL22, an immunotoxin composed of the Fv portion of an anti- CD22 antibody fused to a 38-kDa Pseudomonas exotoxin-A fragment on four MCL cell lines as well as on primary cells of four MCL patients. Apoptosis induction by BL22 was much more pronounced in MCL cell lines with low Bcl-2 expression (NCEB-1, JeKo-1 and JVM-2) compared to Granta-519 cells with high Bcl-2 expression. While the expression of the antiapoptotic protein Mcl-1 declined (NCEB-1, Granta-519), Bcl-2 levels remained unchanged in Granta-519 cells. However transfection of BCL2 cDNA into NCEB-1, JeKo-1 and JVM-2 cells significantly reduced BL22-mediated toxicity. Accordingly we examined the effects of Bcl-2 inactivation in Granta-519 cells using siRNA. Indeed, apoptosis induction was strongly enhanced in Granta-519 cells with silenced Bcl-2. Our results were confirmed in freshly isolated MCL-cells from patients with leukaemic MCL. We conclude that Bcl-2 expression is important for mediating resistance against the immunotoxin BL22 in MCL cells. PMID:19821820

  5. The ultraviolet/optical variability of PG 1553+11. [BL Lac object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, H. R.; Carini, M. T.; Gaston, B. J.; Hutter, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    Ultraviolet optical observations of the BL Lacertae object, PG 1553+11, indicate that significant color variations are associated with the luminosity variations seen in the ultraviolet and the optical regions of the spectrum. The color variations are consistent with the presence of an accretion disk in this system.

  6. Portable File Format (PFF) specifications.

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, Daniel H.,

    2015-02-01

    Created at Sandia National Laboratories, the Portable File Format (PFF) allows binary data transfer across computer platforms. Although this capability is supported by many other formats, PFF files are still in use at Sandia, particularly in pulsed power research. This report provides detailed PFF specifications for accessing data without relying on legacy code.

  7. TIGER/LINE FILES, 1998

    EPA Science Inventory

    TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The 1998 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER data base. The geographic coverage for a single TIGER/Line file is a cou...

  8. Aerospell Supplemental Spell Check File

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Aerospell is a supplemental spell check file that can be used as a resource for researchers, writers, editors, students, and others who compose scientific and technical texts. The file extends the general spell check dictionaries of word processors by adding more than 13,000 words used in a broad range of aerospace and related disciplines.

  9. Viewing Files | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    In addition to standard HTML Web pages, our Web site contains files in other formats. You may need additional software or browser plug-ins to view some of these files. The following list shows each format along with links to the corresponding freely available plug-ins or viewers.

  10. An Articular Cartilage Repair Model in Common C57Bl/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Matsuoka, Masatake; Sasazawa, Fumio; Momma, Daisuke; Baba, Rikiya; Hontani, Kazutoshi; Iwasaki, Norimasa

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the genetic and biomolecular mechanisms underlying cartilage repair, an optimized mouse model of osteochondral repair is required. Although several models of articular cartilage injury in mice have recently been established, the articular surface in adult C57Bl/6 mice heals poorly. Since C57Bl/6 mice are the most popular strain of genetically manipulated mice, an articular cartilage repair model using C57Bl/6 mice would be helpful for analysis of the mechanisms of cartilage repair. The purpose of this study was to establish a cartilage repair model in C57Bl/6 mice using immature animals. To achieve this goal, full-thickness injuries were generated in 3-week-old (young), 4-week-old (juvenile), and 8-week-old (adult) C57Bl/6 mice. To investigate the reproducibility and consistency of full-thickness injuries, mice were sacrificed immediately after operation, and cartilage thickness at the patellar groove, depth of the cartilage injury, cross-sectional width, and cross-sectional area were compared among the three age groups. The depth of cartilage injury/cartilage thickness ratio (%depth) and the coefficient of variation (CV) for each parameter were also calculated. At 8 weeks postoperatively, articular cartilage repair was assessed using a histological scoring system. With respect to the reproducibility and consistency of full-thickness injuries, cartilage thickness, depth of cartilage injury, and cross-sectional area were significantly larger in young and juvenile mice than in adult mice, whereas cross-sectional width and %depth were almost equal among the three age groups. CVs of %depths were less than 10% in all groups. With respect to articular cartilage repair, young and juvenile mice showed superior results. In conclusion, we established a novel cartilage repair model in C57Bl/6 mice. This model will be valuable in achieving mechanistic insights into the healing process of the joint surface, as it will facilitate the use of genetically modified mice

  11. Comparison between TeV and non-TeV BL Lac Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chao; Fan, Jun-Hui

    2016-07-01

    BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs) are the dominant population of TeV emitting blazars. In this work, we investigate whether there are any special observational properties associated with TeV sources. To do so, we will compare the observational properties of TeV detected BL Lacs (TeV BLs) with non-TeV detected BL Lac objects (non-TeV BLs). From the 3rd Fermi/LAT source catalog (3FGL), we can obtain 662 BL Lacs, out of which 47 are TeV BLs and 615 are non-TeV BLs. Their multi-wavelength flux densities (F R, F O, F X and F γ), photon spectral indexes (αX ph and αph γ), and effective spectral indexes (αRO and αOX) are compiled from the available literature. Then the luminosities (log vL R, log vL O, log vL X, log vL γ) are calculated. From comparisons, we find that TeV BLs are different from low synchrotron peaked BLs and intermediate synchrotron peaked BLs, but TeV BLs show similar properties to high synchrotron peaked (HSP) BLs. Therefore, we concentrated on a comparison between TeV HSP BLs and non-TeV HSP BLs. Analysis results suggest that TeV HSP BLs and non-TeV HSP BLs exhibit some differences in their αRO and αγ ph, but their other properties are quite similar.

  12. Reduction of fear-potentiated startle by benzodiazepines in C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kiersten S.; Meloni, Edward G.; Myers, Karyn M.; Veer, Ashlee Van't; Carlezon, William A.; Rudolph, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Anxiety disorders affect 18% of the United States adult population annually. Recent surges in the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from combat-exposed veterans have prompted an urgent need to understand the pathophysiology underlying this debilitating condition. Objectives Anxiety and fear responses are partly modulated by gamma aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor-mediated synaptic inhibition; benzodiazepines potentiate GABAergic inhibition and are effective anxiolytics. Many genetically modified mouse lines are generated and/or maintained on the C57BL/6J background, a strain where manipulation of anxiety-like behavior using benzodiazepines is difficult. Fear-potentiated startle (FPS), a test of conditioned fear, is a useful preclinical tool to study PTSD-like responses but has been difficult to establish in C57BL/6J mice. Methods We modified several FPS experimental parameters and developed a paradigm to assess conditioned fear in C57BL/6J mice. The 6-day protocol consisted of three startle Acclimation days, a Pre-Test day followed by Training and Testing for FPS. Subject responses to the effects of three benzodiazepines were also examined. Results C57BL/6J mice had low levels of unconditioned fear assessed during Pre-Test (15–18%) but showed robust FPS (80–120%) during the Test session. Conditioned fear responses extinguished over repeated test sessions. Administration of the benzodiazepines alprazolam (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, i.p.), chlordiazepoxide (5 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.), and diazepam (1, 2, and 4 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly reduced FPS to Pre-Test levels. Conclusions We used a modified and pharmacologically-validated paradigm to assess FPS in mice thereby providing a powerful tool to examine the neurobiology of PTSD in genetic models of anxiety generated on the C57BL/6J background. PMID:20922362

  13. The transition between BL Lac objects and flat spectrum radio quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghisellini, G.; Tavecchio, F.; Foschini, L.; Ghirlanda, G.

    2011-07-01

    We study the BL Lac objects detected in the 1-year all-sky survey of the Fermi satellite, with an energy spectral slope αγ in the 0.1-100 GeV band greater than 1.2. In the αγ versus γ-ray luminosity plane, these BL Lacs occupy the region populated by flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs). Studying the properties of their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and of their emitting lines, we find that several of these BL Lacs have an SED similar to FSRQs and that they do have broad lines of large equivalent width (EW), and should be reclassified as FSRQs even adopting the current phenomenological definition (i.e. EW of the emitting line greater than 5 Å). In other cases, even if the EW is small, the emitting lines can be as luminous as in quasars, and again their SED is similar to the SED of FSRQs. Sources classified as BL Lacs with an SED appearing as intermediate between BL Lacs and FSRQs also have relatively weak broad emission lines and small EW, and can be considered as transition sources. These properties are confirmed also by model fitting that allows us to derive the relevant intrinsic jet parameters and the jet power. This study leads us to propose a physical distinction between the two classes of blazars, based on the luminosity of the broad-line region measured in Eddington units. The dividing line is of the order of LBLR/LEdd˜ 5 × 10-4, in good agreement with the idea that the presence of strong emitting lines is related to a transition in the accretion regime, becoming radiatively inefficient below a disc luminosity of the order of 1 per cent of the Eddington one.

  14. Generation of live offspring from vitrified mouse oocytes of C57BL/6J strain.

    PubMed

    Kohaya, Natsuki; Fujiwara, Katsuyoshi; Ito, Junya; Kashiwazaki, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    In mammals, unfertilized oocytes are one of the most available stages for cryopreservation because the cryopreserved oocytes can be used for assisted reproductive technologies, including in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. However, it has generally been reported that the fertility and developmental ability of the oocytes are reduced by cryopreservation. C57BL/6J mice, an inbred strain, are used extensively for the production of transgenic and knockout mice. If the oocytes from C57BL/6J mice can be successfully cryopreserved, the cryopreservation protocol used will contribute to the high-speed production of not only gene-modified mice but also hybrid mice. Very recently, we succeeded in the vitrification of mouse oocytes derived from ICR (outbred) mice. However, our protocol can be applied to the vitrification of oocytes from an inbred strain. The aim of the present study was to establish the vitrification of oocytes from C57BL/6J mice. First, the effect of cumulus cells on the ability of C57BL/6J mouse oocytes to fertilize and develop in vitro was examined. The fertility and developmental ability of oocyte-removed cumulus cells (i.e., denuded oocytes, or DOs) after IVF were reduced compared to cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) in both fresh and cryopreserved groups. Vitrified COCs showed significantly (P<0.05) higher fertility and ability to develop into the 2-cell and blastocyst stages compared to the vitrified DOs with cumulus cells and vitrified DOs alone. The vitrified COCs developed to term at a high success rate, equivalent to the rate obtained with IVF using fresh COCs. Taken together, our results demonstrate that we succeeded for the first time in the vitrification of mouse oocytes from C57BL/6J mice. Our findings will also contribute to the improvement of oocyte vitrification not only in animals but also in clinical applications for human infertility. PMID:23516430

  15. Identification of a subset of normal B cells with a Burkitt's lymphoma (BL)-like phenotype.

    PubMed

    Gregory, C D; Tursz, T; Edwards, C F; Tetaud, C; Talbot, M; Caillou, B; Rickinson, A B; Lipinski, M

    1987-07-01

    Fresh biopsy cells from cases of Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) display a homogeneous cell surface phenotype. The cells were found to be reactive with the pan B cell marker B1, and consistently co-expressed the BL-associated glycolipid antigen, BLA, and the common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen, CALLA, but lacked the B cell "activation" antigens characteristically expressed on EB virus-transformed normal B cells. Microscopic and cell sorter analysis of cells isolated from a series of fresh normal tonsils have identified a subpopulation of normal B cells carrying the same cell surface markers. That BLA and CALLA could be co-expressed on individual B cells was demonstrated by two-color immunofluorescence (IF) of tonsils in suspension, and immunoperoxidase (IP) staining of serial tonsil sections. These BLA+, CALLA+, "activation" antigen- cells were further characterized as B1+, sIgM+, sIgD-, C3d/EB virus receptor+ and were susceptible to virus-induced transformation in vitro. IF studies on Percoll-fractionated tonsillar cell populations and direct examination of IP-stained tonsil semi-thin sections indicated that the BLA+, CALLA+ cells were localized in germinal centers. Their morphological characteristics matched those of BL cells, and their location within germinal centers was consistent both with the known phenotype of germinal center tonsillar B cells and with the description of BL as a proliferation of centroblasts. We suggest that this population of tonsillar germinal center B cells provides the normal counterpart of BL tumor cells. PMID:2953817

  16. Storing files in a parallel computing system using list-based index to identify replica files

    DOEpatents

    Faibish, Sorin; Bent, John M.; Tzelnic, Percy; Zhang, Zhenhua; Grider, Gary

    2015-07-21

    Improved techniques are provided for storing files in a parallel computing system using a list-based index to identify file replicas. A file and at least one replica of the file are stored in one or more storage nodes of the parallel computing system. An index for the file comprises at least one list comprising a pointer to a storage location of the file and a storage location of the at least one replica of the file. The file comprises one or more of a complete file and one or more sub-files. The index may also comprise a checksum value for one or more of the file and the replica(s) of the file. The checksum value can be evaluated to validate the file and/or the file replica(s). A query can be processed using the list.

  17. 78 FR 17394 - Filing via the Internet; Electronic Tariff Filings; Revisions to Electric Quarterly Report Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    .... 770, 77 FR 71288 (Nov. 30, 2012), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,338 (cross-referenced at 141 FERC ] 61,120... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Filing via the Internet; Electronic Tariff Filings; Revisions to...

  18. Efficient algorithms for multi-file caching

    SciTech Connect

    Otoo, Ekow J.; Rotem, Doron; Seshadri, Sridhar

    2004-03-15

    Multi-File Caching issues arise in applications where a set of jobs are processed and each job requests one or more input files. A given job can only be started if all its input files are preloaded into a disk cache. Examples of applications where Multi-File caching may be required are scientific data mining, bit-sliced indexes, and analysis of sets of vertically partitioned files. The difference between this type of caching and traditional file caching systems is that in this environment, caching and replacement decisions are made based on ''combinations of files (file bundles),'' rather than single files. In this work we propose new algorithms for Multi-File caching and analyze their performance. Extensive simulations are presented to establish the effectiveness of the Multi-File caching algorithm in terms of job response time and job queue length.

  19. X-ray Emission of Low-Energy-Peaked BL Lacertae Objects

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, Jill M.; Perlman, Eric S.

    2009-12-18

    Presented here is an analysis of X-ray observations of the following seven low-energy-peaked BL Lacertae objects: BL Lacertae, S5 0716+71, W Comae, 3C 66A, S4 0954+65, OJ 287, and AO 0235+16. The spectral data for these objects were taken from observations by the XMM-Newton and/or Chandra X-ray observatories. These objects are being analyzed in an effort to reanalyze all XMM-Newton and Chandra data of low-energy BL Lacs, similar to the efforts of Perlman et al.[4] for high energy BL Lacs. The objects were studied in an effort to understand the nature of the X-ray and multi-waveband emissions in these objects, study the shape of the spectra, and compare the observations of low-energy-peaked BL Lacs to previous observations of these objects and also to observations of high-energy-peaked BL Lacs. Light curves and spectra were analyzed to look for evidence of spectral variability in the objects and as a comparison to previous research on these objects. Most data shows both synchrotron and Inverse-Compton emission, though only little correlation was seen between the emission strength and the spectral slope. Our data is generally well-fitted to a broken power law model with distinct bimodality seen in the first spectral index (six observations with {Gamma}{sub 1{approx}}0.4 and four observations with {Gamma}{sub 1{approx}}3.0), a break in energy between 0.6 and 1.4 keV, and a second spectral index {Gamma}{sub 2{approx}}2.0. None of the observations showed spectral lines, which is consistent with past results. For S5 0716+71 the XMM-Newton X-ray and optical data, along with radio data obtained from the University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory (UMRAO), a spectral energy distribution was created and peak frequencies were estimated.

  20. Hazardous Material Data File (HMDF), quarterly update. Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The Hazardous Materiel Data File (HMDF) purpose is to provide storage and transportation information on chemical, radioactive and ammunition items in the Army inventory. Data is taken from the Army Central Logistics Data Bank (ACLDB).

  1. Hazardous Materiel Data File (HMDF), quarterly update. Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    The Hazardous Materiel Data File (HMDF) purpose is to provide storage and transportation information on chemical, radioactive and ammunition items in the Army inventory. Data are taken from the Army Central Logistics Data Bank (ACLDB).

  2. 48 CFR 4.802 - Contract files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract files. 4.802 Section 4.802 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Government Contract Files 4.802 Contract files. (a) A contract file should generally consist of— (1) The contracting office contract...

  3. 48 CFR 4.802 - Contract files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contract files. 4.802 Section 4.802 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Government Contract Files 4.802 Contract files. (a) A contract file should generally consist of— (1) The contracting office contract...

  4. 77 FR 67355 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the.... The filings are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number. eFiling is encouraged. More detailed information relating to filing...

  5. 78 FR 70033 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the... filings are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number. eFiling is encouraged. More detailed information relating to filing requirements,...

  6. 78 FR 41049 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the.... The filings are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number. eFiling is encouraged. More detailed information relating to filing...

  7. 78 FR 42515 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the.... The filings are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number. eFiling is encouraged. More detailed information relating to filing...

  8. 77 FR 68760 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... following Natural Gas Pipeline Rate and Refund Report filings: Filings Instituting Proceedings Docket...-001. ] Applicants: El Paso Natural Gas Company, L.L.C. Description: Non-Conforming Agreement Amendment.... Description: NWP NAESB 2.0 Compliance Filing--Second Substitute Sheet to be effective 12/1/2012. Filed...

  9. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer Product File Readers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Brendan M.

    2010-01-01

    TES Product File Reader software extracts data from publicly available Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) HDF (Hierarchical Data Format) product data files using publicly available format specifications for scientific analysis in IDL (interactive data language). In this innovation, the software returns data fields as simple arrays for a given file. A file name is provided, and the contents are returned as simple IDL variables.

  10. 77 FR 71412 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... Company LLC submits Information Requested in Compliance with the October 31, 2012 Commission Order. Filed...: Order No. 587-V Revised Compliance Filing to be effective 12/1/2012. Filed Date: 11/21/12. Accession... 12/1/2012. Filed Date: 11/21/12. Accession Number: 20121121-5112. Comments Due: 5 p.m. ET...