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Sample records for fillers materials

  1. Initial investigation of cryogenic wind tunnel model filler materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rush, H. F.; Firth, G. C.

    1985-01-01

    Various filler materials are being investigated for applicability to cryogenic wind tunnel models. The filler materials will be used to fill surface grooves, holes and flaws. The severe test environment of cryogenic models precludes usage of filler materials used on conventional wind tunnel models. Coefficients of thermal expansion, finishing characteristics, adhesion and stability of several candidate filler materials were examined. Promising filler materials are identified.

  2. New Manufacturing Method for Paper filler and Fiber Material

    SciTech Connect

    Doelle, Klaus

    2011-11-22

    The study compares commercial available filler products with a new developed “Hybrid Fiber Filler Composite Material” and how main structural, optical and strength properties are affected by increasing the filler content of at least 5% over commercial values. The study consists of: (i) an overview of paper filler materials used in the paper production process, (ii) discusses the manufacturing technology of lime based filler materials for paper applications, (iii) gives an overview of new emerging paper filler technologies, (iv) discusses a filler evaluation of commercial available digital printing paper products, (v) reports from a detailed handsheet study and 12” pilot plant paper machine trial runs with the new Hybrid Fiber Filler Composite Material, and (vi) evaluates and compares commercial filler products and the new Hybrid Fiber Filler Composite Material with a life cycle analyses that explains manufacturing, economic and environmental benefits as they are applied to uncoated digital printing papers.

  3. Thermal pretreatment of silica composite filler materials

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Quan; Ramsey, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Three different silica filler materials were thermally treated in order to effect dehydration, dehydroxylation, and rehydroxylation. Samples were characterized by thermogravimetry (TG), pycnometry, elemental analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For all fillers, our results indicate incremental removal of silanol groups at higher heating temperatures and irreversible dehydroxylation at over 673 K. To remove the organic content and maintain adequate silanol density for subsequent silanization on Stöber-type silica, we suggest heating at 673 K followed by overnight boiling in water. PMID:20445821

  4. Initial Investigation of Cryogenic Wind Tunnel Model Filler Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firth, G. C.

    1985-01-01

    Filler materials are used for surface flaws, instrumentation grooves, and fastener holes in wind tunnel models. More stringent surface quality requirements and the more demanding test environment encountered by cryogenic wind tunnels eliminate filler materials such as polyester resins, plaster, and waxes used on conventional wind tunnel models. To provide a material data base for cryogenic models, various filler materials are investigated. Surface quality requirements and test temperature extremes require matching of coefficients of thermal expansion or interfacing materials. Microstrain versus temperature curves are generated for several candidate filler materials for comparison with cryogenically acceptable materials. Matches have been achieved for aluminum alloys and austenitic steels. Simulated model surfaces are filled with candidate filler materials to determine finishing characteristics, adhesion and stability when subjected to cryogenic cycling. Filler material systems are identified which meet requirements for usage with aluminum model components.

  5. Laser Transmission Welding of CFRTP Using Filler Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Stefan; Schmidt, Michael

    In the automotive industry the increasing environmental awareness is reflected through consistent lightweight construction. Especially the use of carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastics (CFRTP) plays an increasingly important role. Accordingto the material substitution, the demand for adequate joining technologies is growing. Therefore, laser transmission welding with filler material provides a way to combine two opaque joining partners by using process specific advantages of the laser transmission welding process. After introducing the new processing variant and the used experimental setup, this paper investigates the process itselfand conditions for a stable process. The influence of the used process parameters on weld quality and process stability is characterized by tensile shear tests. The successfully performed joining of PA 6 CF 42 organic sheets using natural PA 6 as filler material underlines the potential of the described joining method for lightweight design and other industrial applications.

  6. New Manufacturing Method for Paper Filler and Fiber Material

    SciTech Connect

    Doelle, Klaus

    2013-08-25

    The use of fillers in printing and writing papers has become a prerequisite for competing in a global market to reduce the cost of materials. Use of calcium carbonates (ranging from 18% to 30%) as filler is a common practice in the paper industry but the choices of fillers for each type of papers vary widely according to its use. The market for uncoated digital printing paper is one that continues to introduce exciting growth projections. and it is important to understand the effect that new manufacturing methods of calcium carbonates have on the energy efficiency and paper production. Research conducted under this award showed that the new fiber filler composite material has the potential to increase the paper filler content by up to 5% without losing mechanical properties. Benefits of the technology can be summarized as follows for a 1% filler increase per metric ton of paper produced: (i) production cost savings over $12, (ii) Energy savings of 100,900 btu, (iii) CO{sub 2} emission savings of 33 lbs, and additional savings for wood preparation, pulping, recovery of 203593 btu with a 46lbs of CO{sub 2} emission savings per 1% filler increase. In addition the technology has the potential to save: (i) additional $3 per ton of bleached pulp produced, (ii) bleaching energy savings of 170,000 btu, (iii) bleaching CO{sub 2} emission savings of 39 lbs, and (iv) additional savings for replacing conventional bleaching chemicals with a sustainable bleaching chemical is estimated to be 900,000 btu with a 205 lbs of CO{sub 2} emission savings per ton of bleached pulp produced. All the above translates to a estimated annual savings for a 12% filler increase of 296 trillion buts or 51 million barrel of oil equivalent (BOE) or 13.7% of the industries energy demand. This can lead to a increase of renewable energy usage from 56% to close to 70% for the industry sector. CO{sub 2} emission of the industry at a 12% filler increase could be lowered by over 39 million tons annually

  7. New Manufacturing Method for Paper Filler and Fiber Material

    SciTech Connect

    Doelle, Klaus

    2011-06-26

    The use of fillers in printing and writing papers has become a prerequisite for competing in a global market to reduce the cost of materials. Use of calcium carbonates (ranging from 18% to 30%) as filler is a common practice in the paper industry but the choices of fillers for each type of papers vary widely according to its use. The market for uncoated digital printing paper is one that continues to introduce exciting growth projections and it is important to understand the effect that different types of calcium carbonates have on the paper properties made of 100% eucalyptus pulp. The current study is focused on selecting the most suitable market available calcium carbonate for the production of uncoated Eucalyptus digital printing paper, targeting a potential filler increase of 5% above the currently used filler content. We made hand sheets using 13 different varieties of widely used calcium carbonates [Nine samples of PCC (two rhombic and seven scalenohedral, covering a wide particle size range from 1.2 {micro}m to 2.9 {micro}m), and four samples of GCC (three anionic and one cationic, with a particle size range from 0.7 {micro}m to 1.5 {micro}m)] available in the market followed by a 12” pilot plant paper machine run. The detailed analysis on the main structural, optical and strength properties of the hand sheets found that the most suitable calcium carbonate for uncoated Eucalyptus digital printing paper production is scalenohedral PCC, with a particle size of 1.9 {micro}m for its positive effects on thickness, stiffness, brightness and opacity of paper.

  8. ANALYSIS OF MPC ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR ADDITION OF FILLER MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    W. Wallin

    1996-09-03

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) in response to a request received via a QAP-3-12 Design Input Data Request (Ref. 5.1) from WAST Design (formerly MRSMPC Design). The request is to provide: Specific MPC access requirements for the addition of filler materials at the MGDS (i.e., location and size of access required). The objective of this analysis is to provide a response to the foregoing request. The purpose of this analysis is to provide a documented record of the basis for the response. The response is stated in Section 8 herein. The response is based upon requirements from an MGDS perspective.

  9. Laser micro welding of copper and aluminium using filler materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esser, Gerd; Mys, Ihor; Schmidt, Michael H.

    2004-10-01

    The most evident trend in electronics production is towards miniaturization. Regarding the materials involved, another trend can be observed: intelligent combinations of different materials. One example is the combination of copper and aluminium. Copper is the material of choice for electronic packaging applications due to its superior electrical and thermal conductivity. On the other hand, aluminium offers technical and economical advantages with respect to cost and component weight -- still providing thermal and electrical properties acceptable for numerous applications. Especially for high volume products, the best solution often seems to be a combination of both materials. This fact raises the question of joining copper and aluminium. With respect to miniaturization laser micro welding is a very promising joining technique. Unfortunately, the metallurgical incompatibility of copper and aluminium easily results in the formation of brittle intermetallic phases and segregations during laser welding, thus generating an unacceptable quality of the joints. This paper presents investigations on enhancing the quality during laser micro welding of copper and aluminium for applications in electronics production. In order to eliminate the formation of brittle intermetallic phases, the addition of a filter material in form of a foil has been investigated. It can be shown that the addition of pure metals such as nickel and especially silver significantly reduces the occurrence of brittle phases in the joining area and therefore leads to an increase in welding quality. The proper control of the volume fractions of copper, aluminium and filler material in the melting zone helps to avoid materials segregation and reduces residual stress, consequently leading to a reduction of crack affinity and a stabilization of the mechanical and electrical properties.

  10. A comparative study of the thermal interface materials with graphene and boron nitride fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargar, F.; Salgado, R.; Legedza, S.; Renteria, J.; Balandin, A. A.

    2014-09-01

    We report the results of an experimental study that compares the performance of graphene and boron nitride flakes as fillers in the thermal interface materials. The thickness of both fillers varied from a single atomic plane to about a hundred. The measurements have been conducted using a standard TIM tester. Our results show that the addition of a small fraction of graphene (f=4 wt%) to a commercial thermal interface material increases the resulting apparent thermal conductivity substantially stronger than the addition of boron nitride. The obtained data suggest that graphene and fewlayer graphene flakes couple better to the matrix materials than the boron nitride fillers. A combination of both fillers can be used to increase the thermal conductivity while controlling the electrical conduction.

  11. Wrinkle Fillers

    MedlinePlus

    ... appear weeks, months or years after injection. Allergy testing is required for particular types of filler materials, such as those taken from animals (e.g., cows, rooster combs). The following risks ...

  12. Approach by Nano- and Micro-filler Mixture toward Epoxy-based Nanocomposites as Industrial Insulating Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Takahiro; Sawa, Fumio; Ozaki, Tamon; Shimizu, Toshio; Kuge, Shin-Ichi; Kozako, Masahiro; Tanaka, Toshikatsu

    The main contribution of this paper is to show the realizability of epoxy-based nanocomposites as industrial insulating materials. The nano- and micro-filler mixture was invented to boost the nanocomposite in industrial insulating materials. Nano- and micro-filler mixture composites were newly made by dispersing a few weight-percentages of nano-filler and approximately 60 weight-percentages of micro-silica fillers in epoxy resin. Two kinds of nano-filler were used, such as layered silicate and silica. Experimental results demonstrated that the approach by nano- and micro-filler mixture enables the nanocomposite to have not only superior insulation properties but also the same low thermal expansion in comparison with the conventional filled epoxy (approximately 60 weight-percentages of micro-silica loading). Moreover, the nano-silica and micro-filler mixture composite has the desired properties of resin viscosity and curing reaction whereas the layered silicate and micro-filler composite has higher resin viscosity and faster curing reaction than those of the conventional filled epoxy due to modifier ions of layered silicates. Consequently, the nano-silica and micro-filler mixture composite is presently the closest to the epoxy-based nanocomposite as an industiral insulation material.

  13. Neutron Spectrometry for Identification of filler material in UXO - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, Mary

    2007-09-12

    Unexploded ordnance (UXO)-contaminated sites often include ordnance filled with inert substances that were used in dummy rounds. During UXO surveys, it is difficult to determine whether ordnance is filled with explosives or inert material (e.g., concrete, plaster-of-paris, wax, etc.) or is empty. Without verification of the filler material, handling procedures often necessitate that the object be blown in place, which has potential impacts to the environment, personnel, communities and survey costs. The Department of Defense (DoD) needs a reliable, timely, non-intrusive and cost-effective way to identify filler material before a removal action. A new technology that serves this purpose would minimize environmental impacts, personnel safety risks and removal costs; and, thus, would be especially beneficial to remediation activities.

  14. Development of sputtered techniques for thrust chambers, task 1. [evaluation of filler materials for regeneratively cooled thrust chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullaly, J. R.; Schmid, T. E.; Hecht, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    Filler materials proposed for use in the sputter fabrication regeneratively cooled thrust chambers were evaluated. Low melting castable alloys, CERROBEND. CERROCAST, and CERROTRU, slurry applied SERMETEL 481 and flame-sprayed aluminum were investigated as filler materials. Sputter deposition from a cylindrical cathode inverted magnestron was used to apply an OFHC copper closeout layer to filled OFHC copper ribbed-wall cylindrical substrates. The sputtered closeout layer structure was evaluated with respect to filler material contamination, predeposition machining and finishing operations, and deposition parameters. The application of aluminum by flame-spraying resulted in excessiver filler porosity. Though the outgassing from this porosity was found to be detrimental to the closeout layer structure, bond strengths in excess of 10,500 psi were achieved. Removal of the aluminum from the grooves was readily accomplished by leaching in a 7.0 molar solution of sodium hydroxide at 353 K. Of the other filler materials evaluated, CERROTRU was found to be the most suitable material with respect to completely filling the ribbed-wall cylinders and vacuum system compatibility. However, bond contamination resulted in low closeout layer bond strength with the CERROTRU filler. CERROBEND, CERROCAST, and SERMETEL 481 were found to be unacceptable as filler materials.

  15. Effect of vertebroplasty filler materials on viability and gene expression of human nucleus pulposus cells.

    PubMed

    Lazáry, Aron; Speer, Gábor; Varga, Péter Pál; Balla, Bernadett; Bácsi, Krisztián; Kósa, János P; Nagy, Zsolt; Takács, István; Lakatos, Péter

    2008-05-01

    Consequences of intradiscal cement leakage--often occurring after vertebral cement augmentation for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures--are still unknown. In this study, we have investigated the influences of vertebroplasty filler materials (polymethylmethacrylate-, calcium phosphate- and calcium sulfate-based bone cement) on isolated nucleus pulposus cells. Cell viability of cultured human nucleus pulposus cells were measured after treatment with vertebroplasty filler materials. Gene expression profile of selected genes was determined with quantitative real-time PCR. The widely used polymethylmethacrylate and calcium phosphate cement significantly decreased cell number in a dose- and time-dependent manner while calcium sulfate cement affected cell viability less. Expression of genes involved in matrix metabolism of nucleus pulposus--aggrecan, collagens, small proteoglycans--as well as important transcription factors have also significantly changed due to treatment (e.g., 2.5-fold decrease in aggrecan expression was determined in cultures due to polymethylmethacrylate treatment). Our results suggest that vertebroplasty filler materials--depending on the type of applied material--can accelerate the degeneration of nucleus pulposus cells resulting in a less flexible disc in case of intradiscal cement leakage. This process may increase the risk of a subsequent new vertebral fracture, the main complication of vertebral augmentation. PMID:18176942

  16. Dual morphology (fibres and particles) cellulosic filler for WPC materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valente, Marco; Tirillò, Jacopo; Quitadamo, Alessia; Santulli, Carlo

    2016-05-01

    Wood-plastic composites (WPC) were fabricated by using a polyethylene (PE) matrix and filling it with wood flour in the amount of 30 wt.%, and compared with the same composites with further amount of 10 wt.% of cellulosic recycled fibres added. The materials were produced by turbomixing and subsequent moulding under pressure. Mechanical properties of both WPC and WPC with cellulosic recycled fibres were evaluated through mechanical and physical-chemical tests. Tensile tests clarified that a moderate reduction is strength is observed with the bare introduction of wood flour with respect to the neat PE matrix, whilst some recovery is offered by the addition of recycled cellulose fibres. Even more promisingly, the elastic modulus of PE matrix is substantially improved by the addition of wood flour (around 8% on average) and much more so with the further addition of recycled cellulose (around 20% on average). The fracture surfaces from the tensile test were analysed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) indicating a reduction in microporosity as an effect of added cellulose. The water absorption test and the hardness measure (Shore D) were also performed. SEM analysis underlined the weak interface between both wood particle and cellulosic recycled fibres and matrix. The water absorption test showed a higher mass variation for pure WPC than WPC with cellulosic recycled fibres. The hardness measurement showed that the presence of cellulosic recycled fibres improves both superficial hardness of the composite and temperature resistance.

  17. Optimization of Filler Elements in CoSb3-Based Skutterudites for High-Performance n-Type Thermoelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, M.; Asahi, R.

    2016-03-01

    To develop high-performance n-type thermoelectric materials, the optimum synthesis process and effective filler elements for partially filled skutterudites were investigated. For the composition R0.4B0.3Co4- y Fe y Sb12 (basic elemental group R0.4 = Ba0.1Yb0.2Al0.1) with filling factor x = 0.7, the ratio and combination of filler elements in B0.3 and Fe content y were optimized. First, from the viewpoint of ionic valence and ionic radius, we examined the combination of various filler elements and selected a combination of Al and Gd as filler elements in B0.3; these filler elements effectively reduced the thermal conductivity and enhanced the power factor of the skutterudites, respectively. However, these elements easily precipitated because of their low solubility, and the improved thermoelectric properties of skutterudites induced by Al and Gd were insufficient. The results revealed that the thermoelectric properties of the partially filled skutterudites were improved when such elemental precipitation was suppressed by substitution of the Al and Gd atoms with other elements with greater solubility limits. Furthermore, to compensate for the excess number of carriers introduced by filler addition, a portion of the Co sites were substituted with Fe, which resulted in an improved figure of merit ( ZT) value.

  18. Biocompatibility and tissue interactions of a new filler material for medical use.

    PubMed

    Zarini, Elena; Supino, Rosanna; Pratesi, Graziella; Laccabue, Diletta; Tortoreto, Monica; Scanziani, Eugenio; Ghisleni, Gabriele; Paltrinieri, Saverio; Tunesi, Gianfranco; Nava, Maurizio

    2004-09-15

    Filler materials for medical use present limits, such as the induction of chronic inflammation and fibrosis. In the search for synthetic materials with improved biocompatible properties, a new polyacrylamide hydrogel, Aquamid (Contura SA, Montreux, Switzerland), has been investigated in preclinical systems. In cell cultures (endothelial cells and fibroblast), no or only transient biological effects were associated with 10% Aquamid exposure. The Aquamid-host interactions were examined in mice (10 mice per group) implanted subcutaneously or in the mammary fat pad with a very large volume (1.5 ml) of the material. Blood analysis, performed after 15 and 94 days (five mice per time for each group) to detect acute or late manifestations of toxicity, did not reveal relevant abnormalities in either group of Aquamid-bearing mice compared with control mice, except for a transient thrombocytopenia and a mild leukocytosis. Histological analysis of the pellet showed the presence of a thin, poorly vascularized cyst wall in implants. Only mild mesenchymal reparative and inflammatory processes were observed, even at longer observation times (more than 400 days). No alterations in any organ were detected. Despite the large volume implanted (approximately 5 percent of mouse body weight), the Aquamid pellet maintained its original size and shape without spreading or sticking to surrounding tissues. In conclusion, the study indicated a good tolerability of the new biopolymer in preclinical systems. The clinical utility of this new compound, if confirmed by clinical randomized trials showing its atoxic properties, could be in the field of aesthetic plastic surgery as a filler material for body contouring and in reconstructive surgery and above all in cancer patients to restore surgical defects. PMID:15468401

  19. Filler-depletion layer adjacent to interface impacts performance of thermal interface material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yada, Susumu; Oyake, Takafumi; Sakata, Masanori; Shiomi, Junichiro

    2016-01-01

    When installing thermal interface material (TIM) between heat source and sink to reduce contact thermal resistance, the interfacial thermal resistance (ITR) between the TIM and heat source/sink may become important, especially when the TIM thickness becomes smaller in the next-generation device integration. To this end, we have investigated ITR between TIM and aluminum surface by using the time-domain thermoreflectance method. The measurements reveal large ITR attributed to the depletion of filler particles in TIM adjacent to the aluminum surface. The thickness of the depletion layer is estimated to be about 100 nm. As a consequence, the fraction of ITR to the total contact thermal resistance becomes about 20% when the TIM thickness is about 50 μm (current thickness), and it exceeds 50% when the thickness is smaller than 10 μm (next-generation thickness).

  20. Ethanol production waste as rubber composite filler: examining the pyrolysis of dried distillers grains and other dry milling byproducts as potential rubber reinforcement materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current push for corn-based ethanol is creating a large surplus of affordable by-products that can potentially serve as filler material for rubber composites. Biomaterial fillers can help replace carbon black and reduce dependence on petroleum. This research examines the reinforcement behavior...

  1. Acid/vanadium-containing saponite for the conversion of propene into coke: potential flame-retardant filler for nanocomposite materials.

    PubMed

    Ostinelli, Luca; Recchia, Sandro; Bisio, Chiara; Carniato, Fabio; Guidotti, Matteo; Marchese, Leonardo; Psaro, Rinaldo

    2012-10-01

    Vanadium-containing saponite samples were synthesized in a one-pot synthetic procedure with the aim of preparing samples for potential application as fillers for polymeric composites. These vanadium-modified materials were prepared from an acid support by adopting a synthetic strategy that allowed us to introduce isolated structural V species (H/V-SAP). The physicochemical properties of these materials were investigated by XRD analysis and by DR-UV/Vis and FTIR spectroscopy of CO that was adsorbed at 100 K; these data were compared to those of a V-modified saponite material that did not contain any Brønsted acid sites (Na/V-SAP). The surface-acid properties of both samples (together with the fully acidic H-SAP material and the Na-SAP solid) were studied in the catalytic isomerization of α-pinene oxide. The V-containing solids were tested in the oxidative dehydrogenation reaction of propene to evaluate their potential use as flame-retardant fillers for polymer composites. The effect of tuning the presence of Lewis/Brønsted acid sites was carefully studied. The V-containing saponite sample that contained a marked presence of Brønsted acid sites showed the most interesting performance in the oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) reactions because they produced coke, even at 773 K. The catalytic data presented herein indicate that the H/V-SAP material is potentially active as a flame-retardant filler. PMID:22791515

  2. Effect of Janus particles as filler materials for acrylate-based dielectric elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsin-yu; Maliakal, Ashok J.; Kretzschmar, Ilona

    2012-04-01

    Dielectric electroactive polymers respond to an applied electric field by deformation as described by the Maxwell effect. The response depends on the polymers' dielectric constant and stiffness. Addition of a high dielectric filler material has been shown to enhance the strain response. We report preliminary results on the enhancement of p(EGPEA) polymer films by addition of 1 w/v% of gold-capped, 500 nm SiO2 Janus particles (JP-SiO2). In comparison to pure p(EGPEA) and p(EGPEA) filled with unmodified SiO2 particles, JP-SiO2 p(EGPEA) films show an up to 24 times enhanced response. Measurement of the relative dielectric constant and the Young's Modulus indicate that the Janus particle additive increases the relative dielectric constant of the films, while at the same time decreasing the Young's Modulus leading to an overall larger electrostrictive coefficient for the JP-SiO2 p(EGPEA) films.

  3. Two-beam Laser Brazing of Thin Sheet Steel for Automotive Industry Using Cu-base Filler Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittelstädt, C.; Seefeld, T.; Reitemeyer, D.; Vollertsen, F.

    This work shows the potential of two-beam laser brazing for joining both Zn-coated steel and 22MnB5. Brazing of Zn-coated steel sheets using Cu-Si filler wire is already state of the art in car manufacturing. New press-hardened steels like 22MnB5 are more and more used in automotive industry, offering high potential to save costs and improve structural properties (reduced weight / higher stiffness). However, for joining of these ultra-high strength steels investigations are mandatory. In this paper, a novel approach using a two-beam laser brazing process and Cu-base filler material is presented. The use of Cu-base filler material leads to a reduced heat input, compared to currently applied welding processes, which may result in benefits concerning distortion, post processing and tensile strength of the joint. Reliable processing at desired high speeds is attained by means of laser-preheating. High feed rates prevent significant diffusion of copper into the base material.

  4. Novel light-curable materials containing experimental bioactive micro-fillers remineralise mineral-depleted bonded-dentine interfaces.

    PubMed

    Sauro, Salvatore; Osorio, Raquel; Osorio, Estrella; Watson, Timothy F; Toledano, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the therapeutic remineralising effects of innovative light-curable materials (LCMs) containing two experimental calcium silicate-based micro-fillers (TCS) modified with β-TCP only or β-TCP, zinc oxide (ZnO)/polyacrylic acid (PAA) on mineral-depleted bonded-dentine interfaces in simulated body fluids (SBFS). Three experimental LCMs were formulated: (1) resin A, containing a β-TCP-modified TCS (βTCS) micro-filler; (2) resin B, containing a polycarboxylated β-TCP/ZnO-modified TCS (βZn-TCS) micro-filler; and 3) resin C, containing no filler (control). Acid-etched (35% H3PO4) dentine specimens were bonded using the three LCMs and submitted to atomic force microscope (AFM)/nano-indentation analysis to evaluate the modulus of elasticity (Ei) and hardness (Hi) across the interface after SBFS storage (24 h/1 m/3 m). The ultramorphology and micropermeability of the resin-dentine interface were evaluated using confocal laser microscopy. Resin-dentine sticks were created and submitted to microtensile bond strength (μTBS) test (SBFS: 24 h/3 m). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed after de-bonding. The LCMs containing the experimental bioactive micro-fillers reduced the micropermeability and induced a significant increase of the Ei and Hi along the bonding interface. The specimens created using the resin B (βZn-TCS) attained the highest μTBS values both after 24 h and 3 m of SBFS storage. In conclusion, the innovative bioactive light-curable materials tested in this study are able to induce a therapeutic remineralising effect on the nano-mechanical properties and on the sealing ability of mineral-depleted resin-dentine interfaces. The contemporary idea of minimally invasive operative treatment, where therapeutic restorations are performed to combat the carious process and remineralise the dental hard tissues, may be satisfied by using such resin-base systems, containing βTCS or βZn-TCS bioactive micro-fillers

  5. The development, fabrication, and material characterization of polypropylene composites reinforced with carbon nanofiber and hydroxyapatite nanorod hybrid fillers

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Cheng Zhu; Wong, Hoi Man; Yeung, Kelvin Wai Kwok; Tjong, Sie Chin

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the design, fabrication, microstructural and property characterization, and biocompatibility evaluation of polypropylene (PP) reinforced with carbon nanofiber (CNF) and hydroxyapatite nanorod (HANR) fillers. The purpose is to develop advanced PP/CNF–HANR hybrids with good mechanical behavior, thermal stability, and excellent biocompatibility for use as craniofacial implants in orthopedics. Several material-examination techniques, including X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, tensile tests, and impact measurement are used to characterize the microstructural, mechanical, and thermal properties of the hybrids. Furthermore, osteoblastic cell cultivation and colorimetric assay are also employed for assessing their viability on the composites. The CNF and HANR filler hybridization yields an improvement in Young’s modulus, impact strength, thermal stability, and biocompatibility of PP. The PP/2% CNF–20% HANR hybrid composite is found to exhibit the highest elastic modulus, tensile strength, thermal stability, and biocompatibility. PMID:24648729

  6. Sulfate Attack of Cement-Based Material with Limestone Filler Exposed to Different Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiaojian; Ma, Baoguo; Yang, Yingzi; Su, Anshuang

    2008-08-01

    Mortar prisms made with OPC cement plus 30% mass of limestone filler were stored in various sulfate solutions at different temperatures for periods of up to 1 year, the visual appearance was inspected at intervals, and the flexural and compressive strength development with immersion time was measured according to the Chinese standard GB/T17671-1999. Samples were selected from the surface of prisms after 1 year immersion and examined by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), laser-raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that MgSO4 solution is more aggressive than Na2SO4 solution, and Mg2+ ions reinforce the thaumasite sulfate attack on the limestone filler cement mortars. The increase of solution temperature accelerates both magnesium attack and sulfate attack on the limestone filler cement mortar, and leads to more deleterious products including gypsum, ettringite and brucite formed on the surface of mortars after 1 year storage in sulfate solutions. Thaumasite forms in the mortars containing limestone filler after exposure to sulfate solutions at both 5 °C and 20 °C. It reveals that the thaumasite form of sulfate attack is not limited to low-temperature conditions.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of polymer matrix composite material with combination of ZnO filler and nata de coco fiber as a candidate of semiconductor material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saputra, Asep Handaya; Anindita, Hana Nabila

    2015-12-01

    Synthesis of semiconductor composite using acrylic matrix filled with ZnO and nata de coco fiber has been conducted in this research. The purpose of this research is to obtain semiconductor composite material that has a good mechanical strength and thermal resistance. In situ polymerization method is used in this research and the composites are ready to be characterized after 12 hours. The main parameter that is characterized is the electric conductivity of the composite. Additional parameters are also characterized such as composite's elastic modulus and glass transition temperature. The composites that has been made in this research can be classified as semiconductor material because the conductivity is in the range of 10-8-103 S/cm. In general the addition of ZnO and nata de coco filler can increase the conductivity of the composite. The highest semiconductor characteristic in acrylic/ZnO composite is obtained from 30% volume filler that reach 3.4 x 10-7 S/cm. Similar with acrylic/ZnO composite, in acrylic/nata de coco fiber composite the highest semiconductor characteristic is also obtained from 30% volume filler that reach 1.15 x 10-7 S/cm. Combination of 20% volume of ZnO, 10% volume of nata de coco, and 70% volume of acrylic resulting in composite with electric conductivity of 1.92 x 10-7 S/cm. In addition, combination of ZnO and nata de coco fiber as filler in composite can also improve the characteristic of composite where composite with 20% volume of ZnO filler and 10% volume of nata de coco fiber resulting in composite with elastic modulus of 1.79 GPa and glass transition temperature of 175.73°C which is higher than those in acrylic/ZnO composite.

  8. Testing thermocline filler materials and molten-salt heat transfer fluids for thermal energy storage systems used in parabolic trough solar power plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Michael James; Hlava, Paul Frank; Brosseau, Douglas A.

    2004-07-01

    Parabolic trough power systems that utilize concentrated solar energy to generate electricity are a proven technology. Industry and laboratory research efforts are now focusing on integration of thermal energy storage as a viable means to enhance dispatchability of concentrated solar energy. One option to significantly reduce costs is to use thermocline storage systems, low-cost filler materials as the primary thermal storage medium, and molten nitrate salts as the direct heat transfer fluid. Prior thermocline evaluations and thermal cycling tests at the Sandia National Laboratories' National Solar Thermal Test Facility identified quartzite rock and silica sand as potential filler materials. An expanded series of isothermal and thermal cycling experiments were planned and implemented to extend those studies in order to demonstrate the durability of these filler materials in molten nitrate salts over a range of operating temperatures for extended timeframes. Upon test completion, careful analyses of filler material samples, as well as the molten salt, were conducted to assess long-term durability and degradation mechanisms in these test conditions. Analysis results demonstrate that the quartzite rock and silica sand appear able to withstand the molten salt environment quite well. No significant deterioration that would impact the performance or operability of a thermocline thermal energy storage system was evident. Therefore, additional studies of the thermocline concept can continue armed with confidence that appropriate filler materials have been identified for the intended application.

  9. 7 CFR 58.914 - Fillers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... evaporated milk fillers having brass parts may be approved if free from corroded surfaces and kept in good... Standards for Plastic, and Rubber and Rubber-Like Materials. Fillers shall be designed so that they in...

  10. Facial granulomas secondary to Dermalive microimplants: Report of a case with histopathologic differential diagnosis among the granulomas secondary to different injectable permanent filler materials.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Machuca, Inmaculada; González-Guerra, Elena; Angulo, Jorge; del Carmen Fariña, María; Martín, Lucia; Requena, Luis

    2006-04-01

    Wrinkle reduction and the correction of skin defects using injectable aesthetic microimplants are now widely performed by dermatologists and plastic surgeons. In recent years, dermal filler substances containing polymer particle suspensions such as Bioplastique, Artecoll, and Dermalive are the most commonly used materials. These microimplants are permanent, non-biodegradable, and generally well tolerated, although various adverse reactions are still possible. We describe here a patient with facial granulomas secondary to Dermalive injections for correction of naso-labial folds and wrinkles. The particular shape of the injected particles allows for correct identification of the implanted material. Therefore, histopathologic examination is the best means to obtain the correct diagnosis of foreign body granuloma and to identify the type of filler particles. We discuss the histopathologic differential diagnosis among the granulomas secondary to the most commonly used aesthetic permanent filler materials. PMID:16625084

  11. Fabrication of porous titanium scaffold materials by a fugitive filler method.

    PubMed

    Hong, T F; Guo, Z X; Yang, R

    2008-12-01

    A clean powder metallurgy route was developed here to produce Ti foams, using a fugitive polymeric filler, polypropylene carbonate (PPC), to create porosities in a metal-polymer compact at the pre-processing stage. The as-produced foams were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), LECO combustion analyses and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Compression tests were performed to assess their mechanical properties. The results show that titanium foams with open pores can be successfully produced by the method. The compressive strength and modulus of the foams decrease with an increasing level of porosity and can be tailored to those of the human bones. After alkali treatment and soaking in a simulated body fluid (SBF) for 3 days, a thin apatite layer was formed along the Ti foam surfaces, which provides favourable bioactive conditions for bone bonding and growth. PMID:18622764

  12. Brazed joints of CBN grains and AISI 1045 steel with AgCuTi-TiC mixed powder as filler materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Wen-Feng; Xu, Jiu-Hua; Chen, Zhen-Zhen; Su, Hong-Hua; Fu, Yu-Can

    2011-12-01

    The brazing process of cubic boron nitride (CBN) grains and AISI 1045 steel with AgCuTi-TiC mixed powder as a filler material was carried out. The joining strength and the interfacial microstructure were investigated. The experimental results indicate that the spreading of the molten filler material on AISI 1045 steel is decreased with the increase of TiC content. A good interface is formed between the TiC particulates and AgCuTi alloy through the wetting behavior. In the case of AgCuTi+16wt% TiC, the strength of the brazed steel-to-steel joints reached the highest value of 95 MPa dependent upon the reinforcement effect of TiC particles within the filler layer. Brazing resultants of TiB2, TiB, and TiN are produced at the interface of the CBN grains and the AgCuTi-TiC filler layer by virtue of the interdiffusion of B, N, and Ti atoms.

  13. The histological aspects of fillers complications.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Ute S; Clerici, Thierry J

    2004-12-01

    The histological aspects of resorbable heterologous fillers (bovine collagen, acid hyaluronique), autologous fillers (lipofilling, dermis-fat graft), biodegradable fillers (New-Fill), and permanent fillers (silicone, Artecoll, Evolution, Aquamid, DermaLive, DermaDeep, Bioplastique, Paraffin) are described. This article relates the morphological aspect of these materials, the normal tissue reaction after injection, and its chronological evolution as the morphological aspects from the different side effects, more frequently observed for the permanent fillers. They mainly consist of granulomatous reactions which may appear long after injection. PMID:15745233

  14. Biodegradation rate of shellac coated bovine hydroxyapatite for bone filler material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triyono, Joko; Triyono, Susilowati, Endang; Murdiyantara, Suci Anindya

    2016-03-01

    This work reports on the effect of shellac coated hydroxyapatite (HA) on the biodegradation rate. The HA was processed from bovine bone. Shellac was derived from the resinous secretion of the lac insect. The aims of the addition of shellac solution is to know how the biodegradation rate material in the Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) solution. The four different of shellac solutions (2,5%; 5%; 7,5%; and 10% weight) coated HA scaffoldand one ratio as a control. It was concluded that the ability of biodegradation rate a materialwas not influenced by the ratio of shellac. All materials were biodegradedwhen they were soaked in PBS solution.

  15. What's new in fillers?

    PubMed

    Brown, Lance H; Frank, Paul J

    2003-06-01

    This article is an in-depth review of various materials and products that have been used for the augmentation of soft tissue in the past, and covers several new products, methods, and techniques that may provide new options for dermatologists who use fillers in their practice. Pros and cons of each are discussed, along with mechanisms of action, dosages, approved and off-label uses, as well as a look ahead at some prospective technology. PMID:12848108

  16. Fillers: What's Here and What's Ahead.

    PubMed

    Solish, Nowell

    2016-06-01

    Soft tissue augmentation products (or fillers) are used for the correction of age-related changes in areas of the face. The most common filler material is hyaluronic acid, which is synthetically cross-linked. These materials are generally safe, but some side effects do occur. New fillers are expected to be approved in the United States in the near future. Semin Cutan Med Surg 35(supp6):S117-119. PMID:27537207

  17. Enhanced heat transfer through filler-polymer interface by surface-coupling agent in heat-dissipation material: A non-equilibrium molecular dynamics study

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Kouichi; Ogata, Shuji; Kobayashi, Ryo; Tamura, Tomoyuki; Kitsunezuka, Masashi; Shinma, Atsushi

    2013-11-21

    Developing a composite material of polymers and micrometer-sized fillers with higher heat conductance is crucial to realize modular packaging of electronic components at higher densities. Enhancement mechanisms of the heat conductance of the polymer-filler interfaces by adding the surface-coupling agent in such a polymer composite material are investigated through the non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. A simulation system is composed of α-alumina as the filler, bisphenol-A epoxy molecules as the polymers, and model molecules for the surface-coupling agent. The inter-atomic potential between the α-alumina and surface-coupling molecule, which is essential in the present MD simulation, is constructed to reproduce the calculated energies with the electronic density-functional theory. Through the non-equilibrium MD simulation runs, we find that the thermal resistance at the interface decreases significantly by increasing either number or lengths of the surface-coupling molecules and that the effective thermal conductivity of the system approaches to the theoretical value corresponding to zero thermal-resistance at the interface. Detailed analyses about the atomic configurations and local temperatures around the interface are performed to identify heat-transfer routes through the interface.

  18. Adverse effects of fillers and their histopathology.

    PubMed

    Haneke, Eckart

    2014-12-01

    Injectable fillers nowadays represent a pillar in facial rejuvenation and make a significant contribution to the success of the treatment. Despite their obvious benefits, a wide range of possible complications such as immediate, late, delayed, temporary, or irreversible adverse effects have to be respected. Differentiating the various filler materials, these effects are assigned to histopathology findings and currently available treatment options. PMID:25536126

  19. Dermal fillers: an update.

    PubMed

    Ballin, Annelyse Cristine; Brandt, Fredric S; Cazzaniga, Alex

    2015-08-01

    Injection of dermal fillers is the second most frequent nonsurgical cosmetic procedure performed in the USA. Dermal fillers are an option in the treatment of volume deficiency, scars, and rhytides; facial sculpting; facial contouring; and augmentation of specific anatomical sites such as the lips. The number of injectable dermal fillers available on the market increases yearly. Dermatologists and cosmetic surgeons should regularly review treatment options to provide patients with safe and effective filler options. This paper extensively reviews the properties of the available fillers, such as their rheology, longevity, and adverse effects, and how these properties affect the choice of filler agent for a particular patient or a particular site. Also, trends in dermal filler injections are discussed. PMID:26081021

  20. Imaging features of midface injectable fillers and associated complications.

    PubMed

    Ginat, D T; Schatz, C J

    2013-08-01

    Injectable fillers are increasingly used for midface augmentation, which can be performed for facial rejuvenation and treatment of HIV facial lipoatrophy. A variety of temporary and permanent filler agents has been developed, including calcium hydroxylapatite, collagen, liquid silicone, polytetrafluoroethylene, hyaluronic acid, poly-l-lactic acid, and polyacrylamide gel. Facial fillers are sometimes encountered on radiologic imaging incidentally and should not be mistaken for pathology. Alternatively, patients with facial fillers may undergo imaging specifically to evaluate associated complications, such as infection, overfilling, migration, foreign-body reaction, and scarring. Therefore, it is important to be familiar with the imaging appearances of the various filler materials and their complications. PMID:22837310

  1. Evaluation of Wood and Cellulosic Materials as Fillers in Artificial Diets for Lyctus africanus Lesne (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kartika, Titik; Yoshimura, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    We studied the usefulness of wood- and cellulose-based diets for L. africanus Lesne. Three diets were prepared which differed on the base ingredients; wood particles (Diet 1), cellulose powder (Diet 2), and alpha-cellulose (Diet 3). The diets were provided to adult L. africanus and the number of larvae, as well as the number of adults that emerged sex ratio, and body weight of the progeny was determined. Findings indicated similar results for the number of larvae, sex ratio and body weight of the emerged L. africanus fed on each diet. However, the number of adult produced by L. africanus on Diet 3 was significantly lower. The results indicate that the amount of vital nutrients is not the only important factor in selecting a suitable diet for L. africanus because the filler used in artificial diets influences the beetles overall population growth. For the population upon which the diets were tested, Diet 1 and Diet 2 could be utilized to rear beetles in the laboratory. PMID:26463410

  2. An overview of permanent and semipermanent fillers.

    PubMed

    Broder, Kevin W; Cohen, Steven R

    2006-09-01

    The demand for safe, effective, long-lasting, biocompatible dermal filler materials is increasing. Many products that include synthetic polymers and autologous tissue have emerged that attempt to meet these criteria. An overview of injectable permanent fillers, including ArteFill, Aquamid, and silicone, and semipermanent fillers, including Radiesse, Sculptra, and autologous fat, is presented. A discussion of their composition, histologic characteristics, antigenicity, U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval status, indications for use, efficacy, injection technique, and adverse effects is provided. PMID:16936539

  3. Cosmetic Fillers: Perspectives on the Industry.

    PubMed

    Basta, Steven L

    2015-11-01

    The cosmetic filler industry has evolved substantially over the last 30 years. The market is characterized by multiple fillers and a competitive dynamic among major aesthetics companies. Marketing in the United States and Europe has been different owing to regulatory constraints. Differences have led to more rapid growth in the European market. The US market has evolved owing to growth of major companies with multiple product portfolios and leverage in consumer promotion and aesthetics office marketing owing to scale. The evolution of the filler market will include new materials, injection techniques, and facilitation devices, and new areas of injection. PMID:26505538

  4. Polyurethane Filler for Electroplating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beasley, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Polyurethane foam proves suitable as filler for slots in parts electroplated with copper or nickel. Polyurethane causes less contamination of plating bath and of cleaning and filtering tanks than wax fillers used previously. Direct cost of maintenance and indirect cost of reduced operating time during tank cleaning also reduced.

  5. Laser Weldability of High-Strength Al-Zn Alloys and Its Improvement by the Use of an Appropriate Filler Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enz, Josephin; Riekehr, Stefan; Ventzke, Volker; Huber, Norbert; Kashaev, Nikolai

    2016-06-01

    Heat-treatable Al-Zn alloys are promising candidates for use as structural lightweight materials in automotive and aircraft applications. This is mainly due to their high strength-to-density ratio in comparison to conventionally employed Al alloys. Laser beam welding is an efficient method for producing joints with high weld quality and has been established in the industry for many years. However, it is well known that aluminum alloys with a high Zn content or, more precisely, with a high (Zn + Mg + Cu) content are difficult to fusion weld due to the formation of porosity and hot cracks. The present study concerns the laser weldability of these hard-to-weld Al-Zn alloys. In order to improve weldability, it was first necessary to understand the reasons for weldability problems and to identify crucial influencing factors. Based on this knowledge, it was finally possible to develop an appropriate approach. For this purpose, vanadium was selected as additional filler material. Vanadium exhibits favorable thermophysical properties and, thereby, can improve the weldability of Al-Zn alloys. The effectiveness of the approach was verified by its application to several Al-Zn alloys with differing amounts of (Zn + Mg + Cu).

  6. Laser Weldability of High-Strength Al-Zn Alloys and Its Improvement by the Use of an Appropriate Filler Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enz, Josephin; Riekehr, Stefan; Ventzke, Volker; Huber, Norbert; Kashaev, Nikolai

    2016-04-01

    Heat-treatable Al-Zn alloys are promising candidates for use as structural lightweight materials in automotive and aircraft applications. This is mainly due to their high strength-to-density ratio in comparison to conventionally employed Al alloys. Laser beam welding is an efficient method for producing joints with high weld quality and has been established in the industry for many years. However, it is well known that aluminum alloys with a high Zn content or, more precisely, with a high (Zn + Mg + Cu) content are difficult to fusion weld due to the formation of porosity and hot cracks. The present study concerns the laser weldability of these hard-to-weld Al-Zn alloys. In order to improve weldability, it was first necessary to understand the reasons for weldability problems and to identify crucial influencing factors. Based on this knowledge, it was finally possible to develop an appropriate approach. For this purpose, vanadium was selected as additional filler material. Vanadium exhibits favorable thermophysical properties and, thereby, can improve the weldability of Al-Zn alloys. The effectiveness of the approach was verified by its application to several Al-Zn alloys with differing amounts of (Zn + Mg + Cu).

  7. Fillers used in papermaking. (Latest citations from the Paper and Board, Printing, and Packaging Industries Research Associations database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning organic and inorganic fillers used in paper products and their effect on the properties and manufacture of paper. The citations examine a variety of fillers, including natural calcium carbonate, bentonite, polymeric fillers, titanium dioxide, calcium carbonate, calcium silicate, barium sulphate, agalite, talc, clay, kaolin, limestone, mica, and ash. Filler effects on thermal strength, coloring, acidity, surface coatings, porosity, production efficiency, absorption, opacity, printability, and deposit control are presented. Also discussed are the microanalysis of fillers, recovery of fillers from wastes, availability of filler and pigment raw materials, and the determination of filler content in paper products. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Performance Testing of Thermal Interface Filler Materials in a Bolted Aluminum Interface Under Thermal/Vacuum Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glasgow, S. D.; Kittredge, K. B.

    2003-01-01

    A thermal interface material is one of the many tools often used as part of the thermal control scheme for space-based applications. Historically, at Marshall Space Flight Center, CHO-THERM 1671 has primarily been used for applications where an interface material was deemed necessary. However, numerous alternatives have come on the market in recent years. It was decided that a number of these materials should be tested against each other to see if there were better performing alternatives. The tests were done strictly to compare the thermal performance of the materials relative to each other under repeatable conditions and do not take into consideration other design issues, such as off-gassing, electrical conduction, isolation, etc. The purpose of this Technical Memorandum is to detail the materials tested, test apparatus, procedures, and results of these tests. The results show that there are a number of better performing alternatives now available.

  9. Performance Testing of Thermal Interface Filler Materials in a Bolted Aluminum Interface Under Thermal/Vacuum Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glasgow, Shaun; Kittredge, Ken

    2003-01-01

    A thermal interface material is one of the many tools that are often used as part of the thermal control scheme for space-based applications. These materials are placed between, for example, an avionics box and a cold plate, in order to improve the conduction heat transfer so that proper temperatures can be maintained. Historically at Marshall Space Flight Center, CHO-THERM@ 1671 has primarily been used for applications where an interface material was deemed necessary. However, there have been numerous alternatives come on the market in recent years. It was decided that a number of these materials should be tested against each other to see if there were better performing alternatives. The tests were done strictly to compare the thermal performance of the materials relative to each other under repeatable conditions and they do not take into consideration other design issues such as off-gassing, electrical conduction or isolation, etc. This paper details the materials tested, test apparatus, procedures, and results of these tests.

  10. Microstructural Evolution and Bonding Behavior during Transient Liquid-Phase Bonding of a Duplex Stainless Steel using two Different Ni-B-Based Filler Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xinjian; Kim, Myung Bok; Kang, Chung Yun

    2011-05-01

    Microstructural evolution and bonding behavior of transient liquid-phase (TLP) bonded joint for a duplex stainless steel using MBF-30 (Ni -4.5Si -3.2B [wt pct]) and MBF-50 (Ni -7.5Si -1.4B -18.5Cr [wt pct]) were investigated. Using MBF-30, the microstructure of the athermally solidified zone was dependent on B diffusion at 1333.15 K (1060 °C). Ni3B and a supersaturated γ-Ni phase were observed in this zone. BN appeared in the bonding-affected zone. However, using MBF-50, the influences of base metal alloying elements, particularly N and Cr as well as Si in the filler material, on the bond microstructure development were more pronounced at 1448.15 K (1175 °C). BN and (Cr, Ni)3Si phase were present in the bond centerline. The formation of BN precipitates in the bonding-affected zone was suppressed. A significant deviation in the isothermal solidification rate from the conventional TLP bonding diffusion models was observed in the joints prepared at 1448.15 K (1175 °C) using MBF-50.

  11. The use of by-products from metallurgical and mineral industries as filler in cement-based materials.

    PubMed

    Moosberg, Helena; Lagerblad, Björn; Forssberg, Eric

    2003-02-01

    This investigation has been made in order to make it possible to increase the use of by-products in cement-based materials. Use of by-products requires a screening procedure that will reliably determine their impact on concrete. A test procedure was developed. The most important properties were considered to be strength development, shrinkage, expansion and workability. The methods used were calorimetry, flow table tests, F-shape measurements, measurements of compressive and flexural strength and shrinkage/expansion measurements. Scanning electron microscopy was used to verify some results. Twelve by-products were collected from Swedish metallurgical and mineral industries and classified according to the test procedure. The investigation showed that the test procedure clearly screened out the materials that can be used in the production of concrete from the unsuitable ones. PMID:12667016

  12. PMMA-based composite materials with reactive ceramic fillers: IV. Radiopacifying particles embedded in PMMA beads for acrylic bone cements.

    PubMed

    Abboud, M; Casaubieilh, L; Morvan, F; Fontanille, M; Duguet, E

    2000-01-01

    New acrylic bone cements were prepared from alumina particles previously treated by 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propylmethacrylate (gamma-MPS) and embedded in poly(methylmethacrylate-co-ethylacrylate) beads with about 7 mol% of ethyl acrylate repeating units. The encapsulation was performed through a conventional suspension polymerization process. The influence of (i) the concentration of the dispersion stabilizer and (ii) the alumina content upon the shape, size, and size distribution of the acrylic beads was studied. Cements were prepared from each batch by hand-mixing alumina-filled acrylic beads with a liquid monomer mixture containing methyl methacrylate, n-butyl methacrylate, and N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine. Benzoyl peroxide was previously added to the solid part. The powder-to-liquid ratio was equal to 2 for each formulation. Compressive strength of cured cement decreases with alumina content, whereas compressive modulus remains roughly constant. These results are in contradiction to those obtained for cements based on a mixture of gamma-MPS-treated alumina and unfilled acrylic beads. Nevertheless, they are interpreted in terms of alumina arrangement in the cement. In the first case, alumina particles contribute to the reinforcement of the dispersed acrylic phase, with poor benefits for the whole materials. In the second case, they allow the reinforcement of the continuous acrylic phase and, therefore, the cement's one. PMID:11074433

  13. A comparative study of the effects of different bioactive fillers in PLGA matrix composites and their suitability as bone substitute materials: A thermo-mechanical and in vitro investigation.

    PubMed

    Simpson, R L; Nazhat, S N; Blaker, J J; Bismarck, A; Hill, R; Boccaccini, A R; Hansen, U N; Amis, A A

    2015-10-01

    Bone substitute composite materials with poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) matrices and four different bioactive fillers: CaCO3, hydroxyapatite (HA), 45S5 Bioglass(®) (45S5 BG), and ICIE4 bioactive glass (a lower sodium glass than 45S5 BG) were produced via melt blending, extrusion and moulding. The viscoelastic, mechanical and thermal properties, and the molecular weight of the matrix were measured. Thermogravimetric analysis evaluated the effect of filler composition on the thermal degradation of the matrix. Bioactive glasses caused premature degradation of the matrix during processing, whereas CaCO3 or HA did not. All composites, except those with 45S5 BG, had similar mechanical strength and were stiffer than PLGA alone in compression, whilst all had a lower tensile strength. Dynamic mechanical analysis demonstrated an increased storage modulus (E') in the composites (other than the 45S5 BG filled PLGA). The effect of water uptake and early degradation was investigated by short-term in vitro aging in simulated body fluid, which indicated enhanced water uptake over the neat polymer; bioactive glass had the greatest water uptake, causing matrix plasticization. These results enable a direct comparison between bioactive filler type in poly(α-hydroxyester) composites, and have implications when selecting a composite material for eventual application in bone substitution. PMID:26164218

  14. Collagen and injectable fillers.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jacqueline T; Perkins, Stephen W; Hamilton, Mark M

    2002-02-01

    Soft tissue augmentation of facial rhytids, scars, and deformities is a frequently performed office procedure. This article reviews the available biologic (collagen, Dermalogen, Autologen, Isolagen, autologous fat, Fibrel, hyaluronic acid derivatives, particulate fascia lata, micronized Alloderm) and alloplastic (silicone, Bioplastique, and Artecoll) soft tissue injectable fillers. PMID:11781208

  15. High-Temperature Insulating Gap Filler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toombs, Gordon R.; Oyoung, Kevin K.; Stevens, Everett G.

    1991-01-01

    New inorganic, ceramic filler for gaps between refractory ceramic tiles offers high resistance to heat and erosion. Consists of ceramic-fiber fabric precoated with silica and further coated with silica containing small amount of silicon carbide powder to increase thermal emittance. Developed as replacement for organic filler used on thermal-protection system of Space Shuttle. Promises to serve for many missions and to reduce cost and delay of refurbishing aerospace craft. Used as sealing material in furnaces or as heat shield for sensitive components in automobiles, aircraft, and home appliances.

  16. OPTIMIZING THE FRACTIONATION OF SOY PROTEIN ISOLATE FOR USE AS A BIOMATERIAL FILLER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nearly all rubber used today utilizes filler materials for strength and various other application-specific properties. The most common filler on the market today is carbon black, which is produced by the burning of petroleum. Using renewable biomaterials as fillers would reduce dependence on petro...

  17. Process for recovering filler from polymer

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Maurice L.; Smith, Robert M.

    1978-01-01

    This disclosure relates to a process for recovering filler material from a polymeric matrix by reacting the matrix at an elevated temperature in a gas atmosphere with a controlled oxidizing potential and thereafter separating and cleaning the residue from the reaction mixture.

  18. Facial Filler Complications.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Julie; Khan, Tanya; Martin, John

    2015-11-01

    The use of facial fillers has greatly expanded over the past several years. Along with increased use comes a rise in documented complications, ranging from poor cosmetic result to nodules, granulomas, necrosis, and blindness. Awareness of the potential types of complications and options for management, in addition to the underlying facial anatomy, are imperative to delivering the best patient care. This article defines the complications and how to treat them and provides suggestions to avoid serious adverse outcomes. PMID:26505541

  19. Injectable fillers for facial soft tissue enhancement.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, A P; Romo, T

    2000-01-01

    Soft tissue augmentation materials have been advocated for correction of post-surgical or post-traumatic facial defects, as well as for age-related folds and wrinkles. While autogenous tissues may be the safest option, they require a second operative site. Animal-derived or synthetic materials have been advocated since the late 19th century, and have waxed and waned in popularity. In recent years, we have gained a better understanding of the physical events that occur when material is placed within or below the skin. With this knowledge, we stand at the threshold of a new era, where soft tissue fillers can be designed and customized to suit the individual patient. This article will review the major materials that have been or are now advocated for use as soft tissue fillers, and will detail their relative strengths and weaknesses in order to give the clinician a better perspective when considering a material for soft tissue augmentation. PMID:11802343

  20. Wear of nanofilled dental composites at varying filler concentrations.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Nathaniel C; Burgess, John O

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effects of nanofiller concentration on the mechanisms of wear of a dental composite. Nanofilled composites were fabricated with a bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate polymer and 40 nm SiO2 filler particles at three filler loads (25, 50, and 65 wt %). The elastic modulus, flexural strength, and hardness of the composites and the unfilled resin were measured. The materials (n = 8) were tested in the modified wear testing device at 50,000, 100,000, and 200,000 cycles with 20N force at 1 Hz. A 33% glycerine lubricant and stainless steel antagonist were used. The worn composite and antagonist surfaces were analyzed with noncontact profilometry and SEM. The volumetric wear data indicated that there are significant differences between filler concentrations and cycles (p < 0.05). A trend was noted that increasing filler content beyond 25% decreased the wear resistance of the composites. Increasing filler content increased hardness and modulus and increased flexural strength up to 50% fill. SEM evaluation of the worn specimens indicated that the resin and 25% filled materials exhibited cracking and failed by fatigue and the 50 and 65% filled materials exhibited microcutting and failed by abrasive wear. Based on the results of this study, composite manufacturers are recommended to use a filler concentration between 25 and 50% when using nanosized filler particles. PMID:24909664

  1. Semipermanent and permanent injectable fillers.

    PubMed

    Jones, Derek H

    2009-10-01

    Today, an impressive array of injectable dermal fillers for facial soft-tissue augmentation is available in the United States. These agents, most of which were introduced in the last half decade, represent a variety of semipermanent and permanent fillers across several categories. Physicians can choose between semipermanent fillers, such as hyaluronic acid derivatives (HA), calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA), and poly-L-lactic acid (PLA), and longer-lasting, so-called "permanent fillers," such as polymethyl methacrylate microspheres (PMMA), highly purified forms of liquid silicone, and hydrogel polymers. PMID:19850193

  2. Synthetic Fillers for Facial Rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Johnson C; Lorenc, Z Paul

    2016-07-01

    Soft tissue filler procedures have increased dramatically in popularity in the United States. Synthetic fillers such as calcium hydroxyapatite (CaHA), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), and poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA), and silicone provide initial volume replacement but have an additional biostimulatory effect to supplement facial volumization. Indications include human immunodeficiency virus lipoatrophy and nasolabial folds for CaHA and PLLA and atrophic acne scars for PMMA. Most clinical use of these synthetic fillers is in an off-label fashion. Beyond the proper choice of a synthetic filler, careful consideration of dilution, injection method, and postprocedural care allows for successful and consistent results. PMID:27363763

  3. Bio-inspired Fillers for Mechanical Enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korley, Lashanda

    2012-02-01

    An examination of natural materials has offered a new perspective on the development of multi-functional materials with enhanced mechanical properties. One important lesson from nature is the utilization of composite structures to impart improved mechanical behavior and enhanced functionality using nanofillers. A relatively unexplored expansion of this bio-inspired, nanoscale filler approach to high performance materials is the incorporation of responsive, multi-functional reinforcing elements in polymeric composites with the goal of combining superior mechanical behavior that can be tuned with additional functionality, such as sensing and bioactivity. One approach is the use of self-assembling small molecules that form uniform, one-dimensional nanostructures as an emerging class of filler components. Another pathway toward mechanical enhancement is the incorporation of stimuli-responsive and high-modulus electrospun nanofibers. We have probed the utilization of high-aspect ratio, self-assembled small molecules and responsive electrospun nanofibers as all-organic nanofillers to achieve significant modulus changes within elastomeric matrices. The influence of matrix-filler interactions and the role of hierarchical organization in these nature-inspired composites will be discussed. Potential applications in barrier technology and drug delivery have also been explored.

  4. Ductility dip cracking susceptibility of Inconel Filler Metal 52 and Inconel Alloy 690

    SciTech Connect

    Kikel, J.M.; Parker, D.M.

    1998-06-01

    Alloy 690 and Filler Metal 52 have become the materials of choice for commercial nuclear steam generator applications in recent years. Filler Metal 52 exhibits improved resistance to weld solidification and weld-metal liquation cracking as compared to other nickel-based filler metals. However, recently published work indicates that Filler Metal 52 is susceptible to ductility dip cracking (DDC) in highly restrained applications. Susceptibility to fusion zone DDC was evaluated using the transverse varestraint test method, while heat affected zone (HAZ) DDC susceptibility was evaluated using a newly developed spot-on-spot varestraint test method. Alloy 690 and Filler Metal 52 cracking susceptibility was compared to the DDC susceptibility of Alloy 600, Filler Metal 52, and Filler Metal 625. In addition, the effect of grain size and orientation on cracking susceptibility was also included in this study. Alloy 690, Filler Metal 82, Filler Metal 52, and Filler Metal 625 were found more susceptible to fusion zone DDC than Alloy 600. Filler Metal 52 and Alloy 690 were found more susceptible to HAZ DDC when compared to wrought Alloy 600, Filler Metal 82 and Filler Metal 625. Filler Metal 52 exhibited the greatest susceptibility to HAZ DDC of all the weld metals evaluated. The base materials were found much more resistant to HAZ DDC in the wrought condition than when autogenously welded. A smaller grain size was found to offer greater resistance to DDC. For weld metal where grain size is difficult to control, a change in grain orientation was found to improve resistance to DDC.

  5. Experimental determination of TRIP-parameter K for mild- and high-strength low-alloy steels and a super martensitic filler material.

    PubMed

    Neubert, Sebastian; Pittner, Andreas; Rethmeier, Michael

    2016-01-01

    A combined experimental numerical approach is applied to determine the transformation induced plasticity (TRIP)-parameter K for different strength low-alloy steels of grade S355J2+N and S960QL as well as the super martensitic filler CN13-4-IG containing 13 wt% chromium and 4 wt% nickel. The thermo-physical analyses were conducted using a Gleeble (®) 3500 facility. The thermal histories of the specimens to be tested were extracted from corresponding simulations of a real gas metal arc weldment. In contrast to common TRIP-experiments which are based on complex specimens a simple flat specimen was utilized together with an engineering evaluation method. The evaluation method was validated with literature values for the TRIP-parameter. It could be shown that the proposed approach enables a correct description of the TRIP behavior. PMID:27386237

  6. Effect of fillers on the dielectric properties of polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, N.E.; McGrath, P.B.; Burns, C.W.

    1996-12-31

    The effect on the permittivity of two different base materials was investigated with two types of fillers. Several theories were investigated to determine which most closely predicted the permittivity of the composites. The fillers utilized were a low permittivity material, alumina, and a high permittivity compound, barium titanate. The base materials investigated were epoxy and silicon rubber. It was found that the permittivity of the alumina filled composite was most closely predicted by the formulae which considered the permittivity of the filler in the calculation, i.e., the Log Law, Rayleigh`s formula, and Effective Medium Theory. The permittivity of the barium titanate filled materials were most closely predicted by the percolative theories, i.e., Bruggeman`s formula and the Effective Medium Theory, as these materials were demonstrating percolative tendencies. The effect of the base material selection on the loss tangent of the filled material was also investigated. It was found that the epoxy samples exhibited little change in the loss tangent over the range of filler levels tested, whereas the silicon rubber samples showed increasing loss tangent with increasing filler level for both the alumina and barium titanate filled samples.

  7. Hyaluronic acid gel fillers in the management of facial aging

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Fredric S; Cazzaniga, Alex

    2008-01-01

    Time affects facial aging by producing cellular and anatomical changes resulting in the consequential loss of soft tissue volume. With the advent of new technologies, the physician has the opportunity of addressing these changes with the utilization of dermal fillers. Hyaluronic acid (HA) dermal fillers are the most popular, non-permanent injectable materials available to physicians today for the correction of soft tissue defects of the face. This material provides an effective, non invasive, non surgical alternative for correction of the contour defects of the face due to its enormous ability to bind water and easiness of implantation. HA dermal fillers are safe and effective. The baby-boomer generation, and their desire of turning back the clock while enjoying an active lifestyle, has expanded the popularity of these fillers. In the US, there are currently eight HA dermal fillers approved for commercialization by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This article reviews the innate properties of FDA-approved HA fillers and provides an insight on future HA products and their utilization for the management of the aging face. PMID:18488885

  8. Midface volumization with injectable fillers.

    PubMed

    Tan, Marietta; Kontis, Theda C

    2015-05-01

    The aging midface has long been overlooked in cosmetic surgery. Our understanding of facial aging in terms of 3 dimensions has placed increased importance on volume restoration. Although an "off-label" indication for most fillers in this facial region, volumization of the midface with injectable fillers is usually a safe and straightforward procedure technically. Injectors, nevertheless, need to have an excellent understanding of facial anatomy and the characteristics of the injected products should problems arise. PMID:25921573

  9. Natural Rubber-Filler Interactions: What Are the Parameters?

    PubMed

    Chan, Alan Jenkin; Steenkeste, Karine; Canette, Alexis; Eloy, Marie; Brosson, Damien; Gaboriaud, Fabien; Fontaine-Aupart, Marie-Pierre

    2015-11-17

    Reinforcement of a polymer matrix through the incorporation of nanoparticles (fillers) is a common industrial practice that greatly enhances the mechanical properties of the composite material. The origin of such mechanical reinforcement has been linked to the interaction between the polymer and filler as well as the homogeneous dispersion of the filler within the polymer matrix. In natural rubber (NR) technology, knowledge of the conditions necessary to achieve more efficient NR-filler interactions is improving continuously. This study explores the important physicochemical parameters required to achieve NR-filler interactions under dilute aqueous conditions by varying both the properties of the filler (size, composition, surface activity, concentration) and the aqueous solution (ionic strength, ion valency). By combining fluorescence and electron microscopy methods, we show that NR and silica interact only in the presence of ions and that heteroaggregation is favored more than homoaggregation of silica-silica or NR-NR. The interaction kinetics increases with the ion valence, whereas the morphology of the heteroaggregates depends on the size of silica and the volume percent ratio (dry silica/dry NR). We observe dendritic structures using silica with a diameter (d) of 100 nm at a ∼20-50 vol % ratio, whereas we obtain raspberry-like structures using silica with d = 30 nm particles. We observe that in liquid the interaction is controlled by the hydrophilic bioshell, in contrast to dried conditions, where hydrophobic polymer dominates the interaction of NR with the fillers. A good correlation between the nanoscopic aggregation behavior and the macroscopic aggregation dynamics of the particles was observed. These results provide insight into improving the reinforcement of a polymer matrix using NR-filler films. PMID:26488560

  10. Coaggregation of mineral filler particles and starch granules as a basis for improving filler-fiber interaction in paper production.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Fan, Jun; Chen, Wensen; Shu, Jiayan; Qian, Xueren; Wei, Haifeng; Wang, Qingwen; Shen, Jing

    2016-09-20

    The sustainable, efficient use of renewable bio-based additives in the production of various materials fits well into the concept of sustainability. Here, the concept of coaggregation of mineral filler particles and starch granules for improving filler-fiber interaction in paper-based cellulosic networks is presented. Coaggregation of precipitated calcium carbonate filler particles and uncooked, unmodified corn starch granules by cationic polyacrylamide (a cationic high molecular weight polymer flocculant) in combination with bentonite (an anionic microparticle) prior to addition to cellulosic fiber slurry delivered enhanced filler bondability with cellulosic fibers. For instance, under the conditions studied, preaggregation resulted in an increase in filler bondability factor from 9.24 to 15.21 at starch dosage of 1% (on the basis of the dry weight of papermaking stock). The swelling and gelatinization of the starch granules in starch-filler preaggregates or hybrids enabled the "bridging" of the gaps in cellulosic networks, leading to structural consolidation and strength enhancement. PMID:27261726

  11. [Injectable fillers: adverse reactions and their management].

    PubMed

    Rzany, B; Bachmann, F; Nast, A

    2013-02-01

    Injectable fillers are one of the corner stones of aesthetic medicine. In general they are safe to use. However, adverse reactions may occur. These reactions may be acute, subacute or delayed, e.g. after decades. It is important to know these reactions and to be prepared so that they can be adequately treated, in view of the clinical symptoms, the injected material and if applicable other diseases/treatments that might trigger these reactions. Last but not least, all reactions should be reported either to specialized registries or regulatory agencies. Only then we are able to learn more about these reactions and their best possible treatment. PMID:23407758

  12. Use of Fillers in Rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyoung Jin

    2016-01-01

    Surgical rhinoplasty is the one of the most common cosmetic procedures in Asians. But there are limitations, such as down time, high cost, and a steep learning curve. Most complications are implant related. A safer and less invasive procedure is rhinoplasty using fillers. Good knowledge of the nasal anatomy is essential for rhinoplasty using fillers. Knowledge of nerves, blood supply, and injection plane allows avoiding complications. There are several planes in the nose. The deep fatty layer is recommended for injection, because it is wide and loose and there are less important neurovascular structures. Botulinum toxin also can be used for noninvasive rhinoplasty. PMID:26616716

  13. An investigation of tendon sheathing filler migration into concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.

    1998-03-01

    During some of the inspections at nuclear power plants with prestressed concrete containments, it was observed that the containments has experienced leakage of the tendon sheathing filler (i.e., streaks). The objective of this activity was to provide an indication of the extent of tendon sheathing filler leakage into the concrete and its affects on concrete properties. Literature was reviewed and concrete core samples were obtained from the Trojan Nuclear Plant and tested. The literature primarily addressed effects of crude or lubricating oils that are known to cause concrete damage. However, these materials have significantly different characteristics relative to the materials used as tendon sheathing fillers. Examination and testing of the concrete cores indicated that the appearance of tendon sheathing filler on the concrete surface was due to leakage from the conduits and its subsequent migration through cracks that were present. Migration of the tendon sheathing filler was confined to the cracks and there was no perceptible movement into the concrete. Results of compressive strength testing indicated that the concrete quality was consistent in the containment and that the strength had increased over 40% in 25.4 years relative to the average compressive strength at 28-days age.

  14. Wetting and spreading behavior of molten brazing filler metallic alloys on metallic substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogi, Satoshi; Kajiura, Tetsurou; Hanada, Yukiakira; Miyazawa, Yasuyuki

    2014-08-01

    Wetting and spreading of molten brazing filler material are important factors that influence the brazing ability of a joint to be brazed. Several investigations into the wetting ability of a brazing filler alloy and its surface tension in molten state, in addition to effects of brazing time and temperature on the contact angle, have been carried out. In general, dissimilar-metals brazing technology and high-performance brazed joint are necessities for the manufacturing field in the near future. Therefore, to address this requirement, more such studies on wetting and spreading of filler material are required for a deeper understanding. Generally, surface roughness and surface conditions affect spreading of molten brazing filler material during brazing. Wetting by and interfacial reactions of the molten brazing filler material with the metallic substrate, especially, affect strongly the spreading of the filler material. In this study, the effects of surface roughness and surface conditions on the spreading of molten brazing filler metallic alloys were investigated. Ag-(40-x)Cu-xIn and Ag- (40-x)Cu-xSn (x=5, 10, 15, 20, 25) alloys were used as brazing filler materials. A mild-steel square plate (S45C (JIS); side: 30 mm; thickness: 3mm) was employed as the substrate. A few surfaces with varying roughness were prepared using emery paper. Brazing filler material and metallic base plate were first washed with acetone, and then a flux was applied to them. The filler, 50 mg, was placed on the center of the metallic base with the flux. A spreading test was performed under Ar gas using an electrically heated furnace, after which, the original spreading area, defined as the sessile drop area, and the apparent spreading area, produced by the capillary grooves, were both evaluated. It was observed that the spreading area decreased with increasing In and Sn content.

  15. Up Close and Personal: A Case Study of the Development of Three English Fillers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Andrea; Menn, Lise

    2003-01-01

    As Peters (2001) has suggested, the young child's use of fillers seems to indicate awareness of distributionally-defined slots in which some as yet unidentified material belongs. One may view a filler as an emergent transitional form; as a slot that serves as an underspecified lexical entry for the accumulation of phonological and functional…

  16. Fillers: Contraindications, Side Effects and Precautions

    PubMed Central

    Lafaille, Philippe; Benedetto, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Fillers are generally considered safe. However side effects may happen and hence a practicing dermatologist need to be aware of such side effects, contraindicatons and precaution to be adopted while using fillers. PMID:20606987

  17. Composite weld rod corrects individual filler weaknesses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimaldo, S.

    1967-01-01

    Composite filler wire welds together an assembly made from components of Rene 41 nickel base alloy. Using equal parts of Rene 41 and Hastelloy W weld wire in the filler reduces the cracking and weaknesses of the individual parent metals.

  18. Silica Fillers for elastomer Reinforement

    SciTech Connect

    Kohls, D.J.; Schaefer, D.W.

    2012-09-10

    This article summarizes recent work on the structure of precipitated silica used in the reinforcement of elastomers. Silica has a unique morphology, consisting of multiple structural levels that can be controlled through processing. The ability to control and characterize the multiple structures of precipitated silica is an example of morphological engineering for reinforcement applications. In this summary of some recent research efforts using precipitated silica, small-angle scattering techniques are described and their usefulness for determining the morphology of silica in terms of primary particles, aggregates, and agglomerates are discussed. The structure of several different precipitated silica powders is shown as well as the mechanical properties of elastomers reinforced with these silica particles. The study of the mechanical properties of filled elastomer systems is a challenging and exciting topic for both fundamental science and industrial application. It is known that the addition of hard particulates to a soft elastomer matrix results in properties that do not follow a straightforward rule of mixtures. Research efforts in this area have shown that the properties of filled elastomers are influenced by the nature of both the filler and the matrix, as well as the interactions between them. Several articles have reviewed the influence of fillers like silica and carbon black on the reinforcement of elastomers. In general, the structure-property relationships developed for filled elastomers have evolved into the following major areas: Filler structure, hydrodynamic reinforcement, and interactions between fillers and elastomers.

  19. Dry bin filler for apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A unique dry bin filler for apples using a sequenced tray was developed to reduce bruising in packing operations. Research and commercial trials in West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Washington State demonstrated the ability to fill bins evenly and with low damage. Cultivars with different bruising su...

  20. Silica Fillers for elastomer Reinforement

    SciTech Connect

    Kohls, D.J.; Schaefer, D.W.

    2009-08-26

    This article summarizes recent work on the structure of precipitated silica used in the reinforcement of elastomers. Silica has a unique morphology, consisting of multiple structural levels that can be controlled through processing. The ability to control and characterize the multiple structures of precipitated silica is an example of morphological engineering for reinforcement applications. In this summary of some recent research efforts using precipitated silica, small-angle scattering techniques are described and their usefulness for determining the morphology of silica in terms of primary particles, aggregates, and agglomerates are discussed. The structure of several different precipitated silica powders is shown as well as the mechanical properties of elastomers reinforced with these silica particles. The study of the mechanical properties of filled elastomer systems is a challenging and exciting topic for both fundamental science and industrial application. It is known that the addition of hard particulates to a soft elastomer matrix results in properties that do not follow a straightforward rule of mixtures. Research efforts in this area have shown that the properties of filled elastomers are influenced by the nature of both the filler and the matrix, as well as the interactions between them. Several articles have reviewed the influence of fillers like silica and carbon black on the reinforcement of elastomers. In general, the structure-property relationships developed for filled elastomers have evolved into the following major areas: Filler structure, hydrodynamic reinforcement, and interactions between fillers and elastomers.

  1. Nanocarbon filler particles in polymer matrix - Nanosized dielectric probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, Vitaliy G.; Polschikov, Sergey V.; Nedorezova, Polina M.; Klyamkina, Alla N.; Aladyshev, Alexander M.

    2014-05-01

    Composite materials of polypropylene, graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) or fullerene C60 were synthesized by in situ polymerization. GNP particles consist of 3 - 5 graphene layers and have aspect ratio 40. In composites with pristine GNP particles their aspect ratio is 110, whereas ultrasonic processing reduces it to 40 - 50. This change of aspect ratio of filler particles and their aggregates results in different properties of composites with pristine and sonicated GNP. Percolation threshold for composites with pristine GNP is 0.25% vol. In composites with sonicated GNP it is 2-3% vol. This is due to reduction in the size of filler particles aggregates and more uniform distribution of particles in polymer matrix after ultrasonic treatment. The presence of nanocarbon filler (GNP or fullerene) makes α-transition, associated with the glass transition of the amorphous phase of polypropylene, clearly resolved. Its intensity increases with the concentration of nanofiller, which acts as a dielectric probe.

  2. Fillers in dermatology: from past to present.

    PubMed

    Chacon, Anna H

    2015-11-01

    Injectable fillers were introduced in dermatology as a method for reconstructing facial deformities and restoring the aging face. Although fillers have become a popular option among cosmetic patients, clinical experience has shown that fillers must be used with caution, as complications can occur. This article provides a brief review of the history of filler agents currently available for soft tissue augmentation. Although no single filler is ideal for all patients, indications, and situations, residents should be aware of the properties and characteristics that make each product unique. PMID:26682563

  3. Effect of filler size on wear resistance of resin cement.

    PubMed

    Shinkai, K; Suzuki, S; Katoh, Y

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of filler size on the wear of resin cements. Materials tested included four experimental dual-cure resin cements (Kuraray) consisting of different-sized filler particles. A rectangular box cavity was prepared on the flattened occlusal surface of extracted human molars. Ceramic inlays for the cavities were fabricated using the Cerec 2 system. The Cerec inlays were cemented with the respective cements and adhesive systems according to the manufacturer's directions. The restored surface was finished by wet-grinding with an 800-grit silicon carbide paper. Six specimens were prepared for each resin cement. Half of the specimens were subjected to a three-body wear test for 200,000 cycles, and the others were subjected to a toothbrush abrasion test for 30,000 cycles. The worn surface of each restoration was scanned by a profilometer (Surfcom 475 A) at eight different points for each restoration. The wear value was determined by measuring the vertical gap depth on the profilometric tracings. The data were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Scheffe's test. The results showed that, with increase of filler size, the wear value decreased in the toothbrush test and increased in the three-body wear test. The cement with 0.04-microm filler exhibited the lowest wear value among the materials in the three-body wear test, and the same wear value as the cement with 0.97-microm filler in the toothbrush test. Based upon the results of this study, it is concluded that the wear of resin cements was affected by the filler size as well as the mode of wear test. PMID:14530920

  4. Influence of silane treatment and filler fraction on thermal expansion of composite resins.

    PubMed

    Söderholm, K J

    1984-11-01

    The coefficient of thermal expansion of experimental composite materials containing either silane-treated or untreated fillers in a triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) matrix was investigated. The results show that an inverse linear relationship existed between volume fraction filler and coefficient of thermal expansion. No differences were seen between silane-treated and untreated composites, while it was found that repeated heating (aging) caused the thermal expansion to decrease for all material combinations. Reduction in the coefficient of thermal expansion with increased filler fraction of unbonded filler indicates that the polymerization shrinkage of the matrix induces hoop stresses around the fillers. By use of a simplified theoretical model (Appendix), these stresses could be estimated. These estimates revealed that the induced stresses were remarkably high, and that increased filler fraction increased the tensile stress level surrounding the filler particles. Since these tensile stresses could facilitate crazing and crack growth in the matrix, these estimates may explain why filled resins containing low fractions of microfilled particles seem to possess remarkably good clinical wear resistance when compared with composites containing higher filler concentrations, at least during the first years in service. PMID:6389635

  5. Dermal Filler Injection: A Novel Approach for Limiting Infarct Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Liam P.; Matsuzaki, Kanji; Noma, Mio; Jackson, Benjamin M.; Eperjesi, Thomas J.; Plappert, Theodore J.; St. John-Sutton, Martin G.; Gorman, Joseph H.; Gorman, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Early infarct expansion after coronary occlusion compromises contractile function in perfused myocardial regions and promotes adverse long-term left ventricular (LV) remodeling. We hypothesized that injection of a tissue-expanding dermal filler material into a myocardial infarction (MI) would attenuate infarct expansion and limit LV remodeling. Methods Fifteen sheep were subjected to an anteroapical MI involving approximately 20% of the LV followed by the injection of 1.3 mL of a calcium hydroxyapatite–based dermal filler into the infarct. Real-time three-dimensional echocardiography was performed at baseline, 30 minutes after MI, and 15 minutes after injection to assess infarct expansion. Sixteen additional sheep were subjected to the same infarction and followed echocardiographically and hemodynamically for 4 weeks after MI to assess chronic remodeling. Eight animals had injection with dermal filler as described above immediately after MI, and 8 animals were injected with an equal amount of saline solution. Results All animals exhibited infarct expansion soon after coronary occlusion. The regional ejection fraction of the apex became negative after infarction, consistent with systolic dyskinesia. Injection of the dermal filler converted the apical wall motion from dyskinetic to akinetic and resulted immediately in significant decreases in global, regional, and segmental LV volumes. Chronically, relative to saline control, dermal filler injection significantly reduced LV end-systolic volume (62.2 ± 3.6 mL versus 44.5 ± 3.9 mL; p < 0.05) and improved global ejection fraction (0.295 ± 0.016 versus 0.373 ± 0.017; p < 0.05) at 4 weeks after infarction. Conclusions Injection of an acellular dermal filler into an MI immediately after coronary occlusion reduces early infarct expansion and limits chronic LV remodeling. PMID:19101288

  6. Improved TIG weld joint strength in aluminum alloy 2219-T87 by filler metal substitution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poorman, R. M.; Lovoy, C. V.

    1972-01-01

    The results of an investigation on weld joint characteristics of aluminum alloy 2219-T87 are given. Five different alloys were utilized as filler material. The mechanical properties of the joints were determined at ambient and cryogenic temperatures for weldments in the as-welded condition and also, for weldments after elevated temperature exposures. Other evaluations included hardness surveys, stress corrosion susceptibility, and to a limited extent, the internal metallurgical weld structures. The overall results indicate that M-943 filler weldments are superior in strength to weldments containing either the standard 2319 filler or fillers 2014, 2020, and a dual wire feed consisting of three parts 2319 and one part 5652. In addition, no deficiencies were evident in M-934 filler weldments with regard to ductility, joint strength after elevated temperature exposure, weld hardness, metallographic structures, or stress corrosion susceptibility.

  7. The effect of weldability of alloy JBK-75 with various filler metal wire additions

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, C.L.

    1991-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the compositional factors that affect the weldability of alloy JBK-75. This study was accomplished by using a variety of different commercial filler materials to systematically evaluate the weldability in the compositional range surrounding alloy JBK-75. The experimental design included varestraint testing, scanning electron microscopy, and phase diagram analysis. The varestraint testing demonstrated that the weldability of alloy JBK-75 could be improved with the use of other commercially available filler metals. The best improvement to weldability of alloy JBK-75 was with type 308L stainless steel and Hastelloy W filler metals. Adequate improvement to the weldability of alloy JBK-75 was obtained when utilizing types 309L and 310 stainless steel filler metals. Alloy 320LR, alloy 650 (NiCrFe-1), Incoloy 901, and Inconel 92 (NiCrFe-6) filler metals only marginally improved the weldability of alloy JBK-75. 59 refs., 27 figs., 24 tabs.

  8. In vitro wear of composite with varied cure, filler level, and filler treatment.

    PubMed

    Condon, J R; Ferracane, J L

    1997-07-01

    For the clinical wear of composite filing materials to be reduced, compositional factors such as degree of cure, filler level, and silanation level should be optimized. An oral-wear-stimulating machine was used to explore the effects of these factors on abrasion and attrition wear as well as on opposing enamel wear. The composites were made from Sr glass (1-2 micron avg) and a 50/50 Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin. Series I (A-D, E) were light-cured (Triad II) for 9, 12, 25, and 40 sec/side to produce degree of cure (DC) as measured by FTIR of 56, 60, 61, and 63%, respectively. E received an additional heat cure (120 degrees C for 10 min) to reach a DC of 66%. Series II (D, F-I) were filled to 62, 53, 48, 37, and 28 vol%, respectively. In series III (D, J-M), the portion of fillers treated with a silane coupler (MPS) was 100, 80, 60, 40, and 20%, respectively. Samples were cycled 50,000 times against an enamel antagonist in a poppy seed/PMMA slurry in the oral wear simulator to produce abrasion (load = 20 N) and attrition (load = 70 N) simultaneously. Wear depth (micron: n = 5) was measured by profilometry. Results for each series were analysed by ANOVA/Turkey's (p < or = 0.05). The wear depths did reflect cure values, though only the abrasion difference for E < A was significant. Greater wear was correlated with lower filler levels (r2 = 0.88; p < 0.05), significantly increasing below 48 vol% (G). Wear increased linearly as the percent of silane-treated fillers was reduced (r2 = 0.99; p < 0.05). Abrasion and attrition did not differ significantly for any composite. Wear of the opposing enamel was largely unchanged by these factors. Compositional factors including degree of cure, filler level, and silanation directly affected the wear resistance of dental composites evaluated in an oral wear simulator. PMID:9207774

  9. Soy-based fillers for thermoset composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watt, Paula

    Considerable work has been done with bio-based fillers in thermoplastics. Wood dust has been used for decades in wood plastic composites in conjunction with recycled high HDPE and PET. In recent years rapidly renewable fillers derived from dried distillery grains and from wood have been introduced commercially for thermoset polymers. These fillers provide bio-content and weight reduction to thermoset molding compounds but issues with moisture absorption and polymerization inhibition have limited their commercial acceptance. The intent of this research was to develop a bio-based filler suitable for thermoset composites. This filler would provide a low density alternative to mined mineral filler, such as CaCO3 or clay. Composites made with these fillers would be lighter in weight, which is desirable for many markets, particularly transportation. Cost parity to the mineral fillers, on a volume basis, was desirable and the use of green chemistry principles was a key objective of the project. This work provides a basis from which further development of modified soy flours as fillers for thermoset composites will continue. Biomass has been evaluated as fillers for thermoset composites since the early 1980s but failed to gain commercial acceptance due to excessive water absorption and inhibition issues with free radical curing. Biomass, with a large percentage of carbohydrates, are very hydrophilic due to their abundance of hydroxyl groups, while biomass, high in lignin, resulted in inhibition of the free radical cure of the unsaturated styrenated polyester matrix systems. Generally protein use as a filler is not desirable due to its food value. Torrefaction has proved to be a good, cost effective, process to reduce hydrophilicity of high cellulose feedstock. Surprising, however, some levels of torrefaction were found to induce the inhibition effect of the filler. Scientific inquiry into this problem proved that aromatics form during the torrefaction process and can

  10. Study of Diamond like Carbon as template for nanoimprint lithography and as a filler material for vertically aligned carbon nanotube forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, Seetharaman

    Due to its tunable properties like hardness, optical gap, chemical inertness, electrical resistivity, biocompatibility etc., coatings of the material Diamond like Carbon (DLC) have been used as protective layers for various applications. In this research effort, we add to the growing list of its potential applications by proposing them as a template material for the emerging field of nanoimprint lithography. Using capacitive and inductive plasmas, we demonstrate the possibility of depositing DLC films of reasonable hardness (10-25 GPa) and wear resistance (2X that of Si and 3X that of Quartz). We have successfully used these films as a mold material to obtain feature sizes as small as 40 nm. In addition, to further the understanding of the effect of the gas phase chemistry on the film properties, the Methane discharge used for obtaining these films has been studied using techniques like Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Optical Emission Spectroscopy. The higher degree of dissociation (up to 70%) of the precursor in case of inductive plasmas leads to selected conditions under which hard DLC films are obtained. We also show that for the same deposition conditions, films deposited on the insulating Quartz substrates are softer and more polymeric than those deposited on Si substrates. Carbon nanotubes with their unique physical properties are seen as ideal candidates for applications like field effect transistors, supercapacitors, AFM tips and electronic devices. One of the chief challenges in using them for these applications is obtaining them in a form that is easier to handle, thus enabling them to withstand the various post-processing steps. The second part of this dissertation focuses on the possibility of obtaining a Carbon-Carbon composite structure by subjecting vertically aligned Carbon nanotube forests to a PECVD based process. The distance from the top of the CNT forest that is coated with the deposited film (termed as the depth of infusion) shows

  11. Effect of Geopolymer filler in Glass Reinforced Epoxy (GRE) Pipe for Piping Application: Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firdaus Abu Hashim, Mohammad; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Mohd Ruzaidi Ghazali, Che; Hussin, Kamarudin; Binhussain, Mohammed

    2016-06-01

    The present work is aimed to carry out the effect of geopolymer material which is fly ash as filler in the glass reinforced epoxy pipe on the micro structure of fly ash geopolymer, compression properties, and bulk density using the filament winding method. Conventional glass reinforced epoxy pipes has its own disadvantages such as high corrosion resistance at acidic environment and low strength which can be replaced by the composite pipes. Geopolymer is a type of amorphous alumino-silicate and can be synthesized by geopolymerization process. A series of glass reinforced epoxy pipe and glass reinforced epoxy pipe filled with 10 - 40 weight percentage geopolymer filler which is fly ash with 4 Molarity were prepared. Morphology of the raw material fly ash and fly ash based-geopolymer surface was characterized using scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the additions of fly ash at the beginning with 10 wt% are showing higher compressive strength than glass reinforced epoxy pipe without fly ash geopolymer filler. The compressive test of these series of samples was determined using Instron Universal Testing under compression mode. It was found that compressive strength for samples fly ash based-geopolymer filler are higher as compared to glass reinforced epoxy pipe without geopolymer filler. However, the compressive strength of glass reinforced epoxy pipe with fly ash geopolymer filler continues to decline when added to 20 wt% - 40 wt% of geopolymer filler loading. The results showed that the mixing of geopolymer materials in epoxy system can be obtained in this study.

  12. A concept for improved fire-safety through coated fillers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, K.

    1977-01-01

    A possible method is examined for obtaining a high value of thermal conductivity before ignition and a low value after ignition in standard composite materials. The idea is to coat fiberglass, alumina trihydrate, and similar fillers with specially selected chemicals prior to using polymer resins. The amount of the coat constitutes typically less than 5% of the material's total weight. The experimental results obtained are consistent with the basic concept.

  13. Review of non-FDA-approved fillers.

    PubMed

    Ellis, David A F; Segall, Lorne

    2007-05-01

    The number of commercially available injectable soft tissue fillers has increased dramatically worldwide over the past decade. In the United States, a variety of temporary non-collagen-based fillers have been approved. However, no permanent soft tissue injectable fillers are currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. This article discusses some of the more popular soft tissue fillers, such as Restylane Fine Line, Restylane SQ, Perlane, Artecoll, Dermalive, Dermadeep, Bioalcamid, Bioplastique, Evolution, Outline, Argiform, and Aquamid, which are all available outside of the United States. PMID:17544940

  14. Current Concepts in Filler Injection.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Amir; Watson, Jeffrey

    2015-11-01

    When evaluating the face in thirds, the upper face, midface, and lower face, one may assume the lateral the temple, midface, and lateral mandible as the pillars of these subdivisions. Many of our facial aesthetic procedures address these regions, including the lateral brow lift, midface lift, and lateral face lift. As the use of facial fillers has advanced, more emphasis is placed on the correction of the temples, midlateral face, and lateral jaw line. This article is dedicated to these facial aesthetic pillars. PMID:26505545

  15. Characterization of the polymer-filler interface in (gamma)-irradiated silica-reinforced polysiloxane composites

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, A T; Balazs, B; LeMay, J

    2000-04-03

    The changes in hydrogen bonding at the interface of silica-reinforced polysiloxane composites due to aging in gamma radiation environments were examined in this study. Solvent swelling was utilized to determine the individual contributions of the matrix polymer and polymer-filler interactions to the overall crosslink density. The results show how the polymer-filler hydrogen bonding dominates the overall crosslink density of the material. Air irradiated samples displayed decreased hydrogen bonding at the polymer-filler interface, while vacuum irradiation revealed the opposite effect.

  16. 7 CFR 58.514 - Container fillers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container fillers. 58.514 Section 58.514 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....514 Container fillers. Shall comply with the 3-A Sanitary Standards for Equipment for Packaging...

  17. Filler functionality in edible solid foams.

    PubMed

    van der Sman, R G M

    2016-05-01

    We review the functionality of particulate ingredients in edible brittle foams, such as expanded starchy snacks. In food science and industry there is not a complete awareness of the full functionality of these filler ingredients, which can be fibers, proteins, starch granules and whole grains. But, we show that much can be learned about that from the field of synthetic polymeric foams with (nano)fillers. For edible brittle foams the enhancement of mechanical strength by filler ingredients is less relevant compared to the additional functionalities such as 1) the promotion of bubble nucleation and 2) cell opening-which are much more relevant for the snack texture. The survey of particulate ingredients added to snack formulations shows that they cannot be viewed as inert fillers, because of their strong hygroscopic properties. Hence, these fillers will compete with starch for water, and that will modify the glass transition and boiling point, which are important factors for snack expansion. Filler properties can be modified via extrusion, but it is better if that processing step is decoupled from the subsequent processing steps as mixing and expansion. Several filler ingredients are also added because of their nutritional value, but can have adverse effect on snack expansion. These adverse effects can be reduced if the increase of nutritional value is decoupled from other filler functionality via compartmentalization using micropellets. PMID:27067462

  18. Wind-Resistant Filler for Tile Gaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellavia, J.; Quigley, I. A.; Callahan, T. S.

    1982-01-01

    Filler developed for gaps between insulating tiles on Space Shuttle finds application in industries that use tiles for thermal or environmental protection. Filler consists of tight-fitting ceramic tubes and fibrous alumina. Combination resists high wind loads while providing requisite heat protection. Quartz-thread stitching holds envelope together.

  19. Dermal Fillers: Tips to Achieve Successful Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Vedamurthy, Maya; Vedamurthy, Amar

    2008-01-01

    Fillers have become a common aesthetic treatment for several cosmetic problems. Several types of fillers are available from different sources and of different longevities. It is important that the treating physician be aware of the different techniques of administration and their possible side effects. This article reviews the available literature on the subject. PMID:20300346

  20. Intumescent-ablator coatings using endothermic fillers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawko, P. M.; Riccitiello, S. R. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An intumescent-ablator coating composition which contains the ammonium salt of 1,4-nitroaniline-2-sulfonic acid or 4,4 dinitrosul fanilide, a polymeric binder system and about 5 to 30% weight of an endothermic filler is reported. The filler has a decomposition temperature about or within the exothermic region of the intumescent agent.

  1. Market opportunities for fly ash fillers in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Eckert, C.; Harris, T.; Gledhill, J. )

    1990-11-01

    Direct Acid Leaching (DAL) processed fly ash is derived from treating raw and beneficiated coal fly ash with hydrochloric acid. The DAL process allows for the production of fly ash with greater chemical purity and consistency than raw fly ash alone. In addition, DAL fly ash is similar to various minerals used in a wide range of applications that require filler minerals. This project investigates the feasibility of using three grades of DAL fly ash ranging from 10 microns to 30 microns in diameter as an alternative filler material to mineral fillers. Six major applications in North America, requiring large volumes of filler minerals were investigated by region including: (1) asphalt roofing shingles (2) carpet backing (3) joint compound and wallboard (4) industrial coatings (5) plastics (6) vinyl flooring. It is determined that calcium carbonate was the primary mineral filler DAL fly ash would be competing with in the applications investigated. Calcium carbonate is used in all applications investigated. The application which demonstrated the greatest potential for using DAL fly ash is asphalt shingles. Asphalt shingles were the largest calcium carbonate consuming application identified, consuming 4.8 million tons in 1988, and is the least sensitive to the dark color of the DAL fly ash. Although the DAL fly ash typically has a smaller particle size, in comparison to calcium carbonate, the asphalt shingle manufacturers felt it would be a good substitute. Other promising applications for DAL fly ash were industrial coatings and plastics where the calcium carbonate particle size requirements of 3 to 6 microns very closely matches the particle size of the DAL fly ash considered in this project. 17 figs., 36 tabs.

  2. Emerging permanent filler technologies: focus on Aquamid.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Paul S

    2014-01-01

    A plethora of soft tissue fillers have been developed within the past decade to correct the cutaneous changes that occur with photoaging. Such fillers, whether nonpermanent, semipermanent, or permanent, are widely used to fill undesired facial rhytides. In addition, fillers are employed to correct atrophy of the face as well as other parts of the body such as the dorsum of the hands through volumization and contouring. The extensive long-term safety outcomes reported with fillers and the ease with which they are administered make them an ideal choice to correct rhytides and to contour the face. However, as with any cosmetic procedure, in order to ensure high patient satisfaction and a safe outcome, proper training in injection techniques, the choice of the proper candidate, and awareness of potential adverse events are essential. This review article focuses on the permanent filler, Aquamid, which is composed of polyacrylamide hydrogel. PMID:25336982

  3. Emerging permanent filler technologies: focus on Aquamid

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, Paul S

    2014-01-01

    A plethora of soft tissue fillers have been developed within the past decade to correct the cutaneous changes that occur with photoaging. Such fillers, whether nonpermanent, semipermanent, or permanent, are widely used to fill undesired facial rhytides. In addition, fillers are employed to correct atrophy of the face as well as other parts of the body such as the dorsum of the hands through volumization and contouring. The extensive long-term safety outcomes reported with fillers and the ease with which they are administered make them an ideal choice to correct rhytides and to contour the face. However, as with any cosmetic procedure, in order to ensure high patient satisfaction and a safe outcome, proper training in injection techniques, the choice of the proper candidate, and awareness of potential adverse events are essential. This review article focuses on the permanent filler, Aquamid, which is composed of polyacrylamide hydrogel. PMID:25336982

  4. Filler segmentation of SEM paper images based on mathematical morphology.

    PubMed

    Ait Kbir, M; Benslimane, Rachid; Princi, Elisabetta; Vicini, Silvia; Pedemonte, Enrico

    2007-07-01

    Recent developments in microscopy and image processing have made digital measurements on high-resolution images of fibrous materials possible. This helps to gain a better understanding of the structure and other properties of the material at micro level. In this paper SEM image segmentation based on mathematical morphology is proposed. In fact, paper models images (Whatman, Murillo, Watercolor, Newsprint paper) selected in the context of the Euro Mediterranean PaperTech Project have different distributions of fibers and fillers, caused by the presence of SiAl and CaCO3 particles. It is a microscopy challenge to make filler particles in the sheet distinguishable from the other components of the paper surface. This objectif is reached here by using switable strutural elements and mathematical morphology operators. PMID:17867540

  5. Injectable carboxymethylcellulose hydrogels for soft tissue filler applications.

    PubMed

    Varma, Devika M; Gold, Gittel T; Taub, Peter J; Nicoll, Steven B

    2014-12-01

    Disease, trauma and aging all lead to deficits in soft tissue. As a result, there is a need to develop materials that safely and effectively restore areas of deficiency. While autogenous fat is the current gold standard, hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers are commonly used. However, the animal and bacterial origin of HA-based materials can induce adverse reactions in patients. With the aim of developing a safer and more affordable alternative, this study characterized the properties of a plant-derived, injectable carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) soft tissue filler. Specifically, methacrylated CMC was synthesized and crosslinked to form stable hydrogels at varying macromer concentrations (2-4% w/v) using an ammonium persulfate and ascorbic acid redox initiation system. The equilibrium Young's modulus was shown to vary with macromer concentration (ranging from ∼2 to 9.25kPa), comparable to values of native soft tissue and current surgical fillers. The swelling properties were similarly affected by macromer concentration, with 4% gels exhibiting the lowest swelling ratio and mesh size, and highest crosslinking density. Rheological analysis was performed to determine gelation onset and completion, and was measured to be within the ISO standard for injectable materials. In addition, hydrolytic degradation of these gels was sensitive to macromer concentration, while selective removal using enzymatic treatment was also demonstrated. Moreover, favorable cytocompatibility of the CMC hydrogels was exhibited by co-culture with human dermal fibroblasts. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the tunability of redox-crosslinked CMC hydrogels by varying fabrication parameters, making them a versatile platform for soft tissue filler applications. PMID:25152355

  6. Adjustable high emittance gap filler. [reentry shielding for space shuttle vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiser, D. B.; Stewart, D. A.; Smith, M.; Estrella, C. A.; Goldstein, H. E. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A flexible, adjustable refractory filler is disclosed for filling gaps between ceramic tiles forming the heat shield of a space shuttle vehicle, to protect its aluminum skin during atmospheric reentry. The easily installed and replaced filler consists essentially of a strip of ceramic cloth coated, at least along both its longitudinal edges with a room temperature vulcanizable silicone rubber compound with a high emittance colored pigment. The filler may have one or more layers as the gap width requires. Preferred materials are basket weave aluminoborosilicate cloth, and a rubber compounded with silicon tetraboride as the emittance agent and finely divided borosilicate glass containing about 7.5% B2O3 as high temperature binder. The filler cloth strip or tape is cut to proper width and length, inserted into the gap, and fastened with previously applied drops of silicone rubber adhesive.

  7. Utilizing Matrix-Filler Interactions in the Design of Stimuli-Responsive, Mechanically-Adaptive Electrospun Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanasekara, Nandula; Stone, David; Wnek, Gary; Korley, Lashanda

    2013-03-01

    A new class of all-organic, stimuli-responsive and mechanically-adaptive electrospun nanocomposites, which have the ability to alter their stiffness upon hydration, were developed. These materials were fabricated by incorporating an electrospun mat of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as the filler in a polymeric matrix consisting of either poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) or ethylene oxide-epicholorohydrin copolymer (EO-EPI). The incorporation of high stiffness, high aspect ratio PVA filler mat significantly enhanced the tensile storage modulus of EO-EPI based composites, while modulus enhancement was only noticed above the glass transition for PVAc-based composites. Composite materials based on a rubbery EO-EPI host polymer and PVA filler exhibit an irreversible reduction by a factor of 12 of the tensile modulus upon hydration. In contrast, composites comprised of PVAc show a reversible reduction of modulus by a factor of 280 upon water uptake. The mechanical morphing of the electrospun composites is the result of the filler crystallinity, and matrix-filler interactions facilitated by the surface hydroxyl groups of the PVA filler. The choice of polymer matrix and electrospun nanofiber fillers allow control of matrix-filler interactions in a new series of all-organic composites to achieve desired stimuli-responsiveness and mechanical-adaptability upon exposure to various stimuli.

  8. Electrically conductive epoxy nanocomposites with expanded graphite/carbon nanotube hybrid fillers prepared by direct hybridization.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lan; Kang, Hyokyung; Lim, Yun-Soo; Lee, Churl Seung; Shin, Kwonwoo; Park, Ji Sun; Han, Jong Hun

    2014-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are generally used to promote the electrical conductivity of the polymer nanocomposites. However, in spite of their superior properties, CNT's high cost has limited their commercial application, so far. Thus, the development of hybrid carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) composed of CNTs and cheaper CNMs such as carbon fibers (CFs), expanded graphites (EGs), and graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) is important in terms of reducing the cost of CNT-based fillers. In this study, we prepared EG/CNT hybrid fillers via direct CNT synthesis on the EG support using modified combustion method and thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, and investigated the electrical conductivity of the expoxy nanocomposite with EG/CNT hybrid fillers. The epoxy nanocomposites with EG/CNT hybrid fillers at 20 wt% filler loading showed 260% and 170% electrical conductivity enhancement in comparison with the EG and the simply mixed EG and CNT fillers, respectively. Our approach provides various applications including electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding materials, thermal interface materials (TIMs), and reinforced nanocomposites. PMID:25971025

  9. Epoxy coatings over latex block fillers

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, L.D.

    1997-12-01

    Failures of polymerized epoxy coatings applied over latex/acrylic block fillers continue to plague owners of commercial buildings, particularly those with high architectural content such as condominiums, high rise offices, etc. Water treatment facilities in paper mills are especially prone to this problem. The types of failures include delamination of the topcoats, blisters in both the block fillers and the topcoats and disintegration of the block filler itself. While the problem is well known, the approach to a solution is not. A study of several coatings manufacturer`s Product Data Sheets shows a wide variance in the recommendations for what are purportedly generically equivalent block fillers. While one manufacturer might take an essentially architectural approach, another will take a heavy-duty industrial approach. To the specifying architect or engineer who has little training in the complexities of protective coating systems, this presents a dilemma. Who does he believe? What does he specify? To whom can he turn for independent advice?

  10. Mechanical properties of ethylene-octene copolymer (EOC) - lignocellulosic fillers biocomposites in dependence to filler content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zykova, Anna; Pantyukhov, Petr; Popov, Anatoly

    2016-05-01

    The mechanical properties of biocomposites based on ethylene-octene copolymer were studied. The aim of present work was to investigate the mechanical properties of composites based on ethylene-octene copolymer (EOC) in dependence to type of the filler, filler content and trade mark of EOC. Addition of fillers (wood flour or seed flax straw) decreases elongation at break and decreases unsignificantly tensile strenght of examined copolymers. Particles of filler increase the toughness of polymer chain, which leads to decline of elongation at break. Biocomposites with wood flour had higher tensile strength and elongation at break than the composites with flax straw.

  11. The potpourri approach to hyaluronic acid filler injections.

    PubMed

    Lim, Adrian C

    2010-02-01

    There is an ever-expanding range of hyaluronic acid fillers with varying physical characteristics available to cosmetic dermatologists. These fillers are commercially packaged in syringes of approximately 1 mL (range 0.5-2 mL) volume. Filler injectors are currently qualitatively and quantitatively restricted to fillers packaged in ready-to-go syringes. Patients often present for pan-facial rejuvenation requiring varying amounts of fillers as well as more than one type/subtype of filler for optimum correction. The potpourri approach allows access to a range of prepared hyaluronic acid filler subtypes that can be used on the same patient in the one session. The potpourri method centres on the use of multiple 31-gauge insulin syringes prepared with a range of different hyaluronic acid filler products that are ready for use. This increases flexibility with filler selection and has the potential to provide better filler-to-tissue match for patients. PMID:20148852

  12. Fillers for the improvement in acne scars

    PubMed Central

    Wollina, Uwe; Goldman, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Acne is a common inflammatory disease. Scarring is an unwanted end point of acne. Both atrophic and hypertrophic scar types occur. Soft-tissue augmentation aims to improve atrophic scars. In this review, we will focus on the use of dermal fillers for acne scar improvement. Therefore, various filler types are characterized, and available data on their use in acne scar improvement are analyzed. PMID:26491364

  13. Evaluation of rice husk ash as filler in tread compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandes, M. R. S.; Furtado, C. R. G. E-mail: ana.furtado.sousa@gmail.com; Sousa, A. M. F. de E-mail: ana.furtado.sousa@gmail.com

    2014-05-15

    Rice which is one of the largest agriculture crops produces around 22% of rice rusk during its milling process. This material is mainly used as fuel for energy generation, which results in an ash, which disposal represents an environmental issue. The rice husk ash (RHA) contains over than 70% of silica in an amorphous form and a lot of applications is being developed for it all over the world. The use of silica as a filler in the tire industry is growing since it contributes significantly to the reduction of fuel consumption of the automobiles, allowing at the same time better traction (safety). This paper presents an evaluation of the use of RHA as filler in rubber tread compounds prepared in lab scale and compares its performance with compounds prepared with commercial silica and carbon black, the fillers normally used in tire industry. Mechanical and rheological properties are evaluated, with emphasis for tan delta as an indicator of tread performance related with rolling resistance (fuel consumption) and wet grip/traction (safety)

  14. Evaluation of rice husk ash as filler in tread compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, M. R. S.; Furtado, C. R. G.; de Sousa, A. M. F.

    2014-05-01

    Rice which is one of the largest agriculture crops produces around 22% of rice rusk during its milling process. This material is mainly used as fuel for energy generation, which results in an ash, which disposal represents an environmental issue. The rice husk ash (RHA) contains over than 70% of silica in an amorphous form and a lot of applications is being developed for it all over the world. The use of silica as a filler in the tire industry is growing since it contributes significantly to the reduction of fuel consumption of the automobiles, allowing at the same time better traction (safety). This paper presents an evaluation of the use of RHA as filler in rubber tread compounds prepared in lab scale and compares its performance with compounds prepared with commercial silica and carbon black, the fillers normally used in tire industry. Mechanical and rheological properties are evaluated, with emphasis for tan delta as an indicator of tread performance related with rolling resistance (fuel consumption) and wet grip/traction (safety).

  15. Epoxy composites based on inexpensive tire waste filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmetli, Gulnare; Gungor, Ahmet; Kocaman, Suheyla

    2014-05-01

    Tire waste (TW) was recycled as raw material for the preparation of DGEBA-type epoxy composite materials. The effects of filler amount and epoxy type on the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. Tensile strength and Young's modulus of the composites with NPEL were generally higher than composites with NPEF. The appropriate mass level for TW in both type composites was found to be 20 wt%. The equilibrium water sorption of NPEL/TW and NPEF/TW composites for 14-day immersion was determined as 0.10 % and 0.21 %, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used for characterization of the composites.

  16. Dermal fillers in aesthetics: an overview of adverse events and treatment approaches

    PubMed Central

    Funt, David; Pavicic, Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    Background The ever-expanding range of dermal filler products for aesthetic soft tissue augmentation is of benefit for patients and physicians, but as indications and the number of procedures performed increase, the number of complications will likely also increase. Objective To describe potential adverse events associated with dermal fillers and to provide structured and clear guidance on their treatment and avoidance. Methods Reports of dermal filler complications in the medical literature were reviewed and, based on the publications retrieved and the authors’ extensive experience, recommendations for avoiding and managing complications are provided. Results Different dermal fillers have widely varying properties, associated risks, and injection requirements. All dermal fillers have the potential to cause complications. Most are related to volume and technique, though some are associated with the material itself. The majority of adverse reactions are mild and transient, such as bruising and trauma-related edema. Serious adverse events are rare, and most are avoidable with proper planning and technique. Conclusion For optimum outcomes, aesthetic physicians should have a detailed understanding of facial anatomy; the individual characteristics of available fillers; their indications, contraindications, benefits, and drawbacks; and ways to prevent and avoid potential complications. PMID:24363560

  17. Plasma-modified graphene nanoplatelets and multiwalled carbon nanotubes as fillers for advanced rubber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicinski, M.; Gozdek, T.; Bielinski, D. M.; Szymanowski, H.; Kleczewska, J.; Piatkowska, A.

    2015-07-01

    In modern rubber industry, there still is a room for new fillers, which can improve the mechanical properties of the composites, or introduce a new function to the material. Modern fillers like carbon nanotubes or graphene nanoplatelets (GnP), are increasingly applied in advanced polymer composites technology. However, it might be hard to obtain a well dispersed system for such systems. The polymer matrix often exhibits higher surface free energy (SFE) level with the filler, which can cause problems with polymer-filler interphase adhesion. Filler particles are not wet properly by the polymer, and thus are easier to agglomerate. As a consequence, improvement in the mechanical properties is lower than expected. In this work, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and GnP surface were modified with low-temperature plasma. Attempts were made to graft some functionalizing species on plasma-activated filler surface. The analysis of virgin and modified fillers’ SFE was carried out. MWCNT and GnP rubber composites were produced, and ultimately, their morphology and mechanical properties were studied.

  18. Nanoparticle fillers obtained from wood processing wastes for reinforcing of paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laka, Marianna; Vikele, Laura; Rozenberga, Linda; Janceva, Sarmite

    2016-05-01

    Paper sheets were produced from bleached kraft pulp, and office and newsprint waste paper. Nanoparticles from black alder bark, grey alder bark and pine bark as well as birch sawdust were obtained for using them as reinforcing fillers in paper. Non-extracted bark and that extracted in biorefinery were used. For producing nanoparticles, the materials were destructed using the thermocatalytic destruction method and then dispersed in water medium in a ball mill. At a sufficient concentration, gel-like dispersions were obtained, which contained nanoparticles with the size ~300 nm. The dispersions were introduced in paper furnish in different amounts. It has been established that all the nanoparticle fillers increase the tensile index and burst index in dry and wet states. The nanoparticle fillers from extracted bark increase the mechanical indices to a higher extent. At 20% filler content, tensile index in a dry state increases in the case of non-extracted grey alder bark, black alder bark and pine bark by 28, 30 and 15%, and in the case of extracted ones - by 44, 40 and 30%, respectively; the burst index increases by 78, 19 and 4%, and 91, 25 and 14%, respectively. The nanoparticle filler from birch sawdust increases the tensile strength in a dry state by 9% and burst index by 20%. The obtained nanoparticle fillers slightly improve also the water resistance of paper.

  19. Effects of filler wire feed on the efficiency of laser welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salminen, Antti S.

    2003-03-01

    The range of laser welding applications is widening from applications in car manufacturing to normal machine building. Laser welding has suffered from the tight demands for component and joint manufacture. This investigation studies the effect of various welding and filler wire feed variables on the weld quality and efficiency of the laser welding process. Welding was found to be possible with several parameter combinations and the width of air gap used was 1 mm, when the material thickness was 6 mm. The utilization of filler wire feed introduces some new parameters to the laser welding process. There is a noticeable effect from the wire feed position and feed angle on the welding process. The variations, like lack of penetration, of weld quality, was caused by inaccurate positioning of filler wire and can be compensated by the adjustment of the filler wire feed rate and the energy input to some extent. The efficiency of laser welding with filler wire is equal to that of autogenous welding, but the overall energy input must be increased according to the air gap volume. Filler wire feed provides the process with less stringent demands, but requires additional energy input to the workpiece.

  20. Investigation of mineral filler effects on the aging process of asphalt mastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes, Raquel

    Aging of asphalt binders is induced by chemical and/or physicochemical changes during production of pavement and throughout its service life. Although binder aging in pavement always occurs while binder is in contact with aggregates and mineral filler, in most laboratory aging studies, and in current specifications, asphalt binders are individually aged without accounting for aggregate induced interactions. Past research has had conflicting findings, attributing both mitigating and/or catalytic effects to the presence of mineral filler in asphalt binder with regards to oxidative aging. Thus, in the present study it was hypothesized that evaluation of asphalt oxidative aging without regard to interactive effect of the presence of mineral filler is inadequate as a specification tool. Effects of mineral fillers on oxidative aging of asphalt is investigated by means of accelerated aging of mastics (asphalt and fillers) in Pressure Aging Vessel (PAV). Testing matrix included aging evaluation of mastics containing different fillers content, mineralogy, and surface area. Results showed that low-temperature behavior of aged mastic can be modified by controlling filler concentration and type. Fillers acts as an agent adsorbing heavy fractions of asphalt binder, therefore reducing stiffness and changing glass-transition temperature. Also, during oxidative aging of asphalt binders and mastics, both diffusion and adsorption mechanisms play a role in the rate of aging of asphaltic material. A method to characterize the behavior of mastics with aging was also developed by monitoring the mastics |G*| aging index (ratio of complex modulus before and after aging). Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) testing results supported mentioned findings regarding |G*| changes, as the presence of mineral filler appears to decelerate the rate of production of larger molecular size oxidation products in the binder phase of mastics. Implication of the findings is that change in molecular size

  1. Filler augmentation, safe or unsafe: A case series of severe complications of fillers

    PubMed Central

    Omranifard, Mahmood; Taheri, Soheila

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The growing interest in filler injection requires a more comprehensive knowledge about the complications of this procedure. METHODS: A total of 5 cases with debilitating chronic complications following filler injection referred to Al-Zahra hospital, Isfahan are presented in this report. RESULTS: The outcome of treatment for two of the cases was satisfactory. In one case the treatment led to failure. A case committed suicide, the remaining case had received vitamin E injection which caused severe necrosis and scaring. CONCLUSIONS: All fillers are considered foreign bodies and may provoke the immune system to varying degrees. Most complications are, however, caused by the technique of injection not the filler itself. Experience of physicians along with adequate knowledge about fillers and their complications can definitely guarantee a better outcome. PMID:22973374

  2. Microwave properties of polymer composites containing combinations of micro- and nano-sized magnetic fillers.

    PubMed

    Kolev, Svetoslav; Koutzarova, Tatyana; Yanev, Andrey; Ghelev, Chavdar; Nedkov, Ivan

    2008-02-01

    We investigated the microwave absorbing properties of composite bulk samples with nanostructured and micron-sized fillers. As magnetic fillers we used magnetite powder (Fe3O4 with low magnetocrystalline anisotropy) and strontium hexaferrite (SrFe12O9 with high magnetocrystalline anisotropy). The dielectric matrix consisted of silicone rubber. The average particle size was 30 nm for the magnetite powder and 6 micro/m for the strontium hexaferrite powder. The micron-sized SrFe12O19 powder was prepared using a solid-state reaction. We investigated the influence of the filler concentration and the filler ratio (Fe3O4/SrFe12O19) in the polymer matrix on the microwave absorption in a large frequency range (1 / 18 GHz). The results obtained showed that the highly anisotropic particles become centers of clusterification and the small magnetite particles form magnetic balls with different diameter depending on the concentration. The effect of adding micron-sized SrFe12O19 to the nanosized Fe3O4 filler in composites absorbing structures has to do with the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) shifting to the higher frequencies due to the changes in the ferrite filler's properties induced by the presence of a magnetic material with high magnetocrystalline anisotropy. The two-component filler possesses new values of the saturation magnetization and of the anisotropy constant, differing from those of both SrFe12O1919 and Fe3O4, which leads to a rise in the effective anisotropy field. The results demonstrate the possibility to vary the composite's absorption characteristics in a controlled manner by way of introducing a second magnetic material. PMID:18464386

  3. Temporal fossa defects: techniques for injecting hyaluronic acid filler and complications after hyaluronic acid filler injection.

    PubMed

    Juhász, Margit Lai Wun; Marmur, Ellen S

    2015-09-01

    Facial changes with aging include thinning of the epidermis, loss of skin elasticity, atrophy of muscle, and subcutaneous fat and bony changes, all which result in a loss of volume. As temporal bones become more concave, and the temporalis atrophies and the temporal fat pad decreases, volume loss leads to an undesirable, gaunt appearance. By altering the temporal fossa and upper face with hyaluronic acid filler, those whose specialty is injecting filler can achieve a balanced and more youthful facial structure. Many techniques have been described to inject filler into the fossa including a "fanned" pattern of injections, highly diluted filler injection, and the method we describe using a three-injection approach. Complications of filler in the temporal fossa include bruising, tenderness, swelling, Tyndall effect, overcorrection, and chewing discomfort. Although rare, more serious complications include infection, foreign body granuloma, intravascular necrosis, and blindness due to embolization into the ophthalmic artery. Using reversible hyaluronic acid fillers, hyaluronidase can be used to relieve any discomfort felt by the patient. Injectors must be aware of the complications that may occur and provide treatment readily to avoid morbidities associated with filler injection into this sensitive area. PMID:26311237

  4. Understanding, Avoiding, and Managing Severe Filler Complications.

    PubMed

    Rzany, Berthold; DeLorenzi, Claudio

    2015-11-01

    Any injectable filler may elicit moderate-to-severe adverse events, ranging from nodules to abscesses to vascular occlusion. Fortunately, severe adverse events are uncommon for the majority of fillers currently on the market. Because these are rare events, it is difficult to identify the relevant risk factors and to design the most efficacious treatment strategies. Poor aesthetic outcomes are far more common than severe adverse events. These in contrast should be easily avoidable by ensuring that colleagues receive proper training and follow best practices. PMID:26441099

  5. Influence of carbon fillers nature on the structural and morphological properties of polyurethane-based composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melentyev, S. V.; Malinovskaya, T. D.; Pavlov, S. V.

    2016-01-01

    The present paper is devoted to studying structural and morphological properties of the resistive composite materials based on the polyurethane binder. The paper shows the influence of nature, size, shape, concentration of conductive carbon fillers (channel black K-163, graphite element GE-3, colloidal-graphite preparation C-1) and the method of their introduction into the binder to form the electrical conductivity of composites. Experimentally it was found out that a homogeneous composite structure reaches dispersive mixing filler and binder within 120 min. The analysis of the morphological pattern surfaces and chipping resistance materials has demonstrated that composites with colloidal-graphite preparation C-1 are more unimodal with the same concentrations of the investigated fillers.

  6. Study of Tetrapodal ZnO-PDMS Composites: A Comparison of Fillers Shapes in Stiffness and Hydrophobicity Improvements

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xin; Deng, Mao; Kaps, Sören; Zhu, Xinwei; Hölken, Iris; Mess, Kristin; Adelung, Rainer; Mishra, Yogendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    ZnO particles of different size and structures were used as fillers to modify the silicone rubber, in order to reveal the effect of the filler shape in the polymer composites. Tetrapodal shaped microparticles, short microfibers/whiskers, and nanosized spherical particles from ZnO have been used as fillers to fabricate the different ZnO-Silicone composites. The detailed microstructures of the fillers as well as synthesized composites using scanning electron microscopy have been presented here. The tensile elastic modulus and water contact angle, which are important parameters for bio-mimetic applications, of fabricated composites with different fillers have been measured and compared. Among all three types of fillers, tetrapodal shaped ZnO microparticles showed the best performance in terms of increase in hydrophobicity of material cross-section as well as the stiffness of the composites. It has been demonstrated that the tetrapodal shaped microparticles gain their advantage due to the special shape, which avoids agglomeration problems as in the case for nanoparticles, and the difficulty of achieving truly random distribution for whisker fillers. PMID:25208080

  7. Study of tetrapodal ZnO-PDMS composites: a comparison of fillers shapes in stiffness and hydrophobicity improvements.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xin; Deng, Mao; Kaps, Sören; Zhu, Xinwei; Hölken, Iris; Mess, Kristin; Adelung, Rainer; Mishra, Yogendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    ZnO particles of different size and structures were used as fillers to modify the silicone rubber, in order to reveal the effect of the filler shape in the polymer composites. Tetrapodal shaped microparticles, short microfibers/whiskers, and nanosized spherical particles from ZnO have been used as fillers to fabricate the different ZnO-Silicone composites. The detailed microstructures of the fillers as well as synthesized composites using scanning electron microscopy have been presented here. The tensile elastic modulus and water contact angle, which are important parameters for bio-mimetic applications, of fabricated composites with different fillers have been measured and compared. Among all three types of fillers, tetrapodal shaped ZnO microparticles showed the best performance in terms of increase in hydrophobicity of material cross-section as well as the stiffness of the composites. It has been demonstrated that the tetrapodal shaped microparticles gain their advantage due to the special shape, which avoids agglomeration problems as in the case for nanoparticles, and the difficulty of achieving truly random distribution for whisker fillers. PMID:25208080

  8. 46 CFR 56.75-5 - Filler metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Filler metal. 56.75-5 Section 56.75-5 Shipping COAST... Brazing § 56.75-5 Filler metal. (a) The filler metal used in brazing must be a nonferrous metal or alloy having a melting point above 1,000 °F. and below that of the metal being joined. The filler metal...

  9. 46 CFR 56.75-5 - Filler metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Filler metal. 56.75-5 Section 56.75-5 Shipping COAST... Brazing § 56.75-5 Filler metal. (a) The filler metal used in brazing must be a nonferrous metal or alloy having a melting point above 1,000 °F. and below that of the metal being joined. The filler metal...

  10. 46 CFR 56.75-5 - Filler metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Filler metal. 56.75-5 Section 56.75-5 Shipping COAST... Brazing § 56.75-5 Filler metal. (a) The filler metal used in brazing must be a nonferrous metal or alloy having a melting point above 1,000 °F. and below that of the metal being joined. The filler metal...

  11. 46 CFR 56.75-5 - Filler metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Filler metal. 56.75-5 Section 56.75-5 Shipping COAST... Brazing § 56.75-5 Filler metal. (a) The filler metal used in brazing must be a nonferrous metal or alloy having a melting point above 1,000 °F. and below that of the metal being joined. The filler metal...

  12. 46 CFR 56.75-5 - Filler metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filler metal. 56.75-5 Section 56.75-5 Shipping COAST... Brazing § 56.75-5 Filler metal. (a) The filler metal used in brazing must be a nonferrous metal or alloy having a melting point above 1,000 °F. and below that of the metal being joined. The filler metal...

  13. 46 CFR 57.02-5 - Filler metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Filler metals. 57.02-5 Section 57.02-5 Shipping COAST... Requirements § 57.02-5 Filler metals. (a) Except as provided for in paragraph (b) of this section, when filler metal is used in a welded fabrication that is required to meet the requirements of this part the...

  14. 46 CFR 57.02-5 - Filler metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Filler metals. 57.02-5 Section 57.02-5 Shipping COAST... Requirements § 57.02-5 Filler metals. (a) Except as provided for in paragraph (b) of this section, when filler metal is used in a welded fabrication that is required to meet the requirements of this part the...

  15. 46 CFR 57.02-5 - Filler metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Filler metals. 57.02-5 Section 57.02-5 Shipping COAST... Requirements § 57.02-5 Filler metals. (a) Except as provided for in paragraph (b) of this section, when filler metal is used in a welded fabrication that is required to meet the requirements of this part the...

  16. 46 CFR 57.02-5 - Filler metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Filler metals. 57.02-5 Section 57.02-5 Shipping COAST... Requirements § 57.02-5 Filler metals. (a) Except as provided for in paragraph (b) of this section, when filler metal is used in a welded fabrication that is required to meet the requirements of this part the...

  17. 14 CFR 23.973 - Fuel tank filler connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tank filler connection. 23.973 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 23.973 Fuel tank filler connection. (a) Each fuel tank filler connection must be marked as prescribed...

  18. 14 CFR 27.973 - Fuel tank filler connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tank filler connection. 27.973 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.973 Fuel tank filler connection. (a) Each fuel tank filler connection must prevent the entrance of fuel into any part of...

  19. 14 CFR 25.973 - Fuel tank filler connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tank filler connection. 25.973 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.973 Fuel tank filler connection. Each fuel tank filler connection must prevent the entrance of fuel into any part of the...

  20. 7 CFR 29.6129 - Farm Filler (Y Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm Filler (Y Group). 29.6129 Section 29.6129... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.6129 Farm Filler (Y Group). This group consists of... groups. U.S. grades Grade names, minimum specifications, and tolerances Y1 Fine Quality Farm Filler....

  1. 7 CFR 29.6129 - Farm Filler (Y Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farm Filler (Y Group). 29.6129 Section 29.6129... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.6129 Farm Filler (Y Group). This group consists of... groups. U.S. grades Grade names, minimum specifications, and tolerances Y1 Fine Quality Farm Filler....

  2. 46 CFR 57.02-5 - Filler metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filler metals. 57.02-5 Section 57.02-5 Shipping COAST... Requirements § 57.02-5 Filler metals. (a) Except as provided for in paragraph (b) of this section, when filler metal is used in a welded fabrication that is required to meet the requirements of this part the...

  3. 14 CFR 23.973 - Fuel tank filler connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel tank filler connection. 23.973 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 23.973 Fuel tank filler connection. (a) Each fuel tank filler connection must be marked as prescribed...

  4. Update on hyaluronic acid fillers for facial rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Yasaman; Goldenberg, Gary

    2015-08-01

    Injectable soft tissue filler procedures are becoming increasingly important for rejuvenating the aging face. The variety of available dermal fillers is increasing, and an understanding of their individual characteristics allows optimal outcomes. We provide an overview of the dermal fillers that were approved by the US Food and Drug Administration over the last 5 years. PMID:26367746

  5. 7 CFR 58.914 - Fillers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fillers. 58.914 Section 58.914 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE...

  6. 7 CFR 58.710 - Fillers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fillers. 58.710 Section 58.710 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE...

  7. High Temperature Filler for Tile Gaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, J. W.; Wang, D. S.

    1983-01-01

    Gaps between ceramic tiles filled with ceramic-coated fabric that withstands temperatures as high as 2,000 degrees F (1,300 degrees C). Reusable high-temperature gap filler is made of fabric coated with ceramic slurry and bonded in place with room-temperature-vulcanized adhesive. Procedure used in kilns and furnaces.

  8. 7 CFR 58.914 - Fillers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fillers. 58.914 Section 58.914 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE...

  9. 7 CFR 58.710 - Fillers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fillers. 58.710 Section 58.710 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE...

  10. Biofilms: Their Role in Dermal Fillers

    PubMed Central

    Sadashivaiah, Anitha B; Mysore, Venkataram

    2010-01-01

    Fillers are commonly used in several aesthetic indications. Though considered safe, several side effects have been reported. The role of biofilms in the causation of some of these side effects has been elucidated only recently and this article presents a short review of the subject. PMID:20606988

  11. Nickel-chromium-silicon brazing filler metal

    DOEpatents

    Martini, Angelo J.; Gourley, Bruce R.

    1976-01-01

    A brazing filler metal containing, by weight percent, 23-35% chromium, 9-12% silicon, a maximum of 0.15% carbon, and the remainder nickel. The maximum amount of elements other than those noted above is 1.00%.

  12. 7 CFR 30.14 - Cigar filler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cigar filler. 30.14 Section 30.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of...

  13. 7 CFR 30.14 - Cigar filler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cigar filler. 30.14 Section 30.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of...

  14. 7 CFR 30.14 - Cigar filler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cigar filler. 30.14 Section 30.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of...

  15. Effects of pulverized coal fly-ash addition as a wet-end filler in papermaking

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, A.S.K.

    2008-09-15

    This experimental study is based on the innovative idea of using pulverized coal fly ash as a wet-end filler in papermaking. This is the first evaluation of the possible use of fly ash in the paper industry. Coal-based thermal power plants throughout the world are generating fly ash as a solid waste product. The constituents of fly ash can be used effectively in papermaking. Fly ash has a wide variation in particle size, which ranges from a few micrometers to one hundred micrometers. Fly ash acts as an inert material in acidic, neutral, and alkaline papermaking processes. Its physical properties such as bulk density (800-980 kg/m{sup 3}), porosity (45%-57%), and surface area (0.138-2.3076 m{sup 2}/g) make it suitable for use as a paper filler. Fly ash obtained from thermal power plants using pulverized coal was fractionated by a vibratory-sieve stack. The fine fraction with a particle size below 38 micrometers was used to study its effect on the important mechanical-strength and optical properties of paper. The effects of fly-ash addition on these properties were compared with those of kaolin clay. Paper opacity was found to be much higher with fly ash as a filler, whereas brightness decreased as the filler percentage increased Mechanical strength properties of the paper samples with fly ash as filler were superior to those with kaolin clay.

  16. Filler features and their effects on wear and degree of conversion of particulate dental resin composites.

    PubMed

    Turssi, C P; Ferracane, J L; Vogel, K

    2005-08-01

    Based on the incomplete understanding on how filler features influence the wear resistance and monomer conversion of resin composites, this study sought to evaluate whether materials containing different shapes and combinations of size of filler particles would perform similarly in terms of three-body abrasion and degree of conversion. Twelve experimental monomodal, bimodal or trimodal composites containing either spherical or irregular shaped fillers ranging from 100 to 1500 nm were examined. Wear testings were conducted in the OHSU wear machine (n = 6) and quantified after 10(5) cycles using a profilometer. Degree of conversion (DC) was measured by FTIR spectrometry at the surface of the composites (n = 6). Data sets were analyzed using one-way Anova and Tukey's test at a significance level of 0.05. Filler size and geometry was found to have a significant effect on wear resistance and DC of composites. At specific sizes and combinations, the presence of small filler particles, either spherical or irregular, may aid in enhancing the wear resistance of composites, without compromising the percentage of reacted carbon double bonds. PMID:15769527

  17. A facile approach to spinning multifunctional conductive elastomer fibres with nanocarbon fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyedin, Shayan; Razal, Joselito M.; Innis, Peter C.; Wallace, Gordon G.

    2016-03-01

    Electrically conductive elastomeric fibres prepared using a wet-spinning process are promising materials for intelligent textiles, in particular as a strain sensing component of the fabric. However, these fibres, when reinforced with conducting fillers, typically result in a compromise between mechanical and electrical properties and, ultimately, in the strain sensing functionality. Here we investigate the wet-spinning of polyurethane (PU) fibres with a range of conducting fillers such as carbon black (CB), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), and chemically converted graphene. We show that the electrical and mechanical properties of the composite fibres were strongly dependent on the aspect ratio of the filler and the interaction between the filler and the elastomer. The high aspect ratio SWCNT filler resulted in fibres with the highest electrical properties and reinforcement, while the fibres produced from the low aspect ratio CB had the highest stretchability. Furthermore, PU/SWCNT fibres presented the largest sensing range (up to 60% applied strain) and the most consistent and stable cyclic sensing behaviour. This work provides an understanding of the important factors that influence the production of conductive elastomer fibres by wet-spinning, which can be woven or knitted into textiles for the development of wearable strain sensors.

  18. Thermally conductive polyamide 6/carbon filler composites based on a hybrid filler system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Sung Min; Kwon, O. Hwan; Gyeong Oh, Yu; Kim, Yong Seok; Lee, Sung-Goo; Won, Jong Chan; Cho, Kwang Soo; Gak Kim, Byoung; Yoo, Youngjae

    2015-12-01

    We explored the use of a hybrid filler consisting of graphite nanoplatelets (GNPs) and single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in a polyamide 6 (PA 6) matrix. The composites containing PA 6, powdered GNP, and SWCNT were melt-processed and the effect of filler content in the single filler and hybrid filler systems on the thermal conductivity of the composites was examined. The thermal diffusivities of the composites were measured by the standard laser flash method. Composites containing the hybrid filler system showed enhanced thermal conductivity with values as high as 8.8 W (m · K)-1, which is a 35-fold increase compared to the thermal conductivity of pure PA 6. Thermographic images of heat conduction and heat release behaviors were consistent with the thermal conductivity results, and showed rapid temperature jumps and drops, respectively, for the composites. A composite model based on the Lewis-Nielsen theory was developed to treat GNP and SWCNT as two separate types of fillers. Two approaches, the additive and multiplicative approaches, give rather good quantitative agreement between the predicted values of thermal conductivity and those measured experimentally.

  19. Highly ductile UV-shielding polymer composites with boron nitride nanospheres as fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yuqiao; Huang, Yan; Meng, Wenjun; Wang, Zifeng; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri; Tang, Chengchun; Zhi, Chunyi

    2015-03-01

    Polymer composites with enhanced mechanical, thermal or optical performance usually suffer from poor ductility induced by confined mobility of polymer chains. Herein, highly ductile UV-shielding polymer composites are successfully fabricated. Boron nitride (BN) materials, with a wide band gap of around ∼6.0 eV, are used as fillers to achieve the remarkably improved UV-shielding performance of a polymer matrix. In addition, it is found that spherical morphology BN as a filler can keep the excellent ductility of the composites. For a comparison, it is demonstrated that traditional fillers, including conventional BN powders can achieve the similar UV-shielding performance but dramatically decrease the composite ductility. The mechanism behind this phenomenon is believed to be lubricant effects of BN nanospheres for sliding of polymer chains, which is in consistent with the thermal analyses. This study provides a new design to fabricate UV-shielding composite films with well-preserved ductility.

  20. Evaluation of different conductive nanostructured particles as filler in smart piezoresistive composites

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a comparison between three piezoresistive composite materials based on nanostructured conductive fillers in a polydimethylsiloxane insulating elastomeric matrix for sensing applications. Without any mechanical deformation upon an applied bias, the prepared composites present an insulating electric behavior, while, when subjected to mechanical load, the electric resistance is reduced exponentially. Three different metal fillers were tested: commercial nickel and copper spiky-particles and synthesized highly-pointed gold nanostars. These particles were chosen because of their high electrical conductivity and especially for the presence of nanosized sharp tips on their surface. These features generate an enhancement of the local electric field increasing the tunneling probability between the particles. Different figures of merit concerning the morphology of the fillers were evaluated and correlated with the corresponding functional response of the composite. PMID:22721506

  1. Chemical interaction of polyethylene matrix with vegetable fillers in biocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantyukhov, Petr; Monakhova, Tatiana; Popov, Anatoly; Zykova, Anna

    2016-05-01

    The paper studies the diffusion of low molecular weight components from vegetable fillers into polyethylene matrix during the preparation of biocomposites. In order to identify the diffusible substances a model experiment used where the hexadecane acted as a model of polyethylene. It was determined that polyphenolic compounds and chlorophyll penetrate from vegetable fillers to hexadecane to the maximum extent. There was found a correlation between the amount of polyphenolic compounds diffusible from the fillers to hexadecane and thermal oxidation kinetics of real biocomposites based on polyethylene and vegetable fillers. Thus, it has been assumed the diffusion of polyphenols and chlorophyll from vegetable fillers into polyethylene matrix during the preparation of biocomposites.

  2. Effects of Filler Concentration and Geometry on Performance of Cylindrical Injection Molded Composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is growing interest in using fillers in plastic products to displace petroleum components, reduce cost, and improve mechanical properties. Many studies have examined the use of materials such as clay, talc, paper, wood flour, lignin, flax, and bamboo, to name just a few. For successful utili...

  3. Nuclear Technology. Course 28: Welding Inspection. Module 28-8, Filler Metal Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espy, John

    This eighth in a series of ten modules for a course titled Welding Inspection describes controls necessary to place the proper electrode or rod at each welding station. More specifically, the module describes use of the American Welding Society specifications, control of weld filler material after receipt from the supplier, and methods of ensuring…

  4. The effect of nanoclay filler loading on the flexural strength of fiber-reinforced composites

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Vajihesadat; Atai, Mohammad; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Keshavarzi, Solmaz; Khalighinejad, Navid; Badrian, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Background: Flexural strength of prosthesis made with dental composite resin materials plays an important role in their survival. The aim of this study was investigating the effect of nanoclay fillers and Poly (methyl methacrylate)-grafted (PMMA-grafted) nanoclay fillers loading on the flexural strength of fiber-reinforced composites (FRCs). Materials and Methods: Standard FRC bars (2 × 2 × 25 mm) for flexural strength testing were prepared with E-glass fibers and a synthetic resin loaded with different quantities of unmodified nanoclay and PMMA-grafted nanoclay filler particles (0% as control group, 0.2%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 5%). Flexural strength and flexural modulus were determined. The data were analyzed using 2-way, 1-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's test (α = 0.05). The fracture surfaces were evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Results: For groups with the same concentration of nanoparticles, PMMA-grafted filler-loaded group showed significantly higher flexural strength, except for 0.2% wt. For groups that contain PMMA-grafted nanoclay fillers, the 2% wt had the highest flexural strength value with significant difference to other subgroups. 1% wt and 2% wt showed significantly higher values compared to control (P < 0.05). None of the unmodified nanoclay particles loaded group represented statistically higher values of flexural strength compared to control group (P > 0.05). Flexural modulus of 2%, 5% wt PMMA-grafted and 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 5% wt unmodified nanoclay particles-loaded subgroups decreased significantly compared to control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: PMMA-grafted nanoclay filler loading may enhance the flexural strength of FRCs. Addition of unmodified nanoparticles cannot significantly improve the flexural strength of FRCs. Addition of both unmodified and PMMA-grafted nanoclay particles in some concentrations decreased the flexural modulus. PMID:23087731

  5. Delayed immunologic complications due to injectable fillers by unlicensed practitioners: our experiences and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Seok, Joon; Hong, Ji Yeon; Park, Kui Young; Kim, Beom Joon; Seo, Seong Jun; Kim, Myeung Nam; Hong, Chang Kwun

    2016-01-01

    For a number of years, there have been unauthorized practitioners who have been illegally injecting substances. In this series of cases, delayed type hypersensitivity reactions occurred after having unknown material fillers injected by unlicensed practitioners. When injecting an unknown material, there can be a severe immune reaction due to the unknown number of antigens in the material, and therefore may act as a much stronger superantigen than conventional filler materials. It appears that the adverse effects in these cases are more severe and have tendency to break out after a longer period of time in comparison with those caused by approved fillers, likely due to operative technique and use of unverified materials. It is important to recognize the danger of such illegal procedures and to increase awareness of the public, as this has evolved into a significant public health issue. PMID:26814449

  6. Facial Rejuvenation with Fillers: The Dual Plane Technique

    PubMed Central

    Salti, Giovanni; Rauso, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Background: Facial aging is characterized by skin changes, sagging and volume loss. Volume is frequently addressed with reabsorbable fillers like hyaluronic acid gels. Materials and Methods: From an anatomical point of view, the deep and superficial fat compartments evolve differently with aging in a rather predictable manner. Volume can therefore be restored following a technique based on restoring first the deep volumes and there after the superficial volumes. We called this strategy “dual plane”. A series of 147 consecutive patients have been treated with fillers using the dual plane technique in the last five years. Results: An average of 4.25 session per patient has been carried out for a total of 625 treatment sessions. The average total amount of products used has been 12 ml per patient with an average amount per session of 3.75 ml. We had few and limited adverse events with this technique. Conclusion: The dual plane technique is an injection technique based on anatomical logics. Different types of products can be used according to the plane of injection and their rheology in order to obtain a natural result and few side effects. PMID:26644734

  7. Epoxy composites based on inexpensive tire waste filler

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmetli, Gulnare Gungor, Ahmet Kocaman, Suheyla

    2014-05-15

    Tire waste (TW) was recycled as raw material for the preparation of DGEBA-type epoxy composite materials. The effects of filler amount and epoxy type on the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. Tensile strength and Young’s modulus of the composites with NPEL were generally higher than composites with NPEF. The appropriate mass level for TW in both type composites was found to be 20 wt%. The equilibrium water sorption of NPEL/TW and NPEF/TW composites for 14-day immersion was determined as 0.10 % and 0.21 %, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used for characterization of the composites.

  8. Hyaluronic Acid Fillers: Science and Clinical Uses.

    PubMed

    Gutowski, Karol A

    2016-07-01

    Hyaluronic acid soft tissue fillers include a range of products (Juvederm Ultra, Juvederm Ultra Plus, Voluma, Restylane Silk, Restylane, Restylane Lyft, and Belotero Balance) that are used commonly for facial rejuvenation and enhancement of facial features. Although these products are similar in many ways, they are not interchangeable and have unique characteristics that need to be considered. Injection sites and techniques for facial rejuvenation are discussed. PMID:27363762

  9. Evaluation of Polymer-Filler Interaction Characteristics by Force Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ratto, T; Saab, A

    2007-04-23

    Silicone polymers are frequently used as cushions and inserts between load bearing parts. In this capacity, they must act to position their associated parts and distribute mechanical force as appropriate. One type of failure is specific to silicones that are filled with high surface area particulates for purposes of tailoring the polymer compressive properties. Additives such as fumed silicon oxide are presumed to have a high degree of surface interaction with the polymer matrix, thus causing the polymer to stiffen and to display greater dimensional stability as a function of temperature. However, it has been observed that the compressive behavior of these materials is not always invariant over long times. There is evidence that suggests changes in humidity and temperature can irreversibly alter the silicone-filler interaction, thereby changing the overall characteristics of parts made from such materials. As before, changes in compressive or shear stability can have serious effects on the ability of these materials to effectively position precision parts or distribute high mechanical loads. We approach the analysis of the filled systems by creating controlled layers of silicone polymers attached to silicon oxide substrates. Straight chain vinyl-silicone polymers identical to those used in the formulation of pads for stockpile systems are chemically appended to a substrate surface, and cross-linked to form a three dimensional network. This type of structure serves as a model of silicone polymer coating a silicon oxide filler particle. We study these model systems first by using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to image the samples with nanometer resolution, and then by measuring the forces of interactions between single model silica filler particles and polymer-coated surfaces. We use normal longitudinal force AFM to measure adhesion, and a relatively newly developed technique, lateral force AFM, to determine the frictional forces between the silica particles and the

  10. Effects of PMMA and Cross-Linked Dextran Filler for Soft Tissue Augmentation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Jung-Bo; Kim, Joo-Hyun; Kim, Soyun; Lee, So-Hyoun; Shim, Kyung Mi; Kim, Se Eun; Kang, Seong Soo; Jeong, Chang-Mo

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted for evaluation of the ability to maintain efficacy and biocompatibility of cross-linked dextran in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (DiHM) and cross-linked dextran mixed with PMMA in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (PDiHM), compared with hyaluronic acid (HA) filler. Saline and HA solution was administered in the negative and positive control groups, and DiHM and PDiHM were administered in the test groups (n = 10 in each group). The site of cranial subcutaneous injection was the mid-point of the interpupillary line, and the site of intraoral submucosal injection was the ridge crest 2 mm below the cervical line of the mandibular left incisor. Before and immediately after filler injection, intraoral photos and lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken for analysis and comparison of the effect of the filler on the injection sites. The filler injected areas were converted into sequential size changes (%) of the baseline. Histomorphologic examination was performed after 12 weeks. The smallest value in the filler injected area was observed during the experimental period in the normal saline group (p < 0.001), which was almost absorbed at 4 weeks (7.19% ± 12.72%). The HA group exhibited a steady decrease in sequential size and showed a lower value than the DiHM and PDiHM groups (saline < HA < DHiM, PDHiM, p < 0.001). DiHM and PDiHM tended to increase for the first 4 weeks and later decreased until 12 weeks. In this study on DiHM and PDiHM, there was no histological abnormality in cranial skin and oral mucosa. DiHM and PDiHM filler materials with injection system provide an excellent alternative surgical method for use in oral and craniofacial fields. PMID:26633376

  11. Anatomic and mechanical considerations in restoring volume of the face with use of hyaluronic acid fillers with a novel layered technique

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Mohan K.; Dsilva, James A.; Borole, Ateesh J.; Naik, Sudhir M.; Sarkar, Soma G.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Facial fillers have revolutionized the field of cosmetic facial rejuvenation as it has become the prime sought – after rejuvenation procedure offering youthful, 3-dimensional look with minimal invasiveness. Fillers are expensive and need to be redone periodically hence a sound understanding of structural basis on which they are laid is important in reducing the quantity of filler required in each sitting as well as increasing the longevity of results. Aim: The aim of the following study is to analyse a novel method of facial filling “The pillars pyramids and tie beams (PPT)” technique and its advantages over the conventional methods. Subjects and Methods: A novel technique of injecting the facial fillers was employed on 67 patients visiting our clinic. These patients were followed-up for a period of 3 years. Results: We observed that the amount of filler material required in initial sitting remains the same, however the frequency of touch up visits is decreased and so is the amount of filler material required for follow-up injections. Conclusion: Facial contour remodelling is being revolutionised by the new filler materials for volume augmentation and no uniform consensus has been reached on the techniques currently used in clinical practice. We advocate this novel PPT technique of facial filling in facial rejuvenation to restore a youthful look as a primary goal. PMID:24987203

  12. Filler wire for aluminum alloys and method of welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorkman, Jr., Gerald W. O. (Inventor); Cho, Alex (Inventor); Russell, Carolyn K. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A weld filler wire chemistry has been developed for fusion welding 2195 aluminum-lithium. The weld filler wire chemistry is an aluminum-copper based alloy containing high additions of titanium and zirconium. The additions of titanium and zirconium reduce the crack susceptibility of aluminum alloy welds while producing good weld mechanical properties. The addition of silver further improves the weld properties of the weld filler wire. The reduced weld crack susceptibility enhances the repair weldability, including when planishing is required.

  13. Advances and Refinement in Hyaluronic Acid Facial Fillers.

    PubMed

    Costa, Christopher R; Kordestani, Reza; Small, Kevin H; Rohrich, Rod J

    2016-08-01

    Fillers temporarily augment deflated or ptotic facial compartments to restore a youthful appearance. Hyaluronic acids predominate the fillers market because of their focal volumization, duration of effect, low incidence of adverse reactions, and reversibility. Being able to properly perform these in-office procedures will ensure safety for patients and provide aesthetically optimal results. This communication provides the senior author's (R.J.R.) stepwise approach to facial aging and deflation with soft-tissue injectable fillers. PMID:27465184

  14. Development of highly-filled, bioactive acrylic-based composite bone cements for orthopedic and craniofacial surgery: Tuning of material properties after incorporation of calcium phosphate and antimicrobial fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Lucas Carlos

    Bone cements are used in a variety of healthcare specialties ranging from orthopedics to dentistry to craniofacial surgery to spinal disc reconstruction. These materials need characteristics which mimic their surrounding tissues. Currently available materials have struggled to maintain these necessary characteristics. Poly (methyl methacrylate) is a very high strength bio-inert polymer which has been utilized in healthcare since the 1940's. Calcium phosphate cements are well established as being bone mimicking, but cannot sustain the compressive loads in a weight bearing application. This study sought to solve the problem of currently available bone cements by filling calcium phosphates and antimicrobials into an acrylic polymer matrix. The intended outcome was a material capable of retaining high mechanical stability from the acrylic polymer phase, while becoming sufficiently bone mimicking and antimicrobial. This thesis work presented, characterizes the material properties of the developed materials and eventually isolates a material of interest for future studies.

  15. Filler metal alloy for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys

    DOEpatents

    Santella, Michael L.; Sikka, Vinod K.

    1998-01-01

    A filler metal alloy used as a filler for welding east nickel aluminide alloys contains from about 15 to about 17 wt. % chromium, from about 4 to about 5 wt. % aluminum, equal to or less than about 1.5 wt. % molybdenum, from about 1 to about 4.5 wt. % zirconium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % yttrium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % boron and the balance nickel. The filler metal alloy is made by melting and casting techniques such as are melting the components of the filler metal alloy and east in copper chill molds.

  16. Filler metal alloy for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys

    DOEpatents

    Santella, M.L.; Sikka, V.K.

    1998-03-10

    A filler metal alloy used as a filler for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys contains from about 15 to about 17 wt. % chromium, from about 4 to about 5 wt. % aluminum, equal to or less than about 1.5 wt. % molybdenum, from about 1 to about 4.5 wt. % zirconium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % yttrium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % boron and the balance nickel. The filler metal alloy is made by melting and casting techniques such as are melting the components of the filler metal alloy and cast in copper chill molds. 3 figs.

  17. Polyvinyl alcohol battery separator containing inert filler. [alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Hsu, L. C.; Manzo, M. A. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol battery separator is disclosed. A particulate filler, inert to alkaline electrolyte of an alkaline battery, is incorporated in the separator in an amount of 1-20% by weight, based on the weight of the polyvinyl alcohol, and is dispersed throughout the product. Incorporation of the filler enhances performance and increases cycle life of alkaline batteries when compared with batteries containing a similar separator not containing filler. Suitable fillers include titanates, silicates, zirconates, aluminates, wood floor, lignin, and titania. Particle size is not greater than about 50 microns.

  18. Surface Treated Natural Fibres as Filler in Biocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzova, I.; Stevulova, N.; Singovszka, E.; Terpakova, E.

    2015-11-01

    Biocomposites based on natural fibres as organic filler have been studied for several years because traditional building materials such as concrete are increasingly being replaced by advanced composite materials. Natural fibres are a potential replacement of glass fibres in composite materials. Inherent advantages such as low density, biodegradability and comparable specific mechanical properties make natural fibres an attractive option. However, limitations such as poor thermal stability, moisture absorption and poor compatibility with matrix are challenges that need to be resolved. The primary objective of this research was to study the effect of surface treatment on properties of hemp hurds like a natural lignocellulosic material and composites made thereof. Industrial hemp fibre is the one of the most suitable fibres for use in composite materials because of its good specific properties, as well as it being biologically degradable and CO2 neutral. Improving interfacial bonding between fibres and matrix is an important factor in using hemp fibres as reinforcement in composites. In order to improve interfacial bonding, modifications can be made to the hemp fibres to remove non- cellulosic compounds, separate hemp fibres from their bundles, and modify the fibre surface. This paper contains the comparison of FTIR spectra caused by combination of physical and chemical treatment of hemp material with unmodified sample. Modification of hemp hurds was carried out by NaOH solution and by ultrasonic treatment (deionized water and NaOH solution were used as the cleaning mediums).

  19. Fabrication and anti-microbial evaluation of drug loaded polylactide space filler intended for ridge preservation following tooth extraction

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Nebu George; Sanil, George P.; Rajmohan, Gopimohan; Prabhakaran, Jayachandran V.; Panda, Amulya K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The preservation or reduction of alveolar ridge resorption following tooth extraction is important in patients especially for those intended for implants at a later stage. One way to achieve this is by using membranes, graft materials, and biodegradable space fillers to prevent alveolar bone resorption and promote regeneration. A major attraction for using biodegradable and biocompatible polymers as space fillers for ridge preservation is their safety profile in comparison to xenograft materials like lyophilized bone and collagen. Materials and Methods: Biocompatible polylactide space fillers were fabricated by fusing porous polylactide particles. The sponges were loaded with drugs by placing them in the respective solutions. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from a chronic periodontitis patient and in vitro anti-microbial evaluation was done with the drug loaded sponges. Results: Chlorhexidine loaded space filler showed significant anti microbial effect against multiple drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from a patient with chronic periodontitis. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that biodegradable drug releasing polylactide space fillers has the potential to be used for ridge preservation following tooth extraction. Release of drugs in the socket may prove useful in preventing development of alveolar osteitis post extraction which can interfere with normal healing of the socket. Synthetic biodegradable polymers also exhibit a controlled degradation rate to achieve complete resorption within the intended time. PMID:22028514

  20. Coconut shell powder as cost effective filler in copolymer of acrylonitrile and butadiene rubber.

    PubMed

    Keerthika, B; Umayavalli, M; Jeyalalitha, T; Krishnaveni, N

    2016-08-01

    Filler is one of the major additives in rubber compounds to enhance the physical properties. Even though numerous benefits obtained from agricultural by products like coconut shell, rice husk etc., still they constitute a large source of environmental pollution. In this investigation, one of the agricultural bye product coconut shell powder (CSP) is used as filler in the compounding KNB rubber. It shows the positive and satisfied result was achieved only by the use of filler Fast Extrusion Furnace (FEF) and coconut shell powder (CSP) which was used 50% in each. The effect of these fillers on the mechanical properties of a rubber material at various loading raging from 0 to 60PHP was studied. Mercaptodibanzothiazole disulphide (MBTS) was used as an accelerator. The result shows that presence of 25% and 50% of the composites has better mechanical properties like Hardness, Tensile strength, Elongation at break and Specific gravity when compared with other two combinations. Even though both 25% and 50% of composites shows good mechanical properties, 50% of CSP have more efficient than 25% of CSP. PMID:27060197

  1. A study on engineering characteristics of asphalt concrete using filler with recycled waste lime.

    PubMed

    Sung Do, Hwang; Hee Mun, Park; Suk keun, Rhee

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on determining the engineering characteristics of asphalt concrete using mineral fillers with recycled waste lime, which is a by-product of the production of soda ash (Na(2)CO(3)). The materials tested in this study were made using a 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% mixing ratio based on the conventional mineral filler ratio to analyze the possibility of using recycled waste lime. The asphalt concretes, made of recycled waste lime, hydrated lime, and conventional asphalt concrete, were evaluated through their fundamental engineering properties such as Marshall stability, indirect tensile strength, resilient modulus, permanent deformation characteristics, moisture susceptibility, and fatigue resistance. The results indicate that the application of recycled waste lime as mineral filler improves the permanent deformation characteristics, stiffness and fatigue endurance of asphalt concrete at the wide range of temperatures. It was also determined that the mixtures with recycled waste lime showed higher resistance against stripping than conventional asphalt concrete. It was concluded from various test results that a waste lime can be used as mineral filler and, especially, can greatly improve the resistance of asphalt concrete to permanent deformation at high temperatures. PMID:17408942

  2. Influence of filler particle and clusters on phase separation in binary polymer blends

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Yi; Saxena, A. B.; Lookman, T.; Douglas, J. F.

    2001-01-01

    Polymer materials are rarely used in their pure form in applications. They are often filled with additives that improve their processability and mechanical or electrical properties. An understanding of the polymer-filler interaction and the ramifications for the properties of filled polymer blends is a matter of significant practical interest. Phase separation plays an important role in determining the morphology and properties of filled polymer composites, which usually are a blend of various macromolecular fluids, and additive particles. Despite the wide application of these blends, the development and the stability of the phase separating morphology are not fully understood. In particular, the interference of the filler induced composition waves remains unexplored. The presence of a surface induces a composition wave, which consists of stripes parallel to the surface and only exists close to the surface. The morphologies in the bulk take form of the characteristic spinodal decomposition patterns, i.e. the convoluted stripes. This surface directed phase separation has been studied both theoretically and experimentally. Recent numerical results show that an immobile spherical filler particle introduces transient target patterns in two-dimensional polymer thin films, and experimental results have confirmed the observations. The authors report simulation results of the effect of filler geometry on phase separation morphology, focusing on the interference of the composition waves on the stability of two-dimensional polymer blends (polymer thin films).

  3. Effect of filler content and size on properties of composites.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Swartz, M L; Phillips, R W; Moore, B K; Roberts, T A

    1985-12-01

    Two series of dental composites, along with the unfilled resin matrix, were examined to determine the effects of filler level and size on selected properties. Both series were prepared by incorporating a silanated barium borosilicate filler into a visible-light-activated polyphenylene polymethacrylate resin matrix. One series had a filler particle size of 2 microns, with filler levels of 20, 40, 45, 50, and 53% (vol). The second series contained a 15-microns filler in amounts of 20, 40, 50, 60, and 65% (vol). Tests conducted included: depth of cure as evaluated by hardness, water sorption, compressive strength, stress-strain behavior under slow compression, toothbrush abrasion, and wear by hydroxyapatite. Analysis of the data indicated that increased filler levels resulted in increased hardness, compressive strength and stiffness, and decreased water sorption. Also, there was a slight trend toward improved depth of cure. Incorporation of the 2-microns filler decreased the abrasion resistance of the resins to toothbrushing as compared with the unfilled resin, while addition of the 15-microns filler improved resistance. All filled resins exhibited a significant improvement in resistance to wear by hydroxyapatite as compared with the unfilled resin. There was a trend for increased wear with increased filler level. The particle size of the filler appeared to have a moderate influence on the properties. When compared with 15-microns filled resins of the same filler levels, the 2-micron filled series appeared to have inferior properties in terms of depth of cure, compressive strength, water sorption, and resistance to toothbrush abrasion. Properties which were less affected by particle size were hardness, stiffness, and wear resistance to hydroxyapatite. PMID:3001160

  4. A preliminary investigation into the physical and chemical properties of biomass ashes used as aggregate fillers for bituminous mixtures.

    PubMed

    Melotti, Roberto; Santagata, Ezio; Bassani, Marco; Salvo, Milena; Rizzo, Stefano

    2013-09-01

    Fly and bottom ashes are the main by-products arising from the combustion of solid biomass. Since the production of energy from this source is increasing, the processing and disposal of the resulting ashes has become an environmental and economic issue. Such ashes are of interest as a construction material because they are composed of very fine particles similar to fillers normally employed in bituminous and cementitious mixtures. This research investigates the potential use of ash from biomass as filler in bituminous mixtures. The morphological, physical and chemical characteristics of 21 different ashes and two traditional fillers (calcium carbonate and "recovered" plant filler) were evaluated and discussed. Leaching tests, performed in order to quantify the release of pollutants, revealed that five ashes do not comply with the Italian environmental re-use limits. Experimental results show a wide range of values for almost all the investigated properties and a low correlation with biomass type in terms of origin and chemical composition. Furthermore, sieving and milling processes were found to improve the properties of the raw material in terms of grading and sample porosity. The effectiveness of these treatments and the low content of organic matter and harmful fines suggest that most of the biomass ashes investigated may be regarded as potential replacements for natural filler in bituminous mixtures. PMID:23790672

  5. Evaluating Waste Charcoal as Potential Rubber Composite Filler

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon black, a byproduct of the petroleum industry, is the world's most predominant filler for rubber composites. In this study, charcoal in the form of pyrolyzed agricultural products was evaluated as potential carbon-based filler for rubber composites made with carboxylated styrene-butadiene lat...

  6. 7 CFR 29.6129 - Farm Filler (Y Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farm Filler (Y Group). 29.6129 Section 29.6129 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.6129 Farm Filler (Y Group). This group consists...

  7. 7 CFR 29.6129 - Farm Filler (Y Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farm Filler (Y Group). 29.6129 Section 29.6129 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.6129 Farm Filler (Y Group). This group consists...

  8. 7 CFR 29.6129 - Farm Filler (Y Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Filler (Y Group). 29.6129 Section 29.6129 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.6129 Farm Filler (Y Group). This group consists...

  9. Charcoal byproducts as potential styrene-butadiene rubber composte filler

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon black, a byproduct of the petroleum industry, is the world's most predominant filler for rubber composites. In this study, various renewable charcoals in the form of pyrolyzed agricultural byproducts were evaluted as potential carbon-based filler for rubber composites made with carboxylated s...

  10. Fillers as Signals: Evidence from a Question-Answering Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Esther J.; Risko, Evan F.; Kingstone, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of a human or computer "partner" on the production of fillers ("um" and "uh") during a question and answer task. Experiment 1 investigated whether or not responding to a human partner as opposed to a computer partner results in a higher rate of filler production. Participants…

  11. Use of nut shells as fillers in polymer composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The three nutshell fillers including walnut, almond and pistachio nutshell were added to PLA. All the physical properties of samples deteriorated relative to PLA. When subjected to heat pre-treatment, although the physical properties of PLA-filler samples still deteriorated, the extent of deteriorat...

  12. 7 CFR 58.229 - Filler and packaging equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Filler and packaging equipment. 58.229 Section 58.229....229 Filler and packaging equipment. All filling and packaging equipment shall be of sanitary... equipment should comply with the 3-A Sanitary Standards for equipment for Packaging Dry Milk and Dry...

  13. 7 CFR 58.229 - Filler and packaging equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Filler and packaging equipment. 58.229 Section 58.229....229 Filler and packaging equipment. All filling and packaging equipment shall be of sanitary... equipment should comply with the 3-A Sanitary Standards for equipment for Packaging Dry Milk and Dry...

  14. 7 CFR 58.229 - Filler and packaging equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Filler and packaging equipment. 58.229 Section 58.229....229 Filler and packaging equipment. All filling and packaging equipment shall be of sanitary... equipment should comply with the 3-A Sanitary Standards for equipment for Packaging Dry Milk and Dry...

  15. 7 CFR 58.229 - Filler and packaging equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Filler and packaging equipment. 58.229 Section 58.229....229 Filler and packaging equipment. All filling and packaging equipment shall be of sanitary... equipment should comply with the 3-A Sanitary Standards for equipment for Packaging Dry Milk and Dry...

  16. 7 CFR 58.229 - Filler and packaging equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filler and packaging equipment. 58.229 Section 58.229....229 Filler and packaging equipment. All filling and packaging equipment shall be of sanitary... equipment should comply with the 3-A Sanitary Standards for equipment for Packaging Dry Milk and Dry...

  17. Aluminum oxide filler prevents obstructions in tubing during welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okelly, K. P.

    1966-01-01

    Granular aluminum oxide is used as filler in serpentine tubing while welding the tubing to a flat surface. The filler eliminates obstructions in the tubes formed by molten weld nuggets and is porous enough to allow gases to escape from the welding area.

  18. Filler Wire Development for 2195 Aluminum-Lithium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorkman, Gerry; Cho, Alex; Russell, Carolyn; Zimmerman, Frank

    1998-01-01

    The presentation outline summarizes activities supporting the development of filler wire for 215 aluminum-lithium. The specific objective of the research was to identify an Al-Cu based filler wire chemistry which reduces weld susceptibility in 2195 Aluminum-Lithium welds and repairs welds along with providing adequate mechanical properties. This report is in viewgraph form.

  19. Slot-Filler Categories as Memory Organizers for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucariello, Joan; Nelson, Katherine

    1985-01-01

    Two experiments tested the hypothesis that scripts (event schemas) provide a basis for categorical structures in semantic memory. Significantly better memory and organization were achieved on slot-filler lists than on either taxonomic or complementary lists, suggesting that slot-filler categories are more available in preschoolers' semantic…

  20. Managing Complications of Fillers: Rare and Not-So-Rare.

    PubMed

    Haneke, Eckart

    2015-01-01

    Fillers belong to the most frequently used beautifying products. They are generally well tolerated, but any one of them may occasionally produce adverse side effects. Adverse effects usually last as long as the filler is in the skin, which means that short-lived fillers have short-term side effects and permanent fillers may induce life-long adverse effects. The main goal is to prevent them, however, this is not always possible. Utmost care has to be given to the prevention of infections and the injection technique has to be perfect. Treatment of adverse effects is often with hyaluronidase or steroid injections and in some cases together with 5-fluorouracil plus allopurinol orally. Histological examination of biopsy specimens often helps to identify the responsible filler allowing a specific treatment to be adapted. PMID:26865784

  1. Managing Complications of Fillers: Rare and Not-So-Rare

    PubMed Central

    Haneke, Eckart

    2015-01-01

    Fillers belong to the most frequently used beautifying products. They are generally well tolerated, but any one of them may occasionally produce adverse side effects. Adverse effects usually last as long as the filler is in the skin, which means that short-lived fillers have short-term side effects and permanent fillers may induce life-long adverse effects. The main goal is to prevent them, however, this is not always possible. Utmost care has to be given to the prevention of infections and the injection technique has to be perfect. Treatment of adverse effects is often with hyaluronidase or steroid injections and in some cases together with 5-fluorouracil plus allopurinol orally. Histological examination of biopsy specimens often helps to identify the responsible filler allowing a specific treatment to be adapted. PMID:26865784

  2. Microvascular complications associated with injection of cosmetic facelift dermal fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousefi, Siavash; Prendes, Mark; Chang, Shu-Hong; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-02-01

    Minimally-invasive cosmetic surgeries such as injection of subdermal fillers have become very popular in the past decade. Although rare, some complications may follow injections such as tissue necrosis and even blindness. There exist two hypothesis regarding source of these complications both of which include microvasculature. The first hypothesis is that fillers in between the tissue structures and compress microvasculature that causes blockage of tissue neutrition and oxygen exchange in the tissue. In another theory, it is hypothesized that fillers move inside major arteries and block the arteries/veins. In this paper, we study these hypotheses using optical coherence tomography and optical microangiography technologies with different hyaluronic-acid fillers in a mouse ear model. Based on our observations, the fillers eventually block arteries/veins if injected directly into them that eventually causes tissue necrosis.

  3. Hybrid Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticle Colloidal Gels are Injectable Fillers for Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Zhen; Jamal, Syed; Detamore, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Injectable bone fillers have emerged as an alternative to the invasive surgery often required to treat bone defects. Current bone fillers may benefit from improvements in dynamic properties such as shear thinning during injection and recovery of material stiffness after placement. Negatively charged inorganic hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles (NPs) were assembled with positively charged organic poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) NPs to create a cohesive colloidal gel. This material is held together by electrostatic forces that may be disrupted by shear to facilitate extrusion, molding, or injection. Scanning electron micrographs of the dried colloidal gels showed a well-organized, three-dimensional porous structure. Rheology tests revealed that certain colloidal gels could recover after being sheared. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells were also highly viable when seeded on the colloidal gels. HAp/PLGA NP colloidal gels offer an attractive scheme for injectable filling and regeneration of bone tissue. PMID:23815275

  4. The use of polyimide-modified aluminum nitride fillers in AlN@PI/Epoxy composites with enhanced thermal conductivity for electronic encapsulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yongcun; Yao, Yagang; Chen, Chia-Yun; Moon, Kyoungsik; Wang, Hong; Wong, Ching-ping

    2014-01-01

    Polymer modified fillers in composites has attracted the attention of numerous researchers. These fillers are composed of core-shell structures that exhibit enhanced physical and chemical properties that are associated with shell surface control and encapsulated core materials. In this study, we have described an apt method to prepare polyimide (PI)-modified aluminum nitride (AlN) fillers, AlN@PI. These fillers are used for electronic encapsulation in high performance polymer composites. Compared with that of untreated AlN composite, these AlN@PI/epoxy composites exhibit better thermal and dielectric properties. At 40 wt% of filler loading, the highest thermal conductivity of AlN@PI/epoxy composite reached 2.03 W/mK. In this way, the thermal conductivity is approximately enhanced by 10.6 times than that of the used epoxy matrix. The experimental results exhibiting the thermal conductivity of AlN@PI/epoxy composites were in good agreement with the values calculated from the parallel conduction model. This research work describes an effective pathway that modifies the surface of fillers with polymer coating. Furthermore, this novel technique improves the thermal and dielectric properties of fillers and these can be used extensively for electronic packaging applications. PMID:24759082

  5. The use of polyimide-modified aluminum nitride fillers in AlN@PI/epoxy composites with enhanced thermal conductivity for electronic encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yongcun; Yao, Yagang; Chen, Chia-Yun; Moon, Kyoungsik; Wang, Hong; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Polymer modified fillers in composites has attracted the attention of numerous researchers. These fillers are composed of core-shell structures that exhibit enhanced physical and chemical properties that are associated with shell surface control and encapsulated core materials. In this study, we have described an apt method to prepare polyimide (PI)-modified aluminum nitride (AlN) fillers, AlN@PI. These fillers are used for electronic encapsulation in high performance polymer composites. Compared with that of untreated AlN composite, these AlN@PI/epoxy composites exhibit better thermal and dielectric properties. At 40 wt% of filler loading, the highest thermal conductivity of AlN@PI/epoxy composite reached 2.03 W/mK. In this way, the thermal conductivity is approximately enhanced by 10.6 times than that of the used epoxy matrix. The experimental results exhibiting the thermal conductivity of AlN@PI/epoxy composites were in good agreement with the values calculated from the parallel conduction model. This research work describes an effective pathway that modifies the surface of fillers with polymer coating. Furthermore, this novel technique improves the thermal and dielectric properties of fillers and these can be used extensively for electronic packaging applications. PMID:24759082

  6. Selective-area laser deposition (SALD) Joining of silicon carbide with silicon carbide filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Shay Llewellyn

    Selective Area Laser Deposition (SALD) is a gas-phase, solid freeform fabrication (SFF) process that utilizes a laser-driven, pyrolytic gas reaction to form a desired solid product. This solid product only forms in the heated zone of the laser beam and thus can be selectively deposited by control of the laser position. SALD Joining employs the SALD method to accomplish 'welding' of ceramic structures together. The solid reaction product serves as a filler material to bond the two parts. The challenges involved with ceramic joining center around the lack of a liquid phase, little plastic deformation and diffusivity and poor surface wetting for many ceramic materials. Due to these properties, traditional metal welding procedures cannot be applied to ceramics. Most alternative ceramic welding techniques use some form of a metal addition to overcome these material limitations. However, the metal possesses a lower ultimate use temperature than the ceramic substrate and therefore it decreases the temperature range over which the joined part can be safely used. SALD Joining enjoys several advantages over these ceramic welding procedures. The solid filler material chemistry can be tailored to match the type of ceramic substrate and therefore fabricate monolithic joints. The SALD filler material bonds directly to the substrate and the joined structure is made in a one step process, without any post-processing. The research documented in this dissertation focused on SALD Joining of silicon carbide structures with silicon carbide filler material. A historical progression of gas-phase SFF research and a literature review of the most prominent ceramic joining techniques are provided. A variety of SiC substrates were examined, as were various conditions of gas precursor pressures and mixtures, laser beam scan speed and joint configuration. The SALD material was characterized for composition and structure by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and nuclear magnetic

  7. Filler/ Polycarbosilane Systems as CMC Matrix Precursors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.

    1998-01-01

    Pyrolytic conversion of polymeric precursors to ceramics is accompanied by loss of volatiles and large volume changes. Infiltration of a low viscosity polymer into a fiber preform will fill small spaces within fiber tows by capillary forces, but create large matrix cracks within large, intertow areas. One approach to minimizing shrinkage and reducing the number of required infiltration cycles is to use particulate fillers. In this study, Starfire allylhydridopolycarbosilane (AHPCS) was blended with a silicon carbide powder, with and without dispersant, using shear mixing. The polymer and polymer/particle interactions were characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis and rheometry. Polymer/particulate slurries and suspensions were used to infiltrate a figidized preform of an eight ply five harness satin CG Nicalon fiber having a dual layer BN/SiC interface coating, and the resulting composites characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy.

  8. Characterization of morphology and composition of inorganic fillers in dental alginates.

    PubMed

    Guiraldo, Ricardo Danil; Berger, Sandrine Bittencourt; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek; Consani, Simonides; de Carvalho, Rodrigo Varella; Lopes, Murilo Baena; Meneghel, Luciana Lira; da Silva, Fabiane Borges; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho

    2014-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy microanalysis (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Archimedes' Principle were used to determine the characteristics of inorganic filler particles in five dental alginates, including Cavex ColorChange (C), Hydrogum 5 (H5), Hydrogum (H), Orthoprint (O), and Jeltrate Plus (JP). The different alginate powders (0.5 mg) were fixed on plastic stubs (n = 5) and sputter coated with carbon for EDX analysis, then coated with gold, and observed using SEM. Volume fractions were determined by weighing a sample of each material in water before and after calcining at 450(°)C for 3 h. The alginate materials were mainly composed of silicon (Si) by weight (C-81.59%, H-79.89%, O-78.87%, H5-77.95%, JP-66.88%, wt). The filler fractions in volume (vt) were as follows: H5-84.85%, JP-74.76%, H-70.03%, O-68.31%, and C-56.10%. The tested materials demonstrated important differences in the inorganic elemental composition, filler fraction, and particle morphology. PMID:25165690

  9. Characterization of Morphology and Composition of Inorganic Fillers in Dental Alginates

    PubMed Central

    Guiraldo, Ricardo Danil; Berger, Sandrine Bittencourt; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek; Consani, Simonides; de Carvalho, Rodrigo Varella; Lopes, Murilo Baena; Meneghel, Luciana Lira; da Silva, Fabiane Borges; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho

    2014-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy microanalysis (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Archimedes' Principle were used to determine the characteristics of inorganic filler particles in five dental alginates, including Cavex ColorChange (C), Hydrogum 5 (H5), Hydrogum (H), Orthoprint (O), and Jeltrate Plus (JP). The different alginate powders (0.5 mg) were fixed on plastic stubs (n = 5) and sputter coated with carbon for EDX analysis, then coated with gold, and observed using SEM. Volume fractions were determined by weighing a sample of each material in water before and after calcining at 450°C for 3 h. The alginate materials were mainly composed of silicon (Si) by weight (C—81.59%, H—79.89%, O—78.87%, H5—77.95%, JP—66.88%, wt). The filler fractions in volume (vt) were as follows: H5—84.85%, JP—74.76%, H—70.03%, O—68.31%, and C—56.10%. The tested materials demonstrated important differences in the inorganic elemental composition, filler fraction, and particle morphology. PMID:25165690

  10. Inorganic/organic nanocomposites: Reaching a high filler content without increasing viscosity using core-shell structured nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benhadjala, W.; Gravoueille, M.; Bord-Majek, I.; Béchou, L.; Suhir, E.; Buet, M.; Louarn, M.; Weiss, M.; Rougé, F.; Gaud, V.; Ousten, Y.

    2015-11-01

    Extensive research is being conducted on the development of inorganic/organic nanocomposites for a wide variety of applications in microelectronics, biotechnologies, photonics, adhesives, or optical coatings. High filler contents are usually required to fully optimize the nanocomposites properties. However, numerous studies demonstrated that traditional composite viscosity increases with increasing the filler concentration reducing therefore significantly the material processability. In this work, we synthesized inorganic/organic core-shell nanocomposites with different shell thicknesses. By reducing the shell thickness while maintaining a constant core size, the nanoparticle molecular mass decreases but the nanocomposite filler fraction is correlatively increased. We performed viscosity measurements, which clearly highlighted that intrinsic viscosity of hybrid nanoparticles decreases as the molecular mass decreases, and thus, as the filler fraction increases, as opposed to Einstein predictions about the viscosity of traditional inorganic/polymer two-phase mixtures. This exceptional behavior, modeled by Mark-Houwink-Sakurada equation, proves to be a significant breakthrough for the development of industrializable nanocomposites with high filler contents.

  11. Inorganic/organic nanocomposites: Reaching a high filler content without increasing viscosity using core-shell structured nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Benhadjala, W.; Gravoueille, M.; Weiss, M.; Bord-Majek, I.; Béchou, L.; Ousten, Y.; Suhir, E.; Buet, M.; Louarn, M.; Rougé, F.; Gaud, V.

    2015-11-23

    Extensive research is being conducted on the development of inorganic/organic nanocomposites for a wide variety of applications in microelectronics, biotechnologies, photonics, adhesives, or optical coatings. High filler contents are usually required to fully optimize the nanocomposites properties. However, numerous studies demonstrated that traditional composite viscosity increases with increasing the filler concentration reducing therefore significantly the material processability. In this work, we synthesized inorganic/organic core-shell nanocomposites with different shell thicknesses. By reducing the shell thickness while maintaining a constant core size, the nanoparticle molecular mass decreases but the nanocomposite filler fraction is correlatively increased. We performed viscosity measurements, which clearly highlighted that intrinsic viscosity of hybrid nanoparticles decreases as the molecular mass decreases, and thus, as the filler fraction increases, as opposed to Einstein predictions about the viscosity of traditional inorganic/polymer two-phase mixtures. This exceptional behavior, modeled by Mark-Houwink-Sakurada equation, proves to be a significant breakthrough for the development of industrializable nanocomposites with high filler contents.

  12. Microstructure-based modelling of arbitrary deformation histories of filler-reinforced elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, H.; Klüppel, M.

    2012-11-01

    A physically motivated theory of rubber reinforcement based on filler cluster mechanics is presented considering the mechanical behaviour of quasi-statically loaded elastomeric materials subjected to arbitrary deformation histories. This represents an extension of a previously introduced model describing filler induced stress softening and hysteresis of highly strained elastomers. These effects are referred to the hydrodynamic reinforcement of rubber elasticity due to strain amplification by stiff filler clusters and cyclic breakdown and re-aggregation (healing) of softer, already damaged filler clusters. The theory is first developed for the special case of outer stress-strain cycles with successively increasing maximum strain. In this more simple case, all soft clusters are broken at the turning points of the cycle and the mechanical energy stored in the strained clusters is completely dissipated, i.e. only irreversible stress contributions result. Nevertheless, the description of outer cycles involves already all material parameters of the theory and hence they can be used for a fitting procedure. In the general case of an arbitrary deformation history, the cluster mechanics of the material is complicated due to the fact that not all soft clusters are broken at the turning points of a cycle. For that reason additional reversible stress contributions considering the relaxation of clusters upon retraction have to be taken into account for the description of inner cycles. A special recursive algorithm is developed constituting a frame of the mechanical response of encapsulated inner cycles. Simulation and measurement are found to be in fair agreement for CB and silica filled SBR/BR and EPDM samples, loaded in compression and tension along various deformation histories.

  13. Orbiter Gap Filler Bending Model for Re-entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Charles H.

    2007-01-01

    Pressure loads on a protruding gap filler during an Orbiter reentry are investigated to evaluate the likelihood of extraction due to pressure loads, and to ascertain how much bending will be induced by re-entry pressure loads. Oblique shock wave theory is utilized to develop a representation of the pressure loads induced on a gap filler for the ISSHVFW trajectory, representative of a heavy weight ISS return. A free body diagram is utilized to react the forces induced by the pressure forces. Preliminary results developed using these methods demonstrate that pressure loads, alone, are not likely causes of gap filler extraction during reentry. Assessment of the amount a gap filler will bend over is presented. Implications of gap filler bending during re-entry include possible mitigation of early boundary layer transition concerns, uncertainty in ground based measurement of protruding gap fillers from historical Orbiter flight history, and uncertainty in the use of Orbiter gap fillers for boundary layer prediction calibration. Authors will be added to the author list as appropriate.

  14. Properties of microfilled composite resins as influenced by filler content.

    PubMed

    St Germain, H; Swartz, M L; Phillips, R W; Moore, B K; Roberts, T A

    1985-02-01

    Two series of composite resins were prepared with a light-cured urethane dimethacrylate matrix to which varying amounts of two types of silanated silica particles were added. One series contained volume fractions ranging from 15.8 to 28.8% silica particles of 20 nm in diameter (Type I filler) and the other series volume fractions of from 24 to 49.4% of an agglomerated silica particle of 40 nm in diameter (Type II filler). Tests were conducted to determine the effect of filler level on: depth of cure as determined by hardness measurements; color stability in both UV light and water; water sorption with time; hardness; compressive strength; strain behavior in slow compression; and resistance to toothbrush abrasion and wear by hydroxyapatite. Analysis of the data obtained for these two microfilled series indicate that increased filler levels result in trends for increased depth of cure, color stability, hardness, compressive strength, and stiffness, while water sorption and resistance to both toothbrush abrasion and wear by hydroxyapatite were reduced. These trends were more pronounced for the Type II filler series than for the Type I filler series. However, there was a greater differential in filler levels within the Type II series than within the Type I series. PMID:2982935

  15. The effect of filler parameters on the healing of thermal conductivity and mechanical properties of a thermal interface material based on a self-healable organic–inorganic polymer matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Nan; Garcia, Santiago J.; van der Zwaag, Sybrand

    2016-08-01

    Thermal interface materials (TIMs) are widely used in all kinds of electronic devices to handle the heat dissipation and the mechanical anchoring of the heat producing component. The aging of TIMs may lead to delamination and internal crack formation causing a loss of heat transfer and mechanical integrity both leading to premature device failure. In the present work, a novel TIM system based on a self-healing organic–inorganic polymer matrix filled with spherical glass beads is presented which is capable of healing both the thermal conductivity and the mechanical properties upon thermal activation. The effect of particle volume concentration (PVC) and particle size on tensile strength and thermal conductivity healing behavior is investigated. The results show that a higher PVC increases the mechanical property but decreases mechanical healing. For the same PVC, bigger particles lead to lower mechanical properties but higher thermal conductivities and higher mechanical healing efficiencies.

  16. VISCOELASTIC PROPERTIES OF NATURAL RUBBER COMPOSITES REINFORCED BY DEFATTED SOY FLOUR AND CARBON BLACK CO-FILLER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Filler mixtures of defatted soy flour (DSF) and carbon black (CB) were used to reinforce natural rubber (NR) composites and their viscoelastic properties were investigated. DSF is an abundant and renewable commodity and has a lower material cost than CB. Aqueous dispersions of DSF and CB were firs...

  17. Application of planetary ball mill for manufacturing of shielding composite coatings based on polyester powder paints and carbon fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panin, S. V.; Yazykov, S. Yu; Suslyaev, V. I.; Dorozhkin, K. V.

    2015-10-01

    Blend polyester powder paint and particulate carbon filler in the form of colloidal graphite and the carbon black product were investigated. Powder paint and carbon materials were treated together in a planetary ball mill. The data of the structural analysis and transmission coefficients of electromagnetic waves of terahertz range through the flat shape samples are presented.

  18. The filler powders laser welding of ODS ferritic steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Shenyong; Lei, Yucheng; Zhu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Laser welding was performed on Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel with the self-designed filler powders. The filler powders were added to weld metal to produce nano-particles (Y-M-O and TiC), submicron particles (Y-M-O) and dislocation rings. The generated particles were evenly distributed in the weld metal and their forming mechanism and behavior were analyzed. The results of the tests showed that the nano-particles, submicron particles and dislocation rings were able to improve the micro-hardness and tensile strength of welded joint, and the filler powders laser welding was an effective welding method of ODS ferritic steel.

  19. Anomalous glass transition behavior of SBR-Al2O3 nanocomposites at small filler concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sushko, Rymma; Filimon, Marlena; Dannert, Rick; Elens, Patrick; Sanctuary, Roland; Baller, Jörg

    2014-10-01

    Elastomers filled with hard nanoparticles are of great technical importance for the rubber industry. In general, fillers improve mechanical properties of polymer materials, e.g. elastic moduli, tensile strength etc. The smaller the size of the particles, the larger is the interface where interactions between polymer molecules and fillers can generate new properties. Using temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis, we investigated the properties of pure styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and SBR/alumina nanoparticles. Beside a reinforcement effect seen in the complex elastic moduli, small amounts of nanoparticles of about 2 wt% interestingly lead to an acceleration of the relaxation modes responsible for the thermal glass transition. This leads to a minimum in the glass transition temperature as a function of nanoparticle content in the vicinity of this critical concentration. The frequency dependent elastic moduli are used to discuss the possible reduction of the entanglement of rubber molecules as one cause for this unexpected behavior.

  20. Monte Carlo simulations of radioactive waste embedded into EPDM and effect of lead filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdemir, Tonguç

    2014-05-01

    Radioactive waste is generated from the nuclear industry and should be processed and disposed of according to the regulations set by the appropriate regulatory authority. Ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) is a widely used polymer and might be considered as a potential candidate radioactive waste encapsulation material. In this study, the dose rate distribution in the radioactive waste drum (containing radioactive waste and the polymer matrix) was determined using Monte Carlo simulations. The change in the dose rate within the waste drum with different amounts of lead filler was also simulated. It was seen that lead filler would decrease the dose delivered to the polymer by means of energy dissipation. Moreover, the change of mechanical properties of EPDM was estimated and their variation within the waste drum was determined for the duration of 15, 30 and 300 years after embedding.

  1. Long-chain polynucleotide filler for skin rejuvenation: efficacy and complications in five patients.

    PubMed

    Park, Kui Young; Seok, Joon; Rho, Nark Kyoung; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Myeung Nam

    2016-01-01

    Aging well has become the new target of preventative medicine, and aesthetic dermatology can contribute to this request. The polynucleotide (PN) containing products not only fill the space, but improve tissue regeneration, resulting in more natural tissue regeneration. Five Korean women received four times injections of long-chain PN filler in two-week intervals for skin rejuvenation. About 0.05 mL of material was injected in 40 points of one-side cheek. The pore and skin thickness were markedly improved in the patients in their 30s, whereas skin tone, melanin, wrinkles, and sagging were noticeably improved for patients in their 40s. There are no serious side effects. In conclusion, intradermal long-chain PN filler injection seems to be an effective and safe treatment for skin rejuvenation. PMID:26814448

  2. Arcjet Tests of Different Gap-Filler Options for the Orion PICA Heatshield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skokova, Kristina; Ellerby, Donald; Blosser, Max; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Bouslog, Stan; Reuther, James

    2009-01-01

    PICA (Phenolic Infiltrated Carbon Ablator) is one of the candidate thermal protection materials for the Orion vehicle. Because PICA is fabricated in blocks, gaps exist between the blocks, similar to the individual ceramic tiles of the Shuttle thermal protection system. The results of this work focus on arcjet test results of different gap-filler options for PICA, performed as part of the Orion TPS Advanced Development Project. The arcjet tests were performed at NASA Ames Research Center on stagnation models 4 inches in diameter at conditions representative of Orion flight conditions for both Lunar and Low Earth Orbit return. Performance of gap-filler options was evaluated based on the extent of backface temperature change, as compared to PICA without gaps, and on the extent of flow penetration into the gap, evident from the gap opening and widening.

  3. Recent developments in annual growth lignocellulosics as reinforcing fillers in thermoplastics

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, R.E.; Caulfield, D.F.; Rowell, R.M.

    1995-11-01

    Recent interest in reducing the environmental impact of materials is leading to the development of newer agricultural based materials that can reduce the stress to the environment. Several billion pounds of fillers and reinforcements are used annually in the plastics industry and their use is likely to increase, to reduce the amount of plastics used in a product, with improved compounding technology and new coupling agents. The use of lignocellulosic fibers (eg. kenaf, jute, etc.) as reinforcing fillers in plastics has generated significant interest in recent years. The use of lignocellosic fibers permit the use of high volume fillings due to their lower densities and non-abrasive properties, and therefore reduces the use of plastics in a product. The specific tensile and flexural moduli of a 50% weight of glass fiber-PP injection molded composite and are superior to typical calcium carbonate or talc based PP composites. Results indicate that annual growth lignocellulosic wastes and fibers are viable reinforcing fillers as long as the right processing conditions and aids are used, and for applications where the higher water absorption of the agro-base fiber composite is not critical.

  4. A Novel Hypothesis of Visual Loss Secondary to Cosmetic Facial Filler Injection.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Du, Le; Lu, Jian-Jian

    2015-09-01

    With the current tendency of increasing minimally invasive cosmetic surgeries, some rare but disastrous complications of facial filler injections come into sight, such as visual loss. The study aims to investigate the possible route that the injected droplet accesses the ophthalmic artery to explain and prevent such devastating complications. We searched the National Library of Medicine's PubMed database for cases of visual loss secondary to cosmetic facial filler injection, and reviewed relevant case reports/surveys, as well as accompanying references. Data obtained were analyzed, with special interest in injected sites and filler material, and clinical features of visual loss. Based on the anatomy of facial vessels, we inferred the possible route of injected droplet migrating from injection sites to ophthalmic artery. Most physicians propose a retrograde embolic mechanism, but the culprit artery when injecting different sites is not determined. We consider accidentally breaking into supraorbital artery or supratrochlear artery may cause occlusion of ophthalmic artery when injecting into glabella or forehead region. Speaking of the nasolabial fold and nasal dorsum region, any injections in the anastomosis of the dorsal nasal artery, angular artery, and lateral nasal artery can lead to retrograde embolism. Similarly, in the temporal region, we believe there is abnormal anastomosis between frontal branch of superficial temporal artery from external carotid artery and supraorbital artery from ophthalmic artery. In our hypothesis, we can explain the accompanying brain infarction after iatrogenic visual loss. If the injecting pressure is forceful enough, it may push the embolic materials into middle cerebral artery. Although iatrogenic ophthalmic artery occlusion is a rare complication after the facial filler injection surgery, it is usually devastating. Both the patient and the surgeon should be aware of the risk of irreversible blindness. Ideally, the injection sites

  5. A Novel Hypothesis of Visual Loss Secondary to Cosmetic Facial Filler Injection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Du, Le; Lu, Jian-jian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract With the current tendency of increasing minimally invasive cosmetic surgeries, some rare but disastrous complications of facial filler injections come into sight, such as visual loss. The study aims to investigate the possible route that the injected droplet accesses the ophthalmic artery to explain and prevent such devastating complications. We searched the National Library of Medicine’s PubMed database for cases of visual loss secondary to cosmetic facial filler injection, and reviewed relevant case reports/surveys, as well as accompanying references. Data obtained were analyzed, with special interest in injected sites and filler material, and clinical features of visual loss. Based on the anatomy of facial vessels, we inferred the possible route of injected droplet migrating from injection sites to ophthalmic artery. Most physicians propose a retrograde embolic mechanism, but the culprit artery when injecting different sites is not determined. We consider accidentally breaking into supraorbital artery or supratrochlear artery may cause occlusion of ophthalmic artery when injecting into glabella or forehead region. Speaking of the nasolabial fold and nasal dorsum region, any injections in the anastomosis of the dorsal nasal artery, angular artery, and lateral nasal artery can lead to retrograde embolism. Similarly, in the temporal region, we believe there is abnormal anastomosis between frontal branch of superficial temporal artery from external carotid artery and supraorbital artery from ophthalmic artery. In our hypothesis, we can explain the accompanying brain infarction after iatrogenic visual loss. If the injecting pressure is forceful enough, it may push the embolic materials into middle cerebral artery. Although iatrogenic ophthalmic artery occlusion is a rare complication after the facial filler injection surgery, it is usually devastating. Both the patient and the surgeon should be aware of the risk of irreversible blindness. Ideally, the

  6. Basic principles of creating a new generation of high- temperature brazing filler alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalin, B. A.; Suchkov, A. N.

    2016-04-01

    The development of new materials is based on the formation of a structural-phase state providing the desired properties by selecting the base and the complex of alloying elements. The development of amorphous filler alloys for a high-temperature brazing has its own features that are due to the limited life cycle and the production method of brazing filler alloys. The work presents a cycle of analytical and experimental materials science investigations including justification of the composition of a new amorphous filler alloy for brazing the products from zirconium alloys at the temperature of no more than 800 °C and at the unbrazing temperature of permanent joints of more than 1200 °C. The experimental alloys have been used for manufacture of amorphous ribbons by rapid quenching, of which the certification has been made by X-ray investigations and a differential-thermal analysis. These ribbons were used to obtain permanent joints from the spacer grid cells (made from the alloy Zr-1% Nb) of fuel assemblies of the thermal nuclear reactor VVER-440. The brazed samples in the form of a pair of cells have been exposed to corrosion tests in autoclaves in superheated water at a temperature of 350 °C, a pressure of 160 MPa and duration of up to 6,000 h. They have been also exposed to destructive tests using a tensile machine. The experimental results obtained have made it possible to propose and patent a brazing filler alloy of the following composition: Zr-5.5Fe-(2.5-3.5)Be-1Nb-(5-8)Cu-2Sn-0.4Cr-(0.5-1.0)Ge. Its melting point is 780 °C and the recommended brazing temperature is 800°C.

  7. 21 CFR 888.3045 - Resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device... salt bone void filler device. (a) Identification. A resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device is... entitled “Class II Special Controls Guidance: Resorbable Calcium Salt Bone Void Filler Device; Guidance...

  8. 21 CFR 888.3045 - Resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device... salt bone void filler device. (a) Identification. A resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device is... entitled “Class II Special Controls Guidance: Resorbable Calcium Salt Bone Void Filler Device; Guidance...

  9. 21 CFR 888.3045 - Resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device... salt bone void filler device. (a) Identification. A resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device is... entitled “Class II Special Controls Guidance: Resorbable Calcium Salt Bone Void Filler Device; Guidance...

  10. AB65. Experience in the use of synthetic fillers in phalloplasty

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dae Yul

    2014-01-01

    Penis size has been a source of anxiety for men throughout history, and men often feel the need to enlarge their penises in order either to improve their self-esteem or to satisfy and impress their partners. Many different types of penile enhancement surgery are performed all over the world, although there are medico-legal issues and paucity of scientific data. An ideal procedure for phalloplasty should rely on two principles: minimal incision with limited scarring and no interference with the erectile function. Several techniques have been described to increase penile length, including cutting the suspensory ligament with or without V-Y plasty of the lower abdominal skin, possibly with fat, dermis, autologous rib cartilage, or synthetic material graft to prevent reattachment of the suspensory ligament. Liposuction or lipectomy has been used for patients with a large infrapubic pad of fat. Surgery to enhance the penile girth includes lipoinjection, dermal free or pedicle grafts, and venous grafting for the corpora cavernosa, injection of synthetic dermal filler. Currently, as the need for safer, effective and less-invasive procedures is increasing, enhancement procedures using injectable products are in high demand. Injectable soft-tissue substitutes provide an affordable, nonsurgical alternative for correcting contour defects and soft tissue augmentation with autologous fat, silicone, collagen, and hyaluronic acid, dextran filler, polylactic acid. We have developed two synthetic fillers; Cross-linked dextran and polymethylmethacrylate mixture (Lipen-10), Polylactic acid (PLA) filler. Penile lnjection of; Cross-linked dextran and polymethylmethacrylate mixture (Lipen-10) and Polylactic acid filler led to significant increase in penile size, showed a good durability and was well-tolerated, without serious adverse events. Glans penis augmentation has been performed in real practice, although it is not an established procedure. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of

  11. Dielectric properties of inorganic fillers filled epoxy thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Norshamira, A. Mariatti, M.

    2015-07-22

    The demand on the small size and high performance electronics has driven changes in the electronic packaging requirements from discrete capacitor to embedded capacitor. Embedded capacitor can improve electrical performance compared with discrete capacitor. This study aimed to achieve high dielectric of epoxy thin film composite that were targeted for application as embedded capacitor. In this study, inorganic fillers such as Calcium Copper Titanate (CCTO), Iron(III) Oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and Titanium Dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) were loaded in epoxy system at 5 and 20vol%. Morphology and dielectric properties were investigated to identify the effect of fillers loading and types of fillers on the properties of epoxy thin film composite. Based on the study, CCTO with 20vol% loading was found to have good dielectric properties compared to other type of fillers.

  12. Hyaluronic acid filler injections with a 31-gauge insulin syringe.

    PubMed

    Lim, Adrian C

    2010-02-01

    Hyaluronic acid gel is a commonly used skin/soft tissue filler in cosmetic dermatology. Hyaluronic acid fillers are packaged in proprietary luer-lock syringes that can be injected via a 30-gauge, 27-gauge or larger diameter needle depending on the consistency of the gel. A method of decanting proprietary hyaluronic acid fillers into multiple 31-gauge insulin syringes for injection is described. The use of a 31-gauge insulin syringe for filler injections can potentially enhance the injection process through more accurate product delivery and placement. This has the potential to produce a more balanced and symmetrical outcome for patients. Additional benefits include less injection pain, less bleeding/bruising and higher levels of patient satisfaction. PMID:20148851

  13. Polyacrylamide soft tissue filler nodule mimicking a mucoepidermoid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Karagozoglu, K H; van der Waal, I

    2008-06-01

    A 39-year-old woman is described in whom histopathologic examination of a nodule of the cheek mucosa was suggestive of a mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Only after the availability of a wider surgical specimen was a distinct foreign body reaction to polyacrylamide soft tissue filler observed. On inquiry, the patient admitted to having this filler injected into her nasolabial folds 3 years previously. PMID:18313268

  14. Legal ramifications of off-label filler use.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, David J

    2006-01-01

    Dermal fillers are often used in an off-label manner. Most off-label use is not only legal, but represents an appropriate physician standard of care. This chapter will first explore what is and what is not considered off-label. Then the chapter will explore manufacturer promotion of off-label use of both drugs and devices. Finally, the legal ramifications of off-label dermal filler use will be discussed. PMID:16784518

  15. Identification and Complications of Cosmetic Fillers: Sonography First.

    PubMed

    Wortsman, Ximena

    2015-07-01

    Cosmetic fillers are frequently used these days for enhancing beauty and to treat wrinkles or sagging skin. However, information on the history of injections may be difficult to obtain, and there is a growing number of reports on complications with these agents. In contrast to other imaging techniques, sonography has been successfully used for detecting and identifying common types of cosmetic fillers and has become the first-line imaging modality to deal with these exogenous components. PMID:26112618

  16. Fillers for improved graphite fiber retention by polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, E. E.; Sheppard, C. H.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a program designed to determine the extent to which elemental boron and boron containing fillers added to the matrix resin of graphite/epoxy composites prevent the release of graphite fibers when the composites are exposed to fire and impact conditions are described. The fillers evaluated were boron, boron carbide and aluminum boride. The conditions evaluated were laboratory simulations of those that could exist in the event of an aircraft crash and burn situation. The baseline (i.e., unfilled) laminates evaluated were prepared from commercially available graphite/epoxy. The baseline and filled laminates' mechanical properties, before and after isothermal and humidity aging, also were compared. It was found that a small amount of graphite fiber was released from the baseline graphite/epoxy laminates during the burn and impact conditions used in this program. However, the extent to which the fibers were released is not considered a severe enough problem to preclude the use of graphite reinforced composites in civil aircraft structure. It also was found that the addition of boron and boron containing fillers to the resin matrix eliminated this fiber release. Mechanical properties of laminates containing the boron and boron containing fillers were lower than those of the baseline laminates. These property degradations for two systems: boron (5 micron) at 2.5 percent filler loading, and boron (5 micron) at 5.0 percent filler loading do not appear severe enough to preclude their use in structural composite applications.

  17. Cytotoxicity of Resin Composites Containing Bioactive Glass Fillers

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Satin; Gwinner, Fernanda; Mitchell, John C; Pfeifer, Carmem; Ferracane, Jack L

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the in vitro cytotoxicity of dental composites containing bioactive glass fillers. Methods Dental composites (50:50 Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin: 72.5wt% filler, 67.5%Sr-glass and 5% OX50) containing different concentrations (0, 5, 10 and 15 wt %) of two sol-gel bioactive glasses, BAG65 (65 mole% SiO2, 31 mole% CaO, 4 mole% P2O5) and BAG62 (3 mole% F added) were evaluated for cytotoxicity using Alamar Blue assay. First, composite extracts were obtained from 7 day incubations of composite in cell culture medium at 37° C. Undifferentiated pulp cells (OD-21) were exposed to dilutions of the original extracts for 3, 5, and 7 days. Then freshly cured composite disks were incubated with OD-21 cells (n=5) for 2 days. Subsequently, fresh composite disks were incubated in culture medium at 37°C for 7 days, and then the extracted disks were incubated with OD-21 cells for 2 days. Finally, fresh composites disks were light cured for 3, 5, and 20 seconds and incubated with OD-21 cells (n=5) for 1, 3, 5, and 7 days. To verify that the three different curing modes produced different levels of degree of conversion (DC), the DC of each composite was determined by FTIR. Groups (n=5) were compared with ANOVA/Tukey’s (α≤0.05). Results Extracts from all composites significantly reduced cell viability until a dilution of 1:8 or lower, where the extract became equal to the control. All freshly-cured composites showed significantly reduced cell viability at two days. However, no reduction in cell viability was observed for any composite that had been previously soaked in media before exposure to the cells. Composites with reduced DC (3 s vs. 20 s cure), as verified by FTIR, showed significantly reduced cell viability. Significance The results show that the composites, independent of composition, had equivalent potency in terms of reducing the viability of the cells in culture. Soaking the composites for 7 days before exposing them to the cells suggested that the

  18. Influence of Ultraviolet/Ozonolysis Treatment of Nanocarbon Filler on the Electrical Resistivity of Epoxy Composites.

    PubMed

    Perets, Yulia; Matzui, Lyudmila; Vovchenko, Lyudmila; Ovsiienko, Irina; Yakovenko, Olena; Lazarenko, Oleksandra; Zhuravkov, Alexander; Brusylovets, Oleksii

    2016-12-01

    In the present work, we have investigated concentration and temperature dependences of electrical conductivity of graphite nanoplatelets/epoxy resin composites. The content of nanocarbon filler is varied from 0.01 to 0.05 volume fraction. Before incorporation into the epoxy resin, the graphite nanoplatelets were subjected to ultraviolet ozone treatment at 20-min ultraviolet exposure. The electric resistance of the samples was measured by two- or four-probe method and teraohmmeter E6-13. Several characterization techniques were employed to identify the mechanisms behind the improvements in the electrical properties, including SEM and FTIR spectrum analysis.It is established that the changes of the relative intensities of the bands in FTIR spectra indicate the destruction of the carboxyl group -COOH and group -OH. Electrical conductivity of composites has percolation character and graphite nanoplatelets (ultraviolet ozone treatment for 20 min) addition which leads to a decrease of percolation threshold 0.005 volume fraction and increase values of electrical conductivity (by 2-3 orders of magnitude) above the percolation threshold in comparison with composite materials-graphite nanoplatelets/epoxy resin. The changes of the value and behavior of temperature dependences of the electrical resistivity of epoxy composites with ultraviolet/ozone-treated graphite nanoparticles have been analyzed within the model of effective electrical conductivity. The model takes into account the own electrical conductivity of the filler and the value of contact electric resistance between the filler particles of the formation of continuous conductive pathways. PMID:27550050

  19. Properties and osteoblast cytocompatibility of self-curing acrylic cements modified by glass fillers.

    PubMed

    Lopes, P; Garcia, M P; Fernandes, M H; Fernandes, M H V

    2013-11-01

    Materials filled with a silicate glass (MSi) and a borate glass (MB) were developed and compared in terms of their in vitro behavior. The effect of filler composition and concentration (0, 30, 40 and 50 wt%) on the curing parameters, residual monomer, water uptake, weight loss, bioactivity, mechanical properties (bending and compression) and osteoblast cytocompatibility was evaluated. The addition of bioactive glass filler significantly improved the cements curing parameters and the mechanical properties. The most relevant results were obtained for the lower filler concentration (30 t%) a maximum flexural strength of 40.4 Pa for MB3 and a maximum compressive strength of 95.7 MPa for MSi3. In vitro bioactivity in acellular media was enhanced by the higher glass contents in the cements. Regarding the biological assessment, the incorporation of the silicate glass significantly improved osteoblast cytocompatibility, whereas the presence of the borate glass resulted in a poor cell response. Nevertheless it was shown that the surviving cells on the MB surface were in a more differentiated stage compared to those growing over non-filled poly(methyl methacrylate). Results suggest that the developed formulations offer a high range of properties that might be interesting for their use as self-curing cements. PMID:22918184

  20. Effects of Compression and Filler Particle Coating on the Electrical Conductivity of Thermoplastic Elastomer Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albers, Willem M.; Karttunen, Mikko; Wikström, Lisa; Vilkman, Taisto

    2013-10-01

    Elastomeric polymers can be filled with metallic micro- or nanoparticles to obtain electrical conductivity, in which the conductivity is largely determined by the intrinsic conductivity of and contact resistance between the particles. Electrons will flow through the material effectively when the percolation threshold for near-neighbor contacts is exceeded and sufficiently close contacts between the filler particles are realized for electron tunneling to occur. Silver-coated glass microparticles of two types (fibers and spheres) were used as fillers in a thermoplastic elastomer composite based on styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene copolymer, and the direct-current (DC) resistance and radiofrequency impedance were significantly reduced by coating the filler particles with octadecylmercaptan. Not only was the resistance reduced but also the atypical positive piezoresistivity effect observed in these elastomers was strongly reduced, such that resistivity values below 0.01 Ω cm were obtained for compression ratios up to 20%. In the DC measurements, an additional decrease of resistivity was obtained by inclusion of π-extended aromatic compounds, such as diphenylhexatriene. Some qualitative theories are presented to illuminate the possible mechanisms of action of these surface coatings on the piezoresistivity.

  1. Solvent-free fabrication of thermally conductive insulating epoxy composites with boron nitride nanoplatelets as fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zifeng; Fu, Yuqiao; Meng, Wenjun; Zhi, Chunyi

    2014-11-01

    A solvent-free method for the fabrication of thermally conductive epoxy-boron nitride (BN) nanoplatelet composite material is developed in this study. By this method, polymer composites with nearly any filler fractions can be easily fabricated. The maximum thermal conductivity reaches 5.24 W/mK, which is 1,600% improvement in comparison with that of pristine epoxy material. In addition, the as-fabricated samples exhibit excellent overall performances with great mechanical property and thermal stability well preserved.

  2. Solvent-free fabrication of thermally conductive insulating epoxy composites with boron nitride nanoplatelets as fillers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A solvent-free method for the fabrication of thermally conductive epoxy-boron nitride (BN) nanoplatelet composite material is developed in this study. By this method, polymer composites with nearly any filler fractions can be easily fabricated. The maximum thermal conductivity reaches 5.24 W/mK, which is 1,600% improvement in comparison with that of pristine epoxy material. In addition, the as-fabricated samples exhibit excellent overall performances with great mechanical property and thermal stability well preserved. PMID:25489292

  3. Solvent-free fabrication of thermally conductive insulating epoxy composites with boron nitride nanoplatelets as fillers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zifeng; Fu, Yuqiao; Meng, Wenjun; Zhi, Chunyi

    2014-01-01

    A solvent-free method for the fabrication of thermally conductive epoxy-boron nitride (BN) nanoplatelet composite material is developed in this study. By this method, polymer composites with nearly any filler fractions can be easily fabricated. The maximum thermal conductivity reaches 5.24 W/mK, which is 1,600% improvement in comparison with that of pristine epoxy material. In addition, the as-fabricated samples exhibit excellent overall performances with great mechanical property and thermal stability well preserved. PMID:25489292

  4. Human histology and persistence of various injectable filler substances for soft tissue augmentation.

    PubMed

    Lemperle, Gottfried; Morhenn, Vera; Charrier, Ulrich

    2003-01-01

    An increasing number of soft tissue filler substances have been introduced to the beauty market outside the U.S. which lack experimental and clinical data in support of their claim. Ten commercially available filler substances were examined for biocompatibility and durability: 0.1 cc of each substance was injected deep intradermally into the volar forearm of one of the authors and observed for clinical reaction and permanence. At 1, 3, 6, and 9 months the test sites were excised, histologically examined, and graded according to foreign body reactions classification. Collagen (Zyplast) was phagocytosed at 6 months and hyaluronic acid (Restylane) at 9 months. PMMA microspheres (Artecoll) had encapsulated with connective tissue, macrophages, and sporadic giant cells. Silicone oil (PMS 350) was clinically inconspicuous but dissipated into the tissue, causing a chronic foreign body reaction. Polylactic acid microspheres (New-Fill) induced a mild inflammatory response and had disappeared clinically at 4 months. Dextran microspheres (Reviderm intra) induced a pronounced foreign body reaction and had disappeared at 6 months. Polymethylacrylate particles (Dermalive) induced the lowest cellular reaction but had disappeared clinically at 6 months. Polyacrylamide (Aquamid) was well tolerated and remained palpable to a lessening degree over the entire testing period. Histologically, it dissipated more slowly and was kept in place through fine fibrous capsules. Polyvinylhydroxide microspheres suspended in acrylamide (Evolution) were well tolerated, slowly diminishing over 9 months. Calcium hydroxylapatite microspheres (Radiance FN) induced almost no foreign body reaction but were absorbed by the skin at 12 months. Host defense mechanisms react differently to the various filler materials, but all substances-resorbable or nonresorbable-appeared to be clinically and histologically safe, although all exhibit undesirable side effects. Since the mechanism of late inflammation or

  5. Cerebral Angiographic Findings of Cosmetic Facial Filler-related Ophthalmic and Retinal Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cosmetic facial filler-related ophthalmic artery occlusion is rare but is a devastating complication, while the exact pathophysiology is still elusive. Cerebral angiography provides more detailed information on blood flow of ophthalmic artery as well as surrounding orbital area which cannot be covered by fundus fluorescein angiography. This study aimed to evaluate cerebral angiographic features of cosmetic facial filler-related ophthalmic artery occlusion patients. We retrospectively reviewed cerebral angiography of 7 patients (4 hyaluronic acid [HA] and 3 autologous fat-injected cases) showing ophthalmic artery and its branches occlusion after cosmetic facial filler injections, and underwent intra-arterial thrombolysis. On selective ophthalmic artery angiograms, all fat-injected patients showed a large filling defect on the proximal ophthalmic artery, whereas the HA-injected patients showed occlusion of the distal branches of the ophthalmic artery. Three HA-injected patients revealed diminished distal runoff of the internal maxillary and facial arteries, which clinically corresponded with skin necrosis. However, all fat-injected patients and one HA-injected patient who were immediately treated with subcutaneous hyaluronidase injection showed preserved distal runoff of the internal maxillary and facial arteries and mild skin problems. The size difference between injected materials seems to be associated with different angiographic findings. Autologous fat is more prone to obstruct proximal part of ophthalmic artery, whereas HA obstructs distal branches. In addition, hydrophilic and volume-expansion property of HA might exacerbate blood flow on injected area, which is also related to skin necrosis. Intra-arterial thrombolysis has a limited role in reconstituting blood flow or regaining vision in cosmetic facial filler-associated ophthalmic artery occlusions. PMID:26713062

  6. Dermal filler complications: a clinicopathologic study with a spectrum of histologic reaction patterns.

    PubMed

    El-Khalawany, Mohamed; Fawzy, Sameh; Saied, Asmaa; Al Said, Mohammed; Amer, Ahmed; Eassa, Bayoumi

    2015-02-01

    Although dermal fillers are generally accepted as safe and well-tolerable cosmetic tools, adverse reaction still forms a prognostic problem. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the clinicopathologic patterns of dermal filler complications in our center. A 5-year single-center study that included patients complained from filler complications and referred to the dermatopathology unit in Al-Azhar University for histologic assessment. The study included 38 female patients with an average age of 47 years. The mean onset of complications was 14.6 ± 5.27 months after injection. The injected material included hyaluronic acid (18.4%), silicone (52.6%), bovine collagen (15.8%) and polyacrylamide hydrogel (13.2%). Most lesions were located on the face (55.3%), less commonly on the hands (18.4%), buttocks (21%), and rarely on the vulva (5.3%). The clinical spectrum included indurated plaque (23.7%), nodular lesion (31.6%), inflammatory mass (15.8%), atrophic lesion (10.5%), skin discoloration (13.1%) and ulceration (5.3%). Histologically, granulomatous reaction was the major finding, either a foreign body granuloma (34.2%) or infectious granuloma (13.2%). Other histologic reactions included dermal pseudocysts with chronic inflammation (26.3%), dermal fibrosis (15.8%), and eosinophilic panniculitis (10.5%). Our results confirmed that dermal fillers could be manifested with variable clinical presentations and show different histologic reactions. Because of long-standing duration until complications occur, history taking is crucial and should be emphasized in every suspected patient. It is hoped that this article will increase awareness for recognition of these variable complications and help select the appropriate therapy. PMID:25553966

  7. Inhibition of enamel demineralization by buffering effect of S-PRG filler-containing dental sealant.

    PubMed

    Kaga, Masayuki; Kakuda, Shinichi; Ida, Yusuke; Toshima, Hirokazu; Hashimoto, Masanori; Endo, Kazuhiko; Sano, Hidehiko

    2014-02-01

    The buffering capacity and inhibitory effects on enamel demineralization of two commercially available dental sealants were evaluated in this study. The effects of filler particles were also examined. Disks of enamel and cured sealant materials of BeautiSealant (silica or S-PRG filler) or Teethmate F-1 were incubated in lactic acid solutions (pH 4.0) for 1-6 d. The pH changes and amounts of ions released in the solutions were assessed, and enamel surfaces were observed using a scanning electron microscope. The pH of the solution with BeautiSealant (S-PRG filler) was neutralized from pH 4.0 to pH 6.1 (after incubation for 1 d) and from pH 4.0 to pH 6.7 (after incubation for 6 d). In addition, no release of calcium ions was detected and the enamel surface was morphologically intact in scanning electron microscopy images. However, the pH of the solution with Teethmate F-1 remained below pH 4.0 during incubation from days 1 to 6. Calcium release was increased in solutions up to and after 6 d of incubation. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the structures of hydroxyapatite rods were exposed at the specimen surfaces as a result of demineralization. Ions released from S-PRG filler-containing dental sealant rapidly buffered the lactic acid solution and inhibited enamel demineralization. PMID:24372898

  8. Does filler surface chemistry impact filler dispersion, polymer dynamics and conductivity in nanofilled solid polymer electrolytes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganapatibhotla, Lalitha; Maranas, Janna

    2012-02-01

    We study the impact of nanofiller surface chemistry on filler dispersion, polymer dynamics and ionic conductivity in acidic α-Al2O3 filled PEO+LiClO4 solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs).SPEs are the key to light-weight and high energy density rechargeable Li ion batteries but suffer from low room temperature ionic conductivity. Addition of ceramic nanofillers improves conductivity of SPEs and their surface chemistry influences extent of conductivity enhancement. The ionic conductivity of acidic α-Al2O3 filled SPE is enhanced for salt concentrations at and below eutectic, while neutral γ-Al2O3 filler enhances conductivity only at eutectic composition. Li ion motion is coupled to segmental mobility of polymer and we study how this is affected by addition of α-Al2O3 using quasi-elastic neutron scattering. Aggregation extent of nanoparticles in SPE matrix, a less explored factor in filled SPEs, can affect segmental mobility of polymer. This can vary with surface chemistry of particles and we quantify this using small angle neutron scattering. All measurements are performed as a function of Li concentration, nanoparticle loading and temperature.

  9. The Effect of Fracture Filler Composition on the Parameters of Shear Deformation Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, D.; Ostapchuk, A.; Batuhtin, I.

    2015-12-01

    Geomechanical models of different slip mode nucleation and transformation can be developed basing on laboratory experiments, in which regularities of shear deformation of gouge-filled faults are studied. It's known that the spectrum of possible slip modes is defined by both macroscopic deformation characteristics of the fault and mesoscale structure of fault filler. Small variations of structural parameters of the filler may lead to a radical change of slip mode [1, 2]. This study presents results of laboratory experiments investigating regularities of shear deformation of discontinuities filled with multicomponent granular material. Qualitative correspondence between experimental results and natural phenomena is detected. The experiments were carried out in the classical "slider model" statement. A granite block slides under shear load on a granite substrate. The contact gap between rough surfaces was filled with a discrete material, which simulated the principal slip zone of a fault. The filler components were quartz sand, salt, glass beads, granite crumb, corundum, clay and pyrophyllite. An entire spectrum of possible slip modes was obtained - from stable slip to slow-slip events and to regular stick-slip with various coseismic displacements realized per one act of instability. Mixing several components in different proportions, it became possible to trace the gradual transition from stable slip to regular stick-slip, from slow-slip events to fast-slip events. Depending on specific filler component content, increasing the portion of one of the components may lead to both a linear and a non-linear change of slip event moment (a laboratory equivalent of the seismic moment). For different filler compositions durations of equal-moment events may differ by more than two orders of magnitude. The findings can be very useful for developing geomechnical models of nucleation and transformation of different slip modes observed at natural faults. The work was supported by

  10. Cryogenic materials selection, availability, and cost considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rush, H. F.

    1983-01-01

    The selection of structural alloys, composite materials, solder alloys, and filler materials for use in cryogenic models is discussed. In particular, materials testing programs conducted at Langley are described.

  11. Catastrophic models of materials destruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupchishin, A. I.; Taipova, B. G.; Kupchishin, A. A.; Voronova, N. A.; Kirdyashkin, V. I.; Fursa, T. V.

    2016-02-01

    The effect of concentration and type of fillers on mechanical properties of composite material based on polyimide were studied. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET, polyester), polycarbonate (PCAR) and montmorillonite (MM) were used as the fillers. The samples were prepared by mechanically blending the polyimide-based lacquer solutions with different concentrations of the second component. The concentration of filler and its class, especially their internal structure and technology of synthesis determine features of physical and mechanical properties of obtained materials. Models of catastrophic failure of material satisfactorily describe the main features depending on tension ct from deformation e.

  12. Solidification behavior of austenitic stainless steel filler metals

    SciTech Connect

    David, S.A.; Goodwin, G.M.; Braski, D.N.

    1980-02-01

    Thermal analysis and interrupted solidification experiments on selected austenitic stainless steel filler metals provided an understanding of the solidification behavior of austenitic stainless steel welds. The sequences of phase separations found were for type 308 stainless steel filler metal, L + L + delta + L + delta + ..gamma.. ..-->.. ..gamma.. + delta, and for type 310 stainless steel filler metal, L ..-->.. L + ..gamma.. ..-->.. ..gamma... In type 308 stainless steel filler metal, ferrite at room temperature was identified as either the untransformed primary delta-ferrite formed during the initial stages of solidification or the residual ferrite after Widmanstaetten austenite precipitation. Microprobe and scanning transmission electron microscope microanalyses revealed that solute extensively redistributes during the transformation of primary delta-ferrite to austenite, leading to enrichment and stabilization of ferrite by chromium. The type 310 stainless steel filler metal investigated solidifies by the primary crystallization of austenite, with the transformation going to completion at the solidus temperature. In our samples residual ferrite resulting from solute segregation was absent at the intercellular or interdendritic regions.

  13. Influence of radiopaque fillers on physicochemical properties of a model epoxy resin-based root canal sealer

    PubMed Central

    COLLARES, Fabrício Mezzomo; KLEIN, Mariana; SANTOS, Paula Dapper; PORTELLA, Fernando Freitas; OGLIARI, Fabrício; LEITUNE, Vicente Castelo Branco; SAMUEL, Susana Maria Werner

    2013-01-01

    Objective To verify the influence of radiopaque fillers on an epoxy resin-based sealer. Material and Methods Experimental sealers were formulated by adding 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 100% and 120% of calcium tungstate, ytterbium trifluoride or barium sulphate by weight to an epoxy-resin-base. Setting time, flow, film thickness, radiopacity, sorption, solubility, pH and push-out bond strength were evaluated. Results The setting time ranged from 373 to 612.66 min, the flow varied from 13.81±0.49 to 22.49±0.37 mm, and the film thickness ranged from 16.67±5.77 to 33.33±11.54 µm. The lowest pH was 5.47±0.53, and the highest was 6.99±0.03. Radiopacity varied from 0.38±0.04 to 2.57±0.21 mmAl and increased with the amount of filler. Calcium tungstate sealers had a higher sorption and solubility than other sealers. There was no significant difference in the push-out bond strength among the fillers at the 120% concentration. Conclusion The inorganic fillers evaluated and their concentrations affect the physicochemical properties of an epoxy resin-based root canal sealer. PMID:24473719

  14. Carbon fiber polymer-matrix structural composites tailored for multifunctionality by filler incorporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Seungjin

    . Exfoliated graphite (EG) as a sole filler is more effective than carbon nanotube (SWCNT/MWCNT), halloysite nanotube (HNT) or nanoclay as sole fillers in enhancing the loss tangent, if the curing pressure is 2.0 (not 0.5) MPa. The MWCNT, SiC whisker and halloysite nanotube as sole fillers are effective for increasing the storage modulus. The combined use of a storage-modulus-enhancing filler (CNT, SiC whisker or HNT) and a loss-tangent-enhancing filler (EG or nanoclay) gives the best performance. With EG, HNT and 2.0-MPa curing, the loss modulus is increased by 110%, while the flexural strength is decreased by 14% and the flexural modulus is not affected. With nanoclay, HNT and 0.5-MPa curing, the loss modulus is increased by 96%, while the flexural strength and modulus are essentially not affected. The low through-thickness thermal conductivity limits heat dissipation from continuous carbon fiber polymer-matrix composites. This conductivity is increased by up to 60% by raising the curing pressure from 0.1 to 2.0 MPa and up to 33% by incorporation of a filler (61.5 vol.%) at the interlaminar interface. The thermal resistivity is dominated by the lamina resistivity (which is contributed substantially by the intralaminar fiber--fiber interfacial resistivity), with the interlaminar interface thermal resistivity being unexpectedly negligible. The lamina resistivity and intralaminar fiber-fiber interfacial resistivity are decreased by up to 56% by raising the curing pressure and up to 36% by filler incorporation. Thermoelectric structural materials are potentially attractive for large-scale energy harvesting. Through filler incorporation and unprecedented decoupling of the bulk (laminae) and interfacial (interlaminar interfaces) contributions to the Seebeck voltage (through-thickness Seebeck voltage of a crossply continuous carbon fiber/epoxy composite laminate), this work provides thermoelectric power magnitudes at ˜70°C up to 110, 1670 and 11000 microV/K for the laminate, a

  15. Facial volume augmentation in 2014: overview of different filler options.

    PubMed

    Luebberding, Stefanie; Alexiades-Armenakas, Macrene

    2013-12-01

    Volume loss is considered to be one of the major contributors to facial aging. Therefore, the restoration of facial volume and contour changes has become an important treatment approach in aesthetic dermatology in recent years. In October 2013 the FDA approved for the first time ever an injectable dermal filler for the augmentation of age-related volume loss. This low-molecular-weight (LMW) 20 mg/ml hyaluronic acid (HA) filler competes on the market with poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) and calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA), that have been used off-label for many years to restore age-related volume loss. The safety profile and efficacy of all three injectables has been intensively evaluated in innumerous clinical studies. However, each volume filler has its benefits and disadvantages, including usage, method of action and duration of effect that are reviewed in this article. PMID:24301234

  16. Mycobacterium chelonae Facial Infections Following Injection of Dermal Filler

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Jan M.; Xie, Yingda L.; Winthrop, Kevin L.; Schafer, Sean; Sehdev, Paul; Solomon, Joel; Jensen, Bette; Toney, Nadege C.; Lewis, Paul F.

    2015-01-01

    A cluster of 3 facial Mycobacterium chelonae infections occurred after cosmetic dermal filler injections at a plastic surgery clinic. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that M chelonae isolated from the clinic tap water were identical to the patient wound isolates. Review of injection procedures identified application of nonsterile ice to the skin prior to injection as a possible source of M chelonae. Surveys of regional laboratories and a national plastic surgery listserv identified no other cases related to the injection of this brand of dermal filler. This is the first report of cutaneous M chelonae infections following the injection of dermal fillers. It adds to a growing body of literature on postinjection M chelonae infections and reinforces the importance of optimal skin disinfection steps prior to percutaneous procedures. PMID:23335647

  17. Influence of filler metal on birefringent optical properties of photonic crystal fiber with integrated electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes-Vera, Erick; Torres, Pedro

    2016-08-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the influence of the filler metal on the birefringent optical properties of a photonic crystal fiber containing two integrated electrodes. Bismuth and indium were used to examine the effects of the electrode composition on the temperature sensitivity of this special microstructured fiber. We found that the fiber microstructure significantly influences the metal-induced sensitivity of the wavelength dependent birefringence, making the behavior of the birefringence change strongly with the electrode material. By modeling the anisotropic changes induced by the metal expansion in the refractive index within the fiber we examine the essential features of the fiber birefringence.

  18. Thermal Control Method for High-Current Wire Bundles by Injecting a Thermally Conductive Filler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez-Ruiz, Juan; Rowles, Russell; Greer, Greg

    2011-01-01

    A procedure was developed to inject thermal filler material (a paste-like substance) inside the power wire bundle coming from solar arrays. This substance fills in voids between wires, which enhances the heat path and reduces wire temperature. This leads to a reduced amount of heat generated. This technique is especially helpful for current and future generation high-power spacecraft (1 kW or more), because the heat generated by the power wires is significant enough to cause unacceptable overheating to critical components that are in close contact with the bundle.

  19. Lower Face: Clinical Anatomy and Regional Approaches with Injectable Fillers.

    PubMed

    Braz, André; Humphrey, Shannon; Weinkle, Susan; Yee, G Jackie; Remington, B Kent; Lorenc, Z Paul; Yoelin, Steve; Waldorf, Heidi A; Azizzadeh, Babak; Butterwick, Kimberly J; de Maio, Mauricio; Sadick, Neil; Trevidic, Patrick; Criollo-Lamilla, Gisella; Garcia, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    The use of injectable fillers enables facial sculpting through treatment of volume depletion and modeling of facial contours. Injectable fillers are among the most frequently performed minimally invasive cosmetic procedures.However, treatment of the lower third of the face can be challenging and requires expertise in facial anatomy. In this article, the authors provide a comprehensive review of the anatomy of the lower third of the face, highlighting danger zones. In addition, the authors describe their preferred approach and detailed technique used in the treatment of each specific area, namely the jawline, prejowl sulcus, melomental folds, and lips. PMID:26441104

  20. Volume correction in the aging hand: role of dermal fillers.

    PubMed

    Rivkin, Alexander Z

    2016-01-01

    The hands, just like the face, are highly visible parts of the body. They age at a similar rate and demonstrate comparable changes with time, sun damage, and smoking. Loss of volume in the hands exposes underlying tendons, veins, and bony prominences. Rejuvenation of the hands with dermal fillers is a procedure with high patient satisfaction and relatively low risk for complications. This study will review relevant anatomy, injection technique, clinical safety, and efficacy of dermal filler volumization of the aging hand. PMID:27621659

  1. Injectable Filler Techniques for Facial Rejuvenation, Volumization, and Augmentation.

    PubMed

    Bass, Lawrence S

    2015-11-01

    Multiple fillers are available: various hyaluronic acid products, calcium hydroxylapatite, and a few others that are biocompatible with good duration and a variety of mechanical properties allowing intradermal, subdermal, and supraperiosteal injection. Facial features can be reshaped with great control using these fillers. Aging changes, including facial volume loss, can be well-corrected. These treatments have become a mainstay of rejuvenation in the early facial aging patient. Injection technique is critical to obtaining excellent results. Threading, fanning, cross-hatching, bleb, and pillar techniques must be mastered. Technical execution can only measure up to, but not exceed, the quality of the aesthetic analysis. PMID:26505544

  2. Volume correction in the aging hand: role of dermal fillers

    PubMed Central

    Rivkin, Alexander Z

    2016-01-01

    The hands, just like the face, are highly visible parts of the body. They age at a similar rate and demonstrate comparable changes with time, sun damage, and smoking. Loss of volume in the hands exposes underlying tendons, veins, and bony prominences. Rejuvenation of the hands with dermal fillers is a procedure with high patient satisfaction and relatively low risk for complications. This study will review relevant anatomy, injection technique, clinical safety, and efficacy of dermal filler volumization of the aging hand. PMID:27621659

  3. Chemical characterization of a degradable polymeric bone adhesive containing hydrolysable fillers and interpretation of anomalous mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Young, Anne M; Man Ho, Sze; Abou Neel, Ensanya A; Ahmed, Ifty; Barralet, Jake E; Knowles, Jonathan C; Nazhat, Showan N

    2009-07-01

    An experimental, light-curable, degradable polyester-based bone adhesive reinforced with phosphate glass particles ((P(2)O(5))(0.45)(CaO)(x)(Na(2)O)(0.55-)(x), x=0.3 or 0.4mol) or calcium phosphate (monocalcium phosphate/beta-tricalcium phosphate (MCPM/beta-TCP)) has been characterized. Early water sorption (8wt.% at 1week) by the unfilled set adhesive catalysed subsequent bulk degradation (4wt.% at 2weeks) and substantial decline in both elastic and storage moduli. Addition of phosphate glass fillers substantially enhanced this water sorption, catalysed greater bulk mass loss (40-50 and 52-55wt.%, respectively) but enabled generation of a microporous scaffold within 2weeks. The high levels of acidic polymer degradation products (38-50wt.% of original polymer) were advantageously buffered by the filler, which initially released primarily sodium trimetaphosphate (P(3)O93-). Calcium phosphate addition raised polymer water sorption to a lesser extent (16wt.%) and promoted intermediate early bulk mass loss (12wt.%) but simultaneous anomalous increase in modulus. This was attributed to MCPM reacting with absorbed water and beta-TCP to form more homogeneously dispersed brushite (CaHPO(4)) throughout the polymer. Between 2 and 10weeks, linear erosion of both polymer (0.5wt.%week(-1)) and composites (0.7-1.2wt.%week(-1)) occurred, with all fillers providing long-term buffer action through calcium and orthophosphate (PO43-) release. In conclusion, both fillers can raise degradation of bone adhesives whilst simultaneously providing the buffering action and ions required for new bone formation. Through control of water sorption catalysed filler reactions, porous structures for cell support or substantially stiffer materials may be generated. PMID:19328755

  4. Filler modification for papermaking with starch/oleic acid complexes with the aid of calcium ions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiujie; Shen, Jing; Qian, Xueren

    2013-10-15

    To mitigate the negative effect of filler addition on paper strength and improve filler retention, filler modification with hydrogen bonding polymers (e.g., starch) or their composites is an interesting research topic. Differing from previous reports, the concept related to the deposition of starch/oleic acid complexes on precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) with the aid of calcium ions was demonstrated. The introduction of calcium ions resulted in effective starch deposition. As a result of filler modification, filler retention and the tensile strength of the filled paper were simultaneously improved essentially due to the aggregation of PCC particles in filler modification process as well as improved filler bondability. The concept demonstrated in this brief study may provide an alternative approach to filler bondability enhancement for improved papermaking performances. PMID:23987430

  5. Effect of precipitated calcium carbonate--Cellulose nanofibrils composite filler on paper properties.

    PubMed

    He, Ming; Cho, Byoung-Uk; Won, Jong Myoung

    2016-01-20

    A new concept of composite filler was developed by using cellulose nanofibrils (CNF), precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) and cationic starch (C-starch). In this study, cellulose nanofibrils were utilized in two different ways: a PCC-CNF composite filler and a papermaking additive in sheet forming. The aim was to elucidate their effects on flocculation, filler retention and the strength and optical properties of handsheets. The highest filler retention was obtained by using the PCC-CNF composite filler in paper sheets. The paper filled with the composite fillers had much higher bursting and tensile strengths than conventional PCC loading. It was also found that the paper prepared with PCC-CNF composite fillers became denser with increasing the filler content of paper. PMID:26572417

  6. Influence of the concentration and disperity of the filler on the creep of polymer composite

    SciTech Connect

    Aniskevich, K.; Khristova, Yu.

    1995-09-01

    The aim of this work is to study the effect of the concentration and dispersity of particles of filler on the creep of polymer composite. As an example, we study a polyester resin with a cement filler.

  7. Improved fiber retention by the use of fillers in graphite fiber/resin matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gluyas, R. E.; Bowles, K. J.

    1980-01-01

    A variety of matrix fillers were tested for their ability to prevent loss of fiber from graphite fiber/PMR polyimide and graphite fiber/epoxy composites in a fire. The fillers tested included powders of boron, boron carbide lime glass, lead glass, and aluminum. Boron was the most effective and prevented any loss of graphite fiber during burning. Mechanical properties of composites containing boron filler were measured and compared to those of composites containing no filler.

  8. Use of hyaluronic acid fillers for the treatment of the aging face

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Michael H

    2007-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid fillers have become popular soft tissue filler augmentation agents over the past several years. They have helped revolutionize the filler market with a number of new products available for use for our patients. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the characteristics of the HA fillers and to review each of the current products currently available for use in the US. PMID:18044187

  9. Phase-change materials handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, D. V.; Hoover, M. J.; Oneill, M. J.

    1972-01-01

    Handbook describes relationship between phase-change materials and more conventional thermal control techniques and discusses materials' space and terrestrial applications. Material properties of most promising phase-change materials and purposes and uses of metallic filler materials in phase-change material composites are provided.

  10. Slot-Filler and Conventional Category Organisation in Young Korean Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Younoak; Nelson, Katherine

    1993-01-01

    In two experiments, five year olds produced more instances in slot-filler categories than taxonomic categories, and eight year olds produced more instances in taxonomic categories than slot-filler categories; for five year olds, slot-filler categories led to superior recall and shorter response latencies than did taxonomic categories. (BB)

  11. Fibrous Fillers to Manufacture Ultra High Ash/Performance Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. VIjay K. Mathur

    2009-04-30

    The paper industry is one of the largest users of energy and emitters of CO2 in the US manufacturing industry. In addition to that, it is facing tremendous financial pressure due to lower cost imports. The fine paper industry has shrunk from 15 million tons per year production to 10 million tons per year in the last 5 years. This has resulted in mill closures and job loses. The AF&PA and the DOE formed a program called Agenda 2020 to help in funding to develop breakthrough technologies to provide help in meeting these challenges. The objectives of this project were to optimize and scale-up Fibrous Fillers technology, ready for commercial deployment and to develop ultra high ash/high performance paper using Fibrous Fillers. The goal was to reduce energy consumption, carbon footprint, and cost of manufacturing paper and related industries. GRI International (GRI) has been able to demonstrate the techno - economic feasibility and economic advantages of using its various products in both handsheets as well as in commercial paper mills. GRI has also been able to develop sophisticated models that demonstrate the effect of combinations of GRI's fillers at multiple filler levels. GRI has also been able to develop, optimize, and successfully scale-up new products for use in commercial paper mills.

  12. More About Brazing Or Welding NiAl Without Filler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas J.; Kalinowski, Joseph M.

    1996-01-01

    Two reports present additional information about two processes for joining, brazing, or welding workpieces made of nickel aluminide alloys, without use of filler metal. Joining processes involve uniform heating in vacuum-controlled furnace. Eliminates internal thermal gradients in workpieces joined and greatly reduces tendency toward cracking.

  13. Internal Filler-Wire Feed For Arc Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E.; Dyer, Gerald E.

    1990-01-01

    Tungsten electrode for gas/tungsten arc welding contains lengthwise channel for feeding filler wire to weld joint. Channel makes it unnecessary to feed wire through guides outside electrode, conserving valuable space near weld and protects wire from deformation by contact with other parts in vicinity of weld. Helpful in robotic or automatic welding.

  14. Photosensitive filler minimizes internal stresses in epoxy resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillon, J. N.

    1967-01-01

    Photosensitive filler is added to curable epoxy resins to minimize stress from internal shrinkage during curing or polymerization. Cinnamic acid resins and cinnamal ketones may be added in the amount of 1 to 3 percent by weight of the resin mixture.

  15. Gap Filler Induced Transition on the Mars Science Laboratory Heatshield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoon, Seokkwan; Barnhardt, Michael D.; Tang, Chun Y.; Sozer, Emre; Candler, Graham

    2012-01-01

    Detached Eddy Simulations have been performed to investigate the effects of high-fidelity turbulence modeling on roughness-induced transition to turbulence during Mars entry. Chemically reacting flow solutions will be obtained for a gap filler of Mars Science Laboratory at the peak heating condition.

  16. Automatic reel controls filler wire in welding machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millett, A. V.

    1966-01-01

    Automatic reel on automatic welding equipment takes up slack in the reel-fed filler wire when welding operation is terminated. The reel maintains constant, adjustable tension on the wire during the welding operation and rewinds the wire from the wire feed unit when the welding is completed.

  17. Impact of fillers on dissolution kinetic of fenofibrate dry foams.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Elisabeth; Sprunk, Angela; Kleinebudde, Peter; Page, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Dry foam technology reveals the opportunity to improve the dissolution behavior of poorly soluble drugs tending to agglomeration due to micronization. In this study, the impact of fillers on the manufacturability, the properties of dry foams and granules as well as the dissolution kinetics of dry foam tablets was investigated using fenofibrate as a model compound. Different maltodextrins and dried glucose syrups, a maltodextrin-phosphatidylcholine complex, isomalt and a 1:1 mixture of mannitol/glucose syrup were used as filler. Within the group of maltodextrins and glucose syrups, the influences of dextrose equivalent (DE), particle morphology and botanical source of starch were investigated. Comparable macroscopic foam structures were obtained with maltodextrins and glucose syrups whereas different foam morphologies were obtained for the other fillers tested. Regarding the maltodextrins and glucose syrups, different physicochemical and particle properties had a minor impact on granule characteristics and tablet dissolution. Using the maltodextrin-phosphatidylcholine complex resulted in a low specific surface area of the granules and a slow tablet dissolution caused by a slow disintegration. In contrast, a high specific surface area and a fast release were obtained with isomalt and glucose syrup/mannitol mixture indicating that high soluble low molecular weight fillers enable the development of fast dissolving dry foam tablets. PMID:24901031

  18. Inflammatory granuloma caused by injectable soft tissue filler (Artecoll)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Chang; Kim, Jong-Bae; Chin, Byung-Rho; Kim, Jin-Wook

    2013-01-01

    Artecoll (Artes Medical Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) has recently been developed as a permanent synthetic cosmetic filler. We experienced an inflammatory granuloma resulting from a previous injection of Artecoll at the upper lip, which was regarded as a rare side effect of this filler. A 50-year-old female patient complained of swelling, dull pain, and heat in the right upper nasolabial fold area, which had started one week before her visit to Kyungpook National University Hospital. The patient received topical steroid therapy at a local clinic, which was not effective. At the injection site, a hard nodule was palpated and erythema was observed with mild tenderness. Antibiotic treatment and subsequent incision and drainage did not result in complete cure of the facial swelling, and the facial swelling and pain persisted. Computed tomography showed a lesion approximately 1-cm in size without clear boundaries and relatively increased nodular thickening. Finally, a subdermal lesion was removed via an intraoral vestibular approach. The lesion was diagnosed as inflammatory granuloma by a permanent biopsy. The patient had healed at two months after the filler injection. Although the soft tissue filler is widely used for cosmetic purposes, there is potential for complication, such as the inflammatory granuloma should be considered before treatment. PMID:24471042

  19. Thermoplastic rubberlike material produced at low cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendel, F. J.

    1966-01-01

    Thermoplastic rubberlike material is prepared by blending a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate with asphalt and a petroleum distillate. This low cost material is easily molded or extruded and is compatible with a variety of fillers.

  20. [Technology transfer of building materials by ECOMAT

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This report discusses the plan for technology transfer of building materials developed by ECOMAT to the commercial private sector. Some of the materials are briefly discussed like foams, fiber reinforcement, fly ash development, and polymer fillers.

  1. The effect of filler aspect ratio on the electromagnetic properties of carbon-nanofibers reinforced composites

    SciTech Connect

    De Vivo, B.; Lamberti, P.; Spinelli, G. Tucci, V.; Guadagno, L.; Raimondo, M.

    2015-08-14

    The effect of filler aspect ratio on the electromagnetic properties of epoxy-amine resin reinforced with carbon nanofibers is here investigated. A heat treatment at 2500 °C of carbon nanofibers seems to increase their aspect ratio with respect to as-received ones most likely due to a lowering of structural defects and the improvement of the graphene layers within the dixie cup conformation. These morphological differences revealed by Raman's spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analyses may be responsible for the different electrical properties of the resulting composites. The DC characterization of the nanofilled material highlights an higher electrical conductivity and a lower electrical percolation threshold for the heat-treated carbon nanofibers based composites. In fact, the electrical conductivity is about 0.107 S/m and 1.36 × 10{sup −3} S/m for the nanocomposites reinforced with heat-treated and as received fibers, respectively, at 1 wt. % of nanofiller loading, while the electrical percolation threshold falls in the range [0.05–0.32]wt. % for the first nanocomposites and above 0.64 wt. % for the latter. Moreover, also a different frequency response is observed since the critical frequency, which is indicative of the transition from a resistive to a capacitive-type behaviour, shifts forward of about one decade at the same filler loading. The experimental results are supported by theoretical and simulation studies focused on the role of the filler aspect ratio on the electrical properties of the nanocomposites.

  2. Influence of filler existence on microleakage of a self-etch adhesive system

    PubMed Central

    Mirmohammadi, H; Khosravi, K; Kashani, K; Kleverlaan, CJ; Feilzer, AJ

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This study evaluated the effect of filler existence in self-etch adhesive resin on the marginal leakage of a class V restoration. Materials and Methods: Class V cavities were prepared and restored with a resin composite on the buccal surfaces of 48 premolars lined with unfilled or filled adhesives (n = 24). After thermo cycling, teeth in each group were divided to two subgroups (n = 12), specimens of the first subgroup were incubated for 24 h in distilled water at 37°C, and for the second group three months in the same condition. Specimens were placed in 50% silver nitrate for 24 h at 37°C, and then were cut buccolingually 1 mm thick. Dye penetration was measured using a stereomicroscope and scaled from 0 to 5 in a blind method. SEM images were made to evaluate the dentin-adhesive interfaces. Collected data were analyzed using the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests at a significant level of P<0.05. Results: There was no significant difference between microleakage of filled and unfilled adhesive at 24 h and 3 months (P<0.05). There was a significant difference in cervical microleakage between 24 h and 3 months, which was independ on filler load of the adhesive (P<0.001). In contrast, there was no significant difference in occlusal microleakage between 24 h and 3 months and the cervical microleakage was significantly higher than occlusal microleakage after 3 months. SEM images reveald that unfilled adhesive infiltrate slightly better than filled adhesive. Conclusion: The application of filler particles in a self etch adhesive system had no influence on marginal leakage at both the enamel and dentin margins. While the unfilled adhesive infiltrate better than the filled adhesive, its long term performance is not promising. PMID:24778517

  3. Laser welding aluminum without filler metal using continuous wave and pulsed Nd:YAG lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Bransch, H.N.

    1994-12-31

    A problem with automotive aluminum tubing applications, particularly for air conditioning heat exchanger assemblies, is terminating the tube reliably and inexpensively. An alternative to upsetting and mchining threads to the tube end is welding a nut (made from a stronger, easily machinable alloy such as Al 5456 or Al 6061) to lengths of tubing (made from a softer alloy such as Al 3003). Laser welding was investigated in order to reduce heat input and increase process speeds copared to brazing or gas metal arc welding (GMAW). Nd:YAG lasers were selected as beam source because of better absorptivity of the wavelength compared to CO{sub 2} lasers and simplified tooling with fiber optic beam delivery. It wa determined that a pulsed Nd:YAG laser produced 1.0 mm penetration at 0.3 m/min with 400 W average power, and 1.0 mm penetration at 0.75 m/min with 1000 W average power, however, an Al 4047 filler metal was required to eliminate solidification cracking. A 1900 W CW laser could weld the Al 3003 tube to the Al 5456 nut without filler metal, however, there was insufficient penetration (0.25 mm) to meet the mechanical and hermeticity requirements. To enhance penetration, but still reduce the tendency for hot cracking, the 1900 W average power beam was sine wave modulated from 400 W to 3600 W at 250 Hz and usd to weld the Al 3003 directly to the Al 5456. These parameters produced 1.2 mm penetration at 1.2 m/min without significant cracking and without using a filler metal. In addition, the welds passed all hermeticity and tensile strength tests. This combination of materials, joint design, and laser parameters produced tube assemblies that passed a leak check (300 psi nitrogen in 60{degrees}C water for 1 min) and tensile (tube breakage 100 mm from the joint, 5.2 kN tensile strength).

  4. Effect of the filler on the electrophysical properties of the composite system (Pb-PbS)-copolymer of styrene with. cap alpha. -methylstyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Khlystunova, E.V.; Ovchinnikov, A.A.; Saushkina, E.A.; Mardashev, Yu.S.

    1988-08-10

    The results of studies of the effect of a two-phase contact filler (Pb-PbS) on the electrophysical properties of a system based on a copolymer of styrene with ..cap alpha..-methylstyrene (SAM) are reported in this article. The x-ray phase analysis (XPA) was conducted on a DRON-2 diffractometer. The surface of the filler particles was studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electric resistance of the samples was measured in a thermostated cell. The complex character of the concentration and temperature dependence of the electric conductivity of the (Pb-PbS)-SAM composite system related to the composition of the filler was thus elucidated and it was shown that materials with different electrophysical properties can be prepared from the same composite system by using different amounts of the starting components.

  5. Investigating filler morphology and mechanical properties of new low-shrinkage resin composite types.

    PubMed

    Leprince, J; Palin, W M; Mullier, T; Devaux, J; Vreven, J; Leloup, G

    2010-05-01

    Three types of low-shrinkage composites are today commercially available: Ormocers, cationic ring-opening curing systems and highly filled methacrylate-based materials, which cure via free-radical polymerization mechanisms. The aim of this study was to characterize the inorganic fraction of materials belonging to each type and to compare their mechanical properties. Two Ormocers (Admira and an experimental Ormocer V35694), one ring-opening composite (Filtek Silorane) and five methacrylate-based composites [Filtek Supreme XT, Tetric EvoCeram, Grandio, Synergy D6 (Coltène-Whaledent, Langenau, Germany) and an experimental material, V34930] were tested. Inorganic fillers were quantified by thermogravimetric analysis and morphologically characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Dynamic modulus was determined by an impulse excitation technique, static elastic moduli and flexural strength by a three-point bending method. The results were analyzed using ANOVA tests (P < 0.05) and linear correlations. Grandio, V34930 and V35694 exhibited significantly higher filler mass fractions. Both dynamic and static moduli of Grandio and V34930 were significantly higher than the other materials (P < 0.05), although no significant difference in flexural strength was observed between material type (P > 0.05). From the present findings, it was suggested that V35694 and Filtek Silorane exhibit comparable properties to conventional methacrylate-based composites, although clinically the cavity type and location must guide material choice. Under high occlusal load, the use of Grandio and V34930 might be favoured. For small cavities, alternative technologies could be preferred as the need for mechanical resistance is lower and the potential for stress generation is greater. PMID:20202096

  6. Epoxy composites filled with high surface area-carbon fillers: Optimization of electromagnetic shielding, electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzhir, P.; Paddubskaya, A.; Plyushch, A.; Volynets, N.; Maksimenko, S.; Macutkevic, J.; Kranauskaite, I.; Banys, J.; Ivanov, E.; Kotsilkova, R.; Celzard, A.; Fierro, V.; Zicans, J.; Ivanova, T.; Merijs Meri, R.; Bochkov, I.; Cataldo, A.; Micciulla, F.; Bellucci, S.; Lambin, Ph.

    2013-10-01

    A comprehensive analysis of electrical, electromagnetic (EM), mechanical, and thermal properties of epoxy resin composites filled with 0.25-2.0 wt. % of carbon additives characterized by high surface area, both nano-sized, like carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon black (CBH), and micro-sized exfoliated graphite (EG), was performed. We found that the physical properties of both CNTs- and CBH-based epoxy resin composites increased all together with filler content and even more clearly for CBH than for CNTs. In the case of EG-based composites, good correlation between properties and filler amount was observed for concentrations below 1.5 wt. %. We conclude that CBH and, to a lower extent, EG could replace expensive CNTs for producing effective EM materials in microwave and low-frequency ranges, which are, in addition, mechanically and thermally stable.

  7. Barrier properties of PE, PP and EVA (nano)composites - The influence of filler type and concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Merinska, D.; Kalendova, A.; Tesarikova, A.

    2014-05-15

    Nanocomposite materials with layered clay used as nanofiller and polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and copolymer ethylene and vinyl acetate matrix (EVA, the content of VA component 19 wt. %) were prepared by compounding the individual components in Brabender kneader. The MMT Na+ and four types of commercial products such as Nanofil N 5 and N3000, Cloisite 93A and 30B were used as nanofillers. Next to the clays microprecipitated CaHCO{sub 3}, nanosilica and Halloysite tubes were used. The quantity of all the above-mentioned (nano)fillers was 1, 3 and 5 wt. % in relation to the content of montmorillonite. The aim was to evaluate the influence of (nano)filler type and concentration on nanocomposite barrier properties. The morphology of nanocomposite samples was examined by means of XRD analysis illustrated by transmission electronic microscopy TEM. Furthermore, permeability for O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} were observed.

  8. Barrier properties of PE, PP and EVA (nano)composites - The influence of filler type and concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merinska, D.; Kalendova, A.; Tesarikova, A.

    2014-05-01

    Nanocomposite materials with layered clay used as nanofiller and polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and copolymer ethylene and vinyl acetate matrix (EVA, the content of VA component 19 wt. %) were prepared by compounding the individual components in Brabender kneader. The MMT Na+ and four types of commercial products such as Nanofil N 5 and N3000, Cloisite 93A and 30B were used as nanofillers. Next to the clays microprecipitated CaHCO3, nanosilica and Halloysite tubes were used. The quantity of all the above-mentioned (nano)fillers was 1, 3 and 5 wt. % in relation to the content of montmorillonite. The aim was to evaluate the influence of (nano)filler type and concentration on nanocomposite barrier properties. The morphology of nanocomposite samples was examined by means of XRD analysis illustrated by transmission electronic microscopy TEM. Furthermore, permeability for O2 and CO2 were observed.

  9. The effect of filler on the temperature coefficient of the relative permittivity of PTFE/ceramic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, S.; Murali, K. P.; Jantunen, H.; Ratheesh, R.

    2011-11-01

    High permittivity and low-loss ceramic fillers have been prepared by means of the solid state ceramic route. Ceramic-filled composites were prepared by the Sigma Mixing, Extrusion, Calendering, which was followed by the Hot pressing (SMECH) process. The microwave dielectric properties of the composites were studied using X-band waveguide cavity perturbation technique. The temperature coefficient of the relative permittivity of the composites was investigated in the 0-100 °C temperature range using a hot and cold chamber coupled with an impedance analyzer. The temperature coefficient of the relative permittivity of the composites showed strong dependence on the temperature coefficient of the relative permittivity of the filler material. In the present study, a high-permittivity polymer/ceramic composite, having τεr ∼63 ppm/K, has been realized. This composite is suitable for outdoor wireless applications.

  10. Application of Hybrid Fillers for Improving the Through-Plane Heat Transport in Graphite Nanoplatelet-Based Thermal Interface Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xiaojuan; Itkis, Mikhail E.; Haddon, Robert C.

    2015-08-01

    The in-plane alignment of graphite nanoplatelets (GNPs) in thin thermal interface material (TIM) layers suppresses the though-plane heat transport thus limiting the performance of GNPs in the geometry normally required for thermal management applications. Here we report a disruption of the GNP in-plane alignment by addition of spherical microparticles. The degree of GNP alignment was monitored by measurement of the anisotropy of electrical conductivity which is extremely sensitive to the orientation of high aspect ratio filler particles. Scanning Electron Microscopy images of TIM layer cross-sections confirmed the suppression of the in-plane alignment. The hybrid filler formulations reported herein resulted in a synergistic enhancement of the through-plane thermal conductivity of GNP/Al2O3 and GNP/Al filled TIM layers confirming that the control of GNP alignment is an important parameter in the development of highly efficient GNP and graphene-based TIMs.

  11. Application of Hybrid Fillers for Improving the Through-Plane Heat Transport in Graphite Nanoplatelet-Based Thermal Interface Layers

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xiaojuan; Itkis, Mikhail E.; Haddon, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    The in-plane alignment of graphite nanoplatelets (GNPs) in thin thermal interface material (TIM) layers suppresses the though-plane heat transport thus limiting the performance of GNPs in the geometry normally required for thermal management applications. Here we report a disruption of the GNP in-plane alignment by addition of spherical microparticles. The degree of GNP alignment was monitored by measurement of the anisotropy of electrical conductivity which is extremely sensitive to the orientation of high aspect ratio filler particles. Scanning Electron Microscopy images of TIM layer cross-sections confirmed the suppression of the in-plane alignment. The hybrid filler formulations reported herein resulted in a synergistic enhancement of the through-plane thermal conductivity of GNP/Al2O3 and GNP/Al filled TIM layers confirming that the control of GNP alignment is an important parameter in the development of highly efficient GNP and graphene-based TIMs. PMID:26279183

  12. Autonomous Slat-Cove-Filler Device for Reduction of Aeroacoustic Noise Associated with Aircraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L. (Inventor); Kidd, Reggie T. (Inventor); Lockard, David P (Inventor); Khorrami, Mehdi R. (Inventor); Streett, Craig L. (Inventor); Weber, Douglas Leo (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A slat cove filler is utilized to reduce airframe noise resulting from deployment of a leading edge slat of an aircraft wing. The slat cove filler is preferably made of a super elastic shape memory alloy, and the slat cove filler shifts between stowed and deployed shapes as the slat is deployed. The slat cove filler may be configured such that a separate powered actuator is not required to change the shape of the slat cove filler from its deployed shape to its stowed shape and vice-versa. The outer contour of the slat cove filler preferably follows a profile designed to maintain accelerating flow in the gap between the slat cove filler and wing leading edge to provide for noise reduction.

  13. Effects of Different Filler Metals on the Mechanical Behaviors of GTA Welded AA7A52(T6)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Fengyuan; Lv, Yaohui; Liu, Yuxin; Lin, Jianjun; Sun, Zhe; Xu, Binshi; He, Peng

    2014-06-01

    ER4043, ER5356, and AA7A52 on behalf of the Al-Si, Al-Mg, and Al-Zn-Mg-based welding material, respectively, were chosen as the filler metal to weld AA7A52(T6) plates by GTAW. The variance in mechanical performances of the joints caused by the various filler materials was investigated with reference to the SEM and EDS test results for the weld seam and the fracture surface. Failure was found in the seam for all the welded joints. With regard to the joint obtained with ER4043 welding wire, the total elongation was limited by the brittle intergranular compound Mg2Si of which Mg was introduced by convection mass transfer. As for the other two welds, the content ratio of Zn and Mg was found to play the dominant role in deciding the mechanical properties of the intergranular Mg-Zn compounds which were responsible for the tensile behavior of the joints. The content ratio (wt.%) of beyond 2:1 gave birth to the strengthening phase MgZn2 leading to a ductile fracture. Cr in the seam obtained with AA7A52 filler metal was found to enhance the strength of the joint through isolated particles.

  14. Atmospheric pressure cold plasma treatment of cellulose based fillers for wood plastic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekobou, William; Englund, Karl; Pedrow, Patrick; Scudiero, Louis

    2011-10-01

    The main challenge of wood plastic composites (WPC) resides in the low interfacial adhesion due to incompatibility between the cellulose based filler that has a polar surface and most common matrixes, polyolefins which are non-polar. Plasma treatment is a promising technique for surface modification and its implementation into the processing of WPC would provide this industry with a versatile and nearly environmentally benign manufacturing tool. Our investigation aims at designing a cold atmospheric pressure plasma reactor for coating fillers with a hydrophobic material prior to compounding with the matrix. Deposition was achieved with our reactor that includes an array of high voltage needles, a grounded metal mesh, Ar as carrier gas and C2H2 as the precursor molecule. Parameters studied have included gas feed rates and applied voltage; FTIR, ESCA, AFM and SEM imaging were used for film diagnostics. We will also report on deposition rate and its dependence on radial and axial position as well as the effects of plasma-polymerized acetylene on the surface free energy of cellulose based substrates.

  15. Reuse of EAF Slag as Reinforcing Filler for Polypropylene Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornacchia, G.; Agnelli, S.; Gelfi, M.; Ramorino, G.; Roberti, R.

    2015-06-01

    Electric-arc furnace (EAF) slag, the by-product of steel fabricated at the EAF, is in most cases still sent to dumps, with serious environmental consequences. This work shows an innovative, economically convenient application for EAF slag: its use as reinforcing filler for polypropylene. Composites based on polypropylene containing 10-40 wt.% of EAF slag particles were prepared by melt compounding followed by injection molding. A physical-chemical analysis of the EAF slag was performed to determine microstructural features and main component phases. Leaching tests demonstrated that, although EAF slag can release small amounts of toxic elements, such as heavy metals, incorporating such material into the polymeric matrix immobilizes the heavy metals inside that matrix. The mechanical characterization of the polymer-based composites was performed. Incorporating EAF slag particles raises the Young's modulus and the tensile strength at yield, whereas elongation at break and the impact strength of the polymer-based composite are significantly reduced only when large amounts of filler are added, i.e., 30% or more.

  16. Perspectives in the selection of hyaluronic acid fillers for facial wrinkles and aging skin.

    PubMed

    John, Hannah E; Price, Richard D

    2009-01-01

    Aesthetic surgery is, in the USA at least, no longer a taboo subject. Outside North America, public acceptance continues to grow as more procedures are performed each year. While there appears, anecdotally, to be a decrease in patients undergoing cosmetic treatments because of the global financial crisis, the overall trend remains upward. Although popular television programs espouse the benefits of surgery, it is nonsurgical procedures that account, numerically, for the majority of procedures performed; in the USA, there was a 48% growth from 2000 to 2008 in nonsurgical treatments undertaken by women, and 64% in men and while the average surgeon might perform 60 blepharoplasty operations in 2007, (s)he would also undertake 375 botulinum injections, and almost 200 filler injections of varying sorts. Clearly there is enthusiasm for nonsurgical treatments, and this trend appears to be rising. With this in mind, we present an overview of the commonest filler injection material, hyaluronic acid. We present the mechanism of action, the purported risks and benefits, and briefly discuss technique. PMID:19936165

  17. Lip Injection Techniques Using Small-Particle Hyaluronic Acid Dermal Filler.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Annie; Fabi, Sabrina; Dayan, Steven; Nogueira, Alessandra

    2016-09-01

    The shape and fullness of the lips have a significant role in facial aesthetics and outward appearance. The corrective needs of a patient can range from a subtle enhancement to a complete recontouring including correction of perioral rhytides. A comprehensive understanding of the lower face anatomical features and injection site techniques are foundational information for injectors. Likewise, the choice of filler material contributes to the success of the injection techniques used, and facilitates a safe, effective, and natural appearing outcome. The small-particle HA 20 mg/mL with lidocaine 0.3% (SP-HAL, Restylane® Silk; Galderma Laboratories, Fort Worth, Texas) is indicated for submucosal implantation for lip augmentation and dermal implantation for correction of perioral rhytides. Due to its rheological properties and smaller particle size, SP-HAL is a well-suited filler for the enhancement and correction of lip shape and volume, as well as for the correction of very fine perioral rhytides. This work is a combined overview of techniques found in the current literature and recommendations provided by contributing authors.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(9):1076-1082. PMID:27602969

  18. Composite membranes for alkaline electrolysis based on polysulfone and mineral fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnat, Dariusz; Schlupp, Meike; Wichser, Adrian; Lothenbach, Barbara; Gorbar, Michal; Züttel, Andreas; Vogt, Ulrich F.

    2015-09-01

    Mineral-based membranes for high temperature alkaline electrolysis were developed by a phase inversion process with polysulfone as binder. The long-term stability of new mineral fillers: wollastonite, forsterite and barite was assessed by 8000 h-long leaching experiments (5.5 M KOH, 85 °C) combined with thermodynamic modelling. Barite has released only 6.22 10-4 M of Ba ions into the electrolyte and was selected as promising filler material, due to its excellent stability. Barite-based membranes, prepared by the phase inversion process, were further studied. The resistivity of these membranes in 5.5 M KOH was investigated as a function of membrane thickness and total porosity, hydrodynamic porosity as well as gas purities determined by conducting electrolysis at ambient conditions. It was found that a dense top layer resulting from the phase inversion process, shows resistivity values up to 451.0 ± 22 Ω cm, which is two orders of magnitude higher than a porous bulk membrane microstructure (3.89 Ω cm). Developed membranes provided hydrogen purity of 99.83 at 200 mA cm-2, which is comparable to previously used chrysotile membranes and higher than commercial state-of-the-art Zirfon 500utp membrane. These cost-effective polysulfone - barite membranes are promising candidates as asbestos replacement for commercial applications.

  19. Perpendicular Strut Injection of Hyaluronic Acid Filler for Deep Wrinkles

    PubMed Central

    Mashiko, Takanobu; Kinoshita, Kahori; Kanayama, Koji; Feng, Jingwei

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Although various injection techniques of hyaluronic acid (HA) filler for facial rejuvenation have been developed, correction of deep wrinkles/grooves, such as the nasolabial fold (NLF), with intradermal or subdermal injections remains difficult. We tested the intradermal HA injection method to place multiple HA struts by (1) inserting a small needle perpendicularly to the wrinkle and (2) injecting HA as intradermal struts with the skin fully stretched by the practitioner’s fingers. The results of both NLFs in 10 patients suggest that this technique improves NLFs and maintain the effects more consistently than conventional techniques, although the effects of both methods were almost lost after 6 months. Selective and/or combined application of this technique may enhance the current approach to facial rejuvenation with dermal fillers. PMID:26893992

  20. Perpendicular Strut Injection of Hyaluronic Acid Filler for Deep Wrinkles.

    PubMed

    Mashiko, Takanobu; Kinoshita, Kahori; Kanayama, Koji; Feng, Jingwei; Yoshimura, Kotaro

    2015-11-01

    Although various injection techniques of hyaluronic acid (HA) filler for facial rejuvenation have been developed, correction of deep wrinkles/grooves, such as the nasolabial fold (NLF), with intradermal or subdermal injections remains difficult. We tested the intradermal HA injection method to place multiple HA struts by (1) inserting a small needle perpendicularly to the wrinkle and (2) injecting HA as intradermal struts with the skin fully stretched by the practitioner's fingers. The results of both NLFs in 10 patients suggest that this technique improves NLFs and maintain the effects more consistently than conventional techniques, although the effects of both methods were almost lost after 6 months. Selective and/or combined application of this technique may enhance the current approach to facial rejuvenation with dermal fillers. PMID:26893992

  1. Complications of facial fillers: resource implications for NHS hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Hachach-Haram, Nadine; Gregori, Marco; Kirkpatrick, Niall; Young, Richard; Collier, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Facial rejuvenation seeks to reverse the negative sequelae of multiple factors but most importantly of genetic predisposition, sun damage and smoking. With the advent of the so-called ‘non-surgical’ techniques, and perhaps fuelled by these austere times, volumetric facial augmentation using dermal fillers has soared in popularity among both patients and practitioners. However, legislation has yet to keep pace with the change in clinical practices leaving patients poorly informed and with no protection against unscrupulous suppliers and unregulated practitioners. When things go wrong, patients often turn to the National Health Service (NHS) to rectify both the acute and chronic sequelae resulting in potentially difficult ethical and resource implications. Here, we report one of an increasing number of cases presenting to our NHS craniofacial service with acute filler-related complications. PMID:23362071

  2. Influence of limestone fillers on combustion characteristics of asphalt mortar for pavements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ke; Zhu, Kai; Wu, Hao; Han, Jun; Wang, Jin-Chang; Huang, Zhi-Yi; Liang, Pei

    2014-07-01

    Asphalt materials will be ignited and release significant toxic fumes within tunnel fires. Thus, combustion characteristics of asphalt materials used in road tunnel should be studied in order to limit such an adverse effect. In the present work we study the influence of limestone fillers on combustion characteristics of asphalt mortar by thermogravimetric and kinetic analysis. It is shown that the combustion of asphalt mortar is not just a linear superposition of asphalt and limestone. The limestone will increase the ignition point and the activation energy of the primary volatile release, and will catalyze the char formation from the primary volatile release. Kinetic analysis shows that the primary volatile release stage of asphalt mortar combustion can be explained by a three-dimensional diffusion model, the secondary volatile release and char combustion stage can be explained by a model under the assumption of random nucleation and nuclei growth, whereas the limestone decomposition stage appears to follow the one-dimensional phase boundary model.

  3. Polymer Filler Aging and Failure Studied by Lateral Force Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ratto, T; Saab, A P

    2009-05-27

    In the present work, we study, via force microscopy, the basic physical interactions of a single bead of silica filler with a PDMS matrix both before and after exposure to gamma radiation. Our goal was to confirm our results from last year, and to explore force microscopy as a means of obtaining particle-scale polymer/filler interactions suitable for use as empirical inputs to a computational model consisting of an ensemble of silica beads embedded in a PDMS matrix. Through careful calibration of a conventional atomic force microscope, we obtained both normal and lateral force data that was fitted to yield adhesion, surface shear modulus, and friction of a 1 {micro}m silica bead in contact with PDMS layers of various thickness. Comparison of these terms before and after gamma exposure indicated that initially, radiation exposure lead to softening of the PDMS, but eventually resulted in stiffening. Simultaneously, adhesion between the polymer and silica decreased. This could indicate a serious failure path for filled PDMS exposed to radiation, whereby stiffening of the bulk polymer leads to loss of compressive elastic behavior, while a decrease in polymer filler adhesion results in an increased likelihood of stress failure under load. In addition to further testing of radiation damaged polymers, we also performed FEA modeling of silica beads in a silicone matrix using the shear modulus and adhesion values isolated from the force microscopy experiments as model inputs. The resulting simulation indicated that as a polymer stiffens due to impinging radiation, it also undergoes weakening of adhesion to the filler. The implication is that radiation induces a compound failure mode in filled polymer systems.

  4. Long-term complications associated with permanent dermal fillers.

    PubMed

    Kunjur, Jayanth; Witherow, Helen

    2013-12-01

    We report a case series of patients with serious long-term complications associated with the injection of permanent dermal fillers. Although such complications are relatively rare, the consequences are potentially life-long, and the psychological and medical effects can often have a profound impact on the patient. The continued routine offering of these treatments will require doctors to communicate effectively with patients about the nature of the complications and the probability of risk compared with alternative treatments. PMID:23962591

  5. The Aging Face: Global Approach With Fillers and Neuromodulators.

    PubMed

    Solish, Nowell

    2016-06-01

    The goal of treating the aging face is to restore facial balance and modify shadows. A facial evaluation should focus on areas of volume loss and opportunities to use neuromodulators (eg, botulinum toxin A) and the use of fillers. A thorough understanding of facial anatomy, including muscles, nerves, bone, and fat pads, is essential for effective and safe treatment. Semin Cutan Med Surg 35(supp6):S120-S121. PMID:27537350

  6. Nanostructures and dynamics of macromolecules bound to attractive filler surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga, Tad; Barkley, Deborah; Jiang, Naisheng; Endoh, Maya; Masui, Tomomi; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Nagao, Michihiro; Satija, Sushil; Taniguchi, Takashi

    We report in-situ nanostructures and dynamics of polybutadiene (PB) chains bound to carbon black (CB) fillers (the so-called ``bound polymer layer (BPL)'') in a good solvent. The BPL on the CB fillers were extracted by solvent leaching of a CB-filled PB compound and subsequently dispersed in deuterated toluene to label the BPL for small-angle neutron scattering and neutron spin echo techniques. Intriguingly, the results demonstrate that the BPL is composed of two regions regardless of molecular weights of PB: the inner unswollen region of ~ 0.5 nm thick and outer swollen region where the polymer chains display a parabolic profile with a diffuse tail. This two-layer formation on the filler surface is similar to that reported for polymer chains adsorbed on planar substrates from melts. In addition, the results show that the dynamics of the swollen bound chains can be explained by the so-called ``breathing mode'' and is generalized with the thickness of the swollen BPL. Furthermore, we will discuss how the breathing collective dynamics is affected by the presence of polymer chains in a matrix solution. We acknowledge the financial support from NSF Grant No. CMMI-1332499.

  7. NANOSCALE BOEHMITE FILLER FOR CORROSION AND WEAR RESISTANT POLYPHENYLENESULFIDE COATINGS.

    SciTech Connect

    SUGAMA,T.

    2003-06-26

    The authors evaluated the usefulness of nanoscale boehmite crystals as a filler for anti-wear and anti-corrosion polyphenylenesulfide (PPS) coatings exposed to a very harsh, 300 C corrosive geothermal environment. The boehmite fillers dispersed uniformly into the PPS coating, conferring two advanced properties: First, they reduced markedly the rate of blasting wear; second, they increased the PPS's glass transition temperature and thermal decomposition temperature. The wear rate of PPS surfaces was reduced three times when 5wt% boehmite was incorporated into the PPS. During exposure for 15 days at 300 C, the PPS underwent hydrothermal oxidation, leading to the substitution of sulfide linkages by the sulfite linkages. However, such molecular alteration did not significantly diminish the ability of the coating to protect carbon steel against corrosion. In fact, PPS coating filled with boehmite of {le} 5wt% adequately mitigated its corrosion in brine at 300 C. One concern in using this filler was that it absorbs brine. Thus, adding an excess amount of boehmite was detrimental to achieving the maximum protection afforded by the coatings.

  8. Electrically insulating thermal nano-oils using 2D fillers.

    PubMed

    Taha-Tijerina, Jaime; Narayanan, Tharangattu N; Gao, Guanhui; Rohde, Matthew; Tsentalovich, Dmitri A; Pasquali, Matteo; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2012-02-28

    Different nanoscale fillers have been used to create composite fluids for applications such as thermal management. The ever increasing thermal loads in applications now require advanced operational fluids, for example, high thermal conductivity dielectric oils in transformers. These oils require excellent filler dispersion, high thermal conduction, but also electrical insulation. Such thermal oils that conform to this thermal/electrical requirement, and yet remain in highly suspended stable state, have not yet been synthesized. We report here the synthesis and characterization of stable high thermal conductivity Newtonian nanofluids using exfoliated layers of hexagonal boron nitride in oil without compromising its electrically insulating property. Two-dimensional nanosheets of hexagonal boron nitride are liquid exfoliated in isopropyl alcohol and redispersed in mineral oil, used as standard transformer oil, forming stable nanosuspensions with high shelf life. A high electrical resistivity, even higher than that of the base oil, is maintained for the nano-oil containing small weight fraction of the filler (0.01 wt %), whereas the thermal conductivity was enhanced. The low dissipation factor and high pour point for this nano-oil suggests several applications in thermal management. PMID:22268368

  9. Lymphedema fat graft: an ideal filler for facial rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Nicoli, Fabio; Chilgar, Ram M; Sapountzis, Stamatis; Lazzeri, Davide; Sze Wei, Matthew Yeo; Ciudad, Pedro; Nicoli, Marzia; Lim, Seong Yoon; Chen, Pei-Yu; Constantinides, Joannis; Chen, Hung-Chi

    2014-09-01

    Lymphedema is a chronic disorder characterized by lymph stasis in the subcutaneous tissue. Lymphatic fluid contains several components including hyaluronic acid and has many important properties. Over the past few years, significant research has been performed to identify an ideal tissue to implant as a filler. Because of its unique composition, fat harvested from the lymphedema tissue is an interesting topic for investigation and has significant potential for application as a filler, particularly in facial rejuvenation. Over a 36-month period, we treated and assessed 8 patients with lymphedematous limbs who concurrently underwent facial rejuvenation with lymphedema fat (LF). We conducted a pre- and post-operative satisfaction questionnaire survey and a histological assessment of the harvested LF fat. The overall mean general appearance score at an average of 6 months after the procedure was 7.2±0.5, demonstrating great improvement. Patients reported significant improvement in their skin texture with a reading of 8.5±0.7 and an improvement in their self-esteem. This study demonstrates that LF as an ideal autologous injectable filler is clinically applicable and easily available in patients with lymphedema. We recommend the further study and clinical use of this tissue as it exhibits important properties and qualities for future applications and research. PMID:25276654

  10. Battery plate containing filler with conductive coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    The plate (10) comprises a matrix or binder resin phase (12) in which is dispersed particulate, conductive tin oxide such as tin oxide coated glass fibers (14). A monopolar plate (11) is prepared by coating a layer (18) of electrolytically active material onto a surface of the plate (10). Tin oxide is prevented from reduction by coating a surface of the plate (10) with a conductive, impervious layer resistant to reduction such as a thin film (22) of lead adhered to the plate with a layer (21) of conductive adhesive. The plate (10) can be formed by casting a molten dispersion from mixer (36) onto a sheet (30) of lead foil or by passing an assembly of a sheet (41) of resin, a sheet (43) of fiberglass and a sheet (45) of lead between the nip of heated rollers (48, 50).

  11. Battery plate containing filler with conductive coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    The plate (10) comprises a matrix or binder resin phase (12) in which is dispersed particulate, conductive tin oxide such as tin oxide coated glass fibers (14). A monopolar plate (11) is prepared by coating a layer (18) of electrolytically active material onto a surface of the plate (10). Tin oxide is prevented from reduction by coating a surface of the plate (10) with a conductive, impervious layer resistant to reduction such as a thin film (22) of lead adhered to the plate with a layer (21) of conductive adhesive. The plate (10) can be formed by casting a molten dispersion from mixer (36) onto a sheet (30) of lead foil or by passing an assembly of a sheet (41) of resin, a sheet (43) of fiberglass and a sheet (45) of lead between the nip of heated rollers (48, 50).

  12. Performance of polymeric insulating materials in salt-fog

    SciTech Connect

    Gorur, R.S.; Cherney, E.A.; Hackam, R.

    1987-04-01

    The paper presents the results of a study conducted on polymeric insulating materials in a salt-fog chamber. The materials examined include high temperature vulcanized (HTV) silicone rubber, ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) and cycloaliphatic epoxy. The influence of inorganic filler, type, concentration and dispersion and the magnitude of the electric stress on the tracking and erosion properties of the materials are reported under high salinity conditions. The presence of filler in EPR material is shown to enhance leakage current. Studies of filler dispersion by an energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) show non-uniformity in filler concentration where erosion or tracking is initiated. The mechanisms by which the filler operated to impart improved resistance to tracking or erosion is discussed through measurements of surface temperature, released gases, weight loss and leakage current.

  13. Waste oyster shell as a kind of active filler to treat the combined wastewater at an estuary.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hongbing; Huang, Gu; Fu, Xiaoying; Liu, Xiaoling; Zheng, Daocai; Peng, Jian; Zhang, Ke; Huang, Bo; Fan, Liangqian; Chen, Fenghui; Sun, Xiubo

    2013-10-01

    Estuaries have been described as one of the most difficult environments on Earth. It is difficult to know how to treat the combined wastewater in tidal rivers at the estuary, where the situation is very different from ordinary fresh water rivers. Waste oyster shell was used as the active filler in this study in a bio-contact oxidation tank to treat the combined wastewater at the Fengtang Tidal River. With a middle-experimental scale of 360 m3/day, the average removal efficiency of COD, BOD, NH3-N, TP and TSS was 80.05%, 85.02%, 86.59%, 50.58% and 85.32%, respectively, in this bio-contact oxidation process. The living microbes in the biofilms on the waste oyster shell in this bio-contact oxidation tank, which were mainly composed of zoogloea, protozoa and micro-metazoa species, revealed that waste oyster shell as the filler was suitable material for combined wastewater degradation. This treatment method using waste oyster shell as active filler was then applied in a mangrove demonstration area for water quality improvement near the experiment area, with a treatment volume of 5 x 10(3) m3/day. Another project was also successfully applied in a constructed wetland, with a wastewater treatment volume of 1 x 10(3) m3/day. This technology is therefore feasible and can easily be applied on a larger scale. PMID:24494491

  14. Transverse-Weld Tensile Properties of a New Al-4Cu-2Si Alloy as Filler Metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampath, K.

    2009-12-01

    AA2195, an Al-Cu-Li alloy in the T8P4 age-hardened condition, is a candidate aluminum armor for future combat vehicles, as this material offers higher static strength and ballistic protection than current aluminum armor alloys. However, certification of AA2195 alloy for armor applications requires initial qualification based on the ballistic performance of welded panels in the as-welded condition. Currently, combat vehicle manufacturers primarily use gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process to meet their fabrication needs. Unfortunately, a matching GMAW consumable electrode is currently not commercially available to allow effective joining of AA2195 alloy. This initial effort focused on an innovative, low-cost, low-risk approach to identify an alloy composition suitable for effective joining of AA2195 alloy, and evaluated transverse-weld tensile properties of groove butt joints produced using the identified alloy. Selected commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) aluminum alloy filler wires were twisted to form candidate twisted filler rods. Representative test weldments were produced using AA2195 alloy, candidate twisted filler rods and gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process. Selected GTA weldments produced using Al-4wt.%Cu-2wt.%Si alloy as filler metal consistently provided transverse-weld tensile properties in excess of 275 MPa (40 ksi) UTS and 8% El (over 25 mm gage length), thereby showing potential for acceptable ballistic performance of as-welded panels. Further developmental work is required to evaluate in detail GMAW consumable wire electrodes based on the Al-Cu-Si system containing 4.2-5.0 wt.% Cu and 1.6-2.0 wt.% Si.

  15. Development of novel multifunctional biobased polymer composites with tailored conductive network of micro-and-nano-fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Siu N.; Ghaffari, Shahriar; Naguib, Hani E.

    2013-04-01

    Biobased/green polymers and nanotechnology warrant a multidisciplinary approach to promote the development of the next generation of materials, products, and processes that are environmentally sustainable. The scientific challenge is to find the suitable applications, and thereby to create the demand for large scale production of biobased/green polymers that would foster sustainable development of these eco-friendly materials in contrast to their petroleum/fossil fuel derived counterparts. In this context, this research aims to investigate the synergistic effect of green materials and nanotechnology to develop a new family of multifunctional biobased polymer composites with promoted thermal conductivity. For instance, such composite can be used as a heat management material in the electronics industry. A series of parametric studies were conducted to elucidate the science behind materials behavior and their structure-toproperty relationships. Using biobased polymers (e.g., polylactic acid (PLA)) as the matrix, heat transfer networks were developed and structured by embedding hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) in the PLA matrix. The use of hybrid filler system, with optimized material formulation, was found to promote the composite's effective thermal conductivity by 10-folded over neat PLA. This was achieved by promoting the development of an interconnected thermally conductive network through structuring hybrid fillers. The thermally conductive composite is expected to afford unique opportunities to injection mold three-dimensional, net-shape, lightweight, and eco-friendly microelectronic enclosures with superior heat dissipation performance.

  16. Effect of presilanization filler decontamination on aesthetics and degradation resistance of resin composites.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Shirai, Kenichi; Shintani, Hideaki; Okazaki, Masayuki; Suzuki, Kazuomi; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2002-12-01

    Filler-matrix coupling determines, to a large extent, the mechanical strength and clinical longevity of dental composites. The aim of this study was to examine how far a methodology to decontaminate filler prior to silanization may improve aesthetic performance in addition to physico-mechanical properties such as degradation resistance. It was reported that filler particles are surrounded and wrapped by a film that consists of multiple layers of silane molecules. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, however, revealed that silanization of filler particles largely depended upon siloxane bridge (Si-O-Si) formation between the silica surface and the silane molecule rather than on intermolecular bonding between adjacent silane molecules. In this study, we showed that filler decontamination resulted in a higher translucency, thereby providing a better aesthetic potential. In addition, experimental composites produced following presilanization decontamination of filler revealed a higher Vickers hardness value and a diametral tensile strength that was resistant to degradation by thermo-cycling. PMID:12608427

  17. New fillers under consideration: what is the future of injectable aesthetics?

    PubMed

    Rivkin, Alexander

    2009-05-01

    The past 5 years in the United States have seen an explosion in the popularity of noninvasive aesthetic procedures. Not only have fillers and Botox turned out to be fantastically reliable and effective aesthetic tools, but also they have vastly expanded the accessibility of cosmetic procedures. Our cosmetic filler options are growing quickly as more and more fillers are coming before the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), seeking entry into the lucrative U.S. market. This article outlines the approval process that foreign fillers go through in their home countries and gives an idea of the fillers that are currently under consideration by the FDA. As our armamentarium of injectable fillers grows, it will be essential to know each product's strengths and weaknesses so that we can provide our patients with the best possible aesthetic results. PMID:19415580

  18. Brazing of copper to stainless steel with a low-silver-content brazing filler metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukikoshi, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Yūki; Miyazawa, Yasuyuki; Kanasaki, Fumio

    2014-08-01

    The brazing of copper to stainless steel (SUS304 JIS) was performed using a low- silver-content brazing filler metal, Ag-50Cu, under an Ar gas atmosphere with a conventional furnace, owing to the potential economic benefits of using low-silver-content filler metals. The brazeability of the low-silver-content brazing filler metal to copper and SUS304 was investigated. A good joint was obtained, and a drastic dissolution reaction occurred at the copper side. Molten BAg8 penetrated along the crystal grain boundary of the copper base metal when BAg8 was used as the filler metal. This was caused by the dissolution of Ni from the stainless steel into the molten filler metal. Ag-50Cu, which was investigated in this work, can be used instead of BAg8 filler metal.

  19. An Overview of Vascular Adverse Events Associated With Facial Soft Tissue Fillers: Recognition, Prevention, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Ferneini, Elie M; Ferneini, Antoine M

    2016-08-01

    Minimally invasive facial cosmetic surgery procedures have seen an exponential increase in numbers over the past decade. The most commonly performed procedures are neuromodulator and soft tissue filler procedures. Although soft tissue fillers have a high safety and predictability profile, these procedures recently have been associated with serious and dire adverse events. This article will discuss some of the vascular complications associated with facial soft tissue fillers. Management and prevention of these adverse events also will be discussed. PMID:27067061

  20. Increasing the wear resistance of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene by adding solid lubricating fillers

    SciTech Connect

    Panin, S. V.; Kornienko, L. A.; Poltaranin, M. A.; Ivanova, L. R.; Suan, T. Nguen

    2014-11-14

    In order to compare effectiveness of adding solid lubricating fillers for polymeric composites based on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) with graphite, molybdenum disulfide and polytetrafluoroethylene, their tribotechnical characteristics under dry friction, boundary lubrication and abrasive wearing were investigated. The optimal weight fractions of fillers in terms of improving wear resistance have been determined. The supramolecular structure and topography of wear track surfaces of UHMWPE-based composites with different content of fillers have been studied.

  1. Physical-mechanical properties of Bis-EMA based root canal sealer with different fillers addition

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Marcela Oliveira; Branco Leitune, Vicente Castelo; Bohn, Priscila Veit; Werner Samuel, Susana Maria; Collares, Fabrício Mezzomo

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate influence of three different filler particles on an experimental Bisphenol A ethoxylated dimethacrylate (Bis-EMA) based root filling material. Materials and Methods: Resin-based endodontic sealers were produced using Bis-EMA, camphorquinone, ethyl 4-dimethylaminobenzoate (EDAB), N, N-dihydroxyethyl-p-toluidine (DHEPT), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and benzoyl peroxide. The experimental groups were formulated adding 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% of calcium tungstate (CaWO4), ytterbium trifluoride(YbF3), and tantalum oxide(Ta2O5). Flow, thickness, and radiopacity tests were conducted in accordance with ISO 6876. Sorption and solubility (SL) tests were conducted in accordance with ISO 4049, pH was measured with a pH meter, and degree of conversion (DC) was evaluated with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). For radiopacity, two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's multiple comparison test was performed. For DC analysis, one-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparison test was performed. All statistical analyses were performed with a significance level of 5%. Results: All groups showed lower flow with increased filler concentration. All groups showed film thickness values lower than 50μm, as ISO recommends, except CaWO450% group (76.7μm). pH values varied from 5.95 (± 0.07) in YbF340% group to 6.90 (± 0.07) in Ta2O540% group. In the radiopacity test, YbF330%, Ta2O540%, and Ta2O550% groups showed no statistical significant difference to 3mmAl. Ta2O5 and YbF3 groups in 10, 20, and 30% concentrations presented sorption and SL values as ISOrecommendation. Addition ofTa2O5 and CaWO4 decreased DC after 14 days. YbF3 addition showed no difference in DC from control group. Conclusion: YbF3 filler addition promoted higher properties compared to CaWO4 and Ta2O5 on Bis-EMA based root canal sealer. PMID:26069410

  2. The interaction between the permanent magnet and ceramic superconductor with organic filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woźny, L.; Kisiel, A.; Garbera, A.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the phenomenon of magnetic levitation for YBaCuO superconducting samples in pure form and with epoxy resin content of 40%. Samples of superconductors were prepared by the standard reaction in the solid state. The forces of interaction between the superconductor and neodymium permanent magnet were measured. Samples with epoxy resin fillers had significantly smaller levitation force than the sample of the sintered superconductors. This is due to a much lower content of pure superconducting material in the sample volume (about 60% of the YBaCuO). However, the obvious advantage of such samples is the possibility of preparation superconductors with complicated shapes, eg. for use in a superconducting bearings or other devices.

  3. Chemical approaches to new coating and filler particles for paper technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partch, Richard

    1997-08-01

    Manufacturing technologies for making interactive paper have been steadily improving and have satisfied most present-day requirements of printers and other consumers. Features such as paper composition, color, texture, strength and chemical stability have been optimized through increased understanding of the chemical interactions between the raw material and additives. However, next generation higher-speed printing machines, the public's desire to read higher resolution print, and the need for better security papers are challenging chemists to develop new fillers for inks and paper. The latter are often dispersions of fine particles in a liquid or cellulose matrix. This presentation summarizes advances being made in the author's laboratory for preparing new and unique colloidal and coated particles having potential use by the paper and printing industry.

  4. In Vitro Cytokine Expression and In Vivo Healing and Inflammatory Response to a Collagen-Coated Synthetic Bone Filler

    PubMed Central

    Bollati, Daniele; Morra, Marco; Cassinelli, Clara; Lupi, Saturnino Marco; Rodriguez y Baena, Ruggero

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the present work was to investigate the relationship between in vivo healing and inflammatory response and in vitro cytokine expression by macrophages of a synthetic bone filler (25% hydroxylapatite-75% β-tricalcium phosphate) bearing a surface nanolayer of collagen. A clinically accepted, state-of-the-art xenograft material was used as a “negative control,” that is, as a material that provides the correct clinical response for the intended use. In vitro data show that both materials exert a very low stimulation of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages, and this was confirmed by the very mild inflammatory response detected in in vivo tests of local response in a rabbit model. Also, in vitro findings suggest a different mechanism of healing for the test and the control material, with a higher regenerative activity for the synthetic, resorbable filler, as confirmed by in vivo observation and literature reports. Thus, the simple in vitro model adopted provides a reasonable forecast of in vivo results, suggesting that new product development can be guided by in vitro tuning of cell-materials interactions. PMID:27195293

  5. Stress-Strain Relation of Tire Rubber Consist of Entangled Polymers, Fillers and Crosslink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagita, Katsumi; Bito, Y.; Minagawa, Y.; Omiya, M.; Morita, H.; Doi, M.; Takano, H.

    2009-03-01

    We presented a preliminary result of large scale coarse-grained Molecular Dynamics simulation of filled polymer melts with Sulfur-crosslink under an uni-axial deformation by using the Kremer-Grest Model. The size of simulation box under periodic boundary conditions (PBC) is set to about 66nm to consider length of entangled polymer chains, size and structure of fillers, and non-uniform distribution of crosslink. We put 640 polymer chains of 1024 particles and 32 fillers into the PBC box. Each filler consists of 1280 particles of the C1280 fullerene structure. A repulsive force from the center of the filler is applied to the particles. Here, the particles of the fillers are chosen to be the same as the particles of the polymers and the diameter of the filler is about 15nm. The distribution of the fillers used in this simulation is provided by the result of 2d pattern RMC analysis for 2D-USAXS experiments at SPring-8. Sulfur crosslink are randomly distributed in the system. It is found that stress-strain curves estimated by applying a certain uni-axial deformation to the system in simulations are in good agreement with those in experiments. It is successful to show difference on the S-S curve between existence / absence of fillers and qualitative dependence of attractive force between polymer and filler.

  6. Suspect filler similarity in eyewitness lineups: a literature review and a novel methodology.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Ryan J; Oriet, Chris; Price, Heather L

    2015-02-01

    Eyewitness lineups typically contain a suspect (guilty or innocent) and fillers (known innocents). The degree to which fillers should resemble the suspect is a complex issue that has yet to be resolved. Previously, researchers have voiced concern that eyewitnesses would be unable to identify their target from a lineup containing highly similar fillers; however, our literature review suggests highly similar fillers have only rarely been shown to have this effect. To further examine the effect of highly similar fillers on lineup responses, we used morphing software to create fillers of moderately high and very high similarity to the suspect. When the culprit was in the lineup, a higher correct identification rate was observed in moderately high similarity lineups than in very high similarity lineups. When the culprit was absent, similarity did not yield a significant effect on innocent suspect misidentification rates. However, the correct rejection rate in the moderately high similarity lineup was 20% higher than in the very high similarity lineup. When choosing rates were controlled by calculating identification probabilities for only those who made a selection from the lineup, culprit identification rates as well as innocent suspect misidentification rates were significantly higher in the moderately high similarity lineup than in the very high similarity lineup. Thus, very high similarity fillers yielded costs and benefits. Although our research suggests that selecting the most similar fillers available may adversely affect correct identification rates, we recommend additional research using fillers obtained from police databases to corroborate our findings. PMID:24955851

  7. Avoiding Malar Edema During Midface/Cheek Augmentation with Dermal Fillers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    As dermal fillers have evolved, volume restoration and contour enhancement have become the objective of advanced injectors. The value of injections of dermal fillers into the midface is well documented in the literature. However, the midface, particularly the infraorbital hollow, is the facial area most prone to adverse events from filler treatment. Malar edema is a particularly significant and long-lasting untoward event that is frequently reported. This article reviews the anatomic basis for malar edema, relates it to filler injection technique, and presents the author's preferred method of injection to help ensure avoidance of this adverse event. PMID:22191006

  8. B218 Weld Filler Wire Characterization for Al-Li Alloy 2195

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorkman, Gerry; Russell, Carolyn

    2000-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Lockheed Martin Space Systems- Michoud Operations, and McCook Metals have developed an aluminum-copper weld filler wire for fusion welding aluminum lithium alloy 2195. The aluminum-copper based weld filler wire has been identified as B218, a McCook Metals designation. B218 is the result of six years of weld filler wire development funded by NASA, Lockheed Martin, and McCook Metals. The filler wire chemistry was developed to produce enhanced 2195 weld and repair weld mechanical properties over the 4043 aluminum-silicon weld filler wire, which is currently used to weld 2195 on the Super Lightweight External Tank for the NASA Space Shuttle Program. An initial characterization was performed consisting of a repair weld evaluation using B218 and 4043 weld filler wires. The testing involved room temperature and cryogenic repair weld tensile testing along with fracture toughness testing. From the testing, B218 weld filler wire produce enhanced repair weld tensile strength, ductility, and fracture properties over 4043. B218 weld filler wire has proved to be a superior weld filler wire for welding aluminum lithium alloy 2195 over 4043.

  9. Aluminum Lithium Alloy 2195 Fusion Welding Improvements with New Filler Wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Carolyn; Bjorkman, Gerry; McCool, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation outlines NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Lockheed Martin Michoud Space Systems, and McCook Metals' development an aluminum-copper weld filler wire for fusion welding 2195 aluminum lithium. The aluminum-copper based weld filler wire has been identified as B218, which is the result of six years of weld filler wire development funded by NASA, Lockheed Martin, and McCook Metals. The Super Lightweight External Tank for the NASA Space Shuttle Program consists of 2195 welded with 4043 aluminum-silicon weld filler wire. The B218 filler wire chemistry was developed to produce enhanced 2195 weld and repair weld mechanical properties. An initial characterization of the B218 weld filler wire was performed consisting of initial weld and repair weld evaluation comparing B218 and 4043. The testing involved room temperature and cryogenic tensile testing along with fracture toughness testing. B218 weld filler wire proved to produce enhanced initial and repair weld tensile and fracture properties over 4043. B218 weld filler wire has proved to be a superior weld filler wire for welding 2195 and other aluminum lithium alloys over 4043.

  10. Preparation and Characterization of N-Halamine-based Antimicrobial Fillers

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabhuni, Revathi V.; Luo, Jie; Cao, Zhengbing; Sun, Yuyu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that the surface of CaCO3 fillers could be coated with an N-halamine based fatty acid to make the filler surface organophilic and accomplish antibacterial activity simultaneously, rendering the resulting polymer-filler composites antimicrobial. Thus, a new bi-functional compound, 4, 4 -Dimethyl hydantoin-undecanoic acid (DMH-UA), was synthesized by treating the potassium salt of dimethyl hydantoin (DMH) with 11-bromoundecanoic acid (BUA). Upon chlorination treatment with diluted bleach, DMH-UA was transformed into 3-chloro-4, 4-dimethyl hydantoin- undecanoic acid (Cl-DMH-UA). Alternatively, DMH-UA could be coated onto the surface of CaCO3 to obtain the corresponding calcium salt, 4, 4-dimethyl hydantoin-undecanoic acid-calcium carbonate (DMH-UA-CaCO3). In the presence of diluted chlorine bleach, the coated DMH-UA on the surface of CaCO3 was transformed into Cl-DMH-UA, leading to the formation of Cl-DMH-UA-CaCO3. The reactions were characterized with FT-IR, NMR, UV, DSC and SEM analyses. Both Cl-DMH-UA and Cl-DMH-UA-CaCO3 were used as antimicrobial additives for cellulose acetate (CA). The antimicrobial efficacy of the resulting samples was evaluated against both Escherichia coli (Gram-negative bacteria) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive bacteria). It was found that with the same additive content, CA samples with Cl-DMH-UA-CaCO3 and Cl-DMH-UA had very similar antimicrobial and biofilm-controlling activity, but the former released less active chlorine into the surrounding environment than the latter. PMID:22942559

  11. 46 CFR 56.70-5 - Material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2) and 46 CFR 57.02-5. (b) Backing rings. When metallic backing... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Material. 56.70-5 Section 56.70-5 Shipping COAST GUARD..., Assembly and Erection § 56.70-5 Material. (a) Filler metal. All filler metal, including consumable...

  12. 46 CFR 56.70-5 - Material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2) and 46 CFR 57.02-5. (b) Backing rings. When metallic backing... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Material. 56.70-5 Section 56.70-5 Shipping COAST GUARD..., Assembly and Erection § 56.70-5 Material. (a) Filler metal. All filler metal, including consumable...

  13. 46 CFR 56.70-5 - Material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2) and 46 CFR 57.02-5. (b) Backing rings. When metallic backing... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Material. 56.70-5 Section 56.70-5 Shipping COAST GUARD..., Assembly and Erection § 56.70-5 Material. (a) Filler metal. All filler metal, including consumable...

  14. Filler Wire Development for 2195 Aluminum-Lithium. Pt. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorkman, Gerald W.; Cho, Alex

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the research was to determine the susceptibility of submitted welded 2195 plate in an AI (Alternate Immersion) environment. Forty-day AI exposure was completed on 8 welded 2195 stress corrosion samples. No stress corrosion cracking (SCC) was found on any of the samples tested. All 8 samples experienced exfoliation corrosion attack in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) adjacent to the weld. All samples were examined metallographically and showed varying degrees of intergranular corrosion (IG). The filler metal on all samples showed moderate to heavy pitting.

  15. An experimental study of the PTC properties of polymers with carbon black fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jianlian

    The Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC) phenomenon, first discovered by Harman in 1957, is defined as the sharp increase of the electrical resistivity of the material with temperature, especially at the Curie transition temperature. Polymeric PTC materials have been widely used since 1975 as self-regulating components, over current or over heat protectors, sensors, etc. In this project a detailed study of polymeric PTC materials has been carried out. Polymeric PTC materials consist of a non-conducting polymeric phase in which conductive particles, such as CB's, are added. Previously most of the studies of the polymer matrices of PTC materials were limited to single component semi-crystalline polymers, such as HDPE, LDPE, EVA etc. In this work, the PTC effects of carbon black filled binary polymer blends, such as LDPE/EPDM, HDPD/EPDM, HDPE/EVA, etc. are mainly studied. For the LDPE/EPDM/CB system, it is found that the PTC intensity of the blends after gamma-ray irradiation increases by almost 5 orders of magnitude compared with that of irradiated LDPE/CB compound. This increase in PTC intensity is due to the greater thermal expansion coefficient of the rubber (EPDM) phase. In addition, a comparison of E-beam and gamma-ray irradiation is made and the resulting effect on the PTC properties of LDPE/EPDM/CB blends is studied in detail. It is found that with higher dose of gamma-ray, the material undergoes significant radiation damage, while irradiation with E-beam prevents radiation damage due to shorter exposure time. The influence of using treated carbon blacks on the PTC/NTC effects of the composites is also studied. The polymer blends filled with oxidized carbon black display higher PTC intensity followed by a weaker NTC effect, which is due to stronger interactions between oxidized CB's & polymer. It is concluded that strong interactions between polymers and fillers suppress the NTC effect. Finally ESR analysis is used to study the interactions between the

  16. Design and fabrication of polymeric nanocomposites with conducting fillers as electronic nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushibe, Eliud Kizito

    The growing demand for small, portable and high performance electronic devices has resulted in research activity for embedded electronic components. This offers prospects for the development of flexible electronic components that combines the use of organic and inorganic materials and can be produced on a roll-to-roll process. This dissertation presents advances in the fabrication and characterization of flexible polymeric nanocomposite thin films. Inorganic and synthetic metal nanostructures with high electrical and dielectric properties were employed as filler materials. The processability of these functional filler materials was achieved by dispersion in conventional polymer matrices such as polystyrene (PS), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and poly(vinylidene fluoride) to afford electroactive polymeric composite materials. In the fabrication of inorganic nanostructures, a Tubes by Fiber Template technique was employed to afford submicron metal and metal oxide tubes. Silver and copper nanostructures were fabricated by electroless deposition on electrospun fiber templates. To obtain hollow, submicron tubes, the sacrificial polymer template materials were removed by a combination of solvent dissolution and thermal degradation under an inert atmosphere. Polyaniline thin film deposited on the fiber template was used as a binding interface to enhance uniform and continuous deposition of the metal. This was instrumental in fabricating tubes with varied wall thicknesses ranging from 50 to 300 nm obtained as a function of plating time. By doping electrically conducting polymers such as polyaniline, the conductivity can be modified. We describe the fabrication of highly conducting polyaniline nanostructures via template free synthesis. A novel approach that involves a combination of hydrochloric acid and camphorsulfonic acid dopant at low concentrations was adopted. This approach afforded nanofibers with diameters of 150 ± 50 nm and high electrical

  17. Effect of Zirconia and Alumina Fillers on the Microstructure and Mechanical Strength of Dental Glass Ionomer Cements

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Júlio C. M.; Silva, Joel B.; Aladim, Andrea; Carvalho, Oscar; Nascimento, Rubens M.; Silva, Filipe S.; Martinelli, Antonio E.; Henriques, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Background: Glass-ionomer cements perform a protective effect on the dentin-pulp complex considering the F ions release and chemical bonding to the dental structures. On the other hand, those materials have poor physic-mechanical properties in comparison with the restorative resin composite. The main aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of zirconia and/or alumina fillers on the microstructure and strength of a resin modified glass-ionomer cement after thermal cycling. Methods: An in vitro experimental study was carried out on 9 groups (n = 10) of cylindrical samples (6 x 4 mm) made from resin modified glass-ionomer (Vitremer, 3M, USA) with different contents of alumina and/or zirconia fillers. A nano-hybrid resin composite was tested as a control group. Samples were mechanically characterized by axial compressive tests and electron scanning microscopy (SEM) coupled to energy dispersive X-ray spectrophotometry (EDS), before and after thermal cycling. Thermal cycling procedures were performed at 3000, 6000 and 10000 cycles in Fusayama´s artificial saliva at 5 and 60 oC. Results: An improvement of compressive strength was noticed on glass-ionomer reinforced with alumina fillers in comparison with the commercial glass ionomer. SEM images revealed the morphology and distribution of alumina or zirconia in the microstructure of glass-ionomers. Also, defects such as cracks and pores were detected on the glass-ionomer cements. The materials tested were not affected by thermal cycling in artificial saliva. Conclusion: Addition of inorganic particles at nano-scale such as alumina can increase the mechanical properties of glass-ionomer cements. However, the presence of cracks and pores present in glass-ionomer can negatively affect the mechanical properties of the material because they are areas of stress concentration. PMID:27053969

  18. High temperature silver-palladium-copper oxide air braze filler metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darsell, Jens Tommy

    The Ag-CuO system is currently being investigated as the basis for an air braze filler metal alloy to be used in SOFC components. The system is of interest because unlike most braze alloys, it is capable of wetting a variety of ceramic materials while being applied in an air. This thesis work examined modification of Ag-CuO filler metal system by alloying with palladium to increase the use temperature of the resulting air braze alloy. Thermal analysis was performed to track changes in the solidus and liquidus temperatures for these alloys and determine equilibrium phase present as a function of temperature and composition. Sessile drop experiments were performed to investigate the effect of palladium addition on braze wetability. The influence of copper-oxide and palladium contents on brazed joint strength was characterized by a combination of four-point bend testing and fractography. From combined thermal analysis and quenched data it was found that both the liquidus and solidus increase with increasing palladium content, and the silver-rich miscibility gap boundary could be shifted by the addition of palladium. This was employed as a tool to study the effects of two-liquid phase formation on wetting behavior. In addition, a mass loss likely attributable to silver volatilization is observed in the Pd-modified filler metals when heated over ˜1100°C. As volatilization should be avoided, the ternary alloys should be limited to 15mol% Pd. It was found by sessile drop wetting experiments that there is a definitive change in wetting behavior that corresponds directly to the miscibility gap boundary for the Pd-Ag-CuO system. The first order transition tracks with changes in the miscibility gap boundary that can be induced by increasing palladium content. This is the first experimental evidence of critical point wetting behavior reported for a metal-oxide system and further confirms that critical point wetting theory is universal. Four-point bend testing and

  19. Nanostructured conductive polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saleh, Mohammed H.

    Conductive polymer composites (CPCs) are a suitable alternative to metals in many applications due to their light-weight, corrosion resistance, low cost, ease of processing and design flexibility. CPCs have been formulated using different types of conductive fillers. In this PhD thesis, the focus is on CPCs for electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection and electromagnetic interference (EMI) attenuation. Despite the versatility of conductive fillers, carbon black (CB) has been the dominant filler to make CPCs for ESD protection applications because CB/polymer composites have a cost advantage over all other CPCs. For EMI shielding, stainless steel fibres and metal coated fibers are the preferred fillers, however CPCs made of those fibers are not the dominant EMI shielding materials. Metal coated and polymer plated polymers are the most widely used EMI shielding options. The limited use of CPCs in the EMI shielding market is because the high filler loading required to formulate a composite with an adequate level of shielding remarkably increases the composite price. In order to increase the competitiveness of CPCs, percolation threshold should be minimized as much as possible and composites with high EMI shielding capabilities at low filler loading should be formulated because all conductive fillers are expensive compared to polymers. In this thesis, two different methodologies to reduce percolation threshold in CPCs have been successfully developed and a CPC with exceptional EMI shielding capability has been formulated using copper nanowires as conductive filler. The first percolation threshold reduction technique is based on the selective localization of CB at the interface of immiscible polymer blend. The technique requires adding a copolymer that prefers the blend's interface and for which CB nanoparticles has the highest affinity. The second method is based on producing a CPC powder and then using this powder as a conductive filler to produce composite by dry

  20. Whisker-reinforced bioactive composites containing calcium phosphate cement fillers: effects of filler ratio and surface treatments on mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Xu, H H; Quinn, J B

    2001-11-01

    Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) sets to form microporous solid hydroxyapatite with excellent osteoconductivity, but its brittleness and low strength prohibit use in stress-bearing locations. The aim of this study was to incorporate prehardened CPC particles and ceramic whiskers in a resin matrix to improve the strength and fracture resistance, and to investigate the effects of key microstructural variables on composite mechanical properties. Two types of whiskers were used: silicon nitride, and silicon carbide. The whiskers were surface-treated by fusing with silica and by silanization. The CPC particle fillers were either silanized or not silanized. Seven mass ratios of whisker-silica/CPC were mixed: 0:1 (no whisker-silica), 1:5, 1:2, 1:1, 2:1, 5:1, and 1:0 (no CPC). Each powder was blended with a bisphenol-a-glycidyl methacrylate-based resin to harden in 2 x 2 x 25 mm molds by two-part chemical curing. The specimens were tested in three-point flexure to measure strength, work-of-fracture (toughness), and elastic modulus. Two-way analysis of variance was used to analyze the data, and scanning electron microscopy was used to examine specimen fracture surfaces. The whisker-silica/CPC ratio had significant effects on composite properties (p < 0.001). When this ratio was increased from 0:1 to 1:0, the strength was increased by about three times, work-of-fracture by five times, and modulus by two times. Whisker surface treatments and CPC filler silanization also had significant effects (p < 0.001) on composite properties. Scanning electron microscopy revealed rough fracture surfaces for the whisker composites with steps and whisker pullout. Resin remnants were observed on the surfaces of the pulled-out whiskers, indicating strong whisker-matrix bonding. In conclusion, incorporating highly osteoconductive CPC fillers and ceramic whiskers yielded composites with substantially improved mechanical properties compared with composites filled with CPC particles without

  1. Thermal Conductivity of Polymer/Nano-filler Blends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghose, Sayata; Watson, Kent A.; Delozier, Donovan M.; Working, Dennis C.; Connell, John W.; Smith, Joseph G.; Sun, Y. P.; Lin, Y.

    2006-01-01

    To improve the thermal conductivity of an ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer, Elvax 260 was compounded with three carbon based nano-fillers. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), vapor grown carbon nanofibers (CNF) and expanded graphite (EG) were investigated. In an attempt to improve compatibility between the Elvax and nanofillers, MWCNTs and EGs were modified through non covalent and covalent attachment of alkyl groups. Ribbons were extruded to form samples in which the nanofillers were aligned, and samples were also fabricated by compression molding in which the nano-fillers were randomly oriented. The thermal properties were evaluated by DSC and TGA, and mechanical properties of the aligned samples were determined by tensile testing. The degree of dispersion and alignment of the nanoparticles were investigated using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. Thermal conductivity measurements were performed using a Nanoflash technique. The thermal conductivity of the samples was measured in both the direction of alignment as well as perpendicular to that direction. The results of this study will be presented.

  2. Patient factors influencing dermal filler complications: prevention, assessment, and treatment

    PubMed Central

    De Boulle, Koenraad; Heydenrych, Izolda

    2015-01-01

    While rare, complications do occur with the esthetic use of dermal fillers. Careful attention to patient factors and technique can do much to avoid these complications, and a well-informed practitioner can mitigate problems when they do occur. Since cosmetic surgery is usually an elective process, requested by the patient, clinical trials are complex to organize and run. For this reason, an international group of practicing physicians in the field of esthetics came together to share knowledge and to try and produce some informed guidance for their colleagues, considering the literature and also pooling their own extensive clinical experience. This manuscript aims to summarize the crucial aspects of patient selection, including absolute contraindications as well as situations that warrant caution, and also covers important considerations for the pre- and posttreatment periods as well as during the procedure itself. Guidance is given on both immediate and long-term management of adverse reactions. The majority of complications are related to accepting patients inappropriate for treatment or issues of sterility, placement, volume, and injection technique. It is clear that esthetic practitioners need an in-depth knowledge of all aspects of treatment with dermal fillers to achieve optimal outcomes for their patients. PMID:25926750

  3. Viscoelastic Properties of Rubber Composites Reinforced by Wheat Gluten and Wheat Starch Co-filler

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to different abilities of wheat gluten (WG) and wheat starch (WS) to increase the modulus of rubber composites, the composite properties can be adjusted by varying the ratio of WG to WS as a co-filler. This study shows that the co-filler composites became more temperature dependent as the WG co...

  4. Viscoelastic Properties of Rubber Composites Reinforced by Wheat Gluten and Starch Co-filler

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to different abilities of wheat gluten (WG) and wheat starch (WS) to increase the modulus of rubber composites, the composite properties can be adjusted by varying the ratio of WG to WS as a co-filler. This study shows that the co-filler composites became more temperature dependent as the WG co...

  5. In-situ photopolymerization and monitoring device for controlled shaping of tissue fillers, replacements, or implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmocker, Andreas M.; Khoushabi, Azadeh; Bourban, Pierre-Etienne; Schizas, Constantin; Pioletti, Dominique; Moser, Christophe

    2015-03-01

    Photopolymerization is a common tool to harden materials initially in a liquid state. A surgeon can directly trigger the solidification of a dental implant or a bone or tissue filler simply by illumination. Traditionally, photopolymerization has been used mainly in dentistry. Over the last decade advances in material development including a wide range of biocompatible gel- and cement-systems open up a new avenue for in-situ photopolymerization. However, at the device level, surgical endoscopic probes are required. We present a miniaturized light probe where a photoactive material can be 1) mixed, pressurized and injected 2) photopolymerized or photoactivated and 3) monitored during the chemical reaction. The device enables surgeries to be conducted through a hole smaller than 1 mm in diameter. Beside basic injection mechanics, the tool consists of an optical fiber guiding the light required for photopolymerization and for chemical analysis. Combining photorheology and fluorescence spectroscopy, the current state of the photopolymerization is inferred and monitored in real time. Biocompatible and highly tuneable Poly-Ethylene-Glycol (PEG) hydrogels were used as the injection material. The device was tested on a model for intervertebral disc replacement. Gels were successfully implanted into a bovine caudal model and mechanically tested in-vitro during two weeks. The photopolymerized gel was evaluated at the tissue level (adherence and mechanical properties of the implant), at the cellular level (biocompatibility and cytotoxicity) and ergonomic level (sterilization procedure and feasibility study). This paper covers the monitoring aspect of the device.

  6. Lower eyelid swelling as a late complication of Bio-Alcamid filler into the malar area

    PubMed Central

    Alsuhaibani, Adel H.; Alfawaz, Nawaf

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To report the late complications associated with permanent filler injections into the malar area for rejuvenation. Methods A retrospective case series of three patients who presented with lower eyelid swelling several years following injection of polyalkylimide (Bio-Alcamid) into the malar area. Results All patients presented with lower eyelid swelling which developed as a result of spontaneous migration of filler to the lower eyelid. Iatrogenic migration of the filler from the lower eyelid following a trial to remove resulted in an abscess formation which further complicated the removal. Conclusions Lower eyelid swelling may be one of the late complications associated with the permanent fillers into the malar area. An attempt at removal of filler by aspiration or bimanual expression may result in late migration of the product and the development of eyelid swelling. PMID:23960905

  7. Starch/rosin complexes for improving the interaction of mineral filler particles with cellulosic fibers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiujie; Qian, Xueren; Li, Jinsong; Lou, Shuang; Shen, Jing

    2015-03-01

    On the basis of inclusion complex formation of starch with small guest molecules, the concept of filler modification for papermaking by calcium-ion-induced deposition of starch/rosin complexes in the presence of filer particles was demonstrated. The rosin amount of 3% (on the basis of the dry weight of starch) induced effective starch deposition. Due to the cellulose-bondable nature of starch/rosin complexes, filler modification resulted in improved interaction of precipitated calcium carbonate particles with cellulosic fibers, leading to reduced negative impact of filler addition on paper strength. The efficiency of alkyl ketene dimer emulsion as an internal sizing agent for cellulosic paper was also improved as a result of filler modification. The concept demonstrated in this study may provide a useful alternative to the improvement of the use of mineral fillers in the paper industry. PMID:25498611

  8. Neocollagenesis in human tissue injected with a polycaprolactone-based dermal filler.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongseo Antonio; Van Abel, Daan

    2015-04-01

    A novel dermal filler containing polycaprolactone (PCL) has been introduced into the aesthetic market. A recently published study has shown that the PCL-based dermal filler induces neocollagenesis, a process associated with improvement in appearance of the skin, in rabbit tissue. In this pilot study, we investigated whether the PCL-based dermal filler induces neocollagenesis in human tissue by histological analysis. Two patients who were enrolled in the study, and were willing to undergo temple lifting surgery, were injected intra-dermally with the PCL-based dermal filler. Thirteen months post-injection, biopsies were obtained for subsequent histological analysis. Histological analysis of tissue obtained from the biopsies (13 months post-injection) revealed that the PCL-based dermal filler shows collagen formation around the PCL particles and, therefore, supports similar findings previously shown in rabbit tissue. In conclusion, PCL particles are maintained in their original state 13 months post-injection. PMID:25260139

  9. Filler frontier: what's new and heading West to the US market.

    PubMed

    Palm, Melanie D

    2014-12-01

    The amount of fillers approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in facial volume augmentation is diminutive in comparison to filler products employed worldwide. In the near future, several new hyaluronic acid filler products will be available to the United States market. Already approved fillers include Belotero Balance for fine lines, Juvéderm Voluma XC for midfacial volume loss replacement, and Restylane Silk for perioral lines and lip augmentation. Volbella, currently under FDA evaluation, will be used for fine-line correction and lip augmentation. The physiochemical properties, best practices, clinical uses, and side effects of these fillers are discussed. Additionally, evolving techniques such as the use of blunt-tipped microcannulas are explained. PMID:25830247

  10. Influence of carbon fillers on the thermal conductivity of Poly (methyl methacrylate)/carbon composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chawla, Komal; Chauhan, Alok P. S.

    2016-04-01

    In the present research on carbon polymer composites, the effects of variation of the concentration of conductive fillers on the thermal conductivity of the resultant composite were studied. Carbon powders in the form of Carbon Fibers (CF) (200µm), Carbon Black (CB) (30-100 nm) and Graphite (75-100µm) were being considered as conductive fillers in the Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix. Nielsen model was found to be the best proposed model that incorporated geometric configuration comprising of both the orientation and shape of fillers. It was established that the calculated values of thermal conductivity of PMMA composites with single fillers of CF were higher than those of CB followed by Graphite. Furthermore, a visible synergy was observed between the combinations of these fillers such as Graphite and CF, Graphite and CB, CF and CB, as well as CB and CF.

  11. Effect of filler alignment on percolation in polymer nanocomposites using tunneling-percolation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kale, Sohan; Sabet, Fereshteh A.; Jasiuk, Iwona; Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we examine the effect of filler alignment on percolation behavior of polymer nanocomposites using Monte Carlo simulations of monodisperse prolate and oblate hard-core soft-shell ellipsoids representing carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoplatelets, respectively. The percolation threshold is observed to increase with increasing extent of alignment as expected. For a highly aligned system of rod-like fillers, the simulation results are shown to be in good agreement with the second virial approximation based predictions. However, for a highly aligned system of disk-like fillers, the second virial approximation based results are observed to significantly deviate from the simulations, even for higher aspect ratios. The effect of filler alignment on anisotropy in percolation behavior is also studied by predicting the percolation threshold along different directions. The anisotropy in percolation threshold is found to vanish even for highly aligned systems of fillers with increasing system size.

  12. The Hyaluronic Acid Fillers: Current Understanding of the Tissue Device Interface.

    PubMed

    Greene, Jacqueline J; Sidle, Douglas M

    2015-11-01

    The article is a detailed update regarding cosmetic injectable fillers, specifically focusing on hyaluronic acid fillers. Hyaluronic acid-injectable fillers are used extensively for soft tissue volumizing and contouring. Many different hyaluronic acid-injectable fillers are available on the market and differ in terms of hyaluronic acid concentration, particle size, cross-linking density, requisite needle size, duration, stiffness, hydration, presence of lidocaine, type of cross-linking technology, and cost. Hyaluronic acid is a natural component of many soft tissues, is identical across species minimizing immunogenicity has been linked to wound healing and skin regeneration, and is currently actively being studied for tissue engineering purposes. The biomechanical and biochemical effects of HA on the local microenvironment of the injected site are key to its success as a soft tissue filler. Knowledge of the tissue-device interface will help guide the facial practitioner and lead to optimal outcomes for patients. PMID:26505539

  13. Nanostructured Materials Utilized in Biopolymer-based Plastics for Food Packaging Applications.

    PubMed

    Ghanbarzadeh, Babak; Oleyaei, Seyed Amir; Almasi, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Most materials currently used for food packaging are nondegradable, generating environmental problems. Several biopolymers have been exploited to develop materials for ecofriendly food packaging. However, the use of biopolymers has been limited because of their usually poor mechanical and barrier properties, which may be improved by adding reinforcing compounds (fillers), forming composites. Most reinforced materials present poor matrix-filler interactions, which tend to improve with decreasing filler dimensions. The use of fillers with at least one nanoscale dimension (nanoparticles) produces nanocomposites. Nanoparticles have proportionally larger surface area than their microscale counterparts, which favors the filler-matrix interactions and the performance of the resulting material. Besides nanoreinforcements, nanoparticles can have other functions when added to a polymer, such as antimicrobial activity, etc. in this review paper, the structure and properties of main kinds of nanostructured materials which have been studied to use as nanofiller in biopolymer matrices are overviewed, as well as their effects and applications. PMID:24798951

  14. Numerical Investigation of T-joints with 3D Four Directional Braided Composite Fillers Under Tensile Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-kang; Liu, Zhen-guo; Hu, Long; Wang, Yi-bo; Lei, Bing; Huang, Xiang

    2016-08-01

    Numerical studied on T-joints with three-dimensional four directional (3D4D) braided composite fillers was presented in this article. Compared with conventional unidirectional prepreg fillers, the 3D braided composite fillers have excellent ability to prevent crack from penetrating trigone fillers, which constantly occurred in the conventional fillers. Meanwhile, the 3D braided composite fillers had higher fiber volume fraction and eliminated the fiber folding problem in unidirectional prepreg fillers. The braiding technology and mechanical performance of 3D4D braided fillers were studied. The numerical model of carbon fiber T-joints with 3D4D braided composite fillers was built by finite element analysis software. The damage formation, extension and failing process of T-joints with 3D4D braided fillers under tensile load were investigated. Further investigation was extended to the effect of 3D4D braided fillers with different braiding angles on mechanical behavior of the T-joints. The study results revealed that the filling area was the weakest part of the T-joints where the damage first appeared and the crack then rapidly spread to the glue film around the filling area and the interface between over-laminate and soleplate. The 3D4D braided fillers were undamaged and the braiding angle change induced a little effect on the bearing capacity of T-joints.

  15. Mechanical properties of heterophase polymer blends of cryogenically fractured soy flour composite filler and poly(styrene-butadiene)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reinforcement effect of cryogenically fractured soy Flour composite filler in soft polymer was investigated in this study. Polymer composites were prepared by melt-mixing polymer and soy flour composite fillers in an internal mixer. Soy flour composite fillers were prepared by blending aqueous dis...

  16. Foreign body reaction due to skin filler: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Juliana Y; Domaneschi, Carina; Migliari, Dante A; Sousa, Suzana Orsini Machado de

    2006-04-01

    Aquamid represents a new generation of soft-tissue fillers for aesthetic facial correction and reconstruction due to its reduced quantity of particles (2.5% of polyacrylamide) and high concentration of water (97.5%). It is a biocompatible, atoxic, homogeneous, and stable product. Additionally, it has good viscosity and elasticity, and it is very simple to use. Although reported in less than 1% of the cases, adverse effects such as pain, swelling, and erythema may occur, which may be the result of inappropriate injection procedure. This article reports the first case of an intraoral foreign body reaction resulting from Aquamid application in the nasolabial fold. Possible causes for this reaction, the chemical composition of the product, and the histopathologic aspects are discussed. PMID:16545711

  17. Development of Filler Structure in Colloidal Silica-Polymer Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Meth, Jeffrey S; Zane, Stephen G; Chi, Changzai; Londono, J David; Wood, Barbara A; Cotts, Patricia; Keating, Mimi; Guise, William; Weigand, Steven

    2012-02-07

    The realization of the full potential for polymeric nanocomposites to manifest their entitled property improvements relies, for some properties, on the ability to achieve maximum particle-matrix interfacial area. Well-dispersed nanocomposites incorporating colloidal silica as the filler can be realized in both polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate) matrices by exploiting the charge stabilized nature of silica in nonaqueous solvents which act as Bronsted bases. We demonstrate that dispersions of colloidal silica in dimethylformamide are charge stabilized, regardless of organosilyl surface functionalization. When formulated with polymer solutions, the charge stabilized structure is maintained during drying until the charged double layer collapses. Although particles are free to diffuse and cluster after this neutralization, increased matrix viscosity retards the kinetics. We demonstrate how high molecular weight polymers assist in immobilizing the structure of the silica to produce well-dispersed composites. The glass transition temperatures of these composites do not vary, even at loadings up to 50 vol %.

  18. Development of Pyrrone structural forms for honeycomb filler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimmel, B. G.

    1973-01-01

    The development of techniques for the preparation of Pyrrone structural foams for use as honeycomb filler is described. The feasibility of preparing foams from polymers formed by the condensation of 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB), or 3,3',4,4'-tetraaminobenzophenone (TABP), with 3,3',4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) was investigated. Initially, most of the effort was devoted to preparing Pyrrone prepolymers with improved and more reproducible foaming properties for making chemically blown foams. When it became apparent that very high curing shrinkages would not allow the use of unfilled Pyrrone prepolymers in a foam-in-place process, emphasis was shifted from chemically blown foams to syntactic foams. Syntactic foam formulations containing hollow carbon microspheres were developed. Syntactic foams made from selected formulations were found to have very low coefficients of thermal expansion. A technique was developed for the emplacement of Pyrrone syntactic foam formulations in honeycomb core structures.

  19. Appropriate calcinating conditions from gangue to cable filler

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, F.; Zhang, J.Y.; Zhang, B.J.

    1997-12-31

    A large amount of gangue is mined together with coal, discarded, and piled up day after day. By the mineral analysis, it is known that the majority content of the gangue in the North China`s coal mine is kaolinite, usually more than 90 wt.%. A kind of gangue, arising from Shanxi province, China, was calcined under different heating procedures, and the electrical resistivity and whiteness of the calcined products were measured in this study. It is clear that this kind of gangue can serve as a cable filler after the appropriate calcination. By detailed analysis of the TG/TDA curves, four steps, reflecting the changes in structural nature, were noted. The appropriate conditions, including calcination temperature and soaking time, were also recommended.

  20. Wh-filler-gap dependency formation guides reflexive antecedent search

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, Michael; Ackerman, Lauren; Baumann, Peter; Potter, David; Yoshida, Masaya

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies on online sentence processing have shown that the parser can resolve non-local dependencies rapidly and accurately. This study investigates the interaction between the processing of two such non-local dependencies: wh-filler-gap dependencies (WhFGD) and reflexive-antecedent dependencies. We show that reflexive-antecedent dependency resolution is sensitive to the presence of a WhFGD, and argue that the filler-gap dependency established by WhFGD resolution is selected online as the antecedent of a reflexive dependency. We investigate the processing of constructions like (1), where two NPs might be possible antecedents for the reflexive, namely which cowgirl and Mary. Even though Mary is linearly closer to the reflexive, the only grammatically licit antecedent for the reflexive is the more distant wh-NP, which cowgirl. (1). Which cowgirl did Mary expect to have injured herself due to negligence? Four eye-tracking text-reading experiments were conducted on examples like (1), differing in whether the embedded clause was non-finite (1 and 3) or finite (2 and 4), and in whether the tail of the wh-dependency intervened between the reflexive and its closest overt antecedent (1 and 2) or the wh-dependency was associated with a position earlier in the sentence (3 and 4). The results of Experiments 1 and 2 indicate the parser accesses the result of WhFGD formation during reflexive antecedent search. The resolution of a wh-dependency alters the representation that reflexive antecedent search operates over, allowing the grammatical but linearly distant antecedent to be accessed rapidly. In the absence of a long-distance WhFGD (Experiments 3 and 4), wh-NPs were not found to impact reading times of the reflexive, indicating that the parser's ability to select distant wh-NPs as reflexive antecedents crucially involves syntactic structure. PMID:26500579

  1. Influence of filler selection on twin screw foam granulation.

    PubMed

    Rocca, K E; Weatherley, S; Sheskey, P J; Thompson, M R

    2015-01-01

    The influence of filler selection in wet granulation was studied for the novel case where the binder is delivered as an unstable, semi-rigid aqueous foam to an extrusion process. The work primarily examined the impact of differing concentrations of microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH® 101) in a formulation with spray-dried α-lactose monohydrate (Flowlac® 100) in regards to wetting and granule nucleation for this relatively new technique known as continuous foam granulation. Foam stability was varied within the work to change its drainage and coarsening behavior atop these powder excipients, by use of different foamable binding agents (METHOCEL™ F4 PLV and METHOCEL™ Premium VLV) as well as by adjusting the foam quality. A static bed penetration test was first used to study the foam behavior in wetting these powders without the processing constraints of an extruder which limit possible liquid-to-solids ratios as well as introduce shear which may complicate interpretation of the mechanism. The test found that the penetration time to saturate these powders decreased as their water absorption capacity increased which in turn decreased the size of the formed nuclei. Differences in the stability of the foamed binder had minimal influence on these attributes of wetting despite its high spread-to-soak behavior. The size of granules produced by extrusion similarly demonstrated sensitivity to the increasing water absorption capacity of the filler and little dependency on foam properties. The different liquid-to-solids ratios required to granulate these different formulations inside the extruder highlighted an evolving concept of powder lubricity for continuous foam granulation. PMID:24111830

  2. United States based agricultural {open_quotes}waste products{close_quotes} as fillers in a polypropylene homopolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, R.E.; Rowell, R.M.; Caulfield, D.F.

    1995-11-01

    With the advent of modern coupling agents (MAPP or maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene), the potential use of various types of renewable, sustainable agricultural byproducts as fillers in thermoplastics is explored. Over 7.7 billion pounds of fillers were used in the plastics industry in 1993. With sharp price increases in commodity thermoplastics (i.e. approximately 25% in 94`), the amount of fillers in thermoplastic materials will increase throughout the 90`s. Various types of agricultural fibers are evaluated for mechanical properties vs. 50% wood flour and 40% talc filled polypropylene (PP). The fibers included in this study are: kenaf core, oat straw, wheat straw, oat hulls, wood flour (pine), corncob, hard corncob, rice hulls, peanut hulls, corn fiber, soybean hull, residue, and jojoba seed meal. Composite interfaces were modified with MAPP to improve the mechanical properties through increased adhesion between the hydrophilic and polar fibers with the hydrophobic and non-polar matrix. The agro-waste composites had compositions of 50% agro-waste/48% PP/2% MAPP. All of the agricultural waste by-products were granulated through a Wiley mill with a 30 mesh screen and compounded in a high intensity shear-thermo kinetic mixer. The resultant blends were injection molded into ASTM standard samples and tested for tensile, flexural, and impact properties. This paper reports on the mechanical properties of the twelve resultant composites and compares them to wood flour and talc-filled polypropylene composites. The mechanical properties of kenaf core, oat straw, wheat straw, and oat hulls compare favorably to the wood flour and talc-filled PP, which are both commercially available and used in the automotive and furniture markets.

  3. Improved Wetting of Mixed Ionic/Electronic Conductors Used in Electrochemical Devices with Ternary Reactive Air Braze Filler Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, John S; Kim, Jin Yong Y; Thomsen, Ed C; Weil, K Scott

    2007-01-19

    This paper reports on the wetting behavior, reactivity, and long-term electrical conductance of a series of ternary filler metals being considered for brazing lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite (LSCF) based oxygen separation membranes. Mixed ionic/electronic conducting perovskite oxides such as LSCF and various doped barium cerates are currently being considered for use in high-temperature electrochemical devices such as oxygen and hydrogen concentrators and solid oxide fuel cells. However to take full advantage of the unique properties of these materials, reliable joining techniques need to be developed. Furthermore, if the proposed joining technique were to yield a hermetic ceramic-to-metal junction that was also electrically conductive, it would additionally benefit the device by allowing current to be drawn from or carried to the electrochemically active mixed conducting oxide component without requiring an separate current collector. A newly developed brazing technique known as air brazing is one such method of joining. In its present form, air brazing uses a silver-copper oxide based filler metal that can be melted directly in air to form a compliant joint that is electrically conductive. Recently, it has been shown that the addition of titania can enhance the wetting behavior of Ag-CuO filler metals on alumina. Here the effect of this wetting agent on the surface wettability, long-term electrical resistance at 750°C, and reactivity with La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3- (LSCF-6428 or LSCF) substrates is discussed.

  4. Midfacial rejuvenation by hyaluronic acid fillers and subcutaneous adipose tissue--a new concept.

    PubMed

    Wollina, Uwe

    2015-04-01

    In midface rejuvenation, hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers are commonly used as a versatile tool to improve appearance and to correct V-deformities and loss of volume. The induction of collagen as a major constituent of extracellular matrix (ECM) has been considered to be a basic effect of the rejuvenation procedure. Although commonly described as "dermal" soft fillers, histologic studies localized HA filler in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Deep injection whenever possible lead to prolonged efficacy. Since volumizing HA filler induce mechanical stress not only to fibroblasts but adipocytes and deep injection itself causes minor trauma in the subcutaneous adipose tissue we suggest that the activation of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSC) is responsible for the observed clinical effects. We present a concept of filler action that discusses interactions of HA with adipocytes, ECM fiber network and ADMSC. Such a concept can explain the prolonged efficacy of deep midfacial filler placement and offers a new understanding to tailor HA fillers in the future. PMID:25665858

  5. Effect of fillers on key characteristics of sludge thermophilic anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Shao, Liming; Xu, Yuanshun; Wang, Tianfeng; Lü, Fan; He, Pinjing

    2015-10-01

    In anaerobic digestion (AD) of sludge, AD efficiency and digested sludge (DS) dewaterability are critical factors. In this study, polyester non-woven fabric fillers were integrated into a sludge digester. The effect of such fillers on digestion was investigated in thermophilic temperature range in semi-continuous mode. Methane production of filler system and control reactor were significantly different (P < 0.05, paired t-test). At hydraulic retention times of 18 days and 12 days, the corresponding methane yields from filler system were 140% and 161%, respectively, of the yields from control digester without filler. Improvement of DS dewaterability was uncertain during 110 days of operation. While after a longer period of digestion, filler system resulted in a lower normalized capillary suction time of DS (76.5 ± 21.6 s L/g total suspended solids) than control reactor (118.7 ± 32.9 s L/g total suspended solids). The results showed that the filler could improve thermophilic AD performance, except at too short hydraulic retention times. PMID:26151853

  6. Whisker-reinforced dental core buildup composites: effect of filler level on mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Xu, H H; Smith, D T; Schumacher, G E; Eichmiller, F C

    2000-12-15

    The strength and toughness of dental core buildup composites in large stress-bearing restorations need to be improved to reduce the incidence of fracture due to stresses from chewing and clenching. The aims of the present study were to develop novel core buildup composites reinforced with ceramic whiskers, to examine the effect of filler level, and to investigate the reinforcement mechanisms. Silica particles were fused onto the whiskers to facilitate silanization and to roughen the whisker surface for improved retention in the matrix. Filler level was varied from 0 to 70%. Flexural strength, compressive strength, and fracture toughness of the composites were measured. A nano-indentation system was used to measure elastic modulus and hardness. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the fracture surfaces of specimens. Whisker filler level had significant effects on composite properties. The flexural strength in MPa (mean +/- SD; n = 6) increased from (95+/-15) for the unfilled resin to (193+/- 8) for the composite with 50% filler level, then slightly decreased to (176+/-12) at 70% filler level. The compressive strength increased from (149+/-33) for the unfilled resin to (282+/-48) at 10% filler level, and remained equivalent from 10 to 70% filler level. Both the modulus and hardness increased monotonically with filler level. In conclusion, silica particle-fused ceramic single-crystalline whiskers significantly reinforced dental core buildup composites. The reinforcement mechanisms appeared to be crack deflection and bridging by the whiskers. Whisker filler level had significant effects on the flexural strength, compressive strength, elastic modulus, and hardness of composites. PMID:11033564

  7. Monitorization of technosols in old mining sites treated with calcareous fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Sanchez, MJose; Perez-Sirvent, Carmen; Garcia-Lorenzo, MariLuz; Gonzalez, Eva; Perez-Espinosa, Victor; Martínez-Lopez, Salvadora; Hernandez, Carmen; Molina, Jose; Martínez, Lucia B.

    2014-05-01

    A large number of soils around the world are contaminated by heavy metals due to mining activities, generating adverse effects on human health and the environment. In response to these negative effects, a variety of technologies to remediate soils affected by heavy metals have been developed. Among them, in situ immobilization by means of soil amendment is a non-intrusive and cost effective alternative, that transforms the highly mobile toxic heavy metals to physico-chemically stable forms, reducing their mobility and environmental risks. Limestone filler is a good selection for such a purpose, because of its low permeability and low solubility, due to its high degree of physical-chemical stability and because is a non-toxic material with a high finely divided calcium carbonate content. In addition, the use of this amendment could revalorize the residues, reducing the costs of the process. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of a immobilization technique in sediments contaminated by heavy metals as a results of mining activities. The study area was Portman bay, located close to the mining region of La Unión and subjected to mining from the time of the Roman Empire to 1991. Wastes from mining activities mainly consisted in ore materials (galena, pyrite and sphalerite), phyllosilicates, in addition to siderite, iron oxides and sometimes alteration products such as jarosite, alunite, kaolinite and greenalite. These materials have suffered a concentration process by floatation with sea water and, as a result of the discharge, the whole of the bay has filled up with wastes which also extend into the Mediterranean Sea. Two experimental areas, approximately 1 Ha each one, were selected and technosols were developed as follows: original sediments from the bay, sediments mixed with limestone filler in a 1:1 proportion, gravel to avoid capillary and natural soil to allow plant growth. After the remediation technique was applied, monitorization of

  8. Use of Aquamid as a filler for facial rejuvenation in orientals.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Yoichi; Kato, Kentaro; Murakami, Daisuke; Misaki, Kojiro; Ota, Mitsuya; Kataoka, Jiro; Yukawa, Naoki

    2009-10-01

    We used Aquamid as a filler for facial augmentation and rejuvenation in Orientals. This article introduces the injection techniques, effects, adequate dosage and complications of this filler, especially about rejuvenation of nasolabial fold and nasojugal groove. From December 2002 to June 2007, 5676 patients were treated in our clinic group. Complications were relatively minimal (0.082%) in comparison to other fillers and long-term effects were revealed. This is the first report concerning Aquamid use in facial rejuvenation of the Orientals. PMID:19303835

  9. Treatment of glabella skin necrosis following injection of hyaluronic acid filler using platelet-rich plasma.

    PubMed

    Kang, Boo Kyoung; Kang, In Jung; Jeong, Ki Heon; Shin, Min Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers have been widely used for soft-tissue augmentation. However, there can be various complications following HA filler injection. Skin necrosis is rare but one of the most disastrous side effects that, if not treated promptly and effectively, can result in permanent and potentially disfiguring scarring. Thus, early proper management is important. Herein we report a patient who experienced tissue necrosis of the glabellar area after receiving filler injections that was successfully treated using platelet-rich plasma and provide full follow-up clinical photographs. PMID:26052808

  10. Thermal properties and dynamic mechanical properties of ceramic fillers filled epoxy composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidina, D. S.; Mariatti, M.; Juliewatty, J.

    2015-07-01

    This present study is aimed to enhance the thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of ceramic fillers such as Calcium Copper Titanate, CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) and Barium Titanate (BaTiO3) filled epoxy thin film composites. As can be seen from the results, 20 vol% BaTiO3/epoxy thin film composite showed the lowest coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) value, the highest decomposition temperature (T5 and Tonset) and weight of residue among the composites as the filler has low CTE value, distributed homogeneously throughout the composite and less voids can be seen between epoxy resin and BaTiO3 filler.

  11. Nonideal contact in a composite shell structure with a deformable filler

    SciTech Connect

    Bedzir, A.A.; Shatskii, I.P.; Shopa, V.M.

    1995-11-01

    In [8], a model was proposed for investigating the frictional contact accompanying the compression of a deformable filler in an elastic cylindrical shell. The elastic equilibrium of coaxial continuous cylindrical shells and a deformable filler was considered in [5], taking account of the friction at the contact surfaces. In the present work, the stress-strain state and pliability of a shell system consisting of two coaxial cylindrical shells, one slotted and one continuous, that are separated by elastic filler is investigated in conditions of frictional contact. The model developed here serves as the basis for calculating the slotted elastic elements of drill shock absorbers.

  12. Several braze filler metals for joining an oxide-dispersion-strengthened nickel-chromium-aluminum alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyorgak, C. A.

    1975-01-01

    An evaluation was made of five braze filler metals for joining an aluminum-containing oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloy, TD-NiCrAl. All five braze filler metals evaluated are considered suitable for joining TD-NiCrAl in terms of wettability and flow. Also, the braze alloys appear to be tolerant of slight variations in brazing procedures since joints prepared by three sources using three of the braze filler metals exhibited similar brazing characteristics and essentially equivalent 1100 C stress-rupture properties in a brazed butt-joint configuration. Recommendations are provided for brazing the aluminum-containing ODS alloys.

  13. Aluminum Lithium Alloy 2195 Fusion Welding Improvements with New Filler Wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the B218 weld filler wire for Super Lightweight External Tank production, which could improve current production welding and repair productivity. We took the following approaches: (1) Perform a repair weld quick look evaluation between 4043/B218 and B218/B218 weld filler wire combinations and evaluation tensile properties for planished and unplanished conditions; and (2) Perform repair weld evaluation on structural simulation panel using 4043-B218 and B218/B218 weld filler wire combinations and evaluation tensile and simulated service fracture properties for planished and unplanished conditions.

  14. Effect of Al2O3 nano-filler on properties of glass-based seals for solid oxide fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Bok; Choi, Myong-Jae; Park, Sung; Lee, Jae Chun

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the viscosity and strength of three glass-based seals prepared with or without nano or micron-sized alumina powder used as filler material. Measurements of the viscosity and bending strength of the glass-based seals showed that addition of the nano-sized alumina powder to the glass increased both the high-temperature viscosity and the strength of the sintered glass matrix. Strength tests and observations of the microstructure of the fracture surface of the seal samples confirmed the strengthening of the glass network structure. Conversion of non-bridging oxygen to bridging oxygen is presumed to occur upon the addition of alumina to the glass sample. The strengthening of the alumina-glass composite seal was attributed to the alumina nano-filler and prolonged heat treatment at elevated temperatures. PMID:23646787

  15. Thin-walled composite tubes using fillers subjected to quasistatic axial compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AL-Qrimli, Haidar F.; Mahdi, Fadhil A.; Ismail, Firas B.; Alzorqi, Ibrahim S.

    2015-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that composites are lightweight, fatigue resistant and easily melded, a seemingly attractive alternative to metals. However, there has been no widespread switch from metals to composites in the automotive sector. This is because there are a number of technical issues relating to the use of composite materials that still need to be resolved including accurate material characterization, manufacturing and joining process. The total of 36 specimens have been fabricated using the fibre-glass and resin (epoxy) with a two different geometries (circular and corrugated) each one will be filled with five types of filler (Rice Husk, Wood Chips, Aluminium Chips, Coconut Fibre, Palm Oil Fibre) all these type will be compared with empty Tubes for circular and corrugated in order to comprehend the crashworthiness parameters (initial failure load, average load, maximum crushing load, load ratio, energy absorption, specific energy absorption, volumetric energy absorption, crushing force efficiency and crush strain relation) which are considered very sufficient parameters in the design of automotive industry parts. All the tests have been done using the “INSTRON Universal machine” which is computerized in order to simply give a high precision to the collection of the results, along with the use of quasi-static load to test and observe the behaviour of the fabricated specimens.

  16. Polylactide nanocomposites for packaging materials: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiastuti, Indah

    2016-02-01

    This review aims at highlighting on an attempt for improving the properties of polylactide (PLA) as packaging material by application of nanocomposite technology. PLA is attracting considerable interest because of more eco-friendliness from its origin as contrast to the petrochemical-based polymers and its biodegradability. Despite possessing good mechanical and optical properties, deterioration of the material properties in PLA materials during their service time could occur after prolonged exposure to humidity and high temperature condition. Limited gas barrier is another drawback of PLA material that should be overcome to satisfy the requirement for packaging application. To further extend the range of mechanical and thermal properties achievable, several attempts have been made in modifying the material such as blending with other polymers, use of plasticizing material and development of PLA nanocomposites. Nanocomposite is a fairly new type of composite that has emerged in which the reinforcing filler has nanometer scale dimensions (at least one dimension of the filler is less than 100 nm). In this review, the critical properties of PLA as packaging materials and its degradation mechanism are presented. This paper discusses the current effort and key research challenges in the development of nanocomposites based on biodegradable polymer matrices and nano-fillers. The PLA layered silicate nanocomposites where the filler platelets can be dispersed in the polymer at the nanometer scale owing to the specific filler surface modification, frequently exhibits remarkable improvements of mechanical strength, gas barrier and thermal stability.

  17. Cermet materials

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C.

    2008-12-23

    A self-cleaning porous cermet material, filter and system utilizing the same may be used in filtering particulate and gaseous pollutants from internal combustion engines having intermetallic and ceramic phases. The porous cermet filter may be made from a transition metal aluminide phase and an alumina phase. Filler materials may be added to increase the porosity or tailor the catalytic properties of the cermet material. Additionally, the cermet material may be reinforced with fibers or screens. The porous filter may also be electrically conductive so that a current may be passed therethrough to heat the filter during use. Further, a heating element may be incorporated into the porous cermet filter during manufacture. This heating element can be coated with a ceramic material to electrically insulate the heating element. An external heating element may also be provided to heat the cermet filter during use.

  18. Ground-based simulation of the Earth's upper atmosphere oxygen impact on polymer composites with nanosized fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, Lev; Chernik, Vladimir; Voronina, Ekaterina; Chechenin, Nikolay; Samokhina, Maria S.; Bondarenko, Gennady G.; Gaidar, Anna I.; Vorobyeva, Ekaterina A.; Petrov, Dmitrii V.; Chirskaya, Natalia P.

    The improvement of durability of polymer composites to the space environment impact is a very important task because these materials are considered currently as very promising type of materials for aerospace engineering. By embedding various nanosized fillers into a polymer matrix it is possible to obtain composites with required mechanical, thermal, electrical and optic properties. However, while developing such materials for operation in low Earth orbits (LEO), it is necessary to study thoroughly their durability to the impact of atomic oxygen (AO) of the Earth’s upper atmosphere, because AO is the main factor that causes erosion and damage of spacecraft surface materials in LEO. Ground-based simulation of AO impact on polymer composites was performed on a magnetoplasmadynamic accelerator developed at Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University. Polymer composite samples which were prepared as films of 30-50 mum thickness with different amount (3-20 wt%) of various inorganic and organic nanofillers including nanoparticles of metal oxides and carbides as well as polyethoxysiloxanes and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), were exposed to hyperthermal AO flow, and mass losses of samples were estimated. Changes in the structure of composite surface and in material optical properties were studied. The experiments demonstrated that embedding nanosized fillers into a polymer matrix can significantly reduced mass losses, and the good dispersion of fillers improves AO durability in comparison with initial polymers [1]. The computer simulation within the developed 2D Monte-Carlo model demonstrated a good agreement with the experimental data [2]. Special attention was given to the study of AO impact on aligned multiwalled CNTs and CNT-based composites [3]. Some results of computer simulation of hyperthermal oxygen atom interaction with CNT and graphene as well as with polymers are presented to discuss elementary processes which occur in nanostructures

  19. Stability Enhancement of Polymeric Sensing Films Using Fillers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Brian; Shevade, Abhijit; Ryan, Margaret Amy; Kisor, Adam; Yen, Shiao-Pin; Manatt, Kenneth; Homer, Margie; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Experiments have shown the stability enhancement of polymeric sensing films on mixing the polymer with colloidal filler particles (submicron-sized) of carbon black, silver, titanium dioxide, and fumed silicon dioxide. The polymer films are candidates for potential use as sensing media in micro/nano chemical sensor devices. The need for stability enhancement of polymer sensing films arises because such films have been found to exhibit unpredictable changes in sensing activity over time, which could result in a possible failure of the sensor device. The changes in the physical properties of a polymer sensing film caused by the sorption of a target molecule can be measured by any of several established transduction techniques: electrochemical, optical, calorimetric, or piezoelectric, for example. The transduction technique used in the current polymer stability experiments is based on piezoelectric principles using a quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM). The surface of the QCM is coated with the polymer, and the mass uptake by the polymer film causes a change in the oscillating frequency of the quartz crystal. The polymer used for the current study is ethyl cellulose. The polymer/ polymer composite solutions were prepared in 1,3 dioxolane solvent. The filler concentration was fixed at 10 weight percent for the composites. The polymer or polymer composite solutions were cast on the quartz crystal having a fundamental frequency of about 6 MHz. The coated crystal was subjected to a multistage drying process to remove all measurable traces of the solvent. In each experiment, the frequency of oscillation was measured while the QCM was exposed to clean, dry, flowing air for about 30 minutes, then to air containing a known concentration of isopropanol for about 30 minutes, then again to clean dry air for about 30 minutes, and so forth. This cycle of measurements for varying isopropanol concentrations was repeated at intervals for several months. The figure depicts some of the

  20. Elastomer coated filler and composites thereof comprising at least 60% by weight of a hydrated filler and an elastomer containing an acid substituent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D.; Reilly, W. W. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The impact resistance of flame retardant composites, especially thermoplastic molding: compounds containing over 60% hydrated mineral filler such as Al(OH)3 or Mg(OH)2 as improved by coating the filler with 1 to 20% of an elastomer. The composite will fail by crazing or shearing rather than by brittle fracture. A well bonded elastomeric interphase resulted by utilizing acidic substituted resins such as ethyl-hexyl acrylate-acrylic acid copolymers which bond to and are cross-linked by the basic filler particles. Further improvement in impact resistance was provided by incorporating 1 to 10% of a resin fiber reinforcement such as polyvinyl alcohol fibers that decompose to yield at least 30% water when heated to decomposition temperature.

  1. Corrosion of Ti-STS dissimilar joints brazed by a Ag interlayer and Ag-Cu-(Pd) alloy fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. K.; Park, J. J.; Lee, G. J.; Lee, J. G.; Kim, D. W.; Lim, C. H.; Rhee, C. K.; Lee, Y. B.; Lee, J. K.; Hong, S. J.

    2011-02-01

    Corrosion behavior of dissimilar brazed joints between titanium Gr. 2 (Ti) and S31254 stainless steel (STS) was investigated. For the study, a Ag interlayer and two Ag-base eutectic alloys, 72Ag-28Cu and 66.2Ag-25.8Cu-8Pd (wt.%), were introduced as a diffusion control layer and fillers, respectively, between the base materials. The joints commonly had a layered structure of Ti(base)/TiAg/Ag solid solution/STS(base), but the one brazed by the Ag-Cu-Pd filler was slightly alloyed with the noble Pd elements over the Ag-rich solid solution region. A series of corrosion test experiments in a sea water revealed that a corrosion of TiAg layer and a stress-induced cracking at the TiAg/Ag solid solution interface were dominant due to a galvanic attack, but notably the Ti-STS dissimilar joint's resistance to corrosion was significantly improved by alloying the Pd in the joint. The corrosion behavior of such dissimilar metal joints was discussed based on galvanic corrosion effect.

  2. Analysis-Driven Design Optimization of a SMA-Based Slat-Cove Filler for Aeroacoustic Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholten, William; Hartl, Darren; Turner, Travis

    2013-01-01

    Airframe noise is a significant component of environmental noise in the vicinity of airports. The noise associated with the leading-edge slat of typical transport aircraft is a prominent source of airframe noise. Previous work suggests that a slat-cove filler (SCF) may be an effective noise treatment. Hence, development and optimization of a practical slat-cove-filler structure is a priority. The objectives of this work are to optimize the design of a functioning SCF which incorporates superelastic shape memory alloy (SMA) materials as flexures that permit the deformations involved in the configuration change. The goal of the optimization is to minimize the actuation force needed to retract the slat-SCF assembly while satisfying constraints on the maximum SMA stress and on the SCF deflection under static aerodynamic pressure loads, while also satisfying the condition that the SCF self-deploy during slat extension. A finite element analysis model based on a physical bench-top model is created in Abaqus such that automated iterative analysis of the design could be performed. In order to achieve an optimized design, several design variables associated with the current SCF configuration are considered, such as the thicknesses of SMA flexures and the dimensions of various components, SMA and conventional. Designs of experiment (DOE) are performed to investigate structural response to an aerodynamic pressure load and to slat retraction and deployment. DOE results are then used to inform the optimization process, which determines a design minimizing actuator forces while satisfying the required constraints.

  3. Foreign Body Granulomas after the Use of Dermal Fillers: Pathophysiology, Clinical Appearance, Histologic Features, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong Min

    2015-01-01

    A foreign body granuloma is a non-allergic chronic inflammatory reaction that is mainly composed of multinucleated giant cells. Foreign body granulomas may occur after the administration of any dermal filler. Factors such as the volume of the injection, impurities present in the fillers, and the physical properties of fillers affect granuloma formation. The formation of granulomas involves five phases: protein adsorption, macrophage adhesion, macrophage fusion, and crosstalk. The clinical and pathologic features of granulomas vary depending on the type of filler that causes them. Foreign body granulomas can be treated effectively with intralesional corticosteroid injections. Surgical excisions of granulomas tend to be incomplete because granulomas have ill-defined borders and moreover, surgical excisions may leave scars and deformities. PMID:25798398

  4. Provskite Structure Based Filler Impregnated Pvdf—Hfp Micro Composites For Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vickraman, P.; Pandiraj, A.

    2011-07-01

    Lithium BETI (Lithium bis (perfluoroethanesulfonyl) imide) (guest species) based PVDF-HFP(host matrix) Polymer NanoComposites (PNC) films by loading barium titanate (BaTiO3) as a filler, in ascending proportions with the plasticizer (mixture of EC+DMC) while keeping host and guest content as constants, has been investigated by employing AC impedance, Thermal, and XRD. The ionic conductivity measurements on these PNC show that 2.5% BaTiO3 loaded PNC showed mitigation in magnitude of the conductivity compared to that of 0 wt% loaded PNC but thereafter increase in conductivity is noted with increase in filler content upto 7.5 wt%. The higher conductivity is observed for 7.5 % filler loaded membrane. The XRD study identifies suppression of polymer phase associated with (200) plane. The thermal profile registers the endothermic changes associated with polymer host indicating varying heat of fusion ΔHm with filler increase.

  5. Novel encapsulation technique for incorporation of high permittivity fillers into silicone elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazurek, Piotr; Hvilsted, Søren; Skov, Anne L.

    2014-03-01

    The research on soft elastomers with high dielectric permittivity for the use as dielectric electroactive polymers (DEAP) has grown substantially within the last decade. The approaches to enhance the dielectric permittivity can be categorized into three main classes: 1) Mixing or blending in high permittivity fillers, 2) Grafting of high permittivity molecules onto the polymer backbone in the elastomer, and 3) Encapsulation of high permittivity fillers. The approach investigated here is a new type of encapsulation which does not interfere with the mechanical properties to the same content as for the traditionally applied thermoplastic encapsulation. The properties of the elastomers are investigated as function of the filler content and type. The dielectric permittivity, dielectric loss, conductivity, storage modulus as well as viscous loss are compared to elastomers with the same amounts of high permittivity fillers blended into the elastomer, and it is found that the encapsulation provides a technique to enhance some of these properties.

  6. Brazeability of a 3003 Aluminum alloy with Al-Si-Cu-based filler metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, L. C.; Weng, W. P.; Cheng, M. D.; Tsao, C. W.; Chuang, T. H.

    2002-08-01

    Al-Si-Cu-based filler metals have been used successfully for brazing 6061 aluminum alloy as reported in the authors’ previous studies. For application in heat exchangers during manufacturing, the brazeability of 3003 aluminum alloy with these filler metals is herein further evaluated. Experimental results show that even at such a low temperature as 550 °C, the 3003 alloys can be brazed with the Al-Si-Cu fillers and display bonding strengths that are higher than 77 MPa as well. An optimized 3003 joint is attained in the brazements with the innovative Al-7Si-20Cu-2Sn-1Mg filler metal at 575 °C for 30 min, which reveals a bonding strength capping the 3003 Al matrix.

  7. Electro-mechanical properties of hydrogel composites with micro- and nano-cellulose fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N, Mohamed Shahid U.; Deshpande, Abhijit P.; Lakshmana Rao, C.

    2015-09-01

    Stimuli responsive cross-linked hydrogels are of great interest for applications in diverse fields such as sensors and biomaterials. In this study, we investigate polymer composites filled with cellulose fillers. The celluloses used in making the composites were a microcrystalline cellulose of commercial grade and cellulose nano-whiskers obtained through acid hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose. The filler concentration was varied and corresponding physical, mechanical and electro-mechanical characterization was carried out. The electro-mechanical properties were determined using a quasi-static method. The fillers not only enhance the mechanical properties of the composite by providing better reinforcement but also provide a quantitative electric potential in the composite. The measurements reveal that the polymer composites prepared from two different cellulose fillers possess a quantitative electric potential which can be utilized in biomedical applications. It is argued that the mechanism behind the quantitative electric potential in the composites is due to streaming potentials arising due to electrical double layer formation.

  8. Effects of crosslinking, prestrain, and dielectric filler on the electromechanical response of a new silicone and comparison with acrylic elastomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuequn; Wissler, M.; Jaehne, B.; Breonnimann, Rolf; Kovacs, Gabor

    2004-07-01

    Silicone and acrylic elastomers have received increased attention as dielectric electroactive polymer (EAP) materials for actuator technology. The goal of this work was to develop and characterize a new class of silicones (DC3481) and to compare it with acrylic elastomers. The influence of various types of hardeners, hardener concentration, prestrain and high dielectric organic fillers was studied by mechanical, electrical and electromechanical experiments. Furthermore the temperature dependence and the viscoelastic properties were investigated. The results show that by changing type and concentration of hardener, the Young's modulus can be varied. In order to increase the dielectric constant, the silicone was blended with organic materials. Compared to acrylic elastomers, this new class of silicone elastomers has the advantage of a constant stiffness over a wide range of temperature and a lower viscosity that results in a higher response speed of the actuator.

  9. Characterization of Solid Polymers, Ceramic Gap Filler, and Closed-Cell Polymer Foam Using Low-Load Test Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, Helen M.

    2008-01-01

    Various solid polymers, polymer-based composites, and closed-cell polymer foam are being characterized to determine their mechanical properties, using low-load test methods. The residual mechanical properties of these materials after environmental exposure or extreme usage conditions determines their value in aerospace structural applications. In this experimental study, four separate polymers were evaluated to measure their individual mechanical responses after thermal aging and moisture exposure by dynamic mechanical analysis. A ceramic gap filler, used in the gaps between the tiles on the Space Shuttle, was also tested, using dynamic mechanical analysis to determine material property limits during flight. Closed-cell polymer foam, used for the Space Shuttle External Tank insulation, was tested under low load levels to evaluate how the foam's mechanical properties are affected by various loading and unloading scenarios.

  10. Some possible filler alloys with low vapor pressures for refractory-metal brazing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    A compilation of eutectics and melting-point minima for binary combinations of metals having vapor pressures below 10 to the minus 10th power torr at 1500 degrees K and .00005 torr at 2000 degree K is presented. These compositions and others near them on their phase diagrams are potential special brazing fillers for refractory metals. Some possible problems and advantages for fusion bonds of such mixtures are indicated. Evaluations of brazing fillers containing refractory metals are reported.

  11. [What's new in aesthetic dermatology: filler and laser treatments].

    PubMed

    Beylot, C

    2009-05-01

    In esthetic dermatology, filling and laser treatments are two essential techniques. Several recent studies on calcium hydroxyapatite in filling treatments and facial volumetry, in esthetics, but also in HIV patients, have been published. It was also tested in accentuated melomental folds where it is superior to hyaluronic acid. In aging of the skin of the dorsal aspect of the hands, hyaluronic acid provides slightly better results than collagen. Filler rhinoplasty can correct minor deformations of the nose. Lipofilling is advantageous for linear scleroderma of the face, at least in the forehead region, and adipocyte stem cells may be a future solution for facial aging or lipoatrophy. The risk of local and/or general sarcoid reactions related to interferon in patients having undergone filling injections has been reported. In the field of laser treatment, fractionated photothermolysis has motivated much more research and seem particularly valuable in treating acne scars, aging of the dorsal aspect of the hands, and, more anecdotally, in colloid milium and pearly penile papules. Laser is also useful in preventing surgical scars where a mini-diode can also be used. For axillary hyperhidrosis, subdermic Nd-YAG laser competes with botulinum toxin, with longer-lasting results. Solutions are appearing for treatment of red or white striae cutis distensae. Intense pulsed light is the reference technique for poikiloderma of Civatte, and seems effective, with new devices, for melasma. However, inappropriately used by nonphysicians, IPL can cause serious ocular accidents; one case of uveitis has been reported. PMID:19576483

  12. Effects of filler modification and structuring on dielectric enhancement of silicone rubber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javadi, Sara; Razzaghi-Kashani, Mehdi

    2013-04-01

    Preferred structuring of filler particles in a polymer matrix by using dielectrophoretic assembly process can enhance anisotropic dielectric properties. For this purpose, precipitated silica (SiO2) was structured in silicone rubber using an alternating electric field. This filler structure was stabilized by vulcanizing rubber during electric field application. Filler particle orientation and resulted anisotropy was verified by equilibrium swelling. Structuring filler in the rubber matrix led to increased dielectric permittivity and loss in the thickness direction. Filler surface modification by (vinyl-tris-(2- diethoxy/methoxy) silane) improved structure formation and anisotropic properties. It was shown that applying silane modifier and orientation of silica particles by dielectrophoretic assembly process increased dielectric permittivity of silicone rubber in the thickness direction while dielectric loss had either minor changes or increased less than permittivity in this direction. Although elastic modulus of composite, which was measured by dynamic-mechanical analysis, increased to some extent, enhancement in dielectric permittivity was much higher. This introduced the structured composite as a potential for dielectric elastomeric actuator with higher efficiency than the original silicone rubber with no filler addition.

  13. Diffusivity and Transient Localization of Filler Particles in Polymer Melts and Crosslinked Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell, Zachary E.; Schweizer, Kenneth S.

    2013-03-01

    Building on recent progress in describing the microscopic equilibrium structure of polymer nanocomposites (PRISM theory), as well as the naïve mode coupling and nonlinear Langevin equation approaches for predicting localization and activated barrier hopping, we have initiated the study of dynamical phenomena in nanocomposites at finite filler loading. A colloidal suspension perspective is adopted whereby the polymer dynamics are assumed to remain unperturbed by fillers. Both entangled polymer melts and crosslinked systems are studied. The long time behavior of a tagged nanoparticle (localization and diffusivity) is calculated for various melt (tube diameter, polymer radius of gyration) and nanoparticle (filler size and volume fraction, polymer-filler attraction strength) parameters. For transiently localized particles, a dynamic free energy is constructed and employed to compute the nanoparticle localization length, mean barrier hopping time, and self-diffusion constant. The influence of filler-filler interactions on the Stokes-Einstein violation phenomenon in entangled melts is established. In addition, the influence of nanocomposite statistical structure (e.g., in the depletion, steric stabilization, or bridging regimes) on slow dynamics and localization is investigated.

  14. Sensing and actuating capabilities of a shape memory polymer composite integrated with hybrid filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Haibao; Yu, Kai; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, hybrid fillers, including carbon black (CB) and chopped short carbon fibers (SCF), are integrated into a styrene-based shape memory polymer (SMP) with sensing and actuating capabilities. The hybrid filler is expected to transform insulating SMP into conducting. Static mechanical properties of the SMP composites containing various filler concentrations of hybrid filler reinforcement are studied first, and it is theoretically and experimentally confirmed that the mechanical properties are significantly improved by a factor of filler content of SCF. The excellent electrical properties of this novel type of SMP composite are determined by a four-point-probe method. As a consequence, the sensing properties of SMP composite filled with 5 wt% CB and 2 wt% SCF are characterized by functions of temperature and strain. These two experimental results both aid the use of SMP composites as sensors that respond to changes in temperature or mechanical loads. On the other hand, the actuating capability of SMP composites is also validated and demonstrated. The dynamic mechanical analysis result reveals that the output strength of SMP composites is improved with an increase in filler content of SCF. The actuating capability of SMP composites is subsequently demonstrated in a series of photographs.

  15. Flexible moldable conductive current-limiting materials

    DOEpatents

    Shea, John Joseph; Djordjevic, Miomir B.; Hanna, William Kingston

    2002-01-01

    A current limiting PTC device (10) has two electrodes (14) with a thin film of electric conducting polymer material (20) disposed between the electrodes, the polymer material (20) having superior flexibility and short circuit performance, where the polymer material contains short chain aliphatic diepoxide, conductive filler particles, curing agent, and, preferably, a minor amount of bisphenol A epoxy resin.

  16. Injected Hyaluronidase Reduces the Volume of Exogenous Hyaluronate Fillers in Mice and Results in Clinical Improvement in a Patient with Pretibial Myxedema

    PubMed Central

    Menzinger, Sébastien; Kaya, Aysin; Saurat, Jean-Hilaire; Kaya, Gürkan

    2016-01-01

    Background Hyaluronidases are essential for the breakdown of hyaluronate (HA) in tissues and may be used to prevent the adverse effects of HA fillers. Objectives We explored the effect of hyaluronidase on exogenous and endogenous HA in vitro and in vivo. Materials and Methods HA fillers were incubated with different concentrations of hyaluronidase and visualized by electrophoresis. HA fillers were injected in the skin of hairless mice, and 4 h later hyaluronidase was injected in the papules of exogenous HA. Hyaluronidase was injected in the nodule of pretibial myxedema of a male patient with Graves' disease. Skin sections of mice and of the patient were performed, and a skin ultrasound system was used to monitor the evolution of skin lesions. Results Hyaluronidase showed a degrading effect on HA with increasing concentrations. Hyaluronidase injection significantly decreased the content of exogenous HA within 3 days. Intralesional injection of hyaluronidase resulted in dissolution of the nodule of pretibial myxedema with no recurrence during 3 months. Conclusion These results show that the injection of hyaluronidase is capable of degrading exogenous HA in mouse skin and endogenous HA in human skin in vivo and may be a therapeutic option for skin diseases characterized by abnormal accumulation of HA. PMID:27504447

  17. Development of a SMA-Based Slat-Cove Filler for Reduction of Aeroacoustic Noise Associated With Transport-Class Aircraft Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.; Kidd, Reggie T.; Hartl, Darren J.; Scholten, William D.

    2013-01-01

    Airframe noise is a significant part of the overall noise produced by typical, transport-class aircraft during the approach and landing phases of flight. Leading-edge slat noise is a prominent source of airframe noise. The concept of a slat-cove filler was proposed in previous work as an effective means of mitigating slat noise. Bench-top models were deployed at 75% scale to study the feasibility of producing a functioning slat-cove filler. Initial results from several concepts led to a more-focused effort investigating a deformable structure based upon pseudoelastic SMA materials. The structure stows in the cavity between the slat and main wing during cruise and deploys simultaneously with the slat to guide the aerodynamic flow suitably for low noise. A qualitative parametric study of SMA-enabled, slat-cove filler designs was performed on the bench-top. Computational models were developed and analyses were performed to assess the displacement response under representative aerodynamic load. The bench-top and computational results provide significant insight into design trades and an optimal design.

  18. Superior thermal conductivity of polymer nanocomposites by using graphene and boron nitride as fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liem, H.; Choy, H. S.

    2013-06-01

    We report a significant enhancement of thermal conductivity in polymer nanocomposites with graphene and boron nitride as fillers. Strong variations in the Raman spectra for different single-layer graphene flakes are related to the measured thermal conductivity in polymer nanocomposites. In the absence of doping, variations in the Raman parameters are most common, suggesting the presence of excess charges in the samples. Graphene has a Raman D-peak that indicates structural disorder is present, causing the large variations in Raman G peaks. Using this type of graphene and boron nitride for preparing the polymer nanocomposites, the thermal conductivities of the polymer nanocomposites are measured to be in the range of 6.2-9.5 W/mK. The absence of Raman D peaks suggests that structural defects are infinitesimal and the graphene is pristine. Polymer nanocomposites filled with graphene without a D-peak exhibit thermal conductivities as high as ˜21.6 W/mK. As a thermal management material, thermal imaging shows that the polymer nanocomposite can effectively lower the surface mounted LED temperature by 21.1 °C. The existence of Raman D peaks can be used to distinguish two different types of graphenes, establishing the primary prerequisite for achieving a higher thermal conductivity.

  19. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of lipidic carriers and fillers for inhalation.

    PubMed

    Sebti, Thami; Amighi, Karim

    2006-05-01

    The present study relates to compositions of solid lipidic microparticles (SLmP), composed of biocompatible phospholipids and cholesterol, and their use as carriers or as fillers delivering drugs directly to the lungs via a dry powder inhaler (DPI). SLmP were obtained by spray-drying and were formulated as lipidic matrices entrapping budesonide or as physical blends (drug carrier). They were developed in order to improve the delivery of the active drug by the pulmonary route. The SLmP were evaluated for their physical characteristics and in vitro deposition measurements were performed using the Multi-stage Liquid Impinger (MsLI). The Pulmicort Turbuhaler DPI (AstraZeneca) was used as a comparator product. The SLmP appeared to be spherical low-density material characterized by a smooth surface. The mass median diameters (D(0.5)), and the volume mean diameters (D[4,3]) were tiny and ranged from 1.7 to 3.1 microm and from 2.0 to 3.9 microm, respectively. The SLmP formulations, delivered by the Cyclohaler inhaler, were found to emit a fine particle dose (FPD) of 93-113 microg, which is very promising comparing to the FPD (68 microg) delivered by the Pulmicort Turbuhaler. PMID:16380243

  20. Poleable nanoparticles as fillers towards non-linear optically active actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Yee Song; Nüesch, Frank A.; Opris, Dorina M.

    2015-04-01

    A new type of poleable dielectric elastomer is introduced herein. The elastomer contains polymer nanoparticles with frozen molecular dipoles, which can be oriented at elevated temperatures in an electric field via poling. The aim is to provide a soft material with high, tunable optical properties suitable for actuator and flexible electronics applications. To that end poleable polymeric nanoparticles with high dipole concentrations and glass transition temperatures well above room temperature will be needed to be used as filler in an elastomer matrix. The synthesis and characterization of such particles is presented in this manuscript. Polyhydroxyethyl methacrylate (PHEMA) nanoparticles were synthesized using miniemulsion polymerization. The particles were loaded with 4-[ethyl (2-hydroxyethyl) amino]-4-nitrobenzene, usually called Disperse Red 1 (DR1), which has a large dipole moment (μ = 7.5 - 9.5 D). The maximum dipole loadings is limited by the solubility of the dipole in the monomer solutions prior to polymerization. All samples show a glass transition temperature around 95 °C. Secondary electron microscopy (SEM) revealed spherical particles, the size of which was confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. A composite was prepared by dispersing the particles in polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS).

  1. Optical characterization of a light guide for the polymerization of root canal fillers: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munin, Egberto; Lupato Conrado, Luis A.; Alves, Leandro P.; Zangaro, Renato A.

    2004-05-01

    The sealing cements used in endodontics are commonly of the type activated by chemical reactions. During polymerization, mechanical contractions are not uncommon, leading to non-perfect sealing or treatment failure. Photopolymerizable cements usually presents superior performance as compared to those chemically activated. However, difficulties in carrying-up the light to difficult-to-reach regions like the dental apex preclude those material of being accepted in the dental office routine. Recently, a novel technique for the light curing of photopolymerizable cements in endodontic applications has been proposed. Such a technique makes use of a polymeric light guide to deliver the curing light to the apex region, for a single step polymerization of the canal filler. For this work, a 28 mm long polymer light-guide, has been produced. The polymer surface was roughened to produce light scattering and allow the light to escape from the guide. The light scattering profile along the body of the guide is an important property for the proposed application. We used an integrating sphere to measure the irradiation profile for the proposed endodontic device. It was found that the experimental data for the amount of light coupled into the integrating sphere as a function of the length of the cone inside the sphere fits to a double exponential model.

  2. Modifications in Glass Ionomer Cements: Nano-Sized Fillers and Bioactive Nanoceramics.

    PubMed

    Najeeb, Shariq; Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail; Khan, Abdul Samad; Zohaib, Sana; Martí, Juan Manuel Nuñez; Sauro, Salvatore; Matinlinna, Jukka Pekka; Rehman, Ihtesham Ur

    2016-01-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GICs) are being used for a wide range of applications in dentistry. In order to overcome the poor mechanical properties of glass ionomers, several modifications have been introduced to the conventional GICs. Nanotechnology involves the use of systems, modifications or materials the size of which is in the range of 1-100 nm. Nano-modification of conventional GICs and resin modified GICs (RMGICs) can be achieved by incorporation of nano-sized fillers to RMGICs, reducing the size of the glass particles, and introducing nano-sized bioceramics to the glass powder. Studies suggest that the commercially available nano-filled RMGIC does not hold any significant advantage over conventional RMGICs as far as the mechanical and bonding properties are concerned. Conversely, incorporation of nano-sized apatite crystals not only increases the mechanical properties of conventional GICs, but also can enhance fluoride release and bioactivity. By increasing the crystallinity of the set matrix, apatites can make the set cement chemically more stable, insoluble, and improve the bond strength with tooth structure. Increased fluoride release can also reduce and arrest secondary caries. However, due to a lack of long-term clinical studies, the use of nano-modified glass ionomers is still limited in daily clinical dentistry. In addition to the in vitro and in vivo studies, more randomized clinical trials are required to justify the use of these promising materials. The aim of this paper is to review the modification performed in GIC-based materials to improve their physicochemical properties. PMID:27428956

  3. Modifications in Glass Ionomer Cements: Nano-Sized Fillers and Bioactive Nanoceramics

    PubMed Central

    Najeeb, Shariq; Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail; Khan, Abdul Samad; Zohaib, Sana; Martí, Juan Manuel Nuñez; Sauro, Salvatore; Matinlinna, Jukka Pekka; Rehman, Ihtesham Ur

    2016-01-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GICs) are being used for a wide range of applications in dentistry. In order to overcome the poor mechanical properties of glass ionomers, several modifications have been introduced to the conventional GICs. Nanotechnology involves the use of systems, modifications or materials the size of which is in the range of 1–100 nm. Nano-modification of conventional GICs and resin modified GICs (RMGICs) can be achieved by incorporation of nano-sized fillers to RMGICs, reducing the size of the glass particles, and introducing nano-sized bioceramics to the glass powder. Studies suggest that the commercially available nano-filled RMGIC does not hold any significant advantage over conventional RMGICs as far as the mechanical and bonding properties are concerned. Conversely, incorporation of nano-sized apatite crystals not only increases the mechanical properties of conventional GICs, but also can enhance fluoride release and bioactivity. By increasing the crystallinity of the set matrix, apatites can make the set cement chemically more stable, insoluble, and improve the bond strength with tooth structure. Increased fluoride release can also reduce and arrest secondary caries. However, due to a lack of long-term clinical studies, the use of nano-modified glass ionomers is still limited in daily clinical dentistry. In addition to the in vitro and in vivo studies, more randomized clinical trials are required to justify the use of these promising materials. The aim of this paper is to review the modification performed in GIC-based materials to improve their physicochemical properties. PMID:27428956

  4. Impact of filler size and distribution on roughness and wear of composite resin after simulated toothbrushing

    PubMed Central

    de OLIVEIRA, Gabriela Ulian; MONDELLI, Rafael Francisco Lia; CHARANTOLA RODRIGUES, Marcela; FRANCO, Eduardo Batista; ISHIKIRIAMA, Sérgio Kiyoshi; WANG, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Nanofilled composite resins are claimed to provide superior mechanical properties compared with microhybrid resins. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare nanofilled with microhybrid composite resins. The null hypothesis was that the size and the distribution of fillers do not influence the mechanical properties of surface roughness and wear after simulated toothbrushing test. Material and methods Ten rectangular specimens (15 mm x 5 mm x 4 mm) of Filtek Z250 (FZ2), Admira (A), TPH3 (T),Esthet-X (EX), Estelite Sigma (ES), Concept Advanced (C), Grandio (G) and Filtek Z350 (F) were prepared according to manufacturer's instructions. Half of each top surface was protected with nail polish as control surface (not brushed) while the other half was assessed with five random readings using a roughness tester (Ra). Following, the specimens were abraded by simulated toothbrushing with soft toothbrushes and slurry comprised of 2:1 water and dentifrice (w/w). 100,000 strokes were performed and the brushed surfaces were re-analyzed. Nail polish layers were removed from the specimens so that the roughness (Ra) and the wear could be assessed with three random readings (µm). Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's multiple-comparison test (α=0.05). Results Overall outcomes indicated that composite resins showed a significant increase in roughness after simulated toothbrushing, except for Grandio, which presented a smoother surface. Generally, wear of nanofilled resins was significantly lower compared with microhybrid resins. Conclusions As restorative materials suffer alterations under mechanical challenges, such as toothbrushing, the use of nanofilled materials seem to be more resistant than microhybrid composite resins, being less prone to be rougher and worn. PMID:23138735

  5. Materialism.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Materialism is nearly universally assumed by cognitive scientists. Intuitively, materialism says that a person's mental states are nothing over and above his or her material states, while dualism denies this. Philosophers have introduced concepts (e.g., realization and supervenience) to assist in formulating the theses of materialism and dualism with more precision, and distinguished among importantly different versions of each view (e.g., eliminative materialism, substance dualism, and emergentism). They have also clarified the logic of arguments that use empirical findings to support materialism. Finally, they have devised various objections to materialism, objections that therefore serve also as arguments for dualism. These objections typically center around two features of mental states that materialism has had trouble in accommodating. The first feature is intentionality, the property of representing, or being about, objects, properties, and states of affairs external to the mental states. The second feature is phenomenal consciousness, the property possessed by many mental states of there being something it is like for the subject of the mental state to be in that mental state. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:281-292. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1174 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26301463

  6. Percutaneous Vertebroplasty Using Fresh Frozen Allogeneic Bone Chips as Filler

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Song; Kim, Dae Geun; Shin, Won Sik

    2014-01-01

    Background Vertebroplasty is not free from cement related complications. If an allograft is used as a filler, most of them can be averted. Methods Forty consecutive cases of osteoporotic vertebral fracture were divided into two groups by self-selection. The study and the control groups underwent vertebroplasty with fresh frozen allogeneic bone chips and bone cement, respectively. Clinical results were assessed at preoperation, postoperative day 1 and months 3, 6, and 12 by 10-grade visual analog scale (VAS), and radiological results were assessed at the same time by vertebral kyphotic angle (VKA) and local kyphotic angle (LKA). The results were compared within and between the groups. Survival function was analyzed. The criteria of an event were clinical or radiological deterioration versus pre-index surgery state. Results VAS was improved in the study group from 8.4 ± 0.8 to 5.2 ± 1.4, 6.4 ± 1.2, 5.5 ± 2.7, and 3.7 ± 1.4 at postoperative day 1 and months 3, 6, and 12, respectively, and in the control group from 8.4 ± 1.2 to 3.2 ± 1.1, 3.2 ± 1.7, 3.2 ± 2.7, and 2.5 ± 1.7, respectively (within group, p < 0.001; between groups, p < 0.001). VKA was improved in the study group from 18.9° ± 8.0° to 15.2° ± 6.1° (p = 0.046) and in the control group from 14.7° ± 5.2° to 10.3° ± 4.7° (p < 0.001) at postoperative day 1. LKA was not improved in the study group but was improved in the control group from 16.8° ± 11.7° to 14.3° ± 9.6° (p = 0.015). Correction angle was 2.7° ± 4.6°, -7.9° ± 5.3°, -7.2° ± 5.2°, and -7.4° ± 6.3° at postoperative day 1 and months 3, 6, and 12, respectively, in the study group and 4.3° ± 3.7°, 0.7° ± 3.6°, 0.7° ± 4.2°, and 0.1° ± 4.4°, respectively, in the control group. Correction loss was significant in both groups (p < 0.001) and more serious in the study group (p < 0.001). The 6-month survival rate was 16.7% in the study group and 64.3% in the control group (p = 0.003; odds ratio, 5

  7. Effective thermal conductivity of a thin composite material

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, P.E.; Niemann, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    The thermal conductivity of a randomly oriented composite material is modeled using a probabilistic approach in order to determine if a size effect exists for the thermal conductivity at small composite thickness. The numerical scheme employs a random number generator to position the filler elements, which have a relatively high thermal conductivity, within a matrix having a relatively low thermal conductivity. Results indicate that, below some threshold thickness, the composite thermal conductivity increases with decreasing thickness, while above the threshold the thermal conductivity is independent of thickness. The threshold thickness increases for increasing filler fraction and increasing k{sub f}/k{sub m}, the ratio between filler and matrix thermal conductivities.

  8. Effective thermal conductivity of a thin, randomly oriented composite material

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, P.E.; Niemann, R.C.

    1997-10-01

    The thermal conductivity of a randomly oriented composite material is modeled using a probabilistic approach in order to determine if a size effect exists for the thermal conductivity at small composite thicknesses. The numerical scheme employs a random number generator to position the filler elements, which have a relatively high thermal conductivity, within a matrix having a relative low thermal conductivity. The results indicate that, below some threshold thickness, the composite thermal conductivity is independent of thickness. The threshold thickness increases for increasing filler fraction and increasing k{sub f}/k{sub m}, the ratio between the filler and matrix thermal conductivities.

  9. Intumescent-ablators as improved thermal protection materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawko, P. M.; Riccitiello, S. R.

    1977-01-01

    Nitroaromatic amine-based intumescent coatings were improved with regard to their thermal protection ability by adding endothermic decomposing fillers with endotherms at or near the exothermic reaction of the intumescent agent, since the effectiveness of the intumescent coatings without fillers is reduced by the exothermic behavior of the coatings during thermal activation. Fillers were dispersed directly in the base coating. Potassium fluoborate, ammonium fluoborate, zinc borate, and ammonium oxalate function as endothermic ablative materials at specific temperature regions, and also enhance the char formation during the intumescent process.

  10. Tracking and Increasing Viability of Topically Injected Fibroblasts Suspended in Hyaluronic Acid Filler.

    PubMed

    You, Hi-Jin; Namgoong, Sik; Rhee, Sung-Mi; Han, Seung-Kyu

    2016-03-01

    A new injectable tissue-engineered soft tissue consisting of a mixture of hyaluronic acid (HA) filler and cultured human fibroblasts have been developed by the authors. To establish this method as a standard treatment, a further study was required to determine whether the injected fibroblasts could stay at the injected place or move to other sites. In addition, effective strategies were needed to increase viability of the injected fibroblasts. The purpose of this study was to track the injected fibroblasts and to determine the effect of adding prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) or vitamin C on the viability of fibroblasts.Human fibroblasts labeled with fluorescence dye were suspended in HA filler and injected into 4 sites on the back of nude mice. The injected bioimplants consisted of one of the 4 followings: HA filler without cells (HA group), fibroblasts suspended in HA filler (HA + FB group), PGE1-supplemented fibroblasts in HA filler (HA + FB + PGE1 group), and vitamin C-supplemented fibroblasts in HA filler (HA + FB + VC group). At 4 weeks after injection, locations and intensities of the fluorescence signals were evaluated using a live imaging system.The fluorescence signals of the fibroblast-containing groups were visible only at the injected sites without dispersing to other sites. The HA +FB + PGE1 group showed a significantly higher fluorescence signal than the HA + FB and the HA + FB +VC groups (P < 0.05, each). There was no statistical difference between the HA + FB and HA + FB +VC groups (P = 0.69).The results of the current study collectively suggest that injected fibroblasts suspended in HA filler stay at the injected place without moving to other sites. In addition, PGE1 treatment may increase the remaining rhodamine B isothiocynanate dye at the injected site of the human dermal fibroblasts. PMID:26854786

  11. Using DDGS in industrial materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adding biological materials as fillers to plastics can enhance any existing biodegradability or provide biodegradability where none had previously existed. One potential biofiller is DDGS. In fact, several studies have been conducted recently that have investigated the use of DDGS in various plast...

  12. Effects of Ion-Releasing Tooth-Coating Material on Demineralization of Bovine Tooth Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Kawasaki, Koji; Kambara, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    We compared the effect of a novel ion-releasing tooth-coating material that contained S-PRG (surface-reaction type prereacted glass-ionomer) filler to that of non-S-PRG filler and nail varnish on the demineralization of bovine enamel subsurface lesions. The demineralization process of bovine enamel was examined using quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) and electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) measurement. Ion concentrations in demineralizing solution were measured using inductively coupled plasma atomic (ICP) emission spectrometry and an ion electrode. The nail varnish group and the non-S-PRG filler group showed linear demineralization. Although the nail varnish group and the non-S-PRG filler group showed linear demineralization, the S-PRG filler group did not. Further, plane-scanning by EPMA analysis in the S-PRG filler group showed no changes in Ca ion distribution, and F ions showed peak levels on the surface of enamel specimens. Most ions in the demineralizing solution were present at higher concentrations in the S-PRG filler group than in the other two groups. In conclusion, only the S-PRG filler-containing tooth-coating material released ions and inhibited demineralization around the coating. PMID:24578706

  13. Scalable plasticized polymer electrolytes reinforced with surface-modified sepiolite fillers - A feasibility study in lithium metal polymer batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejía, Alberto; Devaraj, Shanmukaraj; Guzmán, Julio; Lopez del Amo, Juan Miguel; García, Nuria; Rojo, Teófilo; Armand, Michel; Tiemblo, Pilar

    2016-02-01

    Electrochemical properties of (polyethylene oxide) (PEO)/lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiTf)/ethylene carbonate (EC)/sepiolite extruded composite electrolytes were studied. Appreciable electrochemical stability of 4.5 V at 70 °C was observed for polymer composite membranes with D-α-tocopherol-polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate-coated sepiolite fillers. Lithium plating/stripping analysis indicated no evidence of dendrite formation with good interfacial properties which were further confirmed by postmortem analysis of the cells. Solid state NMR studies show the presence of two Li+ population in the membranes. The feasibility of these electrolytes has been shown with LiFePO4 cathode materials. Initial discharge capacity of 142 mAh/g was observed remaining at 110 mAh/g after 25 cycles with a coulombic efficiency of 96%. The upscaling of these polymers can be easily achieved by extrusion technique and the capacity can be improved by varying the cathode architecture.

  14. Tailoring the Properties of Poly(ethylene terephthalate) without Addition of Fillers via Solid-State Shear Pulverization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, Cynthia; Kasimatis, Kosmas; Torkelson, John

    2008-03-01

    We demonstrate the ability to very strongly tune the physical and mechanical properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) by changing the processing conditions of neat PET during solid-state shear pulverization without addition of any fillers or nucleating agents. Using differential scanning calorimetry, we observe a roughly factor of 3 increase in crystallinity of PET that has been pulverized and subsequently melted relative to the unprocessed PET. We also observe a dramatic increase in the rate of crystallization of the pulverized samples. Rheological characterization has demonstrated an increase in viscosity of the pulverized material, which can be ascribed to chain branching in the pulverized product. We also observe significant reductions in the oxygen permeability of the PET with pulverization as well as enhancements in mechanical properties that are commensurate with the modified crystallization properties of the pulverized PET.

  15. Implementation of a Thick-Film Composite Li-Ion Microcathode Using Carbon Nanotubes as the Conductive Filler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Qian; Harb, John N.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a thick-film microcathode for use in Li-ion microbatteries in order to provide increased power and energy per area. These cathodes take advantage of a composite porous electrode structure, utilizing carbon nanotubes (CNT) as the conductive filler. The use of carbon nanotubes was found to significantly reduce the measured resistance of the electrodes, increase active material accessibility, and improve electrode performance. In particular, the cycling and power performance of the thick-film cathodes was significantly improved, and the need for compression was eliminated. Cathode thickness and CNT content were optimized to maximize capacity and power performance. Power capability of >50 mW/sq cm (17 mA/sq cm) with discharge capacity of >0.17 mAh/sq cm was demonstrated. The feasibility of fabricating thick-film microcathodes capable of providing the power and capacity needed for use in autonomous microsensor systems was also demonstrated.

  16. Effect of silanization of hydroxyapatite fillers on physical and mechanical properties of a bis-GMA based resin composite.

    PubMed

    Lung, Christie Ying Kei; Sarfraz, Zenab; Habib, Amir; Khan, Abdul Samad; Matinlinna, Jukka Pekka

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of an experimental bis-GMA-based resin composite incorporated with non-silanized and silanized nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAP) fillers. Experimental bis-GMA based resin composites samples which were reinforced with nHAP fillers were prepared. Filler particles were surface treated with a silane coupling agent. Five test groups were prepared: 1. Unfilled, 2. Reinforced with 10wt% and 30wt% non-silanized nHAP fillers, and 3. Reinforced with 10wt% and 30wt% silanized nHAP fillers. The samples were subjected to tests in dry condition and in deionized water, aged at 37°C for 30 days. Prepared silanized and non-silanized nHAP were analyzed with Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The micro-hardness and water sorption were evaluated. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA (p<0.05). The samples were characterized by FTIR Spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric Analysis and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. The surface morphology of sample surfaces was examined by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The results showed that the water sorption for nHAP fillers reinforced resins was significantly lower than unfilled resins. Surface hardness for resins reinforced with silane treated fillers was superior to unfilled and untreated fillers resins. The resin matrix loaded with 30wt% silanized-nHAP fillers would improve the physical and mechanical properties of a bis-GMA based resin. PMID:26479428

  17. Effect of three surface conditioning methods to improve bond strength of particulate filler resin composites.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, M; Alander, P; Vallittu, P K; Huysmans, M-C; Kalk, W

    2005-01-01

    The use of resin-based composite materials in operative dentistry is increasing, including applications in stress-bearing areas. However, composite restorations, in common with all restorations, suffer from deterioration and degradation in clinical service. Durable repair alternatives by layering a new composite onto such failed composite restorations, will eliminate unnecessary loss of tooth tissue and repeated insults to the pulp. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of three surface conditioning methods on the repair bond strength of a particulate filler resin-composite (PFC) to 5 PFC substrates. The specimens were randomly assigned to one of the following surface conditioning methods: (1) Hydrofluoric (HF) acid gel (9.5%) etching, (2) Air-borne particle abrasion (50 microm Al2O3), (3) Silica coating (30 microm SiOx, CoJet-Sand). After each conditioning method, a silane coupling agent was applied. Adhesive resin was then applied in a thin layer and light polymerized. The low-viscosity diacrylate resin composite was bonded to the conditioned substrates in polyethylene molds. All specimens were tested in dry and thermocycled (6.000, 5-55 degrees C, 30 s) conditions. One-way ANOVA showed significant influence of the surface conditioning methods (p < 0.001), and the PFC types (p < 0.0001) on the shear bond strength values. Significant differences were observed in bond strength values between the acid etched specimens (5.7-14.3 MPa) and those treated with either air-borne particle abrasion (13.0-22.5 MPa) or silica coating (25.5-41.8 MPa) in dry conditions (ANOVA, p < 0.001). After thermocycling, the silica coating process resulted in the highest bond values in all material groups (17.2-30.3 MPa). PMID:15754140

  18. Effects of Inorganic Fillers on the Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Poly(lactic acid)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xingxun; Wang, Tongxin; Chow, Laurence C.; Yang, Mingshu; Mitchell, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Addition of filler to polylactic acid (PLA) may affect its crystallization behavior and mechanical properties. The effects of talc and hydroxyapatite (HA) on the thermal and mechanical properties of two types of PLA (one amorphous and one semicrystalline) have been investigated. The composites were prepared by melt blending followed by injection molding. The molecular weight, morphology, mechanical properties, and thermal properties have been characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), scanning electron microscope (SEM), instron tensile tester, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). It was found that the melting blending led to homogeneous distribution of the inorganic filler within the PLA matrix but decreased the molecular weight of PLA. Regarding the filler, addition of talc increased the crystallinity of PLA, but HA decreased the crystallinity of PLA. The tensile strength of the composites depended on the crystallinity of PLA and the interfacial properties between PLA and the filler, but both talc and HA filler increased the toughness of PLA. PMID:25717339

  19. A systematic review of filler agents for aesthetic treatment of HIV facial lipoatrophy (FLA).

    PubMed

    Jagdeo, Jared; Ho, Derek; Lo, Alex; Carruthers, Alastair

    2015-12-01

    HIV facial lipoatrophy (FLA) is characterized by facial volume loss. HIV FLA affects the facial contours of the cheeks, temples, and orbits, and is associated with social stigma. Although new highly active antiretroviral therapy medications are associated with less severe FLA, the prevalence of HIV FLA among treated individuals exceeds 50%. The goal of our systematic review is to examine published clinical studies involving the use of filler agents for aesthetic treatment of HIV FLA and to provide evidence-based recommendations based on published efficacy and safety data. A systematic review of the published literature was performed on July 1, 2015, on filler agents for aesthetic treatment of HIV FLA. Based on published studies, poly-L-lactic acid is the only filler agent with grade of recommendation: B. Other reviewed filler agents received grade of recommendation: C or D. Poly-L-lactic acid may be best for treatment over temples and cheeks, whereas calcium hydroxylapatite, with a Food and Drug Administration indication of subdermal implantation, may be best used deeply over bone for focal enhancement. Additional long-term randomized controlled trials are necessary to elucidate the advantages and disadvantages of fillers that have different biophysical properties, in conjunction with cost-effectiveness analysis, for treatment of HIV FLA. PMID:26481056

  20. Experimental Study of Filler Insertion Effect on Mean Thermal Contact Conductance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomimura, Toshio

    A series of experiments have been performed to investigate the filler insertion effect on the temperature drop at the wavy contact interface ΔT and the mean thermal contact conductance hm, f. Representative behavior of ΔT against the mean nominal contact pressure pm is clarified, and the effect of an interval of time on ΔT is shown for the silicone filler with thickness δfo=2mm. The silicone elastomer is proved effective to increase hm, f despite its low thermal conductivity. Further, it is shown that hm, f of 0.5mm thick silicone filler becomes two to three times higher than that of bare contact under the unloading process. However, it is also shown that hm, f decreases with increasing δfo, therefore filler insertion with improper thickness results in a reverse effect on increase in hm, f. As for metallic filler insertion using an aluminum or a copper foil, only a little improvement in hm, f is obtained in spite of its high thermal conductivity.

  1. Key importance of compression properties in the biophysical characteristics of hyaluronic acid soft-tissue fillers.

    PubMed

    Gavard Molliard, Samuel; Albert, Séverine; Mondon, Karine

    2016-08-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) soft-tissue fillers are the most popular degradable injectable products used for correcting skin depressions and restoring facial volume loss. From a rheological perspective, HA fillers are commonly characterised through their viscoelastic properties under shear-stress. However, despite the continuous mechanical pressure that the skin applies on the fillers, compression properties in static and dynamic modes are rarely considered. In this article, three different rheological tests (shear-stress test and compression tests in static and dynamic mode) were carried out on nine CE-marked cross-linked HA fillers. Corresponding shear-stress (G', tanδ) and compression (E', tanδc, normal force FN) parameters were measured. We show here that the tested products behave differently under shear-stress and under compression even though they are used for the same indications. G' showed the expected influence on the tissue volumising capacity, and the same influence was also observed for the compression parameters E'. In conclusion, HA soft-tissue fillers exhibit widely different biophysical characteristics and many variables contribute to their overall performance. The elastic modulus G' is not the only critical parameter to consider amongst the rheological properties: the compression parameters E' and FN also provide key information, which should be taken into account for a better prediction of clinical outcomes, especially for predicting the volumising capacity and probably the ability to stimulate collagen production by fibroblasts. PMID:27093589

  2. Effect of treated filler loading on the photopolymerization inhibition and shrinkage of a dimethacrylate matrix.

    PubMed

    Nunes, T G; Pereira, S G; Kalachandra, S

    2008-05-01

    This study shows how treated filler loading influences the photopolymerization of a dimethacrylate comonomer mixture, regarding, in particular, shrinkage and inhibition under atmospheric oxygen, present in oral environment. Bis-GMA/TEGDMA (75/25 wt.%) resins were loaded with hybrid filler (Ba aluminosilicate glass and pyrogenic silica), treated with gamma-methacryloxy(propyl)trimethoxysilane, at 0-50 wt.% and light cured over a total of 30 s (45 mW/cm2). Degree of double-bond conversion (DC), obtained using FTIR, decreased with filler content. 1H MAS spectra (293-340 K) and STRAFI images (293 K) were obtained as a function of irradiation time and filler concentration. 1H signals of unreacted methacrylate groups were more intense for higher loaded resins and resonances from -CH2SiO2(OH) (T2) and -CH2SiO3- (T3) units, also observed by 29Si NMR, were resolved and suggest the presence of T2-resin bonds. 1D images show a reduction on polymerization contraction and reaction inhibition at the composite resin surface with filler loading. 2D resin images present a highly mobile surface layer, hence with lower DC. PMID:17914626

  3. Inflammatory nodules following soft tissue filler use: a review of causative agents, pathology and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Ledon, Jennifer A; Savas, Jessica A; Yang, Steven; Franca, Katlein; Camacho, Ivan; Nouri, Keyvan

    2013-10-01

    Nodule development is a common complication following the use of fillers for soft tissue augmentation and is commonly categorized as inflammatory or non-inflammatory in nature. Inflammatory nodules may appear anywhere from days to years after treatment, whereas non-inflammatory nodules are typically seen immediately following implantation and are usually secondary to improper placement of the filler. Although inflammatory nodules are more common with permanent fillers such as silicone, inflammatory nodule development following administration of temporary fillers such as hyaluronic acid and collagen has also been reported. Treated many times with corticosteroids due to their anti-inflammatory properties, inflammatory nodules may be secondary to infection or biofilm formation, warranting the use of alternative agents. Appropriate and prompt diagnosis is important in avoiding delay of treatment or long-term complications for the patient. This paper addresses the etiology, development, and studied treatment options available for inflammatory nodules secondary to each of the major classes of fillers. With this knowledge, practitioners may expeditiously recognize and manage this common side effect and thus maximize functional and aesthetic benefit. PMID:24037757

  4. Solubility and Dissolution Rate of Ni Base Alloy to Molten Ag-Cu-Pd Brazing Filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeshoji, Toshi-Taka; Watanabe, Yuki; Suzumura, Akio; Yamazaki, Takahisa

    During the brazing process of the rocket engine’s nozzle skirt assembly made from Fe-Ni based super alloy pipes with Pd based brazing filler, the erosion corrosion pits were sometimes engraved on those pipes’ surface. The corrosion is considered to be assisted by the dynamic flow of the molten brazing filler. In order to estimate the amount of erosion corrosion and to prevent it, the solubility and the dissolution rate of Ni to the molten Ag-Cu-Pd brazing filler are measured experimentally. The Ni crucible poured with the Ag-Cu-Pd brazing filler was heated up to 1320K and quenched after the various keeping time. The microstructure of the solidified brazing filler part’s cross sections was observed, and the amount of the dissolved Ni was estimated using the image processing technique. The solubility was about 5.53mass%and the initial dissolution rate was 6.28 × 10-3mass%/s. Using these data, more elaborate dynamic flow simulation will be able to conduct.

  5. Method and apparatus for the management of hazardous waste material

    DOEpatents

    Murray, H. Jr.

    1995-02-21

    A container for storing hazardous waste material, particularly radioactive waste material, consists of a cylindrical body and lid of precipitation hardened C17510 beryllium-copper alloy, and a channel formed between the mated lid and body for receiving weld filler material of C17200 copper-beryllium alloy. The weld filler material has a precipitation hardening temperature lower than the aging kinetic temperature of the material of the body and lid, whereby the weld filler material is post weld heat treated for obtaining a weld having substantially the same physical, thermal, and electrical characteristics as the material of the body and lid. A mechanical seal assembly is located between an interior shoulder of the body and the bottom of the lid for providing a vacuum seal. 40 figs.

  6. Method and apparatus for the management of hazardous waste material

    DOEpatents

    Murray, Jr., Holt

    1995-01-01

    A container for storing hazardous waste material, particularly radioactive waste material, consists of a cylindrical body and lid of precipitation hardened C17510 beryllium-copper alloy, and a channel formed between the mated lid and body for receiving weld filler material of C17200 copper-beryllium alloy. The weld filler material has a precipitation hardening temperature lower than the aging kinetic temperature of the material of the body and lid, whereby the weld filler material is post weld heat treated for obtaining a weld having substantially the same physical, thermal, and electrical characteristics as the material of the body and lid. A mechanical seal assembly is located between an interior shoulder of the body and the bottom of the lid for providing a vacuum seal.

  7. In vitro studies of composite bone filler based on poly(propylene fumarate) and biphasic α-tricalcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite ceramic powder.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chang-Chin; Yang, Kai-Chiang; Yang, Shu-Hua; Lin, Min-Huei; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Lin, Feng-Huei

    2012-04-01

    While many different filler materials have been applied in vertebral augmentation procedures, none is perfect in all biomechanical and biological characteristics. To minimize possible shortages, we synthesized a new biodegradable, injectable, and premixed composite made from poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) and biphasic α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP)/hydroxyapatite (HAP) ceramics powder and evaluated the material properties of the compound in vitro. We mixed the PPF cross-linked by N-vinyl pyrrolidinone and biphasic α-TCP/HAP powder in different ratios with benzoyl peroxide as an initiator. The setting time and temperature were recorded, although they could be manipulated by modulating the concentrations of hydroquinone and N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine. Degradation, cytocompatibility, mechanical properties, and radiopacity were analyzed after the composites were cured by a cylindrical shape. We also compared the study materials with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and PPF with pure HAP particles. Results showed that lower temperature during curing process (38-44°C), sufficient initial mechanical compressive fracture strength (61.1±3.7MPa), and gradual degradation were observed in the newly developed bone filler. Radiopacity in Hounsfield units was similar to PMMA as determined by computed tomography scan. Both pH value variation and cytotoxicity were within biological tolerable limits based on the biocompatibility tests. Mixtures with 70% α-TCP/HAP powder were superior to other groups. This study indicated that a composite of PPF and biphasic α-TCP/HAP powder is a promising, premixed, injectable biodegradable filler and that a mixture containing 70% α-TCP/HAP exhibits the best properties. PMID:22145803

  8. Polyurethane foam with multi walled carbon nanotubes/magnesium hybrid filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adnan, Sinar Arzuria; Zainuddin, Firuz; Zaidi, Nur Hidayah Ahmad; Akil, Hazizan Md.; Ahmad, Sahrim

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/magnesium (Mg) hybrid filler in polyurethane (PU) foams with different weight percentages (0.5 wt.% to 3.0 wt.%). The PU/MWCNTs/Mg foam composites were formed by reaction of based palm oil polyol (POP) with methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) with ratio 1:1.1 by weight. The foam properties were evaluated in density, morphology and compressive strength. The addition of 2.5 wt.% hybrid filler showed the higher density in 59.72 kg/m3 and thus contribute to the highest compressive strength at 1.76 MPa. The morphology show cell in closed structure and addition hybrid filler showed uneven structure.

  9. Thermo Sensitivity of Polysiloxane/Silica Nanocomposites Affected by the Structure of Polymer-Filler Interface.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Zhou, Yufeng; Yu, Fengmei; Song, Lixian; Sun, Sumin; Lu, Zhongyuan; Lu, Ai

    2016-03-01

    In this work thermo sensitivity was investigated with the bound rubber theory and thermoelasticity theory of the polymer-filler interface interaction between Polymethylvinylsiloxane (PMVS) and nanofillers (fumed and precipitated silica with the primary particle size of 10 nanometres). Bound rubber (the transition phase between PMVS and silica) content was measured by sol-gel analysis and swelling experiments. Results showed that the amount of bound rubber increases steadily with the increases of filler content. But the increasing rate suddenly decreased at certain silica content (between 40 and 50 phr of precipitated silica and between 30 and 40 phr of fumed silica, respectively), which was constant with the thermoelaticity experiment results. The temperature coefficients in low strain uniaxial extension are found to present sudden changing at the same silica content. This observation shows that thermo sensitivity is closely connected with the structure of polymer-filler interface. PMID:27455698

  10. Optical characterization of one dental composite resin using bovine enamel as reinforcing filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tribioli, J. T.; Jacomassi, D.; Rastelli, A. N. S.; Pratavieira, S.; Bagnato, V. S.; Kurachi, C.

    2012-01-01

    The use of composite resins for restorative procedure in anterior and posterior cavities is highly common in Dentistry due to its mechanical and aesthetic properties that are compatible with the remaining dental structure. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the optical characterization of one dental composite resin using bovine enamel as reinforcing filler. The same organic matrix of the commercially available resins was used for this experimental resin. The reinforcing filler was obtained after the gridding of bovine enamel fragments and a superficial treatment was performed to allow the adhesion of the filler particles with the organic matrix. Different optical images as fluorescence and reflectance were performed to compare the experimental composite with the human teeth. The present experimental resin shows similar optical properties compared with human teeth.

  11. The Surgical Lips Deformity Corrected with Hyaluronic Fillers: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Stolic, Dragan; Jankovic, Maja; Draskovic, Marija; Georgiev, Slobodan; Stolic, Marina

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hyaluronic filler is a sterile, biodegradable, viscoelastic, isotonic, transparent injectable gel implant which was approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 1996. It is used for face reconstruction and modelling. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 40-year-old Serbian woman who presented after surgery of cleft lip, primary and secondary palate. We performed a biphasic therapy; in the first stage in the zone semimucosis lips is initially carried incision scar tissue. The second stage is placed hyaluronan implant. CONCLUSION: This case illustrates that, although hyaluronic fillers used mainly for correction of healthy tissue can be successfully used in the treatment of postoperative scars.

  12. Enhanced mechanical and thermal properties of CNT/HDPE nanocomposite using MMT as secondary filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali Mohsin, M. E.; Arsad, Agus; Fouad, H.; Jawaid, M.; Alothman, Othman Y.

    2014-05-01

    This study explains the influence of secondary filler on the dispersion of carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced high density polyethylene (HDPE) nanocomposites (CNT/HDPE). In order to understand the mixed-fillers system, Montmorillonite (MMT) was added to CNT/HDPE nanocomposites. It was followed by investigating their effect on the thermal, mechanical and XRD properties of the aforesaid nanocomposite. Incorporation of 3 wt% each of MMT into CNT/HDPE nanocomposite resulted to the increased values for the tensile and flexural strength, as compared to the pure HDPE matrix. The thermal analysis result showed improved thermal stability of the formulated nanocomposites.

  13. Development of brazing process for W-EUROFER joints using Cu-based fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Prado, J.; Sánchez, M.; Ureña, A.

    2016-02-01

    A successful joint between W and EUROFER using high temperature brazing technique has been achieved for structural application in future fusion power plants. Cu-based powder alloy mixed with a polymeric binder has been used as filler. Microstructural analysis of the joints revealed that the joint consisted mainly of primary phases and acicular structures in a Cu matrix. Interaction between EUROFER and filler took place at the interface giving rise to several Cu-Ti-Fe rich layers. A loss of hardness at the EUROFER substrate close to the joint due to a diffusion phenomenon during brazing cycle was measured; however, the joints had an adequate shear strength value.

  14. Facial Granulomas Secondary to Injection of Semi-Permanent Cosmetic Dermal Filler Containing Acrylic Hydrogel Particles

    PubMed Central

    Sachdev, Mukta; Anantheswar, YN; Ashok, BC; Hameed, Sunaina; Pai, Sanjay A

    2010-01-01

    Various reports of long-term complications with semi-permanent fillers, appearing several years after injections have created some concern about their long-term safety profile. We report a case of foreign body granuloma secondary to dermal filler containing a copolymer of the acrylic hydrogel particles, hydroxyethylmethacrylate and ethylmethacrylate, occurring 2 years after the injection. The foreign body granulomas could not be treated satisfactorily with intralesional steroids, and the patient required a surgical excision of her granulomas. The physical and psychological consequences to such patients can be quite devastating. PMID:21430829

  15. Buffing dust as a filler of carboxylated butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber and butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber.

    PubMed

    Chronska, K; Przepiorkowska, A

    2008-03-01

    Buffing dust from chrome tanned leather is one of the difficult tannery wastes to manage. It is also hazardous to both human health and the environment. The scientific literature rarely reports studies on dust management, especially on its utilization as a filler for elastomers. In this connection we have made an attempt to use this leather waste as a filler for rubbers such as XNBR and NBR. The addition of the buffing dust to rubber mixes brought improvement in mechanical properties, and increase in resistance to thermal ageing as well as in electric conductivity and crosslink density of vulcalizates. PMID:17629616

  16. Biomechanical characteristics of polymeric UHMWPE composites with hybrid matrix and dispersed fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panin, Sergey; Kornienko, Lyudmila; Shilko, Sergey; Thuc, Nguyen Xuan; Korchagin, Mikhail; Chaikina, Marina

    2015-11-01

    In order to develop artificial joint implants some biomechanical properties of composites with UHMWPE and hybrid (polymer-polymeric) "UHMWPE+PTFE" matrix with dispersed fillers were studied. A comparative analysis of the effectiveness of adding hydroxyapatite micron- and nanopowders as a biocompatible filler was carried out. It was shown that under dry sliding friction the wear rate of nanocomposites with the hybrid matrix is lower as compared with composites with the non-hybrid one. Mechanical activation of components further enhances the durability of nano- and microcomposites to almost double it without any significant reduction in the strength characteristics.

  17. Brazing Inconel 625 Using Two Ni/(Fe)-Based Amorphous Filler Foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen-Shiang; Shiue, Ren-Kae

    2012-07-01

    For MBF-51 filler, the brazed joint consists of interfacial grain boundary borides, coarse Nb6Ni16Si7, and Ni/Cr-rich matrix. In contrast, the VZ-2106 brazed joint is composed of interfacial Nb6Ni16Si7 precipitates as well as grain boundary borides, coarse Nb6Ni16Si7, and Ni/Cr/Fe-rich matrix. The maximum tensile strength of 443 MPa is obtained from the MBF-51 brazed specimen. The tensile strengths of VZ-2106 brazed joints are approximately 300 MPa. Both amorphous filler foils demonstrate potential in brazing IN-625 substrate.

  18. Graphene oxide-silica nanohybrids as fillers for PA6 based nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Maio, A.; Fucarino, R.; Khatibi, R.; Botta, L.; Scaffaro, R.; Rosselli, S.; Bruno, M.

    2014-05-15

    Graphene oxide (GO) was prepared by oxidation of graphite flakes by a mixture of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and KMnO{sub 4} based on Marcano's method. Two different masterbatches containing GO (33.3%) and polyamide-6 (PA6) (66.7%) were prepared both via solvent casting in formic acid and by melt mixing in a mini-extruder (Haake). The two masterbatches were then used to prepare PA6-based nanocomposites with a content of 2% in GO. For comparison, a nanocomposite by direct mixing of PA6 and GO (2%) and PA6/graphite nanocomposites were prepared, too. The oxidation of graphite into GO was assessed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Micro-Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. All these techniques demonstrated the effectiveness of the graphite modification, since the results put into evidence that, after the acid treatment, interlayer distance, oxygen content and defects increased. SEM micrographs carried out on the nanocomposites, showed GO layers totally surrounded by polyamide-6, this feature is likely due to the strong interaction between the hydrophilic moieties located both on GO and on PA6. On the contrary, no interactions were observed when graphite was used as filler. Mechanical characterization, carried out by tensile and dynamic-mechanical tests, marked an improvement of the mechanical properties observed. Photoluminescence and EPR measurements were carried out onto nanoparticles and nanocomposites to study the nature of the interactions and to assess the possibility to use this class of materials as semiconductors or optical sensors.

  19. Graphene oxide-silica nanohybrids as fillers for PA6 based nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maio, A.; Fucarino, R.; Khatibi, R.; Botta, L.; Rosselli, S.; Bruno, M.; Scaffaro, R.

    2014-05-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) was prepared by oxidation of graphite flakes by a mixture of H2SO4/H3PO4 and KMnO4 based on Marcano's method. Two different masterbatches containing GO (33.3%) and polyamide-6 (PA6) (66.7%) were prepared both via solvent casting in formic acid and by melt mixing in a mini-extruder (Haake). The two masterbatches were then used to prepare PA6-based nanocomposites with a content of 2% in GO. For comparison, a nanocomposite by direct mixing of PA6 and GO (2%) and PA6/graphite nanocomposites were prepared, too. The oxidation of graphite into GO was assessed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Micro-Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. All these techniques demonstrated the effectiveness of the graphite modification, since the results put into evidence that, after the acid treatment, interlayer distance, oxygen content and defects increased. SEM micrographs carried out on the nanocomposites, showed GO layers totally surrounded by polyamide-6, this feature is likely due to the strong interaction between the hydrophilic moieties located both on GO and on PA6. On the contrary, no interactions were observed when graphite was used as filler. Mechanical characterization, carried out by tensile and dynamic-mechanical tests, marked an improvement of the mechanical properties observed. Photoluminescence and EPR measurements were carried out onto nanoparticles and nanocomposites to study the nature of the interactions and to assess the possibility to use this class of materials as semiconductors or optical sensors.

  20. Rheological properties of styrene-butadiene rubber filled with electron beam modified surface treated dual phase fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmugharaj, A. M.; Bhowmick, Anil K.

    2004-01-01

    The rheological properties of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) loaded with dual phase filler were measured using Monsanto Processability Tester (MPT) at three different temperatures (100°C, 110°C and 130°C) and four different shear rates (61.3, 306.3, 613, and 1004.5 s -1). The effect of electron beam modification of dual phase filler in absence and presence of trimethylol propane triacrylate (TMPTA) or triethoxysilylpropyltetrasulphide (Si-69) on melt flow properties of SBR was also studied. The viscosity of all the systems decreases with shear rate indicating their pseudoplastic or shear thinning nature. The higher shear viscosity for the SBR loaded with the electron beam modified filler is explained in terms of variation in structure of the filler upon electron beam irradiation. Die swell of the modified filler loaded SBR is slightly higher than that of the unmodified filler loaded rubber, which is explained by calculating normal stress difference for the systems. Activation energy of the modified filler loaded SBR systems is also slightly higher than that of the control filler loaded SBR system.

  1. Discontinuous Development in the Acquisition of Filler-Gap Dependencies: Evidence from 15- and 20-Month-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagliardi, Annie; Mease, Tara M.; Lidz, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates infant comprehension of filler-gap dependencies. Three experiments probe 15- and 20-month-olds' comprehension of two filler-gap dependencies: "wh"-questions and relative clauses. Experiment 1 shows that both age groups appear to comprehend "wh"-questions. Experiment 2 shows that only the younger…

  2. Evaluating corn starch and corn stover biochar as renewable filler in carboxylated styrene-butadiene rubber composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn starch, corn flour, and corn stover biochar were evaluated as potential renewable substitutes for carbon black as filler in rubber composites using carboxylated styrene-butadiene as the rubber matrix. Previous work has shown that starch-based fillers have very good reinforcement properties at t...

  3. "Uh," "Um," and Autism: Filler Disfluencies as Pragmatic Markers in Adolescents with Optimal Outcomes from Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, Christina A.; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Fein, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    Filler disfluencies--"uh" and "um"--are thought to serve distinct discourse functions. We examined fillers in spontaneous speech by youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who struggle with pragmatic language, and by youth with ASD who have achieved an "optimal outcome" (OO), as well as in peers with typical…

  4. Effect of strain rate on mechanical properties of melt-processed soy flour composite filler and styrene-butadiene blends

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polymer composites were prepared by melt-mixing polymer and soy flour composite fillers in an internal mixer. Soy flour composite fillers were prepared by blending aqueous dispersion of soy flour with styrene-butadiene rubber latex, dried, and cryogenically ground into powders. Upon crosslinking, th...

  5. Modelling and Experimental Studies of the Effect of Water at the Polymer-Filler Interface in Silica-Filled Siloxane Rubbers

    SciTech Connect

    Dinh, L N; Schildbach, M A; Balazs, G B; Gee, R; Maxwell, R S

    2004-08-23

    Silica-filled polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite systems find a broad range of applications due to their chemical and environmental resilience and the ability to fine tune, through chemical and processing modifications, the chemical and mechanical properties resulting in a precise engineering property for the final component. Thus, requirements for, and life-performance predictions of, these materials require an understanding of the interaction between the silica filler and the polymer network. Because silica surfaces are well known to have a high affinity for water adsorption, and this water is a critical part of the interface between the silica particles and the polymer matrix, water at this interface has important consequences on the nature of the silica-polymer bonding and subsequently the mechanical behaviour. Previous studies have reported on the water speciation and long-term outgassing kinetics of common fumed and precipitated silicas used in silicone elastomers, and of one such copolymer system in particular. Several different water species were observed to be present with a range of desorption activation energies. The amount and type of species present were observed to be dependent on the thermal and chemical history of the filler and the composite. Solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) methods based on quantification of residual magnetic dipolar couplings have also been applied, as these measurements have been shown to be quite sensitive to dynamic and morphological changes in elastomer systems. These residual dipolar couplings in elastomeric materials arise due to polymer network constraints (on the NMR timescale) that prevent the averaging, due to reorientations, of the homonuclear dipolar couplings to zero. Residual dipolar couplings, as a result, can be used to test theories of elasticity, gelation, and polymer conformation. In addition, Molecular Dynamics (MD) investigations have found that the removal of water from the polymer-filler

  6. Use of agricultural byproducts as fillers in polymer composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recent trend in polymer research is to use natural renewable materials as "green" raw materials for industrial applications. One of the applications pursued by the authors is to produce polymeric composites consisting of a polymer and an agricultural byproduct or waste. In this way, there is no c...

  7. Alternate nozzle ablative materials program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimmel, N. A.

    1984-01-01

    Four subscale solid rocket motor tests were conducted successfully to evaluate alternate nozzle liner, insulation, and exit cone structural overwrap components for possible application to the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) nozzle asasembly. The 10,000 lb propellant motor tests were simulated, as close as practical, the configuration and operational environment of the full scale SRM. Fifteen PAN based and three pitch based materials had no filler in the phenolic resin, four PAN based materials had carbon microballoons in the resin, and the rest of the materials had carbon powder in the resin. Three nozzle insulation materials were evaluated; an aluminum oxide silicon oxide ceramic fiber mat phenolic material with no resin filler and two E-glass fiber mat phenolic materials with no resin filler. It was concluded by MTI/WD (the fabricator and evaluator of the test nozzles) and NASA-MSFC that it was possible to design an alternate material full scale SRM nozzle assembly, which could provide an estimated 360 lb increased payload capability for Space Shuttle launches over that obtainable with the current qualified SRM design.

  8. Electrically conductive composite material

    DOEpatents

    Clough, Roger L.; Sylwester, Alan P.

    1989-01-01

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistant pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like.

  9. Electrically conductive composite material

    DOEpatents

    Clough, R.L.; Sylwester, A.P.

    1988-06-20

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistent pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like. 2 figs.

  10. POLY(LACTIC ACID) GREEN COMPOSITES USING OILSEED COPRODUCTS AS FILLERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poly(lactic acid), PLA, is a biodegradable polymer made from renewable resources with similar mechanical properties to polypropylene. PLA is more expensive than petroleum-based plastics, and the use of low-cost fillers as extenders is desirable. Agricultural co-products of the alternative oilseed ...

  11. Recycled rubber, aggregate, and filler in asphalt paving mixtures. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    ;Contents(Partial): Evaluation Systems for Crumb Rubber Modified Binders and Mixtures; Hot Mix Asphalt Rubber Applications in Virginia; Evaluation of Pyrolized Carbon Black from Scrap Tires as Additive in Hot Mix Asphalt; Use of Scrap Tire Chips in Asphaltic Membrane; Effects of Mineral Fillers on Properties of Stone Matrix Asphalt Mixtures; and Quantitative Analysis of Aggregate Based on Hough Transform.

  12. Hybrid composite based on poly(vinyl alcohol) and fillers from renewable resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybrid composite laminates consisting of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as continuous phase (33% by weight) and lignocellulosic fillers, derived from sugarcane bagasse, apple and orange waste (22% by weight) were molded in a carver press in the presence of water and glycerol such as platicizers agents. Cor...

  13. Mechanical, thermal, and moisture properties of plastics with bean as filler

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments on polymers using beans as fillers are reported herein. We are looking for desirable mechanical, thermal and moisture properties at economical costs. Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is studied as the polymeric matrix because it is available and biodegradable. Although the physical properties are...

  14. 21 CFR 888.3045 - Resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device. 888.3045 Section 888.3045 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Industry and FDA.” See § 888.1(e) of this chapter for the availability of this guidance....

  15. Preparation and Properties of a Novel Al-Si-Ge-Zn Filler Metal for Brazing Aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Zhiwei; Huang, Jihua; Yang, Hao; Chen, Shuhai; Zhao, Xingke

    2015-06-01

    The study is concerned with developing a filler metal with low melting temperature and good processability for brazing aluminum and its alloys. For this purpose, a novel Al-Si-Ge-Zn alloy was prepared according to Al-Si-Ge and Al-Si-Zn ternary phase diagrams. The melting characteristics, microstructures, wettability, and processing property of the alloy were investigated. The results showed that the melting temperature range of the novel filler metal was 505.2-545.1 °C, and the temperature interval between the solidus and the liquidus was 39.9 °C. Compared with a common Al-Si-Ge alloy, it had smaller and better dispersed β-GeSi solid solution precipitates, and the Zn-rich phases distributed on the boundary of the β-GeSi precipitates. The novel filler metal has good processability and good wettability with Al. There was one obvious transition layer with a thin α-Al solid solution between the filler metal and base metal, which is favorable to improve the strength of brazing joint.

  16. Treatment of wet blue with fillers produced from quebracho-modified gelatin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gelatin modified with quebracho to produce high molecular weight, high viscosity products was investigated as a filler in leather processing. The uptake of quebracho/gelatin product by the wet blue was on the average about 55% of the 10% gelatin/quebracho product offered; the reaction appeared to be...

  17. Novel Organically Modified Core-Shell Clay for Epoxy Composites-"SOBM Filler 1".

    PubMed

    Iheaturu, Nnamdi Chibuike; Madufor, Innocent Chimezie

    2014-01-01

    Preparation of a novel organically modified clay from spent oil base drilling mud (SOBM) that could serve as core-shell clay filler for polymers is herein reported. Due to the hydrophilic nature of clay, its compatibility with polymer matrix was made possible through modification of the surface of the core clay sample with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (3-APTES) compound prior to its use. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to characterize clay surface modification. Electron dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to expose filler chemical composition and morphology, while electrophoresis measurement was used to examine level of filler dispersion. Results show an agglomerated core clay powder after high temperature treatment, while EDX analysis shows that the organically modified clay is composed of chemical inhomogeneities, wherein elemental compositions in weight percent vary from one point to the other in a probe of two points. Micrographs of the 3-APTES coupled SOBM core-shell clay filler clearly show cloudy appearance, while FT-IR indicates 25% and 5% increases in fundamental vibrations band at 1014 cm(-1) and 1435 cm(-1), respectively. Furthermore, 3-APTES coupled core-shell clay was used to prepare epoxy composites and tested for mechanical properties. PMID:27355022

  18. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLY (LACTIC ACID) GREEN COMPOSITES USING AGRICULTURAL CO-PRODUCTS AS FILLERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poly (lactic acid) is a biodegradable plastic made from renewable resources and has similar mechanical properties to polypropylene. PLA is more expensive than petroleum-based plastics, and the use of low-cost fillers as extenders is desirable. Agricultural co-products (AcP) of oilseed crops were c...

  19. Automotive Body Fillers; Auto Body Repair and Refinishing 2: 9035.03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course provides students with the general information, technical knowledge, basic skills, attitudes, and values required for job entry level as an auto body repair helper. Course content includes goals, specific objectives, orientation, filling with body solder, and plastic filler. A post-test sample is appended. (NH)

  20. Application of waste bulk moulded composite (BMC) as a filler for isotactic polypropylene composites

    PubMed Central

    Barczewski, Mateusz; Matykiewicz, Danuta; Andrzejewski, Jacek; Skórczewska, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to produce isotactic polypropylene based composites filled with waste thermosetting bulk moulded composite (BMC). The influence of BMC waste addition (5, 10, 20 wt%) on composites structure and properties was investigated. Moreover, additional studies of chemical treatment of the filler were prepared. Modification of BMC waste by calcium stearate (CaSt) powder allows to assess the possibility of the production of composites with better dispersion of the filler and more uniform properties. The mechanical, processing, and thermal properties, as well as structural investigations were examined by means of static tensile test, Dynstat impact strength test, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), melt flow index (MFI) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Developed composites with different amounts of non-reactive filler exhibited satisfactory thermal and mechanical properties. Moreover, application of the low cost modifier (CaSt) allows to obtain composites with better dispersion of the filler and improved processability. PMID:27222742

  1. Effect of filler loading of nickel zinc ferrite on the tensile properties of PLA nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahdan, Dalila; Ahmad, Sahrim Hj

    2013-05-01

    The mechanical strength of magnetic polymer nanocomposite (MPNC) of nickel zinc (NiZn) ferrite nanoparticles incorporated with polylactic acid (PLA) and liquid natural rubber (LNR) as compatibilizer is reported. The matrix was prepared from PLA and LNR in the ratio of 90:10. The MPNC were prepared at constant mixing temperature at 180°C, mixing time of 15 min. and mixing speed of 100 rpm. In order to achieve a good dispersion of NiZn ferrite in the matrix, firstly an ultrasonic treatment had been employed to mix the LNR and NiZn ferrite for 1 hour. The MPNC of PLA/LNR/NiZn ferrite then were prepared via Thermo Haake internal mixer using melt-blending method from different filler loading from 1-5 wt% NiZn ferrite. The result of tensile tests showed that as the filler loading increases the tensile strength also increases until an optimum value of filler loading was reached. The Young's modulus, tensile strength and elongation at break have also increased. The study proves that NiZn ferrite is excellent reinforcement filler in PLA matrix. Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were meant to show the homogeneity dispersion of nanoparticles within the matrix and to confirm the elemental composition of NiZn ferrites-PLA/LNR nanocomposites respectively.

  2. Filled elastomers: polymer chain and filler characterization by a SANS-SAXS approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botti, A.; Pyckhout-Hintzen, W.; Richter, D.; Straube, E.

    2002-02-01

    One of the important features of filled elastomers in general is the so-called strain amplification, or the enhancement of the local deformation of the rubbery matrix in comparison to the macroscopic deformation of the sample. This is due to the presence of the filler, taken as an indeformable substance, that changes the properties of the system, both macroscopically like the stiffnesss or the Young modulus, and microscopically like the local overstrain of chains. We used commercially interesting fillers, all of them based on silica particles showing different surface properties, while the rubbery matrix was a blend of protonated and deuterated polyisoprene (PI). We varied the filler volume fraction and the applied strain. First, we studied separately the two components of the composite, characterizing by X-ray and neutrons the filler, to use this information later in the extraction of the single chain scattering from SANS measurements. For a description of the microscopic deformation we rely on the previous finding on the unfilled network obtained using the tube model by Heinrich and Straube, modified and rewritten for SANS experiments on this kind of system.

  3. From biowaste to bioresource: Effect of a lignocellulosic filler on the properties of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate).

    PubMed

    Angelini, Stefania; Cerruti, Pierfrancesco; Immirzi, Barbara; Santagata, Gabriella; Scarinzi, Gennaro; Malinconico, Mario

    2014-11-01

    A lignin-rich residue (LRR) obtained as a by-product from the fermentative bioethanol production process, and commercial alkali lignin (AL), were used as fillers for the preparation of bio-based blends and composites with poly(3-hydrobutyrate) (PHB). Chemical characterization of LRR demonstrated that the filler contained sugar residues. Rheological and thermal characterization of the blends demonstrated that LRR did not affect thermal stability of PHB, while AL had a strong pro-degrading effect. Addition of suitable amounts of LRR dramatically affected the rheological behavior of the polymer melt, suggesting that the additive can modify polymer processability. LRR was also a heterogeneous nucleating agent, potentially able to control the physical aging of PHB. Lower resilience and elongation at break values were found for the biocomposites, due to the poor interfacial adhesion between filler and matrix. Biodegradation behavior of the composites was qualitatively assessed by analyzing the surface of soil buried films. Significant surface degradation was observed for PHB, while the process was retarded at high filler concentration, as LRR inhibited hydrolytic and biotic polymer degradation. The reported results demonstrated the feasibility of the conversion of an agro-industrial by-product into a bio-resource in an environmentally friendly and cost-effective way. PMID:25086181

  4. Effect of filler surface properties on stress relaxation behavior of carbon nanofiber/polyurethane nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedat Gunes, I.; Jimenez, Guillermo; Jana, Sadhan

    2009-03-01

    The effect of carbon nanofiber (CNF) surface properties on tensile stress relaxation behavior of CNF/polyurethane (PU) nanocomposites was analyzed. PU was synthesized from methylene diisocyanate, polypropylene glycol (PPG diol), and butanediol. CNF, oxidized CNF (ox-CNF), and PPG diol grafted CNF (ol-CNF) were selected as fillers. ol-CNF was obtained by grafting PPG diol onto ox-CNF by reacting it with the carboxyl groups present on ox-CNF surface. The atomic ratios of oxygen to carbon present on the filler surfaces were 0.13 and 0.18 on ox-CNF and on ol-CNF as compared to 0.015 on CNF, mostly due to the presence oxygen containing polar groups on the surfaces of the former. The composites were prepared by in-situ polymerization and melt mixing in a chaotic mixer. The stress relaxation behavior of composites was determined at room temperature after inducing a tensile strain of 100%. The presence of fillers augmented the rate of stress relaxation in composites which was highest in the presence of CNF. The results suggested that relatively weak polymer-filler interactions in composites of CNF promoted higher stress relaxation.

  5. Novel Organically Modified Core-Shell Clay for Epoxy Composites—“SOBM Filler 1”

    PubMed Central

    Iheaturu, Nnamdi Chibuike; Madufor, Innocent Chimezie

    2014-01-01

    Preparation of a novel organically modified clay from spent oil base drilling mud (SOBM) that could serve as core-shell clay filler for polymers is herein reported. Due to the hydrophilic nature of clay, its compatibility with polymer matrix was made possible through modification of the surface of the core clay sample with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (3-APTES) compound prior to its use. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to characterize clay surface modification. Electron dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to expose filler chemical composition and morphology, while electrophoresis measurement was used to examine level of filler dispersion. Results show an agglomerated core clay powder after high temperature treatment, while EDX analysis shows that the organically modified clay is composed of chemical inhomogeneities, wherein elemental compositions in weight percent vary from one point to the other in a probe of two points. Micrographs of the 3-APTES coupled SOBM core-shell clay filler clearly show cloudy appearance, while FT-IR indicates 25% and 5% increases in fundamental vibrations band at 1014 cm−1 and 1435 cm−1, respectively. Furthermore, 3-APTES coupled core-shell clay was used to prepare epoxy composites and tested for mechanical properties. PMID:27355022

  6. Evaluation of Polymers Prepared from Gelatin and Casein or Whey as Potential Fillers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We recently demonstrated that fillers could be formed inside leather when gelatins alone or mixed proteins, such as gelatin and casein or gelatin and whey, were added to wet blue that had been pretreated with microbial transglutaminase. To monitor these reactions, we had added fluorescently labeled...

  7. Evaluating Renewable Cornstarch/biochar Fillers as Potential Substitutes for Carbon Black in SBR Composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The continually growing demand for fossil fuels coupled with the potential risk of relying on foreign sources for these fuels strengthens the need to find renewable substitutes for petroleum products. Carbon black is a petroleum product that dominates the rubber composite filler market. Agricultur...

  8. Copper-silver-titanium filler metal for direct brazing of structural ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Moorhead, Arthur J.

    1987-01-01

    A method of joining ceramics and metals to themselves and to one another is described using a brazing filler metal consisting essentially of 35 to 50 atomic percent copper, 15 to 50 atomic percent silver and 10 to 45 atomic percent titanium. This method produces strong joints that can withstand high service temperatures and oxidizing environments.

  9. Copper-silver-titanium-tin filler metal for direct brazing of structural ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Moorhead, Arthur J.

    1988-04-05

    A method of joining ceramics and metals to themselves and to one another at about 800.degree. C. is described using a brazing filler metal consisting essentially of 35 to 50 at. % copper, 40 to 50 at. % silver, 1 to 15 at. % titanium, and 2 to 8 at. % tin. This method produces strong joints that can withstand high service temperatures and oxidizing environments.

  10. Substrate Effects on the High Temperature Oxidation Behavior of a Gold-Based Braze Filler Metal

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, K. Scott; Rice, Joseph P.

    2005-06-01

    Oxidation testing was conducted on a commercial gold-based braze alloy, Gold ABA®, and on zirconia/stainless steel couples joined using this filler metal. Preliminary results reveal that both substrates play a significant role in determining the overall oxidation behavior of the brazed joint.

  11. Substrate Effects on the High Temperature Oxidation Behavior of a Gold-Based Braze Filler Metal

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, K. Scott; Rice, Joseph P.

    2005-06-30

    Oxidation testing was conducted on a commercial gold-based braze alloy, Gold ABA, and on zirconia and stainless steel joining couples prepared using this braze filler metal. Preliminary results reveal that both substrates play a significant role in determining the overall oxidation resistance of the brazed joint.

  12. Micro-nano filler metal foil on vacuum brazing of SiCp/Al composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Gao, Zeng; Niu, Jitai

    2016-06-01

    Using micro-nano (Al-5.25Si-26.7Cu)- xTi (wt%, x = 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0) foils as filler metal, the research obtained high-performance joints of aluminum matrix composites with high SiC particle content (60 vol%, SiCp/Al-MMCs). The effect of brazing process and Ti content on joint properties was investigated, respectively. The experimental results indicate that void free dense interface between SiC particle and metallic brazed seam with C-Al-Si-Ti product was readily obtained, and the joint shear strength enhanced with increasing brazing temperature from 560 to 580 °C or prolonging soaking time from 10 to 90 min. Sound joints with maximum shear strength of 112.5 MPa was achieved at 580 °C for soaking time of 90 min with (Al-5.25Si-26.7Cu)-2Ti filler, where Ti(AlSi)3 intermetallic is in situ strengthening phase dispersed in the joint and fracture occured in the filler metal layer. In this research, the beneficial effect of Ti addition into filler metal on improving wettability between SiC particle and metallic brazed seam was demonstrated, and capable welding parameters were broadened for SiCp/Al-MMCs with high SiC particle content.

  13. Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Schoeppner, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has successfully developed an electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) process, a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. The EBF3 process can be used to build a complex, unitized part in a layer-additive fashion, although the more immediate payoff is for use as a manufacturing process for adding details to components fabricated from simplified castings and forgings or plate products. The EBF3 process produces structural metallic parts with strengths comparable to that of wrought product forms and has been demonstrated on aluminum, titanium, and nickel-based alloys to date. The EBF3 process introduces metal wire feedstock into a molten pool that is created and sustained using a focused electron beam in a vacuum environment. Operation in a vacuum ensures a clean process environment and eliminates the need for a consumable shield gas. Advanced metal manufacturing methods such as EBF3 are being explored for fabrication and repair of aerospace structures, offering potential for improvements in cost, weight, and performance to enhance mission success for aircraft, launch vehicles, and spacecraft. Near-term applications of the EBF3 process are most likely to be implemented for cost reduction and lead time reduction through addition of details onto simplified preforms (casting or forging). This is particularly attractive for components with protruding details that would require a significantly large volume of material to be machined away from an oversized forging, offering significant reductions to the buy-to-fly ratio. Future far-term applications promise improved structural efficiency through reduced weight and improved performance by exploiting the layer-additive nature of the EBF3 process to fabricate tailored unitized structures with functionally graded microstructures and compositions.

  14. Cyanate Ester-Based Encapsulation Material for High-Temperature Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chidambaram, Vivek; Rong, Eric Phua Jian; Lip, Gan Chee; Daniel, Rhee Min Woo

    2013-09-01

    Cyanate ester resin-based composite materials have been proposed as potential encapsulants for high-temperature applications. The objective of this study is to develop a cyanate ester-based encapsulant, which can also serve as a flip-chip underfill as well as for traditional encapsulation. Two different materials, quartz and alumina fillers, have been studied. The impact of shapes and sizes of the fillers on the overall thermomechanical properties has been investigated. The adhesion strengths of the materials to the ceramic substrate, Kovar lid, and silicon die have also been characterized. The modulus of the resin and the shape of the fillers play a pivotal role in minimizing thermal stress, generated by coefficient of thermal expansion mismatches. Smaller filler particles were found to have better adhesion to the cyanate ester resin. The high-temperature performance of the cyanate ester-based encapsulants was evaluated by thermal aging at 300°C for up to 500 h.

  15. Chemical, modulus and cell attachment studies of reactive calcium phosphate filler-containing fast photo-curing, surface-degrading, polymeric bone adhesives.

    PubMed

    Abou Neel, E A; Palmer, G; Knowles, J C; Salih, V; Young, A M

    2010-07-01

    The initial structure, setting and degradation processes of a poly(lactide-co-propylene glycol-co-lactide) dimethacrylate adhesive filled with 50, 60 or 70 wt.% reactive calcium phosphates (monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM)/beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP)) have been assessed using nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman, X-ray powder diffraction and gravimetric studies. Filler incorporation reduced the rapid light-activated monomer polymerization rates slightly, but not the final levels. Upon immersion in water for 24h, the set composite mass and volume increased due to water sorption. This promoted initial soluble MCPM loss from the composite surfaces, but also its reaction and monetite precipitation within the specimen bulk. After 48 h, composite gravimetric and chemical studies were consistent with surface erosion of polymer with reacted/remaining filler. The filled formulations exhibited more rapid early water sorption and subsequent surface erosion than the unfilled polymer. Calcium and phosphate release profiles and solution pH measurements confirmed early loss of surface MCPM with protons from polymer degradation products. At later times, the slower release of monetite/beta-TCP buffered composite storage solutions at approximately 5 instead of 3.2 for the unfilled polymer. Incorporation of filler increased both the early and later time material modulus. At intermediate times this effect was lost, presumably as a result of enhanced water sorption. The early modulus values obtained fell within the range reported for cancellous bone. Despite surface degradation, initial human mesenchymal cell attachment to both composites and polymer could be comparable with a non-degrading positive Thermanox control. These studies indicate that the filled formulations may be good candidates for bone repair. Release of calcium and phosphate ions provides components essential for such repair. PMID:20085828

  16. Synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid fillers at the molecular level and their application to composite resin.

    PubMed

    Anzai, Misaki; Ishikawa, Youichi; Yoshihashi, Kazue; Hirose, Hideharu; Nishiyama, Minoru

    2002-12-01

    The objective of this study was to synthesize a hybrid type filler composed of an organic component with inorganic component at the molecular level and to examine the properties of the filler. The composite resin was prepared by mixing synthesized filler with monomer and its physical properties were also examined. An organic-inorganic hybrid filler was synthesized by using 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (3-MPTS), methyltriethyoxysilane (MTES) and methanol silica sol. Firstly, poly3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (poly3-MPTS) was synthesized by polymerization of 3-MPTS. A gelation product was obtained by graft-polymerization of poly3-MPTS with condensed organopolysiloxane after the hydrolysis of 3-MPTS, MTES and methanol silica sol. The gelation product was dried and ground to a filler. From the results of thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), the organic-inorganic hybrid filler was found to be composed of 16.5 wt% organic component, 83.1 wt% inorganic component and 0.4 wt% residual water. A trial composite resin was prepared by mixing 55 wt% dimethacryloxyethyl 2,2,4-trimethylhexamethylene diurethane (UDMA), 15 wt% triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), 30 wt% 1-fluoro-1,3,3,5,5-penta (methacryloxyethyleneoxy) cyclotriphosphazene [P3N3(F)1 (EMA)5] as a base monomer and then 32.0 wt% of this monomer was mixed with 68.0 wt % of synthesized filler and a photo initiator, comphorquinone (CQ), was added. Compressive strength of the trial visible-light cured composite resin showed 397.0 MPa, and flexural strength and elastic modulus showed 142.5 MPa and 11.5 GPa, respectively. From the results, it was demonstrated that the present organic-inorganic hybrid filler at the molecular level can be used as a composite resin filler. PMID:12613504

  17. Reinforced Positive Filler Paste For Lead/Acid Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Dean B.; Rippel, Wally E.

    1991-01-01

    Lead-coated glass fibers extend battery life. Mixture of lead-coated glass fibers and positive paste form pellets of active material between grid wires of positive battery electrode. Fibers contribute to charge capacity, electrical conductivity, and mechanical stability of electrode.

  18. Fillers and potting compounds. Progress report, October 1971--December 1971

    SciTech Connect

    Lichte, H.W.

    1998-12-31

    Epoxy/metal oxide formulations were studied to establish techniques to encapsulate various types of velocity gages and simulators for Manganin gages, all of which are to be used in shock hydrodynamics studies by others; and to produce large mock HE castings. Future efforts to characterize the raw materials are recommended.

  19. [Influences of composition on brush wear of composite resins. Influences of particle size and content of filler].

    PubMed

    Yuasa, S

    1990-07-01

    The influences of the composition on abrasion resistance of composite resins were examined using various experimental composite resins which had various matrix resin, filler size and content. The abrasion test was conducted by the experimental toothbrush abrasion testing machine developed in our laboratory. Three series of heat-curing composite resins were tested. One series was made from a Bis-MPEPP or UDMA monomer, and a silica filler with an average particle size of 0.04, 1.9, 3.8, 4.3, 7.5, 13.8 and 14.1 microns. The filler content of this series was constant at 45 wt%. The second series contained a silica filler of 4.3 microns in a content ranging from 35 to 75 wt%. The third series contained a microfiller (0.04 microns) and macrofiller (4.3 microns) in total content of 45 wt%. In this series, the microfiller was gradually replaced by 5, 15, 25 and 45 wt% of the macrofiller. The results obtained for these three series indicated that the abrasion resistance of composite resins was controlled by the inorganic filler, mainly filler size and content. The abrasion loss did not vary with the difference of matrix resin. When the particle size of the filler was below about 5 microns, the abrasion resistance decreased markedly with the decrease in filler size. The composite resin which contained a 0.04 or 1.9 micron filler was less resistant to toothbrush wear than the unfilled matrix resin. However, the microfiller also contributed to abrasion resistance when used in combination with the macrofiller, although abrasion resistance decreased with the increase in the microfiller concentration. The increase of filler content clearly improved the abrasion resistance when used the macrofiller. The analysis of these results and SEM observations of the brushed surfaces of samples suggested that the toothbrush abrasion was three-body abrasion caused by the abrasive in the toothpaste, and affected by the difference in the particle size between abrasive and filler, and between

  20. EFFECT OF CHEMISTRY VARIATIONS IN PLATE AND WELD FILLER METAL ON THE CORROSION PERFORMANCE OF NI-CR-MO ALLOYS

    SciTech Connect

    D.V. Fix

    2006-02-07

    The ASTM standard B 575 provides the requirements for the chemical composition of Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum (Ni-Cr-Mo) alloys such as Alloy 22 (N06022) and Alloy 686 (N06686). The compositions of each element are given in a range. For example, the content of Mo is specified from 12.5 to 14.5 weight percent for Alloy 22 and from 15.0 to 17.0 weight percent for Alloy 686. It was important to determine how the corrosion rate of welded plates of Alloy 22 using Alloy 686 weld filler metal would change if heats of these alloys were prepared using several variations in the composition of the elements even though still in the range specified in B 575. All the material used in this report were especially prepared at Allegheny Ludlum Co. Seven heats of plate were welded with seven heats of wire. Immersion corrosion tests were conducted in a boiling solution of sulfuric acid plus ferric sulfate (ASTM G 28 A) using both as-welded (ASW) coupons and solution heat-treated (SHT) coupons. Results show that the corrosion rate was not affected by the chemistry of the materials in the range of the standards.

  1. The Effect of Filler-Polymer Interactions on Cold-Crystallization Kinetics in Crosslinked, Silica Filled PDMS/PDPS Copolymer Melts.

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, A; DeTeresa, S; Thompson, L; Cohenour, R; Balazs, B; Maxwell, R S

    2006-04-21

    Crystallization in a series of variable crosslink density poly(dimethyl-diphenyl) siloxanes random block copolymers reinforced through a mixture of precipitated and fumed silica fillers has been studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The silicone composite studied was composed of 94.6 mol% Dimethoylsiloxane, 5.1 mol% diphenylsiloxane, and 0.3 mol% methyl-vinyl siloxane (which formed crosslinking after a peroxide cure). The polymer was filled with a mixture of 21.6 wt. % fumed silica and 4.0 wt. % precipitated silica previously treated with 6.8 wt. % ethoxy-endblocked siloxane processing aid. The base composite was characterized by a molecular weight between crosslinks in the polymer network of {approx}24 kDa and an overall molecular weight (including the influence of the silica fillers) between crosslinks of {approx}11 kDa. Molecular weight between crosslinks and filler-polymer interaction strength were then modified by exposure to {gamma}-irradiation in either air or vacuum. The unirradiated material exhibited crystallization at -80 C as measured by DSC with a 16% crystallization as measured by XRD. Isothermal DMA experiments illustrated that crystallization at -85 C occurred over a 1.8 hour period in silica-filled systems and 2.2-2.6 hours in unfilled systems. The onset of crystallization typically occurred after a 30-minute incubation/nucleation period. The crystallization kinetics were dependent on crosslink density. Changes in molecular weight of a factor of two did not, however, change the amount of crystallization. Irradiation in vacuum resulted in faster overall crystallization rates compared to air irradiation for the same crosslink density, likely due to a reduction in the interaction between the polymer chains and the silica filler surface. Modulated differential scanning calorimetry contrasted the crystallization and melting behavior of pure PDMS versus the PDMS/PDPS base

  2. Influence of third-body particles originating from bone void fillers on the wear of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Cowie, Raelene M; Carbone, Silvia; Aiken, Sean; Cooper, John J; Jennings, Louise M

    2016-08-01

    Calcium sulfate bone void fillers are increasingly being used for dead space management in infected arthroplasty revision surgery. The presence of these materials as loose beads close to the bearing surfaces of joint replacements gives the potential for them to enter the joint becoming trapped between the articulating surfaces; the resulting damage to cobalt chrome counterfaces and the subsequent wear of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene is unknown. In this study, third-body damage to cobalt chrome counterfaces was simulated using particles of the calcium sulfate bone void fillers Stimulan(®) (Biocomposites Ltd., Keele, UK) and Osteoset(®) (Wright Medical Technology, TN, USA) using a bespoke rig. Scratches on the cobalt chrome plates were quantified in terms of their density and mean lip height, and the damage caused by the bone void fillers was compared to that caused by particles of SmartSet GMV PMMA bone cement (DePuy Synthes, IN, USA). The surface damage from Stimulan(®) was below the resolution of the analysis technique used; SmartSet GMV caused 0.19 scratches/mm with a mean lip height of 0.03 µm; Osteoset(®) led to a significantly higher number (1.62 scratches/mm) of scratches with a higher mean lip height (0.04 µm). Wear tests of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene were carried out in a six-station multi-axial pin on plate reciprocating rig against the damaged plates and compared to negative (highly polished) and positive control plates damaged with a diamond stylus (2 µm lip height). The wear of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene was shown to be similar against the negative control plates and those damaged with third-body particles; there was a significantly higher (p < 0.001) rate of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene wear against the positive control plates. This study showed that bone void fillers of similar composition can cause varying damage to cobalt chrome counterfaces. However, the lip heights of the

  3. Influence of third-body particles originating from bone void fillers on the wear of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene

    PubMed Central

    Cowie, Raelene M; Carbone, Silvia; Aiken, Sean; Cooper, John J; Jennings, Louise M

    2016-01-01

    Calcium sulfate bone void fillers are increasingly being used for dead space management in infected arthroplasty revision surgery. The presence of these materials as loose beads close to the bearing surfaces of joint replacements gives the potential for them to enter the joint becoming trapped between the articulating surfaces; the resulting damage to cobalt chrome counterfaces and the subsequent wear of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene is unknown. In this study, third-body damage to cobalt chrome counterfaces was simulated using particles of the calcium sulfate bone void fillers Stimulan® (Biocomposites Ltd., Keele, UK) and Osteoset® (Wright Medical Technology, TN, USA) using a bespoke rig. Scratches on the cobalt chrome plates were quantified in terms of their density and mean lip height, and the damage caused by the bone void fillers was compared to that caused by particles of SmartSet GMV PMMA bone cement (DePuy Synthes, IN, USA). The surface damage from Stimulan® was below the resolution of the analysis technique used; SmartSet GMV caused 0.19 scratches/mm with a mean lip height of 0.03 µm; Osteoset® led to a significantly higher number (1.62 scratches/mm) of scratches with a higher mean lip height (0.04 µm). Wear tests of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene were carried out in a six-station multi-axial pin on plate reciprocating rig against the damaged plates and compared to negative (highly polished) and positive control plates damaged with a diamond stylus (2 µm lip height). The wear of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene was shown to be similar against the negative control plates and those damaged with third-body particles; there was a significantly higher (p < 0.001) rate of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene wear against the positive control plates. This study showed that bone void fillers of similar composition can cause varying damage to cobalt chrome counterfaces. However, the lip heights of the scratches

  4. FISSILE MATERIAL AND FUEL ELEMENTS FOR NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Shaner, B.E.

    1961-08-15

    The fissile material consists of about 64 to 70% (weight) zirconium dioxide, 15 to 19% uranium dioxide, and 8 to 17% calcium oxide. The fissile material is formed into sintered composites which are disposed in a compartmented fuel element, comprising essentially a flat filler plate having a plurality of compartments therein, enclosed in cladding plates of the same material as the filler plate. The resultant fuel has good resistance to corrosion in high temperature pressurized water, good dimensional stability to elevated temperatures, and good resistance to thermal shock. (AEC)

  5. The effect of mineral fillers on the rheological, mechanical and thermal properties of halogen-free flame-retardant polypropylene/expandable graphite compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattausch, Hannelore; Laske, Stephan; Hohenwarter, Dieter; Holzer, Clemens

    2015-05-01

    In many polyolefin applications, such as electrical cables or automotive applications, the fire protection is a very important task. Unfortunately flame-retardant polymeric materials are often halogenated and form toxic substances in case of fire, which explains the general requirement to reduce the halogen content to zero. Non-halogenated, state-of-the-art flame retardants must be incorporated into the polymer in very high grades (> 40 wt%) leading to massive decrease in mechanical properties and/or processability. In this research work halogen-free flame-retardant polypropylene (PP) /expandable graphite (EG) were filled with minerals fillers such as layered silicates (MMT), magnesium hydroxide (MgOH), zeolite (Z) and expanded perlite (EP) in order to enhance the flame-retardant effect. The rheological, mechanical and thermal properties of these materials were investigated to gain more fundamental knowledge about synergistic combinations of flame-retardants and other additives. The rheological properties were characterized with a rotational rheometer with plate-plate setup. The EG/EP/PP compound exhibited the highest increase in viscosity (˜ 37 %). As representative value for the mechanical properties the Young's modulus was chosen. The final Young's modulus values of the twofold systems gained higher values than the single ones. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) was utilized to investigate the material with respect to volatile substances and combustion behavior. All materials decomposed in one-step degradation. The EG filled compounds showed a significant increase in sample weight due to the expansion of EG. The combustion behavior of these materials was characterized by cone calorimeter tests. Especially combinations of expandable graphite with mineral fillers exhibit a reduction of the peak heat release rate during cone calorimeter measurements of up to 87% compared to pure PP.

  6. Multifunctional polymer composites containing inorganic nanoparticles and novel low-cost carbonaceous fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hongchao

    Advanced polymer nanocomposites/composites containing inorganic nanoparticles and novel carbonaceous fillers were processed and evaluated for the multifunctional purposes. To prepare the high performance conformal coating materials for microelectronic industries, epoxy resin was incorporated with zirconium tungstate (ZrW 2O8) nanoparticles synthesized from hydrothermal reaction to alleviate the significant thermal expansion behavior. Three types of ZrW 2O8 at different loading levels were selected to study their effect of physical (morphology, particle size, surface area, etc.) and thermal (thermal expansivity) properties on the rheological, thermo-mechanical, dynamic-mechanical, and dielectric properties of epoxy resin. Epoxy resin incorporated by Type-1 ZrW2O8 exhibited the overall excellent performance. Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanoplatelets were non-covalently encapsulated by a versatile and mussel-adhesive protein polydopamine through the strong pi-pi* interaction. The high-temperature thermoset bisphenol E cyanate ester (BECy) reinforced with homogenously dispersed h-BN at different volume fractions and functionalities were processed to investigate their effect on thermo-mechanical, dynamic-mechanical, dielectric properties and thermal conductivity. Different theoretical and empirical models were also successfully applied for the prediction of CTE, thermal conductivity and dielectric constant of h-BN/BECy nanocomposites. On the basis of the improvement in dimensional stability, the enhancement in storage modulus in both glassy and rubbery regions, associated with the increment in thermal conductivity without deterioration of thermal stability, glassy transition temperature and dielectric properties, pristine h-BN/BECy nanocomposites exhibited the prospective application in microelectronic packaging industry. Polydopamine functionalized h-BN significantly increased the dielectric constant of cyanate ester at lower frequency region. Asphaltene, a

  7. A Study on the Preparation of Regular Multiple Micro-Electrolysis Filler and the Application in Pretreatment of Oil Refinery Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ruihong; ZHU, Jianzhong; Li, Yingliu; Zhang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Through a variety of material screening experiments, Al was selected as the added metal and constituted a multiple micro-electrolysis system of Fe/C/Al. The metal proportion of alloy-structured filler was also analyzed with the best Fe/C/Al ratio of 3:1:1. The regular Fe/C/Al multiple micro-electrolysis fillers were prepared using a high-temperature anaerobic roasting method. The optimum conditions for oil refinery wastewater treated by Fe/C/Al multiple micro-electrolysis were determined to be an initial pH value of 3, reaction time of 80 min, and 0.05 mol/L Na2SO4 additive concentration. The reaction mechanism of the treatment of oil refinery wastewater by Fe/C/Al micro-electrolysis was investigated. The process of the treatment of oil refinery wastewater with multiple micro-electrolysis conforms to the third-order reaction kinetics. The gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) used to analyze the organic compounds of the oil refinery wastewater before and after treatment and the Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–VIS) absorption spectrum analyzed the degradation process of organic compounds in oil refinery wastewater. The treatment effect of Fe/C/Al multiple micro-electrolysis was examined in the continuous experiment under the optimum conditions, which showed high organic compound removal and stable treatment efficiency. PMID:27136574

  8. A Study on the Preparation of Regular Multiple Micro-Electrolysis Filler and the Application in Pretreatment of Oil Refinery Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruihong; Zhu, Jianzhong; Li, Yingliu; Zhang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Through a variety of material screening experiments, Al was selected as the added metal and constituted a multiple micro-electrolysis system of Fe/C/Al. The metal proportion of alloy-structured filler was also analyzed with the best Fe/C/Al ratio of 3:1:1. The regular Fe/C/Al multiple micro-electrolysis fillers were prepared using a high-temperature anaerobic roasting method. The optimum conditions for oil refinery wastewater treated by Fe/C/Al multiple micro-electrolysis were determined to be an initial pH value of 3, reaction time of 80 min, and 0.05 mol/L Na₂SO₄ additive concentration. The reaction mechanism of the treatment of oil refinery wastewater by Fe/C/Al micro-electrolysis was investigated. The process of the treatment of oil refinery wastewater with multiple micro-electrolysis conforms to the third-order reaction kinetics. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) used to analyze the organic compounds of the oil refinery wastewater before and after treatment and the Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS) absorption spectrum analyzed the degradation process of organic compounds in oil refinery wastewater. The treatment effect of Fe/C/Al multiple micro-electrolysis was examined in the continuous experiment under the optimum conditions, which showed high organic compound removal and stable treatment efficiency. PMID:27136574

  9. Properties of natural rubber/attapulgite composites prepared by latex compounding method: Effect of filler loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muttalib, Siti Nadzirah Abdul; Othman, Nadras; Ismail, Hanafi

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports on the effect of filler loading on properties of natural rubber (NR)/attapulgite (ATP) composites. The NR/ATP composites were prepared by latex compounding method. It is called as masterbatch. The masterbatch was subsequently added to the NR through melt mixing process. The vulcanized NR/ATP composites were subjected to mechanical, swelling and morphological tests. All the results were compared with NR/ATP composites prepared by conventional system. The composites from masterbatch method showed better results compared to composites prepared by conventional method. They have higher tensile properties, elongation at break and tear strength. The images captured through scanning electron microscopy test revealed the improvement of tensile strength in masterbatch NR/ATP composites. It can be seen clearly that masterbatch NR/ATP have better filler dispersion compared to conventional method NR/ATP composites.

  10. Surface chemistry and effects on bone regeneration of a novel biomimetic synthetic bone filler.

    PubMed

    Morra, Marco; Giavaresi, Gianluca; Sartori, Maria; Ferrari, Andrea; Parrilli, Annapaola; Bollati, Daniele; Baena, Ruggero Rodriguez Y; Cassinelli, Clara; Fini, Milena

    2015-04-01

    The paper presents results of physico-chemical and biological investigations of a surface-engineered synthetic bone filler. Surface analysis confirms that the ceramic phosphate granules present a collagen nanolayer to the surrounding environment. Cell cultures tests show that, in agreement with literature reports, surface-immobilized collagen molecular cues can stimulate progression along the osteogenic pathway of undifferentiated human mesenchymal cells. Finally, in vivo test in a rabbit model of critical bone defects shows statistically significant increase of bone volume and mineral apposition rate between the biomimetic bone filler and collagen-free control. All together, obtained data confirm that biomolecular surface engineering can upgrade the properties of implant device, by promoting more specific and targeted implant-host cells interactions. PMID:25786396

  11. Filler bar heating due to stepped tiles in the shuttle orbiter thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petley, D. H.; Smith, D. M.; Edwards, C. L. W.; Patten, A. B.; Hamilton, H. H., II

    1983-01-01

    An analytical study was performed to investigate the excessive heating in the tile to tile gaps of the Shuttle Orbiter Thermal Protection System due to stepped tiles. The excessive heating was evidence by visible discoloration and charring of the filler bar and strain isolation pad that is used in the attachment of tiles to the aluminum substrate. Two tile locations on the Shuttle orbiter were considered, one on the lower surface of the fuselage and one on the lower surface of the wing. The gap heating analysis involved the calculation of external and internal gas pressures and temperatures, internal mass flow rates, and the transient thermal response of the thermal protection system. The results of the analysis are presented for the fuselage and wing location for several step heights. The results of a study to determine the effectiveness of a half height ceramic fiber gap filler in preventing hot gas flow in the tile gaps are also presented.

  12. Saturation phenomenon of Ce and Ti in the modification of Al-Zn-Si filler metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jin-long; Xue, Song-bai; Dai, Wei; Xue, Peng

    2015-02-01

    Cerium and titanium were added to an Al-42Zn-6.5Si brazing alloy, and the subsequent microstructures of the brazing alloy and the 6061 Al alloy brazing seam were investigated. The microstructures of filler metals and brazed joints were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray energy dispersion spectrometry. A new Ce-Ti phase formed around the silicon phase in the modified filler metal and this saturation phenomenon was analyzed. Interestingly, following brazing of the 6061 alloy, there is no evidence of the Ce-Ti phase in the brazing seam. Because of the mutual solubility of the brazing alloy and base metal, the quantity of the solvent increases, and the solute Ce and Ti atoms assume an undersaturated state.

  13. Effect of Particulate Filler on Ultrasound Devulcanization of Poly(dimethyl siloxane) Rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Meerwall, E.; Shim, S. E.; Isayev, A.

    2002-04-01

    We have used proton NMR relaxation and pulsed-gradient diffusion measurements at 70 deg. C in silica-filled PDMS rubber after crosslinking, after subsequent devulcanization by intense ultrasound, and after later revulcanization. As in unfilled PDMS, transverse relaxation displays three distint rate components, attributed to entangled and crosslinked network (similar in T2); light sol plus dangling network fragments; and unreactive trace oligomers. Ultrasound produces copious amounts of extractable sol dependent on reactor settings. We find that all three T2 relaxation times decrease modestly with increasing filler content, but the components' proportions correlate mainly with sol fraction, i. e., network degradation. In rupturing the network, devulcanization produces large diffusing fragments and dangling ends; revulcanization largely reverses these effects. The rates and amplitudes of the bimodal diffusivity distribution confirm this conclusion. The weakness of the effects of filler shows that ultrasound devulcanization is easily adaptable to the recycling of the preponderantly particulate-filled industrial rubbers.

  14. Subchondral Insufficiency Fracture of the Femoral Head treated with Core Decompression and Bone Void Filler Support

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Hiren; Kamath, Atul F.

    2016-01-01

    Subchondral insufficiency fracture of the femoral head (SIFFH) is characterized by acute onset hip pain without overt trauma. It appears as a low intensity band with bone marrow edema on T1-weighted MRI. The most common course of treatment is protected weight bearing for a period of several weeks. Total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been commonly used if the patient does not respond to the initial protected weight bearing treatment. We present a case of a 48-year-old male with SIFFH who was treated with core hip decompression and bone void filler as a hip-preserving alternative to THA. The patient has an excellent clinical and radiographic result at final follow up. Core hip decompression with bone void filler is a less invasive alternative to THA, and may be a preferred initial treatment strategy for SIFFH in the young and active patient who has failed conservative measures. PMID:27517074

  15. Orthopedic devices; classification for the resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2003-06-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device intended to fill bony voids or gaps of the extremities, spine, and pelvis that are caused by trauma or surgery and are not intrinsic to the stability of the bony structure into class II (special controls). Elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, FDA is announcing the availability of a class II special controls guidance entitled "Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Resorbable Calcium Salt Bone Void Filler Device; Guidance for Industry and FDA." This action is being undertaken based on new information submitted in a classification proposal from Wright Medical Technology under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act as amended by the Medical Device Amendments of 1976, the Safe Medical Devices Act of 1990, and the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997. PMID:12784825

  16. Influence of Filler Metals in Welding Wires on the Phase and Chemical Composition of Weld Metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyrev, N. A.; Osetkovskiy, I. V.; Kozyreva, O. A.; Zernin, E. A.; Kartsev, D. S.

    2016-04-01

    The influence of filler metals used in welding wires on the phase and chemical composition of the metal, which is surfaced to mining equipment exposed to abrasive wear, has been investigated. Under a laboratory environment, samples of Mo-V-B and Cr-Mn-Mo-V wires were made. The performed experiments have revealed that fillers of the Cr-Mn-Mo-V system used in powder wire show better wear resistance of the weld metal than that of the Mn-Mo-V-B system; the absence of boron, which promotes grain refinement in the Mn-Mo-V-B system, significantly reduces wear resistance; the Mn-Mo-V-B weld metal has a finer structure than the Cr-Mn-Mo-V weld metal.

  17. The utilization of fillers and reinforcements to develop an optimal DAP (diallyl phthalate) molding compound

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, C.J.; Schneider, R.E.; Katz, H.S.; Milewski, J.V.; Utility Development Corp., Livingston, NJ )

    1989-01-01

    Diallyl phthalate (DAP) resin-based compounds were formulated and tested. In these formulations, various types of fillers and fiberglass reinforcements were used in different concentrations while taking into consideration packing concepts, optimum aspect (L/D) ratios, resin content, rheology of the molding compound, and ultimately, the compound's performance. These formulations were required for transfer molding without restricting the melt flow through a gate size of less than 1 mm. The end products are very small parts that must conform to stringent dimensional tolerances (typically {plus minus}0.05 mm) and exhibit physical properties that exceed the requirements specified by MIL-M-14G without compromising excellent electrical characteristics. These objectives were achieved by changing from chopped glass roving to screened, milled fiberglass, by the use of microspherical fillers, and by improving micro packing which allowed an increase in the total

  18. Properties of natural rubber/attapulgite composites prepared by latex compounding method: Effect of filler loading

    SciTech Connect

    Muttalib, Siti Nadzirah Abdul Othman, Nadras Ismail, Hanafi

    2015-07-22

    This paper reports on the effect of filler loading on properties of natural rubber (NR)/attapulgite (ATP) composites. The NR/ATP composites were prepared by latex compounding method. It is called as masterbatch. The masterbatch was subsequently added to the NR through melt mixing process. The vulcanized NR/ATP composites were subjected to mechanical, swelling and morphological tests. All the results were compared with NR/ATP composites prepared by conventional system. The composites from masterbatch method showed better results compared to composites prepared by conventional method. They have higher tensile properties, elongation at break and tear strength. The images captured through scanning electron microscopy test revealed the improvement of tensile strength in masterbatch NR/ATP composites. It can be seen clearly that masterbatch NR/ATP have better filler dispersion compared to conventional method NR/ATP composites.

  19. Elastomeric Cellular Structure Enhanced by Compressible Liquid Filler

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yueting; Xu, Xiaoqing; Xu, Chengliang; Qiao, Yu; Li, Yibing

    2016-01-01

    Elastomeric cellular structures provide a promising solution for energy absorption. Their flexible and resilient nature is particularly relevant to protection of human bodies. Herein we develop an elastomeric cellular structure filled with nanoporous material functionalized (NMF) liquid. Due to the nanoscale infiltration in NMF liquid and its interaction with cell walls, the cellular structure has a much enhanced mechanical performance, in terms of loading capacity and energy absorption density. Moreover, it is validated that the structure is highly compressible and self-restoring. Its hyper-viscoelastic characteristics are elucidated. PMID:27221079

  20. Elastomeric Cellular Structure Enhanced by Compressible Liquid Filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yueting; Xu, Xiaoqing; Xu, Chengliang; Qiao, Yu; Li, Yibing

    2016-05-01

    Elastomeric cellular structures provide a promising solution for energy absorption. Their flexible and resilient nature is particularly relevant to protection of human bodies. Herein we develop an elastomeric cellular structure filled with nanoporous material functionalized (NMF) liquid. Due to the nanoscale infiltration in NMF liquid and its interaction with cell walls, the cellular structure has a much enhanced mechanical performance, in terms of loading capacity and energy absorption density. Moreover, it is validated that the structure is highly compressible and self-restoring. Its hyper-viscoelastic characteristics are elucidated.