Sample records for film metal coated

  1. Method of forming metallic coatings on polymeric substrates and of forming graded polymeric coatings or films

    SciTech Connect

    Liepins, R.

    1981-03-11

    The invention described herein relates to methods of forming graded polymeric coatings or films on a desired substrate and of forming metallic coatings on polymeric or other nonmetallic substrates. In particular, it relates to methods of forming such coatings or films by sorption and/or diffusion of metals into coatings or films of polymeric material deposited by conventional techniques on a desired substrate.

  2. Formation of selenide, sulfide or mixed selenide-sulfide films on metal or metal coated substrates

    DOEpatents

    Eser, Erten; Fields, Shannon

    2012-05-01

    A process and composition for preventing cracking in composite structures comprising a metal coated substrate and a selenide, sulfide or mixed selenide sulfide film. Specifically, cracking is prevented in the coating of molybdenum coated substrates upon which a copper, indium-gallium diselenide (CIGS) film is deposited. Cracking is inhibited by adding a Se passivating amount of oxygen to the Mo and limiting the amount of Se deposited on the Mo coating.

  3. Diamond Composite Films for Protective Coatings on Metals and Method of Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ong, Tiong P. (Inventor); Shing, Yuh-Han (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Composite films consisting of diamond crystallites and hard amorphous films such as diamond-like carbon, titanium nitride, and titanium oxide are provided as protective coatings for metal substrates against extremely harsh environments. A composite layer having diamond crystallites and a hard amorphous film is affixed to a metal substrate via an interlayer including a bottom metal silicide film and a top silicon carbide film. The interlayer is formed either by depositing metal silicide and silicon carbide directly onto the metal substrate, or by first depositing an amorphous silicon film, then allowing top and bottom portions of the amorphous silicon to react during deposition of the diamond crystallites, to yield the desired interlayer structure.

  4. Metal Film Sputtering Technique to Coat Teeth for Preventing Dental Caries. A Preliminary Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshio Sugita; Shigeo Ebisawa; Eiichi Nishikawa; Takanobu Morinushi; Shigeharu Hanashima

    1987-01-01

    Dental caries starts locally on a tooth surface; thus, the selective protection by metal films on pits and fissures is simple and effective. The method and apparatus for forming preventive coatings by sputtering are described wherein metal atoms originate in a Penning discharge space and are then guided through a duct in order to reach a tooth and then to

  5. Transfer printing of patterned metal films using parylene C coated surfaces J. Bavier a,b

    E-print Network

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Transfer printing of patterned metal films using parylene C coated surfaces J. Bavier a,b , J October 2012 Available online 24 November 2012 Keywords: Transfer printing Flexible electronics Surface treatments a b s t r a c t Successful transfer printing of aluminum (Al), copper (Cu), silver (Ag), nickel

  6. Microwave bonding of thin film metal coated substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor); Mai, John D. (Inventor); Jackson, Henry W. (Inventor); Budraa, Nasser K. (Inventor); Pike, William T. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Bonding of materials such as MEMS materials is carried out using microwaves. High microwave absorbing films are placed within a microwave cavity containing other less microwave absorbing materials, and excited to cause selective heating in the skin depth of the films. This causes heating in one place more than another. This thereby minimizes unwanted heating effects during the microwave bonding process.

  7. Fabrication and structural characterization of metal films coated on cenosphere particles by magnetron sputtering deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiaozheng; Shen, Zhigang; Xu, Zheng; Wang, Sen

    2007-06-01

    Metal films were successfully coated on cenosphere particles using a magnetron sputtering deposition system in which a newly designed sample stage equipped with an ultrasonic vibration generator was used for the tumbling of cenosphere particles. It was found by FE-SEM and AFM results that the films were well compacted and highly uniform in thickness. Due to the difference in sputtering rate, the film thicknesses estimated from FE-SEM characterizations in backscattered mode were <10, 39, 50 and 134 nm for Co, Ni, Cu and Ag films, respectively, under the same sputtering deposition conditions. The RMS values derived from the AFM measurements were 1.94, 4.31, 10.92 and 18.33 nm for Co, Ni, Cu and Ag films, respectively, which can ascribe to the different crystallization behaviors for the four metals. The experiment results indicate that the coating method can be applicable for the fabrication of many other films on cenosphere particles which can be sputter deposited.

  8. Studies of the vacuum breakdown behavior using refractory-metal thin film coated electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flauta, Randolph; Kionka, John; Neumann, Martin John; Ruzic, David; Caughman, John

    2009-11-01

    A reliable operation of ICRF antennas in fusion devices is often limited by its breakdown threshold. Surface conditions of electrodes during high voltage operations have played a key role in affecting breakdowns. In this work, the effects of coating electrodes with refractory-metal thin films to improve on the reliability and power delivered by ICRF antennas have been investigated. Using the Surface Plasma Arcs by Radiofrequency - Control Study (SPARCS) facility at the Center for Plasma-Material Interactions which is designed as a DC system, the current and voltage breakdown patterns and the measured energy in the arc at an electric field of up to 150 MW/m were studied. Experiments with electrodes coated with W, Mo and Ta operated at high temperature of 600 ^oC and above were explored. Surface studies were also conducted on the electrodes to determine the electrode conditions and other surface reactions after the breakdown.

  9. Characteristics of surface photorefractive waves in a nonlinear SBN-75 crystal coated with a metal film

    SciTech Connect

    Nurligareev, D Kh; Usievich, B A; Sychugov, V A; Ivleva, Lyudmila I [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-01-31

    Based on the calculation of the electrostatic field potential of space charges, we have analysed the characteristic features of light-induced scattering of extraordinary polarised light in photorefractive (PR) crystals (for example, an SBN-75 crystal). Using the method of images, the electrostatic field is analysed for surface (aperiodic) waves along the crystal - dielectric (air) interface. It is shown that the field distributions satisfying the boundary conditions can emerge only upon accumulation of a screening electric charge in a narrow transition layer of thickness {approx}1 mm, the sign of the charge being opposite that of the space charge in the illuminated region of the crystal. A model is proposed to explain the observed features of the surface PR waves in a metal-film coated PR crystal. In considering the contact potential difference at the PR crystal - film interface it is shown that in the crystal layer (adjacent to the film) enriched with charge carriers, i.e., electrons, the refractive index can be significantly reduced. In the case of small excitation angles (0 - 1.5deg ), this layer can act as an optical barrier, the reflection from which can result in near-surface waves; a characteristic difference from the previously observed oscillatory surface waves is the presence of a broadened intensity distribution shifted inside the crystal. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  10. Water Vapor Permeation of Metal Oxide/Polymer Coated Plastic Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Numata, Yukihiro; Oya, Toshiyuki; Kuwahara, Mitsuru; Ito, Katsuya

    Barrier performance to water vapor permeation of ceramic coated layers deposited on flexible polymer films is of great interest to food packaging, medical device packaging and flat panel display industries. In this study, a new type film in which a ceramic layer is deposited on a polymer coated film was proposed for lower water vapor permeation. It is important how to control interfacial properties between each layer and film for good barrier performance. Several kinds of polymer coated materials were prepared for changing surface free energy of the films before and after depositing the ceramic layer. The ceramic layer, which is composed of mixed material of SiO2 and Al2O3, was adopted under the same conditions. The following results were obtained; 1) Water vapor permeation is not related to the surface energy of polymer coated films, 2) After depositing the ceramic layer, however, a strong correlation is observed between the water vapor permeation and surface free energy. 3) The phenomenon is considered that the polarity of the polymer layers plays a key role in changing the structure of ceramic coated layers.

  11. Metallic and metalloceramic coating by thermal decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Mcdonald, G.

    1985-01-01

    Metallic and metalloceramic coatings were prepared by thermal decomposition of a number of inorganic and metallo-organic compounds. The compounds were applied by spraying and by immersion, especially on ceramic fibers and fiber forms, which are easily coated by this procedure. Penetration of low-density ceramics is examined, and procedures are described that were used for converting the deposited materials to metals, oxides, or metal oxide films. Multiple-component films were also prepared. Photomicrographs illustrate the structure of these films.

  12. Dynamic PACVD coating of strip metal with silicon oxide, titanium oxide and amorphous carbon films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Ortner; T. Jung; C.-P. Klages; B. Linder; B. Strauss; N. Sämann

    2005-01-01

    With the Strip Hollow Cathode (SHC) process a new plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (PACVD) process was introduced, which was shown to meet the requirements of dynamic steel strip coating with plasma polymer films from several monomers, utilizing the hollow cathode effect. The operating pressure is in the upper fine vacuum range; the SHC process therefore does not require an extensive

  13. Multispectral optical enhanced transmission of a continuous metal film coated with a plasmonic core-shell nanoparticle array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gui-qiang; Hu, Ying; Liu, Zheng-qi; Cai, Zheng-jie; Zhang, Xiang-nan; Chen, Yuan-hao; Huang, Kuan

    2014-04-01

    We propose and show multispectral optical enhanced transmission in the visible and near-infrared region in a continuous metal film coated with a two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal non-close-packed plasmonic array. The plasmonic array consists of metal/dielectric multilayer core-shell nanoparticles. The excitation of near-field plasmon resonance coupling between adjacent core-shell nanoparticles, plasmon resonance coupling between adjacent metal layers in the nanoparticle, and surface plasmon (SP) waves on the metal film are mainly responsible for the multispectral optical enhanced transmission behavior. The multispectral optical enhanced transmission response could be highly modified in the wavelength range, transparent bandwidth and transmission intensity by varying the geometry parameters including the gap distance between adjacent plasmonic nanoparticles, the size of metal core and the thickness of dielectric layer between the metal layers. In addition, the number of optical enhanced transmission bands increases with the number of metal layers in the plasmonic nanoparticle. The proposed structure shows many merits such as the deep sub-wavelength size, multispectral optical enhanced transmission bands as well as fully retained electric and mechanical properties of the natural metal. These merits may provide promising applications for highly integrated optoelectronic devices including plasmonic filters, nanoscale multiplexers, and nonlinear optics.

  14. Metallic coating of microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, S.F.

    1980-08-15

    Extremely smooth, uniform metal coatings of micrometer thicknesses on microscopic glass spheres (microspheres) are often needed as targets for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. The first part of this paper reviews those methods used successfully to provide metal coated microspheres for ICF targets, including magnetron sputtering, electro- and electroless plating, and chemical vapor pyrolysis. The second part of this paper discusses some of the critical aspects of magnetron sputter coating of microspheres, including substrate requirements, the sticking of microspheres during coating (preventing a uniform coating), and the difficulties in growing the desired dense, smooth, uniform microstructure on continuously moving spherical substrates.

  15. On calculating the energy characteristics of a metal film with a dielectric coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babich, A. V.

    2014-02-01

    A method for calculating the characteristics of a metal film in a dielectric surroundings is suggested. The most interesting case of asymmetric metal-dielectric sandwiches, in which the dielectrics on both sides of the film are different, is considered in the context of the Kohn-Sham modified method. The spectrum, the electron work function, and the surface energy of polycrystalline and single-crystal films placed into passive insulators are calculated for the first time. In general, the dielectric surroundings leads to a negative change in the electron work function and the surface energy. In addition to size-effect-related changes, the shift of the work function is determined by the arithmetic mean of the dielectric constants of the surrounding media. Calculations have been performed for Na, Al, and Pb.

  16. Coating of plasma polymerized film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morita, S.; Ishibashi, S.

    1980-01-01

    Plasma polymerized thin film coating and the use of other coatings is suggested for passivation film, thin film used for conducting light, and solid body lubrication film of dielectrics of ultra insulators for electrical conduction, electron accessories, etc. The special features of flow discharge development and the polymerized film growth mechanism are discussed.

  17. Metal island films near the surface of optical coatings: deposition experiments and plasmon-absorption line adjustment of metal nanoclusters in organic and inorganic optical thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olaf Stenzel; Alexander Stendal; Michael Roeder; Andrei Lebedev; Axel Franke; Christian von Borczyskowski

    1997-01-01

    We present experiments on the optical properties of ultrathin (a few nanometers thick) films (copperphthalocyanine, amorphous silicon) with an incorporated metal cluster film (silver, indium). Due to the spatially close interface, the plasmon absorption may be displaced from its resonance frequency in the bulk, and its average position may be controlled by the average thickness of the ultrathin optical film.

  18. Physical deposition of carbon doped titanium nitride film by DC magnetron sputtering for metallic implant coating use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedira, Sofiane; Achour, Slimane; Avci, Ahmet; Eskizeybek, Volkan

    2014-03-01

    Alloys exposed to tissue environment are at risk to corrosive breakdown. The corrosion behaviour of carbon doped titanium nitride films was studied. The C-TiN films were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering. The obtained films were investigated to be used as protective layers for medical implants. The films were analysed using XRD, SEM with EDX, FTIR, Raman, UV-vis and potentiodynamic polarization. Analysis indicated that doping with carbon in low concentration led to form titanium carbide. The measured values of corrosion current densities (Icorr, substrate = 2.020 ?A/cm2, Icorr, coating = 0.175 ?A/cm2) indicate that the deposited films improved the corrosion resistance of the pure titanium. Comparison between the corrosion current densities of two samples (uncoated and coated pure titanium) showed a reduction of 91% in corrosion current density for coated Ti compared to the uncoated one.

  19. Carbonaceous film coating

    DOEpatents

    Maya, Leon (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1989-01-01

    A method of making a carbonaceous film comprising heating tris(1,3,2-benzodiazaborolo)borazine or dodecahydro tris[1,3,2]diazaborine[1,2-a:1'2'-c:1"2"-e]borazine in an inert atmosphere in the presence of a substrate to a temperature at which the borazine compound decomposes, and the decomposition products deposit onto the substrate to form a thin, tenacious, highly reflective conductive coating having a narrow band gap which is susceptible of modification and a relatively low coefficient of friction.

  20. Carbonaceous film coating

    DOEpatents

    Maya, L.

    1988-04-27

    A method of making a carbonaceous film comprising heating tris(1,3,2-benzodiazaborolo)borazine or dodecahydro tris(1,3,2)diazaborine(1,2-a:1'2'-c:1''2''-e)borazine in an inert atmosphere in the presence of a substrate to a temperature at which the borazine compound decomposes, and the decomposition products deposit onto the substrate to form a thin, tenacious, highly reflective conductive coating having a narrow band gap which is susceptible of modification and a relatively low coefficient of friction.

  1. Thin film ion conducting coating

    DOEpatents

    Goldner, Ronald B. (Lexington, MA); Haas, Terry (Sudbury, MA); Wong, Kwok-Keung (Watertown, MA); Seward, George (Arlington, MA)

    1989-01-01

    Durable thin film ion conducting coatings are formed on a transparent glass substrate by the controlled deposition of the mixed oxides of lithium:tantalum or lithium:niobium. The coatings provide durable ion transport sources for thin film solid state storage batteries and electrochromic energy conservation devices.

  2. Reflective and Electrically Conductive Surface Silvered Polyimide Films and Coatings Prepared via Unusual Single-Stage Self-Metallization Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Southward, Robin E.; Stoakley, Diane M.

    2001-01-01

    Highly reflective and/or surface conductive flexible polyimide films can be prepared by the incorporation of positive valent silver compounds into solutions of poly(amic acid)s formed from a variety of dianhydrides and diamines. Thermal curing of selected silver(I)-containing poly(amic acid)s leads to cycloimidization of the polyimide precursor with concomitant silver(I) reduction and surface aggregation of the metal yielding a reflective and/or conductive silver surface similar to that of the native metal. However, not all silver(I) precursors are effective surface metallization agents and not all poly(amic acid)s metallize with equal facility. Ligand/anion and polyimide structural effects on film metallization efficacy and on physical properties on metallized films are reviewed.

  3. Coatings decrease metal fatigue failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumsion, H. T.

    1969-01-01

    Metal test specimens were coated with suitable materials to limit the rate of attack of fresh metal surfaces by the atmosphere. The fatigue properties of coated metals were superior to those which were uncoated and approached the properties observable in vacuum.

  4. Scribable coating for plastic films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, R. T.

    1967-01-01

    Scribable opaque coating for transparent plastic film tape is not affected by aging, vacuum, and moderate temperature extremes. It consists of titanium dioxide, a water-compatible acrylic polymer emulsion, and a detergent. The coating mixture is readily dispersed in water before it is dried.

  5. RF-PACVD of water repellent and protective HMDSO coatings on bell metal surfaces: Correlation between discharge parameters and film properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, A. J.; Barve, S. A.; Chutia, Joyanti; Pal, A. R.; Kishore, R.; Jagannath; Pande, M.; Patil, D. S.

    2011-08-01

    Hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) films have been deposited on bell metal using radiofrequency plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (RF-PACVD) technique. The protective performances of the HMDSO films and their water repellency have been investigated as a function of DC self-bias voltage on the substrates during deposition. Plasma potential measurements during film deposition process are carried out by self-compensated emissive probe. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) analyses of the plasma during deposition reveal no significant change in the plasma composition within the DC self-bias voltage range of -40 V to -160 V that is used. Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies are carried out for film chemistry analysis and indicate that the impinging ion energy on the substrates influences the physio-chemical properties of the HMDSO films. At critical ion energy of 113 qV (corresponding to DC self-bias voltage of -100 V), the deposited HMDSO film exhibits least defective Si-O-Si chemical structure and highest inorganic character and this contributes to its best corrosion resistance behavior. The hardness and elastic modulus of the films are found to be bias dependent and are 1.27 GPa and 5.36 GPa for films deposited at -100 V. The critical load for delamination is also bias dependent and is 11 mN for this film. The water repellency of the HMDSO films is observed to be dependent on the variation in surface roughness. The results of the investigations suggest that HMDSO films deposited by RF-PACVD can be used as protective coatings on bell metal surfaces.

  6. Metal oxide films on metal

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Xin D. (Los Alamos, NM); Tiwari, Prabhat (Los Alamos, NM)

    1995-01-01

    A structure including a thin film of a conductive alkaline earth metal oxide selected from the group consisting of strontium ruthenium trioxide, calcium ruthenium trioxide, barium ruthenium trioxide, lanthanum-strontium cobalt oxide or mixed alkaline earth ruthenium trioxides thereof upon a thin film of a noble metal such as platinum is provided.

  7. Microradiographic characterization of metal and polymer coated microspheres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Singleton; J. T. Weir

    1981-01-01

    X-ray microradiography is used to make measurements of opaque metal and polymer coatings on hollow glass microspheres which are used as laser fusion targets at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Metal coatings include platinum, tantalum, gold, copper, and beryllium where thicknesses range from 1 to 10 mm on 70 to 200 mm diameter mandrels. Contact film images are made with

  8. Polymer-assisted aqueous deposition of metal oxide films

    DOEpatents

    Li, DeQuan (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM)

    2003-07-08

    An organic solvent-free process for deposition of metal oxide thin films is presented. The process includes aqueous solutions of necessary metal precursors and an aqueous solution of a water-soluble polymer. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is fired at high temperatures to yield optical quality metal oxide thin films.

  9. Characterization of Thin Films and Coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald R. Baer; Suntharampillai Thevuthasan

    2010-01-01

    Just as the numbers and types of thin films have grown dramatically, the needs and approaches for their characterization have also expanded significantly. Adequate characterization of a film or coating depends on the process to create the coating as well as the planned or potential application(s) and expected lifetime. Characterization of a coating or film necessarily requires application of methods

  10. Magnetron-Sputtered Amorphous Metallic Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, A. P.; Mehra, M.; Khanna, S. K.

    1985-01-01

    Amorphous coatings of refractory metal/metalloid-based alloys deposited by magnetron sputtering provide extraordinary hardness and wear resistance. Sputtering target fabricated by thoroughly mixing powders of tungsten, rhenium, and boron in stated proportions and pressing at 1,200 degrees C and 3,000 lb/in. to second power (21 MPa). Substrate lightly etched by sputtering before deposition, then maintained at bias of - 500 V during initial stages of film growth while target material sputtered onto it. Argon gas at pressure used as carrier gas for sputter deposition. Coatings dense, pinhole-free, extremely smooth, and significantly resistant to chemical corrosion in acidic and neutral aqueous environments.

  11. Titania-coated metal nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Seh, Zhi Wei; Liu, Shuhua; Han, Ming-Yong

    2012-10-01

    The synergistic effect between metal and TiO(2) nanoparticles brings about new, enhanced functionalities for a myriad of applications, ranging from labeling and sensing to catalysis and surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Although extensive work has been done in the preparation of concentric TiO(2)-coated metal nanostructures, current methods for the synthesis of noncentrosymmetric morphologies are still very limited. This Focus review summarizes the various methods used to prepare TiO(2)-coated metal nanostructures, with a particular emphasis on noncentrosymmetric morphologies, their novel plasmonic properties, and their promising applications in the fields of catalysis and photocatalysis. PMID:22707415

  12. Metal-Coated Optical Fibers for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeakes, Jason; Murphy, Kent; Claus, Richard; Greene, Jonathan; Tran, Tuan

    1996-01-01

    A DC magnetron sputtering system has been used to actively coat optical fibers with hermetic metal coatings during the fiber draw process. Thin films of Inconel 625 have been deposited on optical fibers and annealed in air at 2000 F. Scanning electron microscopy and Auger electron microscopy have been used to investigate the morphology and composition of the films prior to and following thermal cycling. Issues to be addressed include film adhesion, other coating materials, and a discussion of additional applications for this novel technology.

  13. Coherent coatings of refractory metal.

    PubMed

    Senderoff, S; Mellors, G W

    1966-09-23

    A general process has been developed for the electrodeposition of eight of the nine refractory metals of groups IVB, VB, and VIB as dense coherent deposits. It consists essentially of the electrolysis of a solution of the refractory metal fluoride in a molten alkali-fluoride euteotic mixture, and has been shown to deposit a coating, unalloyed with the substrate, by a pro- cess that obeys Faraday's law. Some evidence exists that the electrode-reaction mechanism by which coherent coatings are deposited from molten salts incorporates an irreversible metalproducing step. PMID:17749723

  14. Thermal Properties of Metal-Coated Vertically-Aligned Single Wall Nanotube Films M. Panzer, G. Zhang, D. Mann, X. Hu, E. Pop, H. Dai, and K. E. Goodson

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Guangyu

    to thermal expansion mismatch and thermal cycling. The thermal conductivity of individual single wall CNTsThermal Properties of Metal-Coated Vertically-Aligned Single Wall Nanotube Films M. Panzer, G to their extraordinarily high thermal conductivities, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising for use in advanced thermal

  15. Method of measuring metal coating adhesion

    DOEpatents

    Roper, John R. (Northglenn, CO)

    1985-01-01

    A method for measuring metal coating adhesion to a substrate material comprising the steps of preparing a test coupon of substrate material having the metal coating applied to one surface thereof, applying a second metal coating of gold or silver to opposite surfaces of the test coupon by hot hollow cathode process, applying a coating to one end of each of two pulling rod members, joining the coated ends of the pulling rod members to said opposite coated surfaces of the test coupon by a solid state bonding technique and finally applying instrumented static tensile loading to the pulling rod members until fracture of the metal coating adhesion to the substrate material occurs.

  16. Study of two different thin film coating methods in transmission laser micro-joining of thin Ti-film coated glass and polyimide for biomedical applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Sultana; G. L. Georgiev; R. J. Baird; G. W. Auner; G. Newaz; R. Patwa; H. J. Herfurth

    2009-01-01

    Biomedical devices and implants require precision joining for hermetic sealing which can be achieved with low power lasers. The effect of two different thin metal film coating methods was studied in transmission laser micro-joints of titanium-coated glass and polyimide. The coating methods were cathodic arc physical vapor deposition (CA-PVD) and electron beam evaporation (EB-PVD). Titanium-coated glass joined to polyimide film

  17. Thin film-coated polymer webs

    DOEpatents

    Wenz, Robert P. (Cottage Grove, MN); Weber, Michael F. (Shoreview, MN); Arudi, Ravindra L. (Woodbury, MN)

    1992-02-04

    The present invention relates to thin film-coated polymer webs, and more particularly to thin film electronic devices supported upon a polymer web, wherein the polymer web is treated with a purifying amount of electron beam radiation.

  18. Method of coating metal surfaces to form protective metal coating thereon

    DOEpatents

    Krikorian, O.H.; Curtis, P.G.

    1992-03-31

    A process is disclosed for forming a protective metal coating on a metal surface using a flux consisting of an alkali metal fluoride, an alkaline earth metal fluoride, an alkali metal fluoaluminate, an alkali metal fluosilicate, and mixtures thereof. The flux, in particulate form, is mixed with particles of a metal coating material which may comprise aluminum, chromium, mixtures thereof, and alloys containing at least 50 wt. % aluminum and the particulate mixture is applied to the metal surface in a single step, followed by heating the coated metal surface to a temperature sufficient to cause the metal coating material to react with the metal surface to form a protective reaction product in the form of a metal coating bonded to the metal surface. The metal surface which reacts with the metal coating material to form the protective coating may comprise Fe, Co, Ni, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Hf, Ta, W, Re and alloys thereof. 1 figure.

  19. Method of coating metal surfaces to form protective metal coating thereon

    DOEpatents

    Krikorian, Oscar H. (Danville, CA); Curtis, Paul G. (Tracy, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A process is disclosed for forming a protective metal coating on a metal surface using a flux consisting of an alkali metal fluoride, an alkaline earth metal fluoride, an alkali metal fluoaluminate, an alkali metal fluosilicate, and mixtures thereof. The flux, in particulate form, is mixed with particles of a metal coating material which may comprise aluminum, chromium, mixtures thereof, and alloys containing at least 50 wt. % aluminum and the particulate mixture is applied to the metal surface in a single step, followed by heating the coated metal surface to a temperature sufficient to cause the metal coating material to react with the metal surface to form a protective reaction product in the form of a metal coating bonded to the metal surface. The metal surface which reacts with the metal coating material to form the protective coating may comprise Fe, Co, Ni, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Hf, Ta, W, Re and alloys thereof.

  20. Coated metal articles and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Boller, Ernest R. (Van Buren Township, IN); Eubank, Lowell D. (Wilmington, DE)

    2004-07-06

    The method of protectively coating metallic uranium which comprises dipping the metallic uranium in a molten alloy comprising about 20-75% of copper and about 80-25% of tin, dipping the coated uranium promptly into molten tin, withdrawing it from the molten tin and removing excess molten metal, thereupon dipping it into a molten metal bath comprising aluminum until it is coated with this metal, then promptly withdrawing it from the bath.

  1. Coated Metal Articles and Method of Making

    DOEpatents

    Boller, Ernest R.; Eubank, Lowell D.

    2004-07-06

    The method of protectively coating metallic uranium which comprises dipping the metallic uranium in a molten alloy comprising about 20-75% of copper and about 80-25% of tin, dipping the coated uranium promptly into molten tin, withdrawing it from the molten tin and removing excess molten metal, thereupon dipping it into a molten metal bath comprising aluminum until it is coated with this metal, then promptly withdrawing it from the bath.

  2. Corrosion protective coating for metallic materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Buchheit; M. A. Martinez

    1998-01-01

    Corrosion protective coatings for metallic materials, particularly aluminum and aluminum alloys, produced with simple, low-cost equipment and materials other than toxic metals or metal salts, or metal cyanides is disclosed. The metallic material is cleaned, degreased, and deoxidized, the surface is converted to a substantially alkaline condition, and the surface is chemically sealed with inorganic metal compounds. 1 fig.

  3. Corrosion protective coating for metallic materials

    DOEpatents

    Buchheit, Rudolph G. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    Corrosion protective coatings for metallic materials, particularly aluminum and aluminum alloys, produced with simple, low-cost equipment and materials other than toxic metals or metal salts, or metal cyanides. The metallic material is cleaned, degreased, and deoxidized, the surface is converted to a substantially alkaline condition, and the surface is chemically sealed with inorganic metal compounds.

  4. Corrosion protective coating for metallic materials

    DOEpatents

    Buchheit, R.G.; Martinez, M.A.

    1998-05-26

    Corrosion protective coatings for metallic materials, particularly aluminum and aluminum alloys, produced with simple, low-cost equipment and materials other than toxic metals or metal salts, or metal cyanides is disclosed. The metallic material is cleaned, degreased, and deoxidized, the surface is converted to a substantially alkaline condition, and the surface is chemically sealed with inorganic metal compounds. 1 fig.

  5. High-mobility ultrathin semiconducting films prepared by spin coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitzi, David B.; Kosbar, Laura L.; Murray, Conal E.; Copel, Matthew; Afzali, Ali

    2004-03-01

    The ability to deposit and tailor reliable semiconducting films (with a particular recent emphasis on ultrathin systems) is indispensable for contemporary solid-state electronics. The search for thin-film semiconductors that provide simultaneously high carrier mobility and convenient solution-based deposition is also an important research direction, with the resulting expectations of new technologies (such as flexible or wearable computers, large-area high-resolution displays and electronic paper) and lower-cost device fabrication. Here we demonstrate a technique for spin coating ultrathin (~50Å), crystalline and continuous metal chalcogenide films, based on the low-temperature decomposition of highly soluble hydrazinium precursors. We fabricate thin-film field-effect transistors (TFTs) based on semiconducting SnS2-xSex films, which exhibit n-type transport, large current densities (>105Acm-2) and mobilities greater than 10cm2V-1s-1-an order of magnitude higher than previously reported values for spin-coated semiconductors. The spin-coating technique is expected to be applicable to a range of metal chalcogenides, particularly those based on main group metals, as well as for the fabrication of a variety of thin-film-based devices (for example, solar cells, thermoelectrics and memory devices).

  6. Low threshold gain metal coated laser nanoresonators

    E-print Network

    Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    Low threshold gain metal coated laser nanoresonators Amit Mizrahi,* Vitaliy Lomakin, Boris A the metal and the gain medium in metal-coated laser resonators and demonstrate that it can significantly.6628, 140.5960, 350.4238. Subwavelength laser sources are expected to be key components in future

  7. Alloy Films Deposited by Electroplating as Precursors for Protective Oxide Coatings on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Metallic Interconnect Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Christopher; Gemmen, R.S.; Cross, Caleb

    2006-10-01

    The successful development of stainless steel interconnects for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) may be the materials breakthrough that makes SOFC technology truly commercial. Many of the ferritic stainless steels, however, suffer from a relatively high area specific resistance (ASR) after long exposure times at temperature and the Cr in the native oxide can evaporate and contaminate other cell components. Conductive coatings that resist oxide scale growth and chromium evaporation may prevent both of these problems. In the present study electrochemical deposition of binary alloys followed by oxidation of the alloy to form protective and conductive oxide layers is examined. Results are presented for the deposition of Mn/Co and Fe/Ni alloys via electroplating to form a precursor for spinel oxide coating formation. Analysis of the alloy coatings is done by SEM, EDS and XRD.

  8. Analysis of Hard Thin Film Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Dashen

    1998-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is interested in developing hard thin film coating for bearings. The wearing of the bearing is an important problem for space flight engine. Hard thin film coating can drastically improve the surface of the bearing and improve the wear-endurance of the bearing. However, many fundamental problems in surface physics, plasma deposition, etc, need further research. The approach is using Electron Cyclotron Resonance Chemical Vapor Deposition (ECRCVD) to deposit hard thin film on stainless steel bearing. The thin films in consideration include SiC, SiN and other materials. An ECRCVD deposition system is being assembled at MSFC.

  9. Analysis of Hard Thin Film Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Dashen

    1998-01-01

    MSFC is interested in developing hard thin film coating for bearings. The wearing of the bearing is an important problem for space flight engine. Hard thin film coating can drastically improve the surface of the bearing and improve the wear-endurance of the bearing. However, many fundamental problems in surface physics, plasma deposition, etc, need further research. The approach is using electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition (ECRCVD) to deposit hard thin film an stainless steel bearing. The thin films in consideration include SiC, SiN and other materials. An ECRCVD deposition system is being assembled at MSFC.

  10. Tailoring Thin Film-Lacquer Coatings for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Wanda C.; Harris, George; Miller, Grace; Petro, John

    1998-01-01

    Thin film coatings have the capability of obtaining a wide range of thermal radiative properties, but the development of thin film coatings can sometimes be difficult and costly when trying to achieve highly specular surfaces. Given any space mission's then-nal control requirements, there is often a need for a variation of solar absorptance (alpha(sub s)), emittance (epsilon) and/or highly specular surfaces. The utilization of thin film coatings is one process of choice for meeting challenging thermal control requirements because of its ability to provide a wide variety of alpha(sub s)/epsilon ratios. Thin film coatings' radiative properties can be tailored to meet specific thermal control requirements through the use of different metals and the variation of dielectric layer thickness. Surface coatings can be spectrally selective to enhance radiative coupling and decoupling. The application of lacquer to a surface can also provide suitable specularity for thin film application without the cost and difficulty associated with polishing.

  11. Acoustoelectric effects in reflection of leaky acoustic waves from LiTaO3 crystal surface coated with metal film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimeika, R.; Sereika, A.; ?iplys, D.

    2011-01-01

    The strong variations in amplitude and phase of leaky acoustic wave excited on one surface of YX lithium tantalate crystal plate and reflected from the opposite parallel surface have been observed during thermal evaporation of copper film onto the reflection surface. These variations are caused by the acoustoelectric interaction in the reflection region, and they are described in terms of surface acoustic wave velocity and attenuation dependence on the film sheet conductivity. The electromechanical coupling constant value of 5% has been extracted from amplitude measurements, and that of 4% from the phase measurements.

  12. Influence of Metal Properties on the Formation and Evolution of Metal Coatings During Mechanical Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Liang; Lu, Yun; Sato, Hiromasa; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Guo, Jie

    2013-06-01

    Powders of Cu, Ti, Ni, Fe, and Zn metals were used to prepare coatings on the surfaces of Al2O3 balls by the mechanical coating technique. The coated Al2O3 balls were characterized with XRD and SEM. The results showed that all the metal powders except Ni formed continuous metal coatings. The evolution of metal coatings during mechanical coating was also investigated. The analysis indicates that as long as continuous metal coatings can be formed, the evolution can fall into the following stages: nucleation, formation and coalescence of discrete islands, formation and thickening of continuous coatings, and exfoliation of continuous coatings. Electronegativity of the metal was shown to have a major effect on the adhesion of the tiny metal particles on the surfaces of the Al2O3 balls during the initial stage of mechanical coating. The lower the electronegativity of the metal, the greater the coverage of the metal on the Al2O3 ball and the easier the adhesion of the tiny metal particles. Further, the better the plastic deformability of metal, the easier the cold welding among metal powder particles and the greater the thickness of the continuous metal coatings.

  13. Method of producing adherent metal oxide coatings on metallic surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Lane, Michael H. (Clifton Park, NY); Varrin, Jr., Robert D. (McLean, VA)

    2001-01-01

    Provided is a process of producing an adherent synthetic corrosion product (sludge) coating on metallic surfaces. The method involves a chemical reaction between a dry solid powder mixture of at least one reactive metal oxide with orthophosphoric acid to produce a coating in which the particles are bound together and the matrix is adherent to the metallic surface.

  14. Metallic Bipolar Plates with Composite Coatings

    E-print Network

    Metallic Bipolar Plates with Composite Coatings Jennifer Mawdsley Argonne National Laboratory Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting Washington DC October 1, 2009 #12;2 Metallic Bipolar Plates with Composite Coatings Project Objective Make aluminum-based bipolar plates an option for replacing machined

  15. Superconductive niobium films coating carbon nanotube fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvato, M.; Lucci, M.; Ottaviani, I.; Cirillo, M.; Behabtu, N.; Young, C. C.; Pasquali, M.; Vecchione, A.; Fittipaldi, R.; Corato, V.

    2014-11-01

    Superconducting niobium (Nb) has been successfully obtained by sputter deposition on carbon nanotube fibers. The transport properties of the niobium coating the fibers are compared to those of niobium thin films deposited on oxidized Si substrates during the same deposition run. For niobium films with thicknesses above 300 nm, the niobium coating the fibers and the thin films show similar normal state and superconducting properties with critical current density, measured at T = 4.2 K, of the order of 105 A cm?2. Thinner niobium layers coating the fibers also show the onset of the superconducting transition in the resistivity versus temperature dependence, but zero resistance is not observed down to T = 1 K. We evidence by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and current-voltage measurements that the granular structure of the samples is the main reason for the lack of true global superconductivity for thicknesses below 300 nm.

  16. Plasma-Spray Metal Coating On Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cranston, J.

    1994-01-01

    Molds, forms, and other substrates made of foams coated with metals by plasma spraying. Foam might be ceramic, carbon, metallic, organic, or inorganic. After coat applied by plasma spraying, foam left intact or removed by acid leaching, conventional machining, water-jet cutting, or another suitable technique. Cores or vessels made of various foam materials plasma-coated with metals according to method useful as thermally insulating containers for foods, liquids, or gases, or as mandrels for making composite-material (matrix/fiber) parts, or making thermally insulating firewalls in automobiles.

  17. Systematic Evaluation of Jc Decrease in Thick Film Coated Conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Alex Ignatiev; Dr. Amit Goyal

    2006-05-10

    Address both thickness dependence of Jc, in thick film YBCO coated conductors through an application of a suite of new measurement techniques to thick film wire samples produced by commercially viable coated conductor technologies.

  18. Production and study of metal-fullerene films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schur, Dmitry V.; Shpilevsky, Eduard M.; Baklanov, Mykola M.; Lobodyuk, Oleksander O.

    2002-06-01

    The present paper describes the metal-fullerene films production by thermal evaporation and condensation under vacuum. The necessary fullerene concentration in the film has been provided by maintaining a special relation between the rates of fullerene and metal atoms fed. The preformed research of structure of fullerene containing materials show that addition of C60 molecules to the metal coatings essentially reduces the structural elements sizes to nanometrical ones that can be used in production of nanostructural materials having unique properties. The obtained result on investigation of their physical and physico-chemical properties suggest broad potentials for application of metal-fullerene films.

  19. Remotely measuring a thin dielectric coating on a metallic cylinder.

    PubMed

    George, Nicholas; Zavattero, Paul

    2011-12-19

    A laser optical metrology system is described that remotely measures at high rate the presence and thickness of a thin-film lubricant on metallic cylinders with diameters on the order of 0.5 mm. Applications include remote measurement of hypodermic needle dielectric coating thickness in a clean room environment. High accuracy computer simulation of the electric field scattered from a coated cylinder by an incident laser beam is demonstrated using the condition numbers of the matrices defined by the boundary value matching equations derived from the eigenfunction expansion of the exact solution to Maxwell's equations. Dielectric coatings from 1 ?m to 50 ?m are seen to be readily observed and accurately measured using a remotely placed CMOS array. Distinctive signatures are shown for film thicknesses in the range from 0 to 10 ?m, and an appropriate location for CMOS detector placement is determined from the scattering patterns. PMID:22274253

  20. Flexible thin metal film thermal sensing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomsen, Donald L. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A flexible thin metal film thermal sensing system is provided. A self-metallized polymeric film has a polymeric film region and a metal surface disposed thereon. A layer of electrically-conductive metal is deposited directly onto the self-metallized polymeric film's metal surface. Coupled to at least one of the metal surface and the layer of electrically-conductive metal is a device/system for measuring an electrical characteristic associated therewith as an indication of temperature.

  1. Molecular Level Coating for Metal Oxide Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDaniel, Patricia R. (Inventor); Saint Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Polymer encapsulated metal oxide particles are prepared by combining a polyamide acid in a polar aprotic solvent with a metal alkoxide solution. The polymer was imidized and the metal oxide formed simultaneously in a refluxing organic solvent. The resulting polymer-metal oxide is an intimately mixed commingled blend, possessing synergistic properties of both the polymer and preceramic metal oxide. The encapsulated metal oxide particles have multiple uses including, being useful in the production of skin lubricating creams, weather resistant paints, as a filler for paper, making ultraviolet light stable filled printing ink, being extruded into fibers or ribbons, and coatings for fibers used in the production of composite structural panels.

  2. Metal/dielectric/metal sandwich film for broadband reflection reduction

    PubMed Central

    Jen, Yi-Jun; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Lin, Meng-Jie; Wang, Wei-Hao; Wu, Huang-Ming; Liao, Hung-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    A film comprising randomly distributed metal/dielectric/metal sandwich nanopillars with a distribution of cross-sectional diameters, displayed extremely low reflectance over the blue-to-red regime, when coated on glass and illuminated normally. When it is illuminated by normally incident light, this sandwich film (SWF) has a low extinction coefficient, its phase thickness is close to a negative wavelength in the blue-to-red spectral regime, and it provides weakly dispersive forward and backward impedances, so that reflected waves from the two faces of the SWF interfere destructively. Broadband reflection-reduction, over a wide range of incidence angles and regardless of the polarization state of the incident light, was observed when the SWF was deposited on polished silicon. PMID:23591704

  3. Edible Films and Coatings for Meat and Poultry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zey Ustunol

    \\u000a Edible films and coatings are defined as continuous matrices that can be prepared from proteins, polysaccharides and\\/or lipids\\u000a to alter the surface characteristics of a food. Although the terms films and coatings are used interchangeably, films in general\\u000a are preformed and are freestanding, whereas, coatings are formed directly on the food product. Proteins used in edible films\\u000a include wheat gluten,

  4. Optoacoustic technique for thickness measurement of submicron metal coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelivanov, I. M.; Kopylova, D. S.; Podymova, N. B.; Karabutov, A. A.

    2009-06-01

    The new nondestructive method for thickness measurement of submicron metal coatings on transparent substrate is developed. The method is based on the optoacoustic (OA) transformation in the system, where the coating is covered by an optically transparent liquid. Theoretical treatment of the problem consists of two steps. At the first step laser-induced thermal field in the system is calculated, taking into account the large thermal conductivity of the metal film and partial heat diffusion into the liquid. At the second step the system of wave equations for scalar potential of vibration velocities is solved. Heat sources, determined at the first step, are free form of wave equations. Three chrome coatings of different thickness (approximately 0.2, 0.3, and 0.6 ?m) deposited on the quartz substrate are tested experimentally. Two different organic liquids (acetone and ethanol) are used to cover chrome coatings. Nanosecond diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser operated at the main harmonic is used to perform OA transformation (laser pulse duration is ? L = 12 ns, the laser energy is about 0.2 mJ). Two detection modes are used. In forward mode laser pulse irradiates the film from the side of the substrate and in backward mode—from the side of the liquid. Detection of induced ultrasonic pulses is performed by the wide-band piezoelectric transducer in the liquid in both cases. The thickness of the coatings is determined by the least squares fitting of the theoretical dependencies of spectral transfer functions of OA transformation to experimental data. It is demonstrated, that the developed technique can be used for measurement of metal coatings thickness within the range from 50 nm to 5 ?m with the error about 50 nm.

  5. Covering solid, film cooled surfaces with a duplex thermal barrier coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, C. H. (inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Thermal barrier coating systems were applied to hardware having passageways in the walls connecting apertures in the surface to a gas supply for film cooling. An inert gas, such as argon, is discharged through the apertures during the application of the thermal barrier coating system by plasma spraying. This flow of inert gas reduces both blocking of the holes and base metal oxidation during the coating operation.

  6. Antireflective coating using aluminum hydroxide formed by hydrothermal treatment of sputtered aluminum films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiguro, Takashi; Hori, Toshiyuki; Qiu, Zhiyong

    2009-07-01

    Here we have proposed a simple method for forming antireflective coating. By putting a rf sputtered metallic Al film into boiling ultrapure water, the film becomes transparent. Its optical transmittance exceeds the glass substrate itself. In addition, the glass substrate with such coating on both sides shows almost perfect transmittance at specific wavelengths. By electron diffraction, the crystal structure of the transformed film is confirmed to be boehmite. The refractive index of the transparent film is estimated to be one of the median values of the glass and air.

  7. Dielectric Coating For Hot-Film Flow Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopson, Purnell, Jr.; Tran, Sang Q.

    1990-01-01

    Very-thin-film dielectric coating stable over range of temperatures developed. This dielectric coating, combination of fused silica and thermoplastic polymer, has sufficient stability to withstand stresses placed upon it by cycling to and from cryogenic temperatures. Coating tailored to meet almost any criterion of roughness height. Useful for research in application of hot-film sensors to airfoils.

  8. Study of two different thin film coating methods in transmission laser micro-joining of thin Ti-film coated glass and polyimide for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Sultana, T; Georgiev, G L; Baird, R J; Auner, G W; Newaz, G; Patwa, R; Herfurth, H J

    2009-07-01

    Biomedical devices and implants require precision joining for hermetic sealing which can be achieved with low power lasers. The effect of two different thin metal film coating methods was studied in transmission laser micro-joints of titanium-coated glass and polyimide. The coating methods were cathodic arc physical vapor deposition (CA-PVD) and electron beam evaporation (EB-PVD). Titanium-coated glass joined to polyimide film can have neural electrode application. The improvement of the joint quality will be essential for robust performance of the device. Low power fiber laser (wave length = 1100 nm) was used for transmission laser micro-joining of thin titanium (Ti) film (approximately 200 nm) coated Pyrex borosilicate 7740 glass wafer (0.5 mm thick) and polyimide (Imidex) film (0.2 mm thick). Ti film acts as the coupling agent in the joining process. The Ti film deposition rate in the CA-PVD was 5-10 A/s and in the EB-PVD 1.5 A/s. The laser joint strength was measured by a lap shear test, the Ti film surfaces were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the lap shear tested joints were analyzed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The film properties and the failure modes of the joints were correlated to joint strength. The CA-PVD produced around 4 times stronger laser joints than EB-PVD. The adhesion of the Ti film on glass by CA-PVD is better than that of the EB-PVD method. This is likely to be due to a higher film deposition rate and consequently higher adhesion or sticking coefficient for the CA-PVD particles arriving on the substrate compared to that of the EB-PVD film. EB-PVD shows poor laser bonding properties due to the development of thermal hotspots which occurs from film decohesion. PMID:19627828

  9. Peroxotungstic Acid Coated Films for Electrochromic Display Devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazusuke Yamanaka; Hiroshi Oakamoto; Hirokazu Kidou; Tetsuichi Kudo

    1986-01-01

    Peroxotungstic acid coated films were investigated for applications to electrochromic display devices. Films coated with peroxotungstic acid aqueous solutions exhibited electrochromism in non-aqueous electrolyte solutions containing Li-salts. A good reversibility for the electrochromic reaction was attained after several writing-erasing cycles involving linear sweeps when the films had been heat-treated at about 120°C for 1 h. Cathodic polarization of the coated

  10. Aerosol chemical vapor deposition of metal oxide films

    DOEpatents

    Ott, Kevin C. (4745 Trinity Dr., Los Alamos, NM 87544); Kodas, Toivo T. (5200 Noreen Dr. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111)

    1994-01-01

    A process of preparing a film of a multicomponent metal oxide including: forming an aerosol from a solution comprised of a suitable solvent and at least two precursor compounds capable of volatilizing at temperatures lower than the decomposition temperature of said precursor compounds; passing said aerosol in combination with a suitable oxygen-containing carrier gas into a heated zone, said heated zone having a temperature sufficient to evaporate the solvent and volatilize said precursor compounds; and passing said volatilized precursor compounds against the surface of a substrate, said substrate having a sufficient temperature to decompose said volatilized precursor compounds whereby metal atoms contained within said volatilized precursor compounds are deposited as a metal oxide film upon the substrate is disclosed. In addition, a coated article comprising a multicomponent metal oxide film conforming to the surface of a substrate selected from the group consisting of silicon, magnesium oxide, yttrium-stabilized zirconium oxide, sapphire, or lanthanum gallate, said multicomponent metal oxide film characterized as having a substantially uniform thickness upon said FIELD OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to the field of film coating deposition techniques, and more particularly to the deposition of multicomponent metal oxide films by aerosol chemical vapor deposition. This invention is the result of a contract with the Department of Energy (Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36).

  11. Channel cracks in atomic-layer and molecular-layer deposited multilayer thin film coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Rong; Dunn, Martin L.

    2014-06-01

    Metal oxide thin film coatings produced by atomic layer deposition have been shown to be an effective permeation barrier. The primary failure mode of such coatings under tensile loads is the propagation of channel cracks that penetrate vertically into the coating films. Recently, multi-layer structures that combine the metal oxide material with relatively soft polymeric layers produced by molecular layer deposition have been proposed to create composite thin films with desired properties, including potentially enhanced resistance to fracture. In this paper, we study the effects of layer geometry and material properties on the critical strain for channel crack propagation in the multi-layer composite films. Using finite element simulations and a thin-film fracture mechanics formalism, we show that if the fracture energy of the polymeric layer is lower than that of the metal oxide layer, the channel crack tends to penetrate through the entire composite film, and dividing the metal oxide and polymeric materials into thinner layers leads to a smaller critical strain. However, if the fracture energy of the polymeric material is high so that cracks only run through the metal oxide layers, more layers can result in a larger critical strain. For intermediate fracture energy of the polymer material, we developed a design map that identifies the optimal structure for given fracture energies and thicknesses of the metal oxide and polymeric layers. These results can facilitate the design of mechanically robust permeation barriers, an important component for the development of flexible electronics.

  12. Channel cracks in atomic-layer and molecular-layer deposited multilayer thin film coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Rong, E-mail: rlongmech@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G8 (Canada); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Dunn, Martin L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore 138682 (Singapore)

    2014-06-21

    Metal oxide thin film coatings produced by atomic layer deposition have been shown to be an effective permeation barrier. The primary failure mode of such coatings under tensile loads is the propagation of channel cracks that penetrate vertically into the coating films. Recently, multi-layer structures that combine the metal oxide material with relatively soft polymeric layers produced by molecular layer deposition have been proposed to create composite thin films with desired properties, including potentially enhanced resistance to fracture. In this paper, we study the effects of layer geometry and material properties on the critical strain for channel crack propagation in the multi-layer composite films. Using finite element simulations and a thin-film fracture mechanics formalism, we show that if the fracture energy of the polymeric layer is lower than that of the metal oxide layer, the channel crack tends to penetrate through the entire composite film, and dividing the metal oxide and polymeric materials into thinner layers leads to a smaller critical strain. However, if the fracture energy of the polymeric material is high so that cracks only run through the metal oxide layers, more layers can result in a larger critical strain. For intermediate fracture energy of the polymer material, we developed a design map that identifies the optimal structure for given fracture energies and thicknesses of the metal oxide and polymeric layers. These results can facilitate the design of mechanically robust permeation barriers, an important component for the development of flexible electronics.

  13. Metal drawing by means of solid soap films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Eickemeyer; H.-R. Vogel; J. Reichert; M. Rehm

    1996-01-01

    Solid soap films are used alternatively to conventional powder lubrication in cold drawing. The material to be formed is initially coated with an aqueous soap dispersion and subsequently dried in order to obtain a solid lubricant layer on the surface of the material. The rheological behaviour of these layers is highly effective in the lubrication process during metal drawing. Experimental

  14. Thin film coatings in solar-thermal power systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Peterson; J. W. Ramsey

    1975-01-01

    The applications and requirements for thin film coatings in solar-thermal power systems are reviewed. The substantial impact of selective absorber coatings and antireflection coatings on both flat plate and concentrating type solar collectors is covered. The results of durability life tests on a high-temperature stable, vacuum-evaporated absorber coating consisting of layers of Al2O3-Mo-Al2O3 are reported. This coating was unaffected by

  15. Nanostructured Metal Films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey Michael McMahon

    \\u000a Schatz GC, McMahon JM, Gray SK (2007) Tailoring the parameters of nanohole arrays in gold films for sensing applications.\\u000a Proc SPIE 6641 664103\\/1–8 DOI:10.1117\\/12.790647. McMahon JM, Henzie J, Odom TW, Schatz GC, Gray SK (2007) Tailoring the sensing\\u000a capabilities of nanohole arrays in gold films with Rayleigh anomaly-surface plasmon polaritons. Opt Express 15:18119–18129.\\u000a DOI:10.1364\\/OE.15.018119. Gao H, McMahon JM, Lee MH,

  16. Metal-Coated Silicon Nanowire Plasmonic Waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Yongsop; Hwang, Min-Soo; Lee, Won Woo; Park, Won Il; Park, Hong-Gyu

    2013-04-01

    We report that a metal-coated silicon nanowire functions as a plasmonic waveguide. Measurements showed that plasmonic waveguide modes propagated efficiently through a chemically synthesized silicon nanowire with a diameter of ˜80 nm coated with silver. The propagation lengths for transverse-magnetic and transverse-electric modes were estimated to be ˜8.05 and ˜6.61 µm, respectively. Numerical simulations of the propagation length and mode profile of each plasmonic waveguide mode agreed with the experimental results. These plasmonic waveguides with highly smooth surfaces, fabricated through a bottom-up approach, represent a meaningful step toward the demonstration of an ultracompact subwavelength-scale plasmonic integrated circuit.

  17. Controlling Factors for the Conversion of Trifluoroacetate Sols into Thin Metal Fluoride Coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinobu Fujihara; Munehiro Tada; Toshio Kimura

    2000-01-01

    Metal fluoride films were prepared from trifluoroacetate sols by a spin-coating method. Effects of preparation conditions on the deposition of fluoride films have been examined in order to control the thickness and the refractive index of the films. It was suggested that the fluoride was formed by the thermal decomposition of the trifluoroacetate sols generating gaseous phases such as (CF3CO)2O,

  18. Growth of lanthanum manganate buffer layers for coated conductors via a metal-organic decomposition process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kartik NMN Venkataraman; Eric E. Hellstrom; Mariappan Parans Paranthaman

    2005-01-01

    Perovskite LaMnO3 (LMO) in thin film embodiment has been identified as a potential candidate for use as a buffer layer in coated conductors. This paper delineates the process-properties relationships investigated for the metal-organic decomposition (MOD) growth of LMO thin films on bare cube-textured Ni-W tape sections. Epitaxial films of pseudocubic perovskite LMO were obtained for samples fired at 1100°C in

  19. Protective coatings of metal surfaces by cold plasma treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manory, R.; Grill, A.

    1985-01-01

    The cold plasma techniques for deposition of various types of protective coatings are reviewed. The main advantage of these techniques for deposition of ceramic films is the lower process temperature, which enables heat treating of the metal prior to deposition. In the field of surface hardening of steel, significant reduction of treatment time and energy consumption were obtained. A simple model for the plasma - surface reactions in a cold plasma system is presented, and the plasma deposition techniques are discussed in view of this model.

  20. Process for fabrication of metal oxide films

    SciTech Connect

    Tracy, C.E.; Benson, D.; Svensson, S.

    1990-07-17

    This invention is comprised of a method of fabricating metal oxide films from a plurality of reactants by inducing a reaction by plasma deposition among the reactants. The plasma reaction is effective for consolidating the reactants and producing thin films of metal oxides, e.g. electro-optically active transition metal oxides, at a high deposition rate. The presence of hydrogen during the plasma reaction enhances the deposition rate of the metal oxide. Various types of metal oxide films can be produced.

  1. Indium doped zinc oxide nanowire thin films for antireflection and solar absorber coating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shaik, Ummar Pasha [ACRHEM, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-500046 (India); Krishna, M. Ghanashyam, E-mail: mgksp@uohyd.ac.in [ACRHEM and School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-500046 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Indium doped ZnO nanowire thin films were prepared by thermal oxidation of Zn-In metal bilayer films at 500°C. The ZnO:In nanowires are 20-100 nm in diameter and several tens of microns long. X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the formation of oxide and indicate that the films are polycrystalline, both in the as deposited and annealed states. The transmission which is <2% for the as deposited Zn-In films increases to >90% for the ZnO:In nanowire films. Significantly, the reflectance for the as deposited films is < 10% in the region between 200 to 1500 nm and < 2% for the nanowire films. Thus, the as deposited films can be used solar absorber coatings while the nanowire films are useful for antireflection applications. The growth of nanowires by this technique is attractive since it does not involve very high temperatures and the use of catalysts.

  2. Coating metals on cellulose–polypyrrole composites: A new route to self-powered drug delivery system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dongtao Ge; Xiaoning Ru; Shimin Hong; Shuhui Jiang; Jing Tu; Jun Wang; Aifeng Zhang; Shan Ji; Vladimir Linkov; Bin Ren; Wei Shi

    2010-01-01

    A self-powered drug delivery system based on cellulose–polypyrrole (PPy) composite film was developed. The cellulose–PPy composite film was prepared by deposition of drug-contained PPy film on the inner and outer surfaces of a porous cellulose film. After coating a thin layer of active metal such as magnesium on the one side of the composite film, the drug stored in the

  3. Simple Methods for Production of Nanoscale Metal Oxide Films from Household Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Dean J.; Baliss, Michelle S.; Hinman, Jordan J.; Ziegenhorn, John W.; Andrews, Mark J.; Stevenson, Keith J.

    2013-01-01

    Production of thin metal oxide films was recently explored as part of an outreach program with a goal of producing nanoscale structures with household items. Household items coated with various metals or titanium compounds can be heated to produce colorful films with nanoscale thicknesses. As part of a materials chemistry laboratory experiment…

  4. Liquid Galvanic Coatings for Protection of Imbedded Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacDowell, Louis G. (Inventor); Curran, Joseph J. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Coating compositions and methods of their use are described herein for the reduction of corrosion in imbedded metal structures. The coatings are applied as liquids to an external surface of a substrate in which the metal structures are imbedded. The coatings are subsequently allowed to dry. The liquid applied coatings provide galvanic protection to the imbedded metal structures. Continued protection can be maintained with periodic reapplication of the coating compositions, as necessary, to maintain electrical continuity. Because the coatings may be applied using methods similar to standard paints, and because the coatings are applied to external surfaces of the substrates in which the metal structures are imbedded, the corresponding corrosion protection may be easily maintained. The coating compositions are particularly useful in the protection of metal-reinforced concrete.

  5. Wear Resistance of Coating Films on Hob Teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umezaki, Yoji; Funaki, Yoshiyuki; Kurokawa, Syuhei; Ohnishi, Osamu; Doi, Toshiro

    The wear resistance of coating films on hob teeth is investigated through the simulated hobbing tests with a flytool. The coating films on hob teeth are titanium family ceramics such as TiN, TiCN, TiSiN and TiAlN and aluminum chromium family ceramics such as AlCrN and AlCrSiN. The wear of coated tools is shown about film thickness, film materials, ingredient ratio in a film component and the oxidization of coating films. The oxidization is clarified from a result of the influence on the crater wear progress through wear cutting tests in atmosphere of nitrogen gas or oxygen gas. The oxidization of TiAlN coating films produces oxide products on the tool rake face, and this oxidation relates to the amount of crater wear. The increase of aluminum concentration in the TiAlN film improves the crater wear resistance in air atmosphere, while it has a reverse effect in nitrogen gases. The AlCrSiN film has effective wear resistance against the abrasive wear and/or oxidization wear. The oxidation film formed on the AlCrSiN film is very firm and this suppresses the oxidation wear on the rake face and works against the abrasive wear advantageously.

  6. Photobiomolecular metallic particles and films

    DOEpatents

    Hu, Zhong-Cheng

    2003-05-06

    The method of the invention is based on the unique electron-carrying function of a photocatalytic unit such as the photosynthesis system I (PSI) reaction center of the protein-chlorophyll complex isolated from chloroplasts. The method employs a photo-biomolecular metal deposition technique for precisely controlled nucleation and growth of metallic clusters/particles, e.g., platinum, palladium, and their alloys, etc., as well as for thin-film formation above the surface of a solid substrate. The photochemically mediated technique offers numerous advantages over traditional deposition methods including quantitative atom deposition control, high energy efficiency, and mild operating condition requirements.

  7. Superconducting film on metallic wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akbar, Sheikh A.

    1990-01-01

    For technological applications of high T(sub c) superconductors, it will be necessary to overcome the inherent problem of brittleness, to develop materials with high current carrying capacity, and to devise ways of joining superconductors with other materials. These issues will be addressed in the context of superconducting films on metallic wires. These composite systems are expected to produce flexible wires with desirable properties.

  8. Deposition and characterization of metal sulfide dielectric coatings for hollow glass waveguides.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Veena; Harrington, James

    2003-12-01

    Metal sulfide dielectric thin films have been deposited using dynamic wet chemistry processing on silver coated hollow glass waveguides (HGWs). The sulfides used were cadmium sulfide (CdS) and lead sulfide (PbS); both films have excellent infrared transparency and high refractive index contrast. The thickness of these thin films can be tailored to minimize the attenuation of the HGW over specific infrared wavelengths. We have made both single and multiple dielectric (2 and 3 layer) metal coated HGWs using CdS and PbS deposited over an inner Ag layer. The straight lowest loss measured at 1.55 microm for a 1,000-microm bore Ag/CdS/PbS/CdS HGW was 0.06 dB/m. This loss is three times less than that measured for a single layer Ag/CdS coated HGW at 1.55 microm. PMID:19471443

  9. Sputtered metallic coatings for optical fibers used in high-temperature environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunther, Michael F.; Zeakes, Jason S.; Lieber, Donald E.; May, Russell G.; Claus, Richard O.

    1994-05-01

    Rf and dc planar magnetron sputtering systems were used to deposit high-temperature nickel- based super alloys, INCONEL 617, 625, Haynes 214, and thin films of palladium, as coatings on optical fibers for use in temperatures approaching 1000 degree(s)C. The nickel-based alloy coatings were applied on-line as the optical fiber was drawn, minimizing the exposure of the fiber to the deleterious effects of humidity. The thin film coatings of pure metals were sputtered using a new rf magnetron sputtering system custom designed and built for the Fiber and Electro Optics Research Center. The resulting coatings were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, Auger electron microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The coated fibers exhibit promise for embedded sensors in high temperature, high load composites used for advanced aerospace and energy applications.

  10. Electrodes synthesized from carbon nanostructures coated with a smooth and conformal metal adlayer

    DOEpatents

    Adzic, Radoslav; Harris, Alexander

    2014-04-15

    High-surface-area carbon nanostructures coated with a smooth and conformal submonolayer-to-multilayer thin metal films and their method of manufacture are described. The preferred manufacturing process involves the initial oxidation of the carbon nanostructures followed by a surface preparation process involving immersion in a solution with the desired pH to create negative surface dipoles. The nanostructures are subsequently immersed in an alkaline solution containing a suitable quantity of non-noble metal ions which adsorb at surface reaction sites. The metal ions are then reduced via chemical or electrical means. The nanostructures are exposed to a solution containing a salt of one or more noble metals which replace adsorbed non-noble surface metal atoms by galvanic displacement. The process can be controlled and repeated to obtain a desired film coverage. The resulting coated nanostructures may be used, for example, as high-performance electrodes in supercapacitors, batteries, or other electric storage devices.

  11. On Coating Durability of Polymer Coated Sheet Metal under Plastic Deformation

    E-print Network

    Huang, Yu-Hsuan

    2011-08-08

    by using a uniaxial tensile tester. Experimental results from two selected polymer coated sheet metals show that coating adhesion was affected by plastic deformation. An analytical model based on a virtual interface crack concept was developed to indicate...

  12. Development of an all-metal thick film cost affective metallization system for solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, B.

    1981-01-01

    An economical thick film solar cell contact for high volume production of low cost silicon solar array modules was investigated. All metal screenable pastes using base metals were studied. Solar cells with junction depths varying by a factor of 3.3, with and without a deposited oxide coating were used. Cells were screened and fired by a two step firing process. Adhesion and metallurgical results are unsatisfactory. No electrical information is obtained due to inadequate contact adhesion.

  13. Metallic coatings on silicon substrates, and methods of forming metallic coatings on silicon substrates

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Hyde, Timothy A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Fincke, James R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-03-11

    The invention includes methods of forming a metallic coating on a substrate which contains silicon. A metallic glass layer is formed over a silicon surface of the substrate. The invention includes methods of protecting a silicon substrate. The substrate is provided within a deposition chamber along with a deposition target. Material from the deposition target is deposited over at least a portion of the silicon substrate to form a protective layer or structure which contains metallic glass. The metallic glass comprises iron and one or more of B, Si, P and C. The invention includes structures which have a substrate containing silicon and a metallic layer over the substrate. The metallic layer contains less than or equal to about 2 weight % carbon and has a hardness of at least 9.2 GPa. The metallic layer can have an amorphous microstructure or can be devitrified to have a nanocrystalline microstructure.

  14. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    DOEpatents

    Mickelsen, Reid A. (Bellevue, WA); Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA)

    1985-01-01

    A compositionally uniform thin film of a mixed metal compound is formed by simultaneously evaporating a first metal compound and a second metal compound from independent sources. The mean free path between the vapor particles is reduced by a gas and the mixed vapors are deposited uniformly. The invention finds particular utility in forming thin film heterojunction solar cells.

  15. Abrasion resistance of biaxially oriented polypropylene films coated with nanocomposite hard coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Zhu, Yaofeng; Fu, Yaqin

    2013-11-01

    KMnO4-treated, functionalized, biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) films coated with nano-silica hybrid material were synthesized. The abrasion resistance of the films was examined using a reciprocating fabric abrasion tester. Functional groups were confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Contact angle measurements were performed on the BOPP film surface to quantify the effectiveness of the functionalization. Results indicate that the abrasion resistance and roughness of the composite film were significantly affected by the modification of the BOPP film. Water surface contact angle of the modified BOPP films decreased from 90.1° to 71.4°,when KMnO4 concentration increased from 0 M to 0.25 M. Wettability of the BOPP films clearly improved after KMnO4 treatment. Abrasion resistance of the functionalized films coated with hybrid materials improved by 27.4% compared with that of the original film.

  16. Thin film hydrous metal oxide catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Dosch, Robert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Stephens, Howard P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    Thin film (<100 nm) hydrous metal oxide catalysts are prepared by 1) synthesis of a hydrous metal oxide, 2) deposition of the hydrous metal oxide upon an inert support surface, 3) ion exchange with catalytically active metals, and 4) activating the hydrous metal oxide catalysts.

  17. Very long nuclear relaxation times of spin polarized helium 3 in metal coated cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Werner Heil; Hubert Humblot; Ernst Otten; Matthias Schafer; Reinhard Sarkau; Michèle Leduc

    1995-01-01

    We obtained very long relaxation times T1 of up to 120 h for the nuclear polarization of an optically pumped helium 3 gas. The glass containers were internally coated with metallic films such as bismuth or cesium. These findings will have applications in the field of helium magnetometers and polarized targets.

  18. Process for ultra smooth diamond coating on metals and uses thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vohra, Yogesh K. (Inventor); Catledge, Shane A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a new process to deposit well adhered ultra smooth diamond films on metals by adding nitrogen gas to the methane/hydrogen plasma created by a microwave discharge. Such diamond coating process is useful in tribological/wear resistant applications in bio-implants, machine tools, and magnetic recording industry.

  19. Water soluble cellulose acetate: a versatile polymer for film coating.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, Thomas A

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the use of water soluble cellulose acetate (WSCA) as a film coating material for tablets. Aspirin (ASA) tablets were prepared by direct compression and coated with either WSCA or HPMC (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose) dispersions. Coatings of 1-3%, depending on the intended application, were applied to the model drug (ASA) tablets employing a side-vented coating pan. Free films of WSCA, prepared by cast method, are crystal clear and, depending on the viscosity grade, are flexible, strong and durable. WSCA has the capability of forming free films without plasticizers and the films dry at room temperature. Glass transition temperature, Tg, was determined by differential scanning calorimetry. The Tg of WSCA is significantly higher relative to HPMC. Inclusion of plasticizer lowers the Tg of WSCA and effective plasticizers were PEG 400 and glycerin. Low viscosity WSCA was more soluble in water (25-30%) relative to medium viscosity WSCA (10-15%). WSCA solutions exhibited no increase in viscosity with an increase in temperature. Samples of coated (WSCA and HPMC) tablets and uncoated ASA cores were packaged for stability studies at room and elevated temperature storage. Physical stability of ASA tablets coated with 2:1 LV: MV (low viscosity: medium viscosity) WSCA formulations was better when compared to tablets coated with HPMC. Dissolution stability of WSCA coated ASA was similar to the physical stability results. After three months at elevated temperature (35 and 45 degrees C), the WSCA coated tablets complied with USP dissolution requirements for ASA, while the HPMC coated tablets did not. There was no difference in moisture (weight) gain of ASA tablets coated with either WSCA or HPMC. The WSCA coated tablets were not sticky or tacky, while the HPMC coated tablets were tacky and stuck together. PMID:17454061

  20. Metallic LiMo3Se3 Nanowire Film Sensors for Electrical Detection of Metal Ions in Water

    E-print Network

    Osterloh, Frank

    Metallic LiMo3Se3 Nanowire Film Sensors for Electrical Detection of Metal Ions in Water Mark Allen sensors were fabricated by drop-coating a 0.05% (mass) aqueous nanowire solution onto microfabricated to exhibit superior performance as chemical sensors, both in terms of detection limits and in terms of time

  1. Increase in the DSSC efficiency when using metal-coated carbon nanowall counter electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangjoon; Choi, Won Seok; Lim, Dong-Gun; Choi, Eun Chang; Hong, Byungyou

    2014-08-01

    This research was conducted to improve the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using metal-layer-coated carbon nanowalls (CNWs) as counter electrodes. The CNWs were synthesized on a fluorine-doped tin-oxide (FTO) glass substrate in a microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system using methane (CH4), and the CNWS were sputter-coated with metal films several times by using an RF magnetron sputtering system and four-inch metal targets (Cu, W and Ni, separately). Then, the metal-layer-coated CNWs were used as counter electrodes for manufacturing the DSCCs. The vertical and the surface conditions of the metal-coated CNWs used as the DSCC electrodes were characterized by their electrical variations through field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and Hall measurements. Their optical characteristics were analyzed using UV-Vis equipment, and the energy conversion efficiencies of the DSSCs manufactured using the metal-layer-coated CNWs as the counter electrodes were measured. The results confirmed that the efficiency improved when the W-coated CNW was used as the counter electrode.

  2. Assessment of ceramic coatings for metal fuel melting crucible

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ki-Hwan; Song, Hoon; Kim, Jong-Hwan; Oh, Seok-Jin; Kim, Hyung-Tae; Lee, Chan-Bock [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a coating method and material for crucibles to prevent material interactions with the U-Zr/U-TRU-Zr fuels during the manufacturing of SFR fuels. Refractory coatings were applied to niobium substrates by vacuum plasma-spray coating method. Melt dipping tests conducted were the coated rods lowered into the fuel melt at 1600 C. degrees, and withdrawn and cooled outside the crucible in the inert atmosphere of the induction furnace. Melt dipping tests of the coated Nb rods indicated that plasma-sprayed Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating doesn't form significant reaction layer between fuel melt and coating layer. Melt dipping tests of the coated Nb rods showed that TiC, TaC, and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings exhibited the promising performance among other ceramic coatings. These materials could be promising candidate materials for the reusable melt crucible of metal fuel for SFR. In addition, in order to develop the vacuum plasma-spray coating method for re-usable crucible of metal fuel slugs to be overcome the issue of thermal expansion mismatch between coating material and crucible, various combinations of coating conditions were investigated to find the bonding effect on the substrate in pursuit of more effective ways to withstand the thermal stresses. It is observed that most coating methods maintained sound coating state in U-Zr melt. (authors)

  3. Film Coating Process Research and Characterization of TiN Coated Racetrack-type Ceramic Pipe

    E-print Network

    Wang, Jie; Zhang, Bo; Wei, Wei; Fan, Le; Pei, Xiangtao; Hong, Yuanzhi; Wang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    TiN film was coated on the internal face of racetrack-type ceramic pipe by three different methods: radio-frequency sputtering, DC sputtering and DC magnetron sputtering. The deposition rates of TiN film under different coating methods were compared. According to the AFM, SEM, XPS test results,these properties were analyzed, such as TiN film roughness and surface morphology. At the same time, the deposition rates were studied under two types' cathode, Ti wires and Ti plate. According to the SEM test results, Ti plate cathode can improve the TiN/Ti film deposition rate obviously.

  4. Method of applying polymer coatings to metals and alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Chukalovskaya, T.V.; Shcherbakov, A.I.; Bandurkin, V.V.; Gerasimov, M.V.; Nikolaev, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    A new method has been developed for applying polymer coatings to metals and alloys to create surfaces that may be decorative, corrosion resistant, anti-friction, anti-adhesion, or function as solid lubricants. The method allows coatings to be applied to parts of any shape made of various metals and alloys. The coating application technology is simple and does not require a large capital investment. It includes preparation of the surface to be coated, heating of the part, and application of the coating by immersing the part in a bath with a polymer solution of a certain composition (glazing). Application time is several seconds, and no further treatment is necessary. Polymer consumption is low, since the coating is only 2-15 micrometers thick. The coating technology and the service properties of the coating like appearance and corrosion resistance can be modified to suit the needs of the customer.

  5. Nanopatterned Metallic Films for Use As Transparent Conductive Electrodes in

    E-print Network

    Fan, Shanhui

    Nanopatterned Metallic Films for Use As Transparent Conductive Electrodes in Optoelectronic Devices metallic films as transparent conductive electrodes in optoelectronic devices. We find that the physics to two-dimensional patterns. KEYWORDS Transparent conductive electrodes, nanopatterned metal films, sheet

  6. EIS studies of coated metals in accelerated exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gordon Bierwagen; Dennis Tallman; Junping Li; Lingyun He; Carol Jeffcoate

    2003-01-01

    One of the most popular uses of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is the characterization of the protective properties of coatings on corrodible metals. From early studies up to the present time, many EIS studies have been devoted to the study of the changes in the impedance of coated metals as they undergo either natural or artificial exposure to conditions that

  7. 40 CFR 52.253 - Metal surface coating thinner and reducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...organics in all metal surface coating thinners and reducers that...manufacture of metal surface coating thinners and reducers for...manufacturers of the metal surface coating thinners and reducers, so...Administrator may grant to the industry an appropriate...

  8. Thin Film Heater for Removable Volatile Protecting Coatings

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Abid

    2013-01-01

    Freshly coated aluminum mirrors have excellent reflectivity at far ultraviolet wavelengths. However, reflectivity rapidly degrades when the mirror surfaces are exposed to atmosphere. In order to avoid this problem, freshly coated aluminum surface can be protected by over-coating of a removable volatile protecting coating. This protecting coating can be re-evaporated by controlled heating or by some other methods when required. This type of removable coating has immediate application in UV space astronomy. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of re-evaporation of removable volatile Zn protecting coating using a NiCr thin film heater without affecting the reflection properties of Al mirror surfaces. PMID:24327809

  9. Polyelectrolyte multilayer films containing silver as antibacterial coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xingjie Zan; Zhaohui Su

    2010-01-01

    A facile approach to fabrication of transparent antimicrobial coatings based on polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) is presented. Counterions existing in PEMs were utilized via ion exchange and in situ reduction to incorporate into the films silver ions and nanoparticles, and the antibacterial efficacy of the films against E. coli was assessed by the Kirby–Bauer method. The PEMs containing silver in the

  10. Laser patterning of transparent conductive metal nanowire coatings: simulation and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henley, Simon J.; Cann, Maria; Jurewicz, Izabela; Dalton, Alan; Milne, David

    2013-12-01

    Transparent and electrically conductive metal nanowire networks are possible replacements for costly indium tin oxide (ITO) films in many optoelectronic devices. ITO films are regularly patterned using pulsed lasers so similar technologies could be used for nanowire coatings to define electrode structures. Here, the effects of laser irradiation on conducting silver nanowire coatings are simulated and then investigated experimentally for networks formed by spray deposition onto transparent substrates. The ablation threshold fluence is found experimentally for such nanowire networks and is then related to film thickness. An effective model using finite-element heat transfer analysis is examined to look at energy dissipation through these nanowire networks and used to understand mechanisms at play in the laser-material interactions. It is demonstrated that the three-dimensional nature of these coatings and the relative ratios of the rates of lateral to vertical heat diffusion are important controlling parameter affecting the ablation threshold.

  11. Laser damage in thin film optical coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kent J. Kogler

    1992-01-01

    A review of laser damage resistant coatings for optical elements to be employed in military systems using lasers or encountering lasers used as weapons or countermeasures is provided. It provides an extensive data base of damage thresholds for oxide, fluoride, and chalcogenide single layer and multilayer coatings. The data base is supported by a detailed description of how the coatings

  12. Process for forming a metal compound coating on a substrate

    DOEpatents

    Sharp, Donald J. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, Milton E. (Albuquerque, NM); Wright, Steven A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1991-01-01

    A method of coating a substrate with a thin layer of a metal compound by forming a dispersion of an electrophoretically active organic colloid and a precursor of the metal compound in an electrolytic cell in which the substrate is an electrode. Upon application of an electric potential, the electrode is coated with a mixture of the organic colloid and the precursor to the metal compound, and the coated substrate is then heated in the presence of an atmosphere or vacuum to decompose the organic colloid and form a coating of either a combination of metal compound and carbon, or optionally forming a porous metal compound coating by heating to a temperature high enough to chemically react the carbon.

  13. New criterion of thin film failure of different organic coatings by shearography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, K.

    2007-03-01

    In the present work, the temperature versus thermal deformation (strain) with respect to time, of different coating films were studied by a nondestructive technique (NDT) known as shearography. An organic coating, i.e., ACE Premium Enamel, on a metallic alloy, i.e., a carbon steel, was investigated at a temperature range simulating the severe weather temperatures in Kuwait especially between the daylight and the night time temperatures, 20-60 °C. The investigation focused on determining the in-plane displacement of the coating, which amounts to the thermal deformation (strain) with respect to the applied temperature range. Furthermore, the investigation focused on determining the thermal expansion coefficients of coatings, the slope of the plot of the thermal deformation (strain) versus the applied temperature range. In other words, one could determine, from the decreasing value of the thermal expansion coefficients of coatings, a critical (steady state) value of the thermal expansion coefficients of coatings, in which the integrity of the coatings can be assessed with respect to time. In fact, determination of critical (steady state) value of the thermal expansion coefficients of coatings could be accomplished independent of parameters, i.e., UV exposure, Humidity, exposure to chemical species, and so on, normally are considered in conventional methods of the assessment of the integrity of coatings. In other words, with the technique of shearography, one would need only to determine the critical (steady state) value of the thermal expansion coefficients of coatings, regardless of the history of the coating, in order to assess the integrity of coatings. Furthermore, results of shearography indicate that the technique is very useful NDT method not only for determining the critical value of the thermal expansion coefficients of different coatings, but also the technique can be used as a 2D microscope for monitoring the deformation of the coatings in real-time at a submicroscopic scale.

  14. Adherence of ion beam sputter deposited metal films on H-13 steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    An electron bombardment argon ion source was used to sputter deposit 17 different metal and metal oxide films ranging in thickness from 1 to 8 micrometers on H-13 steel substrates. The film adherence to the substrate surface was measured using a tensile test apparatus. Comparisons in bond strength were made between ion beam, ion plating, and RF deposited films. A protective coating to prevent heat checking in H-13 steel dies used for aluminum die casting was studied. The results of exposing the coated substrates to temperatures up to 700 degrees are presented.

  15. Thin film coatings for space electrical power system applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulino, Daniel A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines some of the ways in which thin film coatings can play a role in aerospace applications. Space systems discussed include photovoltaic and solar dynamic electric power generation systems, including applications in environmental protection, thermal energy storage, and radiator emittance enhancement. Potential applications of diamondlike films to both atmospheric and space based systems are examined. Also, potential uses of thin films of the recently discovered high-temperature superconductive materials are discussed.

  16. Thin film coatings for space electrical power system applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulino, Daniel A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines some of the ways in which thin film coatings can play a role in aerospace applications. Space systems discussed include photovoltaic and solar dynamic electric power generation systems, including applications in environmental protection, thermal energy storage, and radiator emittance enhancement. Potential applications of diamondlike films to both atmospheric and space based systems are examined. Also, potential uses of thin films of the recently discovered high-temperature superconductive materials are discussed.

  17. Solid-gel precursor solutions and methods for the fabrication of polymetallicsiloxane coating films

    DOEpatents

    Toshifumi Sugama.

    1993-04-06

    Solutions and preparation methods necessary for the fabrication of metal oxide cross-linked polysiloxane coating films are disclosed. The films are useful in provide heat resistance against oxidation, wear resistance, thermal insulation, and corrosion resistance of substrates. The sol-gel precursor solution comprises a mixture of a monomeric organoalkoxysilane, a metal alkoxide M(OR)[sub n] (wherein M is Ti, Zr, Ge or Al; R is CH[sub 3], C[sub 2]H[sub 5] or C[sub 3]H[sub 7]; and n is 3 or 4), methanol, water, HCl and NaOH. The invention provides a sol-gel solution, and a method of use thereof, which can be applied and processed at low temperatures (i.e., < 1,000 C.). The substrate can be coated by immersing it in the above mentioned solution at ambient temperature. The substrate is then withdrawn from the solution. Next, the coated substrate is heated for a time sufficient and at a temperature sufficient to yield a solid coating. The coated substrate is then heated for a time sufficient, and temperature sufficient to produce a polymetallicsiloxane coating.

  18. Solid-gel precursor solutions and methods for the fabrication of polymetallicsiloxane coating films

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Mastic Beach, NY)

    1992-01-01

    Solutions and preparation methods necessary for the fabrication of metal oxide cross-linked polysiloxane coating films are disclosed. The films are useful in provide heat resistance against oxidation, wear resistance, thermal insulation, and corrosion resistance of substrates. The sol-gel precursor solution comprises a mixture of a monomeric organoalkoxysilane, a metal alkoxide M(OR).sub.n (wherein M is Ti, Zr, Ge or Al; R is CH.sub.3, C.sub.2 H.sub.5 or C.sub.3 H.sub.7 ; and n is 3 or 4), methanol, water, HCl and NaOH. The invention provides a sol-gel solution, and a method of use thereof, which can be applied and processed at low temperatures (i.e., <1000.degree. C.). The substrate can be coated by immersing it in the above mentioned solution at ambient temperature. The substrate is then withdrawn from the solution. Next, the coated substrate is heated for a time sufficient and at a temperature sufficient to yield a solid coating. The coated substrate is then heated for a time sufficient, and temperature sufficient to produce a polymetallicsiloxane coating.

  19. Solid-gel precursor solutions and methods for the fabrication of polymetallicsiloxane coating films

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Mastic Beach, NY)

    1993-01-01

    Solutions and preparation methods necessary for the fabrication of metal oxide cross-linked polysiloxane coating films are disclosed. The films are useful in provide heat resistance against oxidation, wear resistance, thermal insulation, and corrosion resistance of substrates. The sol-gel precursor solution comprises a mixture of a monomeric organoalkoxysilane, a metal alkoxide M(OR).sub.n (wherein M is Ti, Zr, Ge or Al; R is CH.sub.3, C.sub.2 H.sub.5 or C.sub.3 H.sub.7 ; and n is 3 or 4), methanol, water, HCl and NaOH. The invention provides a sol-gel solution, and a method of use thereof, which can be applied and processed at low temperatures (i.e., <1000.degree. C.). The substrate can be coated by immersing it in the above mentioned solution at ambient temperature. The substrate is then withdrawn from the solution. Next, the coated substrate is heated for a time sufficient and at a temperature sufficient to yield a solid coating. The coated substrate is then heated for a time sufficient, and temperature sufficient to produce a polymetallicsiloxane coating.

  20. Flexible Thin Metal Film Thermal Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomsen, Donald Laurence (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A flexible thin metal film thermal sensing system is provided. A thermally-conductive film made from a thermally-insulating material is doped with thermally-conductive material. At least one layer of electrically-conductive metal is deposited directly onto a surface of the thermally-conductive film. One or more devices are coupled to the layer(s) to measure an electrical characteristic associated therewith as an indication of temperature.

  1. The Impact of Electrode Dielectric Coating on the Insulation Integrity of GIS\\/GITL with Metallic Particle Contaminants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Zhang; M. M. Morcos; H. Anis; S. M. Gubanski; K. D. Srivastava

    2002-01-01

    Coating the inside surface of GIS enclosures with a dielectric film reduces the deleterious effect of electrode surface roughness, impedes the development of metallic particle initiated microdischarges, increases the field required to lift particles, and reduces the charge acquired by particles, all of which help alleviate the adverse effect of contaminating metallic particles on insulation withstand. The performance of particle-contaminated

  2. The impact of electrode dielectric coating on the insulation integrity of GIS\\/GITL with metallic particle contaminants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Zhang; Medhat M. Morcos; H. Anis; Stanislaw M. Gubanski; K. D. Srivastava

    2002-01-01

    Coating the inside surface of gas insulated switchgear (GIS) enclosures with a dielectric film reduces the deleterious effect of electrode surface roughness, impedes the development of metallic particle initiated microdischarges, increases the field required to lift particles, and reduces the charge acquired by particles, all of which help alleviate the adverse effect of contaminating metallic particles on insulation withstand. The

  3. Effects of Anodic Electrodeposition Coating on the Structure of Three-Step Coloring Films on Aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamuro, Masaaki; Morisaki, Shigeyoshi

    2000-12-01

    Three-step electrolytic coloring of aluminum was carried out by applying sulfuric acid, low-voltage AC anodic oxidization between DC anodic oxidization and electrolytic coloring. The films produced by this three-step electrolytic coloring method were observed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to study the influence of anodic electrodeposition (ED) coating on the film structure. AC electrolysis following DC anodic oxidization showed the current recovery phenomenon, and an AC anodizing layer was generated under the DC anodizing layer with the barrier layer remaining. In addition, the thickness of the barrier layer of the AC anodizing layer indicated the simultaneous progress of the metal compound deposit reaction and the formation reaction of the barrier layer for electrolytic coloring. The ED coating did not affect the structure of each anodizing layer greatly, nor did it affect the metal compound deposited in the AC anodizing layer, but the metal compound that was previously deposited unevenly in the DC anodizing layer could no longer be observed using a TEM@. The discoloration of the electrolytic colored film with ED coating may not be attributable to a change in the interference distance due to elution of the deposits in the AC anodizing layer or to a change in the thickness of the barrier layer, but rather to a change in the conditions of the metal compound deposited in the DC anodizing layer.

  4. Aerosol chemical vapor deposition of metal oxide films

    DOEpatents

    Ott, K.C.; Kodas, T.T.

    1994-01-11

    A process of preparing a film of a multicomponent metal oxide including: forming an aerosol from a solution comprised of a suitable solvent and at least two precursor compounds capable of volatilizing at temperatures lower than the decomposition temperature of said precursor compounds; passing said aerosol in combination with a suitable oxygen-containing carrier gas into a heated zone, said heated zone having a temperature sufficient to evaporate the solvent and volatilize said precursor compounds; and passing said volatilized precursor compounds against the surface of a substrate, said substrate having a sufficient temperature to decompose said volatilized precursor compounds whereby metal atoms contained within said volatilized precursor compounds are deposited as a metal oxide film upon the substrate is disclosed. In addition, a coated article comprising a multicomponent metal oxide film conforming to the surface of a substrate selected from the group consisting of silicon, magnesium oxide, yttrium-stabilized zirconium oxide, sapphire, or lanthanum gallate, said multicomponent metal oxide film characterized as having a substantially uniform thickness upon said substrate.

  5. Laser damage in thin film optical coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogler, Kent J.

    1992-07-01

    A review of laser damage resistant coatings for optical elements to be employed in military systems using lasers or encountering lasers used as weapons or countermeasures is provided. It provides an extensive data base of damage thresholds for oxide, fluoride, and chalcogenide single layer and multilayer coatings. The data base is supported by a detailed description of how the coatings were synthesized and how the measurements were performed to collect the damage threshold data. The basis from which the information was collected covers a period from 1984 through 1989. The material reviewed includes investigation of causes of damage in optical coatings and approaches to reducing or eliminating damage mechanisms with the objective of raising damage thresholds. The information should be found useful in selecting coating materials and techniques for their synthesis or as a tool in evaluating the susceptibility of existing coated optical elements.

  6. Nano-enabled tribological thin film coatings: global patent scenario.

    PubMed

    Sivudu, Kurva S; Mahajan, Yashwant R; Joshi, Shrikant V

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present current status and future prospects of nano-enabled tribological thin film coatings based on worldwide patent landscape analysis. The study also presents an overview of technological trends by carrying out state-of-the-art literature analysis, including survey of corporate websites. Nanostructured tribological coatings encompass a wide spectrum of nanoscale microstructures, including nanocrystalline, nanolayered, nano-multilayered, nanocomposite, nanogradient structures or their unique combinations, which are composed of single or multi-component phases. The distinct microstructural features of the coatings impart outstanding tribological properties combined with multifunctional attributes to the coated components. Their unique combination of remarkable properties make them ideal candidates for a wide range of applications in diverse fields such as cutting and metalworking tools, biomedical devices, automotive engine components, wear parts, hard disc drives etc. The patent landscape analysis has revealed that nano-enabled tribological thin film coatings have significant potential for commercial applications in view of the lion's share of corporate industry in patenting activity. The largest patent portfolio is held by Japan followed by USA, Germany, Sweden and China. The prominent players involved in this field are Mitsubishi Materials Corp., Sandvik Aktiebolag, Hitachi Ltd., Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd., OC Oerlikon Corp., and so on. The outstanding potential of nanostructured thin film tribological coatings is yet to be fully unravelled and, therefore, immense opportunities are available in future for microstructurally engineered novel coatings to enhance their performance and functionality by many folds. PMID:24962377

  7. Study on corrosion protection of organic coatings using electrochemical techniques: Thermal property characterization, film thickness investigation, and coating performance evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junping

    2002-08-01

    As an initial effort to establish a rapid, accurate, and comprehensive testing protocol for performance evaluation and lifetime prediction of corrosion protective coatings, the effects of coating thermal characteristics, coating application parameters, and coating formulation variations on corrosion protection have been explored. The study has been accomplished primarily through modern electrochemical techniques, such as Electrochemical Noise Methods (ENM) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), with the aid of traditional thermal analysis, surface characterization, and appearance inspection. The employed electrochemical techniques have exhibited usefulness as powerful testing tools that have provided valuable results in good agreement with field observations and other measures by traditional methods. Thermal property characterization on fusion bonded epoxy (FBE) pipeline coatings has shown that coating electrical resistances decreased as temperature rose with a distinct thermal transition point corresponding to glass transition temperature (Tg) of the immersed coatings. The change in coating capacitance with temperature revealed the irreversible process of water ingress and the effects of electrolyte plasticization in the coating films. Film thickness investigation on marine coating systems has demonstrated that film thickness has significant influences on coating corrosion protection. Better performance is expected for a coating system with thicker film thickness as well as with more coating layers when applied at a constant film thickness. The results indicate that there was a possible critical minimum film thickness above which coating protective performance was greatly enhanced and that there was also a maximum limiting film thickness above which increasing film thickness made little contribution to corrosion protection. Coating performance evaluation on aircraft coating systems has offered accurate performance ranking and reasonable lifetime prediction for high-quality, anticorrosive coatings. The mechanisms of corrosion protection by several coating systems with various types of polymers and pigment volume concentrations (PVC) have been discovered. Future work will consider a broader selection of materials, different test conditions, and a greater variety of characterization techniques. More sophisticated data analysis methods also need to be developed.

  8. New thin multilayer coatings for protecting metallic articles from corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Gerasimov, M.V.; Shul`gin, M.A.; Nikolaev, V.A. [Joint-Stock Company, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-11-01

    This article is a review of Russian efforts to create an inexpensive nickel-phosphorus coating stable to atmospheric corrosion with a price approaching that of a galvanic zinc coating. This was done in order to apply the coating to steel articles in an automated production line with high productivity. The tests of prospective coatings are described, and the highest resistance to corrosion under conditions of increased humidity was exhibited by a coating having a composition of (parent metal)-copper-two nickel-phosphorus layers-oxide layer-layer of polymer material.

  9. Application of zeolite membranes, films and coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fujio Mizukami

    1999-01-01

    Preparation methods of zeolite molecular sieve membranes and films with and without support were reviewed. Unsupported films have been prepared by in situ synthesis, casting of zeolite nanoparticles and solid state transformation, and supported films have been obtained by in situ synthesis, vapor-phase synthesis, secondary growth, casting of nanoparticles and their combinations or modifications. It is favorable to use supports

  10. Development of metal based thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Dong-Il

    In this work, metal-based thermal barrier coatings (MBTBCs) have been produced, using high frequency induction plasma spraying (IPS) of iron-based nanostructured alloy powders. Important advances have been made over recent years to the development of ceramic-based thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) for internal combustion engines application, but they are not yet applied in mass production situations. Besides the important economic considerations, the reliability of ceramic: TBCs is also an issue, being associated with the difficulty of predicting their "in-service" lifetime. Through engineering of the nano/amorphous structure of MBTBCs, their thermal conductivity can be made as low as those of ceramic-based TBCs, with reduced mean free paths of the electrons/phonons scattering. In this work, nano/amorphous structured coatings were deposited by IPS using the following spray parameters: spraying distance (210 ˜ 270 mm), plasma gas composition (Ar/N2), IPS torch power (24kW), and powder feed-rate (16g/min.). The structure and properties of the deposited layers were characterized through SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) observations. The thermal diffusivity (alpha) properties of the MBTBCs were measured using a laser flash method. Density (rho) and specific heat (Cp) of the MBTBCs were also measured, and their thermal conductivity (k) calculated (k =alpharhoCp). The thermal conductivity of MBTBCs was found to be as low as 1.99 W/m/K. The heat treatment study showed that crystal structure changes, and grain size growth from a few nanometers to tenth of nanometers occurred at 550°C under static exposure conditions. Thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) of MBTBCs was 13E-6/K, which is close to the TEC of cast iron and thus, closer to the TEC values of aluminium alloys than are conventional TBCs. Fracture toughness of MBTBCs has also been assessed by use of Vickers hardness tests, with a 500 g load for 15 s, and the results show that there are no measurable crack developments around "Indented" areas on all samples of MBTBCs tested.

  11. Corrosion protection by sonoelectrodeposited organic films on zinc coated steel.

    PubMed

    Et Taouil, Abdeslam; Mahmoud, Mahmoud Mourad; Lallemand, Fabrice; Lallemand, Séverine; Gigandet, Marie-Pierre; Hihn, Jean-Yves

    2012-11-01

    A variety of coatings based on electrosynthesized polypyrrole were deposited on zinc coated steel in presence or absence of ultrasound, and studied in terms of corrosion protection. Cr III and Cr VI commercial passivation were used as references. Depth profiling showed a homogeneous deposit for Cr III, while SEM imaging revealed good surface homogeneity for Cr VI layers. These chromium-based passivations ensured good protection against corrosion. Polypyrrole (PPy) was also electrochemically deposited on zinc coated steel with and without high frequency ultrasound irradiation in aqueous sodium tartrate-molybdate solution. Such PPy coatings act as a physical barrier against corrosive species. PPy electrosynthesized in silent conditions exhibits similar properties to Cr VI passivation with respect to corrosion protection. Ultrasound leads to more compact and more homogeneous surface structures for PPy, as well as to more homogeneous distribution of doping molybdate anions within the film. Far better corrosion protection is exhibited for such sonicated films. PMID:22516111

  12. Aluminium coated carbon nanotube film for wavelength-selective surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, S.; Suri, A.; Vani, V. K.; Misra, A.

    2013-09-01

    We report selective optical reflectance in an aluminium (Al) coated flexible carbon nanotube (CNT) thin film over a wide range of wavelengths (500-2500 nm). Selective-wavelength surface is achieved by coating CNT surfaces with Al thin film that presented a maximum optical reflectivity of ˜65% in the infrared region. However, CNT film alone showed a reflectance of 15-20% over a larger range of wavelengths without any structural modification, which has not been realized so far. Moreover, a tailorable reflectance in CNT is shown to be achieved by tuning various parameters, namely, the porosity of the material, angle of an incident light, and refractive index of the materials. Owing to higher infrared reflectivity and thermal diffusivity, Al coated CNT presents a potential for a high efficiency solar collector.

  13. Metallic glass thin films for potential biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Neelam; Sharma, Parmanand; Ahadian, Samad; Khademhosseini, Ali; Takahashi, Masaharu; Makino, Akihiro; Tanaka, Shuji; Esashi, Masayoshi

    2014-10-01

    We introduce metallic glass thin films (TiCuNi) as biocompatible materials for biomedical applications. TiCuNi metallic glass thin films were deposited on the Si substrate and their structural, surface, and mechanical properties were investigated. The fabricated films showed good biocompatibility upon exposure to muscle cells. Also, they exhibited an average roughness of <0.2 nm, high wear resistance, and high mechanical properties (hardness ?6.9 GPa and reduced modulus ?130 GPa). Top surface of the TiCuNi films was shown to be free from Ni and mainly composed of a thin titanium oxide layer, which resulted in the high surface biocompatibility. In particular, there was no cytotoxicity effect of metallic glass films on the C2C12 myoblasts and the cells were able to proliferate well on these substrates. Low cost, viscoelastic behavior, patternability, high electrical conductivity, and the capability to coat various materials (e.g., nonbiocompatible materials) make TiCuNi as an attractive material for biomedical applications. PMID:24610895

  14. AN EVALUATION OF A COATED REFRACTORY METAL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baranow

    1960-01-01

    Studies were made to determine the lifetime of Zn and Zn-4% Al coated Nb ; samples in the temperature range 1900 to 2300 deg F. It was found that the chief ; limitation to the use of Zn coated Nb is the ignition temperature of the coating ; which lies between 2000 and 2100 deg F. The presence of Al

  15. Metal films on the surfaces and within diamond crystals from Arkhangelskaya and Yakutian diamond provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makeev, A. B.; Kriulina, G. Yu.

    2012-12-01

    Representative samples of diamonds from five kimberlite pipes (Lomonosovskaya, Archangel'sk, Snegurochka, XXIII Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), and Internationalnaya) of the Arkhangelskaya and Yakutian diamond provinces in Russia have been studied. Thirty-three varieties of metal films have been identified as syngenetic associated minerals. The films consist of 15 chemical elements that occur in the form of native metals and their natural alloys. Remnants of metal films were detected within diamond crystals. The metal films coating diamonds are a worldwide phenomenon. To date, these films have been described from Europe, Asia, South America, and Africa. Native metals, their alloys, and intermetallides are actual companion minerals of diamond.

  16. Durable silver thin film coating for diffraction gratings

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, Jesse D. (Discovery Bay, CA); Britten, Jerald A. (Oakley, CA); Komashko, Aleksey M. (San Diego, CA)

    2006-05-30

    A durable silver film thin film coated non-planar optical element has been developed to replace Gold as a material for fabricating such devices. Such a coating and resultant optical element has an increased efficiency and is resistant to tarnishing, can be easily stripped and re-deposited without modifying underlying grating structure, improves the throughput and power loading of short pulse compressor designs for ultra-fast laser systems, and can be utilized in variety of optical and spectrophotometric systems, particularly high-end spectrometers that require maximized efficiency.

  17. Interactions Between Glass-Ceramic Coatings and Metals.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Feng

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. A study of glass-ceramic coatings on metal substrates was carried out on a lithium-silicate glass-ceramic coating on Ni/Cr/Co alloy and a lithium-aluminosilicate glass-ceramic coating on titanium metal. In the Ni/Cr/Co case, Cr from the substrate tends to diffuse into the coating very rapidly at the firing temperature which results in saturation of Cr^ {+++} ions in the glass coating. The second oxidation step proceeds more rapidly at the coating surface and LiCr(SiO_3)_2 crystals start to precipitate on the surface of the coating. Mismatch of thermal expansion coefficient between LiCr(SiO _3)_2 and the coating causes severe disruption. Some components in the coating, for instance P_2O_5, react with Cr to form Cr_{12}P _7. As a result consumption of the intended nucleating agent P_2O _5<=ads to a poorly crystallized structure affecting coating properties. In the titanium system, the major problem is the reactivity of titanium and silica, which gives Ti _5 Si_3 as an interfacial layer. The gaseous O_2 produced may disrupt the molten glass structure during firing. Other interactions such as Ti/P_2O _5 can also proceed to give other damaging effects. The coating on titanium after firing is usually very porous if these interactions are not prevented. Preoxidation of Ni/Cr/Co alloy created an adherent Cr_2O_3 layer on the alloy surface, and this layer is very stable in the coating glass. This layer prevented direct contact of alloy and coating at the firing temperature, minimizing interfacial reactions and leading to the desired coating structure. Preoxidation of titanium metal can create a barrier of TiO_2 between the coating and metal to hinder the formation of Ti_5Si _3. The poor bonding strength of this layer meant that it was ineffective in forming a transition layer between the metal and coating. Furthermore, the TiO_2 can be readily dissolved by the coating glass during firing. Addition of an adherence oxide, CoO, was successful in (1) producing TiO _2 in situ at the interfacial area and Co/Ti dendrites; (2) diverting and hence minimizing the damaging direct reaction between Ti and SiO_2. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  18. Patterning of polymer-supported metal films by microcutting

    PubMed

    Stutzmann; Tervoort; Bastiaansen; Smith

    2000-10-01

    The ability to micropattern materials is of great importance for manufacturing advanced electronic, optical and mechanical devices ranging from displays to biosensors. For this purpose a variety of methods have been developed, including X-ray, electron-beam and photo-lithography, microcontact printing, embossing, micromouldings and cold welding. But these techniques are often of restricted applicability, involve a multitude of elaborate and cumbersome processing steps, or require aggressive chemistry. Here we describe a simple and versatile way to create well resolved metallic structures on polymer substrates, which is based on solid-state embossing of metal-coated polymer films. Ductility of both the metal layer and the polymer substrate permits the metal to be cut into surprisingly regular, micrometre-size structures. We illustrate the method by preparing patterned electrically conducting structures, highly efficient infrared polarizers and polarization-dependent colour filters. PMID:11034206

  19. Selective electroless coating of palladium nanoparticles on metallic single-walled carbon nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yiyu; Lv, Peng; Zhang, Xuequan; Li, Yu; Feng, Wei

    2010-08-01

    The selective electroless coating of palladium (Pd) nanoparticles on metallic single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) was studied. The remarkable increase in conductivity of SWNT/Pd films up to fourfold higher than pure SWNT was due to p-type doping and Ohmic contact. Metallic behavior of SWNT/Pd-Field effect transistor (on/off ratio=1.2) was attributed to more hole carriers and no electrostatic barrier between nanotube and Pd. G-band and radial breathing mode in Raman indicates a definitive increase in the proportion of metallic SWNT. Results indicate Pd are selectively coated on metallic SWNT with more negative potential allowing for the electroless Pd2+ reduction.

  20. Cellular response to titanium discs coated with polyelectrolyte multilayer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Jing; Luo, Qiao-jie; Huang, Ying; Li, Xiao-dong

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) coatings on the biological behavior of titanium (Ti) substrates. Collagen type ?/hyaluronic acid (Col/HA) and chitosan/hyaluronic acid (Chi/HA) multilayer PEM coatings were introduced onto Ti substrates using layer-by-layer assembly. Contact angle instruments and quartz crystal microbalance were used for film characterization. The results obtained showed that both Col/HA and Chi/HA surfaces had high hydrophilicity and promoted cell adhesion in MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast and human gingival fibroblast cells. In addition, the synthesis of function-related proteins and gene expression levels in both MC3T3-E1 and fibroblast cells was higher for the Col/HA coating compared with the Chi/HA coating, indicating better cellular response to the Col/HA coating.

  1. Radiation Damage in Nanostructured Metallic Films

    E-print Network

    Yu, Kaiyuan

    2013-04-15

    with favorable microstructures and to investigate their response to radiation. The goals of this thesis are to study the radiation responses of several nanostructured metallic thin film systems, including Ag/Ni multilayers, nanotwinned Ag and nanocrystalline Fe...

  2. Precious-Metal Salt Coatings for Detecting Hydrazines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dee, Louis A.; Greene, Benjamin

    2004-01-01

    Substrates coated with a precious-metal salt KAuCl4 have been found to be useful for detecting hydrazine vapors in air at and above a concentration of the order of 0.01 parts per million (ppm). Upon exposure to air containing a sufficient amount of hydrazine for a sufficient time, the coating material undergoes a visible change in color.

  3. STRIP TEMPERATURE IN A METAL COATING LINE ANNEALING FURNACE

    E-print Network

    McGuinness, Mark

    STRIP TEMPERATURE IN A METAL COATING LINE ANNEALING FURNACE Mark McGuinness1 and Stephen Taylor2 We continuously through the furnace, to certain temperatures and then cooling it, resulting in a change prior to being coated, by heating to a predeter- mined temperature for a definite time. Annealing

  4. Ion beam sputter-deposited thin film coatings for protection of spacecraft polymers in low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B. A.; Mirtich, M. J.; Rutledge, S. K.; Swec, D. M.; Nahra, H. K.

    1985-01-01

    Ion beam sputter-deposited thin films of Al2O3, SiO2, and a codeposited mixture of predominantly SiO2 with small amounts of a fluoropolymer were evaluated both in laboratory plasma ashing tests and in space on board shuttle flight STS-8 for effectiveness in preventing oxidation of polyimide Kapton. Measurements of mass loss and optical performance of coated and uncoated polyimide samples exposed to the low Earth orbital environment are presented. Optical techniques were used to measure loss rates of protective films exposed to atomic oxygen. Results of the analysis of the space flight exposed samples indicate that thin film metal oxide coatings are very effective in protecting the polyimide. Metal oxide coatings with a small amount of fluoropolymer codeposited have the additional benefit of great flexibility.

  5. Ion beam sputter-deposited thin film coatings for protection of spacecraft polymers in low earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B. A.; Mirtich, M. J.; Rutledge, S. K.; Swec, D. M.; Nahra, H. K.

    1985-01-01

    Ion beam sputter-deposited thin films at Al2O3, SiO2, and a codeposited mixture of predominantly SiO2 with small amounts of fluoropolymer were evaluated both in laboratory plasma ashing tests and in space on board Shuttle flight STS-8 for effectiveness in preventing oxidation of polyimide Kapton. Measurements of mass loss and optical performance of coated and uncoated polyimide samples exposed to the low earth orbital environment are presented. Optical techniques were used to measure loss rates of protective films exposed to atomic oxygen. Results of the analysis of the space flight exposed samples indicate that thin film metal oxide coatings are very effective in protecting the polyimide. Metal oxide coatings with a small amount of fluoropolymer codeposited have the additional benefit of great flexibility.

  6. Film coatings for oral pulsatile release.

    PubMed

    Maroni, Alessandra; Zema, Lucia; Loreti, Giulia; Palugan, Luca; Gazzaniga, Andrea

    2013-12-01

    Pulsatile delivery is generally intended as a release of the active ingredient that is delayed for a programmable period of time to meet particular chronotherapeutic needs and, in the case of oral administration, also target distal intestinal regions, such as the colon. Most oral pulsatile delivery platforms consist in coated formulations wherein the applied polymer serves as the release-controlling agent. When exposed to aqueous media, the coating initially performs as a protective barrier and, subsequently, undergoes a timely failure based on diverse mechanisms depending on its physico-chemical and formulation characteristics. Indeed, it may be ruptured because of the gradual expansion of the core, swell and/or erode due to the glassy-rubbery polymer transition or become permeable thus allowing the drug molecules to diffuse outwards. Otherwise, when the coating is a semipermeable membrane provided with one or more orifices, the drug is released through the latter as a result of an osmotic water influx. The vast majority of pulsatile delivery systems described so far have been prepared by spray-coating, which offers important versatility and feasibility advantages over other techniques such as press- and dip-coating. In the present article, the design, manufacturing and performance of spray-coated pulsatile delivery platforms is thus reviewed. PMID:23506956

  7. Simple push coating of polymer thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Ikawa, Mitsuhiro; Yamada, Toshikazu; Matsui, Hiroyuki; Minemawari, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Jun'ya; Horii, Yoshinori; Chikamatsu, Masayuki; Azumi, Reiko; Kumai, Reiji; Hasegawa, Tatsuo

    2012-01-01

    Solution processibility is a unique advantage of organic semiconductors, permitting the low-cost production of flexible electronics under ambient conditions. However, the solution affinity to substrate surfaces remains a serious dilemma; liquid manipulation is more difficult on highly hydrophobic surfaces, but the use of such surfaces is indispensable for improving device characteristics. Here we demonstrate a simple technique, which we call 'push coating', to produce uniform large-area semiconducting polymer films over a hydrophobic surface with eliminating material loss. We utilize a poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based trilayer stamp whose conformal contact with the substrate enables capillarity-induced wetting of the surface. Films are formed through solvent sorption and retention in the stamp, allowing the stamp to be peeled perfectly from the film. The planar film formation on hydrophobic surfaces also enables subsequent fine film patterning. The technique improves the crystallinity and field-effect mobility of stamped semiconductor films, constituting a major step towards flexible electronics production. PMID:23132026

  8. Application of terahertz pulsed imaging to analyse film coating characteristics of sustained-release coated pellets.

    PubMed

    Haaser, M; Karrout, Y; Velghe, C; Cuppok, Y; Gordon, K C; Pepper, M; Siepmann, J; Rades, T; Taday, P F; Strachan, C J

    2013-12-01

    Terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) was employed to explore its suitability for detecting differences in the film coating thickness and drug layer uniformity of multilayered, sustained-release coated, standard size pellets (approximately 1mm in diameter). Pellets consisting of a sugar starter core and a metoprolol succinate layer were coated with a Kollicoat(®) SR:Kollicoat(®) IR polymer blend for different times giving three groups of pellets (batches I, II and III), each with a different coating thickness according to weight gain. Ten pellets from each batch were mapped individually to evaluate the coating thickness and drug layer thickness between batches, between pellets within each batch, and across individual pellets (uniformity). From the terahertz waveform the terahertz electric field peak strength (TEFPS) was used to define a circular area (approximately 0.13 mm(2)) in the TPI maps, where no signal distortion was found due to pellet curvature in the measurement set-up used. The average coating thicknesses were 46 ?m, 71 ?m and 114 ?m, for batches I, II and III respectively, whilst no drug layer thickness difference between batches was observed. No statistically significant differences in the average coating thickness and drug layer thickness within batches (between pellets) but high thickness variability across individual pellets was observed. These results were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The coating thickness results correlated with the subsequent drug release behaviour. The fastest drug release was obtained from batch I with the lowest coating thickness and the slowest from batch III with the highest coating thickness. In conclusion, TPI is suitable for detailed, non-destructive evaluation of film coating and drug layer thicknesses in multilayered standard size pellets. PMID:23721891

  9. Metal current collect protected by oxide film

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Craig P. (Lafayette, CA); Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); DeJonghe, Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA)

    2004-05-25

    Provided are low-cost, mechanically strong, highly electronically conductive current collects and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, techniques for forming these structures, and devices incorporating the structures. The invention provides solid state electrochemical devices having as current interconnects a ferritic steel felt or screen coated with a protective oxide film.

  10. Surface Plasmons in Thin Metallic Films

    E-print Network

    A. V. Latyshev; A. A. Yushkanov

    2010-10-11

    For the first time it is shown that for thin metallic films thickness of which not exceed thickness of skin -- layer, the problem of description of surface plasma oscillations allows analytical solution by arbitrary ratio between length of electrons free path and thickness of a film. The dependance of frequency surface plasma oscillations on wave number is carry out.

  11. Method for improving the oxidation-resistance of metal substrates coated with thermal barrier coatings

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Anthony Mark (Niskayuna, NY); Gray, Dennis Michael (Delanson, NY); Jackson, Melvin Robert (Niskayuna, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A method for providing a protective coating on a metal-based substrate is disclosed. The method involves the application of an aluminum-rich mixture to the substrate to form a discontinuous layer of aluminum-rich particles, followed by the application of a second coating over the discontinuous layer of aluminum-rich particles. Aluminum diffuses from the aluminum-rich layer into the substrate, and into any bond coat layer which is subsequently applied. Related articles are also described.

  12. 21 CFR 175.360 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for nylon film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for nylon film. 175.360 Section 175.360 Food...Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for nylon film. Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings...identified in this section and applied on nylon film may be safely used as food-contact...

  13. 21 CFR 175.365 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for polycarbonate film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...chloride copolymer coatings for polycarbonate film. 175.365 Section 175.365 Food...chloride copolymer coatings for polycarbonate film. Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings...this section and applied on polycarbonate film may be safely used as food-contact...

  14. 21 CFR 175.365 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for polycarbonate film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...chloride copolymer coatings for polycarbonate film. 175.365 Section 175.365 Food...chloride copolymer coatings for polycarbonate film. Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings...this section and applied on polycarbonate film may be safely used as food-contact...

  15. 21 CFR 175.360 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for nylon film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for nylon film. 175.360 Section 175.360 Food...Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for nylon film. Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings...identified in this section and applied on nylon film may be safely used as food-contact...

  16. 21 CFR 175.360 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for nylon film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for nylon film. 175.360 Section 175.360 Food...Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for nylon film. Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings...identified in this section and applied on nylon film may be safely used as food-contact...

  17. 21 CFR 175.360 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for nylon film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for nylon film. 175.360 Section 175.360 Food...Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for nylon film. Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings...identified in this section and applied on nylon film may be safely used as food-contact...

  18. 21 CFR 175.360 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for nylon film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for nylon film. 175.360 Section 175.360 Food...Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for nylon film. Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings...identified in this section and applied on nylon film may be safely used as food-contact...

  19. 21 CFR 175.365 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for polycarbonate film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...chloride copolymer coatings for polycarbonate film. 175.365 Section 175.365 Food...chloride copolymer coatings for polycarbonate film. Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings...this section and applied on polycarbonate film may be safely used as food-contact...

  20. 21 CFR 175.365 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for polycarbonate film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...chloride copolymer coatings for polycarbonate film. 175.365 Section 175.365 Food...chloride copolymer coatings for polycarbonate film. Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings...this section and applied on polycarbonate film may be safely used as food-contact...

  1. 21 CFR 175.365 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for polycarbonate film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...chloride copolymer coatings for polycarbonate film. 175.365 Section 175.365 Food...chloride copolymer coatings for polycarbonate film. Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings...this section and applied on polycarbonate film may be safely used as food-contact...

  2. Protective lithium ion conducting ceramic coating for lithium metal anodes and associate method

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A battery structure including a cathode, a lithium metal anode and an electrolyte disposed between the lithium anode and the cathode utilizes a thin-film layer of lithium phosphorus oxynitride overlying so as to coat the lithium anode and thereby separate the lithium anode from the electrolyte. If desired, a preliminary layer of lithium nitride may be coated upon the lithium anode before the lithium phosphorous oxynitride is, in turn, coated upon the lithium anode so that the separation of the anode and the electrolyte is further enhanced. By coating the lithium anode with this material lay-up, the life of the battery is lengthened and the performance of the battery is enhanced.

  3. Soap-film coating: High-speed deposition of multilayer nanofilms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Renyun; Andersson, Henrik A.; Andersson, Mattias; Andres, Britta; Edlund, Håkan; Edström, Per; Edvardsson, Sverker; Forsberg, Sven; Hummelgård, Magnus; Johansson, Niklas; Karlsson, Kristoffer; Nilsson, Hans-Erik; Norgren, Magnus; Olsen, Martin; Uesaka, Tetsu; Öhlund, Thomas; Olin, Håkan

    2013-01-01

    The coating of thin films is applied in numerous fields and many methods are employed for the deposition of these films. Some coating techniques may deposit films at high speed; for example, ordinary printing paper is coated with micrometre-thick layers of clay at a speed of tens of meters per second. However, to coat nanometre thin films at high speed, vacuum techniques are typically required, which increases the complexity of the process. Here, we report a simple wet chemical method for the high-speed coating of films with thicknesses at the nanometre level. This soap-film coating technique is based on forcing a substrate through a soap film that contains nanomaterials. Molecules and nanomaterials can be deposited at a thickness ranging from less than a monolayer to several layers at speeds up to meters per second. We believe that the soap-film coating method is potentially important for industrial-scale nanotechnology. PMID:23503102

  4. Design of high-sensitivity metal-coated LPFG sensor based on material dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yan-jun; Gu, Zheng-tian

    2012-07-01

    A high-sensitivity metal-coated long-period fiber grating (LPFG) sensor based on material dispersion is designed. Based on the coupled mode theory, the influence of the material dispersion on the dual-peak characteristics of the metal-coated LPFG is studied. After considering the material dispersion, the jumping region of the dual-resonant-wavelength shifts toward the thinner film thickness, and the sensitivity of the dual-peak metal-coated LPFG sensor to liquid refractive index (RI) can be obtained to supply accurate parameter combinations. Experimentally, two kinds of silver-coated LPFGs with different film thicknesses and grating periods are fabricated to monitor the salt solution, and the sensitivities of these two sensors are compared. The experimental results are consistent with the theoretical analyses. This work has been supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.60777035), the Scientific Research Key Project Fund (No. 208040), the Innovation Program of Shanghai Municipal Education Commission (No.11ZZ131), and the Shanghai Leading Academic Discipline Project (No.S30502).

  5. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    DOEpatents

    Mickelsen, R.A.; Chen, W.S.

    1985-06-11

    Disclosed is a thin film heterojunction solar cell, said heterojunction comprising a p-type I-III-IV[sub 2] chalcopyrite substrate and an overlying layer of an n-type ternary mixed metal compound wherein said ternary mixed metal compound is applied to said substrate by introducing the vapor of a first metal compound to a vessel containing said substrate from a first vapor source while simultaneously introducing a vapor of a second metal compound from a second vapor source of said vessel, said first and second metals comprising the metal components of said mixed metal compound; independently controlling the vaporization rate of said first and second vapor sources; reducing the mean free path between vapor particles in said vessel, said gas being present in an amount sufficient to induce homogeneity of said vapor mixture; and depositing said mixed metal compound on said substrate in the form of a uniform composition polycrystalline mixed metal compound. 5 figs.

  6. Testing internal coatings in metal vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruby, A.; Perkins, P.

    1978-01-01

    Presence of pinholes or defects in nonconductive protective coating on inside surface of closed vessel is detected if vessel has one opening into which small stainless-steel probe can be introduced. By inserting probe and attaching another to outside surface, and by filling vessel with ten percent sodium chloride solution, integrity of coating is determined by measuring electrical conductivity through vessel wall.

  7. Coatings Preserve Metal, Stone, Tile, and Concrete

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    John B. Schutt, a chemist at Goddard Space Flight Center, created a coating for spacecraft that could resist corrosion and withstand high heat. After retiring from NASA, Schutt used his expertise to create new formulations for Daytona Beach, Florida-based Adsil Corporation, which now manufactures a family of coatings to preserve various surfaces. Adsil has created 150 jobs due to the products.

  8. Theoretical study of dielectrically coated metallic nanowires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josep M Oliva; Stephen K Gray

    2003-01-01

    The interaction of light with nanometer scale diameter single and multiple silver nanowires, coated externally with a dielectric material, is studied with the finite-difference time-domain method. As would be expected, the surface plasmon polariton resonance positions for the single nanowires shift to the red as the thickness of the coating is increased. In the case of multiple nanowires, however, we

  9. A near-infrared reflectance analysis method for the noninvasive identification of film-coated and non-film-coated, blister-packed tablets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melissa A. Dempster; Brian F. MacDonald; Paul J. Gemperline; Nichole R. Boyer

    1995-01-01

    A non-invasive near-infrared reflectance analysis (NIRA) method has been developed to confirm the identity of blister-packed, film-coated and non film-coated tablets for clinical trial supplies. NIR spectra of the tablets were measured through the blister pack plastic using a fiber optic probe. The blister packs contained 18 cells which held pink, pentagonal tablets or film-coated, white, oblong tablets. The pink

  10. Magnetoelastic sensor for characterizing properties of thin-film/coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachas, Leonidas G. (Inventor); Barrett, Gary (Inventor); Grimes, Craig A. (Inventor); Kouzoudis, Dimitris (Inventor); Schmidt, Stefan (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An apparatus for determining elasticity characteristics of a thin-film layer. The apparatus comprises a sensor element having a base magnetostrictive element at least one surface of which is at least partially coated with the thin-film layer. The thin-film layer may be of a variety of materials (having a synthetic and/or bio-component) in a state or form capable of being deposited, manually or otherwise, on the base element surface, such as by way of eye-dropper, melting, dripping, brushing, sputtering, spraying, etching, evaporation, dip-coating, laminating, etc. Among suitable thin-film layers for the sensor element of the invention are fluent bio-substances, thin-film deposits used in manufacturing processes, polymeric coatings, paint, an adhesive, and so on. A receiver, preferably remotely located, is used to measure a plurality of values for magneto-elastic emission intensity of the sensor element in either characterization: (a) the measure of the plurality of values is used to identify a magneto-elastic resonant frequency value for the sensor element; and (b) the measure of the plurality of successive values is done at a preselected magneto-elastic frequency.

  11. Low Temperature Growth of Nanostructured Diamond Films on Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Paul A.; Catledge, Shane A.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2001-01-01

    The field of nanocrystalline diamond and tetrahedral amorphous carbon films has been the focus of intense experimental activity in the last few years for applications in field emission display devices, optical windows, and tribological coatings, The choice of substrate used in most studies has typically been silicon. For metals, however, the thermal expansion mismatch between the diamond film and substrate gives rise to thermal stress that often results in delamination of the film. To avoid this problem in conventional CVD deposition low substrate temperatures (less than 700 C) have been used, often with the incorporation of oxygen or carbon monoxide to the feedgas mixture. Conventionally grown CVD diamond films are also rough and would require post-deposition polishing for most applications. Therefore, there is an obvious need to develop techniques for deposition of well-adhered, smooth nano-structured diamond films on metals for various tribological applications. In our work, nanostructured diamond films are grown on a titanium alloy substrate using a two-step deposition process. The first step is performed at elevated temperature (820 C) for 30 minutes using a H2/CH4/N2 gas mixture in order to grow a thin (approx. 600 nm) nanostructured diamond layer and improve film adhesion. The remainder of the deposition involves growth at low temperature (less than 600 C) in a H2/CH4/O2 gas mixture. Laser reflectance Interferometry (LRI) pattern during growth of a nanostructured diamond film on Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The first 30 minutes are at a high temperature of 820 C and the rest of the film is grown at a low temperature of 580 T. The fringe pattern is observed till the very end due to extremely low surface roughness of 40 nm. The continuation of the smooth nanostructured diamond film growth during low temperature deposition is confirmed by in-situ laser reflectance interferometry and by post-deposition micro-Raman spectroscopy and surface profilometry. Similar experiments performed without the starting nanostructured diamond layer resulted in poorly adhered films with a more crystalline appearance and a higher surface roughness. This low temperature deposition of nanostructured diamond films on metals offers advantages in cases where high residual thermal stress leads to delamination at high temperatures.

  12. Antifungal coating by biofunctionalized polyelectrolyte multilayered films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Etienne; Claire Gasnier; Corinne Taddei; Jean-Claude Voegel; Dominique Aunis; Pierre Schaaf; Marie-Helène Metz-Boutigue; Anne-Laure Bolcato-Bellemin; Christophe Egles

    2005-01-01

    The surface of medical devices is a common site of bacterial and fungal adhesion, first step to the constitution of a resistant biofilm leading frequently to chronic infections. In order to prevent such complications, several physical and chemical modifications of the device surface have been proposed. Here, we experiment a new type of topical antifungal coating using the layer-by-layer technique.

  13. 40 CFR 52.253 - Metal surface coating thinner and reducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Metal surface coating thinner and reducer...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.253 Metal surface coating thinner and reducer... (iii) This section is rescinded for metal parts and products coaters which...

  14. 40 CFR 52.253 - Metal surface coating thinner and reducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Metal surface coating thinner and reducer...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.253 Metal surface coating thinner and reducer... (iii) This section is rescinded for metal parts and products coaters which...

  15. 40 CFR 52.253 - Metal surface coating thinner and reducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Metal surface coating thinner and reducer...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.253 Metal surface coating thinner and reducer... (iii) This section is rescinded for metal parts and products coaters which...

  16. 40 CFR 52.253 - Metal surface coating thinner and reducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Metal surface coating thinner and reducer...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.253 Metal surface coating thinner and reducer... (iii) This section is rescinded for metal parts and products coaters which...

  17. 21 CFR 888.3565 - Knee joint patellofemorotibial metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...patellofemorotibial metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented...identification includes fixed-bearing knee prostheses where the ultra...weight polyethylene tibial bearing is rigidly secured to the metal...Femorotibial Metal/Polymer Porous-Coated Uncemented...

  18. 21 CFR 888.3565 - Knee joint patellofemorotibial metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...patellofemorotibial metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented...identification includes fixed-bearing knee prostheses where the ultra...weight polyethylene tibial bearing is rigidly secured to the metal...Femorotibial Metal/Polymer Porous-Coated Uncemented...

  19. 21 CFR 888.3565 - Knee joint patellofemorotibial metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...patellofemorotibial metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented...identification includes fixed-bearing knee prostheses where the ultra...weight polyethylene tibial bearing is rigidly secured to the metal...Femorotibial Metal/Polymer Porous-Coated Uncemented...

  20. 21 CFR 888.3565 - Knee joint patellofemorotibial metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...patellofemorotibial metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented...identification includes fixed-bearing knee prostheses where the ultra...weight polyethylene tibial bearing is rigidly secured to the metal...Femorotibial Metal/Polymer Porous-Coated Uncemented...

  1. 21 CFR 888.3565 - Knee joint patellofemorotibial metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...patellofemorotibial metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented...identification includes fixed-bearing knee prostheses where the ultra...weight polyethylene tibial bearing is rigidly secured to the metal...Femorotibial Metal/Polymer Porous-Coated Uncemented...

  2. Multilayer thin film coatings for reduced infrared loss in hollow glass waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bledt, Carlos M.; Kopp, Daniel V.; Harrington, James A.; Kriesel, Jason M.

    2011-09-01

    Hollow glass waveguides (HGWs) are an attractive alternative to traditional solid-core and 2D photonic crystal, infrared transmissive fibers. Applications for HGWs at wavelengths longer than 2 microns include use of the guides for the delivery of laser power and for use as chemical and thermal sensors. To date, the most common HGW is one with an inner coating of Ag followed by a single-dielectric layer of AgI. These single-layer dielectric coated HGWs have losses for a 700-micron bore guide as low as 0.2 dB/m at 10.6 microns. However, if a multilayer stack of alternating high/low index thin films is deposited instead of a single dielectric layer then the loss can be reduced substantially. In the present study, multilayer dielectric thin films have been deposited inside silica tubing using a liquid-phase deposition method. High index coating materials used include metal sulfides such as PbS while the low index materials include polystyrene (PS) and some sulfides. To date it has been possible to deposit two-layer coatings using, for example, CdS and PS but a lower loss is possible if the coating stack is composed of three dielectric layers. In past work CdS/PbS/CdS coatings were deposited and found to have a measured a loss at ? = 10.6 microns that is approximately two times lower than that for a single dielectric layer. In this paper the theory of multilayer coatings will be presented along with the optical loss measurements from ? = 2 to 12 microns for the multilayer dielectric coatings.

  3. Graphene film growth on polycrystalline metals.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Rebecca S; Coleman, Karl S

    2013-01-15

    Graphene, a true wonder material, is the newest member of the nanocarbon family. The continuous network of hexagonally arranged carbon atoms gives rise to exceptional electronic, mechanical, and thermal properties, which could result in the application of graphene in next generation electronic components, energy-storage materials such as capacitors and batteries, polymer nanocomposites, transparent conducting electrodes, and mechanical resonators. With one particularly attractive application, optically transparent conducting electrodes or films, graphene has the potential to rival indium tin oxide (ITO) and become a material for producing next generation displays, solar cells, and sensors. Typically, graphene has been produced from graphite using a variety of methods, but these techniques are not suitable for growing large-area graphene films. Therefore researchers have focused much effort on the development of methodology to grow graphene films across extended surfaces. This Account describes current progress in the formation and control of graphene films on polycrystalline metal surfaces. Researchers can grow graphene films on a variety of polycrystalline metal substrates using a range of experimental conditions. In particular, group 8 metals (iron and ruthenium), group 9 metals (cobalt, rhodium, and iridium), group 10 metals (nickel and platinum), and group 11 metals (copper and gold) can support the growth of these films. Stainless steel and other commercial copper-nickel alloys can also serve as substrates for graphene film growth. The use of copper and nickel currently predominates, and these metals produce large-area films that have been efficiently transferred and tested in many electronic devices. Researchers have grown graphene sheets more than 30 in. wide and transferred them onto display plastic ready for incorporation into next generation displays. The further development of graphene films in commercial applications will require high-quality, reproducible growth at ambient pressure and low temperature from cheap, readily available carbon sources. The growth of graphene on metal surfaces has drawbacks: researchers must transfer the graphene from the metal substrate or remove the metal by etching. Further research is needed to overcome these transfer and removal challenges. PMID:22891883

  4. On the manufacture of very thin elastomeric films by spin-coating

    E-print Network

    Krishnan, Sriram, 1978 May-

    2007-01-01

    I present a process for manufacturing poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films of thicknesses down to 50 microns. PDMS films are currently fabricated by spin-coating the polymer on a wafer and then manually peeling the film after ...

  5. Molecular insights into shellac film coats from different aqueous shellac salt solutions and effect on disintegration of enteric-coated soft gelatin capsules.

    PubMed

    Al-Gousous, J; Penning, M; Langguth, P

    2015-04-30

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the effect of using different salts of shellac on the disintegration properties of shellac-based enteric coatings. In the last two decades, shellac has been increasingly used as an aqueous solution for enteric coating purposes, with the ammonium salt being the form typically used. Little investigation has been performed on using other salts, and therefore, this was the focus of our work. Enteric coatings, based on different shellac salts (ammonium, sodium, potassium and composite ammonium-sodium), were applied onto soft gelatin capsules. Disintegration testing of the coated soft gelatin capsules showed that alkali metal salts promote faster disintegration than ammonium salts. In order to determine the causes behind these differences, the solubility, thermal and spectroscopic properties of films cast from the different salts were investigated. The results show that films cast from ammonium-based salts of shellac are, unlike those cast from alkali metal-based salts, water-insoluble. Spectroscopic evidence suggests that this might be due to partial salt dissociation resulting in loss of ammonium as ammonia and reduced degree of shellac ionization during drying. In addition, oxidation of shellac aldehyde groups of the ammonium-based shellac salts could also play a role. And possible higher extent of shellac hydrolysis during the preparation of alkali metal salts might also be a factor. Therefore, the nature of the shellac salt used in the preparation of shellac-based aqueous coating solutions is a significant formulation factor affecting product performance. PMID:25578368

  6. Hydrous silica coatings: occurrence, speciation of metals, and environmental significance.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Michael; Durocher, Jennifer L; Abdu, Yassir; Hawthorne, Frank C

    2009-12-01

    Si-enriched coatings form on the surface of silicate minerals under acidic conditions. Although they are often only a few nanometers thick, their large specific surface area may control the interaction between silicate minerals in acidic soils, aquifers, and mine tailings. Micrometer thick, hydrous-silica coatings occur on the surface of a granite outcrop in contact with acidic pond water at the Coppercliff mine-tailings area in the Greater City of Sudbury, Ontario, and are ideal to study the concentration and speciation of metals and metalloids inside Si-enriched coatings. These coatings have higher average concentrations of Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb than coatings composed of schwertmannite, Fe(8)O(8)(OH)(4.4)(SO(4))(1.8) (H(2)O)(8.4). Microscopic and spectroscopic examination of the hydrous-silica coating indicates the occurrence of Fe- and Cu-Zn-oxy-hydroxide particles, tetrahedrally coordinated Fe(3+) and a high proportion of M-O-Si bonds (M = metal). These observations suggest that metals occur either finely distributed in the hydrous-silica matrix or in oxy-hydroxide particles. The latter particles are products of the diffusion of metals into the hydrous silica and the subsequent nucleation of oxy-hydroxide phases. PMID:19943645

  7. Stability of aqueous polymeric controlled release film coatings.

    PubMed

    Siepmann, J; Siepmann, F

    2013-12-01

    Aqueous polymeric film coatings provide a great potential to accurately control the release rate of a drug from a pharmaceutical dosage form, while avoiding the various disadvantages associated with the use of organic solvents. However, long term instability of drug release, due to imperfect film formation during coating and curing, can be a serious concern. If the coalescence of the particles continues during storage, the film permeability can decrease, slowing down drug release. Different strategies can be used to effectively avoid this phenomenon, including optimized curing conditions, the addition of appropriate additives and the use of specific packaging materials. This article gives an overview on the current state of the art in this field. Various practical examples are described, covering different types of polymer coatings and drugs. The aims are: (i) to provide a better understanding of the release patterns and potential changes thereof, and (ii) to help identifying strategies allowing for improved long term stability for specific types of polymer coatings. PMID:24126037

  8. Hard coatings on soft metallic substrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Navinšek; P. Panjan; J. Kruši?

    1998-01-01

    The application of PVD CrN coatings onto soft, electropolished nickel moulds and PVD TiN, CrN and double-coating (TiN + CrN) onto copper welding contact tips is reported. Both studies and tests were made in practical conditions, i.e. in industrial manufacturing. The first case study was on protection of the surface of a precision mould with a complicated shape and used

  9. Skylab D024 thermal control coatings and polymeric films experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehn, William L.; Hurley, Charles J.

    1992-01-01

    The Skylab D024 Thermal Control Coatings and Polymeric Films Experiment was designed to determine the effects of the external Skylab space environment on the performance and properties of a wide variety of selected thermal control coatings and polymeric films. Three duplicate sets of thermal control coatings and polymeric films were exposed to the Skylab space environment for varying periods of time during the mission. The specimens were retrieved by the astronauts during extravehicular activities (EVA) and placed in hermetically sealed return containers, recovered, and returned to the Wright Laboratory/Materials Laboratory/WPAFB, Ohio for analysis and evaluation. Postflight analysis of the three sets of recovered thermal control coatings indicated that measured changes in specimen thermo-optical properties were due to a combination of excessive contamination and solar degradation of the contaminant layer. The degree of degradation experienced over-rode, obscured, and compromised the measurement of the degradation of the substrate coatings themselves. Results of the analysis of the effects of exposure on the polymeric films and the contamination observed are also presented. The D024 results were used in the design of the LDEF M0003-5 Thermal Control Materials Experiment. The results are presented here to call to the attention of the many other LDEF experimenters the wealth of directly related, low earth orbit, space environmental exposure data that is available from the ten or more separate experiments that were conducted during the Skylab mission. Results of these experiments offer data on the results of low altitude space exposure on materials recovered from space with exposure longer than typical STS experiments for comparison with the LDEF results.

  10. Coatings and films derived from clay/wax nanocomposites

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, David J.; Leyva, Argentina A.

    2006-11-14

    The invention provides methods for making clay/wax nanocomposites and coatings and films of same with improved chemical resistance and gas barrier properties. The invention further provides methods for making and using emulsions of such clay/wax nanocomposites. Typically, an organophillic clay is combined with a wax or wax/polymer blend such that the cohesion energy of the clay matches that of the wax or wax/polymer blend. Suitable organophilic clays include mica and phyllosilicates that have been surface-treated with edge or edge and surface modifying agents. The resulting nanocomposites have applications as industrial coatings and in protective packaging.

  11. Corrosion-resistant amorphous metallic films of Mo49Cr33B18 alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, R.; Distefano, S.; Fitzgerald, D.; Thakoor, A. P.; Khanna, S. K.

    1987-01-01

    Corrosion-resistant amorphous metallic alloy films of Mo49Cr33B18 with a crystallization temperature of 590 C were deposited onto glass and quartz substrates by magnetron sputter-quench technique. The amorphous nature of the films was confirmed by their diffuse X-ray diffraction patterns. The deposited films are densely packed (zone T) and exhibit low stress and good adhesion to the substrate. Corrosion current of as-deposited coating of MoCrB amorphous metallic alloy is approximately three orders of magnitude less than the corrosion current of 304 stainless steel in 1N H2SO4 solution.

  12. Magnetic metal nanoparticles coated polyacrylonitrile textiles as microwave absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akman, O.; Kavas, H.; Baykal, A.; Toprak, M. S.; Çoruh, Ali; Akta?, B.

    2013-02-01

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) textiles with 2 mm thickness are coated with magnetic nanoparticles in coating baths with Ni, Co and their alloys via an electroless metal deposition method. The crystal structure, morphology and magnetic nature of composites are investigated by X-ray Powder diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and dc magnetization measurement techniques. The frequency dependent microwave absorption measurements have been carried out in the frequency range of 12.4-18 GHz (X and P bands). Diamagnetic and ferromagnetic properties are also investigated. Finally, the microwave absorption of composites is found strongly dependent on the coating time. One absorption peak is observed between 14.3 and 15.8 GHz with an efficient absorption bandwidth of 3.3-4.1 GHz (under -20 dB reflection loss limit). The Reflection loss (RL) can be achieved between -30 and -50 dB. It was found that the RL is decreasing and absorption bandwidth is decreasing with increasing coating time. While absorption peak moves to lower frequencies in Ni coated PAN textile, it goes higher frequencies in Co coated ones. The Ni-Co alloy coated composites have fluctuating curve of absorption frequency with respect to coating time. These results encourage further development of magnetic nanoparticle coated textile absorbers for broadband applications.

  13. Metal-doped magnetite thin films.

    PubMed

    Abe, Seishi; Ping, De Hai; Nakamura, Shintaro; Ohnuma, Masato; Ohnuma, Shigehiro

    2012-06-01

    This paper investigates magnetite (Fe3O4) thin film containing a small amount of a metal element. The films are prepared by rf sputtering with a composite target of ceramic iron oxide with metal chips. Low-temperature magnetization of magnetite containing 5.3%Ge reveals that the film contains some magnetically weak coupling grains. The metal element Mg reduces both hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) and magnetite, resulting in single-phase wüstite (Fe1-xO). In contrast, adding Ge selectively reduces hematite, while magnetite remains unreactive. According to the free energy of reaction, the element Ge is able to reduce hematite only, whereas the element Mg is capable of reducing both hematite and magnetite. This property is in good agreement with the experiment results. PMID:22905582

  14. Metallic and Ceramic Thin Film Thermocouples for Gas Turbine Engines

    PubMed Central

    Tougas, Ian M.; Amani, Matin; Gregory, Otto J.

    2013-01-01

    Temperatures of hot section components in today's gas turbine engines reach as high as 1,500 °C, making in situ monitoring of the severe temperature gradients within the engine rather difficult. Therefore, there is a need to develop instrumentation (i.e., thermocouples and strain gauges) for these turbine engines that can survive these harsh environments. Refractory metal and ceramic thin film thermocouples are well suited for this task since they have excellent chemical and electrical stability at high temperatures in oxidizing atmospheres, they are compatible with thermal barrier coatings commonly employed in today's engines, they have greater sensitivity than conventional wire thermocouples, and they are non-invasive to combustion aerodynamics in the engine. Thin film thermocouples based on platinum:palladium and indium oxynitride:indium tin oxynitride as well as their oxide counterparts have been developed for this purpose and have proven to be more stable than conventional type-S and type-K thin film thermocouples. The metallic and ceramic thin film thermocouples described within this paper exhibited remarkable stability and drift rates similar to bulk (wire) thermocouples. PMID:24217356

  15. Metallic and ceramic thin film thermocouples for gas turbine engines.

    PubMed

    Tougas, Ian M; Amani, Matin; Gregory, Otto J

    2013-01-01

    Temperatures of hot section components in today's gas turbine engines reach as high as 1,500 °C, making in situ monitoring of the severe temperature gradients within the engine rather difficult. Therefore, there is a need to develop instrumentation (i.e., thermocouples and strain gauges) for these turbine engines that can survive these harsh environments. Refractory metal and ceramic thin film thermocouples are well suited for this task since they have excellent chemical and electrical stability at high temperatures in oxidizing atmospheres, they are compatible with thermal barrier coatings commonly employed in today's engines, they have greater sensitivity than conventional wire thermocouples, and they are non-invasive to combustion aerodynamics in the engine. Thin film thermocouples based on platinum:palladium and indium oxynitride:indium tin oxynitride as well as their oxide counterparts have been developed for this purpose and have proven to be more stable than conventional type-S and type-K thin film thermocouples. The metallic and ceramic thin film thermocouples described within this paper exhibited remarkable stability and drift rates similar to bulk (wire) thermocouples. PMID:24217356

  16. Measurements and Diagnostics of Diamond Films and Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Wu, Richard L. C.

    1999-01-01

    The commercial potential of chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) diamond films has been established and a number of applications have been identified through university, industry, and government research studies. This paper discusses the methodologies used for property measurement and diagnostic of CVD diamond films and coatings. Measurement and diagnostic techniques studied include scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, stylus profilometry, x-ray diffraction, electron diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering, elastic recoil spectroscopy, and friction examination. Each measurement and diagnostic technique provides unique information. A combination of techniques can provide the technical information required to understand the quality and properties of CVD diamond films, which are important to their application in specific component systems and environments. In this study the combination of measurement and diagnostic techniques was successfully applied to correlate deposition parameters and resultant diamond film composition, crystallinity, grain size, surface roughness, and coefficient of friction.

  17. Chitosan based edible films and coatings: a review.

    PubMed

    Elsabee, Maher Z; Abdou, Entsar S

    2013-05-01

    Chitosan is a biodegradable biocompatible polymer derived from natural renewable resources with numerous applications in various fields, and one of which is the area of edible films and coatings. Chitosan has antibacterial and antifungal properties which qualify it for food protection, however, its weak mechanical properties, gas and water vapor permeability limit its uses. This review discusses the application of chitosan and its blends with other natural polymers such as starch and other ingredients for example essential oils, and clay in the field of edible films for food protection. The mechanical behavior and the gas and water vapor permeability of the films are also discussed. References dealing with the antimicrobial behavior of these films and their impact on food protection are explored. PMID:23498203

  18. Nanoindentation of functionally graded hybrid polymer/metal thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, J.; Piedade, A. P.

    2013-11-01

    Hybrid functionally graded coatings (2D-FGC) were deposited by magnetron co-sputtering from poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) and AISI 316L stainless steel (316L) targets. The carbon and fluorine content varied from 7.3 to 23.7 at.% and from 0 to 57 at.%, respectively. The surface modification was developed to change the surface of 316L vascular stents in order to improve the biocompatibility of the outmost layer of the metallic biomaterial. In-depth XPS analysis revealed the presence of a graded chemical composition accompanied by the variation of the film structure. These results were complemented by those of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis that highlighted the nanocomposite nature of the coatings. The nanomechanical characterization of 2D-FGC was performed by nanoindentation at several loads on the thin films deposited onto two different steel substrates: 316L and AISI M2. The study allowed establishing 0.7 mN as the load that characterized the coatings without substrate influence. Both hardness and Young modulus decrease with the increase of fluorine content due to the evolution in chemical composition, chemical bonds and structure.

  19. Superconducting Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu oxide thin films by spray pyrolysis of metal acetates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dale F. Vaslow; Gunter H. Dieckmann; David Dawson Elli; Arthur B. Ellis; D. Scott Holmes; Anthony Lefkow; Mark MacGregor; James E. Nordman; Michael F. Petras; Yifeng Yang

    1988-01-01

    Superconducting Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu oxide thin films have been prepared on ZrO2-coated silicon (111) wafers by spray pyrolysis of metal acetate precursors followed by rapid annealing to 850 °C in air. Resistivity measurements indicate a broad superconducting transition with Tc onset near 90 K and zero resistivity below 60 K. The films are highly oriented with the c axis normal to the

  20. Synthesis and characterization of sol-gel-derived nanomaterials and nanocrystalline electroless metal coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Satyajit Vishnu

    CuS (minimum size of 2.5 nm), Ag2S (minimum and average size of 2.5 nm and 26 nm respectively), and Au (with minimum size of <10 nm) nanoparticles dispersed within the sol-gel derived hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC)-silica films are synthesized using the gas diffusion technique. The effectiveness of HPC polymer, as a 'compatibilizer', to synthesize semiconductor and metal nanoparticles distributed uniformly within the silica film is demonstrated. The sol-gel derived HPC-silica films containing dispersed nanoparticles are characterized using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to understand the mechanism of formation of nanoparticles within the film. The XPS core-level binding energies (B.E.) for the nanoparticles are observed to be sensitive to the variation in the chemical composition at the surface and their size. The 'cluster size effect' is shown to be useful in predicting the average nanoparticle size. Nanocrystalline ZrO2 particles are successfully synthesized using sol-gel technique utilizing HPC polymer as a 'steric barrier'. The use of HPC polymer is demonstrated to synthesize submicron-sized, non-agglomerated, and spherical as well as nanocrystalline ZrO2 particles by adjusting the sol-gel synthesis parameters. The effect of sol-gel synthesis parameters on ZrO2 nanocrystallite size, its distribution, and the phase evolution behavior of ZrO2 is studied. The optimum sol-gel synthesis parameters for synthesizing nanocrystalline ZrO2 with 100% tetragonal phase are identified. Cu/CuO-ZrO2 composite powder is synthesized using the electroless metal deposition technique. The mechanism of electroless deposition of Cu over ZrO2 particle surface is investigated using XPS. On the basis of 'cluster size effect', it is suggested that, the electroless metal deposition process activates the non-catalytic ceramic substrate surface by depositing metallic Pd0 clusters and not by the accepted Pd-Sn alloy catalyst. Fly ash cenosphere particle surface is also activated by metallic Pd0 clusters under similar coating conditions. The cenosphere particles are further coated with Ag using Pd-activation. The Cu and Ag-coated cenosphere particles find application in manufacturing conducting polymers used for electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding application. The use of cost-effective activator (AgNO3) is demonstrated for coating the cenosphere particles with Cu for commercialization. The use of Focussed Ion Beam (FIB) microscopy technique is demonstrated to directly measure the coating-thickness.

  1. Surface plasmon resonant scattering in metal-coated dielectric nanocylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Peiwen; Yasumoto, Kiyotoshi; Liu, Yunfei

    2014-12-01

    The scattering of TE polarized plane wave by metal-coated dielectric nanocylinders is investigated with a particular emphasis on the enhancement of the near fields. If the wavelength of illumination is properly chosen, two unique near field distributions can be excited through the surface plasmon resonances. The enhanced near fields are localized along the inner or outer interface of the coating metal, being dependent on the wavelengths. It is shown that the scattering cross-section of the nanocylinders is also enhanced when the illuminating field resonates to the surface plasmons of the structures.

  2. Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    The Pentek coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek coating removal system consisted of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign}, and VAC-PAC{reg_sign}. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M Roto Peen tungsten carbide cutters while the CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign} uses solid needles for descaling activities. These hand tools are used with the VAC-PAC{reg_sign} vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

  3. 21 CFR 888.3358 - Hip joint metal/polymer/metal semi-constrained porous-coated uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...polymer/metal semi-constrained porous-coated uncemented prosthesis...metal semi-constrained porous-coated uncemented...weight polyethylene articulating bearing surface fixed in a metal shell...and acetabular shell have a porous coating made of, in...

  4. 21 CFR 888.3358 - Hip joint metal/polymer/metal semi-constrained porous-coated uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...polymer/metal semi-constrained porous-coated uncemented prosthesis...metal semi-constrained porous-coated uncemented...weight polyethylene articulating bearing surface fixed in a metal shell...and acetabular shell have a porous coating made of, in...

  5. 21 CFR 888.3358 - Hip joint metal/polymer/metal semi-constrained porous-coated uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...polymer/metal semi-constrained porous-coated uncemented prosthesis...metal semi-constrained porous-coated uncemented...weight polyethylene articulating bearing surface fixed in a metal shell...and acetabular shell have a porous coating made of, in...

  6. Optimum antireflection coating for Antireflection-coated Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor /AMOS/ solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Y. C. M.; Ernest, F. P.; Stirn, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    Consideration is given to the design of a single-layer optimum antireflection coating for AMOS (antireflection-coated metal-oxide-semiconductor) solar cells to match the entire sunlight spectrum. The energy conversion efficiency is maximized by maximizing the open-circuit voltage and the short-circuit current. The former is maximized by oxidation techniques and the latter is maximized by the light-coupling into the solar cell. With reference to the effective index of refraction as obtained by ellipsometry, examples of optimum antireflection coatings for 60-A Au-GaAs solar cells are presented.

  7. Direct observation and mechanism of increased emission sites in Fe-coated microcrystalline diamond films

    SciTech Connect

    Panda, Kalpataru; Sundaravel, B.; Panigrahi, B. K. [Materials Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Huang, Pin-Chang; Shih, Wen-Ching [Graduate Institute in Electro-Optical Engineering, Tatung University, Taipei 104, Taiwan (China); Chen, Huang-Chin; Lin, I-Nan [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, New-Taipei 251, Taiwan (China)

    2012-06-15

    The electron field emission (EFE) properties of microcrystalline diamond (MCD) films are significantly enhanced due to the Fe coating and post-annealing processes. The 900 Degree-Sign C post-annealed Fe coated diamond films exhibit the best EFE properties, with a turn on field (E{sub 0}) of 3.42 V/{mu}m and attain EFE current density (J{sub e}) of 170 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} at 7.5 V/{mu}m. Scanning tunnelling spectroscopy (STS) in current imaging tunnelling spectroscopy mode clearly shows the increased number density of emission sites in Fe-coated and post-annealed MCD films than the as-prepared ones. Emission is seen from the boundaries of the Fe (or Fe{sub 3}C) nanoparticles formed during the annealing process. In STS measurement, the normalized conductance (dI/dV/I/V) versus V curves indicate nearly metallic band gap, at the boundaries of Fe (or Fe{sub 3}C) nanoparticles. Microstructural analysis indicates that the mechanism for improved EFE properties is due to the formation of nanographite that surrounds the Fe (or Fe{sub 3}C) nanoparticles.

  8. Optical cavity mode excitations in metal-coated microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himmelhaus, Michael

    2008-02-01

    We present some recent results of our work on cavity mode excitations in metal-coated microspheres, which aims at the development of a novel type of bio-chemical sensor. In contrast to the well-known whispering gallery modes (WGM) of dielectric particles, metal-coated dielectric microspheres also allow for excitation of modes in radial direction, the so-called Fabry-Perot modes (FPM). One hurdle of such excitation is the proper adjustment of the reflectivity of the metallic coating, which either causes a low quality factor of the modes in case of insufficient thickness, or, otherwise, shields the inner cavity from outside excitation. The talk will present a novel concept on how such intricacies may be overcome by proper selection of excitation wavelength and materials choice, and will demonstrate that FPM modes may be excited in metal-coated microspheres with diameters down to 1 ?m. First examples of utilization of such cavity modes for bio-chemical sensing will be given. Besides sensing, potential applications of metallic microcavities are related to the development of optical point sources, microscopic lasers, and to nonlinear nano-photonics.

  9. Vacuum deposition of high-quality metal films on porous substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Barthell, B.L.; Duchane, D.V.

    1981-01-01

    A composite mandrel has been developed consisting of a core of low density polymethylpentene foam overcoated with a thin layer of film forming polymer. The surface tension and viscosity of the coating solution are important parameters in obtaining a polymer film which forms a continuous, smooth skin over the core without penetrating into the foam matrix. Water soluble film formers with surface tensions in the range of 45 dynes/cm and minimum viscosities of a few hundred centipoises have been found most satisfactory for coating polymethylpentene foam. By means of this technique, continuous polymer films with thicknesses of 10 to 20 ..mu..m have been formed on the surface of machined polymethylpentene foam blanks. Aluminum has been vacuum deposited onto these composite mandrels to produce metal films which appear smooth and generally defect free even at 10,000 times magnification.

  10. The development of transient fingering patterns during the spreading of surfactant coated films

    E-print Network

    Troian, Sandra M.

    The development of transient fingering patterns during the spreading of surfactant coated films of an insoluble surfactant monolayer on a thin liquid film produces a complex waveform whose time variant shape of nonmodal transient structures during the spreading of surfactant coated films,'' Phys. Fluids A 10, 1234

  11. Polymer-Metal Nanocomposites via Polymer Thin Film

    E-print Network

    Shyamasundar, R.K.

    Polymer-Metal Nanocomposites via Polymer Thin Film T. P. Radhakrishnan School of Chemistry, University of Hyderabad Polymer-metal nanocomposite thin films are versatile materials that not only characteristics of the components, but also manifest mutualistic effects. Soft c film is a facile in situ of metal

  12. Quantum metal film in the dielectric environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babich, A. V.; Pogosov, V. V.

    2013-01-01

    A method has been proposed for self-consistent calculations of characteristics of a metal film in dielectrics. The most interesting (asymmetric) case of metal-dielectric sandwiches, where the dielectrics are different on both sides of the film, has been considered in terms of the modified Kohn-Sham method and the stabilized jellium model. The spectrum, electron work function, and surface energy of polycrystalline films placed in passive insulators have been calculated for the first time using Al and Na as an example. It has been found that the dielectric environment generally leads to a negative change in both the electron work function and the surface energy. In addition to the size changes, the shift of the work function is determined by the arithmetic mean of the dielectric constants of the surrounding media.

  13. Superhydrophobic anti-ultraviolet films by doctor blade coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Chang-Yun; Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Yang, Hongta

    2014-11-01

    This article reports a scalable technology for fabricating polymer films with excellent water-repelling and anti-ultraviolet properties. A roll-to-roll compatible doctor blade coating technology is utilized to prepare silica colloidal crystal-polymer composites. The silica microspheres can then be selectively removed to create flexible self-standing macroporous polymer films with crystalline arrays of pores. The void sizes are controlled by tuning the duration of a reactive ion etching process prior to the removal of the templating silica microspheres. After surface modification, superhydrophobic surface can be achieved. This study further demonstrates that the as-prepared transparent porous films with 200 nm of pores exhibit diffraction of ultraviolet lights originated from the Bragg's diffractive of light from the three-dimensional highly ordered air cavities.

  14. SERS-applicable silver nanoisland film grown under protective coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reduto, I.; Chervinskii, S.; Matikainen, A.; Baklanov, A.; Kamenskii, A.; Lipovskii, A.

    2014-10-01

    We have used recently developed out-diffusion technique of growing silver nanoisland films on glass surface to grow silver nanoislands under TiO2 layer deposited on the glass. After covering the surface of silver ion-exchanged glasses with TiO2 film using atomic layer deposition technique and subsequent thermal processing of the samples in hydrogen their optical absorption spectra demonstrate the absorption peak corresponding to surface plasmon resonance in grown silver nanoislands. The spectral position of the peak is shifted relatively to the peak observed in the spectra of the nanoisland film grown on the surface of ion exchanged and annealed glass samples without dielectric cover. The applicability of the silver nanoislands grown under several nm thick protective TiO2 coating in surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy is demonstrated.

  15. Metal coatings for laser fusion targets by electroplating

    SciTech Connect

    Illige, J.D.; Yu, C.M.; Letts, S.A.

    1980-08-26

    Metal coated laser fusion targets must be dense, uniform spherically symmetric to within a few percent of their diameters and smooth to better than a few tenths of a micron. Electroplating offers some unique advantages including low temperature deposition, a wide choice of elements and substantial industrial plating technology. We have evaluatd electroless and electroplating systems for gold and copper, identified the factors responsible for small grain size, and plated glass microspheres with both metals to achieve smooth surfaces and highly symmetric coatings. We have developed plating cells which sustain the microspheres in continuous random motion during plating. We have established techniques for deposition of the initial conductive adherent layer on the glass microsphere surface. Coatings as thick as 15 ..mu..m have been made. The equipment is simple, relatively inexpensive and may be adopted for high volume production of laser fusion targets.

  16. Metallic biomaterials TiN-coated: corrosion analysis and biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Paschoal, André Luís; Vanâncio, Everaldo Carlos; Canale, Lauralice de Campos Franceschini; da Silva, Orivaldo Lopes; Huerta-Vilca, Domingos; Motheo, Artur de Jesus

    2003-05-01

    Corrosion processes due to contact with the physiological environment should be avoided or minimized in orthopedic implants. Four metallic substrates frequently used as biomaterials: pure Ti, Ti-6Al-4V alloy, ASTM F138 stainless steel, and Co-Cr-Mo alloy, were coated with TiN using the physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique. These coatings have been screened by polarization curves in physiological solutions. TiN prepared by PVD is efficient as coating for stainless steel. On titanium and alloy there are no benefits concerning the corrosion resistance compared to the bare Ti-materials. TiN coatings have been screened according to ISO 10993 standard tests for biocompatibility and exhibited no cytotoxicity, dermal irritation, or acute systemic toxicity response. PMID:12752209

  17. Silicon nitride films for the protective functional coating: blood compatibility and biomechanical property study.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhifeng; Wang, Yingjun; Du, Chang; Huang, Nan; Wang, Lin; Ning, Chengyun

    2012-12-01

    Behaviors of silicon nitride films and their relation to blood compatibility and biomechanical have been interesting subjects to researchers. A systematic blood compatibility and biomechanical property investigation on the deposition of silicon-nitride films under varying N? and CF? flows was carried out by direct current unbalanced magnetron sputtering techniques. Significant role of surface property, chemical bonding state of silicon nitride film and blood compatibility, mechanical properties for the films were observed. The chemical bonding configurations, surface topography, contact angle and mechanical properties were characterized by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and nano-indentation technique and CSEM pin-on-disk tribometer. Blood compatibility of the films was evaluated by platelet adhesion investigation. The results of the platelet adhesion tests shown that the effect of fluorine and nitrogen-doped revealed an intimate relationship between the ratio of polar component and dispersion component of the surface energy and its hemocompatibility. Si-N-O coating can be a great candidate for developing antithrombogenic surfaces in blood contacting materials. The chemical bonding state made an adjustment in microstructured surfaces, once in the totally wettable configuration, may improve the initial contact between platelet and biomedical materials, due to the appropriate ratio of dispersion component and polar component. To resist wear, biomedical components require coatings that are tough and hard, have low friction, and are bio-inert. The study suggests that by Si-N coating the metal surfaces could be a choice to prolong the life of the sliding pair Co-Cr-Mo alloy/UHMWPE implants. PMID:23137618

  18. APS/123-QED Metallic coatings of MEMS at low temperatures

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    APS/123-QED Metallic coatings of MEMS at low temperatures: stress, elasticity and non from low temperature techniques to extract a phase-resolved measurement of the first mechanical in terms of surface stress, additional mass, additional elasticity and damping. Analytic theoretical

  19. Metallic coatings for enhancement of thermal contact conductance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Lambert; L. S. Fletcher

    1994-01-01

    The reliability of standard electronic modules may be improved by decreasing overall module temperature. This may be accomplished by enhancing the thermal contact conductance at the interface between the module frame guide rib and the card rail to which the module is clamped. Some metallic coatings, when applied to the card rail, would deform under load, increasing the contact area

  20. COATING ALTERNATIVES GUIDE (CAGE) FOR METAL PARTS AND PRODUCTS PAINTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the initial development of a Coating Alternatives Guide (CAGE) for metal parts and products painting. t is an innovative technology transfer approach that provides a tool to improve technology diffusion and assistance. t will provide vital, user-accessible inf...

  1. Coated metal sintering carriers for fuel cell electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Donelson, Richard (Glen Waverly, AU); Bryson, E. S. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1998-01-01

    A carrier for conveying components of a fuel cell to be sintered through a sintering furnace. The carrier comprises a metal sheet coated with a water-based carbon paint, the water-based carbon paint comprising water, powdered graphite, an organic binder, a wetting agent, a dispersing agent and a defoaming agent.

  2. Coated metal sintering carriers for fuel cell electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Donelson, R.; Bryson, E.S.

    1998-11-10

    A carrier is described for conveying components of a fuel cell to be sintered through a sintering furnace. The carrier comprises a metal sheet coated with a water-based carbon paint, the water-based carbon paint comprising water, powdered graphite, an organic binder, a wetting agent, a dispersing agent and a defoaming agent.

  3. Method For Improving The Oxidation Resistance Of Metal Substrates Coated With Thermal Barrier Coatings

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Anthony Mark (Niskayuna, NY); Gray, Dennis Michael (Delanson, NY); Jackson, Melvin Robert (Niskayuna, NY)

    2003-05-13

    A method for providing a protective coating on a metal-based substrate is disclosed. The method involves the application of an aluminum-rich mixture to the substrate to form a discontinuous layer of aluminum-rich particles, followed by the application of a second coating over the discontinuous layer of aluminum-rich particles. Aluminum diffuses from the aluminum-rich layer into the substrate, and into any bond coat layer which is subsequently applied. Related articles are also described. A method for providing a protective coating on a metal-based substrate is disclosed. The method involves the application of an aluminum-rich mixture to the substrate to form a discontinuous layer of aluminum-rich particles, followed by the application of a second coating over the discontinuous layer of aluminum-rich particles. Aluminum diffuses from the aluminum-rich layer into the substrate, and into any bond coat layer which is subsequently applied. Related articles are also described.

  4. Surface Plasmon Waves on Thin Metal Films.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Alan Ellsworth

    Surface-plasmon polaritons propagating on thin metal films bounded by dielectrics of nearly equal refractive indexes comprise two bound modes. Calculations indicate that, while the modes are degenerate on thick films, both the real and the imaginary components of the propagation constants for the modes split into two branches on successively thinner films. Considering these non-degenerate modes, the mode exhibiting a symmetric (antisymmetric) transverse profile of the longitudinally polarized electric field component, has propagation constant components both of which increase (decrease) with decreasing film thickness. Theoretical propagation constant eigenvalue (PCE) curves have been plotted which delineate this dependence of both propagation constant components on film thickness. By means of a retroreflecting, hemispherical glass coupler in an attenuated total reflection (ATR) configuration, light of wavelength 632.8 nm coupled to the modes of thin silver films deposited on polished glass substrates. Lorentzian lineshape dips in the plots of reflectance vs. angle of incidence indicate the presence of the plasmon modes. The real and imaginary components of the propagation constraints (i.e., the propagation constant and loss coefficient) were calculated from the angular positions and widths of the ATR resonances recorded. Films of several thicknesses were probed. Results which support the theoretically predicted curves were reported.

  5. Analysis of cermet films with large metal packing fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspnes, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    Recently reported dielectric properties of deposited Rh films show anomalously small values of the real part of the dielectric function with respect to the imaginary part and also with respect to bulk values. This behavior is substantially different from that expected on the basis of standard isotropic effective-medium theories. Using a strong-coupling model that has an approximate analytic solution, I show that this behavior is consistent with a two-phase, microscopically inhomogeneous but macroscopically homogeneous physical mixture of metal and dielectric, where the dielectric (presumably a grain-boundary oxide or simply open spaces between grains) is restricted essentially to the boundaries of the metal particles and provides optical isolation between them (metal-rich cermet configuration.) The solution is of the Maxwell-Garnett type with the dielectric acting as host phase. Since this solution becomes exact in the limit of vanishing dielectric volume fraction, this model provides a striking demonstration that connectedness, not relative volume fraction, is the physical property determining the identity of the host species. The Rh-film data are best described by an analytic, two-parameter, two-phase effective-medium model that incorporates randomness as well as the coated-particle microstructure and was developed by Sen, Scala, and Cohen to describe the low-frequency conductance of sedimentary rocks.

  6. Preparation of pure boron coating film and its characterization by XPS and TDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyaidzu, M.; Yoshikawa, A.; Kodama, H.; Oya, Y.; Sagara, A.; Noda, N.; Okuno, K.

    2005-05-01

    A PACVD apparatus was designed and fabricated at Shizuoka University in order to prepare high-pure boron coating films. In the present study, some parameters, especially feeding gas concentration, substrate temperature and CVD input power, have been optimized to prepare pure boron coating films. It was found that the purity of boron coating film was controlled by the decaborane concentration of feeding gas and substrate temperature during the PACVD process, and each optimized values were 0.4 and 473 K, respectively. The atomic composition of boron in the boron coating film under the optimized condition has been achieved to be 0.94.

  7. Coating of metal implant materials with strontium.

    PubMed

    Frank, Matthias J; Walter, Martin S; Tiainen, Hanna; Rubert, Marina; Monjo, Marta; Lyngstadaas, S Petter; Haugen, Håvard J

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to show that cathodic polarization can be used for coating commercial implant surfaces with an immobilized but functional and bioavailable surface layer of strontium (Sr). Moreover, this study assessed the effect of fluorine on Sr-attachment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that addition of fluorine (F) to the buffer during coating increased surface Sr-amounts but also changed the chemical surface composition by adding SrF2 alongside of SrO whereas pre-treatment of the surface by pickling in hydrofluoric acid appeared to hinder Sr-attachment. Assessment of the bio-availability hinted at a positive effect of Sr on cell differentiation given that the surface reactivity of the original surface remained unchanged. Additional SrF2 on the surface appeared to reduce undesired surface contamination while maintaining the surface micro-topography and micro-morphology. Anyhow, this surface modification revealed to create nano-nodules on the surface. PMID:23888353

  8. Structural Analysis of Cold-Sprayed Nickel-Based Metallic and Metallic-Ceramic Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koivuluoto, Heli; Vuoristo, Petri

    2010-09-01

    In cold spraying, many factors, e.g., powder characteristics and compositions, spraying parameters, and post-treatments affect coating formation. Cold spraying is the optimal technique to produce highly dense coatings. Furthermore, denseness and impermeability are the criterions for the corrosion resistance of anodically protective coatings. Therefore, this study focuses on denseness improvement of cold-sprayed (CS) metallic coatings. The aim of this study was to characterize structural details of CS Ni, Ni-20Cu, Ni-20Cr, Ni-20Cr + Al2O3, and Ni-20Cr + WC-10Co-4Cr coatings in order to produce dense coatings by optimizing the affecting factors. Denseness of Ni coating was improved with optimized spraying parameters whereas denseness of Ni-20Cr coatings was increased with added hard particles in the powder mixture. In addition, denseness of Ni-20Cu coatings was improved by heat treatments. Denseness of the coatings is evaluated by corrosion tests. In addition, fracture behavior, microstructures, and hardness studies of the coatings are performed.

  9. Metallic coating techniques for fiber Bragg grating sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandal, T.; Piñeiro, E.; Asensio, A.; Rodriguez, F.

    2013-11-01

    Fiber Bragg Grating sensors (FBG) have a great resistance to embedding processes. This property is very useful for monitoring parameters at inaccessible places. Embedded fiber optic sensors into composites have been studied for a long time, but embedding a fiber sensor into metallic structure is beginning to study. Recently, this has raised interest due to embedded FBG in the metallic structure provide capabilities for controlling parameters of the structural health status and also information about their own process of deterioration. The embedding process of the FBG sensors involves the fusion of structural metallic material. During this process, very high temperatures are achieved that could damage the Bragg grating or the silica fiber. To protect the sensor during the embedding process, a fiber coating is made with a metallic material with a high melting point. In this paper we study three different techniques for coating a FBG sensor: physical vapour deposition (PVD), electroless deposition and electroplating. This paper describes the experimental procedure for coating metallic fiber optic sensors and the optical characterization.

  10. Dynamics of polymer film formation during spin coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouhamad, Y.; Mokarian-Tabari, P.; Clarke, N.; Jones, R. A. L.; Geoghegan, M.

    2014-09-01

    Standard models explaining the spin coating of polymer solutions generally fail to describe the early stages of film formation, when hydrodynamic forces control the solution behavior. Using in situ light scattering alongside theoretical and semi-empirical models, it is shown that inertial forces (which initially cause a vertical gradient in the radial solvent velocity within the film) play a significant role in the rate of thinning of the solution. The development of thickness as a function of time of a solute-free liquid (toluene) and a blend of polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate) cast from toluene were fitted to different models as a function of toluene partial pressure. In the case of the formation of the polymer blend film, a concentration-dependent (Huggins) viscosity formula was used to account for changes in viscosity during spin coating. A semi-empirical model is introduced, which permits calculation of the solvent evaporation rate and the temporal evolution of the solute volume fraction and solution viscosity.

  11. Dynamics of polymer film formation during spin coating

    SciTech Connect

    Mouhamad, Y.; Clarke, N.; Jones, R. A. L.; Geoghegan, M., E-mail: geoghegan@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Mokarian-Tabari, P. [Materials Research Group, Department of Chemistry and the Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland)

    2014-09-28

    Standard models explaining the spin coating of polymer solutions generally fail to describe the early stages of film formation, when hydrodynamic forces control the solution behavior. Using in situ light scattering alongside theoretical and semi-empirical models, it is shown that inertial forces (which initially cause a vertical gradient in the radial solvent velocity within the film) play a significant role in the rate of thinning of the solution. The development of thickness as a function of time of a solute-free liquid (toluene) and a blend of polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate) cast from toluene were fitted to different models as a function of toluene partial pressure. In the case of the formation of the polymer blend film, a concentration-dependent (Huggins) viscosity formula was used to account for changes in viscosity during spin coating. A semi-empirical model is introduced, which permits calculation of the solvent evaporation rate and the temporal evolution of the solute volume fraction and solution viscosity.

  12. SILANE-BASED CONVERSION COATING FOR METALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    For the past three years, a project to develop new pretreatment rinses for metals was carried out by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the University of Cincinnati. The project involved optimization of laboratory rinses with dilute aqueous solutions organofunctional s...

  13. Terahertz in-line sensor for direct coating thickness measurement of individual tablets during film coating in real-time.

    PubMed

    May, Robert K; Evans, Michael J; Zhong, Shuncong; Warr, Ian; Gladden, Lynn F; Shen, Yaochun; Zeitler, J Axel

    2011-04-01

    We present a new in-line measurement technique to determine the coating thickness of individual pharmaceutical tablets during film coating in a pan coating unit using pulsed terahertz technology. Results of these real-time terahertz measurements acquired during a production scale coating run are validated using both off-line high-resolution terahertz pulsed imaging of the whole dosage form as well as weight-gain measurements made on sample tablets removed at discrete time intervals during the process run. The terahertz measurements provide a direct method of determining the coating thickness, and no chemometric calibration models are required for the quantification. The results, and their repeatability, demonstrate that real-time monitoring of pharmaceutical tablet coating is not only possible but also provides substantially more information of the coating quality than the standard quality control method. Rather than providing the average coating thickness of a large number of tablets, the terahertz sensor provides the thickness of up to 100 individual tablet coatings per minute. Using this information, the operator can get additional information about the thickness distribution in the coating pan and adjust the process accordingly. At present, a minimum coating thickness of 40 ?m is required to determine the coating thickness. The technique is applicable for coatings up to 1 mm in thickness. Within that range, it provides thickness measurements of sub-micron resolution. Terahertz in-line coating process measurements show considerable potential for applications in real-time release, process analytical technology and quality by design. PMID:20957746

  14. Investigation of Cu coatings deposited by kinetic metallization

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Y.K. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals (Australia); Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Birbilis, N., E-mail: nick.birbilis@eng.monash.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals (Australia); Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Spencer, K.; Zhang, M.-X. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals (Australia); School of Engineering, Division of Materials, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); Muddle, B.C. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals (Australia); Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2010-11-15

    Interfacial characterisation of Kinetic Metallization (KM) sprayed Cu coatings applied on metal substrates was performed using optical and electron microscopy, as well as microindentation hardness testing and microchemical analysis. The interfacial characterisation of KM coatings remains scarce to date. Cross sectional observations of KM coatings on light metal substrates revealed an undulating, patelliform profile with thin-lipped cusps at the interface. Pure Al and Mg substrates exhibited a mechanically impinged zone <{approx}5 {mu}m on the substrate material, approximately the size of deformed Cu powder particles. Examination of the Cu side of the interface indicated there was no long range interaction in the coating. On the substrate side of the interface, the KM process induced phase transformations (i.e. recrystallisation and an alloyed zone) in thin layers contiguous to the interface on pure Al and Mg substrates. Zones of elemental interdiffusion were identified at the interface upon Al and Mg substrates using scanning TEM. The width of intermixing zones was in the vicinity of < 1 {mu}m. This metallurgical interaction at the interface occurred on the length scales involving the initial single layer of Cu particles bonded on the substrate.

  15. Antibacterial performance of alginic acid coating on polyethylene film.

    PubMed

    Karbassi, Elika; Asadinezhad, Ahmad; Lehocký, Marian; Humpolí?ek, Petr; Vesel, Alenka; Novák, Igor; Sáha, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Alginic acid coated polyethylene films were examined in terms of surface properties and bacteriostatic performance against two most representative bacterial strains, that is, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Microwave plasma treatment followed by brush formation in vapor state from three distinguished precursors (allylalcohol, allylamine, hydroxyethyl methacrylate) was carried out to deposit alginic acid on the substrate. Surface analyses via various techniques established that alginic acid was immobilized onto the surface where grafting (brush) chemistry influenced the amount of alginic acid coated. Moreover, alginic acid was found to be capable of bacterial growth inhibition which itself was significantly affected by the brush type. The polyanionic character of alginic acid as a carbohydrate polymer was assumed to play the pivotal role in antibacterial activity. The cell wall composition of two bacterial strains along with the substrates physicochemical properties accounted for different levels of bacteriostatic performance. PMID:25196604

  16. Antibacterial Performance of Alginic Acid Coating on Polyethylene Film

    PubMed Central

    Karbassi, Elika; Asadinezhad, Ahmad; Lehocký, Marian; Humpolí?ek, Petr; Vesel, Alenka; Novák, Igor; Sáha, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Alginic acid coated polyethylene films were examined in terms of surface properties and bacteriostatic performance against two most representative bacterial strains, that is, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Microwave plasma treatment followed by brush formation in vapor state from three distinguished precursors (allylalcohol, allylamine, hydroxyethyl methacrylate) was carried out to deposit alginic acid on the substrate. Surface analyses via various techniques established that alginic acid was immobilized onto the surface where grafting (brush) chemistry influenced the amount of alginic acid coated. Moreover, alginic acid was found to be capable of bacterial growth inhibition which itself was significantly affected by the brush type. The polyanionic character of alginic acid as a carbohydrate polymer was assumed to play the pivotal role in antibacterial activity. The cell wall composition of two bacterial strains along with the substrates physicochemical properties accounted for different levels of bacteriostatic performance. PMID:25196604

  17. Robotic burnishing system for solid film lubricant coated parts

    SciTech Connect

    Fureigh, M.L.

    1986-05-01

    A robotic burnishing system in the Painting Department reduced the operation average standard hour content by 64% and maintains a good part-to-part quality level for a group of parts coated with solid film lubricant. Required to be safe and simple to operate, the system uses a small PUMA 260 robot to process coated axisymmetrical pieceparts. Special tooling and seven pairs of robotic fingers were designed and built to handle 24 different small pieceparts. Individual robotic programs were created for each part and stored on 5-1/4 in. floppy disks with backup copies in Numerical Control. The operators and the manufacturing department readily accepted the robotic system. Additional part geometries will be developed for robotic processing. 12 figs.

  18. Sol-gel preparation and characterization of SiO2 coated VO2 films with enhanced transmittance and high thermochromic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dezeng; Shan, Yongkui; Huang, Fuqiang; Ding, Shangjun

    2014-10-01

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) films prepared at low-temperature with a low cost are considerable for energy-saving applications. Here, SiO2 coated VO2 films with clearly enhanced visible transmittance by introducing antireflection coatings (ARCs) and excellent thermochromic performance were present. The VO2 films have been prepared via a stable and low-cost sol-gel synthesis route using vanadium pentaoxide powder as precursor, and their structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties and thermochromic performance were systemically characterized. The resistance of VO2 films varies by 4 orders of magnitude and the transmittance changes from 11.8% to 69.3% at 2500 nm while no significant deviation appears in the visible region during metal-insulator transition (MIT). Nanoporous SiO2 coating with good optical transparency was coated on the surface of VO2 film via sol-gel dip-coating technique to enhance its optical transmittance, and the visible transmittance is increased by 14.6% due to the significantly decreased reflectance. The critical transition temperature (63 °C) and infrared switching properties of VO2 films are not much deteriorated by applying SiO2 layer. The synergistic effect of antireflection and thermochromism on SiO2 coated VO2 films was investigated.

  19. Photobiomolecular deposition of metallic particles and films

    DOEpatents

    Hu, Zhong-Cheng

    2005-02-08

    The method of the invention is based on the unique electron-carrying function of a photocatalytic unit such as the photosynthesis system I (PSI) reaction center of the protein-chlorophyll complex isolated from chloroplasts. The method employs a photo-biomolecular metal deposition technique for precisely controlled nucleation and growth of metallic clusters/particles, e.g., platinum, palladium, and their alloys, etc., as well as for thin-film formation above the surface of a solid substrate. The photochemically mediated technique offers numerous advantages over traditional deposition methods including quantitative atom deposition control, high energy efficiency, and mild operating condition requirements.

  20. Titanium acoustic diaphragm coated with polycrystal diamond film

    SciTech Connect

    Zhiwei Zhang; Zhen Yan; Hesun Zhu [Beijing Institute of Technology (China)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The spherical titanium diaphragm, which is widely used in high frequency loudspeaker, coat with polycrystal diamond film (DF) was prepared for the first time in China by the method of DC arc plasma jet. Its acoustic performance was remarkably upgraded, as confirmed by Raman Shift Spectrum and frequency response curve. Its sensibility was improved by 3-6 dB and frequency widened by 5x10{sup 3}Hz. The frequency range extended from 2.2x10{sup 3}Hz to 25x10{sup 3}Hz. The preparation and process of DF is discussed.

  1. Soluble aromatic polyimides for film and coating applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, Anne K.; St.clair, Terry L.

    1986-01-01

    Linear all-aromatic polyimides have been synthesized and characterized which show much potential as films and coatings for electronic applications. Structure-property relations with regard to methods for obtaining solubility of fully imidized polymers will be discussed. Methods used to obtain solubility include variation of polymer molecular structure, variation of isomerism of the diamine monomer, modification of cure time/temperature and atmosphere. Other properties of soluble polyimides will be presented which include glass transition temperatures, thermooxidative stabilities, UV-visible spectra, and refractive indices.

  2. Soluble aromatic polyimides for film and coating applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, Anne K.; St.clair, Terry L.

    1987-01-01

    Linear all-aromatic polyimides have been synthesized and characterized which show much potential as films and coatings for electronic applications. Structure-property relations with regard to methods for obtaining solubility of fully imidized polymers will be discussed. Methods used to obtain solubility include variation of polymer molecular structure, variation of isomerism of the diamine monomer, modification of cure time/temperature and atmosphere. Other properties of soluble polyimides will be presented which include glass transition temperatures, thermooxidative stabilities, UV-visible spectra, and refractive indices.

  3. Effect of heat treatment, top coatings and conversion coatings on the corrosion properties of black electroless Ni–P films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Liu; D. Beckett; D. Hawthorne

    2011-01-01

    Electroless black nickel–phosphorus plating is an advanced electroless nickel plating process formulated to deposit a black finish when processed through an oxidizing acid solution. Heat treatment, five types of top organic coating techniques and one conversion coating technique with three different experimental conditions were investigated to stabilize the black film and increase the hardness and corrosion resistance. Morphology and compositions

  4. Study of sensing properties and contrastive analysis of metal coating optical fiber grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Ning; Shi, Bin; Sui, Qingmei; Guan, Congsheng; Wei, Guangqing; Li, Shuhua

    2014-02-01

    Optical fiber grating (FBG) has been widely used in the measurement of parameters such as temperature and strain. However, FBG is too slim to broken, whose outside protective layer tends to shedding easily, and it is also hard to change the temperature and strain sensitivity. In order to overcome the above disadvantages and to further expand the application range of FBG, this paper improves the technology of fiber grating metal film plating process firstly. It adopts a compositive method including chemical plating and electroplating to gild FBG, copper FBG and galvanize FBG, which all get good metal coating. Then, the temperature and strain sensing properties of metalized FBG is studied in detail. Multiple metal coating FBGs were put in high-low temperature test-box together, and then the test-box worked continuously at the temperature range of 0°C?95°C. After several experiments, it concludes that metal plating enhances the temperature sensitivity of fiber grating, and the one with galvanization has the highest temperature sensitivity of 0.0235. At last, FBGs with various cladding were pasted on carbon fiber cantilever beam respectively and the pressure on the top of the cantilever increased gradually. The experimental results show that wavelength of fiber grating shift toward the long wavelength with the increase of the pressure, and the one with galvanization has the maximum strain sensitivity which has minimal impact on fiber properties.

  5. Metal matrix coated fiber composites and the methods of manufacturing such composites

    DOEpatents

    Weeks, Jr., Joseph K. (Salt Lake City, UT); Gensse, Chantal (Salt Lake City, UT)

    1993-01-01

    A fiber coating which allows ceramic or metal fibers to be wetted by molten metals is disclosed. The coating inhibits degradation of the physical properties caused by chemical reaction between the fiber and the coating itself or between the fiber and the metal matrix. The fiber coating preferably includes at least a wetting layer, and in some applications, a wetting layer and a barrier layer between the fiber and the wetting layer. The wetting layer promotes fiber wetting by the metal matrix. The barrier layer inhibits fiber degradation. The fiber coating permits the fibers to be infiltrated with the metal matrix resulting in composites having unique properties not obtainable in pure materials.

  6. Refractive-index change caused by electrons in amorphous AsS and AsSe thin films doped with different metals by photodiffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Nordman, Olli; Nordman, Nina; Pashkevich, Valfrid

    2001-08-01

    The refractive-index change caused by electrons was measured in amorphous AsS and AsSe thin films. Films were coated with different metals. Diffraction gratings were written by electron-beam lithography. The interactions of electrons in films with and without the photodiffusion of overcoated metal were compared. Incoming electrons caused metal atom and ion diffusion in both investigated cases. The metal diffusion was dependent on the metal and it was found to influence the refractive index. In some cases lateral diffusion of the metal was noticed. The conditions for applications were verified. {copyright} 2001 Optical Society of America

  7. Plasmonic enhancement of thin-film solar cells using gold-black coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Fredricksen, Christopher J.; Panjwani, D. R.; Arnold, J. P.; Figueiredo, P. N.; Rezaie, F. K.; Colwell, J. E.; Baillie, K.; Peppernick, Samuel J.; Joly, Alan G.; Beck, Kenneth M.; Hess, Wayne P.; Peale, Robert E.

    2011-08-11

    Coatings of conducting gold-black nano-structures on commercial thin-film amorphous-silicon solar cells enhance the short-circuit current by 20% over a broad spectrum from 400 to 800 nm wavelength. The efficiency, i.e. the ratio of the maximum electrical output power to the incident solar power, is found to increase 7% for initial un-optimized coatings. Metal blacks are produced cheaply and quickly in a low-vacuum process requiring no lithographic patterning. The inherently broad particle-size distribution is responsible for the broad spectrum enhancement in comparison to what has been reported for mono-disperse lithographically deposited or self-assembled metal nano-particles. Photoemission electron microscopy reveals the spatial-spectral distribution of hot-spots for plasmon resonances, where scattering of normally-incident solar flux into the plane increases the effective optical path in the thin film to enhance light harvesting. Efficiency enhancement is correlated with percent coverage and particle size distribution, which are determined from histogram and wavelet analysis of scanning electron microscopy images. Electrodynamic simulations reveal how the gold-black particles scatter the radiation and locally enhance the field strength.

  8. Characterization of Clean and Cesium Coated Zirconium Carbide Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessner, Theodore Carl, II

    1991-02-01

    A simple method of single crystal film growth applicable to transition metal carbides has been developed and will be reported. The results of studies of the surface properties of ZrC films grown by thermal evaporation of ZrC onto room-temperature W(100) and W(110) surfaces will also be discussed. These films as deposited have no long range order as determined by low energy electron diffraction, but heating to above 1800 K produces well-ordered layers. During heating the ZrC(100) face forms on W(100) and the ZrC(111) face forms on W(110). Work functions as low as 2.8 eV have been measured on these films after initial heating, but final values are about 4.6 eV for ZrC(111), and 3.8 eV for ZrC(100). Activation energies have been calculated using thermal desorption curves and rate of evaporation data. Cs and Cs/O coadsorption experiments have also been performed on the ZrC(100) and ZrC(111) films. Work functions as low as 1.6 eV have been found at 40% to 50% Cs saturation coverage. Activation energies have been calculated from thermal desorption curves and will also be reported. A comparison between the surface characteristics of the Cs and Cs/O coadsorption on the differently oriented ZrC films will be made.

  9. Tantalum-cadmium film coatings: Preparation, phase composition, and structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuleushev, Yu. Zh.; Volodin, V. N.; Zhakanbaev, E. A.

    2015-01-01

    Ion-plasma sputtering and codeposition of ultrafine Ta and Cd particles were used for the first time to prepare solid solutions, namely, alloys with up to 66.2 at % Cd in the form of coatings; the fact of such a production confirms the thermal-fluctuation melting and coalescence of small particles. When the coatings are formed by tantalum and cadmium nanolayers, the mutual dissolution of the components takes place, which is accompanied by the formation of solid solutions of one metal in the other. When the cadmium concentration is above 44 at %, the ?-Ta tetragonal lattice transforms into the ?-Ta body-centered cubic lattice. Beginning from 74.4 at % Cd, a hexagonal structure typical of cadmium is formed, and tantalum is present in the coatings in the form of amorphous phase. The formation of ?-Ta- and Cd-based interstitial and ?-Ta-based substitute solid solutions is stated. At 700°C, cadmium evaporates from Ta-based solid solutions, and porous tantalum is formed. The evaporation of cadmium from coatings, which consist of the mixture of tantalum solid solution in cadmium and amorphous tantalum, leads to the formation of tantalum characterized by a highly developed surface. The prepared Ta-based materials assume the technological application of the results of the investigation.

  10. The effect of film thickness on the failure strain of polymer-supported metal films

    E-print Network

    Suo, Zhigang

    The effect of film thickness on the failure strain of polymer-supported metal films Nanshu Lu-supported copper films with a strong (1 1 1) fiber texture and with thicknesses varying from 50 nm to 1 lm. Films with thicknesses below 200 nm fail by intergranular fracture at elongations of only a few percent. Thicker films

  11. Process for the preparation of metal-containing nanostructured films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Yunfeng (Inventor); Wang, Donghai (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Metal-containing nanostructured films are prepared by electrodepositing a metal-containing composition within the pores of a mesoporous silica template to form a metal-containing silica nanocomposite. The nanocomposite is annealed to strengthen the deposited metal-containing composition. The silica is then removed from the nanocomposite, e.g., by dissolving the silica in an etching solution to provide a self-supporting metal-containing nanostructured film. The nanostructured films have a nanowire or nanomesh architecture depending on the pore structure of the mesoporous silica template used to prepare the films.

  12. Method of producing solution-derived metal oxide thin films

    DOEpatents

    Boyle, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Ingersoll, David (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01

    A method of preparing metal oxide thin films by a solution method. A .beta.-metal .beta.-diketonate or carboxylate compound, where the metal is selected from groups 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 of the Periodic Table, is solubilized in a strong Lewis base to form a homogeneous solution. This precursor solution forms within minutes and can be deposited on a substrate in a single layer or a multiple layers to form a metal oxide thin film. The substrate with the deposited thin film is heated to change the film from an amorphous phase to a ceramic metal oxide and cooled.

  13. Repairing Chipped Silicide Coatings on Refractory Metal Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The space shuttle orbiter s reaction control system (RCS) is a series of small thrusters that use hypergolic fuels to orient the orbiter in space. The RCS thrusters are constructed from a special niobium-based alloy -- the C-103. This alloy retains excellent mechanical properties from cryogenic temperature all the way up to 2,500 F (1,370 C). C-103 is susceptible to rapid oxidation at elevated temperatures. The authors have developed two methods to repair damaged R512a coatings on C-103. For the first repair technique, metal foundries, semiconductor manufacturers, and many other industries have developed and routinely use coatings that can easily be painted on metal to protect it from corrosion, including oxidation, to temperatures in excess of 2,500 F (1,370 C). This first repair technique is considered somewhat temporary. The second repair technique is based on using the native coating material of the RCS nozzles. the chipped area is ground out and a "green" R512a coating is applied to the repair area. Both repair techniques can be applied for moderate protection until the permanent laser-repair technique is available to the repair area.

  14. Antimicrobial Edible Films and Coatings for Fresh and Minimally Processed Fruits and Vegetables: a Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SILVIA A. VALENCIA-CHAMORRO; LLUÍS PALOU; MIGUEL A. DEL RÍO; MARÍA B. PÉREZ-GAGO

    2011-01-01

    The use of edible films and coatings is an environmentally friendly technology that offers substantial advantages for shelf-life increase of many food products including fruits and vegetables. The development of new natural edible films and coatings with the addition of antimicrobial compounds to preserve fresh and minimally processed fruits and vegetables is a technological challenge for the industry and a

  15. Applying terahertz technology for nondestructive detection of crack initiation in a film-coated layer on a swelling tablet

    PubMed Central

    Momose, Wataru; Yoshino, Hiroyuki; Katakawa, Yoshifumi; Yamashita, Kazunari; Imai, Keiji; Sako, Kazuhiro; Kato, Eiji; Irisawa, Akiyoshi; Yonemochi, Etsuo; Terada, Katsuhide

    2012-01-01

    Here, we describe a nondestructive approach using terahertz wave to detect crack initiation in a film-coated layer on a drug tablet. During scale-up and scale-down of the film coating process, differences in film density and gaps between the film-coated layer and the uncoated tablet were generated due to differences in film coating process parameters, such as the tablet-filling rate in the coating machine, spray pressure, and gas–liquid ratio etc. Tablets using the PEO/PEG formulation were employed as uncoated tablets. We found that heat and humidity caused tablets to swell, thereby breaking the film-coated layer. Using our novel approach with terahertz wave nondestructively detect film surface density (FSD) and interface density differences (IDDs) between the film-coated layer and an uncoated tablet. We also found that a reduced FSD and IDD between the film-coated layer and uncoated tablet increased the risk of crack initiation in the film-coated layer, thereby enabling us to nondestructively predict initiation of cracks in the film-coated layer. Using this method, crack initiation can be nondestructively assessed in swelling tablets after the film coating process without conducting accelerated stability tests, and film coating process parameters during scale-up and scale-down studies can be appropriately established.

  16. film across metal to insulator transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Sergey N.; Cheremisin, Alexander B.; Stefanovich, Genrikh B.

    2014-11-01

    We have proposed a method to probe metal to insulator transition in VO2 measuring photoluminescence response of colloidal quantum dots deposited on the VO2 film. In addition to linear luminescence intensity decrease with temperature that is well known for quantum dots, temperature ranges with enhanced photoluminescence changes have been found during phase transition in the oxide. Corresponding temperature derived from luminescence dependence on temperature closely correlates with that from resistance measurement during heating. The supporting reflectance data point out that photoluminescence response mimics a reflectance change in VO2 across metal to insulator transition. Time-resolved photoluminescence study did not reveal any significant change of luminescence lifetime of deposited quantum dots under metal to insulator transition. It is a strong argument in favor of the proposed explanation based on the reflectance data.

  17. Metallic coatings for enhancement of thermal contact conductance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, M. A.; Fletcher, L. S.

    1994-04-01

    The reliability of standard electronic modules may be improved by decreasing overall module temperature. This may be accomplished by enhancing the thermal contact conductance at the interface between the module frame guide rib and the card rail to which the module is clamped. Some metallic coatings, when applied to the card rail, would deform under load, increasing the contact area and associated conductance. This investigation evaluates the enhancements in thermal conductance afforded by vapor deposited silver and gold coatings. Experimental thermal conductance measurements were made for anodized aluminum 6101-T6 and electroless nickel-plated copper C11000-H03 card materials to the aluminum A356-T61 rail material. Conductance values for the electroless nickel-plated copper junction ranged from 600 to 2800 W/m(exp 2)K and those for the anodized aluminum junction ranged from 25 to 91 W/m(exp 2)K for contact pressures of 0.172-0.862 MPa and mean junction temperatures of 20-100 C. Experimental thermal conductance values of vapor deposited silver- and gold-coated aluminum A356-T61 rail surfaces indicate thermal enhancements of 1.25-2.19 for the electroless nickel-plated copper junctions and 1.79-3.41 for the anodized aluminum junctions. The silver and gold coatings provide significant thermal enhancement; however, these coating-substrate combinations are susceptible to galvanic corrosion under some conditions.

  18. Quantitative Analysis of Electroplated Nickel Coating on Hard Metal

    PubMed Central

    Wahab, Hassan A.; Noordin, M. Y.; Izman, S.

    2013-01-01

    Electroplated nickel coating on cemented carbide is a potential pretreatment technique for providing an interlayer prior to diamond deposition on the hard metal substrate. The electroplated nickel coating is expected to be of high quality, for example, indicated by having adequate thickness and uniformity. Electroplating parameters should be set accordingly for this purpose. In this study, the gap distances between the electrodes and duration of electroplating process are the investigated variables. Their effect on the coating thickness and uniformity was analyzed and quantified using design of experiment. The nickel deposition was carried out by electroplating in a standard Watt's solution keeping other plating parameters (current: 0.1?Amp, electric potential: 1.0?V, and pH: 3.5) constant. The gap distance between anode and cathode varied at 5, 10, and 15?mm, while the plating time was 10, 20, and 30 minutes. Coating thickness was found to be proportional to the plating time and inversely proportional to the electrode gap distance, while the uniformity tends to improve at a large electrode gap. Empirical models of both coating thickness and uniformity were developed within the ranges of the gap distance and plating time settings, and an optimized solution was determined using these models. PMID:23997678

  19. Scratch resistance and adherence of novel organic–inorganic hybrid coatings on metallic and non-metallic substrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yung-Hoe Han; Alan Taylor; Kevin M. Knowles

    2009-01-01

    Organic–inorganic hybrid coating material with a very high level of inorganic loading was prepared by a sol–gel process in which the initial hydrolysis and condensation steps of the inorganic precursors are separated. The coating solution was deposited onto various metallic and non-metallic substrates by a simple flow coating method. The coatings were then cured using UV radiation. The adherence of

  20. GRAFT POLYMERIZATION OF ACRYLONITRILE ONTO STARCH-COATED POLYETHYLENE FILM SURFACES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When starch-coated polyethylene (PE) films were allowed to react with acrylonitrile in the presence of ceric ammonium nitrate initiator, graft polymerization occurred to produce starch-polyacrylonitrile (PAN) coatings that contained about 25% grafted PAN, by weight. The graft copolymer coatings adh...

  1. Flexible ceramic-reinforced polyurethane composite coatings on synthetic fibres: Process of continuous liquid film coating and its influence on the coating thickness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Felix A. Reifler; Felipe A. L. Sánchez; Frank J. Clemens; Ksenija Varga; Rudolf Hufenus

    2010-01-01

    A concept for the realisation of composite layers on the surface of synthetic fibres by continuous liquid film coating of spread roving or monofilaments with a slurry containing ceramic particles and a polymeric binder is successfully demonstrated. Polyamide 6 monofilaments were coated with alumina particles and a polyurethane elastomer based binder system to achieve higher abrasion resistance. Under frictional load,

  2. Method for nondestructive testing of the film coating behavior of surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taslakov, M. A.; Avramov, I. D.

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a practical non-destructive method for studying the film coating behavior of SAW devices by using a water soluble dielectric film (manitol) deposited on the SAW device surface by resistive evaporation. After measuring the electrical parameters of the film coated SAW device, the film can easily be removed from its surface by water rinsing without causing any damage to it. The SAW device can then be used over and over again in a large number of film depositions. The method was tested on a 1 GHz surface transverse wave (STW) resonator coated with manitol of varying thickness. After each coating and evaluation, the STW device was successfully recovered without significant performance degradation. Data is presented on the electrical changes of the STW device as a result of depositing manitol coatings of various thicknesses.

  3. Structure and properties of moisture-resistant konjac glucomannan films coated with shellac/stearic acid coating.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xueqin; Pang, Jie; Zhang, Changfeng; Yu, Chengcheng; Chen, Han; Xie, Bingqing

    2015-03-15

    A series of moisture-resistant konjac glucomannan films were prepared by coating shellac/stearic acid emulsion on deacetylated konjac glucomannan films (dKGM). The effect of stearic acid content on structure and properties of the coated films were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV), water vapor permeability (WVP), water uptake, water contact angle, and tensile testing. The results revealed that shellac in the coating adhered intimately to the surface of dKGM film, and provided a substrate for the dispersion of stearic acid which played an important role in enhancement of the moisture barrier properties and mechanical properties of the coated films. The WVP of the coated films decreased from 2.63×10(-11) to 0.37×10(-11)g/(msPa) and the water contact angle increased from 68° to 101.2° when stearic acid content increased from 0wt% to 40wt%, showing the potential applications in food preservation. PMID:25542116

  4. Hydrophobic coating of solid materials by plasma-polymerized thin film using tetrafluoroethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hozumi, K.; Kitamura, K.; Kitade, T.

    1980-01-01

    Glass slides were coated with plasma-polymerized tetrafluoroethylene films of different thickness using the glow discharge technique in a tube-shaped chamber, and the plasma conditions, film growth rates, light permeability of the polymer films, and particle bond strength in the polymer films were studied. Ashed sections of mouse organs and ashed bacillus spores were also coated to give them hydrophobic treatment without damaging their shapes or appearance. The hydrophobic coating of the specimens was successful, and the fine ash patterns were strongly fixed onto the glass slides, making permanent preparations.

  5. Effect of heat treatment, top coatings and conversion coatings on the corrosion properties of black electroless Ni-P films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Beckett, D.; Hawthorne, D.

    2011-02-01

    Electroless black nickel-phosphorus plating is an advanced electroless nickel plating process formulated to deposit a black finish when processed through an oxidizing acid solution. Heat treatment, five types of top organic coating techniques and one conversion coating technique with three different experimental conditions were investigated to stabilize the black film and increase the hardness and corrosion resistance. Morphology and compositions of electroless nickel-phosphorous films with or without heat treatment, with five types of top organic coatings, and with three conversion coatings were compared to examine nickel, phosphorus, oxygen, carbon, silicon and chrome contents on the corrosion resistance of black surfaces by energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis and scanning electron microscope. Corrosion resistance of black electroless nickel-phosphorus coatings with or without heat treatment, with five types of top organic coatings, and with three conversion coatings was investigated by the polarization measurements and the salt spray test in 5% NaCl solution, respectively. HydroLac as the top organic coating from MacDermid showed the excellent corrosion resistance and the black EN film did not lose the black color after 48 h salt spray test. Electrotarnil B process with 0.5 ASD for 1 min stabilized the black Ni-P film immediately and increased the hardness and corrosion performance of the black Ni-P film. The black Ni-P coating with Electroarnil B process passed the 5% NaCl salt spray test for 3000 h in the black color and had a minimal corrosion current 0.8547 ?A/cm2 by the polarization measurement.

  6. Preparation of metallic coatings on polymer matrix composites by cold spray

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. L. Zhou; A. F. Chen; J. C. Liu; X. K. Wu; J. S. Zhang

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, an Al metallic coating and an Al\\/Cu bimetallic coating were prepared on the surface of a carbon fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composite (PMC) using a cold spray system with nitrogen as process and powder carrier gas. The microstructure, microhardness, and bond strength of the resultant coatings are analyzed. The bonding mechanism of the coatings, especially the deposition

  7. Corrosion behavior of rare earth metal (REM) conversion coatings on aluminum alloy LY12

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Xingwen; Cao Chunan; Yao Zhiming; Zhou Derui; Yin Zhongda

    2000-01-01

    The processes of the double layer rare earth metal (REM) conversion coating on aluminum alloy LY12 (2024) were introduced. The results of polarization tests showed that the corrosion resistance of the double layer REM conversion coating was superior to that of chromate conversion coating. The corrosion behavior of REM conversion coatings on LY12 alloy was studied with optical microscopy and

  8. Rate controlled synthesis of composition modulated, metal-oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, A.F.

    1994-07-01

    The development of advanced deposition technologies is continuously evolving for the synthesis of oxide coatings used in optical applications. Recent progress is made in the use of magnetron sputtering to reactively deposit metal-oxide thin films. Sputter deposition parameters are chosen to vary the composition along the film growth direction. The key process parameter to control is the sputtering rate of the target. The shape of the composition profile directly corresponds to the preselected variation of deposition rate. By simply varying the sputtering rate using a working gas that consists of an inert-oxygen mixture, structures are synthesized with composition profiles which can be either abrupt or graded in the growth direction. Result is a compositionally modulated structure of the metal-oxide system. This procedure for composition modulated synthesis is demonstrated for metals which are highly reactive with oxygen as well as for those metals which are not. The development of this deposition methodology will facilitate the design of metal oxide films for optical applications, as in gradient-index filters for example. Results are presented for the reactive sputter deposition of metal oxide coatings in the Y-O, Mo-O, and Cu-O systems.

  9. Alumina coating on dense tungsten powder by fluidized bed metal organic chemical vapour deposition.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Philippe; Caussat, Brigitte; Ablitzer, Carine; Iltis, Xavière; Brothier, Meryl

    2011-09-01

    In order to study the feasibility of coating very dense powders by alumina using Fluidized Bed Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition (FB-MOCVD), experiments were performed on a commercial tungsten powder, 75 microm in median volume diameter and 19,300 kg/m3 in grain density. The first part of the work was dedicated to the experimental study of the tungsten powder fluidization using argon as carrier gas at room temperature and at 400 degrees C. Due to the very high density of the tungsten powder, leading to low initial fixed bed heights and low bed expansions, different weights of powder were tested in order to reach satisfactory temperature profiles along the fluidized bed. Then, using argon as a fluidized bed former and aluminium acetylacetonate Al(C5O2H7)3 as a single source precursor, alumina thin films were deposited on tungsten particles at a low temperature range (e.g., 370-420 degrees C) by FB-MOCVD. The influence of the weight of powder, bed temperature and run duration was studied. Characterizations of the obtained samples were performed by various techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analyses, Field Emission Gun SEM (FEG-SEM) and Fourier Transform InfraRed (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The different analyses indicated that tungsten particles were uniformly coated by a continuous alumina thin film. The thickness of the film ranged between 25 and 80 nm, depending on the coating conditions. The alumina thin films were amorphous and contained carbon contamination. This latter may correspond to the adsorption of species resulting from incomplete decomposition of the precursor at so low deposition temperature. PMID:22097534

  10. Growth and decay of localized disturbances on a surfactant-coated spreading film Benjamin J. Fischer and Sandra M. Troian*

    E-print Network

    Troian, Sandra M.

    Growth and decay of localized disturbances on a surfactant-coated spreading film Benjamin J liquid film is suddenly coated by a patch of surface active material like a surfactant monolayer, the film is set in motion and begins spreading. An insoluble surfactant will rapidly attempt to coat

  11. Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds by Weight-Detectable Sensors coated with Metal-Organic Frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Yamagiwa, Hiroki; Sato, Seiko; Fukawa, Tadashi; Ikehara, Tsuyoshi; Maeda, Ryutaro; Mihara, Takashi; Kimura, Mutsumi

    2014-01-01

    Detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using weight-detectable quartz microbalance and silicon-based microcantilever sensors coated with crystalline metal-organic framework (MOF) thin films is described in this paper. The thin films of two MOFs were grown from COOH-terminated self-assembled monolayers onto the gold electrodes of sensor platforms. The MOF layers worked as the effective concentrators of VOC gases, and the adsorption/desorption processes of the VOCs could be monitored by the frequency changes of weight-detectable sensors. Moreover, the MOF layers provided VOC sensing selectivity to the weight-detectable sensors through the size-selective adsorption of the VOCs within the regulated nanospace of the MOFs. PMID:25175808

  12. Effect of metal film thickness on surface-atom coupling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnold Adams; R. W. Rendell; R. W. Garnett; P. K. Hansma; Horia Metiu

    1980-01-01

    Metal film thickness is found to be an important parameter in the nonradiative coupling of atoms to metal surfaces. Silver, sodium, and potasium films in the thickness range 8-120 nm are evaporated onto a 40 K substrate in ultra high vacuum. At 11 K, layers of N2 in the thickness range 3-300 nm are condensed onto the metal films. Low

  13. Potential of thin, sputtered films as erosion resistant protective coatings, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentner, K.; Newhart, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    The characteristics of thin, pyrolytically deposited films for protection of surfaces from oxidation and abrasion are discussed. The limitations of depositing erosion resistant films are described. Environmental tests of first stage compressor blades in a T-58 engine after coating with a thin film were conducted. Photographic examples of the effectiveness of the thin films in protecting the turbine blades are provided. Methods for operating a sputtering system and the equipment used for film deposition are defined.

  14. Preparation of cobalt doped nickel ferrite thin films on optical fibers by dip-coating technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miroslav Sedlar; Ladislav Pust

    1995-01-01

    Cobalt doped NiFe2O4 thin films were synthesized using dip-coating wet-chemical process using a solution of iron (III) nitrate dissolved in ethylene glycol and 2-methoxyethanol. Films coated on flat (alumina plates, fused silica, slide glass) substrates and optical fibers were dense and without defects. The onset of the film crystallization was between 450 and 500 °C and crystallinity increased with increasing

  15. Anomalous hopping exponents of ultrathin metal films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, J. C.

    2001-07-01

    Under the above title Markovic et al. [Phys. Rev. B 62, 2195 (2000)] summarized their and others' low-temperature data that show that a consistent underlying conduction mechanism is needed to explain thermally activated resistivities, with an exponent x=0.75(5), on films of Ag, Bi, Pb, and Pd, with thicknesses of 5-15 Å. While this x cannot be explained by any kind of conventional continuum hopping model, with or without Coulomb interactions, here it is shown that the exponent x=34 is the direct result of a filamentary vibron quantum percolation model appropriate to a granular network film. The concepts used in this model were recently used to derive finite-size scaling exponents and/or phase diagrams in many other contexts, including network glasses, the impurity band metal-insulator transition, high-temperature superconductors, and evolutionary biology.

  16. Metallic oxide switches using thick film technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, D. N.; Williams, L., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Metallic oxide thick film switches were processed on alumina substrates using thick film technology. Vanadium pentoxide in powder form was mixed with other oxides e.g., barium, strontium copper and glass frit, ground to a fine powder. Pastes and screen printable inks were made using commercial conductive vehicles and appropriate thinners. Some switching devices were processed by conventional screen printing and firing of the inks and commercial cermet conductor terminals on 96% alumina substrates while others were made by applying small beads or dots of the pastes between platinum wires. Static, and dynamic volt-ampere, and pulse tests indicate that the switching and self-oscillatory characteristics of these devices could make them useful in memory element, oscillator, and automatic control applications.

  17. Thin Semiconductor/Metal Films For Infrared Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, James L.; Nagendra, Channamallappa L.

    1995-01-01

    Spectral responses of absorbers and reflectors tailored. Thin cermet films composites of metals and semiconductors undergoing development for use as broadband infrared reflectors and absorbers. Development extends concepts of semiconductor and dielectric films used as interference filters for infrared light and visible light. Composite films offer advantages over semiconductor films. Addition of metal particles contributes additional thermal conductivity, reducing thermal gradients and associated thermal stresses, with resultant enhancements of thermal stability. Because values of n in composite films made large, same optical effects achieved with lesser thicknesses. By decreasing thicknesses of films, one not only decreases weights but also contributes further to reductions of thermal stresses.

  18. Solventless photocurable film coating: Evaluation of drug release, mechanical strength, and photostability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sagarika Bose; Robin H. Bogner

    2007-01-01

    A new solventless photocurable film-coating system was investigated in which nonpareil beads were coated in a minicoating\\u000a pan with liquid prepolymer (L) and powdered solid pore-forming agents (S) and cured by UV light. Release from the coating\\u000a could by altered by changing the material, the number of layers, and the coating thickness. Immediate release of a blue dye\\u000a contained in

  19. Method of applying a bond coating and a thermal barrier coating on a metal substrate, and related articles

    DOEpatents

    Hasz, Wayne Charles (Pownal, VT); Borom, Marcus Preston (Tucson, AZ)

    2002-01-01

    A method for applying at least one bond coating on a surface of a metal-based substrate is described. A foil of the bond coating material is first attached to the substrate surface and then fused thereto, e.g., by brazing. The foil is often initially prepared by thermally spraying the bond coating material onto a removable support sheet, and then detaching the support sheet. Optionally, the foil may also include a thermal barrier coating applied over the bond coating. The substrate can be a turbine engine component.

  20. Thin film pc-Si by aluminium induced crystallization on metallic substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delachat, F.; Antoni, F.; Prathap, P.; Slaoui, A.; Cayron, C.; Ducros, C.

    2013-04-01

    Thin film polycrystalline silicon (pc-Si) on flexible metallic substrates is promising for low cost production of photovoltaic solar cells. One of the attractive methods to produce pc-Si solar cells consists in thickening a large-grained seed layer by epitaxy. In this work, the deposited seed layer is made by aluminium induced crystallization (AIC) of an amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin film on metallic substrates (Ni/Fe alloy) initially coated with a tantalum nitride (TaN) conductive diffusion barrier layer. Effect of the thermal budget on the AIC grown pc-Si seed layer was investigated in order to optimize the process (i.e. the quality of the pc-Si thin film). Structural and optical characterizations were carried out using optical microscopy, ?-Raman and Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD). At optimal thermal annealing conditions, the continuous AIC grown pc-Si thin film showed an average grain size around 15 ?m. The grains were preferably (001) oriented which is favorable for its epitaxial thickening. This work proves the feasibility of the AIC method to grow large grains pc-Si seed layer on TaN coated metal substrates. These results are, in terms of grains size, the finest obtained by AIC on metallic substrates.

  1. The evaluation of the corrosion resistance of metallic substrates protected by a hydrophobic coating

    E-print Network

    Lee, Daniel G

    1996-01-01

    the performance of hydrophobic materials in corrosion service, metallic substrates of aluminum, copper, and steel were coated with a hydrophobic coating termed conformal and subjected to a variety of intensive analytical examinations including Electrochemical...

  2. Plasma-sprayed metal-glass fluoride coatings for lubrication to 1170 K (1650 F)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, H. E.

    1974-01-01

    Plasma spray of Nichrome matrix composite contains dispersed glass for oxidation protection and calcium fluoride for lubrication. Coatings can be applied to bearing journals and bearing bores. Coating was easily machinable and had excellent bond strength on substrate metal.

  3. Radiation damage in nanostructured metallic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Kaiyuan

    High energy neutron and charged particle radiation cause microstructural and mechanical degradation in structural metals and alloys, such as phase segregation, void swelling, embrittlement and creep. Radiation induced damages typically limit nuclear materials to a lifetime of about 40 years. Next generation nuclear reactors require materials that can sustain over 60 - 80 years. Therefore it is of great significance to explore new materials with better radiation resistance, to design metals with favorable microstructures and to investigate their response to radiation. The goals of this thesis are to study the radiation responses of several nanostructured metallic thin film systems, including Ag/Ni multilayers, nanotwinned Ag and nanocrystalline Fe. Such systems obtain high volume fraction of boundaries, which are considered sinks to radiation induced defects. From the viewpoint of nanomechanics, it is of interest to investigate the plastic deformation mechanisms of nanostructured films, which typically show strong size dependence. By controlling the feature size (layer thickness, twin spacing and grain size), it is applicable to picture a deformation mechanism map which also provides prerequisite information for subsequent radiation hardening study. And from the viewpoint of radiation effects, it is of interest to explore the fundamentals of radiation response, to examine the microstructural and mechanical variations of irradiated nanometals and to enrich the design database. More importantly, with the assistance of in situ techniques, it is appealing to examine the defect generation, evolution, annihilation, absorption and interaction with internal interfaces (layer interfaces, twin boundaries and grain boundaries). Moreover, well-designed nanostructures can also verify the speculation that radiation induced defect density and hardening show clear size dependence. The focus of this thesis lies in the radiation response of Ag/Ni multilayers and nanotwinned Ag subjected to charged particles. The radiation effects in irradiated nanograined Fe are also investigated for comparison. Radiation responses in these nanostructured metallic films suggest that immiscible incoherent Ag/Ni multilayers are more resistant to radiation in comparison to their monolithic counterparts. Their mechanical properties and radiation response show strong layer thickness dependence in terms of radiation hardening and defect density. Coherent twin boundaries can interact with stacking fault tetrahedral and remove them effectively. Twin boundaries can actively absorb radiation induced defects and defect clusters resulting in boundary migration. Size dependence is also found in nanograins where fewer defects exhibit in films with smaller grains.

  4. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of metal coated ZnO nanowires.

    PubMed

    Pyne, Santanu; Sahoo, Gobinda Prasad; Bhui, Dipak Kumar; Bar, Harekrishna; Sarkar, Priyanka; Samanta, Sadhan; Maity, Ashim; Misra, Ajay

    2012-07-01

    A simple, facile and template free route has been described for the synthesis of ZnO nanowires. The morphology and structure of ZnO nanowires have been tuned by deposing silver and gold onto the surface of ZnO nanowire and this has been done by adding AgNO(3) and HAuCl(4) to aqueous suspension of ZnO. Our synthesized Ag and Au coated ZnO nanoparticles show different emissive property than the native ZnO nanowires. The photocatalytic degradation of Methylene Blue is also evaluated using ZnO and Ag and Au coated ZnO nanowires. It has been observed that Ag coated ZnO nano-needles exhibits significantly enhanced photocatalytic efficiency compare to ZnO nanowire and Au coated ZnO nano-leaves. Fluorescence spectra and surface structure of the samples with their photocatalytic activity indicates that surface deposited metal serves as an electron sinks to enhance the separation of photoinduced electrons from holes, leading to the formation of OH and it enhances their photocatalytic efficiency. PMID:22465775

  5. High-barrier coated bacterial cellulose nanowhiskers films with reduced moisture sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sanz, Marta; Lopez-Rubio, Amparo; Lagaron, Jose M

    2013-10-15

    This study reports on the development and characterization of bacterial cellulose (BCNW) films coated with hydrophobic layers, presenting enhanced barrier properties. Pure BCNW films showed good transparency and thermal stability, high rigidity and extremely low oxygen permeability at 0%RH. The dramatic increase in oxygen permeability at 80%RH, due to the hydrophilic character of BCNW, was counteracted through coating the films with annealed PLA electrospun nanostructured fibres or hydrophobic silanes. The use of electrospinning was crucial to attain a good adhesion between the hydrophilic BCNW and the hydrophobic PLA layer. After electrospinning, the fibres were homogenised by annealing, thus obtaining a uniform and continuous coating. Coated systems showed a hydrophobic surface and protected the BCNW from moisture, thus reducing ca. 70% the water permeability and up to 97% the oxygen permeability at 80%RH. Furthermore, this novel approach was seen to protect BCNW films from moisture more efficiently than coating with hydrophobic silanes. PMID:23987449

  6. Oxygen reduction kinetics on a platinum RDE coated with a recast Nafion film

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Gottesfeld; I. D. Raistrick; S. Srinivasan

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of currents of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at a Pt RDE coated with a recast Nafion film yield the permeability of Oâ through such films. Combined with results from linear potential scanning experiments on similar electrodes, these measurements also allow the separate evaluation of the concentration of Oâ and its diffusion coefficient in such films. Similar recast Nafion

  7. Formation of carbonated hydroxyapatite films on metallic surfaces using dihexadecyl phosphate-LB film as template.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Israel D; Cruz, Marcos A E; de Faria, Amanda N; Zancanela, Daniela C; Simão, Ana M S; Ciancaglini, Pietro; Ramos, Ana P

    2014-06-01

    Hydroxyapatite serves as a bioactive material for biomedical purposes, because it shares similarities with the inorganic part of the bone. However, how this material deposits on metallic surfaces using biomimetic matrices remains unclear. In this study, we deposited dihexadecyl phosphate, a phospholipid that bears a simple chemical structure, on stainless steel and titanium surfaces using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique; we employed the resulting matrix to grow carbonated hydroxyapatite. We obtained the calcium phosphate coating via a two-step process: we immersed the surfaces modified with the LB films into phosphate buffer, and then, we exposed the metal to a solution that simulated the concentration of ions in the human plasma. The latter step generated carbonated hydroxyapatite, the same mineral existing in the bone. The free energy related to the surface roughness and composition increased after we modified the supports. We investigated the film morphology by scanning electron and atomic force microscopies and determined surface composition by infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray. We also studied the role of the surface roughness and the surface chemistry on cell viability. The surface-modified Ti significantly increased osteoblastic cells proliferation, supporting the potential use of these surfaces as osteogenic materials. PMID:24727116

  8. Cyclic nanoindentation studies on CrN thin films prepared by RF sputtering on Zr-based metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jellad, A.; Labdi, S.; Benameur, T.

    2011-01-01

    Cyclic nanoindentation tests were carried out to study the influence of the chromium nitride thin films on the mechanical properties of Zr-based metallic glass. Chromium nitride thin coatings have been deposited on Zr50Cu40Al10 metallic glass substrate by RF sputtering. The deposition process was done at room temperature under nitrogen reactive gas using a metallic chromium target. The CrN films have a thickness of 300 nm. Several cyclic nanoindentation measurements were conducted on CrN films and Zr50Cu40Al10 metallic glass substrate samples at various loading rate values. We have found that the coated metallic glass sample shows high mechanical properties such as hardness and reduced elastic modulus. Cyclic nanoindentation results show a hardening behaviour for these CrN coatings. Moreover, the CrN coated on Zr-based metallic glass was found to have a high value of resistance to crack propagation, as being analysed through the SEM pictures of the residual Vickers indentation impressions.

  9. Cyclic nanoindentation studies on CrN thin films prepared by RF sputtering on Zr-based metallic glass

    SciTech Connect

    Jellad, A.; Benameur, T. [Laboratoire de Genie Mecanique LGM-MA05, ENIM, Av. Ibn El Jazzar, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Labdi, S. [Laboratoire d'etudes des Milieux Nanometriques, UEVE, Bd F. Mitterand, 91025 Evry Cedex (France)

    2011-01-17

    Cyclic nanoindentation tests were carried out to study the influence of the chromium nitride thin films on the mechanical properties of Zr-based metallic glass. Chromium nitride thin coatings have been deposited on Zr{sub 50}Cu{sub 40}Al{sub 10} metallic glass substrate by RF sputtering. The deposition process was done at room temperature under nitrogen reactive gas using a metallic chromium target. The CrN films have a thickness of 300 nm. Several cyclic nanoindentation measurements were conducted on CrN films and Zr{sub 50}Cu{sub 40}Al{sub 10} metallic glass substrate samples at various loading rate values. We have found that the coated metallic glass sample shows high mechanical properties such as hardness and reduced elastic modulus. Cyclic nanoindentation results show a hardening behaviour for these CrN coatings. Moreover, the CrN coated on Zr-based metallic glass was found to have a high value of resistance to crack propagation, as being analysed through the SEM pictures of the residual Vickers indentation impressions.

  10. Low-pressure reactive dc-magnetron sputter deposition of metal-oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pond, Bradley J.; Du, Tu; Sobczak, J.; Carniglia, Charles K.; Williams, Forrest L.

    1992-07-01

    Improvements in magnetron sputtering technology have made it possible to deposit compound thin films at total pressures as low as approximately 1 X 10-4 torr. Deposition at these lower pressures increases the mean free path of molecules within the vacuum chamber, thereby allowing for greater adatom energies on the substrate surface. By increasing adatom energy, low-pressure dc-magnetron sputtering can lead to the deposition of dense metal-oxide films that are resistant to the adsorption of atmospheric water (H2O). We report results showing improved environmental stability in single-layer films of silica (SiO2) and alumina (Al2O3) deposited using a 8-in-diameter dc magnetron source. Metal targets were used, with argon (Ar) as the sputtering gas and oxygen (O2) as the reactive gas. The silicon target was doped with 5-percent Al to improve its electrical conductivity. The effects of target voltage, Ar partial pressure, and O2 partial pressure were studied. In addition, several source geometries were tested in order to optimize the coating thickness uniformity. Film moisture content was characterized by spectral transmittance near the H2O optical absorption band at 2.8 micrometers . Deposition at total pressures < 3 X 10-4 torr resulted in SiO2 coatings with minimal H2O content, while all Al2O3 coatings exhibited no H2O content.

  11. Nanocomposite metal amorphous-carbon thin films deposited by hybrid PVD and PECVD technique.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, V; Soares, P; Martins, A J; Carneiro, J; Cerqueira, F

    2009-07-01

    Carbon based films can combine the properties of solid lubricating graphite structure and hard diamond crystal structure, i.e., high hardness, chemical inertness, high thermal conductivity and optical transparency without the crystalline structure of diamond. Issues of fundamental importance associated with nanocarbon coatings are reducing stress, improving adhesion and compatibility with substrates. In this work new nanocomposite coatings with improved toughness based in nanocrystalline phases of metals and ceramics embedded in amorphous carbon matrix are being developed within the frame of a research project: nc-MeNxCy/a-C(Me) with Me = Mo, Si, Al, Ti, etc. Carbide forming metal/carbon (Me/C) composite films with Me = Mo, W or Ti possess appropriate properties to overcome the limitation of pure DLC films. These novel coating architectures will be adopted with the objective to decrease residual stress, improve adherence and fracture toughness, obtain low friction coefficient and high wear-resistance. Nanocomposite DLC's films were deposited by hybrid technique using a PVD-Physically Vapor Deposition (magnetron sputtering) and Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD), by the use of CH4 gas. The parameters varied were: deposition time, substrate temperature (180 degrees C) and dopant (Si + Mo) of the amorphous carbon matrix. All the depositions were made on silicon wafers and steel substrates precoated with a silicon inter-layer. The characterisation of the film's physico-mechanical properties will be presented in order to understand the influence of the deposition parameters and metal content used within the a-C matrix in the thin film properties. Film microstructure and film hybridization state was characterized by Raman Spectroscopy. In order to characterize morphology SEM and AFM will be used. Film composition was measured by Energy-Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) and by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The contact angle for the produced DLC's on silicon substrates were also measured. Thin film adherence was studied by micro-scratch test. Residual stresses in the produced coatings will be analysed by bending technique. PMID:19916409

  12. An evaluation of process parameters to improve coating efficiency of an active tablet film-coating process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jennifer; Hemenway, Jeffrey; Chen, Wei; Desai, Divyakant; Early, William; Paruchuri, Srinivasa; Chang, Shih-Ying; Stamato, Howard; Varia, Sailesh

    2012-05-10

    Effects of material and manufacturing process parameters on the efficiency of an aqueous active tablet film-coating process in a perforated pan coater were evaluated. Twenty-four batches representing various core tablet weights, sizes, and shapes were coated at the 350-500 kg scale. The coating process efficiency, defined as the ratio of the amount of active deposited on tablet cores to the amount of active sprayed, ranged from 86 to 99%. Droplet size and velocity of the coating spray were important for an efficient coating process. Factors governing them such as high ratios of the suspension spray rate to atomization air flow rate, suspension spray rate to pattern air flow rate, or atomization air flow rate to pattern air flow rate improved the coating efficiency. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of the droplets showed that reducing the fraction of the smaller droplets, especially those smaller than 10 ?m, resulted in a marked improvement in the coating efficiency. Other material and process variables such as coating suspension solids concentration, pan speed, tablet velocity, exhaust air temperature, and the length of coating time did not affect the coating efficiency profoundly over the ranges examined here. PMID:22301427

  13. Post metalation of solvothermally grown electroactive porphyrin metal-organic framework thin films.

    PubMed

    Kung, Chung-Wei; Chang, Ting-Hsiang; Chou, Li-Yao; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    2015-01-27

    Uniform thin films of a metal-organic framework, which is constructed from free-base porphyrin linkers and hexa-zirconium nodes (MOF-525), are solvothermally grown on conducting substrates. Subsequently, solvothermal post metalations are employed to prepare the Zn-MOF-525 and Co-MOF-525 thin films. All the thin films are electroactive in aqueous media. PMID:25563859

  14. Western blotting by thin-film direct coating.

    PubMed

    Yen, Yi-Kuang; Jiang, Yi-Wei; Chang, Shih-Chung; Wang, An-Bang

    2014-05-20

    A novel thin-film direct coating (TDC) technique was developed to markedly reduce the amount of antibody required for Western blotting (WB). Automatic application of the technique for a few seconds easily and homogeneously coats the specific primary antibody on the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane. While conventional WB requires 0.4 ?g of the primary antibody, the proposed technique only uses 4 × 10(-2) ?g, which can be reduced further to 4 × 10(-5) ?g by reducing the coater width. Moreover, the proposed process reduces antibody probing times from 60 to 10 min. The quantification capability of TDC WB showed high linearity within a 4-log2 dynamic range for detecting target antigen glutathione-S-transferase. Furthermore, TDC WB can specifically detect the extrinsic glutathione-S-transferase added in the Escherichia coli or 293T cell lysate with better staining sensitivity than conventional WB. TDC WB can also clearly probe the intrinsic ?-actin, ?-tubulin, and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, which are usually used as control proteins in biological experiments. This novel technique has been shown to not only have valuable potential for increasing WB efficiency but also for providing significant material savings for future biomedical applications. PMID:24773468

  15. Enhanced electrochemical properties of fluoride-coated LiCoO2 thin films.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Jin; Kim, Seuk Buom; Park, Yong Joon

    2012-01-01

    The electrochemical properties of fluoride-coated lithium cobalt oxide [LiCoO2] thin films were characterized. Aluminum fluoride [AlF3] and lanthanum fluoride [LaF3] coating layers were fabricated on a pristine LiCoO2 thin film by using a spin-coating process. The AlF3- and LaF3-coated films exhibited a higher rate capability, cyclic performance, and stability at high temperature than the pristine film. This indicates that the AlF3 and LaF3 layers effectively protected the surface of the pristine LiCoO2 film from the reactive electrolyte. PMID:22221488

  16. 21 CFR 888.3670 - Shoulder joint metal/polymer/metal nonconstrained or semi-constrained porous-coated uncemented...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...nonconstrained or semi-constrained porous-coated uncemented prosthesis...nonconstrained or semi-constrained porous-coated uncemented...ultra-high molecular weight bearing surface fixed in a metal shell...and glenoid backing have a porous coating made of, in...

  17. 21 CFR 888.3670 - Shoulder joint metal/polymer/metal nonconstrained or semi-constrained porous-coated uncemented...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...nonconstrained or semi-constrained porous-coated uncemented prosthesis...nonconstrained or semi-constrained porous-coated uncemented...ultra-high molecular weight bearing surface fixed in a metal shell...and glenoid backing have a porous coating made of, in...

  18. 21 CFR 888.3670 - Shoulder joint metal/polymer/metal nonconstrained or semi-constrained porous-coated uncemented...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...nonconstrained or semi-constrained porous-coated uncemented prosthesis...nonconstrained or semi-constrained porous-coated uncemented...ultra-high molecular weight bearing surface fixed in a metal shell...and glenoid backing have a porous coating made of, in...

  19. Characteristics of indirect laser-induced plasma from a thin film of oil on a metallic substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiu, Jun-Shan; Bai, Xue-Shi; Motto-Ros, Vincent; Yu, Jin

    2015-04-01

    Optical emissions from the major and trace elements embodied in a transparent gel prepared from cooking oil were detected after the gel was spread in a thin film on a metallic substrate. Such emissions are due to the indirect breakdown of the coating layer. The generated plasma, a mixture of substances from the substrate, the layer, and the ambient gas, was characterized using emission spectroscopy. The characteristics of the plasma formed on the metal with and without the coating layer were investigated. The results showed that Al emission induced from the aluminum substrates coated with oil films extends away from the target surface to ablate the oil film. This finally formed a bifurcating circulation of aluminum vapor against a spherical confinement wall in the front of the plume, which differed from the evolution of the plasma induced from the uncoated aluminum target. The strongest emissions of elements from the oil films can be observed at 2 mm above the target after a detection delay of 1.0 ?s. A high temperature zone has been observed in the plasma after the delay of 1.0 ?s for the plasma induced from the coated metal. This higher temperature determined in the plasma allows the consideration of the sensitive detection of trace elements in liquids, gels, biological samples, or thin films.

  20. High-speed thermography of thin metallic coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netzelmann, U.; Walle, G.

    1999-03-01

    A high-speed infrared array camera was used to perform pulsed video thermography on metallic MCrAlY coatings on a Ni-base alloy with thicknesses in the range of 37 to 130 microns. A flash lamp with controllable pulse duration was used. Delaminations at the interface of a 310 ?m thick copper layer on aluminum nitride ceramic could be observed. The thermal decay curves were modeled considering the measured temporal profile of the excitation light. The results were verified by high-frequency ultrasound measurements at 50 to 80 MHz.

  1. A Investigation Into the Relaxation Behavior of Pharmaceutical Film Coatings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinko, Christopher Michael

    Polymeric materials utilized as film coatings exhibit many different time dependent relaxations which can yield relevant information regarding their use. In this dissertation research, the effect of additives on the primary relaxation behavior and the effect of physical aging, a relaxation to the lowest free energy state, on the physical properties of glassy polymeric materials was investigated. Glassy polymeric materials were chosen in this study since they are widely utilized in the pharmaceutical industry. The observation of the aging process using a creep compliance technique was confirmed with polystyrene, a material whose aging behavior has been well studied. Results from both hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate, HP-55, and cellulose acetate indicate that these materials physically age in their sub-Tg temperature ranges. The mechanical data in both cases was successfully fit to a model which describes the relaxation behavior of condensed amorphous materials. The aging time and temperature dependence of key parameters from this model show that physical aging is thermally activated and thermoreversible. Aging time and temperature dependent reductions in the water permeability of cellulose acetate were observed. The reductions were correlated with calculations, based on the mechanical property changes, which describe the aging -induced relaxation of the glass. These results indicate that a structural change due to aging may be responsible for the observed reductions in water mobility in cellulose acetate. The dissolution rate of HP-55 was found to decrease to a limiting rate when physically aged. Mechanical measurements performed on film samples which were subjected to the same thermal history utilized in the dissolution experiments confirmed the observed aging effect. The effect of the addition of the plasticizers dibutyl phthalate and polyethylene glycol 200 on the primary relaxation behavior of Eudragit S100, an enteric coating, was also evaluated in this dissertation. Creep compliance measurements were performed on films in the glass transition region. Both plasticizers were found to increase the mechanical rate of response of the polymer. A free volume approach was used to describe plasticizing efficiency and it was found that dibutyl phthalate was more effective at changing the mechanical rate of response of Eudragit S100 than polyethylene glycol 200.

  2. Electrical anisotropy in spin-coated polymer films

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, S.A.; Bidstrup-Allen, S.A. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Polymeric materials such as polyimides are used in a multitude of microelectronic applications including interlevel dielectrics for insulation. Polyimide films have shown a difference between the through-plane and in-plane refractive index measurements. This anisotropy in optical properties has been attributed to in-plane orientation of polymer chains and implies anisotropy in electrical properties. Thus, it is necessary to measure the electrical properties in both the in-plane and through-plane directions to accurately design three-dimensional electronic packages. The purpose of this research is to develop an in-situ technique to measure the in-plane permittivity of these spin-coated polymer films. Using capacitance measurements obtained from interdigitated electrodes, through-plane permittivity measurements, and ANSYS finite element analysis software, the in-plane permittivity of a given material can be determined. Several polyimide systems including Du Pont PI-2540 (BPDA-PPD), Du Pont PI-2540 (PMDA-ODA), and Probimide 293 (BTDA-DAPI) from OCG Microelectronics, as well as Cyclotene 3022 (BCB) from Dow Chemical were investigated. Significant anisotropy in the electrical properties was observed for the three polyimide systems but not for the BCB system. The in-plane permittivities determined for BPDA-PPD and BCB were in agreement with those predicted using a modified Maxwell`s equation. Those calculated for BTDA-DAPI and PMDA-ODA were higher than predicted from the modified Maxwell`s equation potentially due to anisotropic moisture diffusion in the polymer film or anisotropy in the frequency dispersion between the optical and electrical measurements.

  3. Characterization of nanostructured metal films by picosecond acoustics and interferometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. E. O'Hara; Xiaoyuan Hu; David G. Cahill

    2001-01-01

    Picosecond interferometry is used to study the acoustics waves created by heating Pt films with a subpicosecond laser pulse. Both the period of the initial oscillations in the metal film and the amplitude of the sound wave in the substrate are measured quantitatively. The platinum films are roughened by irradiation with energetic ions. The amplitude of the sound wave is

  4. Metal-enhanced fluorescence: effect of surface coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lismont, M.; François, A.; Dreesen, L.; Monro, T. M.

    2014-03-01

    Metal Enhanced Fluorescence (MEF), a phenomenon arising when a fluorophore is in closed proximity to a metallic structure such as metallic films or nanostructures, is seen as a way to increase the amount of reactive oxygen species produced by the irradiation of the protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), a photosensitizer commonly used in photodynamic therapy. Here, we show a study of the distance-dependent of MEF by applying multiple layers of polyelectrolyte (PE) on silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to progressively increase the distance between AgNPs and PpIX, covalently bond to the last polyelectrolyte layer as well as exploring the use of AgNPs of different sizes ranging from 40 to 100 nm. Up to four fold increase of PpIX fluorescence was observed when this photosensitizing agent is bounded onto 100 nm sized Ag NPs. The effective corresponding distance between AgNPs and PpIX is three layers of PE.

  5. Scratch resistance of plasticized hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) films intended for tablet coatings.

    PubMed

    Hanhijärvi, Kalle; Majava, Terhi; Kassamakov, Ivan; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Aaltonen, Juha; Haapalainen, Jonne; Haeggström, Edward; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2010-02-01

    Scratch resistance (SR) of externally plasticized hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) films intended for tablet film coatings was studied. Special attention was paid to effects of short-term aging and ultraviolet (UV) treatment on the SR properties of these films. Controlled scratching of the films was performed with a Lloyd LRX materials tester featuring a spherical steel tip. Scratch surface profiles were measured by scanning white light interferometry (SWLI). The influence of using an external plasticizer on the SR was studied by comparing scratch dimensions in non-plasticized films to samples plasticized either with glycerol or polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400. The study demonstrates that both the amount and type of plasticizer influences the SR of aqueous HPMC films. It also shows that SWLI can quantitatively evaluate the effect of plasticizer content and aging on the SR of pharmaceutical films. This knowledge could be used to optimize pharmaceutical film coating formulations. PMID:19778608

  6. Sol-gel antireflective coating on plastics

    DOEpatents

    Ashley, C.S.; Reed, S.T.

    1988-01-26

    An antireflection film made from reliquified sol-gel hydrolyzation, condensation polymeric reaction product of a silicon, alkoxides and/or metal alkoxides, or mixtures thereof. The film is particularly useful for coating plastics.

  7. Sol-gel antireflective coating on plastics

    DOEpatents

    Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01

    An antireflection film made from a reliquified sol-gel hydrolyzation, condensation polymeric reaction product of a silicon, alkoxides and/or metal alkoxides, or mixtures thereof. The film is particularly useful for coating plastics.

  8. Promising antimicrobial capability of thin film metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Chu, Y Y; Lin, Y S; Chang, C M; Liu, J-K; Chen, C H; Huang, J C

    2014-03-01

    Thin film metallic glasses (TFMGs) are demonstrated to exhibit excellent surface flatness, high corrosion resistance and satisfactory hydrophobic properties. Moreover, the antimicrobial and biocompatibility abilities of TFMGs are examined and the results are compared with the behavior of pure Ag and 316L stainless steel. Three TFMGs, Al48Ag37Ti15, Zr54Ti35Si11, and Zr59Ti22Ag19, are prepared by sputtering to assess the antimicrobial performance against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which are the most common nosocomial infection pathogens. Experimental results show that the antimicrobial effect of the Al- or Ag-containing AlAgTi and ZrTiAg TFMGs is similar to that of the pure Ag coating. The ZrTiSi TFMG with no Ag or Al shows poor antimicrobial capability. The physical properties of highly smooth surface and hydrophobic nature alone are not sufficient to result in promising antimicrobial ability. The chemical metal ion release still plays a major role, which should be born in mind in designing biomedical devices. PMID:24433907

  9. Ellipsometry study on gold-nanoparticle-coated gold thin film for biosensing application

    PubMed Central

    Moirangthem, Rakesh Singh; Chang, Yia-Chung; Wei, Pei-Kuen

    2011-01-01

    The amplified plasmonic response from various distributions of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) coated on top of gold thin film was studied via ellipsometry under total internal reflection mode. The surface plasmon resonance dip can be tuned from the visible to near infrared by simply varying the AuNP concentration. Theoretical modeling based on effective medium theory with a multi-slice model has been employed to fit the experimental results. Additionally, this experimental tool has been further extended to study bio-molecular interactions with metal surfaces as well as in studying protein-protein interaction without any labeling. Hence, this technique could provide a non-destructive way of designing tunable label-free optical biosensors with very high sensitivity. PMID:21991549

  10. Oxygen and oil barrier properties of microfibrillated cellulose films and coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Aulin; Mikael Gällstedt; Tom Lindström

    2010-01-01

    The preparation of carboxymethylated microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) films by dispersion-casting from aqueous dispersions\\u000a and by surface coating on base papers is described. The oxygen permeability of MFC films were studied at different relative\\u000a humidity (RH). At low RH (0%), the MFC films showed very low oxygen permeability as compared with films prepared from plasticized\\u000a starch, whey protein and arabinoxylan and

  11. Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report; Summary

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    The Pentek metal coating removal system consists of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER(R), and VAC-PAC(R). The system is designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M ROTO-PEEN tungsten carbide cutters, while the CORNER-CUTTER(R) uses solid needles for descaling activities. These are used with the VAC-PAC(R) vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure was minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended, since the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place may skew the results. It is feasible that dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment. Other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

  12. Novel low-molecular-weight hypromellose polymeric films for aqueous film coating applications.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Hollie F; Sheskey, Paul J; Garcia-Todd, Paula; Felton, Linda A

    2011-12-01

    The concentration of hypromellose (HPMC) is known to significantly impact the viscosity of coating solutions. The purpose of this study was to determine the viscosity of novel low-molecular-weight (LMW) HPMC products as a function of polymer concentration. The mechanical properties and water vapor permeability of free films prepared from these novel LMW HPMC polymers were also determined and the results were compared with films prepared with conventional HPMC. Solutions of LMW and conventional HPMC 2910 and 2906 containing up to 40% polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 were prepared and the viscosities were measured using a Brookfield viscometer. Solutions were then cast onto glass plates and stored at 30?C and 50% relative humidity until films were formed. A Chatillon digital force gauge attached to a motorized test stand was used to quantify the mechanical properties of the films, whereas water vapor permeabilities were determined according to the ASTM E96 M-05 water method. As expected, the novel LMW polymer solutions exhibited significantly lower viscosities than the conventional comparators at equivalent polymer concentrations. Film strength of the LMW materials was lower than films prepared from the conventional HPMC solutions, although this effect was not as evident for the HPMC 2906 chemistry. Increasing concentrations of the plasticizer resulted in decreased tensile strength and Young?s modulus and increased elongation as well as increased water vapor permeability, irrespective of polymer type. No statistical difference was found between the tensile strength to Young?s modulus ratios of the F chemistry LMW and conventional HPMC polymer films. PMID:21615208

  13. Insulator coating for high temperature alloys method for producing insulator coating for high temperature alloys

    DOEpatents

    Park, Jong Hee (Clarendon Hills, IL)

    1998-01-01

    A method for fabricating an electrically insulating coating on a surface is disclosed comprising coating the surface with a metal, and reacting the metal coated surface with a nonmetal so as to create a film on the metal-coated surface. Alternatively, the invention provides for a method for producing a noncorrosive, electrically insulating coating on a surface saturated with a nonmetal comprising supplying a molten fluid, dissolving a metal in the molten fluid to create a mixture, and contacting the mixture with the saturated surface. Lastly, the invention provides an electrically insulative coating comprising an underlying structural substrate coated with an oxide or nitride compound

  14. Transition-metal-oxide coated titanium electrodes for redox batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savinell, R. F.

    1982-12-01

    The production of porous electrodes with reproducible surface activity for experiments to corroborate predictions of porous electrode theory to ascertain if simple one step outer sphere electron transfer mechanism applies to the ferric-ferrous redox reaction at high reactant/product concentrations in a strong acid chloride medium was investigated. Kinetic rate expressions of this couple under these conditions at the metal oxide surfaces were sought. Coatings of the conductive and active rutile structure form of selected transition metal oxides were desired. Both IrO2 and RuO2 coatings having the rutile structure were prepared by thermal decomposition of their respective hydrated chloride salts. Low over potential exchange current densities of the ferric-ferrous couple were measured in concentrated solution at Pt, RuO2 and IrO2 RDF's. Significant corrections were necessary for ohmic effects, mass transfer effects, and nonuniform current distribution. It is shown that the electrocatalytic activity of RuO2 is comparable to that of Pt while the activity of IrO2 is approximately an order of magnitude less than Pt. The measured free energy of activation was similar for all three substrates and a nonbinding interaction between the couple and the surfaces is suggested. The variation in exchange currents among the different substrates can be attributed to some extent on double layer effects but primarily to crystal structure differences.

  15. Implementation of Carbon Thin Film Coatings in the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) for Electron Cloud Mitigation

    E-print Network

    Costa Pinto, P; Basso, T; Edwards, P; Mensi, M; Sublet, A; Taborelli, M

    2014-01-01

    Low Secondary Electron Yield (SEY) carbon thin films eradicate electron multipacting in accelerator beam pipes. Two magnetic cells of the SPS were coated with such material and installed. In total more than forty vacuum vessels and magnet interconnections were treated. The feasibility of the coating process was validated. The performance of the carbon thin film will be tested with LHC nominal beams after the end of the long shutdown 1. Particular attention will be drawn to the long term behaviour. This paper presents the sputtering techniques used to coat the different components; their characterization (SEY measurements on coupons, RF multipacting tests and pump down curves); and the technology to etch the carbon film in case of a faulty coating. The strategy to coat the entire SPS will also be described.

  16. Solid film lubricants and thermal control coatings flown aboard the EOIM-3 MDA sub-experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Taylor J.; David, Kaia E.; Babel, Hank W.

    1995-01-01

    Additional experimental data were desired to support the selection of candidate thermal control coatings and solid film lubricants for the McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (MDA) Space Station hardware. The third Evaluation of Oxygen Interactions With Materials Mission (EOIM-3) flight experiment presented an opportunity to study the effects of the low Earth orbit environment on thermal control coatings and solid film lubricants. MDA provided five solid film lubricants and two anodic thermal control coatings for EOIM-3. The lubricant sample set consisted of three solid film lubricants with organic binders one solid film lubricant with an inorganic binder, and one solid film lubricant with no binder. The anodize coating sample set consisted of undyed sulfuric acid anodize and cobalt sulfide dyed sulfuric acid anodize, each on two different substrate aluminum alloys. The organic and inorganic binders in the solid film lubricants experienced erosion, and the lubricating pigments experienced oxidation. MDA is continuing to assess the effect of exposure to the low Earth orbit environment on the life and friction properties of the lubricants. Results to date support the design practice of shielding solid film lubricants from the low Earth orbit environment. Post-flight optical property analysis of the anodized specimens indicated that there were limited contamination effects and some atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation effects. These effects appeared to be within the values predicted by simulated ground testing and analysis of these materials, and they were different for each coating and substrate.

  17. Chemical vapor deposition thin films as biopassivation coatings and directly patternable dielectrics

    E-print Network

    Pryce Lewis, Hilton G. (Hilton Gavin), 1973-

    2001-01-01

    Organosilicon thin films deposited by pulsed plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PPECVD) and hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) were investigated as potential biopassivation coatings for neural probes. ...

  18. [Preparation by spin-coating technology and characterization of UV-enhanced Lumogen film].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lin; Zhang, Da-Wei; Tao, Chun-Xian; Huang, Yuan-Shen; Wang, Qi; Ni, Zheng-Ji; Zhuang, Song-Lin

    2013-02-01

    As an effective way to increase the UV response for CCD/CMOS, the advantage of the Lumogen film is the simple process and low cost. In the present paper the Lumogen film was deposited onto fused silica slides by the spin-coating way, which has less damage than PVD physical vacuum deposition) way. The main test and analysis of the thin-film include transmission spectrum, absorption spectrum, and excitation and emission spectrum. It was showed that these coatings were transmitted well in visible region (lambda > 400 nm), and emitted a yellowish green glow centered at -525 nm together with a wide excitation spectrum range from 200 to 400 nm. The synthesis shows that Lumogen coatings match accurately with the detected spectrum of conventional silicon-based image sensors, which makes this kind of thin films an ultraviolet responsive coating for sensors. PMID:23697134

  19. Metal-insulator phase transition in vanadium oxides films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Golan; A. Axelevitch; B. Sigalov; B. Gorenstein

    2003-01-01

    Vanadium oxide films (VO2) are of a typical phase transition ranging between metal phase to a semi-conducting phase. The theoretical metamorphose temperature of VO2 is around 340K (67°C). This transition temperature is mostly governed by the deposition method in which the film was made, and the film's composition. Optical and electrical properties of VO2 films are dramatically changed during this

  20. Influence of semiconducting properties of nanoparticle coating on the electrochemical actuation of liquid metal marble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivan, Vijay; Tang, Shi-Yang; O'Mullane, Anthony P.; Petersen, Phred; Kalantar-zadeh, Kourosh; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Mitchell, Arnan

    2014-09-01

    Semiconducting properties of nanoparticle coating on liquid metal marbles can present opportunities for an additional dimension of control on these soft objects with functional surfaces in aqueous environments. We show the unique differences in the electrochemical actuation mechanisms of liquid metal marbles with n- and p-type semiconducting nanomaterial coating. A systematic study on such liquid metal marbles shows voltage dependent nanoparticle cluster formation and morphological changes of the liquid metal core during electrochemical actuations and these observations are unique to p-type nanomaterial coated liquid metal marbles.

  1. Amorphous metal formulations and structured coatings for corrosion and wear resistance

    DOEpatents

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2014-07-15

    A system for coating a surface comprising providing a source of amorphous metal that contains more than 11 elements and applying the amorphous metal that contains more than 11 elements to the surface by a spray. Also a coating comprising a composite material made of amorphous metal that contains more than 11 elements. An apparatus for producing a corrosion-resistant amorphous-metal coating on a structure comprises a deposition chamber, a deposition source in the deposition chamber that produces a deposition spray, the deposition source containing a composite material made of amorphous metal that contains more than 11 elements, and a system that directs the deposition spray onto the structure.

  2. Amorphous metal formulations and structured coatings for corrosion and wear resistance

    DOEpatents

    Farmer, Joseph C. (Tracy, CA)

    2011-12-13

    A system for coating a surface comprising providing a source of amorphous metal that contains more than 11 elements and applying the amorphous metal that contains more than 11 elements to the surface by a spray. Also a coating comprising a composite material made of amorphous metal that contains more than 11 elements. An apparatus for producing a corrosion-resistant amorphous-metal coating on a structure comprises a deposition chamber, a deposition source in the deposition chamber that produces a deposition spray, the deposition source containing a composite material made of amorphous metal that contains more than 11 elements, and a system that directs the deposition spray onto the structure.

  3. Straightforward technique for in situ imaging of spin-coated thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toolan, Daniel T. W.

    2015-02-01

    Spin-coating provides a facile method for the production of highly uniform thin films that have applications as photoresists, coatings, and in organic electronics. Due to the rapid high-speed nature of spin-coating, obtaining data in situ has proved problematic. Recently, a number of in situ characterization techniques have provided new insights into the processes occurring during spin-coating. This paper demonstrates a straightforward method for obtaining in situ optical reflectance images during spin-coating that provide insights into film thinning dynamics, the origins of surface inhomogeneities caused by contaminated substrates, and crystallization processes. This technique could be easily implemented industrially and in many laboratories and will allow for a better understanding of the spin-coating process.

  4. Evaluation of an Innovative Use of Removable Thin Film Coating Technology for the Abatement of Hazardous Contaminants

    PubMed Central

    Lumia, Margaret E.; Gentile, Charles; Gochfeld, Michael; Efthimion, Philip; Robson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates a new decontamination technique for the mitigation and abatement of hazardous particulates. The traditional decontamination methods used to clean facilities and equipment are time-consuming, prolonging workers' exposure time, may generate airborne hazards, and can be expensive. The use of removable thin film coating as a decontamination technique for surface contamination proved to be a more efficient method of decontamination. This method was tested at three different sites on different hazardous metals. One application of the coating reduced the levels of these metals 90% and had an average reduction of one magnitude. The paired t-tests that were performed for each metal demonstrated that there was a statistically significant reduction of the metal after the use of the coating: lead (p = 0.03), beryllium (p = 0.05), aluminum (p = 0.006), iron (p = 0.0001), and copper (p = 0.004). The Kendall tau-b correlation coefficient demonstrates that there was a positive correlation between the initial levels of contamination and the removal efficiency for all the samples taken from different locations on the floor for each of the three sites. This new decontamination technique worked efficiently, requiring only one application, which decreased exposure time and did not generate any airborne dust. PMID:19437305

  5. Tackiness of acrylic and cellulosic polymer films used in the coating of solid dosage forms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Wesseling; Frank Kuppler; Roland Bodmeier

    1999-01-01

    The objective was to determine the tackiness of acrylic and cellulosic polymer films in order to make predictions on the tackiness (agglomeration) of coated dosage forms during coating and curing. Force-displacement curves of the detachment process of two polymeric films were used as a measure of tackiness. Various polymers (cellulosic (Aquacoat®) and acrylics (Eudragit® RS 30D, L 30D, NE 30D)),

  6. Structure and Function of Protein-Based Edible Films and Coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirsten Dangaran; Peggy M. Tomasula; Phoebe Qi

    \\u000a Research and development on films and coatings made from various agricultural proteins has been conducted over the past 20\\u000a years, but is of heightened interest, due to the demand for environmentally-friendly, renewable replacements for petroleum-based\\u000a polymeric materials and plastics. To address this demand, films and coatings have been made from renewable resources, such\\u000a as casein, whey, soy, corn zein, collagen,

  7. Spectral identification of thin-film-coated and solid-form semiconductor neutron detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas S. McGregor; J. Kenneth Shultis

    2004-01-01

    Semiconductor-based solid-state neutron detectors have received considerable attention in recent years. These devices can be categorized as either thin-film-coated diode detectors or solid-form bulk detectors. There have been many attempts to fabricate boron-based solid-form detectors utilizing processing techniques similar to those frequently used to fabricate thin-film-coated diodes. Consequently, results from attempts to fabricate boron-based semiconductor neutron detectors are often misinterpreted

  8. Characteristics of thin cellulose ester films spin-coated from acetone and ethyl acetate solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Amim Jr; P. M. Kosaka; D. F. S. Petri

    2008-01-01

    Spin-coated films of cellulose acetate (CA), cellulose acetate propionate (CAP), cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and carboxymethylcellulose\\u000a acetate butyrate (CMCAB) have been characterized by ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurements.\\u000a The films were spin-coated onto silicon wafers, a polar surface. Mean thickness values were determined by means of ellipsometry\\u000a and AFM as a function of polymer concentration in

  9. Study of double layer rare earth metal conversion coating on aluminum alloy LY12

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Xingwen; Cao Chunan; Yao Zhiming; Zhou Derui; Yin Zhongda

    2001-01-01

    The process of the double layer rare earth metal (REM) conversion coating on aluminum alloy LY12 (2024) was introduced in this paper. The corrosion resistance of REM conversion coating was examined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results showed that the coating increased the corrosion resistance (Rp) of the alloy surface, thus reducing the driving force of corrosion. The morphologies of

  10. Epitaxial Electrodeposition of Chiral Metal Oxide Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Switzer, Jay

    2006-03-01

    Chirality is ubiquitous in Nature. One enantiomer of a molecule is often physiologically active, while the other enantiomer may be either inactive or toxic. Chiral surfaces offer the possibility of developing heterogeneous enantiospecific catalysts that can more readily be separated from the products and reused. Chiral surfaces might also serve as electrochemical sensors for chiral molecules- perhaps even implantable chiral sensors that could be used to monitor drug levels in the body. Our trick to produce chiral surfaces is to electrodeposit low symmetry metal oxide films with chiral orientations on achiral substrates (see, Nature 425, 490, 2003). The relationship between three-dimensional and two-dimensional chirality will be discussed. Chiral surfaces lack mirror or glide plane symmetry. It is possible to produce chiral surfaces of materials which do not crystallize in chiral space groups. We have deposited chiral orientations of achiral CuO onto single-crystal Au and Cu using both tartaric acid and the amino acids alanine and valine to control the handedness of the electrodeposited films. We will present results on the chiral recognition of molecules such as tartaric or malic acid and L-dopa on the chiral electrodeposited CuO. Initial work on the electrochemical biomineralization of chiral nanostructures of calcite will also be discussed.

  11. Mixed polyvalent-monovalent metal coating for carbon-graphite fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper-Tervet, J.; Tervet, F. W.; Humphrey, M. F. (inventors)

    1982-01-01

    An improved coating of gasification catalyst for carbon-graphite fibers is provided comprising a mixture of a polyvalent metal such as calcium and a monovalent metal such as lithium. The addition of lithium provides a lighter coating and a more flexible coating when applied to a coating of a carboxyl containing resin such as polyacrylic acid since it reduces the crosslink density. Furthermore, the presence of lithium provides a glass-like substance during combustion which holds the fiber together resulting in slow, even combustion with much reduced evolution of conductive fragments. The coated fibers are utilized as fiber reinforcement for composites.

  12. Cutting performance increasing in gear hobbing by means of HSS hobs, coated with effective PVD films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K.-D. Bouzakis; S. Kombogiannis; O. Friderikos; J. Anastopoulos

    Coated tools experience a rapid development due to the increased demands towards cutting performance improvement and production cost diminishing. In order to meet corresponding requirements in gear manufacturing, impressive developments, among others, in the area of coating technology, have been realized. In order to investigate the effectiveness of various innovative PVD films, fly hobbing wear experiments in individual generating positions

  13. Structure and Function of Starch-Based Edible Films and Coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael E. Kramer

    \\u000a Edible films and coatings satisfy a variety of needs and meet specific product challenges for a large number of food applications.\\u000a There is a general lack of agreement as to what constitutes a coating. A layer of seasoning on a snack or an oil spray applied\\u000a to a cracker or a baked product, are examples of edible coatings. Further examples

  14. Spin-coating deposition of PbS and CdS thin films for solar cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Jayesh; Mighri, Frej; Ajji, Abdellah; Tiwari, Devendra; Chaudhuri, Tapas K.

    2014-12-01

    In this work, we describe a simple spin-coating deposition technique for lead sulphide (PbS) and cadmium sulphide (CdS) films from a methanolic metal-thiourea complex. The characterization of the films by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques revealed that pure cubic phase PbS and CdS layers were formed via this method. As shown by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy results, both films were homogeneous and presented a smooth surface. Optical properties showed that the energy band gap of PbS and CdS films were around 1.65 and 2.5 eV, respectively. The PbS film is p-type in nature with an electrical conductivity of around 0.8 S/cm. The hole concentration and mobility were 2.35 × 1018 cm-3 and 2.16 × 10-3 cm2/V/s, respectively, as determined from Hall measurement. Both films were used to develop a thin film solar cell device of graphite/PbS/CdS/ITO/glass. Device characterization showed the power conversion efficiency of around 0.24 %. The corresponding open circuit voltage, short circuit current and fill factor were 0.570 V, 1.32 mA/cm2 and 0.32, respectively.

  15. Bioequivalence study of 400 and 100 mg imatinib film-coated tablets in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Ostrowicz, Andrzej; Miko?ajczak, Przemys?aw L; Wierzbicka, Marzena; Boguradzki, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the bioavailability of a generic product of 100 mg and 400 mg imatinib film-coated tablets (test) as compared to that of a branded product (reference) at the same strength to determine bioequivalence. The secondary objective of the study was to evaluate tolerability of both products. An open-label, randomized, crossover, two-period, single-dose, comparative study was conducted in 43 (Imatynib-Biofarm 100 mg film-coated tablet) and in 42 (Imatynib-Biofarm 400 mg film-coated tablet), brand name Imatenil, Caucasian healthy volunteers in fed conditions. A single oral dose administration of the test or reference product was separated by 14-day washout period. The imatinib and its metabolite N-desmethyl imatinib concentrations were determined using a validated LC MS/MS method. The results of the single-dose study in healthy volunteers indicated that the film-coated tablets of Imatynib-Biofarm 100 mg and 400 mg film-coated tablets manufactured by Biofarm Sp. z o.o. (test products) are bioequivalent to those of Glivec 100 mg and 400 mg film-coated tablets manufactured by Novartis Pharma GmbH (reference products). Both products in the two doses of imatinib were well tolerated. PMID:25362813

  16. Soybean oil in water-borne coatings and latex film formation study by AC impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiratumnukul, Nantana

    Conventional coalescing agents such as butyl cellosolve, butyl carbitol, and TexanolRTM are widely use in the latex coatings industry to facilitate film formation at ambient temperature. Coalescent aids are composed of solvents with low evaporation rates. After water evaporates, coalescent aids would help soften polymer molecules and form continuous films, then gradually evaporates from the film. Coalescent aids, therefore, are considered as volatile organic compounds (VOC), which are of environmental concern. The main purpose of this research project was to prepare a fatty acid glycol ester from soybean oil and glycol (polyols). The soybean oil glycol ester can be used as a coalescent aid in latex paint formulation. The soybean oil glycol ester not only lowered the minimum film formation temperature of latex polymers and continuous film formed at ambient temperature, but also after it has facilitated film formation, does not substantially evaporate, but becomes part of the film. Soybean oil glycol esters, therefore, can reduce the VOC levels and facilitate film formation of latex paints. In the second part of this research AC-Impedance was used to investigate the efficiency of soybean oil coalescent aid in latex film formation relative to the conventional ones. The coating resistance showed that the efficiency of film formation was increased as a function of dry time. The coating resistance also exhibited the effect of soybean oil ester in latex film formation in the same fashion as a conventional coalescent aid, TexanolRTM.

  17. Determination of silica coating efficiency on metal particles using multiple digestion methods.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Topham, Nathan; Wu, Chang-Yu

    2011-10-15

    Nano-sized metal particles, including both elemental and oxidized metals, have received significant interest due to their biotoxicity and presence in a wide range of industrial systems. A novel silica technology has been recently explored to minimize the biotoxicity of metal particles by encapsulating them with an amorphous silica shell. In this study, a method to determine silica coating efficiency on metal particles was developed. Metal particles with silica coating were generated using gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process with a silica precursor tetramethylsilane (TMS) added to the shielding gas. Microwave digestion and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) were employed to solubilize the metal content in the particles and analyze the concentration, respectively. Three acid mixtures were tested to acquire the appropriate digestion method targeting at metals and silica coating. Metal recovery efficiencies of different digestion methods were compared through analysis of spiked samples. HNO(3)/HF mixture was found to be a more aggressive digestion method for metal particles with silica coating. Aqua regia was able to effectively dissolve metal particles not trapped in the silica shell. Silica coating efficiencies were thus calculated based on the measured concentrations following digestion by HNO(3)/HF mixture and aqua regia. The results showed 14-39% of welding fume particles were encapsulated in silica coating under various conditions. This newly developed method could also be used to examine the silica coverage on particles of silica shell/metal core structure in other nanotechnology areas. PMID:21962698

  18. In situ forming, metal-adhesive heparin hydrogel surfaces for blood-compatible coating.

    PubMed

    Joung, Yoon Ki; You, Seung Soo; Park, Kyung Min; Go, Dong Hyun; Park, Ki Dong

    2012-11-01

    Durable and blood-compatible coating of metallic biomaterials remains a major issue in biomedical fields despite its long history of development. In this study, in situ forming, metal-adhesive heparin hydrogels were developed to coat metallic substrates to enhance blood compatibility. The hydrogels are composed of metal-adhesive and enzyme-reactive amphiphilic block copolymer (Tetronic-tyramine/dopamine; TTD) and enzyme-reactive heparin derivatives (heparin-tyramine or heparin-polyethylene glycol-tyramine), which are cross-linkable in situ via an enzyme reaction. The combinations of heparin and Tetronic formed hydrogels with relatively high mechanical strengths of 300-5000 Pa within several tens of seconds; this was also confirmed by observing a dried porous structure as coated on a metal surface. The introduction of dopamine to the hydrogel network enhanced the durability of the hydrogel layers coated on metal, such that more than 60% heparin remained for 7 days. Compared to bare metal surfaces, hydrogel-coated metal surfaces exhibited significantly enhanced blood compatibility. Reduced fibrinogen adsorption and platelet adhesion showed that blood compatibility was 3-5-fold-enhanced on coated hydrogel layers than on the bare metal surface. In conclusion, hydrogels containing heparin and dopamine prepared by enzyme reaction have the potential to be an alternative coating method for enhancing blood compatibility of metallic biomaterials. PMID:22100384

  19. Characterization of new metallized polyimide films with high electrooptical performances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saule K. Kudaikulova; Rinat M. Iskakov; Irina V. Razumovskaja; Sergei L. Bazhenov; Vladimir N. Koptsev; Oleg Y. Prikhodko; Andrei P. Kurbatov; Tleuken Z. Akhmetov; Bulat A. Zhubanov; Marc J. M. Abadie

    2008-01-01

    The specific properties and structure of new chemically metallized polyimides films were investigated by RSA, DSK, TGA methods and by measurements of the microhardness, reflectivity and the electrical conductivity. The surface layers represent composite material in which metal nanoparticles strengthen the polymer. The method of microhardness can be used as express-method for estimation the depth of metal particle penetration. The

  20. An investigation of thin-film coating/substrate systems by nanoindentation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.; Thostenson, E.T.; Chou, T.W. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Riester, L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The indentation load-displacement behavior of three material systems tested with a Berkovich indenter has been examined. The materials studied were the substrate materials--silicon and polycarbonate, and the coating/substrate systems--diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on silicon, and DLC coating on polycarbonate. They represent three material systems, namely, bulk, soft-coating/hard-substrate, and hard-coating on soft-substrate. Delaminations in the soft-coating/hard-substrate (DLC/Si) system and cracking in the hard-coating/soft-substrate system (DLC/Polycarbonate) were observed. Parallel to the experimental work, an elastic analytical effort has been made to examine the influence of the film thickness and the properties of the coating/substrate systems. Comparisons between the experimental data and analytical solutions of the load-displacement curves during unloading show good agreement. The analytical solution also suggests that the Young`s modulus and hardness of the thin film can not be measured accurately using Sneddon`s solution for bulk materials when the thickness of the film is comparable to the loading contact radius of the indenter. The elastic stress field analysis provides a basis for understanding the experimentally observed delaminations and cracking of the coating/substrate systems.

  1. Refractory amorphous metallic (W/0.6/ Re/0.4/)76B24 coatings on steel substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, A. P.; Lamb, J. L.; Khanna, S. K.; Mehra, M.; Johnson, W. L.

    1985-01-01

    Refractory metallic coatings of (W/0.6/ Re/0.4/)76B24 (WReB) have been deposited onto glass, quartz, and heat-treated AISI 52100 bearing steel substrates by dc magnetron sputtering. As-deposited WReB films are amorphous, as shown by their diffuse X-ray diffraction patterns; chemically homogeneous, according to secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis; and they exhibit a very high (approximately 1000 C) crystallization temperature. Adhesion strength of these coatings on heat-treated AISI 52100 steel is in excess of approximately 20,000 psi and they possess high microhardness (approximately 2400 HV50). Unlubricated wear resistance of such hard and adherent amorphous metallic coatings on AISI 52100 steel is studied using the pin-on-disc method under various loading conditions. Amorphous metallic WReB coatings, about 4 microns thick, exhibit an improvement of more than two and a half orders of magnitude in the unlubricated wear resistance over that of the uncoated AISI 52100 steel.

  2. Delamination of Ceramic Coatings with Embedded Metal Layers Matthew R. Begleyw

    E-print Network

    Wadley, Haydn

    as a component of thermal barrier coating (TBC) sys- tems on superalloy airfoils used in gas turbines/engines. They reduce the metal's operating temperatures, slow the rate of metal oxidation and reduce the superalloy durability. They are applied to superalloy components that have been coated previously with an aluminum

  3. PIXE characterization of tissues surrounding metallic prostheses coated with biological glasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Barbotteau; J. L Irigaray; Ph. Moretto

    2004-01-01

    Biological glasses can be used as coatings for metallic prostheses in order to prevent corrosion. According to their composition, these glasses have different properties. We studied, in vivo, two glasses referred to as BVA and BVH. They are used as coatings of Ti6Al4V metallic implant. BVA glass disappears after 3 months of implantation and is replaced by bone. Prostheses initially

  4. Application of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to study the degradation of polymer-coated metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Amirudin; D. Thieny

    1995-01-01

    The recent widespread application of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to study the degradation of polymer-coated metals has been reviewed. The availability of modem instrumentation to obtain impedance data as well as computer programs to interpret the results have made the technique popular. In addition, EIS is very suited to the study of polymer-coated metals. However, despite, and even because of

  5. Mechanical characterization of plasma sprayed ceramic coatings on metal substrates by contact testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonia PajaresaJ; Lanhua Brian; R. Lawn; Nitin P. Padture; Christopher C. Berndt

    Hertzian indentation testing is used to generate contact damage in plasma sprayed ceramic coatings on metal substrates. Two basic ceramic\\/metal coating\\/substrate systems are examined: alumina on steel and zirconia on superalloy. Macroscopic mechanical responses are measured via indentation stress-strain curves, which quantify the relative role of the coating and substrate in the net deformation and facilitate evaluations of elastic moduli

  6. Mechanical characterization of plasma sprayed ceramic coatings on metal substrates by contact testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonia Pajares; Lanhua Wei; Brian R. Lawn; Nitin P. Padture; Christopher C. Berndt

    1996-01-01

    Hertzian indentation testing is used to generate contact damage in plasma sprayed ceramic coatings on metal substrates. Two basic ceramic\\/metal coating\\/substrate systems are examined: alumina on steel and zirconia on superalloy. Macroscopic mechanical responses are measured via indentation stress-strain curves, which quantify the relative role of the coating and substrate in the net deformation and facilitate evaluations of elastic moduli

  7. Electrochemical characterisation of the porosity and corrosion resistance of electrochemically deposited metal coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. C. Walsh; C. Ponce de León; C. Kerr; S. Court; B. D. Barker

    2008-01-01

    Electrochemical techniques for the assessment of porosity in electrodeposited metal coatings are reviewed. The determination of porosity and corrosion, resistance is illustrated by electrochemical data from three coating\\/substrate systems namely: electroless nickel on aluminium and steel and immersed gold coatings on an electroless copper-plated ABS polymer. Nickel coatings were up to 24 ?m thick while gold deposits had thickness between 75

  8. METAL-MATRIX COMPOSITES AND THERMAL SPRAY COATINGS FOR EARTH MOVING MACHINES

    SciTech Connect

    D. Trent Weaver; Matthew T. Kiser

    2003-10-01

    In the 11th quarter, further testing was performed on thermal spray coatings. A component coated and fused in the 9th quarter underwent high-stress abrasive wear testing. The test successfully showed this coating could survive in a high stress, sliding wear environment as the base layer in an FGM design coating. Work on the ferrous metal-matrix composites was completed in previous quarter and therefore no update is provided.

  9. Thermoelastic response of thin metal films and their adjacent materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S.; Yoon, Y.; Kim, J.; Kim, W. [Samsung Electronics Co., Yongin-Si, 446-712 Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)] [Samsung Electronics Co., Yongin-Si, 446-712 Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-14

    A pulsed laser beam applied to a thin metal film is capable of launching an acoustic wave due to thermal expansion. Heat transfer from the thin metal film to adjacent materials can also induce thermal expansion; thus, the properties of these adjacent materials (as well as the thin metal film) should be considered for a complete description of the thermoelastic response. Here, we show that adjacent materials with a small specific heat and large thermal expansion coefficient can generate an enhanced acoustic wave and we demonstrate a three-fold increase in the peak pressure of the generated acoustic wave on substitution of parylene for polydimethylsiloxane.

  10. Thermoelastic response of thin metal films and their adjacent materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, S.; Yoon, Y.; Kim, J.; Kim, W.

    2013-01-01

    A pulsed laser beam applied to a thin metal film is capable of launching an acoustic wave due to thermal expansion. Heat transfer from the thin metal film to adjacent materials can also induce thermal expansion; thus, the properties of these adjacent materials (as well as the thin metal film) should be considered for a complete description of the thermoelastic response. Here, we show that adjacent materials with a small specific heat and large thermal expansion coefficient can generate an enhanced acoustic wave and we demonstrate a three-fold increase in the peak pressure of the generated acoustic wave on substitution of parylene for polydimethylsiloxane.

  11. Metal matrix coated fiber composites and the methods of manufacturing such composites

    DOEpatents

    Weeks, J.K. Jr.; Gensse, C.

    1993-09-14

    A fiber coating which allows ceramic or metal fibers to be wetted by molten metals is disclosed. The coating inhibits degradation of the physical properties caused by chemical reaction between the fiber and the coating itself or between the fiber and the metal matrix. The fiber coating preferably includes at least a wetting layer, and in some applications, a wetting layer and a barrier layer between the fiber and the wetting layer. The wetting layer promotes fiber wetting by the metal matrix. The barrier layer inhibits fiber degradation. The fiber coating permits the fibers to be infiltrated with the metal matrix resulting in composites having unique properties not obtainable in pure materials. 8 figures.

  12. Metal Matrix Composite Coatings Manufactured by Thermal Spraying: Influence of the Powder Preparation on the Coating Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aussavy, D.; Costil, S.; El Kedim, O.; Montavon, G.; Bonnot, A.-F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to manufacture metal matrix composite coatings by thermal spraying. In order to improve coating's mechanical properties, it is necessary to increase homogeneity. To meet this objective, the chosen approach was to optimize the powder morphology by mechanical alloying. Indeed, the mechanical alloying method (ball milling) was implemented to synthesize NiCr-Cr3C2 and NiCrBSi-WC composite powders by using cold spraying and high-velocity oxygen fuel process, respectively. After optimizing the process parameters on powder grain size, the composite coatings were compared with standard coatings manufactured from mixed powders. SEM observations, hardness measurements, and XRD analyses were the first technologies implemented to characterize the metal matrix composite coatings. Different characteristics were then observed. When mechanical alloying process is employed to synthesize composite powders strengthened by particle dispersion, the powders tend to fracture into small segments, especially when high content of hard particles is added. Powder microstructures were then refined, which induced thinner coating morphologies and reduced porosity rate. Once an improved microstructure is obtained, manufacturing of coating using milled powders was found suitable in comparison with coatings manufactured only with mixed powders.

  13. Surface chemistry of coated lithium manganese nickel oxide thin film cathodes studied by XPS

    SciTech Connect

    Baggetto, Loic [ORNL] [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL] [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The effect of coating high voltage LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 spinel cathode thin films with three metal oxide thin layers is discussed. The changes in surface chemistry of the electrodes are measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. ZnO is found to decompose during the first charge whereas Al2O3 and ZrO2 are stable for more than 100 cycles. ZrO2, however, importantly limits the available Li storage capacity of the electrochemical reaction due to poorer kinetics. Al2O3 offers the best results in term of capacity retention. Upon cycling, the evidence of a signal at 75.4 eV in the Al2p binding energy spectrum indicates the partial conversion of Al2O3 into Al2O2F2. Moreover, the continuous formation of PEO , esters and LixPOyFz compounds on the surface of the electrodes is found for all coating materials.

  14. Interfacial diffusion of metal atoms during air annealing of chemically deposited ZnS-CuS and PbS-CuS thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Huang; R. A. Zingaro; E. A. Meyers; P. K. Nair; M. T. S. Nair

    1994-01-01

    The authors report on the interfacial diffusion of metal ions occurring during air annealing of multilayer CuS films (0.15-0.6[mu]m) deposited on thin coating of ZnS or PbS ([approximately]0.06 [mu]m) on glass substrates. All the films are deposited from chemical baths at room temperature. The interfacial diffusion on the metal atoms during the air annealing is illustrate by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

  15. Enhanced fluorescence cell imaging with metal-coated slides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Moal, Eric; Fort, Emmanuel; Lévêque-Fort, Sandrine; Janin, Anne; Murata, Hideyuki; Cordelières, Fabrice P.

    2007-07-01

    The last decade has witnessed momentous advances in fluorescence microscopy. The introduction of novel fluorescent markers, together with the development of original microscopy techniques, made it possible to study biomolecular interactions in living cells and to examine the structure and function of living tissues. The emergence of these innovative techniques had a remarkable impact on all the life sciences. However, many biological and medical applications involve the detection of minute quantities of biomolecules, and are limited by the signal weakness in common observation conditions. Here, we show that silver and gold-coated microscope slides can be used as mirror substrates to efficiently improve detection sensitivity when fluorescence microscopy is applied to micrometer-thick biological samples. We report a fourfold enhancement of the fluorescence signal and a noticeable strengthening of the image contrast, when mirror substrates are used with standard air microscope objectives. We demonstrate that metal-coated substrates provide the means to get sensitivity-enhanced fluorescence detection with dry optics, while keeping a wide field observation and a large depth of field. This is a crucial advantage for automated and high-throughput applications to cell and tissue diagnostic analysis.

  16. Young's Moduli of Cold and Vacuum Plasma Sprayed Metallic Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, S. V.; Pawlik, R.; Loewenthal, W.

    2009-01-01

    Monolithic metallic copper alloy and NiCrAlY coatings were fabricated by either the cold spray (CS) or the vacuum plasma spray (VPS) deposition processes. Dynamic elastic modulus property measurements were conducted on these monolithic coating specimens between 300 K and 1273 K using the impulse excitation technique. The Young's moduli decreased almost linearly with increasing temperature at all temperatures except in the case of the CS Cu-23%Cr-5%Al and VPS NiCrAlY, where deviations from linearity were observed above a critical temperature. It was observed that the Young's moduli for VPS Cu-8%Cr were larger than literature data compiled for Cu. The addition of 1%Al to Cu- 8%Cr significantly increased its Young's modulus by 12 to 17% presumably due to a solid solution effect. Comparisons of the Young s moduli data between two different measurements on the same CS Cu- 23%Cr-5%Al specimen revealed that the values measured in the first run were about 10% higher than those in the second run. It is suggested that this observation is due to annealing of the initial cold work microstructure resulting form the cold spray deposition process.

  17. Surfactant-induced rigidity of interfaces: a unified approach to free and dip-coated films

    E-print Network

    Lorène Champougny; Benoit Scheid; Frédéric Restagno; Jan Vermant; Emmanuelle Rio

    2014-12-01

    The behavior of thin liquid films is known to be strongly affected by the presence of surfactants at the interfaces. The detailed mechanism by which the latter enhance film stability is still a matter of debate, in particular concerning the influence of surface elastic effects on the hydrodynamic boundary condition at the liquid/air interfaces. In the present work, "twin" hydrodynamic models neglecting surfactant transport to the interfaces are proposed to describe the coating of films onto a solid plate (Landau-Levich-Derjaguin configuration) as well as soap film pulling (Frankel configuration). Experimental data on the entrained film thickness in both configurations can be fitted very well using a single value of the surface elasticity, which is in good agreement with independent measurements by mean of surface expansion experiments in a Langmuir through. The analysis shows how and when the soap films or dip coating experiments may be used to precisely and sensitively measure the surface elasticity of surfactant solutions.

  18. Electron cryo-microscopy of biological specimens on conductive titanium-silicon metal glass films.

    PubMed

    Rhinow, Daniel; Kühlbrandt, Werner

    2008-06-01

    Thin films of the metal glass Ti88Si12 were produced by evaporation and characterized by AFM and conductivity measurements. Thin Ti88Si12 support films for electron microscopy were prepared by coating standard EM grids with evaporated films floated off mica, and characterized by electron imaging and electron diffraction. At room temperature, the specific resistance of a thin TiSi film was 10(6) times lower than that of an amorphous carbon film. At 77K, the specific resistance of TiSi films decreased, whereas that of carbon became immeasurably high. The effective scattering cross-section of TiSi and amorphous carbon for 120 kV electrons is roughly equal, but TiSi films for routine use can be approximately 10 times thinner due to their high mechanical strength, so that they would contribute less background noise to the image. Electron diffraction of purple membrane on a TiSi substrate confirmed that the support film was amorphous, and indicated that the high-resolution order of the biological sample was preserved. Electron micrographs of TiSi films tilted by 45 degrees relative to the electron beam recorded at approximately 4 K indicated that the incidence of beam-induced movements was reduced by 50% compared to amorphous carbon film under the same conditions. The success rate of recording high-resolution images of purple membranes on TiSi films was close to 100%. We conclude that TiSi support films are ideal for high-resolution electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) of biological specimens, as they reduce beam-induced movement significantly, due to their high electrical conductivity at low temperature and their favorable mechanical properties. PMID:18164549

  19. Organic hydrogen gas sensor with palladium-coated ?-phase poly(vinylidene fluoride) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Yuji; Kimura, Yasuo; Niwano, Michio

    2012-10-01

    We have proposed an organic hydrogen gas sensor in which palladium (Pd)-coated ?-phase poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) films are utilized. Volume expansion of the Pd thin film caused by absorption of hydrogen gas is monitored by a piezoelectric thin film of PVDF attached to the Pd films. We have developed a simple method of synthesizing ?-phase PVDF films from ?-phase PVDF powder by using a wet process in which a mixture of acetone and hexamethylphosphoric triamide is used as the solvent for the PVDF powder. The sensor works by itself at room temperature without a power source.

  20. Delivery of Food Additives and Antimicrobials Using Edible Films and Coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesus-Alberto Quezada-Gallo

    \\u000a Functional efficiency of edible films and coatings strongly depends on the nature of film components and physical structure.\\u000a Choice of a film-forming substance and\\/or active additive depends on the desired objective, nature of the food product, and\\u000a specific application. Thus, lipids or hydrophobic substances such as resins, waxes or some insoluble proteins are most efficient\\u000a for retarding moisture transfer. On

  1. Effects of spin coating speed on nanostructured Titanium Dioxide thin films properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Zahidi; M. F. Malek; M. H. Mamat; N. Abd Rashied; U. M. Noor; M. R. Bin Mahmood

    2010-01-01

    This work aims to understand the effects of spin coating speed to the structural and optical properties of TiO2 thin films for dynamic dispense method. Film thickness is measured at three different points and the average is taken. At the lowest spin speed (2000 rpm), the resulting thin films average thickness is 187.8 nm. With the increment of spin speed,

  2. Effects of a ceramic coating on metal temperatures of an air-cooled turbine vane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladden, H. J.; Liebert, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    The metal temperatures of air cooled turbine vanes both uncoated and coated with the NASA thermal barrier system were studied experimentally. Current and advanced gas turbine engine conditions were simulated at reduced temperatures and pressures. Airfoil metal temperatures were significantly reduced, both locally and on the average, by use of the the coating. However, at low gas Reynolds number, the ceramic coating tripped a laminar boundary layer on the suction surface, and the resulting higher heat flux increased the metal temperatures. Simulated coating loss was also investigated and shown to increase local metal temperatures. However, the metal temperatures in the leading edge region remained below those of the uncoated vane tested at similar conditions. Metal temperatures in the trailing edge region exceeded those of the uncoated vane.

  3. Conductive metal oxide film and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Windisch, Jr., Charles F. (Kennewick, WA); Exarhos, Gregory J. (Richland, WA)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is a method for reducing a dopant in a film of a metal oxide wherein the dopant is reduced and the first metal oxide is substantially not reduced. The method of the present invention relies upon exposing the film to reducing conditions for a predetermined time and reducing a valence of the metal from a positive valence to a zero valence and maintaining atoms with a zero valence in an atomic configuration within the lattice structure of the metal oxide. According to the present invention, exposure to reducing conditions may be achieved electrochemically or achieved in an elevated temperature gas phase.

  4. Film condensation of liquid metals -- precision of measurement

    E-print Network

    Wilcox, Stanley James

    1969-01-01

    Major differences exist in results published by investigators of film condensation of liquid metal vapors. In particular, the reported dependence of the condensation coefficient on pressure has raised questions about both ...

  5. Films coated with molecular imprinted polymers for the selective stir bar sorption extraction of monocrotophos.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaolan; Cai, Jibao; Yang, Jun; Su, Qingde; Gao, Yun

    2006-10-27

    The flexibility and simplicity of stir bar sorption extraction (SBSE) have been combined with the selectivity of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP). Stir bars were coated reproducible with a 180 microm film formed from a formic acid solution of nylon-6 polymer either nonimprinted or imprinted with monocrotophos. Time sorption profiles were measured for the extraction of monocrotophos from dichloromethane at the concentration of 10-200 micromol/L levels with both types of films in order to compare extraction characteristics. The results indicated that the MIP coated layer showed remarkable high affinity toward monocrotophos and equilibrium adsorption was attained rapidly (60 min) in contrast to free standing molecularly imprinted polymer in which equilibrium adsorption was normally attained after several hours. The stir bars coated with MIP films were capable of extracting four structural analogues of monocrotophos from dichloromethane solution, which suggests that both the amino group and PO part of these molecules is responsible for interaction with the imprinted polymer. Evidence was also presented by FT-IR analysis that the amide-hydrogen-bonding interaction between the MIP-coated films and monocrotophos was originated for monocrotophos recognition. To achieve selective extraction of monocrotophos from sample, stir bars coated with MIP films were washed with 10% (v/v) acetic acid/methanol and methanol. Clean extracts and yields of 95% were obtained, demonstrating the suitability of stir bar coated with MIP films for the analysis of environmental and biological samples. Compared with traditional MIP and SBSE, the MIP-coated film showed not only the high selectivity but also the rapid equilibrium adsorption. PMID:16934279

  6. Passive films on metallic biomaterials under simulated physiological conditions.

    PubMed

    Pound, B G

    2014-05-01

    The metallic materials used for implantable medical devices are predominantly stainless steels, Ti and its alloys, and Co-Cr alloys. The corrosion resistance of each of these materials is associated with a passive oxide film on its surface. Since corrosion resistance is crucial to implant performance, considerable effort has been focused on understanding the nature of the passive film present under physiological conditions. Surface analytical techniques and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy have been used in a number of studies to investigate the passive film formed on metallic biomaterials in simulated physiological solutions. This review focuses on the surface characteristics of these materials with regard to composition, thickness, and impedance of the passive films. Of particular interest are changes in the films with surface treatment and the nature of the films developed over time in the simulated solutions. PMID:23666913

  7. Development of metal-coated ceramic anodes for molten carbonate fuel cells. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Khandkar, A.C.; Elangovan, S.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1990-03-01

    This report documents the developmental efforts on metal coating of various ceramic substrates (LiAlO{sub 2}, SrTiO{sub 3}, and LiFeO{sub 2}) and the critical issues associated with fabricating anodes using metal-coated LiAlO{sub 2} substrates. Electroless Ni and Cu coating technology was developed to achieve complete metal coverage on LiAlO{sub 2} powder substrates. Metal coated SrTiO{sub 3} powders were fabricated into anodes by a process identical to that reported in the GE literature. Microstructural examination revealed that the grains of the ceramic had fused together, with the metal having dewetted from the surface of the ceramic. Alternate substrates that might allow for better wetting of the metal on the ceramic such as LiFeO{sub 2} and Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} were identified. Cu/Ni-coated (50:50 mol ratio, 50 w/o metal loading) LiFeO{sub 2} anodes were optimized to meet the MCFC anode specifications. Metal-coated gamma-LiAlO{sub 2} substrates were also developed. By using suitable chemical surface modification methods, the gamma-UAlO{sub 2} substrate surface may be modified to allow a stable metal coated anode to be fabricated. Creep testing of the metal coated ceramic anodes were conducted at IGT. It was determined that the predominant creep mechanism is due to particle rearrangement. The anode porosity, and mean pore size had significant effect on the creep of the anode. Lower porosity and pore size consistent with performance criteria are desired to reduce creep. Lower metal loading with uniformity of coverage will result in lower creep behavior of the anode. Of the two substrates evaluated, LiFeO{sub 2} in general exhibited lower creep which was attributed to superior metal adhesion.

  8. Development of metal-coated ceramic anodes for molten carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Khandkar, A.C.; Elangovan, S.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1990-03-01

    This report documents the developmental efforts on metal coating of various ceramic substrates (LiAlO{sub 2}, SrTiO{sub 3}, and LiFeO{sub 2}) and the critical issues associated with fabricating anodes using metal-coated LiAlO{sub 2} substrates. Electroless Ni and Cu coating technology was developed to achieve complete metal coverage on LiAlO{sub 2} powder substrates. Metal coated SrTiO{sub 3} powders were fabricated into anodes by a process identical to that reported in the GE literature. Microstructural examination revealed that the grains of the ceramic had fused together, with the metal having dewetted from the surface of the ceramic. Alternate substrates that might allow for better wetting of the metal on the ceramic such as LiFeO{sub 2} and Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} were identified. Cu/Ni-coated (50:50 mol ratio, 50 w/o metal loading) LiFeO{sub 2} anodes were optimized to meet the MCFC anode specifications. Metal-coated gamma-LiAlO{sub 2} substrates were also developed. By using suitable chemical surface modification methods, the gamma-UAlO{sub 2} substrate surface may be modified to allow a stable metal coated anode to be fabricated. Creep testing of the metal coated ceramic anodes were conducted at IGT. It was determined that the predominant creep mechanism is due to particle rearrangement. The anode porosity, and mean pore size had significant effect on the creep of the anode. Lower porosity and pore size consistent with performance criteria are desired to reduce creep. Lower metal loading with uniformity of coverage will result in lower creep behavior of the anode. Of the two substrates evaluated, LiFeO{sub 2} in general exhibited lower creep which was attributed to superior metal adhesion.

  9. Method of synthesizing metal doped diamond-like carbon films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ueno, Mayumi (Inventor); Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method of synthesizing metal doped carbon films by placing a substrate in a chamber with a selected amount of a metalorganic compound. An electron cyclotron resonance is applied to the chamber in order to vaporize the metalorganic compound. The resonance is applied to the chamber until a metal doped carbon film is formed. The metalorganic compound is preferably selected from the group consisting of an organic salt of ruthenium, palladium, gold or platinum.

  10. Self-assembled thin films of organo-metal complexes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim Salditt; Qingrui An; Anton Plecha; Johann Peisl; Christian Eschbaumer; Christian H. Weidl; Ulrich S. Schubert

    1999-01-01

    Organo-metal complexes have been self-assembled into thin monomolecular films by adsorption onto polyelectrolyte covered substrates. The basic molecular building blocks of these systems consist of octahedral coordinating metal ions (Cu(II), Co(II), Zn(II), and Hg(II)) and terpyridines or fused terpyridines, held together by non-covalent interactions. The structure of the films has been characterized by synchroton based X-ray reflectivity and fluorescence techniques,

  11. Anisotropy of spin relaxation in metals and ultrathin metallic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Nguyen H.; Mavropoulos, Phivos; Zimmermann, Bernd; Heers, Swantje; Blugel, Stefan; Mokrousov, Yuriy

    2013-03-01

    We predict a hitherto overlooked anisotropy of the spin relaxation time T1 in non-magnetic metallic systems with respect to the orientation of the spin porlarization s of the injected electrons relative to the crystallographic directions. In the Elliott-Yafet mechanism, the spin relaxation time is related to the Elliott-Yafet parameter b^2 that quantifies the degree of spin-mixing of Bloch states due to spin-orbit interaction. It can be demonstrated that b^2 depends on s due to the directional dependence of the spin-orbit matrix-elements between Bloch states comprising directional orbitals. The directional dependence becomes very pronounced in the case of degeneracies or near-degeneracies leading to spin-flip hot spots or even extended hot areas on the Fermi surface. The calculated anisotropy can reach values as large as 830% for hcp Hf or 87% in W(110) 10-layer-films, as we find from first-principles calculations employing the Kohn-Korringa-Rostoker Green function method. The anisotropy offers interesting new functionalities in spintronics applications such as GMR, spin Hall effect as well as spin dynamics. [1] B. Zimmermann, P. Mavropoulos, S. Heers, N. H. Long, S. Blugel, and Y. Mokrousov, Phys. Rev. Lett., in press (arXiv:1210.1801).

  12. Negative index metamaterial combining magnetic resonators with metal films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uday K. Chettiar; Alexander V. Kildishev; Thomas A. Klar; Vladimir M. Shalaev

    2006-01-01

    We present simulation results of a design for negative index materials that\\u000auses magnetic resonators to provide negative permeability and metal film for\\u000anegative permittivity. We also discuss the possibility of using semicontinuous\\u000ametal films to achieve better manufacturability and enhanced impedance\\u000amatching.

  13. High sensitive mesoporous TiO2-coated love wave device for heavy metal detection.

    PubMed

    Gammoudi, I; Blanc, L; Moroté, F; Grauby-Heywang, C; Boissière, C; Kalfat, R; Rebière, D; Cohen-Bouhacina, T; Dejous, C

    2014-07-15

    This work deals with the design of a highly sensitive whole cell-based biosensor for heavy metal detection in liquid medium. The biosensor is constituted of a Love wave sensor coated with a polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM). Escherichia coli bacteria are used as bioreceptors as their viscoelastic properties are influenced by toxic heavy metals. The acoustic sensor is constituted of a quartz substrate with interdigitated transducers and a SiO2 guiding layer. However, SiO2 shows some degradation when used in a saline medium. Mesoporous TiO2 presents good mechanical and chemical stability and offers a high active surface area. Then, the addition of a thin titania layer dip-coated onto the acoustic path of the sensor is proposed to overcome the silica degradation and to improve the mass effect sensitivity of the acoustic device. PEM and bacteria deposition, and heavy metal influence, are real time monitored through the resonance frequency variations of the acoustic device. The first polyelectrolyte layer is inserted through the titania mesoporosity, favouring rigid link of the PEM on the sensor and improving the device sensitivity. Also, the mesoporosity of surface increases the specific surface area which can be occupied and favors the formation of homogeneous PEM. It was found a frequency shift near -20±1 kHz for bacteria immobilization with titania film instead of -7±3 kHz with bare silica surface. The sensitivity is highlighted towards cadmium detection. Moreover, in this paper, particular attention is given to the immobilization of bacteria and to biosensor lifetime. Atomic Force Microscopy characterizations of the biosurface have been done for several weeks. They showed significant morphological differences depending on the bacterial life time. We noticed that the lifetime of the biosensor is longer in the case of using a mesoporous TiO2 layer. PMID:24583687

  14. Metal-oxide-semiconductor characteristics of lanthanum cerium oxide film on Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Way Foong; Lockman, Zainovia; Cheong, Kuan Yew

    2012-05-01

    Metal-organic decomposed lanthanum cerium oxide (La x Ce y O z ) film had been spin-coated on n-type Si substrate. Effects of post-deposition annealing temperature and time on the metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) properties of the film were studied. As temperature increased from 400 to 1000°C for 15 minutes dwell time, La x Ce y O z demonstrated a decrease in interface trap density ( D it) and total interface trap density ( D total), which were related to the formation of SiO x /silicates interfacial layer (IL). The lowest leakage current density and highest dielectric breakdown voltage ( V B) was obtained in 1000°C-annealed sample. When longer annealing times (30-120 minutes) were studied on the 1000°C-annealed sample, the sample annealed at 1000°C for 120 min showed the best MOS characteristics with V B of 30 V. Reasons contributing to such observation were discussed.

  15. Fabrication of electrically bistable organic semiconducting/ferroelectric blend films by temperature controlled spin coating.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinghang; Zhang, Jianchi; Fu, Zongyuan; Weng, Junhui; Chen, Weibo; Ding, Shijin; Jiang, Yulong; Zhu, Guodong

    2015-03-25

    Organic semiconducting/ferroelectric blend films attracted much attention due to their electrical bistability and rectification properties and thereof the potential in resistive memory devices. During film deposition from the blend solution, spinodal decomposition induced phase separation, resulting in discrete semiconducting phase whose electrical property could be modulated by the continuous ferroelectric phase. However, blend films processed by common spin coating method showed extremely rough surfaces, even comparable to the film thickness, which caused large electrical leakage and thus compromised the resistive switching performance. To improve film roughness and thus increase the productivity of these resistive devices, we developed temperature controlled spin coating technique to carefully adjust the phase separation process. Here we reported our experimental results from the blend films of ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene (P(VDF-TrFE)) and semiconducting poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). We conducted a series of experiments at various deposition temperatures ranging from 20 to 90 °C. The resulting films were characterized by AFM, SEM, and VPFM to determine their structure and roughness. Film roughness first decreased and then increased with the increase of deposition temperature. Electrical performance was also characterized and obviously improved insulating property was obtained from the films deposited between 50 and 70 °C. By temperature control during film deposition, it is convenient to efficiently fabricate ferroelectric/semiconducting blend films with good electrical bistability. PMID:25748212

  16. Modeling emissivity of low-emissivity coating containing horizontally oriented metallic flake particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shuai; Yuan, Le; Weng, Xiaolong; Deng, Longjiang

    2014-11-01

    The scattering and absorption cross sections of horizontally oriented metallic flake particles are estimated by extended geometric optics that includes diffraction and edge effects. Emissivity of the coating containing those particles is calculated using Kubelka-Munk theory. The dependence of emissivity of the coating on the radius, thickness, content of metallic flake particles and coating thickness is discussed. Finally, theoretical results are compared with the experimental measurements with Al/acrylic resin coating system and the results show that simulation values are in good agreement with experimental ones.

  17. Ceramic plasma-sprayed coating of melting crucibles for casting metal fuel slugs

    SciTech Connect

    K.H. Kim; C.T. Lee; C.B. Lee; R.S. Fielding; J.R. Kennedy

    2013-10-01

    Thermal cycling and melt reaction studies of ceramic coatings plasma-sprayed on Nb substrates were carried out to evaluate the performance of barrier coatings for metallic fuel casting applications. Thermal cycling tests of the ceramic plasma-sprayed coatings to 1450 degrees C showed that HfN, TiC, ZrC, and Y2O3 coating had good cycling characteristics with few interconnected cracks even after 20 cycles. Interaction studies by 1550 degrees C melt dipping tests of the plasma-sprayed coatings also indicated that HfN and Y2O3 do not form significant reaction layer between U–20 wt.% Zr melt and the coating layer. Plasma-sprayed Y2O3 coating exhibited the most promising characteristics among HfN, TiC, ZrC, and Y2O3 coating.

  18. Effect of thermal cycling on stress in metallic films on ceramic substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattison, Edward M.; Vessot, Robert F. C.

    1990-01-01

    The hydrogen maser is the most stable frequency standard currently available for averaging intervals of hours to weeks. A major contributor to maser frequency variations is the maser's microwave resonant cavity: by means of the cavity pulling effect, a change in the cavity's resonance frequency produces a proportional change in the maser's output frequency. To minimize variations in the cavity's dimensions, and thus in its resonance frequency, maser cavities are often constructed of a low-expansivity glass-ceramic material coated on its surface with a conductive metallic film. It was previously shown that silver films like those used in SAO maser cavities develop tensile stress when cooled to room temperature after being fired onto the cavity, and that the stress in such films relaxes with time at a rate proportional to the level of stress. Stress relaxation in maser cavity coatings can alter the shape, and hence the resonance frequency, of the cavity, resulting in a slow variation in the maser's output frequency. The possibility was investigated of reversing the initial tensile stress by precooling the coated cavity material. It was hypothesized that cooling the material well below its normal working temperature and then warming it to its normal temperature would result in a lower tensile stress or even a compressive stress. Under such a condition stress relaxation, and thus any consequent frequency drifts, might be reduced or reversed.

  19. Thin film coating process using an inductively coupled plasma

    DOEpatents

    Kniseley, Richard N. (Ames, IA); Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Merkle, Brian D. (Ames, IA)

    1990-01-30

    Thin coatings of normally solid materials are applied to target substrates using an inductively coupled plasma. Particles of the coating material are vaporized by plasma heating, and pass through an orifice to a first vacuum zone in which the particles are accelerated to a velocity greater than Mach 1. The shock wave generated in the first vacuum zone is intercepted by the tip of a skimmer cone that provides a second orifice. The particles pass through the second orifice into a second zone maintained at a higher vacuum and impinge on the target to form the coating. Ultrapure coatings can be formed.

  20. Nano polymer Films by Fast Dip Coating Method for Field Effect Transistor Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathish, S.; Shekar, B. Chandar; Sathyamoorthy, R.

    Nano Polyvinyl alcohol films are prepared by fast dip coating method. Cleaned glass plates are used as substrate to prepare the above said films. The thickness of the films are measured by capacitance method, weighing method and cross checked by electronic measuring instrument (Tesatronic-TTD 20). IR spectrum is used to identify the coated films. The coated films are identified by IR spectrum. No pits and pin holes are found on the surface. The XRD spectrum indicated the amorphous nature of the films studied. Aluminium/PVA/Aluminum sandwich structures are formed to study the dielectric and AC conduction behaviour. The capacitance and dielectric loss of the films are measured in the frequency range of 0.1 kHz to 100 kHz for various temperatures ranging from 290 K to 450 K. The observed increase of capacitance with the decrease of frequency in the lower frequency range can be assigned to charge carriers being blocked at the electrodes. The decrease of capacitance with increasing frequency is also attributed to the increasing inability of the dipoles to orient them selves in a rapidly varying electric field. The AC conductivity is found to vary according to the relation ?ac ? ?n, where the value of n depends on temperature and frequency. The value of activation energy is found to be 0.0015 eV ?0.007 eV for various temperatures confirms the amorphous nature of the film.

  1. New metal organic deposition method using trifluoroacetate for fabrication on YBCO thick film on metal tape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, G.; Liu, C. F.; Feng, Y.; Zhang, P. X.; Wu, X. Z.; Zhou, L.

    2003-10-01

    A new method to prepare high purifying trifluoroacetate (TFA) coating solution according to the mechanism of neutralization reaction between the hydroxid of Y, Ba, Cu and TFA is reported. High-quality YBa 2Cu 3O 7- x (YBCO) thick films on texture Ni tapes with NiO buffer layer have been successfully fabricated by the coating solution. The effect of heat treatment process including firing process and atmosphere on the microstructure and properties of YBCO films were studied by X-ray diffraction and scanning electrical microscope. The results show that coating solution can decrease the microcracks in film by appropriate heat treatment process and the grain size of YBCO approach to nanometer level.

  2. Influence of coating bath chemistry on the deposition of 3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane films deposited on magnesium alloy.

    PubMed

    Scott, A F; Gray-Munro, J E; Shepherd, J L

    2010-03-15

    Magnesium alloys have a low specific density and a high strength to weight ratio. This makes them sought after light weight construction materials for automotive and aerospace applications. These materials have also recently become of interest for biomedical applications. Unfortunately, the use of magnesium alloys in many applications has been limited due to its high susceptibility to corrosion. One way to improve the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys is through the deposition of protective coatings. Many of the current pretreatments/coatings available use toxic chemicals such as chromates and hydrofluoric acid. One possible environmentally friendly alternative is organosilane coatings which have been shown to offer significant corrosion protection to both aluminum alloys and steels. Organosilanes are ambifunctional molecules that are capable of covalent bonding to metal hydroxide surfaces. In order for covalent bonding to occur, the organosilane must undergo hydrolysis in the coating bath followed by a condensation reaction with the surface. There are a number of factors that influence the rates of these reactions such as pH and concentration of reactants. These factors can also influence competing reactions in solution such as oligomerization. The rates of hydrolysis and condensation of 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxy silane in methanol have been analyzed with (1)H NMR and ATR-FTIR. The results indicate that organosilane oligomers begin to form in solution before the molecules are fully hydrolyzed. The organosilane films deposited on magnesium alloy AZ91 at a variety of concentrations and pre-hydrolysis times were characterized with a combination of ATR-FTIR, ellipsometry and SEM/EDS. The results show that both organosilane film thickness and uniformity are affected by the chemistry occurring in the coating bath prior to deposition. PMID:20064643

  3. Materials Analysis of CED Nb Films Being Coated on Bulk Nb Single Cell SRF Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xin; Reece, Charles; Palczewski, Ari; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Krishnan, Mahadevan; James, Colt; Irfan, Irfan

    2013-09-01

    This study is an on-going research on depositing a Nb film on the internal wall of bulk Nb single cell SRF cavities, via a cathodic arc Nb plasma ions source, an coaxial energetic condensation (CED) facility at AASC company. The motivation is to firstly create a homoepitaxy-like Nb/Nb film in a scale of a ~1.5GHz RF single cell cavity. Next, through SRF measurement and materials analysis, it might reveal the baseline properties of the CED-type homoepitaxy Nb films. Literally, a top-surface layer of Nb films which sustains SRF function, always grows up in homo-epitaxy mode, on top of a Nb nucleation layer. Homo-epitaxy growth of Nb must be the final stage (a crystal thickening process) of any coatings of Nb film on alternative cavity structure materials. Such knowledge of Nb-Nb homo-epitaxy is useful to create future realistic SRF cavity film coatings, such as hetero-epitaxy Nb/Cu Films, or template-layer-mitigated Nb films. One large-grain, and three fine grain bulk Nb cavities were coated. They went through cryogenic RF measurement. Preliminary results show that the Q0 of a Nb film could be as same as the pre-coated bulk Nb surface (which received a chemically-buffered polishing plus a light electro-polishing); but quality factor of two tested cavities dropped quickly. We are investigating if the severe Q-slope is caused by hydrogen incorporation before deposition, or is determined by some structural defects during Nb film growth.

  4. Formation mechanism and anticorrosive properties of thin siloxane films on metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Petrunin, M.A.; Nazarov, A.P.; Mikhailovski, Yu.N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

    1996-01-01

    The adsorption of different ethoxysilanes on Al was studied. It was established that during polymolecular adsorption of ethoxysilanes from the vapor phase on aluminum the first monolayer is adsorbed irreversibly with adsorption van der Waals bonds between silane molecules and the aluminum surface. The covalent bonding of silanes with the surface (Al-O-Si bonds) occurs in the presence of adsorbed water on the aluminum surface. The presence of a silane monolayer on Al decreases water adsorption on the surface, and inhibits hydration of the oxide metal film. The formation of a negatively charged siloxane film on the aluminum surface inhibits local metal corrosion, and a positively charged layer activates it in chloride containing media. The formation of the surface siloxane polymer by the modification of metals inhibits the metal dissolution under polymer coatings. It is caused by silane chemisorption and negative charging of the metal surface. The presence of negatively charged groups causes difficulties of an electrostatic character for the migration of aggressive ions to the metal surface.

  5. Chemical vapor deposition of ceramic coatings on metals and ceramic fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nable, Jun Co

    2005-07-01

    The research presented in this study consists of two major parts. The first part is about the development of ceramic coatings on metals by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Ceramics such as Al2O3 and Cr2O3, are used as protective coatings for materials used at elevated temperatures (>700°C). These metal oxides either exhibit oxidation resistance or have been used as environmental bond coats. Conventional methods of coating by chemical vapor deposition requires deposition temperatures of >950°C which could damage the substrate material during the coating process. Lower deposition temperatures (400 to 600°C) by MOCVD of these metal oxides were successful on Ni metal substrates. Surface modification such as pre-oxidation and etching were also investigated. In addition, a novel approach for the CVD of TiN on metals was developed. This new approach utilizes ambient pressure conditions which lead to deposition temperatures of 800°C or lower compared to conventional CVD of TiN at 1000°C. Titanium nitride can be used as an abrasive and wear coating on cutting and grinding tools. This nitride can also serve as a diffusion coating in metals. The second major part of this research involves the synthesis of interfacial coatings on ceramic reinforcing fibers for ceramic matrix composites. Aluminum and chromium oxides were deposited onto SiC, and Al2O3-SiO 2 fibers by MOCVD. The effects of the interface coatings on the tensile strength of ceramic fibers are also discussed. New duplex interface coatings consisting of BN or TiN together with Al2O3 or ZrO 2 were also successfully deposited and evaluated on SiC fibers.

  6. Properties of two biological glasses used as metallic prosthesis coatings and after an implantation in body

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Properties of two biological glasses used as metallic prosthesis coatings and after an implantation. Biomaterials development is essentially a multidisciplinary activity. In orthopaedic or dental surgery, most prostheses are made with metal or metallic alloys. A successful long-term implant requires biocompatibility

  7. Molten metal containment vessel with rare earth oxysulfide protective coating thereon and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Krikorian, Oscar H. (Danville, CA); Curtis, Paul G. (Tracy, CA)

    1992-01-01

    An improved molten metal containment vessel is disclosed in which wetting of the vessel's inner wall surfaces by molten metal is inhibited by coating at least the inner surfaces of the containment vessel with one or more rare earth oxysulfide or rare earth sulfide compounds to inhibit wetting and or adherence by the molten metal to the surfaces of the containment vessel.

  8. Dewetting Properties of Metallic Liquid Film on Nanopillared Graphene

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiongying; He, Yezeng; Wang, Yong; Dong, Jichen; Li, Hui

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we report simulation evidence that the graphene surface decorated by carbon nanotube pillars shows strong dewettability, which can give it great advantages in dewetting and detaching metallic nanodroplets on the surfaces. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations show that the ultrathin liquid film first contracts then detaches from the graphene on a time scale of several nanoseconds, as a result of the inertial effect. The detaching velocity is in the order of 10?m/s for the droplet with radii smaller than 50?nm. Moreover, the contracting and detaching behaviors of the liquid film can be effectively controlled by tuning the geometric parameters of the liquid film or pillar. In addition, the temperature effects on the dewetting and detaching of the metallic liquid film are also discussed. Our results show that one can exploit and effectively control the dewetting properties of metallic nanodroplets by decorating the surfaces with nanotube pillars. PMID:24487279

  9. Understanding Organic Film Behavior on Alloy and Metal Oxides

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Aparna; Quiñones, Rosalynn; Barriger, Lisa; Eastman, Rachel; Parsi, Arash

    2010-01-01

    Native oxide surfaces of stainless steel 316L and Nitinol alloys and their constituent metal oxides namely, nickel, chromium, molybdenum, manganese, iron and titanium were modified with long chain organic acids to better understand organic film formation. The adhesion and stability of films of octadecylphosphonic acid, octadecylhydroxamic acid, octadecylcarboxylic acid and octadecylsulfonic acid on these substrates was examined in this study. The films formed on these surfaces were analyzed by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, contact angle goniometry, atomic force microscopy and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. The effect of the acidity of the organic moiety and substrate composition on the film characteristics and stability is discussed. Interestingly, on the alloy surfaces, the presence of less reactive metal sites does not inhibit film formation. PMID:20039608

  10. Metamaterial Coatings for Broadband Asymmetric Mirrors

    E-print Network

    Chen, A; Hasegawa, K; Podolskiy, V A; Chen, Aiqing; Deutsch, Miriam; Hasegawa, Keisuke; Podolskiy, Viktor A.

    2006-01-01

    We report on design and fabrication of nano-composite metal-dielectric thin film coatings with high reflectance asymmetries. Applying basic dispersion engineering principles to model a broadband and large reflectance asymmetry, we obtain a model dielectric function for the metamaterial film, closely resembling the effective permittivity of disordered metal-dielectric nano-composites. Coatings realized using disordered nanocrystalline silver films deposited on glass substrates confirm the theoretical predictions, exhibiting symmetric transmittance, large reflectance asymmetries and a unique flat reflectance asymmetry.

  11. Nickel coated flyash (Ni-FAC) cenosphere doped polyaniline composite film for electromagnetic shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bora, Pritom J.; Vinoy, K. J.; Ramamurthy, Praveen C.; Kishore; Madras, Giridhar

    2015-03-01

    A solid waste material fly ash cenosphere (FAC) was nickel coated and polyaniline in situ polymerized at ?30 ± 2 °C in nitrogen atmosphere. A thin film of this composite material was prepared by solution processing and surface morphology/topography was studied. High electromagnetic shielding effectiveness (SE) was obtained for this film; 59 ± 4 ?m and 133 ± 4 ?m films show an average of 38 and 60 dB SE, respectively, in the frequency range 8.2–12.4 GHz (X-band). Unlike PANI film, the SE of these composite films is high at high frequency. The presence of magneto dielectric microsphere (Ni-FAC) increases the heterogeneity of the composite film in an efficient way for EMI shielding by changing film topography and increasing ac conductivity and permeability.

  12. Preparation of a Functionally Graded Fluoropolymer Thin Film and Its Application to Antireflective Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senda, Kazuo; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Kawanishi, Takumi; Tanaka, Kuniaki; Usui, Hiroaki

    2013-05-01

    Fluoropolymer thin films were prepared by the ion-assisted vapor deposition polymerization (IAD) of 2-(perfluorohexyl) ethylacrylate (Rf-6) under Ar ion irradiation. The ion acceleration voltage Va largely affected the film characteristics. With increasing Va, the adhesion strength between the film and the substrate improved, while the surface energy and the refractive index increased. To attain a high adhesion strength, a low surface energy, and a low optical reflectivity simultaneously, a functionally graded film was prepared by varying Va from 300 to 0 V continually in the course of film growth. As a consequence, an antireflective coating with good adhesion and low surface energy was obtained. The optical reflectivity of a glass substrate was reduced from 4.9 to 0.55% at a wavelength of 400 nm by depositing a 100-nm-thick single-layer functionally graded fluoropolymer film. The surface energy of this film was 8.5 mJ/m2.

  13. Polymer-assisted deposition of films

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, Thomas M. (Los Alamos, NM); Burrell; Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Jia; Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Lin; Yuan (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-10-20

    A polymer assisted deposition process for deposition of metal oxide films and the like is presented. The process includes solutions of one or more metal precursor and soluble polymers having binding properties for the one or more metal precursor. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is heated at high temperatures to yield metal oxide films and the like. Such films can be epitaxial in structure and can be of optical quality. The process can be organic solvent-free.

  14. Polymer-assisted deposition of films

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, Thomas M. (Los Alamos, NM); Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Lin, Yuan (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-04-29

    A polymer assisted deposition process for deposition of metal oxide films is presented. The process includes solutions of one or more metal precursor and soluble polymers having binding properties for the one or more metal precursor. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is heated at high temperatures to yield metal oxide films. Such films can be epitaxial in structure and can be of optical quality. The process can be organic solvent-free.

  15. New approach toward reflective films and fibers using cholesteric liquid-crystal coatings.

    PubMed

    Picot, Olivier T; Dai, Mian; Broer, Dirk J; Peijs, Ton; Bastiaansen, Cees W M

    2013-08-14

    A new approach for the production of oriented films and fibers with angular-dependent reflective colors is presented. The process consists of spray coating a solution of cholesteric liquid-crystalline monomers onto a melt-processed and oriented polyamide-6 substrate followed by UV curing. Reflectivity measurements and optical microscopy show that a well-defined liquid-crystalline and planar alignment is obtained. It is further demonstrated that a reflection up to 80% is obtained by coating oriented films on both sides of the oriented substrate with a single-handedness cholesteric liquid-crystal coating. The high reflectivity is attributed to the close to half-wave retardation induced by the anisotropic polymer substrate. Also, polyamide-6 filaments are successfully coated and fibers are obtained with an angular-dependent color in a single dimension along the fiber direction, which originates from the planar cholesteric alignment on a curved surface. PMID:23802918

  16. Germanium Lift-Off Masks for Thin Metal Film Patterning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Ari

    2012-01-01

    A technique has been developed for patterning thin metallic films that are, in turn, used to fabricate microelectronics circuitry and thin-film sensors. The technique uses germanium thin films as lift-off masks. This requires development of a technique to strip or undercut the germanium chemically without affecting the deposited metal. Unlike in the case of conventional polymeric lift-off masks, the substrate can be exposed to very high temperatures during processing (sputter deposition). The reason why polymeric liftoff masks cannot be exposed to very high temperatures (greater than 100 C) is because (a) they can become cross linked, making lift-off very difficult if not impossible, and (b) they can outgas nitrogen and oxygen, which then can react with the metal being deposited. Consequently, this innovation is expected to find use in the fabrication of transition edge sensors and microwave kinetic inductance detectors, which use thin superconducting films deposited at high temperature as their sensing elements. Transition edge sensors, microwave kinetic inductance detectors, and their circuitry are comprised of superconducting thin films, for example Nb and TiN. Reactive ion etching can be used to pattern these films; however, reactive ion etching also damages the underlying substrate, which is unwanted in many instances. Polymeric lift-off techniques permit thin-film patterning without any substrate damage, but they are difficult to remove and the polymer can outgas during thin-film deposition. The outgassed material can then react with the film with the consequence of altered and non-reproducible materials properties, which, in turn, is deleterious for sensors and their circuitry. The purpose of this innovation was to fabricate a germanium lift-off mask to be used for patterning thin metal films.

  17. Calcium and Zinc Containing Bactericidal Glass Coatings for Biomedical Metallic Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Esteban-Tejeda, Leticia; Díaz, Luis A.; Prado, Catuxa; Cabal, Belén; Torrecillas, Ramón; Moya, José S.

    2014-01-01

    The present work presents new bactericidal coatings, based on two families of non-toxic, antimicrobial glasses belonging to B2O3–SiO2–Na2O–ZnO and SiO2–Na2O–Al2O3–CaO–B2O3 systems. Free of cracking, single layer direct coatings on different biomedical metallic substrates (titanium alloy, Nb, Ta, and stainless steel) have been developed. Thermal expansion mismatch was adjusted by changing glass composition of the glass type, as well as the firing atmosphere (air or Ar) according to the biomedical metallic substrates. Formation of bubbles in some of the glassy coatings has been rationalized considering the reactions that take place at the different metal/coating interfaces. All the obtained coatings were proven to be strongly antibacterial versus Escherichia coli (>4 log). PMID:25056542

  18. Sputter deposition of metallic thin film and directpatterning

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, L.; Chen, Y.; Jiang, X.; Ji, Q.; Leung, K.-N.

    2005-09-09

    A compact apparatus is developed for deposition of metal thin film. The system employs an RF discharge plasma source with a straight RF antenna, which is made of or covered with deposition material, serving as sputtering target at the same time. The average deposition rate of copper thin film is as high as 450nm/min. By properly allocating the metal materials on the sputtering antenna, mixture deposition of multiple metal species is achieved. Using an ion beam imprinting scheme also taking advantage of ion beam focusing technique, two different schemes of direct patterning deposition process are developed: direct depositing patterned metallic thin film and resistless ion beam sputter patterning. Preliminary experiments have demonstrated direct pattern transfer from a template with feature size of micro scale; patterns with more than 10x reduction are achieved by sputtering patterning method.

  19. Effect of Zr on microstructure of metallic glass coatings prepared by gas tunnel type plasma spraying.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, A; Kuroda, T; Kimura, H; Inoue, A

    2012-06-01

    Metallic glass is one of the most attractive advanced materials, and many researchers have conducted various developmental research works. Metallic glass is expected to be used as a functional material because of its excellent physical and chemical functions such as high strength and high corrosion resistance. However, the application for small size parts has been carried out only in some industrial fields. In order to widen the industrial application fields, a composite material is preferred for the cost performance. In the coating processes of metallic glass with the conventional deposition techniques, there is a difficulty to form thick coatings due to their low deposition rate. Thermal spraying method is one of the potential candidates to produce metallic glass composites. Metallic glass coatings can be applied to the longer parts and therefore the application field can be widened. The gas tunnel plasma spraying is one of the most important technologies for high quality ceramic coating and synthesizing functional materials. As the gas tunnel type plasma jet is superior to the properties of other conventional type plasma jets, this plasma has great possibilities for various applications in thermal processing. In this study, the gas tunnel type plasma spraying was used to form the metallic glass coatings on the stainless-steel substrate. The microstructure and surface morphology of the metallic glass coatings were examined using Fe-based metallic glass powder and Zr-based metallic glass powder as coating material. For the mechanical properties the Vickers hardness was measured on the cross section of both the coatings and the difference between the powders was compared. PMID:22905546

  20. How to improve the storage stability of aqueous polymeric film coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Siepmann; S. Muschert; B. Leclercq; B. Carlin; J. Siepmann

    2008-01-01

    The major aim of this study was to identify an easy tool to improve the long term stability of polymeric film coatings applied from aqueous dispersions. Drug release profiles from ethylcellulose-coated theophylline pellets were monitored during 6 months open storage under ambient and stress conditions [“room temperature\\/ambient relative humidity (RH)” and “40 °C\\/75%RH”]. The pellets were cured for 1 or 2 d at

  1. Thermal property evolution of metal based thermal barrier coatings with heat treatments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong-Il Shin; François Gitzhofer; Christian Moreau

    2007-01-01

    Predicting “in-service” lifetime of ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) is difficult due to the inherent brittle nature\\u000a of ceramics used. Therefore, the study of metal-based thermal barrier coatings (MBTBCs) has been initiated to challenge the\\u000a current problems of ceramic-based TBCs (CBTBCs) and create a new generation of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). In this work,\\u000a nano\\/amorphous structured MBTBCs, for use in

  2. Optimization of a container design for depositing uniform metal coatings on glass microspheres by magnetron sputtering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Schmid; C. Eisenmenger-Sittner; J. Hell; M. Horkel; M. Keding; H. Mahr

    2010-01-01

    Coating granular substrates by PVD methods like magnetron sputtering is a very challenging process. Although many of such substrates may also be coated by other means like the sol gel method, there are coating materials (e. g. refractory metals) for which PVD processes are the method of choice.One of these substrates is hollow glass microspheres with 2–80?m diameter which can

  3. Laser-Induced Fabrication of Metallic Interlayers and Patterns in Polyimide Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, Gilda A. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Gaddy, Gregory A. (Inventor); Koplitz, Brent D. (Inventor); Simpson, Steven M. (Inventor); Lynch, Michael F. (Inventor); Ruffner, Samuel C. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Self-metallizing polyimide films are created by doping polyamic acid solutions with metallic ions and solubilizing agents. Upon creating a film, the film is exposed to coherent light for a specific time and then cured. The resulting film has been found to have a metallic surface layer and a metallic subsurface layer (interlayer). The layer separating the metallic layer has a uniform dispersion of small metal particulates within the polymer. The layer below the interlayer has larger metal particulates uniformly distributed within the polymer. By varying the intensity or time of exposure to the coherent light, three-dimensional control of metal formation within the film is provided.

  4. Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    In order to reduce heat transfer between a hot gas heat source and a metallic engine component, a thermal insulating layer of material is placed between them. This thermal barrier coating is applied by plasma spray processing the thin films. The coating has been successfully employed in aerospace applications for many years. Lewis Research Center, a leader in the development engine components coating technology, has assisted Caterpillar, Inc. in applying ceramic thermal barrier coatings on engines. Because these large engines use heavy fuels containing vanadium, engine valve life is sharply decreased. The barrier coating controls temperatures, extends valve life and reduces operating cost. Additional applications are currently under development.

  5. Coating composition for inhibiting corrosion of metal substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Seibel, L.P.

    1993-06-29

    The corrosion-inhibiting coating composition for application to a metal substrate is described comprising: (a) from about 55% to about 78.5%, by weight of nonvolatile material, of an epoxy resin having a molecular weight of about 15,000 to about 80,000; (b) from about 20% to about 40%, by weight of nonvolatile material, of a phenolic resin; (c) from about 1.5% to about 5%, by weight of nonvolatile material, of an organic corrosion inhibitor having the structural formula: wherein each R is selected, independently, from the group consisting of hydrogen, alkyl, haloalkyl, alkoxy, alkylthio, alkylsulfonyl, cycloalkyl, phenyl, alkylphenyl, phenylalkyl, halo, cyano, nitro, carboxyl, carboxyalkyl, hydroxy, amino, and carbamoyl, and wherein R[sub 1], R[sub 2], R[sub 3] and R[sub 4] are selected, independently, from the group consisting of hydrogen, alkyl, hydroxyalkyl, haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, carboxyalkyl, carboxyl, phenyl, and phenylalkyl, and wherein at least one of the R[sub 1], R[sub 2], R[sub 3] and R[sub 4] groups is a carboxyl group; and (d) a sufficient amount of a nonaqueous carrier such that the corrosion-inhibiting composition includes from about 20% to about 40%, by weight of the total composition, of nonvolatile material.

  6. Enhanced Fluorescence Cell Imaging with Metal-Coated Slides

    PubMed Central

    Moal, E. Le; Fort, E.; Lévêque-Fort, S.; Cordelières, F. P.; Fontaine-Aupart, M.-P.; Ricolleau, C.

    2007-01-01

    Fluorescence labeling is the prevailing imaging technique in cell biology research. When they involve statistical investigations on a large number of cells, experimental studies require both low magnification to get a reliable statistical population and high contrast to achieve accurate diagnosis on the nature of the cells' perturbation. Because microscope objectives of low magnification generally yield low collection efficiency, such studies are limited by the fluorescence signal weakness. To overcome this technological bottleneck, we proposed a new method based on metal-coated substrates that enhance the fluorescence process and improve collection efficiency in epifluorescence observation and that can be directly used with a common microscope setup. We developed a model based on the dipole approximation with the aim of simulating the optical behavior of a fluorophore on such a substrate and revealing the different mechanisms responsible for fluorescence enhancement. The presence of a reflective surface modifies both excitation and emission processes and additionally reshapes fluorescence emission lobes. From both theoretical and experimental results, we found the fluorescence signal emitted by a molecular cyanine 3 dye layer to be amplified by a factor ?30 when fluorophores are separated by a proper distance from the substrate. We then adapted our model to the case of homogeneously stained micrometer-sized objects and demonstrated mean signal amplification by a factor ?4. Finally, we applied our method to fluorescence imaging of dog kidney cells and verified experimentally the simulated results. PMID:17172306

  7. Reversible potentiometric oxygen sensors based on polymeric and metallic film electrodes.

    PubMed

    Yim, H S; Meyerhoff, M E

    1992-09-01

    Various materials and sensor configurations that exhibit reversible potentiometric responses to the partial pressure of oxygen at room temperature in neutral pH solution are examined. In one arrangement, platinum electrodes are coated with plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) films doped with a cobalt(II) tetraethylene pentamine complex. For such sensors, potentiometric oxygen response is attributed to a mixed potential originating from the underlying platinum electrode surface as well as a change in redox potential of the Co(II)-tetren-doped film as the complex binds oxygen reversibly. The response due to the platinum surface is prolonged by the presence of the Co(II)-tetren/PVC film. Alternately, thin films of metallic copper, electrochemically deposited on platinum and/or sputtered or vapor deposited on a single crystal silicon substrate, may be used for reversible oxygen sensing. The long-term reversibility and potentiometric stability of such copper film-based sensors is enhanced (up to 1 month) by preventing the formation of cuprous oxide on the surfaces via the application of an external nonpolarizing cathodic current through the working electrode or by specifically using sputtered copper films that have [100] preferred crystal structures as determined by X-ray diffraction. The implications of these findings in relation to fabricating analytically useful potentiometric oxygen sensors are discussed. PMID:1416035

  8. Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Plasma Sprayed Ni-Based Metallic Glass Coating

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Akira; Kuroda, Toshio [Joining and Welding Res. Inst., Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Kimura, Hisamichi; Inoue, Akihisa [Inst. for Materials Res., Tohoku University, Katahira, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2010-10-13

    Various developmental research works on the metallic glass have been conducted in order to broaden its application field. Thermal spraying method is one of the potential techniques to enhance the excellent properties such as high toughness and corrosion resistance of the metallic glass material. The gas tunnel type plasma spraying is useful to obtain high quality ceramic coatings such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZrO{sub 2} coatings. In this study, the Ni-based metallic glass coatings were produced by the gas tunnel type plasma spraying under various experimental conditions, and their microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated. At the plasma current of 200-300 A, the Ni-based metallic glass coatings of more than 200 {mu}m in thickness were formed densely with Vickers hardness of about Hv = 600.

  9. On the positron work function for a metal with a dielectric coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogosov, V. V.; Babich, A. V.; Vakula, P. V.; Kravtsova, A. G.

    2011-11-01

    It is shown that a dielectric coating on the metal surface may change the sign of the positron work function. Calculations are performed using the Kohn-Sham method for polycrystals and faces of Al, Cu, and Zn.

  10. Effect of Ceramic Particle Velocity on Cold Spray Deposition of Metal-Ceramic Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sova, A.; Kosarev, V. F.; Papyrin, A.; Smurov, I.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, metal-ceramic coatings are cold sprayed taking into account the spray parameters of both metal and ceramic particles. The effect of the ceramic particle velocity on the process of metal-ceramic coating formation and the coating properties is analyzed. Copper and aluminum powders are used as metal components. Two fractions of aluminum oxide and silicon carbide are sprayed in the tests. The ceramic particle velocity is varied by the particle injection into different zones of the gas flow: the subsonic and supersonic parts of the nozzle and the free jet after the nozzle exit. The experiments demonstrated the importance of the ceramic particle velocity for the stability of the process: Ceramic particles accelerated to a high enough velocity penetrate into the coating, while low-velocity ceramic particles rebound from its surface.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of allyl isothiocyanate used to coat biodegradable composite films as affected by storage and handling conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the effects of storage and handling conditions on the antimicrobial activity of biodegradable composite films (polylactic acid and sugar beet pulp) coated with allyl isothiocyanate (AIT). Polylactic acid (PLA) and chitosan were incorporated with AIT and coated on one side of the film. T...

  12. Extension of Shelf Life and Control of Human Pathogens in Produce by Antimicrobial Edible Films and Coatings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter provides general information about edible films and coatings, and their use with fruits and vegetables to control human pathogens. It reviews potential antimicrobial phytochemicals used in edible films and coatings, and summarizes methods for measuring the antimicrobial activity and ph...

  13. Preparation of high-performance optical coatings with fluoride nanoparticle films made from autoclaved sols.

    PubMed

    Murata, Tsuyoshi; Ishizawa, Hitoshi; Motoyama, Izumi; Tanaka, Akira

    2006-03-01

    An ultralow refractive index is very advantageous when one designs antireflective coatings. We successfully obtained high-quality MgF2 thin films with ultralow refractive indices from autoclaved sols prepared from magnesium acetate and hydrofluoric acid. The MgF2 films consist of nanosized particles, and they have high laser-exposure durability at 193 nm. The reflectance of the antireflective coating with five layers, of which the top layer is formed by our method, is lower than 0.6% in the incident angle range of 0 degrees - 60 degrees at 193 nm. PMID:16539251

  14. Metal-organic chemical vapor-deposited cobalt oxide films as negative electrodes for thin film Li-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jena, Anirudha; Munichandraiah, N.; Shivashankar, S. A.

    2015-03-01

    In this study, thin films of cobalt oxide (Co3O4) have been grown by the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique on stainless steel substrate at two preferred temperatures (450 °C and 500 °C), using cobalt acetylacetonate dihydrate as precursor. Spherical as well as columnar microstructures of Co3O4 have been observed under controlled growth conditions. Further investigations reveal these films are phase-pure, well crystallized and carbon-free. High-resolution TEM analysis confirms that each columnar structure is a continuous stack of minute crystals. Comparative study between these Co3O4 films grown at 450 °C and 500 °C has been carried out for their application as negative electrodes in Li-ion batteries. Our method of electrode fabrication leads to a coating of active material directly on current collector without any use of external additives. A high specific capacity of 1168 micro Ah cm-2 ?m-1 has been measured reproducibly for the film deposited at 500°C with columnar morphology. Further, high rate capability is observed when cycled at different current densities. The Co3O4 electrode with columnar structure has a specific capacity 38% higher than the electrode with spherical microstructure (grown at 450°C). Impedance measurements on the Co3O4 electrode grown at 500 °C also carried out to study the kinetics of the electrode process.

  15. Bonding bases coated with porous metal powder: a comparison with foil mesh.

    PubMed

    Hanson, G H; Gibbon, W M; Shimizu, H

    1983-01-01

    This study was undertaken to test the theory that a special porous metal powder coating can provide better mechanical keying than mesh by virtue of its greater surface area and intricate microscopic void network. Identical brackets were laser-welded to an equal number of conventional foil-mesh and powder-coated bases of identical shape and peripheral dimensions. The experimental base material was found to provide significantly greater tensile bond strength at the metal/adhesive interface. PMID:6336902

  16. Pulsed eddy-current measurement of a conducting coating on a magnetic metal plate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hung-Chi Yang; Cheng-Chi Tai

    2002-01-01

    A new measurement method has been developed using the pulsed eddy-current (PEC) technique to determine the thickness or conductivity of metallic coatings on a metal substrate for the case when either the coating or substrate is magnetic. We demonstrate this technique for nickel layers (25-200 µm) over copper substrates, copper layers (25-200 µm) over nickel substrates and zinc layers (50-400

  17. Thermal contact conductance of metallic coated superconductor/copper interfaces at cryogenic temperatures

    E-print Network

    Ochterbeck, Jay Matthew

    1990-01-01

    THERMAL CONTACT CONDUCTANCE OF METALLIC COATED SUPERCONDUCTOR/COPPER INTERFACES AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES A Thesis by JAY MATTHEW OCHTERBECK Submitted to the 0%ce of Graduate Studies of Texas AJrM IJniversity in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1990 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering THERMAL CONTACT CONDUCTANCE OF METALLIC COATED SUPERCONDUCTOR/COPPER INTERFACES AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES A Thesis JA'r '(IATTHEW OCHTERBECK Approved...

  18. Thick, low-stress films, and coated substrates formed therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Henager, Jr., Charles H. (Kennewick, WA); Knoll, Robert W. (Menomonee Falls, WI)

    1991-01-01

    Stress-induced deformation, and the damage resulting therefrom, increases with film thickness. The overcoming of excessive stress by the use of the film material of the present invention, permits the formation of thick films that are necessary for certain of the above described applications. The most likely use for the subject film materials, other than their specialized views as an optical film, is for microelectronic packaging of components on silicon substrates. In general, the subject Si-Al-O-N films have excellent adherence to the underlying substrate, a high degree of hardness and durability, and are excellent insulators. Prior art elevated temperature deposition processes cannot meet the microelectronic packaging temperature formation constraints. The process of the present invention is conducted under non-elevated temperature conditions, typically 500# C. or less.

  19. Electrochemical Stability of Thin-Film LiCoO2 Cathodes by Aluminum-Oxide Coating

    E-print Network

    Park, Byungwoo

    cathodes were successfully fabricated by aluminum- oxide coating. Both the galvanostatic charge-discharge-coated LiCoO2 films compared to those in the uncoated ones. The improved cycling behaviors in the coated of an aluminum-oxide solid electrolyte residing between the LiCoO2 cathode and liquid electrolyte. Galvanostatic

  20. Depositional characteristics of metal coating on single-crystal TiO2 nanowires.

    PubMed

    Wen, Baomei; Liu, Chunyan; Liu, Yun

    2005-06-30

    Ultralong single-crystalline TiO(2) nanowires were prepared by a simple, low-cost solvothermal process. Silver nitrate, neodymium chloride, ceric nitrate, stannic chloride hydrate, and cadmium chloride were used as metal sources and deposited by reduction on the surface of TiO(2) nanowires. The composites were subsequently characterized by transmission electron microscopy, and their coverage was compared. The nature of the coatings on the TiO(2) nanowires varies from metal to metal. A novel approach on modified one-dimensional nanostructures with metal coating was developed, which has great potential applications in catalysts, sensors, and nanoscale devices. PMID:16852529

  1. Surface chemistry and corrosion behavior of aluminum-copper systems: Air-formed films to complex conversion coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chidambaram, Devicharan

    Understanding the mechanism of corrosion inhibition by carcinogenic chromates is critical to the development of environmentally safe coatings containing benign chromate substitutes. An integrated approach to correlate the surface chemistry and corrosion behavior of a wide range of systems has been undertaken. Electrochemical behavior was studied by open circuit potential (OCP) measurements, potentiodynamic polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Surface chemistry was studied using variable-angle X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (VAXPS), X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES), secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), infrared spectroscopy and synchrotron infrared micro spectroscopy (SIRMS) and Raman spectroscopy. Using SIRMS, the ASTM recommended acetone degreasing was shown to initiate pitting of AA2024-T3 via photochemical formation of acetic acid. Due to the known tendency for photoreduction of Cr6+(3d0) following soft X-ray dosage during XPS, a novel method has been developed to prevent this reduction. This method yields, for the first time, an accurate determination of the Cr6+ content of a CCC. The pretreatment of the alloy prior to conversion coating has been shown to have significant influence on the surface intermetallic distribution, composition and corrosion resistance of the initial oxide film and subsequent conversion coating. AlconoxRTM pretreatment was found to result in a highly protective surface film that inhibits the subsequent formation of CCC. The study also shows that coupling of the alloy to platinum during the bromate pretreatment increases the corrosion resistance of the subsequently formed CCC by over an order of magnitude due to reduction in surface copper content. Adsorption of chromate ion on the passive oxide film formed on the metal surface was observed to induce fixed negative charges that inhibit chloride ingress on planar surfaces. While deprotonation of the aluminum hydroxide film by chromate was found to lead to corrosion resistant aluminum oxide, deprotonation induced by chloride ion resulted in the formation of a lower corrosion resistant aluminum oxyhydroxide. CCCs are considered to have the unique ability to repassivate the surface following a mechanical damage of the corrosion protective coating. Direct evidence for repassivation of AA2024-T3 by chromates has been provided for the first time using SIRMS, OCP measurements, SIMS, Raman spectroscopy. For the first time, molybdate ions have been found to not only repassivate mechanical damage but at rates significantly faster than chromates and hence represent a potential candidate for benign coating formulation. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  2. Fabrication of Metal Oxide Thin Films Using the Langmuir-Blodgett Deposition Technique.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, David John

    The Langmuir Blodgett (LB) deposition of metal arachidates was investigated as a technique for fabrication of metal oxides with emphasis placed on the lanthanide arachidates. Traditionally, these materials are difficult to deposit via the LB process, due to the rigidity of the floating monolayer. Studies on yttrium arachidate have shown that the quality of deposition of these materials is highly dependent on the concentration of the metal salt and the pH of the subphase. Yttrium arachidate was thus deposited at 10^{-5} M YCl_3 over a pH range of 4.0 to 6.9. Uniform multilayer films were produced with films at the higher pH's showing 100% yttrium arachidate. A pK_{rm a} value of 4.9 +/- 0.2 was obtained under these conditions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data indicate that the metal is being incorporated into the arachidic acid predominantly as Y(OH) ^{2+}. A saturation areal density of (2.0 +/- 0.1) times 10^{14} Y/cm ^2 was measured for one layer of yttrium arachidate. Ellipsometric measurements were performed on films of yttrium arachidate to study order-disorder transitions. Upon heating the films were observed to undergo two transitions at 65^circC and 100 ^circC. At room temperature, the as -deposited films were found to be anisotropic with indices of refraction of N_{rm x} = 1.503 +/- 0.005 and N _{rm z} = 1.554 +/- 0.005 and a monolayer spacing of 2.73 +/- 0.03 nm. Above 100^ circC the films were isotropic with N = 1.440 +/- 0.005 and a thickness of 3.13 +/- 0.03 nm per original layer. The films showed no desorption below 100^circ C. In contrast to films of cadium arachidate, the yttrium arachidate films were observed to undergo supercooling by 35^circC. This may point to a lack of nucleation sites in the yttrium arachidate films explaining why they maintain areal integrity at high temperature while cadmium arachidate films do not. The decomposition of LB films was studied in some detail, using two processes: thermal decomposition and decomposition via ultraviolet/ozone exposure. The second technique was found to reduce LB arachidate multilayers to a metal carbonate (at a rate of less than 1 minute per layer), which could be further decomposed into an oxide via a thermal treatment. The ultraviolet/ozone process allowed uniform films of CdO to be produced in addition to the thin films of Y_2O_3 , Er_2O_3 and La_2O_3 fabricated via either thermal or ultraviolet/ozone processing. Applications of the LB produced metal oxides were investigated. Electrical characterization of Y _2O_3 dielectric layers gave a permittivity of varepsilon~ 11.5 +/- 0.9 and good quality metal -oxide-semiconductor structures of <10 nm in thickness. Y_2O_3 coatings on 304 stainless steel were found to significantly reduce thermal oxidation of the steel at 800^ circC. Finally, La_2O _3 interface layers in PZT/Pt structures were found to have a significant effect on the nucleation and growth of the ferroelectric.

  3. Magnetic Silver-Coated Ferrite Nanoparticles and Their Application in Thick Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianguo; Huang, Baling; Li, Xiangyou; Li, Ping; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2010-12-01

    Magnetic silver-coated ferrite nanoparticles with 39.8% weight gain (relative to ferrite nanopowder coated by a silver layer) were synthesized by electroless deposition of silver on ferrite nanopowder. The mechanism of the electroless deposition was explored in terms of pretreatment, sensitization, activation, and the reduction of silver-ammonia complexes. Experiments showed that the optimal deposition conditions were a temperature of 50°C, pH value of 10 to 12, duration of 65 min with ethanol plus polyethylene glycol as additives, and ultrasonic vibration as a method of dispersing the nanoparticles. From transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, it was observed that as-synthesized nanoparticles had a core-shell structure with a particle size of 35 nm to 90 nm and a shell thickness of 5 nm to 20 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed that only ferrite and metallic silver were present in the product. Electrical resistance and magnetic hysteresis measurements demonstrated that the nanoparticles were both electrically conductive (volume electrical resistivity on the order of 10-4 ? cm to 10-3 ? cm when compressed to pressure of 2 × 10 6 Pa) and possessed ferrimagnetic properties. After a thick-film paste, obtained with the nanoparticles as the functional phase, was directly written and sintered, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and electrical resistance measurements of conductive lines in the acquired array pattern showed that an electrically conductive network with some defects and cavities was formed, with a volume electrical resistivity of 1 × 10-4 ? cm to 1 × 10-3 ? cm.

  4. Structure and corrosion behavior of (Ti, Fe, C) films co-deposited by three metal vapor vacuum arc beams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Liang; Furong Ma; Xiaoyan Wang; Tonghe Zhang; Hong Zhu; Xianying Wu; Huixing Zhang

    2000-01-01

    Thin (Ti, Fe, C) ternary films were formed on the surface of H13 steel by Ti+, Fe+, C+ three-beam co-deposition using a filtered vacuum arc plasma deposition (FVAPD) system with three metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion sources. Using the three-electrode potential–kinetic polarization technique, the corrosion resistance of these coatings in acetic acid and sodium acetate solutions or sodium chloride

  5. Poly(vinylferrocenium) perchlorate–polyaniline composite film-coated electrode for amperometric determination of hydroquinone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muammer Kavanoz; Nuran Özçiçek Pekmez

    Poly(vinylferrocenium) perchlorate–polyaniline (PVF+–PANI) composite film was synthesized electrochemically on Pt electrode in a methylene chloride solution containing a mixture\\u000a of poly(vinylferrocene) (PVF) polymer and aniline monomer. PVF+ polymer in the composite film was used as an electron transfer mediator. The composite coating showed significant electrochemical\\u000a activity towards hydroquinone (HQ) at pH 4, with high sensitivity and a wide linearity range. The

  6. Electrodeposition and optical characterisation of CdS thin films on ITO-coated glass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Sasikala; R. Dhanasekaran; C. Subramanian

    1997-01-01

    Cadmium sulfide thin films have been deposited by electrodeposition using the potentiostatic method on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates from aqueous solution containing CdCl2 · 2H2O and Na2S2O3 at 90 °C. The depositions were carried out for various cathodic potentials. Good quality films were obtained at a cathodic potential of ?0.6 V. Voltammograms have been recorded to optimize the

  7. Gas barrier characteristics of a polysilazane film formed on an ITO-coated PET substrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Ohishi

    2003-01-01

    With the aim of developing a high-performance gas barrier material, a polysilazane film was applied to an indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated organic PET substrate (i.e., the ITO and polysilazane films were formed sequentially on the PET substrate), and its properties were evaluated. The resulting material exhibits favorable gas barrier characteristics (oxygen permeability 0.02 cc\\/m2day, water vapor permeability 0.15 g\\/m2day) and

  8. Development of X-Shape Filtered Arc Deposition Apparatus for Thick taC Film Coating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroki Hikokasa; Yasuhiro Iwasaki; Hirofumi Takikawa; Tateki Sakakibara; Hiroshi Hasegawa; Nobuhiro Tsuji

    2006-01-01

    Novel X-shape filtered arc deposition (X-FAD) apparatus is specially designed and newly developed for thick hydrogen-free tetrahedral amorphous-carbon (ta-C) film coating on superhard alloy (or cemented carbide) substrate. The apparatus has a graphite cathode for deposition of hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon (DLC; ta-C and amorphous carbon: a-C) film and a chromium (Cr) cathode for deposition of Cr layer. The filter duct

  9. Oxygen barrier performance of whey-protein-coated plastic films as affected by temperature, relative humidity, base film and protein type

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seok-In Hong; John M. Krochta

    2006-01-01

    Oxygen permeation properties of whey-protein-coated plastic films were examined to compare their oxygen-barrier performance as affected by temperature (15–40°C), relative humidity (30–85% RH), base film (PE: polyethylene & PP: polypropylene), and protein type (WPI: whey protein isolate & WPC: whey protein concentrate). The resulting whey-protein-coated films showed increase in oxygen permeability (OP) as temperature increased, with an Arrhenius behavior, and

  10. Transparent conductive reduced graphene oxide thin films produced by spray coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, HongFei; Wang, Can; Sun, ZhiPei; Zhou, YueLiang; Jin, KuiJuan; Yang, GuoZhen

    2015-01-01

    Reduced graphene oxide thin films were fabricated on quartz by spray coating method using a stable dispersion of reduced graphene oxide in N,N-Dimethylformamide. The dispersion was produced by chemical reduction of graphene oxide, and the film thickness was controlled with the amount of spray volume. AFM measurements revealed that the thin films have near-atomically flat surface. The chemical and structural parameters of the samples were analyzed by Raman and XPS studies. It was found that the thin films show electrical conductivity with good optical transparency in the visible to near infrared region. The sheet resistance of the films can be significantly reduced by annealing in vacuum and reach 58 k? with a light transmittance of 68.69% at 550 nm. The conductive transparent properties of the reduced graphene oxide thin films would be useful to develop flexible electronics.

  11. Fabrication and Evaluation of One-Axis Oriented Lead Zirconate Titanate Films Using Metal-Oxide Nanosheet Interface Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minemura, Yoshiki; Nagasaka, Kohei; Kiguchi, Takanori; Konno, Toyohiko J.; Funakubo, Hiroshi; Uchida, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    Nanosheet Ca2Nb3O20 (ns-CN) layers with pseudo-perovskite-type crystal configuration were applied on the surface of polycrystalline metal substrates to achieve preferential crystal orientation of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) films for the purpose of enhanced ferroelectricity comparable to that of epitaxial thin films. PZT films with tetragonal symmetry (Zr/Ti=0.40:0.60) were fabricated by chemical solution deposition (CSD) on ns-CN-buffered Inconel 625 and SUS 316L substrates, while ns-CN was applied on the the substrates by dip-coating. The preferential crystal growth on the ns-CN layer can be achieved by favorable lattice matching between (001)/(100)PZT and (001)ns-CN planes. The degree of (001) orientation was increased for PZT films on ns-CN/Inconel 625 and ns-CN/SUS 316L substrates, whereas randomly-oriented PZT films with a lower degree of (001) orientation were grown on bare and Inconel 625 films. Enhanced remanent polarization of 60 µC/cm2 was confirmed for the PZT films on ns-CN/metal substrates, ascribed to the preferential alignment of the polar [001] axis normal to the substrate surface, although it also suffered from higher coercive field above 500 kV/cm caused by PZT/metal interfacial reaction.

  12. Structured nanoporous surfaces from hybrid block copolymer micelle films with metal ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Minsoo P.; Kim, Hyeong Jun; Kim, Bumjoon J.; Yi, Gi-Ra

    2015-03-01

    We present a novel method for producing structured nanoporous thin films using block copolymer (BCP) micelles loaded with metallic ions. The BCP micellar thin films containing gold (Au) ions were prepared by spin-coating poly(styrene-block-4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) micelle solutions in which Au precursors (AuCl4?) were selectively loaded onto the P4VP core. When the micellar films were exposed to cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) solutions, the Au precursors were selectively extracted from the P4VP domains due to their strong electrostatic interaction with CTAB, leading to the formation of pores in the micelles. Consequently, regularly patterned nanoporous surfaces were formed. By controlling the molecular weight (Mn) of PS-b-P4VP and the amount of Au precursors (?) that were loaded in the P4VP domains, the pore size and depth could be tuned precisely. In particular, when a sufficient amount of Au precursors was loaded (? ? 0.3), the porous surface nanostructure was well developed. In addition, the pore size and depth of the nanostructure increased as the ? value increased. For instance, when the ? value increased from 0.3 to 1.0, the pore size increased from 22.8 nm to 28.8 nm, and the pore depth increased from 2.1 nm to 3.2 nm. Interestingly, the transition from the nonporous structures to the porous structures in the micellar film could be reversibly controlled by adding and removing the Au precursors in the film. Moreover, our method for the preparation of nanoporous films can be extended to micellar film by incorporating other metal ions such as silver (Ag) and iron (Fe).

  13. Carboxyl-Ebselen-Based Layer-by-Layer Films as Potential Antithrombotic and Antimicrobial Coatings

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Wenyi; Wu, Jianfeng; Xi, Chuanwu; Ashe, Arthur J.; Mark, E. Meyerhoff

    2011-01-01

    A carboxyl-ebselen-based layer-by-layer (LbL) film was fabricated by alternatively assembling carboxyl-ebselen immobilized polyethylenimine (e-PEI) and alginate (Alg) onto substrates followed by salt annealing and cross-linking. The annealed films exhibiting significantly improved stability are capable of generating nitric oxide (NO) from endogeneous S-nitrosothiols (RSNOs) in the presence of a reducing agent. The NO generation behaviors of different organoselenium species in solution phase are compared and the annealing mechanism to create stable LbL films is studied in details. An LbL film coated polyurethane catheter is capable of generating physiological levels of NO from RSNOs even after blood soaking for 24 h, indicating potential antithrombotic applications of the coating. Further, the LbL film is also demonstrated to be capable of reducing living bacterial surface attachment and killing a broad spectrum of bacteria, likely through generation of superoxide (O2•?) from oxygen. This type of film is expected to have potential application as an antithrombotic and antimicrobial coating for different biomedical device surfaces. PMID:21794909

  14. Antimicrobial and enzymatic antibrowning film used as coating for bamboo shoot quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Badwaik, Laxmikant S; Borah, Pallab Kumar; Deka, Sankar C

    2014-03-15

    Edible films were prepared with varying proportion of alginate and starch in the ratio of 2:0(F1), 2:1(F2), 1:1(F3), 1:1.5(F4), 1:2(F5), 0:2(F6) with added carboxymethyl cellulose (15%, w/w of starch). The film F5 had superior barrier, mechanical and thermal properties over the other films. Water vapor permeability, moisture absorption, water solubility, breakage strength and elongation capacity of F5 film were reported as 1.21 × 10(-9)g/Pa h m, 9.37%, 40%, 977.3g and 14.62 mm respectively. However, surface characteristics showed the smooth and uniform film and thermal decomposition took place above 200 °C. The film forming solution of selected F5 film, added with antioxidant and antimicrobial extracts was coated on bamboo shoots and stored for 5 days. The film was successful in lowering the browning of bamboo shoots, and also successfully inhibited surface microbial load. Moreover, the moisture loss of coated shoot was less compared to uncoated. PMID:24528722

  15. Films loaded with insulin-coated nanoparticles (ICNP) as potential platforms for peptide buccal delivery.

    PubMed

    Morales, Javier O; Huang, Siyuan; Williams, Robert O; McConville, Jason T

    2014-10-01

    The goal of this investigation was to develop films containing insulin-coated nanoparticles and evaluate their performance in vitro as potential peptide delivery systems. To incorporate insulin into the films, a new antisolvent co-precipitation fabrication process was adapted to obtain insulin-coated nanoparticles (ICNPs). The ICNPs were embedded in polymeric films containing a cationic polymethacrylate derivative (ERL) or a combination of ERL with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC). ICNP-loaded films were characterized for morphology, mucoadhesion, and insulin release. Furthermore, in vitro insulin permeation was evaluated using a cultured tridimensional human buccal mucosa model. The antisolvent co-precipitation method was successfully adapted to obtain ICNPs with 40% (w/w) insulin load, achieving 323±8nm particles with a high zeta potential of 32.4±0.8mV, indicating good stability. High yields were obtained after manufacture and the insulin content did not decrease after one month storage. ICNP-embedded films using ERL as the polymer matrix presented excellent mucoadhesive and insulin release properties. A high permeation enhancement effect was observed for ICNP-loaded ERL films in comparison with ICNP-loaded ERL-HPMC films and a control insulin solution. ICNP-loaded ERL formulations were found to be more effective in terms of film performance and insulin permeation through the human buccal mucosa model, and thus are a promising delivery system for buccal administration of a peptide such as insulin. PMID:25016543

  16. Optical reflectivity improvement by upgrading metallic glass film quality

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W. H.; Hsu, J. H.; Huang, J. C. [Department of Materials and Optoelectronic Science, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, 804 Taiwan (China)] [Department of Materials and Optoelectronic Science, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, 804 Taiwan (China)

    2013-10-14

    The effects of atomic-defect and free-volume amounts of metallic glassy film on the optical reflectivity and mechanical properties of the sputtered metallic glass thin films are explored. With a lower Ar working pressure and the proper post-annealing at temperatures slightly lower than the glass-transition temperature T{sub g}, film free volumes and defects would reduce, resulting in better atomic bonding and higher film hardness/modulus, which in turn leads to lower electric resistivity and higher optical reflectivity. Annealing above T{sub g} would induce crystalline structure which would lead to competition with the optical transition of the Drude free electrons and hinder the optical reflectivity in the visible range.

  17. Optical reflectivity improvement by upgrading metallic glass film quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W. H.; Hsu, J. H.; Huang, J. C.

    2013-10-01

    The effects of atomic-defect and free-volume amounts of metallic glassy film on the optical reflectivity and mechanical properties of the sputtered metallic glass thin films are explored. With a lower Ar working pressure and the proper post-annealing at temperatures slightly lower than the glass-transition temperature Tg, film free volumes and defects would reduce, resulting in better atomic bonding and higher film hardness/modulus, which in turn leads to lower electric resistivity and higher optical reflectivity. Annealing above Tg would induce crystalline structure which would lead to competition with the optical transition of the Drude free electrons and hinder the optical reflectivity in the visible range.

  18. Determination of Modulus of Metal Films Using Thermoreflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagannadham, K.

    2015-01-01

    The acoustic displacements in a film of indium pressed on to a sapphire wafer were generated by incidence of a Q-switched Nd-YAG laser beam. Acoustic displacements from tungsten film deposited on silicon substrate were also measured by the same technique. Thermoreflectance from a continuous red laser incident on the surface was used simultaneously to measure the acoustic oscillations. The acoustic oscillations were simulated using the solution to the modified wave equation. The acoustic velocity and the modulus of the metal film were determined from the simulation of the experimental results. It is shown that this technique provides a nondestructive method of determination of acoustic velocity and modulus in the metal films.

  19. A Comparative Study of Natural Fiber and Glass Fiber Fabrics Properties with Metal or Oxide Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lusis, Andrej; Pentjuss, Evalds; Bajars, Gunars; Sidorovicha, Uljana; Strazds, Guntis

    2015-03-01

    Rapidly growing global demand for technical textiles industries is stimulated to develop new materials based on hybrid materials (yarns, fabrics) made from natural and glass fibres. The influence of moisture on the electrical properties of metal and metal oxide coated bast (flax, hemp) fibre and glass fibre fabrics are studied by electrical impedance spectroscopy and thermogravimetry. The bast fibre and glass fiber fabrics are characterized with electrical sheet resistance. The method for description of electrical sheet resistance of the metal and metal oxide coated technical textile is discussed. The method can be used by designers to estimate the influence of moisture on technical data of new metal coated hybrid technical textile materials and products.

  20. Nucleation and growth of epitaxial metal-oxide films based on polymer-assisted deposition.

    PubMed

    McCleskey, T M; Shi, P; Bauer, E; Highland, M J; Eastman, J A; Bi, Z X; Fuoss, P H; Baldo, P M; Ren, W; Scott, B L; Burrell, A K; Jia, Q X

    2014-04-01

    Polymer-assisted deposition (PAD) is one of the chemical solution deposition methods which have been successfully used to grow films, form coatings, and synthesize nanostructured materials. In comparison with other conventional solution-based deposition techniques, PAD differs in its use of water-soluble polymers in the solution that prevent the metal ions from unwanted chemical reactions and keep the solution stable. Furthermore, filtration to remove non-coordinated cations and anions in the PAD process ensures well controlled nucleation, which enables the growth of high quality epitaxial films with desired structural and physical properties. The precursor solution is prepared by mixing water-soluble polymer(s) with salt(s). Thermal treatment of the precursor films in a controlled environment leads to the formation of desired materials. Using BaTiO3 grown on SrTiO3 and LaMnO3 on LaAlO3 as model systems, we show the effect of filtration on the nucleation and growth of epitaxial complex metal-oxide films based on the PAD process. PMID:24158602

  1. Improved barrier performance of metal alkoxide-modified methyltrimethoxysilane films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ya-Qin Yang; Liang Liu; Ji-Ming Hu; Jian-Qing Zhang; Chu-Nan Cao

    Homogeneously modified methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) films used as the barrier layers were fabricated on stainless steel substrates by introducing only very low amount of metal alkoxide, e.g. tetrabutyl orthotitanate or tetrabutyl orthozirconate into the silane\\/ethanol\\/water precursors. The modified films exhibit tremendous improvement in their barrier performance, along with higher compactness, hydrophobicity and thickness. Solution analysis of the silane precursors indicated that

  2. Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coatings for metal-backed solar cells optimized using simulated annealing algorithm incorporated with solar spectrum.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yin-Jung; Chen, Yu-Ting

    2011-07-01

    Broadband omnidirectional antireflection (AR) coatings for solar cells optimized using simulated annealing (SA) algorithm incorporated with the solar (irradiance) spectrum at Earth's surface (AM1.57 radiation) are described. Material dispersions and reflections from the planar backside metal are considered in the rigorous electromagnetic calculations. Optimized AR coatings for bulk crystalline Si and thin-film CuIn(1-x)GaxSe(2) (CIGS) solar cells as two representative cases are presented and the effect of solar spectrum in the AR coating designs is investigated. In general, the angle-averaged reflectance of a solar-spectrum-incorporated AR design is shown to be smaller and more uniform in the spectral range with relatively stronger solar irradiance. By incorporating the transparent conductive and buffer layers as part of the AR coating in CIGS solar cells (2?m-thick CIGS layer), a single MgF(2) layer could provide an average reflectance of 8.46% for wavelengths ranging from 350 nm to 1200 nm and incident angles from 0° to 80°. PMID:21747557

  3. Adherent diamond like carbon coatings on metals via plasma source ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, K.C.; Nastasi, M.; Munson, C.P.

    1996-12-01

    Various techniques are currently used to produce diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on various materials. Many of these techniques use metallic interlayers, such as Ti or Si, to improve the adhesion of a DLC coating to a ferrous substrate. An alternative processing route would be to use plasma source ion implantation (PSII) to create a carbon composition gradient in the surface of the ferrous material to serve as the interface for a DLC coating. The need for interlayer deposition is eliminated by using a such a graded interfaces PSII approach has been used to form adherent DLC coatings on magnesium, aluminum, silicon, titanium, chromium, brass, nickel, and tungsten. A PSII process tailored to create a graded interface allows deposition of adherent DLC coatings even on metals that exhibit a positive heat of formation with carbon, such as magnesium, iron, brass and nickel.

  4. Metal ion reactive thin films using spray electrostatic LbL assembly.

    PubMed

    Krogman, Kevin C; Lyon, Katharine F; Hammond, Paula T

    2008-11-20

    By using the spray-layer-by-layer (Spray-LbL) technique, the number of metal counterions trapped within LbL coatings is significantly increased by kinetically freezing the film short of equilibrium, potentially limiting interchain penetration and forcing chains to remain extrinsically compensated to a much greater degree than observed in the traditional dipped LbL technique. The basis for the enhanced entrapment of metal ions such as Cu2+, Fe2+, and Ag+ is addressed, including the equilibrium driving force for extrinsic compensation by soft versus hard metal ions and the impact of Spray-LbL on the kinetics of polymer-ion complexation. These polymer-bound metal-ion coatings are also demonstrated to be effective treatments for air filtration, functionalizing existing filters with the ability to strongly bind toxic industrial compounds such as ammonia or cyanide gases, as well as chemical warfare agent simulants such as chloroethyl ethyl sulfide. On the basis of results reported here, future work could extend this method to include other toxic soft-base ligands such as carbon monoxide, benzene, or organophosphate nerve agents. PMID:18712910

  5. A temperature dependant crystal orientation transition of cadmium oxide films deposited by metal organic chemical vapour deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, D. A.; Irvine, S. J. C.

    2011-10-01

    A series of polycrystalline cadmium oxide thin films was deposited over a narrow temperature range. Calculating the texture coefficients from the X-ray diffraction peaks highlighted a crystal transition from a preferred (111) orientation at temperatures below 310 °C to a randomly oriented thin film above 331 °C. A mechanism for pre-coating of the substrate surface with a thin film of metallic cadmium has been proposed and its likely influence on the crystal orientation transition. The transition takes place in the region of the melting point of cadmium 320.9 °C and it is suggested that the change from a solid to liquid of the metallic cadmium surface influences the nucleation of the CdO film. The (111) oriented films were highly conducting with the best electrical properties; Rs=18.0 ?/sq, n=1.23×10 20 cm 3?=60.0 cm 2/V s, and ?=8.5×10 -04 ?/cm being achieved for a 500 nm film deposited at 289 °C. The optical bandgap of all films was found to be 2.5 eV with the (111) oriented films yielding the higher transmittance in the visible region.

  6. Effects of humidity during photoprocessing on thin film metallization adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    Norwood, D.P.

    1980-03-01

    Humidity effects during photoprocessing on tantalum/chromium/gold thin film networks (TFNs) were investigated. Humidity conditions at various process steps were controlled by placing either desiccant or water in handling containers for the TFNs. The TFNs photoprocessed in humid conditions had a much higher occurrence of metallization failures compared to TFNs processed in dry conditions. Ceramic surface defects were shown to cause pores in the thin films, and these pores enhanced corrosion susceptibility for the films. This study resulted in a desiccated storage process for production of TFNs.

  7. Superconductivity in Metal-mixed Ion-Implanted Polymer Films

    E-print Network

    A. P. Micolich; E. Tavenner; B. J. Powell; A. R. Hamilton; M. T. Curry; R. E. Giedd; P. Meredith

    2006-03-15

    Ion-implantation of normally insulating polymers offers an alternative to depositing conjugated organics onto plastic films to make electronic circuits. We used a 50 keV nitrogen ion beam to mix a thin 10 nm Sn/Sb alloy film into the sub-surface of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and report the low temperature properties of this material. We observed metallic behavior, and the onset of superconductivity below 3 K. There are strong indications that the superconductivity does not result from a residual thin-film of alloy, but instead from a network of alloy grains coupled via a weakly conducting, ion-beam carbonized polymer matrix.

  8. Superconductivity in metal-mixed ion-implanted polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micolich, A. P.; Tavenner, E.; Powell, B. J.; Hamilton, A. R.; Curry, M. T.; Giedd, R. E.; Meredith, P.

    2006-10-01

    Ion implantation of normally insulating polymers offers an alternative to depositing conjugated organics onto plastic films to make electronic circuits. We used a 50keV nitrogen ion beam to mix a thin 10nm Sn /Sb alloy film into the subsurface of polyetheretherketone and report the low temperature properties of this material. We observed metallic behavior, and the onset of superconductivity below 3K. There are strong indications that the superconductivity does not result from a residual thin film of alloy, but instead from a network of alloy grains coupled via a weakly conducting, ion-beam carbonized polymer matrix.

  9. Novel polymeric film coatings for colon targeting: Drug release from coated pellets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youness Karrout; Christel Neut; Daniel Wils; Florence Siepmann; Laëtitia Deremaux; Marie-Pierre Flament; Luc Dubreuil; Pierre Desreumaux; Juergen Siepmann

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare and characterize novel types of polymer coated pellets allowing for the site-specific delivery of drugs to the colon. 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA)-loaded beads were prepared by extrusion–spheronization and coated with different Nutriose:ethylcellulose blends. In vitro drug release from these systems was measured under various conditions, including the exposure to fresh fecal samples from

  10. Track-etched nanopores in spin-coated polycarbonate films applied as sputtering mask

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    - 2 - Track-etched nanopores in spin-coated polycarbonate films applied as sputtering mask A Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt, Germany 4 Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Berlin, Germany Abstract Thin polycarbonate.80.Jh; 61.82Pv Keywords: polycarbonate, ion track, etching, sputtering, swift heavy ion irradiation #12

  11. Unstressed PACVD diamond films on steel pre-coated with a composite multilayer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. G. Silva; A. J. S. Fernandes; F. M. Costa; A. P. M. Baptista; E. Pereira

    2005-01-01

    Although the direct deposition of CVD diamond coatings on ferrous substrates is highly desirable, many technological problems hinder the production of commercial applications, mainly due to a lack of adhesion. Diamond can be grown on such substrates; however, film detachment cannot usually be avoided. Suitable buffer layers are the most commonly used solution to overcome adhesion problems. In the present

  12. Films coated with molecular imprinted polymers for the selective stir bar sorption extraction of monocrotophos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaolan Zhu; Jibao Cai; Jun Yang; Qingde Su; Yun Gao

    2006-01-01

    The flexibility and simplicity of stir bar sorption extraction (SBSE) have been combined with the selectivity of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP). Stir bars were coated reproducible with a 180?m film formed from a formic acid solution of nylon-6 polymer either nonimprinted or imprinted with monocrotophos. Time sorption profiles were measured for the extraction of monocrotophos from dichloromethane at the concentration

  13. Sputtered silver films to improve chromium carbide based solid lubricant coatings for use to 900 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Sliney, Harold E.; Deadmore, Daniel L.

    1988-01-01

    Thin silver films, 250 to 3500 A thick, were sputtered onto PS200, a plasma sprayed, chromium carbide based solid lubricant coating, to reduce run-in wear and improve tribological properties. The coating contains bonded chromium carbide as the wear resistant base stock with silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic added as low and high temperature lubricants respectively. Potential applications for the PS200 coating are cylinder wall/piston ring lubrication for Stirling engines and foil bearing journal lubrication. In this preliminary program, the silver film overlay thickness was optimized based on tests using a pin-on-disk tribometer. The friction and wear studies were performed in a helium atmosphere at temperatures from 25 to 760 C with a sliding velocity of 2.7 m/s under a 4.9 N load. Films between 1000 and 1500 A provide the best lubrication of the counterface material. The films enrich the sliding surface with lubricant and reduce the initial abrasiveness of the as ground, plasma-sprayed coating surface, thus reducing wear.

  14. Sputtered silver films to improve chromium carbide based solid lubricant coatings for use to 900 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Sliney, Harold E.; Deadmore, Daniel L.

    1988-01-01

    Thin silver films, 250 to 3500 A thick, were sputtered onto PS200, a plasma sprayed, chromium carbide based solid lubricant coating, to reduce run-in wear and improve tribological properties. The coating contains bonded chromium carbide as the wear resistant base stock with silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic added as low and high temperature lubricants, respectively. Potential applications for the PS200 coating are cylinder wall/piston ring lubrication for Stirling engines and foil bearing journal lubrication. In this preliminary program, the silver film overlay thickness was optimized based on tests using a pin-on-disk tribometer. The friction and wear studies were performed in a helium atmosphere at temperatures from 25 to 760 C with a sliding velocity of 2.7 m/s under a 4.9 N load. Films between 1000 and 1500 A provide the best lubrication of the counterface material. The films enrich the sliding surface with lubricant and reduce the initial abrasiveness of the as ground, plasma-sprayed coating surface, thus reducing wear.

  15. Measuring the fracture toughness of ultra-thin films with application to AlTa coatings

    E-print Network

    . Introduction Coatings of brittle materials such as ceramics and some intermetallic compounds are widely usedTa intermetallic film and obtained a room-temperature fracture toughness of K1c = 4.44 ± 0.21 MPam1/2 . 1

  16. Application of thick film and bulk coating technology to the Subterrene program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. A. Jr. Stark; T. C. Wallace; W. Witteman; M. C. Krupka; W. R. David; C. Radosevich

    1974-01-01

    From conference on structure-property relationships in thick film and ; bulk coatings; San Francisco, California, USA (28 Jan The Subterrene is a rock-; melting earth-penetration system representing a significant advancement in ; excavation technology. Temperatures of 1700-2000 deg K are involved, and heated ; refractorymetal or alloy probes are used. Corrosion problems are severe on the ; exterior surfaces of

  17. Polymyxin-Coated Au and Carbon Nanotube Electrodes for Stable [NiFe]-Hydrogenase Film Voltammetry

    E-print Network

    Dekker, Cees

    Polymyxin-Coated Au and Carbon Nanotube Electrodes for Stable [NiFe]-Hydrogenase Film Voltammetry report on the use of polymyxin (PM), a cyclic cationic lipodecapeptide, as an electrode modifier-planegraphite(EPG)withthecycliccationic lipodecapeptide polymyxin7 (PM, Chart 1) has been particularly successful in obtaining an active enzyme coverage.2

  18. Method and Apparatus for Thermal Spraying of Metal Coatings Using Pulsejet Resonant Pulsed Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Daniel E. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An apparatus and method for thermal spraying a metal coating on a substrate is accomplished with a modified pulsejet and optionally an ejector to assist in preventing oxidation. Metal such as Aluminum or Magnesium may be used. A pulsejet is first initiated by applying fuel, air, and a spark. Metal is inserted continuously in a high volume of metal into a combustion chamber of the pulsejet. The combustion is thereafter controlled resonantly at high frequency and the metal is heated to a molten state. The metal is then transported from the combustion chamber into a tailpipe of said pulsejet and is expelled therefrom at high velocity and deposited on a target substrate.

  19. Structural and electrical properties of sol-gel spin coated indium doped cadmium oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Rajammal, R. [Department of Physics, M.V.M Govt. Arts College for Women, Dindigul-624001 (India); Savarimuthu, E., E-mail: savari56@gmail.com; Arumugam, S., E-mail: savari56@gmail.com [Department of Physcis, Gandhigram Rural Institute, Gandhigram-624302 (India)

    2014-04-24

    The indium doped CdO thin films have been prepared by the sol-gel spin coating technique and the influence of indium doping concentration on the structural and electrical properties of the deposited films has been investigated. The indium doping concentration in the solution has been varied from 0-10 wt% insteps of 2wt%. A indium doping concentration of 6wt% has been found to be optimum for preparing the films and at this stage a minimum resistivity of 5.92×10{sup ?4}? cm and a maximum carrier concentration of 1.20×10{sup 20}cm{sup ?3} have been realized.

  20. Erosion of mylar and protection by thin metal films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraundorf, P.; Lindstrom, D.; Sandford, S.; Swan, P.; Walker, R.; Zinner, E.; Pailer, N.

    1983-01-01

    Mylar strips, 2.5 microns thick, uncoated and coated with 50A, 100A and 200A of Al, Pd, and Au/Pd were exposed on STS-5 in order to measure the erosion of mylar and to test means of protecting thin plastic foils commonly used for space experiments in low earth orbit. Analysis by optical microscopy, SEM and STEM investigation, EDX measurements, FTIR spectroscopy and weight loss measurements showed that while up to 75 percent of the uncoated mylar was eroded during exposure, thin coatings of the above metals can protect mylar for integrated oxygen-fluxes of at least 10 to the 21st atoms/sq cm.

  1. Metal oxide\\/hydroxide-coated dual-media filter for simultaneous removal of bacteria and heavy metals from natural waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Mansoor Ahammed; V. Meera

    2010-01-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the performance of a dual-media filter consisting of manganese oxide-coated (MOCS) and iron hydroxide-coated sand (IOCS) with that of IOCS filter and uncoated sand filter in treating water contaminated by microorganisms, heavy metals and turbidity with a view to its use in simple household water purification devices in developing countries. Long-duration column tests

  2. Refractive index sensitivity of nano-film coated long-period fiber gratings.

    PubMed

    Zou, Fang; Liu, Yunqi; Deng, Chuanlu; Dong, Yanhua; Zhu, Shan; Wang, Tingyun

    2015-01-26

    We demonstrate the fabrication of long-period fiber gratings (LPFGs) coated with high index nano-film using the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology. Higher index sensitivity can be achieved in the transition region of the coated LPFGs. For the LPFG coated by nano-film with a thickness of 100 nm, the high index sensitivity of 3000 nm/RIU and the expanded index sensitive range are obtained. The grating contrast of the over-coupled LPFGs and conventional LPFGs are measured and the over-coupled gratings are found to have a higher contrast in the transition region. The cladding modes transition is observed experimentally with increasing surrounding index using an infrared camera. The theoretical model of the hybrid modes in four-layer cylindrical waveguide is proposed for numerical simulation. The experimental results are well consistent with theoretical analysis. PMID:25835871

  3. Novel Nanocrystalline Intermetallic Coatings for Metal Alloys in Coal-fired Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Z. Zak Fang; H. Y. Sohn

    2009-08-31

    Intermetallic coatings (iron aluminide and nickel aluminide) were prepared by a novel reaction process. In the process, the aluminide coating is formed by an in-situ reaction between the aluminum powder fed through a plasma transferred arc (PTA) torch and the metal substrate (steel or Ni-base alloy). Subjected to the high temperature within an argon plasma zone, aluminum powder and the surface of the substrate melt and react to form the aluminide coatings. The prepared coatings were found to be aluminide phases that are porosity-free and metallurgically bonded to the substrate. The coatings also exhibit excellent high-temperature corrosion resistance under the conditions which simulate the steam-side and fire-side environments in coal-fired boilers. It is expected that the principle demonstrated in this process can be applied to the preparation of other intermetallic and alloy coatings.

  4. Metallized coatings for corrosion control of Naval ship structures and components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    In attempting to improve corrosion control, the U.S. Navy has undertaken a program of coating corrosion-susceptible shipboard components with thermally sprayed aluminum. In this report the program is reviewed in depth, including examination of processes, process controls, the nature and properties of the coatings, nondestructive examination, and possible hazards to personnel. The performance of alternative metallic coating materials is also discussed. It is concluded that thermally sprayed aluminum can provide effective long-term protection against corrosion, thereby obviating the need for chipping of rust and repainting by ship personnel. Such coatings are providing excellent protection to below-deck components such as steam valves, but improvements are needed to realize the full potential of coatings for above-deck service. Several recommendations are made regarding processes, materials, and research and development aimed at upgrading further the performance of these coatings.

  5. Hybrid organic/inorganic coatings for abrasion resistance on plastic and metal substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, J.; Jordens, K.; Wilkes, G.L. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Novel abrasion resistant coatings have been successfully prepared by the sol-gel method. These materials are spin coated onto bisphenol-A polycarbonate, diallyl diglycol carbonate resin (CR-39) sheet, aluminum, and steel substrates and are thermally cured to obtain a transparent coating of a few microns in thickness. Following the curing, the abrasion resistance is measured and compared with an uncoated control. It was found that these hybrid organic/inorganic networks partially afford excellent abrasion resistance to the polycarbonate substrates investigated. In addition to having excellent abrasion resistance comparable to current commercial coatings, some newly developed systems are also UV resistant. Similar coating formulations applied to metals can greatly improve the abrasion resistance despite the fact that the coatings are lower in density than their substrates.

  6. A travelling photothermal technique employing pyroelectric detection to measure thermal diffusivity of films and coatings.

    PubMed

    Philip, J; Manjusha, M V; Soumya, H

    2011-10-01

    A travelling thermal wave technique employing optical excitation and pyroelectric detection of thermal waves propagating along a material film/coating on a substrate is described. The method enables direct measurement of thermal diffusivity. The technique involves measurement of the phase lag undergone by an optically excited thermal wave as it propagates along the coating. The set up has been automated for convenient and fast data acquisition and analysis. The technique has been adapted to measurement of thermal diffusivity of a commercial paint sample coated on glass and copper substrates. It is found that thermal diffusivity of the coating is independent of the thermal conductivity of the substrate. Dependence of thermal diffusivity on coating thickness shows exponential increase, with value reaching a constant at a characteristic high thickness. Measurements have been carried out on a few other samples with wide variations in thermal diffusivity, and the results compared with available reports or results obtained following other techniques. Analyses of the results show that the technique allows measurement of thermal diffusivity of coatings and films with uncertainties better than ±2.5%. PMID:22047317

  7. Electrosprayed metal oxide semiconductor films for sensitive and selective detection of hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    Ghimbeu, Camelia Matei; Lumbreras, Martine; Schoonman, Joop; Siadat, Maryam

    2009-01-01

    Semiconductor metal oxide films of copper-doped tin oxide (Cu-SnO(2)), tungsten oxide (WO(3)) and indium oxide (In(2)O(3)) were deposited on a platinum coated alumina substrate employing the electrostatic spray deposition technique (ESD). The morphology studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) shows porous homogeneous films comprising uniformly distributed aggregates of nano particles. The X-ray diffraction technique (XRD) proves the formation of crystalline phases with no impurities. Besides, the Raman cartographies provided information about the structural homogeneity. Some of the films are highly sensitive to low concentrations of H(2)S (10 ppm) at low operating temperatures (100 and 200 °C) and the best response in terms of R(air)/R(gas) is given by Cu-SnO(2) films (2500) followed by WO(3) (1200) and In(2)O(3) (75). Moreover, all the films exhibit no cross-sensitivity to other reducing (SO(2)) or oxidizing (NO(2)) gases. PMID:22291557

  8. Application of Pcvd Process to Uniform Coating of TiO2 Thin Films on Polypropylene Beads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Joo; Pham, Hung Cuong; Kim, Kyo-Seon

    The growth of the TiO2 thin films coated on the polypropylene beads was analyzed experimentally in a rotating cylindrical plasma chemical vapor deposition (PCVD) reactor. The precursors for the thin films were generated by plasma reactions, and they deposited on the polypropylene beads to become the uniform thin films. The TiO2 thin films grow more quickly on the polypropylene beads by increasing the mass flow rate of TTIP, or the rotation speed of the reactor. The smaller number of polypropylene beads in the reactor increases the growth rate of the thin films. The high-quality TiO2 thin films can be coated on particles uniformly by using the rotating cylindrical PCVD process. The particles coated with high-quality TiO2 thin films can be applied to the removal of air and water pollutants by a photodegradation reaction of TiO2.

  9. Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition of cerium oxide, gallium-indium-oxide, and magnesium oxide thin films: Precursor design, film growth, and film characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edleman, Nikki Lynn

    A new class of volatile, low-melting, fluorine-free lanthanide metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) precursors has been developed. The neutral, monomeric cerium, neodymium, gadolinium, and erbium complexes are coordinatively saturated by a versatile, multidentate, ether-functionalized beta-ketoiminate ligand, and complex melting point and volatility characteristics can be tuned by altering the alkyl substituents on the ligand periphery. Direct comparison with lanthanide beta-diketonate complexes reveals that the present precursor class is a superior choice for lanthanide oxide MOCVD. Epitaxial CeO 2 buffer layer films have been grown on (001) YSZ substrates by MOCVD at significantly lower temperatures than previously reported using one of the newly developed cerium precursors. High-quality YBCO films grown on these CeO2 buffer layers by POMBE exhibit very good electrical transport properties. The cerium complex has therefore been explicitly demonstrated to be a stable and volatile precursor and is attractive for low-temperature growth of coated conductor multilayer structures by MOCVD. Gallium-indium-oxide thin films (GaxIn2-xO 3), x = 0.0˜1.1, have been grown by MOCVD using the volatile metal-organic precursors In(dpm)3 and Ga(dpm)3. The films have a homogeneously Ga-substituted, cubic In2O3 microstructure randomly oriented on quartz or heteroepitaxial on (100) YSZ single-crystal substrates. The highest conductivity of the as-grown films is found at x = 0.12. The optical transmission window and absolute transparency of the films rivals or exceeds that of the most transparent conductive oxides known. Reductive annealing results in improved charge transport characteristics with little loss of optical transparency. No significant difference in electrical properties is observed between randomly oriented and heteroepitaxial films, thus arguing that carrier scattering effects at high-angle grain boundaries play a minor role in the film conductivity mechanism. The synthesis and characterization of a new magnesium MOCVD precursor, Mg(dpm)2(TMEDA) is detailed. It is shown that the donating ligand TMEDA prevents oligomerization and subsequent volatility depression as observed in the commonly used [Mg(dpm)2]2. The superiority of Mg(dpm)2(TMEDA) as an MOCVD precursor is explicitly demonstrated by growth of epitaxial MgO thin films on single-crystal SrTiO3 substrates.

  10. Surfactant-induced rigidity of interfaces: a unified approach to free and dip-coated films.

    PubMed

    Champougny, Lorène; Scheid, Benoit; Restagno, Frédéric; Vermant, Jan; Rio, Emmanuelle

    2015-03-25

    The behavior of thin liquid films is known to be strongly affected by the presence of surfactants at the interfaces. The detailed mechanism by which the latter enhance film stability is still a matter of debate, in particular concerning the influence of surface elastic effects on the hydrodynamic boundary condition at the liquid/air interfaces. In the present work, "twin" hydrodynamic models neglecting surfactant transport to the interfaces are proposed to describe the coating of films onto a solid plate (Landau-Levich-Derjaguin configuration) as well as soap film pulling (Frankel configuration). Experimental data on the entrained film thickness in both configurations can be fitted very well using a single value of the surface elasticity, which is in good agreement with independent measurements by mean of surface expansion experiments in a Langmuir through. The analysis thus shows that soap films or dip coating experiments may be used to measure the surface elasticity of surfactant solutions in the insoluble limit, namely as long as the film generation dynamics is fast compared to the surfactant adsorption timescale. PMID:25697220

  11. 21 CFR 888.3535 - Knee joint femorotibial (uni-compartmental) metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...uni-compartmental) metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented prosthesis...identification includes fixed-bearing knee prostheses where the ultra-high...weight polyethylene tibial bearing is rigidly secured to the metal...Femorotibial Metal/Polymer Porous-Coated Uncemented...

  12. 21 CFR 888.3535 - Knee joint femorotibial (uni-compartmental) metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...uni-compartmental) metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented prosthesis...identification includes fixed-bearing knee prostheses where the ultra-high...weight polyethylene tibial bearing is rigidly secured to the metal...Femorotibial Metal/Polymer Porous-Coated Uncemented...

  13. 21 CFR 888.3535 - Knee joint femorotibial (uni-compartmental) metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...uni-compartmental) metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented prosthesis...identification includes fixed-bearing knee prostheses where the ultra-high...weight polyethylene tibial bearing is rigidly secured to the metal...Femorotibial Metal/Polymer Porous-Coated Uncemented...

  14. 21 CFR 888.3535 - Knee joint femorotibial (uni-compartmental) metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...uni-compartmental) metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented prosthesis...identification includes fixed-bearing knee prostheses where the ultra-high...weight polyethylene tibial bearing is rigidly secured to the metal...Femorotibial Metal/Polymer Porous-Coated Uncemented...

  15. 21 CFR 888.3535 - Knee joint femorotibial (uni-compartmental) metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...uni-compartmental) metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented prosthesis...identification includes fixed-bearing knee prostheses where the ultra-high...weight polyethylene tibial bearing is rigidly secured to the metal...Femorotibial Metal/Polymer Porous-Coated Uncemented...

  16. Characterization of gas-phase adsorption on metal oxide thin films using a magnetoelastic resonance microbalance.

    PubMed

    Zorn, Michael E; Rahne, Kari A; Tejedor-Tejedor, M Isabel; Anderson, Marc A; Grimes, Craig A

    2003-11-15

    In this study, a magnetoelastic resonance microbalance (MERM) was used to directly measure the gas-phase adsorption behavior of water vapor, isopropyl alcohol, and acetone on a sol-gel-derived titanium dioxide sensor coating. The nature of the MERM platform enables chemical measurements in situations in which wires or physical connections are undesired (or not possible) or in which sensor cost is a major issue. The underlying MERM technique (with an uncoated sensor) showed excellent day-to-day stability, a linear calibration over a 1 kHz change in frequency (or a 1.5-mg change in mass), and the ability to detect a mass change of 15 microg without any efforts at sensitivity optimization. The titanium dioxide coated sensor yielded excellent response to each of the analytes; however, the response did not follow a simple linear calibration function. A more complex calibration model or utilization of the coated sensor in a limited concentration range would be required for quantitative analysis. The process of applying the metal oxide coatings onto the magnetic substrate altered the structure of the thin film layer, resulting in a relatively loose packing of the porous primary titanium dioxide particles to create an open overall honeycomb structure, thereby affecting the adsorption behavior at high relative concentration. PMID:14616005

  17. Optimizing vanadium pentoxide thin films and multilayers from dip-coated nanofluid precursors.

    PubMed

    Glynn, Colm; Creedon, Donal; Geaney, Hugh; O'Connell, John; Holmes, Justin D; O'Dwyer, Colm

    2014-02-12

    Using an alkoxide-based precursor, a strategy for producing highly uniform thin films and multilayers of V2O5 is demonstrated using dip coating. Defect-free and smooth films of V2O5 on different surfaces can be deposited from liquid precursors. We show how pinholes are formed due to heterogeneous nucleation during hydrolysis as the precursor forms a nanofluid. Using knowledge of instability formation often found in composite nanofluid films and the influence of cluster formation on the stability of these films, we show how polymer-precursor mixtures provide optimum uniformity and very low surface roughness in amorphous V2O5 and also orthorhombic V2O5 after crystallization by heating. Pinhole and roughness instability formation during the liquid stage of the nanofluid on gold and ITO substrates is suppressed giving a uniform coating. Practically, understanding evolution pathways that involve dewetting processes, nucleation, decomposition, or hydrolysis in complex nanofluids provides a route for improved uniformity of thin films. The method could be extended to improve the consistency in sequential or iterative multilayer deposits of a range of liquid precursors for functional materials and coatings. PMID:24432710

  18. Dispersion and film properties of carbon nanofiber pigmented conductive coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel A. Johnson; Matthew J. Barbato; Sharlene R. Hopkins; Matthew J. O’Malley

    2003-01-01

    The use of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and nanofibers for coatings applications has been quite limited because of problems associated with obtaining dispersions of individual tubes\\/fibers. The potential for unique properties associated with these materials, such as obtaining electrical conductivity at very low volume concentrations, is dependent upon exploiting their very large geometric aspect ratios. Therefore, dispersion quality has a direct

  19. Coating for gasifiable carbon-graphite fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper-Tervet, Jan (Inventor); Dowler, Warren L. (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Mueller, William A. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A thin, uniform, firmly adherent coating of metal gasification catalyst is applied to a carbon-graphite fiber by first coating the fiber with a film-forming polymer containing functional moieties capable of reaction with the catalytic metal ions. Multivalent metal cations such as calcium cross-link the polymer such as a polyacrylic acid to insolubilize the film by forming catalytic metal macro-salt links between adjacent polymer chains. The coated fibers are used as reinforcement for resin composites and will gasify upon combustion without evolving conductive airborne fragments.

  20. Coating process of Fiber Bragg Grating sensors for SHM applications in metallic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piñeiro, E.; Grandal, T.; Asensio, A.; Rodriguez, F.

    2014-05-01

    Embedded fiber optic sensors into composites have been studied for a long time, but embedding a fiber sensor into metallic structure is beginning to study. Recently, this has raised interest due to embedded FBG in the metallic structure provide capabilities for controlling parameters of the structural health status and also information about their own process of deterioration. In this paper we study three different techniques for coating a FBG sensor: physical vapour deposition (PVD), electroless deposition and electroplating. This paper describes the experimental procedure for coating metallic fiber optic sensors and the optical characterization.

  1. Tenfold magnetoconductance in a nonmagnetic metal film

    PubMed

    Butko; DiTusa; Adams

    2000-07-01

    We present magnetoconductance (MC) measurements of homogeneously disordered Be films whose zero field sheet conductance ( G) is described by the Efros-Shklovskii hopping law G(T) = (2e(2)/h)exp-(T0/T)(1/2). The low field MC of the films is negative with G decreasing a factor of 2 below 1 T. In contrast the MC above 1 T is strongly positive. At 8 T, G increases tenfold in perpendicular field and fivefold in parallel field. In the simpler parallel case, we observe field enhanced variable range hopping characterized by an attenuation of T0 via the Zeeman interaction. PMID:10991184

  2. Increasing the dielectric breakdown strength of poly(ethylene terephthalate) films using a coated polyaniline layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Job, Aldo E.; Alves, Neri; Zanin, Maria; Ueki, Marcelo M.; Mattoso, Luiz H. C.; Teruya, Marcia Y.; Giacometti, José A.

    2003-06-01

    The dielectric strength of films made from poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) coated with a thin layer of polyaniline (PANI) was studied. The PANI layer was deposited on the PET films by the `in situ' chemical polymerization method. The PANI layer of the PANI/PET films was undoped in NH4OH 0.1 M solution and re-doped with aqueous HCl solution under different pH values varying from 1 to 10. Electric breakdown measurements were performed by applying a voltage ramp and the results showed a dependence of the dielectric strength on the pH of the doping solution due to the changes in the electrical conductivity of the PANI layer. The dielectric strength of PET/PANI films treated under higher pH conditions showed an electric strength about 30% larger than the PET films, since it leads to a non-conductive PANI layer.

  3. Differences between vacuum-deposited and spin-coated amorphous films of OLED materials (presentation video)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Daisuke; Shibata, Maki

    2014-10-01

    To realize low-cost fabrication processes for high-performance OLED displays and lighting panels, the understanding of solution-processed films and devices is becoming more important nowadays. However, differences between vacuum- and solution-processed films have not been sufficiently discussed, and they are sometimes regarded as identical. In this presentation, we show and discuss the important differences between physical properties of vacuum-deposited and spin-coated films of small-molecule OLED materials, especially focusing on the differences in film densities and molecular orientation. Since they are fundamental factors affecting both electrical and optical properties of amorphous films used in OLEDs, we should consider their differences carefully when discussing device performances in detail.

  4. Oxygen Plasma Modification of Poss-Coated Kapton(Registered TradeMark) HN Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wohl, C. J.; Belcher, M. A.; Ghose, S.; Connell, J. W.

    2008-01-01

    The surface energy of a material depends on both surface composition and topographic features. In an effort to modify the surface topography of Kapton(Registered TradeMark) HN film, organic solutions of a polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane, octakis(dimethylsilyloxy)silsesquioxane (POSS), were spray-coated onto the Kapton(Registered TradeMark) HN surface. Prior to POSS application, the Kapton(Registered TradeMark) HN film was activated by exposure to radio frequency (RF)-generated oxygen plasma. After POSS deposition and solvent evaporation, the films were exposed to various durations of RF-generated oxygen plasma to create a topographically rich surface. The modified films were characterized using optical microscopy, attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM). The physical properties of the modified films will be presented.

  5. Near-field radiative heat transfer between metamaterials coated with silicon carbide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Soumyadipta; Yang, Yue; Wang, Liping

    2015-01-01

    In this letter, we study the near-field radiative heat transfer between two metamaterial substrates coated with silicon carbide (SiC) thin films. It is known that metamaterials can enhance the near-field heat transfer over ordinary materials due to excitation of magnetic plasmons associated with s polarization, while strong surface phonon polariton exists for SiC. By careful tuning of the optical properties of metamaterial, it is possible to excite electrical and magnetic resonances for the metamaterial and surface phonon polaritons for SiC at different spectral regions, resulting in the enhanced heat transfer. The effect of the SiC film thickness at different vacuum gaps is investigated. Results obtained from this study will be beneficial for application of thin film coatings for energy harvesting.

  6. Development of an all-metal thick film cost effective metallization system for solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, B.; Parker, J.

    1983-01-01

    Improved thick film solar cell contacts for the high volume production of low cost silicon solar arrays are needed. All metal screenable pastes made from economical base metals and suitable for application to low to high conductivity silicon were examined. Silver fluoride containing copper pastes and fluorocarbon containing copper pastes were discussed. The effect of hydrogen on the adhesion of metals to silicon was investigated. A cost analysis of various paste materials is provided.

  7. Spectroscopic Investigation of the Plasmonic Coupling of a Nanoparticle and a Thin Metallic Film

    E-print Network

    Mellor-Crummey, John

    Spectroscopic Investigation of the Plasmonic Coupling of a Nanoparticle and a Thin Metallic Film H by a dielectric over a thin metallic film. Past studies have focused on gold nanoparticles over thin gold films. In this work, we investigate the Raman enhancement of aluminum and silver films coupled with a gold

  8. Mesoporous SnO2-Coated Metal Nanoparticles with Enhanced Catalytic Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Na; Polavarapu, Lakshminarayana; Wang, Qing; Xu, Qing-Hua

    2015-03-01

    Aggregation of plasmonic nanoparticles under harsh conditions has been one of the major obstacles to their potential applications. Here we present the preparation of uniform mesoporous SnO2 shell coated Au nanospheres, Au nanorods and Au/Ag core-shell nanorods and their applications in molecular sensing and catalysis. In these nanostructures, the mesoporous SnO2 shell stabilizes the metal nanoparticle and allows the metal core to be exposed to the surrounding environment for various applications at the same time. These nanostructures display high refractive index sensitivity, which makes them promising materials for LSPR based molecular sensing. Applications of these materials as catalysts for reduction of 4-nitrophenol by NaBH4 have also been demonstrated. Both uncoated and SnO2-coated anisotropic Au and Au/Ag nanorods were found to display significantly better catalytic efficiency compared to the corresponding spherical Au nanoparticles. Catalytic activities of different metal nanoparticles were significantly enhanced by 4-6 times upon coating with the mesoporous SnO2 shell. The enhanced catalytic activity of metal nanoparticles upon SnO2 coating was attributed to charge-redistribution between noble metal and SnO2 that disperses the electrons to a large area and prolonged electron lifetime in SnO2-coated metal nanoparticles. The charge transfer mechanism of enhanced catalytic efficiency for SnO2-coated metal nanoparticles has been further demonstrated by photochemical reduction of silver ions on the outer surface of these NPs. These metal/semiconductor core-shell nanomaterials are potentially useful for various applications such as molecular sensing and catalysis. PMID:25674821

  9. Metal Film Increases CCD Quantum Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janesick, James R.

    1989-01-01

    Thin layer of platinum or other high-work-function metal applied to back side of rear-illuminated charge-coupled device (CCD) achieves quantum efficiency (QE)-pinned state, an ideal condition allowing sensor to achieve 100-percent internal charge-collection efficiency within its photosensitive volume. Metal layer, called flash gate, easily applied by tungsten vacuum deposition during last step of sensor fabrication.

  10. Hard metal interstitial pulmonary disease associated with a form of welding in a metal parts coating plant

    SciTech Connect

    Figueroa, S.; Gerstenhaber, B.; Welch, L.; Klimstra, D.; Smith, G.J.; Beckett, W. (Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States))

    1992-01-01

    We describe two cases of hard metal pulmonary disease (one fatal) in workers employed in the same area of a metal coating plant using the detonation gun process for applying a durable metal surface to metal parts. In this form of welding, a mixture of powdered metals, including tungsten carbide and cobalt, is heated by ignition of a flammable gas and propelled from the end of the gun' at high temperature and velocity to form a welded metal coating. This process is done in an enclosed chamber and with each application, large volumes of fine aerosols are created. Inhalation exposure to hard metal may occur during the mounting and removal of the metal parts between applications, in spite of engineering controls and industrial hygiene surveillance. One of the cases presented with minimal chest x-ray abnormalities and an obstructive pattern on pulmonary function testing, although subsequent open lung biopsy showed diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. The fact that two cases of hard metal pulmonary interstitial disease occurred where thorough exposure control procedures and a surveillance program for cobalt were in place may indicate the need for revisions of the current technology used when hard metal is applied in the detonation gun process.

  11. Crack-Free, Thick Ceramic Coating Films via Non-Repetitive DipCoating Using Polyvinylpyrrolidone as Stress-Relaxing Agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiromitsu Kozuka; Masahiro Kajimura; Toshihiro Hirano; Katsumi Katayama

    2000-01-01

    BaTiO3 and PZT films were prepared from alkoxide-acetate solutions containing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) by non-repetitive dip-coating. It was demonstrated that PVP incorporated in gel films suppresses crack formation during heating and increases the critical thickness, the maximum thickness achievable without crack formation via single-step deposition. Using PVP crack-free BaTiO3 and PZT films 1.2 and 0.5 µm in thickness could be prepared,

  12. Optical antennas based on coupled nanoholes in thin metal films

    E-print Network

    Loss, Daniel

    ARTICLES Optical antennas based on coupled nanoholes in thin metal films Y. ALAVERDYAN* , B. SEP, which makes the nanohole chains effectively behave as linear wire antennas. The possibility to control in areas such as integrated nanophotonic circuits6 , optical antennas7,8 , spectroscopy9 , sensing10

  13. Improved Electrical Conductivity of Graphene Films Integrated with Metal Nanowires

    E-print Network

    the possibility to replace indium tin oxide (ITO) by graphene as the TCF, particularly for flexible and large-area the transport properties of CVD-grown graphene. Large-area CVD-grown graphene is a polycrystalline materialImproved Electrical Conductivity of Graphene Films Integrated with Metal Nanowires Iskandar N

  14. Enhanced nucleation and growth of diamond on SiC by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition using thin metal films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yehoda, J. E.; Fuentes, R. I.; Tsang, J. C.; Whitehair, S. J.; Guarnieri, C. R.; Cuomo, J. J.

    1992-06-01

    Presented is a method for growing crystalline diamond films by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition without the need for seeding with diamond particles. Instead, diamond nucleation and growth is 'catalyzed' by a thin metal film which has been either abraded or deposited onto a SiC coated substrate. In the first experiment Fe, Cu, Ti, Nb, Mo, and Ni were abraded onto a SiC surface resulting in varying degrees of diamond nucleation and growth. In the second experiment, Fe films with thickness varying from 5 to 80 A were evaporated onto the SiC. Although the 5 A Fe film did not influence the initial nucleation and growth rate, greater thicknesses did. Preliminary studies of Fe on Si have not shown this effect.

  15. Raising the shields: PCR in the presence of metallic surfaces protected by tailor-made coatings.

    PubMed

    Scherag, Frank D; Brandstetter, Thomas; Rühe, Jürgen

    2014-10-01

    The implementation of PCR reactions in the presence of metallic surfaces is interesting for the generation of novel bioanalytical devices, because metals exhibit high mechanical stability, good thermal conductivity, and flexibility during deformation. However, metallic substrates are usually non-compatible with enzymatic reactions such as PCR due to poisoning of the active center of the enzyme or nonspecific adsorption of the enzymeto the metal surface, which could result in protein denaturation. We present a method for the generation of polymer coatings on metallic surfaces which are designed to minimize protein adsorption and also prevent the release of metal ions. These coatings consist of three layers covalently linked to each other; a self-assembled monolayer to promote adhesion, a photochemically generated barrier layer and a photochemically generated hydrogel. The coatings can be deposited onto aluminum, stainless steel, gold and copper surfaces. We compare PCR efficiencies in the presence of bare metallic surfaces with those of surfaces treated with the novel coating system. PMID:25108478

  16. Low Friction Property of Diamond-Like Carbon Coating Films and Oxygen Transmission Ratio of Amorphous Carbon Films Deposited by Advanced Coating Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Toshiyuki; Kano, Makoto; Yoshida, Kentaro; Suzuki, Tetsuya

    2012-09-01

    The topics of the applied technology of amorphous carbon film to reduce friction using diamond-like carbon (DLC) coated by the vacuum arc ion plating process and to improve the gas barrier property using the amorphous carbon film by the atmospheric pressure plasma process are introduced with the basic experimental results. For reducing friction, the super low friction coefficient below 0.01 has been found when the tetrahedral amorphous carbon coating deposited by T-shape filtered arc deposition method [ta-C(T)] was evaluated the friction property under oleic acid lubrication at pure sliding condition. It was thought that the low share strength tribofilm composed of water and oleic acid mono-layer seemed to be formed on the sliding interface. For gas barrier performance, the amorphous carbon film deposited by the atmospheric pressure plasma chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate was improved the oxygen transmission ratio (OTR) around 30% compared with that of uncoated PET substrate. These advanced performance obtained by the optimum material combination of DLC with lubricant and the original atmospheric pressure plasma CVD technique are expected to be applied on the actual application for the different types of the industrial fields in near future.

  17. Optical dispersion parameters based on single-oscillator model and optical absorption of nanocrystalline metal phthalocyanine films: A comparison study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farag, A. A. M.; Yahia, I. S.; AlFaify, S.; Bilgiçli, A.; Kandaz, M.; Yakuphano?lu, F.

    2013-08-01

    Nanocrystalline thin films of {Co(II), Cu(II), Mn(III), Pb(II) and Zn(II)} phthalocyanine complexes were deposited by spin coating sol-gel technique. The surface morphologies of the films are found to be dependable on the type of the metal complex. The absorption spectra of the films show two well defined absorption bands of phthalocyanine molecule; namely Soret (B-band) and Q-bands. The Q-band absorption of the phthalocyanine complexes shifts to longer wavelength with the central metal change. The analysis of the spectral behavior of the absorption coefficient (?) in the absorption region revealed two expected indirect transitions. The refractive index (n) and the absorption index (k) were calculated using the measured data of the transmittance T(?) and reflectance R(?) coefficients. The dispersion parameters such as dispersion energy (Ed), oscillator energy (Eo), high frequency dielectric constant (??), and lattice dielectric constant (?L) were determined using the single oscillator model. The main reason for the change in dispersion parameters of the phthalocyanine complexes may be attributed to the intensity of the metal coordination bonds that are dependent on the bound metal atoms due to their electronegativity change. The founded results of the nano-crystalline metal phthalocyanine thin films can be useful for optoelectronic applications. Discussion of the obtained results and their comparisons with the available published literature were also considered.

  18. The adhesion of metallic films to laser-irradiated alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Pedraza, A.J.; DeSilva, M.J.; Kumar, R.A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-2200 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-2200 (United States); Lowndes, D.H. [Solid State Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P. O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6056 (United States)] [Solid State Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P. O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6056 (United States)

    1995-05-15

    The adhesion strength of copper and nickel films deposited onto polycrystalline alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) substrates is greatly increased by pulsed ultraviolet excimer (XeCl, 308 nm) laser irradiation of the alumina prior to metal-film deposition. Adhesion enhancement occurs for pulsed-laser energy densities, {ital E}{sub {ital d}}, both below and above alumina`s melting threshold ({ital E}{sub {ital d}}{sup th}{similar_to}0.7 J/cm{sup 2}). Cross-section transmission electron micrographs of alumina irradiated at {ital E}{sub {ital d}}{gt} {ital E}{sub {ital d}}{sup th} reveal an outer amorphous layer 40--60 nm thick that is formed during the rapid solidification process that follows pulsed-laser melting. Our results for gold, copper, and nickel films demonstrate that several factors contribute to metal-alumina bonding: (1) the chemical nature of the metal, as indicated by quite different adhesion strengths of sputter-deposited metals on unirradiated alumina substrates: 0.1 MPa for Au, 13 MPa for Cu, and 32 MPa for Ni; (2) the type and extent of laser-generated disorder/damage, since for gold significant bonding enhancement is obtained only if pulsed-laser melting of the alumina occurs; and (3) the irradiation atmosphere, as the adhesion strength of these metals to alumina is greatest if pulsed-laser irradiation is performed in an oxidizing atmosphere.

  19. Precursors for the polymer-assisted deposition of films

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, Thomas M.; Burrell, Anthony K.; Jia, Quanxi; Lin, Yuan

    2013-09-10

    A polymer assisted deposition process for deposition of metal oxide films is presented. The process includes solutions of one or more metal precursor and soluble polymers having binding properties for the one or more metal precursor. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is heated at high temperatures to yield metal oxide films. Such films can be epitaxial in structure and can be of optical quality. The process can be organic solvent-free.

  20. XAFS Study on Nano-Sized Metal Catalyst Prepared by a Photo-Assisted Deposition Using Ti-Containing Mesoporous Silica Thin Film Photocatalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, Makoto; Nishio, Shinichiro; Shimizu, Toshiaki; Mori, Kohsuke; Ohmichi, Tetsutaro; Katayama, Iwao; Yamashita, Hiromi [Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2007-02-02

    Transparent Ti-containing mesoporous silica (TMS) thin films can be prepared on quartz plates using the spin-coating sol-gel method. These thin films have performed super-hydrophilic surface property. Using a photo-assisted deposition (PAD) method, nano-sized Pt metal can be highly deposited on TMS thin films under UV-light irradiation. XAFS measurement indicates that TMS thin films contain isolated and tetrahedrally coordinated Ti-oxide moieties in the frameworks and nano-sized Pt particles can be highly deposited on the photo-excited Ti species in TMS thin films. Measurement of contact angle of droplet water showed that the surface property of Pt/TMS thin film is also hydrophilic as comparable to that of original TMS thin film.