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Sample records for film metal coated

  1. Method of forming metallic coatings on polymeric substrates and of forming graded polymeric coatings or films

    SciTech Connect

    Liepins, R.

    1981-03-11

    The invention described herein relates to methods of forming graded polymeric coatings or films on a desired substrate and of forming metallic coatings on polymeric or other nonmetallic substrates. In particular, it relates to methods of forming such coatings or films by sorption and/or diffusion of metals into coatings or films of polymeric material deposited by conventional techniques on a desired substrate.

  2. Formation of selenide, sulfide or mixed selenide-sulfide films on metal or metal coated substrates

    DOEpatents

    Eser, Erten; Fields, Shannon

    2012-05-01

    A process and composition for preventing cracking in composite structures comprising a metal coated substrate and a selenide, sulfide or mixed selenide sulfide film. Specifically, cracking is prevented in the coating of molybdenum coated substrates upon which a copper, indium-gallium diselenide (CIGS) film is deposited. Cracking is inhibited by adding a Se passivating amount of oxygen to the Mo and limiting the amount of Se deposited on the Mo coating.

  3. Diamond Composite Films for Protective Coatings on Metals and Method of Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ong, Tiong P. (Inventor); Shing, Yuh-Han (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Composite films consisting of diamond crystallites and hard amorphous films such as diamond-like carbon, titanium nitride, and titanium oxide are provided as protective coatings for metal substrates against extremely harsh environments. A composite layer having diamond crystallites and a hard amorphous film is affixed to a metal substrate via an interlayer including a bottom metal silicide film and a top silicon carbide film. The interlayer is formed either by depositing metal silicide and silicon carbide directly onto the metal substrate, or by first depositing an amorphous silicon film, then allowing top and bottom portions of the amorphous silicon to react during deposition of the diamond crystallites, to yield the desired interlayer structure.

  4. Metal Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    During the Apollo Program, General Magnaplate Corporation developed process techniques for bonding dry lubricant coatings to space metals. The coatings were not susceptible to outgassing and offered enhanced surface hardness and superior resistance to corrosion and wear. This development was necessary because conventional lubrication processes were inadequate for lightweight materials used in Apollo components. General Magnaplate built on the original technology and became a leader in development of high performance metallurgical surface enhancement coatings - "synergistic" coatings, - which are used in applications from pizza making to laser manufacture. Each of the coatings is designed to protect a specific metal or group of metals to solve problems encountered under operating conditions.

  5. Ceramic coating effect on liner metal temperatures of film-cooled annular combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claus, R. W.; Wear, J. D.; Liebert, C. H.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental and analytical investigation was conducted to determine the effect of a ceramic coating on the average metal temperatures of full annular, film cooled combustion chamber liner. The investigation was conducted at pressures from 0.50 to 0.062. At all test conditions, experimental results indicate that application of a ceramic coating will result in significantly lower wall temperatures. In a simplified heat transfer analysis, agreement between experimental and calculated liner temperatures was achieved. Simulated spalling of a small portion of the ceramic coating resulted in only small increases in liner temperature because of the thermal conduction of heat from the hotter, uncoated liner metal.

  6. Coated Aluminized Film Resists Corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockoff, H. J.

    1982-01-01

    Commercially available corrosion-protection coating allows less costly metals - aluminum in particular used in heat-reflecting films for thermal barriers. Previously, such films had to incorporate gold as reflective layer to withstand humidity, moisture, and salt spray without corroding. This protective coating prevents corrosion of metalized films during evironmental exposure yet remains flexible, thermally stable and clear.

  7. Composite materials obtained by the ion-plasma sputtering of metal compound coatings on polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khlebnikov, Nikolai; Polyakov, Evgenii; Borisov, Sergei; Barashev, Nikolai; Biramov, Emir; Maltceva, Anastasia; Vereshchagin, Artem; Khartov, Stas; Voronin, Anton

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the principle and examples composite materials obtained by deposition of metal compound coatings on polymer film substrates by the ion-plasma sputtering method are presented. A synergistic effect is to obtain the materials with structural properties of the polymer substrate and the surface properties of the metal deposited coatings. The technology of sputtering of TiN coatings of various thicknesses on polyethylene terephthalate films is discussed. The obtained composites are characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) is shown. The examples of application of this method, such as receiving nanocomposite track membranes and flexible transparent electrodes, are considered.

  8. Biocompatibility evaluation of sputtered zirconium-based thin film metallic glass-coated steels

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Balasubramanian; Maruthamuthu, Sundaram; Rajan, Senthilperumal Thanka

    2015-01-01

    Thin film metallic glasses comprised of Zr48Cu36Al8Ag8 (at.%) of approximately 1.5 μm and 3 μm in thickness were prepared using magnetron sputtering onto medical grade 316L stainless steel. Their structural and mechanical properties, in vitro corrosion, and antimicrobial activity were analyzed. The amorphous thin film metallic glasses consisted of a single glassy phase, with an absence of any detectable peaks corresponding to crystalline phases. Elemental composition close to the target alloy was noted from EDAX analysis of the thin film. The surface morphology of the film showed a smooth surface on scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. In vitro electrochemical corrosion studies indicated that the zirconium-based metallic glass could withstand body fluid, showing superior resistance to corrosion and electrochemical stability. Interactions between the coated surface and bacteria were investigated by agar diffusion, solution suspension, and wet interfacial contact methods. The results indicated a clear zone of inhibition against the growth of microorganisms such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, confirming the antimicrobial activity of the thin film metallic glasses. Cytotoxicity studies using L929 fibroblast cells showed these coatings to be noncytotoxic in nature. PMID:26491304

  9. Biocompatibility evaluation of sputtered zirconium-based thin film metallic glass-coated steels.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Balasubramanian; Maruthamuthu, Sundaram; Rajan, Senthilperumal Thanka

    2015-01-01

    Thin film metallic glasses comprised of Zr48Cu36Al8Ag8 (at.%) of approximately 1.5 μm and 3 μm in thickness were prepared using magnetron sputtering onto medical grade 316L stainless steel. Their structural and mechanical properties, in vitro corrosion, and antimicrobial activity were analyzed. The amorphous thin film metallic glasses consisted of a single glassy phase, with an absence of any detectable peaks corresponding to crystalline phases. Elemental composition close to the target alloy was noted from EDAX analysis of the thin film. The surface morphology of the film showed a smooth surface on scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. In vitro electrochemical corrosion studies indicated that the zirconium-based metallic glass could withstand body fluid, showing superior resistance to corrosion and electrochemical stability. Interactions between the coated surface and bacteria were investigated by agar diffusion, solution suspension, and wet interfacial contact methods. The results indicated a clear zone of inhibition against the growth of microorganisms such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, confirming the antimicrobial activity of the thin film metallic glasses. Cytotoxicity studies using L929 fibroblast cells showed these coatings to be noncytotoxic in nature. PMID:26491304

  10. Microwave bonding of thin film metal coated substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor); Mai, John D. (Inventor); Jackson, Henry W. (Inventor); Budraa, Nasser K. (Inventor); Pike, William T. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Bonding of materials such as MEMS materials is carried out using microwaves. High microwave absorbing films are placed within a microwave cavity containing other less microwave absorbing materials, and excited to cause selective heating in the skin depth of the films. This causes heating in one place more than another. This thereby minimizes unwanted heating effects during the microwave bonding process.

  11. Non-conductive ferromagnetic carbon-coated (Co, Ni) metal/polystyrene nanocomposites films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takacs, H.; Viala, B.; Tortai, J.-H.; Hermán, V.; Duclairoir, F.

    2016-03-01

    This article reports non-conductive ferromagnetic properties of metal/polymer nanocomposite films intended to be used for RF applications. The nanocomposite arrangement is unique showing a core double-shell structure of metal-carbon-polystyrene: M/C//P1/P2, where M = Co, Ni is the core material, C = graphene or carbon is the first shell acting as a protective layer against oxidation, P1 = pyrene-terminated polystyrene is the second shell for electrical insulation, and P2 = polystyrene is a supporting matrix (// indicates actual grafting). The nanocomposite formulation is briefly described, and the film deposition by spin-coating is detailed. Original spin-curves are reported and analyzed. One key outcome is the achievement of uniform and cohesive films at the wafer scale. Structural properties of films are thoroughly detailed, and weight and volume fractions of M/C are considered. Then, a comprehensive overview of DC magnetic and electrical properties is reported. A discussion follows on the magnetic softness of the nanocomposites vs. that of a single particle (theoretical) and the raw powder (experimental). Finally, unprecedented achievement of high magnetization (˜0.6 T) and ultra-high resistivity (˜1010 μΩ cm) is shown. High magnetization comes from the preservation of the existing protective shell C, with no significant degradation on the particle net-moment, and high electrical insulation is ensured by adequate grafting of the secondary shell P1. To conclude, the metal/polymer nanocomposites are situated in the landscape of soft ferromagnetic materials for RF applications (i.e., inductors and antennas), by means of two phase-diagrams, where they play a crucial role.

  12. Water Vapor Permeation of Metal Oxide/Polymer Coated Plastic Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Numata, Yukihiro; Oya, Toshiyuki; Kuwahara, Mitsuru; Ito, Katsuya

    Barrier performance to water vapor permeation of ceramic coated layers deposited on flexible polymer films is of great interest to food packaging, medical device packaging and flat panel display industries. In this study, a new type film in which a ceramic layer is deposited on a polymer coated film was proposed for lower water vapor permeation. It is important how to control interfacial properties between each layer and film for good barrier performance. Several kinds of polymer coated materials were prepared for changing surface free energy of the films before and after depositing the ceramic layer. The ceramic layer, which is composed of mixed material of SiO2 and Al2O3, was adopted under the same conditions. The following results were obtained; 1) Water vapor permeation is not related to the surface energy of polymer coated films, 2) After depositing the ceramic layer, however, a strong correlation is observed between the water vapor permeation and surface free energy. 3) The phenomenon is considered that the polarity of the polymer layers plays a key role in changing the structure of ceramic coated layers.

  13. Thin-film metal coated insulation barrier in a Josephson tunnel junction. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Hawkins, G.A.; Clarke, J.

    1975-10-31

    A highly stable, durable, and reproducible Josephson tunnel junction consists of a thin-film electrode of a hard superconductor, a thin oxide insulation layer over the electrode constituting a Josephson tunnel junction barrier, a thin-film layer of stabilizing metal over the barrier, and a second thin-film hard superconductive electrode over the stabilizing film. The thin stabilizing metal film is made only thick enough to limit penetration of the electrode material through the insulation layer so as to prevent a superconductive short.

  14. Analysis of metal temperature and coolant flow with a thermal-barrier coating on a full-coverage-film-cooled turbine vane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meitner, P. L.

    1978-01-01

    The potential benefits of combining full-coverage film cooling with a thermal-barrier coating were investigated analytically for sections on the suction and pressure sides a high-temperature, high-pressure turbine vane. Metal and ceramic coating temperatures were calculated as a function of coating thickness and coolant flow. With a thermal-barrier coating, the coolant flows required for the chosen sections were half those of an uncoated design, and the metal outer temperatures were simultaneously reduced by over 111 K (200 F). For comparison, transpiration cooling was also investigated. Full-coverage film cooling of a coated vane required more coolant flow than did transpiration cooling.

  15. Effects of applying bias voltage on metal-coated pentacene films on SiO2 studied by hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirosawa, Ichiro; Watanabe, Takeshi; Oji, Hiroshi; Yasuno, Satoshi; Koganezawa, Tomoyuki; Tada, Keisuke; Yoshimoto, Noriyuki

    2016-03-01

    The effects of bias voltage application on C 1s photoelectron kinetic energies in Au- and Ag-coated pentacene films on SiO2 were studied by hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was observed that the kinetic energies of C 1s were smaller in shallow regions in contact with metals than in mid regions of the pentacene films. The differences in C 1s kinetic energy between the shallow and mid regions of the Ag-coated pentacene films were slightly larger than those of the Au-coated films. The differences in the kinetic energies were decreased by applying negative voltages. The larger effect of voltage application was observed in the Ag-coated film than in the Au-coated film. In addition, partially reduced Si atoms in SiO2 were found at the interface to the pentacene film.

  16. Multispectral optical enhanced transmission of a continuous metal film coated with a plasmonic core-shell nanoparticle array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gui-qiang; Hu, Ying; Liu, Zheng-qi; Cai, Zheng-jie; Zhang, Xiang-nan; Chen, Yuan-hao; Huang, Kuan

    2014-04-01

    We propose and show multispectral optical enhanced transmission in the visible and near-infrared region in a continuous metal film coated with a two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal non-close-packed plasmonic array. The plasmonic array consists of metal/dielectric multilayer core-shell nanoparticles. The excitation of near-field plasmon resonance coupling between adjacent core-shell nanoparticles, plasmon resonance coupling between adjacent metal layers in the nanoparticle, and surface plasmon (SP) waves on the metal film are mainly responsible for the multispectral optical enhanced transmission behavior. The multispectral optical enhanced transmission response could be highly modified in the wavelength range, transparent bandwidth and transmission intensity by varying the geometry parameters including the gap distance between adjacent plasmonic nanoparticles, the size of metal core and the thickness of dielectric layer between the metal layers. In addition, the number of optical enhanced transmission bands increases with the number of metal layers in the plasmonic nanoparticle. The proposed structure shows many merits such as the deep sub-wavelength size, multispectral optical enhanced transmission bands as well as fully retained electric and mechanical properties of the natural metal. These merits may provide promising applications for highly integrated optoelectronic devices including plasmonic filters, nanoscale multiplexers, and nonlinear optics.

  17. Omnidirectional, broadband light absorption using large-area, ultrathin lossy metallic film coatings.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongyang; Palacios, Edgar; Butun, Serkan; Kocer, Hasan; Aydin, Koray

    2015-01-01

    Resonant absorbers based on nanostructured materials are promising for variety of applications including optical filters, thermophotovoltaics, thermal emitters, and hot-electron collection. One of the significant challenges for such micro/nanoscale featured medium or surface, however, is costly lithographic processes for structural patterning which restricted from industrial production of complex designs. Here, we demonstrate lithography-free, broadband, polarization-independent optical absorbers based on a three-layer ultrathin film composed of subwavelength chromium (Cr) and oxide film coatings. We have measured almost perfect absorption as high as 99.5% across the entire visible regime and beyond (400-800 nm). In addition to near-ideal absorption, our absorbers exhibit omnidirectional independence for incidence angle over ±60 degrees. Broadband absorbers introduced in this study perform better than nanostructured plasmonic absorber counterparts in terms of bandwidth, polarization and angle independence. Improvements of such "blackbody" samples based on uniform thin-film coatings is attributed to extremely low quality factor of asymmetric highly-lossy Fabry-Perot cavities. Such broadband absorber designs are ultrathin compared to carbon nanotube based black materials, and does not require lithographic processes. This demonstration redirects the broadband super absorber design to extreme simplicity, higher performance and cost effective manufacturing convenience for practical industrial production. PMID:26450563

  18. Omnidirectional, broadband light absorption using large-area, ultrathin lossy metallic film coatings

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhongyang; Palacios, Edgar; Butun, Serkan; Kocer, Hasan; Aydin, Koray

    2015-01-01

    Resonant absorbers based on nanostructured materials are promising for variety of applications including optical filters, thermophotovoltaics, thermal emitters, and hot-electron collection. One of the significant challenges for such micro/nanoscale featured medium or surface, however, is costly lithographic processes for structural patterning which restricted from industrial production of complex designs. Here, we demonstrate lithography-free, broadband, polarization-independent optical absorbers based on a three-layer ultrathin film composed of subwavelength chromium (Cr) and oxide film coatings. We have measured almost perfect absorption as high as 99.5% across the entire visible regime and beyond (400–800 nm). In addition to near-ideal absorption, our absorbers exhibit omnidirectional independence for incidence angle over ±60 degrees. Broadband absorbers introduced in this study perform better than nanostructured plasmonic absorber counterparts in terms of bandwidth, polarization and angle independence. Improvements of such “blackbody” samples based on uniform thin-film coatings is attributed to extremely low quality factor of asymmetric highly-lossy Fabry-Perot cavities. Such broadband absorber designs are ultrathin compared to carbon nanotube based black materials, and does not require lithographic processes. This demonstration redirects the broadband super absorber design to extreme simplicity, higher performance and cost effective manufacturing convenience for practical industrial production. PMID:26450563

  19. Omnidirectional, broadband light absorption using large-area, ultrathin lossy metallic film coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhongyang; Palacios, Edgar; Butun, Serkan; Kocer, Hasan; Aydin, Koray

    2015-10-01

    Resonant absorbers based on nanostructured materials are promising for variety of applications including optical filters, thermophotovoltaics, thermal emitters, and hot-electron collection. One of the significant challenges for such micro/nanoscale featured medium or surface, however, is costly lithographic processes for structural patterning which restricted from industrial production of complex designs. Here, we demonstrate lithography-free, broadband, polarization-independent optical absorbers based on a three-layer ultrathin film composed of subwavelength chromium (Cr) and oxide film coatings. We have measured almost perfect absorption as high as 99.5% across the entire visible regime and beyond (400-800 nm). In addition to near-ideal absorption, our absorbers exhibit omnidirectional independence for incidence angle over ±60 degrees. Broadband absorbers introduced in this study perform better than nanostructured plasmonic absorber counterparts in terms of bandwidth, polarization and angle independence. Improvements of such “blackbody” samples based on uniform thin-film coatings is attributed to extremely low quality factor of asymmetric highly-lossy Fabry-Perot cavities. Such broadband absorber designs are ultrathin compared to carbon nanotube based black materials, and does not require lithographic processes. This demonstration redirects the broadband super absorber design to extreme simplicity, higher performance and cost effective manufacturing convenience for practical industrial production.

  20. Characteristics of spin-coated metal-modified arsenic selenide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eze, F. C.; Okeke, C. E.

    1993-07-01

    Metal-modified amorphous arsenic selenide films were prepared by spinning a solution containing an amine salt, thioacetamide and chlorides of the impurifying metals Zn, In, Sb, Co and V on thoroughly cleaned flat glass substrates. X-ray analyses show excess total metal components for the V- and Co-modified films whilst the In-, Zn- and Sb-doped films are selenium-rich. The electrical conductivity and optical absorption measurements reveal that only the transition metals V and Co have significant effects on the transport. A narrowing of the optical band gap as well as the conductivity activation energy is observed as the impurity concentration is increased. The room temperature electrical conductivity increases from 10 11(Ω m) 1 to 10 7(Ω m) 1 for samples doped with vanadium and cobalt to a concentration of about 2 at%. The results are interpreted in terms of the charged dangling bond defect models. At concentrations beyond 2-3 at%, the shift of the Fermi level becomes virtually independent of the impurity concentration pointing to a model in which an impurity level appears and is rigidly connected to one of the bands.

  1. Coating of plasma polymerized film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morita, S.; Ishibashi, S.

    1980-01-01

    Plasma polymerized thin film coating and the use of other coatings is suggested for passivation film, thin film used for conducting light, and solid body lubrication film of dielectrics of ultra insulators for electrical conduction, electron accessories, etc. The special features of flow discharge development and the polymerized film growth mechanism are discussed.

  2. Thin Film Optical Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristau, Detlev; Ehlers, Henrik

    Within the scientific conception of the modern world, thin film optical coatings can be interpreted as one-dimensional photonic crystals. In general, they are composed of a sequence of single layers which consist of different transparent dielectrics with a thickness in the nanometer scale according to the operation wavelength range. The major function of these photonic structures is to adapt the properties of an optical surface to the needs of specific applications. By application of optical thin film coatings with optimized designs, the spectral characteristics of a surface can be modified to practically any required transfer function for a certain wavelength range. For example, the Fresnel reflection of a lens or a laser window can be suppressed for a broad wavelength range by depositing an antireflective coating containing only a few single layers. On the basis of a layer stack with alternating high- and low-refracting materials, high reflectance values up to 99.999% can be achieved for a certain laser wavelength. In addition to these basic functions, optical coatings can realize a broad variety of spectral filter characteristics according to even extremely sophisticated demands in modern precision optics and laser technology. Moreover, recent developments in optical thin film technology provide the means to combine selected optical properties with other features concerning, for instance, the thermal, mechanical or chemical stability of a surface. The latest progress in ophthalmic coatings even includes the integration of self-cleaning, photoactive or anti-fogging functions in antireflective coatings on glass.

  3. LEVELING METAL COATINGS

    DOEpatents

    Gage, H.A.

    1959-02-10

    A method is described for applying metallic coatings to a cylinder of uranium. An aluminum-silicon coat is applied by a process consisting of first cleaning the article by immersion for 5 minutes in 50% nitric acid at 65 C. The article then is dipped through a flux, prepared by adding 10% sodium fluoride to 90% of a flux comprising 53% potassium chloride, 42% lithium chloride, and 5% sodium chloride at 560 for 2 minutes and then directly into a molten metal bath comprising 99% aluminun and 12% silicon at 620 C for 3 minutes. While the coating is yet molten the article is transferred to a pair of steel rollers and rolled until the coating solidifies. By varying the composition of the flux other metals such as zinc, lead or the like may be coated on uranium in a similar manner.

  4. Method of forming graded polymeric coatings or films

    DOEpatents

    Liepins, Raimond

    1983-01-01

    Very smooth polymeric coatings or films graded in atomic number and density can readily be formed by first preparing the coating or film from the desired monomeric material and then contacting it with a fluid containing a metal or a mixture of metals for a time sufficient for such metal or metals to sorb and diffuse into the coating or film. Metal resinate solutions are particularly advantageous for this purpose. A metallic coating can in turn be produced on the metal-loaded film or coating by exposing it to a low pressure plasma of air, oxygen, or nitrous oxide. The process permits a metallic coating to be formed on a heat sensitive substrate without the use of elevated temperatures.

  5. METAL COATING BATHS

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, J.W.

    1958-08-26

    A method is presented for restoring the effectiveness of bronze coating baths used for hot dip coating of uranium. Such baths, containing a high proportion of copper, lose their ability to wet uranium surfaces after a period of use. The ability of such a bath to wet uranium can be restored by adding a small amount of metallic aluminum to the bath, and skimming the resultant hard alloy from the surface.

  6. Physical deposition of carbon doped titanium nitride film by DC magnetron sputtering for metallic implant coating use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedira, Sofiane; Achour, Slimane; Avci, Ahmet; Eskizeybek, Volkan

    2014-03-01

    Alloys exposed to tissue environment are at risk to corrosive breakdown. The corrosion behaviour of carbon doped titanium nitride films was studied. The C-TiN films were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering. The obtained films were investigated to be used as protective layers for medical implants. The films were analysed using XRD, SEM with EDX, FTIR, Raman, UV-vis and potentiodynamic polarization. Analysis indicated that doping with carbon in low concentration led to form titanium carbide. The measured values of corrosion current densities (Icorr, substrate = 2.020 ?A/cm2, Icorr, coating = 0.175 ?A/cm2) indicate that the deposited films improved the corrosion resistance of the pure titanium. Comparison between the corrosion current densities of two samples (uncoated and coated pure titanium) showed a reduction of 91% in corrosion current density for coated Ti compared to the uncoated one.

  7. Method of forming metallic coatings on polymeric substrates

    DOEpatents

    Liepins, Raimond

    1984-01-01

    Very smooth polymeric coatings or films graded in atomic number and density an readily be formed by first preparing the coating or film from the desired monomeric material and then contacting it with a fluid containing a metal or a mixture of metals for a time sufficient for such metal or metals to sorb and diffuse into the coating or film. Metal resinate solutions are particularly advantageous for this purpose. A metallic coating can in turn be produced on the metal-loaded film or coating by exposing it to a low pressure plasma of air, oxygen, or nitrous oxide. The process permits a metallic coating to be formed on a heat sensitive substrate without the use of elevated temperatures.

  8. Method of forming metal hydride films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, R.; Alger, D. L.; Cooper, D. W. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The substrate to be coated (which may be of metal, glass or the like) is cleaned, both chemically and by off-sputtering in a vacuum chamber. In an ultra-high vacuum system, vapor deposition by a sublimator or vaporizer coats a cooled shroud disposed around the substrate with a thin film of hydride forming metal which getters any contaminant gas molecules. A shutter is then opened to allow hydride forming metal to be deposited as a film or coating on the substrate. After the hydride forming metal coating is formed, deuterium or other hydrogen isotopes are bled into the vacuum system and diffused into the metal film or coating to form a hydride of metal film. Higher substrate temperatures and pressures may be used if various parameters are appropriately adjusted.

  9. Carbonaceous film coating

    DOEpatents

    Maya, Leon

    1989-01-01

    A method of making a carbonaceous film comprising heating tris(1,3,2-benzodiazaborolo)borazine or dodecahydro tris[1,3,2]diazaborine[1,2-a:1'2'-c:1"2"-e]borazine in an inert atmosphere in the presence of a substrate to a temperature at which the borazine compound decomposes, and the decomposition products deposit onto the substrate to form a thin, tenacious, highly reflective conductive coating having a narrow band gap which is susceptible of modification and a relatively low coefficient of friction.

  10. Carbonaceous film coating

    DOEpatents

    Maya, L.

    1988-04-27

    A method of making a carbonaceous film comprising heating tris(1,3,2-benzodiazaborolo)borazine or dodecahydro tris(1,3,2)diazaborine(1,2-a:1'2'-c:1''2''-e)borazine in an inert atmosphere in the presence of a substrate to a temperature at which the borazine compound decomposes, and the decomposition products deposit onto the substrate to form a thin, tenacious, highly reflective conductive coating having a narrow band gap which is susceptible of modification and a relatively low coefficient of friction.

  11. Thin film ion conducting coating

    DOEpatents

    Goldner, Ronald B.; Haas, Terry; Wong, Kwok-Keung; Seward, George

    1989-01-01

    Durable thin film ion conducting coatings are formed on a transparent glass substrate by the controlled deposition of the mixed oxides of lithium:tantalum or lithium:niobium. The coatings provide durable ion transport sources for thin film solid state storage batteries and electrochromic energy conservation devices.

  12. Reflective and Electrically Conductive Surface Silvered Polyimide Films and Coatings Prepared via Unusual Single-Stage Self-Metallization Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Southward, Robin E.; Stoakley, Diane M.

    2001-01-01

    Highly reflective and/or surface conductive flexible polyimide films can be prepared by the incorporation of positive valent silver compounds into solutions of poly(amic acid)s formed from a variety of dianhydrides and diamines. Thermal curing of selected silver(I)-containing poly(amic acid)s leads to cycloimidization of the polyimide precursor with concomitant silver(I) reduction and surface aggregation of the metal yielding a reflective and/or conductive silver surface similar to that of the native metal. However, not all silver(I) precursors are effective surface metallization agents and not all poly(amic acid)s metallize with equal facility. Ligand/anion and polyimide structural effects on film metallization efficacy and on physical properties on metallized films are reviewed.

  13. Fabrication of transparent conductive electrode film using thermal roll-imprinted Ag metal grid and coated conductive polymer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jong-Su; Jo, Jeongdai; Yoon, Seong-Man; Kim, Do-Jin

    2012-02-01

    In this study, to fabricate a low-resistance and high optical transparent conductive electrode (TCE) film, the following steps were performed: the design and manufacture of an electroforming stamp mold, the fabrication of thermal-roll imprinted (TRI) poly-carbonate (PC) patterned films, the manufacture of high-conductivity and low-resistance Ag paste which was filled into patterned PC film using a doctor blade process and then coated with a thin film layer of conductive polymer by a spin coating process. As a result of these imprinting processes the PC films obtained a line width of 10 +/- 0.5 Mm, a channel length of 500 +/- 2 microm, and a pattern depth of 7.34 +/- 0.5 microm. After the Ag paste was used to fill part of the patterned film with conductive polymer coating, the following parameters were obtained: a sheet resistance of 9.65 Omega/sq, optical transparency values were 83.69% at a wavelength of 550 nm. PMID:22629916

  14. Metal oxide films on metal

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Xin D.; Tiwari, Prabhat

    1995-01-01

    A structure including a thin film of a conductive alkaline earth metal oxide selected from the group consisting of strontium ruthenium trioxide, calcium ruthenium trioxide, barium ruthenium trioxide, lanthanum-strontium cobalt oxide or mixed alkaline earth ruthenium trioxides thereof upon a thin film of a noble metal such as platinum is provided.

  15. RF-PACVD of water repellent and protective HMDSO coatings on bell metal surfaces: Correlation between discharge parameters and film properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, A. J.; Barve, S. A.; Chutia, Joyanti; Pal, A. R.; Kishore, R.; Jagannath; Pande, M.; Patil, D. S.

    2011-08-01

    Hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) films have been deposited on bell metal using radiofrequency plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (RF-PACVD) technique. The protective performances of the HMDSO films and their water repellency have been investigated as a function of DC self-bias voltage on the substrates during deposition. Plasma potential measurements during film deposition process are carried out by self-compensated emissive probe. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) analyses of the plasma during deposition reveal no significant change in the plasma composition within the DC self-bias voltage range of -40 V to -160 V that is used. Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies are carried out for film chemistry analysis and indicate that the impinging ion energy on the substrates influences the physio-chemical properties of the HMDSO films. At critical ion energy of 113 qV (corresponding to DC self-bias voltage of -100 V), the deposited HMDSO film exhibits least defective Si-O-Si chemical structure and highest inorganic character and this contributes to its best corrosion resistance behavior. The hardness and elastic modulus of the films are found to be bias dependent and are 1.27 GPa and 5.36 GPa for films deposited at -100 V. The critical load for delamination is also bias dependent and is 11 mN for this film. The water repellency of the HMDSO films is observed to be dependent on the variation in surface roughness. The results of the investigations suggest that HMDSO films deposited by RF-PACVD can be used as protective coatings on bell metal surfaces.

  16. Scribable coating for plastic films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, R. T.

    1967-01-01

    Scribable opaque coating for transparent plastic film tape is not affected by aging, vacuum, and moderate temperature extremes. It consists of titanium dioxide, a water-compatible acrylic polymer emulsion, and a detergent. The coating mixture is readily dispersed in water before it is dried.

  17. Mixed polyelectrolyte coatings on glassy carbon electrodes: Ion-exchange, permselectivity properties and analytical application of poly-l-lysine-poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)-coated mercury film electrodes for the detection of trace metals.

    PubMed

    Monterroso, Sandra C C; Carapuça, Helena M; Duarte, Armando C

    2006-02-28

    The present work describes the preparation, optimization and characterization of mixed polyelectrolyte coatings of poly-l-lysine (PLL) and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) for the modification of thin mercury film electrodes (MFEs). The novel-modified electrodes were applied in the direct analysis of trace metals in estuarine waters by square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). The effects of the coating morphology and thickness and also of the monomeric molar ratio PLL/PSS on the cation-exchange ability of the PLL-PSS polyelectrolyte coatings onto glassy carbon (GC) were evaluated using target cationic species such as dopamine (DA) or lead cation. Further, the semi-permeability of the PLL-PSS-coated electrodes based both on electrostatic interactions and on molecular size leads to an improved anti-fouling ability against several tensioactive species. The analytical usefulness of the PLL-PSS-mixed polyelectrolyte coatings on thin mercury film electrodes is demonstrated via SWASV measurements of trace metals (lead, copper and cadmium at the low nanomolar level; accumulation time of 180s) in estuarine waters containing moderate levels of dissolved organic matter, resulting in a fast and direct methodology requiring no sample pretreatment. PMID:18970511

  18. Polymer-assisted aqueous deposition of metal oxide films

    DOEpatents

    Li, DeQuan (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM)

    2003-07-08

    An organic solvent-free process for deposition of metal oxide thin films is presented. The process includes aqueous solutions of necessary metal precursors and an aqueous solution of a water-soluble polymer. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is fired at high temperatures to yield optical quality metal oxide thin films.

  19. Surface waves with near-zero or negative group velocity on one-dimensional photonic crystal coated with one metal film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yun-tuan; Song, Xue-hua; Lu, Li-zhong; Wang, Ji-jun; Jiang, Ying-xin; Zhu, Min

    2013-07-01

    We employ the Bloch theorem of periodic structures and transfer matrix method to study the surface modes of a semi-infinite one-dimensional photonic crystal coated with a metal film. There are two mechanisms guiding the surface modes: the surface plasmon resonances and the surface modes of periodic structure. The surface modes can occur in all lower gaps and result from different mechanisms in different gaps. Extremely slow group velocities and even negative group velocities have been found to these surface modes.

  20. Near-Field Radiative Heat Transfer Between Two SiC Plates With/Without Coated Metal Films.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ya; Zhou, Leping; Du, Xiaoze; Yang, Yongping

    2015-04-01

    Near-field radiation is important in many nanotechnological applications, such as thermophotovoltaic system. In this paper, we employ the Rytov theory to calculate the near-field heat transfer between two silicon carbide (SiC) plates at finite vacuum gaps. The result shows that the total energy transfer rate increases with decreasing distance, and a maximum energy transfer rate can be found with respect to frequency. We then analyze the near-field thermal radiation of an aluminum-coated SiC plane in vacuum. The relation among film thickness, gap distance and energy density is given. It shows that the contribution of transverse electric (TE) mode to the energy density vanishes when the film thickness is nearly zero; and the contribution of transverse magnetic (TM) mode increases, but remains finite that can be illustrated by simple Drude model. The spectral density of p state of the thermally stimulated field in the vacuum-Al-SiC structure with fixed film thickness would have more resonance and large value can be obtained when increasing the distance; while the spectral density of p state in the thermally stimulated field in the structure with fixed distance has no apparent difference when varying the film thicknesses. This investigation can be extended for many other basic researches in near-field radiation. PMID:26353529

  1. Barrier Coatings for Refractory Metals and Superalloys

    SciTech Connect

    SM Sabol; BT Randall; JD Edington; CJ Larkin; BJ Close

    2006-02-23

    In the closed working fluid loop of the proposed Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP), there is the potential for reaction of core and plant structural materials with gas phase impurities and gas phase transport of interstitial elements between superalloy and refractory metal alloy components during service. Primary concerns are surface oxidation, interstitial embrittlement of refractory metals and decarburization of superalloys. In parallel with kinetic investigations, this letter evaluates the ability of potential coatings to prevent or impede communication between reactor and plant components. Key coating requirements are identified and current technology coating materials are reviewed relative to these requirements. Candidate coatings are identified for future evaluation based on current knowledge of design parameters and anticipated environment. Coatings were identified for superalloys and refractory metals to provide diffusion barriers to interstitial transport and act as reactive barriers to potential oxidation. Due to their high stability at low oxygen potential, alumina formers are most promising for oxidation protection given the anticipated coolant gas chemistry. A sublayer of iridium is recommended to provide inherent diffusion resistance to interstitials. Based on specific base metal selection, a thin film substrate--coating interdiffusion barrier layer may be necessary to meet mission life.

  2. Third-order optical nonlinearities of sol-gel silica coating films containing metal porphyrin derivatives measured by resonant femtosecond degenerate four-wave mixing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasatani, Kazuo; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Takenaka, Shunsuke

    2003-11-01

    Third-order optical nonlinearities of sol-gel silica coating films containing metal porphyrin derivatives were measured under resonant conditions by the femtosecond degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) technique. Temporal profiles of the DFWM signal were measured with a time resolution of 0.3 ps, and were found to consist of two components, the coherent instantaneous nonlinear response and the delayed response with a decay time constant of several to several hundred ps. The latter can be attributed to population grating of an excited state, and contribution of slow component was very little for a zinc porphyrin derivative. The values of electronic component of the optical nonlinear susceptibility, χ(3) xxxx, for these films were ca. 2 x 10-10 esu.

  3. Tailoring Thin Film-Lacquer Coatings for Space Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Wanda C.; Harris, George; Miller, Grace; Petro, John

    1998-01-01

    Thin film coatings have the capability of obtaining a wide range of thermal radiative properties, but the development of thin film coatings can sometimes be difficult and costly when trying to achieve highly specular surfaces. Given any space mission's thermal control requirements, there is often a need for a variation of solar absorptance (Alpha(s)), emittance (epsilon) and/or highly specular surfaces. The utilization of thin film coatings is one process of choice for meeting challenging thermal control requirements because of its ability to provide a wide variety of Alpha(s)/epsilon ratios. Thin film coatings' radiative properties can be tailored to meet specific thermal control requirements through the use of different metals and the variation of dielectric layer thickness. Surface coatings can be spectrally selective to enhance radiative coupling and decoupling. The application of lacquer to a surface can also provide suitable specularity for thin film application without the cost and difficulty associated with polishing.

  4. Magnetron-Sputtered Amorphous Metallic Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, A. P.; Mehra, M.; Khanna, S. K.

    1985-01-01

    Amorphous coatings of refractory metal/metalloid-based alloys deposited by magnetron sputtering provide extraordinary hardness and wear resistance. Sputtering target fabricated by thoroughly mixing powders of tungsten, rhenium, and boron in stated proportions and pressing at 1,200 degrees C and 3,000 lb/in. to second power (21 MPa). Substrate lightly etched by sputtering before deposition, then maintained at bias of - 500 V during initial stages of film growth while target material sputtered onto it. Argon gas at pressure used as carrier gas for sputter deposition. Coatings dense, pinhole-free, extremely smooth, and significantly resistant to chemical corrosion in acidic and neutral aqueous environments.

  5. Peel testing metalized films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bivins, L.; Smith, T.

    1980-01-01

    Flimsy ultrathin sheets are mounted on glass for peel-strength measurements. Technique makes it easier to perform peel tests on metalized plastic films. Technique was developed for determining peel strength of thin (1,000 A) layers of aluminum on Kapton film. Previously, material has been difficult to test because it is flimsy and tends to curl up and blow away at slightest disturbance. Procedure can be used to measure effects on metalization bond strength of handling, humidity, sunlight, and heat.

  6. Metal-Coated Optical Fibers for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeakes, Jason; Murphy, Kent; Claus, Richard; Greene, Jonathan; Tran, Tuan

    1996-01-01

    This poster will highlight on-going research at the Virginia Tech Fiber & Electro-Optics Research Center (FEORC) in the area of thin films on optical fibers. Topics will include the sputter deposition of metals and metal; alloys onto optical fiber and fiber optic sensors for innovative applications. Specific information will be available on thin film fiber optic hydrogen sensors, corrosion sensors, and metal-coated optical fiber for high temperature aerospace applications.

  7. Role of edible film and coating additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible films and coatings have received increasing interest because films and coatings can carry a diversity of functional ingredients. Plasticizers, such as glycerol, acetylated monoglycerides, polyethylene glycol, and sucrose are often used to modify the mechanical properties of the film or coatin...

  8. Metal-Coated Optical Fibers for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeakes, Jason; Murphy, Kent; Claus, Richard; Greene, Jonathan; Tran, Tuan

    1996-01-01

    A DC magnetron sputtering system has been used to actively coat optical fibers with hermetic metal coatings during the fiber draw process. Thin films of Inconel 625 have been deposited on optical fibers and annealed in air at 2000 F. Scanning electron microscopy and Auger electron microscopy have been used to investigate the morphology and composition of the films prior to and following thermal cycling. Issues to be addressed include film adhesion, other coating materials, and a discussion of additional applications for this novel technology.

  9. Nanocrystalline Pd alloy films coated by electroless deposition.

    PubMed

    Strukov, G V; Strukova, G K; Batov, I E; Sakharov, M K; Kudrenko, E A; Mazilkin, A A

    2011-10-01

    The structures of palladium and palladium alloys thin films deposited from organic electrolytes onto metallic substrates by electroless plating method have been investigated. The coatings are dense, pore-free 0.005-1 microm thick films with high adhesive strength to the substrate surface. EDX, XRD, SEM and TEM methods were used to determine the composition and structure of alloy coatings of the following binary systems: Pd-Au, Pd-Ag, Pd-Ni, Pd-Pb, and ternary system Pd-Au-Ni. The coatings of Pd-Au, Pd-Ag and Pd-Ni have a solid solution structure, whereas Pd-Pb is intermetallic compound. It has been found that the deposited films consist of nanocrystalline grains with sizes in the range of 11-35 nm. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy investigations reveal the existence of clusters formed by nanocrystalline grains. The origin for the formation of nanocrystalline structures of coating films is discussed. PMID:22400291

  10. Method of measuring metal coating adhesion

    DOEpatents

    Roper, John R.

    1985-01-01

    A method for measuring metal coating adhesion to a substrate material comprising the steps of preparing a test coupon of substrate material having the metal coating applied to one surface thereof, applying a second metal coating of gold or silver to opposite surfaces of the test coupon by hot hollow cathode process, applying a coating to one end of each of two pulling rod members, joining the coated ends of the pulling rod members to said opposite coated surfaces of the test coupon by a solid state bonding technique and finally applying instrumented static tensile loading to the pulling rod members until fracture of the metal coating adhesion to the substrate material occurs.

  11. Method of measuring metal coating adhesion

    DOEpatents

    Roper, J.R.

    A method for measuring metal coating adhesion to a substrate material comprising the steps of preparing a test coupon of substrate material having the metal coating applied to one surface thereof, applying a second metal coating of gold or silver to opposite surfaces of the test coupon by hot hollow cathode process, applying a coating to one end of each of two pulling rod members, joining the coated ends of the pulling rod members to said opposite coated surfaces of the test coupon by a solid state bonding technique and finally applying instrumented static tensile loading to the pulling rod members until fracture of the metal coating adhesion to the substrate material occurs.

  12. Thin film-coated polymer webs

    DOEpatents

    Wenz, Robert P.; Weber, Michael F.; Arudi, Ravindra L.

    1992-02-04

    The present invention relates to thin film-coated polymer webs, and more particularly to thin film electronic devices supported upon a polymer web, wherein the polymer web is treated with a purifying amount of electron beam radiation.

  13. STRIPPING METAL COATINGS

    DOEpatents

    Siefen, H.T.; Campbell, J.M.

    1959-02-01

    A method is described for removing aluminumuranium-silicon alloy bonded to metallic U comprising subjecting the Al-U -Si alloy to treatment with hot concentrated HNO/sun 3/ to partially dissolve and embrittle the alloy and shot- blasting the embrittled alloy to loosen it from the U.

  14. Superconducting films made by spin-coating of acetate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Balachandran, U.; Poeppel, R.B. ); dos Santos, D.I.; Carvalho, C.L.; da Silva, R.R.; Aegerter, M.A. . Inst. de Fisica e Quimica)

    1990-12-01

    Metallic silver substrates were spin-coated with several layers of mixed acetate solutions containing bismuth, lead, strontium, calcium, and copper. The viscosities of the cation solutions were modified by the addition of polyvinyl alcohol. The films were heat treated at various temperatures in air, O{sub 2}, and 1% O{sub 2} (balance N{sub 2}) atmospheres. Bismuth cuprate films with transport critical current densities {approx}500 A/cm{sup 2} were obtained in this work. New conditions of coating and sintering have been tried to produce superconducting films.

  15. Method of coating metal surfaces to form protective metal coating thereon

    DOEpatents

    Krikorian, Oscar H.; Curtis, Paul G.

    1992-01-01

    A process is disclosed for forming a protective metal coating on a metal surface using a flux consisting of an alkali metal fluoride, an alkaline earth metal fluoride, an alkali metal fluoaluminate, an alkali metal fluosilicate, and mixtures thereof. The flux, in particulate form, is mixed with particles of a metal coating material which may comprise aluminum, chromium, mixtures thereof, and alloys containing at least 50 wt. % aluminum and the particulate mixture is applied to the metal surface in a single step, followed by heating the coated metal surface to a temperature sufficient to cause the metal coating material to react with the metal surface to form a protective reaction product in the form of a metal coating bonded to the metal surface. The metal surface which reacts with the metal coating material to form the protective coating may comprise Fe, Co, Ni, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Hf, Ta, W, Re and alloys thereof.

  16. Method of coating metal surfaces to form protective metal coating thereon

    DOEpatents

    Krikorian, O.H.; Curtis, P.G.

    1992-03-31

    A process is disclosed for forming a protective metal coating on a metal surface using a flux consisting of an alkali metal fluoride, an alkaline earth metal fluoride, an alkali metal fluoaluminate, an alkali metal fluosilicate, and mixtures thereof. The flux, in particulate form, is mixed with particles of a metal coating material which may comprise aluminum, chromium, mixtures thereof, and alloys containing at least 50 wt. % aluminum and the particulate mixture is applied to the metal surface in a single step, followed by heating the coated metal surface to a temperature sufficient to cause the metal coating material to react with the metal surface to form a protective reaction product in the form of a metal coating bonded to the metal surface. The metal surface which reacts with the metal coating material to form the protective coating may comprise Fe, Co, Ni, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Hf, Ta, W, Re and alloys thereof. 1 figure.

  17. Coated Metal Articles and Method of Making

    DOEpatents

    Boller, Ernest R.; Eubank, Lowell D.

    2004-07-06

    The method of protectively coating metallic uranium which comprises dipping the metallic uranium in a molten alloy comprising about 20-75% of copper and about 80-25% of tin, dipping the coated uranium promptly into molten tin, withdrawing it from the molten tin and removing excess molten metal, thereupon dipping it into a molten metal bath comprising aluminum until it is coated with this metal, then promptly withdrawing it from the bath.

  18. Coated metal articles and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Boller, Ernest R.; Eubank, Lowell D.

    2004-07-06

    The method of protectively coating metallic uranium which comprises dipping the metallic uranium in a molten alloy comprising about 20-75% of copper and about 80-25% of tin, dipping the coated uranium promptly into molten tin, withdrawing it from the molten tin and removing excess molten metal, thereupon dipping it into a molten metal bath comprising aluminum until it is coated with this metal, then promptly withdrawing it from the bath.

  19. Nanostructured gold films as broadband terahertz antireflection coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoman, Andreas; Kern, Andreas; Helm, Hanspeter; Walther, Markus

    2008-05-01

    The potential of nanometer-thick, randomly nanostructured gold films as broadband wave impedance-matching coatings for nondispersive substrates in the terahertz frequency range is demonstrated. Based on a wave impedance approach and the specific non-Drude conductivity of our films, we model the reflectivity at the coated interface between silicon and air and show that nanostructured films offer a considerably better broadband performance than conventional bulk metallic layers. The predictions from the theoretical model are verified in experimental studies of different gold nanostructures investigated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in the frequency range of 0.2-2.2THz . An extension of a previously developed subgridding scheme for the finite-difference time-domain method allows us to simulate terahertz-pulse propagation through uncoated and coated samples and to follow attenuation and reshaping of the internally reflected pulse when the film thickness is varied with subnanometer precision.

  20. Alloy Films Deposited by Electroplating as Precursors for Protective Oxide Coatings on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Metallic Interconnect Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Christopher; Gemmen, R.S.; Cross, Caleb

    2006-10-01

    The successful development of stainless steel interconnects for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) may be the materials breakthrough that makes SOFC technology truly commercial. Many of the ferritic stainless steels, however, suffer from a relatively high area specific resistance (ASR) after long exposure times at temperature and the Cr in the native oxide can evaporate and contaminate other cell components. Conductive coatings that resist oxide scale growth and chromium evaporation may prevent both of these problems. In the present study electrochemical deposition of binary alloys followed by oxidation of the alloy to form protective and conductive oxide layers is examined. Results are presented for the deposition of Mn/Co and Fe/Ni alloys via electroplating to form a precursor for spinel oxide coating formation. Analysis of the alloy coatings is done by SEM, EDS and XRD.

  1. Bulk metallic glass coating of polymer substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soinila, Erno; Sharma, Parmanand; Heino, Markku; Pischow, Kaj; Inoue, Akihisa; Hänninen, Hannu

    2009-01-01

    Bulk Metallic Glass (BMG) alloy with the composition of Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 was deposited by sputtering as thin films on several different engineering polymers and polymer composites. Polycarbonate, polymethyl methacrylate, polyamide 12, polyarylamide (50GF=50 % glass fibers), polyphenylene sulfide (30GF) and polybutylene terephthalate (30GF) were used as substrates. The microstructure of the deposited BMG coatings was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results of XRD and SEM studies were consistent with amorphous microstructure. Elemental compositions of the coatings were verified by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Mechanical properties of the coatings were compared to copper mould cast BMG using nano- indentation tests with similar results. According to the cross-cut tape tests good adhesion was achieved between the studied BMG alloy and all other polymer substrates except polycarbonate. Nano-indentation results showed similar mechanical properties for coating and cast BMG. The results of this study look promising as they open new opportunities for BMG- polymer composite applications.

  2. Corrosion protective coating for metallic materials

    DOEpatents

    Buchheit, Rudolph G.; Martinez, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    Corrosion protective coatings for metallic materials, particularly aluminum and aluminum alloys, produced with simple, low-cost equipment and materials other than toxic metals or metal salts, or metal cyanides. The metallic material is cleaned, degreased, and deoxidized, the surface is converted to a substantially alkaline condition, and the surface is chemically sealed with inorganic metal compounds.

  3. Corrosion protective coating for metallic materials

    DOEpatents

    Buchheit, R.G.; Martinez, M.A.

    1998-05-26

    Corrosion protective coatings for metallic materials, particularly aluminum and aluminum alloys, produced with simple, low-cost equipment and materials other than toxic metals or metal salts, or metal cyanides is disclosed. The metallic material is cleaned, degreased, and deoxidized, the surface is converted to a substantially alkaline condition, and the surface is chemically sealed with inorganic metal compounds. 1 fig.

  4. Self Healing Coating/Film Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summerfield, Burton; Thompson, Karen; Zeitlin, Nancy; Mullenix, Pamela; Calle, Luz; Williams, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has been developing self healing materials and technologies. This project seeks to further develop self healing functionality in thin films for applications such as corrosion protective coatings, inflatable structures, space suit materials, and electrical wire insulation.

  5. Tailoring Thin Film-Lacquer Coatings for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Wanda C.; Harris, George; Miller, Grace; Petro, John

    1998-01-01

    Thin film coatings have the capability of obtaining a wide range of thermal radiative properties, but the development of thin film coatings can sometimes be difficult and costly when trying to achieve highly specular surfaces. Given any space mission's then-nal control requirements, there is often a need for a variation of solar absorptance (alpha(sub s)), emittance (epsilon) and/or highly specular surfaces. The utilization of thin film coatings is one process of choice for meeting challenging thermal control requirements because of its ability to provide a wide variety of alpha(sub s)/epsilon ratios. Thin film coatings' radiative properties can be tailored to meet specific thermal control requirements through the use of different metals and the variation of dielectric layer thickness. Surface coatings can be spectrally selective to enhance radiative coupling and decoupling. The application of lacquer to a surface can also provide suitable specularity for thin film application without the cost and difficulty associated with polishing.

  6. Tantalum-based thin film coatings for wear resistant arthroprostheses.

    PubMed

    Balagna, C; Faga, M G; Spriano, S

    2011-10-01

    Cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloys with high carbon content (HC-CoCrMo) are widely used as materials for arthroprosthesis, in particular in metal-on-metal (MoM) hip joints. In spite of their good wear and corrosion resistance, production of metallic wear particles and metal ion release will occur on a large time-scale. An enhancement of the metal ion level in the patient's blood and urine is often reported in clinical data. Hypersensitivity, inflammatory response and cell necrosis can occur as consequence. So implants on young patients and women on childbearing age are not so widespread. The aim of this research is the realization of a thin film coating in order to improve the biocompatibility of Co-based alloys and to reduce debris production, ion release and citotoxicity. The innovative process consists of a thermal treatment in molten salts, in order to obtain a tantalum enriched thin film coating. Tantalum is chosen because it is considered a biocompatible metal with high corrosion resistance and low ion release. Three HC-CoCrMo alloys, produced by different manufacturing processes, are tested as substrates. The coating is a thin film of TaC or it can be composed by a multilayer of two tantalum carbides and metallic tantalum, depending on the temperature of the treatment and on the carbon content of the substrate. The thin films as well the substrates are characterized from the structural, chemical and morphological point of view. Moreover mechanical behaviour of treated and untreated materials is analyzed by means of nanohardness, scratch and ball-on-disc wear tests. The coating increases the mechanical and tribological properties of HC-CoCrMo. PMID:22400292

  7. Overlay metallic-cermet alloy coating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gedwill, M.A.; Glasgow, T.K.; Levine, S.R.

    1982-05-01

    A substrate, such as a turbine blade, vane, or the like, which is subjected to high temperature use is coated with a base coating of an oxide dispersed, metallic alloy (cermet). A top coating of an oxidation, hot corrosion, erosion resistant alloy of nickel, cobalt, or iron is then deposited on the base coating. A heat treatment is used to improve the bonding. The base coating serves as an inhibitor to interdiffusion between the protective top coating and the substrate. Otherwise, the protective top coating would rapidly interact detrimentally with the substrate and degrade by spalling of the protective oxides formed on the outer surface at elevated temperatures.

  8. Overlay metallic-cermet alloy coating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedwill, M. A.; Levine, S. R.; Glasgow, T. K. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A substrate, such as a turbine blade, vane, or the like, which is subjected to high temperature use is coated with a base coating of an oxide dispersed, metallic alloy (cermet). A top coating of an oxidation, hot corrosion, erosion resistant alloy of nickel, cobalt, or iron is then deposited on the base coating. A heat treatment is used to improve the bonding. The base coating serves as an inhibitor to interdiffusion between the protective top coating and the substrate. Otherwise, the protective top coating would rapidly interact detrimentally with the substrate and degrade by spalling of the protective oxides formed on the outer surface at elevated temperatures.

  9. Method of producing adherent metal oxide coatings on metallic surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Lane, Michael H.; Varrin, Jr., Robert D.

    2001-01-01

    Provided is a process of producing an adherent synthetic corrosion product (sludge) coating on metallic surfaces. The method involves a chemical reaction between a dry solid powder mixture of at least one reactive metal oxide with orthophosphoric acid to produce a coating in which the particles are bound together and the matrix is adherent to the metallic surface.

  10. Influence of Metal Properties on the Formation and Evolution of Metal Coatings During Mechanical Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Liang; Lu, Yun; Sato, Hiromasa; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Guo, Jie

    2013-06-01

    Powders of Cu, Ti, Ni, Fe, and Zn metals were used to prepare coatings on the surfaces of Al2O3 balls by the mechanical coating technique. The coated Al2O3 balls were characterized with XRD and SEM. The results showed that all the metal powders except Ni formed continuous metal coatings. The evolution of metal coatings during mechanical coating was also investigated. The analysis indicates that as long as continuous metal coatings can be formed, the evolution can fall into the following stages: nucleation, formation and coalescence of discrete islands, formation and thickening of continuous coatings, and exfoliation of continuous coatings. Electronegativity of the metal was shown to have a major effect on the adhesion of the tiny metal particles on the surfaces of the Al2O3 balls during the initial stage of mechanical coating. The lower the electronegativity of the metal, the greater the coverage of the metal on the Al2O3 ball and the easier the adhesion of the tiny metal particles. Further, the better the plastic deformability of metal, the easier the cold welding among metal powder particles and the greater the thickness of the continuous metal coatings.

  11. Synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy study of metal-oxide thin film catalysts: Pt-CeO2 coated CNTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matolínová, I.; Fiala, R.; Khalakhan, I.; Vorokhta, M.; Sofer, Z.; Yoshikawa, H.; Kobayashi, K.; Matolín, V.

    2012-01-01

    The interaction of Pt with CeO2 layers was investigated by using high resolution hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Pt doped CeO2 layers were deposited simultaneously by rf-magnetron sputtering on a SiO2/Si substrate and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) grown on a carbon diffusion layer of a polymer membrane fuel cell. In the case of the CNT support photoelectron spectra showed the formation of ionic platinum rich cerium oxide with Pt2+,4+ species, and with the Pt2+/Pt4+ ratio strongly dependent on the amount of platinum. Ce reveals 4+/3+ mixed valent character with Ce3+ concentration increasing with Pt content. In the case of the SiO2/Si substrate the film revealed Ce4+ and Pt4+ species only.

  12. Coating of ceramic fibers with yttria films

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, J.P.; DeJonghe, L.C.

    1994-12-31

    Two aqueous solution methods have been developed for coating ceramic fibers with a film of yttria. The first utilizes the decomposition of urea in the presence of yttrium nitrate to yield yttrium basic carbonate (YBC). YBC precipitates heterogeneously forming a film. In the second method, a concentrated aqueous solution of yttrium nitrate, polyethylene oxide, and a commercially available wetting agent is prepared. Ceramic fibers are drawn through the solution, wetting the fiber with a film of the solution. The films are converted to yttria by heating in an oxidizing atmosphere. The film morphologies are characterized using scanning electron microscopy. The film constituencies are characterized using thin film x-ray diffraction spectroscopy. Limits to film thickness are explored.

  13. Cellulose acetate coated mercury film electrodes for anodic stripping voltametry

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Hutchins-Kumar, L.D.

    1986-02-01

    The response characteristics and analytical advantages of cellulose acetate coated mercury film electrodes for anodic stripping measurements of trace metals are described. The coating provides an effective barrier of the mercury surface, thus eliminating the effects of various organic surfactants. For example, up to at least 100 ppm gelatin does not alter the response. The diagnostic power of rotating disk measurements is used to evaluate the transport toward the mercury surface. The response is limited by the permeability of the film, thus allowing stripping measurements in systems with poorly controlled mass transport. Base hydrolysis of the film is used to manipulate the permeability. Scanning electron micrographs show the microstructures of the films following different hydrolysis times. The discriminative properties of these coatings can be used also to improve the resolution between two adjacent stripping peaks. The response of the modified electrode is directly proportional to the analyte concentration and is reproducible. With a 10-min deposition time, detection limits are 7 x 10 M lead and 1.3 x 10 Z M cadmium. Various metal ions and organic surfactants are tested. The performance of this novel electrode system is compared to that of a conventional mercury film electrode. 19 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

  14. Flexible thin metal film thermal sensing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomsen, Donald L. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A flexible thin metal film thermal sensing system is provided. A self-metallized polymeric film has a polymeric film region and a metal surface disposed thereon. A layer of electrically-conductive metal is deposited directly onto the self-metallized polymeric film's metal surface. Coupled to at least one of the metal surface and the layer of electrically-conductive metal is a device/system for measuring an electrical characteristic associated therewith as an indication of temperature.

  15. Design and fabrication of multilayer thin film coated hollow waveguides for enhanced infrared radiation delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bledt, Carlos M.; Melzer, Jeffrey E.; Harrington, James A.

    2013-03-01

    Metal coated Hollow Glass Waveguides (HGWs) incorporating single dielectric thin films have been widely used for the low-loss transmission of infrared radiation in applications ranging from surgery to spectroscopy. While the incorporation of single dielectric film designs have traditionally been used in metal/dielectric coated HGWs, recent research has focused on the development of alternating low/high refractive index multilayer dielectric thin film stacks for further transmission loss reduction. Continuing advances in the deposition of optically functional cadmium sulfide and lead sulfide thin films in HGWs have allowed for the simultaneous increase in film quality and greater film thickness control necessary for the implication of such multilayer stack designs for enhanced reflectivity at infrared wavelengths. This study focuses on the theoretical and practical considerations in the development of such multilayer stack coated waveguides and presents novel results including film growth kinetics of multilayer stack thin film materials, IR spectroscopic analysis, and IR laser attenuation measurements. The effects of incorporating progressive alternating cadmium sulfide and lead sulfide dielectric thin films on the optical properties of next generation dielectric thin film stack coated HGWs in the near and mid infrared regions are thoroughly presented. The implications of incorporating such dielectric multilayer stack coatings based on metal sulfide thin films on the future of IR transmitting hollow waveguides for use in applications ranging from spectroscopy, to high laser power delivery are briefly discussed.

  16. Measuring Thicknesses of Coatings on Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotty, Glenn M., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Digital light sensor and eddy-current sensor measure thickness without contact. Surface of Coating reflects laser beam to optical sensor. Position of reflected spot on sensor used by microcomputer to calculate coating thickness. Eddy-current sensor maintains constant distance between optical sensor and metal substrate. When capabilities of available components fully exploited, instrument measures coatings from 0.001 to 6 in. (0.0025 to 15 cm) thick with accuracy of 1 part in 4,000. Instrument readily incorporated in automatic production and inspection systems. Used to inspect thermal-insulation layers, paint, and protective coatings. Also used to control application of coatings to preset thicknesses.

  17. Systematic Evaluation of Jc Decrease in Thick Film Coated Conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Alex Ignatiev; Dr. Amit Goyal

    2006-05-10

    Address both thickness dependence of Jc, in thick film YBCO coated conductors through an application of a suite of new measurement techniques to thick film wire samples produced by commercially viable coated conductor technologies.

  18. Plasma-Spray Metal Coating On Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cranston, J.

    1994-01-01

    Molds, forms, and other substrates made of foams coated with metals by plasma spraying. Foam might be ceramic, carbon, metallic, organic, or inorganic. After coat applied by plasma spraying, foam left intact or removed by acid leaching, conventional machining, water-jet cutting, or another suitable technique. Cores or vessels made of various foam materials plasma-coated with metals according to method useful as thermally insulating containers for foods, liquids, or gases, or as mandrels for making composite-material (matrix/fiber) parts, or making thermally insulating firewalls in automobiles.

  19. Soluble Aromatic Polyimides For Film Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, Anne K.; St. Clair, Terry L.

    1989-01-01

    Because of toughness, flexibility, and remarkable thermal stability, linear all-aromatic polyimides excellent candidate film and coating materials for advanced electronic circuitry and wires. Study determined effects on solubility of changing isomeric points of attachment of phenoxy units in diamine portions of several all-aromatic polyimides. Tough, flexible, transparent films produced by thermally converting polyamic acids to polyimides at 300 degree C in air. Potential for electronic applications excellent.

  20. Real-time measurement of protein adsorption on electrophoretically deposited hydroxyapatite coatings and magnetron sputtered metallic films using the surface acoustic wave technique.

    PubMed

    Meininger, M; Schmitz, T; Wagner, T; Ewald, A; Gbureck, U; Groll, J; Moseke, C

    2016-04-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) biosensors are highly sensitive for mass binding and are therefore used to detect protein-protein and protein-antibody interactions. Whilst the standard surface of the chips is a thin gold film, measurements on implant- or bone-like surfaces could significantly enhance the range of possible applications for this technique. The aim of this study was to establish methods to coat biosensor chips with Ti, TiN, and silver-doped TiN using physical vapor deposition as well as with hydroxyapatite by electrophoresis. To demonstrate that protein adsorption can be detected on these surfaces, binding experiments with fibronectin and fibronectin-specific antibodies have been performed with the coatings, which successfully proved the applicability of PVD and EPD for SAW biosensor functionalization. PMID:26838860

  1. Antimicrobial edible films and coatings.

    PubMed

    Cagri, Arzu; Ustunol, Zeynep; Ryser, Elliot T

    2004-04-01

    Increasing consumer demand for microbiologically safer foods, greater convenience, smaller packages, and longer product shelf life is forcing the industry to develop new food-processing, cooking, handling, and packaging strategies. Nonfluid ready-to-eat foods are frequently exposed to postprocess surface contamination, leading to a reduction in shelf life. The food industry has at its disposal a wide range of nonedible polypropylene- and polyethylene-based packaging materials and various biodegradable protein- and polysaccharide-based edible films that can potentially serve as packaging materials. Research on the use of edible films as packaging materials continues because of the potential for these films to enhance food quality, food safety, and product shelf life. Besides acting as a barrier against mass diffusion (moisture, gases, and volatiles), edible films can serve as carriers for a wide range of food additives, including flavoring agents, antioxidants, vitamins, and colorants. When antimicrobial agents such as benzoic acid, sorbic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, nisin, and lysozyme have been incorporated into edible films, such films retarded surface growth of bacteria, yeasts, and molds on a wide range of products, including meats and cheeses. Various antimicrobial edible films have been developed to minimize growth of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms, including Listeria monocytogenes, which may contaminate the surface of cooked ready-to-eat foods after processing. Here, we review the various types of protein-based (wheat gluten, collagen, corn zein, soy, casein, and whey protein), polysaccharide-based (cellulose, chitosan, alginate, starch, pectin, and dextrin), and lipid-based (waxes, acylglycerols, and fatty acids) edible films and a wide range of antimicrobial agents that have been or could potentially be incorporated into such films during manufacture to enhance the safety and shelf life of ready-to-eat foods. PMID:15083740

  2. Formulating Precursors for Coating Metals and Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, Wilfredo; Gatica, Jorge E.; Reye, John T.

    2005-01-01

    A protocol has been devised for formulating low-vapor-pressure precursors for protective and conversion coatings on metallic and ceramic substrates. The ingredients of a precursor to which the protocol applies include additives with phosphate esters, or aryl phosphate esters in solution. Additives can include iron, chromium, and/or other transition metals. Alternative or additional additives can include magnesium compounds to facilitate growth of films on substrates that do not contain magnesium. Formulation of a precursor begins with mixing of the ingredients into a high-vapor-pressure solvent to form a homogeneous solution. Then the solvent is extracted from the solution by evaporation - aided, if necessary, by vacuum and/or slight heating. The solvent is deemed to be completely extracted when the viscosity of the remaining solution closely resembles the viscosity of the phosphate ester or aryl phosphate ester. In addition, satisfactory removal of the solvent can be verified by means of a differential scanning calorimetry essay: the absence of endothermic processes for temperatures below 150 C would indicate that the residual solvent has been eliminated from the solution beyond a detectable dilution level.

  3. Thin-film metal hydrides.

    PubMed

    Remhof, Arndt; Borgschulte, Andreas

    2008-12-01

    The goal of the medieval alchemist, the chemical transformation of common metals into nobel metals, will forever be a dream. However, key characteristics of metals, such as their electronic band structure and, consequently, their electric, magnetic and optical properties, can be tailored by controlled hydrogen doping. Due to their morphology and well-defined geometry with flat, coplanar surfaces/interfaces, novel phenomena may be observed in thin films. Prominent examples are the eye-catching hydrogen switchable mirror effect, the visualization of solid-state diffusion and the formation of complex surface morphologies. Thin films do not suffer as much from embrittlement and/or decrepitation as bulk materials, allowing the study of cyclic absorption and desorption. Therefore, thin-metal hydride films are used as model systems to study metal-insulator transitions, for high throughput combinatorial research or they may be used as indicator layers to study hydrogen diffusion. They can be found in technological applications as hydrogen sensors, in electrochromic and thermochromic devices. In this review, we discuss the effect of hydrogen loading of thin niobium and yttrium films as archetypical examples of a transition metal and a rare earth metal, respectively. Our focus thereby lies on the hydrogen induced changes of the electronic structure and the morphology of the thin films, their optical properties, the visualization and the control of hydrogen diffusion and on the study of surface phenomena and catalysis. PMID:18980236

  4. Eddy Current Assessment of Duplex Metallic Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzywosz, K. J.

    2004-02-01

    EPRI is involved in a multi-year program with the Department of Energy to test, evaluate, and develop a field-deployable eddy current NDE system for life assessment of blade coatings for advanced gas turbines. The coatings evaluated from these advanced GE engines include CoCrAlY (GT 29) and NiCoCrAlY (GT 33) bond coats followed by top aluminide overlay coatings. These duplex metallic coatings commonly referred to as GT 29+ and GT 33+ coatings, respectively. In general, during cycling and continuous operation at higher operating temperature, coatings fail due to spallation of protective oxide layers, leading to consumption of protective coating by oxidation and to eventual failure of blades. To extend service life of these critical rotating components, an inspection-based condition assessment program has been initiated to help establish more optimum inspection intervals that are not dependent on time-in-service maintenance approach. This paper summarizes the latest results obtained to date using the state-of-the-art frequency-scanning eddy current tester with a built-in three-layer inversion analysis algorithm. Significant progress has been made in assessing and discriminating the duplex metallic coatings as normal, degraded, and/or cracked. In addition, quantitative assessment was conducted by estimating various coating and substrate conductivity values.

  5. Metal/dielectric/metal sandwich film for broadband reflection reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jen, Yi-Jun; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Lin, Meng-Jie; Wang, Wei-Hao; Wu, Huang-Ming; Liao, Hung-Sheng

    2013-04-01

    A film comprising randomly distributed metal/dielectric/metal sandwich nanopillars with a distribution of cross-sectional diameters, displayed extremely low reflectance over the blue-to-red regime, when coated on glass and illuminated normally. When it is illuminated by normally incident light, this sandwich film (SWF) has a low extinction coefficient, its phase thickness is close to a negative wavelength in the blue-to-red spectral regime, and it provides weakly dispersive forward and backward impedances, so that reflected waves from the two faces of the SWF interfere destructively. Broadband reflection-reduction, over a wide range of incidence angles and regardless of the polarization state of the incident light, was observed when the SWF was deposited on polished silicon.

  6. Metal/dielectric/metal sandwich film for broadband reflection reduction.

    PubMed

    Jen, Yi-Jun; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Lin, Meng-Jie; Wang, Wei-Hao; Wu, Huang-Ming; Liao, Hung-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    A film comprising randomly distributed metal/dielectric/metal sandwich nanopillars with a distribution of cross-sectional diameters, displayed extremely low reflectance over the blue-to-red regime, when coated on glass and illuminated normally. When it is illuminated by normally incident light, this sandwich film (SWF) has a low extinction coefficient, its phase thickness is close to a negative wavelength in the blue-to-red spectral regime, and it provides weakly dispersive forward and backward impedances, so that reflected waves from the two faces of the SWF interfere destructively. Broadband reflection-reduction, over a wide range of incidence angles and regardless of the polarization state of the incident light, was observed when the SWF was deposited on polished silicon. PMID:23591704

  7. Metal/dielectric/metal sandwich film for broadband reflection reduction

    PubMed Central

    Jen, Yi-Jun; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Lin, Meng-Jie; Wang, Wei-Hao; Wu, Huang-Ming; Liao, Hung-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    A film comprising randomly distributed metal/dielectric/metal sandwich nanopillars with a distribution of cross-sectional diameters, displayed extremely low reflectance over the blue-to-red regime, when coated on glass and illuminated normally. When it is illuminated by normally incident light, this sandwich film (SWF) has a low extinction coefficient, its phase thickness is close to a negative wavelength in the blue-to-red spectral regime, and it provides weakly dispersive forward and backward impedances, so that reflected waves from the two faces of the SWF interfere destructively. Broadband reflection-reduction, over a wide range of incidence angles and regardless of the polarization state of the incident light, was observed when the SWF was deposited on polished silicon. PMID:23591704

  8. Introduction: Edible Coatings and Films to Improve Food Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book gives a history of the development and uses of edible coatings, detailed chapters on coating caracteristics, determination of coating properties, methods for making coatings, and discription of coating film formers (polysaccharieds, lipids, resins, proteins). The book also disucsses coatin...

  9. Molecular Level Coating for Metal Oxide Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDaniel, Patricia R. (Inventor); Saint Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Polymer encapsulated metal oxide particles are prepared by combining a polyamide acid in a polar aprotic solvent with a metal alkoxide solution. The polymer was imidized and the metal oxide formed simultaneously in a refluxing organic solvent. The resulting polymer-metal oxide is an intimately mixed commingled blend, possessing synergistic properties of both the polymer and preceramic metal oxide. The encapsulated metal oxide particles have multiple uses including, being useful in the production of skin lubricating creams, weather resistant paints, as a filler for paper, making ultraviolet light stable filled printing ink, being extruded into fibers or ribbons, and coatings for fibers used in the production of composite structural panels.

  10. Molecular Level Coating of Metal Oxide Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDaniel, Patricia R. (Inventor); St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Polymer encapsulated metal oxide particles are prepared by combining a polyamide acid in a polar osmotic solvent with a metal alkoxide solution. The polymer was imidized and the metal oxide formed simultaneously in a refluxing organic solvent. The resulting polymer-metal oxide is an intimately mixed commingled blend, possessing, synergistic properties of both the polymer and preceramic metal oxide. The encapsulated metal oxide particles have multiple uses including, being useful in the production of skin lubricating creams, weather resistant paints, as a filler for paper. making ultraviolet light stable filled printing ink, being extruded into fibers or ribbons, and coatings for fibers used in the production of composite structural panels.

  11. Investigation of thin film coating process for printed electronics with suspension ink by slot die coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Inyoung

    2012-11-01

    Slot die coating process can be easily combined with roll-to-roll process and handle various coating liquid with wide range of viscosity and solid content. It is also pre-metered coating and the thickness of the coated layer can be easily predicted and controlled by a given feed flow rate and coating speed. Therefore, recently, slot die coating process is extending the use of fabrication of thin film printed electronics such as transparent conductive film and thin film solar cell etc. In the present study, we elucidated thin film coating process for printed electronics with suspension ink by slot die coating. Numerical study was investigated the effect of coating die design and rheological characteristics of suspension ink on coating uniformity. Slot die coating experiments was also performed with suspension ink which is composed of Cu(InGa)Se2 nano-particle and ethanol solvent and compared with numerical simulation.

  12. METHOD FOR COATING GRAPHITE WITH METALLIC CARBIDES

    DOEpatents

    Steinberg, M.A.

    1960-03-22

    A method for producing refractory coatings of metallic carbides on graphite was developed. In particular, the graphite piece to be coated is immersed in a molten solution of 4 to 5% by weight of zirconium, titanium, or niobium dissolved in tin. The solution is heated in an argon atmosphere to above 1400 deg C, whereby the refractory metal reacts with the surface of the graphite to form a layer of metalic carbide. The molten solution is cooled to 300 to 400 deg C, and the graphite piece is removed. Excess tin is wiped from the graphite, which is then heated in vacuum to above 2300 deg C. The tin vaporizes from the graphite surface, leaving the surface coated with a tenacious layer of refractory metallic carbide.

  13. Oxide ferromagnetic semiconductors: coatings and films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nipan, G. D.; Stognij, A. I.; Ketsko, Valerii A.

    2012-05-01

    The review concerns the results of studies reported in the last decade and concerning oxide ferromagnetic semiconductors which retain the spin orientation of charge carriers above room temperature. Particular attention is paid to methods of preparation of diluted magnetic semiconductors. Methods of synthesis and peculiarities of the physicochemical properties of films and coatings based on ferromagnetic semiconductors are described and prospects for application of these compounds as materials for spintronics are discussed. The bibliography includes 160 references.

  14. Metal alloy coatings and methods for applying

    DOEpatents

    Merz, Martin D.; Knoll, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    A method of coating a substrate comprises plasma spraying a prealloyed feed powder onto a substrate, where the prealloyed feed powder comprises a significant amount of an alloy of stainless steel and at least one refractory element selected from the group consisting of titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, and tungsten. The plasma spraying of such a feed powder is conducted in an oxygen containing atmosphere and forms an adherent, corrosion resistant, and substantially homogenous metallic refractory alloy coating on the substrate.

  15. High temperature barrier coatings for refractory metals

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, G.A.; Walech, T.

    1995-06-01

    Improvements in high temperature oxidation resistant metal coating technology will allow NASA and commercial entities to develop competitive civil space transport and communication systems. The success of investigations completed in this program will have a positive impact on broadening the technology base for high temperature materials. The work reported herein describes processes and procedures for successfully depositing coherent oxidation barrier coatings on refractory metals to prevent degradation under very severe operating environments. Application of the new technology developed is now being utilized in numerous Phase 3 applications through several prominent aerospace firms. Major achievements have included: (1) development of means to deposit thick platinum and rhodium coatings with lower stress and fewer microcracks than could be previously achieved; (2) development of processes to deposit thick adherent coatings of platinum group metals on refractory substrates that remain bonded through high temperature excursions and without need for intermediate coatings (bonding processes unique to specific refractory metals and alloys have been defined); (3) demonstration that useful alloys of refractory and platinum coatings can be made through thermal diffusion means; (4) demonstration that selected barrier coatings on refractory substrates can withstand severe oxidizing environments in the range of 1260 deg and 1760 deg C for long time periods essential to the life requirements of the hardware; and (5) successful application of the processes and procedures to prototype hardware. The results of these studies have been instrumental in improved thermal oxidation barrier coatings for the NASP propulsion system. Other Phase 3 applications currently being exploited include small uncooled thrusters for spacecraft and microsatellite maneuvering systems.

  16. High temperature barrier coatings for refractory metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, G. A.; Walech, T.

    1995-01-01

    Improvements in high temperature oxidation resistant metal coating technology will allow NASA and commercial entities to develop competitive civil space transport and communication systems. The success of investigations completed in this program will have a positive impact on broadening the technology base for high temperature materials. The work reported herein describes processes and procedures for successfully depositing coherent oxidation barrier coatings on refractory metals to prevent degradation under very severe operating environments. Application of the new technology developed is now being utilized in numerous Phase 3 applications through several prominent aerospace firms. Major achievements have included: (1) development of means to deposit thick platinum and rhodium coatings with lower stress and fewer microcracks than could be previously achieved; (2) development of processes to deposit thick adherent coatings of platinum group metals on refractory substrates that remain bonded through high temperature excursions and without need for intermediate coatings (bonding processes unique to specific refractory metals and alloys have been defined; (3) demonstration that useful alloys of refractory and platinum coatings can be made through thermal diffusion means; (4) demonstration that selected barrier coatings on refractory substrates can withstand severe oxidizing environments in the range of 1260 deg and 1760 deg C for long time periods essential to the life requirements of the hardware; and (5) successful application of the processes and procedures to prototype hardware. The results of these studies have been instrumental in improved thermal oxidation barrier coatings for the NASP propulsion system. Other Phase 3 applications currently being exploited include small uncooled thrusters for spacecraft and microsatellite maneuvering systems.

  17. Amorphous metallic films in silicon metallization systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    So, F.; Kolawa, E.; Nicolet, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    Diffusion barrier research was focussed on lowering the chemical reactivity of amorphous thin films on silicon. An additional area of concern is the reaction with metal overlays such as aluminum, silver, and gold. Gold was included to allow for technology transfer to gallium arsenide PV cells. Amorphous tungsten nitride films have shown much promise. Stability to annealing temperatures of 700, 800, and 550 C were achieved for overlays of silver, gold, and aluminum, respectively. The lower results for aluminum were not surprising because there is an eutectic that can form at a lower temperature. It seems that titanium and zirconium will remove the nitrogen from a tungsten nitride amorphous film and render it unstable. Other variables of research interest were substrate bias and base pressure during sputtering.

  18. Aerosol chemical vapor deposition of metal oxide films

    DOEpatents

    Ott, Kevin C.; Kodas, Toivo T.

    1994-01-01

    A process of preparing a film of a multicomponent metal oxide including: forming an aerosol from a solution comprised of a suitable solvent and at least two precursor compounds capable of volatilizing at temperatures lower than the decomposition temperature of said precursor compounds; passing said aerosol in combination with a suitable oxygen-containing carrier gas into a heated zone, said heated zone having a temperature sufficient to evaporate the solvent and volatilize said precursor compounds; and passing said volatilized precursor compounds against the surface of a substrate, said substrate having a sufficient temperature to decompose said volatilized precursor compounds whereby metal atoms contained within said volatilized precursor compounds are deposited as a metal oxide film upon the substrate is disclosed. In addition, a coated article comprising a multicomponent metal oxide film conforming to the surface of a substrate selected from the group consisting of silicon, magnesium oxide, yttrium-stabilized zirconium oxide, sapphire, or lanthanum gallate, said multicomponent metal oxide film characterized as having a substantially uniform thickness upon said FIELD OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to the field of film coating deposition techniques, and more particularly to the deposition of multicomponent metal oxide films by aerosol chemical vapor deposition. This invention is the result of a contract with the Department of Energy (Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36).

  19. Rapidly solidified metal coatings by peen plating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, H. P.

    1987-01-01

    Specimens of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy were peen plated with rapidly solidified tin-lead and aluminum powders, and the cross-sections of the coated specimens were examined by light and electron microscopy. The properties of the peen plated specimens were also compared with those of shot peened specimens without any coating. It is found that peen plating with rapidly solidified metals improves the fatigue properties of the coated samples to a greater extent than shot peening alone. Specimens of 7075-T6 alloy peen plated with rapidly solidified tin-lead and aluminum exhibited better fatigue resistance than shot peened specimens in both air and salt water.

  20. Metallic seal for thermal barrier coating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The invention is particularly concerned with sealing thermal barrier coating systems of the type in use and being contemplated for use in diesel and other internal combustion engines. The invention also would find application in moderately high temperature regions of gas turbine engines and any other application employing a thermal barrier coating at moderate temperatures. Ni-35Cr-6Al-1Y, Ni-35Cr-6Al-1Yb, or other metallic alloy denoted as MCrAlx is applied over a zirconia-based thermal barrier overlayer. The close-out layer is glass-bead preened to densify its surface. This seals and protects the thermal barrier coating system.

  1. Metallic coating reduces thermal stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    Addition of metallic outer layer deposited by standard plating method, having high thermal conductivity, substantially reduces thermal stress in high-temperature/high-strength materials, preventing structural overloads.

  2. Applications of thin carbon coatings and films in injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, Eusebio Duarte

    In this research, the technical feasibility of two novel applications of thin carbon coatings is demonstrated. The first application consists of using thin carbon coatings on molds for molding ultra-thin plastic parts (<0.5 mm thickness) with lower pressures by promoting wall slip. The second application consists of a new approach to provide electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding for plastic parts using in mold coated nanoparticle thin films or nanopapers to create a conductive top layer. During this research, the technical feasibility of a new approach was proven which provides injection molding of ultra-thin parts at lower pressures, without the need of fast heating/fast cooling or other expensive mold modification. An in-house developed procedure by other members of our group, was employed for coating the mold surface using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) resulting in a graphene coating with carbide bonding to the mold surface. The coating resulted in a significant decrease of surface friction and consequently easiness of flow when compared to their uncoated counterparts. Thermoplastic polymers and their composites are a very attractive alternative but are hindered by the non-conductive nature of polymers. There are two general approaches used to date to achieve EMI shielding for plastic products. One is to spray a conductive metal coating onto the plastic surface forming a layer that must maintain its shielding effectiveness (SE), and its adhesion to the plastic throughout the expected life of the product. However, metal coatings add undesirable weight and tend to corrode over time. Furthermore, scratching the coating may create shielding failure; therefore, a protective topcoat may be required. The other approach is to use polymer composites filled with conductive fillers such as carbon black (CB), carbon nanofiber (CNF), and carbon nanotube (CNT). While conductive fillers may increase the electrical conductivity of polymer composites, the loading of such fillers often cannot reach a high level (<10 wt. %) due to the dispersion difficulty and exponential increase in viscosity. In this research, the technical feasibility of a new approach to EMI shielding of plastic parts was proven using in mold coated nanoparticle thin films or nanopapers to create a conductive top layer. For many years, in-mold coating (IMC) has been commercially applied to Sheet Molding Compound (SMC) compression molded parts, as an environmentally friendly approach to improve its surface quality and provide the required conductivity for electrostatic painting using carbon black (CB). Such process can also be applied to injection molding for creating a top conductive layer. Increasing the amount of CB will increase the surface conductivity of the coated part, thus improving the paint transfer efficiency. However the CB levels needed to achieve the conductivity levels required for achieving EMI shielding would make the coating viscosity too large for proper coating. Nanopaper based composites are excellent candidates for EMI shielding because of the nanopaper's high concentration of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) (~2 wt% to 10 wt% depending on nanopaper/thermoplastic thickness and 71wt.% to 79wt.% in the nanopaper itself after resin infusion) and high conductivity of the nanopaper. Instead of premixing nanoparticles with IMC coating, nanopapers enable the use of low viscosity IMC without CB coating to impregnate the CNF network in order to reach high electrical conductivity and EMI shielding values. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  3. Drying dip-coated colloidal films.

    PubMed

    Li, Joaquim; Cabane, Bernard; Sztucki, Michael; Gummel, Jérémie; Goehring, Lucas

    2012-01-10

    We present the results from a small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) study of lateral drying in thin films. The films, initially 10 μm thick, are cast by dip-coating a mica sheet in an aqueous silica dispersion (particle radius 8 nm, volume fraction ϕ(s) = 0.14). During evaporation, a drying front sweeps across the film. An X-ray beam is focused on a selected spot of the film, and SAXS patterns are recorded at regular time intervals. As the film evaporates, SAXS spectra measure the ordering of particles, their volume fraction, the film thickness, and the water content, and a video camera images the solid regions of the film, recognized through their scattering of light. We find that the colloidal dispersion is first concentrated to ϕ(s) = 0.3, where the silica particles begin to jam under the effect of their repulsive interactions. Then the particles aggregate until they form a cohesive wet solid at ϕ(s) = 0.68 ± 0.02. Further evaporation from the wet solid leads to evacuation of water from pores of the film but leaves a residual water fraction ϕ(w) = 0.16. The whole drying process is completed within 3 min. An important finding is that, in any spot (away from boundaries), the number of particles is conserved throughout this drying process, leading to the formation of a homogeneous deposit. This implies that no flow of particles occurs in our films during drying, a behavior distinct to that encountered in the iconic coffee-stain drying. It is argued that this type of evolution is associated with the formation of a transition region that propagates ahead of the drying front. In this region the gradient of osmotic pressure balances the drag force exerted on the particles by capillary flow toward the liquid-solid front. PMID:22053849

  4. The use dielectric-coated metal hollow fiber for terahertz wave metal underground sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ke-jia; Wang, Qi; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Shuai

    2009-07-01

    Transmission characteristics and mode structure of both metal hollow fiber and dielectric-coated metal hollow fiber for terahertz wave are studied. Theoretical evaluation shows that the TE11mode is dominant in metal hollow fiber and has high coupling efficiency when a linearly polarized light source is launched. HE11mode is mainly supported in dielectric-coated metal hollow fiber with an optimum thickness for the dielectric film. The transmission loss of the TE11and HE11mode is8.4dB/m and 2dB/m respectively at the wavelength of 200μm for the hollow fibers with 1mm bore size. The effects of optical constants of metals and dielectric materials on attenuation coefficient are also discussed to optimize the transmission performance of dielectric-coated metal hollow fiber.Aluminum is the best choice among the commonly-used metals based on published optical constants. The optimum value for the refractive index of the dielectric film is1.41. According to the primary measuring results, polyethylene is a proper choice as its refractive index is1.51and it brings low absorption in terahertz waves. The use of Dielectric-Coated Metal Hollow Fiber Bragg phase-shifted fiber grating, for optical fiber and metal combine downhole drill pipe deformation temperature and strain detection underground. Phase-Shifted Fiber Bragg Grating using photoelectric heterodyne detection frequency, the frequency range up to 1012Hz, the frequency resolution of 1KHz. LPFG, photovoltaic devices and microwave heterodyne frequency meter combination can solve the phase-shift grating sensor speed and resolution issues.

  5. METAL COATED ARTICLES AND METHOD OF MAKING

    DOEpatents

    Eubank, L.D.

    1958-08-26

    A method for manufacturing a solid metallic uranium body having an integral multiple layer protective coating, comprising an inner uranium-aluminum alloy firmly bonded to the metallic uranium is presented. A third layer of silver-zinc alloy is bonded to the zinc-aluiminum layer and finally a fourth layer of lead-silver alloy is firmly bonded to the silver-zinc layer.

  6. Process for fabrication of metal oxide films

    SciTech Connect

    Tracy, C.E.; Benson, D.; Svensson, S.

    1990-07-17

    This invention is comprised of a method of fabricating metal oxide films from a plurality of reactants by inducing a reaction by plasma deposition among the reactants. The plasma reaction is effective for consolidating the reactants and producing thin films of metal oxides, e.g. electro-optically active transition metal oxides, at a high deposition rate. The presence of hydrogen during the plasma reaction enhances the deposition rate of the metal oxide. Various types of metal oxide films can be produced.

  7. Extraordinary optical transmission in nanopatterned ultrathin metal films without holes.

    PubMed

    Peer, Akshit; Biswas, Rana

    2016-02-18

    We experimentally and theoretically demonstrate that a continuous gold film on a periodically textured substrate exhibits extraordinary optical transmission, even though no holes were etched in the film. Our film synthesis started by nanoimprinting a periodic array of nanocups with a period of ∼750 nm on a polystyrene film over a glass substrate. A thin non-conformal gold film was sputter-deposited on the polystyrene by angle-directed deposition. The gold film was continuous with spatial thickness variation, the film being thinnest at the bottom of the nanocup. Measurements revealed an extraordinary transmission peak at a wavelength just smaller than the period, with an enhancement of ∼2.5 compared to the classically expected value. Scattering matrix simulations model well the transmission and reflectance measurements when an ultrathin gold layer (∼5 nm), smaller than the skin depth is retained at the bottom of the nanocups. Electric field intensities are enhanced by >100 within the nanocup, and ∼40 in the ultrathin gold layer causing transmission through it. We show a wavelength red-shift of ∼30 nm in the extraordinary transmission peak when the nanocups are coated with a thin film of a few nanometers, which can be utilized for biosensing. The continuous corrugated metal films are far simpler structures to observe extraordinary transmission, circumventing the difficult process of etching the metal film. Such continuous metal films with ultrathin regions are simple platforms for non-linear optics, plasmonics, and biological and chemical sensing. PMID:26853881

  8. Extraordinary optical transmission in nanopatterned ultrathin metal films without holes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Peer, Akshit; Biswas, Rana

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we experimentally and theoretically demonstrate that a continuous gold film on a periodically textured substrate exhibits extraordinary optical transmission, even though no holes were etched in the film. Our film synthesis started by nanoimprinting a periodic array of nanocups with a period of ~750 nm on a polystyrene film over a glass substrate. A thin non-conformal gold film was sputter-deposited on the polystyrene by angle-directed deposition. The gold film was continuous with spatial thickness variation, the film being thinnest at the bottom of the nanocup. Measurements revealed an extraordinary transmission peak at a wavelength just smaller thanmore » the period, with an enhancement of ~2.5 compared to the classically expected value. Scattering matrix simulations model well the transmission and reflectance measurements when an ultrathin gold layer (~5 nm), smaller than the skin depth is retained at the bottom of the nanocups. Electric field intensities are enhanced by >100 within the nanocup, and ~40 in the ultrathin gold layer causing transmission through it. We show a wavelength red-shift of ~30 nm in the extraordinary transmission peak when the nanocups are coated with a thin film of a few nanometers, which can be utilized for biosensing. The continuous corrugated metal films are far simpler structures to observe extraordinary transmission, circumventing the difficult process of etching the metal film. Such continuous metal films with ultrathin regions are simple platforms for non-linear optics, plasmonics, and biological and chemical sensing.« less

  9. Mesoporous titanium dioxide coating for metallic implants.

    PubMed

    Xia, Wei; Grandfield, Kathryn; Hoess, Andreas; Ballo, Ahmed; Cai, Yanling; Engqvist, Håkan

    2012-01-01

    A bioactive mesoporous titanium dioxide (MT) coating for surface drug delivery has been investigated to develop a multifunctional implant coating, offering quick bone bonding and biological stability. An evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA) method was used to prepare a mesoporous titanium dioxide coating of the anatase phase with BET surface area of 172 m(2)/g and average pore diameter of 4.3 nm. Adhesion tests using the scratch method and an in situ screw-in/screw-out technique confirm that the MT coating bonds tightly with the metallic substrate, even after removal from bone. Because of its high surface area, the bioactivity of the MT coating is much better than that of a dense TiO(2) coating of the same composition. Quick formation of hydroxyapatite (HA) in vitro can be related to enhance bonding with bone. The uptake of antibiotics by the MT coating reached 13.4 mg/cm(3) within a 24 h loading process. A sustained release behavior has been obtained with a weak initial burst. By using Cephalothin as a model drug, drug loaded MT coating exhibits a sufficient antibacterial effect on the material surface, and within millimeters from material surface, against E.coli. Additionally, the coated and drug loaded surfaces showed no cytotoxic effect on cell cultures of the osteoblastic cell line MG-63. In conclusion, this study describes a novel, biocompatiblemesoporous implant coating, which has the ability to induce HA formation and could be used as a surface drug-delivery system. PMID:21954047

  10. Channel cracks in atomic-layer and molecular-layer deposited multilayer thin film coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Rong; Dunn, Martin L.

    2014-06-21

    Metal oxide thin film coatings produced by atomic layer deposition have been shown to be an effective permeation barrier. The primary failure mode of such coatings under tensile loads is the propagation of channel cracks that penetrate vertically into the coating films. Recently, multi-layer structures that combine the metal oxide material with relatively soft polymeric layers produced by molecular layer deposition have been proposed to create composite thin films with desired properties, including potentially enhanced resistance to fracture. In this paper, we study the effects of layer geometry and material properties on the critical strain for channel crack propagation in the multi-layer composite films. Using finite element simulations and a thin-film fracture mechanics formalism, we show that if the fracture energy of the polymeric layer is lower than that of the metal oxide layer, the channel crack tends to penetrate through the entire composite film, and dividing the metal oxide and polymeric materials into thinner layers leads to a smaller critical strain. However, if the fracture energy of the polymeric material is high so that cracks only run through the metal oxide layers, more layers can result in a larger critical strain. For intermediate fracture energy of the polymer material, we developed a design map that identifies the optimal structure for given fracture energies and thicknesses of the metal oxide and polymeric layers. These results can facilitate the design of mechanically robust permeation barriers, an important component for the development of flexible electronics.

  11. Channel cracks in atomic-layer and molecular-layer deposited multilayer thin film coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Rong; Dunn, Martin L.

    2014-06-01

    Metal oxide thin film coatings produced by atomic layer deposition have been shown to be an effective permeation barrier. The primary failure mode of such coatings under tensile loads is the propagation of channel cracks that penetrate vertically into the coating films. Recently, multi-layer structures that combine the metal oxide material with relatively soft polymeric layers produced by molecular layer deposition have been proposed to create composite thin films with desired properties, including potentially enhanced resistance to fracture. In this paper, we study the effects of layer geometry and material properties on the critical strain for channel crack propagation in the multi-layer composite films. Using finite element simulations and a thin-film fracture mechanics formalism, we show that if the fracture energy of the polymeric layer is lower than that of the metal oxide layer, the channel crack tends to penetrate through the entire composite film, and dividing the metal oxide and polymeric materials into thinner layers leads to a smaller critical strain. However, if the fracture energy of the polymeric material is high so that cracks only run through the metal oxide layers, more layers can result in a larger critical strain. For intermediate fracture energy of the polymer material, we developed a design map that identifies the optimal structure for given fracture energies and thicknesses of the metal oxide and polymeric layers. These results can facilitate the design of mechanically robust permeation barriers, an important component for the development of flexible electronics.

  12. Colorless Polyimide Films for Thermal-Control Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, Anne K.; Slemp, Wayne S.; Ely, Robert M.; Stewart, Robert M.

    1987-01-01

    Series of six essentially colorless aromatic polyimide films synthesized and characterized with objective of obtaining maximum optical transparency for applications in space; optical transparency requirement for high-performance polymeric films used in second-surface mirror coatings on thermal-control systems. Films remain more transparent than commercial film after ultraviolet and electron irradiation. Increased transparency and enhanced solubility of optically transparent polyimides makes them viable candidates for use in thermal-control coatings.

  13. Sol-gel metal oxide and metal oxide/polymer multilayers applied by meniscus coating

    SciTech Connect

    Britten, J.A.; Thomas, I.M.

    1993-10-01

    We are developing a meniscus coating process for manufacturing large-aperture dielectric multilayer high reflectors (HR`s) at ambient conditions from liquid suspensions. Using a lab-scale coater capable of coating 150 mm square substrates, we have produced several HR`s which give 99% + reflection with 24 layers and with edge effects confined to about 10 mm. In calendar 1993 we are taking delivery of an automated meniscus coating machine capable of coating substrates up to 400 mm wide and 600 mm long. The laser-damage threshold and failure stress of sol-gel thin films can be substantially increased through the use of soluble polymers which act as binders for the metal oxide particles comprising the deposited film. Refractive index control of the film is also possible through varying the polymer/oxide ratio. Much of our present effort present is in optimizing oxide particle/binder/solvent formulations for the high-index material. Films from colloidal zirconia strengthened with polyvinylpyrollidone (PVP) have given best results to date. An increase in the laser damage threshold (LDT) for single layers has been shown to significantly increase with increased polymer loading, but as yet the LDT for multilayer stacks remains low.

  14. Photobiomolecular metallic particles and films

    DOEpatents

    Hu, Zhong-Cheng

    2003-05-06

    The method of the invention is based on the unique electron-carrying function of a photocatalytic unit such as the photosynthesis system I (PSI) reaction center of the protein-chlorophyll complex isolated from chloroplasts. The method employs a photo-biomolecular metal deposition technique for precisely controlled nucleation and growth of metallic clusters/particles, e.g., platinum, palladium, and their alloys, etc., as well as for thin-film formation above the surface of a solid substrate. The photochemically mediated technique offers numerous advantages over traditional deposition methods including quantitative atom deposition control, high energy efficiency, and mild operating condition requirements.

  15. Protective coatings of metal surfaces by cold plasma treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manory, R.; Grill, A.

    1985-01-01

    The cold plasma techniques for deposition of various types of protective coatings are reviewed. The main advantage of these techniques for deposition of ceramic films is the lower process temperature, which enables heat treating of the metal prior to deposition. In the field of surface hardening of steel, significant reduction of treatment time and energy consumption were obtained. A simple model for the plasma - surface reactions in a cold plasma system is presented, and the plasma deposition techniques are discussed in view of this model.

  16. Simple Methods for Production of Nanoscale Metal Oxide Films from Household Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Dean J.; Baliss, Michelle S.; Hinman, Jordan J.; Ziegenhorn, John W.; Andrews, Mark J.; Stevenson, Keith J.

    2013-01-01

    Production of thin metal oxide films was recently explored as part of an outreach program with a goal of producing nanoscale structures with household items. Household items coated with various metals or titanium compounds can be heated to produce colorful films with nanoscale thicknesses. As part of a materials chemistry laboratory experiment…

  17. Simple Methods for Production of Nanoscale Metal Oxide Films from Household Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Dean J.; Baliss, Michelle S.; Hinman, Jordan J.; Ziegenhorn, John W.; Andrews, Mark J.; Stevenson, Keith J.

    2013-01-01

    Production of thin metal oxide films was recently explored as part of an outreach program with a goal of producing nanoscale structures with household items. Household items coated with various metals or titanium compounds can be heated to produce colorful films with nanoscale thicknesses. As part of a materials chemistry laboratory experiment

  18. Properties and microelectronic applications of thin films of refractory metal nitrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmer, Marc

    1986-09-01

    Refractory metal nitride coatings find numerous applications in cutting tools, wear resistant parts, and the jewelry industry. Recent investigations have disclosed interesting applications of thin films of refractory metal nitrides in micro-electronics. This review discusses the preparation of such films by reactive evaporation and reactive sputtering and describes various applications in silicon-integrated circuit technology.

  19. Indium doped zinc oxide nanowire thin films for antireflection and solar absorber coating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shaik, Ummar Pasha; Krishna, M. Ghanashyam

    2014-04-24

    Indium doped ZnO nanowire thin films were prepared by thermal oxidation of Zn-In metal bilayer films at 500°C. The ZnO:In nanowires are 20-100 nm in diameter and several tens of microns long. X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the formation of oxide and indicate that the films are polycrystalline, both in the as deposited and annealed states. The transmission which is <2% for the as deposited Zn-In films increases to >90% for the ZnO:In nanowire films. Significantly, the reflectance for the as deposited films is < 10% in the region between 200 to 1500 nm and < 2% for the nanowire films. Thus, the as deposited films can be used solar absorber coatings while the nanowire films are useful for antireflection applications. The growth of nanowires by this technique is attractive since it does not involve very high temperatures and the use of catalysts.

  20. Bioactive glass coatings for orthopedic metallic implants

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Esteban, Sonia; Saiz, Eduardo; Fujino, Sigheru; Oku, Takeo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2003-06-30

    The objective of this work is to develop bioactive glass coatings for metallic orthopedic implants. A new family of glasses in the SiO2-Na2O-K2O-CaO-MgO-P2O5 system has been synthesized and characterized. The glass properties (thermal expansion, softening and transformation temperatures, density and hardness) are in line with the predictions of established empirical models. The optimized firing conditions to fabricate coatings on Ti-based and Co-Cr alloys have been determined and related to the glass properties and the interfacial reactions. Excellent adhesion to alloys has been achieved through the formation of 100-200 nm thick interfacial layers (Ti5Si3 on Ti-based alloys and CrOx on Co-Cr). Finally, glass coatings, approximately 100 mu m thick, have been fabricated onto commercial Ti alloy-based dental implants.

  1. Method of producing thermally sprayed metallic coating

    SciTech Connect

    Byrnes, Larry Edward; Kramer, Martin Stephen; Neiser, Richard A.

    2003-08-26

    The cylinder walls of light metal engine blocks are thermally spray coated with a ferrous-based coating using an HVOF device. A ferrous-based wire is fed to the HVOF device to locate a tip end of the wire in a high temperature zone of the device. Jet flows of oxygen and gaseous fuel are fed to the high temperature zone and are combusted to generate heat to melt the tip end. The oxygen is oversupplied in relation to the gaseous fuel. The excess oxygen reacts with and burns a fraction of the ferrous-based feed wire in an exothermic reaction to generate substantial supplemental heat to the HVOF device. The molten/combusted metal is sprayed by the device onto the walls of the cylinder by the jet flow of gases.

  2. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    DOEpatents

    Mickelsen, Reid A.; Chen, Wen S.

    1985-01-01

    A compositionally uniform thin film of a mixed metal compound is formed by simultaneously evaporating a first metal compound and a second metal compound from independent sources. The mean free path between the vapor particles is reduced by a gas and the mixed vapors are deposited uniformly. The invention finds particular utility in forming thin film heterojunction solar cells.

  3. Instrumental color control for metallic coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, W.; Han, Bing; Cui, Guihua; Rigg, Bryan; Luo, Ming R.

    2002-06-01

    This paper describes work investigating a suitable color quality control method for metallic coatings. A set of psychological experiments was carried out based upon 50 pairs of samples. The results were used to test the performance of various color difference formulae. Different techniques were developed by optimising the weights and/or the lightness parametric factors of colour differences calculated from the four measuring angles. The results show that the new techniques give a significant improvement compared to conventional techniques.

  4. Method of coating graphite tubes with refractory metal carbides

    DOEpatents

    Wohlberg, C.

    1973-12-11

    A method of coating graphite tubes with a refractory metal carbide is described. An alkali halide is reacted with a metallic oxide, the metallic portion being selected from the IVth or Vth group of the Periodic Table, the resulting salt reacting in turn with the carbon to give the desired refractory metal carbide coating. (Official Gazette)

  5. New Measurement Method for Adhesion of Hard Coating Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikenaga, Kaoru; Yanagida, Akira; Azushima, Akira

    Various surface coating technologies have been applied to improve the tribological and mechanical properties of thin films. For the use of surface modified tools and parts under severe conditions, thin films with high adhesion strength are required. To quantitatively measure the adhesion of coating films on substrates a new method for the measurement of hard coating film was developed which consists of an indentation and an AE (Acoustic Emission) system. TiN coatings were deposited onto substrates using arc ion plating PVD. Indentation tests were conducted on substrates with different film thicknesses of 3, 5, and 7 μm. Two specific loads, denoted the “Critical load”, and the “Fracture load” were defined. The critical load and fracture load correlate to the initiation of delamination and film fracture. The critical load was calculated a finite element calculation and SEM observation.

  6. Sustainable films and coatings from hemicelluloses: a review.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Natanya M L; Plackett, David

    2008-06-01

    This review summarizes the results of past research on films and coatings from hemicelluloses, biopolymers that are as yet relatively unexploited commercially. The targeted uses of hemicelluloses have primarily been packaging films and coatings for foodstuffs as well as biomedical applications. Oxygen permeability of hemicellulose films, an important characteristic for food packaging, was typically comparable to values found for other biopolymer films such as amylose and amylopectin. As expected, the modification of hemicelluloses to create more hydrophobic films reduced the water vapor permeability. However, modified hemicellulose coatings intended for food still exhibited water vapor permeabilities several magnitudes higher than those of other polymers currently used for this purpose. Research on hemicelluloses for biomedical applications has included biocompatible hydrogels and coatings and material surfaces with enhanced cell affinity. Numerous possibilities exist for chemically modifying hemicelluloses, and fundamental studies of films from modified hemicelluloses have identified other potential applications, including selective membranes. PMID:18457452

  7. Thin film hydrous metal oxide catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Dosch, Robert G.; Stephens, Howard P.

    1995-01-01

    Thin film (<100 nm) hydrous metal oxide catalysts are prepared by 1) synthesis of a hydrous metal oxide, 2) deposition of the hydrous metal oxide upon an inert support surface, 3) ion exchange with catalytically active metals, and 4) activating the hydrous metal oxide catalysts.

  8. Liquid Galvanic Coatings for Protection of Imbedded Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacDowell, Louis G. (Inventor); Curran, Joseph J. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Coating compositions and methods of their use are described herein for the reduction of corrosion in imbedded metal structures. The coatings are applied as liquids to an external surface of a substrate in which the metal structures are imbedded. The coatings are subsequently allowed to dry. The liquid applied coatings provide galvanic protection to the imbedded metal structures. Continued protection can be maintained with periodic reapplication of the coating compositions, as necessary, to maintain electrical continuity. Because the coatings may be applied using methods similar to standard paints, and because the coatings are applied to external surfaces of the substrates in which the metal structures are imbedded, the corresponding corrosion protection may be easily maintained. The coating compositions are particularly useful in the protection of metal-reinforced concrete.

  9. Development of an all-metal thick film cost affective metallization system for solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, B.

    1981-01-01

    An economical thick film solar cell contact for high volume production of low cost silicon solar array modules was investigated. All metal screenable pastes using base metals were studied. Solar cells with junction depths varying by a factor of 3.3, with and without a deposited oxide coating were used. Cells were screened and fired by a two step firing process. Adhesion and metallurgical results are unsatisfactory. No electrical information is obtained due to inadequate contact adhesion.

  10. Absorption of metallic mercury vapor by collecting polymeric coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Kondrat'ko, M.Y.; Simanovskii, Y.M.; Khokhrekov, V.I.; Shtan'ko, V.I.

    1982-10-01

    The present work investigated the static absorption of metallic mercury vapor in some compositions of collecting protective polymeric coatings (CPPC) which contain polyvinyl alcohol or a polyvinyl acetate emulsion as the film-forming base. In the applied aspect, the statement of the problem has meaning in connection with the high toxicity of mercury vapor and the need to search for effective methods of purifying the air in sites associated with the manufacture and use of metallic mercury, especially radioactive isotopes of mercury in radiochemical laboratories. Experimental results indicated that the most effective composition of a coating intended for the absorption and strong retention of atomic mercury should combine an adequate concentration of a chemically active sorbent (MnO/sub 2/, for example) with a loose, open structure of the polymeric film. The search for an optimum recipe should apparently be conducted with a view to choosing appropriate surface-active additives and gel formers. The use of pore- or foam-forming agents with the objective of increasing the working surface may also prove very effective.

  11. Metal/Ceramic Bond Coatings For High Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A.; Leissler, George W.

    1988-01-01

    Reduced-thermal-expansion bond coatings developed for use at high temperatures in thermal-barrier-coating systems. Bond coatings composed of low-pressure-plasma-sprayed metallic matrices dispersed with low-thermal-expansion high-bulk-modulus ceramic particles. New coatings and application lower thermal-expansion-mismatch strain while maintaining integrity at high temperatures.

  12. Optoacoustic method for determination of submicron metal coating properties: Theoretical consideration

    SciTech Connect

    Pelivanov, Ivan M.; Kopylova, Daria S.; Podymova, Natalia B.; Karabutov, Alexander A.

    2009-07-01

    The goal of this work is theoretical consideration of the optoacoustic (OA) conversion in the system consisting of a metal film deposited on a transparent dielectric substrate and covered by a transparent liquid. This consideration implies a method for nondestructive evaluation of submicron metal coatings. The main principle of the method is the following. Irradiation of the metal film by a nanosecond laser pulse leads to transient heating and expansion of the film that in turn results in the generation of an acoustic signal. The waveform of the signal results from two contributions: the 'primary' signal from the thermal expansion of the metal film, which repeats the temporal profile of the laser pulse envelope, and the 'secondary' signal, which originates from the thermal expansion of the adjacent liquid layer. Due to low thermal conductivity of liquid compared to metal, the liquid accumulates heat that is released in metal and produces that secondary contribution into the OA conversion. This contribution is very sensitive to the properties of the film. The influence of the film thickness and its thermophysical parameters on the frequency-dependent efficiency of OA conversion and on the temporal profile of excited OA signals is discussed in detail. Based on these results, the method for nondestructive evaluation of submicron metal coatings properties is proposed.

  13. Development of alloy-film coated dispenser cathode for terahertz vacuum electron devices application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barik, R. K.; Bera, A.; Raju, R. S.; Tanwar, A. K.; Baek, I. K.; Min, S. H.; Kwon, O. J.; Sattorov, M. A.; Lee, K. W.; Park, G.-S.

    2013-07-01

    High power terahertz vacuum electron devices demand high current density and uniform emission dispenser cathode. It was found that the coating of noble metals e.g., Os, Ir, and Re on the surface of tungsten dispenser cathodes enhances the emission capabilities and uniformity. Hence metal coated cathode might be the best candidate for terahertz devices applications. In this study, ternary-alloy-film cathode (2Os:2Re:1 W) and Os coated cathode have been developed and the results are presented. The cathodes made out of this alloy coating showed 1.5 times higher emission and 0.02 eV emission uniformity as compared to those of simply Os coated cathodes which can be used in terahertz devices application.

  14. Structure of metallic coatings for impurity control in macrotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, L.; Oren, L.; Taylor, R. J.; Schwirzke, F.; Bunshah, R. F.; Wagner, C. N. J.

    1982-12-01

    The properties of atomic metal condensates are to a large extent determined by parameters such as: microstructure, temperature during deposition, interfacial phenomena, and deposit thickness. At elevated first wall temperatures (200-600°C), a homogenous metallic film deposition can be achieved. For example, hydrogen embrittlement and flaking through hydride formation, currently a problem in fusion devices, can be avoided. The thickness of Ti-layers for acceptable impurity control must be at least a few hundred Angstroms because effective impurity control requires the physical covering of the impurity adsorbents on the surface. It is shown that thick coatings (micron range), which get formed by repetitive Ti-"gettering" in Macrotor, are likely to form a stable first wall, if properly deposited at elevated temperatures.

  15. A Metasurface Anti-reflection Coating for Enhancing Surface Plasmon-Polariton of Metallic Hole Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattarai, Khagendra; Jeon, Jiyeon; Kim, Jun; Ku, Zahyun; Lee, Sang Jun; Zhou, Jiangfeng; Usf, Usa Collaboration; Kriss, Korea Collaboration; Afrl, Usa Collaboration

    We demonstrate a metasurface made of metallic disk resonator array as an anti-reflection (AR) coating to enhance (reduce) the transmission (reflection) through metal hole array (MHA). Our result show that the simulated (measured) transmission at the first order surface plasmon-polariton (SPP) resonance is increased up to 82 %(88%) compared to uncoated MHA. The electric field of the surface wave is also enhanced by 33%. Using an effective medium theory, we show that the metasurface operates at off-resonance wavelengths and can be understood as a thin film that exhibits high effective permittivity (~30) with very low loss (loss tangent ~0.005). Thus we reveal the mechanism of the metasurface AR coating as the traditional thin film AR coating. With tunable effective permittivity, our structure provides great flexibility to achieve AR coating for general substance at any wavelength.

  16. Evaluation of a non-catalytic coating for metallic TPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pittman, C. M.; Brown, R. D.; Shideler, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    A commercially available ceramic coating was evaluated for application to metallic heat shields for Shuttle-type entry vehicles. Coated Inconel 617 specimens were subjected to thermal shock cycles, surface emittances were measured, and surface equilibrium temperatures were measured for coated and oxidized specimens exposed to an arc-tunnel environment. The coating adhered very well to the metal and appeared to be very non-catalytic.

  17. Metallic coatings on silicon substrates, and methods of forming metallic coatings on silicon substrates

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Hyde, Timothy A.; Fincke, James R.

    2008-03-11

    The invention includes methods of forming a metallic coating on a substrate which contains silicon. A metallic glass layer is formed over a silicon surface of the substrate. The invention includes methods of protecting a silicon substrate. The substrate is provided within a deposition chamber along with a deposition target. Material from the deposition target is deposited over at least a portion of the silicon substrate to form a protective layer or structure which contains metallic glass. The metallic glass comprises iron and one or more of B, Si, P and C. The invention includes structures which have a substrate containing silicon and a metallic layer over the substrate. The metallic layer contains less than or equal to about 2 weight % carbon and has a hardness of at least 9.2 GPa. The metallic layer can have an amorphous microstructure or can be devitrified to have a nanocrystalline microstructure.

  18. Electrodes synthesized from carbon nanostructures coated with a smooth and conformal metal adlayer

    SciTech Connect

    Adzic, Radoslav; Harris, Alexander

    2014-04-15

    High-surface-area carbon nanostructures coated with a smooth and conformal submonolayer-to-multilayer thin metal films and their method of manufacture are described. The preferred manufacturing process involves the initial oxidation of the carbon nanostructures followed by a surface preparation process involving immersion in a solution with the desired pH to create negative surface dipoles. The nanostructures are subsequently immersed in an alkaline solution containing a suitable quantity of non-noble metal ions which adsorb at surface reaction sites. The metal ions are then reduced via chemical or electrical means. The nanostructures are exposed to a solution containing a salt of one or more noble metals which replace adsorbed non-noble surface metal atoms by galvanic displacement. The process can be controlled and repeated to obtain a desired film coverage. The resulting coated nanostructures may be used, for example, as high-performance electrodes in supercapacitors, batteries, or other electric storage devices.

  19. High-reflectance composite metal coatings for planar-integrated free-space optics.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Matthias; Seiler, Thomas; Wei, An-Chi

    2006-02-01

    For planar-integrated free-space optical (PIFSO) systems high-reflectance thin-film coatings are crucial. Evaporated metal films are preferred for their relative technological simplicity. We propose a three-layer Al-Ag-Al coating composition that combines the high reflectance of Ag with the chemical passivity of Al and its good adherence to glass. Two special measures are taken to prevent delamination: one is an anchoring of the edges of the coating in narrow ditches that are etched into the substrate and the other is the use of an adhesive Al underlayer; to reduce absorption this underlayer is implemented only in sparsely distributed discrete areas. The optical properties of such composite coatings are investigated theoretically. The fabrication complexity is only slightly increased compared to PIFSO systems with one-layer Al reflectors. In experimental tests we verified a reflectance of approximately 98% and an adherence comparable to that of simple Al coatings. PMID:16485677

  20. A shape-recovery polymer coating for the corrosion protection of metallic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Alexander; van den Berg, Otto; Van Damme, Jonas; Verheyen, Karen; Bauters, Erwin; De Graeve, Iris; Du Prez, Filip E; Terryn, Herman

    2015-01-14

    Self-healing polymer coatings are a type of smart material aimed for advanced corrosion protection of metals. This paper presents the synthesis and characterization of two new UV-cure self-healing coatings based on acrylated polycaprolactone polyurethanes. On a macroscopic scale, the cured films all show outstanding mechanical properties, combining relatively high Young's modulus of up to 270 MPa with a strain at break above 350%. After thermal activation the strained films recover up to 97% of their original length. Optical and electron microscopy reveals the self-healing properties of these coatings on hot dip galvanized steel with scratches and microindentations. The temperature-induced closing of such defects restores the corrosion protection and barrier properties of the coating as shown by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning vibrating electrode technique. Therefore, such coatings are a complementary option for encapsulation-based autonomous corrosion protection systems. PMID:25517028

  1. Extraordinary optical transmission in nanopatterned ultrathin metal films without holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peer, Akshit; Biswas, Rana

    2016-02-01

    We experimentally and theoretically demonstrate that a continuous gold film on a periodically textured substrate exhibits extraordinary optical transmission, even though no holes were etched in the film. Our film synthesis started by nanoimprinting a periodic array of nanocups with a period of ~750 nm on a polystyrene film over a glass substrate. A thin non-conformal gold film was sputter-deposited on the polystyrene by angle-directed deposition. The gold film was continuous with spatial thickness variation, the film being thinnest at the bottom of the nanocup. Measurements revealed an extraordinary transmission peak at a wavelength just smaller than the period, with an enhancement of ~2.5 compared to the classically expected value. Scattering matrix simulations model well the transmission and reflectance measurements when an ultrathin gold layer (~5 nm), smaller than the skin depth is retained at the bottom of the nanocups. Electric field intensities are enhanced by >100 within the nanocup, and ~40 in the ultrathin gold layer causing transmission through it. We show a wavelength red-shift of ~30 nm in the extraordinary transmission peak when the nanocups are coated with a thin film of a few nanometers, which can be utilized for biosensing. The continuous corrugated metal films are far simpler structures to observe extraordinary transmission, circumventing the difficult process of etching the metal film. Such continuous metal films with ultrathin regions are simple platforms for non-linear optics, plasmonics, and biological and chemical sensing.We experimentally and theoretically demonstrate that a continuous gold film on a periodically textured substrate exhibits extraordinary optical transmission, even though no holes were etched in the film. Our film synthesis started by nanoimprinting a periodic array of nanocups with a period of ~750 nm on a polystyrene film over a glass substrate. A thin non-conformal gold film was sputter-deposited on the polystyrene by angle-directed deposition. The gold film was continuous with spatial thickness variation, the film being thinnest at the bottom of the nanocup. Measurements revealed an extraordinary transmission peak at a wavelength just smaller than the period, with an enhancement of ~2.5 compared to the classically expected value. Scattering matrix simulations model well the transmission and reflectance measurements when an ultrathin gold layer (~5 nm), smaller than the skin depth is retained at the bottom of the nanocups. Electric field intensities are enhanced by >100 within the nanocup, and ~40 in the ultrathin gold layer causing transmission through it. We show a wavelength red-shift of ~30 nm in the extraordinary transmission peak when the nanocups are coated with a thin film of a few nanometers, which can be utilized for biosensing. The continuous corrugated metal films are far simpler structures to observe extraordinary transmission, circumventing the difficult process of etching the metal film. Such continuous metal films with ultrathin regions are simple platforms for non-linear optics, plasmonics, and biological and chemical sensing. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07903a

  2. Metallic film formation using direct micropatterning with photoreactive metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Cordonier, Christopher E J; Nakamura, Akimasa; Shimada, Kazuhiko; Fujishima, Akira

    2012-09-18

    Palladium, cobalt, and nickel in complex with photoacid-generating ligands, 4-(2-nitrobenzyloxycarbonyl)catechol and 4-(6-nitroveratryloxycarbonyl)catechol, were prepared in solution. Films formed from the metal complex solutions perform as positive-tone, directly photopatternable palladium, cobalt, nickel oxide, or composite film precursors. After exposure, acid-bearing selectively soluble complexes could be removed to give patterned films upon developing in aqueous base, which were transformable to the corresponding pattern-preserving metal/metal oxide film. The photodynamics of photoinduced solubility and direct micropatterning of palladium, cobalt, nickel, and palladium/nickel oxide composite films were investigated. Employing palladium as the initiator for autocatalytic chemical plating, selective direct copper plating on palladium film on polyethylene naphthalate and palladium/nickel oxide composite film on glass was accomplished. PMID:22892024

  3. Dip-coated YBa 2Cu 3O 7- x film by metalorganic deposition using trifluoroacetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, T.; Kurosaki, H.; Yuasa, T.; Iijima, Y.; Saitoh, T.; Yamada, Y.; Hirabayashi, I.

    2002-08-01

    Metalorganic deposition using trifluoroacetates (TFA-MOD) with dip coating was applied for the preparation of YBCO coated conductor. The thickness of the dip-coated films increases with the 0.364th power of the withdrawal speed of substrates. This relationship is common to the case on either single crystal or metal substrate. A 3 cm long dipped YBCO tape on CeO 2/YSZ(IBAD)/hastelloy-C is formed at a 5 mm/s withdrawal speed. The tape of 2000 in thickness has Jc of 1.0-1.3 MA/cm 2 (77 K, 0 T) measured by the four-probe-method.

  4. Platinum-coated non-noble metal-noble metal core-shell electrocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Adzic, Radoslav; Zhang, Junliang; Mo, Yibo; Vukmirovic, Miomir

    2015-04-14

    Core-shell particles encapsulated by a thin film of a catalytically active metal are described. The particles are preferably nanoparticles comprising a non-noble core with a noble metal shell which preferably do not include Pt. The non-noble metal-noble metal core-shell nanoparticles are encapsulated by a catalytically active metal which is preferably Pt. The core-shell nanoparticles are preferably formed by prolonged elevated-temperature annealing of nanoparticle alloys in an inert environment. This causes the noble metal component to surface segregate and form an atomically thin shell. The Pt overlayer is formed by a process involving the underpotential deposition of a monolayer of a non-noble metal followed by immersion in a solution comprising a Pt salt. A thin Pt layer forms via the galvanic displacement of non-noble surface atoms by more noble Pt atoms in the salt. The overall process is a robust and cost-efficient method for forming Pt-coated non-noble metal-noble metal core-shell nanoparticles.

  5. Flexible Thin Metal Film Thermal Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomsen, Donald Laurence (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A flexible thin metal film thermal sensing system is provided. A thermally-conductive film made from a thermally-insulating material is doped with thermally-conductive material. At least one layer of electrically-conductive metal is deposited directly onto a surface of the thermally-conductive film. One or more devices are coupled to the layer(s) to measure an electrical characteristic associated therewith as an indication of temperature.

  6. Memristive behaviour of spin coated titania thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamarozaman, N. S.; Herman, S. H.; Mahmudin, M. A.

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the memristive behaviour of spin coated titania thin films. The precursor molarity of titania thin film was varied from 0.05 to 0.4 M to study the effect of precursor molarity on the memristive behaviour of the thin films. From the observation, although the film thickness increased with the precursor molarity, the resistance ratios of the best switching loop for all samples showed no significant differences. However, it was found that the sample with less precursor molarity (device that having thinner film) required lesser time to produce the stable switching loop compared to the sample with higher precursor molarity (device that having thicker film).

  7. Characterization of plasma-deposited and dip-coated films for critical optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partlow, William D.; Partlow, Deborah P.; Bennett, Jean M.; Silva, Robert M.

    1987-04-01

    Two types of coatings were evaluated with respect to their suitability for optical applications in which low scattering is required. The plasma-deposition technique produces dense pinhole-free films of refractory materials from a glow discharge plasma at typical substrate temperatures of 200-300 C. Plasma-deposited films of SiO2 and Si3N4, produced from reactions of SiH4 with N2O and NH3, respectively, were evaluated in this study. SiO2 films were also produced from metal-organic precursor solutions using dipping and spinning application techniques followed by pyrolysis at 600 C. Coatings were deposited on the highest quality substrates available, which were characterized prior to deposition so that the effects of the coatings could be separated from those of the substrates.

  8. Process for ultra smooth diamond coating on metals and uses thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vohra, Yogesh K. (Inventor); Catledge, Shane A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a new process to deposit well adhered ultra smooth diamond films on metals by adding nitrogen gas to the methane/hydrogen plasma created by a microwave discharge. Such diamond coating process is useful in tribological/wear resistant applications in bio-implants, machine tools, and magnetic recording industry.

  9. Ion-beam-assisted deposition of biaxially aligned yttria-stabilized zirconia template films on metallic substrates for YBCO-coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, B.; Li, M.; Fisher, B. L.; Balachandran, U.

    2002-07-01

    Biaxially textured yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) films were grown on mechanically polished Hastelloy C276 (HC) substrates by ion-beam-assisted deposition and electron-beam evaporation. The surface root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of the polished HC substrates was ?3 nm, as measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). A water-cooled sample stage was used to hold the substrate temperature below 100 C during deposition. RMS roughness of ?3.3 nm was measured on the deposited YSZ films by AFM. X-ray pole figures were conducted for texture analysis; in-plane texture measured from YSZ (111) ?-scan FWHM was 13.2 and out-of-plane texture from the YSZ (002) ?-scan FWHM was 7.7. An ?10 nm thick CeO2 buffer layer was deposited on the YSZ film at 800 C before YBCO films were ablated by pulsed laser deposition at 780 C in a 250 mTorr flowing oxygen environment. Good in-plane texture with FWHM ? 7 was observed in YBCO films. Tc = 90 K, with sharp transition, and transport Jc of ?2.2 106 A cm-2 were observed in a 0.5 ?m thick, 5 mm wide, and 1 cm long sample at 77 K in self-field.

  10. Protein-lipid interactions in edible films and coatings.

    PubMed

    McHugh, T H

    2000-06-01

    Proteins and lipids are capable of interacting in a many different ways to form effective edible films and coatings. Combinations of proteins and lipids function in a variety of colloidal systems such as emulsions and microemulsions. Edible films and coatings can be formed from both of these starting systems. In addition, laminant films can be developed by overlaying proteins and lipids. Covalent bonding of lipids to proteins through lipophilization offers unique opportunities for film formation with improved properties. This manuscript reviews recent research on film formation and properties of each of these film types and discusses their relative advantages and disadvantages. Applications of protein-lipid films to food systems are examined. Promising areas for future research are identified. PMID:10907233

  11. Improvement of corrosion resistance of transparent conductive multilayer coating consisting of silver layers and transparent metal oxide layers

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, Katsuhiko; Yamazaki, Fumiharu; Okamura, Tomoyuki; Fukuda, Shin

    2007-05-15

    An optical filter for plasma display panel (PDP) requires an electromagnetic shield with very high ability. The authors investigated a transparent conductive multilayer coating consisting of silver (Ag) layers and transparent metal oxide layers. The durability of the multilayer sputter coating, including the silver layer, is very sensitive to the surrounding atmosphere. For example, after an exposure test they found discolored points on the multilayer sputter coatings, possibly caused by migration of silver atoms in the silver layers. In their investigation, they modified the top surface of the multilayer sputter coatings with transition metals to improve the corrosion resistance of the multilayer coating. Specifically, they deposited transition metals 0.5-2 nm thick on the top surface of the multilayer coatings by sputtering. They chose indium tin oxide (ITO) as the transparent metal oxide. They applied the multilayer sputter coatings of seven layers to a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film substrate. A cross-sectional structure of the film with the multilayer coatings is PET film/ITO/Ag/ITO/Ag/ITO/Ag/ITO. They evaluated the corrosion resistance of the films by a salt-water immersion test. In the test, they immersed the film with multilayer coatings into salt water, and then evaluated the appearance, transmittance, and electrical resistance of the multilayer coatings. They investigated several transition metals as the modifying material, and found that titanium and tantalum drastically improved the resistance of the multilayer coatings to the salt-water exposure without a significant decline in transmittance. They also investigated the relation between elapsed time after deposition of the modifying materials and resistance to the salt water. Furthermore, they investigated the effects of a heat treatment and an oxide plasma treatment on resistance to the salt water.

  12. Adherence of ion beam sputter deposited metal films on H-13 steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    An electron bombardment argon ion source was used to sputter deposit 17 different metal and metal oxide films ranging in thickness from 1 to 8 micrometers on H-13 steel substrates. The film adherence to the substrate surface was measured using a tensile test apparatus. Comparisons in bond strength were made between ion beam, ion plating, and RF deposited films. A protective coating to prevent heat checking in H-13 steel dies used for aluminum die casting was studied. The results of exposing the coated substrates to temperatures up to 700 degrees are presented.

  13. Assessment of ceramic coatings for metal fuel melting crucible

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ki-Hwan; Song, Hoon; Kim, Jong-Hwan; Oh, Seok-Jin; Kim, Hyung-Tae; Lee, Chan-Bock

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a coating method and material for crucibles to prevent material interactions with the U-Zr/U-TRU-Zr fuels during the manufacturing of SFR fuels. Refractory coatings were applied to niobium substrates by vacuum plasma-spray coating method. Melt dipping tests conducted were the coated rods lowered into the fuel melt at 1600 C. degrees, and withdrawn and cooled outside the crucible in the inert atmosphere of the induction furnace. Melt dipping tests of the coated Nb rods indicated that plasma-sprayed Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating doesn't form significant reaction layer between fuel melt and coating layer. Melt dipping tests of the coated Nb rods showed that TiC, TaC, and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings exhibited the promising performance among other ceramic coatings. These materials could be promising candidate materials for the reusable melt crucible of metal fuel for SFR. In addition, in order to develop the vacuum plasma-spray coating method for re-usable crucible of metal fuel slugs to be overcome the issue of thermal expansion mismatch between coating material and crucible, various combinations of coating conditions were investigated to find the bonding effect on the substrate in pursuit of more effective ways to withstand the thermal stresses. It is observed that most coating methods maintained sound coating state in U-Zr melt. (authors)

  14. Aerosol chemical vapor deposition of metal oxide films

    DOEpatents

    Ott, K.C.; Kodas, T.T.

    1994-01-11

    A process of preparing a film of a multicomponent metal oxide including: forming an aerosol from a solution comprised of a suitable solvent and at least two precursor compounds capable of volatilizing at temperatures lower than the decomposition temperature of said precursor compounds; passing said aerosol in combination with a suitable oxygen-containing carrier gas into a heated zone, said heated zone having a temperature sufficient to evaporate the solvent and volatilize said precursor compounds; and passing said volatilized precursor compounds against the surface of a substrate, said substrate having a sufficient temperature to decompose said volatilized precursor compounds whereby metal atoms contained within said volatilized precursor compounds are deposited as a metal oxide film upon the substrate is disclosed. In addition, a coated article comprising a multicomponent metal oxide film conforming to the surface of a substrate selected from the group consisting of silicon, magnesium oxide, yttrium-stabilized zirconium oxide, sapphire, or lanthanum gallate, said multicomponent metal oxide film characterized as having a substantially uniform thickness upon said substrate.

  15. Single Wall Carbon Nano Tube Films and Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreekumar, T. V.; Kumar, Satish; Ericson, Lars M.; Smalley, Richard E.

    2002-03-01

    Purified single wall carbon nano tubes (SWNTs) produced from the high-pressure carbon monoxide (HiPCO) process have been dissolved /dispersed in oleum. These solutions /dispersions were optically homogeneous and have been used to form stand-alone SWNT films. The washed, dried, and heat-treated films are isotropic. The scanning electron micrographs of the film surface shows that the nanotube ropes (or fibrils) of about 20 nm diameters are arranged just like macroscopic fibers in a non-woven fabric. Polarized Raman spectroscopy of the SWNT film confirms the isotropic nature of these films. The films are being characterized for their thermal, mechanical as well electrical properties. Thin nano tube coatings, including optically transparent coatings, have also been made on a variety of substrates such as glass, polyethylene, polystyrene, polypropylene, silicon wafer, as well as stainless steel.

  16. Durability of Metallic Interconnects and Protective Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhenguo; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2009-12-15

    To build up a useful voltage, a number of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are electrically connected into series in a stack via interconnects, which are placed between adjacent cells. In addition to functioning as a bi-polar electrical connector, the interconnect also acts as a separator plate that separates the fuel at the anode side of one cell from the air at the cathode side on an adjacent cell. During SOFC operation at the high temperatures, the interconnects are thus simultaneously exposed to the oxidizing air at one side and a reducing fuel that can be either hydrogen or hydrocarbon at the other. Besides, they are in contact with adjacent components, such as electrodes or electrical contacts, seals, etc. With steady reduction in SOFC operating temperatures into the low or intermediate range 600-850oC, oxidation resistant alloys are often used to construct interconnects. However, the metallic interconnects may degrade via interactions at their interfaces with surrounding environments or adjacent components, potentially affecting the stability and performance of interconnects and the SOFC stacks. Thus protection layers are applied to metallic interconnects that also intend to mitigate or prevent chromium migration into cells and the cell poisoning. This chapter provides a comprehensive review of materials for metallic interconnects, their degradation and coating protection.

  17. High Precision Metal Thin Film Liftoff Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Ari D. (Inventor); Patel, Amil A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A metal film liftoff process includes applying a polymer layer onto a silicon substrate, applying a germanium layer over the polymer layer to create a bilayer lift off mask, applying a patterned photoresist layer over the germanium layer, removing an exposed portion of the germanium layer, removing the photoresist layer and a portion of the polymer layer to expose a portion of the substrate and create an overhanging structure of the germanium layer, depositing a metal film over the exposed portion of the substrate and the germanium layer, and removing the polymer and germanium layers along with the overlaying metal film.

  18. Coatings based on calcium phosphates for metallic medical implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ievlev, Valentin M.

    2013-02-01

    The calcium phosphate coatings for metallic medical implants that are used to replace the bone tissues synthesized by various methods are considered in the structural and morphological aspects. The advantages and shortcomings and the prospects of application of the methods of deposition of such coatings on metal substrates are discussed. The bibliography includes 132 references.

  19. Thin Film Coating Technology For Ophthalmic Lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, K. H.

    1986-05-01

    Coating of ophthalmic lenses is an application of high-vacuum coating technology which must satisfy not only physical and technical requirements but also customer demands with respect to aesthetics, color fidelity, and exchangeability of coated ophthalmic lenses. Because this application caters specifically to the consumer market, ophthalmic lenses are subject to certain fashion trends which frequently require quick adaptation of the coating technique. The state-of-the-art of ophthalmic lens coating is reviewed in this paper, with particular emphasis on the durability requirements in daily use by untrained consumers as well as on the applicable testing methods.

  20. Ceramic coating on ceramic with metallic bond coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishitake, K.; Era, H.; Otsubo, F.; Sonoda, T.

    1997-09-01

    The change in structure and adhesion strength of the interface by heating in air has been investigated for a plasma- sprayed alumina coating on a ceramic substrate with a 50Ni- 50Cr alloy bond coating. A veined structure composed of NiO, NiCr 2O4, and NiAl2O4 oxides grew from the bond coating into cracks or pores in the top coating and the alumina substrate after heating at 1273 K for 20 h in air. The NiAl2O4 spinel may have formed by the oxidization of nickel, which subsequently reacted with the alumina coating or the substrate. The mechanism of the penetration of the spinel oxides into the cracks or pores is not clear. The adhesion strength of the coating is increased to about 15 MPa after heating at 1273 K for 20 h in air, compared to an as- sprayed coating strength of only 1.5 MPa.

  1. Reflective Self-Metallizing Polyimide Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David W. (Inventor); Caplan, Maggie L. (Inventor); St.Clair, Anne (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A silver organic complex, such as silver acetate, is solubilized in a polyamic acid resin or soluble polyimide solution using a suitable solvent such as hexafluoroacetyl acetone. The mixture is stable and can be applied to both flat and contoured surfaces. Application can be performed by casting, dip-coating, spraying, or other suitable techniques. In addition, the mixture can be cast or extruded as a polyimide film which is not applied to an underlying substrate. Upon curing, a flexible silver coated polyimide film is produced.

  2. Thin film coatings for space electrical power system applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulino, Daniel A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines some of the ways in which thin film coatings can play a role in aerospace applications. Space systems discussed include photovoltaic and solar dynamic electric power generation systems, including applications in environmental protection, thermal energy storage, and radiator emittance enhancement. Potential applications of diamondlike films to both atmospheric and space based systems are examined. Also, potential uses of thin films of the recently discovered high-temperature superconductive materials are discussed.

  3. Thin film coatings for space electrical power system applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulino, Daniel A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines some of the ways in which thin film coatings can play a role in aerospace applications. Space systems discussed include photovoltaic and solar dynamic electric power generation systems, including applications in environmental protection, thermal energy storage, and radiator emittance enhancement. Potential applications of diamondlike films to both atmospheric and space based systems are examined. Also, potential uses of thin films of the recently discovered high-temperature superconductive materials are discussed.

  4. Laser patterning of transparent conductive metal nanowire coatings: simulation and experiment.

    PubMed

    Henley, Simon J; Cann, Maria; Jurewicz, Izabela; Dalton, Alan; Milne, David

    2014-01-21

    Transparent and electrically conductive metal nanowire networks are possible replacements for costly indium tin oxide (ITO) films in many optoelectronic devices. ITO films are regularly patterned using pulsed lasers so similar technologies could be used for nanowire coatings to define electrode structures. Here, the effects of laser irradiation on conducting silver nanowire coatings are simulated and then investigated experimentally for networks formed by spray deposition onto transparent substrates. The ablation threshold fluence is found experimentally for such nanowire networks and is then related to film thickness. An effective model using finite-element heat transfer analysis is examined to look at energy dissipation through these nanowire networks and used to understand mechanisms at play in the laser-material interactions. It is demonstrated that the three-dimensional nature of these coatings and the relative ratios of the rates of lateral to vertical heat diffusion are important controlling parameter affecting the ablation threshold. PMID:24287486

  5. Plasma sprayed and electrospark deposited zirconium metal diffusion barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Hollis, Kendall J; Pena, Maria I

    2010-01-01

    Zirconium metal coatings applied by plasma spraying and electrospark deposition (ESD) have been investigated for use as diffusion barrier coatings on low enrichment uranium fuel for research nuclear reactors. The coatings have been applied to both stainless steel as a surrogate and to simulated nuclear fuel uranium-molybdenum alloy substrates. Deposition parameter development accompanied by coating characterization has been performed. The structure of the plasma sprayed coating was shown to vary with transferred arc current during deposition. The structure of ESD coatings was shown to vary with the capacitance of the deposition equipment.

  6. Process for forming a metal compound coating on a substrate

    DOEpatents

    Sharp, Donald J.; Vernon, Milton E.; Wright, Steven A.

    1991-01-01

    A method of coating a substrate with a thin layer of a metal compound by forming a dispersion of an electrophoretically active organic colloid and a precursor of the metal compound in an electrolytic cell in which the substrate is an electrode. Upon application of an electric potential, the electrode is coated with a mixture of the organic colloid and the precursor to the metal compound, and the coated substrate is then heated in the presence of an atmosphere or vacuum to decompose the organic colloid and form a coating of either a combination of metal compound and carbon, or optionally forming a porous metal compound coating by heating to a temperature high enough to chemically react the carbon.

  7. Process for forming a metal compound coating on a substrate

    DOEpatents

    Sharp, D.J.; Vernon, M.E.; Wright, S.A.

    1988-06-29

    A method of coating a substrate with a thin layer of a metal compound by forming a dispersion of an electrophoretically active organic colloid and a precursor of the metal compound in an electrolytic cell in which the substrate is an electrode. Upon application of an electric potential, the electrode is coated with a mixture of the organic colloid and the precursor to the metal compound, and the coated substrate is then heated in the presence of an atmosphere or vacuum to decompose the organic colloid and form a coating of either a combination of metal compound and carbon, or optionally forming a porous metal compound coating by heating to a temperature high enough to chemically react the carbon.

  8. FORMING PROTECTIVE FILMS ON METAL

    DOEpatents

    Gurinsky, D.H.; Kammerer, O.F.; Sadofsky, J.; Weeks, J.R.

    1958-12-16

    Methods are described of inhibiting the corrosion of ferrous metal by contact with heavy liquid metals such as bismuth and gallium at temperatures above 500 icient laborato C generally by bringing nltrogen and either the metal zirconium, hafnium, or titanium into reactlve contact with the ferrous metal to form a thin adherent layer of the nitride of the metal and thereafter maintaining a fractional percentage of the metal absorbed in the heavy liquid metal in contact with the ferrous metal container. The general purpose for uslng such high boiling liquid metals in ferrous contalners would be as heat transfer agents in liquid-metal-fueled nuclear reactors.

  9. Development of edible films and coatings from alginates and carrageenans.

    PubMed

    Tavassoli-Kafrani, Elham; Shekarchizadeh, Hajar; Masoudpour-Behabadi, Mahdieh

    2016-02-10

    The use of renewable resources, which can reduce waste disposal problems, is being explored to produce biopolymer films and coatings. Renewability, degradability, and edibility make such films particularly suitable for food and nonfood packaging applications. Edible films and coatings play an important role in the quality, safety, transportation, storage, and display of a wide range of fresh and processed foods. They can diminish main alteration by avoiding moisture losses and decreasing adverse chemical reaction rates. Also, they can prevent spoilage and microbial contamination of foods. Additionally, nanomaterials and food additives, such as flavors, antimicrobials, antioxidants, and colors, can be incorporated into edible films and coatings in order to extend their applications. Water-soluble hydrocolloids like polysaccharides usually impart better mechanical properties to edible films and coatings than do hydrophobic substances. They also are excellent barriers to oxygen and carbon dioxide. Recently, there has been much attention on carrageenan and alginate as sources of film-forming materials. Thus, this review highlights production and characteristics of these films. PMID:26686140

  10. Solid-gel precursor solutions and methods for the fabrication of polymetallicsiloxane coating films

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1993-01-01

    Solutions and preparation methods necessary for the fabrication of metal oxide cross-linked polysiloxane coating films are disclosed. The films are useful in provide heat resistance against oxidation, wear resistance, thermal insulation, and corrosion resistance of substrates. The sol-gel precursor solution comprises a mixture of a monomeric organoalkoxysilane, a metal alkoxide M(OR).sub.n (wherein M is Ti, Zr, Ge or Al; R is CH.sub.3, C.sub.2 H.sub.5 or C.sub.3 H.sub.7 ; and n is 3 or 4), methanol, water, HCl and NaOH. The invention provides a sol-gel solution, and a method of use thereof, which can be applied and processed at low temperatures (i.e., <1000.degree. C.). The substrate can be coated by immersing it in the above mentioned solution at ambient temperature. The substrate is then withdrawn from the solution. Next, the coated substrate is heated for a time sufficient and at a temperature sufficient to yield a solid coating. The coated substrate is then heated for a time sufficient, and temperature sufficient to produce a polymetallicsiloxane coating.

  11. Solid-gel precursor solutions and methods for the fabrication of polymetallicsiloxane coating films

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1992-01-01

    Solutions and preparation methods necessary for the fabrication of metal oxide cross-linked polysiloxane coating films are disclosed. The films are useful in provide heat resistance against oxidation, wear resistance, thermal insulation, and corrosion resistance of substrates. The sol-gel precursor solution comprises a mixture of a monomeric organoalkoxysilane, a metal alkoxide M(OR).sub.n (wherein M is Ti, Zr, Ge or Al; R is CH.sub.3, C.sub.2 H.sub.5 or C.sub.3 H.sub.7 ; and n is 3 or 4), methanol, water, HCl and NaOH. The invention provides a sol-gel solution, and a method of use thereof, which can be applied and processed at low temperatures (i.e., <1000.degree. C.). The substrate can be coated by immersing it in the above mentioned solution at ambient temperature. The substrate is then withdrawn from the solution. Next, the coated substrate is heated for a time sufficient and at a temperature sufficient to yield a solid coating. The coated substrate is then heated for a time sufficient, and temperature sufficient to produce a polymetallicsiloxane coating.

  12. Solid-gel precursor solutions and methods for the fabrication of polymetallicsiloxane coating films

    DOEpatents

    Toshifumi Sugama.

    1993-04-06

    Solutions and preparation methods necessary for the fabrication of metal oxide cross-linked polysiloxane coating films are disclosed. The films are useful in provide heat resistance against oxidation, wear resistance, thermal insulation, and corrosion resistance of substrates. The sol-gel precursor solution comprises a mixture of a monomeric organoalkoxysilane, a metal alkoxide M(OR)[sub n] (wherein M is Ti, Zr, Ge or Al; R is CH[sub 3], C[sub 2]H[sub 5] or C[sub 3]H[sub 7]; and n is 3 or 4), methanol, water, HCl and NaOH. The invention provides a sol-gel solution, and a method of use thereof, which can be applied and processed at low temperatures (i.e., < 1,000 C.). The substrate can be coated by immersing it in the above mentioned solution at ambient temperature. The substrate is then withdrawn from the solution. Next, the coated substrate is heated for a time sufficient and at a temperature sufficient to yield a solid coating. The coated substrate is then heated for a time sufficient, and temperature sufficient to produce a polymetallicsiloxane coating.

  13. Bulk photoemission from metal films and nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Ikhsanov, R Sh; Babicheva, V E; Protsenko, I E; Uskov, A V; Guzhva, M E

    2015-01-31

    Internal emission of photoelectrons from metal films and nanoparticles (nanowires and nanospheres) into a semiconductor matrix is studied theoretically by taking into account the jump of the effective electron mass at the metal – semiconductor interface and the cooling effect of hot electrons due to electron – electron collisions in the metal. The internal quantum efficiency of photoemission for the film and nanoparticles of two types (nanospheres and nanowires) is calculated. It is shown that the reduction of the effective mass of the electron during its transition from metal to semiconductor may lead to a significant (orders of magnitude and higher) decrease in the internal quantum efficiency of bulk photoemission. (nanostructures)

  14. Metallic glass thin films for potential biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Neelam; Sharma, Parmanand; Ahadian, Samad; Khademhosseini, Ali; Takahashi, Masaharu; Makino, Akihiro; Tanaka, Shuji; Esashi, Masayoshi

    2014-10-01

    We introduce metallic glass thin films (TiCuNi) as biocompatible materials for biomedical applications. TiCuNi metallic glass thin films were deposited on the Si substrate and their structural, surface, and mechanical properties were investigated. The fabricated films showed good biocompatibility upon exposure to muscle cells. Also, they exhibited an average roughness of <0.2 nm, high wear resistance, and high mechanical properties (hardness ∼6.9 GPa and reduced modulus ∼130 GPa). Top surface of the TiCuNi films was shown to be free from Ni and mainly composed of a thin titanium oxide layer, which resulted in the high surface biocompatibility. In particular, there was no cytotoxicity effect of metallic glass films on the C2C12 myoblasts and the cells were able to proliferate well on these substrates. Low cost, viscoelastic behavior, patternability, high electrical conductivity, and the capability to coat various materials (e.g., nonbiocompatible materials) make TiCuNi as an attractive material for biomedical applications. PMID:24610895

  15. Adhesion and friction of thin metal films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1976-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted in vacuum with thin films of titanium, chromium, iron, and platinum sputter deposited on quartz or mica substrates. A single crystal hemispherically tipped gold slider was used in contact with the films at loads of 1.0 to 30.0 and at a sliding velocity of 0.7 mm/min at 23 C. Test results indicate that the friction coefficient is dependent on the adhesion of two interfaces, that between the film and its substrate and the slider and the film. There exists a relationship between the percent d bond character of metals in bulk and in thin film form and the friction coefficient. Oxygen can increase adhesive bonding of a metal film (platinum) to a substrate.

  16. Ellipsometric study of oxide films formed on LDEF metal samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franzen, W.; Brodkin, J. S.; Sengupta, L. C.; Sagalyn, P. L.

    1992-01-01

    The optical constants of samples of six different metals (Al, Cu, Ni, Ta, W, and Zr) exposed to space on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) were studied by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. Measurements were also carried out on portions of each sample which were shielded from direct exposure by a metal bar. A least-squares fit of the data using an effective medium approximation was then carried out, with thickness and composition of surface films formed on the metal substrates as variable parameters. The analysis revealed that exposed portions of the Cu, Ni, Ta, and Zr samples are covered with porous oxide films ranging in thickness from 500 to 1000 A. The 410 A thick film of Al2O3 on the exposed Al sample is practically free of voids. Except for Cu, the shielded portions of these metals are covered by thin non-porous oxide films characteristic of exposure to air. The shielded part of the Cu sample has a much thicker porous coating of Cu2O. The tungsten data could not be analyzed.

  17. Nano-enabled tribological thin film coatings: global patent scenario.

    PubMed

    Sivudu, Kurva S; Mahajan, Yashwant R; Joshi, Shrikant V

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present current status and future prospects of nano-enabled tribological thin film coatings based on worldwide patent landscape analysis. The study also presents an overview of technological trends by carrying out state-of-the-art literature analysis, including survey of corporate websites. Nanostructured tribological coatings encompass a wide spectrum of nanoscale microstructures, including nanocrystalline, nanolayered, nano-multilayered, nanocomposite, nanogradient structures or their unique combinations, which are composed of single or multi-component phases. The distinct microstructural features of the coatings impart outstanding tribological properties combined with multifunctional attributes to the coated components. Their unique combination of remarkable properties make them ideal candidates for a wide range of applications in diverse fields such as cutting and metalworking tools, biomedical devices, automotive engine components, wear parts, hard disc drives etc. The patent landscape analysis has revealed that nano-enabled tribological thin film coatings have significant potential for commercial applications in view of the lion's share of corporate industry in patenting activity. The largest patent portfolio is held by Japan followed by USA, Germany, Sweden and China. The prominent players involved in this field are Mitsubishi Materials Corp., Sandvik Aktiebolag, Hitachi Ltd., Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd., OC Oerlikon Corp., and so on. The outstanding potential of nanostructured thin film tribological coatings is yet to be fully unravelled and, therefore, immense opportunities are available in future for microstructurally engineered novel coatings to enhance their performance and functionality by many folds. PMID:24962377

  18. Spray Coating Deposition of Thin Resist Film on Fiber Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, Shogo; Hayase, Masanori; Takagi, Hideki; Itoh, Toshihiro; Zhang, Yi

    2012-11-01

    In this work, we present extensive investigations on the spray coating process of fiber substrates for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) applications by using a newly developed spray-coating system. We have examined major parameters of the spray-coating process including the real-time heating treatment, the concentration of the thinner solvent, the nozzle/substrate distance, and the diameter and rotation speed of the fiber substrate. It was found that the spray-coating process of the fibers was dependent on their diameters. When the fiber diameter was 300 µm or larger, the spray-coating process was similar to those of conventional semiconductor wafers. For example, the resist film became thinner with either a larger diameter or a higher rotation speed of the fiber substrate because of the larger centrifugal force. When the fiber diameter was 125 µm, the spray-coating process exhibited different behavior. For example, the spreading of spray droplets was good and the whole surface of the fiber substrate was almost covered by resist film even without the substrate rotation. The real-time heating treatment also played a significant role during the spray-coating process of the 125-µm-diameter fiber. The spray-deposited film became even thicker with the increasing concentration of the thinner solvent, which mainly resulted from the fact that the fiber had a low heat capacity and a high-topography surface.

  19. Metal current collect protected by oxide film

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2004-05-25

    Provided are low-cost, mechanically strong, highly electronically conductive current collects and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, techniques for forming these structures, and devices incorporating the structures. The invention provides solid state electrochemical devices having as current interconnects a ferritic steel felt or screen coated with a protective oxide film.

  20. Biofouling of Cr-Nickel Spray Coated Films on Steel Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Kento; Kanematsu, Hideyuki; Kuroda, Daisuke; Ikigai, Hajime; Kogo, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Seiji

    2012-03-01

    Nowadays, corrosion of metals brings us serious economic loss and it often reaches several percentage of GNP. Particularly the marine corrosion was serious and the counter measure was very hard to be established, since the number of factors is huge and complicated. One of the complicated factors in marine corrosion is biofouling. Biofouling was classified into two main categories, microfouling and macrofouling. The former is composed of biofilm formation mainly. Marine bacteria are attached to material surfaces, seeking for nutrition in oligotrophic environment and they excrete polysaccharide to form biofilm on metal surfaces. Then larger living matters are attached on the biofilms to develop biofouling on metal surfaces, which often lead loss and failures of metals in marine environments. From the viewpoint of corrosion protection and maintenance of marine structures, biofouling should be mitigated as much as possible. In this study, we applied spray coating to steels and investigated if chromium-nickel spray coating could mitigate the biofouling, being compared with the conventional aluminium-zinc spray coating in marine environments. The specimens used for this investigation are aluminium, zinc, aluminium-zinc, stacked chromium/nickel and those films were formed on carbon steel (JIS SS400). And the pores formed by spray coating were sealed by a commercial reagent for some specimens. All of those specimens were immersed into sea water located at Marina Kawage (854-3, Chisato, Tsu, Mie Prefecture) in Ise Bay for two weeks. The depth of the specimen was two meter from sea water surface and the distance was always kept constant, since they were suspended from the floating pier. The temperature in sea water changed from 10 to 15 degrees Celsius during the immersion test. The biofouling behavior was investigated by low vacuum SEM (Hitachi Miniscope TM1000) and X-ray fluorescent analysis. When the spray coated specimens with and without sealing agents were compared, the former showed higher antifouling properties generally. Aluminium-zinc alloy spray coated films had higher antifouling property. And the anti-property decreased in this order: Al-Zn alloy spray coating > Zinc spray coating > Aluminium spray coating > Stacked chromium/nickel spray coating. Aluminium and zinc spray coating has been evaluated high conventionally for anti-biofouling in marine environment. However, the Cr/Ni spray coating showed pretty high anti-fouling property.

  1. Metal films on the surfaces and within diamond crystals from Arkhangelskaya and Yakutian diamond provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makeev, A. B.; Kriulina, G. Yu.

    2012-12-01

    Representative samples of diamonds from five kimberlite pipes (Lomonosovskaya, Archangel'sk, Snegurochka, XXIII Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), and Internationalnaya) of the Arkhangelskaya and Yakutian diamond provinces in Russia have been studied. Thirty-three varieties of metal films have been identified as syngenetic associated minerals. The films consist of 15 chemical elements that occur in the form of native metals and their natural alloys. Remnants of metal films were detected within diamond crystals. The metal films coating diamonds are a worldwide phenomenon. To date, these films have been described from Europe, Asia, South America, and Africa. Native metals, their alloys, and intermetallides are actual companion minerals of diamond.

  2. Development of metal based thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Dong-Il

    In this work, metal-based thermal barrier coatings (MBTBCs) have been produced, using high frequency induction plasma spraying (IPS) of iron-based nanostructured alloy powders. Important advances have been made over recent years to the development of ceramic-based thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) for internal combustion engines application, but they are not yet applied in mass production situations. Besides the important economic considerations, the reliability of ceramic: TBCs is also an issue, being associated with the difficulty of predicting their "in-service" lifetime. Through engineering of the nano/amorphous structure of MBTBCs, their thermal conductivity can be made as low as those of ceramic-based TBCs, with reduced mean free paths of the electrons/phonons scattering. In this work, nano/amorphous structured coatings were deposited by IPS using the following spray parameters: spraying distance (210 ˜ 270 mm), plasma gas composition (Ar/N2), IPS torch power (24kW), and powder feed-rate (16g/min.). The structure and properties of the deposited layers were characterized through SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) observations. The thermal diffusivity (alpha) properties of the MBTBCs were measured using a laser flash method. Density (rho) and specific heat (Cp) of the MBTBCs were also measured, and their thermal conductivity (k) calculated (k =alpharhoCp). The thermal conductivity of MBTBCs was found to be as low as 1.99 W/m/K. The heat treatment study showed that crystal structure changes, and grain size growth from a few nanometers to tenth of nanometers occurred at 550°C under static exposure conditions. Thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) of MBTBCs was 13E-6/K, which is close to the TEC of cast iron and thus, closer to the TEC values of aluminium alloys than are conventional TBCs. Fracture toughness of MBTBCs has also been assessed by use of Vickers hardness tests, with a 500 g load for 15 s, and the results show that there are no measurable crack developments around "Indented" areas on all samples of MBTBCs tested.

  3. Deposition and Characterization of Thin Films on Metallic Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatica, Jorge E.

    2005-01-01

    A CVD method was successfully developed to produce conversion coatings on aluminum alloys surfaces with reproducible results with a variety of precursors. A well defined protocol to prepare the precursor solutions formulated in a previous research was extended to other additives. It was demonstrated that solutions prepared following such a protocol could be used to systematically generate protective coatings onto aluminum surfaces. Experiments with a variety of formulations revealed that a refined deposition protocol yields reproducible conversion coatings of controlled composition. A preliminary correlation between solution formulations and successful precursors was derived. Coatings were tested for adhesion properties enhancement for commercial paints. A standard testing method was followed and clear trends were identified. Only one precursors was tested systematically. Anticipated work on other precursors should allow a better characterization of the effect of intermetallics on the production of conversion/protective coatings on metals and ceramics. The significance of this work was the practical demonstration that chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques can be used to systematically generate protective/conversion coating on non-ferrous surfaces. In order to become an effective approach to replace chromate-based pre- treatment processes, namely in the aerospace or automobile industry, the process parameters must be defined more precisely. Moreover, the feasibility of scale-up designs necessitates a more comprehensive characterization of the fluid flow, transport phenomena, and chemical kinetics interacting in the process. Kinetic characterization showed a significantly different effect of magnesium-based precursors when compared to iron-based precursors. Future work will concentrate on refining the process through computer simulations and further experimental studies on the effect of other transition metals to induce deposition of conversion/protective films on aluminum and other metallic substrates.

  4. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    DOEpatents

    Mickelsen, R.A.; Chen, W.S.

    1985-06-11

    Disclosed is a thin film heterojunction solar cell, said heterojunction comprising a p-type I-III-IV[sub 2] chalcopyrite substrate and an overlying layer of an n-type ternary mixed metal compound wherein said ternary mixed metal compound is applied to said substrate by introducing the vapor of a first metal compound to a vessel containing said substrate from a first vapor source while simultaneously introducing a vapor of a second metal compound from a second vapor source of said vessel, said first and second metals comprising the metal components of said mixed metal compound; independently controlling the vaporization rate of said first and second vapor sources; reducing the mean free path between vapor particles in said vessel, said gas being present in an amount sufficient to induce homogeneity of said vapor mixture; and depositing said mixed metal compound on said substrate in the form of a uniform composition polycrystalline mixed metal compound. 5 figs.

  5. Mesoscopically structured nanocrystalline metal oxide thin films.

    PubMed

    Carretero-Genevrier, Adrian; Drisko, Glenna L; Grosso, David; Boissiere, Cédric; Sanchez, Clement

    2014-11-01

    This review describes the main successful strategies that are used to grow mesostructured nanocrystalline metal oxide and SiO₂ films via deposition of sol-gel derived solutions. In addition to the typical physicochemical forces to be considered during crystallization, mesoporous thin films are also affected by the substrate-film relationship and the mesostructure. The substrate can influence the crystallization temperature and the obtained crystallographic orientation due to the interfacial energies and the lattice mismatch. The mesostructure can influence the crystallite orientation, and affects nucleation and growth behavior due to the wall thickness and pore curvature. Three main methods are presented and discussed: templated mesoporosity followed by thermally induced crystallization, mesostructuration of already crystallized metal oxide nanobuilding units and substrate-directed crystallization with an emphasis on very recent results concerning epitaxially grown piezoelectric structured α-quartz films via crystallization of amorphous structured SiO₂ thin films. PMID:25224841

  6. High temperature glass coatings for superalloys and refractory metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, J. W.; Grekila, R. B.; Hirayama, C.; Mattox, D. M.

    1970-01-01

    New glasses are used as protective coatings on metals and alloys susceptible to oxidation at high temperatures in oxidizing atmospheres. Glasses are stable and solid at temperatures up to 1000 deg C, adhere well to metal surfaces, and are usable for metals with broad range of expansion coefficients.

  7. Durable silver thin film coating for diffraction gratings

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, Jesse D.; Britten, Jerald A.; Komashko, Aleksey M.

    2006-05-30

    A durable silver film thin film coated non-planar optical element has been developed to replace Gold as a material for fabricating such devices. Such a coating and resultant optical element has an increased efficiency and is resistant to tarnishing, can be easily stripped and re-deposited without modifying underlying grating structure, improves the throughput and power loading of short pulse compressor designs for ultra-fast laser systems, and can be utilized in variety of optical and spectrophotometric systems, particularly high-end spectrometers that require maximized efficiency.

  8. Computer Aided Design (CAD) Of Thin Film Optical Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, M. K.; Chye, Tan C.; Seng, Ow C.

    1986-10-01

    This paper presents description of a versatile software package for computer-aided design of thin film optical coatings, which has been developed by employing latest version of Turbo Pascal Language and can be run on any IBM or compatible personal computers. Both numerical and/or graphical output for transmittance and reflectance of a multilayer dielectric structure at various wavelengths are easily obtained. Other features in the package include interactive monitoring of thin film coatings during deposition process, saving of input parameters and results in the form of files, a look-up table for commonly used materials and facilities to provide parameters to an optical thickness monitor.

  9. Graphene film growth on polycrystalline metals.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Rebecca S; Coleman, Karl S

    2013-01-15

    Graphene, a true wonder material, is the newest member of the nanocarbon family. The continuous network of hexagonally arranged carbon atoms gives rise to exceptional electronic, mechanical, and thermal properties, which could result in the application of graphene in next generation electronic components, energy-storage materials such as capacitors and batteries, polymer nanocomposites, transparent conducting electrodes, and mechanical resonators. With one particularly attractive application, optically transparent conducting electrodes or films, graphene has the potential to rival indium tin oxide (ITO) and become a material for producing next generation displays, solar cells, and sensors. Typically, graphene has been produced from graphite using a variety of methods, but these techniques are not suitable for growing large-area graphene films. Therefore researchers have focused much effort on the development of methodology to grow graphene films across extended surfaces. This Account describes current progress in the formation and control of graphene films on polycrystalline metal surfaces. Researchers can grow graphene films on a variety of polycrystalline metal substrates using a range of experimental conditions. In particular, group 8 metals (iron and ruthenium), group 9 metals (cobalt, rhodium, and iridium), group 10 metals (nickel and platinum), and group 11 metals (copper and gold) can support the growth of these films. Stainless steel and other commercial copper-nickel alloys can also serve as substrates for graphene film growth. The use of copper and nickel currently predominates, and these metals produce large-area films that have been efficiently transferred and tested in many electronic devices. Researchers have grown graphene sheets more than 30 in. wide and transferred them onto display plastic ready for incorporation into next generation displays. The further development of graphene films in commercial applications will require high-quality, reproducible growth at ambient pressure and low temperature from cheap, readily available carbon sources. The growth of graphene on metal surfaces has drawbacks: researchers must transfer the graphene from the metal substrate or remove the metal by etching. Further research is needed to overcome these transfer and removal challenges. PMID:22891883

  10. Low Temperature Growth of Nanostructured Diamond Films on Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Paul A.; Catledge, Shane A.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2001-01-01

    The field of nanocrystalline diamond and tetrahedral amorphous carbon films has been the focus of intense experimental activity in the last few years for applications in field emission display devices, optical windows, and tribological coatings, The choice of substrate used in most studies has typically been silicon. For metals, however, the thermal expansion mismatch between the diamond film and substrate gives rise to thermal stress that often results in delamination of the film. To avoid this problem in conventional CVD deposition low substrate temperatures (less than 700 C) have been used, often with the incorporation of oxygen or carbon monoxide to the feedgas mixture. Conventionally grown CVD diamond films are also rough and would require post-deposition polishing for most applications. Therefore, there is an obvious need to develop techniques for deposition of well-adhered, smooth nano-structured diamond films on metals for various tribological applications. In our work, nanostructured diamond films are grown on a titanium alloy substrate using a two-step deposition process. The first step is performed at elevated temperature (820 C) for 30 minutes using a H2/CH4/N2 gas mixture in order to grow a thin (approx. 600 nm) nanostructured diamond layer and improve film adhesion. The remainder of the deposition involves growth at low temperature (less than 600 C) in a H2/CH4/O2 gas mixture. Laser reflectance Interferometry (LRI) pattern during growth of a nanostructured diamond film on Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The first 30 minutes are at a high temperature of 820 C and the rest of the film is grown at a low temperature of 580 T. The fringe pattern is observed till the very end due to extremely low surface roughness of 40 nm. The continuation of the smooth nanostructured diamond film growth during low temperature deposition is confirmed by in-situ laser reflectance interferometry and by post-deposition micro-Raman spectroscopy and surface profilometry. Similar experiments performed without the starting nanostructured diamond layer resulted in poorly adhered films with a more crystalline appearance and a higher surface roughness. This low temperature deposition of nanostructured diamond films on metals offers advantages in cases where high residual thermal stress leads to delamination at high temperatures.

  11. Evaluation of colorless polyimide film for thermal control coating applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, A. K.; Slemp, W. S.

    1985-01-01

    A series of essentially colorless aromatic polyimide films has been synthesized and characterized with the objective of obtaining maximum optical transparency for applications in space. Optical transparency is a requirement for high performance polymeric films used in second surface mirror coatings on thermal control systems. The intensity in color of aromatic polyimide films was lowered by reducing the electronic interaction between chromophoric centers in the polymer molecular structure and by using highly purified monomers. The resulting lightly colored to colorless polyimide films have been characterized by UV-visible and infrared spectroscopy before and after exposure to 300 equivalent solar hours UV irradiation and varying doses of 1 MeV electron irradiation. After irradiation, the films were found to be 2 to 2.5 times more transparent than commercial polyimide film of the same thickness.

  12. Evaluation of colorless polyimide film for thermal control coating applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, A. K.; Slemp, W. S.

    1985-01-01

    A series of essentially colorless aromatic polyimide films was synthesized and characterized with the objective of obtaining maximum optical transparency for applications in space. Optical transparency is a requirement for high performance polymeric films used in second surface mirror coatings on thermal control systems. The intensity in color of aromatic polyimide films was lowered by reducing the electronic interaction between chromophoric centers in the polymer molecular structure and by using highly purified monomers. The resulting lightly colored to colorless polyimide films were characterized by UV-visible and infrared spectroscopy before and after exposure to 300 equivalent solar hours UV irradiation and varying doses of 1 MeV electron irradiation. After irradiation, the films were found to be 2 to 2.5 times more transparent than commercial polyimide film of the same thickness.

  13. The role of electroplated coatings in metal joining

    SciTech Connect

    Dini, J.W.

    1996-05-01

    Electroplated and electroless coatings often play an important role in soldering, brazing, and welding operations. Thin deposits applied to critical surfaces before the joining operations can provide the difference between success and failure. Diffusion welding applications sometimes require coatings to help promote joining. For some applications, electroplating by itself can be used to join metals that cannot be welded or brazed because of metallurgical incompatibility. The use of electroplated coatings for these various joining applications is reviewed here.

  14. Transient coating of substrates with variable topography by viscous films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampropoulos, Nikos; Dimakopoulos, Yiannis; Tsamopoulos, John

    2015-11-01

    We study the transient coating of substrates exhibiting orthogonal trenches. We use the VoF method via OpenFOAM to solve the transient NS eqs on an unstructured grid, which dynamically undergoes local refinement around the interfaces. An Euler implicit method is used with adjustable time-step. The computational cost is reduced by parallel execution via MPI. Completely different wetting patterns result depending on the 3 dimensions of the topography, the capillary and Reynolds numbers and the dynamic contact angle. On one hand, continuous coating can be achieved in which the thin film of fluid wets the entire trench, while a steady flow is established upstream and downstream the topography. This is the desirable pattern in coating microelectronic devices for their protection and planarization. The other extreme possibility is that the film completely bypasses the trench, entrapping air inside it. This pattern reduces the drag coefficient on the film and, therefore, it is desirable in super-hydrophobic surfaces for microfluidic applications. Between these two extremes, a large variety of patterns exists in which the film partially wets the trench forming an air inclusion all along its bottom surface or its upstream or downstream inner corners or the film may breakup periodically. We produce comprehensive maps of film configurations covering a wide range of parameter values. GSRT of Greece via the program ``Excellence,'' Grant 1918.

  15. Ion beam sputter-deposited thin film coatings for protection of spacecraft polymers in low earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B. A.; Mirtich, M. J.; Rutledge, S. K.; Swec, D. M.; Nahra, H. K.

    1985-01-01

    Ion beam sputter-deposited thin films at Al2O3, SiO2, and a codeposited mixture of predominantly SiO2 with small amounts of fluoropolymer were evaluated both in laboratory plasma ashing tests and in space on board Shuttle flight STS-8 for effectiveness in preventing oxidation of polyimide Kapton. Measurements of mass loss and optical performance of coated and uncoated polyimide samples exposed to the low earth orbital environment are presented. Optical techniques were used to measure loss rates of protective films exposed to atomic oxygen. Results of the analysis of the space flight exposed samples indicate that thin film metal oxide coatings are very effective in protecting the polyimide. Metal oxide coatings with a small amount of fluoropolymer codeposited have the additional benefit of great flexibility.

  16. Ion beam sputter-deposited thin film coatings for protection of spacecraft polymers in low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B. A.; Mirtich, M. J.; Rutledge, S. K.; Swec, D. M.; Nahra, H. K.

    1985-01-01

    Ion beam sputter-deposited thin films of Al2O3, SiO2, and a codeposited mixture of predominantly SiO2 with small amounts of a fluoropolymer were evaluated both in laboratory plasma ashing tests and in space on board shuttle flight STS-8 for effectiveness in preventing oxidation of polyimide Kapton. Measurements of mass loss and optical performance of coated and uncoated polyimide samples exposed to the low Earth orbital environment are presented. Optical techniques were used to measure loss rates of protective films exposed to atomic oxygen. Results of the analysis of the space flight exposed samples indicate that thin film metal oxide coatings are very effective in protecting the polyimide. Metal oxide coatings with a small amount of fluoropolymer codeposited have the additional benefit of great flexibility.

  17. Anti-diffusion metal coated O-rings

    DOEpatents

    Biallas, George Herman; Boyce, James Reid

    2016-03-22

    A method for inhibiting diffusion of gases and/or transmission of photons through elastomeric seals and a diffusion inhibiting elastomeric seal wherein at least a portion of the surface of a diffusion inhibiting elastomeric seal is coated with a compatibly-deformable, malleable metal coating.

  18. Precious-Metal Salt Coatings for Detecting Hydrazines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dee, Louis A.; Greene, Benjamin

    2004-01-01

    Substrates coated with a precious-metal salt KAuCl4 have been found to be useful for detecting hydrazine vapors in air at and above a concentration of the order of 0.01 parts per million (ppm). Upon exposure to air containing a sufficient amount of hydrazine for a sufficient time, the coating material undergoes a visible change in color.

  19. Electrical properties of nanoscale metallic thin films on dielectric elastomer at various strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faisal, Md. Shahnewaz Sabit; Ye, Zhihang; Chen, Zheng; Asmatulu, Ramazan

    2015-04-01

    Dielectric elastomers (DEs) have significant applications in artificial muscle and other biomedical equipment and device fabrications. Metallic thin films by thin film transfer and sputter coating techniques can provide conductive surfaces on the DE samples, and can be used as electrodes for the actuators and other biomedical sensing devices. In the present study, 3M VHB 4910 tape was used as a DE for the coating and electrical characterization tests. A 150 nm thickness of gold was coated on the DE surfaces by sputter coating under vacuum with different pre-strains, ranging from 0 to 100%. Some of the thin films were transferred to the surface of the DEs. Sputter coating, and direct transferring gold leaf coating methods were studied and the results were analyzed in detail in terms of the strain rates and electrical resistivity changes. Initial studies indicated that the metallic surfaces remain conductive even though the DE films were considerably elongated. The coated DEs can be used as artificial muscle by applying electrical stimulation through the conductive surfaces. This study may provide great benefits to the readers, researchers, as well as companies involved in manufacturing of artificial muscles and actuators using smart materials.

  20. Process for buried metallization in diamond film

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, M.L.; Ting, J.; Lagounov, A.; Tang, C.

    1996-03-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate methods of combining chemical vapor deposition diamond growth techniques with state-of-the-art physical vapor deposition or ion beam enhanced deposition to produce buried metallization of polycrystalline diamond films. The mechanical and electrical integrity of both the insulating and conducting elements following metallization and diamond overgrowth was shown. Both methods were shown to have bonding strength sufficient to withstand tape lift-off, which is regarded to be a good indication of strength needed for die attachment and wire bonding. Diamond overgrowth was also shown, thus enabling buried metallized layers to be created. Electrical resistivity property measurements on metallized layers and between metallization separated by diamond films were shown to be sufficient to allow the use of diamond as an insulating inter-layer material for multi-layer circuit boards. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Sensing using nanostructured metal oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiriakidis, G.; Dovinos, D.; Suchea, M.

    2006-10-01

    Metal oxides gas sensing properties particularly for In IIO 3 and ZnO nanostructures and nanostructured thin films are reviewed. Fabrication methods for these most commonly used metal oxides are presented, followed by a study on how growth techniques lead to nanostructures and nanostructured polycrystalline films with surface features of nanometer scale for film thickness bellow 1?m. The study continues with a discussion on how, a broad range of morphological parameters, affect the thin film response to various gases. After an overview, the study focus on thin films prepared by reactive dc magnetron sputtering and pulsed laser deposition in different growth conditions. In IIO 3 and ZnO thin films prepared for ozone sensing exhibit resistivity changes of five to eight orders of magnitude at room temperature after exposure to UV light and subsequent ozone treatment. Structural properties, i.e., crystallinity and microstructure investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) are studied. The nanostructure and nanostructured surfaces are highly controlled by the deposition parameters, which, control the transport properties, and thus the sensing characteristics as measured by conductometric techniques. Analyses on the sensing response of nanostructures and nanostructured In IIO 3 and ZnO films for different gases are presented. Experiments on Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices based on In IIO 3 and ZnO thin films fabricated on LiNbO3 substrates indicate the capability of achieving sensing levels in the low ppb range.

  2. Effect of Doping on beta-Tricalcium Phosphate Bioresorbable Bulk Material and Thin Film Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, Suhaila

    Magnesium has emerged as a revolutionary biodegradable metal for use as an orthopedic material, it has several advantages over the current metallic materials in use, including eliminating the effects of stress shielding, improving biocompatibility and inhibiting degradation rates, thus removing the requirement of a second surgery for implant removal. Due to the rapid degradation of magnesium, it is necessary to control the corrosion rates of the materials to match the rates of bone healing. This dissertation reports on the effect of doping on the properties of beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP). It also reports on its application as a thin film coating on magnesium alloys for implant applications. Adding various dopants to beta-TCP significantly influences critical properties. In this study, discs were fabricated in two compositions: (i) undoped beta-TCP, (ii) beta-TCP doped with 1.0 wt % MgO, 0.5 wt % ZnO, and 1.0 wt % TiO2. Films were fabricated from these compositions using the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. These coatings were then characterized for corrosive, hardness, and cytocompatibility. The XRD patterns of the coating confirm the amorphous nature of the films. The presence of the metal oxides in beta-TCP improved ceramic densification. The application of these doped coatings was also found to increase the hardness by 88 %, the modulus of elasticity by 66 %, and improve corrosion resistance of the magnesium alloy substrate; with a 2.4 % improvement in Ecorr and 95 % decrease in icorr. Cell viability was studied using an osteoblast precursor cell line MC3T3-E1 to assure that the biocompatibility of these ceramics was not altered due to the dopants. Long-term biodegradation studies were conducted by measuring weight change and surface microstructure as a function of time in simulated body fluid. The results suggest that these coatings could be used for bioresorbable implants with improved corrosion resistance and increased hardness.

  3. Polarization Phase-Compensating Coats for Metallic Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham

    2006-01-01

    A method of compensating for or minimizing phase differences between orthogonal polarizations of light reflected from metallic mirrors at oblique incidence, as, for example, from weakly curved mirrors, is undergoing development. The method is intended to satisfy a need to maintain precise polarization phase relationships or minimum polarization differences needed for proper operation of telescopes and other scientific instruments that include single or multiple mirrors. The basic idea of the method is to optimally coat mirrors with thin engineered layers of materials that introduce phase differences that, as nearly precisely as possible, are opposite of the undesired phase differences arising in reflection with non-optimum coatings. Depending on the specific optical system, the method could involve any or all of the following elements: a) Optimization of a single coat on all the mirrors in the system. b) Optimization of a unique coat for each mirror such that the polarization phase effects of the coat on one mirror compensate, to an acceptably high degree over an acceptably wide wavelength range, for those of the coat on another mirror. c) Tapering the coat on each mirror. Optimization could involve the choice of a single dielectric coating material and its thickness, or design of a more complex coat consisting of multiple layers of different dielectric materials and possibly some metallic materials. Such designs and coatings are particularly significant and needed for obtaining very high quality of wavefront required in high-contrast imaging instruments such as the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph.

  4. Coatings and films made of silk proteins.

    PubMed

    Borkner, Christian B; Elsner, Martina B; Scheibel, Thomas

    2014-09-24

    Silks are a class of proteinaceous materials produced by arthropods for various purposes. Spider dragline silk is known for its outstanding mechanical properties, and it shows high biocompatibility, good biodegradability, and a lack of immunogenicity and allergenicity. The silk produced by the mulberry silkworm B. mori has been used as a textile fiber and in medical devices for a long time. Here, recent progress in the processing of different silk materials into highly tailored isotropic and anisotropic coatings for biomedical applications such as tissue engineering, cell adhesion, and implant coatings as well as for optics and biosensors is reviewed. PMID:25004395

  5. Coalescence and percolation in thin metal films

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, X.; Duxbury, P.M.; Jeffers, G.; Dubson, M.A. Center for Fundamental Materials Research, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1116 )

    1991-12-15

    Metals thermally evaporated onto warm insulating substrates evolve to the thin-film state via the morphological sequence: compact islands, elongated islands, percolation, hole filling, and finally the thin-film state. The coverage at which the metal percolates ({ital p}{sub {ital c}}) is often considerably higher than that predicted by percolation models, such as inverse swiss cheese or lattice percolation. Using a simple continuum model, we show that high-{ital p}{sub {ital c}}'s arise naturally in thin films that exhibit a crossover from full coalescence of islands at early stages of growth to partial coalescence at later stages. In this interrupted-coalescence model, full coalescence of islands occurs up to a critical island radius {ital R}{sub {ital c}}, after which islands overlap, but do not fully coalesce. We present the morphology of films and the critical area coverages generated by this model.

  6. THE PENETRABILITY OF A THIN METALLIC FILM INSIDE THE RF FIELD.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHAO, Y.; BEN-ZVI, I.; CHANG, X.; RAO, T.; CHEN, W.; DINARDO, R.; BEUTENMULLER, R.

    2005-05-16

    Thin metallic film was widely applied in various areas. Especially, recently we are planning to apply it in a ''Secondary emission enhanced photo-injector'', in which a diamond cathode is coated with a metallic film on its back to serve as a current path. The thickness of the film is originally considered to be in the order of 10 nm, which is much less than the skin depth, by a factor of almost 200. One would think intuitively that the RF filed would penetrate such a thin film. However, we found it is not true. The film will block most of the field. This paper addresses theoretical analysis as well as the experimental results, and demonstrates that the penetrability of a thin film is very poor. Consequently, most of the RF current will flow on the thin film causing a serious heating problem.

  7. Method for improving the oxidation-resistance of metal substrates coated with thermal barrier coatings

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Anthony Mark; Gray, Dennis Michael; Jackson, Melvin Robert

    2002-01-01

    A method for providing a protective coating on a metal-based substrate is disclosed. The method involves the application of an aluminum-rich mixture to the substrate to form a discontinuous layer of aluminum-rich particles, followed by the application of a second coating over the discontinuous layer of aluminum-rich particles. Aluminum diffuses from the aluminum-rich layer into the substrate, and into any bond coat layer which is subsequently applied. Related articles are also described.

  8. Fabrication of metal-coated carbon nanowalls synthesized by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangjoon; Choi, Won Seok; Yoo, Jinsu; Lim, Dong-Gun; Kim, Hyung Jin; Lee, Hyeoung-Jae; Hong, Byungyou

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the coating of synthesized carbon nanowalls (CNWs) with various metal layers (Ni, Cu, and W) was investigated. CNWs were synthesized by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) with a methane (CH4) and hydrogen (H2) gas mixture on a p-type Si wafer, and then coated with metal films (Ni, Cu, and W) using an RF magnetron sputtering system with four-inch targets. Different sputtering times (5, 10, 20, and 30 min) were established to obtain different thicknesses of the metal layers with which the CNWs were coated. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) was used to examine the cross-sectional and planar conditions of the CNWs, and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was used to analyze the CNW elements. The FE-SEM analysis of the cross-sectional and planar images confirmed that the metal layers were synthesized to a depth of 0.5 μm from the surfaces of the CNWs, and to a greater depth at the ends of the CNWs, irrespective of the deposition time and the metal species. The resistivity of the as-deposited CNWs appeared as 4.18 x 10(-3) Ω cm; that of the metal-coated CNWs was slightly lower; and that of the Ni-coated CNWs was the lowest (1.74 x 10(-3) Ω cm). The mobility of the metal-coated CNWs was almost unchanged, and that of the as-deposited CNWs was 1.23 x 10(3) cm2 V(-1) s(-1). PMID:25971035

  9. Nanostructured multilayer polyelectrolyte films with silver nanoparticles as antibacterial coatings.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Tomasz; Szczepanowicz, Krzysztof; Kręgiel, Dorota; Szyk-Warszyńska, L; Warszyński, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Ultrathin polyelectrolyte films containing silver nanoparticles appear to be a promising material for antimicrobial coatings used in the medical area. The present work is focused on the formation of multilayer polyelectrolyte films using: polyethyleneimine (PEI) as polycation, Poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) as polyanions and negatively charged silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), which led to the polyelectrolyte-silver nanocomposite coatings. The film thickness and mass were measured by ellipsometry and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and the structure and morphology of films were visualized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Systematic increase of the UV-Vis absorption confirmed formation of the consecutive layers of the film. The analysis of bacteria cell adhesion to films surface was done by the luminometry measurement. Three gram-negative bacterial strains with strong adhesive properties were used in this study: Escherichia coli, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Asaia lannenesis. It was found that nanocomposite films have antimicrobial properties, which makes them very interesting for a number of practical applications, e.g. for the prevention of microbial colonization on treated surfaces. PMID:26193773

  10. Growth of ZnO thin films doped with (Mn & Co) by spin coating technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhruvashi, Rawat, Kusum; Shishodia, P. K.

    2016-05-01

    ZnO thin films co-doped with Mn and Co have been deposited on glass substrates by spin coating technique. Structural, optical and magnetic properties have been investigated as a function of dopant concentration. X-ray diffraction has confirmed the growth of c-axis oriented polycrystalline thin films. No impurity phases have been detected corresponding to metal oxides within the limitation of x-ray diffraction. The optical bandgap has been evaluated from tauc's plots derived from the transmittance spectra in the wavelength range 350-900 nm. Surface morphology of the films has been observed by field emission scanning electron microscope. The field dependence of magnetization (M-H curve) measured by vibrating sample magnetometer shows the ferromagnetic behavior of the films at room temperature. The magnetization versus temperature (M-T) curve has also been measured under zero field cooled and field cooled conditions.

  11. Soap-film coating: High-speed deposition of multilayer nanofilms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Renyun; Andersson, Henrik A.; Andersson, Mattias; Andres, Britta; Edlund, Håkan; Edström, Per; Edvardsson, Sverker; Forsberg, Sven; Hummelgård, Magnus; Johansson, Niklas; Karlsson, Kristoffer; Nilsson, Hans-Erik; Norgren, Magnus; Olsen, Martin; Uesaka, Tetsu; Öhlund, Thomas; Olin, Håkan

    2013-01-01

    The coating of thin films is applied in numerous fields and many methods are employed for the deposition of these films. Some coating techniques may deposit films at high speed; for example, ordinary printing paper is coated with micrometre-thick layers of clay at a speed of tens of meters per second. However, to coat nanometre thin films at high speed, vacuum techniques are typically required, which increases the complexity of the process. Here, we report a simple wet chemical method for the high-speed coating of films with thicknesses at the nanometre level. This soap-film coating technique is based on forcing a substrate through a soap film that contains nanomaterials. Molecules and nanomaterials can be deposited at a thickness ranging from less than a monolayer to several layers at speeds up to meters per second. We believe that the soap-film coating method is potentially important for industrial-scale nanotechnology. PMID:23503102

  12. Protective lithium ion conducting ceramic coating for lithium metal anodes and associate method

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John B.

    1994-01-01

    A battery structure including a cathode, a lithium metal anode and an electrolyte disposed between the lithium anode and the cathode utilizes a thin-film layer of lithium phosphorus oxynitride overlying so as to coat the lithium anode and thereby separate the lithium anode from the electrolyte. If desired, a preliminary layer of lithium nitride may be coated upon the lithium anode before the lithium phosphorous oxynitride is, in turn, coated upon the lithium anode so that the separation of the anode and the electrolyte is further enhanced. By coating the lithium anode with this material lay-up, the life of the battery is lengthened and the performance of the battery is enhanced.

  13. Magnetoelastic sensor for characterizing properties of thin-film/coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachas, Leonidas G. (Inventor); Barrett, Gary (Inventor); Grimes, Craig A. (Inventor); Kouzoudis, Dimitris (Inventor); Schmidt, Stefan (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An apparatus for determining elasticity characteristics of a thin-film layer. The apparatus comprises a sensor element having a base magnetostrictive element at least one surface of which is at least partially coated with the thin-film layer. The thin-film layer may be of a variety of materials (having a synthetic and/or bio-component) in a state or form capable of being deposited, manually or otherwise, on the base element surface, such as by way of eye-dropper, melting, dripping, brushing, sputtering, spraying, etching, evaporation, dip-coating, laminating, etc. Among suitable thin-film layers for the sensor element of the invention are fluent bio-substances, thin-film deposits used in manufacturing processes, polymeric coatings, paint, an adhesive, and so on. A receiver, preferably remotely located, is used to measure a plurality of values for magneto-elastic emission intensity of the sensor element in either characterization: (a) the measure of the plurality of values is used to identify a magneto-elastic resonant frequency value for the sensor element; and (b) the measure of the plurality of successive values is done at a preselected magneto-elastic frequency.

  14. Coatings Preserve Metal, Stone, Tile, and Concrete

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    John B. Schutt, a chemist at Goddard Space Flight Center, created a coating for spacecraft that could resist corrosion and withstand high heat. After retiring from NASA, Schutt used his expertise to create new formulations for Daytona Beach, Florida-based Adsil Corporation, which now manufactures a family of coatings to preserve various surfaces. Adsil has created 150 jobs due to the products.

  15. Improved metallic and thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecura, S.

    1981-01-01

    Low thermal conductivity two layer ceramic coatings are efficient thermal barriers between cooled matallic components and high temperature combustion gases. Potential components are combustors, blades, and vanes in aircraft engines of power-generating turbines. Presence of two layer coatings greatly reduces temperature and coolant requirements.

  16. Interfacial bond strength of electrophoretically deposited hydroxyapatite coatings on metals.

    PubMed

    Wei, M; Ruys, A J; Swain, M V; Kim, S H; Milthorpe, B K; Sorrell, C C

    1999-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) coatings were deposited onto substrates of metal biomaterials (Ti, Ti6Al4V, and 316L stainless steel) by electrophoretic deposition (EPD). Only ultra-high surface area HAp powder, prepared by the metathesis method 10Ca(NO3)2 + 6(NH4)2HPO4 + 8NH4OH), could produce dense coatings when sintered at 875-1000degreesC. Single EPD coatings cracked during sintering owing to the 15-18% sintering shrinkage, but the HAp did not decompose. The use of dual coatings (coat, sinter, coat, sinter) resolved the cracking problem. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) inspection revealed that the second coating filled in the "valleys" in the cracks of the first coating. The interfacial shear strength of the dual coatings was found, by ASTM F1044-87, to be approximately 12 MPa on a titanium substrate and approximately 22 MPa on 316L stainless steel, comparing quite favorably with the 34 MPa benchmark (the shear strength of bovine cortical bone was found to be 34 MPa). Stainless steel gave the better result since -316L (20.5 microm mK(-1)) > alpha-HAp (approximately 14 microm mK(-1)), resulting in residual compressive stresses in the coating, whereas alpha-titanium (approximately 10.3 microm mK(-1)) < alpha-HAp, resulting in residual tensile stresses in the coating. PMID:15348125

  17. State of Upright Metal-Coated Carbon Nanotwists Treated by Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugioka, Yuki; Suda, Yoshiyuki; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Tanoue, Hideto; Ue, Hitoshi; Shimizu, Kazuki; Umeda, Yoshito

    2011-10-01

    We have used carbon nanotwists (CNTws) as a base material of field emitter (FE), and CNTws were treated with dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) to make CNTws stand up on substrate. In this study, we coated metal on the surface of FE and then treated the FE with DBD. FE was prepared by screen-printing of the CNTw paste to Si or indium-tin-oxide (ITO) substrate. Cu or Pt film was coated on the FE surface by an ion coater, and Al film coated by vacuum evaporation. A thickness was 10 nm. The experimental conditions for the DBD treatment were as follows: discharge gas, N2; gas flow rate, 2 L/min; discharge output power, 300 W; process time, 30 s; and gap distance, 0.75 mm. Lengths of upright CNTws (LCNTw) between dots with Al, Cu, and Pt were 2.7 μm, 6.9 μm, and 8.1 μm, respectively. LCNTw on the dot with Al, Cu, and Pt coatings were 2.4 μm, 2.3 μm, and 1.7 μm, respectively. The FE characteristics of the CNTw coated with Cu film were as follows: the threshold electric field, 2.4 V/ μm the emission current density at 9 V/ μm, 555.8 μA/cm2.

  18. Metallic and Ceramic Thin Film Thermocouples for Gas Turbine Engines

    PubMed Central

    Tougas, Ian M.; Amani, Matin; Gregory, Otto J.

    2013-01-01

    Temperatures of hot section components in today's gas turbine engines reach as high as 1,500 °C, making in situ monitoring of the severe temperature gradients within the engine rather difficult. Therefore, there is a need to develop instrumentation (i.e., thermocouples and strain gauges) for these turbine engines that can survive these harsh environments. Refractory metal and ceramic thin film thermocouples are well suited for this task since they have excellent chemical and electrical stability at high temperatures in oxidizing atmospheres, they are compatible with thermal barrier coatings commonly employed in today's engines, they have greater sensitivity than conventional wire thermocouples, and they are non-invasive to combustion aerodynamics in the engine. Thin film thermocouples based on platinum:palladium and indium oxynitride:indium tin oxynitride as well as their oxide counterparts have been developed for this purpose and have proven to be more stable than conventional type-S and type-K thin film thermocouples. The metallic and ceramic thin film thermocouples described within this paper exhibited remarkable stability and drift rates similar to bulk (wire) thermocouples. PMID:24217356

  19. Metallic and ceramic thin film thermocouples for gas turbine engines.

    PubMed

    Tougas, Ian M; Amani, Matin; Gregory, Otto J

    2013-01-01

    Temperatures of hot section components in today's gas turbine engines reach as high as 1,500 °C, making in situ monitoring of the severe temperature gradients within the engine rather difficult. Therefore, there is a need to develop instrumentation (i.e., thermocouples and strain gauges) for these turbine engines that can survive these harsh environments. Refractory metal and ceramic thin film thermocouples are well suited for this task since they have excellent chemical and electrical stability at high temperatures in oxidizing atmospheres, they are compatible with thermal barrier coatings commonly employed in today's engines, they have greater sensitivity than conventional wire thermocouples, and they are non-invasive to combustion aerodynamics in the engine. Thin film thermocouples based on platinum:palladium and indium oxynitride:indium tin oxynitride as well as their oxide counterparts have been developed for this purpose and have proven to be more stable than conventional type-S and type-K thin film thermocouples. The metallic and ceramic thin film thermocouples described within this paper exhibited remarkable stability and drift rates similar to bulk (wire) thermocouples. PMID:24217356

  20. Spray forming polymer membranes, coatings and films

    DOEpatents

    McHugh, K.M.; Watson, L.D.; McAtee, R.E.; Ploger, S.A.

    1993-10-12

    A method is described for forming a polymer film having controlled physical and chemical characteristics, wherein a plume of nebulized droplets of a polymer or polymer precursor is directed toward a substrate from a converging/diverging nozzle having a throat at which the polymer or a precursor thereof is introduced and an exit from which the nebulized droplets of the polymer or precursor thereof leave entrained in a carrier gas. Relative movement between the nozzle and the substrate is provided to form a polymer film. Physical and chemical characteristics can be controlled by varying the deposition parameters and the gas and liquid chemistries. Semipermeable membranes of polyphosphazene films are disclosed, as are a variety of other polymer systems, both porous and non-porous. 4 figures.

  1. Spray forming polymer membranes, coatings and films

    DOEpatents

    McHugh, Kevin M.; Watson, Lloyd D.; McAtee, Richard E.; Ploger, Scott A.

    1993-01-01

    A method of forming a polymer film having controlled physical and chemical characteristics, wherein a plume of nebulized droplets of a polymer or polymer precursor is directed toward a substrate from a converging/diverging nozzle having a throat at which the polymer or a precursor thereof is introduced and an exit from which the nebulized droplets of the polymer or precursor thereof leave entrained in a carrier gas. Relative movement between the nozzle and the substrate is provided to form a polymer film. Physical and chemical characteristics can be controlled by varying the deposition parameters and the gas and liquid chemistries. Semipermeable membranes of polyphosphazene films are disclosed, as are a variety of other polymer systems, both porous and non-porous.

  2. Design of high-sensitivity metal-coated LPFG sensor based on material dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yan-jun; Gu, Zheng-tian

    2012-07-01

    A high-sensitivity metal-coated long-period fiber grating (LPFG) sensor based on material dispersion is designed. Based on the coupled mode theory, the influence of the material dispersion on the dual-peak characteristics of the metal-coated LPFG is studied. After considering the material dispersion, the jumping region of the dual-resonant-wavelength shifts toward the thinner film thickness, and the sensitivity of the dual-peak metal-coated LPFG sensor to liquid refractive index (RI) can be obtained to supply accurate parameter combinations. Experimentally, two kinds of silver-coated LPFGs with different film thicknesses and grating periods are fabricated to monitor the salt solution, and the sensitivities of these two sensors are compared. The experimental results are consistent with the theoretical analyses. This work has been supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.60777035), the Scientific Research Key Project Fund (No. 208040), the Innovation Program of Shanghai Municipal Education Commission (No.11ZZ131), and the Shanghai Leading Academic Discipline Project (No.S30502).

  3. Thin films by metal-organic precursor plasma spray

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, Douglas L.; Sailer, Robert A.; Payne, Scott; Leach, James; Molz, Ronald J.

    2009-07-15

    While most plasma spray routes to coatings utilize solids as the precursor feedstock, metal-organic precursor plasma spray (MOPPS) is an area that the authors have investigated recently as a novel route to thin film materials. Very thin films are possible via MOPPS and the technology offers the possibility of forming graded structures by metering the liquid feed. The current work employs metal-organic compounds that are liquids at standard temperature-pressure conditions. In addition, these complexes contain chemical functionality that allows straightforward thermolytic transformation to targeted phases of interest. Toward that end, aluminum 3,5-heptanedionate (Al(hd){sub 3}), triethylsilane (HSi(C{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 3} or HSiEt{sub 3}), and titanium tetrakisdiethylamide (Ti(N(C{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 2}){sub 4} or Ti(NEt{sub 2}){sub 4}) were employed as precursors to aluminum oxide, silicon carbide, and titanium nitride, respectively. In all instances, the liquids contain metal-heteroatom bonds envisioned to provide atomic concentrations of the appropriate reagents at the film growth surface, thus promoting phase formation (e.g., Si-C bond in triethylsilane, Ti-N bond in titanium amide, etc.). Films were deposited using a Sulzer Metco TriplexPro-200 plasma spray system under various experimental conditions using design of experiment principles. Film compositions were analyzed by glazing incidence x-ray diffraction and elemental determination by x-ray spectroscopy. MOPPS films from HSiEt{sub 3} showed the formation of SiC phase but Al(hd){sub 3}-derived films were amorphous. The Ti(NEt{sub 2}){sub 4} precursor gave MOPPS films that appear to consist of nanosized splats of TiOCN with spheres of TiO{sub 2} anatase. While all films in this study suffered from poor adhesion, it is anticipated that the use of heated substrates will aid in the formation of dense, adherent films.

  4. ''Green'' Biopolymers for Improved Decontamination of Metals from Surfaces: Sorptive Characterization and Coating Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, Brian H.

    2002-04-30

    The proposed research aimed to develop a fundamental understanding of important biological and physical chemical parameters for effective decontamination of metal surfaces using environmentally benign aqueous-based biopolymer solutions. Understanding how heavy metal-chelating biopolymers coat and interact with contaminated surfaces will benefit the development of novel, safe, easy-to-apply decontamination methodologies for removal of radionuclides and heavy metals. The benefits of these methodologies include the following: decreased exposure hazards for workers; decreased secondary waste generation; increased efficiency of decontamination; positive public appeal and development of novel, nature-friendly business opportunities; and lower cost of cleanup to the government. We proposed to use aqueous biopolymer solutions to coat a contaminated metal surface (i.e., steel), solubilize the heavy metals (e.g., uranium) from the surface, and bind the heavy metals into the biopolymer. The biopolymer coating (containing the immobilized hazardous metal contaminants) was to be removed as a viscous film, as a dry powder, or by washing. This ''apply, wait, and remove'' procedure will reduce the amount of worker time spent in decontamination activities.

  5. ''Green'' Biopolymers for Improved Decontamination of Metals from Surfaces: Sorptive Characterization and Coating Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, Brian H.; Kurtiz,Tanya

    1999-06-01

    The proposed research aims to develop a fundamental understanding of important biological and physical chemical parameters for effective decontamination of metal surfaces using environmentally benign aqueous-based biopolymer solutions. Understanding how heavy metal-chelating biopolymers coat and interact with contaminated surfaces will benefit the development of novel, safe, easy-to-apply decontamination methodologies for removal of radionuclides and heavy metals. The benefits of these methodologies will include the following: (1) decreased exposure hazards for workers; (2) decreased secondary waste generation; (3) increased efficiency of decontamination; (4) positive public appeal and development of novel, nature-friendly business opportunities; and (5) lower cost of cleanup to the government. We propose to use aqueous biopolymer solutions to coat a contaminated metal surface (i.e., steel), solubilize the heavy metals (e.g., uranium) from the surface, and bind the heavy metals into the biopolymer. The biopolymer coating (containing the immobilized hazardous metal contaminants) will then be removed as a viscous film, as a dry powder, or by washing. This ''apply, wait, and remove'' procedure will reduce the amount of worker time spent in decontamination activities.

  6. ''Green'' Biopolymers for Improved Decontamination of Metals from Surfaces: Sorptive Characterization and Coating Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, Brian H.; Kuritz, Tanya

    2000-06-01

    The proposed research aims to develop a fundamental understanding of important biological and physical chemical parameters for effective decontamination of metal surfaces using environmentally benign aqueous-based biopolymer solutions. Understanding how heavy metal-chelating biopolymers coat and interact with contaminated surfaces will benefit the development of novel, safe, easy-to-apply decontamination methodologies for removal of radionuclides and heavy metals. The benefits of these methodologies will include the following: (1) decreased exposure hazards for workers; (2) decreased secondary waste generation; (3) increased efficiency of decontamination; (4) positive public appeal and development of novel, nature-friendly business opportunities; and (5) lower cost of cleanup to the government. We propose to use aqueous biopolymer solutions to coat a contaminated metal surface (i.e., steel), solubilize the heavy metals (e.g., uranium) from the surface, and bind the heavy metals into the biopolymer. The biopolymer coating (containing the immobilized hazardous metal contaminants) will then be removed as a viscous film, as a dry powder, or by washing. This ''apply, wait, and remove'' procedure will reduce the amount of worker time spent in decontamination activities.

  7. Thin film synthesis using miniature pulsed metal vapor vacuum arc plasma guns

    SciTech Connect

    Godechot, X.; Salmeron, M.B.; Ogletree, D.F.; Galvin, J.E.; MacGill, R.A.; Dickinson, M.R.; Yu, K.M.; Brown, I.G.

    1990-04-01

    Metallic coatings can be fabricated using the intense plasma generated by the metal vapor vacuum arc. We have made and tested an embodiment of vacuum arc plasma source that operates in a pulsed mode, thereby acquiring precise control over the plasma flux and so also over the deposition rate, and that is in the form of a miniature plasma gun, thereby allowing deposition of metallic thin films to be carried out in confined spaces and also allowing a number of such guns to be clustered together. The plasma is created at the cathode spots on the metallic cathode surface, and is highly ionized and of directed energy a few tens of electron volts. Adhesion of the film to the substrate is thus good. Virtually all of the solid metals of the Periodic Table can be used, including highly refractory metals like tantalum and tungsten. Films, including multilayer thin films, can be fabricated of thickness from Angstroms to microns. We have carried out preliminary experiments using several different versions of miniature, pulsed, metal vapor vacuum arc plasma guns to fabricate metallic thin films and multilayers. Here we describe the plasma guns and their operation in this application, and present examples of some of the thin film structures we have fabricated, including yttrium and platinum films of thicknesses from a few hundred Angstroms up to 1 micron and an yttrium-cobalt multilayer structure of layer thickness about 100 Angstroms. 33 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Corrosion-resistant amorphous metallic films of Mo49Cr33B18 alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, R.; Distefano, S.; Fitzgerald, D.; Thakoor, A. P.; Khanna, S. K.

    1987-01-01

    Corrosion-resistant amorphous metallic alloy films of Mo49Cr33B18 with a crystallization temperature of 590 C were deposited onto glass and quartz substrates by magnetron sputter-quench technique. The amorphous nature of the films was confirmed by their diffuse X-ray diffraction patterns. The deposited films are densely packed (zone T) and exhibit low stress and good adhesion to the substrate. Corrosion current of as-deposited coating of MoCrB amorphous metallic alloy is approximately three orders of magnitude less than the corrosion current of 304 stainless steel in 1N H2SO4 solution.

  9. Nanoindentation of functionally graded hybrid polymer/metal thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, J.; Piedade, A. P.

    2013-11-01

    Hybrid functionally graded coatings (2D-FGC) were deposited by magnetron co-sputtering from poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) and AISI 316L stainless steel (316L) targets. The carbon and fluorine content varied from 7.3 to 23.7 at.% and from 0 to 57 at.%, respectively. The surface modification was developed to change the surface of 316L vascular stents in order to improve the biocompatibility of the outmost layer of the metallic biomaterial. In-depth XPS analysis revealed the presence of a graded chemical composition accompanied by the variation of the film structure. These results were complemented by those of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis that highlighted the nanocomposite nature of the coatings. The nanomechanical characterization of 2D-FGC was performed by nanoindentation at several loads on the thin films deposited onto two different steel substrates: 316L and AISI M2. The study allowed establishing 0.7 mN as the load that characterized the coatings without substrate influence. Both hardness and Young modulus decrease with the increase of fluorine content due to the evolution in chemical composition, chemical bonds and structure.

  10. Reproducibility of electrochemical noise data from coated metal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bierwagen, G.P.; Mills, D.J.; Tallman, D.E.; Skerry, B.S.

    1996-12-31

    The use of electrochemical noise (ECN) as a method to characterize the corrosion-protection properties of organic coatings on metal substrates was pioneered by Skerry and Eden, and since then has been used by others as a probe for coating metal corrosion studies. However, no statistical examination of the reproducibility of the data from such measurements has been published. In the data the authors present, they have done a systematic analysis of important experimental variables in such systems. They have examined the method for accuracy and reproducibility with respect to sample preparation, sample immersion, and metal substrate preparation. They have taken several marine coatings systems typical of US Navy use, prepared duplicate samples of coating metal systems, and examined them under the same immersion exposure. The variables they considered for reproducibility are paint application (in three-coat systems), metal panel preparation (grit-blasted steel), and immersion conditions. The authors present ECN data with respect to immersion time on the values of noise voltage standard deviation {sigma}{sub V}, noise current standard deviation {sigma}{sub I}, and the noise resistance R{sub n} as given by {sigma}{sub V}/{sigma}{sub I}. The variation among supposedly identical sample pairs in identical immersion monitored under identical conditions is presented. The statistics of the time records of the data are considered, and the variations with respect to specific coatings classes are also considered within the limits of the data. Based on these data, comments concerning ECN on coated metal systems as a predictive test method are presented along with special considerations that must be made to properly use the method for coating ranking and lifetime prediction.

  11. 21 CFR 888.3358 - Hip joint metal/polymer/metal semi-constrained porous-coated uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hip joint metal/polymer/metal semi-constrained... Devices § 888.3358 Hip joint metal/polymer/metal semi-constrained porous-coated uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A hip joint metal/polymer/metal semi-constrained porous-coated uncemented prosthesis is a...

  12. 21 CFR 888.3358 - Hip joint metal/polymer/metal semi-constrained porous-coated uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hip joint metal/polymer/metal semi-constrained... Devices § 888.3358 Hip joint metal/polymer/metal semi-constrained porous-coated uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A hip joint metal/polymer/metal semi-constrained porous-coated uncemented prosthesis is a...

  13. 21 CFR 888.3358 - Hip joint metal/polymer/metal semi-constrained porous-coated uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hip joint metal/polymer/metal semi-constrained... Devices § 888.3358 Hip joint metal/polymer/metal semi-constrained porous-coated uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A hip joint metal/polymer/metal semi-constrained porous-coated uncemented prosthesis is a...

  14. 21 CFR 888.3358 - Hip joint metal/polymer/metal semi-constrained porous-coated uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hip joint metal/polymer/metal semi-constrained... Devices § 888.3358 Hip joint metal/polymer/metal semi-constrained porous-coated uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A hip joint metal/polymer/metal semi-constrained porous-coated uncemented prosthesis is a...

  15. 21 CFR 888.3358 - Hip joint metal/polymer/metal semi-constrained porous-coated uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hip joint metal/polymer/metal semi-constrained... Devices § 888.3358 Hip joint metal/polymer/metal semi-constrained porous-coated uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A hip joint metal/polymer/metal semi-constrained porous-coated uncemented prosthesis is a...

  16. Skylab D024 thermal control coatings and polymeric films experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehn, William L.; Hurley, Charles J.

    1992-01-01

    The Skylab D024 Thermal Control Coatings and Polymeric Films Experiment was designed to determine the effects of the external Skylab space environment on the performance and properties of a wide variety of selected thermal control coatings and polymeric films. Three duplicate sets of thermal control coatings and polymeric films were exposed to the Skylab space environment for varying periods of time during the mission. The specimens were retrieved by the astronauts during extravehicular activities (EVA) and placed in hermetically sealed return containers, recovered, and returned to the Wright Laboratory/Materials Laboratory/WPAFB, Ohio for analysis and evaluation. Postflight analysis of the three sets of recovered thermal control coatings indicated that measured changes in specimen thermo-optical properties were due to a combination of excessive contamination and solar degradation of the contaminant layer. The degree of degradation experienced over-rode, obscured, and compromised the measurement of the degradation of the substrate coatings themselves. Results of the analysis of the effects of exposure on the polymeric films and the contamination observed are also presented. The D024 results were used in the design of the LDEF M0003-5 Thermal Control Materials Experiment. The results are presented here to call to the attention of the many other LDEF experimenters the wealth of directly related, low earth orbit, space environmental exposure data that is available from the ten or more separate experiments that were conducted during the Skylab mission. Results of these experiments offer data on the results of low altitude space exposure on materials recovered from space with exposure longer than typical STS experiments for comparison with the LDEF results.

  17. Recent innovations in the area of edible films and coatings.

    PubMed

    Maftoonazad, Neda; Badii, Fojan; Shahamirian, Maryam

    2013-12-01

    Edible films/coatings have been considered as one of the potential technologies that can be used to increase the storability of foods and to improve the existent packaging technology, helping to ensure the microbial safety and the preservation of food from the influence of external factors. Innovations constantly appear in food packaging, always aiming at creating a more efficient quality preservation system while improving foods' attractiveness and marketability. The utilization of renewable sources for packaging materials, such as hydrocolloids and lipids from biological origin, is one the main trends of the industry. These films should have acceptable sensory characteristics, appropriate barrier properties (CO2, O2, water, oil), microbial, biochemical and physicochemical stability, they should be safe, and produced by simple technology in low cost. Also they can act as effective carrier for antioxidant, flavor, color and nutritional or anti-microbial additives. Nowadays, a great discussion exists about the potential applications of edible films/coatings on food products. The general trend is to find the correct combination between the food product and the edible film/coating, which will ensure the success of the technology. PMID:24294943

  18. Instabilities of structured metal films on nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Nanyi; Wu, Yueying; Fowlkes, Jason; Rack, Philip; Kondic, Lou

    2014-11-01

    We consider instabilities of metal films on nanoscale, with particular focus on the interplay between the initial geometry and instability development. In experiments, metal films are deposited lithographically, allowing for precise control of the initial shape, and then exposed to laser pulses that liquefy them. The considered geometries involve various shapes (cylinders or prisms) superimposed on top of a flat film. We consider this problem within the framework of the long wave (lubrication) theory. Our simulations show that the main features of the instability development could be captured, as long as destabilizing liquid-solid interaction is considered in the model. We conclude by discussing the influence of the distance between the imposed perturbations, their shape, as well as experimental noise on the evolution. Supported by NSF Grant No. CBET-1235710.

  19. Molecular insights into shellac film coats from different aqueous shellac salt solutions and effect on disintegration of enteric-coated soft gelatin capsules.

    PubMed

    Al-Gousous, J; Penning, M; Langguth, P

    2015-04-30

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the effect of using different salts of shellac on the disintegration properties of shellac-based enteric coatings. In the last two decades, shellac has been increasingly used as an aqueous solution for enteric coating purposes, with the ammonium salt being the form typically used. Little investigation has been performed on using other salts, and therefore, this was the focus of our work. Enteric coatings, based on different shellac salts (ammonium, sodium, potassium and composite ammonium-sodium), were applied onto soft gelatin capsules. Disintegration testing of the coated soft gelatin capsules showed that alkali metal salts promote faster disintegration than ammonium salts. In order to determine the causes behind these differences, the solubility, thermal and spectroscopic properties of films cast from the different salts were investigated. The results show that films cast from ammonium-based salts of shellac are, unlike those cast from alkali metal-based salts, water-insoluble. Spectroscopic evidence suggests that this might be due to partial salt dissociation resulting in loss of ammonium as ammonia and reduced degree of shellac ionization during drying. In addition, oxidation of shellac aldehyde groups of the ammonium-based shellac salts could also play a role. And possible higher extent of shellac hydrolysis during the preparation of alkali metal salts might also be a factor. Therefore, the nature of the shellac salt used in the preparation of shellac-based aqueous coating solutions is a significant formulation factor affecting product performance. PMID:25578368

  20. Micro-Scratch Study of a Magnetron-Sputtered Zr-Based Metallic-Glass Film

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, F. X.; Yang, F. Q.; Gao, Yanfei; Jiang, W. H.; Guan, Y F; Rack, P. D.; Sergic, O.; Liaw, Peter K

    2009-01-01

    Using the micro-scratch technique, the tribological behavior of ZrCuAlNi metallic-glass coatings on 316L stainless steel was studied. With the application of ramping normal loads, the critical normal loads of about 110 mN were determined, at which the coefficient of friction increased sharply and the indenter penetration depth exceeded the film thickness. No clear evidence of coating debonding has been found, which, together with the observation of multiple shear bands, indicates good adhesion and ductility of the metallic-glass coating. When subjected to constant normal loads, the coefficient of friction increased rapidly once the critical normal load was passed. The scratch results and the scanning-electron microscopy observations indicated good adhesion between the coating and the substrate, which may be due to the good interfacial bonding and low coating residual stress.

  1. Coatings and films derived from clay/wax nanocomposites

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, David J.; Leyva, Argentina A.

    2006-11-14

    The invention provides methods for making clay/wax nanocomposites and coatings and films of same with improved chemical resistance and gas barrier properties. The invention further provides methods for making and using emulsions of such clay/wax nanocomposites. Typically, an organophillic clay is combined with a wax or wax/polymer blend such that the cohesion energy of the clay matches that of the wax or wax/polymer blend. Suitable organophilic clays include mica and phyllosilicates that have been surface-treated with edge or edge and surface modifying agents. The resulting nanocomposites have applications as industrial coatings and in protective packaging.

  2. Solution processable broadband transparent mixed metal oxide nanofilm optical coatings via substrate diffusion doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glynn, Colm; Aureau, Damien; Collins, Gillian; O'Hanlon, Sally; Etcheberry, Arnaud; O'Dwyer, Colm

    2015-11-01

    Devices composed of transparent materials, particularly those utilizing metal oxides, are of significant interest due to increased demand from industry for higher fidelity transparent thin film transistors, photovoltaics and a myriad of other optoelectronic devices and optics that require more cost-effective and simplified processing techniques for functional oxides and coatings. Here, we report a facile solution processed technique for the formation of a transparent thin film through an inter-diffusion process involving substrate dopant species at a range of low annealing temperatures compatible with processing conditions required by many state-of-the-art devices. The inter-diffusion process facilitates the movement of Si, Na and O species from the substrate into the as-deposited vanadium oxide thin film forming a composite fully transparent V0.0352O0.547Si0.4078Na0.01. Thin film X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering spectroscopy show the crystalline component of the structure to be α-NaVO3 within a glassy matrix. This optical coating exhibits high broadband transparency, exceeding 90-97% absolute transmission across the UV-to-NIR spectral range, while having low roughness and free of surface defects and pinholes. The production of transparent films for advanced optoelectronic devices, optical coatings, and low- or high-k oxides is important for planar or complex shaped optics or surfaces. It provides opportunities for doping metal oxides to ternary, quaternary or other mixed metal oxides on glass, encapsulants or other substrates that facilitate diffusional movement of dopant species.Devices composed of transparent materials, particularly those utilizing metal oxides, are of significant interest due to increased demand from industry for higher fidelity transparent thin film transistors, photovoltaics and a myriad of other optoelectronic devices and optics that require more cost-effective and simplified processing techniques for functional oxides and coatings. Here, we report a facile solution processed technique for the formation of a transparent thin film through an inter-diffusion process involving substrate dopant species at a range of low annealing temperatures compatible with processing conditions required by many state-of-the-art devices. The inter-diffusion process facilitates the movement of Si, Na and O species from the substrate into the as-deposited vanadium oxide thin film forming a composite fully transparent V0.0352O0.547Si0.4078Na0.01. Thin film X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering spectroscopy show the crystalline component of the structure to be α-NaVO3 within a glassy matrix. This optical coating exhibits high broadband transparency, exceeding 90-97% absolute transmission across the UV-to-NIR spectral range, while having low roughness and free of surface defects and pinholes. The production of transparent films for advanced optoelectronic devices, optical coatings, and low- or high-k oxides is important for planar or complex shaped optics or surfaces. It provides opportunities for doping metal oxides to ternary, quaternary or other mixed metal oxides on glass, encapsulants or other substrates that facilitate diffusional movement of dopant species. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06184a

  3. Chitosan based edible films and coatings: a review.

    PubMed

    Elsabee, Maher Z; Abdou, Entsar S

    2013-05-01

    Chitosan is a biodegradable biocompatible polymer derived from natural renewable resources with numerous applications in various fields, and one of which is the area of edible films and coatings. Chitosan has antibacterial and antifungal properties which qualify it for food protection, however, its weak mechanical properties, gas and water vapor permeability limit its uses. This review discusses the application of chitosan and its blends with other natural polymers such as starch and other ingredients for example essential oils, and clay in the field of edible films for food protection. The mechanical behavior and the gas and water vapor permeability of the films are also discussed. References dealing with the antimicrobial behavior of these films and their impact on food protection are explored. PMID:23498203

  4. Measurements and Diagnostics of Diamond Films and Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Wu, Richard L. C.

    1999-01-01

    The commercial potential of chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) diamond films has been established and a number of applications have been identified through university, industry, and government research studies. This paper discusses the methodologies used for property measurement and diagnostic of CVD diamond films and coatings. Measurement and diagnostic techniques studied include scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, stylus profilometry, x-ray diffraction, electron diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering, elastic recoil spectroscopy, and friction examination. Each measurement and diagnostic technique provides unique information. A combination of techniques can provide the technical information required to understand the quality and properties of CVD diamond films, which are important to their application in specific component systems and environments. In this study the combination of measurement and diagnostic techniques was successfully applied to correlate deposition parameters and resultant diamond film composition, crystallinity, grain size, surface roughness, and coefficient of friction.

  5. Performance improvement by metal-dielectric HR coating in laterally coupled DFB laser with metal surface gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, S. J.; Yeo, C. I.; Yu, J. S.; Lee, Y. T.

    2010-09-01

    We report the device characteristics of the metal-dielectric high-reflectivity (HR) coated 1.55 μm laterally coupled distributed feedback (DFB) laser with metal surface gratings by using holographic lithography. The HR coating films are composed of Au/Ti/SiO2. It provides a variety of advantages compared to the uncoated DFB laser on the same processed wafer while there is no degradation on current-voltage characteristics. For 3 μm wide and 300 μm long HR coated DFB laser, it exhibits a maximum output power of ˜17 mW and a threshold current of 14.2 mA at 20°C under continuous-wave mode. It is clear that the threshold current and slope efficiency are improved by 36% and 96%, respectively, due to the reduction of mirror loss. The metal-dielectric HR coating on one facet of DFB laser is found to have significantly increased characteristic temperature (i.e., T 0˜88 K). Furthermore, the stable single-mode operation with an increased single-mode suppression ratio was achieved.

  6. Diamond-like carbon coatings for the protection of metallic artefacts: effect on the aesthetic appearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraldi, Federica; Angelini, Emma; Caschera, Daniela; Mezzi, Alessio; Riccucci, Cristina; Caro, Tilde De

    2014-03-01

    Plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) is an environmentally friendly process used to deposit a variety of nano-structured coatings for the protection or the surface modification of metallic artefacts like the SiO2-like films that have been successfully tested on ancient silver, bronze and iron artefacts as barriers against aggressive agents. This paper deals with the preliminary results of a wider investigation aimed to the development of eco-sustainable coatings for the protection of Cu and Ag-based artefacts of archaeological and historic interest. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings have been deposited by PECVD in different experimental conditions, in a capacitively coupled asymmetric plasma reactor, placing the substrates either on electrically powered electrode (cathodic mode) or grounded electrode (anodic mode) with and without hydrogen addition in the gas mixture. The final goal is to develop a coating with good protective effectiveness against aggressive atmospheres and contemporarily with negligible effects on the aesthetic appearance of the artefacts. The evaluation of possible colour changes of the surface patinas, due to coating process, was performed by optical microscopy and colorimetric measurements. Furthermore, to evaluate the reversibility of the thin DLC layer, an etching treatment in oxygen plasma has been successfully carried out and optimized. The chemical-physical characterization of the deposited DLC coatings was performed by means of the combined use of micro-Raman and XPS spectroscopies. The results show that the DLC films obtained in the anodic mode, may be proposed as a viable alternative to polymeric coatings for the protection of metallic ancient objects.

  7. Solution processable broadband transparent mixed metal oxide nanofilm optical coatings via substrate diffusion doping.

    PubMed

    Glynn, Colm; Aureau, Damien; Collins, Gillian; O'Hanlon, Sally; Etcheberry, Arnaud; O'Dwyer, Colm

    2015-12-21

    Devices composed of transparent materials, particularly those utilizing metal oxides, are of significant interest due to increased demand from industry for higher fidelity transparent thin film transistors, photovoltaics and a myriad of other optoelectronic devices and optics that require more cost-effective and simplified processing techniques for functional oxides and coatings. Here, we report a facile solution processed technique for the formation of a transparent thin film through an inter-diffusion process involving substrate dopant species at a range of low annealing temperatures compatible with processing conditions required by many state-of-the-art devices. The inter-diffusion process facilitates the movement of Si, Na and O species from the substrate into the as-deposited vanadium oxide thin film forming a composite fully transparent V0.0352O0.547Si0.4078Na0.01. Thin film X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering spectroscopy show the crystalline component of the structure to be α-NaVO3 within a glassy matrix. This optical coating exhibits high broadband transparency, exceeding 90-97% absolute transmission across the UV-to-NIR spectral range, while having low roughness and free of surface defects and pinholes. The production of transparent films for advanced optoelectronic devices, optical coatings, and low- or high-k oxides is important for planar or complex shaped optics or surfaces. It provides opportunities for doping metal oxides to ternary, quaternary or other mixed metal oxides on glass, encapsulants or other substrates that facilitate diffusional movement of dopant species. PMID:26575987

  8. Surface coating for prevention of metallic seed migration in tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyunseok; Park, Jong In; Lee, Won Seok; Park, Min; Son, Kwang-Jae; Bang, Young-bong; Choy, Young Bin E-mail: sye@snu.ac.kr; Ye, Sung-Joon E-mail: sye@snu.ac.kr

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In radiotherapy, metallic implants often detach from their deposited sites and migrate to other locations. This undesirable migration could cause inadequate dose coverage for permanent brachytherapy and difficulties in image-guided radiation delivery for patients. To prevent migration of implanted seeds, the authors propose a potential strategy to use a biocompatible and tissue-adhesive material called polydopamine. Methods: In this study, nonradioactive dummy seeds that have the same geometry and composition as commercial I-125 seeds were coated in polydopamine. Using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the surface of the polydopamine-coated and noncoated seeds was characterized. The detachment stress between the two types of seeds and the tissue was measured. The efficacy of polydopamine-coated seed was investigated through in vitro migration tests by tracing the seed location after tissue implantation and shaking for given times. The cytotoxicity of the polydopamine coating was also evaluated. Results: The results of the coating characterization have shown that polydopamine was successfully coated on the surface of the seeds. In the adhesion test, the polydopamine-coated seeds had 2.1-fold greater detachment stress than noncoated seeds. From the in vitro test, it was determined that the polydopamine-coated seed migrated shorter distances than the noncoated seed. This difference was increased with a greater length of time after implantation. Conclusions: The authors suggest that polydopamine coating is an effective technique to prevent migration of implanted seeds, especially for permanent prostate brachytherapy.

  9. Metallic and nonmetallic coatings for ICF targets

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, C.D.; Crane, J.K.; Hsieh, E.J.; Meyer, S.F.

    1981-04-17

    Some fusion targets designed to be driven by 0.35 to 1 ..mu..m laser light are glass spheres coated with layers of various materials such as hydrocarbons, fluorocarbons, beryllium, copper, gold, platinum, etc. The glass shell, which is filled with gas, liquid or solid deuterium-tritium fuel, must have remarkably good surface and wall thickness uniformity. Methods for depositing the various materials will be discussed. They include plasma polymerization, electro-deposition, sputtering and evaporation. Many of the difficulties encountered in the coating processes are the result of coating on free spheres with very small radii - 35 to 500 micrometers. Several means of overcoming the problems will be described and experimental results presented.

  10. Solar Selective Coatings Prepared From Thin-Film Molecular Mixtures and Evaluated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Don A.

    2003-01-01

    Thin films composed of molecular mixtures of metal and dielectric are being considered for use as solar selective coatings for a variety of space power applications. By controlling molecular mixing during ion-beam sputter deposition, researchers can tailor the solar selective coatings to have the combined properties of high solar absorptance and low infrared emittance. On orbit, these combined properties simultaneously maximize the amount of solar energy captured by the coating and minimize the amount of thermal energy radiated. The solar selective coatings are envisioned for use on minisatellites, for applications where solar energy is used to power heat engines or to heat remote regions in the interior of the spacecraft. Such systems may be useful for various missions, particularly those to middle Earth orbit. Sunlight must be concentrated by a factor of 100 or more to achieve the desired heat inlet operating temperature. At lower concentration factors, the temperature of the heat inlet surface of the heat engine is too low for efficient operation, and at high concentration factors, cavity type heat receivers become attractive. The an artist's concept of a heat engine, with the annular heat absorbing surface near the focus of the concentrator coated with a solar selective coating is shown. In this artist's concept, the heat absorbing surface powers a small Stirling convertor. The astronaut's gloved hand is provided for scale. Several thin-film molecular mixtures have been prepared and evaluated to date, including mixtures of aluminum and aluminum oxide, nickel and aluminum oxide, titanium and aluminum oxide, and platinum and aluminum oxide. For example, a 2400- Angstrom thick mixture of titanium and aluminum oxide was found to have a solar absorptance of 0.93 and an infrared emittance of 0.06. On the basis of tests performed under flowing nitrogen at temperatures as high as 680 C, the coating appeared to be durable at elevated temperatures. Additional durability testing is planned, including exposure to atomic oxygen, vacuum ultraviolet radiation, and high-energy electrons.

  11. Development of insulating coatings for liquid metal blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Malang, S.; Borgstedt, H.U.; Farnum, E.H.; Natesan, K.; Vitkovski, I.V.

    1994-07-01

    It is shown that self-cooled liquid metal blankets are feasible only with electrically insulating coatings at the duct walls. The requirements on the insulation properties are estimated by simple analytical models. Candidate insulator materials are selected based on insulating properties and thermodynamic consideration. Different fabrication technologies for insulating coatings are described. The status of the knowledge on the most crucial feasibility issue, the degradation of the resisivity under irradiation, is reviewed.

  12. Graded coatings for metallic implant alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Fujino, Shigeru; Gomez-Vega, Jose M.

    2002-08-01

    Graded glass and glass-hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti-based and Co-Cr alloys have been prepared using a simple enameling technique. The composition of the glasses has been tailored to match the thermal expansion of the alloys. By controlling the firing time, and temperature, it has been possible to control the reactivity between the glass and the alloy and to fabricate coatings (25 to 150 mu m thick) with excellent adhesion to the substrate, resistant to corrosion and able to precipitate hydroxyapatite during in vitro tests in simulated body fluid.

  13. Film coatings for taste masking and moisture protection.

    PubMed

    Joshi, S; Petereit, H-U

    2013-12-01

    Taste masking and moisture protection of oral dosage forms contribute significantly to the therapeutic effect of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical formulations either by ensuring patient compliance or by providing stability through shelf life of the dosage form. Among different types of taste, bitter taste is the most relevant for patient acceptance because of the extremely high sensitivity. As hydrolysis is the most common mode of degradation of an active ingredient, moisture protection plays a vital role in the stability of the active during manufacturing and storage. Optimized oral dosage forms need to reliably hinder the release of bitter drug molecules in the mouth or ensure stability of the active compound, while also ensuring fast drug release in the stomach to enable early therapeutic onset. Besides different formulation concepts, film coating is found to be the most effective and commonly used approach for taste masking and moisture protection. Film coating can be achieved through the use of water-soluble, cationic, anionic or neutral insoluble polymers from different chemical structures. Cationic polymers provide efficient moisture protection as well as taste masking without influencing the release of the drug in the gastric fluids. Polymers may be sprayed onto various types of cores from dispersions or solutions in organic, solvents or water in drum or fluidzed bed coaters. Applied quantities need insuring complete coating thickness ranging from 0.5 to 50 μm or more finally. Insulating excipients, such as hydrophobic plasticizers, lipids, pigments or other insoluble substances will influence the functionality of films. Organoleptic tests are still common in testing the quality of taste-masked formulations. Recently, multi-channel taste sensors have been developed to quantify different types of taste. Dynamic vapor sorption technique and studies at elevated temperature provide effective concepts study the efficacy of the formulations. Efficient taste masking and reliable moisture protection of solid oral dosage forms can be achieved by film coating implementing the options of pharmaceutical polymers and processes. PMID:24148666

  14. Optical bistability in a nonlinear-shell-coated metallic nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongli; Zhang, Youming; Zhang, Baile; Gao, Lei

    2016-01-01

    We provide a self-consistent mean field approximation in the framework of Mie scattering theory to study the optical bistability of a metallic nanoparticle coated with a nonlinear shell. We demonstrate that the nanoparticle coated with a weakly nonlinear shell exhibits optical bistability in a broad range of incident optical intensity. This optical bistability critically relies on the geometry of the shell-coated nanoparticle, especially the fractional volume of the metallic core. The incident wavelength can also affect the optical bistability. Through an optimization-like process, we find a design with broader bistable region and lower threshold field by adjusting the size of the nonlinear shell, the fractional volume of the metallic core, and the incident wavelength. These results may find potential applications in optical bistable devices such as all-optical switches, optical transistors and optical memories. PMID:26907967

  15. Optical bistability in a nonlinear-shell-coated metallic nanoparticle

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongli; Zhang, Youming; Zhang, Baile; Gao, Lei

    2016-01-01

    We provide a self-consistent mean field approximation in the framework of Mie scattering theory to study the optical bistability of a metallic nanoparticle coated with a nonlinear shell. We demonstrate that the nanoparticle coated with a weakly nonlinear shell exhibits optical bistability in a broad range of incident optical intensity. This optical bistability critically relies on the geometry of the shell-coated nanoparticle, especially the fractional volume of the metallic core. The incident wavelength can also affect the optical bistability. Through an optimization-like process, we find a design with broader bistable region and lower threshold field by adjusting the size of the nonlinear shell, the fractional volume of the metallic core, and the incident wavelength. These results may find potential applications in optical bistable devices such as all-optical switches, optical transistors and optical memories. PMID:26907967

  16. Optical bistability in a nonlinear-shell-coated metallic nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongli; Zhang, Youming; Zhang, Baile; Gao, Lei

    2016-02-01

    We provide a self-consistent mean field approximation in the framework of Mie scattering theory to study the optical bistability of a metallic nanoparticle coated with a nonlinear shell. We demonstrate that the nanoparticle coated with a weakly nonlinear shell exhibits optical bistability in a broad range of incident optical intensity. This optical bistability critically relies on the geometry of the shell-coated nanoparticle, especially the fractional volume of the metallic core. The incident wavelength can also affect the optical bistability. Through an optimization-like process, we find a design with broader bistable region and lower threshold field by adjusting the size of the nonlinear shell, the fractional volume of the metallic core, and the incident wavelength. These results may find potential applications in optical bistable devices such as all-optical switches, optical transistors and optical memories.

  17. Solar selective coatings based on carbon: transition metal nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heras, Irene; Guillén, Elena; Krause, Matthias; Pardo, Ainhoa; Endrino, Jose L.; Escobar Galindo, Ramón

    2015-09-01

    The design of an efficient and stable solar selective coating for Concentrating Solar Power central receivers requires a complex study of the materials candidates that compose the coating. Carbon-transition metal nanocomposites were studied in this work as absorber materials because they show appropriate optical properties with high absorption in the solar region and low thermal emittance in the infrared. Furthermore metal carbides are thermal and mechanical stable in air at high temperatures. In this work a solar selective coating was grown by a dual source filtered cathodic vacuum arc. The complete stack consists on an infrared reflection layer, an absorber layer of carbon-zirconium carbide nanocomposites and an antireflection layer. The aim of this research is optimize the absorber layer and for that, the metal content was controlled by adjusting the pulse ratio between the two arc sources. The elemental composition was determined by Ion Beam Analysis, X-Ray diffraction measurements show the crystal structure and the optical properties were characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. The reflectance spectra of the complete selective coating were simulated with the optical software CODE. Bruggeman effective medium approximation was employed to average the dielectric functions of the two components which constitute the nanocomposite in the absorber layer. The optimized coating exhibited a solar absorptance of 95.41% and thermal emittance of 3.5% for 400°C. The simulated results were validated with a deposited multilayer selective coating.

  18. Protective coatings for metal alloys and methods incorporating the same

    DOEpatents

    Seabaugh, Matthew M.; Ibanez, Sergio; Swartz, Scott L.

    2015-06-09

    An electrochemical device having one or more solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), each of the SOFCs including a cathode, an anode, and an electrolyte layer positioned between the cathode and anode; and at least one additional component comprising a metallic substrate having an electronically conductive, chromium-free perovskite coating deposited directly thereon. The perovskite coating has the formula ABO.sub.3, wherein A is a lanthanide element or Y, and B is a mixture of two or more transition elements, with the A site undoped by any alkaline earth element, and the perovskite coating exhibits limited or no ionic transport of oxygen.

  19. Nanoscale growth twins in sputtered metal films

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, Amit; Anderoglu, Osman; Hoagland, Richard G; Zhang, X

    2008-01-01

    We review recent studies on the mechanical properties of sputtered Cu and 330 stainless steel films with {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace} nanoscale growth twins preferentially oriented perpendicular to growth direction. The mechanisms of formation of growth twins during sputtering and the deformation mechanisms that enable usually high strengths in nanotwinned structures are highlighted. Growth twins in sputtered films possess good thermal stability at elevated temperature, providing an approach to extend the application of high strength nanostructured metals to higher temperatures.

  20. Emerging polyheterocyclic films, coatings and resins - Thermoplastic polyquinolines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Neil H.; Marrocco, Matthew L.; Garver, Lee C.; St. Clair, Anne K.; Proctor, Mason; Soane, David S.; Monk, David J.

    1991-01-01

    The processing and performance characteristics of a soluble, thermoplastic polyquinoline suggest its utility in a variety of high performance applications. The polymer is characterized by excellent thermal and oxidative stability, very low moisture absorption, good mechanical properties, very low dielectric constant, and an unusually low thermal expansion coefficient. This polymer, designated PQ-100 (TM), can be cast into strong, transparent, free standing films from common solvents. Coatings of variable thickness can be spin-coated on to silicon and other surfaces. After processing into films, PQ-100 (TM) can be rendered insoluble in a wide range of solvents using a proprietary process. The low CTE contributes to very low residual stress when the polymer is spin-coated onto silicon wafers. PQ-100 (TM) is currently under evaluation for use as an interlayer dielectric substrate in high-density interconnect applications, including multichip modules. Many of the characteristics of the polymer also suggest its utility as a high-performance film and as a matrix resin for specialty composite applications.

  1. Preparing oxidizer coated metal fuel particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, J. I.; Simmons, G. M. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A solid propellant composition of improved efficiency is described which includes an oxidizer containing ammonium perchlorate, and a powered metal fuel, preferably aluminum or beryllium, in the form of a composite. The metal fuel is contained in the crystalline lattice framework of the oxidizer, as well as within the oxidizer particles, and is disposed in the interstices between the oxidizer particles of the composition. The propellant composition is produced by a process comprising the crystallization of ammonium perchlorate in water, in the presence of finely divided aluminum or beryllium. A suitable binder is incorporated in the propellant composition to bind the individual particles of metal with the particles of oxidizer containing occluded metal.

  2. Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The Pentek coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek coating removal system consisted of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign}, and VAC-PAC{reg_sign}. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M Roto Peen tungsten carbide cutters while the CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign} uses solid needles for descaling activities. These hand tools are used with the VAC-PAC{reg_sign} vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

  3. Direct observation and mechanism of increased emission sites in Fe-coated microcrystalline diamond films

    SciTech Connect

    Panda, Kalpataru; Sundaravel, B.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Huang, Pin-Chang; Shih, Wen-Ching; Chen, Huang-Chin; Lin, I-Nan

    2012-06-15

    The electron field emission (EFE) properties of microcrystalline diamond (MCD) films are significantly enhanced due to the Fe coating and post-annealing processes. The 900 Degree-Sign C post-annealed Fe coated diamond films exhibit the best EFE properties, with a turn on field (E{sub 0}) of 3.42 V/{mu}m and attain EFE current density (J{sub e}) of 170 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} at 7.5 V/{mu}m. Scanning tunnelling spectroscopy (STS) in current imaging tunnelling spectroscopy mode clearly shows the increased number density of emission sites in Fe-coated and post-annealed MCD films than the as-prepared ones. Emission is seen from the boundaries of the Fe (or Fe{sub 3}C) nanoparticles formed during the annealing process. In STS measurement, the normalized conductance (dI/dV/I/V) versus V curves indicate nearly metallic band gap, at the boundaries of Fe (or Fe{sub 3}C) nanoparticles. Microstructural analysis indicates that the mechanism for improved EFE properties is due to the formation of nanographite that surrounds the Fe (or Fe{sub 3}C) nanoparticles.

  4. 21 CFR 175.365 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for polycarbonate film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... polycarbonate film. 175.365 Section 175.365 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... chloride copolymer coatings for polycarbonate film. Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings identified in this section and applied on polycarbonate film may be safely used as food-contact surfaces,...

  5. 21 CFR 175.365 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for polycarbonate film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... polycarbonate film. 175.365 Section 175.365 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... chloride copolymer coatings for polycarbonate film. Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings identified in this section and applied on polycarbonate film may be safely used as food-contact surfaces,...

  6. 21 CFR 175.365 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for polycarbonate film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... polycarbonate film. 175.365 Section 175.365 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... chloride copolymer coatings for polycarbonate film. Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings identified in this section and applied on polycarbonate film may be safely used as food-contact surfaces,...

  7. 21 CFR 175.365 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for polycarbonate film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... polycarbonate film. 175.365 Section 175.365 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... chloride copolymer coatings for polycarbonate film. Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings identified in this section and applied on polycarbonate film may be safely used as food-contact surfaces,...

  8. Photobiomolecular deposition of metallic particles and films

    DOEpatents

    Hu, Zhong-Cheng

    2005-02-08

    The method of the invention is based on the unique electron-carrying function of a photocatalytic unit such as the photosynthesis system I (PSI) reaction center of the protein-chlorophyll complex isolated from chloroplasts. The method employs a photo-biomolecular metal deposition technique for precisely controlled nucleation and growth of metallic clusters/particles, e.g., platinum, palladium, and their alloys, etc., as well as for thin-film formation above the surface of a solid substrate. The photochemically mediated technique offers numerous advantages over traditional deposition methods including quantitative atom deposition control, high energy efficiency, and mild operating condition requirements.

  9. Metal Chalcogenide Nanocrystalline Solid Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deo, Soumya R.; Singh, Ajaya K.; Deshmukh, Lata; Abu Bin Hasan Susan, Md.

    2015-11-01

    Over the past decades, chemical bath deposition (CBD) has proven its suitability and has established itself as one of the prominent techniques for depositing different metal chalcogenide semiconductor thin films via ion-by-ion or by adsorption of colloidal particles from the chemical bath on the substrate. It is a simple, cost-effective and convenient method for large-scale deposition and has recently received a surge of interest. This article reviews the research progress in various methods or techniques including CBD for the preparation and study of the properties of metal chalcogenides. Various parameters for efficient preparation and variation in structural, morphological, compositional, optical properties, etc. are also briefly discussed.

  10. Superhydrophobic anti-ultraviolet films by doctor blade coating

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Chang-Yun; Yang, Hongta; Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew

    2014-11-17

    This article reports a scalable technology for fabricating polymer films with excellent water-repelling and anti-ultraviolet properties. A roll-to-roll compatible doctor blade coating technology is utilized to prepare silica colloidal crystal-polymer composites. The silica microspheres can then be selectively removed to create flexible self-standing macroporous polymer films with crystalline arrays of pores. The void sizes are controlled by tuning the duration of a reactive ion etching process prior to the removal of the templating silica microspheres. After surface modification, superhydrophobic surface can be achieved. This study further demonstrates that the as-prepared transparent porous films with 200 nm of pores exhibit diffraction of ultraviolet lights originated from the Bragg's diffractive of light from the three-dimensional highly ordered air cavities.

  11. Optimum antireflection coating for Antireflection-coated Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor /AMOS/ solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Y. C. M.; Ernest, F. P.; Stirn, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    Consideration is given to the design of a single-layer optimum antireflection coating for AMOS (antireflection-coated metal-oxide-semiconductor) solar cells to match the entire sunlight spectrum. The energy conversion efficiency is maximized by maximizing the open-circuit voltage and the short-circuit current. The former is maximized by oxidation techniques and the latter is maximized by the light-coupling into the solar cell. With reference to the effective index of refraction as obtained by ellipsometry, examples of optimum antireflection coatings for 60-A Au-GaAs solar cells are presented.

  12. Novel chitosan-magnesium aluminum silicate nanocomposite film coatings for modified-release tablets.

    PubMed

    Khunawattanakul, Wanwisa; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit; Rades, Thomas; Pongjanyakul, Thaned

    2011-04-01

    Chitosan (CS), a positively charged polysaccharide, and magnesium aluminum silicate (MAS), a negatively charged clay with silicate layers, can electrostatically interact to form nanocomposite films. In this study, CS-MAS nanocomposite films were evaluated for use in tablet film coating. Effects of CS-MAS ratio and coating level on water uptake and drug release from the coated tablets were investigated. Surface and film matrix morphology of the coated film and the effect of enzymes in the simulated gastro-intestinal fluid on drug release were also examined. The results demonstrated that the CS-MAS coated tablets had a rough surface and a layered matrix film, whereas a smooth surface and dense matrix film on the CS coated tablets was found. However, the CS-MAS coated tablets provided fewer film defects than the CS coated tablets. Nanocomposite formation between CS and MAS could retard swelling and erosion of CS in the composite films in acidic medium. The higher MAS ratio of the CS-MAS coated tablets gave lower water uptake and slower drug release when compared with the CS coated tablets. Moreover, the CS-MAS films on the tablets presented good stability towards enzymatic degradation in simulated intestinal fluid. The release of drug from the CS-MAS coated tablets could be modulated by varying CS-MAS ratios and coating levels. Additionally, drug solubility also influenced drug release characteristics of the CS-MAS coated tablets. These findings suggest that the CS-MAS nanocomposites displays a strong potential for use in tablet film coating intended for modifying drug release from tablets. PMID:21291977

  13. Biodegradable/biocompatible coated metal implants for orthopedic applications.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Mohamed M; Touny, A H; Al-Omair, Mohammed A; Saleh, M M

    2016-05-12

    Biocompatible metals have been suggested as revolutionary biomaterials for bone-grafting therapies. Although metals and their alloys are widely and successfully used in producing biomedical implants due to their good mechanical properties and corrosion resistance, they have a lack in bioactivity. Therefore coating of the metal surface with calcium phosphates (CaP) is a benign way to achieve well bioactivity and get controlled corrosion properties. The biocompatibility and bioactivity calcium phosphates (CaP) in bone growth were guided them to biomedical treatment of bone defects and fractures. Many techniques have been used for fabrication of CaP coatings on metal substrates such as magnesium and titanium. The present review will focus on the synthesis of CaP and their relative forms using different techniques especially electrochemical techniques. The latter has always been known of its unique way of optimizing the process parameters that led to a control in the structure and characteristics of the produced materials. PMID:27175470

  14. FUSED SALT METHOD FOR COATING URANIUM WITH A METAL

    DOEpatents

    Eubank, L.D.

    1959-02-01

    A method is presented for coating uranium with a less active metal such as Cr, Ni, or Cu comprising immersing the U in a substantially anhydrous molten solution of a halide of these less active metals in a ternary chloride composition which consists of selected percentages of KCl, NaCl and another chloride such as LiCl or CaCl/sub 2/.

  15. Ion-beam-assisted deposition of magnesium oxide films for coated conductors.

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, T. P.; Ma, B.; Balachandran, U.; McNallan, M.

    2002-05-01

    The development of high critical-temperature thin-film superconductors and coated conducting wires is important for electric power applications. To achieve high transport current density, template films are necessary for the successful deposition of biaxially aligned YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} (YBCO) on flexible metal substrates. We grew biaxially aligned magnesium oxide (MgO) template films by ion-beam-assisted deposition with electron-beam evaporation. MgO films of {approx}100 {angstrom} thickness were deposited on Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-coated Si substrates at a deposition rate of {approx}1.5 {angstrom}/sec with an ion flux of {approx}110 {micro}A/cm{sup 2} bombarding the substrate at a 45{sup o} angle. To study crystalline structure by X-ray diffraction, we deposited an additional layer of MgO. Good in- and out-of-plane alignment was observed, with (111) {phi}-scan full-width half-maximum (FWHM) of 6.2{sup o} and (002) {omega}-scan FWHM of 2.2{sup o}.

  16. Coated metal sintering carriers for fuel cell electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Donelson, Richard; Bryson, E. S.

    1998-01-01

    A carrier for conveying components of a fuel cell to be sintered through a sintering furnace. The carrier comprises a metal sheet coated with a water-based carbon paint, the water-based carbon paint comprising water, powdered graphite, an organic binder, a wetting agent, a dispersing agent and a defoaming agent.

  17. Coated metal sintering carriers for fuel cell electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Donelson, R.; Bryson, E.S.

    1998-11-10

    A carrier is described for conveying components of a fuel cell to be sintered through a sintering furnace. The carrier comprises a metal sheet coated with a water-based carbon paint, the water-based carbon paint comprising water, powdered graphite, an organic binder, a wetting agent, a dispersing agent and a defoaming agent.

  18. COATING ALTERNATIVES GUIDE (CAGE) FOR METAL PARTS AND PRODUCTS PAINTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the initial development of a Coating Alternatives Guide (CAGE) for metal parts and products painting. t is an innovative technology transfer approach that provides a tool to improve technology diffusion and assistance. t will provide vital, user-accessible inf...

  19. Hot-Dipped Metal Films as Epitaxial Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlichta, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    Multistep process forms semiconductor devices on macrocrystalline films of cadmium or zinc. Solar-cell fabrication processes use hot-dipped macrocrystalline films on low-cost sheet-metal base as substrates for epitaxy. Epitaxial layers formed by variety of methods of alternative sequence paths. Solar cells made economically by forming desired surface substance directly on metal film by chemical reactions.

  20. Heterojunction thin films based on multifunctional metal oxides for photovoltaic application

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhu, M.; Soundararajan, N.; Ramachandran, K.; Marikkannan, M.; Mayandi, J.

    2014-04-24

    Metal oxides based multifunctional heterojunction thin films of ZnO/SnO{sub 2} and ZnO/SnO{sub 2}/CuO QDs were prepared by spin-coating technique. The crystallographic properties and the surface morphologies of the films were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The optical absorption studies revealed that the film thickness has considerable effect on the band gap values and is found to be in the range of 3.73–3.48 eV. The photoluminescence spectra showed several weak visible emission peaks related to the deep level defects (450-575 nm). Finally, the current density-voltage (J-V) characteristic of ZnO/SnO{sub 2}/CuO QDs (ZSCI) based heterojunction thin film coated on ITO is also reported.

  1. Method of producing solution-derived metal oxide thin films

    DOEpatents

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Ingersoll, David

    2000-01-01

    A method of preparing metal oxide thin films by a solution method. A .beta.-metal .beta.-diketonate or carboxylate compound, where the metal is selected from groups 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 of the Periodic Table, is solubilized in a strong Lewis base to form a homogeneous solution. This precursor solution forms within minutes and can be deposited on a substrate in a single layer or a multiple layers to form a metal oxide thin film. The substrate with the deposited thin film is heated to change the film from an amorphous phase to a ceramic metal oxide and cooled.

  2. Process for the preparation of metal-containing nanostructured films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Yunfeng (Inventor); Wang, Donghai (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Metal-containing nanostructured films are prepared by electrodepositing a metal-containing composition within the pores of a mesoporous silica template to form a metal-containing silica nanocomposite. The nanocomposite is annealed to strengthen the deposited metal-containing composition. The silica is then removed from the nanocomposite, e.g., by dissolving the silica in an etching solution to provide a self-supporting metal-containing nanostructured film. The nanostructured films have a nanowire or nanomesh architecture depending on the pore structure of the mesoporous silica template used to prepare the films.

  3. Coating of metal implant materials with strontium.

    PubMed

    Frank, Matthias J; Walter, Martin S; Tiainen, Hanna; Rubert, Marina; Monjo, Marta; Lyngstadaas, S Petter; Haugen, Håvard J

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to show that cathodic polarization can be used for coating commercial implant surfaces with an immobilized but functional and bioavailable surface layer of strontium (Sr). Moreover, this study assessed the effect of fluorine on Sr-attachment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that addition of fluorine (F) to the buffer during coating increased surface Sr-amounts but also changed the chemical surface composition by adding SrF2 alongside of SrO whereas pre-treatment of the surface by pickling in hydrofluoric acid appeared to hinder Sr-attachment. Assessment of the bio-availability hinted at a positive effect of Sr on cell differentiation given that the surface reactivity of the original surface remained unchanged. Additional SrF2 on the surface appeared to reduce undesired surface contamination while maintaining the surface micro-topography and micro-morphology. Anyhow, this surface modification revealed to create nano-nodules on the surface. PMID:23888353

  4. Dynamics of polymer film formation during spin coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouhamad, Y.; Mokarian-Tabari, P.; Clarke, N.; Jones, R. A. L.; Geoghegan, M.

    2014-09-01

    Standard models explaining the spin coating of polymer solutions generally fail to describe the early stages of film formation, when hydrodynamic forces control the solution behavior. Using in situ light scattering alongside theoretical and semi-empirical models, it is shown that inertial forces (which initially cause a vertical gradient in the radial solvent velocity within the film) play a significant role in the rate of thinning of the solution. The development of thickness as a function of time of a solute-free liquid (toluene) and a blend of polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate) cast from toluene were fitted to different models as a function of toluene partial pressure. In the case of the formation of the polymer blend film, a concentration-dependent (Huggins) viscosity formula was used to account for changes in viscosity during spin coating. A semi-empirical model is introduced, which permits calculation of the solvent evaporation rate and the temporal evolution of the solute volume fraction and solution viscosity.

  5. Dynamics of polymer film formation during spin coating

    SciTech Connect

    Mouhamad, Y.; Clarke, N.; Jones, R. A. L.; Geoghegan, M.; Mokarian-Tabari, P.

    2014-09-28

    Standard models explaining the spin coating of polymer solutions generally fail to describe the early stages of film formation, when hydrodynamic forces control the solution behavior. Using in situ light scattering alongside theoretical and semi-empirical models, it is shown that inertial forces (which initially cause a vertical gradient in the radial solvent velocity within the film) play a significant role in the rate of thinning of the solution. The development of thickness as a function of time of a solute-free liquid (toluene) and a blend of polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate) cast from toluene were fitted to different models as a function of toluene partial pressure. In the case of the formation of the polymer blend film, a concentration-dependent (Huggins) viscosity formula was used to account for changes in viscosity during spin coating. A semi-empirical model is introduced, which permits calculation of the solvent evaporation rate and the temporal evolution of the solute volume fraction and solution viscosity.

  6. Method For Improving The Oxidation Resistance Of Metal Substrates Coated With Thermal Barrier Coatings

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Anthony Mark; Gray, Dennis Michael; Jackson, Melvin Robert

    2003-05-13

    A method for providing a protective coating on a metal-based substrate is disclosed. The method involves the application of an aluminum-rich mixture to the substrate to form a discontinuous layer of aluminum-rich particles, followed by the application of a second coating over the discontinuous layer of aluminum-rich particles. Aluminum diffuses from the aluminum-rich layer into the substrate, and into any bond coat layer which is subsequently applied. Related articles are also described. A method for providing a protective coating on a metal-based substrate is disclosed. The method involves the application of an aluminum-rich mixture to the substrate to form a discontinuous layer of aluminum-rich particles, followed by the application of a second coating over the discontinuous layer of aluminum-rich particles. Aluminum diffuses from the aluminum-rich layer into the substrate, and into any bond coat layer which is subsequently applied. Related articles are also described.

  7. SILANE-BASED CONVERSION COATING FOR METALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    For the past three years, a project to develop new pretreatment rinses for metals was carried out by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the University of Cincinnati. The project involved optimization of laboratory rinses with dilute aqueous solutions organofunctional s...

  8. Self-dissolution assisted coating on magnesium metal for biodegradable bone fixation devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khakbaz, Hadis; Walter, Rhys; Gordon, Timothy; Bobby Kannan, M.

    2014-12-01

    An attempt was made to develop a self-dissolution assisted coating on a pure magnesium metal for potential bone fixation implants. Magnesium phosphate cement (MPC) was coated successfully on the magnesium metal in ammonium dihydrogen phosphate solution. The in vitro degradation behaviour of the MPC coated metal was evaluated using electrochemical techniques. The MPC coating increased the polarisation resistance (RP) of the metal by ˜150% after 2 h immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) and reduced the corrosion current density (icorr) by ˜80%. The RP of the MPC coated metal remained relatively high even after 8 h immersion period. However, post-degradation analysis of the MPC coated metal revealed localized attack. Hence, the study suggests that MPC coating alone may not be beneficial, but this novel coating could provide additional protection if used as a precursor for other potential coatings such as biodegradable polymers or calcium phosphates.

  9. Formation of nanodiamond films from aqueous suspensions during spin coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev-Stepanov, P. V.; Molchanov, S. P.; Vasil'ev, A. L.; Mitrokhin, V. P.; Yurasik, G. A.; Aleksenskii, A. E.; Dideikin, A. T.

    2016-03-01

    The formation of multifunctional ordered arrays of detonation diamond particles is studied during self-assembling in spin coating of films of evaporating microdroplets. It is shown that the most homogeneous layer of diamond particles on a crystalline silicon substrate forms at a rate of substrate rotation of 8000 min-1, whereas a relation between the distribution of particles and the radius is clearly detected at rates of about 2000 min-1. As the rate of substrate rotation increases from 2500 to 8000 min-1, the density of the coating of a silicon substrate with diamond nanoparticles decreases approximately threefold. A model is proposed to estimate the increase in the number of individual diamond "points" with the substrate rotation frequency.

  10. Antibacterial Performance of Alginic Acid Coating on Polyethylene Film

    PubMed Central

    Karbassi, Elika; Asadinezhad, Ahmad; Lehocký, Marian; Humpolíček, Petr; Vesel, Alenka; Novák, Igor; Sáha, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Alginic acid coated polyethylene films were examined in terms of surface properties and bacteriostatic performance against two most representative bacterial strains, that is, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Microwave plasma treatment followed by brush formation in vapor state from three distinguished precursors (allylalcohol, allylamine, hydroxyethyl methacrylate) was carried out to deposit alginic acid on the substrate. Surface analyses via various techniques established that alginic acid was immobilized onto the surface where grafting (brush) chemistry influenced the amount of alginic acid coated. Moreover, alginic acid was found to be capable of bacterial growth inhibition which itself was significantly affected by the brush type. The polyanionic character of alginic acid as a carbohydrate polymer was assumed to play the pivotal role in antibacterial activity. The cell wall composition of two bacterial strains along with the substrates physicochemical properties accounted for different levels of bacteriostatic performance. PMID:25196604

  11. Electrochemical Synthesis of Nanostructured Noble Metal Films for Biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattarai, Jay K.

    Nanostructures of noble metals (gold and silver) are of interest because of their important intrinsic properties. Noble metals by themselves are physically robust, chemically inert, highly conductive, and possess the capability to form strong bonds with thiols or dithiol molecules present in organic compounds, creating self-assembled monolayers with tunable functional groups at exposed interfaces. However, when the nanostructures are formed, they in addition possess high surface area and unique optical properties which can be tuned by adjusting the shape and the size of the nanostructures. All of these properties make nanostructures of noble metals suitable candidates to be used as a transducer for optical and electrochemical biosensing. Individual nanostructures might be easier to prepare but difficult to handle to use as a transducer. Therefore, we prepared and analyzed nanostructured films/coating of noble metals and used them as a transducer for optical and electrochemical biosensing. We have electrochemically prepared nanoporous gold (NPG) on gold wire varying different dependable parameters (deposition potential, time, and compositional ratio) to obtain an optimal structure in term of stability, morphology, and better surface area. NPG prepared using a deposition potential of --1.0 V for 10 min from 30:70% 50 mM potassium dicyanoaurate(I) and 50 mM potassium dicyanoargentate(I) was used as an optimal surface for protein immobilization, and to perform square wave voltammetry (SWV) based enzyme-linked lectinsorbent assays. On flat gold surfaces, adjacent protein molecules sterically block their active sites due to high-density packing, which can be minimized using NPG as a substrate. NPG can also show significant peak current in SWV experiments, a sensitive electrochemical technique that minimizes non-Faradaic current, which is difficult to obtain using a flat gold surface. These all make NPG a suitable substrate, electrode, and transducer to be used in electrochemical biosensing. We have also discovered a facile electrochemical method to synthesize novel plasmonic noble metal nanostructured films. Plasmonic noble metal nanostructures have promising applications in photovoltaic solar cells, cloaking, and molecular sensing. Here, we used plasmonic noble metal nanostructures as a transducer for biosensing using localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectroscopy, a label-free biosensing technique. The prepared nanostructured films are not only sensitive for detecting biomolecules, but are stable chemically and physically, and can be easily regenerated. We have compared the sensitivity of three different types of nanostructured films, namely; nanostructured gold film (NGF), nanostructured silver film (NSF), and NPG film, and discussed the advantages and disadvantages of the prepared structures. Finally, we report carbohydrate--lectin, lectin--protein, and layer-by-layer interactions of molecules using LSPR spectroscopy. We have also performed real-time interactions and concentration dependent studies to find the equilibrium dissociation constant of the interactions. The results from these experiments could contribute to the development of cheap and sensitive biosensors that can be used for diagnostic purposes.

  12. Method for the preparation of protective coatings by low-temperature metal--organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD)

    SciTech Connect

    Kaloyeros, A.E.; Williams, W.S.; Constant, G.

    1988-07-01

    A simple and effective method is reported for the deposition of protective coatings of titanium carbide using low-temperature (as low as 150 /sup 0/C) metal--organic chemical vapor deposition. This method is based on the thermolysis of metal--organic molecules containing titanium and does not require the high temperature (<1100 /sup 0/C) involved in the standard TiC--CVD technique. Furthermore, the structure of the films produced (crystalline or amorphous) and their purity (inclusion of organic clusters or hydrogen) can be tailored easily by simple variations in the deposition parameters. This technique permits the coating of polymers and low-melting metals that are thermally too fragile for other deposition techniques. The process could be applied to produce films of other materials, e.g., niobium carbide, silicon carbide, titanium diboride, and gallium arsenide.

  13. Refractive-index change caused by electrons in amorphous AsS and AsSe thin films doped with different metals by photodiffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Nordman, Olli; Nordman, Nina; Pashkevich, Valfrid

    2001-08-01

    The refractive-index change caused by electrons was measured in amorphous AsS and AsSe thin films. Films were coated with different metals. Diffraction gratings were written by electron-beam lithography. The interactions of electrons in films with and without the photodiffusion of overcoated metal were compared. Incoming electrons caused metal atom and ion diffusion in both investigated cases. The metal diffusion was dependent on the metal and it was found to influence the refractive index. In some cases lateral diffusion of the metal was noticed. The conditions for applications were verified. {copyright} 2001 Optical Society of America

  14. Ascorbic acid-containing whey protein film coatings for control of oxidation.

    PubMed

    Min, Seacheol; Krochta, John M

    2007-04-18

    A formulation for the whey protein isolate film or coating incorporating ascorbic acid (AA-WPI film or coating) was developed. Tensile and oxygen-barrier properties of the AA-WPI film were measured. Antioxidant effects of the AA-WPI coating on roasted peanuts were studied by comparing the values of peroxide (PO), thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), and free-radical-scavenging activity, determined with noncoated peanuts and peanuts coated with WPI with and without ascorbic acid during storage at 21% relative humidity (RH) and 23, 35, and 50 degrees C. The incorporation of AA reduced elongation of WPI films. The oxygen-barrier property of the WPI film was significantly improved by incorporation of AA. The AA-WPI coating retarded lipid oxidation in peanuts significantly at 23, 35, and 50 degrees C. The AA-WPI coated peanuts were more red than noncoated peanuts at all storage temperatures. PMID:17367158

  15. Investigation of Cu coatings deposited by kinetic metallization

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Y.K.; Birbilis, N.; Spencer, K.; Zhang, M.-X.; Muddle, B.C.

    2010-11-15

    Interfacial characterisation of Kinetic Metallization (KM) sprayed Cu coatings applied on metal substrates was performed using optical and electron microscopy, as well as microindentation hardness testing and microchemical analysis. The interfacial characterisation of KM coatings remains scarce to date. Cross sectional observations of KM coatings on light metal substrates revealed an undulating, patelliform profile with thin-lipped cusps at the interface. Pure Al and Mg substrates exhibited a mechanically impinged zone <{approx}5 {mu}m on the substrate material, approximately the size of deformed Cu powder particles. Examination of the Cu side of the interface indicated there was no long range interaction in the coating. On the substrate side of the interface, the KM process induced phase transformations (i.e. recrystallisation and an alloyed zone) in thin layers contiguous to the interface on pure Al and Mg substrates. Zones of elemental interdiffusion were identified at the interface upon Al and Mg substrates using scanning TEM. The width of intermixing zones was in the vicinity of < 1 {mu}m. This metallurgical interaction at the interface occurred on the length scales involving the initial single layer of Cu particles bonded on the substrate.

  16. Efficient coating of transparent and conductive carbon nanotube thin films on plastic substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, M. H. Andrew; Hartadi, Lysia T.; Tan, Huiwen; Poa, C. H. Patrick

    2008-05-01

    Optically transparent and electrically conductive single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) thin films were fabricated at room temperature using a dip-coating technique. The film transparency and sheet resistance can be easily tailored by controlling the number of coatings. Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) was used as an adhesion promoter and, together with surfactant Triton X-100, greatly improved the SWNTs coating. Only five coats were required to obtain a sheet resistance of 2.05 \\mathrm {k\\Omega /\\opensqr } and film transparency of 84 %T. The dip-coated film after post-deposition treatment with nitric acid has a sheet resistance as low as 130 \\Omega / \\opensqr at 69 %T. This technique is suitable for large-scale SWNT coating at room temperature and can be used on different types of substrates such as glass and plastics. This paper will discuss the role of the adhesion promoter and surfactant in the coating process.

  17. Metal nano-film resistivity chemical sensor.

    PubMed

    Podešva, Pavel; Foret, František

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we present a study on reusable thin metal film resistivity-based sensor for direct measurement of binding of thiol containing molecules in liquid samples. While in bulk conductors the DC current is not influenced by the surface events to a measureable degree in a thin metal layer the electrons close to the surface conduct a significant part of electricity and are influenced by the surface interactions. In this study, the thickness of the gold layer was kept below 100 nm resulting in easily measureable resistivity changes of the metal element upon a surface SH-groups binding. No further surface modifications were necessary. Thin film gold layers deposited on a glass substrate by vacuum sputtering were photolithographically structured into four sensing elements arranged in a Wheatstone bridge to compensate for resistance fluctuations due to the temperature changes. Concentrations as low 100 pM provided measureable signals. The surface after the measurement could be electrolytically regenerated for next measurements. PMID:26040502

  18. Ni-based Metal Matrix Composite Functionally Graded Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amado, J. M.; Montero, J.; Tobar, M. J.; Yáñez, A.

    Functional graded materials (FGMs) are a class of composites that have a continuous variation of material properties. One of the aims of such variation is to relieve the stress concentrations that appear in laminated materials. Coating techniques using powder as filler material can be adapted for the manufacture of composition gradients by means of a mixing unit in a powder feed system which is the basis of the laser cladding technology. The aim of this paper is to get coats with layers of the highest possible ceramic concentration on a metal matrix composite (MMC) with the help of the FGM methodology.

  19. Anomalous hopping exponents of ultrathin metal films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, J. C.

    2001-07-01

    Under the above title Markovic et al. [Phys. Rev. B 62, 2195 (2000)] summarized their and others' low-temperature data that show that a consistent underlying conduction mechanism is needed to explain thermally activated resistivities, with an exponent x=0.75(5), on films of Ag, Bi, Pb, and Pd, with thicknesses of 5-15 Å. While this x cannot be explained by any kind of conventional continuum hopping model, with or without Coulomb interactions, here it is shown that the exponent x=34 is the direct result of a filamentary vibron quantum percolation model appropriate to a granular network film. The concepts used in this model were recently used to derive finite-size scaling exponents and/or phase diagrams in many other contexts, including network glasses, the impurity band metal-insulator transition, high-temperature superconductors, and evolutionary biology.

  20. Metallic oxide switches using thick film technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, D. N.; Williams, L., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Metallic oxide thick film switches were processed on alumina substrates using thick film technology. Vanadium pentoxide in powder form was mixed with other oxides e.g., barium, strontium copper and glass frit, ground to a fine powder. Pastes and screen printable inks were made using commercial conductive vehicles and appropriate thinners. Some switching devices were processed by conventional screen printing and firing of the inks and commercial cermet conductor terminals on 96% alumina substrates while others were made by applying small beads or dots of the pastes between platinum wires. Static, and dynamic volt-ampere, and pulse tests indicate that the switching and self-oscillatory characteristics of these devices could make them useful in memory element, oscillator, and automatic control applications.

  1. Evaluating the effect of coating equipment on tablet film quality using terahertz pulsed imaging.

    PubMed

    Haaser, Miriam; Naelapää, Kaisa; Gordon, Keith C; Pepper, Michael; Rantanen, Jukka; Strachan, Clare J; Taday, Philip F; Zeitler, J Axel; Rades, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    In this study, terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) was employed to investigate the effect of the coating equipment (fluid bed and drum coater) on the structure of the applied film coating and subsequent dissolution behaviour. Six tablets from every batch coated with the same delayed release coating formulation under recommended process conditions (provided by the coating polymer supplier) were mapped individually to evaluate the effect of coating device on critical coating characteristics (coating thickness, surface morphology and density). Although the traditional coating quality parameter (weight gain) indicated no differences between both batches, TPI analysis revealed a lower mean coating thickness (CT) for tablets coated in the drum coater compared to fluid bed coated tablets (p<0.05). Moreover, drum coated tablets showed a more pronounced CT variation between the two sides and the centre band of the biconvex tablets, with the CT around the centre band being 22.5% thinner than the top and bottom sides for the drum coated tablets and 12.5% thinner for fluid bed coated tablets. The TPI analysis suggested a denser coating for the drum coated tablets. Dissolution testing confirmed that the film coating density was the drug release governing factor, with faster drug release for tablets coated in the fluid bed coater (98 ± 4% after 6h) compared to drum coated tablets (72 ± 6% after 6h). Overall, TPI investigation revealed substantial differences in the applied film coating quality between tablets coated in the two coaters, which in turn correlated with the subsequent dissolution performance. PMID:23563103

  2. Sol-gel preparation and characterization of SiO2 coated VO2 films with enhanced transmittance and high thermochromic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dezeng; Shan, Yongkui; Huang, Fuqiang; Ding, Shangjun

    2014-10-01

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) films prepared at low-temperature with a low cost are considerable for energy-saving applications. Here, SiO2 coated VO2 films with clearly enhanced visible transmittance by introducing antireflection coatings (ARCs) and excellent thermochromic performance were present. The VO2 films have been prepared via a stable and low-cost sol-gel synthesis route using vanadium pentaoxide powder as precursor, and their structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties and thermochromic performance were systemically characterized. The resistance of VO2 films varies by 4 orders of magnitude and the transmittance changes from 11.8% to 69.3% at 2500 nm while no significant deviation appears in the visible region during metal-insulator transition (MIT). Nanoporous SiO2 coating with good optical transparency was coated on the surface of VO2 film via sol-gel dip-coating technique to enhance its optical transmittance, and the visible transmittance is increased by 14.6% due to the significantly decreased reflectance. The critical transition temperature (63 °C) and infrared switching properties of VO2 films are not much deteriorated by applying SiO2 layer. The synergistic effect of antireflection and thermochromism on SiO2 coated VO2 films was investigated.

  3. Antimicrobial beeswax coated polylactide films with silver control release capacity.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Abad, Antonio; Lagarón, Jose Maria; Ocio, María Jose

    2014-03-17

    Although the application of silver based antimicrobial systems is a widespread technology, its implementation in areas such as food packaging is still challenging. The present paper describes the fabrication of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) coated with beeswax with controlled release properties for sustained antimicrobial performance. Release of silver ions from the polymers was monitored voltammetrically under various conditions (surface contact, immersion in various liquid media and at different pH values) throughout at least 7days. A higher release was noted with decreasing pH while surface release was much slower than the release when immersed in liquid medium. While uncoated films demonstrated a high burst release which in some instances implied surpassing some current migration restrictions (<0.05mg/kg food), the addition of a beeswax layer allowed a sustained release of the antimicrobial compound. Increasing the thickness of the beeswax layer resulted in an increase in the water barrier properties of the films while reducing the relatively constant values of sustained release. Antimicrobial performance was correlated with the release of silver ions, indicating threshold concentrations for biocide action of <6μg/L and 9-14μg/L for surface contact and in liquid media, respectively. Either by surface contact or by immersion in growth medium or vegetable soup, the coated films displayed a strong bactericidal effect against Salmonella enterica. The application of this functional barrier thus offers the possibility of tuning the release profiles of the films to suit a specific application and puts forth the possible suitability of these materials for food packaging or other migration sensitive applications. PMID:24448276

  4. Deposition and characterization of aluminum magnesium boride thin film coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yun

    Boron-rich borides are a special group of materials possessing complex structures typically comprised of B12 icosahedra. All of the boron-rich borides sharing this common structural unit exhibit a variety of exceptional physical and electrical properties. In this work, a new ternary boride compound AlMgB14, which has been extensively studied in bulk form due to its novel mechanical properties, was fabricated into thin film coatings by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technology. The effect of processing conditions (laser operating modes, vacuum level, substrate temperature, and postannealing, etc.) on the composition, microstructure evolution, chemical bonding, and surface morphology of AlMgB14 thin film coatings has been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry; the mechanical, electrical, and optical properties of AlMgB14 thin films have been characterized by nanoindentation, four-point probe, van der Pauw Hall measurement, activation energy measurement, and UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer. Experimental results show that AlMgB14 films deposited in the temperature range of 300 K - 873 K are amorphous. Depositions under a low vacuum level (5 x 10-5 Torr) can introduce a significant amount of C and O impurities into AlMgB14 films and lead to a complex oxide glass structure. Orthorhombic AlMgB14 phase cannot be obtained by subsequent high temperature annealing. By contrast, the orthorhombic AlMgB 14 crystal structure can be attained via high temperature-annealing of AlMgB14 films deposited under a high vacuum level (< 3 x 10-6 Torr), accompanied by strong texture formation. Low vacuum level-as deposited AlMgB14 films have low hardness (10 GPa), but high vacuum level-as deposited AlMgB14 films exhibit an extremely high hardness (45 GPa - 51 GPa), and the higher deposition temperature results in still higher hardness. Furthermore, a very low friction coefficient (0.04 - 0.05) has been observed for high vacuum level-as deposited AlMgB14 films, which could be ascribed to the in situ formation of a surface self-lubricating layer. Unlike most boron-rich boride films, high vacuum level-as deposited AlMgB14 films also possess a low n-type electrical resistivity, which is a consequence of high carrier concentration and moderate carrier mobility. The operative electrical transport mechanism and doping behavior for high vacuum level-as deposited AlMgB14 films are discussed in detail in this thesis.

  5. Microfabrication and characterization of spray-coated single-wall carbon nanotube film strain gauges.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dongil; Hong, Hyun Pyo; Lee, Chul Jin; Park, Chan Won; Min, Nam Ki

    2011-11-11

    We present the design, fabrication, and characterization results of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) film strain gauges for potential applications as highly sensitive strain, weight, or pressure sensors on the macro-scale. A batch microfabrication process was developed for practical device construction and packaging using spray-coated SWCNTs and a conventional semiconductor process. The prototype was characterized using a commercial metal foil gauge with tensile and compressive testing on a binocular load cell. Our test results demonstrated that the proposed SWCNT film gauges have a linear relationship between resistance changes and externally applied strain. The gauge factor ranged from 7.0 to 16.4 for four different micro-grid configurations, indicating that the maximum strain sensitivity of the prototype was approximately eight times greater than that of commercial gauges. PMID:21993311

  6. Spin-coated kesterite CZTS thin films for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majula, L.; Mlyuka, N. R.; Samiji, M. E.; Bryce, R. S.; Kim, D. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Lee, H. J.; Choi, H. J.

    2015-09-01

    Copper zinc tin-sulfide (CZTS) films have been widely studied over recent years due to the inherent advantages of low cost, high absorption coefficient (≥ 104 cm-1), suitable band gap (˜1.5 eV) and nontoxicity. In this work, spin coating was used to obtain CZTS films of various compositions and degrees of crystallization on glass substrates, which were then annealed at 500 °C in a N2 atmosphere by using a rapid thermal processing (RTP) furnace in order to optimize their structure. Non-stoichiometric precursors and low spinning speeds resulted in a lower sheet resistance, which is considered to be a result of lower degree of crystallization. Furthermore, the non-stoichiometric films had a high optical band gap (> 1.66 eV) whereas the band gap of the stoichiometric films (1.4 to 1.6 eV) was close to the optimal value (1.5 eV) for solar-cell applications.

  7. Inclined-substrate deposition of biaxially textured magnesium oxide thin films for YBCO coated conductors.

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, B.; Li, M.; Jee, Y. A.; Koritala, R. E.; Fisher, B. L.; Balachandran, U.; Energy Technology

    2002-02-01

    Highly textured MgO films were grown by the inclined-substrate deposition (ISD) technique at a high deposition rate. A columnar grain with a roofing-tile-shaped surface was observed in these MgO films. X-ray pole figure, and {phi}- and {omega}-scan were used to characterize in-plane and out-of-plane textures. MgO films deposited when the incline angle {alpha} was 55 and 30 degrees exhibited the best in-plane and out-of-plane texture, respectively. High-quality YBCO films were epitaxially grown on ISD-MgO-buffered Hastelloy C substrates by pulsed laser deposition. {Tc}=88 K, with sharp transition, and j{sub c} values of {approx}2x10{sup 5} A/cm{sup 2} at 77 K in zero field were observed on films 5 mm wide and 1 cm long. This work has demonstrated that biaxially textured ISD MgO buffer layers deposited on metal substrates are excellent candidates for fabrication of high-quality YBCO coated conductors.

  8. Plasmonic enhancement of thin-film solar cells using gold-black coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Fredricksen, Christopher J.; Panjwani, D. R.; Arnold, J. P.; Figueiredo, P. N.; Rezaie, F. K.; Colwell, J. E.; Baillie, K.; Peppernick, Samuel J.; Joly, Alan G.; Beck, Kenneth M.; Hess, Wayne P.; Peale, Robert E.

    2011-08-11

    Coatings of conducting gold-black nano-structures on commercial thin-film amorphous-silicon solar cells enhance the short-circuit current by 20% over a broad spectrum from 400 to 800 nm wavelength. The efficiency, i.e. the ratio of the maximum electrical output power to the incident solar power, is found to increase 7% for initial un-optimized coatings. Metal blacks are produced cheaply and quickly in a low-vacuum process requiring no lithographic patterning. The inherently broad particle-size distribution is responsible for the broad spectrum enhancement in comparison to what has been reported for mono-disperse lithographically deposited or self-assembled metal nano-particles. Photoemission electron microscopy reveals the spatial-spectral distribution of hot-spots for plasmon resonances, where scattering of normally-incident solar flux into the plane increases the effective optical path in the thin film to enhance light harvesting. Efficiency enhancement is correlated with percent coverage and particle size distribution, which are determined from histogram and wavelet analysis of scanning electron microscopy images. Electrodynamic simulations reveal how the gold-black particles scatter the radiation and locally enhance the field strength.

  9. Radiation damage in nanostructured metallic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Kaiyuan

    High energy neutron and charged particle radiation cause microstructural and mechanical degradation in structural metals and alloys, such as phase segregation, void swelling, embrittlement and creep. Radiation induced damages typically limit nuclear materials to a lifetime of about 40 years. Next generation nuclear reactors require materials that can sustain over 60 - 80 years. Therefore it is of great significance to explore new materials with better radiation resistance, to design metals with favorable microstructures and to investigate their response to radiation. The goals of this thesis are to study the radiation responses of several nanostructured metallic thin film systems, including Ag/Ni multilayers, nanotwinned Ag and nanocrystalline Fe. Such systems obtain high volume fraction of boundaries, which are considered sinks to radiation induced defects. From the viewpoint of nanomechanics, it is of interest to investigate the plastic deformation mechanisms of nanostructured films, which typically show strong size dependence. By controlling the feature size (layer thickness, twin spacing and grain size), it is applicable to picture a deformation mechanism map which also provides prerequisite information for subsequent radiation hardening study. And from the viewpoint of radiation effects, it is of interest to explore the fundamentals of radiation response, to examine the microstructural and mechanical variations of irradiated nanometals and to enrich the design database. More importantly, with the assistance of in situ techniques, it is appealing to examine the defect generation, evolution, annihilation, absorption and interaction with internal interfaces (layer interfaces, twin boundaries and grain boundaries). Moreover, well-designed nanostructures can also verify the speculation that radiation induced defect density and hardening show clear size dependence. The focus of this thesis lies in the radiation response of Ag/Ni multilayers and nanotwinned Ag subjected to charged particles. The radiation effects in irradiated nanograined Fe are also investigated for comparison. Radiation responses in these nanostructured metallic films suggest that immiscible incoherent Ag/Ni multilayers are more resistant to radiation in comparison to their monolithic counterparts. Their mechanical properties and radiation response show strong layer thickness dependence in terms of radiation hardening and defect density. Coherent twin boundaries can interact with stacking fault tetrahedral and remove them effectively. Twin boundaries can actively absorb radiation induced defects and defect clusters resulting in boundary migration. Size dependence is also found in nanograins where fewer defects exhibit in films with smaller grains.

  10. Study of sensing properties and contrastive analysis of metal coating optical fiber grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Ning; Shi, Bin; Sui, Qingmei; Guan, Congsheng; Wei, Guangqing; Li, Shuhua

    2014-02-01

    Optical fiber grating (FBG) has been widely used in the measurement of parameters such as temperature and strain. However, FBG is too slim to broken, whose outside protective layer tends to shedding easily, and it is also hard to change the temperature and strain sensitivity. In order to overcome the above disadvantages and to further expand the application range of FBG, this paper improves the technology of fiber grating metal film plating process firstly. It adopts a compositive method including chemical plating and electroplating to gild FBG, copper FBG and galvanize FBG, which all get good metal coating. Then, the temperature and strain sensing properties of metalized FBG is studied in detail. Multiple metal coating FBGs were put in high-low temperature test-box together, and then the test-box worked continuously at the temperature range of 0°C~95°C. After several experiments, it concludes that metal plating enhances the temperature sensitivity of fiber grating, and the one with galvanization has the highest temperature sensitivity of 0.0235. At last, FBGs with various cladding were pasted on carbon fiber cantilever beam respectively and the pressure on the top of the cantilever increased gradually. The experimental results show that wavelength of fiber grating shift toward the long wavelength with the increase of the pressure, and the one with galvanization has the maximum strain sensitivity which has minimal impact on fiber properties.

  11. Optical Enhanced Transmission of Double Layer Ultrathin Metallic Films.

    PubMed

    Lang, Wenchang; Du, Hao; Gao, Bin; Xie, TingTing; Wang, Xianghong

    2015-09-01

    Double layer ultrathin metallic films composed of an aluminum film with thickness of 33 nm on copper films with thickness of 16 nm or 32 nm were deposited on polyester foil by cylindrical medium frequency magnetron sputtering in turn. Transmittance and reflectance of these films were measured and compared to each composite film, as well as absorptance, respectively. The results show that the reflectance increases, while both the transmittance and the absorptance decrease with the increase in copper film thickness. At the same time, the three optical parameters of the double layer film were calculated theoretically. Compared to theoretical results, there is an increase in transmittance, while a decrease in reflectance and absorptance for the double layer on experimental results. It is concluded that the optical properties of the double layer films are not simply the sum of the two composite films, there is an enhanced transmission effect to electromagnetic wave at the double layer metallic film. PMID:26716340

  12. Boosting the Transparency of Thin Layers by Coatings of Opposing Susceptibility: How Metals Help See Through Dielectrics.

    PubMed

    Shakhs, Mohammed Al; Augusto, Lucian; Markley, Loïc; Chau, Kenneth J

    2016-01-01

    We propose a hypothesis that a very thin layer can be made more transparent by adding a thin coating with susceptibility of opposing sign. Two experimental tests backed by a theoretical model support this hypothesis. First, we show that the visible and near-infrared transmission through a semi-transparent silver film can be enhanced by up to ~70% and spectrally tailored depending on the type and thickness of the dielectric coating. Material types explored as dielectric coating layers include conventional metal oxides (titanium dioxide) and lesser-explored elemental semiconductors (undoped silicon, p-type silicon, and germanium). Second, and more surprisingly, we show that coating a 50-nm-thick silicon nitride membrane with a 10-nm-thick silver layer can modestly enhance the transmission by up to 6 ± 1% in the blue part of the spectrum. Transmission enhancements are observed for three silver-coated membranes in different configurations. Thinner silver coatings are theoretically capable of enhancement factors greater than 10%, but implementation is restricted by challenges in making smooth and continuous silver films below 10 nm in thickness. This study is important because it is the first demonstration of reciprocity with respect to the transmission enhancements achieved by combining thin metallic and dielectric layers. PMID:26860979

  13. Boosting the Transparency of Thin Layers by Coatings of Opposing Susceptibility: How Metals Help See Through Dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakhs, Mohammed Al; Augusto, Lucian; Markley, Loïc; Chau, Kenneth J.

    2016-02-01

    We propose a hypothesis that a very thin layer can be made more transparent by adding a thin coating with susceptibility of opposing sign. Two experimental tests backed by a theoretical model support this hypothesis. First, we show that the visible and near-infrared transmission through a semi-transparent silver film can be enhanced by up to ~70% and spectrally tailored depending on the type and thickness of the dielectric coating. Material types explored as dielectric coating layers include conventional metal oxides (titanium dioxide) and lesser-explored elemental semiconductors (undoped silicon, p-type silicon, and germanium). Second, and more surprisingly, we show that coating a 50-nm-thick silicon nitride membrane with a 10-nm-thick silver layer can modestly enhance the transmission by up to 6 ± 1% in the blue part of the spectrum. Transmission enhancements are observed for three silver-coated membranes in different configurations. Thinner silver coatings are theoretically capable of enhancement factors greater than 10%, but implementation is restricted by challenges in making smooth and continuous silver films below 10 nm in thickness. This study is important because it is the first demonstration of reciprocity with respect to the transmission enhancements achieved by combining thin metallic and dielectric layers.

  14. Boosting the Transparency of Thin Layers by Coatings of Opposing Susceptibility: How Metals Help See Through Dielectrics

    PubMed Central

    Shakhs, Mohammed Al; Augusto, Lucian; Markley, Loïc; Chau, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a hypothesis that a very thin layer can be made more transparent by adding a thin coating with susceptibility of opposing sign. Two experimental tests backed by a theoretical model support this hypothesis. First, we show that the visible and near-infrared transmission through a semi-transparent silver film can be enhanced by up to ~70% and spectrally tailored depending on the type and thickness of the dielectric coating. Material types explored as dielectric coating layers include conventional metal oxides (titanium dioxide) and lesser-explored elemental semiconductors (undoped silicon, p-type silicon, and germanium). Second, and more surprisingly, we show that coating a 50-nm-thick silicon nitride membrane with a 10-nm-thick silver layer can modestly enhance the transmission by up to 6 ± 1% in the blue part of the spectrum. Transmission enhancements are observed for three silver-coated membranes in different configurations. Thinner silver coatings are theoretically capable of enhancement factors greater than 10%, but implementation is restricted by challenges in making smooth and continuous silver films below 10 nm in thickness. This study is important because it is the first demonstration of reciprocity with respect to the transmission enhancements achieved by combining thin metallic and dielectric layers. PMID:26860979

  15. Metal matrix coated fiber composites and the methods of manufacturing such composites

    DOEpatents

    Weeks, Jr., Joseph K.; Gensse, Chantal

    1993-01-01

    A fiber coating which allows ceramic or metal fibers to be wetted by molten metals is disclosed. The coating inhibits degradation of the physical properties caused by chemical reaction between the fiber and the coating itself or between the fiber and the metal matrix. The fiber coating preferably includes at least a wetting layer, and in some applications, a wetting layer and a barrier layer between the fiber and the wetting layer. The wetting layer promotes fiber wetting by the metal matrix. The barrier layer inhibits fiber degradation. The fiber coating permits the fibers to be infiltrated with the metal matrix resulting in composites having unique properties not obtainable in pure materials.

  16. Optical properties of metal coated nanoscrew Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Hyunjong; Liu, Logan Gang

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, a unique nanoscrew Si structure is presented. The nanoscrew surface is made by anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) mask formation followed by extended deep reactive ionic etching (DRIE). Dense random zig-zag pillar structures that represent screw shapes are formed, with 1 um in height and the bottom base width ranging from 100 nm to 250 nm. The tip of the nanoscrews have radius of curvature even lower than 10 nm. The apparent naked-eye view of the nanoscrew surface, which only consists of nanopatterned N-type single crystalline Si is diffusively green. The optical properties of nanoscrew Si with and without metal deposition is presented as discussion in applications for SERS.

  17. The role of size and coating in Au nanoparticles incorporated into bi-component polymeric thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Mosciatti, Thomas; Orgiu, Emanuele; Raimondo, Corinna; Samorì, Paolo

    2014-05-21

    We describe the effect of blending poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) with Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) on the performance of organic thin-film transistors. To this end we have used AuNPs of two different sizes coated with chemisorbed SAMs of oligophenyl-thiols possessing increasing lengths. The electrical characteristics of the hybrid materials revealed changes in the field-effect mobility depending primarily on the AuNP size, as a result of the variable energy level of the coated metallic nanocluster and by the degree of modification of the P3HT crystalline structure. PMID:24604238

  18. Repairing Chipped Silicide Coatings on Refractory Metal Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The space shuttle orbiter s reaction control system (RCS) is a series of small thrusters that use hypergolic fuels to orient the orbiter in space. The RCS thrusters are constructed from a special niobium-based alloy -- the C-103. This alloy retains excellent mechanical properties from cryogenic temperature all the way up to 2,500 F (1,370 C). C-103 is susceptible to rapid oxidation at elevated temperatures. The authors have developed two methods to repair damaged R512a coatings on C-103. For the first repair technique, metal foundries, semiconductor manufacturers, and many other industries have developed and routinely use coatings that can easily be painted on metal to protect it from corrosion, including oxidation, to temperatures in excess of 2,500 F (1,370 C). This first repair technique is considered somewhat temporary. The second repair technique is based on using the native coating material of the RCS nozzles. the chipped area is ground out and a "green" R512a coating is applied to the repair area. Both repair techniques can be applied for moderate protection until the permanent laser-repair technique is available to the repair area.

  19. Metallurgical coatings and thin films; Proceedings of the International Conference, 18th, San Diego, CA, Apr. 22-26, 1991. Vols. 1 & 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, Gary E. (Editor); Mcintyre, Dale C. (Editor); Hofmann, Siegfried (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    A conference on metallurgical coatings and thin films produced papers in the areas of coatings for use at high temperatures; hard coatings and deposition technologies; diamonds and related materials; tribological coatings/surface modifications; thin films for microelectronics and high temperature superconductors; optical coatings, film characterization, magneto-optics, and guided waves; and methods for characterizing films and modified surfaces.

  20. Applying terahertz technology for nondestructive detection of crack initiation in a film-coated layer on a swelling tablet

    PubMed Central

    Momose, Wataru; Yoshino, Hiroyuki; Katakawa, Yoshifumi; Yamashita, Kazunari; Imai, Keiji; Sako, Kazuhiro; Kato, Eiji; Irisawa, Akiyoshi; Yonemochi, Etsuo; Terada, Katsuhide

    2012-01-01

    Here, we describe a nondestructive approach using terahertz wave to detect crack initiation in a film-coated layer on a drug tablet. During scale-up and scale-down of the film coating process, differences in film density and gaps between the film-coated layer and the uncoated tablet were generated due to differences in film coating process parameters, such as the tablet-filling rate in the coating machine, spray pressure, and gasliquid ratio etc. Tablets using the PEO/PEG formulation were employed as uncoated tablets. We found that heat and humidity caused tablets to swell, thereby breaking the film-coated layer. Using our novel approach with terahertz wave nondestructively detect film surface density (FSD) and interface density differences (IDDs) between the film-coated layer and an uncoated tablet. We also found that a reduced FSD and IDD between the film-coated layer and uncoated tablet increased the risk of crack initiation in the film-coated layer, thereby enabling us to nondestructively predict initiation of cracks in the film-coated layer. Using this method, crack initiation can be nondestructively assessed in swelling tablets after the film coating process without conducting accelerated stability tests, and film coating process parameters during scale-up and scale-down studies can be appropriately established. PMID:25755992

  1. Fabrication of antiferroelectric PLZT films on metal foils

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Beihai Kwon, Do-Kyun; Narayanan, Manoj; Balachandran, U.

    2009-01-08

    Fabrication of high-dielectric-strength antiferroelectric (AFE) films on metallic foils is technically important for advanced power electronics. To that end, we have deposited crack-free Pb{sub 0.92}La{sub 0.08}Zr{sub 0.95}Ti{sub 0.05}O{sub 3} (PLZT 8/95/5) films on nickel foils by chemical solution deposition. To eliminate the parasitic effect caused by the formation of a low-permittivity interfacial oxide, a conductive buffer layer of lanthanum nickel oxide (LNO) was coated by chemical solution deposition on the nickel foil before the deposition of PLZT. Use of the LNO buffer allowed high-quality film-on-foil capacitors to be processed in air. With the PLZT 8/95/5 deposited on LNO-buffered Ni foils, we observed field- and thermal-induced phase transformations of AFE to ferroelectric (FE). The AFE-to-FE phase transition field, E{sub AF} = 225 kV/cm, and the reverse phase transition field, E{sub FA} = 190 kV/cm, were measured at room temperature on a {approx}1.15 {mu}m-thick PLZT 8/95/5 film grown on LNO-buffered Ni foils. The relative permittivities of the AFE and FE states were {approx}600 and {approx}730, respectively, with dielectric loss {approx}0.04 at room temperature. The Curie temperature was {approx}210 deg. C. The thermal-induced transition of AFE-to-FE phase occurred at {approx}175 deg. C. Breakdown field strength of 1.2 MV/cm was measured at room temperature.

  2. Fabrication of antiferroelectric PLZT films on metal foils.

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, B.; Kwon, D.-K.; Narayanan, M.; Balachandran, U.; Energy Systems

    2009-01-01

    Fabrication of high-dielectric-strength antiferroelectric (AFE) films on metallic foils is technically important for advanced power electronics. To that end, we have deposited crack-free Pb{sub 0.92}La{sub 0.08}Zr{sub 0.95}Ti{sub 0.05}O{sub 3} (PLZT 8/95/5) films on nickel foils by chemical solution deposition. To eliminate the parasitic effect caused by the formation of a low-permittivity interfacial oxide, a conductive buffer layer of lanthanum nickel oxide (LNO) was coated by chemical solution deposition on the nickel foil before the deposition of PLZT. Use of the LNO buffer allowed high-quality film-on-foil capacitors to be processed in air. With the PLZT 8/95/5 deposited on LNO-buffered Ni foils, we observed field- and thermal-induced phase transformations of AFE to ferroelectric (FE). The AFE-to-FE phase transition field, E{sub AF} = 225 kV/cm, and the reverse phase transition field, E{sub FA} = 190 kV/cm, were measured at room temperature on a {approx}1.15 {micro}m-thick PLZT 8/95/5 film grown on LNO-buffered Ni foils. The relative permittivities of the AFE and FE states were {approx}600 and {approx}730, respectively, with dielectric loss {approx}0.04 at room temperature. The Curie temperature was {approx}210 C. The thermal-induced transition of AFE-to-FE phase occurred at {approx}175 C. Breakdown field strength of 1.2 MV/cm was measured at room temperature.

  3. Metal and Molecular Films on COPPER(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, Hong Zeng

    It is essential to understand the physical and chemical phenomena behind the growth of thin films in order to fabricate function-specific thin films, nanostructures and delta-doping layers. The present work reports on the study of metal and molecular films deposited on a metal surface using atomic beam scattering, Auger electron spectroscopy, low energy electron diffraction, photoemission and computer simulation. This study has focused on the characterization of growth of films under far-from-equilibrium conditions. The system chosen is Pb deposited on Cu, a system with a large lattice-mismatched interface. Growth modes of Pb multilayers can be manipulated by varying substrate temperature or by controlling the first layer structure. While the growth pattern, interface structure and surface morphology at the very early stage of growth at low temperature are strongly influenced by the Pb/Cu(100) interface, the interface roughens at later stages of growth and shows the characteristics of dynamical scaling. We have carried out computer simulations to study growth of islands. A simple but realistic model of energy barriers is developed for Monte Carlo simulation of the adatom diffusion and island growth of Cu growing on Cu(001). This simple model enables us to examine the microscopic processes, such as adatom diffusion, during growth. The scaling behavior observed experimentally by other groups has been confirmed by our simulation. The adsorption, bonding and ordering of orthocarborane (C_2B_{10}H_{12 }) molecular films on Cu(100) have been studied. Orthocarborane adsorbs molecularly on Cu(100) at 180K, with a preferential bonding orientation in which the two carbon atoms are involved in the bonding with the surface. Short range ordering of the overlayers are evident from the orthocarborane induced band structure effects. At room temperature, the adsorption of orthocarborane is dissociative. Photon induced selective dissociation is also observed. A time-of-flight (TOF) option was added to the existing elastic He beam scattering apparatus. It was then used to investigate the dynamical behavior of Hg c(2 x 2) overlayer on Cu(001). A dispersionless mode with energy of 4.3 meV has been found, showing weak chemisorption of Hg on Cu(100). The results correlate very well with the structural and dynamical properties previously studied.

  4. Mechanical Behavior of Spray-Coated Metallic Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vackel, Andrew; Nakamura, Toshio; Sampath, Sanjay

    2016-03-01

    Thermal spray (TS) coatings have been extensively utilized for various surface modifications such as enhancing wear/erosion resistance and thermal protection. In the present study, a new function of TS material is explored by studying its load-carrying capability. Due to the inherent microstructures containing voids and interfaces, it has been presumed TS materials were not suitable to bear loads. However, the recent advances in TS technology to manufacture near fully dense TS coatings have expanded their potential applications. In the current experiments, TS nickel coatings are deposited onto metallic substrates, and their mechanical behaviors are closely examined. Based on the measured data, the estimated elastic modulus of TS Ni is about 130 GPa (35% less than bulk value), and the maximum tensile strength is about 500 MPa (comparable to bulk value). It was found that such a high value is attainable because the coating is deposited onto a substrate, enabling a load-transfer mechanism and preventing coating failure at a much lower stress level. Three distinct deformation stages are identified to describe this behavior. Such a clarification is critical for enabling TS process to restore structural parts as well as to additively manufacture load-bearing components.

  5. Thin film pc-Si by aluminium induced crystallization on metallic substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delachat, F.; Antoni, F.; Prathap, P.; Slaoui, A.; Cayron, C.; Ducros, C.

    2013-04-01

    Thin film polycrystalline silicon (pc-Si) on flexible metallic substrates is promising for low cost production of photovoltaic solar cells. One of the attractive methods to produce pc-Si solar cells consists in thickening a large-grained seed layer by epitaxy. In this work, the deposited seed layer is made by aluminium induced crystallization (AIC) of an amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin film on metallic substrates (Ni/Fe alloy) initially coated with a tantalum nitride (TaN) conductive diffusion barrier layer. Effect of the thermal budget on the AIC grown pc-Si seed layer was investigated in order to optimize the process (i.e. the quality of the pc-Si thin film). Structural and optical characterizations were carried out using optical microscopy, μ-Raman and Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD). At optimal thermal annealing conditions, the continuous AIC grown pc-Si thin film showed an average grain size around 15 μm. The grains were preferably (001) oriented which is favorable for its epitaxial thickening. This work proves the feasibility of the AIC method to grow large grains pc-Si seed layer on TaN coated metal substrates. These results are, in terms of grains size, the finest obtained by AIC on metallic substrates.

  6. Linking Precursor Alterations to Nanoscale Structure and Optical Transparency in Polymer Assisted Fast-Rate Dip-Coating of Vanadium Oxide Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, Colm; Creedon, Donal; Geaney, Hugh; Armstrong, Eileen; Collins, Timothy; Morris, Michael A.; Dwyer, Colm O’

    2015-01-01

    Solution processed metal oxide thin films are important for modern optoelectronic devices ranging from thin film transistors to photovoltaics and for functional optical coatings. Solution processed techniques such as dip-coating, allow thin films to be rapidly deposited over a large range of surfaces including curved, flexible or plastic substrates without extensive processing of comparative vapour or physical deposition methods. To increase the effectiveness and versatility of dip-coated thin films, alterations to commonly used precursors can be made that facilitate controlled thin film deposition. The effects of polymer assisted deposition and changes in solvent-alkoxide dilution on the morphology, structure, optoelectronic properties and crystallinity of vanadium pentoxide thin films was studied using a dip-coating method using a substrate withdrawal speed within the fast-rate draining regime. The formation of sub-100 nm thin films could be achieved rapidly from dilute alkoxide based precursor solutions with high optical transmission in the visible, linked to the phase and film structure. The effects of the polymer addition was shown to change the crystallized vanadium pentoxide thin films from a granular surface structure to a polycrystalline structure composed of a high density of smaller in-plane grains, resulting in a uniform surface morphology with lower thickness and roughness. PMID:26123117

  7. Linking Precursor Alterations to Nanoscale Structure and Optical Transparency in Polymer Assisted Fast-Rate Dip-Coating of Vanadium Oxide Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glynn, Colm; Creedon, Donal; Geaney, Hugh; Armstrong, Eileen; Collins, Timothy; Morris, Michael A.; Dwyer, Colm O.'

    2015-06-01

    Solution processed metal oxide thin films are important for modern optoelectronic devices ranging from thin film transistors to photovoltaics and for functional optical coatings. Solution processed techniques such as dip-coating, allow thin films to be rapidly deposited over a large range of surfaces including curved, flexible or plastic substrates without extensive processing of comparative vapour or physical deposition methods. To increase the effectiveness and versatility of dip-coated thin films, alterations to commonly used precursors can be made that facilitate controlled thin film deposition. The effects of polymer assisted deposition and changes in solvent-alkoxide dilution on the morphology, structure, optoelectronic properties and crystallinity of vanadium pentoxide thin films was studied using a dip-coating method using a substrate withdrawal speed within the fast-rate draining regime. The formation of sub-100 nm thin films could be achieved rapidly from dilute alkoxide based precursor solutions with high optical transmission in the visible, linked to the phase and film structure. The effects of the polymer addition was shown to change the crystallized vanadium pentoxide thin films from a granular surface structure to a polycrystalline structure composed of a high density of smaller in-plane grains, resulting in a uniform surface morphology with lower thickness and roughness.

  8. GRAFT POLYMERIZATION OF ACRYLONITRILE ONTO STARCH-COATED POLYETHYLENE FILM SURFACES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When starch-coated polyethylene (PE) films were allowed to react with acrylonitrile in the presence of ceric ammonium nitrate initiator, graft polymerization occurred to produce starch-polyacrylonitrile (PAN) coatings that contained about 25% grafted PAN, by weight. The graft copolymer coatings adh...

  9. Hydrophobic coating of solid materials by plasma-polymerized thin film using tetrafluoroethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hozumi, K.; Kitamura, K.; Kitade, T.

    1980-01-01

    Glass slides were coated with plasma-polymerized tetrafluoroethylene films of different thickness using the glow discharge technique in a tube-shaped chamber, and the plasma conditions, film growth rates, light permeability of the polymer films, and particle bond strength in the polymer films were studied. Ashed sections of mouse organs and ashed bacillus spores were also coated to give them hydrophobic treatment without damaging their shapes or appearance. The hydrophobic coating of the specimens was successful, and the fine ash patterns were strongly fixed onto the glass slides, making permanent preparations.

  10. Structure and properties of moisture-resistant konjac glucomannan films coated with shellac/stearic acid coating.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xueqin; Pang, Jie; Zhang, Changfeng; Yu, Chengcheng; Chen, Han; Xie, Bingqing

    2015-03-15

    A series of moisture-resistant konjac glucomannan films were prepared by coating shellac/stearic acid emulsion on deacetylated konjac glucomannan films (dKGM). The effect of stearic acid content on structure and properties of the coated films were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV), water vapor permeability (WVP), water uptake, water contact angle, and tensile testing. The results revealed that shellac in the coating adhered intimately to the surface of dKGM film, and provided a substrate for the dispersion of stearic acid which played an important role in enhancement of the moisture barrier properties and mechanical properties of the coated films. The WVP of the coated films decreased from 2.63×10(-11) to 0.37×10(-11)g/(msPa) and the water contact angle increased from 68° to 101.2° when stearic acid content increased from 0wt% to 40wt%, showing the potential applications in food preservation. PMID:25542116

  11. Ultraselective Gas Separation by Nanoporous Metal-Organic Frameworks Embedded in Gas-Barrier Nanocellulose Films.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Makoto; Kitaoka, Takuya

    2016-03-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are synthesized at carboxy groups on crystalline TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (TOCNs). MOF-TOCN films coated on a paper filter have a hierarchical structure from the nano- to macroscale, and demonstrate a high CO2 /CH4 selectivity, over 120 for CO2 at a high gas flux, by the combination of the nanoporous MOFs and the gas-barrier TOCNs, which have strong affinity with each other. PMID:26669724

  12. Effect of heat treatment, top coatings and conversion coatings on the corrosion properties of black electroless Ni-P films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Beckett, D.; Hawthorne, D.

    2011-02-01

    Electroless black nickel-phosphorus plating is an advanced electroless nickel plating process formulated to deposit a black finish when processed through an oxidizing acid solution. Heat treatment, five types of top organic coating techniques and one conversion coating technique with three different experimental conditions were investigated to stabilize the black film and increase the hardness and corrosion resistance. Morphology and compositions of electroless nickel-phosphorous films with or without heat treatment, with five types of top organic coatings, and with three conversion coatings were compared to examine nickel, phosphorus, oxygen, carbon, silicon and chrome contents on the corrosion resistance of black surfaces by energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis and scanning electron microscope. Corrosion resistance of black electroless nickel-phosphorus coatings with or without heat treatment, with five types of top organic coatings, and with three conversion coatings was investigated by the polarization measurements and the salt spray test in 5% NaCl solution, respectively. HydroLac as the top organic coating from MacDermid showed the excellent corrosion resistance and the black EN film did not lose the black color after 48 h salt spray test. Electrotarnil B process with 0.5 ASD for 1 min stabilized the black Ni-P film immediately and increased the hardness and corrosion performance of the black Ni-P film. The black Ni-P coating with Electroarnil B process passed the 5% NaCl salt spray test for 3000 h in the black color and had a minimal corrosion current 0.8547 μA/cm2 by the polarization measurement.

  13. Soldering of Thin Film-Metallized Glass Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Hosking, F.M.; Hernandez, C.L.; Glass, S.J.

    1999-03-31

    The ability to produce reliable electrical and structural interconnections between glass and metals by soldering was investigated. Soldering generally requires premetallization of the glass. As a solderable surface finish over soda-lime-silicate glass, two thin films coatings, Cr-Pd-Au and NiCr-Sn, were evaluated. Solder nettability and joint strengths were determined. Test samples were processed with Sn60-Pb40 solder alloy at a reflow temperature of 210 C. Glass-to-cold rolled steel single lap samples yielded an average shear strength of 12 MPa. Solder fill was good. Control of the Au thickness was critical in minimizing the formation of AuSn{sub 4} intermetallic in the joint, with a resulting joint shear strength of 15 MPa. Similar glass-to-glass specimens with the Cr-Pd-Au finish failed at 16.5 MPa. The NiCr-Sn thin film gave even higher shear strengths of 20-22.5 MPa, with failures primarily in the glass.

  14. Quantifying Pharmaceutical Film Coating with Optical Coherence Tomography and Terahertz Pulsed Imaging: An Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hungyen; Dong, Yue; Shen, Yaochun; Zeitler, J Axel

    2015-10-01

    Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) has recently attracted a lot of interest in the pharmaceutical industry as a fast and non-destructive modality for quantification of thin film coatings that cannot easily be resolved with other techniques. Because of the relative infancy of this technique, much of the research to date has focused on developing the in-line measurement technique for assessing film coating thickness. To better assess OCT for pharmaceutical coating quantification, this paper evaluates tablets with a range of film coating thickness measured using OCT and terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) in an off-line setting. In order to facilitate automated coating quantification for film coating thickness in the range of 30-200 μm, an algorithm that uses wavelet denoising and a tailored peak finding method is proposed to analyse each of the acquired A-scan. Results obtained from running the algorithm reveal an increasing disparity between the TPI and OCT measured intra-tablet variability when film coating thickness exceeds 100 μm. The finding further confirms that OCT is a suitable modality for characterising pharmaceutical dosage forms with thin film coatings, whereas TPI is well suited for thick coatings. PMID:26284354

  15. Quantifying Pharmaceutical Film Coating with Optical Coherence Tomography and Terahertz Pulsed Imaging: An Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hungyen; Dong, Yue; Shen, Yaochun; Zeitler, J Axel

    2015-01-01

    Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) has recently attracted a lot of interest in the pharmaceutical industry as a fast and non-destructive modality for quantification of thin film coatings that cannot easily be resolved with other techniques. Because of the relative infancy of this technique, much of the research to date has focused on developing the in-line measurement technique for assessing film coating thickness. To better assess OCT for pharmaceutical coating quantification, this paper evaluates tablets with a range of film coating thickness measured using OCT and terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) in an off-line setting. In order to facilitate automated coating quantification for film coating thickness in the range of 30–200 μm, an algorithm that uses wavelet denoising and a tailored peak finding method is proposed to analyse each of the acquired A-scan. Results obtained from running the algorithm reveal an increasing disparity between the TPI and OCT measured intra-tablet variability when film coating thickness exceeds 100 μm. The finding further confirms that OCT is a suitable modality for characterising pharmaceutical dosage forms with thin film coatings, whereas TPI is well suited for thick coatings. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:3377–3385, 2015 PMID:26284354

  16. Optical properties change of oxide filmmetal system during the film growth: computer simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusin, S. P.

    2012-09-01

    Results of computer simulation of reflective properties of the oxide film-metal system in the process of oxidation in the air environment are presented. The complex refractive indices for oxide film and metal were used as the initial data. Thin films (the thickness is comparable with the wavelength of incident radiation) and thick films (thickness is much larger than the wavelength of incident radiation) are considered. The parameter characterizing the cyclic character of system reflectivity during the growth of film thickness was derived for the thin film. It is shown that the cyclic parameter does not depend on optical properties of a metal substrate. In the air environment, this parameter is determined by a complex refractive index of the film, its thickness, and direction of incident radiation. Relationships for the estimate of system reflectivity in the process of oxide film growth are presented for the thick film.

  17. Solgel derived tantalum pentoxide films as ultraviolet antireflective coatings for silicon.

    PubMed

    Rehg, T J; Ochoa-Tapia, J A; Knoesen, A; Higgins, B G

    1989-12-15

    A solgel process is described to produce Ta(2)O(5) films as short wavelength antireflective (AR) coatings for silicon. The AR coatings were optimized for 370 nm by controlling the acid catalyzed hydrolysis of Ta(OC(2)H(5))(5), the spin coating parameters, and the heat treatment process (rapid thermal processing (RTP) and muffle furnace). Film thickness uniformity across the wafer was better than 1%, and all the coatings tested passed the standard scotch tape test before and after heat treatment and exhibited no change in optical properties after submersion in liquid N(2). Several heat treatment protocols for densifying the films were studied. Spin coated films heat treated in a muffle furnace at 275 degrees C yielded Ta(2)O(5) AR coatings that reduced the reflectance losses from silicon at 370 nm by 86%, the reduction being within 1% of the theoretical value. Films subjected to RTP at temperatures ranging from 300 to 1000 degrees C reduced the reflectance loss in some cases by as much as 95%. The results demonstrate that spin coated solgel derived Ta(2)O(5) films subjected to a low temperature (<300 degrees C) heat treatment can form durable films suitable for near UV AR coatings for high index silicon devices, such as charge couple imagers and photovoltaic cells. PMID:20556030

  18. Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds by Weight-Detectable Sensors coated with Metal-Organic Frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Yamagiwa, Hiroki; Sato, Seiko; Fukawa, Tadashi; Ikehara, Tsuyoshi; Maeda, Ryutaro; Mihara, Takashi; Kimura, Mutsumi

    2014-01-01

    Detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using weight-detectable quartz microbalance and silicon-based microcantilever sensors coated with crystalline metal-organic framework (MOF) thin films is described in this paper. The thin films of two MOFs were grown from COOH-terminated self-assembled monolayers onto the gold electrodes of sensor platforms. The MOF layers worked as the effective concentrators of VOC gases, and the adsorption/desorption processes of the VOCs could be monitored by the frequency changes of weight-detectable sensors. Moreover, the MOF layers provided VOC sensing selectivity to the weight-detectable sensors through the size-selective adsorption of the VOCs within the regulated nanospace of the MOFs. PMID:25175808

  19. Nanocomposite metal amorphous-carbon thin films deposited by hybrid PVD and PECVD technique.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, V; Soares, P; Martins, A J; Carneiro, J; Cerqueira, F

    2009-07-01

    Carbon based films can combine the properties of solid lubricating graphite structure and hard diamond crystal structure, i.e., high hardness, chemical inertness, high thermal conductivity and optical transparency without the crystalline structure of diamond. Issues of fundamental importance associated with nanocarbon coatings are reducing stress, improving adhesion and compatibility with substrates. In this work new nanocomposite coatings with improved toughness based in nanocrystalline phases of metals and ceramics embedded in amorphous carbon matrix are being developed within the frame of a research project: nc-MeNxCy/a-C(Me) with Me = Mo, Si, Al, Ti, etc. Carbide forming metal/carbon (Me/C) composite films with Me = Mo, W or Ti possess appropriate properties to overcome the limitation of pure DLC films. These novel coating architectures will be adopted with the objective to decrease residual stress, improve adherence and fracture toughness, obtain low friction coefficient and high wear-resistance. Nanocomposite DLC's films were deposited by hybrid technique using a PVD-Physically Vapor Deposition (magnetron sputtering) and Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD), by the use of CH4 gas. The parameters varied were: deposition time, substrate temperature (180 degrees C) and dopant (Si + Mo) of the amorphous carbon matrix. All the depositions were made on silicon wafers and steel substrates precoated with a silicon inter-layer. The characterisation of the film's physico-mechanical properties will be presented in order to understand the influence of the deposition parameters and metal content used within the a-C matrix in the thin film properties. Film microstructure and film hybridization state was characterized by Raman Spectroscopy. In order to characterize morphology SEM and AFM will be used. Film composition was measured by Energy-Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) and by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The contact angle for the produced DLC's on silicon substrates were also measured. Thin film adherence was studied by micro-scratch test. Residual stresses in the produced coatings will be analysed by bending technique. PMID:19916409

  20. Starch-based edible film with gum arabic for fruits coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razak, Aqeela Salfarina; Lazim, Azwan Mat

    2015-09-01

    Packaging waste forms a significant part of municipal solid waste and has caused increasing environmental concerns, resulting in a strengthening of various regulations aimed at reducing the amounts generated. The introduction of biodegradable materials such as edible film and coating which can be disposed directly into the soil, can be one possible solution to this problem. Edible coating is defined as a thin layer of edible material form as a film on the surface of the fruits and vegetables. This coating can affect the respiration and moisture loss. In this study, edible film and coating were used as fruit coating. The edible film were prepared with different ratios which is 2:2, 3:1, and 1:3 of starch and gum Arabic with 10% of glycerol and sorbitol as plasticiser. A study of practical application for the edible film and coating from starch with gum Arabic for fruit coating was conducted. Banana were coated with an aqueous solution of starch with gum Arabic and stored at ambient temperature (26 ± 1°C; 70 ± 10% RH). The results indicate that with the coating application, the fruits lost about 30% less weight than the uncoated fruits. The coating application was also effective in retaining the firmness of the banana and slow down the ripening process.

  1. Film formation and paper coating with poly ([beta]-hydroxyalkanoate), a biodegradable latex

    SciTech Connect

    Lauzier, C.A.; Monasterios, C.J.; Saracovan, I.; Marchessault, R.H. ); Ramsay, B.A. )

    1993-05-01

    An aqueous latex of a poly ([beta]-hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) coated on paper imparted water imperviousness without changing mechanical properties. Hot-pressed films biodegraded faster than solvent cast films. The PHA coating on paper degraded totally in activated sludge within 12 days, leaving the cellulose matrix relatively untouched. Blends of PHA latexes with sodium carboxymethl cellulose, polystyrene latex, carboxylated styrenel butadiene latex, natural rubber latex, carboxylated styrenel butadiene latex; natural rubber latex, and starch powders form satisfactory films at room temperature.

  2. Tribological coatings for complex mechanical elements produced by supersonic cluster beam deposition of metal dichalcogenide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazzoni, C.; Buttery, M.; Hampson, M. R.; Roberts, E. W.; Ducati, C.; Lenardi, C.; Cavaliere, F.; Piseri, P.; Milani, P.

    2015-07-01

    Fullerene-like MoS2 and WS2 nanoparticles can be used as building blocks for the fabrication of fluid and solid lubricants. Metal dichalcogenide films have a very low friction coefficient in vacuum, therefore they have mostly been used as solid lubricants in space and vacuum applications. Unfortunately, their use is significantly hampered by the fact that in the presence of humidity, oxygen and moisture, the low-friction properties of these materials rapidly degrade due to oxidation. The use of closed-cage MoS2 and WS2 nanoparticles may eliminate this problem, although the fabrication of lubricant thin films starting from dichalcogenide nanoparticles is, to date, a difficult task. Here we demonstrate the use of supersonic cluster beam deposition for the coating of complex mechanical elements (angular contact ball bearings) with nanostructured MoS2 and WS2 thin films. We report structural and tribological characterization of the coatings in view of the optimization of tribological performances for aerospace applications.

  3. Cyclic nanoindentation studies on CrN thin films prepared by RF sputtering on Zr-based metallic glass

    SciTech Connect

    Jellad, A.; Benameur, T.; Labdi, S.

    2011-01-17

    Cyclic nanoindentation tests were carried out to study the influence of the chromium nitride thin films on the mechanical properties of Zr-based metallic glass. Chromium nitride thin coatings have been deposited on Zr{sub 50}Cu{sub 40}Al{sub 10} metallic glass substrate by RF sputtering. The deposition process was done at room temperature under nitrogen reactive gas using a metallic chromium target. The CrN films have a thickness of 300 nm. Several cyclic nanoindentation measurements were conducted on CrN films and Zr{sub 50}Cu{sub 40}Al{sub 10} metallic glass substrate samples at various loading rate values. We have found that the coated metallic glass sample shows high mechanical properties such as hardness and reduced elastic modulus. Cyclic nanoindentation results show a hardening behaviour for these CrN coatings. Moreover, the CrN coated on Zr-based metallic glass was found to have a high value of resistance to crack propagation, as being analysed through the SEM pictures of the residual Vickers indentation impressions.

  4. Highly Conductive Group VI Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Films by Solution-Processed Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Ki, W.; Huang, X.; Li, J.; Young, D. L.; Zhang, Y.

    2007-05-01

    A new soluble synthetic route was developed to fabricate thin films of layered structure transition metal dichalcogendies, MoS{sub 2} and WS{sub 2}. High-quality thin films of the dichalcogenides were prepared using new soluble precursors, (CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}MS{sub 4} (M = Mo, W). The precursors were dissolved in organic solvents and spun onto substrates via both single- and multistep spin coating procedures. The thin films were formed by the thermal decomposition of the coatings under inert atmosphere. Structural, electrical, optical absorption, thermal, and transport properties of the thin films were characterized. Surface morphology of the films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Highly conductive and textured n-type MoS{sub 2} films were obtained. The measured room temperature conductivity {approx}50 O-1 cm-1 is substantially higher than the previously reported values. The n-type WS{sub 2} films were prepared for the first time using solution-processed deposition. WS{sub 2} displays a conductivity of {approx}6.7 O-1 cm-1 at room temperature.

  5. Mechanical properties of metallic thin films: theoretical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phuong, Duong Dai; Hoa, Nguyen Thi; Van Hung, Vu; Khoa, Doan Quoc; Hieu, Ho Khac

    2016-03-01

    The statistical moment method in statistical mechanics was developed to investigate the mechanical properties of free-standing metallic thin films at ambient conditions including the anharmonicity effects of thermal lattice vibrations. Analytical expressions of isothermal areal modulus B T , Young's modulus E and shear modulus G were derived in terms of the power moments of the atomic displacements. Numerical calculations have been performed for metallic Ni, Au and Al thin films, and compared with those of bulk metals. This method is physically transparent and it successfully described the temperature effects on mechanical properties of metallic thin films.

  6. Characterization of a water-dispersible metal protective coating with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, modulated differential scanning calorimetry, and ellipsometry.

    PubMed

    Boyatzis, Stamatis C; Douvas, Antonios M; Argyropoulos, Vassilike; Siatou, Amalia; Vlachopoulou, Marilena

    2012-05-01

    An ethylene-methacrylic acid copolymer, formulated by BASF as a waterborne suspension of its alkylammonium salt and used, among other applications, in art conservation as a temporary protective coating was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy aided by modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) and ellipsometry. The thermal conversion of thin copolymer films from the freshly applied state, where carboxylic acid and carboxylate ion functional groups co-exist, to a purely acidic working state was spectroscopically followed. Transmission mid-infrared data of the working state showed a 1 : 12 ratio of methacrylic acid towards ethylene units. The glass transition temperature (T(g)) in the same state was found at 45 °C. Copolymer films spin-coated on mechanically polished bronze and iron coupons were characterized with transflection infrared spectroscopy and compared to corresponding transmission mid-infrared spectra of copolymer films spin-coated on silicon wafers. In the case of bronze coupons, evidence for interaction of the carboxylate ion with the copper substrate was obtained. The chemical structure and the thermal behavior of the coating, as well as some implications on its protective capability towards iron and copper alloys, is discussed as this material has received considerable attention in the field of metal conservation and coatings. PMID:22524964

  7. Reaction mechanism of electroless metal deposition using ZnO thin film (I): Process of catalyst formation

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshiki, Hajime; Hashimoto, Kazuhito; Fujishima, Akira

    1995-02-01

    The reaction mechanism of electroless metal deposition proceeding selectively on a ZnO thin film coated on a glass substrate was investigated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma measurements. The ZnO thin film was activated for electroless metal deposition just by immersion in 1.1 mM PdCl{sub 2} solution adjusted to pH 2.5. In this process, PD(II) was selectively adsorbed on the ZnO thin film while simultaneously the ZnO underwent dissolution. The dissolution of ZnO thin film easily occurred on the (002) face with polarity. The strongly adsorbed Pd(II) was reduced to Pd(0) by a reducing agent in the electroless plating bath and this served as a catalyst center. As a result, metal layers were obtained selectively on the ZnO thin film in the electroless plating bath.

  8. 21 CFR 175.365 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for polycarbonate film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... polycarbonate film. 175.365 Section 175.365 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... polycarbonate film. Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings identified in this section and applied on polycarbonate film may be safely used as food-contact surfaces, in accordance with the following...

  9. Characteristics of indirect laser-induced plasma from a thin film of oil on a metallic substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiu, Jun-Shan; Bai, Xue-Shi; Motto-Ros, Vincent; Yu, Jin

    2015-04-01

    Optical emissions from the major and trace elements embodied in a transparent gel prepared from cooking oil were detected after the gel was spread in a thin film on a metallic substrate. Such emissions are due to the indirect breakdown of the coating layer. The generated plasma, a mixture of substances from the substrate, the layer, and the ambient gas, was characterized using emission spectroscopy. The characteristics of the plasma formed on the metal with and without the coating layer were investigated. The results showed that Al emission induced from the aluminum substrates coated with oil films extends away from the target surface to ablate the oil film. This finally formed a bifurcating circulation of aluminum vapor against a spherical confinement wall in the front of the plume, which differed from the evolution of the plasma induced from the uncoated aluminum target. The strongest emissions of elements from the oil films can be observed at 2 mm above the target after a detection delay of 1.0 μs. A high temperature zone has been observed in the plasma after the delay of 1.0 μs for the plasma induced from the coated metal. This higher temperature determined in the plasma allows the consideration of the sensitive detection of trace elements in liquids, gels, biological samples, or thin films.

  10. A Solvent-Free Hot-Pressing Method for Preparing Metal-Organic-Framework Coatings.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yifa; Li, Siqing; Pei, Xiaokun; Zhou, Junwen; Feng, Xiao; Zhang, Shenghan; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Li, Haiwei; Han, Ruodan; Wang, Bo

    2016-03-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), with their well-defined pores and rich structural diversity and functionality, have drawn a great deal of attention from across the scientific community. However, industrial applications are hampered by their intrinsic fragility and poor processability. Stable and resilient MOF devices with tunable flexibility are highly desirable. Herein, we present a solvent- and binder-free approach for producing stable MOF coatings by a unique hot-pressing (HoP) method, in which temperature and pressure are applied simultaneously to facilitate the rapid growth of MOF nanocrystals onto desired substrates. This strategy was proven to be applicable to carboxylate-based, imidazolate-based, and mixed-metal MOFs. We further successfully obtained superhydrophobic and "Janus" MOF films through layer-by-layer pressing. This HoP method can be scaled up in the form of roll-to-roll production and may push MOFs into unexplored industrial applications. PMID:26847472

  11. Monolayer and/or few-layer graphene on metal or metal-coated substrates

    DOEpatents

    Sutter, Peter Werner; Sutter, Eli Anguelova

    2015-04-14

    Disclosed is monolayer and/or few-layer graphene on metal or metal-coated substrates. Embodiments include graphene mirrors. In an example, a mirror includes a substrate that has a surface exhibiting a curvature operable to focus an incident beam onto a focal plane. A graphene layer conformally adheres to the substrate, and is operable to protect the substrate surface from degradation due to the incident beam and an ambient environment.

  12. Switchable photoluminescence liquid crystal coated bacterial cellulose films with conductive response.

    PubMed

    Tercjak, Agnieszka; Gutierrez, Junkal; Barud, Hernane S; Ribeiro, Sidney J L

    2016-06-01

    Three different low molecular weight nematic liquid crystals (LCs) were used to impregnate bacterial cellulose (BC) film. This simple fabrication pathway allows to obtain highly transparent BC based films. The coating of BC film with different liquid crystals changed transmittance spectra in ultraviolet-visible region and allows to design UVC and UVB shielding materials. Atomic force microscopy results confirmed that liquid crystals coated BC films maintain highly interconnected three-dimensional network characteristic of BC film and simultaneously, transversal cross-section scanning electron microscopy images indicated penetration of liquid crystals through the three-dimensional network of BC nanofibers. Investigated BC films maintain nematic liquid crystal properties being switchable photoluminiscence as a function of temperature during repeatable heating/cooling cycles. Conductive response of the liquid crystal coated BC films was proved by tunneling atomic force microscopy measurement. Moreover, liquid crystal coated BC films maintain thermal stability and mechanical properties of the BC film. Designed thermoresponsive materials possessed interesting optical and conductive properties opening a novel simple pathway of fabrication liquid crystal coated BC films with tuneable properties. PMID:27083359

  13. Hierarchical Nanoporous Silica Films for Wear Resistant Antireflection Coatings.

    PubMed

    Mizoshita, Norihiro; Ishii, Masahiko; Kato, Naohiko; Tanaka, Hiromitsu

    2015-09-01

    High-performance antireflection (AR) layers were prepared by depositing hierarchical nanoporous silica films on glass substrates. We designed a composite layer consisting of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) and a mesoporous silica matrix. The introduction of bimodal nanoporous structures, i.e., independent nanopore formation within the MSN and within the matrix, was achieved by using surface-protected MSNs and a polymeric nonionic surfactant template during the fabrication process. A porosity of more than 40% was achieved for composite AR materials. The protrusion of MSNs from the matrix led to spontaneous formation of nanoscale roughness on the surface of the coatings, which enhanced the AR properties. The solid bonding of the MSNs to the nanoporous matrices played an important role in the achievement of high mechanical durability. The optimal nanoporous coating, which contained ca. 50 wt % MSN, exhibited high transparency (91.5-97.5%) and low reflectance (<2.2%), over the whole range of visible light wavelengths, and sufficient wear resistance. PMID:26275209

  14. High-barrier coated bacterial cellulose nanowhiskers films with reduced moisture sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sanz, Marta; Lopez-Rubio, Amparo; Lagaron, Jose M

    2013-10-15

    This study reports on the development and characterization of bacterial cellulose (BCNW) films coated with hydrophobic layers, presenting enhanced barrier properties. Pure BCNW films showed good transparency and thermal stability, high rigidity and extremely low oxygen permeability at 0%RH. The dramatic increase in oxygen permeability at 80%RH, due to the hydrophilic character of BCNW, was counteracted through coating the films with annealed PLA electrospun nanostructured fibres or hydrophobic silanes. The use of electrospinning was crucial to attain a good adhesion between the hydrophilic BCNW and the hydrophobic PLA layer. After electrospinning, the fibres were homogenised by annealing, thus obtaining a uniform and continuous coating. Coated systems showed a hydrophobic surface and protected the BCNW from moisture, thus reducing ca. 70% the water permeability and up to 97% the oxygen permeability at 80%RH. Furthermore, this novel approach was seen to protect BCNW films from moisture more efficiently than coating with hydrophobic silanes. PMID:23987449

  15. Development, mechanical evaluation and surface characteristics of chitosan/polyvinyl alcohol based polymer composite coatings on titanium metal.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sandeep K; Kannan, S

    2014-12-01

    Mechanical properties of orthopedic implants play important role in the regeneration and cell growth of the diseased body part. The present investigation was aimed at the development of a biocompatible, biodegradable and mechanically stable coating of chitosan (CS)-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer composite on Titanium (Ti) metal by employing a simple methodology at ambient conditions. The PVA to CS concentrations were maintained in fixed ratios of 1:4 weight/weight (w/w) for the development of all the coatings on Ti metal. Four different concentrations of the polymers ranging in the order of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% weight/volume (w/v) solution of CS were selected in an aim to test their efficacy on mechanical stability. The results obtained from the analysis confirmed considerable improvement in mechanical properties of the composite polymer film comprising CS and PVA on Ti metal with the four different concentrations showing variable elastic modulus and hardness. The difference in mechanical properties of both dehydrated and hydrated coatings demonstrates the effective and efficient shielding of high mechanical properties of Ti metal in physiological conditions. The scratch tests performed on the coated specimens also indicated a good adhesion of the polymer on the Ti metal surface. PMID:25265031

  16. Measurement of Thin-film Coating Hardness in the Presence of Contamination and Roughness: Implications for Tribology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demas, Nicholaos G.; Lorenzo-Martin, Cinta; Ajayi, Oyelayo O.; Erck, Robert A.; Shareef, Iqbal

    2016-04-01

    Standard nanoindentation measurements on commercially available TiAlN, CrN, metal-containing diamond-like carbon, and TiN coatings, deposited on steel substrates were performed to determine coating hardness and elastic modulus. It was found that the coating surface roughness/morphology present after deposition can significantly affect the measurements of nanomechanical properties so that measurements of these properties on the as-deposited coating surface may be significantly different from the bulk. In addition, a surface measurement may produce a lower nanohardness due to the existence of a soft surface contamination layer. A simple method was developed to enable accurate measurement of the nanomechanical properties of coatings, while avoiding errors introduced by surface topography and the presence of superficial contamination layers on thin films. Friction and wear behavior, as well as the wear mechanisms in dry reciprocating sliding contact of the various coatings with a steel ball can be correlated to the surface attributes of each coating in terms of roughness and the presence of contamination layers, both of which are shown to also affect the nanohardness measurements.

  17. Luting cement-metal surface physicochemical interactions on film thickness.

    PubMed

    Strutz, J M; White, S N; Yu, Z; Kane, C L

    1994-08-01

    Low film thickness is critical to the clinical success of cemented castings. This study investigated the effect of luting agent-metal physico-chemical surface interactions on film thicknesses of representative luting agents. Control group luting agents were placed between two glass plates, as described by American Dental Association specifications 8, 61, and 66, and test group luting agents were positioned between glass and metal plates. The materials selected were zinc phosphate cement, polycarboxylate cement, glass ionomer cement, glass ionomer-composite resin hybrid cement and a resinous cement, with a type III gold alloy, a noble metal ceramic alloy, and a base metal ceramic alloy. A two-way analysis of variance and follow-up tests were done. The effects of the type of metal surface, type of cement, and their statistical interaction significantly affected film thickness (p < 0.0001). The type of cement had a greater affect on film thickness than the type of metal. A glass ionomer cement produced lower overall film thicknesses than other cement types, and a noble metal ceramic alloy created lower overall film thicknesses than other types of metal. American Dental Association specifications for cement film thickness did not accurately reflect normal cement use. PMID:7932256

  18. Friction Properties of Polished Cvd Diamond Films Sliding against Different Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zichao; Sun, Fanghong; Shen, Bin

    2016-11-01

    Owing to their excellent mechanical and tribological properties, like the well-known extreme hardness, low coefficient of friction and high chemical inertness, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond films have found applications as a hard coating for drawing dies. The surface roughness of the diamond films is one of the most important attributes to the drawing dies. In this paper, the effects of different surface roughnesses on the friction properties of diamond films have been experimentally studied. Diamond films were fabricated using hot filament CVD. The WC-Co (Co 6wt.%) drawing dies were used as substrates. A gas mixture of acetone and hydrogen gas was used as the feedstock gas. The CVD diamond films were polished using mechanical polishing. Polished diamond films with three different surface roughnesses, as well as the unpolished diamond film, were fabricated in order to study the tribological performance between the CVD diamond films and different metals with oil lubrication. The unpolished and polished CVD diamond films are characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), surface profilometer, Raman spectrum and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The friction examinations were carried out by using a ball-on-plate type reciprocating friction tester. Low carbide steel, stainless steel, copper and aluminum materials were used as counterpart balls. Based on this study, the results presented the friction coefficients between the polished CVD films and different metals. The friction tests demonstrate that the smooth surface finish of CVD diamond films is beneficial for reducing their friction coefficients. The diamond films exhibit low friction coefficients when slid against the stainless steel balls and low carbide steel ball, lower than that slid against copper ball and aluminum ball, attributed to the higher ductility of copper and aluminum causing larger amount of wear debris adhering to the sliding interface and higher adhesive strength between the contacting surfaces.

  19. Corrosion processes of physical vapor deposition-coated metallic implants.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Renato Altobelli; de Oliveira, Mara Cristina Lopes

    2009-01-01

    Protecting metallic implants from the harsh environment of physiological fluids is essential to guaranteeing successful long-term use in a patient's body. Chemical degradation may lead to the failure of an implant device in two different ways. First, metal ions may cause inflammatory reactions in the tissues surrounding the implant and, in extreme cases, these reactions may inflict acute pain on the patient and lead to loosening of the device. Therefore, increasing wear strength is beneficial to the performance of the metallic implant. Second, localized corrosion processes contribute to the nucleation of fatigue cracks, and corrosion fatigue is the main reason for the mechanical failure of metallic implants. Common biomedical alloys such as stainless steel, cobalt-chrome alloys, and titanium alloys are prone to at least one of these problems. Vapor-deposited hard coatings act directly to improve corrosion, wear, and fatigue resistances of metallic materials. The effectiveness of the corrosion protection is strongly related to the structure of the physical vapor deposition layer. The aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive review of the correlation between the structure of physical vapor deposition layers and the corrosion properties of metallic implants. PMID:20565379

  20. Method of applying a bond coating and a thermal barrier coating on a metal substrate, and related articles

    DOEpatents

    Hasz, Wayne Charles; Borom, Marcus Preston

    2002-01-01

    A method for applying at least one bond coating on a surface of a metal-based substrate is described. A foil of the bond coating material is first attached to the substrate surface and then fused thereto, e.g., by brazing. The foil is often initially prepared by thermally spraying the bond coating material onto a removable support sheet, and then detaching the support sheet. Optionally, the foil may also include a thermal barrier coating applied over the bond coating. The substrate can be a turbine engine component.

  1. Plasma-sprayed metal-glass fluoride coatings for lubrication to 1170 K (1650 F)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, H. E.

    1974-01-01

    Plasma spray of Nichrome matrix composite contains dispersed glass for oxidation protection and calcium fluoride for lubrication. Coatings can be applied to bearing journals and bearing bores. Coating was easily machinable and had excellent bond strength on substrate metal.

  2. Superhydrophobic ceramic coatings enabled by phase-separated nanostructured composite TiO2-Cu2O thin films.

    PubMed

    Aytug, Tolga; Bogorin, Daniela F; Paranthaman, Parans M; Mathis, John E; Simpson, John T; Christen, David K

    2014-06-20

    By exploiting phase-separation in oxide materials, we present a simple and potentially low-cost approach to create exceptional superhydrophobicity in thin-film based coatings. By selecting the TiO2-Cu2O system and depositing through magnetron sputtering onto single crystal and metal templates, we demonstrate growth of nanostructured, chemically phase-segregated composite films. These coatings, after appropriate chemical surface modification, demonstrate a robust, non-wetting Cassie-Baxter state and yield an exceptional superhydrophobic performance, with water droplet contact angles reaching to ~172° and sliding angles <1°. As an added benefit, despite the photo-active nature of TiO2, the chemically coated composite film surfaces display UV stability and retain superhydrophobic attributes even after exposure to UV (275 nm) radiation for an extended period of time. The present approach could benefit a variety of outdoor applications of superhydrophobic coatings, especially for those where exposure to extreme atmospheric conditions is required. PMID:24857856

  3. Superhydrophobic ceramic coatings enabled by phase-separated nanostructured composite TiO2-Cu2O thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aytug, Tolga; Bogorin, Daniela F.; Paranthaman, Parans M.; Mathis, John E.; Simpson, John T.; Christen, David K.

    2014-06-01

    By exploiting phase-separation in oxide materials, we present a simple and potentially low-cost approach to create exceptional superhydrophobicity in thin-film based coatings. By selecting the TiO2-Cu2O system and depositing through magnetron sputtering onto single crystal and metal templates, we demonstrate growth of nanostructured, chemically phase-segregated composite films. These coatings, after appropriate chemical surface modification, demonstrate a robust, non-wetting Cassie-Baxter state and yield an exceptional superhydrophobic performance, with water droplet contact angles reaching to ˜172° and sliding angles <1°. As an added benefit, despite the photo-active nature of TiO2, the chemically coated composite film surfaces display UV stability and retain superhydrophobic attributes even after exposure to UV (275 nm) radiation for an extended period of time. The present approach could benefit a variety of outdoor applications of superhydrophobic coatings, especially for those where exposure to extreme atmospheric conditions is required.

  4. New chemistry for the growth of first-row transition metal films by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klesko, Joseph Peter

    Thin films containing first-row transition metals are widely used in microelectronic, photovoltaic, catalytic, and surface-coating applications. In particular, metallic films are essential for interconnects and seed, barrier, and capping layers in integrated circuitry. Traditional vapor deposition methods for film growth include PVD, CVD, or the use of plasma. However, these techniques lack the requisite precision for film growth at the nanoscale, and thus, are increasingly inadequate for many current and future applications. By contrast, ALD is the favored approach for depositing films with absolute surface conformality and thickness control on 3D architectures and in high aspect ratio features. However, the low-temperature chemical reduction of most first-row transition metal cations to their zero-valent state is very challenging due to their negative electrochemical potentials. A lack of strongly-reducing coreagents has rendered the thermal ALD of metallic films an intractable problem for many elements. Additionally, several established ALD processes for metal films are plagued by low growth rates, impurity incorporation, poor nucleation, high surface roughness, or the need for hazardous coreagents. Finally, stoichiometric control of ternary films grown by ALD is rare, but increasingly important, with emerging applications for metal borate films in catalysis and lithium ion batteries. The research herein is focused toward the development of new ALD processes for the broader application of metal, metal oxide, and metal borate thin films to future nanoscale technologies. These processes display self-limited growth and support the facile nucleation of smooth, continuous, high-purity films. Bis(trimethylsilyl) six-membered rings are employed as strongly-reducing organic coreagents for the ALD of titanium and antimony metal films. Additionally, new processes are developed for the growth of high-purity, low-resistivity cobalt and nickel metal films by exploiting the redox non-innocent nature of a series of recently-reported 1,4-di-tert-butyl-1,3-diazabutadienyl complexes. Other metal complexes using the same ligand system are subsequently evaluated for use as ALD precursors. Finally, a novel approach is described for the stoichiometric control of first-row transition metal manganese and cobalt borate films, whereby the film composition is governed by the elements present in a single precursor. Computational techniques such as density functional theory (DFT) using nucleus-independent chemical shift (NICS) are used to determine the electronic structure and predict the relative reducing power of organic coreagents. Potential ALD precursors are analyzed by 1H and 13C NMR, IR, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses (TGA/DTA), melting point and solid state decomposition measurements, magnetic susceptibility measurements, preparative sublimation studies, and solution-screening reactions. Deposition parameters are optimized for successful ALD processes. The composition and surface morphology of the resultant films are studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis (TOF-ERDA), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), and four-point probe resistivity measurements.

  5. Enhanced electrochemical properties of fluoride-coated LiCoO2 thin films

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The electrochemical properties of fluoride-coated lithium cobalt oxide [LiCoO2] thin films were characterized. Aluminum fluoride [AlF3] and lanthanum fluoride [LaF3] coating layers were fabricated on a pristine LiCoO2 thin film by using a spin-coating process. The AlF3- and LaF3-coated films exhibited a higher rate capability, cyclic performance, and stability at high temperature than the pristine film. This indicates that the AlF3 and LaF3 layers effectively protected the surface of the pristine LiCoO2 film from the reactive electrolyte. PMID:22221488

  6. 21 CFR 888.3565 - Knee joint patellofemorotibial metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Knee joint patellofemorotibial metal/polymer... Devices § 888.3565 Knee joint patellofemorotibial metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A knee joint patellofemorotibial metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented prosthesis is a...

  7. 21 CFR 888.3565 - Knee joint patellofemorotibial metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Knee joint patellofemorotibial metal/polymer... Devices § 888.3565 Knee joint patellofemorotibial metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A knee joint patellofemorotibial metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented prosthesis is a...

  8. 21 CFR 888.3565 - Knee joint patellofemorotibial metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Knee joint patellofemorotibial metal/polymer... Devices § 888.3565 Knee joint patellofemorotibial metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A knee joint patellofemorotibial metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented prosthesis is a...

  9. 21 CFR 888.3565 - Knee joint patellofemorotibial metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Knee joint patellofemorotibial metal/polymer... Devices § 888.3565 Knee joint patellofemorotibial metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A knee joint patellofemorotibial metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented prosthesis is a...

  10. 21 CFR 888.3565 - Knee joint patellofemorotibial metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Knee joint patellofemorotibial metal/polymer... Devices § 888.3565 Knee joint patellofemorotibial metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A knee joint patellofemorotibial metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented prosthesis is a...

  11. A Investigation Into the Relaxation Behavior of Pharmaceutical Film Coatings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinko, Christopher Michael

    Polymeric materials utilized as film coatings exhibit many different time dependent relaxations which can yield relevant information regarding their use. In this dissertation research, the effect of additives on the primary relaxation behavior and the effect of physical aging, a relaxation to the lowest free energy state, on the physical properties of glassy polymeric materials was investigated. Glassy polymeric materials were chosen in this study since they are widely utilized in the pharmaceutical industry. The observation of the aging process using a creep compliance technique was confirmed with polystyrene, a material whose aging behavior has been well studied. Results from both hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate, HP-55, and cellulose acetate indicate that these materials physically age in their sub-Tg temperature ranges. The mechanical data in both cases was successfully fit to a model which describes the relaxation behavior of condensed amorphous materials. The aging time and temperature dependence of key parameters from this model show that physical aging is thermally activated and thermoreversible. Aging time and temperature dependent reductions in the water permeability of cellulose acetate were observed. The reductions were correlated with calculations, based on the mechanical property changes, which describe the aging -induced relaxation of the glass. These results indicate that a structural change due to aging may be responsible for the observed reductions in water mobility in cellulose acetate. The dissolution rate of HP-55 was found to decrease to a limiting rate when physically aged. Mechanical measurements performed on film samples which were subjected to the same thermal history utilized in the dissolution experiments confirmed the observed aging effect. The effect of the addition of the plasticizers dibutyl phthalate and polyethylene glycol 200 on the primary relaxation behavior of Eudragit S100, an enteric coating, was also evaluated in this dissertation. Creep compliance measurements were performed on films in the glass transition region. Both plasticizers were found to increase the mechanical rate of response of the polymer. A free volume approach was used to describe plasticizing efficiency and it was found that dibutyl phthalate was more effective at changing the mechanical rate of response of Eudragit S100 than polyethylene glycol 200.

  12. Characterization of a novel super-hydrophilic coating film as a function of different spin coating speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joung, Yeun-Ho; Choi, Won Seok; Shin, Yongtak; Lee, Minji; Kim, Heekon; Song, Woochang

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, the mechanical and the optical characteristics of a novel super-hydrophilic coating material (Wellture Finetech, Korea) are introduced according to the film thickness. Because a waterbased SiO2-abundant material has perfect transparency, as does glass, and a super-hydrophilic property, it can be used as a protection glass for a solar cell module. The film thickness was controlled by selecting several spin speeds in the coating process. After the coating process, the material was cured at around 290 °C for 20 minutes. The hardness of the film was measured using the ASTM D3363 test method, and the adhesion of the film was tested using the ASTM D3359 method. The surface conditions of the film were analyzed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact-angle measurements. A UV-visible spectrometer was used to measure the optical transmittance of the film. The anti-pollution property of the film (700 rpm) was also tested by pouring regular water on a permanent marker scratch.

  13. Deposition of alloy films. [on irregulary shaped metal object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An invention is described which deposits metal alloy films on a metal object. A glow discharge is established by applying a high voltage between an anode and a cathode object disposed in an inert gas atmosphere. An alloy of two or more metals is vaporized and the vapor injected into the glow discharge causing the alloy to be plated onto the cathode object.

  14. Evaluation of Adhesive Behaviors of Chromium Nitride Coating Films Produced by Arc Ion Plating Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Ri-Ichi; Kim, Yun-Hae; Kimura, Kazushi; Yonekura, Daisuke; Shin, Do-Hoon

    Scratch tests and pin-on-disk wear tests were performed to clarify the cracking and delaminating behavior of CrN coatings. The CrN films were coated onto an aluminum alloy substrate, JIS A2024, by an arc ion plating method. Eight types of single-layered coating and multilayered coatings were prepared by changing the bias voltage during the deposition. LCI and LCII values were not improved by increasing the number of layers. The critical loads of the single-layered coatings decreased with increasing the bias voltage. It appears that, for the multilayered coatings, the combination of bias voltages influenced the critical loads. The critical loads strongly depended on dynamic hardness and Young’s modulus. In particular, the critical loads of the multilayered coatings were influenced by the properties of the intermediate and bottom layers as well as the surface roughness, hardness and Young’s modulus of the top layer. The large film delamination for single-layered coatings deposited using a high bias voltage occurred during pin-on-disk wear tests even though the critical loads of the single-layered coatings were higher than those of the multilayered coatings. If the brittle top layer could be broken and delaminated by the sliding contact, the ductile bottom layer coated under a bias voltage of 0V could endure the complete delamination of film.

  15. Tribological performance of ceramic coatings deposited on metal surfaces for micro-bearing biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donkov, N.; Zykova, A.; Safonov, V.; Smolik, J.; Rogowska, R.; Luk'yanchenko, V.; Yakovin, S.

    2014-05-01

    Modification of metal materials by means of ceramic coating deposition is an effective way of forming alternative bearing surfaces. Ceramic AlN, Al2O3 and nanocomposite oxynitride coatings are widely used as protective coatings against wear, diffusion and corrosion. The enhancement of the mechanical properties, such as hardness parameters, effective Young's modulus, toughness, elastic recovery and wear resistance of the coatings, is very important for the tribological performance of the next generation of ceramic-coated ball bearing devices.

  16. Noncovalent mechanism for the conformal metallization of nanostructured parylene films.

    PubMed

    Malvadkar, Niranjan A; Sekeroglu, Koray; Dressick, Walter J; Demirel, Melik C

    2010-03-16

    We describe a rapid, reliable method of preparing nanoporous Ni or Co films using nanostructured poly(chloro-p-xylylene) (nanoPPX) films as templates. The nanoPPX films are vapor deposited onto Si substrates using oblique angle polymerization (OAP), resulting in the formation of an obliquely aligned PPX nanorod array on the substrate. The nanoPPX films are then subjected to noncovalent functionalization using an aromatic ligand (i.e., pyridine) by means of treatment with either an aqueous solution of the ligand or ligand vapor. The results of quartz crystal microbalance and X-ray diffraction studies support a model in which pyridine adsorption is facilitated by the formation of pi-pi interactions with aromatic moieties in the amorphous surface regions of nanoPPX. The physisorbed pyridine in the nanoPPX film can subsequently bind a catalytic Pd(II)-based colloidal seed layer. Continuous, conformal Ni or Co films, characterized by FIB/SEM and AFM, are grown on the Pd(II)-laden nanoPPX films using electroless metallization. Analogous metallization of a conventionally deposited planar PPX film results in noncontinuous or patchy metal deposits. Such behavior is attributed to the sluggish adsorption of pyridine in the planar PPX film, resulting in an approximately 22-fold decrease in the quantity of pyridine adsorbed compared to that in a nanoPPX film. Consequently, the level of Pd(II) bound by pyridine on a planar PPX film is insufficient to catalyze continuous metallization. Results of a statistical two-level factorial design indicate that the morphology of the metal layer formed on a nanoPPX film is profoundly influenced by the ligand adsorption condition (i.e., aqueous ligand vs ligand vapor treatment) and is correlated to the catalytic activity of Co films for the production of hydrogen from sodium borohydride decomposition. PMID:20095592

  17. Amorphous-Metal-Film Diffusion Barriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolet, M. A.

    1987-01-01

    Incorporation of N into Ni/W films reduces reactivity with Si substrate. Paper describes reactions between Si substrates and deposited amorphous Ni/W or Ni/N/W films. Thermal stability of amorphous Ni/W films as diffusion barriers in Si markedly improved by introduction of N into Ni/W films during deposition.

  18. Oxide film on metal substrate reduced to form metal-oxide-metal layer structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngdahl, C. A.

    1967-01-01

    Electrically conductive layer of zirconium on a zirconium-oxide film residing on a zirconium substrate is formed by reducing the oxide in a sodium-calcium solution. The reduced metal remains on the oxide surface as an adherent layer and seems to form a barrier that inhibits further reaction.

  19. Thermoelastic response of thin metal films and their adjacent materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S.; Yoon, Y.; Kim, J.; Kim, W.

    2013-01-14

    A pulsed laser beam applied to a thin metal film is capable of launching an acoustic wave due to thermal expansion. Heat transfer from the thin metal film to adjacent materials can also induce thermal expansion; thus, the properties of these adjacent materials (as well as the thin metal film) should be considered for a complete description of the thermoelastic response. Here, we show that adjacent materials with a small specific heat and large thermal expansion coefficient can generate an enhanced acoustic wave and we demonstrate a three-fold increase in the peak pressure of the generated acoustic wave on substitution of parylene for polydimethylsiloxane.

  20. Super elastic strain limit in metallic glass films

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Q. K.; Liu, P.; Ma, Y.; Cao, Q. P.; Wang, X. D.; Zhang, D. X.; Han, X. D.; Zhang, Z.; Jiang, J. Z.

    2012-01-01

    On monolithic Ni-Nb metallic glass films, we experimentally revealed 6.6% elastic strain limit by in-situ transmission electron microscopy observations. The origin of high elastic strain limit may link with high free volume in the film, causing the rearrangement of loosely bonded atomic clusters (or atoms) upon elastic deformation. This high elastic limit of metallic glass films will shed light on new application fields for metallic glasses, and also trigger more studies for deformation mechanism of amorphous materials in general. PMID:23152943

  1. Ellipsometry study on gold-nanoparticle-coated gold thin film for biosensing application

    PubMed Central

    Moirangthem, Rakesh Singh; Chang, Yia-Chung; Wei, Pei-Kuen

    2011-01-01

    The amplified plasmonic response from various distributions of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) coated on top of gold thin film was studied via ellipsometry under total internal reflection mode. The surface plasmon resonance dip can be tuned from the visible to near infrared by simply varying the AuNP concentration. Theoretical modeling based on effective medium theory with a multi-slice model has been employed to fit the experimental results. Additionally, this experimental tool has been further extended to study bio-molecular interactions with metal surfaces as well as in studying protein-protein interaction without any labeling. Hence, this technique could provide a non-destructive way of designing tunable label-free optical biosensors with very high sensitivity. PMID:21991549

  2. Understanding Solidification of Polythiophene Thin Films during Spin-Coating: Effects of Spin-Coating Time and Processing Additives

    PubMed Central

    Na, Jin Yeong; Kang, Boseok; Sin, Dong Hun; Cho, Kilwon; Park, Yeong Don

    2015-01-01

    Spin-coating has been used extensively in the fabrication of electronic devices; however, the effects of the processing parameters have not been fully explored. Here, we systematically characterize the effects of the spin-coating time on the microstructure evolution during semiconducting polymer solidification in an effort to establish the relationship between this parameter and the performances of the resulting polymer field-effect transistors (FETs). We found that a short spin-coating time of a few seconds dramatically improve the morphology and molecular order in a conjugated polymer thin film because the π-π stacking structures formed by the polymer molecules grow slowly and with a greater degree of order due to the residual solvent present in the wet film. The improved ordering is correlated with improved charge carrier transport in the FETs prepared from these films. We also demonstrated the effects of various processing additives on the resulting FET characteristics as well as on the film drying behavior during spin-coating. The physical properties of the additives are found to affect the film drying process and the resulting device performance. PMID:26299676

  3. Understanding Solidification of Polythiophene Thin Films during Spin-Coating: Effects of Spin-Coating Time and Processing Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Jin Yeong; Kang, Boseok; Sin, Dong Hun; Cho, Kilwon; Park, Yeong Don

    2015-08-01

    Spin-coating has been used extensively in the fabrication of electronic devices; however, the effects of the processing parameters have not been fully explored. Here, we systematically characterize the effects of the spin-coating time on the microstructure evolution during semiconducting polymer solidification in an effort to establish the relationship between this parameter and the performances of the resulting polymer field-effect transistors (FETs). We found that a short spin-coating time of a few seconds dramatically improve the morphology and molecular order in a conjugated polymer thin film because the π-π stacking structures formed by the polymer molecules grow slowly and with a greater degree of order due to the residual solvent present in the wet film. The improved ordering is correlated with improved charge carrier transport in the FETs prepared from these films. We also demonstrated the effects of various processing additives on the resulting FET characteristics as well as on the film drying behavior during spin-coating. The physical properties of the additives are found to affect the film drying process and the resulting device performance.

  4. Understanding Solidification of Polythiophene Thin Films during Spin-Coating: Effects of Spin-Coating Time and Processing Additives.

    PubMed

    Na, Jin Yeong; Kang, Boseok; Sin, Dong Hun; Cho, Kilwon; Park, Yeong Don

    2015-01-01

    Spin-coating has been used extensively in the fabrication of electronic devices; however, the effects of the processing parameters have not been fully explored. Here, we systematically characterize the effects of the spin-coating time on the microstructure evolution during semiconducting polymer solidification in an effort to establish the relationship between this parameter and the performances of the resulting polymer field-effect transistors (FETs). We found that a short spin-coating time of a few seconds dramatically improve the morphology and molecular order in a conjugated polymer thin film because the π-π stacking structures formed by the polymer molecules grow slowly and with a greater degree of order due to the residual solvent present in the wet film. The improved ordering is correlated with improved charge carrier transport in the FETs prepared from these films. We also demonstrated the effects of various processing additives on the resulting FET characteristics as well as on the film drying behavior during spin-coating. The physical properties of the additives are found to affect the film drying process and the resulting device performance. PMID:26299676

  5. The biocompatibility of the tantalum and tantalum oxide films synthesized by pulse metal vacuum arc source deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Y. X.; Chen, J. Y.; Yang, P.; Sun, H.; Wang, J.; Huang, N.

    2006-01-01

    The surface modification technique is extensively employed to improve and control biocompatibility for blood and cell attachment. In this paper, tantalum thin films were synthesized by pulsed metal vacuum arc source deposition, the tantalum oxide films were fabricated by tantalum films heated at 700 °C for 1 h in air. The films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD). In vitro investigations of cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) on Ta, tantalum oxide films, 316L stainless steel and CP-Ti revealed that the growth and proliferation behavior of endothelial cells on the sample surfaces varied significantly. The adherence, growth, shape and proliferation of endothelial cells on tantalum and tantalum oxide films were much better than 316L stainless steel and CP-Ti. The Ta and tantalum oxide films shown to fulfill the requirements necessary for the application as a blood-contacting device (such as stent) coating.

  6. Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report; Summary

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The Pentek metal coating removal system consists of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER(R), and VAC-PAC(R). The system is designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M ROTO-PEEN tungsten carbide cutters, while the CORNER-CUTTER(R) uses solid needles for descaling activities. These are used with the VAC-PAC(R) vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure was minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended, since the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place may skew the results. It is feasible that dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment. Other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

  7. 21 CFR 888.3670 - Shoulder joint metal/polymer/metal nonconstrained or semi-constrained porous-coated uncemented...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shoulder joint metal/polymer/metal nonconstrained... ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3670 Shoulder joint metal/polymer/metal nonconstrained or semi-constrained porous-coated uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A shoulder joint...

  8. 21 CFR 888.3670 - Shoulder joint metal/polymer/metal nonconstrained or semi-constrained porous-coated uncemented...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Shoulder joint metal/polymer/metal nonconstrained... ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3670 Shoulder joint metal/polymer/metal nonconstrained or semi-constrained porous-coated uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A shoulder joint...

  9. 21 CFR 888.3670 - Shoulder joint metal/polymer/metal nonconstrained or semi-constrained porous-coated uncemented...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Shoulder joint metal/polymer/metal nonconstrained... ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3670 Shoulder joint metal/polymer/metal nonconstrained or semi-constrained porous-coated uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A shoulder joint...

  10. 21 CFR 888.3670 - Shoulder joint metal/polymer/metal nonconstrained or semi-constrained porous-coated uncemented...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Shoulder joint metal/polymer/metal nonconstrained... ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3670 Shoulder joint metal/polymer/metal nonconstrained or semi-constrained porous-coated uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A shoulder joint...

  11. 21 CFR 888.3670 - Shoulder joint metal/polymer/metal nonconstrained or semi-constrained porous-coated uncemented...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Shoulder joint metal/polymer/metal nonconstrained... ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3670 Shoulder joint metal/polymer/metal nonconstrained or semi-constrained porous-coated uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A shoulder joint...

  12. Characteristic properties of the Casimir free energy for metal films deposited on metallic plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimchitskaya, G. L.; Mostepanenko, V. M.

    2016-04-01

    The Casimir free energy and pressure of thin metal films deposited on metallic plates are considered using the Lifshitz theory and the Drude and plasma model approaches to the role of conduction electrons. The bound electrons are taken into account by using the complete optical data of film and plate metals. It is shown that for films of several tens of nanometers thickness the Casimir free energy and pressure calculated using these approaches differ by hundreds and thousands percent and can be easily discriminated experimentally. According to our results, the free energy of a metal film does not vanish in the limiting case of ideal metal if the Drude model approach is used in contradiction with the fact that the fluctuating field cannot penetrate in its interior. Numerical computations of the Casimir free energy and pressure of Ag and Au films deposited on Cu and Al plates have been performed using both theoretical approaches. It is shown that the free energy of a film can be both negative and positive depending on the metals used. For a Au film on a Ag plate and vice versa the Casimir energy of a film changes its sign with increasing film thickness. Applications of the obtained results for resolving the Casimir puzzle and the problem of stability of thin films are discussed.

  13. Solid film lubricants and thermal control coatings flown aboard the EOIM-3 MDA sub-experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Taylor J.; David, Kaia E.; Babel, Hank W.

    1995-01-01

    Additional experimental data were desired to support the selection of candidate thermal control coatings and solid film lubricants for the McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (MDA) Space Station hardware. The third Evaluation of Oxygen Interactions With Materials Mission (EOIM-3) flight experiment presented an opportunity to study the effects of the low Earth orbit environment on thermal control coatings and solid film lubricants. MDA provided five solid film lubricants and two anodic thermal control coatings for EOIM-3. The lubricant sample set consisted of three solid film lubricants with organic binders one solid film lubricant with an inorganic binder, and one solid film lubricant with no binder. The anodize coating sample set consisted of undyed sulfuric acid anodize and cobalt sulfide dyed sulfuric acid anodize, each on two different substrate aluminum alloys. The organic and inorganic binders in the solid film lubricants experienced erosion, and the lubricating pigments experienced oxidation. MDA is continuing to assess the effect of exposure to the low Earth orbit environment on the life and friction properties of the lubricants. Results to date support the design practice of shielding solid film lubricants from the low Earth orbit environment. Post-flight optical property analysis of the anodized specimens indicated that there were limited contamination effects and some atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation effects. These effects appeared to be within the values predicted by simulated ground testing and analysis of these materials, and they were different for each coating and substrate.

  14. Solid film lubricants and thermal control coatings flown aboard the EOIM-3 MDA sub-experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.J.; David, K.E.; Babel, H.W.

    1995-02-01

    Additional experimental data were desired to support the selection of candidate thermal control coatings and solid film lubricants for the McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (MDA) Space Station hardware. The third Evaluation of Oxygen Interactions With Materials Mission (EOIM-3) flight experiment presented an opportunity to study the effects of the low Earth orbit environment on thermal control coatings and solid film lubricants. MDA provided five solid film lubricants and two anodic thermal control coatings for EOIM-3. The lubricant sample set consisted of three solid film lubricants with organic binders one solid film lubricant with an inorganic binder, and one solid film lubricant with no binder. The anodize coating sample set consisted of undyed sulfuric acid anodize and cobalt sulfide dyed sulfuric acid anodize, each on two different substrate aluminum alloys. The organic and inorganic binders in the solid film lubricants experienced erosion, and the lubricating pigments experienced oxidation. MDA is continuing to assess the effect of exposure to the low Earth orbit environment on the life and friction properties of the lubricants. Results to date support the design practice of shielding solid film lubricants from the low Earth orbit environment. Post-flight optical property analysis of the anodized specimens indicated that there were limited contamination effects and some atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation effects. These effects appeared to be within the values predicted by simulated ground testing and analysis of these materials, and they were different for each coating and substrate.

  15. Novel method for screening of enteric film coatings properties with magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Doro?y?ski, Przemys?aw; Jamrz, Witold; Niwi?ski, Krzysztof; Kurek, Mateusz; W?glarz, W?adys?aw P; Jachowicz, Renata; Kulinowski, Piotr

    2013-11-18

    The aim of the study is to present the concept of novel method for fast screening of enteric coating compositions properties without the need of preparation of tablets batches for fluid bed coating. Proposed method involves evaluation of enteric coated model tablets in specially designed testing cell with application of MRI technique. The results obtained in the testing cell were compared with results of dissolution studies of mini-tablets coated in fluid bed apparatus. The method could be useful in early stage of formulation development for screening of film coating properties that will shorten and simplify the development works. PMID:23994758

  16. [Preparation by spin-coating technology and characterization of UV-enhanced Lumogen film].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lin; Zhang, Da-Wei; Tao, Chun-Xian; Huang, Yuan-Shen; Wang, Qi; Ni, Zheng-Ji; Zhuang, Song-Lin

    2013-02-01

    As an effective way to increase the UV response for CCD/CMOS, the advantage of the Lumogen film is the simple process and low cost. In the present paper the Lumogen film was deposited onto fused silica slides by the spin-coating way, which has less damage than PVD physical vacuum deposition) way. The main test and analysis of the thin-film include transmission spectrum, absorption spectrum, and excitation and emission spectrum. It was showed that these coatings were transmitted well in visible region (lambda > 400 nm), and emitted a yellowish green glow centered at -525 nm together with a wide excitation spectrum range from 200 to 400 nm. The synthesis shows that Lumogen coatings match accurately with the detected spectrum of conventional silicon-based image sensors, which makes this kind of thin films an ultraviolet responsive coating for sensors. PMID:23697134

  17. Ultrasensitive humidity detection using metal-organic framework-coated microsensors.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Alex L; Stavila, Vitalie; Zeitler, Todd R; White, Michael I; Thornberg, Steven M; Greathouse, Jeffery A; Allendorf, Mark D

    2012-08-21

    The use of metal-organic framework (MOF) thin films to detect water vapor across a wide concentration range is demonstrated using MOF-functionalized quartz surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors. A range of 3-14,800 ppmv was obtained with thin films of the MOF Cu(3)(benzenetricarboxylate)(2) (Cu-BTC) deposited by an automated layer-by-layer method. Devices coated by a manual technique demonstrated sensitivity from 0.28 to 14,800 ppmv, the limit of our test system. This exceeds the sensitivity of many commercially available sensors. Cu-BTC layers were covalently bonded directly to the silicon oxide surface, allowing devices to be heated beyond 100 C to desorb water adsorbed in the pores without decomposition, thereby regenerating the sensors. Sensor response as a function of coating thickness was evaluated, showing that the SAW sensor response is bounded by maximum and minimum layer thicknesses. Computer simulation of H(2)O uptake shows a multistep adsorption isotherm defined by initial adsorption at open Cu-sites, followed by pore-filling and finally full saturation. Modeling and experimental results are consistent. Calculated uptake values suggest an efficient adsorption of H(2)O by Cu-BTC. These results provide the first convincing evidence that MOF functionalization of compact sensing technologies such as SAW devices and microcantilevers can compete with state-of-the art devices. PMID:22905832

  18. Bio-functional nano-coatings on metallic biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Mahapatro, Anil

    2015-10-01

    Metals and their alloys have been widely used in all aspects of science, engineering and medicine. Metals in biomedical devices are used due to their inertness and structural functions. They are generally preferred over polymers or ceramics and are especially desirable in applications where the implants are subjected to static, dynamic or cyclic loads that require a combination of strength and ductility. In biomedicine, the choice of a specific biomaterial is governed by many factors that include biocompatibility, corrosion resistance, controlled degradability, modulus of elasticity, fatigue strength and many other application specific criterions. Nanotechnology is driving newer demands and requirements for better performance of existing materials and presents an opportunity for surface modification of metals in response to demands on the surface of metals for their biomedical applications. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are nanosized coatings that present a flexible method of carrying out surface modification of biomaterials to tailor its surface properties for specific end applications. These nanocoatings can serve primary functions such as surface coverage, etch protection and anti-corrosion along with a host of other secondary chemical functions such as drug delivery and biocompatibility. We present a brief introduction to surface modification of biomaterials and their alloys followed by a detailed description of organic nanocoatings based on self-assembled monolayers and their biomedical applications including patterning techniques and biological applications of patterned SAMs. PMID:26117759

  19. Polyelectrolyte multilayer-calcium phosphate composite coatings for metal implants.

    PubMed

    Elyada, Alon; Garti, Nissim; Füredi-Milhofer, Helga

    2014-10-13

    The preparation of organic-inorganic composite coatings with the purpose to increase the bioactivity of bioinert metal implants was investigated. As substrates, glass plates and rough titanium surfaces (Ti-SLA) were employed. The method comprises the deposition of polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMLs) followed by immersion of the coated substrate into a calcifying solution of low supersaturation (MCS). Single or mixed PEMLs were constructed from poly-L-lysine (PLL) alternating with poly-L-glutamate, (PGA), poly-L-aspartate (PAA), and/or chondroitin sulfate (CS). ATR-FTIR spectra reveal that (PLL/PGA)10 multilayers and mixed multilayers with a (PLL/PGA)5 base contain intermolecular β-sheet structures, which are absent in pure (PLL/PAA)10 and (PLL/CS)10 assemblies. All PEML coatings had a grainy topography with aggregate sizes and size distributions increasing in the order: (PLL/PGA)n < (PLL/PAA)n < (PLL/CS)n. In mixed multilayers with a (PLL/PGA)n base and a (PLL/PAA)n or (PLL/CS)n top, the aggregate sizes were greatly reduced. The PEMLs promoted calcium phosphate nucleation and early crystal growth, the intensity of the effect depending on the composition of the terminal layer(s) of the polymer. In contrast, crystal morphology and structure depended on the supersaturation, pH, and ionic strength of the MCS, rather than on the composition of the organic matrix. Crystals grown on both uncoated and coated substrates were mostly platelets of calcium deficient carbonate apatite, with the Ca/P ratio depending on the precipitation conditions. PMID:25105729

  20. Conductive metal oxide film and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Windisch, Jr., Charles F.; Exarhos, Gregory J.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is a method for reducing a dopant in a film of a metal oxide wherein the dopant is reduced and the first metal oxide is substantially not reduced. The method of the present invention relies upon exposing the film to reducing conditions for a predetermined time and reducing a valence of the metal from a positive valence to a zero valence and maintaining atoms with a zero valence in an atomic configuration within the lattice structure of the metal oxide. According to the present invention, exposure to reducing conditions may be achieved electrochemically or achieved in an elevated temperature gas phase.

  1. Anomalous Hopping Exponents of Ultrathin Metal Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, J. C.

    2001-03-01

    Under this title [1] has summarized data that show that a consistent underlying conduction mechanism is needed to explain thermally activated resistivities, logR(T) = logR + x(T*/T), with x = 0.75(5) on films of Ag, Bi, Pb, and Pd, with thicknesses 5-15A. Conventional continuum semiconductor models, with or without Coulomb interactions, give 1/4 < x < 1/2, and so do not explain x = 3/4, but a filamentary quantum percolation granular network relaxation model does. The concepts used in this unified, broad, non-crystalline platform have successfully derived scaling exponents and/or phase diagrams for network glasses (including window glass), polymers, electrolytes and alcohols, fused salts, molecular organic glasses, a-Si:H, quasicrystals, the impurity band metal-insulator transition (d = 2,3), high-temperature superconductors, and metabolic evolutionary biology [2,3]. [1] N. Markovic et al., Phys. Rev. B, 62, 2195 (2000). [2] J. C. Phillips, Phil. Mag. B, 80, 1773 (2000). [3] J. C. Phillips, Rep. Prog. Phys., 59, 1133 (1996).

  2. The structure of ion plated films in relation to coating properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1985-01-01

    Ion plating is an ion assisted or glow discharge deposition technique, where ions or energetic atoms transfer energy, momentum and charge to the substrate and the growing film in a manner which can be controlled to favorably modify surface, subsurface chemistry, and microstructure. The glow discharge energizing effects from the initial nucleation stages to the final film growth are discussed. As a result, adherence, coherence, internal stresses, density and morphology of the coatings are significantly improved, over the conventional (nonion-assisted) techniques which in turn favorably affect the surface initiated failures caused by friction, wear, erosion, corrosion and fatigue. Ion plated films because of their graded coating/substrate interface, fine, uniform, densely packed film structure also induce a surface strengthening effect which improved the mechanical properties such as yield, tensile strength and fatigue life. Since a uniform, continuous film can be obtained at lower nominal film thickness, this effect is of great importance in solid film lubrication and in corrosion protection.

  3. Comparison of metallization systems for thin film hybrid microcircuits

    SciTech Connect

    Hines, R.A.; Raut, M.K.

    1980-08-01

    Five metallization systems were evaluated for fabricating thin film hybrid microcircuits. The titanium/palladium/electroplated gold system proved superior in terms of thermocompression bondability, corrosion resistance, and solderability.

  4. Effect of thin film coating of Au on joint strength in invar-invar packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. C.; Wang, C. M.; Wang, C.; Chang, H. L.; Tu, Y. K.; Hwang, C. J.; Chi, S.; Wang, W. H.; Yang, Y. D.; Cheng, W. H.

    1996-11-01

    The effect of a thin film coating of Au on the joint strength, weld width, and penetration depth in laser welding techniques for Invar-Invar packages is investigated experimentally. It is found that the joint strength, weld width, and penetration depth are strongly dependent on the coating of Au thickness on the Invar material. The welded joints with thick Au coating show narrower weld width, shallower penetration, and hence less joint strength than those of the packages with thin Au coating. The increase in both the thermal conductivity and the vapor volume in the welded joints as the coating of Au thickness increases are the possible mechanisms for the reduction. Detailed knowledge of the effect of thin film coatings of Au on the welded materials, which gives both the highest joint strength and good adhesion, is essential for practical design and fabrication of reliable optoelectronic packaging.

  5. Sol-gel antireflective coating on plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, C.S.; Reed, S.T.

    1990-05-29

    This patent describes an antireflection film made from a reliquified sol-gel hydrolyzation, condensation polymeric reaction product of a silicon, alkoxides and/or metal alkoxides, or mixtures thereof. The film is particularly useful for coating plastics.

  6. Sol-gel antireflective coating on plastics

    DOEpatents

    Ashley, Carol S.; Reed, Scott T.

    1990-01-01

    An antireflection film made from a reliquified sol-gel hydrolyzation, condensation polymeric reaction product of a silicon, alkoxides and/or metal alkoxides, or mixtures thereof. The film is particularly useful for coating plastics.

  7. Sol-gel antireflective coating on plastics

    DOEpatents

    Ashley, C.S.; Reed, S.T.

    1988-01-26

    An antireflection film made from reliquified sol-gel hydrolyzation, condensation polymeric reaction product of a silicon, alkoxides and/or metal alkoxides, or mixtures thereof. The film is particularly useful for coating plastics.

  8. Characterization of tablet film coatings using a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopic technique.

    PubMed

    Madamba, M Cecilia; Mullett, Wayne M; Debnath, Smita; Kwong, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was evaluated as an early phase process analytical technology (PAT) tool for the rapid characterization of pharmaceutical tablet coatings. Measurement of coating thickness, uniformity, and photodegradation-predictive potential of the technique were evaluated. Model formulation tablets were coated with varying amounts (2%-4% wt/wt) of red and yellow Opadry II, and a pulsed laser was used to sample at multiple sites across the tablet face. LIBS was able to successfully detect the emissions of Fe and Ti in the coated samples, and a proportional increase in signal with coating thickness was observed. Batch-to-batch variability in the coating procedure was also easily monitored by LIBS. The coating thickness was non-uniform across the tablet surface with higher thickness at the edges, likely due to the concave shape of the tablet. Film coating levels and color of the film had been subjected to photostability studies according to the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guideline to determine effectiveness of the film coats. LIBS measurements of coating thickness provided a good correlation (R (2) > 0.99) to photodegradation as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Last, the concentration of Fe in the coating was varied and monitored by LIBS. Increasing photostability was observed with increasing levels of ferric oxide, providing a new understanding of the photoprotection mechanism in the coated formulation. Determination of levels of ferric oxide and coating thickness by LIBS demonstrated its utility as a good PAT tool for the determination of photoprotection of the drug, thereby enabling facile optimization of the coating process. PMID:18181524

  9. Soybean oil in water-borne coatings and latex film formation study by AC impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiratumnukul, Nantana

    Conventional coalescing agents such as butyl cellosolve, butyl carbitol, and TexanolRTM are widely use in the latex coatings industry to facilitate film formation at ambient temperature. Coalescent aids are composed of solvents with low evaporation rates. After water evaporates, coalescent aids would help soften polymer molecules and form continuous films, then gradually evaporates from the film. Coalescent aids, therefore, are considered as volatile organic compounds (VOC), which are of environmental concern. The main purpose of this research project was to prepare a fatty acid glycol ester from soybean oil and glycol (polyols). The soybean oil glycol ester can be used as a coalescent aid in latex paint formulation. The soybean oil glycol ester not only lowered the minimum film formation temperature of latex polymers and continuous film formed at ambient temperature, but also after it has facilitated film formation, does not substantially evaporate, but becomes part of the film. Soybean oil glycol esters, therefore, can reduce the VOC levels and facilitate film formation of latex paints. In the second part of this research AC-Impedance was used to investigate the efficiency of soybean oil coalescent aid in latex film formation relative to the conventional ones. The coating resistance showed that the efficiency of film formation was increased as a function of dry time. The coating resistance also exhibited the effect of soybean oil ester in latex film formation in the same fashion as a conventional coalescent aid, TexanolRTM.

  10. Ellipsometric study of oxide films formed on LDEF metal samples. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Franzen, W.; Brodkin, J.S.; Sengupta, L.C.; Sagalyn, P.L.

    1992-02-01

    The optical constants of samples of six different metals (Al, Cu, Ni, Ta, W, and Zr) exposed to space on the long duration exposure facility (LDEF) have been studied by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. Measurements were also carried out on portions of each sample which were shielded from direct exposure by a metal bar. A least-squares fit of the data using an effective medium approximation was then carried out with thickness and composition of surface films formed on the metal substrates as variable parameters. The analysis revealed that exposed portions of the Cu, N Ta, and Zr samples are covered with porous oxide films ranging in thickness from 500 to 1000. The 410 A thick film Of Al203 on the exposed Al sample is practically free of voids. Except for Cu, the shielded portions of these metals are covered by thin nonporous oxide films characteristic of exposure to air. The shielded part of the Cu sample has a much thicker porous coating of Cu2O. The tungsten data could not be analyzed.

  11. Evaluation of an Innovative Use of Removable Thin Film Coating Technology for the Abatement of Hazardous Contaminants

    PubMed Central

    Lumia, Margaret E.; Gentile, Charles; Gochfeld, Michael; Efthimion, Philip; Robson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates a new decontamination technique for the mitigation and abatement of hazardous particulates. The traditional decontamination methods used to clean facilities and equipment are time-consuming, prolonging workers' exposure time, may generate airborne hazards, and can be expensive. The use of removable thin film coating as a decontamination technique for surface contamination proved to be a more efficient method of decontamination. This method was tested at three different sites on different hazardous metals. One application of the coating reduced the levels of these metals 90% and had an average reduction of one magnitude. The paired t-tests that were performed for each metal demonstrated that there was a statistically significant reduction of the metal after the use of the coating: lead (p = 0.03), beryllium (p = 0.05), aluminum (p = 0.006), iron (p = 0.0001), and copper (p = 0.004). The Kendall tau-b correlation coefficient demonstrates that there was a positive correlation between the initial levels of contamination and the removal efficiency for all the samples taken from different locations on the floor for each of the three sites. This new decontamination technique worked efficiently, requiring only one application, which decreased exposure time and did not generate any airborne dust. PMID:19437305

  12. Photoactivated chlorophyllin-based gelatin films and coatings to prevent microbial contamination of food products.

    PubMed

    López-Carballo, G; Hernández-Muñoz, P; Gavara, R; Ocio, M J

    2008-08-15

    The aim of this work was to develop antimicrobial photosensitizer-containing edible films and coatings based on gelatin as the polymer matrix, incorporating sodium magnesium chlorophyllin (E-140) and sodium copper chlorophyllin (E-141). Chlorophyllins were incorporated into the gelatin film-forming solution and the inhibiting effect of the cast films was tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. The results demonstrated that water soluble sodium magnesium chlorophyllin and water soluble sodium copper chlorophyllin reduced the growth of S. aureus and L. monocytogenes by 5 log and 4 log respectively. Subsequently, the activity of self-standing films and coatings containing E-140 was assessed on cooked frankfurters inoculated with S. aureus and L. monocytogenes. These tests showed that it was possible to reduce microorganism growth in cooked frankfurters inoculated with S. aureus and L. monocytogenes by covering them with sodium magnesium chlorophyllin-gelatin films and coatings. PMID:18555550

  13. Method of synthesizing metal doped diamond-like carbon films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ueno, Mayumi (Inventor); Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method of synthesizing metal doped carbon films by placing a substrate in a chamber with a selected amount of a metalorganic compound. An electron cyclotron resonance is applied to the chamber in order to vaporize the metalorganic compound. The resonance is applied to the chamber until a metal doped carbon film is formed. The metalorganic compound is preferably selected from the group consisting of an organic salt of ruthenium, palladium, gold or platinum.

  14. Detecting insulation defects in metal/plastic films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buggle, R. N.

    1980-01-01

    Simple apparatus checks insulation between plastic and metal surfaces. Film can be inspected more accurately; apparatus can spot minute electrical contaminants between plastic and metal films. Steel roller connected to high-range ohmmeter is guided over entire plastic area of test sample. Roller weighs 2 lb. (0.9 kg), which effectively translates into 250-psi (1.76X10 to 6th power -N/sq m) contact pressure at plastic surface sufficient to locate microscopic defects.

  15. Amorphous metal formulations and structured coatings for corrosion and wear resistance

    DOEpatents

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2014-07-15

    A system for coating a surface comprising providing a source of amorphous metal that contains more than 11 elements and applying the amorphous metal that contains more than 11 elements to the surface by a spray. Also a coating comprising a composite material made of amorphous metal that contains more than 11 elements. An apparatus for producing a corrosion-resistant amorphous-metal coating on a structure comprises a deposition chamber, a deposition source in the deposition chamber that produces a deposition spray, the deposition source containing a composite material made of amorphous metal that contains more than 11 elements, and a system that directs the deposition spray onto the structure.

  16. Amorphous metal formulations and structured coatings for corrosion and wear resistance

    DOEpatents

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2011-12-13

    A system for coating a surface comprising providing a source of amorphous metal that contains more than 11 elements and applying the amorphous metal that contains more than 11 elements to the surface by a spray. Also a coating comprising a composite material made of amorphous metal that contains more than 11 elements. An apparatus for producing a corrosion-resistant amorphous-metal coating on a structure comprises a deposition chamber, a deposition source in the deposition chamber that produces a deposition spray, the deposition source containing a composite material made of amorphous metal that contains more than 11 elements, and a system that directs the deposition spray onto the structure.

  17. Bioequivalence study of 400 and 100 mg imatinib film-coated tablets in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Ostrowicz, Andrzej; Mikołajczak, Przemysław L; Wierzbicka, Marzena; Boguradzki, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the bioavailability of a generic product of 100 mg and 400 mg imatinib film-coated tablets (test) as compared to that of a branded product (reference) at the same strength to determine bioequivalence. The secondary objective of the study was to evaluate tolerability of both products. An open-label, randomized, crossover, two-period, single-dose, comparative study was conducted in 43 (Imatynib-Biofarm 100 mg film-coated tablet) and in 42 (Imatynib-Biofarm 400 mg film-coated tablet), brand name Imatenil, Caucasian healthy volunteers in fed conditions. A single oral dose administration of the test or reference product was separated by 14-day washout period. The imatinib and its metabolite N-desmethyl imatinib concentrations were determined using a validated LC MS/MS method. The results of the single-dose study in healthy volunteers indicated that the film-coated tablets of Imatynib-Biofarm 100 mg and 400 mg film-coated tablets manufactured by Biofarm Sp. z o.o. (test products) are bioequivalent to those of Glivec 100 mg and 400 mg film-coated tablets manufactured by Novartis Pharma GmbH (reference products). Both products in the two doses of imatinib were well tolerated. PMID:25362813

  18. 21 CFR 175.360 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for nylon film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for nylon film. 175.360 Section 175.360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS Substances...

  19. Transferred metal electrode films for large-area electronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jin-Guo; Kam, Fong-Yu; Chua, Lay-Lay

    2014-11-10

    The evaporation of metal-film gate electrodes for top-gate organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) limits the minimum thickness of the polymer gate dielectric to typically more than 300 nm due to deep hot metal atom penetration and damage of the dielectric. We show here that the self-release layer transfer method recently developed for high-quality graphene transfer is also capable of giving high-quality metal thin-film transfers to produce high-performance capacitors and OFETs with superior dielectric breakdown strength even for ultrathin polymer dielectric films. Dielectric breakdown strengths up to 5–6 MV cm{sup −1} have been obtained for 50-nm thin films of polystyrene and a cyclic olefin copolymer TOPAS{sup ®} (Zeon). High-quality OFETs with sub-10 V operational voltages have been obtained this way using conventional polymer dielectrics and a high-mobility polymer semiconductor poly[2,5-bis(3-tetradecylthiophene-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene-2,5-diyl]. The transferred metal films can make reliable contacts without damaging ultrathin polymer films, self-assembled monolayers and graphene, which is not otherwise possible from evaporated or sputtered metal films.

  20. Cutting Properties and Wearing Process of Diamond Film Coated Tools in the Dry-Cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Qimao

    Dry cutting can eliminate a series of negative effects of coolant. Based on tribology principle of coated tool, diamond film coated tool is used to cut the same workpiece under the conditions of dry-cutting and coolant. The tool's cutting properties and wear mechanism are studied by tests. Results imply that this coated tool will be applied more widely day by day in the dry-cutting.

  1. Growth and Filling Regularities of Filamentary Channels in Non-Metallic Inorganic Coatings Under Anodic Oxidation of Valve Metals. Mathematical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamaev, A. I.; Mamaeva, V. A.; Kolenchin, N. F.; Chubenko, A. K.; Kovalskaya, Ya. B.; Dolgova, Yu. N.; Beletskaya, E. Yu.

    2015-12-01

    Theoretical models are developed for growth and filling processes in filamentary channels of nanostructured non-metallic coatings produced by anodizing and microplasma oxidation. Graphical concentration distributions are obtained for channel-reacting anions, cations, and sparingly soluble reaction products depending on the time of electric current transmission and the length of the filamentary channel. Graphical distributions of the front moving velocity for the sparingly soluble compound are presented. The resulting model representation increases the understanding of the anodic process nature and can be used for a description and prediction of porous anodic film growth and filling. It is shown that the character of the filamentary channel growth and filling causes a variety of processes determining the textured metal - nonmetallic inorganic coating phase boundary formation.

  2. Metal speciation in a complexing soft film layer: a theoretical dielectric relaxation study of coupled chemodynamic and electrodynamic interfacial processes.

    PubMed

    Merlin, Jenny; Duval, Jrme F L

    2012-04-01

    We report a comprehensive formalism for the dynamics of metal speciation across an interphase formed between a complexing soft film layer and an electrolyte solution containing indifferent ions and metal ions that form complexes with charged molecular ligands distributed throughout the film. The analysis integrates the intricate interplay between metal complexation kinetics and diffusive metal transfer from/toward the ligand film, together with the kinetics of metal electrostatic partitioning across the film/solution interphase. This partitioning is determined by the settling dynamics of the interfacial electric double layer (EDL), as governed by time-dependent conduction-diffusion transports of both indifferent and reactive metal ions. The coupling between such chemodynamic and electrodynamic processes is evaluated via derivation of the dielectric permittivity increment for the ligand film/electrolyte interphase that is perturbed upon application of an ac electric field (pulsation ?) between electrodes supporting the films. The dielectric response is obtained from the ?-dependent distributions of all ions across the ligand film, as ruled by coupled Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations amended for a chemical source term involving the intra-film complex formation and dissociation pulsations (?(a) and ?(d) respectively). Dielectric spectra are discussed for bare and film coated-electrodes over a wide range of field pulsations and Deborah numbers De = ?(a,d)/?(diff), where ?(diff) is the electric double layer relaxation pulsation. The frequency-dependent dynamic or inert character of the formed metal complexes is then addressed over a time window that ranges from transient to fully relaxed EDL. The shape and magnitude of the dielectric spectra are further shown to reflect the lability of dynamic complexes, i.e. whether the overall speciation process at a given pulsation ? is primarily rate-limited either by complexation kinetics or by ion-transport dynamics. The limits, strengths and extensions of the approach are further discussed within the context of metal speciation dynamics at soft planar and particulate complexing interphases. PMID:22370713

  3. An investigation of thin-film coating/substrate systems by nanoindentation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.; Thostenson, E.T.; Chou, T.W.; Riester, L.

    1998-04-01

    The indentation load-displacement behavior of three material systems tested with a Berkovich indenter has been examined. The materials studied were the substrate materials--silicon and polycarbonate, and the coating/substrate systems--diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on silicon, and DLC coating on polycarbonate. They represent three material systems, namely, bulk, soft-coating/hard-substrate, and hard-coating on soft-substrate. Delaminations in the soft-coating/hard-substrate (DLC/Si) system and cracking in the hard-coating/soft-substrate system (DLC/Polycarbonate) were observed. Parallel to the experimental work, an elastic analytical effort has been made to examine the influence of the film thickness and the properties of the coating/substrate systems. Comparisons between the experimental data and analytical solutions of the load-displacement curves during unloading show good agreement. The analytical solution also suggests that the Young`s modulus and hardness of the thin film can not be measured accurately using Sneddon`s solution for bulk materials when the thickness of the film is comparable to the loading contact radius of the indenter. The elastic stress field analysis provides a basis for understanding the experimentally observed delaminations and cracking of the coating/substrate systems.

  4. Mixed polyvalent-monovalent metal coating for carbon-graphite fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper-Tervet, J.; Tervet, F. W.; Humphrey, M. F. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An improved coating of gasification catalyst for carbon-graphite fibers is provided comprising a mixture of a polyvalent metal such as calcium and a monovalent metal such as lithium. The addition of lithium provides a lighter coating and a more flexible coating when applied to a coating of a carboxyl containing resin such as polyacrylic acid since it reduces the crosslink density. Furthermore, the presence of lithium provides a glass-like substance during combustion which holds the fiber together resulting in slow, even combustion with much reduced evolution of conductive fragments. The coated fibers are utilized as fiber reinforcement for composites.

  5. Determination of silica coating efficiency on metal particles using multiple digestion methods.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Topham, Nathan; Wu, Chang-Yu

    2011-10-15

    Nano-sized metal particles, including both elemental and oxidized metals, have received significant interest due to their biotoxicity and presence in a wide range of industrial systems. A novel silica technology has been recently explored to minimize the biotoxicity of metal particles by encapsulating them with an amorphous silica shell. In this study, a method to determine silica coating efficiency on metal particles was developed. Metal particles with silica coating were generated using gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process with a silica precursor tetramethylsilane (TMS) added to the shielding gas. Microwave digestion and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) were employed to solubilize the metal content in the particles and analyze the concentration, respectively. Three acid mixtures were tested to acquire the appropriate digestion method targeting at metals and silica coating. Metal recovery efficiencies of different digestion methods were compared through analysis of spiked samples. HNO(3)/HF mixture was found to be a more aggressive digestion method for metal particles with silica coating. Aqua regia was able to effectively dissolve metal particles not trapped in the silica shell. Silica coating efficiencies were thus calculated based on the measured concentrations following digestion by HNO(3)/HF mixture and aqua regia. The results showed 14-39% of welding fume particles were encapsulated in silica coating under various conditions. This newly developed method could also be used to examine the silica coverage on particles of silica shell/metal core structure in other nanotechnology areas. PMID:21962698

  6. Growth of lanthanum manganate buffer layers for coated conductors via a metal-organic decomposition process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkataraman, Kartik

    LaMnO3 (LMO) was identified as a possible buffer material for YBa2Cu3O7-x conductors due to its diffusion barrier properties and close lattice match with YBa2Cu 3O7-x. Growth of LMO films via a metal-organic decomposition (MOD) process on Ni, Ni-5at.%W (Ni-5W), and single crystal SrTiO3 substrates was investigated. Phase-pure LMO was grown via MOD on Ni and SrTiO 3 substrates at temperatures and oxygen pressures within a thermodynamic "process window" wherein LMO, Ni, Ni-5W, and SrTiO3 are all stable components. LMO could not be grown on Ni-5W in the "process window" because tungsten diffused from the substrate into the overlying film, where it reacted to form La and Mn tungstates. The kinetics of tungstate formation and crystallization of phase-pure LMO from the La and Mn acetate precursors are competitive in the temperature range explored (850--1100°C). Temperatures <850°C might mitigate tungsten diffusion from the substrate to the film sufficiently to obviate tungstate formation, but LMO films deposited via MOD require temperatures ≥850°C for nucleation and grain growth. Using a Y2O3 seed layer on Ni-5W to block tungsten from diffusing into the LMO film was explored; however, Y2O3 reacts with tungsten in the "process window" at 850--1100°C. Tungsten diffusion into Y2O3 can be blocked if epitaxial, crack-free NiWO4 and NiO layers are formed at the interface between Ni-5W and Y2O3. NiWO 4 only grows epitaxially if the overlying NiO and buffer layers are thick enough to mechanically suppress (011)-oriented NiWO4 grain growth. This is not the case when a bare 75 nm-thick Y2O3 film on Ni-5W is processed at 850°C. These studies show that the Ni-5W substrate must be at a low temperature to prevent tungsten diffusion, whereas the LMO precursor film must be at elevated temperature to crystallize. An excimer laser-assisted MOD process was used where a Y2O 3-coated Ni-5W substrate was held at 500°C in air and the pulsed laser photo-thermally heated the Y2O3 and LMO precursor films. This resulted in a textured, phase-pure LMO film.

  7. Broadly tunable thin-film intereference coatings: active thin films for telecom applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domash, Lawrence H.; Ma, Eugene Y.; Lourie, Mark T.; Sharfin, Wayne F.; Wagner, Matthias

    2003-06-01

    Thin film interference coatings (TFIC) are the most widely used optical technology for telecom filtering, but until recently no tunable versions have been known except for mechanically rotated filters. We describe a new approach to broadly tunable TFIC components based on the thermo-optic properties of semiconductor thin films with large thermo-optic coefficients 3.6X10[-4]/K. The technology is based on amorphous silicon thin films deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), a process adapted for telecom applications from its origins in the flat-panel display and solar cell industries. Unlike MEMS devices, tunable TFIC can be designed as sophisticated multi-cavity, multi-layer optical designs. Applications include flat-top passband filters for add-drop multiplexing, tunable dispersion compensators, tunable gain equalizers and variable optical attenuators. Extremely compact tunable devices may be integrated into modules such as optical channel monitors, tunable lasers, gain-equalized amplifiers, and tunable detectors.

  8. Insulator coating for high temperature alloys method for producing insulator coating for high temperature alloys

    DOEpatents

    Park, J.H.

    1998-06-23

    A method for fabricating an electrically insulating coating on a surface is disclosed comprising coating the surface with a metal, and reacting the metal coated surface with a nonmetal so as to create a film on the metal-coated surface. Alternatively, the invention provides for a method for producing a noncorrosive, electrically insulating coating on a surface saturated with a nonmetal comprising supplying a molten fluid, dissolving a metal in the molten fluid to create a mixture, and contacting the mixture with the saturated surface. Lastly, the invention provides an electrically insulative coating comprising an underlying structural substrate coated with an oxide or nitride compound. 2 figs.

  9. Insulator coating for high temperature alloys method for producing insulator coating for high temperature alloys

    DOEpatents

    Park, Jong Hee

    1998-01-01

    A method for fabricating an electrically insulating coating on a surface is disclosed comprising coating the surface with a metal, and reacting the metal coated surface with a nonmetal so as to create a film on the metal-coated surface. Alternatively, the invention provides for a method for producing a noncorrosive, electrically insulating coating on a surface saturated with a nonmetal comprising supplying a molten fluid, dissolving a metal in the molten fluid to create a mixture, and contacting the mixture with the saturated surface. Lastly, the invention provides an electrically insulative coating comprising an underlying structural substrate coated with an oxide or nitride compound

  10. Refractory amorphous metallic (W/0.6/ Re/0.4/)76B24 coatings on steel substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, A. P.; Lamb, J. L.; Khanna, S. K.; Mehra, M.; Johnson, W. L.

    1985-01-01

    Refractory metallic coatings of (W/0.6/ Re/0.4/)76B24 (WReB) have been deposited onto glass, quartz, and heat-treated AISI 52100 bearing steel substrates by dc magnetron sputtering. As-deposited WReB films are amorphous, as shown by their diffuse X-ray diffraction patterns; chemically homogeneous, according to secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis; and they exhibit a very high (approximately 1000 C) crystallization temperature. Adhesion strength of these coatings on heat-treated AISI 52100 steel is in excess of approximately 20,000 psi and they possess high microhardness (approximately 2400 HV50). Unlubricated wear resistance of such hard and adherent amorphous metallic coatings on AISI 52100 steel is studied using the pin-on-disc method under various loading conditions. Amorphous metallic WReB coatings, about 4 microns thick, exhibit an improvement of more than two and a half orders of magnitude in the unlubricated wear resistance over that of the uncoated AISI 52100 steel.

  11. Antireflection TiO x Coating with Plasmonic Metal Nanoparticles for Silicon Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Starowicz, Z; Lipiński, M; Berent, K; Socha, R; Szczepanowicz, K; Kruk, T

    2013-03-01

    It is known that the light scattering from the metal particles deposited on the surfaces of cells can be used for increasing light trapping in the solar cells. In this work, plasmonic structures are composite materials that consisted of silver nanoparticles embedded in dielectric films of TiO x -used as cell antireflection coating. The films are deposited by sol-gel method using spin-on technique. Microstructure of prepared samples is analyzed by SEM observation. Good homogenity and particles density was obtained by this simple, cheap, and short time-demanding method. We demonstrate that due to light scattering by metal particles, the plasmonic-ARC layer is more effective than TiO x layer without Ag nanoparticles. Implementation of nanoparticles on bare cell surface was carried out too. The influence of the plasmonic structures on the silicon solar cells parameters is presented as well. We announce about 5 % additional growth in short circuit current for cells with nanoparticles. PMID:23504341

  12. Surface chemistry of coated lithium manganese nickel oxide thin film cathodes studied by XPS

    SciTech Connect

    Baggetto, Loic; Dudney, Nancy J; Veith, Gabriel M

    2013-01-01

    The effect of coating high voltage LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 spinel cathode thin films with three metal oxide thin layers is discussed. The changes in surface chemistry of the electrodes are measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. ZnO is found to decompose during the first charge whereas Al2O3 and ZrO2 are stable for more than 100 cycles. ZrO2, however, importantly limits the available Li storage capacity of the electrochemical reaction due to poorer kinetics. Al2O3 offers the best results in term of capacity retention. Upon cycling, the evidence of a signal at 75.4 eV in the Al2p binding energy spectrum indicates the partial conversion of Al2O3 into Al2O2F2. Moreover, the continuous formation of PEO , esters and LixPOyFz compounds on the surface of the electrodes is found for all coating materials.

  13. In vitro biocompatibility response of Ti-Zr-Si thin film metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, J. L.; Huang, C. H.; Chen, Y. H.; Tsai, W. Y.; Wei, T. Y.; Huang, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the bio-electrochemical response of the Ti-Zr-Si thin film metallic glasses (TFMGs) in simulated body fluid with different contents of titanium is measured via potentiostat. According to the results of bio-corrosion potential and current, as well as the polarization resistance, it is concluded that the Ti66Zr25Si9 TFMGs possess the highest bio-electrochemical resistance. With increasing content of titanium, the corrosion resistance becomes progressively higher. The passive current results reveal that amorphous alloys can form a more protective and denser passive film on the metallic glass surface than the crystalline materials. In addition, the mechanical performance of the Ti-Zr-Si TFMGs is better than the crystalline counterparts. As a result, the Ti-based TFMGs are considered to be potential materials for bio-coating applications.

  14. Bi-directional terahertz-to-infrared emission from metal-coated nanostructures upon femtosecond laser irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangliang; Wu, Tong; Zhao, Ji; Zhang, Cunlin; Zhang, X-C

    2015-09-21

    We report on the investigation of bi-directional terahertz-to-infrared (THz-to-IR) radiation from a metal film coated on a substrate with randomly ordered pore arrays by irradiation of femtosecond laser pulses. THz-to-IR radiation was observed both for front-side excitation (laser incident on the metal surface) and for rear-side excitation (laser incident on the substrate). In both cases, the radiation was observed both in the propagation direction of the laser beam and in the reverse direction. Considering these findings, we propose a thermal emission mechanism based on the production of surface plasmons, either delocalized (through phase-matched excitation) or localized (through surface roughness) at the air/metal and metal/substrate interfaces. PMID:26406717

  15. Undercutting of defects in thin film protective coatings on polymer surfaces exposed to atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Mihelcic, Judith A.

    1989-01-01

    Protection for polymeric surfaces is needed to make them durable in the low Earth orbital environment, where oxidation by atomic oxygen is the predominant failure mechanism. Thin film coatings of oxides such as silicon dioxide are viable candidates to provide this protection, but concern has been voiced over the ability of these coatings to protect when defects are present in the coating due to surface anomalies occurring during the deposition process, handling, or micrometeoroid and debris bombardment in low Earth orbit. When a defected coating protecting a polymer substrate is exposed to atomic oxygen, the defect provides a pathway to the underlying polymer allowing oxidation and subsequent undercutting to occur. Defect undercutting was studied for sputter deposited coatings of silicon dioxide on polyimide Kapton. Preliminary results indicate that undercutting may be limited as long as the coating remains intact with the substrate. Therefore, coatings may not need to be defect free to give protection to the underlying surface.

  16. Spin-Coating of Polystyrene Thin Films as an Advanced Undergraduate Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Mriganka; Chowdhury, Devasish; Chattopadhyay, Arun

    2003-07-01

    A simpler version of the well-established technique of spin-coating thin polymer films on glass slides is described. Starting with simple instrumentation and using an ordinary, commercially available cooling fan (a "CPU cooler"), a method of spin-coating an expanded polystyrene foam on glass slides is described. Making thin films of commercially available polystyrene on glass slides is also included for comparison. An interferometric technique is used to measure the film thickness employing a UV vis spectrophotometer. FTIR spectroscopy is used to verify the identity of the polymer on the glass slide. Using the Beer Lambert law of absorbance, the film thickness is also calculated from the FTIR spectra of films. A comparison is made between the interferometric and FTIR methods for thickness measurements. An organic dye is doped into a film and a UV vis spectrum is used to identify the dye.

  17. METAL-MATRIX COMPOSITES AND THERMAL SPRAY COATINGS FOR EARTH MOVING MACHINES

    SciTech Connect

    D. Trent Weaver; Matthew T. Kiser

    2003-10-01

    In the 11th quarter, further testing was performed on thermal spray coatings. A component coated and fused in the 9th quarter underwent high-stress abrasive wear testing. The test successfully showed this coating could survive in a high stress, sliding wear environment as the base layer in an FGM design coating. Work on the ferrous metal-matrix composites was completed in previous quarter and therefore no update is provided.

  18. Effective mineral coatings for hardening the surface of metallic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kislov, S. V.; Kislov, V. G.; Skazochkin, A. V.; Bondarenko, G. G.; Tikhonov, A. N.

    2015-07-01

    The structural changes that occur in the surface and surface layers of steel 20Kh13 and titanium alloy PT-3V (Russian designation) samples after each stage of hardening due to a formed mineral surface layer are studied by optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Electric spark alloying, pressing, and ultrasonic processing are used to reach the effect of volume compression of the base metal and the mineral in the plastic deformation zone. As a result, applied mineral particles concentrate in preliminarily created microvoids in a thin surface layer. The surface layer thus modified acquires a high hardness and wear resistance. Durometry shows that the hardness of the processed sample surfaces increases more than twofold. Therefore, the developed technology of creating a mineral coating can be used to increase the tribological properties of the surfaces of the parts, units, and mechanisms of turbine, pump, and mining equipment, which undergo intense wear during operation.

  19. Young's Moduli of Cold and Vacuum Plasma Sprayed Metallic Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, S. V.; Pawlik, R.; Loewenthal, W.

    2009-01-01

    Monolithic metallic copper alloy and NiCrAlY coatings were fabricated by either the cold spray (CS) or the vacuum plasma spray (VPS) deposition processes. Dynamic elastic modulus property measurements were conducted on these monolithic coating specimens between 300 K and 1273 K using the impulse excitation technique. The Young's moduli decreased almost linearly with increasing temperature at all temperatures except in the case of the CS Cu-23%Cr-5%Al and VPS NiCrAlY, where deviations from linearity were observed above a critical temperature. It was observed that the Young's moduli for VPS Cu-8%Cr were larger than literature data compiled for Cu. The addition of 1%Al to Cu- 8%Cr significantly increased its Young's modulus by 12 to 17% presumably due to a solid solution effect. Comparisons of the Young s moduli data between two different measurements on the same CS Cu- 23%Cr-5%Al specimen revealed that the values measured in the first run were about 10% higher than those in the second run. It is suggested that this observation is due to annealing of the initial cold work microstructure resulting form the cold spray deposition process.

  20. Metal matrix coated fiber composites and the methods of manufacturing such composites

    DOEpatents

    Weeks, J.K. Jr.; Gensse, C.

    1993-09-14

    A fiber coating which allows ceramic or metal fibers to be wetted by molten metals is disclosed. The coating inhibits degradation of the physical properties caused by chemical reaction between the fiber and the coating itself or between the fiber and the metal matrix. The fiber coating preferably includes at least a wetting layer, and in some applications, a wetting layer and a barrier layer between the fiber and the wetting layer. The wetting layer promotes fiber wetting by the metal matrix. The barrier layer inhibits fiber degradation. The fiber coating permits the fibers to be infiltrated with the metal matrix resulting in composites having unique properties not obtainable in pure materials. 8 figures.

  1. Metal-insulator transition in films of doped semiconductor nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ting; Reich, K. V.; Kramer, Nicolaas J.; Fu, Han; Kortshagen, Uwe R.; Shklovskii, B. I.

    2016-03-01

    To fully deploy the potential of semiconductor nanocrystal films as low-cost electronic materials, a better understanding of the amount of dopants required to make their conductivity metallic is needed. In bulk semiconductors, the critical concentration of electrons at the metal-insulator transition is described by the Mott criterion. Here, we theoretically derive the critical concentration nc for films of heavily doped nanocrystals devoid of ligands at their surface and in direct contact with each other. In the accompanying experiments, we investigate the conduction mechanism in films of phosphorus-doped, ligand-free silicon nanocrystals. At the largest electron concentration achieved in our samples, which is half the predicted nc, we find that the localization length of hopping electrons is close to three times the nanocrystals diameter, indicating that the film approaches the metal-insulator transition.

  2. Metal-insulator transition in films of doped semiconductor nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting; Reich, K V; Kramer, Nicolaas J; Fu, Han; Kortshagen, Uwe R; Shklovskii, B I

    2016-03-01

    To fully deploy the potential of semiconductor nanocrystal films as low-cost electronic materials, a better understanding of the amount of dopants required to make their conductivity metallic is needed. In bulk semiconductors, the critical concentration of electrons at the metal-insulator transition is described by the Mott criterion. Here, we theoretically derive the critical concentration nc for films of heavily doped nanocrystals devoid of ligands at their surface and in direct contact with each other. In the accompanying experiments, we investigate the conduction mechanism in films of phosphorus-doped, ligand-free silicon nanocrystals. At the largest electron concentration achieved in our samples, which is half the predicted nc, we find that the localization length of hopping electrons is close to three times the nanocrystals diameter, indicating that the film approaches the metal-insulator transition. PMID:26618885

  3. Removal of toxic heavy metals by iron-coated starfish.

    PubMed

    Yang, J K; Yu, M R; Lee, S M

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the applicability of calcined starfish (SF) and iron-coated SF (ICSF) as potential adsorbents for the treatment of wastewater containing heavy metal ions was evaluated. ICSF was prepared by mixing FeCl(3) solution previously adjusted to pH 7 approximately 9 with SF at 105 degrees C. From the dissolution test at pH 2, ICSF showed strong acid-proof properties. In the batch adsorption, Cu(II) adsorption onto ICSF was completed within 150 minutes, while 47% Cu(II) was removed with SF alone. This result clearly suggests that the coated Fe(III) serves additional adsorption sites, resulting in the enhanced removal of heavy metal ions. The removed fraction of both Cu(II) and Pb(II) increased with increasing solution pH and nearly complete removals of Pb(II) and Cu(II) were observed at around pH 6 and 8, respectively. From the adsorption isotherm of Cu(II) onto SF and ICSF at pH 3.0, the removed amount of Cu(II) by ICSF was greater than that by SF over the entire concentration range studied. In the column test, the breakthrough of Cu(II) in the ICSF column was greatly retarded compared to that in the SF column. Based on the drinking water regulations for Cu(II), SF and ICSF were able to remove 3400 and 8600 mg/kg of Cu(II) from the wastewater, respectively. PMID:18025731

  4. Understanding Organic Film Behavior on Alloy and Metal Oxides

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Aparna; Quiñones, Rosalynn; Barriger, Lisa; Eastman, Rachel; Parsi, Arash

    2010-01-01

    Native oxide surfaces of stainless steel 316L and Nitinol alloys and their constituent metal oxides namely, nickel, chromium, molybdenum, manganese, iron and titanium were modified with long chain organic acids to better understand organic film formation. The adhesion and stability of films of octadecylphosphonic acid, octadecylhydroxamic acid, octadecylcarboxylic acid and octadecylsulfonic acid on these substrates was examined in this study. The films formed on these surfaces were analyzed by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, contact angle goniometry, atomic force microscopy and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. The effect of the acidity of the organic moiety and substrate composition on the film characteristics and stability is discussed. Interestingly, on the alloy surfaces, the presence of less reactive metal sites does not inhibit film formation. PMID:20039608

  5. Understanding organic film behavior on alloy and metal oxides.

    PubMed

    Raman, Aparna; Quiñones, Rosalynn; Barriger, Lisa; Eastman, Rachel; Parsi, Arash; Gawalt, Ellen S

    2010-02-01

    Native oxide surfaces of stainless steel 316L and Nitinol alloys and their constituent metal oxides, namely nickel, chromium, molybdenum, manganese, iron, and titanium, were modified with long chain organic acids to better understand organic film formation. The adhesion and stability of films of octadecylphosphonic acid, octadecylhydroxamic acid, octadecylcarboxylic acid, and octadecylsulfonic acid on these substrates were examined in this study. The films formed on these surfaces were analyzed by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, contact angle goniometry, atomic force microscopy, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. The effect of the acidity of the organic moiety and substrate composition on the film characteristics and stability is discussed. Interestingly, on the alloy surfaces, the presence of less reactive metal sites does not inhibit film formation. PMID:20039608

  6. A burst drug release caused by imperfection of polymeric film-coated microparticles prepared by a fluidized bed coater.

    PubMed

    Sriamornsak, P; Casallas-Hernández, G L; Manchun, S; Kumpugdee-Vollrath, M

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the drug release from microparticles coated with various polymeric films. Ibuprofen-loaded microparticles with diameter of 250 and 300 microm were prepared by a fluidized bed granulator. Five polymers were used as coating materials, i.e., ethylene vinyl acetate, ethyl cellulose, ethyl cellulose aqueous dispersion, polyethacrylate or Eudragit NE 30D, and carnauba wax. The coating was performed with a fluidized bed coater. Afterwards the coated microparticles were characterized in terms of particle size, morphology, and drug content. The drug dissolution was also investigated in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer. In our attempts for production of extended release ibuprofen microparticles coated with polymeric films, it was shown that the coating process had a significant effect on drug release. The undesired burst release of ibuprofen was observed in all film-coated microparticulate formulations, resulting from the imperfection of coating films. PMID:21901979

  7. Metal Matrix Composite Coatings Manufactured by Thermal Spraying: Influence of the Powder Preparation on the Coating Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aussavy, D.; Costil, S.; El Kedim, O.; Montavon, G.; Bonnot, A.-F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to manufacture metal matrix composite coatings by thermal spraying. In order to improve coating's mechanical properties, it is necessary to increase homogeneity. To meet this objective, the chosen approach was to optimize the powder morphology by mechanical alloying. Indeed, the mechanical alloying method (ball milling) was implemented to synthesize NiCr-Cr3C2 and NiCrBSi-WC composite powders by using cold spraying and high-velocity oxygen fuel process, respectively. After optimizing the process parameters on powder grain size, the composite coatings were compared with standard coatings manufactured from mixed powders. SEM observations, hardness measurements, and XRD analyses were the first technologies implemented to characterize the metal matrix composite coatings. Different characteristics were then observed. When mechanical alloying process is employed to synthesize composite powders strengthened by particle dispersion, the powders tend to fracture into small segments, especially when high content of hard particles is added. Powder microstructures were then refined, which induced thinner coating morphologies and reduced porosity rate. Once an improved microstructure is obtained, manufacturing of coating using milled powders was found suitable in comparison with coatings manufactured only with mixed powders.

  8. Antimicrobial edible films and coatings for fresh and minimally processed fruits and vegetables: a review.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Chamorro, Silvia A; Palou, Lluís; Del Río, Miguel A; Pérez-Gago, María B

    2011-01-01

    The use of edible films and coatings is an environmentally friendly technology that offers substantial advantages for shelf-life increase of many food products including fruits and vegetables. The development of new natural edible films and coatings with the addition of antimicrobial compounds to preserve fresh and minimally processed fruits and vegetables is a technological challenge for the industry and a very active research field worldwide. Antimicrobial agents have been successfully added to edible composite films and coatings based on polysaccharides or proteins such as starch, cellulose derivatives, chitosan, alginate, fruit puree, whey protein isolated, soy protein, egg albumen, wheat gluten, or sodium caseinate. This paper reviews the development of edible films and coatings with antimicrobial activity, typically through the incorporation of antimicrobial food additives as ingredients, the effect of these edible films on the control of target microorganisms, the influence of antimicrobial agents on mechanical and barrier properties of stand-alone edible films, and the effect of the application of antimicrobial edible coatings on the quality of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. PMID:21888536

  9. Relation between surface roughness of free films and process parameters in spray coating.

    PubMed

    Perfetti, G; Alphazan, T; van Hee, P; Wildeboer, W J; Meesters, G M H

    2011-02-14

    A novel spraying apparatus was developed to obtain reproducible free sprayed films. Aqueous solutions of PolyVinyl Alcohol PVA 4-98, HydroxyPropyl MethylCellulose HPMC 603 and HPMC 615 were used as reference coating materials. The apparatus is composed by a spraying system, a closed chamber containing a rotating Teflon cylinder, a pressured air supply system, a spray solution supply system, and a computerized control system. The spraying air pressure, the cylinder rotation speed, and the cylinder-spray nozzle distance were tailored in such a manner that the roughness of the obtained free films was similar to that from reference coated particles. Optimum spraying process conditions were found for all three coating materials using design of experiments. The morphology of the sprayed films obtained using the optimum conditions is evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM), and then compared with those from corresponding cast films and coating layers on particles. A match was found between the morphology of sprayed films and that from the corresponding coating layer on the particle surface. The spray apparatus produced reproducible sprayed films with tuneable roughness and/or smoothness depending on the set of processing parameters. PMID:21145964

  10. Biodegradability of regenerated cellulose films coated with polyurethane/natural polymers interpenetrating polymer networks

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L.; Zhou, J.; Huang, J.; Gong, P. Zhou, Q.; Zheng, L.; Du, Y.

    1999-11-01

    Interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) coatings synthesized from castor-oil-based polyurethane (PU) with chitosan, nitrocellulose, or elaeostearin were coated on regenerated cellulose (RC) film for curing at 80--100 C for 2--5 min, providing biodegradable, water-resistant cellulose films coded, respectively, as RCCH, RCNC, and RCEs. The coated films were buried in natural soil for decaying and inoculated with a spore suspension of fungi on the agar medium, respectively, to test biodegradability. The viscosity-average molecular weight, M{sub {eta}}, and the weight of the degraded films decreased sharply with the progress of degradation. The degradation half-lifes, t{sub 1/2}, of the films in soil at 30 C were found to be 19 days for RC, 25 days for RCNC, 32 days for RCCH, and 45 days for the RCEs films. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the extent of decay followed in the order RC {gt} RCNC {gt} RCCH {gt} RCEs. SEM, infrared (IR), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and CO{sub 2} evolution results indicated that the microorganisms directly attacked the water-resistant coating layer and then penetrated into the cellulose to speedily metabolize, while accompanying with producing CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, glucose cleaved from cellulose, and small molecules decomposed from the coatings.

  11. Silver activation on thin films of Ag-ZrCN coatings for antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Ferreri, I; Calderon V, S; Escobar Galindo, R; Palacio, C; Henriques, M; Piedade, A P; Carvalho, S

    2015-10-01

    Nowadays, with the increase of elderly population and related health problems, knee and hip joint prosthesis are being widely used worldwide. However, failure of these invasive devices occurs in a high percentage thus demanding the revision of the chirurgical procedure. Within the reasons of failure, microbial infections, either hospital or subsequently-acquired, contribute in high number to the statistics. Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) has emerged as one of the major nosocomial pathogens associated with these infections. Silver has a historic performance in medicine due to its potent antimicrobial activity, with a broad-spectrum on the activity of different types of microorganisms. Consequently, the main goal of this work was to produce Ag-ZrCN coatings with antimicrobial activity, for the surface modification of hip prostheses. Thin films of ZrCN with several silver concentrations were deposited onto stainless steel 316 L, by DC reactive magnetron sputtering, using two targets, Zr and Zr with silver pellets (Zr+Ag target), in an atmosphere containing Ar, C2H2 and N2. The antimicrobial activity of the modified surfaces was tested against S. epidermidis and the influence of an activation step of silver was assessed by testing samples after immersion in a 5% (w/v) NaClO solution for 5 min. The activation procedure revealed to be essential for the antimicrobial activity, as observed by the presence of an inhibition halo on the surface with 11 at.% of Ag. The morphology analysis of the surface before and after the activation procedure revealed differences in silver distribution indicating segregation/diffusion of the metallic element to the film's surface. Thus, the results indicate that the silver activation step is responsible for an antimicrobial effect of the coatings, due to silver oxidation and silver ion release. PMID:26117788

  12. Effect of thermal cycling on stress in metallic films on ceramic substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattison, Edward M.; Vessot, Robert F. C.

    1990-01-01

    The hydrogen maser is the most stable frequency standard currently available for averaging intervals of hours to weeks. A major contributor to maser frequency variations is the maser's microwave resonant cavity: by means of the cavity pulling effect, a change in the cavity's resonance frequency produces a proportional change in the maser's output frequency. To minimize variations in the cavity's dimensions, and thus in its resonance frequency, maser cavities are often constructed of a low-expansivity glass-ceramic material coated on its surface with a conductive metallic film. It was previously shown that silver films like those used in SAO maser cavities develop tensile stress when cooled to room temperature after being fired onto the cavity, and that the stress in such films relaxes with time at a rate proportional to the level of stress. Stress relaxation in maser cavity coatings can alter the shape, and hence the resonance frequency, of the cavity, resulting in a slow variation in the maser's output frequency. The possibility was investigated of reversing the initial tensile stress by precooling the coated cavity material. It was hypothesized that cooling the material well below its normal working temperature and then warming it to its normal temperature would result in a lower tensile stress or even a compressive stress. Under such a condition stress relaxation, and thus any consequent frequency drifts, might be reduced or reversed.

  13. Germanium Lift-Off Masks for Thin Metal Film Patterning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Ari

    2012-01-01

    A technique has been developed for patterning thin metallic films that are, in turn, used to fabricate microelectronics circuitry and thin-film sensors. The technique uses germanium thin films as lift-off masks. This requires development of a technique to strip or undercut the germanium chemically without affecting the deposited metal. Unlike in the case of conventional polymeric lift-off masks, the substrate can be exposed to very high temperatures during processing (sputter deposition). The reason why polymeric liftoff masks cannot be exposed to very high temperatures (greater than 100 C) is because (a) they can become cross linked, making lift-off very difficult if not impossible, and (b) they can outgas nitrogen and oxygen, which then can react with the metal being deposited. Consequently, this innovation is expected to find use in the fabrication of transition edge sensors and microwave kinetic inductance detectors, which use thin superconducting films deposited at high temperature as their sensing elements. Transition edge sensors, microwave kinetic inductance detectors, and their circuitry are comprised of superconducting thin films, for example Nb and TiN. Reactive ion etching can be used to pattern these films; however, reactive ion etching also damages the underlying substrate, which is unwanted in many instances. Polymeric lift-off techniques permit thin-film patterning without any substrate damage, but they are difficult to remove and the polymer can outgas during thin-film deposition. The outgassed material can then react with the film with the consequence of altered and non-reproducible materials properties, which, in turn, is deleterious for sensors and their circuitry. The purpose of this innovation was to fabricate a germanium lift-off mask to be used for patterning thin metal films.

  14. Effects of asymmetric surface corrugations on fully metal-coated scanning near field optical microscopy tips.

    PubMed

    Lotito, Valeria; Sennhauser, Urs; Hafner, Christian

    2010-04-12

    We propose a new configuration for a fully metal coated scanning near field (SNOM) probe based on asymmetric corrugations in the metal coating. The variation in the metal surface induces coupling mechanisms leading to the creation of a localized hot spot under linearly polarized excitation. Field localization is an effect of paramount importance for resolution but cannot be achieved with standard axisymmetric fully metal-coated probes, unless a more cumbersome radially polarized excitation is used. Our simulations show that this promising structure allows one to simplify the mode injection procedures circumventing the need for a radially polarized beam. PMID:20588716

  15. Improvement of MgF 2 thin coating films for laser applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perales, F.; Herrero, J. M.; Jaque, D.; de las Heras, C.

    2007-03-01

    MgF2 thin films have been deposited by physical vapor deposition on different substrates (laser crystals, a saturable absorber crystal and glasses), in order to investigate the best conditions for antireflection coatings. The relevance of using these MgF2 coatings has been evidenced by different laser gain experiments performed on different coated and uncoated elements such as Nd:CGGG, Nd:LiNbO3 and Cr4+:YAG. Then the optical properties of the MgF2 films have been systematically investigated for different annealing temperatures and ion bombardment treatments. A substantial improvement in the films transmission has been demonstrated. The obtained results are correlated to morphologic changes in the MgF2 films.

  16. Conductivity of PEDOT:PSS on Spin-Coated and Drop Cast Nanofibrillar Cellulose Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtakari, Dimitar; Liu, Jun; Kumar, Vinay; Xu, Chunlin; Toivakka, Martti; Saarinen, Jarkko J.

    2015-10-01

    Aqueous dispersion of conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) was deposited on spin-coated and drop cast nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC)-glycerol (G) matrix on a glass substrate. A thin glycerol film was utilized on plasma-treated glass substrate to provide adequate adhesion for the NFC-glycerol (NFC-G) film. The effects of annealing temperature, the coating method of NFC-G, and the coating time intervals on the electrical performance of the PEDOT:PSS were characterized. PEDOT:PSS on drop cast NFC-G resulted in 3 orders of magnitude increase in the electrical conductivity compared to reference PEDOT:PSS film on a reference glass substrate, whereas the optical transmission was only slightly decreased. The results point out the importance of the interaction between the PEDOT:PSS and the NFC-G for the electrical and barrier properties for thin film electronics applications.

  17. Development of technique for AR coating and nickel and copper metallization of solar cells. FPS Project: Product development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, W.

    1982-01-01

    Printed nickel overplated with copper and applied on top of a predeposited silicon nitride antireflective coating system for metallizing solar cells was analyzed. The ESL D and E paste formulations, and the new formulations F, G, H, and D-1 were evaluated. The nickel thick films were tested after firing for stability in the cleaning and plating solutions used in the Vanguard-Pacific brush plating process. It was found that the films are very sensitive to the leaning and alkaline copper solutions. Less sensitivity was displayed to the neutral copper solution. Microscopic and SEM observations show segregation of frit at the silicon nitride thick film interface with loose frit residues after lifting off plated grid lines.

  18. Sputter deposition of metallic thin film and directpatterning

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, L.; Chen, Y.; Jiang, X.; Ji, Q.; Leung, K.-N.

    2005-09-09

    A compact apparatus is developed for deposition of metal thin film. The system employs an RF discharge plasma source with a straight RF antenna, which is made of or covered with deposition material, serving as sputtering target at the same time. The average deposition rate of copper thin film is as high as 450nm/min. By properly allocating the metal materials on the sputtering antenna, mixture deposition of multiple metal species is achieved. Using an ion beam imprinting scheme also taking advantage of ion beam focusing technique, two different schemes of direct patterning deposition process are developed: direct depositing patterned metallic thin film and resistless ion beam sputter patterning. Preliminary experiments have demonstrated direct pattern transfer from a template with feature size of micro scale; patterns with more than 10x reduction are achieved by sputtering patterning method.

  19. Evenly distributed thin-film Ag coating on stainless plate by tricomponent Ag/silicate/PU with antimicrobial and biocompatible properties.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Hsiu; Chen, Mark Hung-Chih; Lee, Bing-Heng; Hsieh, Kuo-Huang; Tu, Yuan-Kun; Lin, Jiang-Jen; Chang, Chih-Hao

    2014-11-26

    A tricomponent nanohybrid dispersion in water comprising silver nanoparticles (AgNP), nanometer-thick silicate platelets (NSP), and water-based polyurethane (PU) was developed for surface coating on orthopedic metal plates. The previously developed AgNP-on-NSP nanohybrid was homogeneously blended into a selected waterborne PU dispersion at varied weight ratios from 1/0.1 to 1/10 (w/w). PU was used to adhere the Ag nanohybrid to the metal surface. The resultant dispersions were analyzed and found to contain AgNP 2-18 nm in diameter and characterized by using UV absorption and TEM micrograph. The subsequent coating of AgNP/NSP-PU dispersion generated a film of 1.5 μm thickness on the metal plate surface, further characterized by an energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS) to show the homogeneous distribution of Ag, Si, and C elements on the metal plates. The surface antimicrobial efficacy was proven for the coating composition of AgNP/NSP to PU ranging from 1/1 to 1/5 by weight ratio but irrelevant to the thickness of the coated materials. The metal plate coated with the high Ag content at 1/1 (w/w) ratio was shown to have very low cytotoxicity toward the contacted mammal fibroblasts. Overall, the optimized tricomponent Ag/silicate/PU in water dispersion from 1/2 to 1/3 (w/w) could generate a stable film on a metal surface exhibiting both antimicrobial and biocompatible properties. The facile coating technique of the AgNP/NSP in waterborne PU is proven to be viable for fabricating infection- and cytotoxicity-free medical devices. PMID:25307230

  20. ARTICLES: Metal Precursor Influence on Performance of Culn1-xGaxSe2 Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Man; Zhang, Zhong-wei; Jiang, Guo-shun; Zhu, Chang-fei

    2010-06-01

    CuIn1-xGaxSe2 (CIGS) films were prepared by a two-stage method, in which Cu-In-Ga metallic precursors were firstly deposited on unheated Mo-coated soda lime glass substrates by direct current sputtering CuGa (20%Ga) and radio frequency sputtering In targets in an Ar atmosphere, followed by selenization at 520 °C for 40 min in Se vapor. By adjusting the sputtering thickness ratio of surface CuGa (20%Ga) and bottom CuGa (20%Ga) alloy layers in metal precursor, different CIGS thin films were fabricated. Through X-ray diffraction spectra, Raman spectra, local energy dispersive spectrometer, planar- and cross-sectional views of scanning electron microscopy measurements, it revealed that the CIGS thin films from selenization of metal precursor with CuGa:In:CuGa thickness ratio of 7:20:3 (sample-2-se) was of chalcopyrite structure with the preferred (112) orientation, and the grains sizes ranged from 0.5 μm to 2 μm, and sample-2-se had no binary compound phase of In-Se and order defect compound phase. Consequently, the results of illuminated current-voltage curve and quantum efficiency measurements showed that the CIGS film device made from sample-2-se had relative higher photo-electric conversion efficiency (3.59%) and good spectrum response.

  1. Improvement of silicon solar cell performance through the use of thin film coatings.

    PubMed

    Reynard, D L; Andrew, A

    1966-01-01

    Thin film coatings are used universally in solar cell power systems for spacecraft. Antireflective coatings are used to increase the amount of useful energy reaching the active surface of the cell. Multilayer interference filters are employed to reject unwanted portions of the solar spectrum in order to reduce equilibrium temperature and to prevent ultraviolet damage. Glass covers are used in conjunction with these coatings for the purpose of increasing the thermal emittance of the surface. Appreciable performance increases can be obtained through the uses of these filters and coatings. PMID:20048779

  2. Formation mechanism and anticorrosive properties of thin siloxane films on metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Petrunin, M.A.; Nazarov, A.P.; Mikhailovski, Yu.N.

    1996-01-01

    The adsorption of different ethoxysilanes on Al was studied. It was established that during polymolecular adsorption of ethoxysilanes from the vapor phase on aluminum the first monolayer is adsorbed irreversibly with adsorption van der Waals bonds between silane molecules and the aluminum surface. The covalent bonding of silanes with the surface (Al-O-Si bonds) occurs in the presence of adsorbed water on the aluminum surface. The presence of a silane monolayer on Al decreases water adsorption on the surface, and inhibits hydration of the oxide metal film. The formation of a negatively charged siloxane film on the aluminum surface inhibits local metal corrosion, and a positively charged layer activates it in chloride containing media. The formation of the surface siloxane polymer by the modification of metals inhibits the metal dissolution under polymer coatings. It is caused by silane chemisorption and negative charging of the metal surface. The presence of negatively charged groups causes difficulties of an electrostatic character for the migration of aggressive ions to the metal surface.

  3. Preparation and antimicrobial assay of ceramic brackets coated with TiO2 thin films

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Shuai; Wang, Ye; Cao, Lin; Wang, Yu; Lin, Bingpeng; Lan, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Objective Different methods have been utilized to prevent enamel demineralization and other complications during orthodontic treatment. However, none of these methods can offer long-lasting and effective prevention of orthodontic complications or interventions after complications occur. Considering the photocatalytic effect of TiO2 on organic compounds, we hoped to synthesize a novel bracket with a TiO2 thin film to develop a photocatalytic antimicrobial effect. Methods The sol-gel dip coating method was used to prepare TiO2 thin films on ceramic bracket surfaces. Twenty groups of samples were composed according to the experimental parameters. Crystalline structure and surface morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively; film thickness was examined with a surface ellipsometer. The photocatalytic properties under ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation were analyzed by evaluating the degradation ratio of methylene blue (MB) at a certain time. Antibacterial activities of selected thin films were also tested against Lactobacillus acidophilus and Candida albicans. Results Films with 5 coating layers annealed at 700℃ showed the greatest photocatalytic activity in terms of MB decomposition under UV light irradiation. TiO2 thin films with 5 coating layers annealed at 700℃ exhibited the greatest antimicrobial activity under UV-A light irradiation. Conclusions These results provide promising guidance in prevention of demineralization by increasing antimicrobial activities of film coated brackets. PMID:27226960

  4. Multilayer coatings on flexible substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P.M.; Affinito, J.D.; Gross, M.E.; Coronado, C.A.; Bennett, W.D.; Stewart, D.C.

    1995-04-01

    Thin-film optical and non-optical multilayer coatings are deposited onto flexible substrates using a vacuum web coater developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The coater`s primary application is rapid prototyping of multilayer (1) polymer coatings, (2) polymer/metal coatings, (3) ceramic/metal coatings, and (4) hybrid polymer, ceramic, and metal coatings. The coater is fully automated and incorporates polymer evaporation and extrusion heads, high-rate magnetron sputtering cathodes, and e-beam evaporation sources. Polymer electrolytes are deposited by extrusion techniques. Flexible plastic, metal, and ceramic substrates can be coated using roll-to-roll or closed-loop configurations. Examples of multilayer optical coatings demonstrated to date are solar reflectors, heat mirrors, Fabry-Perot filters, and alpha particle sensors. Nonoptical coatings include multilayer magnetic metal/ceramic and lamellar composites.

  5. Effects of a ceramic coating on metal temperatures of an air-cooled turbine vane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladden, H. J.; Liebert, C. H.

    1980-02-01

    The metal temperatures of air cooled turbine vanes both uncoated and coated with the NASA thermal barrier system were studied experimentally. Current and advanced gas turbine engine conditions were simulated at reduced temperatures and pressures. Airfoil metal temperatures were significantly reduced, both locally and on the average, by use of the the coating. However, at low gas Reynolds number, the ceramic coating tripped a laminar boundary layer on the suction surface, and the resulting higher heat flux increased the metal temperatures. Simulated coating loss was also investigated and shown to increase local metal temperatures. However, the metal temperatures in the leading edge region remained below those of the uncoated vane tested at similar conditions. Metal temperatures in the trailing edge region exceeded those of the uncoated vane.

  6. Effects of a ceramic coating on metal temperatures of an air-cooled turbine vane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladden, H. J.; Liebert, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    The metal temperatures of air cooled turbine vanes both uncoated and coated with the NASA thermal barrier system were studied experimentally. Current and advanced gas turbine engine conditions were simulated at reduced temperatures and pressures. Airfoil metal temperatures were significantly reduced, both locally and on the average, by use of the the coating. However, at low gas Reynolds number, the ceramic coating tripped a laminar boundary layer on the suction surface, and the resulting higher heat flux increased the metal temperatures. Simulated coating loss was also investigated and shown to increase local metal temperatures. However, the metal temperatures in the leading edge region remained below those of the uncoated vane tested at similar conditions. Metal temperatures in the trailing edge region exceeded those of the uncoated vane.

  7. Removal of copper ions from aqueous solution by adsorption onto novel polyelectrolyte film-coated nanofibrous silk fibroin non-wovens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Weitao; Huang, Haitao; Du, Shan; Huo, Yingdong; He, Jianxin; Cui, Shizhong

    2015-08-01

    In this approach, polyelectrolyte film-coated nanofibrous silk fibroin (SF) nonwovens were prepared from the alternate deposition of positively charged polyethylenimine (PEI) and negatively charged SF using electrostatic layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembled technology. The composite membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. The SF-PEI multilayer-assembled nanofibers (less than five layers) were fine and uniform with the fiber diameter from 400 nm to 600 nm, and had very large surface area and high porosity (more than 70%). The amino groups of PEI were proved to be deposited onto SF nonwovens, which granted the coated nonwovens with potential applicability for copper ions adsorption. The PEI films coated SF substrate showed much higher copper ions adsorption capacity than that of ethanol treated SF nanofibers. Adding the number of PEI coated could enhance the Cu2+ adsorption capacity significantly. The maximum milligrams per gram of copper ions adsorbed reached 59.7 mg/g when the SF substrate was coated with 5 bilayers of SF-PEI. However, the copper ions adsorption capacity had no obvious change as the number of PEI continued to increase. These results suggest potential for PEL film-coated nanofibrous nonwovens as a new adsorbent for metal ions.

  8. Synthesis and characterisation of pack cemented aluminide coatings on metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houngninou, C.; Chevalier, S.; Larpin, J. P.

    2004-09-01

    The exposition of metallic materials to high temperature environments leads to their corrosion because of oxidation or sulphidation. One way to protect such materials is to produce an Al 2O 3 layer which needs to be continuous enough to limit diffusion of oxygen or metallic elements, and withstand this corrosion. Since a few years, it has been proved that aluminide compounds are one of the most effective materials to achieve this goal. Indeed, they possess sufficient Al and many beneficial mechanical properties when exposed to high temperature conditions to make possible the formation of a protective Al 2O 3 scale. This study is aimed at the elaboration of iron, nickel and molybdenum aluminides by modification of the surface of the base materials by a pack cementation process. The as-cemented alloys were analysed by means of SEM coupled with EDX and by XRD. Cross-section examinations showed, in each case, a progressive diffusion of aluminium through the substrates. The diffusion thickness layer was more or less important depending on the base material and on the coating conditions.

  9. Effects of ion beam mixing of silicon carbide film deposited onto metallic materials for application to nuclear hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae-Won; Chun, Youngjin; Chang, Jonghwa

    2007-05-01

    The effects of ion beam mixing of the SiC film coated on metallic substrates were studied, aiming at developing highly sustainable materials at above 1173 K in SO3/SO2 ambience. Firstly, ?50 nm thick SiC films were deposited by e-beam evaporative method on stainless 316 L, Inconel 800H, Inconel 690, and Hastelloy-X substrates, followed by the 100 keV (Ar and N) ions bombardment to mix the interfacial region. After ion beam mixing, additional ?500 nm thick SiC film was deposited onto the ion bombarded SiC film. Samples with and without ion beam mixing were immersed in 50% H2SO4 solution for 1 h with heating the solution up at 573 K. The film in the as-deposited sample was completely removed during the immersion, while the ion beam mixed sample exhibited no detachment of the deposited film. The corrosion of non-ion beam-mixed sample initiated from non-deposited metallic surface and then propagated to the film deposited region, flaking-off the film from the edge. The interface formed by ion beam mixing seems to be protective against the corrosion. The SiC film/metallic substrates were heated up to 1223 K. The film deposited on the stainless steel substrate was completely peeled off, while the films deposited on Ni-based alloys all sustained. This is due to the difference of thermal stresses between the film and substrate materials. The best materials combination in our experimental scheme is the SiC film and the Hastelloy-X, because their thermal properties are more similar than for the other materials combinations.

  10. Dielectric breakdown of polymer films containing metal clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Laurent, C.; Kay, E.; Souag, N.

    1988-07-01

    Thin films of gold-containing plasma-polymerized tetrafluoroethylene were prepared in an rf glow discharge. The films thus obtained showed a wide range of conductivities from insulating ( rho>10/sup 16/ ..cap omega.. cm) to metallic ( rhoapprox.3 x 10/sup -6/ ..cap omega.. cm), depending on plasma conditions during synthesis. The synthesis of the polymer is described in detail since it presents several new aspects. The structure and composition of the films were investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Studies of current-voltage characteristics in the dielectric regime, i.e., below electrical percolation, show that the conduction is volume limited (Poole--Frenkel effect) in non-gold-containing films, and characterized by a bistable switching behavior for gold-rich films. Dielectric breakdown measurements were realized on self-healing metal-insulator-metal structures. The Weibull analysis of breakdown voltages and a statistical treatment of times to breakdown under constant stress give, respectively, the nominal breakdown field E/sub 0/ and the specific breakdown field E/sub c/. These two sets of data follow similar functional behavior as a function of metallic volume fraction in the films. Surprisingly, the breakdown-field values remain relativity high up to the percolation concentration.

  11. Development of metal-coated ceramic anodes for molten carbonate fuel cells. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Khandkar, A.C.; Elangovan, S.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1990-03-01

    This report documents the developmental efforts on metal coating of various ceramic substrates (LiAlO{sub 2}, SrTiO{sub 3}, and LiFeO{sub 2}) and the critical issues associated with fabricating anodes using metal-coated LiAlO{sub 2} substrates. Electroless Ni and Cu coating technology was developed to achieve complete metal coverage on LiAlO{sub 2} powder substrates. Metal coated SrTiO{sub 3} powders were fabricated into anodes by a process identical to that reported in the GE literature. Microstructural examination revealed that the grains of the ceramic had fused together, with the metal having dewetted from the surface of the ceramic. Alternate substrates that might allow for better wetting of the metal on the ceramic such as LiFeO{sub 2} and Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} were identified. Cu/Ni-coated (50:50 mol ratio, 50 w/o metal loading) LiFeO{sub 2} anodes were optimized to meet the MCFC anode specifications. Metal-coated gamma-LiAlO{sub 2} substrates were also developed. By using suitable chemical surface modification methods, the gamma-UAlO{sub 2} substrate surface may be modified to allow a stable metal coated anode to be fabricated. Creep testing of the metal coated ceramic anodes were conducted at IGT. It was determined that the predominant creep mechanism is due to particle rearrangement. The anode porosity, and mean pore size had significant effect on the creep of the anode. Lower porosity and pore size consistent with performance criteria are desired to reduce creep. Lower metal loading with uniformity of coverage will result in lower creep behavior of the anode. Of the two substrates evaluated, LiFeO{sub 2} in general exhibited lower creep which was attributed to superior metal adhesion.

  12. Development of metal-coated ceramic anodes for molten carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Khandkar, A.C.; Elangovan, S.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1990-03-01

    This report documents the developmental efforts on metal coating of various ceramic substrates (LiAlO{sub 2}, SrTiO{sub 3}, and LiFeO{sub 2}) and the critical issues associated with fabricating anodes using metal-coated LiAlO{sub 2} substrates. Electroless Ni and Cu coating technology was developed to achieve complete metal coverage on LiAlO{sub 2} powder substrates. Metal coated SrTiO{sub 3} powders were fabricated into anodes by a process identical to that reported in the GE literature. Microstructural examination revealed that the grains of the ceramic had fused together, with the metal having dewetted from the surface of the ceramic. Alternate substrates that might allow for better wetting of the metal on the ceramic such as LiFeO{sub 2} and Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} were identified. Cu/Ni-coated (50:50 mol ratio, 50 w/o metal loading) LiFeO{sub 2} anodes were optimized to meet the MCFC anode specifications. Metal-coated gamma-LiAlO{sub 2} substrates were also developed. By using suitable chemical surface modification methods, the gamma-UAlO{sub 2} substrate surface may be modified to allow a stable metal coated anode to be fabricated. Creep testing of the metal coated ceramic anodes were conducted at IGT. It was determined that the predominant creep mechanism is due to particle rearrangement. The anode porosity, and mean pore size had significant effect on the creep of the anode. Lower porosity and pore size consistent with performance criteria are desired to reduce creep. Lower metal loading with uniformity of coverage will result in lower creep behavior of the anode. Of the two substrates evaluated, LiFeO{sub 2} in general exhibited lower creep which was attributed to superior metal adhesion.

  13. The Tribological Behaviors of Three Films Coated on Biomedical Titanium Alloy by Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Song; Liao, Zhenhua; Liu, Yuhong; Liu, Weiqiang

    2015-11-01

    Three thin films (DLC, a-C, and TiN) were performed on Ti6Al4V by chemical vapor deposition. Carbon ion implantation was pretreated for DLC and a-C films while Ti transition layer was pretreated for TiN film to strengthen the bonding strength. X-ray diffraction, Raman measurement, nano-hardness and nano-scratch tester, and cross-section etching by FIB method were used to analyze film characteristics. Tribological behaviors of these coatings were studied by articulation with both ZrO2 and UHMWPE balls using ball-on-disk sliding. The thickness values reached ~0.46, ~0.33, and ~1.67 μm for DLC, a-C, and TiN film, respectively. Nano-hardness of the coatings compared with that of untreated and bonding strength (critical load in nano-scratch test) values of composite coatings compared with that of monolayer film all increased significantly, respectively. Under destructive test (ZrO2 ball conterface) in bovine serum lubrication, TiN coating revealed the best wear resistance while DLC showed the worst. Film failure was mainly attributed to the plowing by hard ZrO2 ball characterized by abrasive and adhesive wear. Under normal test (UHMWPE ball conterface), all coatings showed significant improvement in wear resistance both in dry sliding and bovine serum lubrication. Both DLC and a-C films showed less surface damage than TiN film due to the self-lubricating phenomenon in dry sliding. TiN film showed the largest friction coefficient both in destructive and normal tests, devoting to the big TiN grains thus leading to much rougher surface and then a higher value. The self-lubricating film formed on DLC and a-C coating could also decrease their friction coefficients. The results indicated that three coatings revealed different wear mechanisms, and thick DLC or a-C film was more promising in application in lower stress conditions such as artificial cervical disk.

  14. Laser-Induced Fabrication of Metallic Interlayers and Patterns in Polyimide Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, Gilda A. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Gaddy, Gregory A. (Inventor); Koplitz, Brent D. (Inventor); Simpson, Steven M. (Inventor); Lynch, Michael F. (Inventor); Ruffner, Samuel C. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Self-metallizing polyimide films are created by doping polyamic acid solutions with metallic ions and solubilizing agents. Upon creating a film, the film is exposed to coherent light for a specific time and then cured. The resulting film has been found to have a metallic surface layer and a metallic subsurface layer (interlayer). The layer separating the metallic layer has a uniform dispersion of small metal particulates within the polymer. The layer below the interlayer has larger metal particulates uniformly distributed within the polymer. By varying the intensity or time of exposure to the coherent light, three-dimensional control of metal formation within the film is provided.

  15. Thin film coating process using an inductively coupled plasma

    DOEpatents

    Kniseley, Richard N.; Schmidt, Frederick A.; Merkle, Brian D.

    1990-01-30

    Thin coatings of normally solid materials are applied to target substrates using an inductively coupled plasma. Particles of the coating material are vaporized by plasma heating, and pass through an orifice to a first vacuum zone in which the particles are accelerated to a velocity greater than Mach 1. The shock wave generated in the first vacuum zone is intercepted by the tip of a skimmer cone that provides a second orifice. The particles pass through the second orifice into a second zone maintained at a higher vacuum and impinge on the target to form the coating. Ultrapure coatings can be formed.

  16. Fabricating thin-film photovoltaic devices using ultra-sonic spray-coating (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidzey, David G.

    2015-10-01

    The scale-up of thin-film electronic devices requires a manufacture tool set that is capable of fabricating thin films at high speed over large areas. One such technique capable of such a task is ultra-sonic spray coating. Here, a target solution is fed onto a vibrating tip that breaks the solution up into very fine droplets, with such droplets being carried to a surface by a gas stream. Such ultra-sonic coating processes are already widely used in Electronics, Medical and Displays industries to create films having excellent smoothness and homogeneity. In this talk, I describe the use of ultra-sonic spray-coating to deposit a range of materials for thin-film optoelectronics. As our spray-coating system operates in air, it was first necessary to explore the relative sensitivity of various conjugated polymer / fullerene blends to an air-based process route. It is found that carbazole based co-polymers are particularly stable, and can be processed in air (by spin-coating) into organic photovoltaic devices (OPV) without any apparent loss in device efficiency. I then show that spray-coating can be used to deposit a range of semiconductor materials into smooth, thin-films, including PEDOT:PSS, MoOx (from a precursor) and a series of polymer:fullerene blends. Using such a technique, we are able to scale up an array of devices having an area of 7 cm2, and using a PBDTTT-EFT:PC70BM blend, obtain OPVs having a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.7%. I then discuss spray-coating as a method to fabricate photovoltaic devices based on CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Clx perovskite films. Here, by optimization of deposition parameters, devices are created having a PCE of 11.1%.

  17. Antifouling coatings based on covalently cross-linked agarose film via thermal azide-alkyne cycloaddition.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li Qun; Pranantyo, Dicky; Neoh, Koon-Gee; Kang, En-Tang; Teo, Serena Lay-Ming; Fu, Guo Dong

    2016-05-01

    Coatings based on thin films of agarose-poly(ethylene glycol) (Agr-PEG) cross-linked systems are developed as environmentally-friendly and fouling-resistant marine coatings. The Agr-PEG cross-linked systems were prepared via thermal azide-alkyne cycloaddition (AAC) using azido-functionalized Agr (AgrAz) and activated alkynyl-containing poly(2-propiolamidoethyl methacrylate-co-poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacrylate) P(PEMA-co-PEGMEMA) random copolymers as the precursors. The Agr-PEG cross-linked systems were further deposited onto a SS surface, pre-functionalized with an alkynyl-containing biomimetic anchor, dopamine propiolamide, to form a thin film after thermal treatment. The thin film-coated SS surfaces can effectively reduce the adhesion of marine algae and the settlement of barnacle cyprids. Upon covalent cross-linking, the covalently cross-linked Agr-PEG films coated SS surfaces exhibit good stability in flowing artificial seawater, and enhanced resistance to the settlement of barnacle cyprids, in comparison to that of the surfaces coated with physically cross-linked AgrAz films. PMID:26836479

  18. Thin film application device and method for coating small aperture vacuum vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, Dean R; Este, Grantley O

    2015-01-27

    A device and method for coating an inside surface of a vessel is provided. In one embodiment, a coating device comprises a power supply and a diode in electrical communication with the power supply, wherein electrodes comprising the diode reside completely within the vessel. The method comprises reversibly sealing electrodes in a vessel, sputtering elemental metal or metal compound on the surface while maintaining the surface in a controlled atmosphere.

  19. Metal copper films deposited on cenosphere particles by magnetron sputtering method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiaozheng; Xu, Zheng; Shen, Zhigang

    2007-05-01

    Metal copper films with thicknesses from several nanometres to several micrometres were deposited on the surface of cenosphere particles by the magnetron sputtering method under different working conditions. An ultrasonic vibrating generator equipped with a conventional magnetron sputtering apparatus was used to prevent the cenosphere substrates from accumulating during film growth. The surface morphology, the chemical composition, the average grain size and the crystallization of cenosphere particles were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), inductively coupled plasma-atom emission spectrometer, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, respectively, before and after the plating process. The results indicate that the copper films were successfully deposited on cenosphere particles. It was found from the FE-SEM results that the films were well compacted and highly uniform in thickness. The XRD results show that the copper film coated on cenospheres has a face centred cubic structure and the crystallization of the film sample increases with increasing sputtering power.

  20. Metal-organic chemical vapor-deposited cobalt oxide films as negative electrodes for thin film Li-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jena, Anirudha; Munichandraiah, N.; Shivashankar, S. A.

    2015-03-01

    In this study, thin films of cobalt oxide (Co3O4) have been grown by the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique on stainless steel substrate at two preferred temperatures (450 °C and 500 °C), using cobalt acetylacetonate dihydrate as precursor. Spherical as well as columnar microstructures of Co3O4 have been observed under controlled growth conditions. Further investigations reveal these films are phase-pure, well crystallized and carbon-free. High-resolution TEM analysis confirms that each columnar structure is a continuous stack of minute crystals. Comparative study between these Co3O4 films grown at 450 °C and 500 °C has been carried out for their application as negative electrodes in Li-ion batteries. Our method of electrode fabrication leads to a coating of active material directly on current collector without any use of external additives. A high specific capacity of 1168 micro Ah cm-2 μm-1 has been measured reproducibly for the film deposited at 500°C with columnar morphology. Further, high rate capability is observed when cycled at different current densities. The Co3O4 electrode with columnar structure has a specific capacity 38% higher than the electrode with spherical microstructure (grown at 450°C). Impedance measurements on the Co3O4 electrode grown at 500 °C also carried out to study the kinetics of the electrode process.

  1. Materials Analysis of CED Nb Films Being Coated on Bulk Nb Single Cell SRF Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xin; Reece, Charles; Palczewski, Ari; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Krishnan, Mahadevan; James, Colt; Irfan, Irfan

    2013-09-01

    This study is an on-going research on depositing a Nb film on the internal wall of bulk Nb single cell SRF cavities, via a cathodic arc Nb plasma ions source, an coaxial energetic condensation (CED) facility at AASC company. The motivation is to firstly create a homoepitaxy-like Nb/Nb film in a scale of a ~1.5GHz RF single cell cavity. Next, through SRF measurement and materials analysis, it might reveal the baseline properties of the CED-type homoepitaxy Nb films. Literally, a top-surface layer of Nb films which sustains SRF function, always grows up in homo-epitaxy mode, on top of a Nb nucleation layer. Homo-epitaxy growth of Nb must be the final stage (a crystal thickening process) of any coatings of Nb film on alternative cavity structure materials. Such knowledge of Nb-Nb homo-epitaxy is useful to create future realistic SRF cavity film coatings, such as hetero-epitaxy Nb/Cu Films, or template-layer-mitigated Nb films. One large-grain, and three fine grain bulk Nb cavities were coated. They went through cryogenic RF measurement. Preliminary results show that the Q0 of a Nb film could be as same as the pre-coated bulk Nb surface (which received a chemically-buffered polishing plus a light electro-polishing); but quality factor of two tested cavities dropped quickly. We are investigating if the severe Q-slope is caused by hydrogen incorporation before deposition, or is determined by some structural defects during Nb film growth.

  2. Noninvasive thickness measurements of metal films through microwave dielectric resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Ho Sang; Lee, Jae Hun; Han, Hyun Kyung; Lee, Sang Young

    2016-05-01

    Thicknesses of Pt films ranging from 60 to 950 nm are measured noninvasively using a TE 011-mode dielectric resonator with the resonant frequency of 8.5 - 9.8 GHz at temperatures of 77 K and 293 K. A cylindrical rutile rod is used as the dielectric, with a high- T C superconductive YBa2Cu3O7- δ film used as the bottom endplate of the resonator for measurements at 77 K. This method is based on two facts: i) Due to the electromagnetic interferences of incoming and reflected waves at the surface of the metal film surface, the effective surface resistance varies with the film thickness, and ii) the intrinsic surface resistance of normal metals is equal to the intrinsic surface reactance in the local limit. The measured thicknesses using the rutile resonator appear to be comparable with those obtained using a profilometer. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. Optical reflectivity improvement by upgrading metallic glass film quality

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W. H.; Hsu, J. H.; Huang, J. C.

    2013-10-14

    The effects of atomic-defect and free-volume amounts of metallic glassy film on the optical reflectivity and mechanical properties of the sputtered metallic glass thin films are explored. With a lower Ar working pressure and the proper post-annealing at temperatures slightly lower than the glass-transition temperature T{sub g}, film free volumes and defects would reduce, resulting in better atomic bonding and higher film hardness/modulus, which in turn leads to lower electric resistivity and higher optical reflectivity. Annealing above T{sub g} would induce crystalline structure which would lead to competition with the optical transition of the Drude free electrons and hinder the optical reflectivity in the visible range.

  4. Optical reflectivity improvement by upgrading metallic glass film quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W. H.; Hsu, J. H.; Huang, J. C.

    2013-10-01

    The effects of atomic-defect and free-volume amounts of metallic glassy film on the optical reflectivity and mechanical properties of the sputtered metallic glass thin films are explored. With a lower Ar working pressure and the proper post-annealing at temperatures slightly lower than the glass-transition temperature Tg, film free volumes and defects would reduce, resulting in better atomic bonding and higher film hardness/modulus, which in turn leads to lower electric resistivity and higher optical reflectivity. Annealing above Tg would induce crystalline structure which would lead to competition with the optical transition of the Drude free electrons and hinder the optical reflectivity in the visible range.

  5. A comparative study of the morphology of flow and spin coated P3HT:PCBM films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapa, Jose; Karim, Alamgir

    2013-03-01

    Polymer solar cells are attractive due to the possibility of using cheaper materials and processing techniques for mass production of solar panels. Previous methods of fabricating polymer solar cells are suitable in laboratory conditions but are not scalable for industrial production. In this study, thin films of the photoactive blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) were prepared by flow coating, which is suitable for industrial manufacturing of solar cells. P3HT:PCBM blends were cast from different solvents, and the morphology of flow coated and spin coated films was compared. The surface morphology and optical properties of P3HT:PCBM films were characterized with optical microscopy, AFM, and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The degree of P3HT order was higher in flow coated films, as compared to spin coated films. Films flow coated using chloroform solutions had a higher thermal stability and an enhanced degree of phase separation as compared to spin coated films. Flow coated films from chlorobenzene solutions had a lower thermal stability and a smaller length scale of phase separation. This study demonstrates that flow coating is a suitable alternative technique for fabricating polymer solar cells. Work supported by U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract DE- AC02-98CH10886

  6. Applications of edible films and coatings to processed foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible coatings have been successfully applied in processed foods such as meat, cereals, confectionaries, dried fruits, nuts and fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. These coatings are used to improve the quality and shelf-life of foods. Furthermore, different food ingredients, derived from ...

  7. Ceramic plasma-sprayed coating of melting crucibles for casting metal fuel slugs

    SciTech Connect

    K.H. Kim; C.T. Lee; C.B. Lee; R.S. Fielding; J.R. Kennedy

    2013-10-01

    Thermal cycling and melt reaction studies of ceramic coatings plasma-sprayed on Nb substrates were carried out to evaluate the performance of barrier coatings for metallic fuel casting applications. Thermal cycling tests of the ceramic plasma-sprayed coatings to 1450 degrees C showed that HfN, TiC, ZrC, and Y2O3 coating had good cycling characteristics with few interconnected cracks even after 20 cycles. Interaction studies by 1550 degrees C melt dipping tests of the plasma-sprayed coatings also indicated that HfN and Y2O3 do not form significant reaction layer between U–20 wt.% Zr melt and the coating layer. Plasma-sprayed Y2O3 coating exhibited the most promising characteristics among HfN, TiC, ZrC, and Y2O3 coating.

  8. Nickel coated flyash (Ni-FAC) cenosphere doped polyaniline composite film for electromagnetic shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bora, Pritom J.; Vinoy, K. J.; Ramamurthy, Praveen C.; Kishore; Madras, Giridhar

    2015-03-01

    A solid waste material fly ash cenosphere (FAC) was nickel coated and polyaniline in situ polymerized at -30 ± 2 °C in nitrogen atmosphere. A thin film of this composite material was prepared by solution processing and surface morphology/topography was studied. High electromagnetic shielding effectiveness (SE) was obtained for this film; 59 ± 4 μm and 133 ± 4 μm films show an average of 38 and 60 dB SE, respectively, in the frequency range 8.2-12.4 GHz (X-band). Unlike PANI film, the SE of these composite films is high at high frequency. The presence of magneto dielectric microsphere (Ni-FAC) increases the heterogeneity of the composite film in an efficient way for EMI shielding by changing film topography and increasing ac conductivity and permeability.

  9. Nanocomposites biodegradable coating on BOPET films to enhance hot seal strength properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbaro, G.; Galdi, M. R.; Di Maio, L.; Incarnato, L.

    2015-12-01

    The coating technology is a strategic solution to improve the properties of flexible packaging films. Indeed, additional functional layers are often designed and added as coating on the substrate, in order to improve the characteristic of the flexible packaging and to meet the requirements for the desired gas or vapour barrier, for adhesion and sealing, or for improving the film printability, its aesthetics and durability. Moreover, this technology allows to functionalize a polymeric substrate applying materials with different chemistry, rheology, thermal and structural characteristics. BOPET films are widely used for food packaging applications thanks to their good gas barrier and mechanical properties, high transparency and for the excellent printability. In regard to sealing performance, BOPET films show poor sealing properties so they are mostly submitted to lamination processes with polyethylene. Nevertheless, this solution compromises the PET recyclability and influences the gas permeability of the multilayer PET based structures. The aim of this work is to investigate on the effect of nanocomposite biodegradable coatings for BOPET substrates in enhancing the heat sealing strength of eco-compatible PET/PLA films. At this regards, different percentages of Cloisite C30B (0%, 2% and 4%wt/wt) have been added to PLA by solution intercalation technique and the nanocomposite biodegradable materials produced have been applied on BOPET commercial films by casting. The BOPET coated films have been characterized in order to evaluate the heat sealing strength and the mechanical, gas permeability and surface properties. The results have shown that the addition of nanoclay in PLA coating significantly enhance the hot tack properties of the PET/PLA system produced, while the oxygen and water vapour permeability are slightly increased if compared to pure BOPET films.

  10. Surface characteristics of a self-polymerized dopamine coating deposited on hydrophobic polymer films.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jinhong; Zhu, Liping; Zhu, Lijing; Zhu, Baoku; Xu, Youyi

    2011-12-01

    This study aims to explore the fundamental surface characteristics of polydopamine (pDA)-coated hydrophobic polymer films. A poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) film was surface modified by dip coating in an aqueous solution of dopamine on the basis of its self-polymerization and strong adhesion feature. The self-polymerization and deposition rates of dopamine on film surfaces increased with increasing temperature as evaluated by both spectroscopic ellipsometry and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Changes in the surface morphologies of pDA-coated films as well as the size and shape of pDA particles in the solution were also investigated by SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The surface roughness and surface free energy of pDA-modified films were mainly affected by the reaction temperature and showed only a slight dependence on the reaction time and concentration of the dopamine solution. Additionally, three other typical hydrophobic polymer films of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and polyimide (PI) were also modified by the same procedure. The lyophilicity (liquid affinity) and surface free energy of these polymer films were enhanced significantly after being coated with pDA, as were those of PVDF films. It is indicated that the deposition behavior of pDA is not strongly dependent on the nature of the substrates. This information provides us with not only a better understanding of biologically inspired surface chemistry for pDA coatings but also effective strategies for exploiting the properties of dopamine to create novel functional polymer materials. PMID:22011109

  11. Insights on Capacitive Interdigitated Electrodes Coated with MOF Thin Films: Humidity and VOCs Sensing as a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Sapsanis, Christos; Omran, Hesham; Chernikova, Valeriya; Shekhah, Osama; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Buttner, Ulrich; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Salama, Khaled N

    2015-01-01

    A prototypical metal-organic framework (MOF), a 2D periodic porous structure based on the assembly of copper ions and benzene dicarboxylate (bdc) ligands (Cu(bdc)·xH2O), was grown successfully as a thin film on interdigitated electrodes (IDEs). IDEs have been used for achieving planar CMOS-compatible low-cost capacitive sensing structures for the detection of humidity and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Accordingly, the resultant IDEs coated with the Cu(bdc)·xH2O thin film was evaluated, for the first time, as a capacitive sensor for gas sensing applications. A fully automated setup, using LabVIEW interfaces to experiment conduction and data acquisition, was developed in order to measure the associated gas sensing performance. PMID:26213943

  12. Insights on Capacitive Interdigitated Electrodes Coated with MOF Thin Films: Humidity and VOCs Sensing as a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Sapsanis, Christos; Omran, Hesham; Chernikova, Valeriya; Shekhah, Osama; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Buttner, Ulrich; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Salama, Khaled N.

    2015-01-01

    A prototypical metal-organic framework (MOF), a 2D periodic porous structure based on the assembly of copper ions and benzene dicarboxylate (bdc) ligands (Cu(bdc)·xH2O), was grown successfully as a thin film on interdigitated electrodes (IDEs). IDEs have been used for achieving planar CMOS-compatible low-cost capacitive sensing structures for the detection of humidity and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Accordingly, the resultant IDEs coated with the Cu(bdc)·xH2O thin film was evaluated, for the first time, as a capacitive sensor for gas sensing applications. A fully automated setup, using LabVIEW interfaces to experiment conduction and data acquisition, was developed in order to measure the associated gas sensing performance. PMID:26213943

  13. Indium tin oxide films prepared by atmospheric plasma annealing and their semiconductor-metal conductivity transition around room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yali; Li, Chunyang; He, Deyan; Li, Junshuai

    2009-05-01

    We report the synthesis of indium tin oxide (ITO) films using the atmospheric plasma annealing (APA) technique combined with the spin-coating method. The ITO film with a low resistivity of ~4.6 × 10-4 Ω cm and a high visible light transmittance, above 85%, was achieved. Hall measurement indicates that compared with the optimized ITO films deposited by magnetron sputtering, the above-mentioned ITO film has a higher carrier concentration of ~1.21 × 1021 cm-3 and a lower mobility of ~11.4 cm2 V-1 s-1. More interestingly, these electrical characteristics result in the semiconductor-metal conductivity transition around room temperature for the ITO films prepared by APA.

  14. Development of MgO-C Refractory Having High Oxidation Resistance by Metal Coating Process.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Hee; Cho, Geon-Ho; Lim, Hyung-Tea; Byeun, Yun-Ki; Jung, Yeon-Gil

    2015-01-01

    Graphite has been modified with a coating reagent, which can form coating layer of a metal on the surface of graphite, to effectively prevent the oxidation of graphite used as a carbon source, compared to common antioxidants. The oxidation of graphite is resisted by the high oxidation reactivity of metal and the oxygen barrier effect of coating layer. Therefore, the metal layer should be homogeneously and continuously coated on the surface of graphite and the coating efficiency of metal should be increased. The metal layer was formed with a metal precursor existed only with a ion phase in an aqueous solution. The unmodified graphite was totally degraded and oxidized after the combustion test at 1000 degrees C in air. However, as graphite was modified by the metal precursor, the color of carbon was not changed after the heat treatment. These results mean that the coating layer is individually and uniformly formed on a surface of graphite, delaying the oxidation of graphite. Consequently, MgO-C refractory with the high oxidation resistance could be successfully fabricated by the modification of graphite with the metal precursor. PMID:26328392

  15. Trace metal ion partitioning at polymer film-metal oxide interfaces: long-period X-ray standing wave study.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Tae Hyun; Trainor, Thomas P; Eng, Peter J; Bargar, John R; Brown, Gordon E

    2005-05-10

    The distributions of Pb(II) and As(V)O4(3-) ions in the interfacial region between thin poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) coatings and aalpha-A12O3(0001), alpha-Al2O3(1-102), and alpha-Fe2O3(0001) single-crystal substrates were studied using long-period X-ray standing wave fluorescent yield (XSW-FY) and X-ray reflectivity techniques. The PAA film serves as a simplified analogue of natural organic matter (NOM) coatings on mineral surfaces. Such coatings are often assumed to play an important role in the partitioning and speciation of trace heavy metals in soils and aquatic systems. On the alpha-Al2O3(1-102) surface, Pb(II) ions were found to preferentially bind to the PAA coating, even at sub-micromolar Pb(II) concentrations, and to partition increasingly onto the metal oxide surface as the Pb(II) concentration was increased ([Pb(II)] = 5 x 10(-8) to 2 x 10(-5) M, pH = 4.5; 0.01 M NaCl background electrolyte). This observation suggests that the binding sites in the PAA coating outcompete those on the alpha-Al2O3(1-102) surface for Pb(II) under these conditions. The As(V)O4(3-) oxoanion partitions preferentially to the L-Al2O3(1-102) surface for the As(V)O4(3-) concentrations examined (1 x 10(-7) to 5 x 10(-7) M, pH = 4.5; 0.01 M NaCl background electrolyte). Partitioning of Pb(II) (at 1 x 10(-7) M and pH 4.5) was also examined at PAA/alpha-Al2O3(0001), and PAA/alpha-Fe2O3(0001) interfaces using XSW-FY measurements. Our results show that the PAA coating was the dominant sink for Pb(II) in all three samples; however, the relative order of reactivity of these metal oxide surfaces with respect to Pb(II) sorption is alpha-Fe2O3(0001) > alpha-Al2O3(1-102) > alpha-Al2O3(0001). This order is consistent with that found in previous studies of the PAA-free surfaces. These XSW results strongly suggest that the characteristics of the organic film (i.e., binding affinity, type, and density of binding sites) as well as metal oxide substrate reactivity are key factors determining the distribution and speciation of Pb(II) and As(V)O4(3-) at organic film/metal oxide interfaces. PMID:16032866

  16. Growth of CdS thin films on indium coated glass substrates via chemical bath deposition and subsequent air annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Biswajit; Kumar, Kamlesh; Singh, Balwant Kr; Banerjee, Pushan; Das, Subrata

    2014-11-01

    In the present work attempts were made to synthesize indium doped CdS films by fabricating In/CdS bilayers using CBD-CdS on vacuum evaporated In thin films and subsequent air annealing. 135 nm CdS films were grown onto 20 nm and 35 nm indium coated glass substrate employing chemical bath deposition technique. The In/CdS bilayers thus formed were subjected to heat treatment at the temperatures between 200 and 400 °C for 4 min in the muffle furnace to facilitate indium to diffuse into the CdS films. XRD pattern ascertained no noticeable shift in lattice constant implying grain boundary metal segregation, while secondary ion mass spectrometry indicated the diffusion profile of indium into CdS matrices. Mass spectrometry results showed that substantial diffusion of indium had been taken place within CdS at 400 °C. Dark and photocurrent with different illumination time were measured to ascertain the photosensitivity of pure and composite CdS films.

  17. Biocompatibility of polymer-coated oversized metallic stents implanted in normal porcine coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    De Scheerder, I K; Wilczek, K L; Verbeken, E V; Vandorpe, J; Lan, P N; Schacht, E; De Geest, H; Piessens, J

    1995-04-01

    Polymer coatings have been suggested to decrease the thrombogenicity of metallic intravascular stents. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the intimal response to two different polymers when used as coatings for stents implanted in normal porcine coronary arteries. Non-articulated stainless steel-slotted tube stents were coated with either a biodegradable poly(organo)phosphazene with amino-acid ester side groups or a biostable polyurethane prepared from an amphiphilic polyether, dephenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate and butane diol as chain extender. In order to induce vascular wall injury, the stents were deployed using an oversized balloon. At 6 weeks follow-up, the angiographic luminal diameter measured in four polyurethane-coated stents and in six bare metallic stents was similar and 20% less than immediately post-stenting. However, in four polyphosphazene-coated stents the difference was 65% (P = 0.01 when compared to bare metal). At post-mortem morphometry the degree of luminal area stenosis was also similar in polyurethane-coated and in bare metallic stents (32 +/- 7.6% vs. 39 +/- 14%, NS) but reached 81 +/- 19% in polyphosphazene-coated stents (P < 0.03 when compared to bare metal). Thus, poly(organo)phosphazene induced a more pronounced histiolymphocytic and fibromuscular reaction than amphiphilic polyurethane, which appeared to be promising as biocompatible stent coating and, consequently, as a potential carrier for vasoactive drugs. PMID:7605369

  18. How many electrons make a semiconductor nanocrystal film metallic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reich, Konstantin; Chen, Ting; Kramer, Nicolaas; Fu, Han; Kortshagen, Uwe; Shklovskii, Boris

    For films of semiconductor nanocrystals to achieve their potential as novel, low-cost electronic materials, a better understanding of their doping to tune their conductivity is required. So far, it not known how many dopants will turn a nanocrystal film from semiconducting to metallic. In bulk semiconductors, the critical concentration nM of electrons at the metal-insulator transition is described by the famous Mott criterion: nMaB3 ~= 0 . 02 , where aB is the effective Bohr radius. We show theoretically that in a dense NC film, where NCs touch each other by small facets, the concentration of electrons nc >>nM at the metal-insulator transition satisfies the condition: ncρ3 ~= 0 . 3 , where ρ is a radius of contact facets. In the accompanying experiments, we investigate the conduction mechanism in films of phosphorus-doped, ligand-free silicon nanocrystals. At the largest electron concentration achieved in our samples, which is half the predicted nc, we find that the localization length of hopping electrons is close to three times the nanocrystals diameter, indicating that the film approaches the metal-insulator transition. This work was supported primarily by the National Science Foundation through the University of Minnesota MRSEC under Award No. DMR-1420013.

  19. UV laser deposition of metal films by photogenerated free radicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, R. K.; Mantei, T. D.

    1986-01-01

    A novel photochemical method for liquid-phase deposition of metal films is described. In the liquid phase deposition scheme, a metal containing compound and a metal-metal bonded carbonyl complex are dissolved together in a polar solvent and the mixture is irradiated using a UV laser. The optical arrangement consists of a HeCd laser which provides 7 mW of power at a wavelength of 325 nm in the TEM(OO) mode. The beam is attenuated and may be expanded to a diameter of 5-20 mm. Experiments with photochemical deposition of silver films onto glass and quartz substrates are described in detail. Mass spectrometric analysis of deposited silver films indicated a deposition rate of about 1 A/s at incident power levels of 0.01 W/sq cm. UV laser-induced copper and palladium films have also been obtained. A black and white photograph showing the silver Van Der Pauw pattern of a solution-deposited film is provided.

  20. Chemical vapor deposition of ceramic coatings on metals and ceramic fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nable, Jun Co

    2005-07-01

    The research presented in this study consists of two major parts. The first part is about the development of ceramic coatings on metals by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Ceramics such as Al2O3 and Cr2O3, are used as protective coatings for materials used at elevated temperatures (>700°C). These metal oxides either exhibit oxidation resistance or have been used as environmental bond coats. Conventional methods of coating by chemical vapor deposition requires deposition temperatures of >950°C which could damage the substrate material during the coating process. Lower deposition temperatures (400 to 600°C) by MOCVD of these metal oxides were successful on Ni metal substrates. Surface modification such as pre-oxidation and etching were also investigated. In addition, a novel approach for the CVD of TiN on metals was developed. This new approach utilizes ambient pressure conditions which lead to deposition temperatures of 800°C or lower compared to conventional CVD of TiN at 1000°C. Titanium nitride can be used as an abrasive and wear coating on cutting and grinding tools. This nitride can also serve as a diffusion coating in metals. The second major part of this research involves the synthesis of interfacial coatings on ceramic reinforcing fibers for ceramic matrix composites. Aluminum and chromium oxides were deposited onto SiC, and Al2O3-SiO 2 fibers by MOCVD. The effects of the interface coatings on the tensile strength of ceramic fibers are also discussed. New duplex interface coatings consisting of BN or TiN together with Al2O3 or ZrO 2 were also successfully deposited and evaluated on SiC fibers.