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1

Metal Film Coatings on Amorphous Metallic Alloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fe-metalloid amorphous metallic alloy ribbons, when properly annealed in a transverse magnetic field, exhibit extremely high magnetomechanical coupling. Other amorphous metallic alloys (or glassy metals) have desirable properties such as high strength, co...

L. Kabacoff

1989-01-01

2

Polystyrene film-coated glassware: a new means of reducing metal losses in trace metal speciation.  

PubMed

A recently developed process for coating a glass surface with polystyrene (PS) film, by use of a simple chemical process has been used to reduce trace metal adsorption by cell components. The glass coating is a two-step procedure consisting of covalent attachment of vinyl-terminated PS to Si atoms on the glass surface then adsorption of PS from solution to create a stable PS film. To assess the quality of the coating we used anodic stripping voltammetry to study the adsorption of lead and cadmium ions in coated and untreated glass cells. In both short and long-term (24 h) experiments we observed that the amount of metal adsorbed was considerably less for the PS film-coated glass cell than for the uncoated cell. Further experiments showed that metal desorption is faster and metal contamination after cleaning is significantly lower for the coated cells. The PS film was, moreover, stable over a period of 6 months within the pH range 3.5-9. PMID:15568138

Pinheiro, José Paulo; Bosker, Wouter

2004-11-26

3

Localization of folds and cracks in thin metal films coated on flexible elastomer foams.  

PubMed

Thin metal films coated on soft elastomeric foam substrates exhibit enhanced electromechanical performance. The open-cell foam structure conveys highly anisotropic mechanical properties within the top, thin capping elastomer at the surface of the foam. Upon stretching, large strain fields inducing cracks and folds localize above the foam cells, while the surrounding cell ligaments remain almost strain-free, enabling stable electrical conduction in the metallic coating. PMID:23629920

Vandeparre, Hugues; Liu, Qihan; Minev, Ivan R; Suo, Zhigang; Lacour, Stéphanie P

2013-04-30

4

Comparison of Properties of Diamond Nanowhiskers Obtained by Etching Diamond Films with Different Metal Coatings in Radio Frequency Plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of diamond nanowhiskers fabricated from uncoated and oxidizable metals coated diamond film surfaces were compared. Whiskers with average diameter of 50 nm were obtained from all of samples. Iron was found to be the easiest etching metal among the metals used. Metal coatings reduce the number density of whiskers and inhibit etching rate as masks. The lowest density

Chaoyang Li; Akimitsu Hatta

2006-01-01

5

Field emission characteristics of thin-metal-coated nano-sheet carbon films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nano-sheet carbon films (NSCFs) coated with very thin (?5-nm-thick) metal layers were fabricated on Si wafer chips by means of quartz-tube-type microwave-plasma chemical-vapour-deposition method with hydrogen-methane gas mixture and an electron beam evaporation method. Field emission (FE) current densities obtained at a macroscopic average electric field, E, of ?10 V/?m changed from 13 mA/cm 2 for NSCF with no coated metal to 1.7, 0.7 and 30 mA/cm 2 for Ti-, Al- and Au-coated NSCFs, respectively, while the threshold E varied from 4.4 V/?m for the former one to 5.3, 5.4 and 2.0 V/?m for the corresponding latter ones, respectively. As the FE currents of Au-coated NSCFs tended to be saturated in a higher E region, compared to those of NSCFs with no coated metal, no simple Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) model is applicable. A modified F-N model considering statistic effects of the FE tip structures and a space-charge-limited-current effect is successfully applied to an explanation for the FE data observed in the low and high E regions.

Gu, Guang-Rui; Ito, Toshimichi

2011-01-01

6

Significant influences of metal reactivity and oxide films at particle surfaces on coating microstructure in cold spraying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on large amount of experimental observations, the effects of metal reactivity and oxide films at particle surfaces on coating deposition behavior in cold spraying were presented and discussed. The oxygen contents in as-sprayed Ti, Ti 6Al 4V and Al coatings were higher than those in the corresponding starting powders. The obvious flashing jets outside nozzle exit during deposition of

W.-Y. Li; C. Zhang; H.-T. Wang; X. P. Guo; H. L. Liao; C.-J. Li; C. Coddet

2007-01-01

7

Morphology and Optical Properties of Zinc Oxide Films Grown on Metal Coated Glass Substrates by Aqueous Chemical Growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc oxide films were deposited on three different metal coated substrates (gold, nickel and platinum) by aqueous chemical growth method. This paper discusses the effect of metal coated substrates on the morphology and optical properties of grown ZnO films. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) were employed to characterize the samples. All the as-deposited ZnO films exhibit crystalline hexagonal wurzite structure. The crystallite size of the ZnO films were in the range of 29 to 32 nm. FESEM micrographs revealed hexagonal rod, oval-like and flower-like ZnO structures formed on all metal coated substrates. The Pt coated film contains higher density hexagonal rod as compared to others metal coated substrate. Most probably the Pt lattice parameter is the nearest to ZnO compared to nickel and gold. The optical band gap energy, Eg of ZnO films were estimated to be 3.30 eV which is near to bulk Eg, 3.37 eV. This indicates that the ZnO grown by aqueous chemical growth is able to produce similar quality properties to other conventional method either films or bulk size.

Bakar, M. A.; Hamid, M. A. A.; Jalar, A.; Shamsudin, R.

2013-04-01

8

Water Vapor Permeation of Metal Oxide\\/Polymer Coated Plastic Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barrier performance to water vapor permeation of ceramic coated layers deposited on flexible polymer films is of great interest to food packaging, medical device packaging and flat panel display industries. In this study, a new type film in which a ceramic layer is deposited on a polymer coated film was proposed for lower water vapor permeation. It is important how

Yukihiro Numata; Toshiyuki Oya; Mitsuru Kuwahara; Katsuya Ito

2010-01-01

9

Significant influences of metal reactivity and oxide films at particle surfaces on coating microstructure in cold spraying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on large amount of experimental observations, the effects of metal reactivity and oxide films at particle surfaces on coating deposition behavior in cold spraying were presented and discussed. The oxygen contents in as-sprayed Ti, Ti–6Al–4V and Al coatings were higher than those in the corresponding starting powders. The obvious flashing jets outside nozzle exit during deposition of Ti and

W.-Y. Li; C. Zhang; H.-T. Wang; X. P. Guo; H. L. Liao; C.-J. Li; C. Coddet

2007-01-01

10

Characteristics of surface photorefractive waves in a nonlinear SBN-75 crystal coated with a metal film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the calculation of the electrostatic field potential of space charges, we have analysed the characteristic features of light-induced scattering of extraordinary polarised light in photorefractive (PR) crystals (for example, an SBN-75 crystal). Using the method of images, the electrostatic field is analysed for surface (aperiodic) waves along the crystal - dielectric (air) interface. It is shown that the field distributions satisfying the boundary conditions can emerge only upon accumulation of a screening electric charge in a narrow transition layer of thickness ~1 mm, the sign of the charge being opposite that of the space charge in the illuminated region of the crystal. A model is proposed to explain the observed features of the surface PR waves in a metal-film coated PR crystal. In considering the contact potential difference at the PR crystal - film interface it is shown that in the crystal layer (adjacent to the film) enriched with charge carriers, i.e., electrons, the refractive index can be significantly reduced. In the case of small excitation angles (0 - 1.5°), this layer can act as an optical barrier, the reflection from which can result in near-surface waves; a characteristic difference from the previously observed oscillatory surface waves is the presence of a broadened intensity distribution shifted inside the crystal.

Nurligareev, D. Kh; Usievich, B. A.; Sychugov, V. A.; Ivleva, Lyudmila I.

2013-01-01

11

Dynamic Mechanical Behaviour of Thin Metal-Layer Coated Polyethylene Terephthalate Films under Torsional Oscillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Co-Cr or Ni thin layers were deposited on both sides of a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film by sputtering. Complex rigidity moduli of these films were measured by a torsional oscillation method under a load of 6.8× 105 Pa between room temperature and 200°C. The real and imaginary parts of the complex moduli of the coated films were explainable, qualitatively, in

Isuke Ouchi; Takashi Tanaka

1993-01-01

12

Water Vapor Permeation of Metal Oxide/Polymer Coated Plastic Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barrier performance to water vapor permeation of ceramic coated layers deposited on flexible polymer films is of great interest to food packaging, medical device packaging and flat panel display industries. In this study, a new type film in which a ceramic layer is deposited on a polymer coated film was proposed for lower water vapor permeation. It is important how to control interfacial properties between each layer and film for good barrier performance. Several kinds of polymer coated materials were prepared for changing surface free energy of the films before and after depositing the ceramic layer. The ceramic layer, which is composed of mixed material of SiO2 and Al2O3, was adopted under the same conditions. The following results were obtained; 1) Water vapor permeation is not related to the surface energy of polymer coated films, 2) After depositing the ceramic layer, however, a strong correlation is observed between the water vapor permeation and surface free energy. 3) The phenomenon is considered that the polarity of the polymer layers plays a key role in changing the structure of ceramic coated layers.

Numata, Yukihiro; Oya, Toshiyuki; Kuwahara, Mitsuru; Ito, Katsuya

13

Thin-film metal coated insulation barrier in a Josephson tunnel junction. [Patent application  

DOEpatents

A highly stable, durable, and reproducible Josephson tunnel junction consists of a thin-film electrode of a hard superconductor, a thin oxide insulation layer over the electrode constituting a Josephson tunnel junction barrier, a thin-film layer of stabilizing metal over the barrier, and a second thin-film hard superconductive electrode over the stabilizing film. The thin stabilizing metal film is made only thick enough to limit penetration of the electrode material through the insulation layer so as to prevent a superconductive short.

Hawkins, G.A.; Clarke, J.

1975-10-31

14

Terahertz surface plasmons excitation by nonlinear mixing of lasers in over ultrathin metal film coated dielectric  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ultrathin metal film deposited on dielectric plate supports low loss THz surface plasma wave (SPW). The SPW field falls off away from the metal film both inside the dielectric as well as in free space. Two lasers normally incident, from free space on the planar structure, exert a difference frequency ponderomotive force on the free electrons of the film and resonantly excite THz SPW. The ratio of SPW amplitude to lasers is 10-3 at laser intensity of 3 × 1012 W/cm2 at 1 ? m wavelength. The growth rate falls monotonically because at higher frequency the coupling of SPW is weak.

Kumar, Pawan; Tripathi, V. K.

2013-08-01

15

Metallic coating of microspheres  

SciTech Connect

Extremely smooth, uniform metal coatings of micrometer thicknesses on microscopic glass spheres (microspheres) are often needed as targets for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. The first part of this paper reviews those methods used successfully to provide metal coated microspheres for ICF targets, including magnetron sputtering, electro- and electroless plating, and chemical vapor pyrolysis. The second part of this paper discusses some of the critical aspects of magnetron sputter coating of microspheres, including substrate requirements, the sticking of microspheres during coating (preventing a uniform coating), and the difficulties in growing the desired dense, smooth, uniform microstructure on continuously moving spherical substrates.

Meyer, S.F.

1980-08-15

16

Method of forming graded polymeric coatings or films  

DOEpatents

Very smooth polymeric coatings or films graded in atomic number and density can readily be formed by first preparing the coating or film from the desired monomeric material and then contacting it with a fluid containing a metal or a mixture of metals for a time sufficient for such metal or metals to sorb and diffuse into the coating or film. Metal resinate solutions are particularly advantageous for this purpose. A metallic coating can in turn be produced on the metal-loaded film or coating by exposing it to a low pressure plasma of air, oxygen, or nitrous oxide. The process permits a metallic coating to be formed on a heat sensitive substrate without the use of elevated temperatures.

Liepins, Raimond (Los Alamos, NM)

1983-01-01

17

Application of thin-film interference coatings in infrared reflection spectroscopy of organic samples in contact with thin metal films.  

PubMed

A thin dielectric IR-transparent interlayer is introduced between an IR-transparent medium of incidence and a thin metal film. The interlayer increases the intensity of light on the metal/sample interface at certain wavenumbers. By computations, the reflectivities of the system "calcium fluoride (CaF)-germanium (Ge)-gold (Au) sample" are analyzed as a function of incidence angle and Ge layer thickness. Absorbance spectra with acetonitrile as a sample are recorded for different angles of incidence and polarizations and compared to computations. A characteristic feature of the absorbance spectra is the occurrence of interference fringes distributed between 1000 and 6000?cm(-1), i.e., over the complete mid-IR wavelength range into the near-IR. These fringes could be used in analytical spectroscopy. PMID:21460955

Reithmeier, Martina; Erbe, Andreas

2011-03-20

18

Method of forming metallic coatings on polymeric substrates  

DOEpatents

Very smooth polymeric coatings or films graded in atomic number and density an readily be formed by first preparing the coating or film from the desired monomeric material and then contacting it with a fluid containing a metal or a mixture of metals for a time sufficient for such metal or metals to sorb and diffuse into the coating or film. Metal resinate solutions are particularly advantageous for this purpose. A metallic coating can in turn be produced on the metal-loaded film or coating by exposing it to a low pressure plasma of air, oxygen, or nitrous oxide. The process permits a metallic coating to be formed on a heat sensitive substrate without the use of elevated temperatures.

Liepins, Raimond (Los Alamos, NM)

1984-01-01

19

METAL COATING BATHS  

DOEpatents

A method is presented for restoring the effectiveness of bronze coating baths used for hot dip coating of uranium. Such baths, containing a high proportion of copper, lose their ability to wet uranium surfaces after a period of use. The ability of such a bath to wet uranium can be restored by adding a small amount of metallic aluminum to the bath, and skimming the resultant hard alloy from the surface.

Robinson, J.W.

1958-08-26

20

Carbonaceous film coating  

DOEpatents

A method of making a carbonaceous film comprising heating tris(1,3,2-benzodiazaborolo)borazine or dodecahydro tris(1,3,2)diazaborine(1,2-a:1'2'-c:1''2''-e)borazine in an inert atmosphere in the presence of a substrate to a temperature at which the borazine compound decomposes, and the decomposition products deposit onto the substrate to form a thin, tenacious, highly reflective conductive coating having a narrow band gap which is susceptible of modification and a relatively low coefficient of friction.

Maya, L.

1988-04-27

21

Carbonaceous film coating  

SciTech Connect

A method of making a carbonaceous film comprising heating tris(1,3,2-benzodiazaborolo)borazine or dodecahydro tris[1,3,2]diazaborine[1,2-a:1'2'-c:1"2"-e]borazine in an inert atmosphere in the presence of a substrate to a temperature at which the borazine compound decomposes, and the decomposition products deposit onto the substrate to form a thin, tenacious, highly reflective conductive coating having a narrow band gap which is susceptible of modification and a relatively low coefficient of friction.

Maya, Leon (Oak Ridge, TN)

1989-01-01

22

Thin film ion conducting coating  

DOEpatents

Durable thin film ion conducting coatings are formed on a transparent glass substrate by the controlled deposition of the mixed oxides of lithium:tantalum or lithium:niobium. The coatings provide durable ion transport sources for thin film solid state storage batteries and electrochromic energy conservation devices.

Goldner, Ronald B. (Lexington, MA); Haas, Terry (Sudbury, MA); Wong, Kwok-Keung (Watertown, MA); Seward, George (Arlington, MA)

1989-01-01

23

Increased in output power from fuel cell used metal bipolar plate coated with aC film  

Microsoft Academic Search

An amorphous carbon (a-C) film was coated on the bipolar plate of a fuel cell. This bipolar plate has a low contact resistance between its surface and the membrane electrode assay (MEA) which causes the inner resistance in the fuel cell to be decreased. Therefore, the output power of the fuel cell was increased from 1.3 W to 1.8 W as a

Yoshiyuki Show; Masanori Miki; Taichi Nakamura

2007-01-01

24

Polymer-assisted aqueous deposition of metal oxide films  

DOEpatents

An organic solvent-free process for deposition of metal oxide thin films is presented. The process includes aqueous solutions of necessary metal precursors and an aqueous solution of a water-soluble polymer. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is fired at high temperatures to yield optical quality metal oxide thin films.

Li, DeQuan (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM)

2003-07-08

25

Barrier Coatings for Refractory Metals and Superalloys  

SciTech Connect

In the closed working fluid loop of the proposed Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP), there is the potential for reaction of core and plant structural materials with gas phase impurities and gas phase transport of interstitial elements between superalloy and refractory metal alloy components during service. Primary concerns are surface oxidation, interstitial embrittlement of refractory metals and decarburization of superalloys. In parallel with kinetic investigations, this letter evaluates the ability of potential coatings to prevent or impede communication between reactor and plant components. Key coating requirements are identified and current technology coating materials are reviewed relative to these requirements. Candidate coatings are identified for future evaluation based on current knowledge of design parameters and anticipated environment. Coatings were identified for superalloys and refractory metals to provide diffusion barriers to interstitial transport and act as reactive barriers to potential oxidation. Due to their high stability at low oxygen potential, alumina formers are most promising for oxidation protection given the anticipated coolant gas chemistry. A sublayer of iridium is recommended to provide inherent diffusion resistance to interstitials. Based on specific base metal selection, a thin film substrate--coating interdiffusion barrier layer may be necessary to meet mission life.

SM Sabol; BT Randall; JD Edington; CJ Larkin; BJ Close

2006-02-23

26

Optimization of plasma parameters for high rate deposition of titanium nitride films as protective coating on bell-metal by reactive sputtering in cylindrical magnetron device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nano-structured titanium nitride (TiN) thin film coating is deposited by reactive sputtering in cylindrical magnetron device in argon and nitrogen gas mixtures at low temperature. This method of deposition using DC cylindrical magnetron configuration provides high uniform yield of film coating over large substrate area of different shapes desirous for various technological applications. The influence of nitrogen gas on the

Sankar Moni Borah; Arup Ratan Pal; Heremba Bailung; Joyanti Chutia

2008-01-01

27

Milk Proteins for Edible Films and Coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the recent increase in ecological consciousness, research has turned toward finding edible materials. Viable edible films and coatings have been produced using milk proteins. These films and coatings may retard moisture loss, are good oxygen barriers, show good tensile strength and moderate elongation, are flexible, and generally have no flavor or taste. Incorporation of lipids in protein films,

KHAOULA KHWALDIA; CRISTINA PEREZ; SYLVIE BANON; STÉPHANE DESOBRY; JOËL HARDY

2004-01-01

28

Role of edible film and coating additives  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Edible films and coatings have received increasing interest because films and coatings can carry a diversity of functional ingredients. Plasticizers, such as glycerol, acetylated monoglycerides, polyethylene glycol, and sucrose are often used to modify the mechanical properties of the film or coatin...

29

Study of two different thin film coating methods in transmission laser micro-joining of thin Ti-film coated glass and polyimide for biomedical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomedical devices and implants require precision joining for hermetic sealing which can be achieved with low power lasers. The effect of two different thin metal film coating methods was studied in transmission laser micro-joints of titanium-coated glass and polyimide. The coating methods were cathodic arc physical vapor deposition (CA-PVD) and electron beam evaporation (EB-PVD). Titanium-coated glass joined to polyimide film

T. Sultana; G. L. Georgiev; R. J. Baird; G. W. Auner; G. Newaz; R. Patwa; H. J. Herfurth

2009-01-01

30

Method of measuring metal coating adhesion  

DOEpatents

A method for measuring metal coating adhesion to a substrate material comprising the steps of preparing a test coupon of substrate material having the metal coating applied to one surface thereof, applying a second metal coating of gold or silver to opposite surfaces of the test coupon by hot hollow cathode process, applying a coating to one end of each of two pulling rod members, joining the coated ends of the pulling rod members to said opposite coated surfaces of the test coupon by a solid state bonding technique and finally applying instrumented static tensile loading to the pulling rod members until fracture of the metal coating adhesion to the substrate material occurs.

Roper, John R. (Northglenn, CO)

1985-01-01

31

Thin film-coated polymer webs  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to thin film-coated polymer webs, and more particularly to thin film electronic devices supported upon a polymer web, wherein the polymer web is treated with a purifying amount of electron beam radiation.

Wenz, Robert P. (Cottage Grove, MN); Weber, Michael F. (Shoreview, MN); Arudi, Ravindra L. (Woodbury, MN)

1992-02-04

32

Superconducting films made by spin-coating of acetate solutions  

SciTech Connect

Metallic silver substrates were spin-coated with several layers of mixed acetate solutions containing bismuth, lead, strontium, calcium, and copper. The viscosities of the cation solutions were modified by the addition of polyvinyl alcohol. The films were heat treated at various temperatures in air, O{sub 2}, and 1% O{sub 2} (balance N{sub 2}) atmospheres. Bismuth cuprate films with transport critical current densities {approx}500 A/cm{sup 2} were obtained in this work. New conditions of coating and sintering have been tried to produce superconducting films.

Balachandran, U.; Poeppel, R.B. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); dos Santos, D.I.; Carvalho, C.L.; da Silva, R.R.; Aegerter, M.A. (Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica e Quimica)

1990-12-01

33

Copper sulfide coated polysulfone films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modification of polysulfone surface was used to obtain effective interactions between an organic polymeric surface and an inorganic specie. A previous treatment of the polymer surface with modifiers is required in order to provide adherence. Our objective was the synthesis and the surface characterization of copper sulfide coated polysulfone (CuS PSf) films. SEM micrographs showed a homogeneous distribution of copper sulfide, which contributes to increasing electrical conductivity. X-ray analysis showed a decrease in copper sulfide particles (covellite porcelain) when compared with other polymeric composites prepared under similar conditions. The measured surface conductivity of the CuS PSf films was higher than those of other similar systems, ca. 800 S cm-1.

Kunita, M. H.; Rinaldi, A. W.; Girotto, E. M.; Radovanovic, E.; Muniz, E. C.; Rubira, A. F.

2006-03-01

34

STRIPPING METAL COATINGS  

DOEpatents

A method is described for removing aluminumuranium-silicon alloy bonded to metallic U comprising subjecting the Al-U -Si alloy to treatment with hot concentrated HNO/sun 3/ to partially dissolve and embrittle the alloy and shot- blasting the embrittled alloy to loosen it from the U.

Siefen, H.T.; Campbell, J.M.

1959-02-01

35

Method of coating metal surfaces to form protective metal coating thereon  

DOEpatents

A process is disclosed for forming a protective metal coating on a metal surface using a flux consisting of an alkali metal fluoride, an alkaline earth metal fluoride, an alkali metal fluoaluminate, an alkali metal fluosilicate, and mixtures thereof. The flux, in particulate form, is mixed with particles of a metal coating material which may comprise aluminum, chromium, mixtures thereof, and alloys containing at least 50 wt. % aluminum and the particulate mixture is applied to the metal surface in a single step, followed by heating the coated metal surface to a temperature sufficient to cause the metal coating material to react with the metal surface to form a protective reaction product in the form of a metal coating bonded to the metal surface. The metal surface which reacts with the metal coating material to form the protective coating may comprise Fe, Co, Ni, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Hf, Ta, W, Re and alloys thereof.

Krikorian, Oscar H. (Danville, CA); Curtis, Paul G. (Tracy, CA)

1992-01-01

36

Method of coating metal surfaces to form protective metal coating thereon  

DOEpatents

A process is disclosed for forming a protective metal coating on a metal surface using a flux consisting of an alkali metal fluoride, an alkaline earth metal fluoride, an alkali metal fluoaluminate, an alkali metal fluosilicate, and mixtures thereof. The flux, in particulate form, is mixed with particles of a metal coating material which may comprise aluminum, chromium, mixtures thereof, and alloys containing at least 50 wt. % aluminum and the particulate mixture is applied to the metal surface in a single step, followed by heating the coated metal surface to a temperature sufficient to cause the metal coating material to react with the metal surface to form a protective reaction product in the form of a metal coating bonded to the metal surface. The metal surface which reacts with the metal coating material to form the protective coating may comprise Fe, Co, Ni, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Hf, Ta, W, Re and alloys thereof. 1 figure.

Krikorian, O.H.; Curtis, P.G.

1992-03-31

37

Coated Metal Articles and Method of Making  

DOEpatents

The method of protectively coating metallic uranium which comprises dipping the metallic uranium in a molten alloy comprising about 20-75% of copper and about 80-25% of tin, dipping the coated uranium promptly into molten tin, withdrawing it from the molten tin and removing excess molten metal, thereupon dipping it into a molten metal bath comprising aluminum until it is coated with this metal, then promptly withdrawing it from the bath.

Boller, Ernest R.; Eubank, Lowell D.

2004-07-06

38

High rate DC-reactive sputter deposition of Y 2O 3 film on the textured metal substrate for the superconducting coated conductor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Y2O3 film was directly deposited on Ni-3at%W substrate by DC reactive sputtering. DC reactive sputtering was carried out using metallic Y target and water vapor for oxidizing the elements of metallic target on the substrate. The detailed conditions of DC reactive sputtering for depositions of Y2O3 films were investigated. The window of water vapor for proper growth of Y2O3 films

Ho-Sup Kim; Chan Park; Rock-Kil Ko; Dongqui Shi; Jun-Ki Chung; Hong-Soo Ha; Yu-Mi Park; Kyu-Jeong Song; Do-Jun Youm

2005-01-01

39

Suppression of vacuum breakdown using thin-film coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin-film metal and metal oxide coatings ion sputter deposited onto the cathode electrode of a parallel-plate high-voltage gap were found to suppress electron emission in high vacuum. Electric fields as high as 60 kV/mm have been sustained across a 1 mm for pulse durations of 10 microseconds. Lesser electric fields were sustained for pulse durations exceeding 10 ms. The behavior of 500 nm thich coatings was independent of the type of coating used, whereas the breakdown voltage for thinner coatings depended upon the material and the deposition conditions. The breakdown properties of various coatings, as well as a discussion of the suppression of electron emission is presented.

Mayberry, C. S.; Wroblewski, B.; Schamiloglu, E.; Fleddermann, C. B.

1994-10-01

40

Metal-dielectric composite optical coatings: underlying physics, main models, characterization, design and application aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metal island films are a matter of research in different branches of applied physics and technology. One possible future application field is their use as a substantial part of optical interference coatings, forming metal-dielectric composite multilayer coatings. This tutorial provides background on optical specifics of metal island films and ideas how these specifics could be exploited in coating technology. Consideration is given to effective optical constants of copper and silver island films, characterization methods and design strategies pursuing neutral density filters, asymmetric beamsplitters and decorative coating specifications.

Stenzel, Olaf; Macleod, Angus

2012-12-01

41

Corrosion protective coating for metallic materials  

DOEpatents

Corrosion protective coatings for metallic materials, particularly aluminum and aluminum alloys, produced with simple, low-cost equipment and materials other than toxic metals or metal salts, or metal cyanides. The metallic material is cleaned, degreased, and deoxidized, the surface is converted to a substantially alkaline condition, and the surface is chemically sealed with inorganic metal compounds.

Buchheit, Rudolph G. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01

42

Corrosion protective coating for metallic materials  

DOEpatents

Corrosion protective coatings for metallic materials, particularly aluminum and aluminum alloys, produced with simple, low-cost equipment and materials other than toxic metals or metal salts, or metal cyanides is disclosed. The metallic material is cleaned, degreased, and deoxidized, the surface is converted to a substantially alkaline condition, and the surface is chemically sealed with inorganic metal compounds. 1 fig.

Buchheit, R.G.; Martinez, M.A.

1998-05-26

43

Suppression of vacuum breakdown using thin-film coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin-film metal and metal oxide coatings ion sputter deposited onto the cathode electrode of a parallel-plate high-voltage gap were found to suppress electron emission in high vacuum. Electric fields as high as 60 kV\\/mm have been sustained across a 1 mm for pulse durations of 10 microseconds. Lesser electric fields were sustained for pulse durations exceeding 10 ms. The behavior

C. S. Mayberry; B. Wroblewski; E. Schamiloglu; C. B. Fleddermann

1994-01-01

44

Buffers for high temperature superconductor coatings. Low temperature growth of CeO 2 films by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition and their implementation as buffers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smooth, epitaxial cerium dioxide thin films have been grown in-situ in the 450–650°C temperature range on (001) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) using a new fluorine-free liquid Ce precursor. As assessed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM), the epitaxial films exhibit a columnar microstructure with atomically abrupt film-substrate interfaces

Anchuan Wang; John A. Belot; Tobin J. Marks; Paul R. Markworth; Robert P. H. Chang; Michael P. Chudzik; Carl R. Kannewurf

1999-01-01

45

Buffers for high temperature superconductor coatings. Low temperature growth of CeO2 films by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition and their implementation as buffers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smooth, epitaxial cerium dioxide thin films have been grown in-situ in the 450-650°C temperature range on (001) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) using a new fluorine-free liquid Ce precursor. As assessed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM), the epitaxial films exhibit a columnar microstructure with atomically abrupt film-substrate interfaces

A. Wang; J. A. Belot; T. J. Marks; P. R. Markworth; R. P. H. Chang; M. P. Chudzik; C. R. Kannewurf

1999-01-01

46

Nanostructured carbon coatings on polyethylene films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of medical low-density polyethylene films with carbon coatings improving the biological compatibility of the polymer were studied by electron and scanning atomic-force microscopy, as well as by IR, Raman, visible, and UV spectroscopy.

A. P. Alekhin; A. G. Kirilenko; R. I. Romanov; A. A. Sigarev

2003-01-01

47

Acoustoelectric effects in reflection of leaky acoustic waves from LiTaO3 crystal surface coated with metal film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The strong variations in amplitude and phase of leaky acoustic wave excited on one surface of YX lithium tantalate crystal plate and reflected from the opposite parallel surface have been observed during thermal evaporation of copper film onto the reflection surface. These variations are caused by the acoustoelectric interaction in the reflection region, and they are described in terms of surface acoustic wave velocity and attenuation dependence on the film sheet conductivity. The electromechanical coupling constant value of 5% has been extracted from amplitude measurements, and that of 4% from the phase measurements.

Rimeika, R.; Sereika, A.; ?iplys, D.

2011-01-01

48

Chiral thin films of metal oxide.  

PubMed

In this paper, we describe for the first time the synthesis of new chiral nanosized metal oxide surfaces based on chiral self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) coated with metal oxide (TiO2) nanolayers. In this new type of nanosize chiral surface, the metal oxide nanolayers enable the protection of the chiral self-assembled monolayers while preserving their enantioselective nature. The chiral nature of the SAM/TiO2 films was characterized by variety of unique techniques, such as second-harmonic generation circular dichroism (SHG-CD), quartz crystal microbalance, and chiral adsorption measurements with circular dichroism spectroscopy. The chiral resolution abilities of the SAMs coated with metal oxide (TiO2) nanolayers were investigated in the crystallization of a racemic mixture of threonine and glutamic acid. Our proposed methodology for the preparation of nanoscale chiral surfaces described in this article could open up opportunities in other fields of chemistry, such as chiral catalysis. PMID:23794366

Moshe, Hagay; Vanbel, Maarten; Valev, Ventsislav Kolev; Verbiest, Thierry; Dressler, David; Mastai, Yitzhak

2013-06-21

49

Tantalum films for protective coatings of steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deposition of tantalum films for protective coatings on steel by DC magnetron sputtering have been investigated. Conditions resulting in the deposition of bcc and tetragonal phases of tantalum and the evolution of the phase composition and crystallinity during the film growth from nanometers to tens of micrometers are described. Heating the substrates to only 400 °C resulted in the growth

Leszek Gladczuk; Anamika Patel; Charanjeet Singh Paur; Marek Sosnowski

2004-01-01

50

Vacuum properties of palladium thin film coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent development, carried out at CERN for particle accelerator applications, showed that a vacuum chamber coated with a thin getter film and then exposed to ambient air may be transformed into a pump by “in situ” heating at temperatures as low as 180°C.Heating activates the diffusion into the film of the oxygen present in the surface passivation layer. Repeated

C. Benvenuti; P. Chiggiato; F. Cicoira; Y. L’Aminot; V. Ruzinov

2004-01-01

51

Bearing Structures Fabricated from Arc Plasma Sprayed Layers Coated with Solid Film Lubricants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Multilayer bearing structures were fabricated by arc plasma spraying of selected metallic alloy powders of mild and hardened steel test blocks which were then coated with a dry film lubricant. Five different alloys were investigated, and the quality and a...

B. Roessler M. C. Narasiman

1982-01-01

52

Laser cutting of metallic coated sheet steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the laser-beam machining of metallic coated sheet steels such as ZINCALUME, ZINCANNEAL and GALVABOND of 1 mm thickness. These materials are essentially zinc and aluminium coatings of varying skin thickness on steel. The experimental work explores some methods for reducing thermal damage of the coatings vis-a-vis the parent\\/base metal which impose severe machining restrictions by virtue of

G. V. S Prasad; E Siores; W. C. K Wong

1998-01-01

53

Thick metal coating long-period fiber grating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports a thick nickel coating for CO2 laser-induced long- period fiber grating (LPFG) by an electrolesselectroplating method. The thickness of the metal coating is more than 150 micrometer. As well as affording effective protection, the thick metal coating can give the LPFG enough stiffness to overcome its cross-sensitivity between bend and other measurements. In our metallization, electroless Ni-P was deposited on a bare LPFG at 86°C. We observed degradation with broadened spectrum and lessened peak value after the LPFG was electroless plated and was cooled down to room temperature. The degradation may be caused by the new metal coating instead of air and stress. Degradation was also observed in the later electroplating nickel which was induced by the stress. The mechanisms of the stress, such as thermal stress, film growing, hydrogen, and excess energy, were studied. To reduce the degradation, we took optimal plating, such as reducing the cooling speed after electroless plating, higher and stable electroplating temperature, mixing timely and proper electrodes distribution. Under the optimal condition, we got a metallized LPFG whose 3-dB bandwidth was 3.942nm, peak loss was -15.389dB, resonant wavelength was 1547.354nm, and external diameter was 0.425mm. Following temperature sensor experiments showed the metal coated LPFG presented high temperature sensitivity from 10°C to 80°C. Its temperature sensitivity was 44.9 pm/°C, and R-square was 0.9977.

Rao, Chunfang; Zhang, Hua; Feng, Yan; Xiao, Lili; Ye, Zhiqing

2012-10-01

54

Thin film optical coatings. I - Optical coating stabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following a short mathematical recapitulation of thin film theory, the stability of a coating is defined with respect to the optical thickness of each layer or with respect to wavelength. The first and second derivatives of the reflection factor are calculated, and these results are applied to practical examples.

Jacques Mouchart

1977-01-01

55

Infiltration processing of metal matrix composites using coated ceramic particulates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new process was developed to fabricate particulate metal matrix composites (MMCs). The process involves three steps: (1) modifying the particulate surface by metal coating, (2) forming a particulate porous compact; and (3) introducing metal into the channel network by vacuum infiltration. MMCs with different reinforcements, volume fractions, and sizes can be produced by this technique. Powders of alumina and silicon carbide were successfully coated with nickel and copper in preparation for infiltration with molten aluminum. Electroless Ni and Cu deposition was used since it enhances the wettability of the reinforcements for composite fabrication. While Cu deposits were polycrystalline, traces of phosphorous co-deposited from the electroless bath gave an amorphous Ni-P coating. The effect of metal coating on wetting behavior was evaluated at 800°C on plain and metal-coated ceramic plates using a sessile drop technique. The metallic films eliminated the non-wetting behavior of the uncoated ceramics, leading to equilibrium contact angles in the order of 12° and below 58° for Ni and Cu coated ceramics, respectively. The spreading data indicated that local diffusion at the triple junction was the governing mechanism of the wetting process. Precipitation of intermetallic phases in the drop/ceramic interface delayed the formation of Al4C3. Infiltration with molten Al showed that the coated-particulates are suitable as reinforcing materials for fabricating MMCs, giving porosity-free components with a homogeneously distributed reinforcing phase. The coating promoted easy metal flow through the preform, compared to the non-infiltration behavior of the uncoated counterparts. Liquid state diffusion kinetics due to temperature dependent viscosity forces controlled the infiltration process. Microstructural analysis indicated the formation of intermetallic phases such as CuAl 2, in the case of Cu coating, and Ni2Al3 and NiAl 3 when Ni-coated powders were infiltrated. The overall Ni and Cu content increased from bottom to top of the samples due to dissolution of the metal film by the stream of liquid Al during infiltration. The strengths of the Al/Ni-SiC composites, measured by four-point bending, were 205 and 225 MPa for samples reinforced with 78 mum and 49 mum Ni-SiC, respectively. The mode of fracture was mainly controlled by SiC particle fracture.

Leon-Patino, Carlos Alberto

2001-07-01

56

Electrosynthesis of poly(4-vinylpyridine) films on metallic surfaces under anodic and cathodic polarizations: structure and properties of the organic coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of anodic or cathodic polarization to a highly concentrated solution of 4-vinylpyridine leads to the formation of a polymer film grafted on the metallic electrode. The polymer structure, studied by IRRAS and XPS spectroscopies depends on the nature of polarization.

C. Lebrun; G. Deniau; P. Viel; G. Lécayon

1998-01-01

57

High rate DC-reactive sputter deposition of Y2O3 film on the textured metal substrate for the superconducting coated conductor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Y2O3 film was directly deposited on Ni-3at%W substrate by DC reactive sputtering. DC reactive sputtering was carried out using metallic Y target and water vapor for oxidizing the elements of metallic target on the substrate. The detailed conditions of DC reactive sputtering for depositions of Y2O3 films were investigated. The window of water vapor for proper growth of Y2O3 films was determined by sufficient oxidations of the Y2O3 films and the non-oxidation of the target surface, which was required for high rate sputtering. The window turned out to be fairly wide in the chamber used. As the sputtering power was raised, the deposition rate increased without narrowing the window. The fabricated Y2O3 films showed good texture qualities and surface morphologies. The YBCO film deposited directly on the Y2O3 buffered Ni-3at%W substrate showed Tc, Ic (77 K, self field), and Jc (77 K, self field) of 89 K, 64 A/cm and 1.1 MA/cm2, respectively.

Kim, Ho-Sup; Park, Chan; Ko, Rock-Kil; Shi, Dongqui; Chung, Jun-Ki; Ha, Hong-Soo; Park, Yu-Mi; Song, Kyu-Jeong; Youm, Do-Jun

2005-10-01

58

Metal fluoride coatings prepared by ion-assisted deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ArF lithography technology requires minimization of optical losses due to scattering and absorption. Consequently, it is necessary to optimize the coating process of metal fluorides. The properties of metal fluoride thin films are mainly affected by the deposition methods, their parameters (temperature and deposition rate) and the vacuum conditions. A substrate temperature of more than 300°C is a condition for high density and low water content of metal fluorides. Therefore, a substrate temperature of 150°C results in inhomogeneous films with high water content. Until now, the best results were achieved by boat evaporation. This paper will demonstrate that most of the common metal fluorides like MgF2, AlF3, and even LaF3 can be deposited by electron beam evaporation. In comparison to other deposition methods, the prepared thin films have the lowest absorption in the VUV spectral range. Furthermore, metal fluoride thin films were prepared by ion assistance. It will be demonstrated, that they have less water content, high packing density, and low absorption in the VUV spectral range. In this study, single layers of LaF3 and AlF3 and antireflection coatings were prepared by electron beam evaporation with and without ion-assistance. The mechanical, structural, and optical properties were examined and discussed.

Bischoff, Martin; Sode, Maik; Gäbler, Dieter; Bernitzki, Helmut; Zaczek, Christoph; Kaiser, Norbert; Tünnermann, Andreas

2008-09-01

59

Systematic Evaluation of Jc Decrease in Thick Film Coated Conductors  

SciTech Connect

Address both thickness dependence of Jc, in thick film YBCO coated conductors through an application of a suite of new measurement techniques to thick film wire samples produced by commercially viable coated conductor technologies.

Alex Ignatiev; Dr. Amit Goyal

2006-05-10

60

FTIR spectral characterization of thin film coatings of oleic acid on glasses Part II Coatings on glass from different media such as water, alcohol, benzene and air  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oleic acid thin film was coated on soda-lime-silicate (SLS) glass from different coating media such as benzene, ethyl alcohol, water and air with different coating times and concentrations. When the coating medium is benzene, relatively more COO-metal ion complexes formed on the substrate surface, resulting in a coating layer with a more rigid and ordered structure. This was caused by

D. H. Lee; R. A. Condrate; W. C. Lacourse

2000-01-01

61

Remotely measuring a thin dielectric coating on a metallic cylinder.  

PubMed

A laser optical metrology system is described that remotely measures at high rate the presence and thickness of a thin-film lubricant on metallic cylinders with diameters on the order of 0.5 mm. Applications include remote measurement of hypodermic needle dielectric coating thickness in a clean room environment. High accuracy computer simulation of the electric field scattered from a coated cylinder by an incident laser beam is demonstrated using the condition numbers of the matrices defined by the boundary value matching equations derived from the eigenfunction expansion of the exact solution to Maxwell's equations. Dielectric coatings from 1 ?m to 50 ?m are seen to be readily observed and accurately measured using a remotely placed CMOS array. Distinctive signatures are shown for film thicknesses in the range from 0 to 10 ?m, and an appropriate location for CMOS detector placement is determined from the scattering patterns. PMID:22274253

George, Nicholas; Zavattero, Paul

2011-12-19

62

The hygroscopicity of moisture barrier film coatings.  

PubMed

The hygroscopicity of three commercial moisture-barrier film coatings, namely, Eudragit L30 D-55 (methacrylic acid-ethyl acrylate copolymer), Opadry AMB (polyvinyl alcohol based system), and Sepifilm LP 014 (hypromellose, microcrystalline cellulose, and stearic acid based formulation), was investigated using a dynamic vapor sorption apparatus. Moisture uptake by cast films and uncoated and coated tablet cores, which were designed to be hygroscopic, low hygroscopic, and waxy, was measured following exposure to repeat relative humidity (RH) cycles of 0-50-0-50-0%, 0-75-0-75-0%, and 0-90-0-90-0% RH at 25 degrees C. Eudragit cast film exhibited the fastest equilibration but was also the least hygroscopic. Sepifilm had the fastest sorption and took up the greatest mass of water. The rate of uptake for Opadry film was similar to Sepifilm. However, this film continued to sorb moisture for a longer period. When returned to 0% RH it retained moisture in the film showing that it had a high affinity for moisture within the film. The data for the different cores indicated that there was very little benefit in using a moisture barrier film on cores with low hygroscopicity, the mass gain being a sum of that which would be expected to sorb to the film and that which sorbs to the uncoated core. There was, however, some advantage for hygroscopic cores where, even though the barrier coatings allowed substantial water sorption into the core, the extent of this was less and the rate of uptake lower than for the uncoated sample. PMID:16316851

Mwesigwa, Enosh; Buckton, Graham; Basit, Abdul W

2005-12-01

63

Protective Coatings on Metals. Volume 6.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The book contains review articles and brief communications devoted to the theory and practice of the formation of protective diffusion coatings on metals and alloys. The book offers valuable information on different processes used in powder metallurgy, su...

G. V. Samsonov

1984-01-01

64

Antimicrobial edible films and coatings.  

PubMed

Increasing consumer demand for microbiologically safer foods, greater convenience, smaller packages, and longer product shelf life is forcing the industry to develop new food-processing, cooking, handling, and packaging strategies. Nonfluid ready-to-eat foods are frequently exposed to postprocess surface contamination, leading to a reduction in shelf life. The food industry has at its disposal a wide range of nonedible polypropylene- and polyethylene-based packaging materials and various biodegradable protein- and polysaccharide-based edible films that can potentially serve as packaging materials. Research on the use of edible films as packaging materials continues because of the potential for these films to enhance food quality, food safety, and product shelf life. Besides acting as a barrier against mass diffusion (moisture, gases, and volatiles), edible films can serve as carriers for a wide range of food additives, including flavoring agents, antioxidants, vitamins, and colorants. When antimicrobial agents such as benzoic acid, sorbic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, nisin, and lysozyme have been incorporated into edible films, such films retarded surface growth of bacteria, yeasts, and molds on a wide range of products, including meats and cheeses. Various antimicrobial edible films have been developed to minimize growth of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms, including Listeria monocytogenes, which may contaminate the surface of cooked ready-to-eat foods after processing. Here, we review the various types of protein-based (wheat gluten, collagen, corn zein, soy, casein, and whey protein), polysaccharide-based (cellulose, chitosan, alginate, starch, pectin, and dextrin), and lipid-based (waxes, acylglycerols, and fatty acids) edible films and a wide range of antimicrobial agents that have been or could potentially be incorporated into such films during manufacture to enhance the safety and shelf life of ready-to-eat foods. PMID:15083740

Cagri, Arzu; Ustunol, Zeynep; Ryser, Elliot T

2004-04-01

65

Photothermal characterization of optical thin film coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photothermal techniques are widely used in thin film characterizations and are particularly useful in studying laser-induced damage in optical coatings. The specific applications include measuring weak absorption, characterizing thermal conductivity, detecting local defects, and monitoring laser-interaction dynamics and determining laser damage thresholds as well as thermal impedance at boundaries of multilayers. We take an overview of the principle of photothermal

Z. L. Wu; M. Thomsen; P. K. Kuo; Y. Lu; C. Stolz; M. Kozlowski

1997-01-01

66

Eddy Current Assessment of Duplex Metallic Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EPRI is involved in a multi-year program with the Department of Energy to test, evaluate, and develop a field-deployable eddy current NDE system for life assessment of blade coatings for advanced gas turbines. The coatings evaluated from these advanced GE engines include CoCrAlY (GT 29) and NiCoCrAlY (GT 33) bond coats followed by top aluminide overlay coatings. These duplex metallic coatings commonly referred to as GT 29+ and GT 33+ coatings, respectively. In general, during cycling and continuous operation at higher operating temperature, coatings fail due to spallation of protective oxide layers, leading to consumption of protective coating by oxidation and to eventual failure of blades. To extend service life of these critical rotating components, an inspection-based condition assessment program has been initiated to help establish more optimum inspection intervals that are not dependent on time-in-service maintenance approach. This paper summarizes the latest results obtained to date using the state-of-the-art frequency-scanning eddy current tester with a built-in three-layer inversion analysis algorithm. Significant progress has been made in assessing and discriminating the duplex metallic coatings as normal, degraded, and/or cracked. In addition, quantitative assessment was conducted by estimating various coating and substrate conductivity values.

Krzywosz, K. J.

2004-02-01

67

Metal/dielectric/metal sandwich film for broadband reflection reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A film comprising randomly distributed metal/dielectric/metal sandwich nanopillars with a distribution of cross-sectional diameters, displayed extremely low reflectance over the blue-to-red regime, when coated on glass and illuminated normally. When it is illuminated by normally incident light, this sandwich film (SWF) has a low extinction coefficient, its phase thickness is close to a negative wavelength in the blue-to-red spectral regime, and it provides weakly dispersive forward and backward impedances, so that reflected waves from the two faces of the SWF interfere destructively. Broadband reflection-reduction, over a wide range of incidence angles and regardless of the polarization state of the incident light, was observed when the SWF was deposited on polished silicon.

Jen, Yi-Jun; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Lin, Meng-Jie; Wang, Wei-Hao; Wu, Huang-Ming; Liao, Hung-Sheng

2013-04-01

68

Thin-film metal hydrides.  

PubMed

The goal of the medieval alchemist, the chemical transformation of common metals into nobel metals, will forever be a dream. However, key characteristics of metals, such as their electronic band structure and, consequently, their electric, magnetic and optical properties, can be tailored by controlled hydrogen doping. Due to their morphology and well-defined geometry with flat, coplanar surfaces/interfaces, novel phenomena may be observed in thin films. Prominent examples are the eye-catching hydrogen switchable mirror effect, the visualization of solid-state diffusion and the formation of complex surface morphologies. Thin films do not suffer as much from embrittlement and/or decrepitation as bulk materials, allowing the study of cyclic absorption and desorption. Therefore, thin-metal hydride films are used as model systems to study metal-insulator transitions, for high throughput combinatorial research or they may be used as indicator layers to study hydrogen diffusion. They can be found in technological applications as hydrogen sensors, in electrochromic and thermochromic devices. In this review, we discuss the effect of hydrogen loading of thin niobium and yttrium films as archetypical examples of a transition metal and a rare earth metal, respectively. Our focus thereby lies on the hydrogen induced changes of the electronic structure and the morphology of the thin films, their optical properties, the visualization and the control of hydrogen diffusion and on the study of surface phenomena and catalysis. PMID:18980236

Remhof, Arndt; Borgschulte, Andreas

2008-12-01

69

Edible Films and Coatings for Meat and Poultry  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Edible films and coatings are defined as continuous matrices that can be prepared from proteins, polysaccharides and\\/or lipids\\u000a to alter the surface characteristics of a food. Although the terms films and coatings are used interchangeably, films in general\\u000a are preformed and are freestanding, whereas, coatings are formed directly on the food product. Proteins used in edible films\\u000a include wheat gluten,

Zey Ustunol

70

Molecular structure and optical properties of PTFE-based nanocomposite polymer–metal coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular organization of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) thin coatings with incorporated Ag, Cu, and Mo nanoparticles that are deposited from an active gas component has been studied. Polyethylene terephtalate film coated by aluminium served as a substrate. The active gas component was produced by electron beam dispersion of original components in vacuum. The effect of metal particle size and its nature

A. V. Rahachou; A. A. Rogachev; M. A. Yarmolenko; Jiang Xiao-Hong; Liu Zhu Bo

71

Coating metals on micropowders by magnetron sputtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetron sputtering was used to coat various metals on micropowder surfaces. By using this method, the fine particles are better dispersed and can therefore be coated more homogeneously. The micro-powders used include cenospheres from fly ash of coal-burning electric power plants (diameter 40–200?m and particle density 0.7±0.1g\\/cm3), as well as carborundum particles of different sizes. Aluminum, silver, copper, cobalt and

Zheng Xu; Xiaozheng Yu; Zhigang Shen

2007-01-01

72

Cr metal thin film memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As state of the art flash memory technologies scale down to sub 30 nm node, conventional floating gate flash memory approaches its physical scaling limit mainly because of the high gate coupling ratio (GCR) requirement to secure proper memory window. Here, we report a novel flash memory device called Cr metal thin film memory (MTFM) that can circumvent the GCR issue and extend flash memory scalability by employing Cr thin film as a storage layer. Cr metal thin film memory devices with simple and low temperature processes produced a wide memory window of 10 V at the +/-18 V voltage sweep with GCR of only 0.3. Such a large window can be adopted for multi-level cell operations, which can further increase the memory density. Also, retention measurement shows more than 10 years retention time due to higher energy barrier between Cr metal and tunnel oxide than conventional poly silicon and tunnel oxide. Cross section transmission electron microscope (TEM) images showed the structure and accurate dimensions of the Cr MTFM device with continuous Cr film and sharp interfaces. As for material characterizations, an amorphous like Cr phase was observed through TEM and x-ray diffraction (XRD). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the Cr-Cr bond and Cr-O bond near the Cr surface after evaporation and rapid thermal annealing. This metal thin film memory may open a new route to achieve the terabit level flash memory.

Hong, Augustin J.; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Kyoungwhan; Wang, Yong; Xiu, Faxian; Jeon, Jaeseok; Park, Jemin; Rauda, Iris; Chen, Li-Min; Yang, Yang; Tolbert, Sarah; Zou, Jin; Wang, Kang L.

2011-09-01

73

The use dielectric-coated metal hollow fiber for terahertz wave metal underground sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transmission characteristics and mode structure of both metal hollow fiber and dielectric-coated metal hollow fiber for terahertz wave are studied. Theoretical evaluation shows that the TE11mode is dominant in metal hollow fiber and has high coupling efficiency when a linearly polarized light source is launched. HE11mode is mainly supported in dielectric-coated metal hollow fiber with an optimum thickness for the dielectric film. The transmission loss of the TE11and HE11mode is8.4dB/m and 2dB/m respectively at the wavelength of 200?m for the hollow fibers with 1mm bore size. The effects of optical constants of metals and dielectric materials on attenuation coefficient are also discussed to optimize the transmission performance of dielectric-coated metal hollow fiber.Aluminum is the best choice among the commonly-used metals based on published optical constants. The optimum value for the refractive index of the dielectric film is1.41. According to the primary measuring results, polyethylene is a proper choice as its refractive index is1.51and it brings low absorption in terahertz waves. The use of Dielectric-Coated Metal Hollow Fiber Bragg phase-shifted fiber grating, for optical fiber and metal combine downhole drill pipe deformation temperature and strain detection underground. Phase-Shifted Fiber Bragg Grating using photoelectric heterodyne detection frequency, the frequency range up to 1012Hz, the frequency resolution of 1KHz. LPFG, photovoltaic devices and microwave heterodyne frequency meter combination can solve the phase-shift grating sensor speed and resolution issues.

Wang, Ke-Jia; Wang, Qi; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Shuai

2009-07-01

74

Thin film coatings with variable emittance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature of a nanosatellite in orbit varies strongly as it goes into earth shadow or solar radiation. A variable emittance panel built with an electrochromic material, could improve the temperature control by providing an adaptive thermal control. The active function is due to an electrochromic layer, WO3, deposited by sputtering. Intercalation of Li+ leads to a change in the electron configuration, which modulates the radiation properties. Thin WO3 films were deposited onto Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) coated glass by reactive dc sputtering. IR measurements were done in a Perkin-Elmer 983 spectrophotometer. The IR emittance modulation, (Delta) (epsilon) of WO3 films, deposited on ITO coated glass, has been investigated. The emittance, (epsilon) , is computed from the reflectance, at 25 degrees C. Initial results show emittances in the range from 0.2 to 0.5 crystalline film has (Delta) (epsilon) equals 0.12, and the amorphous film has (Delta) (epsilon) equals 0.3. IR properties of WO3 need to be further investigated as well as the construction of a whole device.

Larsson, Anna-Lena; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Stenmark, Lars

1999-09-01

75

Self-adaptive low friction coatings based on transition metal dichalcogenides  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with three fundamentally different concepts of self-lubricant coatings based on the transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) and deposited by magnetron sputtering. The first two designs could be considered as traditional: the TMD films doped by carbon or nitrogen. The main attention is aimed at qualitative description of surface and sub-surface modification of the films as the result of

Tomas Polcar; Albano Cavaleiro

2011-01-01

76

Drying dip-coated colloidal films.  

PubMed

We present the results from a small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) study of lateral drying in thin films. The films, initially 10 ?m thick, are cast by dip-coating a mica sheet in an aqueous silica dispersion (particle radius 8 nm, volume fraction ?(s) = 0.14). During evaporation, a drying front sweeps across the film. An X-ray beam is focused on a selected spot of the film, and SAXS patterns are recorded at regular time intervals. As the film evaporates, SAXS spectra measure the ordering of particles, their volume fraction, the film thickness, and the water content, and a video camera images the solid regions of the film, recognized through their scattering of light. We find that the colloidal dispersion is first concentrated to ?(s) = 0.3, where the silica particles begin to jam under the effect of their repulsive interactions. Then the particles aggregate until they form a cohesive wet solid at ?(s) = 0.68 ± 0.02. Further evaporation from the wet solid leads to evacuation of water from pores of the film but leaves a residual water fraction ?(w) = 0.16. The whole drying process is completed within 3 min. An important finding is that, in any spot (away from boundaries), the number of particles is conserved throughout this drying process, leading to the formation of a homogeneous deposit. This implies that no flow of particles occurs in our films during drying, a behavior distinct to that encountered in the iconic coffee-stain drying. It is argued that this type of evolution is associated with the formation of a transition region that propagates ahead of the drying front. In this region the gradient of osmotic pressure balances the drag force exerted on the particles by capillary flow toward the liquid-solid front. PMID:22053849

Li, Joaquim; Cabane, Bernard; Sztucki, Michael; Gummel, Jérémie; Goehring, Lucas

2011-11-30

77

Mold release capability of `Teflon` films fused onto metallic molds  

Microsoft Academic Search

`Teflon` film, applied as a fused coating to metal molds and gluing fixtures, can act as a release medium without adhering to an epoxy resin surface such as Hysol 13-009. This mold release capability of `Teflon` is useful when contamination of a resin surface cannot be tolerated. `Teflon` and Ram 225 (Silicone) are compared as release agents. They are about

1967-01-01

78

Process for fabrication of metal oxide films  

DOEpatents

This invention is comprised of a method of fabricating metal oxide films from a plurality of reactants by inducing a reaction by plasma deposition among the reactants. The plasma reaction is effective for consolidating the reactants and producing thin films of metal oxides, e.g. electro-optically active transition metal oxides, at a high deposition rate. The presence of hydrogen during the plasma reaction enhances the deposition rate of the metal oxide. Various types of metal oxide films can be produced.

Tracy, C.E.; Benson, D.; Svensson, S.

1990-07-17

79

Mesoporous titanium dioxide coating for metallic implants.  

PubMed

A bioactive mesoporous titanium dioxide (MT) coating for surface drug delivery has been investigated to develop a multifunctional implant coating, offering quick bone bonding and biological stability. An evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA) method was used to prepare a mesoporous titanium dioxide coating of the anatase phase with BET surface area of 172 m(2)/g and average pore diameter of 4.3 nm. Adhesion tests using the scratch method and an in situ screw-in/screw-out technique confirm that the MT coating bonds tightly with the metallic substrate, even after removal from bone. Because of its high surface area, the bioactivity of the MT coating is much better than that of a dense TiO(2) coating of the same composition. Quick formation of hydroxyapatite (HA) in vitro can be related to enhance bonding with bone. The uptake of antibiotics by the MT coating reached 13.4 mg/cm(3) within a 24 h loading process. A sustained release behavior has been obtained with a weak initial burst. By using Cephalothin as a model drug, drug loaded MT coating exhibits a sufficient antibacterial effect on the material surface, and within millimeters from material surface, against E.coli. Additionally, the coated and drug loaded surfaces showed no cytotoxic effect on cell cultures of the osteoblastic cell line MG-63. In conclusion, this study describes a novel, biocompatiblemesoporous implant coating, which has the ability to induce HA formation and could be used as a surface drug-delivery system. PMID:21954047

Xia, Wei; Grandfield, Kathryn; Hoess, Andreas; Ballo, Ahmed; Cai, Yanling; Engqvist, Håkan

2011-09-27

80

Studies of Porous Metal Coated Surgical Implants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The material in the report deals with the subject of metal porous coated surgical implants which are used primarily for orthopedic applications. The report is presented in three parts. The first part gives a brief history of the development of various typ...

A. C. Fraker A. W. Ruff A. C. Van Orden H. Hahn A. J. Bailey

1985-01-01

81

Thin films of metal-organic frameworks.  

PubMed

The fabrication of thin film coatings of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) on various substrates is discussed in this critical review. Interestingly, the relatively few studies on MOF films that have appeared in the literature are limited to the following cases: [Zn4O(bdc)3] (MOF-5; bdc=1,4-benzenedicarboxylate), [Cu3(btc)2] (HKUST-1; btc=1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate), [Zn2(bdc)2(dabco)] (dabco=1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane), [Mn(HCOO)], [Cu2(pzdc)2(pyz)] (CPL-1; pzdc=pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylate, pyz=pyrazine), [Fe(OH)(bdc)] (MIL-53(Fe)) and [Fe3O(bdc)3(Ac)] (MIL-88B; Ac=CH3COO-). Various substrates and support materials have been used, including silica, porous alumina, graphite and organic surfaces, i.e. self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold, as well as silica surfaces. Most of the MOF films were grown by immersion of the selected substrates into specifically pre-treated solvothermal mother liquors of the particular MOF material. This results in more or less densely packed films of intergrown primary crystallites of sizes ranging up to several microm, leading to corresponding film thicknesses. Alternatively, almost atomically flat and very homogenous films, with thicknesses of up to ca. 100 nm, were grown in a novel stepwise layer-by-layer method. The individual growth steps are separated by removing unreacted components via rinsing the substrate with the solvent. The layer-by-layer method offers the possibility to study the kinetics of film formation in more detail using surface plasmon resonance. In some cases, particularly on SAM-modified substrates, a highly oriented growth was observed, and in the case of the MIL-53/MIL-88B system, a phase selective deposition of MIL-88B, rather than MIL-53(Fe), was reported. The growth of MOF thin films is important for smart membranes, catalytic coatings, chemical sensors and related nanodevices (63 references). PMID:19384445

Zacher, Denise; Shekhah, Osama; Wöll, Christof; Fischer, Roland A

2009-03-09

82

Fiber Optic Magnetic Field Sensors Using Metallic Glass Coatings.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis we have investigated the use of a magnetostrictive material with a single-mode optical fiber for detecting weak magnetic fields. The amorphous alloy Metglas^circler 2605SC (Fe_{81}B_ {13.5}Si_{3.5} C_2) was chosen as the magnetostrictive material because of the combination of its large magnetostriction and small magnetic anisotropy field among all available metals. For efficient coupling between the magnetostrictive material and the optical fiber, the magnetostrictive material was directly deposited onto the single-mode optical fiber. The coated fibers were used as the sensing element in the fiber optic magnetic field sensor (FOMS). Very high quality thick metallic glass films of the Metglas 2605 SC have been deposited using triode-magneton sputtering. This is the first time such material has been successfully deposited onto an optical fiber or onto any other substrate. The films were also deposited onto glass slides to allow the study of the magnetic properties of the film. The thicknesses of these films were 5-15 mum. The magnetic property of primary interest for our sensor application is the induced longitudinal magnetostrictive strain. However, the other magnetic properties such as magnetic anisotropy, surface and bulk coercivities, magnetic homogeneity and magnetization all affect the magnetostrictive response of the material. We have used ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) at microwave frequencies to study the magnetic anisotropy and homogeneity; vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) to study the bulk magnetic hysteresis responses and coercivity; and the longitudinal magneto-optic kerr effect (LMOKE) to study the surface magnetic hysteresis responses and coercivity. The isothermalmagnetic annealing effect on these properties has also been studied in detail. The fiber optic magnetic field sensor constructed using the metallic-glass-coated fiber was tested. An electronic feedback control loop using a PZT cylinder was constructed for stabilizing the sensor operation. Magnetic field detection at different dither frequencies was studied in detail. The estimated minimum detectable magnetic field was about 3 times 10^{-7 } Oe. A simplified elastic model was used for the theoretical calculation of the phase shift induced in a metallic-glass -coated optical fiber with a longitudinal applied magnetic field. The phase shift as a function of coating thickness was calculated, and the experimental results at certain thicknesses were compared with the calculation. The frequency response of the FOMS was also studied in some detail. Three different configurations were used for the study of the frequency response. The results indicate that the resonances observed in the FOMS are most likely related to the mechanical resonance of the optical fiber.

Wang, Yu.

1990-01-01

83

Does metal coating improve the durability of silicone voice prostheses?  

PubMed

Voice prostheses, which are used for voice rehabilitation in cancer patients after laryngectomy, usually become colonized with a mixed biofilm of bacteria and Candida after 2-4 months and lose their efficiency. It is essential to ensure the stability and biocompatibility of these implants. With the aid of surface frame analysis we have shown that local antifungal treatment is inadequate for eliminating the deep infiltration and encapsulation of Candida colonies in silicone. A surface that prevents the adhesion of microorganisms is required. Because of its special properties there are few methods available for coating silicone. We employed, for the first time, a new method of surface modification using anodic vacuum arc coating. Using this method it was possible to obtain a solid film of gold or titanium metal with a layer thickness < 100 nm. Resistance against Candida colonization and destruction of coated prostheses were tested both in vitro and in vivo. A titanium coating seemed to provide the optimal solution to the problem, because surface adhesion and the smoothness of the material appeared to be superior to those of a gold coating. PMID:11583401

Arweiler-Harbeck, D; Sanders, A; Held, M; Jerman, M; Ehrich, H; Jahnke, K

2001-07-01

84

Coating metals on cellulose–polypyrrole composites: A new route to self-powered drug delivery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A self-powered drug delivery system based on cellulose–polypyrrole (PPy) composite film was developed. The cellulose–PPy composite film was prepared by deposition of drug-contained PPy film on the inner and outer surfaces of a porous cellulose film. After coating a thin layer of active metal such as magnesium on the one side of the composite film, the drug stored in the

Dongtao Ge; Xiaoning Ru; Shimin Hong; Shuhui Jiang; Jing Tu; Jun Wang; Aifeng Zhang; Shan Ji; Vladimir Linkov; Bin Ren; Wei Shi

2010-01-01

85

FABRICATION OF OXIDE FILM BY MECHANICAL COATING TECHNIQUE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present study uses a simple surface coating process termed Mechanical Coating to deposit TiO2 films of substantial thickness on alumina substrates of various shapes (balls, buttons or cylinders). First, the substrates are put in a ball mill with titanium powders to undergo ball milling up to 300h to coat a uniform layer of titanium. Then the \\

Yun LU; Mitsuji HIROHASHI; Sam Zhang

86

Bioactive glass coatings for orthopedic metallic implants  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this work is to develop bioactive glass coatings for metallic orthopedic implants. A new family of glasses in the SiO2-Na2O-K2O-CaO-MgO-P2O5 system has been synthesized and characterized. The glass properties (thermal expansion, softening and transformation temperatures, density and hardness) are in line with the predictions of established empirical models. The optimized firing conditions to fabricate coatings on Ti-based and Co-Cr alloys have been determined and related to the glass properties and the interfacial reactions. Excellent adhesion to alloys has been achieved through the formation of 100-200 nm thick interfacial layers (Ti5Si3 on Ti-based alloys and CrOx on Co-Cr). Finally, glass coatings, approximately 100 mu m thick, have been fabricated onto commercial Ti alloy-based dental implants.

Lopez-Esteban, Sonia; Saiz, Eduardo; Fujino, Sigheru; Oku, Takeo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Tomsia, Antoni P.

2003-06-30

87

Method of producing thermally sprayed metallic coating  

DOEpatents

The cylinder walls of light metal engine blocks are thermally spray coated with a ferrous-based coating using an HVOF device. A ferrous-based wire is fed to the HVOF device to locate a tip end of the wire in a high temperature zone of the device. Jet flows of oxygen and gaseous fuel are fed to the high temperature zone and are combusted to generate heat to melt the tip end. The oxygen is oversupplied in relation to the gaseous fuel. The excess oxygen reacts with and burns a fraction of the ferrous-based feed wire in an exothermic reaction to generate substantial supplemental heat to the HVOF device. The molten/combusted metal is sprayed by the device onto the walls of the cylinder by the jet flow of gases.

Byrnes, Larry Edward (Rochester Hills, MI); Kramer, Martin Stephen (Clarkston, MI); Neiser, Richard A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-08-26

88

Wear Resistance of Coating Films on Hob Teeth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wear resistance of coating films on hob teeth is investigated through the simulated hobbing tests with a flytool. The coating films on hob teeth are titanium family ceramics such as TiN, TiCN, TiSiN and TiAlN and aluminum chromium family ceramics such as AlCrN and AlCrSiN. The wear of coated tools is shown about film thickness, film materials, ingredient ratio in a film component and the oxidization of coating films. The oxidization is clarified from a result of the influence on the crater wear progress through wear cutting tests in atmosphere of nitrogen gas or oxygen gas. The oxidization of TiAlN coating films produces oxide products on the tool rake face, and this oxidation relates to the amount of crater wear. The increase of aluminum concentration in the TiAlN film improves the crater wear resistance in air atmosphere, while it has a reverse effect in nitrogen gases. The AlCrSiN film has effective wear resistance against the abrasive wear and/or oxidization wear. The oxidation film formed on the AlCrSiN film is very firm and this suppresses the oxidation wear on the rake face and works against the abrasive wear advantageously.

Umezaki, Yoji; Funaki, Yoshiyuki; Kurokawa, Syuhei; Ohnishi, Osamu; Doi, Toshiro

89

Multilayer thin-film coatings for optical communication systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in thin-film coatings for optical communication systems are reviewed. Particular emphasis is given to thin-film designs with dispersion related to the photonic crystal superprism effect. A single dispersive coating may be used for multiplexing or demultiplexing several wavelength channels by spatial beam shifting. ?2004 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (310.0310) Thin films, (060.2340) Fiber optics components; (260.2030)

Martina Gerken; David A. B. Miller

2004-01-01

90

Moisture-resistant film coatings for orally administered medicinal forms  

Microsoft Academic Search

To compare the moisture-resista nt properties of film formers there are methods for evaluating the protective properties of a film directly on the medicinal form coated by it. The external form, the stability of the'substance under the film, and the gain in weight of moisture in tablets maintained under rigorous conditions are evalutated [5-7]. The medicinal form without a coating

M. G. Ageeva

1970-01-01

91

One-step graphene coating of heteroepitaxial GaN films.  

PubMed

Today, state-of-the-art III-Ns technology has been focused on the growth of c-plane nitrides by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) using a conventional two-step growth process. Here we show that the use of graphene as a coating layer allows the one-step growth of heteroepitaxial GaN films on sapphire in a MOCVD reactor, simplifying the GaN growth process. It is found that the graphene coating improves the wetting between GaN and sapphire, and, with as little as ~0.6 nm of graphene coating, the overgrown GaN layer on sapphire becomes continuous and flat. With increasing thickness of the graphene coating, the structural and optical properties of one-step grown GaN films gradually transition towards those of GaN films grown by a conventional two-step growth method. The InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structure grown on a GaN/graphene/sapphire heterosystem shows a high internal quantum efficiency, allowing the use of one-step grown GaN films as 'pseudo-substrates' in optoelectronic devices. The introduction of graphene as a coating layer provides an atomic playground for metal adatoms and simplifies the III-Ns growth process, making it potentially very useful as a means to grow other heteroepitaxial films on arbitrary substrates with lattice and thermal mismatch. PMID:23059535

Choi, Jae-Kyung; Huh, Jae-Hoon; Kim, Sung-Dae; Moon, Daeyoung; Yoon, Duhee; Joo, Kisu; Kwak, Jinsung; Chu, Jae Hwan; Kim, Sung Youb; Park, Kibog; Kim, Young-Woon; Yoon, Euijoon; Cheong, Hyeonsik; Kwon, Soon-Yong

2012-10-11

92

Optoacoustic method for determination of submicron metal coating properties: Theoretical consideration  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this work is theoretical consideration of the optoacoustic (OA) conversion in the system consisting of a metal film deposited on a transparent dielectric substrate and covered by a transparent liquid. This consideration implies a method for nondestructive evaluation of submicron metal coatings. The main principle of the method is the following. Irradiation of the metal film by a nanosecond laser pulse leads to transient heating and expansion of the film that in turn results in the generation of an acoustic signal. The waveform of the signal results from two contributions: the 'primary' signal from the thermal expansion of the metal film, which repeats the temporal profile of the laser pulse envelope, and the 'secondary' signal, which originates from the thermal expansion of the adjacent liquid layer. Due to low thermal conductivity of liquid compared to metal, the liquid accumulates heat that is released in metal and produces that secondary contribution into the OA conversion. This contribution is very sensitive to the properties of the film. The influence of the film thickness and its thermophysical parameters on the frequency-dependent efficiency of OA conversion and on the temporal profile of excited OA signals is discussed in detail. Based on these results, the method for nondestructive evaluation of submicron metal coatings properties is proposed.

Pelivanov, Ivan M.; Kopylova, Daria S.; Podymova, Natalia B.; Karabutov, Alexander A. [International Laser Center, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

2009-07-01

93

Cation diffusion at the polymer coating\\/metal interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical and experimental studies were carried out on the transport of cations in the channel between a polymer coating and a metal substrate from a defect in the absence of an applied electrical potential. The model consists of two stages: an initial period during which ions diffuse in the coating\\/metal interfacial 'channel' and adsorb on the coating surface, and a

James Pommersheim; Tinh Nguyen; Zhuohong Zhang; Changjian Lin

1995-01-01

94

Polymer-assisted conformal coating of TiO2 thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conformal coating of nanofabricated structures with a high-index dielectric material is a common problem for a diverse set of integrated photonic and plasmonic devices such as planar waveguides, on-chip spectrometers, gratings, flat panel displays, optical sensors, and integrated optical devices. In this paper we were recently able to demonstrate an alternate method for conformally coating photonic nanostructures using a low cost, polymer-assisted deposition (PAD) process for the metal-oxide TiO2. In a PAD process a thermally curable, hybrid high refractive index polymer solution is spin-coated onto a substrate. The polymer controls the viscosity and binds the metal ions, resulting in a homogeneous distribution of the precursor in solution. When cured at elevated temperature, the hybrid polymer coating decomposes to form a metal oxide-rich film that has a high refractive index that conformally fills the voids in nanofabricated structures. The resulting films have refractive indices higher than 1.83 in the visible region and film thicknesses between 250-500 nm depending on the level of metal-oxide loading, cure temperature, and number of coatings.

Gillman, E. S.; Costello, D.; Moreno, M.; Raspopin, A.; Kasica, R.; Chen, L.

2010-08-01

95

Thin film optical coatings. II - Three-layer antireflection coating theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper indicates a number of equations relating to the three-layer antireflection coatings for a given wavelength. The notion of coating stability is applied to define stable solutions with respect to film thicknesses or wavelength. As an example, an antireflection coating obtained independently of the central layer is discussed.

Jacques Mouchart

1977-01-01

96

Thin film coatings of WO3 by cold gas dynamic spray: A technical note  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dense and adhesive WO3 films were prepared on a silicon substrate by the cold gas dynamic spray process (or cold spray). In contrast to standard metallic coatings, there was no sizable crater formation and plastic deformation. However, the aggregation of raw powder particles of a relatively large size was found to be destroyed upon impact on the substrate, forming a

Ha Yong Lee; Young Ho Yu; Young Cheol Lee; Young Pyo Hong; Kyung Hyun Ko

2005-01-01

97

Characterization of CVD carbon films for hermetic optical fiber coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin carbon films are being studied as hermetic coatings for optical fibers used in harsh environment applications. This work details an experimental study of pyrolytic carbon films grown in a cold walled chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor. The films are grown from methane, acetylene, propane and butane precursors on stationary 3-mm quartz rods. Results are presented at 15 and 600

Craig A. Taylor; Wilson K. S. Chiu

2003-01-01

98

Preparation of gold microcrystal-doped oxide optical coatings through adsorption of tetrachloroaurate ions on gel films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transparent oxide films containing gold microcrystals for non-linear optics are prepared by a new sol—gel process, in which dip-coated gel films prepared from metal alkoxide solutions are immersed in NaAuCl4 · 2H2O aqueous solution and subsequently heat-treated. AuCl4? ions can be incorporated in alumina and titania gel films and thus gold crystals in the films can be formed. On the

Jun Matsuoka; Ryoko Naruse; Hiroyuki Nasu; Kanichi Kamiya

1997-01-01

99

Ba-Y-Cu-O Thin Films Fabricated by Dip Coating Using Concentrated Mixed Alkoxide Solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconducting oxide thin films of Ba2YCu3Ox were fabricated on polycrystalline zirconia ZrO2-Y2O3 (PSZ) substrates for the first time by a dip coating technique using an ethanol solution of highly concentrated mixed alkoxides of the component metals (0.6 mol/l). The thickness of the films prepared ranged 2.1-0.8 ?m and the best sample showed Tc(onset){=}94 K and Tc(zero){=}60 K.

Nonaka, Toshihisa; Kaneko, Kimiyoshi; Hasegawa, Tetsuya; Kishio, Kohji; Takahashi, Yasutaka; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Kitazawa, Koichi; Fueki, Kazuo

1988-05-01

100

Coating thickness control in continuously fabricating metallic glass-coated composite wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A continuous production process was developed for coating bulk metallic glasses on the metallic wire surface. The effects of processing parameters, including the drawing velocity and coating temperature, on the coating thickness were investigated. It is found that the coating thickness increases with the increase in drawing velocity but decreases with the increase in coating temperature. A fluid mechanical model was developed to quantify the coating thickness under various processing conditions. By using this theoretical model, the coating thickness was calculated, and the calculated values are in good agreement with the experimental data.

Zhang, Bao-yu; Chen, Xiao-hua; Lu, Zhao-ping; Hui, Xi-dong

2013-05-01

101

Misfit disclination dipoles in nanocrystalline films and coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical model is proposed for describing the special physical micromechanism of misfit stress relaxation in nanocrystalline (NC) films and coatings. According to this model, under certain conditions, grain boundary sliding occurs in NC films and coatings, which is accompanied by the formation of an ensemble of disclination dipoles (rotational defects). These dipoles produce elastic stress fields, which partially compensate misfit stresses in NC films and coatings. Using the proposed model, it is shown that the nucleation of disclination dipoles in a film (coating) can significantly decrease the total energy of the film/substrate composite for the AlN/6 H-SiC and GaN/6 H-SiC systems over a wide range of structural parameter values.

Skiba, N. V.; Ovid'Ko, I. A.; Sheinerman, A. G.

2009-02-01

102

Beryllium coatings on metals for marker tiles at JET: development of process and characterization of layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preparatory study for the operation of the JET tokamak with a full metal wall (ITER-like wall project) also comprises several activities aiming at the development of thin beryllium coatings. The purpose is 2-fold: (i) to coat Inconel® tiles of the inner wall cladding; (ii) to develop methods for production of films for so-called marker tiles in order to enable monitoring

C. P. Lungu; I. Mustata; V. Zaroschi; A. M. Lungu; A. Anghel; P. Chiru; M. Rubel; P. Coad; G. F. Matthews

2007-01-01

103

Sputtered tin silicon oxide films for durable solar control coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optical, mechanical, and chemical properties of solar control coatings with a transparent tin silicon oxide (TSO) film were investigated. The TSO films were formed by reactive dc sputtering from alloy targets with the compositions of 90Sn–10Si, 80Sn–20Si, and 50Sn–50Si (at.%). Hereafter, the 50TSO film denotes the oxide film prepared from the 50Sn-50Si target. Triple layer (50TSO\\/TiNx\\/50TSO\\/glass) and double layer

E. Ando; S. Suzuki; J. Shimizu; Y. Hayashi

1999-01-01

104

Electroless nickel-boron coatings on metal carbides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electroless deposition is a very simple process which can be used to obtain amorphous metallic coatings of uniform thickness on metallic or non-metallic substrates. In this work, nickel-boron coatings were deposited by electroless plating on WC and VC powders and sintered substrates. Two electrolyte solutions for the deposition of Ni-B coatings were developed: an alkaline and an acidic bath, both

A. R. Di Giampaolo; J. G. Ordoñez; J. M. Gugliemacci; J. Lira

1997-01-01

105

Static Outdoor Exposure Tests on Solid Film Lubricant Coatings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation was made to: (1) determine the affect of several Rock Island Arsenal solid film lubricant formulations on the corrosion protection provided by several metal substrates and (2) determine the optimum solid film lubricant-substrate combinati...

G. P. Murphy F. S. Meade

1966-01-01

106

Growth of Lanthanum Maganate Buffer Layers for Coated Conductors via a Metal-Organic Decomposition Process  

SciTech Connect

Perovskite LaMnO{sub 3} (LMO) in thin film embodiment has been identified as a potential candidate for use as a buffer layer in coated conductors. This paper delineates the process-properties relationships investigated for the metal-organic decomposition (MOD) growth of LMO thin films on bare cube-textured Ni-W tape sections. Epitaxial films of pseudocubic perovskite LMO were obtained for samples fired at 1100 C in a humidified forming gas (Ar/4% H{sub 2}, P{sub H{sub 2}O}-2 Torr) ambient atmosphere. The surface morphology, epitaxy, and composition of the films are reported.

Venkataraman, Kartik NMN [ORNL; Hellstrom, E. E. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL

2005-01-01

107

Very long nuclear relaxation times of spin polarized helium 3 in metal coated cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We obtained very long relaxation times T1 of up to 120 h for the nuclear polarization of an optically pumped helium 3 gas. The glass containers were internally coated with metallic films such as bismuth or cesium. These findings will have applications in the field of helium magnetometers and polarized targets.

Werner Heil; Hubert Humblot; Ernst Otten; Matthias Schafer; Reinhard Sarkau; Michèle Leduc

1995-01-01

108

Improvement of corrosion resistance of transparent conductive multilayer coating consisting of silver layers and transparent metal oxide layers  

SciTech Connect

An optical filter for plasma display panel (PDP) requires an electromagnetic shield with very high ability. The authors investigated a transparent conductive multilayer coating consisting of silver (Ag) layers and transparent metal oxide layers. The durability of the multilayer sputter coating, including the silver layer, is very sensitive to the surrounding atmosphere. For example, after an exposure test they found discolored points on the multilayer sputter coatings, possibly caused by migration of silver atoms in the silver layers. In their investigation, they modified the top surface of the multilayer sputter coatings with transition metals to improve the corrosion resistance of the multilayer coating. Specifically, they deposited transition metals 0.5-2 nm thick on the top surface of the multilayer coatings by sputtering. They chose indium tin oxide (ITO) as the transparent metal oxide. They applied the multilayer sputter coatings of seven layers to a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film substrate. A cross-sectional structure of the film with the multilayer coatings is PET film/ITO/Ag/ITO/Ag/ITO/Ag/ITO. They evaluated the corrosion resistance of the films by a salt-water immersion test. In the test, they immersed the film with multilayer coatings into salt water, and then evaluated the appearance, transmittance, and electrical resistance of the multilayer coatings. They investigated several transition metals as the modifying material, and found that titanium and tantalum drastically improved the resistance of the multilayer coatings to the salt-water exposure without a significant decline in transmittance. They also investigated the relation between elapsed time after deposition of the modifying materials and resistance to the salt water. Furthermore, they investigated the effects of a heat treatment and an oxide plasma treatment on resistance to the salt water.

Koike, Katsuhiko; Yamazaki, Fumiharu; Okamura, Tomoyuki; Fukuda, Shin [Mitsui Chemicals, Inc., Sodegaura, Chiba 299-0265 (Japan)

2007-05-15

109

Soluble Aromatic Polyimides for Film and Coating Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Linear all-aromatic polyimides have been synthesized and characterized which show much potential as films and coatings for electronic applications. Structure-property relations with regard to methods for obtaining solubility of fully imidized polymers wil...

A. K. St. Clair T. L. St. Clair

1986-01-01

110

New dielectric thin film coatings for silver and copper coated hollow infrared waveguides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hollow waveguides have been developed for many years but their losses are still much greater than those for solid-core fiber optics. The primary emphasis in this work is the development of new metallic and dielectric coatings which may be used as coatings for lower loss hollow waveguides. Much of the work involves the use of polymer tubing coated with Ag

Roshan J. George

2004-01-01

111

21 CFR 175.360 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for nylon film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for nylon film. 175.360 Section 175.360...Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for nylon film. Vinylidene chloride copolymer...identified in this section and applied on nylon film may be safely used as...

2009-04-01

112

21 CFR 175.360 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for nylon film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for nylon film. 175.360 Section 175.360...Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for nylon film. Vinylidene chloride copolymer...identified in this section and applied on nylon film may be safely used as...

2010-01-01

113

Metal Films Sputtered at Low Voltages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tantalum films sputtered at low voltages possess abnormally high resistivity. When the investigation was extended to other metals, many films exhibited electric properties similar to those of tantalum. The high resistivity was found not to be caused by residual oxygen or water vapor in the sputtering system, but by the microcrystalline structure of the films. An explanation of the particular

William W. Lee

1968-01-01

114

DLC coating roughness as a function of film thickness  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the evolution of surfaces roughness of DLC-coated substrates as a function of film thickness. This is important for DLC applications having to do with friction and wear. We used substrates with three different roughnesses between several nanometers and hundreds of nanometers. The substrates were cut into a number pieces and each piece coated with a different DLC

M. C. Salvadori; D. R. Martins; M. Cattani

2006-01-01

115

Technique for preparing defect-free spray coated resist film  

Microsoft Academic Search

Up to now some 3-D (three-dimensional) devices have been demonstrated using the spray coating of photoresist. Since the detail of the technical performance is not clear, the spray coating technique is still in its infancy. In this study, a technique for preparing the defect-free spray coated resist film is described. A solvent (thinner) vapor is used to fill the pinhole

Vijay Kumar Singh; Minoru Sasaki; Jong Hyeong Song; Kazuhiro Hane

2003-01-01

116

Properties of thick PZT films prepared by modified metal organic decomposition process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristics of PZT films synthesized by using a modified metal-organic decompositions (MOD) process, which is the spin-coating of a nano-powder incorporated PZT carbaxylate solution, was examined. A deposition rate as large as 0.27 ? m per layer is achieved by carefully adjusting the concentration of carboxylate solution (0.4 M) and spin-coating process (2000 rpm). PZT films thus obtained possess good

Yi-Nein Lai; Cheng-Hsiung Lin; Hsiu-Fung Cheng; I-Nan Lin

2001-01-01

117

Mechanical stability of DLC films on metallic substrates Part II — Interfacial toughness, debonding and blistering  

Microsoft Academic Search

DLC coatings have been deposited onto four metallic substrates, and also onto silicon, with the interfaces being prepared in various ways. Films with a range of thicknesses have been produced and specimens have been subjected to changes in temperature. From a knowledge of the residual stress levels in these films as a function of temperature (see Part I), the strain

X. L. Peng; T. W. Clyne

1998-01-01

118

Method of producing metal-filled organic coating  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention is directed to a coating method. In the preferred practice of this invention, the method includes the steps of selecting a ferrous substrate, such as steel sheet preferably containing a first coating having certain corrosion resistant and adhesion-promoting characteristics, applying thereto an outer coating of an organic resin containing a particulate metal selected from the group consisting of

R. G. Hart; H. E. Townsend

1985-01-01

119

Investigation of metal coatings for the free electron laser  

SciTech Connect

We are investigating the deposition and characteristics of metal coatings for use in environments such as the Free Electron Laser where the radiation resistance of metal coatings could prove to be of great benefit. We have concentrated our initial efforts on silver laminate coatings due to the high reflectance of silver at 1 micron wavelength. Our initial laminate coatings have utilized thin layers of titanium oxide to break up the columnar structure of the silver during electron-beam deposition on fused silica substrates. Our initial results on equal coating thickness samples indicate an improvement in damage threshold that ranges from 1.07 to 1.71 at 351 nm.

Scott, M.L.; Arendt, P.N.; Springer, R.W.; Cordi, R.C.; McCreary, W.J.

1985-01-01

120

Decreasing surface outgassing by thin film getter coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The UHV behaviour of stainless steel vacuum chambers, coated ex situ by sputtering with a thin film of a getter material, has been investigated. The purpose of this study was to ascertain if the getter film could be activated after air exposure by in situ baking, so as to transform the vacuum chamber from a gas source into a pump.Many

C Benvenuti; P Chiggiato; F Cicoira; V Ruzinov

1998-01-01

121

Film coating and biodegradation studies of new rosin derivative  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new glycerol and maleic anhydride derivative of rosin (RGM) was synthesized and investigated for its film forming and coating properties. RGM was further evaluated for in vitro–in vivo degradation. Initially RGM was characterized for physicochemical properties, molecular weight (Mw) and glass transition temperature (Tg). Films were cast on a mercury substrate by solvent evaporation technique and characterized for mechanical

U. V. Barabde; S. V. Fulzele; P. M. Satturwar; A. K. Dorle; S. B. Joshi

2005-01-01

122

Aerosol chemical vapor deposition of metal oxide films  

DOEpatents

A process of preparing a film of a multicomponent metal oxide including: forming an aerosol from a solution comprised of a suitable solvent and at least two precursor compounds capable of volatilizing at temperatures lower than the decomposition temperature of said precursor compounds; passing said aerosol in combination with a suitable oxygen-containing carrier gas into a heated zone, said heated zone having a temperature sufficient to evaporate the solvent and volatilize said precursor compounds; and passing said volatilized precursor compounds against the surface of a substrate, said substrate having a sufficient temperature to decompose said volatilized precursor compounds whereby metal atoms contained within said volatilized precursor compounds are deposited as a metal oxide film upon the substrate is disclosed. In addition, a coated article comprising a multicomponent metal oxide film conforming to the surface of a substrate selected from the group consisting of silicon, magnesium oxide, yttrium-stabilized zirconium oxide, sapphire, or lanthanum gallate, said multicomponent metal oxide film characterized as having a substantially uniform thickness upon said substrate, and as having a crystalline orientation defined as predominantly C-axis oriented by x-ray diffraction is disclosed.

Ott, K.C.; Kodas, T.T.

1990-04-16

123

Aerosol chemical vapor deposition of metal oxide films  

DOEpatents

A process of preparing a film of a multicomponent metal oxide including: forming an aerosol from a solution comprised of a suitable solvent and at least two precursor compounds capable of volatilizing at temperatures lower than the decomposition temperature of said precursor compounds; passing said aerosol in combination with a suitable oxygen-containing carrier gas into a heated zone, said heated zone having a temperature sufficient to evaporate the solvent and volatilize said precursor compounds; and passing said volatilized precursor compounds against the surface of a substrate, said substrate having a sufficient temperature to decompose said volatilized precursor compounds whereby metal atoms contained within said volatilized precursor compounds are deposited as a metal oxide film upon the substrate is disclosed. In addition, a coated article comprising a multicomponent metal oxide film conforming to the surface of a substrate selected from the group consisting of silicon, magnesium oxide, yttrium-stabilized zirconium oxide, sapphire, or lanthanum gallate, said multicomponent metal oxide film characterized as having a substantially uniform thickness upon said substrate.

Ott, K.C.; Kodas, T.T.

1994-01-11

124

EIS studies of coated metals in accelerated exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most popular uses of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is the characterization of the protective properties of coatings on corrodible metals. From early studies up to the present time, many EIS studies have been devoted to the study of the changes in the impedance of coated metals as they undergo either natural or artificial exposure to conditions that

Gordon Bierwagen; Dennis Tallman; Junping Li; Lingyun He; Carol Jeffcoate

2003-01-01

125

Protective Coatings on Metals. Volume 8.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The volume includes papers on different topics such as the laws of formation of different types of coatings, new applications and compositions of coatings, and the study of properties and practical application of diffusion-coated machine parts in various ...

G. V. Samsonov

1986-01-01

126

Durability of Metallic Interconnects and Protective Coatings  

SciTech Connect

To build up a useful voltage, a number of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are electrically connected into series in a stack via interconnects, which are placed between adjacent cells. In addition to functioning as a bi-polar electrical connector, the interconnect also acts as a separator plate that separates the fuel at the anode side of one cell from the air at the cathode side on an adjacent cell. During SOFC operation at the high temperatures, the interconnects are thus simultaneously exposed to the oxidizing air at one side and a reducing fuel that can be either hydrogen or hydrocarbon at the other. Besides, they are in contact with adjacent components, such as electrodes or electrical contacts, seals, etc. With steady reduction in SOFC operating temperatures into the low or intermediate range 600-850oC, oxidation resistant alloys are often used to construct interconnects. However, the metallic interconnects may degrade via interactions at their interfaces with surrounding environments or adjacent components, potentially affecting the stability and performance of interconnects and the SOFC stacks. Thus protection layers are applied to metallic interconnects that also intend to mitigate or prevent chromium migration into cells and the cell poisoning. This chapter provides a comprehensive review of materials for metallic interconnects, their degradation and coating protection.

Yang, Zhenguo; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2009-12-15

127

Process for forming a metal compound coating on a substrate  

DOEpatents

A method of coating a substrate with a thin layer of a metal compound by forming a dispersion of an electrophoretically active organic colloid and a precursor of the metal compound in an electrolytic cell in which the substrate is an electrode. Upon application of an electric potential, the electrode is coated with a mixture of the organic colloid and the precursor to the metal compound, and the coated substrate is then heated in the presence of an atmosphere or vacuum to decompose the organic colloid and form a coating of either a combination of metal compound and carbon, or optionally forming a porous metal compound coating by heating to a temperature high enough to chemically react the carbon.

Sharp, D.J.; Vernon, M.E.; Wright, S.A.

1988-06-29

128

Ion-beam-assisted deposition of biaxially aligned yttria-stabilized zirconia template films on metallic substrates for YBCO-coated conductors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biaxially textured yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) films were grown on mechanically polished Hastelloy C276 (HC) substrates by ion-beam-assisted deposition and electron-beam evaporation. The surface root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of the polished HC substrates was ≈3 nm, as measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). A water-cooled sample stage was used to hold the substrate temperature below 100 °C during deposition. RMS roughness of

B. Ma; M. Li; B. L. Fisher; U. Balachandran

2002-01-01

129

Metallized polyimide films: Metallization and mechanism of the process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of metallized polyimide films in situ, namely, the alkaline hydrolysis of film surfaces, chelation of the modified\\u000a surface with metal ions, and their chemical reduction giving rise to a metal layer, has been investigated. Initial polyimide\\u000a films are cast from reaction solutions on a glass substrate. The solutions are prepared through the polycondensation of dianhydride\\u000a of tricyclo[4.2.2.02.5dec-7-ene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic acid

E. L. Vecherkina; S. K. Kudaikulova; R. M. Iskakov; B. A. Zhubanov; V. Voitekunas; J. M. Abadie

2007-01-01

130

Terahertz surface plasmon excitation via nonlinear mixing of lasers in a metal-coated optical fiber.  

PubMed

Terahertz (THz) surface plasmon generation via nonlinear mixing of laser eigenmodes in an optical fiber coated with ultrathin metal foil and possessing a dielectric constant ripple of wave number q is investigated. The fiber supports THz surface plasma wave (SPW) with plasmon resonance in the THz domain and is controllable by film thickness. The lasers exert a difference frequency ponderomotive force on the electrons of the metal film. The ponderomotive force induces a nonlinear current driving the difference frequency THz SPW. THz amplitude to laser amplitude ratio of the order ?10-2 can be achieved by CO2 laser in megawatt range. PMID:24104791

Kumar, Pawan; Tripathi, V K

2013-09-15

131

FORMING PROTECTIVE FILMS ON METAL  

DOEpatents

Methods are described of inhibiting the corrosion of ferrous metal by contact with heavy liquid metals such as bismuth and gallium at temperatures above 500 icient laborato C generally by bringing nltrogen and either the metal zirconium, hafnium, or titanium into reactlve contact with the ferrous metal to form a thin adherent layer of the nitride of the metal and thereafter maintaining a fractional percentage of the metal absorbed in the heavy liquid metal in contact with the ferrous metal container. The general purpose for uslng such high boiling liquid metals in ferrous contalners would be as heat transfer agents in liquid-metal-fueled nuclear reactors.

Gurinsky, D.H.; Kammerer, O.F.; Sadofsky, J.; Weeks, J.R.

1958-12-16

132

Formation and properties of lead Titanate thick films prepared by nanopowder-metal-organic decomposition process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crystallization behavior and ferroelectric properties of the PbTiO3, PT, thin films prepared by spin-coating of nano-powder incorporated carboxylates were systematically examined. Comparing to the direct synthesis of PT films by metal-organic decomposition process, the incorporation of nano-sized PT powders into the carboxylates markedly modifies the crystallization kinetics of the PT films. Pure perovskite phase can be obtained by post-annealing these

Yung-ru Chen; Chen-ti Hu; Wen-jiun Liu; Tsang-lang Lin; I-nan Lin

2000-01-01

133

Surface films on precious-metal contacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the incidence and behaviour of thin films on platinum-metal surfaces has been carried out by measuring contact resistance at loadings from 1 mg to 5000 mg. It is shown that reproducible results can be obtained, corresponding to film thicknesses of the order of 5 Å. Surface properties appear to be more sensitive to the mode of preparation

H C Angus

1962-01-01

134

Multilayer silver / dielectric thin-film coated hollow waveguides for sensor and laser power delivery applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hollow Glass Waveguides (HGWs) incorporating single dielectric thin film designs deposited on silver coated silica hollow waveguides have been used for low-loss transmission of infrared radiation in the 2 - 14 micrometer region. Silver iodide has traditionally been the material of choice as a dielectric thin film in HGWs, with other dielectric thin film materials such as cadmium sulfide and lead sulfide being used as well. The incorporation of multilayer stacks of alternating low and high refractive index dielectric thin films in HGWs has been theoretically shown to further reduce the optical attenuation. Theoretically, lower losses are achieved when the refractive index contrast of the two thin film materials used is high and the number of films incorporated in the HGW film structure increases. Theoretically, such multilayer dielectric stack designs can give rise to the appearance of 1-D photonic bandgap structures with omnidirectional reflection properties as long as critical design parameters are met and scattering contributions due to surface roughness and similar defects are sufficiently low. This study involves the practical design of multilayer dielectric stacks in HGWs, with lead sulfide as a high refractive index material and cadmium sulfide as low refractive index material. The design, optimization, and processing methodology for achieving low-loss multilayer dielectric stacks in HGWs at desired infrared wavelengths is discussed. Characterization of multilayer dielectric coated HGWs includes FTIR spectroscopy for determining the optical response and infrared laser measurements for determining the optical attenuation properties of said multilayer dielectric stack coated HGWs. The experimental loss dependency of dielectric coated HGWs incorporating such metal chalcogenide materials on the particular thin film materials used and number of dielectric layers incorporated is presented and challenges in the current fabrication methodology are discussed.

Bledt, Carlos M.; Harrington, James A.; Kriesel, Jason M.

2012-02-01

135

Novel metal coated long period fiber grating liquid sensor based on dual-peak resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel metal coated long period fiber grating (LPFG) liquid sensor is presented, in which the dual-peak resonance (DPR) combined with the surface plasma resonance is utilized to improve the sensitivity to liquid concentration. Based on the coupled-mode theory, the double-clad structural model is used to analyze the dual-peak resonant characteristics and refractive index sensing properties of this LPFG. The results show that dual resonant peaks are far away from each other, and shift in opposite directions with an increase of surrounding refractive index. In addition, the influence of metal film thickness and grating structural parameters (grating period ?, average index change ?) on the sensitivity to refractive index is discussed for this LPFG sensor, which provides a foundation for designing high sensitivity liquid LPFG sensors. Experimentally, the silver films were coated on a LPFG by direct current sputtering, and the dual resonant peaks were observed in this LPFG. Then the salt solution concentration monitoring test was performed. The results indicate the metal coated LPFG based on DPR has higher refractive index sensitivity as compared with dual-peak based non-coated LPFG and general single peak based LPFG, the resolution of liquid refractive index is available to 10-5 for the proposed LPFG with suitable film and grating parameters.

Gu, Zhengtian; Shi, Yanjun; Zhang, Jiangtao

2012-08-01

136

Optical coatings and thin films for display technologies using closed-field magnetron sputtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Closed field" magnetron (CFM) sputtering offers high throughput, flexible deposition process for optical coatings and thin films required in display technologies. CFM sputtering uses two or more different metal targets to deposit multilayers comprising a wide range of dielectrics, metals and conductive oxides. CFM provides a room temperature deposition process with high ion current density, low bias voltage and reactive oxidation in the entire volume around the rotating substrate drum carrier, depositing films over a large surface area at a high rate with excellent and reproducible properties. Machines based on CFM are scaleable to meet a range of batch and in-line size requirements. Thin film thickness control to <+/-1% is accomplished using time, although quartz crystal or optical monitoring are used for more demanding applications. Fine layer thickness control and deposition of graded index layers is also assisted with a special rotating shutter mechanism. This paper presents data on optical properties for CFM deposited coatings relevant to displays, including anti-reflection, IR blocker and color and thermal control filters, graded coatings, barrier coatings as well as conductive transparent oxides such as indium tin oxide. Benefits of the CFM process for a range of display technologies; OLED, EL and projection are described.

Gibson, Desmond R.; Brinkley, Ian; Walls, J. M.

2004-11-01

137

Mechanical and barrier properties of biodegradable soy protein isolate-based films coated with polylactic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polylactic acid (PLA)-coated soy protein isolate (SPI) films were prepared by dipping SPI film into PLA solution. The effects of coating on improvements in mechanical and water barrier properties of the film were tested by measuring selected film properties such as tensile strength (TS), elongation at break (E), water vapor permeability (WVP), and water solubility (WS). TS of SPI films

Jong-Whan Rhim; Jun Ho Lee; Perry K. W. Ng

2007-01-01

138

Study on corrosion protection of organic coatings using electrochemical techniques: Thermal property characterization, film thickness investigation, and coating performance evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As an initial effort to establish a rapid, accurate, and comprehensive testing protocol for performance evaluation and lifetime prediction of corrosion protective coatings, the effects of coating thermal characteristics, coating application parameters, and coating formulation variations on corrosion protection have been explored. The study has been accomplished primarily through modern electrochemical techniques, such as Electrochemical Noise Methods (ENM) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), with the aid of traditional thermal analysis, surface characterization, and appearance inspection. The employed electrochemical techniques have exhibited usefulness as powerful testing tools that have provided valuable results in good agreement with field observations and other measures by traditional methods. Thermal property characterization on fusion bonded epoxy (FBE) pipeline coatings has shown that coating electrical resistances decreased as temperature rose with a distinct thermal transition point corresponding to glass transition temperature (Tg) of the immersed coatings. The change in coating capacitance with temperature revealed the irreversible process of water ingress and the effects of electrolyte plasticization in the coating films. Film thickness investigation on marine coating systems has demonstrated that film thickness has significant influences on coating corrosion protection. Better performance is expected for a coating system with thicker film thickness as well as with more coating layers when applied at a constant film thickness. The results indicate that there was a possible critical minimum film thickness above which coating protective performance was greatly enhanced and that there was also a maximum limiting film thickness above which increasing film thickness made little contribution to corrosion protection. Coating performance evaluation on aircraft coating systems has offered accurate performance ranking and reasonable lifetime prediction for high-quality, anticorrosive coatings. The mechanisms of corrosion protection by several coating systems with various types of polymers and pigment volume concentrations (PVC) have been discovered. Future work will consider a broader selection of materials, different test conditions, and a greater variety of characterization techniques. More sophisticated data analysis methods also need to be developed.

Li, Junping

2002-08-01

139

Humidity Sensing of Ordered Macroporous Silicon With Thin-Film Surface Coating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porous silicon (PS), as a gas\\/chemical sensing material, has been widely investigated. In this paper, the humidity sensing characteristics of n-type macroporous silicon with ordered structure and metal oxide thin-film coating is studied. The ordered PS has uniform pore size, pore shape and distribution. All pores are aligned vertically and open to the environment. The PS heterostructure (PS\\/Si substrate) and

Yun Wang; John T. W. Yeow

2009-01-01

140

Thin film coatings of WO 3 by cold gas dynamic spray: A technical note  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dense and adhesive WO3 films were prepared on a silicon substrate by the cold gas dynamic spray process (or cold spray). In contrast to standard\\u000a metallic coatings, there was no sizable crater formation and plastic deformation. However, the aggregation of raw powder particles\\u000a of a relatively large size was found to be destroyed upon impact on the substrate, forming a

Ha Yong Lee; Young Ho Yu; Young Cheol Lee; Young Pyo Hong; Kyung Hyun Ko

2005-01-01

141

Metal current collect protected by oxide film  

DOEpatents

Provided are low-cost, mechanically strong, highly electronically conductive current collects and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, techniques for forming these structures, and devices incorporating the structures. The invention provides solid state electrochemical devices having as current interconnects a ferritic steel felt or screen coated with a protective oxide film.

Jacobson, Craig P. (Lafayette, CA); Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); DeJonghe, Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA)

2004-05-25

142

Aluminium coated carbon nanotube film for wavelength-selective surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report selective optical reflectance in an aluminium (Al) coated flexible carbon nanotube (CNT) thin film over a wide range of wavelengths (500-2500 nm). Selective-wavelength surface is achieved by coating CNT surfaces with Al thin film that presented a maximum optical reflectivity of ~65% in the infrared region. However, CNT film alone showed a reflectance of 15-20% over a larger range of wavelengths without any structural modification, which has not been realized so far. Moreover, a tailorable reflectance in CNT is shown to be achieved by tuning various parameters, namely, the porosity of the material, angle of an incident light, and refractive index of the materials. Owing to higher infrared reflectivity and thermal diffusivity, Al coated CNT presents a potential for a high efficiency solar collector.

Mukherjee, S.; Suri, A.; Vani, V. K.; Misra, A.

2013-09-01

143

Enhanced gas sensing of Au nanocluster-doped or -coated zinc oxide thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrated that doping or covering with Au nanoclusters boosts gas sensing effectiveness of optical metal oxide sensors. The sensing response of pulsed laser deposited ZnO films as sensing element was tested by m-line technique for low concentration (1000 ppm) of butane in environmental N2. The optical interrogation was performed for three types of coatings: undoped ZnO, undoped ZnO structures partially covered with Au nanoclusters, or obtained from Au (0.5 wt %) doped ZnO targets. Nanocluster coating tripled the sensitivity, while doping resulted in an increase of up to 45% as compared with simple structures.

Socol, G.; Axente, E.; Ristoscu, C.; Sima, F.; Popescu, A.; Stefan, N.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Escoubas, L.; Ferreira, J.; Bakalova, S.; Szekeres, A.

2007-10-01

144

Corrosion protection by sonoelectrodeposited organic films on zinc coated steel.  

PubMed

A variety of coatings based on electrosynthesized polypyrrole were deposited on zinc coated steel in presence or absence of ultrasound, and studied in terms of corrosion protection. Cr III and Cr VI commercial passivation were used as references. Depth profiling showed a homogeneous deposit for Cr III, while SEM imaging revealed good surface homogeneity for Cr VI layers. These chromium-based passivations ensured good protection against corrosion. Polypyrrole (PPy) was also electrochemically deposited on zinc coated steel with and without high frequency ultrasound irradiation in aqueous sodium tartrate-molybdate solution. Such PPy coatings act as a physical barrier against corrosive species. PPy electrosynthesized in silent conditions exhibits similar properties to Cr VI passivation with respect to corrosion protection. Ultrasound leads to more compact and more homogeneous surface structures for PPy, as well as to more homogeneous distribution of doping molybdate anions within the film. Far better corrosion protection is exhibited for such sonicated films. PMID:22516111

Et Taouil, Abdeslam; Mahmoud, Mahmoud Mourad; Lallemand, Fabrice; Lallemand, Séverine; Gigandet, Marie-Pierre; Hihn, Jean-Yves

2012-03-23

145

New thin multilayer coatings for protecting metallic articles from corrosion  

SciTech Connect

This article is a review of Russian efforts to create an inexpensive nickel-phosphorus coating stable to atmospheric corrosion with a price approaching that of a galvanic zinc coating. This was done in order to apply the coating to steel articles in an automated production line with high productivity. The tests of prospective coatings are described, and the highest resistance to corrosion under conditions of increased humidity was exhibited by a coating having a composition of (parent metal)-copper-two nickel-phosphorus layers-oxide layer-layer of polymer material.

Gerasimov, M.V.; Shul`gin, M.A.; Nikolaev, V.A. [Joint-Stock Company, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-11-01

146

Incorporation of Metallic Nanoparticles into Conducting Polymer Actuator Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanocomposites of conducting polymer films (CP) with metal nanoparticles have been prepared. Electropolymerization of pyrrole on stainless steel electrodes was undertaken galvanostatically until the thickness of the polypyrrole (PPy) film reached around 7.5 ?m, which is suitable for the future application of these films in micropumps and microvalves. Subsequently platinum nanoparticles were deposited from a solution of a platinum precursor (K2PtCl6) onto the PPy coated stainless steel electrodes by applying a potential of -0.1 V for between 3 and 15 s. The length of the deposition time led to significant differences in the morphology and size of the particles obtained. The actuation of the free standing films was studied by electrochemomechanical deformation measurements (ECMD) on strips of films cycled in NaPF6. Depending upon the test conditions, the strain rate and ultimate strain of films containing Pt nanoparticles could be increased by a factor of 2 or more compared to those of pristine PPy films.

Costa, Alexsandro Santos; Li, Kwong-Chi; Kilmartin, Paul A.; Travas-Sejdic, Jadranka

2009-07-01

147

Development of metal based thermal barrier coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, metal-based thermal barrier coatings (MBTBCs) have been produced, using high frequency induction plasma spraying (IPS) of iron-based nanostructured alloy powders. Important advances have been made over recent years to the development of ceramic-based thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) for internal combustion engines application, but they are not yet applied in mass production situations. Besides the important economic considerations, the reliability of ceramic: TBCs is also an issue, being associated with the difficulty of predicting their "in-service" lifetime. Through engineering of the nano/amorphous structure of MBTBCs, their thermal conductivity can be made as low as those of ceramic-based TBCs, with reduced mean free paths of the electrons/phonons scattering. In this work, nano/amorphous structured coatings were deposited by IPS using the following spray parameters: spraying distance (210 ˜ 270 mm), plasma gas composition (Ar/N2), IPS torch power (24kW), and powder feed-rate (16g/min.). The structure and properties of the deposited layers were characterized through SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) observations. The thermal diffusivity (alpha) properties of the MBTBCs were measured using a laser flash method. Density (rho) and specific heat (Cp) of the MBTBCs were also measured, and their thermal conductivity (k) calculated (k =alpharhoCp). The thermal conductivity of MBTBCs was found to be as low as 1.99 W/m/K. The heat treatment study showed that crystal structure changes, and grain size growth from a few nanometers to tenth of nanometers occurred at 550°C under static exposure conditions. Thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) of MBTBCs was 13E-6/K, which is close to the TEC of cast iron and thus, closer to the TEC values of aluminium alloys than are conventional TBCs. Fracture toughness of MBTBCs has also been assessed by use of Vickers hardness tests, with a 500 g load for 15 s, and the results show that there are no measurable crack developments around "Indented" areas on all samples of MBTBCs tested.

Shin, Dong-Il

148

Infiltration processing of metal matrix composites using coated ceramic particulates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new process was developed to fabricate particulate metal matrix composites (MMCs). The process involves three steps: (1) modifying the particulate surface by metal coating, (2) forming a particulate porous compact; and (3) introducing metal into the channel network by vacuum infiltration. MMCs with different reinforcements, volume fractions, and sizes can be produced by this technique. Powders of alumina and

Carlos Alberto Leon-Patino

2001-01-01

149

Recycling light metals: Optimal thermal de-coating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal de-coating of painted and lacquered scrap is one of the new innovations developed for aluminum recycling. If implemented in all recycling and optimized as suggested in this article, recovery would be improved with considerable economic impact. Generally, contaminated scrap is difficult to recycle. Direct re-melting of coated scrap results in the generation of gaseous emissions, with increased metal oxidation, contamination, and salt flux usage. By thermal de-coating of the scrap these problems are avoided. Thermal de-coating followed by remelting of aluminum scrap is now common practice, while painted magnesium scrap is not currently de-coated and recycled. This article presents observations during heating of the contaminated light metals together with the mass loss, evolved gases, and residue after de-coating in order to give a general description of the de-coating process. It is argued that the main behavior during de-coating may be described as two distinct regimes—scission and combustion—regardless of metal substrate and coating. Monitoring the combustion regime should assure optimum de-coating.

Kvithyld, Anne; Meskers, C. E. M.; Gaal, Sean; Reuter, Markus; Engh, Thorvald Abel

2008-08-01

150

Deposition of Silicon Nitride on Metal-Coated Substrates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A metal-insulator-metal structure, using the dielectric to be studied as the insulator, offers the best method of studying the electrical properties of thin dielectric films. This silicon nitride study included films of thickness varying from 500 to 4000 ...

J. R. Yeargan H. L. Taylor

1967-01-01

151

Durable silver thin film coating for diffraction gratings  

DOEpatents

A durable silver film thin film coated non-planar optical element has been developed to replace Gold as a material for fabricating such devices. Such a coating and resultant optical element has an increased efficiency and is resistant to tarnishing, can be easily stripped and re-deposited without modifying underlying grating structure, improves the throughput and power loading of short pulse compressor designs for ultra-fast laser systems, and can be utilized in variety of optical and spectrophotometric systems, particularly high-end spectrometers that require maximized efficiency.

Wolfe, Jesse D. (Discovery Bay, CA); Britten, Jerald A. (Oakley, CA); Komashko, Aleksey M. (San Diego, CA)

2006-05-30

152

Sputtered YBCO films on metal substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetron sputtering was used to deposit superconducting YBCO thin films on four polycrystalline metal substrates. Yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and silver were used as buffer layers. The thermal expansion coefficient of the substrate was apparently correlated to the properties of the superconductor. Auger depth profiles showed that the YSZ buffer blocked diffusion of most metal elements from the substrate. Nevertheless, contamination

E. Yin; M. Rubin; M. Dixon

1992-01-01

153

Thin films of mixed metal compounds  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a thin film heterojunction solar cell, said heterojunction comprising a p-type I-III-IV[sub 2] chalcopyrite substrate and an overlying layer of an n-type ternary mixed metal compound wherein said ternary mixed metal compound is applied to said substrate by introducing the vapor of a first metal compound to a vessel containing said substrate from a first vapor source while simultaneously introducing a vapor of a second metal compound from a second vapor source of said vessel, said first and second metals comprising the metal components of said mixed metal compound; independently controlling the vaporization rate of said first and second vapor sources; reducing the mean free path between vapor particles in said vessel, said gas being present in an amount sufficient to induce homogeneity of said vapor mixture; and depositing said mixed metal compound on said substrate in the form of a uniform composition polycrystalline mixed metal compound. 5 figs.

Mickelsen, R.A.; Chen, W.S.

1985-06-11

154

Variation of Ion Current Flowing into Double Probes with Coating of Organic Thin Film in rf Discharge Plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current-voltage(Id--Vd) characteristics of double probes coated with an ethylene plasma polymerized(PPE) film were investigated in ethylene and nitrogen plasma produced by rf discharges. Since the probes were coated, the Id--Vd curve exhibited a hysteresis and the ion current was observed to decrease. On the basis of the shape of the hysteresis in the saturation region, we found a way to clarify whether the observed ion current was real or not. As a result, we could confirm that the coating of probes actually causes a decrease in the ion current ? Ip. Furthermore, a comparison between coated probes and a clean metal probe furnished with an external C--R parallel circuit has revealed that the decrease in ? Ip arises from the direct contact of plasma with the PPE film, indicating that the ion current from plasma into dielectrics is smaller than that into metal.

Yamaguchi, Shinji; Sawa, Goro; Ieda, Masayuki

1987-05-01

155

Plasma-sprayed ceramic coatings for molten metal environments.  

SciTech Connect

Coating porosity is an important parameter to optimize for plasma-sprayed ceramics which are intended for service in molten metal environments. Too much porosity and the coatings may be infiltrated by the molten metal causing corrosive attack of the substrate or destruction of the coating upon solidification of the metal. Too little porosity and the coating may fail due to its inability to absorb thermal strains. This study describes the testing and analysis of tungsten rods coated with aluminum oxide, yttria-stabilized zirconia, yttrium oxide, and erbium oxide deposited by atmospheric plasma spraying. The samples were immersed in molten aluminum and analyzed after immersion. One of the ceramic materials used, yttrium oxide, was heat treated at 1000 C and 2000 C and analyzed by X-ray diffractography and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Slight changes in crysl nl structure and significant changes in porosity were observed after heat treatments.

Hollis, K. J. (Kendall J.); Peters, M. I. (Maria I.); Bartram, B. D. (Brian D.)

2002-01-01

156

Secondary organic aerosol coating of synthetic metal-oxide nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from the ?-pinene + ozone reaction readily coats TiO(2) and CeO(2) metal-oxide nanoparticles in smog-chamber experiments under atmospherically relevant conditions. Otherwise identical experiments compared bare nanoparticles and nanoparticles coated with poly(acrylic acid) (PAA). The PAA-coated particles result in significantly higher new-particle formation rates, suggesting that the SOA vapors coat bare metal oxide more readily than the PAA. After particles begin to grow via SOA coating, however, all particles, independent of size or the presence of a metal-oxide core, grow with a rate proportional to their surface area, modified to account for gas-phase diffusion in the transition regime between the kinetic and bulk-flow regimes. This suggests that SOA condensational growth may be modeled based on the size distribution of the condensational sink in the atmosphere. PMID:21534558

Lee, Joohyung; Donahue, Neil M

2011-05-02

157

Pulse laser processing of metal thin films on glass substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of the pulse laser radiation treatment of thin metal films on glass substrates has been studied experimentally. On the glass substrates with sprayed coating the diffraction structures were obtained due to the selective evaporation of metal at the interference of the powerful pulse laser radiation. The experiments were conducted using copper, aluminum films and films from titanium oxides. The thickness of the films on the glass substrates was 0.1 ÷ 0.12 ?m. The regimes normally used during the film treatment with a laser beam were as follows: the wavelength was 1.06 ?m, the pulse duration was 10 ns, and the enegy density of the beam was 10 mJ/mm2. To obtain an interference pattern on the treated surface the beam of the coherent radiation was preliminary split into two. In dependence on the convergence angle of the interference beams, the diffraction gratings had the lattice spacing in the range of 1 ÷ 6 ?m. They were used to produce diffraction lenses. These lenses are a plane device with a ring-shape zone of concentric grating grooves capable to focus a certain part of incident radiation. In dependence on the wavelength, the radiation is collected on the optic axis at different distances from the diffraction lens. This fact makes it possible to use the lens in production of a simple monochromator. The structure of the diffraction gratings obtained has been studied, and their main characteristics and main spheres of their application have been determined.

Mikheev, Gennady M.; Zonov, Ruslan G.; Kaluzhny, Dmitry G.

2004-04-01

158

Coatings and Biodegradable and Bioabsorbable Films.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research and development activities focused on environmentally friendly monomer, polymer and composite materials for Navy coating and packaging needs. Specifically focusing on the plasticizing effects of vegetable oil macromonomers as incorporated into em...

J. W. Rawlins S. F. Thames

2006-01-01

159

Electron grafted barrier coatings for packaging film modification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The O2 barrier performance of organosilane films, coated, dried and electron beam grafted to polyolefin film has been studied. Excellent anti-scalping properties based upon limonene (dipentene) transmission measurements have also been observed. Results are also reported on O2 permeability reduction when the process is applied to common barrier polymers such as EVOH and acrylonitrile. Experience with its in-line application on LDPE is discussed.

Rangwalla, Imtiaz J.; Nablo, Sam V.

1993-07-01

160

Simple push coating of polymer thin-film transistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solution processibility is a unique advantage of organic semiconductors, permitting the low-cost production of flexible electronics under ambient conditions. However, the solution affinity to substrate surfaces remains a serious dilemma; liquid manipulation is more difficult on highly hydrophobic surfaces, but the use of such surfaces is indispensable for improving device characteristics. Here we demonstrate a simple technique, which we call ‘push coating’, to produce uniform large-area semiconducting polymer films over a hydrophobic surface with eliminating material loss. We utilize a poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based trilayer stamp whose conformal contact with the substrate enables capillarity-induced wetting of the surface. Films are formed through solvent sorption and retention in the stamp, allowing the stamp to be peeled perfectly from the film. The planar film formation on hydrophobic surfaces also enables subsequent fine film patterning. The technique improves the crystallinity and field-effect mobility of stamped semiconductor films, constituting a major step towards flexible electronics production.

Ikawa, Mitsuhiro; Yamada, Toshikazu; Matsui, Hiroyuki; Minemawari, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Jun'ya; Horii, Yoshinori; Chikamatsu, Masayuki; Azumi, Reiko; Kumai, Reiji; Hasegawa, Tatsuo

2012-11-01

161

The role of electroplated coatings in metal joining  

SciTech Connect

Electroplated and electroless coatings often play an important role in soldering, brazing, and welding operations. Thin deposits applied to critical surfaces before the joining operations can provide the difference between success and failure. Diffusion welding applications sometimes require coatings to help promote joining. For some applications, electroplating by itself can be used to join metals that cannot be welded or brazed because of metallurgical incompatibility. The use of electroplated coatings for these various joining applications is reviewed here.

Dini, J.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-05-01

162

Wear resistance of gasothermic metal-oxide coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was carried out into the effect of composition of material being deposited in the application of a metal-oxide coating on the wear resistance of a frictional pair incorporating such a coating and, for purposes of comparison, a chromium electrodeposit. It was established that the wear of a Mo-Al2O3 coating as a function of Al2O3 content has a minimum.

A. D. Sokolov; I. M. Fedorchenko; E. I. Ishchenko

1983-01-01

163

Erosion of hard-metal coatings. [Ni-Cr-B  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of protective coatings on components in fossil-fuel energy processes to provide thermal insulation, corrosion resistance and\\/or wear resistance is becoming more prevalent. In those applications where small, erosive particles occur in the environment, such as in the use of pulverized coal, erosion behavior of the coating becomes an important design consideration. The erosion of several protective, hard-metal-type coatings

A. Levy; T. Bakker; E. Sholz; M. Azadabeh

1982-01-01

164

Film coatings for oral pulsatile release.  

PubMed

Pulsatile delivery is generally intended as a release of the active ingredient that is delayed for a programmable period of time to meet particular chronotherapeutic needs and, in the case of oral administration, also target distal intestinal regions, such as the colon. Most oral pulsatile delivery platforms consist in coated formulations wherein the applied polymer serves as the release-controlling agent. When exposed to aqueous media, the coating initially performs as a protective barrier and, subsequently, undergoes a timely failure based on diverse mechanisms depending on its physico-chemical and formulation characteristics. Indeed, it may be ruptured because of the gradual expansion of the core, swell and/or erode due to the glassy-rubbery polymer transition or become permeable thus allowing the drug molecules to diffuse outwards. Otherwise, when the coating is a semipermeable membrane provided with one or more orifices, the drug is released through the latter as a result of an osmotic water influx. The vast majority of pulsatile delivery systems described so far have been prepared by spray-coating, which offers important versatility and feasibility advantages over other techniques such as press- and dip-coating. In the present article, the design, manufacturing and performance of spray-coated pulsatile delivery platforms is thus reviewed. PMID:23506956

Maroni, Alessandra; Zema, Lucia; Loreti, Giulia; Palugan, Luca; Gazzaniga, Andrea

2013-03-15

165

Graphene film growth on polycrystalline metals.  

PubMed

Graphene, a true wonder material, is the newest member of the nanocarbon family. The continuous network of hexagonally arranged carbon atoms gives rise to exceptional electronic, mechanical, and thermal properties, which could result in the application of graphene in next generation electronic components, energy-storage materials such as capacitors and batteries, polymer nanocomposites, transparent conducting electrodes, and mechanical resonators. With one particularly attractive application, optically transparent conducting electrodes or films, graphene has the potential to rival indium tin oxide (ITO) and become a material for producing next generation displays, solar cells, and sensors. Typically, graphene has been produced from graphite using a variety of methods, but these techniques are not suitable for growing large-area graphene films. Therefore researchers have focused much effort on the development of methodology to grow graphene films across extended surfaces. This Account describes current progress in the formation and control of graphene films on polycrystalline metal surfaces. Researchers can grow graphene films on a variety of polycrystalline metal substrates using a range of experimental conditions. In particular, group 8 metals (iron and ruthenium), group 9 metals (cobalt, rhodium, and iridium), group 10 metals (nickel and platinum), and group 11 metals (copper and gold) can support the growth of these films. Stainless steel and other commercial copper-nickel alloys can also serve as substrates for graphene film growth. The use of copper and nickel currently predominates, and these metals produce large-area films that have been efficiently transferred and tested in many electronic devices. Researchers have grown graphene sheets more than 30 in. wide and transferred them onto display plastic ready for incorporation into next generation displays. The further development of graphene films in commercial applications will require high-quality, reproducible growth at ambient pressure and low temperature from cheap, readily available carbon sources. The growth of graphene on metal surfaces has drawbacks: researchers must transfer the graphene from the metal substrate or remove the metal by etching. Further research is needed to overcome these transfer and removal challenges. PMID:22891883

Edwards, Rebecca S; Coleman, Karl S

2012-08-15

166

Process optimization of ultrasonic spray coating of polymer films.  

PubMed

In this work we have performed a detailed study of the influence of various parameters on spray coating of polymer films. Our aim is to produce polymer films of uniform thickness (500 nm to 1 ?m) and low roughness compared to the film thickness. The coatings are characterized with respect to thickness, roughness (profilometer), and morphology (optical microscopy). Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is used to do a full factorial design of experiments with selected process parameters such as temperature, distance between spray nozzle and substrate, and speed of the spray nozzle. A mathematical model is developed for statistical analysis which identifies the distance between nozzle and substrate as the most significant parameter. Depending on the drying of the sprayed droplets on the substrate, we define two broad regimes, "dry" and "wet". The optimum condition of spraying lies in a narrow window between these two regimes, where we obtain a film of desired quality. Both with increasing nozzle-substrate distance and temperature, the deposition moves from a wet state to a dry regime. Similar results are also achieved for solvents with low boiling points. Finally, we study film formation during spray coating with poly (D,L-lactide) (PDLLA). The results confirm the processing knowledge obtained with PVP and indicate that the observed trends are identical for spraying of other polymer films. PMID:23631433

Bose, Sanjukta; Keller, Stephan S; Alstrøm, Tommy S; Boisen, Anja; Almdal, Kristoffer

2013-05-31

167

Effect of metallic-coating properties on the tribology of coated and oil-lubricated ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Friction and wear behavior was determined for zirconia ceramics lubricated with solid coatings (Ag, Au, and Nb) deposited by ion-beam-assisted-deposition (IBAD) techniques, and a polyol-ester-based synthetic oil. Although the use of soft Ag and Au coatings as solid lubricants in conjunction with the synthetic oil significantly reduced the friction and wear under boundary lubrication at temperatures up to 250 C, these films had poor durability. In constrast, the Nb coating was more durable in terms of chemical reactivity and adhesion during the tribo-test than were the Ag or Au films. However, the friction and wear behavior of the Nb-coated zirconia was poorer than that of the ceramics coated with Ag or Au.

Ajayi, O. O.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.; Erck, R. A.; Hsieh, J.-H.; Nichols, F. A.

1994-07-01

168

Wavelength- and thickness-independent optical coatings for integrated circuit metallization layers  

SciTech Connect

Detailed measurements have been made of the optical properties of sputtered tantalum silicide films on aluminum layers used in integrated circuit fabrication. This new multicomponent conductor (TaSi/sub x/ on aluminum), which is currently in use because of its exceptional electrical, physical, and chemical properties, was also found to have superior optical properties compared to aluminum alone. The addition of the thin silicide layers reduces both the total hemispherical and diffuse reflectance properties by up to 45% over the 265--800-nm wavelength range with almost no dependence on film thickness. Unlike other optical coatings used on metal layers in integrated circuit manufacturing, the silicide films do not need to be removed after photolithography and pattern transfer processes are completed: aluminum wire bonding from the completed circuit (with silicide coating) to the package is highly reliable and reproducible.

Draper, B.L.; Mahoney, A.R.; Bailey, G.A.

1987-12-01

169

Application of terahertz pulsed imaging to analyse film coating characteristics of sustained-release coated pellets.  

PubMed

Terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) was employed to explore its suitability for detecting differences in the film coating thickness and drug layer uniformity of multilayered, sustained-release coated, standard size pellets (approximately 1mm in diameter). Pellets consisting of a sugar starter core and a metoprolol succinate layer were coated with a Kollicoat(®) SR:Kollicoat(®) IR polymer blend for different times giving three groups of pellets (batches I, II and III), each with a different coating thickness according to weight gain. Ten pellets from each batch were mapped individually to evaluate the coating thickness and drug layer thickness between batches, between pellets within each batch, and across individual pellets (uniformity). From the terahertz waveform the terahertz electric field peak strength (TEFPS) was used to define a circular area (approximately 0.13mm(2)) in the TPI maps, where no signal distortion was found due to pellet curvature in the measurement set-up used. The average coating thicknesses were 46?m, 71?m and 114?m, for batches I, II and III respectively, whilst no drug layer thickness difference between batches was observed. No statistically significant differences in the average coating thickness and drug layer thickness within batches (between pellets) but high thickness variability across individual pellets was observed. These results were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The coating thickness results correlated with the subsequent drug release behaviour. The fastest drug release was obtained from batch I with the lowest coating thickness and the slowest from batch III with the highest coating thickness. In conclusion, TPI is suitable for detailed, non-destructive evaluation of film coating and drug layer thicknesses in multilayered standard size pellets. PMID:23721891

Haaser, M; Karrout, Y; Velghe, C; Cuppok, Y; Gordon, K C; Pepper, M; Siepmann, J; Rades, T; Taday, P F; Strachan, C J

2013-05-27

170

Preparation and properties of Sb-doped SnO 2\\/metal substrates by sol–gel and dip coating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimony-doped SnO2 on metallic substrate is a useful electrode for electrochemical water treatment system. The Sb-doped SnO2 films on aluminum and stainless steels, which are relatively workable or available metals, were prepared by the sol–gel technique and dip coating method. The precursor metal alkoxide\\/alcohol solutions were derived from SnCl4 and SbCl3. Ammonia\\/alcohol solution was used for the synthesis and Cl?

M. Seo; Y. Akutsu; H. Kagemoto

2007-01-01

171

THE PENETRABILITY OF A THIN METALLIC FILM INSIDE THE RF FIELD.  

SciTech Connect

Thin metallic film was widely applied in various areas. Especially, recently we are planning to apply it in a ''Secondary emission enhanced photo-injector'', in which a diamond cathode is coated with a metallic film on its back to serve as a current path. The thickness of the film is originally considered to be in the order of 10 nm, which is much less than the skin depth, by a factor of almost 200. One would think intuitively that the RF filed would penetrate such a thin film. However, we found it is not true. The film will block most of the field. This paper addresses theoretical analysis as well as the experimental results, and demonstrates that the penetrability of a thin film is very poor. Consequently, most of the RF current will flow on the thin film causing a serious heating problem.

ZHAO, Y.; BEN-ZVI, I.; CHANG, X.; RAO, T.; CHEN, W.; DINARDO, R.; BEUTENMULLER, R.

2005-05-16

172

Method for improving the oxidation-resistance of metal substrates coated with thermal barrier coatings  

DOEpatents

A method for providing a protective coating on a metal-based substrate is disclosed. The method involves the application of an aluminum-rich mixture to the substrate to form a discontinuous layer of aluminum-rich particles, followed by the application of a second coating over the discontinuous layer of aluminum-rich particles. Aluminum diffuses from the aluminum-rich layer into the substrate, and into any bond coat layer which is subsequently applied. Related articles are also described.

Thompson, Anthony Mark (Niskayuna, NY); Gray, Dennis Michael (Delanson, NY); Jackson, Melvin Robert (Niskayuna, NY)

2002-01-01

173

Soap-film coating: high-speed deposition of multilayer nanofilms.  

PubMed

The coating of thin films is applied in numerous fields and many methods are employed for the deposition of these films. Some coating techniques may deposit films at high speed; for example, ordinary printing paper is coated with micrometre-thick layers of clay at a speed of tens of meters per second. However, to coat nanometre thin films at high speed, vacuum techniques are typically required, which increases the complexity of the process. Here, we report a simple wet chemical method for the high-speed coating of films with thicknesses at the nanometre level. This soap-film coating technique is based on forcing a substrate through a soap film that contains nanomaterials. Molecules and nanomaterials can be deposited at a thickness ranging from less than a monolayer to several layers at speeds up to meters per second. We believe that the soap-film coating method is potentially important for industrial-scale nanotechnology. PMID:23503102

Zhang, Renyun; Andersson, Henrik A; Andersson, Mattias; Andres, Britta; Edlund, Håkan; Edström, Per; Edvardsson, Sverker; Forsberg, Sven; Hummelgård, Magnus; Johansson, Niklas; Karlsson, Kristoffer; Nilsson, Hans-Erik; Norgren, Magnus; Olsen, Martin; Uesaka, Tetsu; Ohlund, Thomas; Olin, Håkan

2013-01-01

174

The use dielectric-coated metal hollow fiber for terahertz wave metal underground sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmission characteristics and mode structure of both metal hollow fiber and dielectric-coated metal hollow fiber for terahertz wave are studied. Theoretical evaluation shows that the TE11mode is dominant in metal hollow fiber and has high coupling efficiency when a linearly polarized light source is launched. HE11mode is mainly supported in dielectric-coated metal hollow fiber with an optimum thickness for the

Ke-Jia Wang; Qi Wang; Yi Wang; Shuai Zhang

2009-01-01

175

Thickness Measurement for Thin Films and Coatings Using Millimeter Waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accurate technique for measuring the thickness of dielectric thin films and coatings is presented in this paper. Millimeter-wave sensors operated at 80 GHz are placed near the sample surface. A better than 1°\\/?m sensitivity of the phase of the received signal with respect to sample thickness can be achieved. A theoretical model consisting of a vertical electric dipole over

H. C. Han; E. S. Mansueto

1997-01-01

176

The drag-out problem in film coating theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important step towards the understanding of many industrial coating processes is a solution of the dragout problem, which is to determine the thickness of the film of liquid which clings to a plate when it is drawn steadily out of a bath of the liquid. An approximate solution, valid for small capillary numbers, was given by Landau and Levich,

S. D. R. Wilson

1982-01-01

177

High resolution biological scanning electron microscopy: a comparative study of low temperature metal coating techniques.  

PubMed

Structural information on the surface of biological specimens can be resolved within molecular dimensions by "in-lens" field emission scanning electron microscopes when cryo-methods are used to adequately preserve the native state of the specimen. The visual definition of molecular surface structures depends largely on the metal coating. The thickness of the coating, as well as the temperature at which it is deposited, are among the most important parameters affecting visual definition. These were evaluated on T4 polyheads and T4D phages using chromium double-axis rotary shadowing (DARS). Micrographs of optimally DARS coated T4 polyheads and T4D phages were compared with chromium planar-magnetron sputtering (PMS) and unidirectional shadowing with platinum/carbon. Metal deposition was carried out at low temperatures during all three procedures. Optimal visual definition of structural details on the surface of DARS coated T4 polyheads and T4D phages (capsomeres of T4 polyheads and their subunits with diameters of 8 and 3 nm; T4D phage tail fibres with a thickness of 3 nm) is achieved at a thickness of the chromium film greater than the minimum required for metal film coalescence. Chromium DARS coating at room temperature resulted in poor structural definition, whereas DARS at specimen temperatures of -85 degrees C and -150 degrees C, with the chromium thickness optimized for each temperature, yielded good visual detail of polyhead substructures. The visual definition was slightly reduced when DARS coating was carried out at a specimen temperature of -250 degrees C. Adequate structural visibility of T4D phage and T4 polyhead surface structures was achieved with the three coating techniques tested.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1919798

Hermann, R; Müller, M

1991-08-01

178

Tensile tests of micro anchors anodically bonded between Pyrex glass and aluminum thin film coated on silicon wafer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro anchor is a kind of typical structures in micro\\/nano electromechanical systems (MEMS\\/NEMS), and it can be made by anodic bonding process, with thin films of metal or alloy as an intermediate layer. At the relative low temperature and voltage, specimens with actually sized micro anchor structures were anodically bonded using Pyrex 7740 glass and patterned crystalline silicon chips coated

Yu-Qun Hu; Ya-Pu Zhao; Tongxi Yu

2008-01-01

179

Design of high-sensitivity metal-coated LPFG sensor based on material dispersion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-sensitivity metal-coated long-period fiber grating (LPFG) sensor based on material dispersion is designed. Based on the coupled mode theory, the influence of the material dispersion on the dual-peak characteristics of the metal-coated LPFG is studied. After considering the material dispersion, the jumping region of the dual-resonant-wavelength shifts toward the thinner film thickness, and the sensitivity of the dual-peak metal-coated LPFG sensor to liquid refractive index (RI) can be obtained to supply accurate parameter combinations. Experimentally, two kinds of silver-coated LPFGs with different film thicknesses and grating periods are fabricated to monitor the salt solution, and the sensitivities of these two sensors are compared. The experimental results are consistent with the theoretical analyses. This work has been supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.60777035), the Scientific Research Key Project Fund (No. 208040), the Innovation Program of Shanghai Municipal Education Commission (No.11ZZ131), and the Shanghai Leading Academic Discipline Project (No.S30502).

Shi, Yan-jun; Gu, Zheng-tian

2012-07-01

180

''Green'' Biopolymers for Improved Decontamination of Metals from Surfaces: Sorptive Characterization and Coating Properties  

SciTech Connect

The proposed research aimed to develop a fundamental understanding of important biological and physical chemical parameters for effective decontamination of metal surfaces using environmentally benign aqueous-based biopolymer solutions. Understanding how heavy metal-chelating biopolymers coat and interact with contaminated surfaces will benefit the development of novel, safe, easy-to-apply decontamination methodologies for removal of radionuclides and heavy metals. The benefits of these methodologies include the following: decreased exposure hazards for workers; decreased secondary waste generation; increased efficiency of decontamination; positive public appeal and development of novel, nature-friendly business opportunities; and lower cost of cleanup to the government. We proposed to use aqueous biopolymer solutions to coat a contaminated metal surface (i.e., steel), solubilize the heavy metals (e.g., uranium) from the surface, and bind the heavy metals into the biopolymer. The biopolymer coating (containing the immobilized hazardous metal contaminants) was to be removed as a viscous film, as a dry powder, or by washing. This ''apply, wait, and remove'' procedure will reduce the amount of worker time spent in decontamination activities.

Davison, Brian H.

2002-04-30

181

''Green'' Biopolymers for Improved Decontamination of Metals from Surfaces: Sorptive Characterization and Coating Properties  

SciTech Connect

The proposed research aims to develop a fundamental understanding of important biological and physical chemical parameters for effective decontamination of metal surfaces using environmentally benign aqueous-based biopolymer solutions. Understanding how heavy metal-chelating biopolymers coat and interact with contaminated surfaces will benefit the development of novel, safe, easy-to-apply decontamination methodologies for removal of radionuclides and heavy metals. The benefits of these methodologies will include the following: (1) decreased exposure hazards for workers; (2) decreased secondary waste generation; (3) increased efficiency of decontamination; (4) positive public appeal and development of novel, nature-friendly business opportunities; and (5) lower cost of cleanup to the government. We propose to use aqueous biopolymer solutions to coat a contaminated metal surface (i.e., steel), solubilize the heavy metals (e.g., uranium) from the surface, and bind the heavy metals into the biopolymer. The biopolymer coating (containing the immobilized hazardous metal contaminants) will then be removed as a viscous film, as a dry powder, or by washing. This ''apply, wait, and remove'' procedure will reduce the amount of worker time spent in decontamination activities.

Davison, Brian H.; Kurtiz,Tanya

1999-06-01

182

''Green'' Biopolymers for Improved Decontamination of Metals from Surfaces: Sorptive Characterization and Coating Properties  

SciTech Connect

The proposed research aims to develop a fundamental understanding of important biological and physical chemical parameters for effective decontamination of metal surfaces using environmentally benign aqueous-based biopolymer solutions. Understanding how heavy metal-chelating biopolymers coat and interact with contaminated surfaces will benefit the development of novel, safe, easy-to-apply decontamination methodologies for removal of radionuclides and heavy metals. The benefits of these methodologies will include the following: (1) decreased exposure hazards for workers; (2) decreased secondary waste generation; (3) increased efficiency of decontamination; (4) positive public appeal and development of novel, nature-friendly business opportunities; and (5) lower cost of cleanup to the government. We propose to use aqueous biopolymer solutions to coat a contaminated metal surface (i.e., steel), solubilize the heavy metals (e.g., uranium) from the surface, and bind the heavy metals into the biopolymer. The biopolymer coating (containing the immobilized hazardous metal contaminants) will then be removed as a viscous film, as a dry powder, or by washing. This ''apply, wait, and remove'' procedure will reduce the amount of worker time spent in decontamination activities.

Davison, Brian H.; Kuritz, Tanya

2000-06-01

183

Metal-doped magnetite thin films.  

PubMed

This paper investigates magnetite (Fe3O4) thin film containing a small amount of a metal element. The films are prepared by rf sputtering with a composite target of ceramic iron oxide with metal chips. Low-temperature magnetization of magnetite containing 5.3%Ge reveals that the film contains some magnetically weak coupling grains. The metal element Mg reduces both hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) and magnetite, resulting in single-phase wüstite (Fe1-xO). In contrast, adding Ge selectively reduces hematite, while magnetite remains unreactive. According to the free energy of reaction, the element Ge is able to reduce hematite only, whereas the element Mg is capable of reducing both hematite and magnetite. This property is in good agreement with the experiment results. PMID:22905582

Abe, Seishi; Ping, De Hai; Nakamura, Shintaro; Ohnuma, Masato; Ohnuma, Shigehiro

2012-06-01

184

Mixed metal films with switchable optical properties  

SciTech Connect

Thin, Pd-capped metallic films containing magnesium and first row transition metals (Mn, Fe, Co) switch reversibly from their initial reflecting state to visually transparent states when exposed to gaseous hydrogen or following cathodic polarization in an alkaline electrolyte. Reversion to the reflecting state is achieved by exposure to air or by anodic polarization. The films were prepared by co-sputtering from one magnesium target and one manganese, iron, or cobalt target. Both the dynamic optical switching range and the speed of the transition depend on the magnesium-transition metal ratio. Infrared spectra of films in the transparent, hydrided (deuterided) states support the presence of the intermetallic hydride phases Mg3MnH7, Mg2FeH6, and Mg2CoH5.

Richardson, Thomas J.; Slack, Jonathan L.; Farangis, Baker; Rubin, Michael D.

2001-10-16

185

Fiber-optic matched filters with metal films deposited on fiber delay-line ends for optical packet address detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

We fabricated compact fiber-optic matched filters by directly depositing metal thin films on fiber delay-line ends. Average reflectance of the metal film was measured to be 88% in the wavelength region of 1400-1600 nm. Detection of 10 Gb\\/s, 8-b optical packet addresses has been successfully demonstrated using the matched filters composed of four metal-coated fiber delay lines and three fused

Jong-Dug Shin; Min-Yong Jeon; Cheoul-Shin Kang

1996-01-01

186

Thin film synthesis using miniature pulsed metal vapor vacuum arc plasma guns  

SciTech Connect

Metallic coatings can be fabricated using the intense plasma generated by the metal vapor vacuum arc. We have made and tested an embodiment of vacuum arc plasma source that operates in a pulsed mode, thereby acquiring precise control over the plasma flux and so also over the deposition rate, and that is in the form of a miniature plasma gun, thereby allowing deposition of metallic thin films to be carried out in confined spaces and also allowing a number of such guns to be clustered together. The plasma is created at the cathode spots on the metallic cathode surface, and is highly ionized and of directed energy a few tens of electron volts. Adhesion of the film to the substrate is thus good. Virtually all of the solid metals of the Periodic Table can be used, including highly refractory metals like tantalum and tungsten. Films, including multilayer thin films, can be fabricated of thickness from Angstroms to microns. We have carried out preliminary experiments using several different versions of miniature, pulsed, metal vapor vacuum arc plasma guns to fabricate metallic thin films and multilayers. Here we describe the plasma guns and their operation in this application, and present examples of some of the thin film structures we have fabricated, including yttrium and platinum films of thicknesses from a few hundred Angstroms up to 1 micron and an yttrium-cobalt multilayer structure of layer thickness about 100 Angstroms. 33 refs., 5 figs.

Godechot, X.; Salmeron, M.B.; Ogletree, D.F.; Galvin, J.E.; MacGill, R.A.; Dickinson, M.R.; Yu, K.M.; Brown, I.G.

1990-04-01

187

Plasma-sprayed ceramic coatings for protection against molten metal.  

SciTech Connect

Molten metal environments pose a special demand on materials due to the high temperature corrosion effects and thermal expansion mismatch induced stress effects. A solution that has been successfully employed is the use of a base material for the mechanical strength and a coating material for the chemical compatibility with the molten metal. The work described here used such an approach coating tungsten rods with aluminum oxide, yttria-stabilized zirconia, yttrium oxide, and erbium oxide deposited by atmospheric plasma spraying. The ceramic materials were deposited under varying conditions to produce different structures. Measurement of particle characteristics was performed to correlate to material properties. The coatings were tested in a thermal cycling environment to simulate the metal melting cycle expected in service. Results of the testing indicate the effect of material composition and spray conditions on the thermal cycle crack resistance of the coatings.

Hollis, K. J. (Kendall J.); Peters, M. I. (Maria I.); Bartram, B. D. (Brian D.)

2002-01-01

188

Preparation of PZT ferroelectric thick films by nanopowder-metal-organic decomposition process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a modified metal-organic decomposition (MOD) process has been developed for the fabrication of PZT thick films. Nano-sized PZT powders, around 5–15 nm, were first synthesized using hydrolysis of PZT alkoxide precursors, and then incorporated into a precursor containing PZT-carboxylates (0.2 M), followed by spin-coating process. The properties of nano-powder incorporated PZT precursors solution influences the spin-coating characteristics

Kuo-shung Liu; Yai-yei Huang; Wen-jiun Lin; Tsang-lan Lin; I-nan Lin

2000-01-01

189

Multilayer thin film coatings for reduced infrared loss in hollow glass waveguides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hollow glass waveguides (HGWs) are an attractive alternative to traditional solid-core and 2D photonic crystal, infrared transmissive fibers. Applications for HGWs at wavelengths longer than 2 microns include use of the guides for the delivery of laser power and for use as chemical and thermal sensors. To date, the most common HGW is one with an inner coating of Ag followed by a single-dielectric layer of AgI. These single-layer dielectric coated HGWs have losses for a 700-micron bore guide as low as 0.2 dB/m at 10.6 microns. However, if a multilayer stack of alternating high/low index thin films is deposited instead of a single dielectric layer then the loss can be reduced substantially. In the present study, multilayer dielectric thin films have been deposited inside silica tubing using a liquid-phase deposition method. High index coating materials used include metal sulfides such as PbS while the low index materials include polystyrene (PS) and some sulfides. To date it has been possible to deposit two-layer coatings using, for example, CdS and PS but a lower loss is possible if the coating stack is composed of three dielectric layers. In past work CdS/PbS/CdS coatings were deposited and found to have a measured a loss at ? = 10.6 microns that is approximately two times lower than that for a single dielectric layer. In this paper the theory of multilayer coatings will be presented along with the optical loss measurements from ? = 2 to 12 microns for the multilayer dielectric coatings.

Bledt, Carlos M.; Kopp, Daniel V.; Harrington, James A.; Kriesel, Jason M.

2011-08-01

190

Synergistic Fire Performance Between Metal or Metal Filled Organic Coatings and Engineering Plastics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal filled organic and EMI coatings affect the fire performance properties of engineering plastics. Zinc arc spray, zinc\\/epoxy, and zinc borate\\/epoxy coatings on modified-polyphenylene oxide (m-PPO) are particu larly effective. The results from non-flaming NBS smoke chamber tests show a dramatic reduction in smoke for zinc and zinc borate coatings, whereas a ZnO coating did not show the same effect.

Ramazan Benrashid; Gordon L. Nelson

1993-01-01

191

Mechanical and tribological properties of CrTiCu(B,N) glassy-metal coatings deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper-based bulk nanocrystalline and amorphous alloys offer attractive mechanical properties such as high hardness and fracture toughness—as well as good corrosion resistance. Such materials can potentially be used as thin film tribological coatings to improve the wear resistance of low strength steels and the light alloys. In this paper novel CrTiCu(B,N) glassy-metal coatings have been successfully deposited on Si-wafer, AISI

C. Tsotsos; K. Kanakis; A. Davison; M. A. Baker; A. Matthews; A. Leyland

2006-01-01

192

Spray forming polymer membranes, coatings and films  

DOEpatents

A method of forming a polymer film having controlled physical and chemical characteristics, wherein a plume of nebulized droplets of a polymer or polymer precursor is directed toward a substrate from a converging/diverging nozzle having a throat at which the polymer or a precursor thereof is introduced and an exit from which the nebulized droplets of the polymer or precursor thereof leave entrained in a carrier gas. Relative movement between the nozzle and the substrate is provided to form a polymer film. Physical and chemical characteristics can be controlled by varying the deposition parameters and the gas and liquid chemistries. Semipermeable membranes of polyphosphazene films are disclosed, as are a variety of other polymer systems, both porous and non-porous.

McHugh, Kevin M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Watson, Lloyd D. (Rigby, ID); McAtee, Richard E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ploger, Scott A. (Rigby, ID)

1993-01-01

193

Spray forming polymer membranes, coatings and films  

DOEpatents

A method is described for forming a polymer film having controlled physical and chemical characteristics, wherein a plume of nebulized droplets of a polymer or polymer precursor is directed toward a substrate from a converging/diverging nozzle having a throat at which the polymer or a precursor thereof is introduced and an exit from which the nebulized droplets of the polymer or precursor thereof leave entrained in a carrier gas. Relative movement between the nozzle and the substrate is provided to form a polymer film. Physical and chemical characteristics can be controlled by varying the deposition parameters and the gas and liquid chemistries. Semipermeable membranes of polyphosphazene films are disclosed, as are a variety of other polymer systems, both porous and non-porous. 4 figures.

McHugh, K.M.; Watson, L.D.; McAtee, R.E.; Ploger, S.A.

1993-10-12

194

STM of metal embedded and coated DNA and DNA-protein complexes.  

PubMed

Bare and Pt/Ir/C-coated DNA has been analysed using scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). To achieve reproducible imaging of bare DNA on mica ethanol/air-dried molecules were embedded in Pt/C. By peeling the metal film off the mica, the previously mica-exposed side of the Pt/C-film with the embedded DNA molecules was accessible for STM analysis. By applying this replica/anchoring technique only hollow trenches in the metal film, and not the DNA itself, could be visualized. The gaps averaged 3.1 nm (+/- 0.9 nm) wide and 1 nm (+/- 0.5 nm) deep. Using scanning force microscopy it could be confirmed that the DNA remained in the Pt/C film during the peel-off procedure. For STM, DNA fragments were also coated with 0.7-1 nm Pt/Ir/C. Owing to the high Z-resolution the STM samples were coated at a high elevation angle (65 degrees), thereby minimizing the problem of self-shadowing. Coating by Pt/Ir/C allowed routine imaging and quantitative analysis of both ethanol/air- and freeze-dried DNA under atmospheric conditions. After ethanol/air drying measured values for DNA width and height were 5.1 nm (+/- 1.8 nm) and 0.9 nm (+/- 0.2 nm), respectively. Freeze-dried DNA averaged 4.2 nm (+/- 1.3 nm) wide and 1.1 nm (+/- 0.1 nm) high. A Pt/Ir/C-coating was also applied to visualize DNA-protein interaction using STM. PMID:8763169

Müller-Reichert, T; Butt, H J; Gross, H

1996-06-01

195

Thin film coatings of WO3 by cold gas dynamic spray: A technical note  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dense and adhesive WO3 films were prepared on a silicon substrate by the cold gas dynamic spray process (or cold spray). In contrast to standard metallic coatings, there was no sizable crater formation and plastic deformation. However, the aggregation of raw powder particles of a relatively large size was found to be destroyed upon impact on the substrate, forming a highly irregular surface with very fine secondary particles and providing good interlocking powder and void reduction among the particles in the coating. High-resolution images of the substrate interface showed that particles at the interface were more densely packed and that good adhesion was obtained. There fore, the particle bombardment onto the first layer of the coating could provide enhanced adhesion to the substrate mechanically and/or chemically.

Lee, Ha Yong; Yu, Young Ho; Lee, Young Cheol; Hong, Young Pyo; Ko, Kyung Hyun

2005-06-01

196

Nanoindentation of functionally graded hybrid polymer/metal thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hybrid functionally graded coatings (2D-FGC) were deposited by magnetron co-sputtering from poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) and AISI 316L stainless steel (316L) targets. The carbon and fluorine content varied from 7.3 to 23.7 at.% and from 0 to 57 at.%, respectively. The surface modification was developed to change the surface of 316L vascular stents in order to improve the biocompatibility of the outmost layer of the metallic biomaterial. In-depth XPS analysis revealed the presence of a graded chemical composition accompanied by the variation of the film structure. These results were complemented by those of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis that highlighted the nanocomposite nature of the coatings. The nanomechanical characterization of 2D-FGC was performed by nanoindentation at several loads on the thin films deposited onto two different steel substrates: 316L and AISI M2. The study allowed establishing 0.7 mN as the load that characterized the coatings without substrate influence. Both hardness and Young modulus decrease with the increase of fluorine content due to the evolution in chemical composition, chemical bonds and structure.

Nunes, J.; Piedade, A. P.

2013-11-01

197

Micro-Scratch Study of a Magnetron-Sputtered Zr-Based Metallic-Glass Film  

SciTech Connect

Using the micro-scratch technique, the tribological behavior of ZrCuAlNi metallic-glass coatings on 316L stainless steel was studied. With the application of ramping normal loads, the critical normal loads of about 110 mN were determined, at which the coefficient of friction increased sharply and the indenter penetration depth exceeded the film thickness. No clear evidence of coating debonding has been found, which, together with the observation of multiple shear bands, indicates good adhesion and ductility of the metallic-glass coating. When subjected to constant normal loads, the coefficient of friction increased rapidly once the critical normal load was passed. The scratch results and the scanning-electron microscopy observations indicated good adhesion between the coating and the substrate, which may be due to the good interfacial bonding and low coating residual stress.

Liu, F. X. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Yang, F. Q. [University of Kentucky; Gao, Yanfei [ORNL; Jiang, W. H. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Guan, Y F [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Rack, P. D. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Sergic, O. [CSM Instruments Inc.; Liaw, Peter K [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2009-01-01

198

Hydrous silica coatings: occurrence, speciation of metals, and environmental significance.  

PubMed

Si-enriched coatings form on the surface of silicate minerals under acidic conditions. Although they are often only a few nanometers thick, their large specific surface area may control the interaction between silicate minerals in acidic soils, aquifers, and mine tailings. Micrometer thick, hydrous-silica coatings occur on the surface of a granite outcrop in contact with acidic pond water at the Coppercliff mine-tailings area in the Greater City of Sudbury, Ontario, and are ideal to study the concentration and speciation of metals and metalloids inside Si-enriched coatings. These coatings have higher average concentrations of Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb than coatings composed of schwertmannite, Fe(8)O(8)(OH)(4.4)(SO(4))(1.8) (H(2)O)(8.4). Microscopic and spectroscopic examination of the hydrous-silica coating indicates the occurrence of Fe- and Cu-Zn-oxy-hydroxide particles, tetrahedrally coordinated Fe(3+) and a high proportion of M-O-Si bonds (M = metal). These observations suggest that metals occur either finely distributed in the hydrous-silica matrix or in oxy-hydroxide particles. The latter particles are products of the diffusion of metals into the hydrous silica and the subsequent nucleation of oxy-hydroxide phases. PMID:19943645

Schindler, Michael; Durocher, Jennifer L; Abdu, Yassir; Hawthorne, Frank C

2009-12-01

199

Polarization dependency in metal oxide coated tilted FBG refractometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tilted fiber Bragg gratings (TFBGs) present a refractive index modulation blazed by a few degrees in the plane perpendicular to the optical fiber axis. This results in two kinds of couplings: self-backward coupling of the core mode and numerous backward couplings between the core mode and the cladding modes. TFBG transmitted amplitude spectra are therefore characterized by several tens of cladding mode resonances that possess their own sensitivity to the surrounding refractive index (SRI). TFBGs naturally allow the realization of refractometers accurate to 10-4 RIU (refractive index unit) in the SRI range between 1.33 and 1.45 (refractive index of silica). In this work, we demonstrate that a dense thin film of zinc oxide, a high refractive index material (n=1.9), deposited by RF sputtering in two steps, on the TFBGs tightly modifies their transmitted amplitude spectra. While the wavelength difference between orthogonally polarized modes in nude TFBGs remains within a few picometers, the association of a nanoscale metal oxide coating increases this difference up to 500 picometers. This results in two main assets: the sensitivity is extended to SRI values above 1.45 while the strong polarization dependency makes the demodulation process easier.

Renoirt, Jean-Michel; Zhang, Chao; Debliquy, Marc; Caucheteur, Christophe; Olivier, Marie-Georges; Mégret, Patrice

2012-05-01

200

Water vapour barrier performance of corn-zein coated polypropylene (PP) packaging films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The novel film structure of corn-zein coated on polypropylene (PP) synthetic film for packaging industry was developed to\\u000a examine the feasibility of resulting coated films as an alternative water barrier performance for food packaging. The effects\\u000a of coating formulation (solvent, corn-zein, plasticizer concentration and plasticizer type) on final properties of films were\\u000a observed. Corn-zein is the most important protein of

?sa Do?an Atik; B. Özen; F. T?hm?nl?o?lu

2008-01-01

201

Amorphous metal powder for coating substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention is for a flat B containing amorphous powder based in Fe, Ni, Co or a combination thereof; a coating resulting from deposition of the powder; and a method for depositing the powder. The composition of the powder and the resulting coating consists essentially of the formulation: (Fe,Ni,Co) \\/sub bal\\/ Crâ⁻ââ(Mn,Mo,W)â⁻ââ (B,Si,C)â⁻ââ(Al,Ti)â⁻ââ where the subscripts are in atomic

J. Dickson; L. F. Nienart; D. W. Roth

1985-01-01

202

Spin-coated polyethylene films probed by single molecules.  

PubMed

We have studied ultrathin spin-coated high-density polyethylene films by means of single-molecule spectroscopy and microscopy at 1.8 K. The films have been doped with 2.3,8.9-dibenzanthanthrene (DBATT) molecules, which function as local reporters of their immediate environment. The orientation distributions of single DBATT probe molecules in 100-200 nm thin films of high-density polyethylene differ markedly from those in low-density films. We have found a preferential orientation of dopant molecules along two well-defined, mutually perpendicular directions. These directions are preserved over at least a 2 mm distance. The strong orientation preference of the probe molecules requires the presence of abundant lateral crystal faces and is therefore not consistent with a spherulitic morphology. Instead, a "shish-kebab" crystal structure is invoked to explain our results. PMID:17064117

Wirtz, A C; Hofmann, C; Groenen, E J J

2006-11-01

203

Effect of sputtered lanthanum hexaboride film thickness on field emission from metallic knife edge cathodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report experiments and analysis of field emission from metallic knife-edge cathodes, which are sputter-coated with thin films of lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6), a low-work function material. The emission current is found to depend sensitively on the thickness of the LaB6 layer. We find that films thinner than 10 nm greatly enhance the emitted current. However, cathodes coated with a thicker layer of LaB6 are observed to emit less current than the uncoated metallic cathode. This result is unexpected due to the higher work function of the bare metal cathode. We show, based on numerical calculation of the electrostatic potential throughout the structure, that the external (LaB6/vacuum) barrier is reduced with respect to uncoated samples for both thin and thick coatings. However, this behavior is not exhibited at the internal (metal/LaB6) barrier. In thinly coated samples, electrons tunnel efficiently through both the internal and external barrier, resulting in current enhancement with respect to the uncoated case. In contrast, the thick internal barrier in thickly coated samples suppresses current below the value for uncoated samples in spite of the lowered external barrier. We argue that this coating thickness variation stems from a relatively low (no higher than 1018 cm-3) free carrier density in the sputtered polycrystalline LaB6.

Kirley, M. P.; Novakovic, B.; Sule, N.; Weber, M. J.; Knezevic, I.; Booske, J. H.

2012-03-01

204

Effect of sputtered lanthanum hexaboride film thickness on field emission from metallic knife edge cathodes  

SciTech Connect

We report experiments and analysis of field emission from metallic knife-edge cathodes, which are sputter-coated with thin films of lanthanum hexaboride (LaB{sub 6}), a low-work function material. The emission current is found to depend sensitively on the thickness of the LaB{sub 6} layer. We find that films thinner than 10 nm greatly enhance the emitted current. However, cathodes coated with a thicker layer of LaB{sub 6} are observed to emit less current than the uncoated metallic cathode. This result is unexpected due to the higher work function of the bare metal cathode. We show, based on numerical calculation of the electrostatic potential throughout the structure, that the external (LaB{sub 6}/vacuum) barrier is reduced with respect to uncoated samples for both thin and thick coatings. However, this behavior is not exhibited at the internal (metal/LaB{sub 6}) barrier. In thinly coated samples, electrons tunnel efficiently through both the internal and external barrier, resulting in current enhancement with respect to the uncoated case. In contrast, the thick internal barrier in thickly coated samples suppresses current below the value for uncoated samples in spite of the lowered external barrier. We argue that this coating thickness variation stems from a relatively low (no higher than 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}) free carrier density in the sputtered polycrystalline LaB{sub 6}.

Kirley, M. P.; Novakovic, B.; Sule, N.; Weber, M. J.; Knezevic, I.; Booske, J. H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2012-03-15

205

Surface engineering with light alloys—Hard coatings, thin films, and plasma nitriding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light alloys have been attracting increasing attention over the past decade, since they can be used to reduce weight and save energy. For many years, light metals such as titanium and aluminum have also been used to synthesize hard compound coatings such as physically vapor deposited (PVD) TiN, (Ti,Al)N, and chemically vapor deposited (CVD) Al2O3. The coatings field is developing rapidly. Combining plasma-aided coating and diffusion processes has led to the development of so-called “duplex treatment,” consisting of plasma nitriding and subsequent hard coating. Another interesting development is TiN coating of aluminum vacuum parts, such as pumps, to reduce degassing and make the cleaning of the surfaces easier. Despite the many advantageous properties of light alloys, their surface properties sometimes cause problems. For example, galling may be a severe problem with titanium parts, and plasma nitriding has been applied successfully to combat it. However, due to adherent oxide scale, plasma nitriding of aluminum has proven to be more difficult. In this paper, we discuss some recent trends in the application of plasma-aided coating, thin film deposition, and diffusion processes, and give practical examples of industrial applications.

Korhonen, A. S.; Harju, E.

2000-06-01

206

Magnetic metal nanoparticles coated polyacrylonitrile textiles as microwave absorber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) textiles with 2 mm thickness are coated with magnetic nanoparticles in coating baths with Ni, Co and their alloys via an electroless metal deposition method. The crystal structure, morphology and magnetic nature of composites are investigated by X-ray Powder diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and dc magnetization measurement techniques. The frequency dependent microwave absorption measurements have been carried out in the frequency range of 12.4-18 GHz (X and P bands). Diamagnetic and ferromagnetic properties are also investigated. Finally, the microwave absorption of composites is found strongly dependent on the coating time. One absorption peak is observed between 14.3 and 15.8 GHz with an efficient absorption bandwidth of 3.3-4.1 GHz (under -20 dB reflection loss limit). The Reflection loss (RL) can be achieved between -30 and -50 dB. It was found that the RL is decreasing and absorption bandwidth is decreasing with increasing coating time. While absorption peak moves to lower frequencies in Ni coated PAN textile, it goes higher frequencies in Co coated ones. The Ni-Co alloy coated composites have fluctuating curve of absorption frequency with respect to coating time. These results encourage further development of magnetic nanoparticle coated textile absorbers for broadband applications.

Akman, O.; Kavas, H.; Baykal, A.; Toprak, M. S.; Çoruh, Ali; Akta?, B.

2013-02-01

207

Comparative EIS study of pretreatment performance in coated metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various coated metal samples with different pretreatments were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Variables were the substrate (cold-rolled steel and hot-dipped galvanized steel), phosphate system (iron and zinc phosphate), post rinse (chromate and silane\\/zirconium rinse) and paint systems. The corrosion performance was determined on the basis of coating degradation, water uptake and interface delamination of the tested samples. The

Nie Tang; Wim J. van Ooij; George Górecki

1997-01-01

208

Tribology of metal-containing diamond-like carbon coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ball-on-disk tests were run for several commercial and in-house metal-containing diamond-like carbon (Me:DLC) coatings on steel coupons. The balls, which were made from either WC?Co or 52100 steel, developed normal stresses between roughly 100 MPa and 1 GPa during the course of the experiments. The wear resistance of the Me:DLC coatings from the various sources (running against WC balls) differed

Stephen J. Harris; Anita M. Weiner; Wen-Jin Meng

1997-01-01

209

Preparation of Water-Repellent Films by Plasma-Coating and its Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The preparation of water-repellent films by plasma-coating has been reviewed and then unique applications of the hydrophobic films are also introduced. Ultra-water-repellent films with a water contact angle of 150 degree have been synthesized by capacitively couple plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition using C2H2F2 / Ar mixture gases for next generation automobile window. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the prepared films have an irregular rough microstructure in which particles of submicron diameter are complicatedly intertwined. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy indicates that the films include components of the C-H and C-F bonds, characterized by having a hydrophobic nature. A zirconium oxide (ZrO2) thin film was prepared using oxygen inductively coupled plasma sputtering of the zirconium target with a negative bias for protecting china from metallic contamination. It is found that the prepared ZrO2 films have water-repellent nature with contact angle of about 100 degree.

Ohtsu, Yasunori

210

The Manufacture and Characterization of Casein Films as Novel Tablet Coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of casein as a novel film-forming agent, capable of functioning as a pharmaceutical tablet coat, was assessed. Diltiazem HCl core tablets were coated with casein using a pan coater and the efficacy of four different plasticizing agents (glycerol, triethyl citrate, dibutyl sebacate and oleic acid) in producing a continuous tablet-coat were evaluated. Interestingly, only those films formed using

O. Abu Diak; A. Bani-Jaber; B. Amro; D. Jones; G. P. Andrews

2007-01-01

211

Thermodynamics of processes occurring during the application of coatings by hot metallization  

Microsoft Academic Search

One method that can be used to replace galvanic coatings by more economical coatings is hot metallization. This method entails the mass transfer of a refractory metal dissolved in a low-melting metal to the surface of the product that is to be coated. The transport, adsorption, and diffusion of the refractory metal on the product surface results in the formation

M. I. Pashechko; Kh. B. Vasiliv; E. M. Rudkovskii

1997-01-01

212

Enhanced electrochemical properties of fluoride-coated LiCoO2 thin films  

PubMed Central

The electrochemical properties of fluoride-coated lithium cobalt oxide [LiCoO2] thin films were characterized. Aluminum fluoride [AlF3] and lanthanum fluoride [LaF3] coating layers were fabricated on a pristine LiCoO2 thin film by using a spin-coating process. The AlF3- and LaF3-coated films exhibited a higher rate capability, cyclic performance, and stability at high temperature than the pristine film. This indicates that the AlF3 and LaF3 layers effectively protected the surface of the pristine LiCoO2 film from the reactive electrolyte.

2012-01-01

213

Alkali metal atom-wall coating interactions in atomic vapor cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A diverse set of applications, from leading technologies to tests of fundamental physics, are enabled by the use of alkali metal (AM) atom vapor confined in glass cells. For instance, atomic magnetometers operate by measuring the Larmor precession of spin-polarized AM atoms in vapor cells. In spin-polarized devices, the inner walls of the atomic vapor cell are often coated with an organic thin film (antirelaxation coating) to suppress spin relaxation from atom-wall collisions. In a related application, coated vapor cells are used for light induced atomic desorption (LIAD), which is the light assisted release of AM atoms from surfaces. The physical and chemical interactions governing spin relaxation of polarized AM atoms upon collision with coated atomic vapor cell walls are not completely identified. Furthermore, the microscopic processes occurring during the LIAD effect remain largely unknown, with current theories disagreeing on mechanistic details. This thesis work investigates coating-AM atom interactions to gain a better understanding of wall-induced spin relaxation and the LIAD effect. To that end, the longitudinal spin relaxation time, T 1, of optically pumped potassium atoms in the presence of various thin films is measured. Before and after AM atom exposure, coated surfaces are analyzed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to probe chemical states and compositions, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to image surface morphologies and deposition profiles. Additionally, synchrotron radiation X-ray depth-profiling studies are conducted to map out the location and chemical state of species as a function of coating depth. A consistent observation among the coatings examined, was a shift of the C (1s) XP core-level signal to higher binding energy following AM atom exposure. The core-level shifts arise from charge transfer from the AM atoms to the surface, which creates adatom-induced surface dipoles and is expected to decrease the AM atom sticking coefficient. This is supported by observations of a saturation limit of AM atom concentrations on coated surfaces. With a decreased sticking coefficient, a minimization of AM atom-coating interactions may be realized. Consistent with this are observations of longer spin lifetimes given by films with the highest AM atom concentrations. Thus, surface passivation resulting from the alkali adlayer may be a key factor controlling the effectiveness of antirelaxation coatings. Interestingly, C (1s) shifts are reduced following irradiation with desorbing light, indicating that a disruption of charge transfer plays a significant role in the LIAD process.

Hibberd, Amber Mary

214

Development of Edible Films and Coatings with Antimicrobial Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last years, considerable research has been conducted to develop and apply edible films and coatings made from a variety\\u000a of agricultural commodities and\\/or wastes of food product industrialization. Such biopolymers include polysaccharides, proteins,\\u000a and their blends. These materials present the possibility of being carriers of different additives, such as antimicrobial,\\u000a antioxidant, nutraceuticals, and flavorings agents. In particular, the

Carmen A. Campos; Lía N. Gerschenson; Silvia K. Flores

2011-01-01

215

Thickness Measurement for Thin Films and Coatings Using Millimeter Waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

.    An accurate technique for measuring the thickness of dielectric thin films and coatings is presented in this paper. Millimeter-wave\\u000a sensors operated at 80 GHz are placed near the sample surface. A better than m sensitivity of the phase of the received signal with respect to sample thickness can be achieved. A theoretical model consisting\\u000a of a vertical electric

H. C. Han; E. S. Mansueto

1997-01-01

216

Multilayer coatings on flexible substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin-film optical and non-optical multilayer coatings are deposited onto flexible substrates using a vacuum web coater developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The coater`s primary application is rapid prototyping of multilayer (1) polymer coatings, (2) polymer\\/metal coatings, (3) ceramic\\/metal coatings, and (4) hybrid polymer, ceramic, and metal coatings. The coater is fully automated and incorporates polymer evaporation and extrusion heads, high-rate

P. M. Martin; J. D. Affinito; M. E. Gross; C. A. Coronado; W. D. Bennett; D. C. Stewart

1995-01-01

217

Graded coatings for metallic implant alloys  

SciTech Connect

Graded glass and glass-hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti-based and Co-Cr alloys have been prepared using a simple enameling technique. The composition of the glasses has been tailored to match the thermal expansion of the alloys. By controlling the firing time, and temperature, it has been possible to control the reactivity between the glass and the alloy and to fabricate coatings (25 to 150 mu m thick) with excellent adhesion to the substrate, resistant to corrosion and able to precipitate hydroxyapatite during in vitro tests in simulated body fluid.

Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Fujino, Shigeru; Gomez-Vega, Jose M.

2002-08-01

218

Method for growth of CVD diamond on thin film refractory coatings and glass ceramic materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a new method for significantly improving diamond film quality and growth rate on insulating substrates and thin films. The usual method of abrading the substrate surface with diamond particles yields good quality CVD diamond films at reasonable deposition rates on semiconducting materials like silicon. However, on insulating materials like fused silica and sapphire, the conventional method of diamond seeding and surface abrasion almost always results in slow growth rates and poor quality films. Current in-house diamond nucleation and growth studies have focused on depositing CVD diamond on substrates such as fused silica, sapphire, and glass ceramics. Diamond was grown successfully on these types of materials using a sacrificial metal layer method called metal induced nucleation of diamond (MIND). This technique offers a way to deposit diamond on glassy materials with improved adhesion and at lower deposition temperatures (less than 650 degree(s)C). In addition, the MIND technique can be used in combination with metal masking and conventional etching to deposit patterns of diamond. The MIND method was combined with another in-house developed technique called sputtered refractory interlayer nucleation technique (SPRINT). Diamond-crystallite size and orientation can be controlled with SPRINT to fabricate low-scatter diamond films. Both techniques are discussed. A reliable, efficient method for growing diamond on insulating materials significantly enhances the feasibility for practical applications of CVD diamond technology. For example, further development of the MIND technique may provide low-scatter, protective diamond films on sapphire and glass ceramics for visible-wavelength windows and missile domes. For electronic applications, reduction in the growth temperature makes CVD diamond more compatible with existing semiconductor processes. The lower growth temperature also helps to alleviate diffusion problems in metal alloys and facilitates the application of diamond coatings to cutting-tool inserts.

Moran, Mark B.; Johnson, Linda F.; Klemm, Karl A.

1994-09-01

219

Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report  

SciTech Connect

The Pentek coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek coating removal system consisted of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign}, and VAC-PAC{reg_sign}. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M Roto Peen tungsten carbide cutters while the CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign} uses solid needles for descaling activities. These hand tools are used with the VAC-PAC{reg_sign} vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

NONE

1997-07-31

220

Stretchability of thin metal films on elastomer substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many flexible electronic surfaces comprise inorganic films on organic substrates. Mechanical failure of such integrated structures of stiff and compliant materials poses a significant challenge. This letter studies the stretchability of metal films on elastomer substrates. Our experiment shows that, when stretched, elastomer-supported metal films rupture at strains larger than those reported for freestanding films. We use a finite element code to simulate the rupture process of metal films. A freestanding metal film ruptures by forming a single neck. By contrast, a metal film on an elastomer substrate may develop an array of necks before rupture. While the pre-rupture necks do not change the electrical conductance appreciably, they elongate the metal film, leading to a large overall rupture strain.

Li, Teng; Huang, Zhenyu; Suo, Z.; Lacour, Stéphanie P.; Wagner, Sigurd

2004-10-01

221

Nanoscale growth twins in sputtered metal films  

SciTech Connect

We review recent studies on the mechanical properties of sputtered Cu and 330 stainless steel films with {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace} nanoscale growth twins preferentially oriented perpendicular to growth direction. The mechanisms of formation of growth twins during sputtering and the deformation mechanisms that enable usually high strengths in nanotwinned structures are highlighted. Growth twins in sputtered films possess good thermal stability at elevated temperature, providing an approach to extend the application of high strength nanostructured metals to higher temperatures.

Misra, Amit [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderoglu, Osman [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hoagland, Richard G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhang, X [TEXAS A& M

2008-01-01

222

21 CFR 888.3535 - Knee joint femorotibial (uni-compartmental) metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...femorotibial (uni-compartmental) metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented prosthesis...femorotibial (uni-compartmental) metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented prosthesis...femorotibial (uni-compartmental) metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented...

2013-04-01

223

Characterization of highly magnetostrictive metallic glass coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amorphous films of Fe(81)B(13.5)Si(3.5)C2 were prepared by conventional diode RF sputtering with a deposition rate of about 100 A/min. The films are magnetically harder than the ribbon samples of the same composition. By appropriate magnetic annealing treatment, anisotropy energy values in the range of 60-600 J/cu m have been obtained. The effect of thermal and magnetic annealing on various magnetic properties is also discussed. The relevance of the results of this study to the performance of fiber-optic magnetic-field sensors which utilize such magnetostrictive glasses is discussed.

Tyagi, S.; Larson, D. C.; Bobb, L. C.

1985-04-01

224

Silicon nitride films for the protective functional coating: blood compatibility and biomechanical property study.  

PubMed

Behaviors of silicon nitride films and their relation to blood compatibility and biomechanical have been interesting subjects to researchers. A systematic blood compatibility and biomechanical property investigation on the deposition of silicon-nitride films under varying N? and CF? flows was carried out by direct current unbalanced magnetron sputtering techniques. Significant role of surface property, chemical bonding state of silicon nitride film and blood compatibility, mechanical properties for the films were observed. The chemical bonding configurations, surface topography, contact angle and mechanical properties were characterized by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and nano-indentation technique and CSEM pin-on-disk tribometer. Blood compatibility of the films was evaluated by platelet adhesion investigation. The results of the platelet adhesion tests shown that the effect of fluorine and nitrogen-doped revealed an intimate relationship between the ratio of polar component and dispersion component of the surface energy and its hemocompatibility. Si-N-O coating can be a great candidate for developing antithrombogenic surfaces in blood contacting materials. The chemical bonding state made an adjustment in microstructured surfaces, once in the totally wettable configuration, may improve the initial contact between platelet and biomedical materials, due to the appropriate ratio of dispersion component and polar component. To resist wear, biomedical components require coatings that are tough and hard, have low friction, and are bio-inert. The study suggests that by Si-N coating the metal surfaces could be a choice to prolong the life of the sliding pair Co-Cr-Mo alloy/UHMWPE implants. PMID:23137618

Shi, Zhifeng; Wang, Yingjun; Du, Chang; Huang, Nan; Wang, Lin; Ning, Chengyun

2012-08-21

225

Gettering of Nickel within the Ni-Metal Induced Lateral Crystallization Polycrystalline Silicon Film through the Contact Holes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ni-metal-induced lateral crystallization (NILC) of amorphous Si (alpha-Si) has been used to fabricate high-performance low-temperature polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin-film transistors (TFTs). The current crystallization technology, however, often leads to trap Ni and NiSi2 precipitates, which degrade the device performance. In this study, alpha-Si film was coated on the top of contact holes as Ni-gettering layer. It was found the Ni-metal

Chen-Ming Hu; YewChung Sermon Wu

2007-01-01

226

Supercritical Fluid Immersion Deposition: A New Process for Selective Deposition of Metal Films on Silicon Substrates  

SciTech Connect

Supercritical CO2 is used as a new solvent for immersion deposition, a galvanic displacement process traditionally carried out in aqueous HF solutions containing metal ions, to selectively develop metal films on featured or non-featured silicon substrates. Components of supercritical fluid immersion deposition (SFID) solutions for fabricating Cu and Pd films on silicon substrates are described along with the corresponding experimental setup and procedure. Only silicon substrates exposed and reactive to SFID solutions can be coated. The highly pressurized and gas-like supercritical CO2, combined with the galvanic displacement property of immersion deposition, enables the SFID technique to selectively deposit metal films in small features. SFID may also provide a new method to fabricate palladium silicide in small features or to metallize porous silicon.

Ye, Xiangrong; Wai, Chien M.; Lin, Yuehe; Young, James S.; Engelhard, Mark H.

2005-01-01

227

Improved Density and Mechanical Properties of a Porous Metal-Free Phthalocyanine Thin Film Isotropically Pressed with Pressure Exceeding the Yield Strength  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metal-free phthalocyanine films were coated on substrates through vacuum evaporation, and the effects of applying a cold isostatic press were investigated. The thickness and convex surface height of cold isostatic pressed films decreased by 40 and 50%, respectively. Approximate agreement between the reduction rates indicates that pores exist mainly inside the as-coated films but along the film--substrate boundary and that film density improves with the cold isostatic pressing. The indentation modulus, hardness, and bending strength of the cold isostatic pressed films improved by factors of 2.3 and 2.8 and by 26%, respectively.

Kanari, Moriyasu; Wakamatsu, Takashi; Fatt, Randy Gui Guan; Ihara, Ikuo

2011-11-01

228

Corrosion Control Through a Better Understanding of the Metallic Substrate/Organic Coating/Interface.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the research is to obtain a better understanding of the metallic substrate organic coating interface system so that improvements may be made in corrosion control of metals by painting. Sodium, Polybutadiene, Steel, Lead, Acetates, Coating...

H. Leidheiser R. D. Granata

1989-01-01

229

A simple method for metal re-coating of optical fibre Bragg gratings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents a simple method for metal re-coating of silica optical fibre Bragg gratings. No vacuum techniques or any high-temperature methods such as dip or melt coating techniques are required. Optical fibres with metallic coatings such as aluminium, copper, tin and gold are commercially readily available. These coatings are usually applied in connection with the fibre drawing process, and

Stefan Sandlin; Tuomo Kinnunen; Jaakko Rämö; Mika Sillanpää

2006-01-01

230

Materials Property Evaluation of SiO2 Film Coated on Magnetite Nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a new manufacturing method of magnetite nanoparticles coated SiO2 amorphous film was proposed. Using the improved liquid phase precipitation method, magnetic nanoparticles can be coated with by the reaction of Na2SiO3 and HCl. The coated SiO2 amorphous film is about 2 nm in thickness. The composite nanoparticles coated SiO2 has good magnetic properties and ability to resist

Pei Bian; Dong-Ying Ju; Ge-Letu Qing; Y. Okabe

2007-01-01

231

Indirect Methods For Determination of The Protective Effects of Coating Films on The Surface of Crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extents of the protective effects of coating films on the surface of crystals were determined. Three different samples\\u000a were made with different quantities of coating fluid (Sepifilm LP 010 in 10% aqueous solution). Since the atomizing rate was\\u000a constant, the coating time increased in parallel with the volume of coating fluid applied. The direct measurement of film\\u000a thickness and

J. Bajdik; K. Pintye-Hódi; Cs. Novák; A. Kelemen; G. Regdon; I. Er?s

2002-01-01

232

Evaluation of Elastomers, Plastics, Coatings and Metals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is divided into two sections, one covering the mechanical properties of metals and the other the evaluation of nonmetallic materials. The first section studies the fracture and crack growth properties of the primary structural materials, HP 9N...

D. A. Gerdeman W. E. Berner G. J. Petrak

1974-01-01

233

Metal coatings for laser fusion targets by electroplating  

SciTech Connect

Metal coated laser fusion targets must be dense, uniform, spherically symmetric to within a few percent of their diameters, and smooth to better than a few tenths of a micron. Electroplating offers some unique advantages including low temperature deposition, a wide choice of elements, and substantial industrial plating technology. We have evaluated electroless and electroplating systems for gold and copper, identified the factors responsible for small grain size, and plated glass microspheres with both metals to achieve smooth surfaces and highly symmetric coatings. We have developed plating cells which sustain the microspheres in continuous random motion during plating. We have established techniques for deposition of the initial conductive adherent layer on the glass microsphere surface. Coatings as thick as 15 mm have been made. The equipment is simple, relatively inexpensive, and may be adopted for high volume production of laser fusion targets.

Illige, J.D.; Yu, C.M.; Letts, S.A.

1981-04-01

234

Metal coatings for laser fusion targets by electroplating  

SciTech Connect

Metal coated laser fusion targets must be dense, uniform spherically symmetric to within a few percent of their diameters and smooth to better than a few tenths of a micron. Electroplating offers some unique advantages including low temperature deposition, a wide choice of elements and substantial industrial plating technology. We have evaluatd electroless and electroplating systems for gold and copper, identified the factors responsible for small grain size, and plated glass microspheres with both metals to achieve smooth surfaces and highly symmetric coatings. We have developed plating cells which sustain the microspheres in continuous random motion during plating. We have established techniques for deposition of the initial conductive adherent layer on the glass microsphere surface. Coatings as thick as 15 ..mu..m have been made. The equipment is simple, relatively inexpensive and may be adopted for high volume production of laser fusion targets.

Illige, J.D.; Yu, C.M.; Letts, S.A.

1980-08-26

235

COATING ALTERNATIVES GUIDE (CAGE) FOR METAL PARTS AND PRODUCTS PAINTING  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the initial development of a Coating Alternatives Guide (CAGE) for metal parts and products painting. t is an innovative technology transfer approach that provides a tool to improve technology diffusion and assistance. t will provide vital, user-accessible inf...

236

Molecular dynamics simulation of metal coating on single-walled carbon nanotube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Behaviors of various metals coating on single-walled carbon nanotubes are simulated by molecular dynamics. Some of the potential parameter sets are derived by DFT calculations. The results indicate that each metal species can be smoothly coated on an isolated carbon nanotube, depending on the coating condition; however, continuous coating may not always be possible. The equilibrium position on the carbon nanotube is fixed; therefore, the coating is discontinuous for a large sized atom to reduce the distortion. The diffusion rate of the metal atoms is expressed in terms of the ratios of the binding energies of metal-metal and metal-carbon bonds.

Inoue, Shuhei; Matsumura, Yukihiko

2008-10-01

237

Refractive-index change caused by electrons in amorphous AsS and AsSe thin films doped with different metals by photodiffusion  

SciTech Connect

The refractive-index change caused by electrons was measured in amorphous AsS and AsSe thin films. Films were coated with different metals. Diffraction gratings were written by electron-beam lithography. The interactions of electrons in films with and without the photodiffusion of overcoated metal were compared. Incoming electrons caused metal atom and ion diffusion in both investigated cases. The metal diffusion was dependent on the metal and it was found to influence the refractive index. In some cases lateral diffusion of the metal was noticed. The conditions for applications were verified. {copyright} 2001 Optical Society of America

Nordman, Olli; Nordman, Nina; Pashkevich, Valfrid

2001-08-01

238

Method For Improving The Oxidation Resistance Of Metal Substrates Coated With Thermal Barrier Coatings  

DOEpatents

A method for providing a protective coating on a metal-based substrate is disclosed. The method involves the application of an aluminum-rich mixture to the substrate to form a discontinuous layer of aluminum-rich particles, followed by the application of a second coating over the discontinuous layer of aluminum-rich particles. Aluminum diffuses from the aluminum-rich layer into the substrate, and into any bond coat layer which is subsequently applied. Related articles are also described. A method for providing a protective coating on a metal-based substrate is disclosed. The method involves the application of an aluminum-rich mixture to the substrate to form a discontinuous layer of aluminum-rich particles, followed by the application of a second coating over the discontinuous layer of aluminum-rich particles. Aluminum diffuses from the aluminum-rich layer into the substrate, and into any bond coat layer which is subsequently applied. Related articles are also described.

Thompson, Anthony Mark (Niskayuna, NY); Gray, Dennis Michael (Delanson, NY); Jackson, Melvin Robert (Niskayuna, NY)

2003-05-13

239

Growth and BZO-doping of the nanostructured YBCO thin films on buffered metal substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growth of the nanostructured YBa2Cu3O6+x (YBCO) films is investigated for the first time on biaxially textured NiW substrates used in coated conductor technology. The optimization process of superconducting layers is made in wide magnetic field and temperature range in order to understand the vortex pinning structure and mechanism in our films prepared from nanostructured material. Structural analysis shows that growth mechanism in YBCO films grown on NiW is completely different when compared to YBCO on STO. Films on NiW are much rougher, there is huge in-plane variation of YBCO crystals and moreover out-of-plane long range lattice ordering is greatly reduced. Magnetic measurements demonstrate that jc in films grown on NiW is higher in high magnetic fields and low temperatures. This effect is connected to the amount of pinning centres observed in films on metal substrates which are effective at low temperature range.

Huhtinen, H.; Irjala, M.; Paturi, P.; Grivel, J. C.; Tse, Y. Y.; Falter, M.; Eickemeyer, J.; Zhao, Y.

2010-12-01

240

Coatings for corrosion protection of metals and alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin films prepared by electrochemical and physical vapor deposition (PVD) methods were investigated for corrosion protection of metals and alloys. Various electrochemical methods were developed, such as electrophoretic deposition (EPD), electrolytic deposition (ELD) and combined methods. EPD method has been developed for the deposition of polymer films, including poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PVP) and co-polymer poly(4-vinylpyridine-co-butyl methacrylate) (PVPBM). The method involved the electrophoresis

Lijia Yang

2012-01-01

241

Method of producing solution-derived metal oxide thin films  

DOEpatents

A method of preparing metal oxide thin films by a solution method. A .beta.-metal .beta.-diketonate or carboxylate compound, where the metal is selected from groups 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 of the Periodic Table, is solubilized in a strong Lewis base to form a homogeneous solution. This precursor solution forms within minutes and can be deposited on a substrate in a single layer or a multiple layers to form a metal oxide thin film. The substrate with the deposited thin film is heated to change the film from an amorphous phase to a ceramic metal oxide and cooled.

Boyle, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Ingersoll, David (Albuquerque, NM)

2000-01-01

242

Self-cleaning diffractive macroporous films by doctor blade coating.  

PubMed

Here we report a scalable bottom-up technology for creating three-dimensionally highly ordered macroporous polymer films with excellent water-repelling and optical diffractive properties. A simple doctor blade coating process is first utilized to create silica colloidal crystal-polymer nanocomposites. The close-packed silica spheres are selectively removed to fabricate flexible macroporous polymer films with crystalline arrays of voids which are interconnected through small nanopores. The size of the voids can be easily controlled by tuning the duration of an oxygen reactive-ion etching process prior to the removal of the templating silica spheres. After surface functionalization with fluorosilane, superhydrophobic surface with large apparent water contact angle and small sliding angle can be obtained. The water-repelling property can be quantitatively explained by adapting the Cassie's dewetting model. We further demonstrate that self-cleaning functionality can be achieved on superhydrophobic macroporous coatings by preventing bacterial contamination. The high crystalline quality of the macroporous polymers also enables strong optical diffraction from the periodic lattice. The optical properties are evaluated by normal-incidence reflectance measurements and theoretical calculation using a scalar-wave approximation model. A good agreement between theory and experiment has been obtained. The simultaneous achievement of controlled dewetting and strong optical diffraction by templated porous films could open new applications in self-cleaning diffractive optics. PMID:20617800

Yang, Hongta; Jiang, Peng

2010-08-01

243

Effect of fullerene coating on silicon thin film anodes for lithium rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve the electrochemical performances of Si thin film anodes for lithium rechargeable batteries, fullerene thin films\\u000a are prepared by plasma-assisted evaporation methods to be used as coating materials. Analyses via Raman and X-ray photoelectron\\u000a spectroscopy indicate that amorphous polymeric films originated from fullerene are formed on the surface of the silicon thin\\u000a film. The electrochemical performance of these fullerene-coated

Arenst Andreas Arie; Wonyoung Chang; Joong Kee Lee

2010-01-01

244

Tribological Properties of Segment-Structured DLC Films Coated on Stainless Steel Substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films have low friction coefficient against variety of materials and high wear resistance; however, DLCs are often damaged when the DLC film is distorted with deformation of the substrate. Segment-structured DLC (S-DLC) coating has been developed to improve these weak points of DLC films. The S-DLC coating is a technique to separate the DLC film into the

Tsuyoshi Kuroda; Mai Takashima; Naoto Ohtake; Osamu Takai

2009-01-01

245

Water-Resistant Films and Coatings Based on Cross-Linking Styrene-Acrylate Latex Copolymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-resistant films and coatings were prepared from latexes of copolymers of styrene, n-butyl acrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, glycidyl methacrylate, and methacrylic acid. The degree of cross-linking of the copolymers in the course of film formation and the water resistance of the films and coatings, associated with this parameter and evaluated by the water absorption and mechanical properties of wet films, were

S. S. Ivanchev; V. N. Pavlyuchenko; N. A. Byrdina; M. Skrifvars; J. Koskinen

2001-01-01

246

A preconcentrator chip employing ?-SPME array coated with in-situ-synthesized carbon adsorbent film for VOCs analysis.  

PubMed

We report the design, fabrication, and evaluation of a ?-preconcentrator chip that utilizes an array of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) needles coated with in-situ-grown carbon adsorbent film. The structure of the SPME needle (diameter=100 ?m, height=250 ?m) array inside the sampling chamber was fabricated using a deep reactive-ion etching (DRIE) process to enhance the attachable surface area for adsorbent film. Heaters and temperature sensors were fabricated onto the back of a ?-preconcentrator chip using lithography patterning and a metal lift-off process. The devices were sealed by anodic bonding and diced prior to the application of the adsorbent film. An adsorbent precursor, cellulose was dissolved in water and dynamically coated onto the SPME needle array. The coated cellulose film was converted into a porous carbon film via pyrolysis at 600 °C in a N(2) atmosphere. The surface area of the carbon adsorbent film was 308 m(2)/g, which is higher than that of a commercial adsorbent Carbopack X. A preconcentration factor as high as 13,637-fold was demonstrated using toluene. Eleven volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of different volatilities and functional groups were sampled and analyzed by GC-FID, and the desorption peak widths at half height were all less than 2.6 s after elution from a 15m capillary GC column. There was no sign of performance degradation after continuous operation for 50 cycles in air. PMID:23158327

Wong, Ming-Yee; Cheng, Wei-Rui; Liu, Mao-Huang; Tian, Wei-Cheng; Lu, Chia-Jung

2012-10-08

247

The Electronic Structure of Transition Metal Coated Fullerenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clusters composed of fullerene molecules with an outer shell of transition metal atoms in the composition C_60M_62 (M being a transition metal) have been produced with laser vaporisation techniques(F. Tast, N. Malinowski, S. Frank, M. Heinebrodt, I.M.L. Billas, and T. P. Martin, Z. Phys D 40), 351 (1997).. We have studied several of these very large systems with a parallel version of the all-electron NRLMOL cluster code. Optimized geometries of the metal encased fullerenes C_60Ti_62 and C_60V_62 are presented along with their HOMO-LUMO gaps, electron affinities, ionization energies, and cohesive energies. We compare the stability of these clusters to relaxed met-car structures (e.g. Ti_8C_12) and to relaxed rocksalt metal-carbide fragments (TiC)n with n=8 and 32. In addition to metal-coated fullerenes we consider the possibility of a trilayered structure consisting of a small shell of metal atoms enclosed by a metal coated fullerene. The nature of bonding in these systems is analyzed by studying the electronic charge distributions.

Patton, David C.; Pederson, Mark R.; Kaxiras, Efthimios

1998-03-01

248

Bilayer films composed of wheat gluten film and UV-cured coating: water vapor permeability and other functional properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Two types of UV-cured coating were deposited on wheat gluten film to improve the water vapor barrier properties of this highly\\u000a interesting natural film in such application as fresh produces packaging. The use of an epoxy acrylate and an urethane acrylate\\u000a coating allowed to reduce by half the water solubility and the water vapor permeance of the gluten film.

Josiane Irissin-Mangata; Gérard Bauduin; Bernard Boutevin

2000-01-01

249

Investigation of Cu coatings deposited by kinetic metallization  

SciTech Connect

Interfacial characterisation of Kinetic Metallization (KM) sprayed Cu coatings applied on metal substrates was performed using optical and electron microscopy, as well as microindentation hardness testing and microchemical analysis. The interfacial characterisation of KM coatings remains scarce to date. Cross sectional observations of KM coatings on light metal substrates revealed an undulating, patelliform profile with thin-lipped cusps at the interface. Pure Al and Mg substrates exhibited a mechanically impinged zone <{approx}5 {mu}m on the substrate material, approximately the size of deformed Cu powder particles. Examination of the Cu side of the interface indicated there was no long range interaction in the coating. On the substrate side of the interface, the KM process induced phase transformations (i.e. recrystallisation and an alloyed zone) in thin layers contiguous to the interface on pure Al and Mg substrates. Zones of elemental interdiffusion were identified at the interface upon Al and Mg substrates using scanning TEM. The width of intermixing zones was in the vicinity of < 1 {mu}m. This metallurgical interaction at the interface occurred on the length scales involving the initial single layer of Cu particles bonded on the substrate.

Han, Y.K. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals (Australia); Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Birbilis, N., E-mail: nick.birbilis@eng.monash.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals (Australia); Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Spencer, K.; Zhang, M.-X. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals (Australia); School of Engineering, Division of Materials, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); Muddle, B.C. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals (Australia); Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia)

2010-11-15

250

Effectiveness and stability of plastic films coated with nisin for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes.  

PubMed

Plastic films were coated with a cellulose-based carrier solution containing nisin, a natural antimicrobial peptide with the potential to inhibit growth of food spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms such as Listeria monocytogenes. Five commercial plastic films with different chemical compositions and surface properties were compared in this study: low-density polyethylene, ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, and three types of ethylene-methacrylic acid copolymers: Surlyn 1601, Nucrel 0403, and Nucrel 0903. The films were coated with nisin at a concentration of 1000 IU/cm2. Nisin-coated films were stored at room temperature (21 degrees C) and at 4 degrees C and analyzed weekly for 12 weeks. Antimicrobial activity of the different nisin-coated films against a nisin indicator strain, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris ATCC 14365, and against L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115 was assessed using an inhibition zone assay. Nisin incorporated into the films was recovered by a boiling and extraction procedure, and its activity was quantified using an agar well diffusion assay. Film type did not have any significant effect on the antimicrobial activity of the nisin-coated films (P < 0.05); all five film types had comparable inhibition zones on both assays. The films maintained stable activity for the duration of the study, both at room temperature and refrigeration. The results of this study demonstrate that commercially available packaging films can be coated with nisin and the resulting antimicrobial films can be conveniently stored at room temperature with no adverse effect on nisin activity. PMID:17536692

Neetoo, Hudaa; Ye, Mu; Chen, Haiqiang

2007-05-01

251

Study of photothermal response in thin film coatings by ellipsometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photothermal response is a process in which the absorption of optical wave in a sample will induce a temperature rise, hence a modification of the refractive index of the sample. By detecting the change of the refractive index, the absorption property of the sample can be obtained. In this paper, an ellipsometric study of the photothermal response is presented. By analyzing the polarization change of the probe beam caused by the pump beam through photothermal response, we can obtain the surface absorption property of the samples we are interested in. Our results indicate that this technique is very promising for the analysis of weak absorption in thin film coatings.

Dong, Jingtao; Chen, Jian; Wu, Zhouling

2013-07-01

252

Silicide coating on refractory metals in molten salt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For better oxidation resistance of refractory metals in air, the electroless coating of silicide in the molten salt was developed in open air at 973 1173 K. The molten salt consists of NaCl, KCl, Na2SiF6 and Si powder, where the proportional reaction between Si and Si4+ ions forms Si2+ ions. Si2+ deposits on the metal substrate and forms the metal silicide. The deposited silicide layers were classified into two categories depending on the metal substrates: (1) Nb, Mo and Cr mainly formed silicon-rich disilicide (MSi2) layer. (2) Fe, Ni and Co formed silicon-poor silicide layer (MSin, n<2), such as Fe3Si. This difference was described by the diffusivity of Si through the silicide layer into the metal.

Tatemoto, K.; Ono, Y.; Suzuki, R. O.

2005-02-01

253

Development of polycrystalline silicon films on flexible metallic substrates by aluminium induced crystallization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin film silicon solar cells on low cost foreign substrates could be attractive for highly efficient and low cost production of photovoltaic electricity. An attempt has been made to synthesise high-quality continuous polycrystalline silicon ( pc-Si) layers on flexible metallic substrates using aluminium induced crystallization (AIC) for the first time. Amorphous silicon films deposited by ECR-PECVD were crystallized on diffusion barrier coated metallic substrates at lower temperatures (<577°C). The crystallization was studied using Raman as well as UV reflectance spectroscopy. The as-grown AIC pc-Si films were found to be continuous and densely packed without amorphous phase. The migration of impurities from the substrate to the pc-Si films and the conformability of the barrier layer with the substrate and pc-Si films were studied systematically in terms of chemical and stress level analysis, which are the important aspects to be considered when metallic foils are used as substrates. It was observed that the barrier layer also serves as a buffer layer to minimise the stress level enormously in the AIC grown pc-Si layer, though the supporting material has a thermal expansion coefficient of higher order at higher annealing temperatures. The present investigation proves the possibility to grow better-quality polycrystalline silicon films on flexible metallic foils and further demonstrates the steps that need to be considered to improve the quality of AIC pc-Si films as well as the strength of the barrier layer.

Prathap, P.; Slaoui, A.; Ducros, C.; Baclet, N.; Reydet, P. L.

2009-10-01

254

Plasmonic enhancement of thin-film solar cells using gold-black coatings  

SciTech Connect

Coatings of conducting gold-black nano-structures on commercial thin-film amorphous-silicon solar cells enhance the short-circuit current by 20% over a broad spectrum from 400 to 800 nm wavelength. The efficiency, i.e. the ratio of the maximum electrical output power to the incident solar power, is found to increase 7% for initial un-optimized coatings. Metal blacks are produced cheaply and quickly in a low-vacuum process requiring no lithographic patterning. The inherently broad particle-size distribution is responsible for the broad spectrum enhancement in comparison to what has been reported for mono-disperse lithographically deposited or self-assembled metal nano-particles. Photoemission electron microscopy reveals the spatial-spectral distribution of hot-spots for plasmon resonances, where scattering of normally-incident solar flux into the plane increases the effective optical path in the thin film to enhance light harvesting. Efficiency enhancement is correlated with percent coverage and particle size distribution, which are determined from histogram and wavelet analysis of scanning electron microscopy images. Electrodynamic simulations reveal how the gold-black particles scatter the radiation and locally enhance the field strength.

Fredricksen, Christopher J.; Panjwani, D. R.; Arnold, J. P.; Figueiredo, P. N.; Rezaie, F. K.; Colwell, J. E.; Baillie, K.; Peppernick, Samuel J.; Joly, Alan G.; Beck, Kenneth M.; Hess, Wayne P.; Peale, Robert E.

2011-08-11

255

Effect of heat treatment, top coatings and conversion coatings on the corrosion properties of black electroless Ni–P films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electroless black nickel–phosphorus plating is an advanced electroless nickel plating process formulated to deposit a black finish when processed through an oxidizing acid solution. Heat treatment, five types of top organic coating techniques and one conversion coating technique with three different experimental conditions were investigated to stabilize the black film and increase the hardness and corrosion resistance. Morphology and compositions

Y. Liu; D. Beckett; D. Hawthorne

2011-01-01

256

Pulsed-laser deposited transition-metal carbides for field-emission cathode coatings.  

PubMed

Thin films of transition-metal carbides ZrC, HfC, and TiC were deposited by pulsed-laser deposition under vacuum. The surface chemistry of the films was characterized with ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Auger electron spectroscopy in situ. X-ray diffraction was used to characterize the film structure. TiC was shown to be nearly stoichiometric and polycrystalline. The TiC was applied to a vertically aligned carbon nanotube sample and characterized by field emission. Field-emission results showed enhanced current and current density at a film thickness, 5 nm, not previously reported in the literature. Emission from TiC films was also shown to be less affected by adsorbates during field emission. Pulsed-laser deposition of TiC offers a distinct advantage over other techniques in that high-quality films can be obtained under ultrahigh vacuum conditions without the use of a reactive background gas or excessively high annealing temperatures. The application of TiC by pulsed-laser deposition as a cathode coating shows potential for integration into a fabrication process. PMID:23988076

Back, Tyson; Fairchild, Steven B; Averett, Kent; Maruyama, Benji; Pierce, Neal; Cahay, Marc; Murray, P Terrence

2013-09-16

257

Rate controlled synthesis of composition modulated, metal-oxide thin films  

SciTech Connect

The development of advanced deposition technologies is continuously evolving for the synthesis of oxide coatings used in optical applications. Recent progress is made in the use of magnetron sputtering to reactively deposit metal-oxide thin films. Sputter deposition parameters are chosen to vary the composition along the film growth direction. The key process parameter to control is the sputtering rate of the target. The shape of the composition profile directly corresponds to the preselected variation of deposition rate. By simply varying the sputtering rate using a working gas that consists of an inert-oxygen mixture, structures are synthesized with composition profiles which can be either abrupt or graded in the growth direction. Result is a compositionally modulated structure of the metal-oxide system. This procedure for composition modulated synthesis is demonstrated for metals which are highly reactive with oxygen as well as for those metals which are not. The development of this deposition methodology will facilitate the design of metal oxide films for optical applications, as in gradient-index filters for example. Results are presented for the reactive sputter deposition of metal oxide coatings in the Y-O, Mo-O, and Cu-O systems.

Jankowski, A.F.

1994-07-01

258

Local oxidation of metal and metal nitride films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxide growth on sputter-deposited thin films is studied on the local scale by atomic force microscope (AFM)-assisted lithography. We investigate the group IV reactive metals Zr, Hf, Ti, and their nitrides. The nitrogen content of the deposition plasma affects the film crystal structure and electrical resistivity, which in turn alter the local oxidation rates. Mass transport plays an important role, producing features with heights ranging from a few nanometers up to hundreds of nanometers. The heights of the largest features are one to two orders of magnitude greater than observed in other material systems, and the growth is well controlled. We use various techniques to investigate the solid-state reaction and transport mechanisms involved in this oxidation driven by a highly localized electric field. Our results demonstrate the potential of AFM lithographic techniques for characterizing oxidation processes across a wide range of time and length scales. .

Farkas, N.; Tokash, J. C.; Zhang, G.; Evans, E. A.; Ramsier, R. D.; Dagata, J. A.

2004-07-01

259

Graphene oxide thin film coated quartz crystal microbalance for humidity detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we demonstrated that chemically derived graphene oxide (GO) thin film as a humidity sensitive coating deposited on quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) for humidity detection. By exposing GO thin film coated QCMs to various relative humidity (RH) environments at room temperature, the humidity sensing characteristics of the QCMs such as sensitivity and linearity, response and recovery, humidity hysteresis

Yao Yao; Xiangdong Chen; Huihui Guo; Zuquan Wu

2011-01-01

260

Gas barrier properties and periodically fractured surface of thin DLC films coated on flexible polymer substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin DLC films coated on polymer surfaces are attracting considerable attention due to their wide applications and their interesting surface properties. When DLC films were coated on polymers, the resulting DLC-polymer composites are highly functionalized materials, some of which presenting dramatically improved gas barrier properties.In this paper, we will introduce several commonly used polymers including polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyethylene (PE)

Dai Tsubone; Hideyuki Kodama; Terumitsu Hasebe; Atsushi Hotta

2007-01-01

261

Antimicrobial Edible Films and Coatings for Fresh and Minimally Processed Fruits and Vegetables: a Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of edible films and coatings is an environmentally friendly technology that offers substantial advantages for shelf-life increase of many food products including fruits and vegetables. The development of new natural edible films and coatings with the addition of antimicrobial compounds to preserve fresh and minimally processed fruits and vegetables is a technological challenge for the industry and a

SILVIA A. VALENCIA-CHAMORRO; LLUÍS PALOU; MIGUEL A. DEL RÍO; MARÍA B. PÉREZ-GAGO

2011-01-01

262

Near-Field Microwave Detection of Corrosion Precursor Pitting under Thin Dielectric Coatings in Metallic Substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of corrosion precursor pitting on metallic surfaces under various coatings and on bare metal is of keen interest in evaluation of aircraft fuselage. Near-field microwave nondestructive testing methods, utilizing open-ended rectangular waveguides and coaxial probes, have been used extensively for detection of surface flaws in metals, both on bare metal and under a dielectric coating. This paper presents the

D. Hughes; R. Zoughi; R. Austin; N. Wood; R. Engelbart

2003-01-01

263

Mechanical and environmental stability of polymer thin-film-coated graphene.  

PubMed

A uniform polymer thin layer of controllable thickness was bar-coated onto a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown monolayer graphene surface. The effects of this coating layer on the optical, electric, and tribological properties were then investigated. The thin polymer coating layer did not reduce the optical transmittance of the graphene films. The variation in the sheet resistance of the graphene films after the coating depended on the interaction between polymer and graphene. The top coating layer can maintain the high conductivity of chemical doped graphene films under long-term ambient conditions compared with uncovered doped samples. Friction tests demonstrated that the polymer coating layer can enhance both the friction force and the coefficient of friction of the graphene films and protect the graphene against damage in the repeated sliding processes. PMID:22148162

Yan, Chao; Kim, Kwang-Seop; Lee, Seoung-Ki; Bae, Sang-Hoon; Hong, Byung Hee; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Hak-Joo; Ahn, Jong-Hyun

2011-12-19

264

Improved method to evaluate the adhesion properties of thin film conformal coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conformal coatings are widely used by the electronics industry to protect sensitive equipment from moisture and corrosion. Of these, parylene thin-film coatings have many material properties such as low dielectric and dissipation factors, high operating temperatures, excellent conformability and low moisture permeability, which make them an attractive conformal material for numerous applications. However, adhesion of parylene coatings is critical to

Owen Hildreth; C. P. Wong

2009-01-01

265

Plasma polymerized allylamine films deposited on 316L stainless steel for cardiovascular stent coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coronary stents are metallic (316L stainless steel) medical devices used during balloon angioplasty to scaffold diseased arteries and prevent their reblockage. To reduce the restenosis rate, bare metal stent coating is a promising solution. The coating can protect the metallic surface of the stent from corrosion attack caused by the biological environment. In addition, according to Food and Drug Administration

Enrico Gallino; Sylvain Massey; Michael Tatoulian; Diego Mantovani

2010-01-01

266

Plasmonic nanofocusing by means of metal coated dielectric nanowedges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report our results on arrays of transparent metal coated wedges for plasmonic nanofocusing. FIB milling and chemical etching were used for the fabrication. FEM simulations were used to design the system. The design, fabrication and characterization of wedge structures are presented. The structure shows plasmonic properties in the optical spectral range, with excitation and propagation of surface plasmon polaritons at the wedge tip. The particular designs proposed allow the condensation of plasmonic waves at the wedge tips leading to the nanofocusing effects.

Garoli, D.; Zilio, P.; Natali, M.; Carli, M.; Ongarello, T.; Romanato, F.

2012-10-01

267

Taste Sensor Response Dependence on Metal Electrode using LB Film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, sensor response by metal electrode and electrode surface condition was described. Single detecting film and multi metal electrodes were also examined. Metal electrode was changed from the conventional Ag and Au plate to Au, Ti and Cr evaporated metal films. To detect five basic taste substances, sensor parameters were defined by maximum voltage change and response time. Using these parameters five basic substances were clearly discriminated.

Takafuji, Satoshi; Akiya, Masashiro

268

Nanoarchitectured metal film electrodes with high electroactive surface areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Well-defined nanoarchitectured metal film electrodes (NMFEs) with high electroactive surface areas relative to corresponding metal macroelectrode have been fabricated by direct evaporating metal onto porous anodic aluminum oxide films in a two-step route. The so-prepared metal electrodes have high dense hollow nanostructure arrays upstanding on their surfaces and thin thickness within several hundred nanometers, which endow them with enhanced electroactive

Yu-Guo Guo; Hui-Min Zhang; Jin-Song Hu; Li-Jun Wan; Chun-Li Bai

2005-01-01

269

Galvano-Diffusion Effect in Thin Film Metal Dielectric Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

THIS paper describes further studies of galvano-diffusion phenomena as first reported at the 1963 Failure Mechanism Symposium. It has been found that a voltage is generated between the metal electrodes of a thin film metal-dielectric-metal sandwich. A necessary requirement for the phenomenon is ionic diffusion through the dielectric accompanied by an oxidation of one of the metal films. The ionic

J. J. Wortman; R. M. Burger

1964-01-01

270

Electron emission from films of carbon nanotubes and ta-C coated nanotubes  

SciTech Connect

The field emission properties of multiwall carbon nanotube films with and without a coating of tetrahedrally bonded amorphous carbon (ta-C) were investigated. Voltage thresholds of 2.4 V/{mu}m for uncoated films and 1.5 V/{mu}m for ta-C coated films were found. The results for the uncoated films are in good agreement with previous measurements of field emission from carbon nanotubes. The effect of the ta-C coating on the emission properties is discussed in light of current field emission models. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

Dimitrijevic, S.; Withers, J.C. [MER Corporation, 7960 South Kolb Road, Tucson, Arizona 85706 (United States); Mammana, V.P. [Instituto de Fisica, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo SP 05315 (Brazil); Monteiro, O.R.; Ager, J.W. III; Brown, I.G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

1999-10-01

271

Metallic coatings for enhancement of thermal contact conductance  

SciTech Connect

The reliability of standard electronic modules may be improved by decreasing overall module temperature. This may be accomplished by enhancing the thermal contact conductance at the interface between the module frame guide rib and the card rail to which the module is clamped. Some metallic coatings, when applied to the card rail, would deform under load, increasing the contact area and associated conductance. This investigation evaluates the enhancements in thermal conductance afforded by vapor deposited silver and gold coatings. Experimental thermal conductance measurements were made for anodized aluminum 6101-T6 and electroless nickel-plated copper C11000-H03 card materials to the aluminum A356-T61 rail material. Conductance values for the electroless nickel-plated copper junction ranged from 600 to 2800 W/m(exp 2)K and those for the anodized aluminum junction ranged from 25 to 91 W/m(exp 2)K for contact pressures of 0.172-0.862 MPa and mean junction temperatures of 20-100 C. Experimental thermal conductance values of vapor deposited silver- and gold-coated aluminum A356-T61 rail surfaces indicate thermal enhancements of 1.25-2.19 for the electroless nickel-plated copper junctions and 1.79-3.41 for the anodized aluminum junctions. The silver and gold coatings provide significant thermal enhancement; however, these coating-substrate combinations are susceptible to galvanic corrosion under some conditions. 25 refs.

Lambert, M.A.; Fletcher, L.S. (Texas A M Univ., College Station, TX (United States))

1994-04-01

272

Quantitative analysis of electroplated nickel coating on hard metal.  

PubMed

Electroplated nickel coating on cemented carbide is a potential pretreatment technique for providing an interlayer prior to diamond deposition on the hard metal substrate. The electroplated nickel coating is expected to be of high quality, for example, indicated by having adequate thickness and uniformity. Electroplating parameters should be set accordingly for this purpose. In this study, the gap distances between the electrodes and duration of electroplating process are the investigated variables. Their effect on the coating thickness and uniformity was analyzed and quantified using design of experiment. The nickel deposition was carried out by electroplating in a standard Watt's solution keeping other plating parameters (current: 0.1?Amp, electric potential: 1.0?V, and pH: 3.5) constant. The gap distance between anode and cathode varied at 5, 10, and 15?mm, while the plating time was 10, 20, and 30 minutes. Coating thickness was found to be proportional to the plating time and inversely proportional to the electrode gap distance, while the uniformity tends to improve at a large electrode gap. Empirical models of both coating thickness and uniformity were developed within the ranges of the gap distance and plating time settings, and an optimized solution was determined using these models. PMID:23997678

Wahab, Hassan A; Noordin, M Y; Izman, S; Kurniawan, Denni

2013-08-06

273

Tribology of a novel UHMWPE\\/PFPE dual-film coated onto Si surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel wear resistant polymer composite layer is coated onto the Si surface. The first layer consists of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) film and the second top layer is made of perfluoropolyether (PFPE). These two layers are coated onto Si using a simple dip-coating technique. This particular combination of dual-film has reduced the coefficient of friction by at least

N. Satyanarayana; Sujeet K. Sinha; Boon Hong Ong

2006-01-01

274

Delivery of Flavor and Active Ingredients Using Edible Films and Coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Edible films and coatings are promising systems for improvement of food quality, shelf life, safety, and functionality. They\\u000a can be used as individual packaging materials, food coating materials, and active ingredient carriers. They can also be used\\u000a to separate the compartments of heterogeneous ingredients within foods. In fact, edible films and coatings can incorporate\\u000a food additives, such as anti-browning agents,

Olga Martín-Belloso; M. Alejandra Rojas-Graü; Robert Soliva-Fortuny

275

Hydrophobicity and Water Vapor Permeability of Ethylene-plasma-coated Whey, Chitosan and Starch Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water vapor transmission rate was measured on uncoated and ethyfeae-plasma-coated whey (65-93.5% whey protein), on chitosan and starch films and on aluminum-coated chitosan. Surface hydrophobicity was assessed by contact angle measurements, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to characterize the coatings. The water vapor transmission rate through the uncoated polymer films was highest for starch and lowest for chitosan. Whey

M. Lundbäck; M. S. Hedenqvist; A. Jansson; A. Wirsén; A.-C. Albertsson; U. W. Gedde; C. Hägglund; K. Petersén

2001-01-01

276

Modification of surface properties on a nitride based coating films through mirror-quality finish grinding  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we performed a specific precision grinding process in an attempt to improve the mirror-quality finish and tribological characteristics of titanium nitride based coating films (TiN, TiCN, and TiAIN). The ground surfaces were highly smooth with no evidence of cracking, chipping, or peeling, demonstrating that the hard coating films were finished uniformly. For the TiAIN coating, a significant

K. Katahira; H. Ohmori; J. Komotori; D. Dornfeld; H. Kotani; M. Mizutani

2010-01-01

277

Study of coating distribution onto metallic hollow particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porous lightweight materials have found increasing interest for various applications. Regular structured cellular materials might be accessible by sintering the hollow metallic particles. The properties of the final product depend to a large extent on the properties of original hollow metallic particles. Therefore, the preparation of reliable hollow spheres of defined parameters represents an important step towards the cellular solids production by means of powder metallurgy route. Electrochemical deposition of metallic coatings on the surface of hollow spherical particles facilitates the required modification of the surface corresponding to high mechanical quality. The copper hollow spheres were created on porous iron powder particles by electroless deposition. The suitable matrix for the preparation of relatively light but mechanically strong porous materials was obtained by electrochemical plating of copper hollow micro-particles by Ni layer. In this study ToF-SIMS depth profiling and SEM/EDX analysis with elements mapping are used to investigate the distribution of the coating components across the surface and subsurface layer of coated hollow particles.

Ori?áková, Renáta; Ori?ák, Andrej; Arlinghaus, Heinrich F.; Hellweg, Sebastian; Kupková, Miriam; Kabátová, Margita

2006-07-01

278

Fabrication of antiferroelectric PLZT films on metal foils  

SciTech Connect

Fabrication of high-dielectric-strength antiferroelectric (AFE) films on metallic foils is technically important for advanced power electronics. To that end, we have deposited crack-free Pb{sub 0.92}La{sub 0.08}Zr{sub 0.95}Ti{sub 0.05}O{sub 3} (PLZT 8/95/5) films on nickel foils by chemical solution deposition. To eliminate the parasitic effect caused by the formation of a low-permittivity interfacial oxide, a conductive buffer layer of lanthanum nickel oxide (LNO) was coated by chemical solution deposition on the nickel foil before the deposition of PLZT. Use of the LNO buffer allowed high-quality film-on-foil capacitors to be processed in air. With the PLZT 8/95/5 deposited on LNO-buffered Ni foils, we observed field- and thermal-induced phase transformations of AFE to ferroelectric (FE). The AFE-to-FE phase transition field, E{sub AF} = 225 kV/cm, and the reverse phase transition field, E{sub FA} = 190 kV/cm, were measured at room temperature on a {approx}1.15 {mu}m-thick PLZT 8/95/5 film grown on LNO-buffered Ni foils. The relative permittivities of the AFE and FE states were {approx}600 and {approx}730, respectively, with dielectric loss {approx}0.04 at room temperature. The Curie temperature was {approx}210 deg. C. The thermal-induced transition of AFE-to-FE phase occurred at {approx}175 deg. C. Breakdown field strength of 1.2 MV/cm was measured at room temperature.

Ma Beihai [Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)], E-mail: bma@anl.gov; Kwon, Do-Kyun; Narayanan, Manoj; Balachandran, U. [Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

2009-01-08

279

Fabrication of antiferroelectric PLZT films on metal foils.  

SciTech Connect

Fabrication of high-dielectric-strength antiferroelectric (AFE) films on metallic foils is technically important for advanced power electronics. To that end, we have deposited crack-free Pb{sub 0.92}La{sub 0.08}Zr{sub 0.95}Ti{sub 0.05}O{sub 3} (PLZT 8/95/5) films on nickel foils by chemical solution deposition. To eliminate the parasitic effect caused by the formation of a low-permittivity interfacial oxide, a conductive buffer layer of lanthanum nickel oxide (LNO) was coated by chemical solution deposition on the nickel foil before the deposition of PLZT. Use of the LNO buffer allowed high-quality film-on-foil capacitors to be processed in air. With the PLZT 8/95/5 deposited on LNO-buffered Ni foils, we observed field- and thermal-induced phase transformations of AFE to ferroelectric (FE). The AFE-to-FE phase transition field, E{sub AF} = 225 kV/cm, and the reverse phase transition field, E{sub FA} = 190 kV/cm, were measured at room temperature on a {approx}1.15 {micro}m-thick PLZT 8/95/5 film grown on LNO-buffered Ni foils. The relative permittivities of the AFE and FE states were {approx}600 and {approx}730, respectively, with dielectric loss {approx}0.04 at room temperature. The Curie temperature was {approx}210 C. The thermal-induced transition of AFE-to-FE phase occurred at {approx}175 C. Breakdown field strength of 1.2 MV/cm was measured at room temperature.

Ma, B.; Kwon, D.-K.; Narayanan, M.; Balachandran, U.; Energy Systems

2009-01-01

280

Photoresponse of a miniaturized ultrabroad-band low-noise metal-film bolometer detector array  

Microsoft Academic Search

A miniaturized low-noise metal-film bolometer detector array capable of recording radiation spanning a wide spectral range is presented. The bolometers consist of structured gold layers coated with a black nickel layer to reduce the reflectivity in the long-wavelength range. Investigation of the device`s photoresponse showed sufficient sensitivity at wavelengths lambda =4 mm to 6 AA. The detector unit meets high-vacuum

P. T. Lang; K. F. Mast

1996-01-01

281

Alumina coating on dense tungsten powder by fluidized bed metal organic chemical vapour deposition.  

PubMed

In order to study the feasibility of coating very dense powders by alumina using Fluidized Bed Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition (FB-MOCVD), experiments were performed on a commercial tungsten powder, 75 microm in median volume diameter and 19,300 kg/m3 in grain density. The first part of the work was dedicated to the experimental study of the tungsten powder fluidization using argon as carrier gas at room temperature and at 400 degrees C. Due to the very high density of the tungsten powder, leading to low initial fixed bed heights and low bed expansions, different weights of powder were tested in order to reach satisfactory temperature profiles along the fluidized bed. Then, using argon as a fluidized bed former and aluminium acetylacetonate Al(C5O2H7)3 as a single source precursor, alumina thin films were deposited on tungsten particles at a low temperature range (e.g., 370-420 degrees C) by FB-MOCVD. The influence of the weight of powder, bed temperature and run duration was studied. Characterizations of the obtained samples were performed by various techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analyses, Field Emission Gun SEM (FEG-SEM) and Fourier Transform InfraRed (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The different analyses indicated that tungsten particles were uniformly coated by a continuous alumina thin film. The thickness of the film ranged between 25 and 80 nm, depending on the coating conditions. The alumina thin films were amorphous and contained carbon contamination. This latter may correspond to the adsorption of species resulting from incomplete decomposition of the precursor at so low deposition temperature. PMID:22097534

Rodriguez, Philippe; Caussat, Brigitte; Ablitzer, Carine; Iltis, Xavière; Brothier, Meryl

2011-09-01

282

Synthesis of window glazing coated with silica aerogel films via ambient drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ambient drying process (1 atm, 270 °C) has been developed in order to synthesize window glazing coated with silica aerogel films. The aerogel film could be manufactured by this process of wet gel films obtained via a dip-\\/spin-coating of the silica sol on a glass slide. Before drying, the isoproponol solvent in wet gels was exchanged with n-heptane to

Gun-Soo Kim; Sang-Hoon Hyun

2003-01-01

283

Protecting BOPP film from UV degradation with an atomic layer deposited titanium oxide surface coating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A BOPP film was coated by ALD with TiO2 layers to provide UV protection to the film.The samples exposed to UV light showed promising results.The formation of the photodegradation products in BOPP was almost completely prevented by a 67 nm TiO2 coating.The tensile strength and elongation at break values of the UV exposed films were considerably improved.

Lahtinen, Kimmo; Maydannik, Philipp; Seppänen, Tarja; Cameron, David C.; Johansson, Petri; Kotkamo, Sami; Kuusipalo, Jurkka

2013-10-01

284

Preparation of Doped Ceria Electrolyte Films for SOFCs by Spray Coating Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spray coating method is a cost-effective technique suitable for the preparation of uniform and large-area thin films. This article presents findings on the preparation of dense electrolyte thin films by spray coating method. Dense, crack-free Gd-doped CeO2 (GDC) thin films with a thickness of approximately 2 µm were successfully prepared on porous NiO-GDC substrates. The influence of the dispersion of GDC

Changsheng Ding; Hongfei Lin; Kazuhisa Sato; Yoshifumi Tsutai; Hiromichi Ohtaki; Mabito Iguchi; Chiharu Wada; Toshiyuki Hashida

2009-01-01

285

Corrosion behavior of rare earth metal (REM) conversion coatings on aluminum alloy LY12  

Microsoft Academic Search

The processes of the double layer rare earth metal (REM) conversion coating on aluminum alloy LY12 (2024) were introduced. The results of polarization tests showed that the corrosion resistance of the double layer REM conversion coating was superior to that of chromate conversion coating. The corrosion behavior of REM conversion coatings on LY12 alloy was studied with optical microscopy and

Yu Xingwen; Cao Chunan; Yao Zhiming; Zhou Derui; Yin Zhongda

2000-01-01

286

Cyclic nanoindentation studies on CrN thin films prepared by RF sputtering on Zr-based metallic glass  

SciTech Connect

Cyclic nanoindentation tests were carried out to study the influence of the chromium nitride thin films on the mechanical properties of Zr-based metallic glass. Chromium nitride thin coatings have been deposited on Zr{sub 50}Cu{sub 40}Al{sub 10} metallic glass substrate by RF sputtering. The deposition process was done at room temperature under nitrogen reactive gas using a metallic chromium target. The CrN films have a thickness of 300 nm. Several cyclic nanoindentation measurements were conducted on CrN films and Zr{sub 50}Cu{sub 40}Al{sub 10} metallic glass substrate samples at various loading rate values. We have found that the coated metallic glass sample shows high mechanical properties such as hardness and reduced elastic modulus. Cyclic nanoindentation results show a hardening behaviour for these CrN coatings. Moreover, the CrN coated on Zr-based metallic glass was found to have a high value of resistance to crack propagation, as being analysed through the SEM pictures of the residual Vickers indentation impressions.

Jellad, A.; Benameur, T. [Laboratoire de Genie Mecanique LGM-MA05, ENIM, Av. Ibn El Jazzar, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Labdi, S. [Laboratoire d'etudes des Milieux Nanometriques, UEVE, Bd F. Mitterand, 91025 Evry Cedex (France)

2011-01-17

287

Cyclic nanoindentation studies on CrN thin films prepared by RF sputtering on Zr-based metallic glass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cyclic nanoindentation tests were carried out to study the influence of the chromium nitride thin films on the mechanical properties of Zr-based metallic glass. Chromium nitride thin coatings have been deposited on Zr50Cu40Al10 metallic glass substrate by RF sputtering. The deposition process was done at room temperature under nitrogen reactive gas using a metallic chromium target. The CrN films have a thickness of 300 nm. Several cyclic nanoindentation measurements were conducted on CrN films and Zr50Cu40Al10 metallic glass substrate samples at various loading rate values. We have found that the coated metallic glass sample shows high mechanical properties such as hardness and reduced elastic modulus. Cyclic nanoindentation results show a hardening behaviour for these CrN coatings. Moreover, the CrN coated on Zr-based metallic glass was found to have a high value of resistance to crack propagation, as being analysed through the SEM pictures of the residual Vickers indentation impressions.

Jellad, A.; Labdi, S.; Benameur, T.

2011-01-01

288

Indium-Tin-Oxide Thin Films Prepared by Dip Coating; Dependence of Resistivity on Film Thickness and Annealing Atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) films were prepared by a dip coating method with novel solutions. The dip coating and heating in air at 600°C were repeated to obtain 3- or 10-layer films before annealing in N2-0.1%H2 atmosphere. A 10-layer film (7.0 at.%Sn, ˜ 250 nm-thick) showed the lowest resistivity (3.2× 10-4 ?{\\cdot}cm). Increase in film thickness was effective in improving both the carrier concentration (1.0× 1021 cm-3) and the mobility (18.3 cm2{\\cdot}V-1{\\cdot}s-1) after annealing.

Seki, Shigeyuki; Ogawa, Makoto; Sawada, Yutaka

2001-11-01

289

Soldering of Thin Film-Metallized Glass Substrates  

SciTech Connect

The ability to produce reliable electrical and structural interconnections between glass and metals by soldering was investigated. Soldering generally requires premetallization of the glass. As a solderable surface finish over soda-lime-silicate glass, two thin films coatings, Cr-Pd-Au and NiCr-Sn, were evaluated. Solder nettability and joint strengths were determined. Test samples were processed with Sn60-Pb40 solder alloy at a reflow temperature of 210 C. Glass-to-cold rolled steel single lap samples yielded an average shear strength of 12 MPa. Solder fill was good. Control of the Au thickness was critical in minimizing the formation of AuSn{sub 4} intermetallic in the joint, with a resulting joint shear strength of 15 MPa. Similar glass-to-glass specimens with the Cr-Pd-Au finish failed at 16.5 MPa. The NiCr-Sn thin film gave even higher shear strengths of 20-22.5 MPa, with failures primarily in the glass.

Hosking, F.M.; Hernandez, C.L.; Glass, S.J.

1999-03-31

290

Alginate-magnesium aluminum silicate films: effect of plasticizers on film properties, drug permeation and drug release from coated tablets.  

PubMed

The effect of hydrophilic plasticizers, namely glycerin and polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400), on physicochemical properties of sodium alginate-magnesium aluminum silicate (SA-MAS) microcomposite films was characterized and application of the films for controlling drug release from tablets was evaluated as well. The plasticizers could possibly interact with SA or MAS by formation of hydrogen bonding, as revealed using FTIR spectroscopy. PXRD studies presented that glycerin or PEG400 could intercalate into the silicate layers of MAS and higher crystallinity of the films with PEG400 was obtained. This led to a different thermal behavior of the films. Glycerin gave more flexibility of the films than PEG400. Incorporation of plasticizers into the films did not affect water uptake in acid medium, but increasing an erosion of the films because of the leaching of the plasticizers. Water vapor permeability of the films decreased with increasing amount of plasticizers in the range of 10-30% (w/w). Diffusion coefficient (D) of acetaminophen (ACT) across the films in acid medium increased with addition of the plasticizers because the leaching of plasticizers could reduce tortuosity of aqueous pore channels of the films. The tablets coated with plasticized films had a quite smooth surface without defect as shown by SEM. The ACT release profiles from the coated tablets showed a zero-order release kinetic with drug diffusion mechanism across in situ insoluble composite films in acid medium, and coating film swelling and erosion mechanism in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer. Moreover, neither the release rate nor the release pattern of the ACT coated tablets was obviously changed. The findings show that glycerin or PEG400 could improve physicochemical properties of the SA-MAS films and the plasticized films could control the drug release from tablets in gastro-intestinal condition. PMID:17056214

Pongjanyakul, Thaned; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit

2006-09-30

291

Reaction mechanism of electroless metal deposition using ZnO thin film (I): Process of catalyst formation  

SciTech Connect

The reaction mechanism of electroless metal deposition proceeding selectively on a ZnO thin film coated on a glass substrate was investigated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma measurements. The ZnO thin film was activated for electroless metal deposition just by immersion in 1.1 mM PdCl{sub 2} solution adjusted to pH 2.5. In this process, PD(II) was selectively adsorbed on the ZnO thin film while simultaneously the ZnO underwent dissolution. The dissolution of ZnO thin film easily occurred on the (002) face with polarity. The strongly adsorbed Pd(II) was reduced to Pd(0) by a reducing agent in the electroless plating bath and this served as a catalyst center. As a result, metal layers were obtained selectively on the ZnO thin film in the electroless plating bath.

Yoshiki, Hajime; Hashimoto, Kazuhito; Fujishima, Akira [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

1995-02-01

292

Highly Conductive Group VI Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Films by Solution-Processed Deposition  

SciTech Connect

A new soluble synthetic route was developed to fabricate thin films of layered structure transition metal dichalcogendies, MoS{sub 2} and WS{sub 2}. High-quality thin films of the dichalcogenides were prepared using new soluble precursors, (CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}MS{sub 4} (M = Mo, W). The precursors were dissolved in organic solvents and spun onto substrates via both single- and multistep spin coating procedures. The thin films were formed by the thermal decomposition of the coatings under inert atmosphere. Structural, electrical, optical absorption, thermal, and transport properties of the thin films were characterized. Surface morphology of the films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Highly conductive and textured n-type MoS{sub 2} films were obtained. The measured room temperature conductivity {approx}50 O-1 cm-1 is substantially higher than the previously reported values. The n-type WS{sub 2} films were prepared for the first time using solution-processed deposition. WS{sub 2} displays a conductivity of {approx}6.7 O-1 cm-1 at room temperature.

Ki, W.; Huang, X.; Li, J.; Young, D. L.; Zhang, Y.

2007-05-01

293

New Synthetic Routes to Metal Boride Thin Films and Metallaboranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation describes the investigation of the chemical vapor deposition of metal/metal boride thin films of transition and rare earth elements from metal halides and boron hydride precursors. Also reported are thermal routes to the synthesis of new metallaborane complexes. A systematic approach to the chemical vapor deposition of metal/metal boride thin films of the first row transition elements has been developed. Metal/metal boride thin films of scandium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel and copper were prepared using metal halides, pentaborane(9) and decaborane(14) precursors between 450 -870^circC. The analyzed films were compositionally uniform as a function of thickness. Both metal-rich and boron-rich films were formed. Mixed metal films were also deposited containing Fe-Co-B and Cu-Ni -B. The metal boride films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray thin film diffraction (XRD), transmission electron diffraction (TED), atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AA), auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray emission spectrometry (XES), Laser microprobe mass analysis (LAMMA), glow discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS) and elemental analysis. The chemical vapor deposition of rare earth boride films is presented in chapter two. Thin films of LaB _6, GdB_6 and NdB _6 were deposited from the corresponding metal chlorides, pentaborane(9) and decaborane(14) precursors. The rare earth boride films possessed unusual microstructures and their compositions were relatively uniform as a function of thickness. Mixed metal films containing Co-Nd-B were also prepared. The films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray thin film diffraction, reflection high energy electron diffraction, energy dispersive and wavelength dispersive X-ray emission spectrometry and glow discharge mass spectrometry. The reactions of the metal halide thermal dissociation species and neutral pentaborane(9) are described. mu-2,3,2^',3 ^'-rm Fe(B _5H_8)_2, 1, and mu -2,3,2^',3 ^'-rm Ti(B_5H _8)_2, 2, were synthesized by condensing the thermal products of FeCl_2 and TiCl_4, respectively, with pentaborane(9) at -78^circC followed by warming to room temperature. A thermal reaction of NiCl _2 and rm B_5H_9 produced compound 3 proposed as rm B_{10}H_8Ni_2Cl_2. The compounds were characterized by ^ {11}B NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and 2D ^{11}B- ^{11}B NMR spectroscopy.

Kher, Shreyas Suresh

294

Preparation and photo-catalytic activity of Fe?TiO 2 thin films prepared by sol–gel dip coating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin films of iron (Fe) doped titanium dioxide (Fe?TiO2) were prepared on a variety of substrates by using Ti-peroxy sol–gel dip coating method. The surface structure of the film was modified by adding different concentrations of polyethylene glycol (PEG) into the TiO2 sol. Most of the metal ion doped entered TiO2 lattice resulting the shift in optical absorption edge towards

R. S. Sonawane; B. B. Kale; M. K. Dongare

2004-01-01

295

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Metal Coil Surface Coating Background Information for Promulgated Standards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On July 16, 1992 (57 FR 31576), the authors published a list of source categories slated for regulation under section 112(copyright). The source category list included the metal coil coating (surface coating) source category. The authors proposed standard...

2002-01-01

296

Enhanced photocatalytic activity of metal coated ZnO nanowires.  

PubMed

A simple, facile and template free route has been described for the synthesis of ZnO nanowires. The morphology and structure of ZnO nanowires have been tuned by deposing silver and gold onto the surface of ZnO nanowire and this has been done by adding AgNO(3) and HAuCl(4) to aqueous suspension of ZnO. Our synthesized Ag and Au coated ZnO nanoparticles show different emissive property than the native ZnO nanowires. The photocatalytic degradation of Methylene Blue is also evaluated using ZnO and Ag and Au coated ZnO nanowires. It has been observed that Ag coated ZnO nano-needles exhibits significantly enhanced photocatalytic efficiency compare to ZnO nanowire and Au coated ZnO nano-leaves. Fluorescence spectra and surface structure of the samples with their photocatalytic activity indicates that surface deposited metal serves as an electron sinks to enhance the separation of photoinduced electrons from holes, leading to the formation of OH and it enhances their photocatalytic efficiency. PMID:22465775

Pyne, Santanu; Sahoo, Gobinda Prasad; Bhui, Dipak Kumar; Bar, Harekrishna; Sarkar, Priyanka; Samanta, Sadhan; Maity, Ashim; Misra, Ajay

2012-02-22

297

Effects of ion beam mixing of silicon carbide film deposited onto metallic materials for application to nuclear hydrogen production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of ion beam mixing of the SiC film coated on metallic substrates were studied, aiming at developing highly sustainable materials at above 1173K in SO3\\/SO2 ambience. Firstly, ?50nm thick SiC films were deposited by e-beam evaporative method on stainless 316L, Inconel 800H, Inconel 690, and Hastelloy-X substrates, followed by the 100keV (Ar and N) ions bombardment to mix

Jae-Won Park; Youngjin Chun; Jonghwa Chang

2007-01-01

298

Optical recording performance of an azo metal chelate thin film for DVD-R  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new azo metal chelate thin film has been developed for digital versatile disk recordable (DVD-R) by means of a spin-coating. The absorption of the film matches very well with the wavelength of the GaAlInP semiconductor diode laser (0.63 approximately 0.65 ?m). Thermal property of azo metal chelate indicates that the rapid decomposition of the dye happens in the narrow temperature zone. The optical recording performance of the azo nickel chelate thin film shows that high reflectivity contrast (34%) can be obtained at low writing power and short writing pulse-width using He-Ne laser (632.8 nm) irradiation. The average jitter of 5-in DVD-R disk after recorded with optimistic power on DVD-RT650 tester is less than 12%.

Geng, Yongyou; Gu, Donghong; Gan, Fuxi; Wang, Shuangqing; Shen, Shuyin; Xu, Huijun

2003-04-01

299

Corrosion processes of physical vapor deposition-coated metallic implants.  

PubMed

Protecting metallic implants from the harsh environment of physiological fluids is essential to guaranteeing successful long-term use in a patient's body. Chemical degradation may lead to the failure of an implant device in two different ways. First, metal ions may cause inflammatory reactions in the tissues surrounding the implant and, in extreme cases, these reactions may inflict acute pain on the patient and lead to loosening of the device. Therefore, increasing wear strength is beneficial to the performance of the metallic implant. Second, localized corrosion processes contribute to the nucleation of fatigue cracks, and corrosion fatigue is the main reason for the mechanical failure of metallic implants. Common biomedical alloys such as stainless steel, cobalt-chrome alloys, and titanium alloys are prone to at least one of these problems. Vapor-deposited hard coatings act directly to improve corrosion, wear, and fatigue resistances of metallic materials. The effectiveness of the corrosion protection is strongly related to the structure of the physical vapor deposition layer. The aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive review of the correlation between the structure of physical vapor deposition layers and the corrosion properties of metallic implants. PMID:20565379

Antunes, Renato Altobelli; de Oliveira, Mara Cristina Lopes

2009-01-01

300

Enhanced electrochemical properties of fluoride-coated LiCoO2 thin films.  

PubMed

The electrochemical properties of fluoride-coated lithium cobalt oxide [LiCoO2] thin films were characterized. Aluminum fluoride [AlF3] and lanthanum fluoride [LaF3] coating layers were fabricated on a pristine LiCoO2 thin film by using a spin-coating process. The AlF3- and LaF3-coated films exhibited a higher rate capability, cyclic performance, and stability at high temperature than the pristine film. This indicates that the AlF3 and LaF3 layers effectively protected the surface of the pristine LiCoO2 film from the reactive electrolyte. PMID:22221488

Lee, Hye Jin; Kim, Seuk Buom; Park, Yong Joon

2012-01-05

301

Ethanol-resistant polymeric film coatings for controlled drug delivery.  

PubMed

The sensitivity of controlled release dosage forms to the presence of ethanol in the gastro intestinal tract is critical, if the incorporated drug is potent and exhibits severe side effects. This is for instance the case for most opioid drugs. The co-ingestion of alcoholic beverages can lead to dose dumping and potentially fatal consequences. For these reasons the marketing of hydromorphone HCl extended release capsules (Palladone) was suspended. The aim of this study was to develop a novel type of controlled release film coatings, which are ethanol-resistant: even the presence of high ethanol concentrations in the surrounding bulk fluid (e.g., up to 40%) should not affect the resulting drug release kinetics. Interestingly, blends of ethylcellulose and medium or high viscosity guar gums provide such ethanol resistance. Theophylline release from pellets coated with the aqueous ethylcellulose dispersion Aquacoat® ECD 30 containing 10 or 15% medium and high viscosity guar gum was virtually unaffected by the addition of 40% ethanol to the release medium. Furthermore, drug release was shown to be long term stable from this type of dosage forms under ambient and stress conditions (without packaging material), upon appropriate curing. PMID:23570984

Rosiaux, Y; Muschert, S; Chokshi, R; Leclercq, B; Siepmann, F; Siepmann, J

2013-04-06

302

Mechanical behaviour of PVD- and CVD-coated hard metals under cyclic loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of different coating processes and layer systems on the mechanical properties of hard metals. A WC–(Ti,Ta,Nb,W)C–Co hard metal was coated by PVD (physical vapour deposition) and HTCVD (high temperature chemical vapour deposition). The PVD coating consisted of 3 ?m TiN and the CVD coatings of 9 ?m TiN-Ti(C,N)-TiN. The mechanical

P Schlund; P Kindermann; H.-G Sockel; U Schleinkofer; W Heinrich; K Görting

1999-01-01

303

THERMAL FRACTURE RESISTANCE OF CERAMIC COATINGS APPLIED TO METAL. I. ELASTIC DEFORMATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made of the resistance to thermal fracture of four ceramic ; coatings of the cobalt-bearing ground-coat type applied to enameling-grade iron ; specimens. The study was made of coated-metal systems in the unsteady state, ; symmetrically cooled, and in this absence of viscous or plastic flow. ; Determinations were made of the elastic characteristics of the coating-metal

J. H. Lauchner; D. G. Bennett

1959-01-01

304

Highly Sensitive Ni-Cu Duplex Metal Coated Fiber Bragg Grating Temperature Sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors have great potential for measuring temperature or strain and even detecting fractures in metal materials. The use of metal coatings is one of the most efficient methods for protecting FBG sensors. This article describes a new type of etchless duplex metal coating especially developed for FBG for sensing purposes. Copper was chosen as the conductive

Yan Feng; Hua Zhang; Yu-Long Li; Gang Peng

2009-01-01

305

Growth of oriented rare-earth-transition-metal thin films  

SciTech Connect

Rare-earth-transition-metal thin films are successfully grown by magnetron sputtering onto single-crystal MgO substrates with epitaxial W buffer layers. The use of epitaxial W buffer layers allows oriented single-phase films to be grown. Sm-Co films grown onto W(100), have strong in-plane anisotropy and coercivities exceeding 5 T at 5 K whereas Fe-Sm films have strong perpendicular anisotropy and are magnetically soft.

Fullerton, E.E.; Sowers, C.H.; Bader, S.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Wu, X.Z. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States)

1996-04-01

306

Effect of Polyaniline additions on structural and gas sensing behaviour of metal oxides thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structural and gas sensing behaviour of metal oxides namely TiO2 and ZnO thin films were investigated. In this paper, commercial Polyaniline (PANi) powder were added into two different metal oxides sol gel solutions with PANi : metal oxides weight ratios of 1wt.%, 2wt.% and 3wt.%. The thin films were fabricated using spin coating technique. Structural investigation using XRD presented that all films exhibited amorphous structure. Typical films surface morphology consists of agglomerated round shaped particles with the particles size varies between 57nm to 200nm. Addition of PANi formed network chains between the particles. Ethanol vapor detection test conducted at room temperature showed that both TiO2 and ZnO based films were capable to sense the vapor. The optimum ratio in sensing ethanol vapour for both PANi-TiO2 and PANi-ZnO films was 3:1. However, other issues such as reliability, selectability and repeatability remain as the major problems.

Hj. Jumali, Mohammad H.; Izzuddin, Izura; Ramli, Norhashimah; Mat Salleh, Muhamad; Yahaya, Muhammad

2009-07-01

307

In vitro corrosion behavior of bioceramic, metallic, and bioceramic–metallic coated stainless steel dental implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The most common metals and alloys used in dentistry may be exposed to a process of corrosion in vivo that make them cytotoxic. The biocompatibility of dental alloys is primarily related to their corrosion behavior. The aim of this work was to evaluate the corrosion behavior and thus the biocompatibility of the uncoated and coated stainless steels and compare

M. H Fathi; M Salehi; A Saatchi; V Mortazavi; S. B Moosavi

2003-01-01

308

Ion beam assisted deposition of a thin film coating on a gradient-index lens array.  

PubMed

A new coating method which employs ion bombardment has been developed for a gradient-index (GRIN) rod lens array using silicone rubber and fiber reinforced plastic plates in its construction. The thin film coatings deposited using this method passed the durability tests on the basis of MIL-M-13508C. The adhesion of the thin film coating was strong and durable enough to allow for use on GRIN rod lens arrays in photocopiers. The effect of ion bombardment has been investigated with thin film analysis data by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. PMID:20577347

Kyogoku, T; Suzuki, T; Mino, M

1990-10-01

309

Thickness dependent electronic structure and morphology of rubrene thin films on metal, semiconductor, and dielectric substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of the electronic structure and morphology of rubrene thin films on noble-metal, semiconductor and dielectric substrates have been investigated as a function of thickness of deposited films by using photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The clean polycrystalline Au and Ag were used as noble-metals, whereas, H passivated and SiO2 coated Si (100) were used as semiconductors and dielectric substrates. Discussion and comparison on interface dipole, energy level alignment, and surface morphology for the four cases are presented. The formation of dipole at metallic interfaces is found to occur due to push back effect. S parameter obtained from the variation of barrier height with the change of work function of the contacting metal indicates moderately weak interaction between rubrene and the metal substrates. The thickness dependent energy level alignment of the physisorbed rubrene films on different substrates is explained by a dielectric model in terms of electrostatic screening of photo-holes or photoemission final state relaxation energy. Films on all the substrates are found to grow following Stranski-Krastnov type growth mode and are more ordered at higher coverage.

Sinha, Sumona; Mukherjee, M.

2013-08-01

310

Novel low-molecular-weight hypromellose polymeric films for aqueous film coating applications.  

PubMed

The concentration of hypromellose (HPMC) is known to significantly impact the viscosity of coating solutions. The purpose of this study was to determine the viscosity of novel low-molecular-weight (LMW) HPMC products as a function of polymer concentration. The mechanical properties and water vapor permeability of free films prepared from these novel LMW HPMC polymers were also determined and the results were compared with films prepared with conventional HPMC. Solutions of LMW and conventional HPMC 2910 and 2906 containing up to 40% polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 were prepared and the viscosities were measured using a Brookfield viscometer. Solutions were then cast onto glass plates and stored at 30?C and 50% relative humidity until films were formed. A Chatillon digital force gauge attached to a motorized test stand was used to quantify the mechanical properties of the films, whereas water vapor permeabilities were determined according to the ASTM E96 M-05 water method. As expected, the novel LMW polymer solutions exhibited significantly lower viscosities than the conventional comparators at equivalent polymer concentrations. Film strength of the LMW materials was lower than films prepared from the conventional HPMC solutions, although this effect was not as evident for the HPMC 2906 chemistry. Increasing concentrations of the plasticizer resulted in decreased tensile strength and Young?s modulus and increased elongation as well as increased water vapor permeability, irrespective of polymer type. No statistical difference was found between the tensile strength to Young?s modulus ratios of the F chemistry LMW and conventional HPMC polymer films. PMID:21615208

Bruce, Hollie F; Sheskey, Paul J; Garcia-Todd, Paula; Felton, Linda A

2011-05-26

311

Metal-Coated Nanocylinder Cavity for Broadband Nonclassical Light Emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel metal-coated nanocylinder-cavity architecture fully compatible with III-V GaInAs technology and benefiting from a broad spectral range enhancement of the local density of states is proposed as an integrated source of nonclassical light. Because of a judicious selection of the mode volume, the cavity combines good collection efficiency (?45%), large Purcell factors (?15) over a 80 nm spectral range, and a low sensitivity to inevitable spatial mismatches between the single emitter and the cavity mode. This represents a decisive step towards the implementation of reliable solid-state devices for the generation of entangled photon pairs at infrared wavelengths.

Maksymov, I. S.; Besbes, M.; Hugonin, J. P.; Yang, J.; Beveratos, A.; Sagnes, I.; Robert-Philip, I.; Lalanne, P.

2010-10-01

312

Ellipsometry study on gold-nanoparticle-coated gold thin film for biosensing application.  

PubMed

The amplified plasmonic response from various distributions of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) coated on top of gold thin film was studied via ellipsometry under total internal reflection mode. The surface plasmon resonance dip can be tuned from the visible to near infrared by simply varying the AuNP concentration. Theoretical modeling based on effective medium theory with a multi-slice model has been employed to fit the experimental results. Additionally, this experimental tool has been further extended to study bio-molecular interactions with metal surfaces as well as in studying protein-protein interaction without any labeling. Hence, this technique could provide a non-destructive way of designing tunable label-free optical biosensors with very high sensitivity. PMID:21991549

Moirangthem, Rakesh Singh; Chang, Yia-Chung; Wei, Pei-Kuen

2011-08-10

313

Engineering the interface characteristics of ultrananocrystalline diamond films grown on Au-coated Si substrates.  

PubMed

Enhanced electron field emission (EFE) properties have been observed for ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films grown on Au-coated Si (UNCD/Au-Si) substrates. The EFE properties of UNCD/Au-Si could be turned on at a low field of 8.9 V/?m, attaining EFE current density of 4.5 mA/cm(2) at an applied field of 10.5 V/?m, which is superior to that of UNCD films grown on Si (UNCD/Si) substrates with the same chemical vapor deposition process. Moreover, a significant difference in current-voltage curves from scanning tunneling spectroscopic measurements at the grain and the grain boundary has been observed. From the variation of normalized conductance (dI/dV)/(I/V) versus V, bandgap of UNCD/Au-Si is measured to be 2.8 eV at the grain and nearly metallic at the grain boundary. Current imaging tunneling spectroscopy measurements show that the grain boundaries have higher electron field emission capacity than the grains. The diffusion of Au into the interface layer that results in the induction of graphite and converts the metal-to-Si interface from Schottky to Ohmic contact is believed to be the authentic factors, resulting in marvelous EFE properties of UNCD/Au-Si. PMID:22823911

Sankaran, Kamatchi Jothiramalingam; Panda, Kalpataru; Sundaravel, Balakrishnan; Chen, Huang-Chin; Lin, I-Nan; Lee, Chi-Young; Tai, Nyan-Hwa

2012-07-31

314

Sol-gel antireflective coating on plastics  

DOEpatents

An antireflection film made from a reliquified sol-gel hydrolyzation, condensation polymeric reaction product of a silicon, alkoxides and/or metal alkoxides, or mixtures thereof. The film is particularly useful for coating plastics.

Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM)

1990-01-01

315

Quartz crystal microbalance sample stage for in situ characterization of thickness and surface morphology of spin coated polymer films  

SciTech Connect

A miniature spin coating stage is developed for in situ characterization of the thickness and the surface morphology of spin coated polymer films using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and atomic force microscopy. The spin coated polystyrene films deposited on gold surfaces from solutions using the stage were found to be uniform; the thickness of the films varied linearly with the polystyrene concentration in solution. The film thickness determined by the QCM agree with that from ellipsometry measurements.

Rao Nanxia; Xie Xin; Wielizcka, David; Zhu Daming [Department of Physics, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, Missouri 64110 (United States)

2006-11-15

316

Hydrogen-induced blistering mechanisms in thin film coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the mechanisms of hydrogen-induced blistering of multilayer coatings. Blister formation is a result of highly localized delamination occurring at the two outermost metal-on-silicon interfaces. The number, size, and type of blisters formed varied depending on the composition and ion energy of the incident flux. The results are explained in terms of the multilayer structure being simultaneously susceptible to blistering via two independent mechanisms. A high density of small blisters developed when relatively energetic (several 100 eV) ions were present. Independently, a hydrogenation process that was facilitated by the presence of a small flux of low energy ions (?50 eV) induced a low density of large blisters.

Kuznetsov, A. S.; Gleeson, M. A.; Bijkerk, F.

2012-02-01

317

Study of leakage current in metal–insulator–metal Mg–Al co-doped barium strontium titanate thin films as a function of temperature and applied field  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the electrical properties of Mg–Al co-doped Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 (BSTMA) films, fabricated on a P-type Si (100) substrate by a sol–gel spin coating process. Pt electrodes were deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering to form metal–insulator–metal capacitors. The current–voltage characteristics of the BSTMA films were also studied for various external electric fields and temperatures. Experimental results indicate that the

M. C. Kao; S. Y. Lee; H. Z. Chen; S. L. Young

2008-01-01

318

Super elastic strain limit in metallic glass films  

PubMed Central

On monolithic Ni-Nb metallic glass films, we experimentally revealed 6.6% elastic strain limit by in-situ transmission electron microscopy observations. The origin of high elastic strain limit may link with high free volume in the film, causing the rearrangement of loosely bonded atomic clusters (or atoms) upon elastic deformation. This high elastic limit of metallic glass films will shed light on new application fields for metallic glasses, and also trigger more studies for deformation mechanism of amorphous materials in general.

Jiang, Q. K.; Liu, P.; Ma, Y.; Cao, Q. P.; Wang, X. D.; Zhang, D. X.; Han, X. D.; Zhang, Z.; Jiang, J. Z.

2012-01-01

319

Super elastic strain limit in metallic glass films.  

PubMed

On monolithic Ni-Nb metallic glass films, we experimentally revealed 6.6% elastic strain limit by in-situ transmission electron microscopy observations. The origin of high elastic strain limit may link with high free volume in the film, causing the rearrangement of loosely bonded atomic clusters (or atoms) upon elastic deformation. This high elastic limit of metallic glass films will shed light on new application fields for metallic glasses, and also trigger more studies for deformation mechanism of amorphous materials in general. PMID:23152943

Jiang, Q K; Liu, P; Ma, Y; Cao, Q P; Wang, X D; Zhang, D X; Han, X D; Zhang, Z; Jiang, J Z

2012-11-14

320

Super elastic strain limit in metallic glass films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On monolithic Ni-Nb metallic glass films, we experimentally revealed 6.6% elastic strain limit by in-situ transmission electron microscopy observations. The origin of high elastic strain limit may link with high free volume in the film, causing the rearrangement of loosely bonded atomic clusters (or atoms) upon elastic deformation. This high elastic limit of metallic glass films will shed light on new application fields for metallic glasses, and also trigger more studies for deformation mechanism of amorphous materials in general.

Jiang, Q. K.; Liu, P.; Ma, Y.; Cao, Q. P.; Wang, X. D.; Zhang, D. X.; Han, X. D.; Zhang, Z.; Jiang, J. Z.

2012-11-01

321

Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report; Summary  

SciTech Connect

The Pentek metal coating removal system consists of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER(R), and VAC-PAC(R). The system is designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M ROTO-PEEN tungsten carbide cutters, while the CORNER-CUTTER(R) uses solid needles for descaling activities. These are used with the VAC-PAC(R) vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure was minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended, since the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place may skew the results. It is feasible that dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment. Other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

NONE

1997-07-31

322

Novel method for screening of enteric film coatings properties with magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

The aim of the study is to present the concept of novel method for fast screening of enteric coating compositions properties without the need of preparation of tablets batches for fluid bed coating. Proposed method involves evaluation of enteric coated model tablets in specially designed testing cell with application of MRI technique. The results obtained in the testing cell were compared with results of dissolution studies of mini-tablets coated in fluid bed apparatus. The method could be useful in early stage of formulation development for screening of film coating properties that will shorten and simplify the development works. PMID:23994758

Doro?y?ski, Przemys?aw; Jamróz, Witold; Niwi?ski, Krzysztof; Kurek, Mateusz; W?glarz, W?adys?aw P; Jachowicz, Renata; Kulinowski, Piotr

2013-08-28

323

Ultrasensitive humidity detection using metal-organic framework-coated microsensors.  

PubMed

The use of metal-organic framework (MOF) thin films to detect water vapor across a wide concentration range is demonstrated using MOF-functionalized quartz surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors. A range of 3-14,800 ppmv was obtained with thin films of the MOF Cu(3)(benzenetricarboxylate)(2) (Cu-BTC) deposited by an automated layer-by-layer method. Devices coated by a manual technique demonstrated sensitivity from 0.28 to 14,800 ppmv, the limit of our test system. This exceeds the sensitivity of many commercially available sensors. Cu-BTC layers were covalently bonded directly to the silicon oxide surface, allowing devices to be heated beyond 100 °C to desorb water adsorbed in the pores without decomposition, thereby regenerating the sensors. Sensor response as a function of coating thickness was evaluated, showing that the SAW sensor response is bounded by maximum and minimum layer thicknesses. Computer simulation of H(2)O uptake shows a multistep adsorption isotherm defined by initial adsorption at open Cu-sites, followed by pore-filling and finally full saturation. Modeling and experimental results are consistent. Calculated uptake values suggest an efficient adsorption of H(2)O by Cu-BTC. These results provide the first convincing evidence that MOF functionalization of compact sensing technologies such as SAW devices and microcantilevers can compete with state-of-the art devices. PMID:22905832

Robinson, Alex L; Stavila, Vitalie; Zeitler, Todd R; White, Michael I; Thornberg, Steven M; Greathouse, Jeffery A; Allendorf, Mark D

2012-08-02

324

Side-polished fiber Bragg gratings coated with thin palladium film for hydrogen sensing device  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of hydrogen sensor with a side-polished fiber Bragg grating coated with thin palladium film was demonstrated with the Bragg wavelength shift of 0.12 nm in the case of 99% hydrogen concentrations.

Chuen-Lin Tien; Hong-Wei Chen; Wen-Fung Liu; Yung-Sen Lin

2006-01-01

325

[Preparation by spin-coating technology and characterization of UV-enhanced Lumogen film].  

PubMed

As an effective way to increase the UV response for CCD/CMOS, the advantage of the Lumogen film is the simple process and low cost. In the present paper the Lumogen film was deposited onto fused silica slides by the spin-coating way, which has less damage than PVD physical vacuum deposition) way. The main test and analysis of the thin-film include transmission spectrum, absorption spectrum, and excitation and emission spectrum. It was showed that these coatings were transmitted well in visible region (lambda > 400 nm), and emitted a yellowish green glow centered at -525 nm together with a wide excitation spectrum range from 200 to 400 nm. The synthesis shows that Lumogen coatings match accurately with the detected spectrum of conventional silicon-based image sensors, which makes this kind of thin films an ultraviolet responsive coating for sensors. PMID:23697134

Jiang, Lin; Zhang, Da-Wei; Tao, Chun-Xian; Huang, Yuan-Shen; Wang, Qi; Ni, Zheng-Ji; Zhuang, Song-Lin

2013-02-01

326

Evaluation of resist-film property by scan- and spin-coating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is vital to control Critical Dimension (CD) within a wafer and pattern profile in photolithography process. We have previously reported our evaluation results with chemically amplified resists that one of the causes of pattern profile fluctuation is a change in resist film composition before exposure such as non-uniform distributions of additives (photo-acid generator (PAG), quencher) concentration and casting solvent etc.; and thus resist film property control is essential to suppress these factors [1]. This is also true for thin resist film in finer line process and with top surface imaging. In the same paper [1], we have reported that a straightforward method to understand a change in film property is to check the amount of thickness loss by developing unexposed film after post apply bake (PAB). This method can be applied to thin film as well. We created unexposed films with the thickness range of 50-900nm by changing the total solid content (TSC) in resist and spin speed at resist coating. The amount of thickness loss significantly increased with sub-200nm thickness; the film property of which was quite different from that of 200nm-or-over thickness. Moreover, pattern line edge roughness (LER) as well as pattern surface roughness was prominent with 100nm-thick film even when we used a resist which has an ability to create good patterns on film with a thickness of 400nm. This is because the film quality diminishes in bulk below a certain thickness, while the property on the surface or interface layer predominates. Then we studied Scan coating to control thin film property. In Spin coating, chemical liquid dispensed on static wafer is spread by spinning the wafer and solvent is evaporated to form a film. On the other hand, in Scan coating, wafer remains static even after chemical liquid is dispensed and the wafer is dried under reduced pressure [2]-[7]; which means the thinner evaporation rate is slower than that in Spin coating and film property control may be easier. We, therefore, expect that Scan coating is a possible method to control CD and pattern profile. In this study, we compared the process performance and film property of KrF resist films by Scan and Spin coatings and examined the film composition control.

Shinya, Hiroshi; Ishii, Takayuki; Wakamoto, Yukihiro; Sugimoto, Shinichi; Kitano, Takahiro

2004-05-01

327

Effects of coating composition and surface pre-treatment on the adhesion of organic–inorganic hybrid coatings to low density polyethylene (LDPE) films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic–inorganic hybrid coatings, obtained through the sol–gel chemistry from tetraethoxysilane and polyethylene–poly(ethylene glycol) block copolymer, have been prepared in different compositions and applied to untreated and plasma treated LDPE films by spin coating. The mechanical properties of the coatings and the adhesion between coating and substrate have been characterized by fragmentation test. An increase in coating strength, elongation at break

C. Marano; F. Briatico-Vangosa; M. Marini; F. Pilati; M. Toselli

2009-01-01

328

Transition-metal-oxide coated titanium electrodes for redox batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production of porous electrodes with reproducible surface activity for experiments to corroborate predictions of porous electrode theory to ascertain if simple one step outer sphere electron transfer mechanism applies to the ferric-ferrous redox reaction at high reactant/product concentrations in a strong acid chloride medium was investigated. Kinetic rate expressions of this couple under these conditions at the metal oxide surfaces were sought. Coatings of the conductive and active rutile structure form of selected transition metal oxides were desired. Both IrO2 and RuO2 coatings having the rutile structure were prepared by thermal decomposition of their respective hydrated chloride salts. Low over potential exchange current densities of the ferric-ferrous couple were measured in concentrated solution at Pt, RuO2 and IrO2 RDF's. Significant corrections were necessary for ohmic effects, mass transfer effects, and nonuniform current distribution. It is shown that the electrocatalytic activity of RuO2 is comparable to that of Pt while the activity of IrO2 is approximately an order of magnitude less than Pt. The measured free energy of activation was similar for all three substrates and a nonbinding interaction between the couple and the surfaces is suggested. The variation in exchange currents among the different substrates can be attributed to some extent on double layer effects but primarily to crystal structure differences.

Savinell, R. F.

1982-12-01

329

Insulator coating for high temperature alloys method for producing insulator coating for high temperature alloys  

DOEpatents

A method for fabricating an electrically insulating coating on a surface is disclosed comprising coating the surface with a metal, and reacting the metal coated surface with a nonmetal so as to create a film on the metal-coated surface. Alternatively, the invention provides for a method for producing a noncorrosive, electrically insulating coating on a surface saturated with a nonmetal comprising supplying a molten fluid, dissolving a metal in the molten fluid to create a mixture, and contacting the mixture with the saturated surface. Lastly, the invention provides an electrically insulative coating comprising an underlying structural substrate coated with an oxide or nitride compound

Park, Jong Hee (Clarendon Hills, IL)

1998-01-01

330

Insulator coating for high temperature alloys method for producing insulator coating for high temperature alloys  

DOEpatents

A method for fabricating an electrically insulating coating on a surface is disclosed comprising coating the surface with a metal, and reacting the metal coated surface with a nonmetal so as to create a film on the metal-coated surface. Alternatively, the invention provides for a method for producing a noncorrosive, electrically insulating coating on a surface saturated with a nonmetal comprising supplying a molten fluid, dissolving a metal in the molten fluid to create a mixture, and contacting the mixture with the saturated surface. Lastly, the invention provides an electrically insulative coating comprising an underlying structural substrate coated with an oxide or nitride compound. 2 figs.

Park, J.H.

1998-06-23

331

Evaluation of an innovative use of removable thin film coating technology for the abatement of hazardous contaminants.  

PubMed

This study evaluates a new decontamination technique for the mitigation and abatement of hazardous particulates. The traditional decontamination methods used to clean facilities and equipment are time-consuming, prolonging workers' exposure time, may generate airborne hazards, and can be expensive. The use of removable thin film coating as a decontamination technique for surface contamination proved to be a more efficient method of decontamination. This method was tested at three different sites on different hazardous metals. One application of the coating reduced the levels of these metals 90% and had an average reduction of one magnitude. The paired t-tests that were performed for each metal demonstrated that there was a statistically significant reduction of the metal after the use of the coating: lead (p = 0.03), beryllium (p = 0.05), aluminum (p = 0.006), iron (p = 0.0001), and copper (p = 0.004). The Kendall tau-b correlation coefficient demonstrates that there was a positive correlation between the initial levels of contamination and the removal efficiency for all the samples taken from different locations on the floor for each of the three sites. This new decontamination technique worked efficiently, requiring only one application, which decreased exposure time and did not generate any airborne dust. PMID:19437305

Lumia, Margaret E; Gentile, Charles; Gochfeld, Michael; Efthimion, Philip; Robson, Mark

2009-08-01

332

Interface plasmonic properties of silver coated by ultrathin metal oxides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many fields of high technology take advantage of conductor-dielectric interface properties. Deeper knowledge of physical processes that determine the optical response of the structures containing metal-dielectric interfaces is important for improving the performance of thin film devices containing such materials. Here we present a study on optical properties of several ultrathin metal oxides deposited over thin silver layers. Some widely used materials (Al2O3, SiO2, Y2O3, HfO2) were selected for deposition by r.f. sputtering, and the created metal-dielectric structures with two of them, alumina and silica, were investigated in this work using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) technique and by variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE). VASE was performed with a help of a commercial ellipsometer at various incident angles and in a wide spectral range. A home-made sample holder manufactured for WVASE ellipsometer and operational in Otto configuration has been implemented for angle-resolved and spectral ATR measurements. Simultaneous analysis of data obtained by these two independent techniques allows elaboration of a representative model for plasmonic-related phenomena at metal-dielectric interface. The optical constants of the interface layers formed between metal and ultrathin oxide layers are investigated. A series of oxides chosen for this study allows a comparative analysis aimed for selection of the most appropriate materials for different applications.

Sytchkova, A.; Zola, D.; Grilli, M. L.; Piegari, A.; Fang, M.; He, H.; Shao, J.

2011-09-01

333

The Use of Electric Fields for Edible Coatings and Films Development and Production: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Edible films and coatings can provide additional protection for food, while being a fully biodegradable, environmentally friendly\\u000a packaging system. A diversity of raw materials used to produce edible coatings and films are extracted from marine and agricultural\\u000a sources, including animals and plants. Electric fields processing holds advantage in producing safe, wholesome and nutritious\\u000a food. Recently, the presence of a moderate

Bartolomeu W. S. Souza; Miguel A. Cerqueira; José A. Teixeira; António A. Vicente

2010-01-01

334

Characteristics of thin cellulose ester films spin-coated from acetone and ethyl acetate solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spin-coated films of cellulose acetate (CA), cellulose acetate propionate (CAP), cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and carboxymethylcellulose\\u000a acetate butyrate (CMCAB) have been characterized by ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurements.\\u000a The films were spin-coated onto silicon wafers, a polar surface. Mean thickness values were determined by means of ellipsometry\\u000a and AFM as a function of polymer concentration in

J. Amim Jr; P. M. Kosaka; D. F. S. Petri

2008-01-01

335

Water vapor and oxygen-barrier performance of corn–zein coated polypropylene films  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel corn–zein coating structure on polypropylene (PP) films was developed to examine its feasibility as an alternative water vapor and oxygen-barrier for flexible packaging industry. The barrier properties of the resulting films were evaluated as affected by coating formulation (solvent, corn–zein, plasticizer concentration and plasticizer type). Corn–zein with different amounts (5% and 15%) was dissolved in 70% and 95%

Funda Tihminlioglu; ?sa Do?an Atik; Banu Özen

2010-01-01

336

Preparation of titanium(IV) oxide thin film photocatalyst by sol–gel dip coating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin films of titanium dioxide (TiO2) were deposited on variety of substrates by a simple sol–gel dip coating technique. The substrates were coated with titanium peroxide precursor solution of controlled viscosity at a constant pulling rate of 1mms?1, air-dried and further heated at 400°C to obtain uniform films with good adhesion to the substrate. The change in viscosity of the

R. S Sonawane; S. G Hegde; M. K Dongare

2003-01-01

337

Study of different inorganic oxide thin films as barrier coatings against the corrosion of galvanized steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical spray pyrolysis technique has been used to deposit thin films of MgO, NiO and ZrO2 on galvanized steel substrate. These films have been studied as barrier coatings against the degradation of the galvanized steel sheet during long term outdoor exposure. The corrosion protective effect of the coatings is discussed taking into account results from scanning electron microscopy (SEM),

R. Romero; F. Martin; J. R. Ramos-Barrado; D. Leinen

2010-01-01

338

Amorphous metal formulations and structured coatings for corrosion and wear resistance  

SciTech Connect

A system for coating a surface comprising providing a source of amorphous metal that contains more than 11 elements and applying the amorphous metal that contains more than 11 elements to the surface by a spray. Also a coating comprising a composite material made of amorphous metal that contains more than 11 elements. An apparatus for producing a corrosion-resistant amorphous-metal coating on a structure comprises a deposition chamber, a deposition source in the deposition chamber that produces a deposition spray, the deposition source containing a composite material made of amorphous metal that contains more than 11 elements, and a system that directs the deposition spray onto the structure.

Farmer, Joseph C. (Tracy, CA)

2011-12-13

339

Preparation, properties and chemistry of glass- and glass-ceramic-to-metal seals and coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview is given outlining the materials and technologies that have been employed in the preparation of glass- and glass-ceramic-to-metal seals and coatings. Metal/non-metal bonding theories are summarized, and the conditions required for the formation of strong chemical bonding are described and discussed. Particular reference is given to the interfacial chemistry involved for individual glass/metal and glass-ceramic/metal combinations. The major factors responsible for the preparation of high-quality seals and coatings, free from porosity and other undesirable defects, are also outlined and discussed. In addition, a number of applications for seals and coatings are briefly described.

Donald, I. W.

1993-06-01

340

Electrocatalytic oxidation of thiosulfate by metal hexacyanoferrate film modified electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrocatalytic oxidation of S2O32? by metal (iron(II), indium(III), nickel(II), and Cobalt(II)) hexacyanoferrate film from consecutive cyclic voltammetry was investigated. The ferric hexacyanoferrate film catalyzed the rapid oxidation of thiosulfate after oxidizing the film [Fe(II)-CN-Fe(II)] to [Fe(III)-CN-Fe(III)]. The indium(III) hexacyanoferrate film has a similar catalytic mechanism. While nickel(II) hexacyanoferrate and cobalt(II) hexacyanoferrate films exhibit a different reaction mechanism, at the

Shen-Ming Chen

1996-01-01

341

Shear-alignment of metal-containing block copolymer thin films for nanofabrication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cylinder-forming block copolymers can be used as etch masks for the fabrication of nanowire grids, with both fine resolution and scalability. However, achieving a high aspect ratio in these nanostructures, where reactive ion etching is employed for pattern transfer, requires strong etch contrast between two blocks of the copolymer. We achieve this strong contrast by using metal-containing block copolymers: materials which either contain metal as synthesized, or which can be selectively metallized after deposition as thin films. In the first case, iron-containing polystyrene-b-poly(ferrocenylisopropylmethylsilane) (PS-PFS) forming PFS cylinders was employed, and a spin-coated film was aligned by shearing with a polydimethylsiloxane pad. In the second case, polystyrene-b-poly-2-vinylpyridine (PS-P2VP) was deposited as a film, shear-aligned, and then platinum was selectively sequestered within the P2VP cylinders by brief soaking in an aqueous solution of a Pt salt. In both cases, shear stress produced alignment over centimeter-scale areas; this alignment was retained for PS-P2VP during the selective metallization. The line pattern in these aligned block copolymer thin films is then transferred via reactive ion etching into amorphous silicon deposited onto a quartz wafer to fabricate silicon nanowire grid polarizers which can operate at deep ultraviolet wavelengths.

Kim, So Youn; Register, Richard; Gwyther, Jessica; Manners, Ian; Chaikin, Paul

2013-03-01

342

The exploitation of thin film coatings for fibre sensors for the application of chemical sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the use of thin film coatings, both single and multi-layered, deposited on the flat side of a lapped, D-shaped fibre to enhance the sensitivity of two kinds of surface plasmon resonance based optical fibre sensors. The first kind involves the use of a tilted Bragg grating inscribed within the fibre core, prior to fibre coating, while the

T. Allsop; R. Neal; K. Kalli; E. M. Davies; S. Rehman; R. R. J. Maier; J. Barton; J. D. Jones; D. J. Webb; I. Bennion

2009-01-01

343

Hydrogen sensor based on side-polished fiber Bragg gratings coated with thin palladium film  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hydrogen sensor based on side-polished fiber Bragg grating (FBG) coated with Pd thin film by magnetron sputtering is proposed. Hydrogen concentration is correlated with the shift of FBG central wavelength, since refractive index change in hydrogen sensitive Pd coating deposited on side-polished FBG affects the effective refractive index of FBG, and therefore Bragg wavelength is shifted. Experimental results demonstrate

Hongliang Liu; Minghong Yang; Jixiang Dai; Kun Cao; Hansheng Liao; Pengcheng Zhang

2011-01-01

344

Thin film coatings which inhibit spin relaxation of polarized potassium atoms  

SciTech Connect

A prototype of a polarized deuterium target which employs the spin exchange method is being developed. The mixing cell for mixing deuterium atoms and potassium vapor requires a surface that will reflect these atoms without being destroyed by the corrosive potassium. Thin film coating methods and a technique for coating pyrex are described. Results of spin relaxation measurements are given. (LEW)

Thomas, G.E.; Holt, R.J.; Boyer, D.; Green, M.C.; Kowalczyk, R.S.; Young, L.

1986-01-01

345

Quartz crystal microbalance coated with carbon nanotube films used as humidity sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibilities and properties of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWNT)-coated quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) as a humidity sensor are presented. In order to enhance effectively sensitivity of the sensor, the MWNTs coated on QCM are treated by means of ball milling and hydrogen plasma technique, respectively. The morphology and microstructure of MWNT films were characterized with SEM and TEM. It can

Yongsheng Zhang; Ke Yu; Rongli Xu; Desheng Jiang; Laiqiang Luo; Ziqiang Zhu

2005-01-01

346

Fabrication and adhesive properties of thin organosilane films coated on low carbon steel substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the fabrication and adhesive properties of thin organosilane films coated on the surface of low carbon steel substrates by curing ?-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (?-GPS) solutions hydrolyzed in different solvents. This method appears to be a promising alternative treatment for the chromium and phosphate mainly due to its excellent corrosion protection and adhesion properties to organic coatings and a non-toxic pretreatment.

Guoli Li; Xueming Wang; Aiju Li; Weiqiang Wang; Liqiang Zheng

2007-01-01

347

Green Thin Polymer Film Metallization using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

SciTech Connect

It is shown that low-density polymer layers created by supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO{sub 2}) processing can be exploited to enhance metallization of thin polymer films. Spun-cast thin films were exposed to scCO{sub 2} within the narrow temperature and pressure regime known as the 'density fluctuation ridge', where excess swelling of the polymer thin films was induced, and the swollen structures could be subsequently preserved by quick evaporation of CO{sub 2}. X-ray reflectivity (XR) measurements proved that the 'expanded' films had a broader interfacial width between the polymer and deposited metal layers, regardless of the polymer film thickness or choice of polymers. Furthermore, standard peel test showed a drastic enhancement in adhesion between the polymer and metal layers, which correlates with the XR result: the broader interfacial width indicates increased adhesion.

Koga,T.; Kugler, B.; Loewenstein, J.; Jermone, J.; Rafailovich, M.

2007-01-01

348

Structure and Function of Starch-Based Edible Films and Coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Edible films and coatings satisfy a variety of needs and meet specific product challenges for a large number of food applications.\\u000a There is a general lack of agreement as to what constitutes a coating. A layer of seasoning on a snack or an oil spray applied\\u000a to a cracker or a baked product, are examples of edible coatings. Further examples

Michael E. Kramer

349

A novel route to extreme vacua: the non-evaporable getter thin film coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum chambers sputter-coated with a thin film (?1.5?m) of a getter material, and subsequently exposed to ambient air, have been found to recover a pumping action after “in situ” bakeout. Coatings of Ti, Hf, Zr have been initially produced and studied, followed by their binary quasi-equiatomic alloys TiHf, HfZr, TiZr. All these coatings display activation at temperatures lower than 400°C,

C. Benvenuti; J. M. Cazeneuve; P. Chiggiato; F. Cicoira; A. Escudeiro Santana; V. Johanek; V. Ruzinov; J. Fraxedas

1999-01-01

350

Influence of an Acrylic Polymer Blend on the Physical Stability of Film-Coated Theophylline Pellets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the physical stability of a coating system consisting of a blend of two sustained\\u000a release acrylic polymers and its influence on the drug release rate of theophylline from coated pellets. The properties of\\u000a both free films and theophylline pellets coated with the polymer blend were investigated, and the miscibility was determined\\u000a via

Shawn Kucera; Navnit H. Shah; A. Waseem Malick; Martin H. Infeld; James W. McGinity

2009-01-01

351

Fly ash based geopolymer thin coatings on metal substrates and its thermal evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Class F fly ash based Na-geopolymer formulations have been applied as fire resistant coatings on steel. The main variables for the coating formulations were Si: Al molar and water: cement weight ratios. We have determined that the adhesive strength of the coatings strongly depend on geopolymer composition. The ease with which geopolymer can be applied onto metal surfaces and the

Jadambaa Temuujin; Amgalan Minjigmaa; William Rickard; Melissa Lee; Iestyn Williams; Arie van Riessen

2010-01-01

352

Study of double layer rare earth metal conversion coating on aluminum alloy LY12  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of the double layer rare earth metal (REM) conversion coating on aluminum alloy LY12 (2024) was introduced in this paper. The corrosion resistance of REM conversion coating was examined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results showed that the coating increased the corrosion resistance (Rp) of the alloy surface, thus reducing the driving force of corrosion. The morphologies of

Yu Xingwen; Cao Chunan; Yao Zhiming; Zhou Derui; Yin Zhongda

2001-01-01

353

Effect of metallic coatings on the thermal contact conductance of turned surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the degree to which the thermal contact conductance at the interface of contacting Aluminum 6061 T6 surfaces could be enhanced through the use of vapor-deposited metallic coating. Three different coating materials (lead, tin, and indium) were evaluated using four different thicknesses for each coating material. The results verified the existence of an optimum

T. K. Kang; G. P. Peterson; L. S. Fletcher

1990-01-01

354

Application of the Scanning Kelvin Probe for the study of the corrosion resistance of interfacial thin organosilane films at adhesive\\/metal interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Scanning Kelvin Probe is introduced as a real time non-destructive in situ technique for the detection of de-adhesion at adhesive\\/metal oxide interfaces. Iron substrates and an epoxy adhesive served as model systems. Iron surfaces were coated with ultra-thin organosilane plasma polymer films from a microwave discharge and 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-propylamine films from dilute water based solutions. Surface and film characterisation was

K. Wapner; M. Stratmann; G. Grundmeier

2005-01-01

355

Decay of Molecules at Corrugated Thin Metal Films.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problem of the decay rate for molecules at corrugated thin metal films is considered theoretically via a classical phenomenological approach by generalizing a previous theory for a single rough surface. In particular, numerical results are worked out ...

P. T. Leung T. F. George Y. S. Kim

1989-01-01

356

Preparation and characterization of super-water-repellent Al2O3 coating films with high transparency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alumina thin films with a roughness of 20 to 50 nm were formed by immersing the porous alumina gel films prepared by the sol- gel method in boiling water. When hydrolyzed fluoroalkyltrimethoxysilane was coated on the alumina films, the films showed super-water-repellency and high transparency; the contact angle for water of the film was 165 degrees and the transmittance for

Tsutomu Minami; Noriko Katata; Kiyoharu Tadanaga

1997-01-01

357

In situ forming, metal-adhesive heparin hydrogel surfaces for blood-compatible coating.  

PubMed

Durable and blood-compatible coating of metallic biomaterials remains a major issue in biomedical fields despite its long history of development. In this study, in situ forming, metal-adhesive heparin hydrogels were developed to coat metallic substrates to enhance blood compatibility. The hydrogels are composed of metal-adhesive and enzyme-reactive amphiphilic block copolymer (Tetronic-tyramine/dopamine; TTD) and enzyme-reactive heparin derivatives (heparin-tyramine or heparin-polyethylene glycol-tyramine), which are cross-linkable in situ via an enzyme reaction. The combinations of heparin and Tetronic formed hydrogels with relatively high mechanical strengths of 300-5000 Pa within several tens of seconds; this was also confirmed by observing a dried porous structure as coated on a metal surface. The introduction of dopamine to the hydrogel network enhanced the durability of the hydrogel layers coated on metal, such that more than 60% heparin remained for 7 days. Compared to bare metal surfaces, hydrogel-coated metal surfaces exhibited significantly enhanced blood compatibility. Reduced fibrinogen adsorption and platelet adhesion showed that blood compatibility was 3-5-fold-enhanced on coated hydrogel layers than on the bare metal surface. In conclusion, hydrogels containing heparin and dopamine prepared by enzyme reaction have the potential to be an alternative coating method for enhancing blood compatibility of metallic biomaterials. PMID:22100384

Joung, Yoon Ki; You, Seung Soo; Park, Kyung Min; Go, Dong Hyun; Park, Ki Dong

2011-11-02

358

An investigation of thin-film coating/substrate systems by nanoindentation  

SciTech Connect

The indentation load-displacement behavior of three material systems tested with a Berkovich indenter has been examined. The materials studied were the substrate materials--silicon and polycarbonate, and the coating/substrate systems--diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on silicon, and DLC coating on polycarbonate. They represent three material systems, namely, bulk, soft-coating/hard-substrate, and hard-coating on soft-substrate. Delaminations in the soft-coating/hard-substrate (DLC/Si) system and cracking in the hard-coating/soft-substrate system (DLC/Polycarbonate) were observed. Parallel to the experimental work, an elastic analytical effort has been made to examine the influence of the film thickness and the properties of the coating/substrate systems. Comparisons between the experimental data and analytical solutions of the load-displacement curves during unloading show good agreement. The analytical solution also suggests that the Young`s modulus and hardness of the thin film can not be measured accurately using Sneddon`s solution for bulk materials when the thickness of the film is comparable to the loading contact radius of the indenter. The elastic stress field analysis provides a basis for understanding the experimentally observed delaminations and cracking of the coating/substrate systems.

Li, J.; Thostenson, E.T.; Chou, T.W. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Riester, L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1998-04-01

359

Process optimization of a novel immediate release film coating system using QbD principles.  

PubMed

This work describes a quality-by-design (QbD) approach to determine the optimal coating process conditions and robust process operating space for an immediate release aqueous film coating system (Opadry® 200). Critical quality attributes (CQAs) or associated performance indicators of the coated tablets were measured while coating process parameters such as percent solids of the coating dispersion, coating spray rate, inlet air temperature, airflow rate and pan speed were varied, using a design of experiment protocol. The optimized process parameters were then confirmed by independent coating trials. Disintegration time of coated tablets was not affected by the coating process conditions used in this study, while tablet appearance, as determined by measurement of tablet color, coating defects and gloss was determined to be a CQA. Tablet gloss increased when low spray rate and low percent solids were used, as well as with increased coating pan speed. The study used QbD principles and experimental design models to provide a basis to identify ranges of coating process conditions which afford acceptable product quality. High productivity, color uniformity, and very low defect levels were obtained with Opadry 200 even when using a broad range of coating process conditions. PMID:23483430

Teckoe, Jason; Mascaro, Tracey; Farrell, Thomas P; Rajabi-Siahboomi, Ali R

2013-03-13

360

Deagglomeration of Transfer Film in Metal Contacts Using Nanolubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental results presented in this paper reveal the ability of nanoparticle-dispersed engine oil (nanolubricant) to deagglomerate the metallic transfer films under extreme pressures. Specifically, metallic transfer films were formed and accumulated on the upper AISI 52100 ball in a four-ball tester which resulted in negative wear, i.e. weight gain, under Hertzian contact pressures ranging from 3.4 to 5.5 GPa. When

M. Mosleh; M. Ghaderi

2011-01-01

361

Deagglomeration of Transfer Film in Metal Contacts Using Nanolubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental results presented in this article reveal the ability of nanoparticle-dispersed engine oil (nanolubricant) to deagglomerate metallic transfer films under extreme pressures. Specifically, metallic transfer films were formed and accumulated on the upper AISI 52100 ball in a four-ball tester, which resulted in negative wear—that is, weight gain—under Hertzian contact pressures ranging from 3.4 to 5.5 GPa. When molybdenum disulfide

M. Mosleh; M. Ghaderi

2012-01-01

362

Spintronics in metal–insulator nanogranular magnetic thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic and electrical properties of metal–insulator nanogranular thin films are overviewed, from the spintronics point of view, by presenting our recent results. (1) The metal-rich ferromagnetic ones possess ultrahigh-frequency (MHz–GHz) permeabilities ??, ??, mainly owing to large induced magnetic anisotropy field Hk. They are useful for various magnetic devices, such as thin-film inductors and noise suppressors. (2) The insulator-rich superpramagnetic

Hiroyasu Fujimori; Shigehiro Ohnuma; Nobukiyo Kobayashi; Tsuyosi Masumoto

2006-01-01

363

Growth of lanthanum manganate buffer layers for coated conductors via a metal-organic decomposition process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LaMnO3 (LMO) was identified as a possible buffer material for YBa2Cu3O7-x conductors due to its diffusion barrier properties and close lattice match with YBa2Cu 3O7-x. Growth of LMO films via a metal-organic decomposition (MOD) process on Ni, Ni-5at.%W (Ni-5W), and single crystal SrTiO3 substrates was investigated. Phase-pure LMO was grown via MOD on Ni and SrTiO 3 substrates at temperatures and oxygen pressures within a thermodynamic "process window" wherein LMO, Ni, Ni-5W, and SrTiO3 are all stable components. LMO could not be grown on Ni-5W in the "process window" because tungsten diffused from the substrate into the overlying film, where it reacted to form La and Mn tungstates. The kinetics of tungstate formation and crystallization of phase-pure LMO from the La and Mn acetate precursors are competitive in the temperature range explored (850--1100°C). Temperatures <850°C might mitigate tungsten diffusion from the substrate to the film sufficiently to obviate tungstate formation, but LMO films deposited via MOD require temperatures ?850°C for nucleation and grain growth. Using a Y2O3 seed layer on Ni-5W to block tungsten from diffusing into the LMO film was explored; however, Y2O3 reacts with tungsten in the "process window" at 850--1100°C. Tungsten diffusion into Y2O3 can be blocked if epitaxial, crack-free NiWO4 and NiO layers are formed at the interface between Ni-5W and Y2O3. NiWO 4 only grows epitaxially if the overlying NiO and buffer layers are thick enough to mechanically suppress (011)-oriented NiWO4 grain growth. This is not the case when a bare 75 nm-thick Y2O3 film on Ni-5W is processed at 850°C. These studies show that the Ni-5W substrate must be at a low temperature to prevent tungsten diffusion, whereas the LMO precursor film must be at elevated temperature to crystallize. An excimer laser-assisted MOD process was used where a Y2O 3-coated Ni-5W substrate was held at 500°C in air and the pulsed laser photo-thermally heated the Y2O3 and LMO precursor films. This resulted in a textured, phase-pure LMO film.

Venkataraman, Kartik

364

Colored thin films for specific metal ion detection.  

PubMed

This paper describes the investigation of chitosan and poly(allylamine) (PAH) for the creation of a multi-film, color-based dipstick for the detection of metal ions in solution. Thin, colored films of chitosan and PAH cross-linked with hexamethylene 1,6-di(aminocarboxysulfonate) (HDACS) are created where color is due to film thickness and optical interference effects. The films are investigated for their ability to selectively detect aqueous metal ions via changes in thickness and/or color. Chitosan-HDACS films were selective for Cr(VI) over all other metal ions tested including Cr(acac)3 and Cr(NO3)3 x 9H2O, and PAH-HDACS films were selective for Cu(II) and Cu(I) salts over all other metal ions tested. The irreversible, selective changes due to metal ion solutions were not caused by varying the pH. Potomac River water was also tested using the two films, with results indicating the presence of Cu(II) in the aqueous sample. PMID:15382871

Schauer, Caroline L; Chen, Mu-San; Price, Ronald R; Schoen, Paul E; Ligler, Frances S

2004-08-15

365

Analysis of the stability of native oxide films at liquid lead/metal interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interface between liquid lead and different metallic solids (pure metals : AI, Fe and Ni, and T91 steel) was investigated below 400°C under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) by wetting experiments. The aim was to check the physical stability of native oxide films grown at the surface of the substrates, along a contact with liquid lead. Two types of metallic substrates were used : i) conventional bulk polycrystals, and ii) nanocrystalline films obtained by e-beam evaporation under UHV. The actual contact between liquid lead and the solid substrates was achieved by preparing lead drops in-situ. Wetting experiments were performed using sessile drop and/or liquid bridge methods. Fresh solid surfaces and former liquid/solid interfaces can be explored by squeezing and stretching a liquid lead bridge formed between two parallel and horizontal substrates. It is shown that the contact with liquid lead produces the detachment of the native oxide films grown on the metallic solids. It is concluded that if oxide coatings are needed to protect a metallic solid from attack by liquid lead, they should be self-renewable.

Lesueur, C.; Chatain, D.; Bergman, C.; Gas, P.; Baque, F.

2002-09-01

366

Electrical double layer and adhesive force in fatigue strength of metals coated with plastics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Literature consists a lot of information concerning the issues of the fatigue endurance of metals coated with plastics. However few studies explicitly explain, what mechanisms decide on the increased fatigue endurance of metals coated with plastics. Therefore an expression is a purpose of the work on what a way increasing this fatigue endurance permanence is taking a place. Design\\/methodology\\/approach:

K. Jamroziak; W. Jargulinski

367

Smart coating based on polyaniline acrylic blend for corrosion protection of different metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coatings for corrosion protection of different metals considering intrinsically electronic conducting polymers have become important mainly because of restrictions on the use of coatings containing heavy metals, due to their serious environmental problems. This work presents the electrochemical behavior of a blend formed by camphor sulphonate-doped polyaniline and poly(methyl methacrylate) used for iron, copper and silver corrosion protection in acidic

Solange de Souza

2007-01-01

368

Enhancement of wear and corrosion resistance of metal-matrix composites by laser coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel technique based on laser-induced chemical reduction of metal salts has been developed to produce surface coatings on metal-matrix composites (MMCs). The substrate is predeposited with a paste, containing concentrated salts of the elements to be coated along with a thickening agent, and then subjected to high power laser radiation. The rise in surface temperature during laser irradiation led

Madhav Rao Govindaraju; P. A. Molian

1994-01-01

369

Fracture mechanics of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films coated on flexible polymer substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films have been widely used for many industrial applications due to their outstanding physical properties such as high hardness, wear resistance and biological compatibility. The DLC films coated on polymer substrates have also been extensively used and investigated because recently, quite a few applications for the use of these polymer–DLC composites have been proposed and actively discussed.

Dai Tsubone; Terumitsu Hasebe; Aki Kamijo; Atsushi Hotta

2007-01-01

370

Effect of flame spray coating on falling film evaporation for multi effect distillation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horizontal tube falling film evaporators find various applications like multi effect distillation for sea water desalination, power and process applications, refrigeration applications, etc. In this system, latent heat released inside the tube due to condensation is transferred to the falling film on the tube surface resulting in convective evaporation. Among many heat transfer enhancement techniques, thermal spray coatings enjoy diverse

Raju Abraham; A. Mani

2012-01-01

371

Optical fiber sensors with Fabry-Perot thin film coating as sensitive element  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fiber-optic relative-humidity sensor composed of two silver coating and a polymer film is proposed and developed. Ag coatings are magnetically sputtered, and sandwiched by a dip-coated moisture-sensitive polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film, which constructs a low-fineness Fabry-Perot sensing head. Experimental results show that interference fringe shifts to longer wavelength when relative humidity increases. The interference fringe shifts of two-layer sensor and three-layer sensor are 5.3 nm and 1.9 nm respectively. The linearity of interference fringe shift to relative humidity is averagely 0.9874.

Yang, Minghong; Li, Xiaobing; Wang, Junjie; Tong, Xinglin

2010-05-01

372

Investigation of Processes Occurring at the Metal\\/Polymer Coating\\/Electrolyte Interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methodical approach and the cell to study electrochemical processes occurring during cathodic disbondment of a polymer coating are worked out. They permit one to investigate the role of each process separately when supervising the metal substrate potential, electrolyte and polymer coating composition at a metal\\/polymer\\/electrolyte interface. The cathodic disbondment of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, polyisoprene and poly(vinyl chloride) coatings are

A. A. Korzhenko; G. S. Shapoval; A. A. Pud

1999-01-01

373

Metal matrix coated fiber composites and the methods of manufacturing such composites  

DOEpatents

A fiber coating which allows ceramic or metal fibers to be wetted by molten metals is disclosed. The coating inhibits degradation of the physical properties caused by chemical reaction between the fiber and the coating itself or between the fiber and the metal matrix. The fiber coating preferably includes at least a wetting layer, and in some applications, a wetting layer and a barrier layer between the fiber and the wetting layer. The wetting layer promotes fiber wetting by the metal matrix. The barrier layer inhibits fiber degradation. The fiber coating permits the fibers to be infiltrated with the metal matrix resulting in composites having unique properties not obtainable in pure materials. 8 figures.

Weeks, J.K. Jr.; Gensse, C.

1993-09-14

374

Photoresist Dip Coating on Thin Film Networks. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Application of liquid photoresist by dip coating was investigated as potentially more reliable and repeatable than the current roller coating process. Resist viscosity, extraction rate, and substrate orientation were found to affect applied resist thickne...

R. W. Hughs G. E. Barner

1980-01-01

375

Fundamental Adsorption Properties for Low Molecular Weight Alcohols in Fluorocarbon Thin Films Deposited onto Quartz Crystal Microbalance Electrode by an R.F. Sputtering and Spin Coating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly sensitive detection methods for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are needed in working environment handling the VOCs. The use of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is one such method, and many studies have been carried out on the deposition of metallic, inorganic and organic thin films onto QCM surfaces for use as sensors. In this paper, we report on adsorption properties of fluorocarbon thin films deposited onto the QCM electrode by an r.f. sputtering and spin coating for low molecular weight VOCs such as aliphatic alcohols and acetone. Adsorption mass of these VOC molecules in the fluorocarbon thin film deposited by the r.f. sputtering were much higher than that in the thin film deposited by the spin coating. It is known that molecular structures of fluorocarbon thin films sputtered with a Poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) target were quite different from pristine PTFE. It is considered that this is one of reasons why the adsorption mass in the thin film deposited by the r.f. sputtering was higher than that in the thin film deposited by the spin coating.

Iwamori, Satoru; Miyamoto, Takaaki; Ikeda, Yuki; Ohnishi, Yasutaka; Noda, Kazutoshi

376

Functional properties of ZnO films prepared by thermal oxidation of metallic films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have prepared ZnO films by thermal oxidation of Zn metallic films and analyzed their structure, morphology, wettability, and gas sensing properties. Films structure and surface morphology were derived from X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy data. XRD analysis indicates that obtained ZnO films posses a crystalline structure. An increase of the surface roughness was observed, once the oxidation time increases. Surface wettability investigations showed that under UV-illumination, ZnO films present a reversible switching between hydrophobic and hydrophilic states. The gas response to methane, acetone, and formaldehyde was investigated, and experimental results indicate that tested films are selective to methane. Also, the gas response was found to increase, as the oxidation time of metallic films increases. This behavior was attributed to the structural changes (crystallite sizes, surface roughness), which take place during oxidation process.

Rambu, A. P.; Tiron, V.; Nica, V.; Iftimie, N.

2013-06-01

377

Plasma-Etching of Spray-Coated Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films for Biointerfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an effective method for the batch fabrication of miniaturized single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) film electrodes using oxygen plasma etching. We adopted the approach of spray-coating for good adhesion of the SWCNT film onto a pre-patterned Pt support and used O2 plasma patterning of the coated films to realize efficient biointerfaces between SWCNT surfaces and biomolecules. By these approaches, the SWCNT film can be easily integrated into miniaturized electrode systems. To demonstrate the effectiveness of plasma-etched SWCNT film electrodes as biointerfaces, Legionella antibody was selected as analysis model owing to its considerable importance to electrochemical biosensors and was detected using plasma-etched SWCNT film electrodes and a 3,3',5,5'-tetramethyl-benzidine dihydrochloride/horseradish peroxidase (TMB/HRP) catalytic system. The response currents increased with increasing concentration of Legionella antibody. This result indicates that antibodies were effectively immobilized on plasma-etched and activated SWCNT surfaces.

Kim, Joon Hyub; Lee, Jun-Yong; Min, Nam Ki

2012-08-01

378

New Approach to Ceramic/Metal-Polymer Multilayered Coatings for High Performance Dry Sliding Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combination of thermally sprayed hard coatings with a polymer based top coat leads to multilayered coating systems with tailored functionalities concerning wear resistance, friction, adhesion, wettability or specific electrical properties. The basic concept is to combine the mechanical properties of the hard base coating with the tribological or chemical abilities of the polymer top coat suitable for the respective application. This paper gives an overview of different types of recently developed multilayer coatings and their application in power transmission under dry sliding conditions. State of the art coatings for dry sliding applications in power transmission are mostly based on thin film coatings like diamond-like carbon or solid lubricants, e.g. MoS2. A new approach is the combination of thin film coatings with combined multilayer coatings. To evaluate the capability of these tribological systems, a multi-stage investigation has been carried out. In the first stage the performance of the sliding lacquers and surface topography of the steel substrate has been evaluated. In the following stage thermally sprayed hard coatings were tested in combination with different sliding lacquers. Wear resistance and friction coefficients of combined coatings were determined using a twin disc test-bed.

Rempp, A.; Killinger, A.; Gadow, R.

2012-06-01

379

Organic hydrogen gas sensor with palladium-coated ?-phase poly(vinylidene fluoride) thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have proposed an organic hydrogen gas sensor in which palladium (Pd)-coated ?-phase poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) films are utilized. Volume expansion of the Pd thin film caused by absorption of hydrogen gas is monitored by a piezoelectric thin film of PVDF attached to the Pd films. We have developed a simple method of synthesizing ?-phase PVDF films from ?-phase PVDF powder by using a wet process in which a mixture of acetone and hexamethylphosphoric triamide is used as the solvent for the PVDF powder. The sensor works by itself at room temperature without a power source.

Imai, Yuji; Kimura, Yasuo; Niwano, Michio

2012-10-01

380

Metal Matrix Composite Coatings Manufactured by Thermal Spraying: Influence of the Powder Preparation on the Coating Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to manufacture metal matrix composite coatings by thermal spraying. In order to improve coating's mechanical properties, it is necessary to increase homogeneity. To meet this objective, the chosen approach was to optimize the powder morphology by mechanical alloying. Indeed, the mechanical alloying method (ball milling) was implemented to synthesize NiCr-Cr3C2 and NiCrBSi-WC composite powders by using cold spraying and high-velocity oxygen fuel process, respectively. After optimizing the process parameters on powder grain size, the composite coatings were compared with standard coatings manufactured from mixed powders. SEM observations, hardness measurements, and XRD analyses were the first technologies implemented to characterize the metal matrix composite coatings. Different characteristics were then observed. When mechanical alloying process is employed to synthesize composite powders strengthened by particle dispersion, the powders tend to fracture into small segments, especially when high content of hard particles is added. Powder microstructures were then refined, which induced thinner coating morphologies and reduced porosity rate. Once an improved microstructure is obtained, manufacturing of coating using milled powders was found suitable in comparison with coatings manufactured only with mixed powders.

Aussavy, D.; Costil, S.; El Kedim, O.; Montavon, G.; Bonnot, A.-F.

2013-10-01

381

Growth of Cu\\/Zn Alloy Films Sputtered on Flexible Acrylic Resin-Coated PET Substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cu\\/Zn alloy films were DC-sputtered on flexible acrylic resin-coated PET substrates and the effect of sputtering condition on the morphology and growth rate of Cu\\/Zn alloy films were investigated. It is found that long sputtering time, low voltage and large target-to-substrate distance can lead to smooth and uniform films. Chamber pressure must be well controlled at several Pascal. High voltage,

Xiaoyue Qu; Hui Xie; Zhenxing Chen

2011-01-01

382

Chitosan\\/whey protein film as active coating to extend Ricotta cheese shelf-life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shelf-life extension of Ricotta cheese coated with a chitosan\\/whey protein edible film and stored under modified atmosphere at 4 °C was evaluated. The chitosan\\/whey protein film had 35% and 21% lower oxygen and carbon dioxide permeability, respectively, and about three times higher water vapor permeability than film prepared with chitosan alone. Over a 30-day storage period, no differences in the pH

Prospero Di Pierro; Angela Sorrentino; Loredana Mariniello; Concetta Valeria L. Giosafatto; Raffaele Porta

2011-01-01

383

Preparation of Water-Repellent Films by Plasma-Coating and its Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preparation of water-repellent films by plasma-coating has been reviewed and then unique applications of the hydrophobic films are also introduced. Ultra-water-repellent films with a water contact angle of 150 degree have been synthesized by capacitively couple plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition using C2H2F2 \\/ Ar mixture gases for next generation automobile window. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the prepared

Yasunori Ohtsu

2010-01-01

384

Delivery of Food Additives and Antimicrobials Using Edible Films and Coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Functional efficiency of edible films and coatings strongly depends on the nature of film components and physical structure.\\u000a Choice of a film-forming substance and\\/or active additive depends on the desired objective, nature of the food product, and\\u000a specific application. Thus, lipids or hydrophobic substances such as resins, waxes or some insoluble proteins are most efficient\\u000a for retarding moisture transfer. On

Jesus-Alberto Quezada-Gallo

385

Electrophoretic Deposition Applied to Thick Metal-Ceramic Coatings  

SciTech Connect

Electrophoretic deposition was used to fabricate thick (4 mm) metal–ceramic deposits from a non-aqueous slurry of nickel and alumina particles. A high solid volume in the slurry was identified as the primary parameter for depositing thick cermet coatings rather than the applied electric potential or ionic additive concentration. Ionic additives (MgCl2, AlCl3, etc.) were found to adequately suspend the alumina particles and provide rapid deposition rates. The nickel particles proved to be more difficult to suspend in solution, thereby sacrificing control of the deposition composition. The use of small (3.0 µm) particles and continuously pumping the slurry alleviated the suspension problems but small electric potentials (100 V/cm) were required to avoid the formation of rough, columnar deposits on the depositing electrode.

Windes, William Enoch; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Reimanis, Ivar E.

2002-08-01

386

Effect of film composition and microstructure on microindentation response in amorphous alloy coatings  

SciTech Connect

Amorphous alloy coatings were deposited onto Ni substrates by decomposing metal carbonyls (Ni(CO)/sub 4/ and Fe(CO)/sub 5/) and metalloid hydrides (PH/sub 3/ and B/sub 2/H/sub 6/) by chemical vapor deposition in an rf plasma. The chemical composition of these films was determined using Auger electron spectroscopy and the hybridization (i.e., bonding character) of the metalloids (phosphorus, boron, and carbon) has been evaluated by using Auger line-shape analysis. The amorphous/crystalline nature of these alloys was evaluated using x-ray and electron diffraction techniques. The microindentation load-depth response of these films was measured with an ultralow-load hardness tester capable of testing at loads less than 10 g and at penetration depths less than 1 ..mu..m. The results of these measurements are discussed in the light of theories which attempt to relate mechanical properties of amorphous alloys to the bonding character of the outer electrons of the component elements.

Bourcier, R.J.; Nelson, G.C.; Hays, A.K.; Romig A.D. Jr.

1986-11-01

387

Relationship between microindentation response and film composition and microstructure for some novel amorphous alloy coatings  

SciTech Connect

A number of amorphous alloy coatings have been deposited onto Ni substrates by decomposing metal carbonyls (Ni(CO)/sub 4/ and Fe(CO)/sub 5/) and metalloid hydrides (PH/sub 3/ and B/sub 2/H/sub 6/) by using a combination of heat (chemical vapor deposition) and high-energy electron and ion bombardment (radio frequency plasma deposition). The chemical composition of these films has been determined using Auger electron spectroscopy and the hybridization (i.e., bonding character) of the metalloids (phosphorus, boron and carbon) has been evaluated by using Auger lineshape analysis. The amorphous/crystalline nature of these alloys has been evaluated by using x-ray and electron diffraction techniques. The microindentation load-depth response of these films has been measured with an ultra-low-load hardness tester capable of testing at loads less than 10 grams and at penetration depths less than 1 micrometer. The results of these measurements are discussed in the light of theories which attempt to relate mechanical properties of amorphous alloys to the bonding character of the outer electrons of the component elements. 14 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Bourcier, R.J.; Nelson, G.C.; Hays, A.K.; Romig, A.D. Jr.

1986-01-01

388

Removal of metal ions from water solutions by iron/cobalt oxide coated keramzite.  

PubMed

A method for coating hydrated iron, cobalt and iron/cobalt oxide on the surface of keramzite sand was developed. The coating parameters (pH, amount of coated metal, molar ratio Co/Fe, temperature of modification and time of treatment) controlling sorption ability of the coated layer were determined. The iron/cobalt coated keramzite thermally activated at 450 degrees C obtained at a molar ratio Co/Fe-0.516 is characterized and use for the removal of metal ions. The effect of contact time, solution pH, sorbate concentration, ionic strength and competing metal concentration on the sorption of copper, lead, zinc and cadmium was studied in batch experiments. The results reveal that the sorption rate of metal ions increases more rapidly in the initial period and reach metastable equilibrium within three hours. The sorption on coated keramzite follows both Langmuir and Freundlich's models. The data on the effect of pH showed that the sorption of all metal ions studied was markedly influenced by the solution pH. According to the concept of surface complexation model the experimental results support the assumption that metal adsorption at oxide coated keramzite sand could be better modeled as an innersphere surface reaction. The modified sorbent has a high selectivity towards copper and lead ions. The coated keramzite sand can be recommended as an efficient adsorbent for advanced water treatment of metal-bearing solutions and industrial wastewaters. PMID:11545353

Stefanova, R Y

2001-01-01

389

The Production of Organic-Inorganic Compound Film-Coated Urea and the Characteristics of Its Nutrient Release  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of different concentrations of natural macromolecular compound on the characteristics of nutrient release in the membrane materials of organic-inorganic compound film-coated urea was discussed, and the optimal concentrations for better nutrient release was proposed. The characteristics of nutrient release of film-coated urea were evaluated by soil column leaching experiment. Organic-inorganic compound film-coated urea showed good characteristics of nutrient

Hong-tao ZOU; Yao-sheng WANG; Hao-wen SONG; Yan-yu HAN; Na YU; Yu-ling ZHANG; Xiu-li DANG; Yi HUANG; Yu-long ZHANG

2009-01-01

390

Antimicrobial releasing edible whey protein films and coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Release profiles of potassium sorbate from active-edible whey protein films were determined experimentally and the mechanism of diffusion of potassium sorbate in the films was investigated. The diffusion of potassium sorbate in whey protein films was found to be non-Fickian. A model that described the diffusion of potassium sorbate from whey protein films that swelled due to the countercurrent diffusion

Murat Ozdemir

1999-01-01

391

Preparation and film-growing mechanism of hydrous zirconia coated on TiO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To overcome the photochemical activity of rutile used as a pigment and improve its durability in application, hydrous zirconia-coated TiO2 was prepared by the precipitation method. High-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the morphology and surface structure of hydrous zirconia-coated TiO2. The ?-potential and ultraviolet (UV) absorption of both coated and uncoated rutile were examined. The results show that hydrous zirconia can not only improve the durability but also raise the lightness. A suitable ZrO2 content of hydrous zirconia-coated TiO2 is about 1.0wt%, and a dense film on the surface of rutile can be formed with better pigmentary properties. Based on the thermodynamic analysis, the zirconia-coating process and the film growth mechanism were discussed.

Li, Jie; Sun, Ti-Chang; Wang, Yong; Wang, Li-Na; Qu, Jing-Kui; Qi, Tao

2010-10-01

392

Combustion zone durability program-B. Task VIII. Sputter deposited ceramic and metallic coatings. Executive summary. [Graded metal; metal/ceramic layered; dense surface ceramic  

SciTech Connect

The graded metal coatings are of the CoCrAlY type modified by including high Cr surface compositions, gradients in Cr and Al composition, underlayers and graded Pt additions, and Hf substitutions for Y. The metal ceramic layered coatings consist of alternate metal (Ni, Ni-Cr, CoCrAlY or Pt) and ceramic (Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ or ZrO/sub 2/ + Y) layers. Investigations of dense surface ceramic coatings are directed towards methods for obtaining adherent impermeable ceramic protective coatings for gas turbine hot section components. Increased coating adherence is being sought through two coating designs intended to accomodate expansion and modulus mismatches at the coating-substrate interface.

Patten, J. W.; Moss, R. W.; Hays, D. D.

1980-11-01

393

Thin film reaction of transition metals with germanium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic study of the thermally induced reaction of 20 transition metals (Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W, Mn, Re, Fe, Ru, Co, Rh, Ir, Ni, Pd, Pt, and Cu) with Ge substrates was carried out in order to identify appropriate contact materials in Ge-based microelectronic circuits. Thin metal films, nominally 30 nm thick, were sputter deposited

C. Lavoie; P. Desjardins; A. J. Kellock; C. Detavernier; S. Gaudet

2006-01-01

394

Characterization of electrically conductive transition metal dichalcogenide lubricant films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groups VB and VIB transition metal dichalcogenides with layered structures, are intrinsic solid lubricants, and constitute a class of materials with unique and unusual properties based on their extreme anisotropy. The primary objective of this investigation was to conduct a comprehensive study on the tribological and electrical properties of burnished and sputtered transition metal dichalcogenide films, and characterize the performance

Harish C. Waghray

1997-01-01

395

Nanoscale precipitation coating: the deposition of inorganic films through step-by-step spray-assembly.  

PubMed

Thin films and surface coatings play an important role in basic and applied research. Here we report on a new, versatile, and simple method ("precipitation coating") for the preparation of inorganic films, based on the alternate spraying of complementary inorganic salt solutions against a receiving surface on which the inorganic deposit forms. The method applies whenever the solubility of the deposited material is smaller than that of the salts in the solutions of the reactants. The film thickness is controlled from nanometers to hundreds of micrometers simply by varying the number of spraying steps; 200 spray cycles, corresponding to less than 15 min deposition time, yield films with thicknesses exceeding one micrometer and reaching tens of micrometers in some cases. The new solution-based process is also compatible with conventional layer-by-layer assembly and permits the fabrication of multimaterial sandwich-like coatings. PMID:20731454

Popa, Gabriela; Boulmedais, Fouzia; Zhao, Peng; Hemmerlé, Joseph; Vidal, Loïc; Mathieu, Eric; Félix, Olivier; Schaaf, Pierre; Decher, Gero; Voegel, Jean-Claude

2010-08-24

396

Antibacterial effectiveness of chitosan-propolis coated polypropylene films against foodborne pathogens.  

PubMed

Antibacterial properties of chitosan are well documented in the literature. However its antibacterial effectiveness in the film form is controversial due to the methodological differences in test methods used. In this study, antibacterial effectiveness of chitosan-coated polypropylene films alone and incorporating ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) were evaluated against six foodborne pathogens (Bacillus cereus, Cronobacter sakazakii, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus) using the ISO 22196 method designed for the antibacterial treated plastic products. The results demonstrated that chitosan coated film exhibited the broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Incorporation of EPP to coating at 10% (propolis resin/chitosan) enhanced antibacterial activity against all pathogens tested. Results of this study revealed that chitosan has antibacterial activity in the film form and that propolis is a promising antimicrobial for the food packaging applications. PMID:23707735

Torlak, Emrah; Sert, Durmu?

2013-05-23

397

High-performance carbon nanotube transparent conductive films by scalable dip coating.  

PubMed

Transparent conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) films were fabricated by dip-coating solutions of pristine CNTs dissolved in chlorosulfonic acid (CSA) and then removing the CSA. The film performance and morphology (including alignment) were controlled by the CNT length, solution concentration, coating speed, and level of doping. Using long CNTs (?10 ?m), uniform films were produced with excellent optoelectrical performance (?100 ?/sq sheet resistance at ?90% transmittance in the visible), in the range of applied interest for touch screens and flexible electronics. This technique has potential for commercialization because it preserves the length and quality of the CNTs (leading to enhanced film performance) and operates at high CNT concentration and coating speed without using surfactants (decreasing production costs). PMID:23038980

Mirri, Francesca; Ma, Anson W K; Hsu, Tienyi T; Behabtu, Natnael; Eichmann, Shannon L; Young, Colin C; Tsentalovich, Dmitri E; Pasquali, Matteo

2012-10-12

398

Process optimization of single-coat positive photoresist for thick film applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on a single coat process optimization of a new positive thick film resist originally described by Renaldo et al. from IBM at SPIE in 1995. The positive diazonapthoquinone photoresist system, SJR-3000, can achieve uniform coatings of greater than 28 microns in a single coat. In addition the process can produce images with wall profiles greater than 80 degrees and is compatible with traditional etch baths as well as gold, copper and permalloy plating baths without exhibiting cracking. Process latitude over a wide range exposure and development conditions will be demonstrated at a 20 (mu) coating thickness using a stepper exposure system.

Kozlowski, Alan E.

1995-09-01

399

Surface Segregation of Substrate Metal on Film Surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied surface segregation of substrate metal on the top of a deposited film in a vacuum. The specimen was heated in high vacuum chamber of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) or X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) until the substrate metal was observed on the surface of the deposited film and the surface concentration of the substrate metal became saturated. The depth profile of the heated specimen was obtained by measuring AES/XPS with Ar ion etching. Al, Ti, Cr, Ni, Cu, Nb, and Fe were used as substrate materials and Al, Ti, Cr, Zr, Cu, Nb, and Fe were used as film materials. The rule is segregation of a substrate atom occurs if the adsorption energy of a substrate atom on a film is larger than that on the substrate itself. The adsorption energy is estimated from heat of solution, surface energy, and vaporization energy, and those estimated values are used to predict the segregation behavior.

Aparna, Yarrama Reddy; Rao, K. V.; Reddy, G. Balanagi

2011-07-01

400

Thickness Measurement of Thin-metal Films by Optical Metrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and resistivity measurements were used to characterize Nickel-metal films used for self-aligned silicidation process. Variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometer (VASE) in the VUV range of wavelengths was used to measure the thickness and optical properties of Nickel films. The thickness-dependent optical properties of thin-metal films are shown to be correlated to the change in electron relaxation time and resistivity. The change in electron relaxation time and resistivity can be traced to the change in grain boundary reflection coefficient and grain size. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data aided with sputtering is used to show the evidence of the various stack layers that would be used in the VASE modeling. X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and Rutherford backscattered spectroscopy (RBS) measurements on thin-metal films were performed to complement the thickness measurements made with SE.

Kamineni, V. K.; Raymond, M.; Bersch, E. J.; Doris, B. B.; Diebold, A. C.

2009-09-01

401

Synthesis and Characterization of Multifunctional Epitaxial Metal-oxide Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transition metal-oxides have attracted great attention due to their versatile properties. Multilayers, and/or artificial superlattices, are especially interesting since these architectures usually exhibit unique physical properties in comparison with single phase thin films. Furthermore, the lattice strains and the coupling in the multilayered systems can strongly affect the films' growth and their physical properties. We have grown and characterized different multilayered metal-oxide thin films using laser molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Specifically, we have prepared [(BiFeO3)n/(La0.7Sr0.3MnO3)n]m and [(BiFeO3)n/(BiMnO3)n]m superlattices and strained BiFeO3 (BFO) 0.5: BiMnO3 (BMO) 0.5 films. We have systematically investigated the strain states on the magnetic properties of these multilayer films.

Xiong, Jie; Zhai, Junyi; Zou, Guifu; Wang, Haiyan; Yan, Li; Zhuo, Mujin; Zhang, Yingying; Tao, Bowan; Li, Yanrong; MacManus-Driscoll, J. L.; Jia, Quanxi

2011-03-01

402

Understanding organic film behavior on alloy and metal oxides.  

PubMed

Native oxide surfaces of stainless steel 316L and Nitinol alloys and their constituent metal oxides, namely nickel, chromium, molybdenum, manganese, iron, and titanium, were modified with long chain organic acids to better understand organic film formation. The adhesion and stability of films of octadecylphosphonic acid, octadecylhydroxamic acid, octadecylcarboxylic acid, and octadecylsulfonic acid on these substrates were examined in this study. The films formed on these surfaces were analyzed by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, contact angle goniometry, atomic force microscopy, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. The effect of the acidity of the organic moiety and substrate composition on the film characteristics and stability is discussed. Interestingly, on the alloy surfaces, the presence of less reactive metal sites does not inhibit film formation. PMID:20039608

Raman, Aparna; Quiñones, Rosalynn; Barriger, Lisa; Eastman, Rachel; Parsi, Arash; Gawalt, Ellen S

2010-02-01

403

Development of metal-coated ceramic anodes for molten carbonate fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the developmental efforts on metal coating of various ceramic substrates (LiAlO{sub 2}, SrTiO{sub 3}, and LiFeO{sub 2}) and the critical issues associated with fabricating anodes using metal-coated LiAlO{sub 2} substrates. Electroless Ni and Cu coating technology was developed to achieve complete metal coverage on LiAlO{sub 2} powder substrates. Metal coated SrTiO{sub 3} powders were fabricated into anodes by a process identical to that reported in the GE literature. Microstructural examination revealed that the grains of the ceramic had fused together, with the metal having dewetted from the surface of the ceramic. Alternate substrates that might allow for better wetting of the metal on the ceramic such as LiFeO{sub 2} and Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} were identified. Cu/Ni-coated (50:50 mol ratio, 50 w/o metal loading) LiFeO{sub 2} anodes were optimized to meet the MCFC anode specifications. Metal-coated gamma-LiAlO{sub 2} substrates were also developed. By using suitable chemical surface modification methods, the gamma-UAlO{sub 2} substrate surface may be modified to allow a stable metal coated anode to be fabricated. Creep testing of the metal coated ceramic anodes were conducted at IGT. It was determined that the predominant creep mechanism is due to particle rearrangement. The anode porosity, and mean pore size had significant effect on the creep of the anode. Lower porosity and pore size consistent with performance criteria are desired to reduce creep. Lower metal loading with uniformity of coverage will result in lower creep behavior of the anode. Of the two substrates evaluated, LiFeO{sub 2} in general exhibited lower creep which was attributed to superior metal adhesion.

Khandkar, A.C.; Elangovan, S.; Marianowski, L.G.

1990-03-01

404

Development of metal-coated ceramic anodes for molten carbonate fuel cells. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the developmental efforts on metal coating of various ceramic substrates (LiAlO{sub 2}, SrTiO{sub 3}, and LiFeO{sub 2}) and the critical issues associated with fabricating anodes using metal-coated LiAlO{sub 2} substrates. Electroless Ni and Cu coating technology was developed to achieve complete metal coverage on LiAlO{sub 2} powder substrates. Metal coated SrTiO{sub 3} powders were fabricated into anodes by a process identical to that reported in the GE literature. Microstructural examination revealed that the grains of the ceramic had fused together, with the metal having dewetted from the surface of the ceramic. Alternate substrates that might allow for better wetting of the metal on the ceramic such as LiFeO{sub 2} and Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} were identified. Cu/Ni-coated (50:50 mol ratio, 50 w/o metal loading) LiFeO{sub 2} anodes were optimized to meet the MCFC anode specifications. Metal-coated gamma-LiAlO{sub 2} substrates were also developed. By using suitable chemical surface modification methods, the gamma-UAlO{sub 2} substrate surface may be modified to allow a stable metal coated anode to be fabricated. Creep testing of the metal coated ceramic anodes were conducted at IGT. It was determined that the predominant creep mechanism is due to particle rearrangement. The anode porosity, and mean pore size had significant effect on the creep of the anode. Lower porosity and pore size consistent with performance criteria are desired to reduce creep. Lower metal loading with uniformity of coverage will result in lower creep behavior of the anode. Of the two substrates evaluated, LiFeO{sub 2} in general exhibited lower creep which was attributed to superior metal adhesion.

Khandkar, A.C.; Elangovan, S.; Marianowski, L.G.

1990-03-01

405

Near room temperature power factor of metal sulfides films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metal chalcogenides are compounds with attractive transport properties to be used in thermoelectric applications. This manuscript shows the influence of temperature on power factor (?) of several metal sulphide films: CoS2, FeS2, NiS2 and PdS. Films were prepared by direct sulphuration of the metals at 700K. Sulfide films were characterized by perfilometry, XRD and SEM-EDX. Transport properties (Seebeck coefficient and resitivity) were measured from 300K to 700 K under vacuum. Whereas CoS2 shows a semi-metallic behaviour, FeS2 and PdS exhibit a clearly semiconductor character. Moreover, despite CoS2 is the sulfide with highest power factor, FeS2 seems to be the most adequate to be implement considering key criteria such as cost and availability of raw elements.

Clamagirand, J. M.; Ares, J. R.; Ferrer, I. J.; Sánchez, C.

2012-06-01

406

Molecular Interactions Between Alcohols and Metal Phthalocyanine Thin Films for Optical Gas Sensor Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optically active organic gas sensors represent a promising molecular sensing device with low power consumption. We report experimental and computational investigations into the molecular interactions of metal phthalocyanine thin films with alcohol vapor. In the gas-sensing regime, the interactions of zinc phthalocyanine and alcohol molecules were studied by the Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations, in comparison to the x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The DFT results reveal a reversible charge interaction mechanism between the zinc atom and the oxygen atom in the alcohol OH group, which corresponds to a shift in the x-ray absorption edge of the zinc atom. In the irreversible interaction regime, the effect of saturated alcohol vapor on spin-coated zinc phthalocyanine films was studied by the phase contrast microscopy, the optical absorption spectroscopy, and the transmission electron microscopy. Annealing the spin-coated films in saturated methanol vapor was found to induce an irreversible structural transformation from an amorphous to a crystalline phase, similar to the effect of a thermal annealing process. These crystallization processes of the zinc phthalocyanine films were also found to enhance their stability and alcohol sensing performance.

Uttiya, Sureeporn; Kladsomboon, Sumana; Chamlek, Onanong; Suwannet, Wiriya; Osotchan, Tanakorn; Kerdcharoen, Teerakiat; Brinkmann, Martin; Pratontep, Sirapat

407

High optical quality spin-coated polyphenylsiloxane glass thick films on polyethyleneterephtalate and silica substrates  

SciTech Connect

We report a facile route for the preparation of polyphenylsiloxane ((1 - x)PhSiO{sub 3/2}-(x)Ph{sub 2}SiO{sub 2/2} (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3)) glass films from 50 to 150 {mu}m thick. The films were obtained via a multi-step spin-coating process at room temperature using a non-aqueous coating sol where the preformed polyphenylsiloxane is homogeneously dissolved in acetone. The different stages of the spinning process have been described and optimised, and represent an important issue to the preparation of homogeneous films. The thickness of the films (H) coated on silica and polyethyleneterephtalate substrates showed a trend dependency with the sol viscosity ({eta}), H {proportional_to} {eta} {sup 0.37} and H {proportional_to} {eta} {sup 0.41}, respectively, making the thickness of the films easy to control. The average surface roughness evaluated to be less than 5 nm and the high optical transmittance (99%) demonstrated the high quality coatings. In addition, the stability of the glass matrix in the solvent makes this method of practical interest for tremendous possibilities in a wide range of applications such as the development microfluidic channels, protective coatings and optical components.

Menaa, Bouzid [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan) and PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)]. E-mail: bouzidmenaa@noncry.kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Takahashi, Masahide [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan) and PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)]. E-mail: masahide@noncry.kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Tokuda, Yomei [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Yoko, Toshinobu [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

2006-10-12

408

Dielectric breakdown of polymer films containing metal clusters  

SciTech Connect

Thin films of gold-containing plasma-polymerized tetrafluoroethylene were prepared in an rf glow discharge. The films thus obtained showed a wide range of conductivities from insulating ( rho>10/sup 16/ ..cap omega.. cm) to metallic ( rhoapprox.3 x 10/sup -6/ ..cap omega.. cm), depending on plasma conditions during synthesis. The synthesis of the polymer is described in detail since it presents several new aspects. The structure and composition of the films were investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Studies of current-voltage characteristics in the dielectric regime, i.e., below electrical percolation, show that the conduction is volume limited (Poole--Frenkel effect) in non-gold-containing films, and characterized by a bistable switching behavior for gold-rich films. Dielectric breakdown measurements were realized on self-healing metal-insulator-metal structures. The Weibull analysis of breakdown voltages and a statistical treatment of times to breakdown under constant stress give, respectively, the nominal breakdown field E/sub 0/ and the specific breakdown field E/sub c/. These two sets of data follow similar functional behavior as a function of metallic volume fraction in the films. Surprisingly, the breakdown-field values remain relativity high up to the percolation concentration.

Laurent, C.; Kay, E.; Souag, N.

1988-07-01

409

Adsorption of metal halides from ethanol solutions by a 3- n-propylpyridiniumsilsesquioxane chloride-coated silica gel surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

3-n-Propylpyridiniumsilsesquioxane chloride polymer, abbreviated as SiPy+Cl?, was used to coat a porous silica gel, SiO2, surface to form the chemically modified solid SiO2\\/SiPy+Cl?. The resulting polymer film was well adhered to the surface and presented an ion exchange capacity of 0.74 mmolg?1. Metal halides, MClz [M = Fe(III), Cu(II), and Zn(II)], were adsorbed by the modified solid from ethanol solutions as neutral species

Ren?? V. S. Alfaya; Sérgio T. Fujiwara; Yoshitaka Gushikem; Yuriy V. Kholin

2004-01-01

410

Thin film coating process using an inductively coupled plasma  

DOEpatents

Thin coatings of normally solid materials are applied to target substrates using an inductively coupled plasma. Particles of the coating material are vaporized by plasma heating, and pass through an orifice to a first vacuum zone in which the particles are accelerated to a velocity greater than Mach 1. The shock wave generated in the first vacuum zone is intercepted by the tip of a skimmer cone that provides a second orifice. The particles pass through the second orifice into a second zone maintained at a higher vacuum and impinge on the target to form the coating. Ultrapure coatings can be formed.

Kniseley, Richard N. (Ames, IA); Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Merkle, Brian D. (Ames, IA)

1990-01-30

411

Diamondlike Carbon and Related Films for Infrared Optical Coatings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the techniques used to prepare and characterize the results of diagnostic measurements of diamondlike carbon (DLC) and amorphous silicon-carbon films. Both carbon and silicon-carbon films were prepared on various substrates. Measureme...

J. A. Woollam V. Natarajan J. Lamb G. Bu-Abbud D. Rubin

1984-01-01

412

Sol-gel film formation by dip coating.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper, the physical aspects of sol-gel film formation are discussed. The equations governing the steady state film profile, controlled by hydrodynamic flow, capillary pressure and evaporation, are presented along with representative data obtained ...

A. J. Hurd C. J. Brinker

1990-01-01

413

A comparative study of the morphology of flow and spin coated P3HT:PCBM films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymer solar cells are attractive due to the possibility of using cheaper materials and processing techniques for mass production of solar panels. Previous methods of fabricating polymer solar cells are suitable in laboratory conditions but are not scalable for industrial production. In this study, thin films of the photoactive blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) were prepared by flow coating, which is suitable for industrial manufacturing of solar cells. P3HT:PCBM blends were cast from different solvents, and the morphology of flow coated and spin coated films was compared. The surface morphology and optical properties of P3HT:PCBM films were characterized with optical microscopy, AFM, and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The degree of P3HT order was higher in flow coated films, as compared to spin coated films. Films flow coated using chloroform solutions had a higher thermal stability and an enhanced degree of phase separation as compared to spin coated films. Flow coated films from chlorobenzene solutions had a lower thermal stability and a smaller length scale of phase separation. This study demonstrates that flow coating is a suitable alternative technique for fabricating polymer solar cells.

Chapa, Jose; Karim, Alamgir

2013-03-01

414

Influence of coating bath chemistry on the deposition of 3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane films deposited on magnesium alloy.  

PubMed

Magnesium alloys have a low specific density and a high strength to weight ratio. This makes them sought after light weight construction materials for automotive and aerospace applications. These materials have also recently become of interest for biomedical applications. Unfortunately, the use of magnesium alloys in many applications has been limited due to its high susceptibility to corrosion. One way to improve the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys is through the deposition of protective coatings. Many of the current pretreatments/coatings available use toxic chemicals such as chromates and hydrofluoric acid. One possible environmentally friendly alternative is organosilane coatings which have been shown to offer significant corrosion protection to both aluminum alloys and steels. Organosilanes are ambifunctional molecules that are capable of covalent bonding to metal hydroxide surfaces. In order for covalent bonding to occur, the organosilane must undergo hydrolysis in the coating bath followed by a condensation reaction with the surface. There are a number of factors that influence the rates of these reactions such as pH and concentration of reactants. These factors can also influence competing reactions in solution such as oligomerization. The rates of hydrolysis and condensation of 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxy silane in methanol have been analyzed with (1)H NMR and ATR-FTIR. The results indicate that organosilane oligomers begin to form in solution before the molecules are fully hydrolyzed. The organosilane films deposited on magnesium alloy AZ91 at a variety of concentrations and pre-hydrolysis times were characterized with a combination of ATR-FTIR, ellipsometry and SEM/EDS. The results show that both organosilane film thickness and uniformity are affected by the chemistry occurring in the coating bath prior to deposition. PMID:20064643

Scott, A F; Gray-Munro, J E; Shepherd, J L

2009-12-04

415

Ceramic plasma-sprayed coating of melting crucibles for casting metal fuel slugs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal cycling and melt reaction studies of ceramic coatings plasma-sprayed on Nb substrates were carried out to evaluate the performance of barrier coatings for metallic fuel casting applications. Thermal cycling tests of the ceramic plasma-sprayed coatings to 1450 °C showed that HfN, TiC, ZrC, and Y2O3 coating had good cycling characteristics with few interconnected cracks even after 20 cycles. Interaction studies by 1550 °C melt dipping tests of the plasma-sprayed coatings also indicated that HfN and Y2O3 do not form significant reaction layer between U-20 wt.% Zr melt and the coating layer. Plasma-sprayed Y2O3 coating exhibited the most promising characteristics among HfN, TiC, ZrC, and Y2O3 coating.

Kim, Ki Hwan; Lee, Chong Tak; Lee, Chan Bock; Fielding, R. S.; Kennedy, J. R.

2013-10-01

416

Comparison of Release-Controlling Efficiency of Polymeric Coating Materials Using Matrix-type Casted Films and Diffusion-Controlled Coated Tablet  

PubMed Central

Polymeric coating materials have been widely used to modify release rate of drug. We compared physical properties and release-controlling efficiency of polymeric coating materials using matrix-type casted film and diffusion-controlled coated tablet. Hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) with low or high viscosity grade, ethylcellulose (EC) and Eudragit® RS100 as pH-independent polymers and Eudragit S100 for enteric coatings were chosen to prepare the casted film and coated tablet. Tensile strength and contact angle of matrix-type casted film were invariably in the decreasing order: EC> Eudragit S100> HPMC 100000> Eudragit RS100>HPMC 4000. There was a strong linear correlation between tensile strength and contact angle of the casted films. In contrast, weight loss (film solubility) of the matrix-type casted films in three release media (gastric, intestinal fluid and water) was invariably in the increasing order: EC?films was EC?>?HPMC 100000?>?Eudragit RS100?>?HPMC 4000?>?Eudragit S100. Interestingly, diffusion-controlled coated tablet also followed this rank order except Eudragit S100 although release profiles and lag time were highly dependent on the coating levels and type of polymeric coating materials. EC and Eudragit RS100 produced sustained release while HPMC and Eudragit S100 produced pulsed release. No molecular interactions occurred between drug and coating materials using 1H-NMR analysis. The current information on release-controlling power of five different coating materials as matrix carrier or diffusion-controlled film could be applicable in designing oral sustained drug delivery.

Piao, Zong-Zhu; Lee, Kyoung-Ho; Kim, Dong-Jin; Lee, Hong-Gu; Lee, Jaehwi; Oh, Kyung Taek

2010-01-01

417

Nano-carbon coating layer prepared by the thermal evaporation of fullerene C60 for lithium metal anodes in rechargeable lithium batteries.  

PubMed

A nano carbon coating layer was prepared by the thermal evaporation of fullerene C60 on the surface of lithium metal anodes for rechargeable lithium batteries. The morphology and structure of the carbon layer was firstly investigated by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effects of the nano-carbon coating layer on the electrochemical performance of the lithium electrode were then examined by charge-discharge tests and impedance spectroscopy. Raman spectra of carbon coating layer showed two main peaks (D and G peaks), indicating the amorphous structure of the film. A honey comb-like structure of carbon film was observed by TEM photographs, providing a transport path for the transport of lithium ions at the electrode/electrolyte interface. The carbon coated lithium electrodes exhibited a higher initial coulombic efficiency (91%) and higher specific capacity retention (88%) after the 30th cycle at 0.2 C-rate between 3.4 and 4.5 V. Impedance measurements showed that the charge transfer resistance was significantly reduced after cycle tests for the carbon coated electrodes, revealing that the more stable solid electrolyte (SEI) layer was established on their surface. Based on the experimental results, it suggested that the presence of the nano-carbon coating layer might suppress the dendritic growth on the surface of lithium metal electrodes, as confirmed by the observation of SEM images after cycle tests. PMID:22121758

Arie, Arenst Andreas; Lee, Joong Kee

2011-07-01

418

Fabrication of Metal Oxide Thin Films Using the Langmuir-Blodgett Deposition Technique.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Langmuir Blodgett (LB) deposition of metal arachidates was investigated as a technique for fabrication of metal oxides with emphasis placed on the lanthanide arachidates. Traditionally, these materials are difficult to deposit via the LB process, due to the rigidity of the floating monolayer. Studies on yttrium arachidate have shown that the quality of deposition of these materials is highly dependent on the concentration of the metal salt and the pH of the subphase. Yttrium arachidate was thus deposited at 10^{-5} M YCl_3 over a pH range of 4.0 to 6.9. Uniform multilayer films were produced with films at the higher pH's showing 100% yttrium arachidate. A pK_{rm a} value of 4.9 +/- 0.2 was obtained under these conditions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data indicate that the metal is being incorporated into the arachidic acid predominantly as Y(OH) ^{2+}. A saturation areal density of (2.0 +/- 0.1) times 10^{14} Y/cm ^2 was measured for one layer of yttrium arachidate. Ellipsometric measurements were performed on films of yttrium arachidate to study order-disorder transitions. Upon heating the films were observed to undergo two transitions at 65^circC and 100 ^circC. At room temperature, the as -deposited films were found to be anisotropic with indices of refraction of N_{rm x} = 1.503 +/- 0.005 and N _{rm z} = 1.554 +/- 0.005 and a monolayer spacing of 2.73 +/- 0.03 nm. Above 100^ circC the films were isotropic with N = 1.440 +/- 0.005 and a thickness of 3.13 +/- 0.03 nm per original layer. The films showed no desorption below 100^circ C. In contrast to films of cadium arachidate, the yttrium arachidate films were observed to undergo supercooling by 35^circC. This may point to a lack of nucleation sites in the yttrium arachidate films explaining why they maintain areal integrity at high temperature while cadmium arachidate films do not. The decomposition of LB films was studied in some detail, using two processes: thermal decomposition and decomposition via ultraviolet/ozone exposure. The second technique was found to reduce LB arachidate multilayers to a metal carbonate (at a rate of less than 1 minute per layer), which could be further decomposed into an oxide via a thermal treatment. The ultraviolet/ozone process allowed uniform films of CdO to be produced in addition to the thin films of Y_2O_3 , Er_2O_3 and La_2O_3 fabricated via either thermal or ultraviolet/ozone processing. Applications of the LB produced metal oxides were investigated. Electrical characterization of Y _2O_3 dielectric layers gave a permittivity of varepsilon~ 11.5 +/- 0.9 and good quality metal -oxide-semiconductor structures of <10 nm in thickness. Y_2O_3 coatings on 304 stainless steel were found to significantly reduce thermal oxidation of the steel at 800^ circC. Finally, La_2O _3 interface layers in PZT/Pt structures were found to have a significant effect on the nucleation and growth of the ferroelectric.

Johnson, David John

419

ELECTROCHEMICAL PERFORMANCE OF Ni\\/Cu-METALLIZED & CARBON-COATED GRAPHITES FOR LITHIUM BATTERIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic and natural graphites were metallized with Cu or Ni using a fluidized bed coating and annealing process. With this method, crystalline nanometer-sized metal islands (~ 50 nm diameter) were deposited onto the surface of graphite. Post-metallization, the graphite materials were cycled in lithium coin cells to determine their electrochemical properties in a propylene carbonate (PC) solvent based electrolyte. Better

Christopher S. Johnson; Kevin Lauzze; Nick Kanakaris; Arthur Kahaian; Michael Thackeray; Khalil Amine; Giselle Sandí-Tapia; Stephen Hackney; Robert Rigney

420

Metal-insulator transition in epitaxial vanadium sesquioxide thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Of all the transition metal oxides which exhibit metal-insulator transitions (MIT), one of the most extensively studied in recent years is the vanadium sesquioxide (V2O3), both from experimental and theoretical point of view. At a transition temperature of about 160 K at an ambient pressure of 1 atm, pure V2O3 transforms from a rhombohedral paramagnetic metallic (PM) to a monoclinic antiferromagnetic insulating (AFI) phase upon cooling, with a jump in the resistivity of about seven orders of magnitude. Experimental studies have focused more on bulk V2O3 and recently there have been significant interest in thin film fabrication of this material due to potential applications as thermal sensors, current limiters, Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC) thermistors, and optical switches. This study addresses the deposition, characterization, and properties of high-quality epitaxial V2O3 thin films grown on a-, c-Al2O3 and c-LiTaO 3 substrates by a straightforward method of pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Various characterization techniques including X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy were used to examine the structural, crystallographic, and surface properties, while four point probe resistivity measurements were used to examine the electrical properties of the films. V2O3 thin films of different thicknesses ranging from 10-450 nm were deposited on c-Al 2O3 and c-LiTaO3 substrates by PLD to understand also the role of epitaxial strains. Resistivity measurements showed that depending on the thicknesses of films, different electrical transitions were exhibited by the samples. While some of the samples displayed the expected metal-insulator transition typical of bulk V2O3, some showed insulating behavior only and others exhibited metallic characteristics only over the whole temperature range. For example, for films on c-LiTaO3 with increasing film thickness, first an insulator-insulator, then a metal-insulator, followed by a metal-metal transition is observed. Thicker films (>202 nm) remain metallic in the temperature range of the measurements.

Allimi, Bamidele S.

421

Characterization of thermally aged AlPO4-coated LiCoO2 thin films  

PubMed Central

The electrochemical properties and stability during storage of pristine and AlPO4-coated LiCoO2 thin films were characterized. The wide and smooth surface of the thin film electrode might provide an opportunity for one to observe surface reactions with an electrolyte. The rate capability and cyclic performance of the LiCoO2 thin film were enhanced by AlPO4 surface coating. Based on secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis and scanning electron microscopy images of the surface, it was confirmed that the coating layer was successfully protected from the reactive electrolyte during storage at 90°C. In contrast, the surface of the pristine sample was severely damaged after storage.

2012-01-01

422

Optical reflectivity improvement by upgrading metallic glass film quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of atomic-defect and free-volume amounts of metallic glassy film on the optical reflectivity and mechanical properties of the sputtered metallic glass thin films are explored. With a lower Ar working pressure and the proper post-annealing at temperatures slightly lower than the glass-transition temperature Tg, film free volumes and defects would reduce, resulting in better atomic bonding and higher film hardness/modulus, which in turn leads to lower electric resistivity and higher optical reflectivity. Annealing above Tg would induce crystalline structure which would lead to competition with the optical transition of the Drude free electrons and hinder the optical reflectivity in the visible range.

Wang, W. H.; Hsu, J. H.; Huang, J. C.

2013-10-01

423

Metal oxynitride and diamond hard coatings for infrared windows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The protection of IR windows in airborne FLIR sensor systems against erosion resulting from raindrop and particle impact is accomplished by means of a front surface coating. The wavelength ranges required are 8-14 micrometers , where diamond competes with boron phosphide based coatings for the protection of multispectral zinc sulphide used as a window for multiple detectors. This paper describes progress in the development of diamond coatings for germanium windows, including selection and deposition of durable front surface antireflection layers. The diamond layers are deposited by microwave plasma CVD techniques at 500 degrees C. For the multispectral application, hard oxynitride coatings have been developed both as stand-alone coatings and as interlayers for diamond coatings. The multispectral coatings and the antireflection coatings are deposited by a sputtering process, applicable to flats and domes. In both cases, structured surfaces at appropriate scales are used to improve optical transmission and mechanical adhesion.

Miller, Andrew J.; Hudson, Martin D.; Dennis, Paul V.; Wilson, Anthony E.

1999-07-01

424

Effect of the manufacturing conditions on the structure and permeability of polymer films intended for coating undergoing phase separation.  

PubMed

The major aim of this work was to study the effect of two process parameters, temperature and coating flow, on permeability to water and structure of free films sprayed from mixtures of ethyl cellulose (EC), hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), and ethanol. The films were sprayed in a new spraying setup that was developed to mimic the film coating process in a fluid bed and to provide well controlled conditions. EC and HPC phase separated during the film drying process, and EC- and HPC-rich domains were formed. The process parameters had a great impact on the structure and the permeability to water of the films. The longer the time before the film structure was locked by a high film viscosity, that is, the lower the temperature and the higher the coating flow, the larger the domains and the lower the film permeability. The effective diffusion coefficient of water in the films varied by about six times within the range of the process parameters studied. Structures of sprayed films and water effective diffusion coefficients in sprayed films were compared to those of cast films. For the cast films, the domains were bigger, and the permeability to water was significantly lower compared to those of the sprayed films. The results indicate that the process parameters can be used as a mean to regulate structure and permeability of coating films undergoing phase separation. PMID:23064326

Marucci, Mariagrazia; Arnehed, Johan; Jarke, Annica; Matic, Hanna; Nicholas, Mark; Boissier, Catherine; von Corswant, Christian

2012-10-12

425

Functionally graded diamond-like carbon coatings on metallic substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various functionally graded diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings were developed to improve the coating adhesion of DLC onto 304 stainless steel and Ti–6Al–4V substrates. The functionally graded coating systems investigated were Ti\\/TiN\\/TiNC\\/DLC and Ti\\/TiC\\/DLC on titanium alloy substrates, and Ti\\/TiN\\/TiNC\\/DLC on stainless substrates. These coatings were fabricated using a magnetron sputter ion plating technique. The structure, composition and mechanical properties of

Kwang-Leong Choy; Emmanuelle Felix

2000-01-01

426

Metallic-glass-coated optical fibers as magnetic-field sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MetglasTM 2605 SC cast alloy was deposited directly onto single-mode optical fibers. Very thick amorphous films of 5 to 15 micrometers thickness were produced by triode-magnetron sputtering. The coated fibers were used as magnetic field sensing elements in one arm of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. In the reference arm a section of fiber was wound around a piezoelectric (PZT) cylinder which was driven by a feedback correction signal to keep the sensor operating at quadrature. The sensing element was placed inside a chamber containing Helmholtz coils which produced both a dc field and an ac dither field. The magnetostructure response of the coating and the resulting phase shift in the optical fiber are dependent upon both of these fields. The phase shifts were measured as a function of the magnitudes of the dc and ac fields and the frequency of the ac field. The magnetostrictive responses had maximum values at discrete resonance frequencies. Experimental values of the magnetostriction parameter were obtained using experimental values of the phase shifts along with theoretical calculations of the magnetostrictive response. These calculations were based on a model of coherent rotation of magnetization and also an elastic model of the magnetostrictive strains for a cylindrical geometry. The maximum values of the magnetostriction parameter for the coated- fiber FOMS at resonance was estimated to be 10-5/Oe2 in comparison with non-resonant values of 5X10-5/Oe2 and 1X10-6/Oe2 for amorphous metal wire transducers and Metglas strip transducers, respectively, and 5X10-6/Oe2 for resonant Metglas cylindrical transducers.

Larson, Donald C.; Bibby, Yu Wang; Tyagi, S.

1991-08-01

427

The near field correlation spectrum of a metallic film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial two-point coherence function of the thermal radiation field at subwave-distance from a metallic film is calculated within fluctuation electrodynamics. Long-range oscillations as a function of lateral separation are seen; we interpret their features by comparing to the dispersion relations of surface plasmon polariton modes on the thin film. The hybridization of the surface modes on the top and bottom interfaces leads to a beatnote in the field correlations, for specific detector setups.

Joulain, K.; Henkel, C.

2008-10-01

428

Thin Aluminum Oxide Films on a Metallic Substrate: LDA Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented from slab calculations in the local-density approximation on thin Al2O3 films on Al(111). We discuss structure, the Al\\/Al2O3 interface, and the binding of Pt to the film surface. We find that the first Al ions above the interface prefer tetrahedral sites, sitting atop the oxygens chemisorbed on the metallic substrate. We also find a stacking fault at

D. R. Jennison; C. Verdozzi; P. A. Schultz; M. P. Sears

1998-01-01

429

Dielectric breakdown of polymer films containing metal clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin films of gold-containing plasma-polymerized tetrafluoroethylene were prepared in an rf glow discharge. The films thus obtained showed a wide range of conductivities from insulating ( &rgr;>1016 ? cm) to metallic ( &rgr;?3×10?6 ? cm), depending on plasma conditions during synthesis. The synthesis of the polymer is described in detail since it presents several new aspects. The structure and composition

C. Laurent; E. Kay; N. Souag

1988-01-01

430

Superconductivity in one-atomic-layer metal films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-dimensional (2D) superconducting state is a fragile state of matter susceptible to quantum phase fluctuations. It is still not known whether a single layer of ordered metal atoms, which represents the ultimate 2D limit of a crystalline film, could be superconducting. Here we report scanning tunneling microscopy measurements on single atomic-layer films of Pb and In epitaxially grown on Si(111),

Tong Zhang; Peng Cheng; Wen-Juan Li; Yu-Jie Sun; Guang Wang; Xie-Gang Zhu; Ke He; Lili Wang; Xucun Ma; Xi Chen; Yayu Wang; Ying Liu; Hai-Qing Lin; Jin-Feng Jia; Qi-Kun Xue

2010-01-01

431

Sputtered Silver Films to Improve Chromium Carbide Based Solid Lubricant Coatings for Use to 900°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin silver films, 25 to 350 nm thick, were sputtered onto PS200, a plasma sprayed, chromium carbide based, solid lubricant coating, to reduce run-in wear and improve tribological properties. The coating contains bonded chromium carbide as the wear resistant “base stock” with silver and barium fluoride\\/calcium flouride eutectic added as low and high temperature lubricants respectively. Potential applications for the

Christopher Dellacorte; Harold E. Sliney; Daniel L. Deadmore

1988-01-01

432

Calculating correlation factor for substrate and film coating profiles according to data of atomic force microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technique is presented allowing calculating the correlation factor for the substrate and film coating profiles on the basis of the data of atomic force microscopy. This factor is a function of spatial frequency and characterizes the degree of profile consistency. The effect of artifacts of atomic force microscopy on the calculated correlation factor is studied. The range of reliable spatial frequencies is determined. The correlation factor is calculated for a multilayer mirror coating and substrate.

Grishchenko, Yu. V.; Zanaveskin, M. L.; Marchenkov, A. N.

2012-09-01

433

Detection of humidity based on quartz crystal microbalance coated with ZnO nanostructure films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibilities and properties of ZnO nanorod and nanowire films-coated quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) as a humidity sensor have been investigated. The morphology and crystal structures of ZnO nanorods and nanowires were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It can be found that the frequency shift of the ZnO nanostructures-coated QCM linearly decreases with increasing relative

Yongsheng Zhang; Ke Yu; Shixi Ouyang; Laiqiang Luo; Hongmei Hu; Qiuxiang Zhang; Ziqiang Zhu

2005-01-01

434

Wear resistance of a high-nitrogen austenitic stainless steel coated with nitrogenated amorphous carbon films  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the dependence of wear resistance on grain size of nitrogen-alloyed austenitic stainless steel is investigated and compared to measurements for the same samples coated with nitrogenated amorphous carbon [a-C:H(N)] film, deposited by means of plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition. To this aim, ball-on-disk (BoD) tests were performed to investigate the wear stability of coated and uncoated substrates. Long-time

A Di Schino; L Valentini; J. M Kenny; Y Gerbig; I Ahmed; H Haefke

2002-01-01

435

Photocatalysis anatase thin film coated PAN fibers prepared at low temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve the repeating circles of the semiconductor titania photocatalyst and broaden its applications, thin film coatings of titania based on polyacrylonitrile fibers (TiO2\\/PAN) were prepared successfully at room temperature by a simple dip-coating method. Titania nanocrystals were prepared by a low temperature dissolution–reprecipitation process in a liquid media using TiCl4 as precursor, and the crystallization of amorphous

Zhang Liuxue; Liu Peng; Su Zhixing

2006-01-01

436

Polycarbonate-based conductive film prepared by coating DBSA-doped PEDOT\\/sorbitol  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of conductive polycarbonate films (CPCFs) were prepared by spin coating with an ethanol-based coating solution comprised of dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid-doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)\\/sorbitol. The variation of CPCF surface resistivity was then measured as a function of temperature. CPCF surface resistivity decreased as sorbitol content increased, with the minimum values in the temperature range 175–185°C. Furthermore, the CPCF-1.6 exhibited significantly improved

Sang-Soo Jeon; Sang-Il Han; Yong Hyun Jin; Seung Soon Im

2005-01-01

437

Bi-YIG magneto-optical coated films for visual applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Garnet fine particles of Bi18Y12Fe5 O12 were prepared by coprecipitation and annealing processes, and were coated on glass or plastic substrates. The annealing was carried out at 650°C for 4 h. The obtained particles were identified as garnet by X-ray diffraction. The coated films showed a Faraday rotation of 1 degree in the visible wavelength region. A magnetic field pattern

T. Hirano; Tatsuru Namikawa; Yohtaro Yamazaki

1995-01-01

438

High Performance Optical Coatings Utilizing Tailored Refractive Index Nanoporous Thin Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Refractive index is perhaps the most important quantity in optics. It is particularly relevant in the field of optical coatings, where the refractive index appears in virtually every optics equation as a figure of merit. Recently it has been demonstrated through control of the deposition angle during oblique-angle electron-beam deposition, nanoporous films of virtually any desired porosity may be accurately deposited. As the porosity of a nanoporous film directly relates to its effective refractive index, the refractive index value of a film may be tailored to any value between that of the bulk material and close to that of air. These two characteristics, namely; (i) tailored-refractive index and (ii) very low-refractive index values close to that of air, offer significant advantages in the design and optical performance in all optical coating applications. In this dissertation we explore optical coating applications whose performance can be greatly enhanced by utilization of a tailored- and low-refractive index nanoporous material system. One such important application is in the design and fabrication of broadband, omnidirectional antireflection (AR) coatings on solar cell devices. To harness the full spectrum of solar energy, Fresnel reflections at the surface of a photovoltaic cell must be reduced as much as possible over the relevant solar wavelength range and over a wide range of incident angles. However, the development of AR coatings embodying omni-directionality over a wide range of wavelengths is challenging. By utilizing the tailored- and low-refractive index properties of the nanoporous material system, in conjunction with a computational genetic algorithm and a predictive quantitative model for the porosity of such nanoporous films, truly optimized AR coatings can be designed and fabricated on solar cells. Here we show that these optimized AR structures demonstrate significant improvement to overall device efficiency. Traditionally, nanoporous films fabricated by oblique-angle deposition techniques have been restricted to rigid and planar substrates such as silicon and glass. This limitation greatly constrains the applicability, tailorability, functionality and even the economic viability of such nanoporous films. As another avenue into extending the applicability of such films, here we demonstrate a novel nanoporous film / polymer substrate composite system fabricated by utilizing oblique-angle electron-beam methodology. This unique composite system exhibits several favorable characteristics, namely i) fine-tuned control over film nano-porosity and thickness, ii) excellent adhesion between the nanoporous film and polymer substrate, iii) and ability to withstand significant and repeated bending as well as three dimensional molding, all the while closely retaining the composite system's designed nanostructure and optical properties. These newly available characteristics show promise to greatly extend the range of applications and functionalities of such nanoporous films.

Poxson, David J.

439

The selective solar absorptance of in situ-grown oxide films on metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solar absorptance and emittance were measured for a number of generic oxides grown in situ on a variety of pure metals and alloys. The surface films were formed by reacting the substrates in air, pure oxygen, or high-temperature, high-pressure water to give a range of thickness for each oxide. The oxide/metal systems investigated included ZnO and/or Cu2O on brass, Cu2O on Cu-30 Ni, Cu2O on aluminum bronze and Cu-5 Al, NiO on nickel, TiO2 on titanium, ZrO2 on Zircaloy-2, Fe2O3 on iron, Fe2O3 on type 201 stainless steel, Fe3O4 on Kovar, Cr2O3 on chromium-coated steel and Al2O3 on Kanthal A-1. Optical properties depended markedly on film thickness. Only two oxides, NiO and ZrO2, had a combination of high solar absorptance (greater than 0.8) and low 100 C emittance (less than 0.3). A third oxide, Cu2O, had an absorptance of 0.74 and an emittance of 0.25. The oxide films exhibited no tendency to spall. Attempts to rationalize selective solar absorption on theories involving the index of refraction of the films or the band-gap energies were only partially successful. There is little basis for selecting candidate oxides based on physical properties.

Douglass, D. L.; Pettit, R. B.

1981-05-01

440

Effect of Zr on microstructure of metallic glass coatings prepared by gas tunnel type plasma spraying.  

PubMed

Metallic glass is one of the most attractive advanced materials, and many researchers have conducted various developmental research works. Metallic glass is expected to be used as a functional material because of its excellent physical and chemical functions such as high strength and high corrosion resistance. However, the application for small size parts has been carried out only in some industrial fields. In order to widen the industrial application fields, a composite material is preferred for the cost performance. In the coating processes of metallic glass with the conventional deposition techniques, there is a difficulty to form thick coatings due to their low deposition rate. Thermal spraying method is one of the potential candidates to produce metallic glass composites. Metallic glass coatings can be applied to the longer parts and therefore the application field can be widened. The gas tunnel plasma spraying is one of the most important technologies for high quality ceramic coating and synthesizing functional materials. As the gas tunnel type plasma jet is superior to the properties of other conventional type plasma jets, this plasma has great possibilities for various applications in thermal processing. In this study, the gas tunnel type plasma spraying was used to form the metallic glass coatings on the stainless-steel substrate. The microstructure and surface morphology of the metallic glass coatings were examined using Fe-based metallic glass powder and Zr-based metallic glass powder as coating material. For the mechanical properties the Vickers hardness was measured on the cross section of both the coatings and the difference between the powders was compared. PMID:22905546

Kobayashi, A; Kuroda, T; Kimura, H; Inoue, A

2012-06-01

441

Ceramic thin films on plastics: a versatile transfer process for large area as well as patterned coating.  

PubMed

A versatile technique for fabricating ceramic thin films on plastics has been proposed. The technique comprises (i) the deposition of a gel film by spin- or dip-coating on a silicon substrate coated beforehand with a release layer, (ii) the firing of the gel film into a ceramic film, and (iii) its transfer onto plastics by melting or softening the plastics surface. Reflective anatase and electrically conductive indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films were prepared on acrylic resin and polycarbonate substrates. Patterned ITO thin films could also be fabricated on plastics by using a mother silicon substrate with periodic grooves. PMID:23211312

Kozuka, Hiromitsu; Fukui, Takafumi; Takahashi, Mitsuru; Uchiyama, Hiroaki; Tsuboi, Shohei

2012-12-12

442

Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of Stainless Steel Coated with TiN Film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our previous study, we examined the influence of the fatigue properties of the stainless steel coated with TiN film and clarified the influence of TiN coating and the surface roughness on the fatigue property. In this study, the four point bending fatigue crack growth tests were carried out for martensitic stainless steel coated with TiN film deposited by arc ion plating method in order to investigate the effect of surface finishing on the fatigue crack behavior for film coated material. The fatigue crack growth behavior was evaluated using the replica method. As a result, the crack propagation rate of mirror polished specimens were lower than that of rough surface specimens. The crack propagation rate was especially decreased for TiN coatings deposited on the mirror polished substrate. The surf